(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

ilii^iillp|iiipliii|^j;^i:;^^ 



r^- 






^4«s^ 




t 



Given By 

^'" -ITL OF DOCUMENTS 



Q)i^ 



S^s 



tJAe/ u)eAa7^tmenl/ aw t/taie^ 



T,aU -li 



1 ^- 





INDEX 



,^1®'*'^ o«. 




/ 



^•*TES O* 




VOLUME XXVII: Numbers 680-705 



July 7- December 29, 1952 






U 



PUB.. 



Vol' 11 

r^f'on Piibhc '-i.-rary 
'.'upcrintendent of Documents 



INDEX 

Volume XXVII: Numbers 680-705, July 7-December 29, 1952 



ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS INDEX 



AHEPA. American Hellenic Ed- 
ucational Progressive Associa- 
tion 

ANZDS Council. Council created 
by treaty between Australia, 
New Zealand, United States 

CMC. Collective Measures Com- 
mittee. 

ECAFE. Economic Commission 
for Asia and the Far East 

ECE. Economic Commission for 
Europe 

ECOSOC. Economic and Social 
Council 

BPD. European Payments Union 

FAO. Food and Agriculture Or- 
ganization 

GATT. General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade 

HICOG. United States High 
Commissioner for Germany 

lAU. International Astronomical 
Union 

IBRD. International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment 

ICAO. International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization 



ICCICA. Interim Coordinating 
Committee for International 
Commodity Arrangements 

ICDV. Import certification-de- 
livery verification 

ICFTU. International Confed- 
eration of Free Trade Unions 

ICSU. International Council of 
Scientific Unions 

IFCTU. International Federation 
of Christian Trade Unions 

IIA. International Information 
Administration 

IJC. International Joint Com- 
mission 

ILO. International Labor Organ- 
ization 

IMC. International Materials 
Conference 

IMF. International Monetary 
Fund 

ITU. International Telecommu- 
nication Union 

MSA. Mutual Security Agency 

NAC. North Atlantic Council 

NAT. North Atlantic Treaty 

NATO. North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization 

OAS. Organization of American 
States 



OEEC. Organization for Euro- 
pean Economic Cooperation 

PASO. Pan American Sanitary 
Organization 

PICMME. Provisional Intergov- 
ernmental Committee for Move- 
ment of Migrants from Europe 

TCA. Technical Cooperation Ad- 
ministration 

U.K. United Kingdom 

U.N. United Nations 

UNESCO. United Nations Edu- 
cational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization 

UNICEF. United Nations Inter- 
national Children's Emergency 
Fund 

UNRWA. United Nations ReUef 
and Works Agency for Palestine 
Refugees in the Near East 

USIS. United States Information 
Service 

U.S.S.R. Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics 

VOA, Voice of America 

WHO. World Health Organiza- 
tion 

WMO. World Meteorological Or- 
ganization 



Abdullah Faisal Saud, Prince of Saudi Arabia, visit to 

U.S., 96 
Acheson, Dean, Secretary of State: 
Addresses and statements : 
Ambassador Kennan, recall requested by U.S.S.R., 557 
American Memorial Library at Berlin, 3 
ANZUS Council, 1st meeting, 141, 219, 220, 243, 284 
Atlantic community, deterrent to Soviet aggression, 

847 
Austrian state treaty negotiations, 283, 570 
Bible, revised version, 555 
Brazilian relations, 47, 87, 89 
British Ambassador (Franks), departure, 603 
Chinese Communist attitude toward Geneva conven- 
tion, 172 
Chinese Communist maltreatment of Americans, 440 
Chinese-Soviet treaty (1950), supplementary agree- 
ment, 476 
Count Sforza, eulogy on, 405 
Czeehoslovalc purge trial, 985 
Egypt, relations with, 406 

Index, July fo December J 952 



Acheson, Dean, Secretary of State — Continued 
Addresses and statements — Continued 

European Coal and Steel Community ( 1951 ) , inaugu- 
ration, 285 
European unity, progress, 477 
Field Reporter, 1st issue, released, 203 
Free world, U.S. leadership in preservation, 423 
Free-world progress, Soviet reaction to, 595 
General Assembly, 7th session, 639 
German compensation to Jewish victims of Nazi perse- 
cution, 448 
German elections, proposed commission on, 516 
Hvasta, John, reported escape from Czechoslovak 

prison, 285 
Iranian oil dispute, 405 
Korean situation, 60, 457, 570, 597, 600, 640, 679, 690, 

744, 910 
Mecca airlift, 406 

North Atlantic Council, ministerial meeting, 985 
Oatis, William, status of imprisonment in Czecho- 
slovakia, 625 

105T 



Acheson, Dean, Secretary of State — Continued 
Addresses and statements — Continued 
Passport procedures, 40 

Peiping "peace conference," passports not issued, 570 
Point 4 Program, 449 
Prisoners of war, 597, 600, 691, 744, 910 
Senator McMahon, eulogy on, 220 
United Nations, 529, 698 
Visits to Brazil and Europe, 6, 132 
ANZUS Council, U. S. delegate to , 110, 220 
Correspondence : 

Iranian I*rime Minister, clarifying U.S.-U.K. proposal 

re oil dispute, 569 
Israeli Prime Minister, message of condolence on 

President's death, 824 
Senator Knowland, proposed recall of Soviet Ambas- 
sador, 603 
U.S. Counnittee for German Corporate Dollar Bonds, 
preliminary negotiations, 948 
Tunisian and Moroccan problems in U.N., meeting with 
French Foreign Minister for discussion of, 771 
Aekerman, Ralph H., address on relations between U.S. 

and Dominican Republic, 51 
Adana Plain, World Bank loan to Turkey for development 

of, 15 
Administrative Unions, U.N. Committee on, proceedings, 

505, 551 
Aerodromes, aeronautical. See International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization. 
Afghanistan : 

Export-Import Bank loan for irrigation progi-am, 62 
Point 4 Program in, 62, 198, 951 
U. S. Ambassador (Ward), confirmation, 43 
Africa : 

Export-Import Bank loans to, 339, 943 
IBRD economic appraisal missions to, 722 
Africa, South-West, U. N. Ad Hoc Committee on, proceed- 
ings, 551 
African Tourism, 4th International Congress, U. S. ob- 
server, 466 
Aggression, definition of, U.N. proceedings on, 882, 925, 

966, 1001 
Agricultural college, Iraqi, development under Point 4 

mis-sion, 864 
Agricultural credit, international conference on, 453 
Agricultural development program in Chile, FAO and 

IBRD mission report on, 1025 
Agricultural production, U.S., role in world economy, ad- 
dress (Andrews), 708 
Agricultural training program in Afghanistan, technical 

cooperation, 951 
Aid to foreign countries. See Mutual Security, Technical 

cooperation, and individual countries. 
Air, aircraft, airlift. See Aviation ; International Civil 

Aviation Organization. 
Alaska forest products, utilization, Japanese mission to 

U.S. for consideration of, 658 
Alden, Jane M., article on Japanese educational system, 

654 
Alexander of Tunis, Lord, British Minister of Defense, 

visit to U.S., 6 
Algeciras, Act of (1906), U.S. treaty rights in Morocco 
under, 620 



Allison, John M., Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern 
Affairs, addresses and statements : 
Japan: anniversary of peace treaty (1951), 448; posi- 
tion in Asia, 857 
U.S. policy in Asia, 97, 471 
AUnonils, import fees imposed on, text of proclamation, 

569 
American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association 
(AHEPA), conference of. State Department denial of 
charges of influence in, 362 
American International Institute for Protection of Child- 
hood, 3d regional meeting of technical delegates, 838 
American Memorial Library, Berlin, addresses and state- 
ments (Acheson, McCloy, Schrieber), 3, 5 
American Republics: 

Balance-of-payments developments, 394, 395 

Export-Import Bank loans to, 339 

Foreign Ministers, 3d and 4th Meetings of Consultation, 

49,50 
Inter-American cooperation, addresses : 
Acheson, 47, 87, 89 
Bennett, 207 
Miller, 702 
Rubottom, 901 
Latin American manpower conference (ILO), U.S. 

representative, 962 
Mutual security arrangements with, background, ar- 
ticle (C. B. Marshall), 809 
Point 4 Program in, survey of, 366 
American Studies, Conference at Cambridge University, 

196 
Ameriku, suspension of publication, texts of U.S. note 

and Soviet note, statement (Compton), 127, 263 
Anderson, Eugenie, U.S. Ambassador to Denmark : 

Designation as U.S. representative to 3d session of 
Prisoners of War Commission, statements, 414, 415 
U.S. economic policy in Europe, address, 614 
Anderson, Fred L., U.S. special representative in Europe, 
address on free world unity vs. Communist threat, 
813 
Andrade, Victor, Bolivian Ambassador to U.S., creden- 
tials, 285 
Andrews, Stanley, TCA Administrator : 

Address, role of U.S. farmer in world economy, 708 
Survey of Point 4 program in Latin America, 366 
Visit to Burma and Indonesia, 61 
Anglo-American Council on Productivity, final report re- 
leased, 285 
Anglo-Egyptian controversy, U.S. position, article (How- 
ard) and address (Byroade), 895, 933 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, U.S. liaison oflBce at Khartoum, 

establishment, 967 
Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, U.S. views on purchase 

rights, statement (Acheson), 405 
Antarctica, curtailment of ship movements to, 900 
Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 4th Interna- 
tional Congress, U.S. representative, 301 
ANZUS Council established by security treaty with 
Australia and New Zealand : 
Addresses (Acheson), 141, 219, 243, 284; statement 

(Allison), 471 
U.S. delegation to 1st meeting, communique, 110, 220, 
244 



1052 



Department of State Bulletin 



Arab States and Israel: 
Negotiations between, General Assembly draft resolu- 
tion and proceedings, 998, 1044 
Repatriation of Arab refugees from Palestine, TJ.N. 

proceedings on, review (Howard), 895 
U.S. position on Arab-Israeli issue, address (Byroade), 
932 
Architects, 8th Pan American Congress of, U.S. delega- 
tion, 763 
Argentina, draft resolution on financing of economic de- 
velopment, U.N. proceedings, 925, 964 
Arms and armed forces: 
Disarmament Commission. See Disarmament Com- 
mission. 
Occupation of Germany, termination commemorated by 

American Memorial Library, 3, 5 
U.S. support of troops in South Korea, 693 
Arnold, Richard T., designation as science adviser to 

HICOG, 302 
Artists, International Conference of, U.S. delegation, 457 
Asia. See Consultative Committee on Economic Develop- 
ment in South and Southeast Asia ; Economic Com- 
mission for Asia and the Far East ; Near East, South 
Asia, and Africa. 
Astronomical Union, International (lAU), 8th general 

assembly, U.S. delegation, 462 
Austin, Warren R. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Collective security system (U.N.), U.S. support, 411 
U.N. Headquarters, opening of General Assembly ses- 
sion at, 640 
U.N. membership, admission to, 412, 502, 504, 526, 527 
Letter to Secretary-General re Mexican proposal for 
settlement of prisoner of war issue, 696 
Australia : 

ANZUS Council, 110, 141, 219, 220, 243, 244, 284, 471 
IBRD loan, equipment for development program, 140 
International Monetary Fund, exchange transactions 

with, 368 
Trade, inflationary developments, 396 
Austria : 

Export-Import Bank loan for shipment of U.S. cotton, 

900 
Nazi amnesty legislation, U.S. views on, 223 
State treaty negotiations. See Austrian state treaty 

negotiations. 
U.S. Ambassador and U.S. High Commissioner (Thomp- 
son), appointment, 178 
U.S. Secretary of State (Acheson), visit to, 6, 132 
Vienna "Peace Congress," Communist propaganda 
maneuver, 818 
Austrian state treaty negotiations : 
Additional articles to draft treaty, text, 405 
Austrian memorandum requesting U.N. support, text, 

and background summary, 221, 222 
Soviet noncooperation, address (Jessup), statement, 

(Acheson), 512, 570 
Soviet note rejecting draft treaty, text, 284, 322 
U.S. notes and similar British and French notes to 
U.S.S.R., 284, 404; statement (Acheson), 283; De- 
partment critique, 321 

In iex, July fo December 1952 

\ 



Aviation : 

Air Force, South African, contribution to U.N. action in 
Korea, 105 

Air transport agreements, Panama (1949), Philippines 
(1946), 13,1024 

Aircraft, U.S., Soviet firing on near Yuri Island, ex- 
change of notes (U.S.S.R. and U.S.), 649, 650 

Airlift, Mecca, statement (Acheson), 406 

ICAO. See International Civil Aviation Organization. 
Azores, U.S.-Portuguese agreement (1951), military 
facilities In, text, 14 

Bacteriological methods of warfare. See "Germ war- 
fare." 
Balance-of-payments developments : 
Address (Draper), 438 
Annual report (1952), International Monetary Fund, 

390 
Western Europe, report (Drai)er), 358 
Bancroft, Harding, address on activities of Collective 

Measures Committee, 583 
Battle Act. See Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act 

(1951). 
Belgium : 

Balance-of-payments developments, 357, 394, 395 
Double taxation, supplementary convention with U.S., 

signed, 427 
European Coal and Steel Community (1951), inaugura- 
tion, statement (Acheson), 285 
Belton, William, designation in State Department, 275 
Bennett, W. Tapley, Jr., address on U.S. relations with 

American Republics in last decade, 207 
Berlin : 

Access to Western zones, restriction by U.S.S.R., text 

of U.S. letters. 312. 313, S18 
American Memorial Library, addresses and statements 

(Acheson, McCloy, Schrieber), 3, 5 
Interzonal communications, Soviet restriction on, 319 
Resident of American sector abducted into Soviet zone, 

text of U.S. letter to U.S.S.R., 320; statement, 823 
Soviet charges against West Berlin organizations and 
rejection by U.S., U.K., and France, e.xchange of let- 
ters (Chuikov, Donnelly), 861 
Berlin-Marienborn Autobahn, Soviet interference with 
Allied patrol of, exchange of letters (U.S. and 
U.S.S.R.), 312, 313, 314, 318, 320 
Bermuda telecommunications agreement (1945), London 
revision (1949), U.S., U.K., and Commonwealth coun- 
tries discuss modifications, 120, 236 
Berry, Burton Y., U.S. Ambassador to Iraq, confirmation, 

43 
Bible, inauguration of revised version, address (Acheson), 

555 
Bingham, Jonathan R., Deputy Administrator, TCA, ad- 
dress on Point 4 Program, 1016 
Black, Eugene R., President of IBRD, review of 1952 ac- 
tivities, 385 
Boban, Merwin L., appointment on U.S.-Brazil Joint Com- 
mission for Economic Development, .368 
Bohlen, Charles E., Counselor of State Department, ad- 
dress on U.S. foreign policy, 167 

1053 



Bolivia : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Andrade), credentials, 285 
United Nations proceedings on nationalization of re- 
sources, joint Uruguayan-Bolivian draft resolution, 
U.S. attitude (Lubin), 1000 
Bonds, German corporate dollar, U.S. committee pre- 
liminary negotiations for settlement, text of state- 
ment and correspondence with Secretary Acheson, 
947, 948 
Bonds, German dollar, validation of, article (Moores), 

and schedule of law, 608, 610 
Boundary waters treaty with U.K. (1909) : 

Lake Ontario, measures for relief of high water level, 

referral to International Joint Commission pursuant 

to provisions of treaty, 67 

St. Lawrence River, proposed power works development 

of waters within meaning of treaty provisions, 66, 1019 

Bradley, Gen. Omar, statement re Greek and Turkish entry 

into NATO, excerpt, 936 
Brazil : 

Export-Import Bank loans to, 141, 338, 339 
International Monetai-y Fund, exchange transactions 

with, 368 
Point 4 agreement with, signed, 950 
U.S.-Brazil Joint Commission for Economic Develop- 
ment: progress, 48, 210, 705; appointment of U.S. 
member (Bohan),368 
Visit of U. S. Secretary of State, statements (Acheson), 
6, 132 
Brazil-U.S. relations, addresses, statements, etc. : 

Acheson, 47, 87, 89 ; Miller, review, 705 
Briggs, Ellis O., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Korea, 

379 
British Guiana, closing of U.S. consulate at Georgetown, 
and transfer of consular district to Port-of-Spain, 967 
Brown, Richard R., appointment to escapee program, 909 
Bruce, David K. E., Under Secretary of State and Acting 
Secretary : 
Statements : 

Bombing of power plants in North Korea, 60 
German contractual agreements and NAT protocol, 
approval by Senate, 67 
U.S. deputy to ANZUS Council, designation as, 284 
U.S. note to Soviet Ambassador re lend-lease settlement, 
819 
Brussels agreement on conflicting claims to German 
assets (1947) : deadline, type of claim, U.S. member- 
ship on panel of conciliators, 365 
Bulgaria : 

Mistreatment of U.S. diplomats in, address (Green), 787 
Mock trial of Catholic clergy in, 728 
Burma : 

Agreement for continuation of economic assistance to, 

864 
Point 4 Program, appointment, 660 
TCA Administrator (Andrews), visit to, 61 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Charges in U.N. 
against U.S. territorial policies, statement of denial 
(Mrs. Roosevelt), 1032 
Byroade, Henry A., As.sistant Secretary for Near Eastern, 
South Asian and African Affairs, addresses on U.S. 
policy in Middle East, 729, 931 



Cabot, John M., appointment as Ambassador to Pakistan, 

507 
Cairo Conference (1943), pledge re Korean independence, 

680 
Calcai, Panait, Rumanian escapee, VOA broadcast expos- 
ing Communist propaganda, 563 
Calendar of international meetings, 16, 183, 332, 544, 714, 

867 
Cambodia : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Nong Kimny), credentials, 53 
U.N. membership application, U.S. attitude, 504 
U.S. Ambassador (Heath), confirmation, 43 
Canada : 
Balance-of-payments developments, 394, 395 
High water level of Lake Ontario, problem referred to 

IJC by U.S. and Canada, 67 
Nickel mines, Export-Import Bank loan for expansion 

of, 865 
Relations with, address (Acheson), 847 
St. Lawrence River, power works development, approval 
by IJC : U.S.-Canadian application for, order of ap- 
proval, Commissioner's dissenting opinion, Commis- 
sion's majority opinion, 65, 1019 
Teacher-exchange program, address (Phillips), 324 
Treaties and agreements: 

Extradition convention with U.S., supplementary 

(1951), approval by Canadian Parliament, 67 
Great Lakes, safety promotion by radio on, with U.S., 

exchange of instruments of ratification, 952 
TV channels, allocation of, exchange of notes with 
U.S., 180 
Canal Zone, problems in occupation of, address (Miller), 

703 
Capital, international fiow of, statement (Lubin), 190 
Capital, private, investment abroad, 208, 210, 230, 287, 
288, 359, 387, 447, 538, 565, 566, 567, 711, 779, 782, 815, 
841, 872, 880, 903 
Capital accounts in Netherlands, transfer authorized, 711 
Cargo, William I., appointment as Deputy Director of 

Bureau of U.N. Affairs, 42 
Caribbean Commission: 

15th meeting, U.S. delegation, 962 

Home economics and education in nutrition, 1st confer- 
ence on, report (Roberts), 576 
West Indian Conference, 5th session, 961 
Carl Schurz Award, German winner announced, 104 
Carnahan, George, appointment as Special Assistant to 
Assistant Secretary for Inter-American Affairs, 723 
Cartography, 6th Pan American Consultation on, U.S. 

delegation, 720 
Catholic clergy. Communist mock trial in Bulgaria, 728 
Ceylon : 

Colombo Plan, participation in, 443, 444, 447 
IBRD visit re establishment of technical-research In- 
stitute, 722 
Technical development in, 781, 783 
Chemical Industries Committee of ILO, 3d session, U.S. 

delegation, 460, 619 
Child welfare : 

American International Institute for Protection of 
Childhood, 3d regional meeting of technical delegates, 
838 



1054 



Department of State Bulletin 



Child welfare — Continued 

Cliildren's Emergency Fund. See United Nations In- 
ternational Children's Emergency Fund. 
International study conference, 835 
Repatriation of Greek children, U.N. proceedings', 924, 
1044 
Chile : 
Agricultural development, FAO and IBRD mission re- 
port on, 1025 
Copper exports, U.S. trade policy re, 705 
Technical cooperation, 209 
China : 

Seating of representative as president of Security 

Council, challenge by U.S.S.R., 800 
Treaty with U.S.S.R. (1950), supplementary agreement, 
remarks (Acheson), 476 
China, Communist: 

Correspondence re Korean armistice negotiations (Com- 
munist commanders and U.N. Command ofl3cers), 751, 
752 
Embargo on shipments to, 100 
Geneva conventions (1925, 1949), attitude, statement 

(Acheson), 172 
Maltreatment of Americans in, statement (Acheson), 

440 
Peiping "peace conference," U.S. passports not issued, 
statement (Acheson), 570 
Churchill, Winston S., joint message with Pres. Truman 
proposing submission of Iranian oil problem to In- 
ternational Court of Justice, 360 
Citizenship, U.S., significance, address (Sargeant), 11 
Civil Aviation Organization, International. See Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization. 
Civil-military relations in U.S., article (C.B. Marshall), 

348 
Claims : 
Applications, deadlines for filing: 

Return of Allied property in Japan, 13 ; conversion 
of pre-occiapatlon bank deposits in East Germany, 
364 ; unsettled claims against Cuban Government, 
454 
Brussels agreement on conflicting claims to German 
assets (1947) ; deadline, type of claim, U.S. member- 
ship on panel of conciliators, 365 
Convention with Mexico (1941), payment of installment 

under, 950 
German dollar bonds: validation of, article (Moores), 
608; schedule of law, 610; U.S. committee on, nego- 
tiations for settlement, 947 
U.S. postwar aid to Germany, statistics used in settle- 
ment of, 491, 619 
Clark, Gen. Mark, U.N. Commander in Korea : 
Correspondence with Communist commanders on re- 
patriation of war prisoners, 754 
Statement on suspension of Korean armistice negotia- 
tions, 600 
Cobalt, International Materials Conference allocation of, 

119, 580; discontinuance, 957 
Cohen, Benjamin V., deputy U.S. representative to Dis- 
armament Commission, statements: 
Bacteriological methods of warfare, U.S. views on elim- 
ination of, 33, 36, 294 



Cohen, Benjamin V., deputy U.S. representative to Dis- 
armament Commission, statements — Continued 
U.S., U.K., and French proposal for ceilings on armed 
forces, supplement, 290 
Colbert, James L., article on continuation of economic 

aid to Yugoslavia, 825 
Collective Measures Committee (CMC) : 
Activities, statement (Bancroft), 583 
Report, 2d, article (Sisco), 717 

U.S. support of U.N. collective security system, state- 
ment (Austin), and U.S. memorandum to Commit- 
tee, 411, 412 
Collective security : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Acheson, 639, 849 
Allison, 861 
Anderson, Fred L., 813 
Austin, 411, 412 
Hickerson, 692 
Mar,shall, C. B., 807 
Meyers, 1013 
Miller, 702 
Rubottom, 901 
Sisco, 717 
Foreign Relations Committee report on activities of 
82d Congress, excerpts, 584 
Collins, Frank D., article on Kashmir dispute, 663 
Colombia, technical development activities in, 211, 366, 

781 
Colombo Plan. See Consultative Committee on Economic 

Development in South and Southeast Asia. 
Commercial treaties, bilateral. Senate action in 82d Con- 
gress, 588 
Commonwealth Program for Cooperative Economic De- 
velopment in South and Southeast Asia. See Con- 
sultative Committee on Economic Development in 
South and Southeast Asia. 
Communism : 
Conflict with democracy, address (Russell), 7 
Decline in influence, addresses (Acheson, Sargeant), 

596, 739 
Free world unity against, addresses : 
Acheson, 425, 595, 848 
Anderson (Eugenie), 614 
Anderson (Fred L.), 813 
Harriman, 362 
Mesta, 741 
Sargeant, 558 
"Germ warfare." See "Germ warfare." 
Policy in American Republics, 211, 706; Far East, 97, 
440, 473, 6S5, 811, 858; Near East, 935; West Ger- 
many, 906 
Prisoners of war, Korean. See Prisoners of war. 
Refugees from. ,See Escapee program for refugees from 
Soviet-dominated areas. 
Communist propaganda : 

"Big lie," etTectiveness decreased by International In- 
formation Program, addresses (Compton, Sargeant), 
605, 739 
Criticism of Point 4 program, 449, 450 ; Red Cross, 154, 

224 
Exposition by free world, 503, 570, 728, 741, 818 



Index, July fo December 1952 



1055 



Communist propaganda — Continued 
Methods used by Communists, statements: 
Aclieson, 570, 849 
Anderson, Fred L., 813 
Compton, 344 
Kotschnig, 109, 149 
McCIoy, 312 
Compton, Wilson, IIA Administrator, addresses, etc. : 
Amerika, suspension of publication, 263 
Crusade of ideas, significance, 343 
International information program, 604 
Conciliators, Panel of, set up by Brussels intercustodial 

agreement (1947), U.S. membership, 365 
Congress : 
Battle Act (1951), 1st semiannual report under (Harri- 

man), released, 652 
Bilateral conventions (double-taxation, consular, com- 
mercial). Senate action in 82d Congress, 586, 587, 588 
Export-Import Bank, semiannual report, 338 
Foreign policy legislation. Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee's Legislative History, excerpts, 584 
Immigration and Nationality Act, veto by President, and 

repassage overriding veto, 78, 78n 
Legit;'ation listed, 12, 200, 268, 339, 410, 448, 507, 563, 723 
Messages, letters, reports from President : 
Aid to Denmark, continuance, identic letters to con- 
gressional committees, 198 
Aid to Italy, continuance, identic letters to congres- 
sional committees transmitting report of MSA 
director (Harriman), 75, 76 
Economic report, excerpts, 225 
Immigration and Nationality Act, vetoed, 78 
International Materials Policy Commission report, 
letters to President of Senate (Barkley) and 
Speaker of House (Rayburn), 55 
Mutual Security Program, transmittal of Second Re- 
port on, 900 
Tariff Commission recommendations, rejection, identic 

letters to congressional committees, 303, 305 
Trade agreement with Venezuela, supplementary, 401 
U.S. participation in U.N., letter of transmittal of 
annual report, 121 
Philippine highvs'ay rehabilitation, allocation for, 61 
Puerto Rican Constitution approved, statement (Tru- 
man), 91 
Senator McMahon, eulogy on (Acheson), 220 
Connelly, Marc, member of National Commission for 

UNESCO, analysis of totalitarian theater, 542 
Consular convention with U.K. (1951), entry into force, 

489 
Consular conventions, bilateral. Senate action in 82d Con- 
gress, 587 
Consulates, Consular districts. See Foreign Service. 
Consultative Committee on Economic Development in 
South and Southeast Asia (Colombo Plan) : 
Development programs, review (Malenbaum), 441 
Statement (Kemohan), 375 
Containment policy, addresses on : 
Acheson, 426 
Bohlen, 169 
Sargeant, 560 



Contractual agreements between Three Powers and Ger- 
many : 
German parliamentary action on agreements, state- 
ment (Truman), 984 
U.S. action on agreements : 
Approval by Senate, 67 

Ratification of convention on relations between Three 
Powers and Germany, 220 
Copper : 
Allocation by International Materials Conference, 118, 

579 
U.S. trade policy re Chilean exports, 705 
Copyright : 

Conference on Universal Copyright Convention 

(UNESCO), U.S. delegation, 293 
Monaco, U.S. proclamation granting benefits to na- 
tionals of, 712 
Cotton : 
Advisory CJommittee, International, 11th meeting, 

article- (Wall) and U.S. delegation, 185 
Cotton-Cotton Linters Committee of IMC, termination, 

117 
Shipment to Austria, Export-Import Bank loan for, 900 
Council of Economic Advisers, excerpts of midyear eco- 
nomic review, 227 
Courier, Voice of America floating transmitter : 
Inauguration of broadcast relay, 466 
Voyage to Island of Rhodes, 182 
Criminal court, international, establishment, U.N. pro- 
ceedings on, 882 
Cuba, claims of American nationals, time limit set for 

filing, 454 
Currency : 

Guaranty agreement with Yugoslavia, exchange of 

notes, 287 
Korean won advanced to U.S. forces, dollar payment by 
U.S. for, 330 
Customs valuation of U.S. imports in Morocco, Interna- 
tional Court of Justice ruling on, 622 
Czechoslovakia : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Petrzelka), credentials, 733 
Economic situation in, address (Lubin), 875 
Hvasta, John (U.S.), reported escape from Czecho- 
slovak prison, and statement (Acheson), 262, 285 
Independence Day, commemoration of, letter from Presi- 
dent Truman to Council of Free Czechoslovakia, 732 
Mutual Security Act, charges against, exchange of notes 

with U.S., 850 
Oatis, William, trial and status of imprisonment, state- 
ments (Acheson, Green), 625, 787 
Purge trial, statement (Ache.son), 985 
Standard of living, decline under Soviet domination, 

statement (Kotschnig), 152 
U.S. Ambassador (Wadsworth), appointment, 635 

Davis, John W., designation in TCA, 743 

Defense Production Act (1951), section 104, effect on U.S. 

foreign policy, 618 
Defense-sites negotiations with Panama, article (Wright), 

212 
DeLong, Vaughn R., article on progress of German 

education under U.S. Occupation, 246 



1056 



Deparlment of State Bulletin 



Democratic philosophy, principles of, addresses (Russell), 

7, 279 
Denmark : 

Gift to U.S. for Virgin Islands, 268 
U.S. aid, text of President's identic letters to congres- 
sional committees recommending continuation, 198 
U.S. cheese-import restriction, significance, address 
(Anderson), 618 
Dependent peoples. See Self-determination of peoples. 
Dependent territories, racial discrimination in, U.N. pro- 
ceedings on, 803 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S., presentation of cre- 
dentials: Bolivia (Andrade), 285; Cambodia (Nong 
Kimny), 5.3; Czechoslovakia (Petrzelka), 73.3; Guate- 
mala (Toriello),, 575; India (Mehta), 723; Iran 
(Saleh), 575; U.S.S.R. (Zarubin), 515; Vietnam 
(Tran Van Kha), 53 
Disarmament Commission, proceedings : 
Addresses and statements : 
Acheson, 641 
Cohen, 290, 296 

Gross, 35 ' 

Hickerson, 647 
Jessup, 512 
Sandifer, 478 
Sargeant, 699 
Bacteriological warfare, 35, 38, 296, 671 
Tripartite proposal (U.S., U.K., France) for limitation 

of armed forces, 290, 292, 478, 550, 699 
U.S. proposals presented to Commission, summary, 648 
Displaced Persons Commission : 

Final report recommending program for refugees from 

communism, 328 
Liquidation, text of Executive order, 329 
Distribution centers for State Department publications, 

418 
Dodge, Joseph M., appointment as Consultant to Secretary 

of State, 339 
Domestic and foreign policies, relationship, address (Har- 

riman), 361 
Dominican Republic: 
Slilitary-assistance agreement with U.S., negotiations, 

537 
U.S. Ambassador (Phelps), Confirmation, 43 
U.S.-Dominican relations, address (Ackerman), 51 
Donnelly, Walter J. : 
Appointment as U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, 
178 
I Correspondence with General Chuikov : 

Soviet charges against West Berlin, rejection, 861 
Soviet detention of U.S. Army officer, protest against, 
908 
Resignation as U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, 
967 
Double taxation. See Taxation, double. 
Draper, William H., Jr., U.S. Special Representative In 
Europe : 
Address on European and Atlantic unity, 650 
Address on NATO, 436 

Report to I'resident, text and White House announce- 
ment, 353, 354 

Index, July fo December 1952 



Duke, Angier Biddle, Ambassador to El Salvador, address 

on Point 4 program in El Salvador, 776 
Dulles, John Foster : 

Statement on transition problems of incoming admin- 
istration, 949 
Testimony on security treaties, Pacific area, 103, 472 

Eakens, Robert H. S., address on oil imports and U.S. 

economy, 733 
E?conomic Advisers, Council of, excerpts of midyear eco- 
nomic review, 227 
Economic and Social CouncU (ECOSOC) : 
Election of members, 761 
Famine relief, U.S.-Iranian-Uruguayan draft resolution, 

text and statement (Lubln), 111, 113 
Financing of economic development, proceedings on, 

39,73 
14th session, proceedings, and article (Lubin), 39, 160, 

237, 288 
International economic stability, experts' report on 

measures for, statement (Lubln), 187 
Land reform, action on, statements (Lubin), 964, 991 
Minorities, Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimina- 
tion and Protection of, proceedings, 505, 583 
Restrictive Business Practices, Ad Hoc Committee on, 

3d session, U.S. delegation, 458 
Self-determination of peoples, U.S. reservations to reso- 
lutions on, statement (Lubin), 269 
Social Commission, 8th session, 372 
World social situation, report of U.N. Secretary-Gen- 
eral, review (Kotscbnig), 142, 161; (Lubin), 482 
Economic barriers, threat to effective U.S. foreign policy, 

address (Thorp), 173, 176 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East 
(ECAFE) : 
Colombo Plan, participation in, 442 
Statisticians, 2d Regional Conference of, U.S. delega- 
tion, 463 
Subcommittee on Electric Power, 2d meeting, U.S. dele- 
gation, 547 
Working Party of Experts on Mobilization of Domestic 
Capital, 2d meeting, U.S. delegation, 582 
Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), report on 

Soviet economy, excerpt, 876 
Economic coordination agreement with Korea: 
Dollar payment (second) pursuant to provisions of, 

330 
Text, in report of U.N. Command operations, 499 
Economic development, financing of, 39, 73, 387, 779, 803, 

871, 880, 925, 964 
Economic Development, U.S.-Brazil Joint Commission for. 
See United States-Brazil Joint Commission for Eco- 
nomic Development. 
Economic Development in South and Southeast Asia, 
Consultative Committee on. See Consultative Com- 
mittee on Economic Development in South and 
Southeast Asia. 
Economic Report of the President to Congress, excerpts, 

225 
Economic Review by President's Council of Economic 
Advisers, excerpts, 227 

1057 



Economic stability, domestic and foreign, statement 

(Lubin), 187, address (Harriman), 361 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council. 
Ecuador : 

Development projects, U.S. cooperation in, 210 
Export-Import Bank loan for Improvement of water 
and sewer systems, 210, 267 
Eden, Anthony, British Foreign Secretary, statement on 

repatriation of prisoners of war, 840 
Edinburgh Film Festival, 6th International, U.S. delega- 
tion, 234 
Education : 
American educators, responsibility in free world, ad- 
dresses (Sargeant, Mesta, Harris, Phillips), 736, 741, 
971 
German system, progress under U.S. occupation, article 

(DeLong), 246 
Iranian students, extension of assistance project, 453 
Japanese system, article (Alden), 654 
Museums, contribution to, address (Sargeant), 455 
UNESCO. See United Nations Educational, Scientific 

and Cultural Organization. 
Universities in exile, free world, for refugees from com- 
munism, recommended by Displaced Persons Com- 
mission, 328 
Educational exchange: 
Achievements of programs, addresses (Sargeant, 

Harris), 739, 976 
Agreements signed with Finland, Germany, Sweden, 53, 

179, 909 
Conference on American studies, sponsored by U.S. Edu- 
cational Commission in U.K., 196 
Teacher exchange program, address (Phillips), 324 
Egypt: 
Anglo-Egyptian controversy : 

Developments in 1952, article (Howard), 895 
U.S. position, address (Byroade), 933 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, U.S. liaison office at Khartoum, 

establishment, 967 
Land reform : 

Draft resolution with India and Indonesia, proceed- 
ings on, 964, 991, 993, 1000 
Influence of Point 4, remarks (Seager), 451 
Point 4 appointment, 42 

Relations with U.S., statement (Acheson), 406 
Eisenhower, Dwight D. : 

Invitation from President Truman to meet at White 

House, 771 
Joint statement with President Truman on international 

relations, 850 
Visit to Korea, text of U.N. Command communique, 
948 
El Salvador, Point 4 program in, address (Duke), 776 
Elections in Germany. See under Germany. 
Eliot, Martha M. : 

Appointment as U.S. representative, Executive Board, 

UNICEF, 619 
Attendance at 3d regional meeting of technical delegates 
on Directing Council, American International Insti- 
tute for Protection of Childhood, 8:^8 
Embargo on shipments to Communist China and North 
Korea, 100 



Embassies. See Foreign Service. 

Englund, Eric, U.S. delegate, 5th meeting of International 

Wool Study Group, 838 
Eritrea, federation with Ethiopia : 

Completion of U.N. action, proposed General Assembly 

resolution, statement ( Sprague) , 999 
Consular districts redefined, 1047 
Escapee program for refugees from Soviet-dominated 
areas : 
Appointment to staff, 909 

Background and activities, article (Warren), 261 
Czechoslovak charges against, exchange of notes, 850, 

851 
Displaced Persons Commission final report recommend- 
ing program, 328 
Exempted laws (Ex. Or. 10410), 909 
Resettlement of refugees, U.S. contribution, 711 
Ethiopia, federation of Eritrea with, 999, 1047 
Ethnological and Anthropological Sciences, 4th Inter- 
national Congress, U.S. representative, 301 
Europe : 

Economic Commlsison for, report on Soviet economy, 

excerpt, 876 
Economic rehabilitation, address (Eugenie Anderson), 

614 
Migration. See Provisional Intergovernmental Com- 
mittee for Movement of Migrants. 
Public attitude toward U.S., address (Sargeant), 738 
Refugees. See Escapee program for refugees from 

Soviet-dominated areas. 
Unification, addresses, statements, etc. : Acheson, 477, 

849 ; Anderson, Fred L., 816 ; Draper, 650 ; Mesta, 64 
U.S. Special Representative in (Draper), report to 
President, 353, 354 
European Coal and Steel Community : 
Assembly, 1st meeting, significance, 477 
Inauguration: statement (Acheson), 285; report 
(Draper), 353 
European Defense Community: 
Functions, 905 

Treaty, German parliamentary action on, statement 
(Truman), 984 
European-Mediterranean Region, Rules of the Air and Air 
Traffic Services Committee for, ICAO, 4th special 
meeting, U.S. delegation to, 120 
European Payments Union (EPU) : 
Balance-of-payments developments, 393 
Belgian creditor position, effect on, 357 
Mutual Security Agency allotment to United Kingdom 
under, 486 
European Political Authority, proposed, 477 
European Recovery Program, comments on (Eugenie 

Anderson, Bohlen, Thorp), 616, 170, 174 
Ewe and Togoland, unification problem : 
General Assembly proceedings on, 1046 
Trusteeship Council, 11th session, proceedings, report, 

882, 966 

Visiting mission, report to Trusteeship Council, review, 
026 

Ewing, Capt. Charles G., U.N. Forces in Korea, exchange 
of letters with President on repatriation of prisoners, 
327, 328 



1058 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Exchange of persons program. See Educational ex- 
change. 
Executive orders : 

Displaced Persons Commission, liquidation of (Ex. Or. 

10382), text, 329 
Immigration and Naturalization Commission, estab- 
lishment (Ex. Or. 10392), text, 408 
Mutual Security Act (1951), escapee program under, 

exempted laws (Ex. Or. 10410), text, 900 
Safety of life at sea, international convention (1948), 

enforcement (Ex. Or. 10402), text. 865 
Trade-agreement concessions, procedures for periodic 

review (Ex. Or. 10401), text, 712 
War Criminals, Board of Clemency and Parole for, 

establishment (Ex. Or. 10393), text, 409 
Export-Import Bank : 

Obregon Dam, Mexico, representation at dedication, 713 
Semiannual report transmitted to Congress, 338 
Export-Import Bank, loans : 
Afghanistan, irrigation program, 62 
Africa, uranium production, 339 
American Republics, tungsten and sulfur production, 

339 
Au.stria, shipment of U.S. cotton, 900 
Brazil: railroads and electric power company, 338, 339; 

U.S. agricultural equipment, 141, 210 
Canada, expansion of nickel mines, 865 
Chile, industrial plants, agricultural machinery, 209 
Ecuador, improvement of water and sewer systems, 210, 

267 
France, Mutual Security Program contracts, 105 
Mexico : modernization of steel operations, 950 ; sulfur 

plant, 830 
Near East, South Asia, and Africa (1945-52), table, 943 
Pakistan, purchase of U.S. wheat, 490 
Philippines : development projects, 1025 ; hydroelectric 

power plant, 338 
South Africa, Union of. Electricity Supply Commission, 

105 
Yugoslavia, food needs, 826 
Exports and imports. See Trade. 
Extradition convention, supplementary, U.S. and Canada 

(1951), approved by Canadian Parliament, 67 
Extraterritorial jurisdiction, International Court of 

Justice ruling on U.S. rights in Morocco, 621 

Faisal II, King of Iraq, U.S. visitor and recipient of Legion 

of Merit award, 12, 265, 330 
Famine relief : 

ECOSOC draft resolution, text, statement (Lubin), 

111, 113 
FAO working party, U. S. expert (Farrington) to serve, 

378 
Far East : 
Campaign of Truth, progress in, address (Compton), 

607 
Colombo Plan. See Consultative Committee on EJco- 

noniic Development in South and Southeast Asia. 
Communist policy in, 97, 440, 473, 685, 811, 858 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. See 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. 
Mutual security program in, 1953 allotments, 898 
U.S. policy In, address (Allison), 97, 471 



Farrington, Carl C, U.S. nominee to serve on PAO work- 
ing party to study famine conditions, 378 
Field Reporter, new State Department publication, state- 
ments (Aeheson, Sargeant), 203 
Figs, dried, import duty increased on, text of proclamation 

and statement (Truman), 337 
Filberts, rejection of Tariff Commission quota limitation 

on imports', statement (Truman), 743 
Film exhibitions, international, U.S. representation, 234 
Films. See International Motion Picture Service. 
Finland: 
Educational exchange agreement, signed, 53 
Friendship, commerce, and consular rights, treaty of, 

with U.S. (1934), protocol, signature and text, 949 
IBRD loan for expansion of wood-products industry, 866 
U.S. Minister (McPall), appointment, 507 
Fisheries, international conferences, U.S. delegations: 
Indo-Paclfic Council, 4th meeting, 721 
Northwest Atlantic, commis'sion for, 2d annual meeting, 
74 
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) : 

Chilean agricultural development, FAO and IBRD mis- 
sion report on, 1025 
Council, 16th session, U.S. delegation, 879 
Emergency food reserve, study of, 111, 378 
Forestry commissions: 

Latin American, report on (Wadsworth), 492 
U. S. delegations : Asian and Pacific, 926 ; European, 
720 ; Latin American, 74 
Home economics and education in nutrition, 1st con- 
ference on, report (Roberts), 576 
Land reform, action on, statement (Lubin), 991 
Programs in Afghanistan, Austria, Costa Bica, and 
Thailand, 774 
Food production, global problem : 

Relief of famine emergencies, FAO study of, 111, 378 
Role of U.S. farmer, address (Andrews), 708 
Forced labor in U.S.S.R. : 

U.S. presentation of evidence to U.N., 70, 821 
USIS report on, excerpts, and statement (Truman), 
428, 477 
Ford, John W., designation in State Department, 507 
Foreign Aid, Voluntary, Advisory Committee on, dona- 
tions to India from U.S. private sources, report, 182 
Foreign Bondholders Protective Council, representation 
at conference on German external debts withdrawn, 
13 
Foreign Ministers, Council of, meeting of Deputies, text 

of U.S. note inviting Soviet participation in, 404 
Foreign ministers of American states, meetings, 49, 50 
Foreign ministers of U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., Moscow 

meeting (1945), agreements re Korea, 681 
Foreign policy legislation in 82d Congress, excerpts of 

Foreign Relations Committee report on, 584 
Foreign Relations of the United States: 

History of publication, article (Perkins), 1002 
Release of volumes II (1935) and V (1934), 162, 1006 
Foreign Service: 

Ambassador to Israel, residence at Tel Aviv main- 
tained, text of axde-m6moire, 181 
Ambassador to Korea (Muccio), return to Washington, 
301 



Index, July to December 1952 



1059 



Foreign Service — Continued 

Ambassador to Mexico (O'Dwyer), resignation, 1047 

Ambassador to U.S.S.R. (Kennan), Soviet note request- 
ing recall, Secretary's statement, U. S. note, and corre- 
spondence with Senator Knovrland, texts, 557, 603 

Ambassadors, appointment: Afghanistan (Ward), 43; 
Austria (Thompson), 178; Czechoslovakia (Wads- 
worth), 035; Dominican Republic (Phelps), 43; Iraq 
(Berry), 43; Korea (Briggs), 379; Pakistan (Cabot), 
507; Vietnam and Cambodia (Heath), 43 

Consular districts : 
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, redefined, 1047 
Asmara, Eritrea, redefined, 1047 
Georgetown. British Guiana, transfer to Port-of- 
Spain, Trinidad, 967 
Consulate o Georgetown, British Guiana, closing, 967 

Legations in .Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria raised to rank 
of embassy, 379 

Liaison office at Khartoum. Anglo-Eg.vptian Sudan, 
establishment, 967 

Ministers, appointment: Finland (McFall), 507; Ru- 
mania (Shantz), 6.35; Syria (Moose), 43 

Nonpartisan nature of, statement (Dulles), 949 

Science attach^ to Swedish Embassy (Nielsen), and 
science advisers to HICOG, appointments, 302 
U.S. Hifrh Commissioner for Germany, resignation 

(MeCloy), and appointment (Donnelly), 178 
Forestry : 

Alaskan products utilization, consideration of, Jap- 
anese mission to U.S., 658 

FAO commissions : 

Latin American, report on (Wadsworth), 492 
U.S. delegations: Asian and Pacific, 926; European, 
720; Latin American, 74 
Formosa. U.S. policy regarding, address (Allison), 100, 

101, 102 
4-H Clubs' role in International Farm Youth Eixchange, 

addresses (Russell, Sargeant), 7, 11 
France : 

Balance-of-payments developments, 394, 395 

Disarmament, supplement to tripartite proposal for 
ceilings on armed forces, text, 292 

European Coal and Steel Community (1951), inaugura- 
tion, statement (Acheson), 285 

Export-Import Bank loan. Mutual security program 
contracts, 105 

General Assembly resolution on citation for honored 
dead, statement (Sampson), 997 

German free elections, proposals re commission to In- 
vestigate conditions: identic notes (U.S., U.K., 
Prance), Soviet notes, and statement (Acheson), 92, 
93, 516, 517, 518 

International information program in. Communist re- 
action to, 606 

Memorial ceremony, at Paris, U.S. representative, 329 

Moroccan decree (1948) in violation of rights of U.S. 
nationals, International Court of Justice ruling on, 
article (Sweeney), text of French note, 620, 623 

Moroccan problem in U.N., 771, 839, 897, 1044 

Prisoners of war, voluntary repatriation, French atti- 
tude re Soviet position on, statement (Hoppenot), 
762 



France — Continued 

Soviet interference with communications between East 
and West Germany, text of identic notes (U.S., U.K., 
and France) to U.S.S.R., 318, 319 
Teacher-exchange program, address (Phillips), 324 
Soviet charges against West Berlin organizations and 
rejection by U.S., and U.K., and Prance, exchange of 
letters' (Chuikov, Donnelly), 861 
Soviet firing on French aircraft, text of tripartite letters 

to U.S.S.R., 311, 312, 313, 318 
Treaties and agreements: 
Austrian state treaty draft, Soviet rejection : state- 
ment (Acheson) ; tripartite notes (U.S., U.K., 
France) to U.S.S.R.; and additional articles (text), 
283, 284, 404, 405 
Relations between Three Powers and Germany, rati- 
fication, statement (Truman), 220 
Swiss-Allied agreement re German property in Switz- 
erland, text and summary, 363, 364 
Yugoslavia, continuation of economic aid to, tripartite 
agreement (Prance, U.S., U.K.) with Yugoslavia, 
825 
Tunisian question in U.N., 771, 839, 897, 964, 986, 1000, 
1044, 1045 
Franks, Sir Oliver, British Ambassador to U.S., departure, 

statement (Acheson), 603 
Free world, creation of economic strength in, remarks 

(Linder), 383 
Free world unity against Soviet threat, addresses: 
Acheson, 425, 595, 848 ; Anderson, 614 ; Harriman, 362 ; 
Mesta, 741 ; Sargeant, 558 
Free world universities in exUe, for refugees from com- 
mimism, recommended by Displaced Persons Commis- 
sion, 328 
Freedom of information. See Information, freedom of. 
Frequency Planning for European-Mediterranean Region, 

Special Meeting (ICAO), U.S. delegation, 837 
Friedkin, Joseph P., appointment to International 
Boundary and Water Commission (U.S.-Mexico), 830 
Friendship, commerce, and consular rights, treaty w^ith 

Finland (1934), protocol, signature and text, 949 
Fulbright act. See Educational exchange. 
Fund, international, proposed in U.N., U.S. attitude, state- 
ment (Lubin), 73 

Garlic, Tariff Commission recommendations rejected, 
identic letters from President to congressional com- 
mittees, 303 
General Assembly : 

Administrative Unions, Committee on, proceedings of, 
505, 551 

Aggression, definition of, proceedings on, 882, 925, 966, 
1001 

Collective Measures Committee (CMC). See Collective 
Measures Committee. 

Council members, election of, 761 

Disarmament Commission. See Disarmament Commis- 
sion. 

Ewe and Togoland, unification problem, proceedings on, 
1046 

Financing of economic development, proceedings on, 
779, 803, 871, 880, 925, 964 



1060 



Department of State Bulletin 



General Assembly — Continued 
"Germ warfare" discussions, question of Communist 

participation in, statement (Gross), 673 
Greek children, repatriation of, proceedings on, 924, 

1044 
Indians in South Africa, treatment of, proceedings, 802, 

833, 835, 840, 868, 880, 997 
Information, freedom of, proceedings on, statements 

(Sprague), 789, 920, 1043 
International criminal court, Swedish proposal for 

establishment, and U.S. attitude, 882 
International Law Commission, diplomatic intercourse 

and immunities under statute, statement (Green), 

proceedings, 786, 997 
Japan, application for membership in ICAO, approval 

of, 802 
Korean question : 

Soviet proposal for establishment of commission to 
settle, 761 

Soviet statement before 7th session, 634 

U.S. attitude on Assembly discussion, 457, 476, 570 
Land reform, proceedings on, 964, 991, 993, lOOO 
Moroccan question, proceedings on, 771, 839, 897, 1044 
Nationalization of resources, joint Uruguayan-Bolivian 

draft resolution, proceedings on, 1000 
Non-Self-Governing Territories, Committee on Infor- 
mation from, continuation, proceedings, U.S. delega- 
tion, 459, 505, 842, 998 
Non-self-governing territories, self-determination of 

peoples in, proceedings on, 574, 881, 917, 925, 964, 

1015, 1032, 1043 
Palestine Conciliation Commission. See Palestine 

Conciliation Commission. 
Palestine question, proceedings on, 755, 756, 761, 802, 

895, 924, 953, 963, 998, 1044 
Peace Observation Commission, reappointment of mem- 
bers, 802 
Prisoner of war issue, proceedings on, 680, 746, 762, 

802, 840. SSO, 910, 916, 925, 963, 964 
Racial discrimination in dei)endent territories, pro- 
ceedings on, 803 
Resolutions : 

Embargo on shipments to Communist China (May 
18, 1951), number of nations applying, 100 

Freedom of information, adopted (Dec. 16), 1043 

Greek children, repatriation of, adopted (Dee. 17), 
1044 

Indians in South Africa, treatment of, establishment 
of Good Offices Commission for negotiations, text, 
adopted (Dec. 5), 835, 840, 997 

Palestine refugees, U.N. Relief and Works Agency, 
budget, adopted (Nov. 6), 756, 761 

Prisoners of war, repatriation, interpretation of pro- 
vision in 1949 Geneva convention (Dec. 14, 1950). 
excerpt, 746 

Prisoners of war, voluntary repatriation, Indian 
draft, text, adopted (Dec. 3), 916, 925, 963 

Prisoners of war, voluntary repatriation, recognition 
of principle of, text of draft, 680 

Self-determination of peoples in non-self-governing 
territories, adopted (Dec. 16), 1043 

Tunisian question, adopted (Dec. 17), text, 1044, 1045 



General Assembly — Continued 

Resolutions — Continued 

U.N. citation for honored dead, adopted (Dec. 5), 997 

Self-determination of peoples in non-self-governing ter- 
ritories, proceedings on, 881, 917, 925, 1032, 1043 

Seventh session : 
Agenda items, 334, 632, 673 

Opening, proceedings, remarks (Austin), 633, 640 
Problems before, address (Hickerson), 645 
U.S. representatives, 457 

South-West Africa, Ad Hoc Committee on, proceedings, 
551 

Trust territories, self-government in, proceedings on, 
641, 881, 1015 

Tunisian question, proceedings on, 771, 839, 897, 964, 
986, 1000, 1044, 1045 

U.N. Charter obligations, address (Acheson), 639 
Oeneral Taylor, refugee transport, significance of arrival, 

261 
Geneva convention on prisoners of war (1949). See 

Prisoners of war, Geneva convention. 
Geneva protocol on bacteriological methods of warfare 

(1925). See Germ warfare. 
Geographic names, standardization of, Congress of 

Onomastic Sciences for, U.S. delegation, 378 
Geographical Union, International, 8th general assembly 
and 17th congress, U.S. delegation and address 
(Hickerson), 235, 264 
Geological Congress, International, 19th, U.S. delegation, 

416 
Germ warfare : 

Bacterial weapons, elimination of, U.S. proposals, text, 
671 

Bacteriological methods of warfare, Geneva protocol 
(1925), Soviet proposal in U.N. for ratification of, 
statements (Gross), 32, 35, 38 

U.S. attitude on elimination of, statement (Cohen), 294 
"Germ warfare" in Korea, Soviet charges : 

General Assembly proceedings re impartial investiga- 
tion of charges, 673 

"International Commission of Scientists," Communist, 
investigation of "germ warfare," 475 

Red Cross Conference, Communist propaganda at, re- 
marks (C. B. Marshall), 224 

U. S. draft resolutions in Security Council: texts, 37, 
159; statements (Gross), 35, 153, 159, 160 
German external debts : 

London conference on: withdrawal of bondholders 
representation at, 13 : text of communique, and com- 
mittee reports on terms of settlement, 252, 254, 259, 
260 

U.S. Committee for German Corporate Dollar Bonds, 
preliminary negotiations for settlement, text of state- 
ment and correspondence with Secretary Acheson, 
947, 948 

Validation of dollar bonds, article (Moores), and sched- 
ule of German law, table, 608, 610 
Germany : 

Balance-of-payments developments, 394, 395 

Bank deposits (pre-occupation) in Soviet zone, deadline 
extended for filing of applications for conversion of, 
364 



Index, July to December 1952 



1061 



Germany — Cdntinued 

Berlin. Sec Berlin. 

British sector, Soviet infringement of, tripartite pro- 
tests (U.S., France, U.K.), 313, 315, 318 

Carl Schurz Award, German winner announced, 104 

Conflicting claims to German assets (Brassels Agree- 
ment, 1947) : deadline, type of claim, U.S. member- 
ship on panel of conciliators, 365 

Death of Social Democratic Party leader (Schumacher), 
statement (MeCloy),329 

Debts. See German external debts. 

Detention of U.S. Army oflBcer in Soviet zone, 907 

Dollar bonds, COS, 610, 947, 948 

Educational system, progress toward democracy under 
U.S. Occupation, article (DeLong), 246 

Elections, proposals re commission to investigate condi- 
tions: texts of identic notes (U.S., U.K., and France), 
92, 517; statement (Acheson), 516; Soviet notes, 93, 
518 

Elections, U.N. Commission to Investigate Conditions, 
adjournment and report, 245, 298, 506 

European Coal and Steel Community (1951), inaugura- 
tion, statement (Acheson), 285; report (Draper), 
353 

European Defense Community, parliamentary action 
on treaty, statement (Truman), 984 

HICOG. See Germany, U.S. High Commissioner for, 
office of. 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment and International Monetary Fund, membership, 
330 

Interzonal communications between East and West Ger- 
many, Soviet restriction, 319 

Mutual Security Agency allotments, 486 

Negotiations between free world and Soviet Union re- 
garding, address (Jessup), 511 

Property in Switzerland, Swiss-Allied agreement, text, 
and synopsis, 363, 364 

Refugee problem in West, excerpt of 10th quarterly 
report of U.S. High Commissioner, 136 

Soviet children in, detention of, U.S. refutation of Soviet 
charges, 924 

Soviet firing on French aircraft, 311, 312, 313, 318 

Theater, under Nazi control, address (Connelly), 542 

Treaties, etc. : 
Contractual agreements between Three Powers and 
Germany : 
German parliamentary action, 984 
Relations between Three Powers and Germany, rati- 
fication, statement ( Truman ) , 220 
U.S. action, 67, 220 
Educational exchange, with U.S., signed, 179 
European Defense Community, parliamentary action 

on, statement (Truman), 984 
Jewish victims of Nazi persecution, compensation to, 

with Israel, statement (Acheson), 448 
Property in Switzerland, with Switzerland, synopsis, 
364 

U.S. policy in, address (McCloy), 177 

U.S. postwar aid to, through June 1951, table, 491, 619 

U.S. Secretary of State (Acheson), visit to, 6, 132 



Germany, U.S. High Commissioner for : 
Donnelly, Walter J. See Donnelly. 
McCloy, John J. See McCloy. 
Germany, U.S. High Commissioner for, office of (HICOG) : 
science advisers (Greulich, Arnold), appointment, 
302 
Goedhart, G. J. van Heuven, election as U.N. High Com- 
missioner for Refugees, 261 
Good Offices Commission, U.N., for negotiations re treat- 
ment of Indians in South Africa, General Assembly 
resolution establishing : text of draft, proceedings, 835, 
840 ; adopted, 997 
Graham, Prank P., U.N. representative for India and 
Pakistan, negotiations re demilitarization of Jammu 
and Kashmir : 
Addresses, 661, 665 

Excerpts of 4th report to Security Council, 626, 1030 
Letter to Security Council, 237 
Grassland Congress, 6th International, U.S. representa- 
tives, 239, 271 
Great Lakes, safety promotion by radio on, agreement 
with Canada, instruments of ratification exchanged, 
952 
Greece : 

Entry into NATO, significance, article (Howard), 936 
International relations, 1951-52, article (Howard), 892 
Repatriation of Greek children, U.N. proceedings on, 
924, 1044 
Green, Senator Theodore P., U.S. Representative to Gen- 
eral Assembly, statement on Soviet mistreatment of 
foreign diplomats, 786 
Greenup, Julian C., appointment as acting U.S. representa- 
tive to Inter- American Economic and Social Council 
of OAS, 368 
Greulich, William W., designated as science adviser to 

HICOG, 302 
Gross, Ernest A., deputy U.S. representative to U.N., 
statements : 
Germ warfare, 32, 35, 38, 153, 159, 160, 673 
Kashmir dispute, 666, 996, 1028 
Guatemala, ambassador to U.S. (TorieUo), credentials, 
575 

Haiti, appointment of Point 4 director (Smith), 723 
Handy, Maj. Gen. Thomas T., letter to General Chuikov, 

313 
Harriman, W. Averell, Director for Mutual Security: 
Report to Congress (1st semiannual) on security con- 
trols over exports to Soviet bloc, released, 652 
Report to President on U.S. aid to Italy, 76 
Summary of address on relationship between domestic 
and foreign policies, 361 
Harris, Reed, Acting Administrator of HA, address on 

international information program, 971, 1025 
Harrison, Lt. Gen. William K., chief U.N. armistice ne- 
gotiator : 
Correspondence with Gen. Nam 11 on repatriation of 

prisoners of war, 752 
Statements on Korean armistice negotiations, 474, 601 
Statements on prisoner of war issue, 172, 549 
Hart, Parker T., appointment as Director, Office of Near 
Eastern Affairs, 507 



1062 



Department of State Bulletin 



Hayes, William J., designation in TCA, 198 
Health units, mobile, for Point 4 program in Iran, 452 
Health (world). See World Health Organization. 
Heath, Donald R., confirmation as U.S. Ambassador to 

Vietnam and Cambodia, 43 
Henderson, Joseph S., designation in State Department, 

843 
Henderson, Lyle H., appointment to International Bound- 
ary and Water Commission (U.S.-Mexico), 830 
Hickerson, John D., Assistant Secretary for U.N. Affairs : 
Addresses on : 

General Assembly, problems before 7th session, 645 
Geographic studies, importance in international 

affairs, 264 
Korea, results of U.S. policy In, 692 
Testimony on appointment of U.N. Secretariat em- 
ployees, 1026 
Highway Congress, Pan American, special session, U.S. 

delegation, 837 
Highway rehabilitation program in Philippines, U.S. con- 
tribution, 60 
Home economics and education in nutrition, Caribbean 

conference on, report (Roberts), 576 
Housing and Urbanization, 21st International Congress 

of, U.S. delegate, 502 
Howard, Harry N., article on U.S. policy in Near East, 

South Asia, and Africa, S91, 936 
Hubbard, Leonard S., U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
report on 6th International Hydrographic Conference, 
68 
Human rights : 
Draft convention on political rights of women, U.N. 

proceedings, 1046 
Draft covenants on, texts and article (Simsarian), 20 
Provisions in Puerto Rican Constitution as related to 
Declaration of, summary transmitted by U.S. to U.N., 
758 
U.N. Commission on, recommendation re self-determi- 
nation of peoples, 919, 925 
U.N. role in promotion of, address (Acheson), 643 
Universal Declaration of, comparison with draft cove- 
nants, 20 
Hungary : 
Land-reform system, statement (Lubin), 994 
Mistreatment of U.S. diplomats, statement (Green), 

787 
U.S. property seized by, return requested, text of U.S. 
note, 981 
Hvasta, John, American imprisoned in Czeclioslovaljia, 
report of escape and statement (Acheson), 262, 285 

Iceland : 

IBRD loan, for nitrogen fertilizer plant, 367 

Mutual Security Agency allotments, 486 
Immigration and Nationality Act : 

Quotas under, proclamation, 83 

Veto, message of the President, and repassage overrid- 
ing veto, 78, 78n. 
Immigration and Naturalization, Commission on : 

Establishment, statement (Truman), and text of Ex- 
ecutive Order, 407, 408 

Executive Director (Rosenfield), appointment, 502 



Import certification-delivery verification (ICDV) proce- 
dure, effective date, 409 
Imports and exports. See Trade. 
India : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Mehta), credentials, 723 
Colombo Plan, participation in, 443, 444, 447 
General Assembly proceedings on treatment of Indians 

in South Africa, 802, 833, 835, 840, 868, 880, 997 
Inflationary developments, measures against, 396, 397 
Kashmir dispute. See Kashmir, demilitarization of. 
Land reform, draft joint resolution with Egypt and 

Indonesia, U.N. proceedings on, 993, 1000 
Pocket-book libraries, IIA shipment to, 331 
Prisoners of war. See Prisoners of war. 
Social welfare services program in India, article (Ker- 

nohan), 372 
Technical cooperation activities in, article (Kernohan), 

statement (Lubin), 371, 784 
U.S. voluntary relief program in, 182 
Water resources in, role of IBRD in development of, 
387 
Indians in South Africa, treatment of. General Assembly 

proceedings on. 802, 833, 835, 840, 868, 880, 997 
Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council, 4th meeting, U.S. delega- 
tion, 721 
Indochina (see al.to Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam), U.S. 

policy in, address (Allison), 99, 101 
Indonesia : 

Land reform, draft joint resolution with India and 

Egypt, proceedings on, 993, 1000 
Visit of U.S. Technical Cooperation Administrator 
(Andrews), 61 
Inflationary developments, measures against. Interna- 
tional Monetary Fund report, 394, 397, 398 
Information, freedom of: 

American press contrasted with Soviet, statement 

(Kotschnig), 109 
Draft convention on, development of, in U.N., 

statement (Sprague), 789 
Right of correction convention, U.N. proceedings, 789n, 

791, 1043 
Soviet draft resolution on, underlying objectives of, 
statement (Sprague), 920 
Information, U.S. Advisory Commission on, 6th semian- 
nual report, review, 163 
Information Administration, International. See Inter- 
national Information Administration. 
Information centers, educational role, address (Harris), 

977 
Information program, domestic, role of educator in, ad- 
dress (Phillips), 971 
Ingi-am, George M., appointment as Director of Office of 
International Administration and Conferences, State 
Department, 42 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs (see also Technical 
cooperation program), participation in cooi)erative 
programs, 209, 267, 366 
Inter-American Commission of Women, 8th general 

assembly, U.S. delegation, 197 
Inter-American Congress of Radiology, 4th, U.S. delega- 
tton, 837 



Index, July to December J 952 



1063 



luter-American cooperation, addresses on : 
Acheson, 47, 87, 89 
Miller, 702 
Rubottom, 901 
Inter-American system, development in postwar years, 

address (Bennett), 207 
Interim Coordinating Committee for International Com- 
modity Arrangements (ICCICA), effectiveness, state- 
ment (Lubin), 191 
International Astronomical Union (lAU), Sth general 

assembly, U.S. delegation, 462 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
(IBRD) : 
Activities during 1952, revievsf (Black), 385 
Colombo Plan, participation in, 442, 446 
Industrial Development Bank of Turkey, sponsorship 

by, 566 
International Finance Corporation, proposal for estab- 
lishment of, 39, 387 
Loans: 

Australia, for import of agricultural equipment, 140 
Africa, Near East, South Asia, for technical and eco- 
nomic assistance, 944 
Colombia, for railvcay improvement, 366 
Finland, for expansion of wood-products industry, 

866 
Iceland, for nitrogen fertilizer plant, 367 
Turkey, for Seyhan River project, 15 
Member.ship, admission to : Germany and Japan, Jor- 
dan, 330, 368 
Missions : 
Africa, economic, 722 
Chile, agricultural (Bank-FAO), 1025 
Japan, economic, 672 

Nicaragua, economic (Bank-Nicaragua), 506 
PanaSna, economic (Bank-U.N.), 330 
Propo.sed policies, 190 
Report, quarterly, 866 
Report on Mexican economy, 672 

Technical research institutes, visits to Ceylon and Paki- 
stan re establishment of, 722 
International Boundary and Water Commission (U.S.- 
Mexico), appointment of engineers, U.S. section, 830 
International Broadcasting Service. See Voice of Amer- 
ica. 
International Children's Emergency Fund. Sec United 
Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. 
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) : 
Japan, application for membership, General Assembly 

approval of, 802 
U.S. delegations to meetings, etc.: 
Aerodromes, Air Routes, and Ground Aids Division, 

5th session, 721 
Aeronautical Information Services Division, 1st ses- 
sion, 336 
Damage caused by aircraft to third parties on sur- 
face, conference to revise convention on, 461 
Frequency Planning for ICuropean-Mediterranean 

Region, Special Meeting on, 837 
Rules of the Air and Air TraflBc Services Committee, 
European-Mediterranean Region, 4th special meet- 
ing, 120 



International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) — Con. 
U.S. delegations to meetings, etc. — Continued 

Standing Committee on Performance, 3d meeting, 838 
Statistics Division, 2d session, 547 
International Code of Ethics in field of information, pro- 
posed conference to draft, 842 
"International Commission of Scientists," Communist, in- 
vestigation of "germ warfare" by, 475 
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions 

(ICFTU), progress, 828 
International Cotton Advisory Committee, 11th meeting, 

article (Wall) and U.S. delegation, 185 
International Court of Justice: 

Iranian oil dispute, proposals for referral to: 
Iranian proposal, 534 

Joint U.S. -U.K. proposal, text, statement (Acheson), 
360, 405 
Morocco, rights of U S. nationals in, ruling on, article 
(Sweeney), text of French note, 620, 623 
International criminal court, proposed establishment, 

U.N. proceedings on, 882 
International development fund, proposed U.S. attitude, 

statement (Lubin), 73 
International disputes, settlement by negotiations with 

Soviet bloc, address (Jessup), 511 
International Farm Youth Exchange, 4-H Clubs' role in, 

addresses (Russell, Sargeant), 7, 11 
International Federation of Christian Trade Unions 

(IFCTU), collaboration with ICFTU, 829 
International Finance Corporation of IBRD, proposal for 

establishment of, 39, 387 
International Hydrographic Conference, 6th, report (Hub- 
bard), 68 
International Information Administration (IIA) : 
Activities to counteract Soviet propaganda program, 

addresses (Compton, Harris), 604, 978, 979 
Addresses on program of: Compton, 343, 604; Harris, 

971, 1025; Sargeant, 739 
Advisory Commission on Information, 6th semiannual 

report, review, 163 
Amerika, suspension of publication: U.S. note, Soviet 

note, statement (Compton), 127, 263 
Carl Sohnrz Award, German winner announced, 104 
Educational exchange. See Educational exchange. 
Educational mission of, addresses : Harris, 971, 1025 ; 

PhiUips, 971 
International Motion Picture Service, 978 
International Press Service, 977 
Labor cooperation, international, role in, address (Wies- 

man), 830 
Pocket-book libraries, shipment to India, 331 
Private enterprise, cooperation with, address (Comp- 
ton), 347 
VOA. See Voice of America. 
International Joint Commission (IJC) : 
Lake Ontario, high water level, problem referred to 

IJC by U.S. and Canada, 67 
St. Lawrence, power works development, approval by 
IJO: U.S.-Canadian application for, order of ap- 
proval. Commissioner's dissenting opinion, Commis- 
sion's majority opinion, 65, 1019 



1064 



Department of State Bulletin 



International labor, cooperation, contribution to the free 

world, address (Wiesman). 827 
International Labor Conference, 35th session, proceed- 
ings, 101 
International Labor Office, Governing Body, 120th session, 

U.S. representatives, 926 
International Labor Organization (ILO) : 
Background, 827 

Chemical Industries Committee, 3d session, U.S. dele- 
gation, 460, 619 
Conventions. Senate action in 82d Congress, 589 
Latin American manpower conference, U. S. representa- 
tive, 962 
Petroleum Committee, 4th session, U.S. delegation, 632 
International law and repatriation of prisoners of war, 

address (Acheson), 746 
International Law Commission, diplomatic intercourse 
and immunities, U.N. consideration of, statement 
(Green), proceedings, 786, 997 
International load line convention (1930), Senate action 

in 82d Congress, 589 
International Materials Conference (IMC), committees: 
Copper-Zinc-Lead, copper allocations, 118, 579 
Cotton-Cotton Linters, termination, 117 
Manganese-Nicliel-Cobalt : 
Allocations, 119, 580, 957 
Membership, 503 
Pulp-Paper, termination, final report, 579 
Sulphur, allocations, 196, 760 
Tungsten-Molybdenum, allocations, 117, 548 
Wool, termination, 580 
International Materials Policy Commission, report. Presi- 
dent's statement and letters to chairman (Paley), 
President of Senate (Barkley), and Speaker of 
House (Rayburn), excerpts of digest of vol. I, ad- 
dresses (Bennett, Johnston, Eakens), 54, 55, 208, 210, 
541, 734 
International Military Tribunal for the Far East, juris- 
diction of, 408 
International Monetary Fund (IMF) : 
Annual report (1952), excerpts of 1st chapter, 390 
Discussion of resources, 189 

Bjxchange transactions with Australia, Brazil, Nether- 
lands, 368 
Membership, admission to : Germany and Japan, 330 ; 
Jordan, 368 
International Motion Picture Service, activities, address 

(Harris), 977, 978 
International Press Service, activities, address (Harris), 

977 
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) : 
Plenipotentiary Conference, U.S. delegation, 581 
Radio Consultative Committee, study group, U.S. dele- 
gation, 416 
International Wheat Council, 10th session, U.S. delega- 
tion, 119 
International Wool Study Group, 5th meeting, U.S. dele- 
gate, 838 
Investment of private capital abroad, 208, 210, 230, 287, 
288, 359, 387, 447, 538, 565, 566, 567, 711, 779, 782, 815, 
841, 872, 880, 903 



Iran (see also Iranian oil dispute) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Saleh), credentials, 575 
Famine relief, U.S., Iranian, Uruguayan draft resolu- 
tion, statement (Lubin) and text. 111, 113 
Land reform, progress in, 451, 535 

Oil, purchase by American nationals, U.S. attitude, 946 
Technical cooi)eration : 

Point 4 program appraisal, statement (Acheson), 449 
Shah's land reform program, 535 
Student-assistance project, 452 
Iranian oil dispute: 

IBRD negotiations, status of, address (Black), 387 
Proposal (Iranian) for discussion of problem, letters 
from Prime Minister Mossadegh to Secretary Acheson 
and British Foreign Secretary Eden, 624 
Proposals, U.S.-U.K. : 

Clarification of, statement (Acheson), 405; text of 

U.S. note to Iran, 569 
Mossadegh rejection and counterproposal, texts of 

notes to U.S. and U.K., 532 
Proposed submission of problem to International 
Court of Justice, text of proposals and note (U.S.- 
U.K.), 360 
Summary of 1951-52 developments, article (Howard), 

892 
U.S. position, address (Byroade), 933 
Iraq: 

King Faisal II : 

Legion of Merit award to, 330 
Visit to U.S., 12, 265 
Technical cooperation activities : 

Agricultural college, development, 864 
Flood control and irrigation projects, 781 
U.S. Ambassador (Berry), confirmation, 43 
Isolation policy, U.S. abandonment of, article (C. B. Mar- 
shall), 767, 812 
Israel : 

Arab-refugee problem, article (Howard), address 

(Byroade), 895, 932 
Foreign office, proposed move to Jerusalem, U.S. atti- 
tude, text of aide-m4moire, 181 
Military-assistance agreement with U.S., 331 
Palestine question. See Palestine. 
President (Ben-Zvi), election, message of congratula- 
tion from President Truman, 984 
President (Weizmann), messages of condolence (Tru- 
man, Acheson) on death of, 824 
Italy : 

Administration of Zone A, Free Territory of Trieste, 
texts of U.S.-U.K. parallel notes and Soviet note, 521, 
522 
Balance-of-payments developments, 394, 395 
Count Sforza, eulogy on (Acheson), 405 
European Coal and Steel Community, inauguration, 

statement (Acheson), 285 
Garlic imports. President's rejection of Tariff Commis- 
sion's recommendations re, 303 
Land reform, progress in, statement (Luliin), 991 
aianganese-Nickel-Cobalt Committee of IMC, member- 
ship, 503 



tndex, July to December 1952 



1065 



Italy — Continued 

Unemployment problem, described in report on European 

developments, 360 
U.S. aid to. President's identic letters to Congress re 

continuance, and report (Harriman), 75, 76 

Jamison, Edward A., appointment as Deputy Director, 

Office of Regional American Affairs, 723 
Jammu and Kashmir, demilitarization of. See Kashmir. 
Japan : 

Defense measures, Justification for increase in, address 

(Allison), 860 
Educational system, article (Aklen), 654 
IBRD economic mission to, 672 
Land reform, progress in, statement (Lubin), 992 
Membership in international organizations: 

ICAO, General Assembly approval of application, 802 
IMC Manganese-Nickel-Cobalt Committee, 503 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment, 330. 
International Monetary Fund. 330 
U.N., application for, address (Murphy), 524; state- 
ments (Austin), 504, 526, 527 
Mission in U.S. for discussion of Alaskan forest prod- 
ucts utilization, 658 
Position in Asia, address (Allison), 857 
Reparations problem, 859 
Treaty of Peace with (1951), statements (Allison), 

102, 448 
U.S. policy in, address (Allison), 98 
U.S. property in, filing of applications for return of, 13 
War Criminals, U.S. Board of Clemency and Parole for : 
Activities, 659 

Establishment, Executive Order 10393, text, 408, 409 
Jebb, Sir Gladwyn (U.K. representative in U.N.), state- 
ments on Kashmir dispute, 665, 800 
Jernegan, John D., appointment as Deputy Assistant Sec- 
retary for Near Eastern, South Asian, and African 
affairs, 123 
Jessup, Philip C. (U.S. delegate to General Assembly), 
addresses and statements : 
Dependent peoples, attitudes toward, 571 
Moroccan question, 1044 

Negotiations between free world and U.S.S.R., 511 
Palestine Conciliation Commission, U.S. attitude, 953 
Tunisian question, U.S. position, 986 
U.N. Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees 
in the Near East, budget increase, 755 
Jewish victims of Nazi persecution, German compensa- 
tion to, statement (Acheson), 448 
Johnston, Eric A., chairman of International Develop- 
ment Advisory Board, address on capital investment 
abroad, 538 
Jordan : 

Membership in International Monetary Fund and Inter- 
tional Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 
368 
U.S. legation, elevated to rank of embassy, 379 

Kashmir, demilitiirization of: 
Map, facing 664 
Security Council proceedings, 237, 898, 996, 1042 

1066 



Kashmir, demilitarization of — Continued 

U.N. Representative's 4th report to Security Council 

(Graham), excerpts, 626, 661; review (Collins), 663 

U.S.-U.K. draft resolution, text, and statements (Jebb, 

Gross), 800, 801, 996, 1028 

Kelly Memorial Committee, sponsor of Franco-American 

memorial ceremony at Paris, 329 
Kennan, George F., Ambassador to U.S.S.R., recall re- 
quested, Soviet note, Secretary's statement, U.S. note, 
and correspondence with Senator Knowland, 557, 603 
Kernohan, Frances K., U.S. reijresentative. Executive 
Board, UNICEP, article on application of technical 
assistance concept, 369 
Kirk, Admiral Alan G., appointment as Director of 

Psychological Strategy Board, 302 
Knowland, Senator William F., letter to Secretary Ache- 
son proposing recall of Soviet Ambassador, 603 
Koerner, Heinrich, winner of Carl Schurz Award, 104 
Kohnstamm, M., chairman, U.N. Commission to Investi- 
gate Conditions for Free Elections in Germany, letter 
to U.N transmitting Commission's report, 298 
Korea : 

Armistice negotiations. See Korean armistice negotia- 
tions. 
Bombing of power plants in North Korea, statements 

(Acheson, Bruce), 60 
Citation for honored dead, General Assembly resolu- 
tion on, statement (Sampson), 997 
Economic coordination agreement with U.N. Command: 
Dollar payment (second) pursuant to provisions of, 

330 
Text, in report of U.N. Command operations, 499 
Elections, 674, 683 
Embargo on shipments to North Korea and Communist 

China, 100 
General Assembly consideration of Korean question : 
Soviet statements, 634, 761 
U.S. attitude on, 457, 476, 570 
General Eisenhower, visit to, text of U.N. Command 

communique, 948 
"Germ warfare." See "Germ warfare." 
Prisoners of war. .See Prisoners of war. 
South African contribution to U.N. forces in, 105 
Tonnage duties on vessels of, suspension, text of proc- 
lamation, 713 
U.N. action in, review of, statement ( Acheson) , 679 
U.N. Coujmand operations, 42d through 52d reports 
(Mar. 16, 1952-Aug. 31, 19.52), 114, 194, 231, 272, 495, 
668, 795, 883, 958, 1034, 1037 
U.S. Ambassador (Briggs), appointment, 379 
U.S. Ambassador (Muecio), return to Washington, 301 
Korean armistice negotiations: 

British ministers, visit to U.S. for discussion of, 6 
Communist motives delaying settlement, statement 

(Harrison), 474 
Correspondence between Communist commanders and 

U.N. Command officers, 751, 752 
Prisoners of war. See Prisoners of war. 
Korean armistice negotiations, addresses and statements: 
Acheson, 457, 570, 597, 600, 690, 744 
Clark, 600 
Harrison, 474, 549, 601 

Department of State Bulletin 



Korean armistice negotiations, addresses and state- 
ments — Continued 

Hickerson, 647, 694 

Jessup, 512 

Sargeant, 562 
Kotsclinig, Walter M., deputy U.S. representative in 
BCOSOC: 

Report to U.N. committee on forced labor in U.S.S.B., 
excerpts, 821 

Statements : 
Forced labor in U.S.S.R., 70 
Soviet propaganda, 109, 149 
UNICEF programs, extension of, 376 
World social situation, review of, 142, 161 
Kusaila, Joseph, State Department denial of charges 
against, 362 

Labor : 
Conditions in U.S.S.R., address (Acheson), 423 
Forced Labor in the Soviet Union, release of State De- 
partment publication, excerpts, statement (Truman), 
428, 477 
Forced lal)or in U.S.S.R., statement (Kotschnig), re- 
port (USIS), additional information, 70, 428, 821 
Free world, international labor cooperation a contri- 
bution to, address (Wiesman), 827 
ICFTU. See International Confederation of Free 

Trade Unions. 
IFCTU. See International Federation of Christian 

Trade Unions. 
International Labor Conference; Office; Organization. 

See International Labor. 
NATO countries, situation In, address (Draper), 439 
Trade unions, free, prevention of Communist infiltra- 
tion, address (Acheson), 595 
Lake Ontario, jiroblem of high water level, referral to 
International Joint Commission by U.S. and Canada, 
67 
Lamm, Donald W., U.S. observer at 4th International 

Congress of African Tourism, 466 
Land reform : 
Agricultural and cooperative credit. Point 4 study of, 

4o3 
General Assembly draft resolution (Egypt-Iudia-Indo- 

nesia), proceedings on, 964, 991, 993, 1000 
Progress of free world compared with Soviet, state- 
ments (Lubin), 990, 993 
Technical cooperation programs in Egypt and Iran, 
451, 535 
Laos, U.N. membership application, U.S. attitude. 504 
Latin American Forestry Commission of FAO, 4th ses- 
sion, U.S. delegation, 74 
Latin American manpower conference (ILO), U.S. rep- 
resentative, 962 
Lattimore, Owen, revocation of confidential stop order 

against, 12 
Law, international, U.N. proceedings on, 997 
Lebanon : 
Mecca airlift, statement (Acheson), 406 
Point 4 agreement, signed, 62 
U.S. legation, elevated to rank of embassy, 379 
Legations. See Foreign Service. 



Legion of Merit, awarded to King Faisal II of Iraq, 330 
Legislative Bistory of Committee on Foreign Relations, 
United States Senate, Eighty-second Congress, ex- 
cerpts, 584 
Lend-lease settlement with U.S.S.R., exchange of notes, 

819 
Lenroot, Katharine F., resignation as U.S. representative, 

Executive Board, UNICEF, 619 
Let Freedom Ring, State Department publication, released, 

887 
Liberia, director of Point 4 program in, appointment, 743 
Libya, U.N. membership application, statement (Austin), 

502 
Lie, Trygve, Secretary-General of U.N. : 

Resignation, text of letter to President of General 

Assembly, 839 
Statements on collective security and UNESCO, 832 
Linder, Harold F., Deputy Assistant Secretary for Eco- 
nomic Affairs, address on U.S. trade policy, 383 
Linse, Walter, abduction into Soviet zone of Germany : 
Text of U.S. note of protest to U.S.S.R., 320 
West German investigation, 823 
Lithuania, land-reform system in Soviet pattern, state- 
ment (Lubin), 995 
Lloyd, Selwyn, British Minister of State in the Foreign 

Office, visit to U.S., 6 
Logistical-support agreement with South Africa, signed, 

text, 105, 106 
London revision of Bermuda Telecommunications Agree- 
ment, 120, 236 
Lubin, Isador, U.S. representative in ECOSOC, addresses, 
statements, etc. : 
Economic and Social Council, article on 14th session, 

288 
Famine relief, statement re ECOSOC draft resolution, 

111 
International development fund, proposed, statement of 

U.S. attitude, 73 
International economic stability, statement, 187 
Land reform, statements on free-world and Soviet sys- 
tems, 964, 990, 993 
Nationalization of natural wealth. General Assembly 
draft resolution (Uruguay-Bolivia), statement of U.S. 
attitude, 1000 
Non-self-governing territories, statement of U.S. policy, 

238 
Self-determination, statement of U.S. position, 269 
Underdeveloped areas : 

Loans to, statement of U.S. attitude, 39 
U.S. policy in, statement defending, 871 
U.S. public and private investment in, statement, 779 
U.N. technical assistance program, statement confirm- 
ing U.S. support, 841 
World social situation, address, 482 
Luxembourg, European Coal and Steel Community (1951), 

inauguration, statement (Acheson), 285 
Lyons, Roger, article on VOA role in field of religion, 727 

McCIoy, John J., U.S. High Commissioner for Germany : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

American Memorial Library, Berlin, 5 
Germany, U.S. policy in, 177 
Kurt Schumacher, death of, 329 



Index, July to December 1952 



1067 



McCloy, John J., U.S. High Commissioner for Germany — 
Continued 
Addresse.s, statements, etc. — Continued 

Threat technique of Soviet propaganda, before Senate 
committee, 312 
Correspondence : 
General Chuikov, Soviet restrictions on road and 
other traffic, and attack on French aircraft, 318, 319 
Secretary Acheson and MSA administrator Harriman, 
transmitting 10th quarterly report, 134 
Report, final, letter of transmittal, 903 
Resignation as U.S. Higli Commissioner for Germany, 
178 
McPall, Jack K., appointment as Minister to Finland, 507 
McGhee, George C, U.S. Ambassador to Turkey, address 
on private enterprise in U.S.-Turkish relations, 564 
McMahon, Senator Brien, eulogy by Secretary Acheson, 

220 
Maffry, August, appointment as Point 4 consultant for 

private investment abroad, 711 
Malenbaum, Wilfred, article on Colombo Plan, 441 
Maney, Edward S., designation in State Department, 507 
Marshall, Charles B., member, Policy Planning Staff: 
Articles : 

U.S. ci\'il-military relations, 348 
U.S. commitments', 767, 807 
Remarks at Red Cross Conference, 224 
Marshall, George C, statement on voting procedure In 

Security Council, quoted, 528 
Marshall Plan, comments on (Bohlen, Thorp, Anderson), 

170, 174, 616 
Marshall scholarships offered American students at Brit- 
ish universities, 267 
Martin, Edwin M., appointment as Special Assistant to 

Secretary for Mutual Security Affairs, 42 
Materials Policy Commission, International. See Inter- 
national Materials Policy Commission. 
Mathewson, Maj. Gen. Lemuel, U.S. Commandant in Ber- 
lin, letters to Soviet oflScers, 312, 313, 318, 320 
Mecca airlift, statement (Acheson), address (Compton), 

406, 607 
Mehta, Gaganvihari Lallubhai, credentials as Indian Am- 
bassador, 723 
Mesta, Perle, Minister to Luxembourg, addresses : 

Educator's role in defense of U.N. and UNESCO against 

Soviet propaganda, 741 
Voluntary European unity, 64 
Metzger, Stanley D., designation in State Department, 

378 
Mexican Economy, Major Long-Term Trends in, IBRD- 
Mexican report, release of, 672 
Mexico : 

Boundary and Water Conunission, International, ap- 
pointments to U.S. section, 830 
Claims convention with U.S. (1941), payment of in- 
stallment under, 950 
Export-Import Bank loans for sulfur plant, moderniza- 
tion of steel operations, 830, 950 
Irrigation program sponsored by Mexico, statement 

(Lubin), 782 
Migrant labor, regularization of recruitment, address 

(MUler), 703 
Obregon Dam, dedication of, 713 



Mexico — Continued 

Prisoners of war, voluntary repatriation of, Mexican 
proposal in U.N., correspondence with Secretary- 
General Lie (Padilla Nervo and Austin), 696 
Technical cooperation activities in, 784 
TV-channel agreement with U.S. (1951), revised, 267 
U.S. Ambassador (O'Dwyer), resignation, 1047 
U.S. relations with, review (Miller), 703 

Meyers, Howard, address on importance of U.N. to U.S., 
1011 

Middle East. See also Near East. 

Middle East Command, proposed, U.S.-U.K. attitude, 937 

Middle Bast Defense Organization, proposed, U.S. attitude, 
938 

Migrant Mexican labor, regularization of recruitment, 
address (Miller), 703 

Migration from Europe. See Provisional Intergovern- 
mental Committee for Movement of Migrants. 

Military defense, relation to foreign policy, address (Sar- 
,want),55S 

Military facilities In Azores, agreement with Portugal 
(1951), text, 14 

Military-assistance agreements : 

Dominican Republic, negotiations, 537 
Israel, concluded, 331 
Uruguay, signed, 53 

Military-civil relations in U.S., article (C. B. Marshall), 
348 

Miller, Edward G., Jr., Assistant Secretary for Inter- 
American Affairs, address on inter-American coopera- 
tion, 702 

Ministers, Foreign, Council of, meeting of deputies, text 
of U.S. note inviting Soviet participation in, 404 

Ministers of Foreign Affairs of American States, 3d and 
4th Meetings of Consultation, results, 49, 50 

Ministers of Foreign Affairs of U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., 
Moscow meeting (1945), agreements re Korea, 681 

Minorities, U.N. Subcommission on Prevention of Dis- 
crimination and Protection of, future program, 505, 
583 

Molybdenum and Tungsten, International Materials Con- 
ference allocation of, 117, 548 

Monaco, copyright benefits to nationals of, text of U.S. 
proclamation, 712 

Moores, Roland F., article on validation of German dollar 
bonds, 608 

Moose, James S., Jr., Minister to Syria, confirmation, 43 

Moroccan decree (1948) in violation of rights of U.S. 
nationals, International Court of Justice ruling on, 
article (Sweeney), text of French note, 620, 623 

Moroccan question: 

French attitude, statement (Schuman), 839 

Meeting of Secretary Acheson with French Foreign 

Minister Schuman to discuss, 771 
U.S. attitude, article (Howard), statement (Jessup), 
897, 1044 

Morton, Alfred H., appointment as Head of VGA, 507 

Moscow Declaration (1943), provisions re Austrian inde- 
pendence, 284, 322 

Mosely, Harold W., designation in State Department, 843 

Mossadegh, Mohammad, Prime Minister of Iran. See 
under Iranian oil dispute. 



1068 



Department of State Bulletin 



Muccio, John J., U.S. representative on Trusteeship Coun- 
cil: 

Nomination, 301 

Statement on situation of Wa-Meru tribe, Tanganyika, 

965 

Murphy, Robert D., U.S. Ambassador to Japan, statement 

on Japanese application for U.N. membership, 524 

Museums, international seminar on educational role of, 

address (Sargeant), U.S. delegation, 455, 461 
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951 (Battle 
Act) : 

First semiannual report to Congress under (Harriman), 
release, 652 

Reference to provisions of act, 75, 76, 198 
Mutual Security, Public Advisory Board for. President's 
request for survey of U.S. trade policies by, 104, 359 
Mutual Security Act (1951) : 

Czechoslovak charges against, exchange of notes with 
U.S., 850 

Escapee program. See Escapee program for refugees 
from Soviet-dominated areas. 
Mutual Security Agency (MSA) : 

Burma and Indonesia, economic aid to, administration 
transferred from MSA to TOA, 62 

Far East, fiscal 1953 allotments for, 898 

Turkey, road-building program, grant for extension, 490 

United Kingdom, West Germany, and Iceland, allot- 
ments for, 486 

Yugoslavia, currency convertibility, guaranty agree- 
ment with U.S., 287 
Mutual security program : 

American Republics, arrangements with, article (C. B. 
Marshall), 809 

Dominican Republic, military-assistance agreement, 
negotiations, 537 

France, Export-Import Bank loan for payment of con- 
tracts under, 105 

Israel, agreement for purchase of U.S. military equip- 
ment, 331 

Italy, continuance of U.S. aid to. President's identic 
letters to congressional committees, and report (Har- 
riman), 75, 76 

Near East, South Asia, and Africa, assistance to, re- 
view (Howard), 938 

President Truman's second report to Congress on, sum- 
mary and letter of transmittal, 899, 900 

Private Investment abroad, encouragement of, 287, 359, 
567 

Supplemental Appropriation Act of 1953, effect of provi- 
sions on, statement (Truman), 199 

Uruguay, military-assistance agreement, signed, 53 

Yugoslavia, extension of economic aid to, 825 

National Security Resources Board, study of International 
Materials Policy Commission recommendations, state- 
ment (Truman), 54 

Nationalization of natural wealth. General Assembly reso- 
lution (Uruguay-Bolivia), U.S. attitude (Lubin), 1000 

NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 

Navigation, 6th International Hydrographic Conference, 
report (Hubbard), 08 

Nazi amnesty legislation in Austria, U.S. views on, 223 



Neal, Jack D., appointment as Deputy Director, Office of 

Middle American Affairs, State Department, 275 
Near East, South Asia, and Africa : 

Export-Import Bank loans (1945-52), table, 943 
Review of Point 4 program in Near East (Bingham), 

1017 
U.S. policy in : 

Address (Byroade), 729, 931 
Article (Howard), 891, 936 
Remarks (Seager), 450 
Netherlands : 

Anti-inflationary measures. International Monetary 

Fund report (1952), 397 
Balance-of-payments developments, 394, 395 
Capital accounts, transfer authorized, 711 
European Coal and Steel Community (1951), inaugura- 
tion, statement (Acheson), 285 
Exchange transactions with International Monetary 
Fund, 368 
New Zealand, ANZUS Council, 110, 141, 219, 220, 243, 244, 

284, 471 
Nicaragua, economic development program, recommenda- 
tions of Nicaraguan-IBRD mission, 506 
Nichols, John Ralph, designation in TCA, 42 
Nickel, International Materials Conference allocation of, 

119, 580 
Nielsen, Harald H., appointment as science attach^ to 

Swedish Embassy, 302 
Nomenclature, study of. Congress of Onomastic Sciences 

for, U.S. delegation, 378 
Non-Self-Governing Territories, U.N. Committee on In- 
formation from : 
Continuation of, 842, 998 
U.N. proceedings, 505 
U.S. delegation, 459 
Nong Kimny, Ambassador of Cambodia, credentials, 53 
North Atlantic Council (NAC) : 

Comments on, report and address (Draper), 355, 651 
Ministerial meeting, statement (Acheson), U.S. delega- 
tion, 985, 995 
North Atlantic Treaty. See Treaties, agreements, etc. 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) : 
Background, addresses (Draper), 436, 650 
Greek-Turkish entry into, review (Howard), 936 
Lisbon conference, report (Draper), 353, 355, 356 
Military forces, status of, address (Ridgway), 816 
Mutual Security Agency allotments, 486 
Petroleum Planning Committee, 3d meeting, U.S. dele- 
gation, 548 
Progress, report (U.S. Special Repre.?!entative in 

Europe) and address (Acheson), 353, 848, 849 
Tribute to, address (Bohlen), 170 
Unification of members, necessity for, address (Fred 
L. Anderson), 815 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Commission, 2d annual 

meeting, U.S. delegation, 74 
Nutrition, education in, and home economics, 1st Carib- 
bean conference on, 576 

Oatis, William N., Czechoslovak trial, and status of im- 
prisonment, statements (Acheson, Green), 625. 787 
Obregon Dam, Mexico, dedication ceremonies, 713 



Index, July to December 1952 



1069 



O'Dwyer, William, U.S. Ambassador to Mexico, resigna- 
tion, 1047 
Offshore procurement program, 354, 356 
Oil (See also Iranian oil dispute) : 
Imports, place in U.S. economy, 733 
Purchase from Iran by American nationals, U.S. at- 
titude, 946 
Tariff concession on crude oil, modification of, 400, 402 
Onomastic Sciences, 4th International Congress, U.S. 

delegation, 378 
Organization of American States (OAS) : 

Charter (194S), cited as basis for present Inter- Amer- 
ican system, address (Miller), 702 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council, appoint- 
ment of acting U.S. representative to (Greenup), 
368 
Ministers of Foreign Affairs of American States, 3d 
and 4th Meetings of Consultation, results, 49, 50 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation 
(OEEC) : 
Activities, 357, 358, 359 

U.S. grants to OEBC countries as factor in balance-of- 
payments developments, 393 

Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of: 
U.N. mission to visit, 882 

U.S. administration of, denial of Communist charges 
against, statement (Koosevelt), 1033 
Pacific security, U.S. participation in, article (C. B. Mar- 
shall), 811 
Pacific security and defense treaties, testimony (Dulles), 

103, 472 
Padilla Nervo. Luis, Mexican representative in U.N., let- 
ter to U.N. Secretary-General re proposal for settle- 
ment of Korean prisoner of vrar issue, 696 
Pakistan : 
Colombo Plan, participation in, 444, 447 
Irrigation program, 781 

Kashmir dispute. See Kashmir, demilitarization of. 
Point 4 activities: projects, appointment of program 

director (Will), 63, 909 
Technical-research institute, IBRD visit re establish- 
ment of, 722 
U.S. Ambassador (Cabot), appointment, 507 
Water resources in, role of IBRD in development of, 

387 
Wheat, U.S., Export-Import Bank loan for purchase of 
490 
Palestine Conciliation Commission: 

Progress reiiort to 6th General Assembly, excerpt, 895 
Review of work, statement (Jessup), text of May 1949 

protocol, 953. 954 
U.N. proceedings, 924, 963, 998 
Palestine question : 
Negotiations between Israel and Arab States, U.N. 

proceedings, 998, 1044 
Refugees : 

General Assembly program of relief, continuation of: 
statement (Jessup), 755; resolution on UNRWA 
budt;et adopted (Nov. 6), text, and article 
(Howard), 7.56, 761, S9<) 
Problem of repatriation, article (Howard), address 
(Byroade), 895, 932 



Pan American Congress of Architects, 8th, U.S. delega- 
tion, 763 
Pan American Consultation on Cartography, 6th, U.S. 

delegation, 720 
Pan American Highway Congress, special session, U.S. 

delegation, 837 
Pan American Sanitary Organization (PASO), U.S. dele- 
gations to 6th session of Directing Council and 17th 
and ISth meetings of Executive Committee, 462, 463 
Panama : 

Air transport agreement with U.S., annex re routes, 

amended, 13 
Defense sites negotiations, background, article 

(Wright), 212 
Joint mission from U.N. and IBRD, 330 
U.S. relations vrith, review (Miller), 703 
Pancoast, Omar B., Jr., designation in TCA, 198 
Paris reparation agreement (1946), distribution of Ger- 
man assets in Switzerland pursuant to provisions of, 
363 
Passports : 

Lattimore, Owen, confidential stop order, revoked by 

Department, 12 
Passport regulations, U.S. revision, text 417 
Peiping "peace conference," passports not issued for 

American attendance, statement (Acheson), 570 
Procedures for issuing, statement (Acheson), 40 
"Peace conference," Chinese Communist, statement (Ache- 
son), 570 
"Peace Congress," Vienna, Communist propaganda 

maneuver, 818 
Peace Observation Commission membership. General As- 
sembly reappointment of, 802 
Peace treaty with Japan (1951), provision for return of 

U.S. property in Japan, 13 
Perkins, E. R., article on history of publication of Foreign 

Relations of the U.S., 1002 
Permanent Joint Board on Defense, cooperation between 

U.S. and Canada in, 848 
Peru: 
Prisoners of war, repatriation of, draft resolution, 802, 

841 
Technical cooperation activities in, 211, 783 
U.S. relations with, review (Miller), 704 
Petroleum. See also Oil. 
Petroleum Committee of ILO, 4th session, U.S. delegation, 

632 
Petrzelka, Karel, credentials as Czechoslovak Ambassador 

to U.S., 733 
Phelps, Phelps, confirmation as U.S. Ambassador to Do- 
minican Republic, 43 
Philippines : 
Air transport agreement with U.S. (1946), U.S.-Philip- 

pine discussions, 1024 
Export-Import Bank loans to, 338, 1025 
Highway rehabilitation program, U.S.-Philippine, 60 
Technical development in, 781 
U.S. policy in, address (Allison), 100, 101 
PhUlips, Joseph B., Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public 
Affairs, addresses : 
Information program, domestic, role of education, 971 
Teacher-exchange program, 324 



1070 



Department of State Bulletin 



Pierson, Warren Lee, U.S. delegate to conference on Ger- 
man external debts, statement requesting American 
bondholder representation at conference, 13 
Pocket-book libraries, IIA shipment to India, 331 
Point 4. See Technical cooperation program, U.S. 
Poland, economic situation in, address (Lubin), 875 
Portugal : 
Balance-of-payments developments, 394 
Military facilities in Azores, test of agreement with 
U.S. (1951), 14 
Potsdam Proclamation (1945), pledge re Korea, 680 
President's Commission on Immigration and Naturaliza- 
tion, appointment of Executive Director (Rosenfleld), 
502 
President's Materials Policy Commission report, refer- 
ences to, 54, 55, 208, 210, 541, 734 
Press, U.S., Soviet charges, statement denying (Sprague), 

792 
Press Service, International, address respecting activities 

of (Harris), 977 
Prisoners of war : 
Geneva convention (1949). See Prisoners of vyar, 

Geneva convention. 
Repatriation. See Prisoners of war, voluntary vs. 

forced repatriation. 
Soviet treaty commitments, history of, address (Ache- 
son), 747 
Treatment of, U.N. Command practices compared with 

Communist, address (Acheson), 744 
U.N. Ad Hoc Commission on : 
Report to Secretary-General on Soviet noncoopera- 

tion, 523 
U.S. representative to 3d session (Eugenie Ander- 
son), appointment, statements by, 414, 415 
Prisoners of war, Geneva convention (1949) : 
Observance of, U.S. notes requesting Soviet good oflBces 
and Red Cross intercession with North Korean and 
Chinese Communists for, 171, 172 
Repatriation provision, General Assembly resolution 

(1950), excerpt, 746 
Violation by Communists, statements on (Harrison, 
Acheson), 172, 602, 744 
Prisoners of war, voluntary vs. forced repatriation : 
Attitudes : 

British: statements (Lloyd, Eden), 762, 840 
Communist, Chinese and North Korean : statement 

on (Harrison), 474 
French: statement (Hoppenot), 762 
Soviet: comment on (Harrison), statement (Vy- 

shinsky), 172, 762 
U.N. Command : addresses and statements : Acheson, 

600, 691, 745 ; Clark, 600 ; Harrison, 601 
U.S. : addresses (Sargeant, Acheson, Hickerson), 562, 
597, 647, 694 
Indian draft resolution e.stablishing Repatriation Com- 
mission : 
Statement (Acheson), 910 
Text, 916 

U.N. proceedings, 880, 925, 963, 964, 966 
Interviews with prisoners resisting repatriation, by 
U.N. Forces officer, correspondence with President 
Truman, 327 



Prisoners of war, voluntary vs. forced repatriation — Con. 

Mexican proposal, correspondence with Secretary- 
General Lie (Padilla Nervo and Austin), 696 

Soviet proposal, statement on (Acheson), 750 

U.N. action : 
Draft resolution (General Assembly) approving 

principle of voluntary repatriation, text, 680 
Proceedings, 746, 762, 802, 840, 880, 910, 916, 925, 963, 
964, 966 

U.N. Command correspondence with North Koreans and 
Chinese Communists, 751, 752, 754 

U.N. Command proposals, statements (Harrison, Ache- 
son), 549, 691, 749 
Private capital, investment abroad, 208, 210, 230, 287, 288» 
359, 387, 447, 538, 565, 566, 567, 711, 779, 782, 815, 841, 
872, 880, 903 
Private Enterprise Cooperation Staff of IIA, purpose, 347 
Private organizations, role in Campaign of Truth, 346 
Proclamations : 

Copyright benefits granted nationals of Monaco, text, 
712 

Dried figs, duty increased, text, and statement (Tru- 
man), 337 

Immigration quotas under Immigration and Nationality 
Act, text, 83 

Import fees imposed on almonds, text, 569 

Reciprocal trade agreement with Turkey (1939), termi- 
nation, text, 179 

Safety of life at sea, international convention for 
(1948), entry into force, 464 

Tonnage duties on Korean vessels, suspension of, text, 
713 

Trade agreement with Venezuela, supplementary, entry 
into force, text, 487 

Zinc and lead, import duties on, revocation of suspen- 
sion of, text, 180, 181 
Productivity, Anglo-American Council on, final report re- 
leased, 285 
Protection of U.S. nationals and property : 

American bondholder representation at conference on 
German external debts, statement (Pierson), 13 

Bulgaria, mistreatment of U.S. diplomats in, address 
(Green), 787 

Chinese Communist maltreatment of Americans, state- 
ment (Acheson), 440 

Claims. See Claims. 

Friendship, commerce, and consular rights, treaty with 
Finland (1934), modification of article on personal 
property rights, 949 

Morocco, violation of rights of U.S. nationals. Interna- 
tional Court of Justice ruling on 1948 decree, article 
(Sweeney), text of French note, 620, 623 

Seized property, U.S. notes to U.S.S.R'. and Hungary 
requesting return of, texts, 981, 982 

Soviet firing on American aircraft near Yuri Island, 
U.S. protest, text, 650 

Swiss-Allied agreement re German property in Switzer- 
land, provisions, 364 
Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for Movement 
of Migrants from Europe (PICMME) : 

Activities, 261 



Index, July fo December 1952 



1071 



Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for Movement 
of Migi-ants from Europe (PICMME) — Continued 

Agreement for transport of escapees from Soviet-bloc 
countries, with U.S., signed, 711 

3d session, report (Warren), 107 

4th session, U.S. delegation, 763 
Psychological Strategy Board, Director (Kirk), nomina- 
tion, 302 
Publications : 

Amerika, suspension of, texts of U.S. note and Soviet 
note, statement (Compton), 127, 2()3 

Distribution centers. State Department, 418 

Field Reporter, 1st issue released, statements ( Acheson, 
Sargeaut),203 

Forced Labor in the Soviet Union: 
Excerpts, 428 
Released, statement (Truman), 477 

Foreign Relations of the U.S.: 

History of publication, article (Perkins), 1002 

1934, vol. V (American Republics), released, 1006 

1935, vol. II (Briti.sh Commonwealth; Europe), re- 
leased, 162 

Legislative History of Committee on Foreign Relations, 
U.S. Senate, S2d Congress, excerpts, 584 

Let Freedom Ring, released, 887 

Major Long-Term Trends in Mexican Economy, re- 
leased, 672 

Yngoslavia: Titoism and U.S. Foreign Policy, released, 
826 
Publications, lists : 

Congress, 12, 200, 268, 339, 410, 448, 507, 563, 723 

State Department, 42, 162, 201, 239, 331, 379, 466, 591, 
635, 843, 1047 

United Nations, 18, 301, 465, 503, 716, 760, 927 
Puerto Rico, Commonwealth of : 

Constitution : 
Approval by U.S. Congress, statement (Truman), 91 
Summary transmitted by U.S. to U.N., text, 758 

U.S. adraiuistration of, denial of Communist charges 
in U.N., statement (Roosevelt), 1032 

Racial discrimination in dependent territories, draft res- 
olution, U.N. proceedings on, 803 
Radio : 

International Scientific Union, 10th general assembly, 

U.S. delegation, 235 
Voice of America. See Voice of America. 
Radiology, 4th Inter-American Congress, U.S. delegation, 

837 
Reber, Samuel, Acting U.S. High Commissioner in Ger- 
many, 314, 315 
Reciprocal Trade Agreement with Venezuela (1939), ne- 
gotiations for revision, and supplementary agreement 
signed, 180, 267, 400, 454, 487, 704, 734 
Red Cross : 

Communist propaganda against, comments on (Gross), 

154 
Intercession with North Korean and Chinese Commu- 
nists for observance of Geneva convention (1949), 
text of U.S. note requesting, 172 
Inve.stigation of "germ warfare" charges, text of U.S. 
draft resolution requesting, 37 



Red Cross Conference (18th) : 

Communist use for propaganda purposes, remarks 

(Marshall), 224 
U.S. observer delegation, 197 
Refugees, U.N. High Commissioner for: 
Election of, 261 

Second annual report, review, 1001 
Soviet charges against oflSce, denial, 881 
Refugees and displaced persons : 
Escapees from Soviet-dominated areas. iSfee Escapee 

program for refugees from Soviet-dominated areas. 
Greek children, repatriation of, U.N. proceedings, 924, 

1044 
Immigration. See Immigration and Nationality Act; 

Immigration and Naturalization Commission. 
Palestine refugees. See Refugees under Palestine 

question. 
PICMME. See Provisional Intergovernmental Commit- 
tee for Movement of Migrants from Europe. 
UNRWA. See United Nations Relief and Works 

Agency for Palestine Refugees. 
West Germany, postwar problem in, excerpt of 10th 
quarterly report (McCloy), 136 
Relations, convention between Three Powers and Ger- 
many, ratification, statement (Truman), 220 
Religion, VGA role in field of, article (Lyons), 727 
Restrictions on foreign trade. See Restrictive measures 

under Trade. 
Restrictive business practices: 

Ad Hoc committee of Economic and Social Council, 3d 

session, U.S. delegation, 458 
U.S. views on, statement (Linder), 383 
Ridgway, Gen. Matthew B., Supreme Allied Commander, 
Europe, address on status of NATO military forces, 
816 
Right-of-correction convention, U.N. proceedings, 789 n., 

791, 1043 
Rights of Nationals of the United States of America in 
Morocco, International Court of Justice ruling on 
case of, 620 
Rio treaty (1947), cited in addresses (Acheson, Bennett, 

MUler), 49, 207, 702 
Roberts, Lydia J., report on 1st Caribbean conference on 

home economics and education in nutrition, 576 
Roosevelt, Mrs. Franklin D., U.S. representative to U.N., 
statements : 
Human rights, drafting of covenants on, 20 
Self-determination of peoples, 881, 917, 925, 1032, 1043 
Root, Elihu, congressional testimony on boundary waters 

treaty with Canada, quoted, 847 
Rosenfield, Harry N., appointment as Executive Director 
of Commission on Immigration and Naturalization, 
502 
Rubottom, Roy R., Jr. : 
Address on relations with American Republics, 901 
Appointment as Director, Office of Middle American 
Affairs, State Department, 275 
Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services Committee, Euro- 
pean-Mediterranean Region, of ICAO, U.S. delegation 
to 4th special meeting, 120 



1072 



Department of State Bulletin 



Rumania : 

Escapee (Calcai), Voice of America broadcast exposing 

Communist propaganda, 563 
U.S. Minister (Shantz), appointment, 635 
Russell, Francis H., Director, Office of Public Affairs, ad- 
dresses on democratic concept, 7, 279 

Safety of life at sea, international convention for (1948), 

entry into force, 464, 619, 865, 1024 
St. Lawrence River, power worlis development, approval 
by International Joint Commission : U.S.-Canadian 
application for, order of approval. Commissioner's 
dissenting opinion. Commission's majority opinion, 65, 
1019 
Saleh, Allah-Tar, Ambassador of Iran, credentials, 575 
Sampson, Edith, U.S. representative to General Assembly, 

statement on U.N. citation for honored dead, 997 
Sandifer, Durward V., Deputy Assistant Secretary for 
U.N. AiSairs, address on disarmament and technical 
assistance, 478 
Sargeant, Rowland H., Assistant Secretary for Public 
Affairs, addresses and comments : 
Citizenship, 4-H Club role in International Farm Youth 

Exchange, 11 
Education, role in the free world, 736 
Field Reporter, release of 1st issue, 203 
Foreign policy, relation to military defense, 558 
Museums, role in education, 455 
U N. collective action, 698, 772 

UNESCO, objectives and U.S. support, 701, 775, 831, 853 
Saudi Arabia, Prince Abdullah Faisal Saud, visit to U.S., 

96 
Sayre, Francis B., U.S. representative on Trusteeship 

Council, resignation, 301 
Scholarships honoring Gen. Marshall offered American 

students at British universities, 267 
Schrieber, Walter, Acting Mayor of Berlin, acceptance of 

grant for American Memorial Library, 5 
Schumacher, Kurt, German Social Democratic Party 

leader, death of, statement (McCloy), 329 
Schuman, Robert, French Foreign Minister, discussion of 
Tunisian and Moroccan questions in U.N. : 
Address before General Assembly, excerpts, 839 
Meeting with SecretaiT Achesfln, 771 
Schuman Plan. See European Coal and Steel Community. 
Schurz, Carl, correspondence with Lincoln presented to 

American library at Berlin, address (Aeheson), 3 
Scientific Unions, International Council of (ICSU), 6th 

general assembly, U.S. delegation, 546 
Seager, Cedric H., address on Point 4 program in Middle 

East, 450 
Secretariat, U.N., U.S. applicants for appointments to, 

question of, 735, 967, 1027 
Securities frauds, supplementary extradition convention 

with Canada (1951), approved by Canada, 67 
Security Council : 
Chinese representative, right to presidency challenged 

by U.S.S.R., 800 
Disai-mament Commission. See Disarmament Com- 
mission. 
Election of members, 761 



Security Council — Continued 

Geneva protocol on bacteriological methods of warfare 
(1925), U.S. attitude on Soviet draft resolution re 
ratification, statements (Gross), 32, 37, 38 
"Germ warfare" in Korea, Soviet charges : 
Statements (Gross), 35, 153, 159, 160 
U.S. draft resolutions, texts : impartial investigation 
by Red Cross requested, 37 ; charges concluded false, 
159 
Kashmir dispute. See Kashmir, demilitarization of. 
U.N. membership: 
Japanese application, discussion of: address (Mur- 
phy), 524; statements (Austin), .504. 526, 527 
Libyan application, statement (Austin), 502 
Soviet draft resolution on admissions, statement of 

U.S. views (Austin), 412 
Vietnamese, Lao, and Cambodian applications, U.S. 
support, 504 
Security treaties. Pacific area, reference in addresses 
(Allison) and quoted testimony (Dulles), 103, 472, 
860 
Security treaty with Australia and New Zealand (1951), 
1st meeting of ANZUS Council established by : 
Announcements, statements, 110, 141, 219, 220, 243, 284, 

471 
Communique, 244 
Self-determination of peoples : 

Exercise of right in non-self-governing territories, 574, 

917, 925, 964, 1032, 1043 
U.N. role in development of, addresses (Aeheson, Mey- 
ers), 641, 1015 
U.S. position, statements (Lubin, Jessup, Roosevelt), 

269, 574, 1032, 1043 
Universality of principle of, statement (Roosevelt), 917, 
925 
Seyhan River Dam, World Bank loan to Turkey for 

financing of, 15 
Sforza, Count Carlo, death of, statement (Aeheson), 405 
Shantz, Harold, appointment as U.S. Minister to Rumania, 

635 
Ships. See Vessels. 
Simsarian, James, article on draft covenants on human 

rights, 20 
Sisco, Joseph J., article on 2d report of Collective Meas- 
ures Committee, 717 
Situations of strength, address (Bohlen), 167 
Smith, Raymond C, designation in TCA, 723 
Social situation, world, report of U.N. Secretary-General, 

reviews (Kotschnig, Lubin), 142, 161, 482 
Social Welfare Services program in India, 372 
Social Work, 6th International Conference, 835 
South Africa, Union of : 
Double taxation conventions, income and estate, entry 

into force, 180 
Export-Import Bank loan to Electricity Supply Com- 
mission, 105 
Negotiations on South-West Africa question, U.N. pro- 
ceedings, 551, 924 
Treatment of Indians in. General Assembly proceedings, 

802, 833, 835, 840, 868, 880, 997 
U. S. logistical support, agreement on payment, text, 
105, 106 



Index, July fo December 7952 



1073 



South Pacific Coinmission, 10th session, U. S. delegation, 

581 
Sovereignty, U.S., charges of U.N. violation, refutation, 

address (Sargeant), 775 
Sprague, Charles A. (U.S. representative to General As- 
sembly), statements: 
Eritrea, completion of U.N. action on, proposed General 

Assembly resolution, 999 
Indians In South Africa, treatment of, U.S. position, 

833, 868 
Information, freedom of, draft convention, U.S. atti- 
tude, 780, 791, 803 
Press in Soviet Union, condition of, 920 
Right-of-correction convention, U.S. attitude, 789n, 1043 
U.S. press, defense of, against Soviet charges, 763, 792 
State Department : 

American Hellenic Educational Progressive Associa- 
tion Conference, denial of influence in, 362 
Appointments : 

Cargo, William I., as Deputy Director of Bureau of 

U.N. Affairs, 42 
Carnahan, George, as Special Assistant to Assistant 

Secretary for Inter-American Affairs, 723 
Dodge, Joseph M., as Consultant to Secretary, 339 
Hart, Parker T., as Director, OflBce of Near Eastern 

Affairs, 507 
Ingram, George M., as Director of OfiBce of Interna- 
tional Administration and Conferences, 42 
Jamison, Edward A., as Deputy Director, Office of Re- 
gional American Affairs, 723 
Jernegan, John D., as Deputy Assistant Secretary for 
Near Eastern, South Asian, and African Affairs, 
123 
Martin, Edwin M., as Special Assistant to Secretary 

for Mutual Security Affairs, 42 
Metzger, Stanley D., as Assistant Legal Adviser for 

Economic Affairs, 378 
Morton, Alfred H., as Head of VOA, 507 
Neal, Jack D., as Deputy Director of Office of Middle 

American Affairs, 275 
Rubottom, Roy R., Jr., as Director of Ofllce of Middle 

American Affairs, 275 
Young, Kenneth T., as Director of Bureau of Far 
Eastern Affairs, 42 
Information activities, domestic and international, ad- 
dresses (Harris, Phillips), 971 
Lattimore, Owen, revocation of confidential stop order 

against, 12 
Passport procedures, remarks (Acheson), 40 
Passport regulations, revision, text, 417 
Publications distribution centers, 418 
Publications listed, 162, 239, 331, 379, 466, 591, 635, 843, 

1047 
U.N. Secretariat, U.S. applicants for appointments to, 

question of, 735, 967, 1027 
U.S. High Commissioner for Germany: 

Donnelly, Walter J., appointment and resignation, 

178, 967 
McCloy, John J., resignation, 178 
Statisticians, 2d Regional Conference of, U.S. delegation, 
463 



Stone, B. Douglas, U.S. delegate to International Congress 

of Housing and Urbanization, 502 
Stonebraker, Lt. William L., detention by Soviet authori- 
ties in Berlin, and U.S. note of protest, 907 
Strategic materials {see also Trade) : 

Allocations. See International Materials Conference. 
Embargo on exports to Communist China and North 

Korea, 100 
Export restrictions under Battle Act (1951), Ist semi- 
annual report to Congress (Harriman) released, 652 
Export-Import Bank loan to South African Electricity 

Supply Commission, 105 
Foreign imports as source of raw materials, Increased 

U.S. dependence on, 282, 361 
IMO. See International Materials Conference. 
Increase in trade with American Republics, 208 
International Materials Policy Commission, digest of 

vol. I of report, 55 
Lead and zinc, proclamations revoking suspension of 

duties on, texts, 180 
Nickel mines, Canadian, Export-Import Bank loan for 

expansion of, 865 
Oil, crude, modification of tariff concession on, 400, 402 
Tin, U.S. import of, agreement with U.K. to resume, 

exchange of notes, 266 
Transshipment of, system for prevention, effective date, 
409 
Student as.sistance, continuation of Point 4 project in 

Iran, 452 
Sugar, regulation of production and marketing, interna- 
tional agreement (1937), protocols to. Senate action 
in 82d Congress, 589 
Sulfur, International Materials Conference allocation of, 

196, 760 
Supplemental Appropriation Act of 1953, statement 

(Truman), 199 
Sweden : 

Educational exchange agreement with U.S., signed, 

909 
International criminal court, proposal in U.N. for 

establishment, 882 
Manganese-Nickel-Cobalt Committee of IMC, mem- 
bership, 503 
U.S. science attach^ to Embassy at Stockholm (Niel- 
sen), appointment, 302 
Sweeney, Joseph M., article on International Court of 
Justice ruling in case of rights of U.S. nationals in 
Morocco, 620 
Swiss watches. Tariff Commission recommendations re- 
jected, text of President's report, 305 
Switzerland : 
Agreements re German property in, 3(53, 364 
Convention with U.S. (1951) re double taxation on 

estates and inheritances, entry into force, 486 
Tariff Commission recommendation re Swiss watches, 
rejection by President (U.S.), 305 
Syria : 

U.S. legation, elevated to rank of embassy, 379 
U.S. Minister (Moose), confirmation, 43 

Tanganyika, Trusteeship Council resolution on resettle- 
ment of Wa-Meru tribe, statement (Muccio), 965 



1074 



Department of State Bulletin 



TarifE Act of 1930: 
Concession on crude oil, modification, agreement with 

Venezuela, 402 
Proclamations revoking suspension of import duties on 
zinc and lead, text, 180, 181 
Tariff Commission recommendations : 
Dried figs, duty increase, text of proclamation and 

statement (Truman), 337 
Filbert imports, rejection of quota limitation on, state- 
ment (Truman), 743 
Garlic and Swiss watches, rejection of recommenda- 
tions on, text of President's reports, 303, 305 
Tariffs and Trade, General Agreement on (GATT, 1947) : 
7th session of contracting parties, U.S. delegation, and 

report on, 582, 876 
Turkish-U.S. negotiations, address (McGhee), 565 
Taxation, double, conventions on : 
Action by Senate in 82d Congress, 586 
Belgium, income, supplementary agreement signed, 427 
South Africa, Union of, income and estate, entry into 

force, 180 
Switzerland (1951), estate and inheritances, entry Into 
force, 486 
Taxation, immunity denied to U.S. nationals in Morocco 

by International Court of Justice ruling, 622 
TOA (Technical Cooperation Administration). See Tech- 
nical cooperation program, U.S. 
Teacher-exchange program, address (Phillips), 324 
Technical assistance program, U.N. : 
Greece and Yugoslavia, program in, 774 
India, 371 
Progress in economic and social fields, address 

(Meyers), 1014 
U.S. support, 374, 841, 856, 944 
Technical cooperation program, U.S. : 
Addresses, statements, articles : 
Acheson, 449 
Andrews, 710 
Bennett, 207 
Bingham, 1016 
Bohlen, 170 
Duke. 776 
Howard, 939 
Johnston, ,538 
Kernohan, 369^ 
Lubin, 482, 779, 873 
Sandifer, 478 
Seager, 450 
Truman, 568 
Agreements signed with: Brazil, 950; Burma, 864; 

India, 375 ; Lebanon, 62 
Agricultural credit, international conference on, 453 
Appointments, 42, 198, 660, 711, 723, 743, 909 
Budget, U.S. contributions, 61, 62, 63 
Burma, visit of TCA Administrator (Andrews), 61 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs, participation in, 

209, 267, 366 
Investment of private capital abroad, role in, 210, 538, 

711, 782 
Iraq, TCA grant for development of agricultural col- 
lege in, 864 



Technical cooperation program, U.S. — Continued 
Latin America, survey of program In, 366 
Missionaries, role in, 485 
Near East, article (Howard), remarks (Bingham), 

939, 1017 
Projects with : Afghanistan, 62, 951 ; American Repub- 
lics, 366 ; Burma, 61, 660 ; Chile, 874 ; Dominican Re- 
public, 52; Egypt, 941; El Salvador, 776; Ethiopia, 
940; Greece, 940; India, 874, 942, 1018; Indonesia, 
61; Iran, 451, 452, 535, 874, 940, 1017; Iraq, 864; 
Israel, 941 ; Jordan, 941 ; Lebanon, 941 ; Liberia, 940 ; 
Libya, 941; Nepal, 943; Pakistan, 63, 909, 942; Pan- 
ama, 704 ; Peru, 704, 874 ; Saudi Arabia, 941 
Telecommunications : 

London revision of 1945 Bermuda agreement, 120, 236 
Radio Consultative Committee of ITU, study group, U.S. 

delegation, 416 
TV-channel agreements with : Canada, signed, 180 ; 

Mexico, 1951 agreement, revised, 267 
VOA. See Voice of America. 
Territorial government. U.N. ad hoc committee for study 

of, 1st meeting, U.S. delegation, 459 
Thailand, U. S. policy in, address (Allison), 100 
Theater, under Nazi and Soviet control, address (Con- 
nelly), 542 
Thompson, Llewellyn E., Jr., appointment as U.S. Ambas- 
sador to and U.S. High Commissioner for Austria, 
178 
Thorp, Willard L., Assistant Secretary for Economic Af- 
fairs, address on economic basis of U.S. foreign policy, 
173 
Times Herald (Washington) , charges of State Department 

influence in AHEPA conference, 362 
Togoland. See Ewe and Togoland. 
Tonnage duties on Korean vessels, text of proclamation for 

suspension of, 713 
Toponymy and Anthroponomy, Congress of. See Ono- 

mastic Sciences. 
Toriello, Guillermo, Ambassador of Guatemala, cre- 
dentials, 575 
Tourism, African, 4th International Congress, U.S. ob- 
server, 466 
Trade : 

Agreements with : 

Turkey, termination of 1939 agreement, proclamation 

and exchange of notes, 179, 268 
Venezuela, supplementary agreement to 1939 agree- 
ment: negotiations, ISO, 267, 704; signature, 400; 
text and proclamation, 487 ; entry into force, 454, 
734 
Commodity arrangements, U.S. views, statement 

(Lubin), 191, 192 
Copper exports, Chilean, U.S. policy re, 705 
Developments, international, in 1952, IMF annual re- 
port, 390 
Embargo on shipments to Communist China and North 

Korea, 100 
Labor cooperation, international, contribution to world 

peace, address (Wiesman), 827 
Oil economy, place of imports in, address (Eakens), 733 



Index, July to December 1952 



1075 



Trade — Continued 
Restrictive measures: 
Addresses and statements: Andrews, 710; Anderson, 
614, 618; Draper, 358; Eakens, 733; Linder, 383; 
Thorp, 173, 176 
Almonds, import fees imposed on, text of proclama- 
tion, 569 
Control over exports to Soviet bloc, 1st semiannual 

report to Congress (Harriman), 652 
Import controls violating rights of U.S. nationals in 
Morocco, International Court of Justice ruling on 
1948 decree, article (Sweeney), text of French note, 
620, 623 
Transshipment of strategic materials, procedure for 
prevention of, effective date, 409 
Tariff Act of 1930. See Tariff Act. 
Tariff Commission recommendations. See Tariff Com- 
mission. 
Tariffs and Trade, General Agreement on (GATT). See 

Tariffs and Trade. 
Tin, importation by U.S., agreement with U.K. for re- 
sumption of, 266 
Turkish-American relations, private enterprise in, ad- 
dress (McGhee), 564 
U.S. policy, survey by Public Advisory Board, requested 

by President, 104 
U.S. policy developments in : American Republics, 208; 

Europe, 358 ; Far East, 100, 101 
World Federation of Trade Unions, Soviet dominated, 
failure to attain U.N. status, 828 
Trade Agreements Extension Act (1951) : 

Concessions under, procedures for periodic review (Ex. 

Or. 10401), text, 712 
References to provisions of act, .303, 305, 400, 402 
Trager, Frank N., designation in TCA, 660 
Tran Van Kha, Ambassador of Vietnam, credentials, 53 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Act of Algeciras (1906) and treaty of 1836 with Morocco, 
U.S. rights under. International Court of Justice 
ruling on, 621 
Air transport : 

Panama (1949), annex, 13 
Philippines (1946), discussions on, 1024 
ANZUS treaty. See Security treaty with Australia and 

New Zealand (1951). 
Austrian state treaty negotiations : 

Additional articles to draft treaty, text, 405 
Austrian memorandum requesting U.N. support, text, 

221 
Soviet note rejecting draft treaty, text, 284, 322 
U.S. notes and British and French notes to U.S.S.R., 
284, 404: statement (Acheson), 283; and Depart- 
ment critique, 321 
Aviation, draft convention on damage caused by aircraft 
to third parties on surface, ICAO conference on, 461 
Bacteriological methods of warfare, Geneva protocol 
(1925) : Soviet proposal in U.N. for ratification of, 
statements (Gross), 32, 35, 38 
Bilateral conventions (double-taxation, consular, com- 
mercial). Senate action in 82d Congress, 586, 587, 
588 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Boundary waters treaty with U.K. (1909) : 
Lake Ontario, problem of high-water level, referral I 
to International Joint Commission by U.S. and ' 
Canada under, 67 
St. Lawrence River, proposed power works develop- 
ment of waters within meaning of treaty provisions, 
66, 1019 
Brussels iutercustodial agreement (1947), conflicting 
claims to German enemy assets, deadline, type of 
claim, U.S. membership on panel of conciliators, 
365 
Chinese-Soviet treaty (1950). supplementary agreement, 

remarks (Acheson), 476 
Claims convention with Mexico (1941), Mexican pay- 
ment of installment under, 950 
Commercial treaties, bilateral. Senate action in 82d Con- 
gress, 588 
Consular convention with U.K. (1951), entry into force, 

489 
Consular conventions, bilateral. Senate action in 82d 

Congress, 587 
Contractual agreements, German : 
Parliamentary action by Germany, statement 

(Truman), 984 
Relations between Three Powers and Germany, state- 
ment (Truman), 220 
U.S. Senate approval, statement (Bruce), 67 
Currency guaranty, with Yugoslavia, exchange of notes, 

287 
Double-taxation conventions, bilateral : 

Belgium, income, supplementary, signed, 427 

Senate action in 82d Congress, 586 

South Africa, Union of, income and estate, entry into 

force, 180 
Switzerland (1951), estates and inheritances, entry 
into force, 486 
Economic aid to Yugoslavia, continuation, article on 
tripartite agreement (U.S., U.K., France) with 
Yugoslavia, 825 
Economic coordination, between Korea and Unified 
Command : 
Dollar payment (second) pursuant to provisions of, 

330 
Text of agreement, 499 
Educational exchange agreements signed with : Fin- 
land, Germany, Sweden, 53, 179, 909 
European Coal and Steel Community (1951), inaugura- 
tion, statement (Acheson) and reiwrt (Draper), 
285, 353 
European Defense Community, German parliamentary 

action on, statement (Truman), 9S4 
Extradition, with Canada, supplementary convention 

(1951), approval by Canada, 67 
Friend.ship, commerce, and consular rights with Fin- 
land (1934), protocol, signature and text, 949 
Geneva convention, prisoners of war (1949). See 

Prisoners of war, Geneva convention. 
Geneva protocol, bacteriological methods of warfare 
(1925). See Bacteriological methods of warfare 
under Treaties. 



1076 



Department of State Bulletin 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

German property in Switzerland, Swiss-Allied agree- 
ment, text, and Swiss-German agreement, synopsis, 
363, 364 
Great Lakes, safety promotion by radio on, agreement 
with Canada, instruments of ratification exchanged, 
952 
Inter-American treaty of reciprocal assistance (1947), 

purpose, addresses (Acheson, Bennett), 49, 207 
IBRD, IMF, Japan and Germany admitted to member- 
ship, articles of agreement signed, 330 
ILO and International Load Line (1930), conventions, 

Senate action in 82d Congress, 589 
Israel-German agreement on compensation to Jewish 
victims of Nazi persecution, statement (Acheson), 
448 
Japanese peace treaty (1951) : 
Address, statement (Allison), 102, 448 
Return of Allied property in Japan, provision for, 13 
Lend-lease agreement (1942), failure of U.S.S.R. to 
fulfill obligations under, exchange of notes, 819, 820 
Logistical support, U.S., payment of, with South Africa, 

signed, text, 105, 106 
Military assistance agreements : 
Dominican Republic, negotiations, 537 
Israel, concluded, 331 
Uruguay, signed, 53 
Military facilities in Azores, agreement with Portugal 

(1951), text, 14 
Multilateral conventions (Sugar, ILO, and Interna- 
tional Load Line, 1930), Senate action in 82d Con- 
gress, 589 
North Atlantic Treaty (1949) : 
Accession to, Greek-Turkish, cited in article (How- 
ard), 936 
Agreement in accordance with: U.S.-Portugal (1951), 

military facilities in Azores, text, 14 
Background, address (Draper), 436 
Protocol: approval by Senate, statement (Bruce), 
ratification, statement (Truman), 67, 220 
Paris reparation agreement (1946), distribution of 
German property in Switzerland under terms of, 
363 
Point 4 agreements signed with : Lebanon, Burma, Bra- 
zil, 62, 864, 950 
Prisoners of war, Geneva convention (1949) : 
Observance of, U.S. notes requesting Soviet good 
oflBces and Red Cross intercession with North Ko- 
rean and Chinese Communists for, 171, 172 
Repatriation provision, General Assembly resolution 

(1950), excerpt, 746 
Violation by Communists, statements on (Harrison, 
Acheson), 172, 602, 744 
Refugees : 
Escapees from Soviet-bloc countries, transport of, 
agreement with Provisional Intergovernmental 
Committee for Movement of Migrants from Europe, 
signed, 711 
Respect for rights, protocol of May 1949 signed by 
Israel, Arab States, and U.N. Conciliation Commis- 
sion for Palestine, text, 954 

Index, July lo December J 952 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Relations between Three Powers and Germany, ratifica- 
tion of convention, statement (Truman), 220 
Safety of life at sea, international convention for 

(1948), entry into force, 464, 619, 865, 1024 
Security treaties. Pacific area, testimony ( Dulles ) , 103, 

472 
Security treaty with Australia and New Zealand (1951), 
1st meeting of ANZUS Council established by : 
Announcements, statements, 110, 141, 219, 243, 284, 

471 
Communique, 244 
Senate action on treaties, report of 82d Congress, table, 

590 
Sugar convention (1937), protocols to, Senate action in 

82d Congress, 589 
Tariffs and Trade, General Agreement on (GATT, 
1947) : 
7th session of contracting parties, 582, 876 
Turkish-U.S. negotiations, address (McGhee), 565 
Telecommunications agreement (Bermuda), London re- 
vision (1949), modification discussed, 120, 236 
Tin, importation of, agreement with U.K. for U.S. re- 
sumption of, exchange of notes, 266 
Trade agreements with : 
Turkey, termination of reciprocal agreement (1939), 
proclamation and exchange of notes, 179, 268, 565 
Venezuela : 
Reciprocal (1939), negotiations for revision, 180, 

267 
Supplementary agreement signed, entry into force, 
text, proclamation, 400, 454, 487, 704, 734 
TV channels : 
Canada, allocation, exchange of notes, 180 
Mexico (1951), revision, 267 
Water treaty (1944), with Mexico, cited, 713 
Trieste, Free Territory of, Zone A, administration of, 
texts of parallel U.S.-U.K. notes and Soviet note, 521, 
522 
Trinidad, Georgetown (British Guiana), closing of con- 
sulate, transfer of consular district to Port-of-Spain, 
967 
Truman, Harry S. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Duty on dried figs increased, 337 
Filbert imports, rejection of quota limitation, 743 
Forced LaT)or in the Soviet Union, release of publica- 
tion, 477 
German parliamentary action on European Defense 
Community treaty and contractual agreements, 984 
Immigration and Naturalization Commission, estab- 
lishment, 407 
International Materials Policy Commission report, 54 
International relations, joint statement with General 

Eisenhower, 850 
North Atlantic Treaty, protocol to, ratification, 220 
Point 4 program, contribution to peace, 568 
Puerto Rican Constitution, approved by Congress, 91 
Relations between Three Powers and Germany, ratifi- 
cation of convention on, 220 
Supplemental Appropriation Act (19.53), 199 
U.S. participation in U.N., 123, 529 

1077 



Truman, Harry S. — Continued 
Correspondence : 

Captain Ewing, on repatriation of prisoners, 328 
Congressional committees, identic letters : 
Aid to Denmark, continuation of, 198 
Aid to Italy, continuation of, transmitting MSA 

report (Harriman), 75, 76 
Tariff Commission recommendations, rejection of, 
303, 305 
Council of Free Czechoslovakia, commemoration of 

Czechoslovak Independence Day, 732 
Gen. Eisenhower, invitation to meet at White House, 

771 
Iranian Prime Minister, Joint U.S.-U.K. proposal to 
submit oil problem to International Court of Jus- 
tice, 360 
Israel, Acting President, message of condolence on 

President's death, 824 
Israeli President, election, 984 
Paley, William S., International Materials Policy 

Commission report, 54 
President of Senate (Barkley) and Speaker of House 
(Rayburn), re International Materials Policy 
Commission report, 55 
Public Advisory Board for Mutual Security, survey 
of U.S. trade policies requested, 104 
Council of Economic Advisers, excerpts of Economic 

Review by, 227 
Economic Report to Congress, excerpts, 225 
Executive orders. See Executive orders. 
Export-Import Bank, semiannual report, 338 
Immigration and Naturalization, President's Commis- 
sion on, appointment of Executive Director (Rosen- 
field), 502 
King Faisal II of Iraq awarded Legion of Merit, 330 
Messages to Congress : 

Immigration and Nationality Act, veto, 78 
Trade agreement with Venezuela, supplementary, 401 
Mutual Security Program, Second Report on, letter of 

transmittal to Congress, 900 
Proclamations, gee Proclamations. 
Report of U.S. Special Representative in Europe 
(Draper), text and White House announcement, 
353, 354 
U.S. participation in U.N., letter of transmittal of an- 
nua! report to Congress, 121 
Truman Doctrine, cited, 169, 564 
Trust territories : 

Ewe and Togoland, Trusteeship Council reports on, 882, 

926, 966 
Non-self-governing territories. See Non-self-governing 

territories. 
Pacific Islands: 

U.N. mission b) visit, 882 

U.S. administration of, denial of Communist charges 
against, statement (Roosevelt), 1033 
Participation of native inhabitants in work of Trustee- 
ship Council, U.N. proceedings on, 1001 
Tanganyika, problem of resettlement of Wa-Meru peo- 
ple, U.S. attitude, 965 
Trusteeship Council: 

Election of members, 761 



Trusteeship Council — Continued 
11th session, proceedings, 882, 966 
Ewe and Togoland, problem of unification, reports on 

882, 926, 966 
Participation of indigenous inhabitants in work of, 

U.N. proceedings on, 1001 
Report of Council, U.N. proceedings on, 925 
Tanganyika, resolution on resettlement of Wa-Meru ' 

people, U.S. attitude, 965 
U.S. representative: resignation (Sayre) ; nomination 

(Muccio), 301 
Trypanosomiasis Research, International Scientific Com- 
mittee for, U.S. obsei-ver, 464 
Tsiang, Dr. T. F., representative of Republic of China 

in U.N., statement on Soviet challenge to seating as 

president of Security Council, 800 
Tungsten and molybdenum, International Materials Con- 
ference allocation of, 117, 548 
Tunisian question : 
French attitude, 839 

General Assembly resolution adopted, 1044, 1045 
Secretary's meeting with French Foreign Minister, 771 
U.S. attitude, 897, 964, 986, 1000 
Turkey : 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, entry into, and 

Turkish reply to Soviet notes of protest, 936, 937n 
Relations with U.S., addresses (McGhee, Byroade), 564, 

729 
Road-building program in, MSA grant for extension, 

490 
Seyhan River project. World Bank loan for, 15 
Trade agreement (1939), reciprocal, termination, text 

of proclamation, exchange of notes, 179, 268 
Treaties, Turkish-American, cited in address (McGhee), 

565 
TV channels, agreements with : 

Canada, allocation, exchange of notes, 180 
Mexico (1951), revision, 267 

Underdeveloped areas : 

Cotton yields in, discussion by International Cotton 

Advisory Committee, article (Wall), 186 
Financing of economic development. U.N. proceedings, 

39, 73, 387, 779, 803, 871, 880, 925, 964 
Social situation, report of U.N. Secretary-General, re- 
views (Kotschnig, Lubin), 143, 482 
U.S. policy in, addresses (Thorp, Harriman, Lubin), 
175, 361, 871; article (Kernohan), 373 
UNESCO. See United Nations Educational, Scientific 

and Cultural Organization. 
UNICEF. See United Nations International Children's 

Emergency Fund. 
Unified Command. See U.N. Command under Korea. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: 

Aggression, question of definition in U.N., 882. 925, 966 
Ambassador to U.S. (Zarubin), credentials, 5L5 
Amerika, U.S. suspension of publication, texts of U.S. 
note and Soviet note of reply, remarks (Compton), 
127, 263 
Anti-Soviet characteristic of U.S. policy toward, article 

(C. B. Marshall), 807 
Attack on American plane near Yuri Island, exchange 
of notes (U.S.S.R. and U.S.), 649, 650 



1078 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics — Continued 
Attitude toward : 

Dependent peoples, 573 
Disarmament, 480, 876 

German elections, proposals re commission to investi- 
gate, 93, 518 
Human riglits, U.N. Commission on, draft covenants, 

21 
Kaslimir dispute, 665 

Korean armistice negotiations, proposals for U.N. 
commission for settlement : Polish proposal, 634 ; 
Soviet proposal, 761 
Underdeveloped countries, development of, 803 
U.N. membership applications, 504 
Austrian state treaty negotiations, noncooperation : 
Address (Jessup), statement (Acheson), 512, 570 
Soviet note rejecting draft treaty, test, 284, 322 
Chinese-Soviet treaty (1950), supplementary agree- 
ment, remarks (Acheson), 476 
Cbuikov, General, correspondence vpith U.S. officials, 

314, 315, 320, 862 
Exports to Soviet bloc, free-world restrictions on, 652 
Forced labor in : 

U.S. Information Service report on, excerpts, and 

statement (Truman), 428, 477 
U.S. presentation of evidence to U.N., 70, 821 
Foreign diplomats (U.S.), Soviet mistreatment of, state- 
ment (Green), 786 
Geneva convention (1949) : 

Communist violation of, statement (Harrison), 602 
U.S. note requesting Soviet Kood otHces and Red 
Cross intercession with North Korean and Chinese 
Communists for observance of, 171, 172 
Geneva protocol (1925), Soviet reservations to, state- 
ments (Gross), 33, 36 
Germany, harassment campaign in : 

Charges against West Berlin organizations, 861 
Detention of U.S. Army officer by East Berlin au- 
thorities, 907, 908 
Firing on French aircraft, 311, 312, 313, 318 
Interference with allied patrol of Berlin-Marienborn 

Autobahn, 312, 313, 314, 318, 320 
Kidnapping of Dr. Linse from American sector of 

Berlin, 320, 823 
Restrictions on access to Western zones of Berlin, 

313, 315, 318 
Restrictions on interzonal communications between 
East and West Germany, 319 
Information, freedom of, Soviet draft resolution on, 

underlying objectives, address (Sprague), 920 
Land reform, Soviet system, statement (Lubiu), 993 
Lend-lease settlement, status of, text of Soviet note, 

820 
Moscow Congress, Soviet strategy formulated at, ad- 
dress (Fred L. Anderson), 813 
Press, contrast with American, statements (Kotsehnig, 

Sprague), 109, 920 
Prisoners of war. See Prisoners of war. 
Propaganda program, description of, comparison with 
Campaign of Truth, addresses (Acheson, Harris), 424, 
978, 979 



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics — Continued 

Reaction to free-world progress : 

Negotiations, review of, address (Jessup), 511 
Plan of action, address (Draper), 652 
Policy revision, address (Acheson), 5596 

Bight of Chinese representative to presidency of Se- 
curity Council, challenge by, 800 

Soviet charges re : 
Administration of Zone A, Free Territory of Trieste, 
text of Soviet note, 522; U.S. note of reply, 521 
Alleged detention of Soviet children in Germany, 

U.S. refutation of charges, 924 
Press (U.S.), denial of charges, statement (Sprague), 

792 
West Berlin organizations, rejection by U.S., U.K., 
France of charges, exchange of letters (Donnelly, 
Chuikov), 861, 862 

Soviet Communist Party Congress, challenge to free 
world, 849 

Standard of living, comparison with U.S., statement 
(Kotsehnig), 145, 149, 151 

Theater, under Soviet control, address (Donnelly), 543 

Trade-unions in, address (Acheson), 423 

Underdeveloped areas, Soviet policy in, address (Lubin), 
875 

U.N. membership, U.S. views re Soviet resolution on 
admissions to, statement (Austin), 412 

U.S. Ambassador (Kennan), recall requested, Soviet 
note. Secretary's statement, U.S. note, and corre- 
spondence with Senator Knowland, 557, 603 

U.S. property seized by, text of U.S. note requesting re- 
turn, 981 
United Kingdom : 

Administration of Zone A, Free Territory of Trieste, 
texts of U.S.-U.IC. parallel notes and Soviet note, 
521, 522 

Ambassador to U.S. (Franks), departure, statement 
(Acheson), 603 

Anglo-American Council on Productivity, final report 
released, 285 

Anti-inflationary measures, 397 

Balance-of-payuients developments, 393, 395 

Conference on American Studies, sponsored by U.S. 
Educational Commission in, 196 

Disarmament, supplement to tripartite proposal for 
ceilings on armed forces, text, 292 

Egyptian controversy, U.S. position, article (Howard) 
and address (Byroade), 895, 933 

German elections, proposals re commission to investi- 
gate conditions : texts of identic notes (U.S., U.K., and 
France), 92, 517; statement (Acheson), 516; Soviet 
notes, 93, 518 

Iranian oil dispute. See Iranian oil dispute. 

Kashmir dispute. See Kashmir, demilitarization of. 

Korean question, Soviet-proposed commission for settle- 
ment, British attitude toward, 762 

Marshall scholarships for American students at British 
universities, 267 

Ministers of Defence and State, visit to U.S., text of 
communique, 6 

Mutual Security Agency allotments, 486 



index, July to December 7952 



1079 



United Kinjidom — Continued 

Occupation of Berlin, Soviet violation of agreements 
on, texts of tripartite letters (U.S., U.K., France) to 
Berlin representative of Soviet Control Commission, 
313, 315 
Soviet charges against West Berlin organizations and 
rejection by U.S., U.K., and France, exchange of letters 
(ChuilEov, Donnelly), S61 
Soviet firing on French aircraft, letters of protest to 

Gen. Chuikov, 311, 312, 313, 318 
Tanganyilia, Trusteeship Council resolution re resettle- 
ment of Wa-Meru tribe, U.S. attitude, 965 
Teacher-exchange program, address (Phillips), 324 
Treaties and agreements : 

Austrian state treaty draft, Soviet rejection: U.S. 
notes and similar British and French notes to 
U.S.S.R., 284, 404; statement (Acheson), 283; 
DeiJartment critique, 321 ; additional articles to 
draft treaty, 405 
Consular convention with U.S., entry into force, 489 
Relations between Three Powers and Germany, ratifi- 
cation, statement (Truman), 220 
Swiss-Allied agreement re German property in 

Switzerland, text and summary, 363, 364 
Telecommunications, conference for renegotiation of 
rates established by Bermuda and London agree- 
ments (1945. 1949), 120, 236 
Tin, agreement with U.S. on U.S. importation, ex- 
change of notes, 266 
Yugoslavia, continuation of economic aid to, tripartite 
agreement (U.K., U.S., France) with Yugoslavia, 
825 
U.N. staff appointment. 802 

U.S. failure to inform British of bombing of power 
plants in North Korea, statements (Acheson, Bruce), 
60 
U.S. Secretary of State, visit, statements (Acheson), 6, 
132 
United Nations : 

Africa, South-West, ad hoc committee on, proceedings, 

551 
Agencies, specialized. See specific agencies. 
Austrian state treaty, text of Austrian memorandum 

requesting U.N. support of, 221 
Budgetary questions (1953) : 
Appropriations, 803, SSI 
U.S. assessment, 842, 998 
Charter obligations, address (Acheson), 639 
Collective security system, statement (Austin), and 

text of U.S. memorandum, 411, 412 
Disarmament proceedings. See Disarmament Commis- 
sion, proceedings. 
Documents listed, 18, 301, 465, 503, 716, 760, 927 
Economic and Social Council. iSee Economic and Social 

Council. 
General Assembly. See General Assembly. 
International Court of Justice. See International 

Court. 
Korea. See Korea. 
Membership applications, statements on : 

Japan (Austin), 504, 526, 527; (Murphy), 524 
Libya (Austin), 502 



United Nations — Continued 
Membership applications, statements on — Continued 
Soviet draft resolution on admissions (Austin), 412" 
Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia (Austin), 504 
Palestine Conciliation Commission. See Palestine 

Conciliation Commission. 
Prisoner-of-war question. See Prisoners of war. 
Secretariat stafiC appointment policy: 
Commission of international jurists, advisory group 

for study of problem, appointment of, 802 
State Department viewpoint, 735, 967 I 

Statement by Secretary-General, 998 ■ 

U.S. employees of Secretariat, status of, statement 
(Hickerson), 1026 ■ 

Secretary-General, letter of resignation, text, 839 | 

Security Council. See Security Council. 
Soviet nonparticipation in U.N. welfare organizations, 

significance (Kotschnig), 152 
Technical a.ssistance program, U.S. and U.N. agencies 

participation in, 369, 480, 774, 841 
Territorial government, ad hoc committee for study of, 

1st meeting, U.S. delegation, 459 
Trusteeship Council. See Trusteeship Council. 
U.S. participation in. President's message to Congress 

and statements (Truman, Acheson), 121, 123, 529 
World social situation, Secretary-General's report, re- 
views of (KoLschnig, Lubin), 142, 482 
United Nations Command Operations in Korea. See 

Korea. 
United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan: 
Kashmir dispute. See Kashmir, demilitarization of. 
Reports to Security Council, 661 
Resolutions (1948, 1949), 661, 663, 666 
United Nations Commission of International Jurists, ad- 
visory group for study of Secretariat staff appoint- 
ment policy: selection of jurists, 802; statements 
(Lie, Hickerson), 998, 1028 
United Nations Commission to Investigate Conditions for 
Free Elections in Germany, adjournment and text of 
report with covering letter, 245, 29S, 506 
United Nations Day, addresses on (Acheson, Sargeant), 

529, 698 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization (UNESCO) : 
Addresses on : Mesta, 742 ; Sargeant, 701, 775, 831, 853 
Conferences, U.S. delegations to: 

International Conference of Artists, 457 
International Seminar on Role of Museimis in Educa- 
tion, 455, 461 
Seventh conference of UNESCO, &36 
Universal Copyright Convention, conference on, 293 
United Nations Good Office.s Commission, draft resolution 

for establishment, text, proceedings, 802, 835, 840 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees : 
Election of, 261 

Second annual report, review, 1001 
Soviet charges against Office of, denial, 881 
United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund 
(UNICEF) : 
Executive Board, U.S. representative: resignation (Len- 
root), and appointment (Eliot), 619 



1080 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund 
( UNICEF ) —Continued 
Extension of programs, U.S. attitude, statement 

(Kotschnlg), 376 
U.N. appeal for contributions, recommendation In Gen- 
eral Assembly, 1001 
U.N. technical assistance program, participation In, 371 
U.S. contribution, 237, 377, 945 
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 
Refugees in the Near East (UNTIWA), continuation 
of General Assembly program : 
Budget resolution (Nov. 6), text, adoption, article 

(Howard), 756, 761, 896 
Statement (Jessup), 755 
United States Bureau of Public Roads, role in Philippine 

highway rehabilitation, 60 
United States Educational Commission In United King- 
dom, sponsor of conference on American studies, 196 
United States foreign policy concept, evolution of, article 

(MarshaU), 767, 807 
United States High Commissioner for Germany. ,8ee 

Donnelly ; McCloy. 
Uclted States High Commissioner for Germany, Office of, 
appointment of science advi.sers (Greulioh, Arnold), 
302 
United States Information Service (USIS), report on 

Soviet forced labor, excerpts, 428 
United States Special Representative in Europe. See 

Draper. 
United States-Brazil Joint Commission for Economic 
Development : 
Appointment of U.S. member (Bohan), 368 
Statements re establishment and progress (Acheson, 
Bennett, Miller), 48, 210, 705 
Uruguay : 
Draft resolutions sponsored in U.N. : 

Famine relief, text, statement (Lubin), 111. 113 
Nationalization of wealth and resources, U.N. proceed- 
ings, statement (Lubin), 1000 
Military-assistance agreement with U.S., signed, 53 

Venezuela : 

Oil production, 210, 704, 734 

Trade agreement with U.S., supplementing 1939 agree- 
ment: negotiations, 180, 267; signature, 400; entry 
into force, date announced, 454; tests' of agreement 
and proclamation, 487; signi0cance, 704, 734 
Vessels : 

Courier, VOA floating transmitter, departure for 

Rhodes, inauguration of relay activities, 182, 466 
Curtailment of movements to Antarctica, 900 
General Taylor, transiMrtation of refugees, 261 
Korean, suspension of tonnage duties, text of proclama- 
tion, 713 
Lend-lease settlement with U.S.S.R., status of, exchange 
of notes with U.S.S.R., 819, 820 
Vietnam : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Tran Van Kha), credentials, 53 
U.N. membership application, U.S. attitude, 504 
U.S. Ambassador (Heath), confirmation, 43 
Virgin Islands, Government House furnishings, gift from 
Denmark, 268 



Voice of America (VOA) : 
Activities of, address (Harris), 978 
Appointment of Alfred H. Morton as Head, 507 
Broadcast by Rumanian escapee (Calcai) exposing 

Communist propaganda, 563 
Courier, floating transmitter, departure for Rhodes, 

inauguration of relay activities, 182, 466 
Crusade of ideas against Communist campaign of hate, 

significance of role in, address (Compton), 344 
Religion, role In field of, article (Lyons), 727 

Wadsworth, Frank H., report on 4th session of Latin 
American Forestry Commission of FAG, 492 

Wadsworth, George, appointment as U.S. Ambassador 
to Czechoslovakia, 635 

Wall, Eulalia L, article on 11th meeting of International 
Cotton Advisory Committee, 185 

War Criminals, Board of Clemency and Parole for, estab- 
lishment, text of Executive Order 10393, activities, 
408, 409, 659 

Ward, Angus, confirmation as U.S. Ambassador to 
Afghanistan, 43 

Warren, George L., Adviser on Refugees and Displaced 
Persons : 
Article on escapee program, 261 
Report on 3d session of PICMME, 107 

Washington, Declaration of (1951), unanimous adoption 
cited in address (Acheson), 51 

Washington accord (1946), provisions for total liquida- 
tion of German assets in Switzerland made ineffec- 
tive by Swiss-German agreement (1952), 363 

Water treaty (1944), with Mexico, cited, 713 

Weizmann, Chaim (President of Israel), death, 824 

West Indian Conference, 5th session, 961 

Wheat, U.S., Export-Import Bank loan to Pakistan for 
purchase of, 490 

Wheat Council, International, 10th session, U.S. delega- 
tion, 119 

Wiesman, Bernard, address on international labor co- 
operation, 827 

Wiley, Senator Alexander, statement on U.S. contribution 
to U.N., 842 

Will, Ralph R., designation in TCA, 909 

Willard, Clarke L., designation in State Department, 507 

Women, Inter-American Commission of, 8th general as- 
sembly, U.S. delegation, 197 

Women, political rights of, draft resolution, U.N. pro- 
ceedings on, 1046 

Woodward, Robert F., designation in State Department, 
198 

Wool Study Group, International, 5th meeting, U.S. dele- 
gate, 838 

World Bank. See International Bank for Reconstruction 
and Development. 

World economy, role of U.S. farmer in, address (An- 
drews), 708 

World Federation of Trade Unions, Soviet dominated, 
failure to attain U.N. status, 828 

World Health Organization (WHO) : 
Fight against disease, addresses (Sargeant), 700, 774 
Programs in India, Egypt, Pakistan, Turkey, 371, 945 
Regional Committee, 4th meeting, U.S. delegation, 462 



Index, July to December 1952 



1081 



World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 3d session Yugoslavia: 

of Executive Committee, U.S. delegation, 460 Currency convertibility guaranties, available under 

World social situation, report of U.N. Secretary-General, agreement with U.S., 287 

reviews (Kotschnig,Lubin), 142, 161, 482 Economic aid to, continuation, under agreement with 

Wright, Almon R., article on defense-site negotiations U.S., U.K., and France, article (Colbert), and back- 

with Panama, 212 ground summary, 825, 826 

Yugoslavia: Titoism and U.S. Foreign Policy, released, 

Yalta Conference, cited (Boblen), 169 826 
Young, Kenneth T., appointment as Director of Bureau 

of Far Eastern Affairs, 42 Zarubin, Georgi N., Soviet Ambassador, credentials, 515 



Department of State publication 4927 
Released October 1953 

DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS 

0. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1953 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Price 20 cents. 
1082 Depatimsnf of Sfafe BuUeiin 



^^?>5^.|AB0 



tJrie/ ^eho/ylTyienl/ ^ C/taie^ 




oL'XXVII, No. 680 
July 7, 1952 



.VtC^NT Ofr 




^■ATEa o* 




LAYING THE CORNERSTONE OF THE AMERICAN 
MEMORIAL LIBRARY AT BERLIN • Remarks by 

Secretary Acheson 3 

WELLSPRINGS OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY • by 

Francis H. Russell .............. 7 

U.S. PROPOSES INVESTIGATION OF BACTERIO- 

LOGI^CALIWARFARE CHARGES • Statements by 
Ernest A, Gross ^ .'^ .............. 32 

TWO COVENANTS OF HUMAN RIGHTS BEING 

DRAFTED • Article by James Simsarian 20 



For index see back cover 




M 



'le 



z!/^€fia/j(tin€^ ^£^ t/ial^ 



bulletin 

Vol. XXVrr, No. 680 • Publication 4654 
July 7, 19S2 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price; 

52 issues, domestic $7.50, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of tbe 
Bureau of the Budget (January 22, 1952). 
Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
selected press releases on foreign pol- 
icy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as ivell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a parly and treaties of gen- 
eral internatioTuil interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

AUG 1 1952 
Laying the Cornerstone of the American Memorial Library at Berlin 

Remarks l>y Secretary Acheson 



On June 29 Secretary Acheson spoke at corner- 
stone-laying ceremonies at the site of the American 
Memorial Library at Berlin. The previous eve- 
ning he attended a dinner given hy Mayor Ernst 
Renter of Berlin and presented to his host a vol- 
ume for the library. Following are texts of his 
remarks on the two occasions. 



A TOKEN OF SPIRITUAL FELLOWSHIP 

[Released to the press June 28] 

We will witness tomorrow the ceremonial lay- 
ing of the cornerstone of the American Memorial 
LiLrary, a monument to the fellowship of the 
American people and the people of Berlin. In 
connection with this ceremony, I would like to 
present to you, Mr. Mayor, a token of spiritual 
fellowship a century old. This is a volume which 
contains copies of more than 50 letters exchanged 
between Carl Schurz, a liberal of German birth, 
and President Abraham Lincoln. These letters 
were written before and during the Civil War 
period and deal with philosophical and political 
problems as well as with strictly military ones. 
This book is the only one of its kind. It has been 
prepared for this occasion by the Library of Con- 
gress, which I understand has agreed to enter into 
a cordial working relationship with the American 
Memorial Library. 

The year 1952 is the one hundredth anniversary 
of Carl Schurz' immigration to the United States. 
I am sure you are familiar with his extraordinary 
career in the United States. He rose from the 
ranks of local politics, and became later Minister 
of the LTnited States to Spain, Brigadier General 
of Volunteers in the Army of the Potomac, U.S. 
Senator from Missouri, and Secretary of the 
Interior in the Cabinet of President Hayes. Many 
of our foreign-born citizens have attained great 
stature and national fame in the United States. 
But few have reached a position of such eminence 
as Carl Schurz. There are many good reasons 
for this. Schurz was a brilliant man, and gifted 
orator, writer, politician, and statesman. What 
is more, he was a fighting liberal, a man inspired 



by deep humanitarian principles and devoted to 
the democratic concept that all men are created 
equal. It was the fine heritage of 1848 which he 
defended all his life and which endeared him to 
the American people and to Abraham Lincoln. 
During the Presidential campaign of 1860, 
Lincoln wrote Schurz: "To the extent of our 
limited acquaintance, no man stands nearer my 
heart than yourself." 

This correspondence between Lincoln and 
Schurz brings out a number of differences of 
opinion regarding military affairs, and this dem- 
ocratic give and take is in itself interesting. It 
also shows a remarkable similarity of views in 
such fundamental matters as the abolition of 
slavery, the necessity for the preservation of the 
Union, and the adoption of a liberal policy for the 
postwar reconstruction of the South and its inte- 
gration into the Union. 

I am happy to make this contribution to the 
contents of the American Memorial Library. 
May the ideals of Carl Schurz and Abraham 
Lincoln inspire and guide the defenders of free- 
dom, in Berlin as in America. 



"FREEDOM TO LEARN, TO STUDY, TO SEEK THE 
TRUTH" 

[Released to the press June 29] 

Today we are laying the cornerstone of the 
American Memorial Library. It is to be open to 
all who desire to enter and learn what men of all 
nations and all beliefs have thought and written. 

When Mr. McCIoy ^ suggested to me last month 
that I might like to come to Berlin and take part 
in the dedication of this bulding, the suggestion 
appealed to me immediately. I have been anxious 
to return to Berlin and to see and feel again, as 
I did in 1940, the great courage and vitality that 
make the people of this city a source of inspiration 
in this sorely tired world. 

At the same time this honor rightly belonged 
to Mr. McCloy. For we are dedicating this li- 



' John J. McCloy, U.S. High Commissioner for Germany. 



July 7, 1952 



3 



brary today because Mr. McCloy, 2% years ago, 
had the idea of erecting a practical and enduring 
memorial to serve as a constant reminder of the 
spirit of cooperation and mutual respect which 
has characterized the relationships between Amer- 
icans and Berliners in recent years. Berlin 
needed many things and Mr. McCloy hoped that 
the memorial would contribute to the enriclmient 
of the lives of all Berliners, East and West. 

With this guiding principle in mind, a group 
of Americans and prominent Germans met to dis- 
cuss possibilities. Many suggestions were pre- 
sented but the one whicli received overwhelming 
support was for a public library. 

They chose well. For it is not only a building 
which we are dedicating today but a symbol of 
our common cause and of our joint undertakings. 
More important, perhaps, it signified the fact that 
the freedom we seek to promote is ultimately a 
very simple, very unpretentious, and very personal 
affair. It is freedom to learn, to study, to seek 
the truth. This is the essence of a free society. 
This is the source of our greatest strength. 

Our American forefathers early recognized the 
close connections between knowledge, truth, and 
freedom. They recognized that the intellectual 
and spiritual inheritance of any generation must 
be acquired by that generation. Concrete things, 
such as land and wealth, can be inlierited from the 
preceding generation. But the only way really 
to receive an intellectual and spiritual inheritance 
is to relearn it, to reacquire it. AVe know that it 
is possible for a single generation to lose the most 
important elements of the culture that has been 
handed down to it. 

This was something which the pioneers who 
came to our country understood and with which 
they wei'e deeply concerned. Even as our fore- 
fathers cut the trees down and protected them- 
selves against attack, they saw how quickly their 
own heritage would be lost unless something earn- 
est and drastic was done. Beginning in those 
early years and continuing throughout the his- 
tory of American migration across the wide con- 
tinent, it was of primary and not secondary im- 
portance to provide schools, colleges, meeting 
houses, and libraries at each new outpost. And 
with its roots in those early heroic efforts, these 
institutions have kept alive, and expanding, and 
available to all who earnestly seek it our rich 
inheritance. 

We are indebted to the Old World for the basis 
of our cultural heritage, but we have extended 
the frontiers of knowledge to the common man. 
Knowledge in our eyes is not the privilege of the 
expert or of the mighty; it is the property of 
everyone who strives earnestly to attain it. 

In America, the public library symbolizes tliis 
philosophy. It is for these reasons that I feel it 
is particularly appropriate than an American me- 
morial should take the form of a public library. 



Tribute to German Culture 

The memorial library is also a tribute to Berlin's 
cultural heritage which has been generously 
shared with us. We remember that our own cul- 
tural heritage owes much to Germany and to 
Berlin. We have benefited greatly from your 
academies and your learned men. The fame and 
influence of Berlin's academies of science and of 
the arts, its university, its theaters, its music, and 
its great publishing trade, have been deeply felt 
in America. Not only the youth of Germany but 
the young men and women from all over Europe 
and from the United States came to Berlin to re- 
ceive their training in your educational institu- 
tions and in turn to carry the messages of the 
Humboldts, of Virchow, and Mommsen all over 
the world. The wealth of creative activity which 
characterized the life of Germany and of Berlin 
in the early part of the century, and particularly 
in the twenties, continues to exert influence around 
the world. 

Two thousand years ago it was written : "and 
ye shall know the truth and the truth shall make 
you free." Today, as then, truth and freedom 
are inseparably joined. Tyrants may seek to 
throw up barricades against the truth. But truth 
will prevail and with it freedom. 

There are nations today who seem to be deathly 
afraid of this freedom. Free access to knowl- 
edge, open shelves, unchecked selection of books — 
all this is anathema to them. They have placed 
their books under lock and key ; they ban the writ- 
ten and spoken word when it originates with un- 
controlled sources. They punish severely those 
who seek the truth wherever it may be found. 

Nothing can point up in more telling fashion 
the nature of the conflict which divides our world 
today than this : where others retire behind barbed 
wire, we open wide the doors to knowledge so that 
the truth may guide us. 

The American Memorial Library will remind 
future generations of the spirit of fellowship 
which the people of America and the people of 
Berlin have demonstrated in maintaining jointly 
the freedom of the city. We Americans have al- 
ways felt a deep kinsliip with those who are 
staunch in the defense of their liberty. Genera- 
tions of early Americans, in the face of almost con- 
stant danger, never waivered in their determina- 
tion to defend their liberty, if need be, with their 
bare hands. The Freedom Bell which tolls from 
your city hall in Schonberg and our Liberty Bell 
in Philadelphia are symbols of this determination. 

This memorial declares the sympathy and re- 
spect of the American people for the unfaltering 
struggle of the people of Berlin under the inspiring 
and confident leadership of Mayor Ernst Renter 
to defend their liberties in the face of the threats 
and intimidation of a system which makes denial 
of free thought a primary tenet. 

While wo honor those who are engaged in the 



Department of State Bulletin 



defense of their freedom, we never forget those 
other Germans who have been deprived of their 
hberty. With those Germans of the Soviet zone, 
who despite all threats and hardships have kept 
burning in their hearts the flame of libei'ty, truth, 
and the rule of law, we look forward eagerly to 
that day when they may rejoin the free world in a 
Germany united in peace and honor. In the 
meantime, through their courage and steadfast- 
ness they are aiding in the restoration of German 
unity and freedom. To these people and to us, 
Berlin remains a symbol of the goal of German 
unity. 

A few weeks ago, as you know, the Government 
of the United States, together with the Govern- 
ments of France and Great Britain, concluded a 
very important agreement with the Government 
of the Federal Republic. For all practical pur- 
poses, this agreement will give the Federal Re- 
public the powers of self-government and the sta- 
tus of equality in international relations, which 
are the prerogatives of free nations. 

The agreement does not apply to Berlin, al- 
though Berlin will benefit indirectly from the new 
arrangements. It is our intent that the people of 
Berlin enjoy to the fullest extent possible the 
rights and privileges enjoyed by free men every- 
where. 

The responsibility for such restrictions as re- 
main rests squarely on those who do not wish to 
recognize the rights of all Germans, East and 
West, of free elections, to live in freedom under 
one goverimient and one constitution. The re- 
sponsibility must rest with those who do not wish 
to acknowledge the great progress made in Western 
Germany toward political sovereignty and pros- 
perity and who wish to turn back the clock on this 
progress. The responsibility must rest with those 
who feel that they can serve their own ends only 
by keeping the rest of the world in a state of 
intimidation or servitude. They shall not succeed. 

Continued U.S. Support for Berlin 

Whatever the political or legal status of Berlin 
is to be for the time being, it will affect in no way 
United States support for the welfare of the city 
and the safety of its citizens. We have joined 
the Governments of France and Great Britain in 
reaffirming our abiding interest in the protection 
of Berlin. We have given notice, in plain and 
unmistakable language, that we are in Berlin as 
a matter of right and of duty, and we shall remain 
in Berlin until we are satisfied that the freedom 
of this city is secure. We have also indicated in 
unmistakable terms that we shall regard any at- 
tack on Berlin from whatever quai'ter as an attack 
against our forces and ourselves. 

I mention another memorial in Berlin which 
Berliners themselves have dedicated. It is the 
memorial to those valiant men. Allied and Ger- 



The American Memorial Library 
at Berlin, Germany 

[Released to the press June 28] 

The American Memorial Library, Berlin, is a gift 
of the American people to the citizens of Berlin to 
commemorate the end of the period of Occupation 
by the American Armed Forces. John J. McCloy, 
U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, looking for- 
ward in 1950 to the end of the Occupation period, 
expressed his desire that this memorial should take 
some cultural form expressing the American way of 
life, which would be most acceptable to the citizens 
of Berlin. Among the suggestions made at the time 
were an opera house, a museum, a concert hall, and 
a library. A committee of leading citizens of Berlin 
met and expressed their preference for a library. 
The Office of the United States High Commissioner 
for Germany then set aside the sum of 5,000,000 
DM fiom counterpart funds derived from the Mar- 
shall Plan, 4,000,000 of which were to defray the 
costs of the building and 1,000,000 for books and 
periodicals. Mr. McCloy said at the time the grant 
was made on Augiist 17, 10.51 : 

"It is not only money but something tangibly 
good. I hope it attains the objective we have in 
mind — to help restore this great city to the status it 
once had and to continue its reconstruction as a 
symbol of freedom to the whole world." 

In aceeijting the grant Dr. Walter Schrieber, the 
Acting Mayor of Berlin, replied : 

"We are especially grateful that this grant will 
be used for a library, because we have suffered not 
only great physical damage, but also great spiritual 
damage. This gift will not only help us in our 
general cultural life, but will aid us in the education 
of our youth to enable them to play their part in the 
establishment of a free world." 

Approximately 200 German architects living in 
Berlin and in the Western zones of the German 
Republic took part in the democratic architectual 
competition which followed. While prizes were 
given to the best designs by a jury including Ger- 
mans and Americans, the final design for the 
building which is now being erected was derived 
from the best features of the four most outstanding 
designs submitted. The 6-story structure wiU be 
525 feet in length and the library 250 feet wide at 
its greatest depth with a book capacity for approxi- 
mately one million volumes. The interior will re- 
flect American library practice with the open-shelf 
system predominating, thus making the books and 
periodicals readily available to the German public. 

Plans are being made so that the contents will not 
duplicate the holdings of existing scientific and 
technical libraries in Berlin, nor the new library of 
the Free University of Berlin which the Ford Foun- 
dation has recently presented. It is planned, how- 
ever, to establish a central catalog in the library 
in which the titles of the books in the other libraries 
in the Western sector of Berlin will be listed. Like 
the public libraries in our American cities, it will 
contain books primarily useful to the ordinary 
citizen, whether he be a musician, journalist, 
teacher, laborer, or public servant. Provision has 
also been made for a music room and a children's 
library. In general it will reflect the fundamental 
American principle that access to truth and knowl- 
edge is not only the privilege but the inherent and 
inalienable right of the citizen. 



Ju/y 7, J 952 



man, who gave their lives during the airlift so 
that tliis bastion of freedom might survive. 

One of the significant details about the aii-lift 
which has gone almost unnoticed is the fact that 
it brought to Berlin, along with food and other 
essential goods, approximately 4,000 technical vol- 
umes donated by ximerican universities and insti- 
tutions designed to assist in the establishment of 
the library of the free university. In addition, 
it brought to Berlin an average of 60 tons of paper 
weekly for use in producing books and periodicals 
and at the gravest period of the airlift 210 tons 
of newsprint weekly to permit the continued pub- 
lication of Berlin's free press. This was a power- 
ful demonstration of the understanding that 
learning and truth are part of the very breath of 
life in a free society. 

This is the spirit inherited and carried forward 
by the institution we are here to dedicate. The 
airlift memorial is a monument to the dead; this 
building will be a monument to the living. Both 
monuments are symbols of freedom. 

It is mj' hope that the doors of this libraiy will 
never be closed to those who earnestly seek the 
truth, and that it may serve, as far as possible, the 
entire population of Berlin, both East and West, 
and that everj' citizen may find here the knowl- 
edge and truth which are so basic to our freedom. 

I should like to leave with you words spoken by 
Thomas Jefferson in connection with the found- 
ing of the University of Virginia. Jefferson said : 

This institution will be based on the illimitable freedom 
of the humnn mind. For here, we are not afraid to fol- 
low the truth wherever it may lead, nor to tolerate error 
so long as reason is left free to combat It. 



Secretary Acheson Departs 
for Europe and Brazil 

Statement hy the Secretary ^ 

As you know I am making a very quick trip to 
London, to Berlin and Vienna, and from there 
to Brazil. In England I shall be discussing a 
number of things with Mr. Eden and with the 
French Foreign Minister. I am also going to 
Oxford where an honorary degree is being con- 
ferred on me. 

At ]\Ir. McCloy's suggestion, I shall spend a day 
in Berlin where a memorial library is being 
dedicated. This will give me an opportunity to 
pay tribute to the Berliners whose courage and 
tenacity in the face of great harassment has been 
admired by everyone in the free world. 

From tliere I am going to Vienna at the invita- 
tion of the Austrian Government where another 



'Made :it the W.ishington National Airport on June 22 
and released to the press on the same date. 



brave and determined people have been patiently 
waiting for the independence promised them in 
1943. 

Foreign Minister Neves de Fontoura's invita- 
tion for me to visit Brazil on the return trip will 
afford me an opportunity to see for the first time 
the great sister Republic which has such long and 
firmly established ties of cooperation and good 
will with the United States. My only regret is 
that I cannot on this occasion visit the other repub- 
lics of this hemisphere as well. 



Visit of British Ministers 
of Defence and State 

Text of Comviunique 
[Released to the pi'ess June 2^] 

Field Marshal Lord Alexander of Tunis, the 
British ?iTinister of Defence, and Mr. Selwyn 
Lloyd, the Minister of State in the Foreign Office, 
spent Monday, June 23d in Washington in a series 
of informal meetings at the Department of Defense 
and the Department of State. The American 
representatives engaged in the discussions included 
Mr. Robert Lovett, Secretary of Defense, General 
Omar Bradley, Chairman of the. Joint Chiefs of 
Staff, and Mr. David Bi-uce, Acting Secretary of 
State. 

The British Ministers gave a description of 
their recent journey which included visits to Japan 
and Korea. During the journey Lord Alexander 
and Mr. Lloyd had had the opporttmity of con- 
ferring among others with General Mark Clark, 
Commander-in-Chief of the United Nations Com- 
mand for Korea; Mr. Robert Murphy, United 
States Ambassador to Japan ; General James Van 
Fleet, Commander of the Sth Army; General 
Naydon Boatner, Commanding Officer of the 
Prisoner of War Camp at Koje-do; and General 
A. J. H. Cassels, Commander of the Common- 
wealth Division of the United Nations Forces. 
The Minister of State also visited the United Na- 
tions Organizations in Pusan concerned with the 
rehabilitation of Korea. 

During the talks in Washington, the American 
and Britisli representatives discussed all aspects 
of the Korean campaign, including the prospects 
of bringing tlie armistice talks to a successful con- 
clusion and the importance to the United Nations 
cause of stable political conditions in the Republic 
of Korea. The conversations proved most useful 
to both sides. 

Lord A lexander and Mr. Lloyd concluded their 
visit with a call on the President of the United 
States at the White House this morning. They 
leave tonight by air for London. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Wellsprings of American Democracy 



hy Francis H. Russell 

Director of the Office of Puhlic Affairs ' 



Before telling you lohat I am going to talk 
about, I would like first to tell you why I am 
going to talk about it. 

First was something that hapjjened to one of 
our Point Four experts when he was on assign- 
ment in India to help increase the corn yield in 
that country. On the very first morning, in the 
middle of the discussion, one of the Indian farm- 
ers interrupted the talk on corn planting by de- 
manding of the expert: ""Wliat is your philos- 
ophy?"' That was not as peculiar as it sounds. 
Corn, and what we can do to help India grow 
more of it, is important to Indians, but even more 
important in their eyes is understanding "our 
philosophy." 

The second reason for the subject of my talk 
was something that happened to me personally. 
I took a trip a short while ago to some of the 
Nato countries. I found that more frequent than 
questions about our military strength or our 
economic production were questions designed to 
find out about the average American's attitude 
toward race relations. How do we square, for 
instance, the segregation we have here in the Na- 
tion's Capital with our Declaration of Independ- 
ence? You find this concern every wliere. And 
I found them genuinely interested in learning 
about the great progress we have made over the 
past hundred years — and are making today — in 
dealing with this whole broad problem. 

The third reason was an article that appeared 
a while back in one of our American periodicals. 
A Columbia University professor, writing in 
Foreign. Affairs, said: "The United States is 
facing [the present world crisis] with the . . . 
ideological equipment of 1775. . . . Our prin- 
cipal weakness today is not economic or military, 



'Address made before the 22d National 4-H Clubs 
Camp at Washington on June 24 and released to the 
press on the same date. 



but ideological — not a matter of goods or guns, 
but of ideas." 

A high-school teacher put it, I believe, even 
better in an article in the Saturday Evening Post. 
"It is a tragic commentary," she said, "that mil- 
lions of Americans would willingly die to save 
the Constitution but only a few of them will ever 
read it. I can refer my students," she said, "to 
authoritative sources on foreign isms, Marx and 
Engels' Communist Manifesto, Lenin's The State 
and Revolution . . . Hitler on National 
Socialism . . . but who or what is authentic 
on contemporary Americanism ?" "When we take 
an oath of allegiance," she said, "we should be able 
to explain the thing to which we give our 
allegiance." 

There are scores of editorials written every 
week in American newspapers pointing out that 
we need to be more than just a/i/i-Communist and 
anti-Ynsc\st. We need to be pro something. 
But rarely do any of them go on to say hoiu we 
should give expression to this "pro." 

Our difficulty stems, in part, from the fact that 
we have been so busy here in Ajiierica for the past 
century and a half iuilding our democracy, in 
living it and a]5plying it, that we have taken no 
time to give verbal expression to it. The dif!iculty 
is greater, of course, because it is not jjossible for 
a society like ours, that represents multifarious 
vitalities, forces, values, and beliefs, to present a 
single fanatic creed. Life for us is not a one- 
dimensional proposition — as it is with the Com- 
munists with their exclusive insistence on economic 
determinism. 

The final reason for my subject is you 4-H Club 
members who are going to foreign countries this 
summer. You will be questioned. People will 
try to find out from you what makes Americans 
"tick"; what the "philosophy" is that has enabled 
this country to give its people the highest standard 
of living in the world and the greatest freedom. 



Jo/y 7, 7952 



But they are interested also because they see the 
world today split between two ways of life, and the 
United States is the acknowledged leader of one 
of them. 

The Communists fill the air with charges that we 
are a crass, money-mad, ruthlessly competitive 
society. They say we have large oppressed mi- 
norities; that we are bent on war; that we are 
promoting colonialism politically and economi- 
cally ; that we push smaller nations around ; that 
we live, ourselves, under a dog-eat-dog system that 
gives the lesser dogs only the "leavings." 

These are some of the things our friends have 
heard about us. Few of them really believe it but 
they are anxious because they know that we must 
provide tlie leadership for the free world and they 
want to know into what kind of hands this leader- 
shiij has gone. 

So they will ask you such questions as "Wliat is 
America's philosoijhy?" 

America's Philosophy 

That is what I want to talk about this afternoon. 
It is the biggest single piece of unfinished business 
in our struggle against the enemies of a free so- 
ciety. Our program for military preparedness is 
well under way. Our international political in- 
stitutions are daily becoming stronger. The free 
world's economy is potentially adequate. Those 
are three of the fronts on which the present 
struggle is being waged. But the struggle of 
ideas is the first and the foremost front of all. 

Now, the most important thing to notice about 
this item of unfinished business is that it must be 
finished by American citizens themselves. We can 
set up a military establishment to be responsible 
for organizing our defense. We can hire econo- 
mists to tackle our economic problems. But we 
cannot hire people, in a democracy, to tell us what 
we think, how we live, and the things we stand for. 
For the essence of our beliefs is that no person 
or group of persons ought to dictate to us a body 
of political doctrine. Everyone of us has the re- 
sponsibility to help provide an answer, and no one 
of us can give the answer. 

Right tliere, of course, is the fork in the road 
that divides us from the Communists. Almost 
any Communist anywhere in the world can give 
the Communist answer on almost any world prob- 
lem. That is because the Communist answers are 
fixed by a very small group of men and every Com- 
munist, if he really is a Communist, has to give 
that answer, and no other. 

That seems at first blush to "ive tliem something 
of an advantage : every member of the organiza- 
tion knowing how to find out quickly and easily 
what to say, and sa3'ing it. 

The situation in a democracy, where no two 
people say exactly the same thing because it is 
believed that each person not only may think for 
himself but that he should do so, may seem chaotic. 



But we should remind ourselves of John Bur- 
i-oughs' comment : "Nature always hits the mark 
because she shoots in all directions." 

In a society where everyone is free to think and 
to submit his thoughts for honest discussion, we 
are more likely to come upon the eternal truths 
than in a society like that of the Soviet Union 
where everyone "shoots" in just one direction. 
The chance of that one direction being right is 
infinitesimally small. 

This does not mean that a democractic society, 
any more than the individuals who make it up, 
must always be running off in all directions. But 
it does mean that it can look in all directions be- 
fore making up its mind and setting its direction. 
It is not bound and blindfolded by an authoritar- 
ian political creed. This is one of the reasons for 
our insistence upon freedom of thought, freedom 
of the press, freedom of speech, and freedom of 
assembly. 

I said a moment ago that each one has an obliga- 
tion in a democractic society to think through 
what he believes to be the essence of the democratic 
way of life. You have that obligation. And so 
do i. 

If I were to be in Italy next week, as some of 
you will be, and were to have an Italian university 
student come up and ask me what "my philosophy" 
of democracy is and how it differs from the philos- 
ophy of communism that he hears so much about, 
I would try to draw upon some of the things I 
have been hearing Americans say in the last year 
or two and I would say something like this : 

Conversation With a Friend 

"You can understand American democracy, my 
friend, only if you realize that it is not a particular 
constitution, a particular set of laws, or economic 
system, or religion. It is an approach, an atti- 
tude, a freedom to think in all directions. 

"There are several ways anyone could go about 
defining our democracy for you. One would be 
to describe its operations and manifestations: 
how our labor unions work ; how our business or- 
ganizations are owned and run — for instance, how 
a typical American big business has some 50,000 
owners; how America tends toward a classless 
society because of its great mobility, horizontally 
and vertically; about our graduated income and 
inheritance taxes, putting the burden of govern- 
ment on a more equitable basis; our social se- 
curity; our nongovernment organizations; our 
church life; our public schools; our widespread 
opportunities for higher education, not to men- 
tion county fairs, town meetings, community 
chests, amateur musicals, and all the rest. Some 
of these things we have evolved ourselves. For 
many of them we have drawn upon the experience 
of other peoples. 

"But another way to define our democracy, my 
friend, and the one that I would like to try for 



8 



Department of State Bulletin 



you today, is to search out the sources, the well- 
springs, that have made our democracy what it 
is and that keep it going. 

"If we do this we find that American democracy 
has three main sources upon which it has drawn. 
And in these three sources, incidentally, you find 
the basic differences between American democracy 
and Soviet communism. 



Sources of the American Democracy 

(1) Exfenence of the Ages 

"The first source of American democracy is 
what we may call the experience of the ages. The 
millions of ])ilgrims who have come to our shores 
have brought with them the accumulated wisdom 
of their people down through the centuries: ex- 
perience in such things as how to organize town 
affairs; how people of different religions can get 
along with each other; how to set up legislatures 
and institutions of justice; how to provide fairly 
for the ownership of property. All of these 
things are the result of centuries of trial and 
experiment, of discarding the unworkable and 
keeping the good. No small group in our country 
has ever been in a position at any time to decree 
that such and such would be the way that things 
should be done. We drew upon what seemed to 
be tlie best in many countries and have continued 
to change and improve. 

"The Communists, on the other hand, believe 
that the ways that have been worked out through 
the centuries are evil. They have a few people 
who sit down and decide how things shall be. 
And this single pattern they impose by force 
wherever they go. It is a synthetic fabrication to 
fit the theories of a few individuals. In most of 
its fundamentals it flies in the face of all experi- 
ence. But when they make a decree that is the 
way it is, even though, as in the case of the com- 
munizing of the farms of Kussia, it results in the 
death of millions of people. 

"Of coui'se. all societies have conflicting inter- 
ests. It is inherent in nature. But in a democ- 
racy these conflicts are resolved by the majority 
of the people or their representatives. In a totali- 
tarian state they are resolved by force, purges, 
executions, and slave camps. 

"All of history shows that if men are chained 
and oppressed, there are upheavals, reprisals, and 
bloodshed; that stability is possible only in a 
society where men have freedom. No govern- 
ment can endure for very long if it denies people 
the right to seek truth and to proclaim it. 

"In short, freedom works and oppression does 
not. 

"So the experience of the ages is the first source 
of our beliefs. 

(2) Grotoing Knowledge of the Nature of Man 
"The second great source of American democ- 
racy, my friend, is what we may call our constantly 
grotoing knowledge of the nature of man. 

July 7, 7952 



"Our Declaration of Independence, in its most 
famous phrase, said that all men are endowed by 
their Creator with certain unalienable rights, 
among them being life, liberty, and the pursuit of 
happiness. The framers of the Declaration thus 
stated their belief that the indispensable pre- 
requisite of happiness is liberty; the indispensable 
prerequisite of liberty being life itself. 

"You find the phrase, 'the happiness of the 
people,' all through the sayings and writings of 
the early Americans who addressed themselves to 
the problem of the purposes of society. 

"Listen to the words of the preamble of the 
Constitution of one of our States, the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts: 

The end ... of goveiument is to . . . furnish, 
individuals with the power of enjoying . . . the 
blessings of life . . . it is instituted for the . . . 
happiness of the people ; and . . . the people alone 
have an incontestable . . . right to . . . alter 
. . . [it], when their . . . happiness re- 
quire[s] . . . 

"This concept was for a while brought into 
disrepute because of an attempt to equate 'happi- 
ness' with 'pleasure.' But our forefathers knew 
what they meant. They knew there is an un- 
happiness that is the lot of slaves and of those who 
are ground down by poverty or ignorance, just as 
millions today know it in a society characterized 
by the sudden knock on the door, the enforced 
spying of friend upon friend, and terrorism. 

"And they knew there is an 'inward happiness' 
that comes from the growth of the individual per- 
sonality, from participation, from using one's 
powers, from a sense of belonging. 

"All that we have been able to find out about 
the nature of man — and our store of knowledge 
about what makes for his 'inward happiness,' and 
what does not, is growing rapidly — points equally 
to this same need for him to have freedom to 
grow — to grow physically, mentally, and spirit- 
ually, to have a sense of worth, a sense of moving 
forward. 

"Listen to modern psychology : 'All cells,' it 
says, 'so long as they are living, are functioning. 
And in every form of living substance exists an 
inclination toward a specific series of processes. 
The spinning apparatus of the spider, the wings 
of the bird, the feelers of the crustacean have a 
drive toward activity. So it is with the infinite 
capacities of the human being, physical, intel- 
lectual, and spiritual.' 'Happiness,' the psy- 
chologists say, 'is what results from the success of 
the process of working toward the goals of these 
infinite human functions.' 

"All this is not just pure theory. For example, 
with the growth of industrial society the problem 
arose, how do assembly-line workers achieve this 
full life? We have found from experience that 
for man to be really happy, his activity must be 
end-guided. If the worker is reduced to the status 
of a means and denied any goal except the intrinsic 
one of wage, the wage, however great, cannot 



redress the deep wrong to his personality involved 
in tlie denial. 

"Ours is a competitive society, and the competi- 
tion stems from the desire of the individual to 
prove to liimself his own worth. He measures it 
by looking around him and seeing what the 
achievements of otlier liuman beings have been. 
We accept conflict and utilize it. 

"Communism is based on 'cooperation' but it is 
a cooperation which it finds is necessary to enforce 
the police state. 

"AH tlirough our effort, as you see, has been the 
premise tliat the final and ultimate values are the 
human beings who make up the society; the prem- 
ise that society was made for man and not man 
for society. 

"And here we come upon a curious irony. Be- 
cause the great threat today is the threat to the 
freedom of tlie individual, a great deal of the 
literature about the democratic way of life deals 
with the rights of the individual ; and this has led 
to many people abroad thinking of us as rabid 
individualists with each man pursuing his own 
lonely path. 

"The truth is, my friend, that Americans have 
an unusual capacity for cooperation. Community 
life is at the core of our pattern of living. Free- 
dom of association between people is our great 
unwritten freedom. We believe the more bodies 
of society you liave, the stronger and healthier 
will be the resulting structure. So we are bound 
together not only by the state but by a thousand 
additional ties. We are the greatest 'Joiners' in the 
world. 

"Here again we have a conflict between democ- 
racy and the authoritarian society. Under the 
Soviet system you have no honest communities, 
because under a police state each person has to be 
on his own. He cannot trust even the members of 
his own family. A Communist is the touchiest 
person in the world. 

"In the eyes of the Kremlin, power flows down 
from the state, not up from the people, and human 
beings are pawns, cogs, instruments to serve the 
regime. Therefore, knowledge about the nature 
of nian is of little importance. 

"The Communists lay claim to having found the 
scientific approach to human relations. But it is 
a spurious claim. The science they apply is tlie 
mechanical science of the machine — and man is 
not a machine. 

"We are entitled, however, to say that, in a pro- 
founder sense, the process of democracy is scien- 
tific. Given the problem as being one of an 
adjustment of human relations calculated to 
satisfy the claims made upon one another by indi- 
viduals and groups in the hurly burly of human 
contacts and the frictions which those contacts 
produce, the democratic process is perhaps the 
most scientific possible. It is based upon this 
rapidly growing science of the nature of man. 



(3) A Spiritual Approach to Life 

"The third source of our American way of life, 
my friend, is tlie great body of mankind's spiritual 
insights. Americans can be understood only by 
understanding what Lord Bryce called 'their 
strong religious sense.' He put it first among 
their traits — before their 'passion for liberty,' 
'their individualistic self-reliance,' and even be- 
fore 'their suspicious attitude toward officials.' 

"We believe, with Jefferson, in the existence of 
a moral instinct, and with Lao-Tze that only that 
government has value which is in accord with this 
moral nature. 

"Many of our early settlers came here to escape 
religious ]5ersecution, and we have always had a 
great concern with freedom for religious convic- 
tions and for varieties of religious worship. Many 
Americans are adherents of formal religions; 
many, like Lincoln, have drawn their inspiration 
from less formal convictions, from a 'reverence for 
life' and a devotion to man's duty toward man. 

"From this 'religious sense' flow the honesty, 
devotion to duty, and respect for human life, as 
well as the understanding, the sympathy, the 
warmth, the tolerance, the forbearance which 
underlie our political and economic life and per- 
meate our daily pattern of living — and without 
which no formal institutions of society, no matter 
how perfect, can long function effectively. Need- 
less to say, we do not practice to perfection all of 
these things that we believe : but we tend to have 
a bad and uncomfortable conscience when we 
don't. 

"Here, too, we find a head-on conflict between 
democracy and communism. Communism was 
conceived in hate — and it is still saying the same 
things in the same way after a lumdred years, 
although the present conditions of labor in the 
United States would be beyond the wildest 
thoughts of Marx, and although the place where 
labor conditions are nearest to those against which 
Marx inveighed are today in the Soviet Union. 
This hate shows itself in the speeches of vitupera- 
tion that Communist re]>resentatives continuously 
make in the United Nations, over the air waves 
and among their owm people. 

"Communism denies categorically the spiritual 
approach to life. It calls religion 'an opiate for 
the masses.' It proclaims materialism and glori- 
fies it. 

"Now j'ou may ask, my friend, whether the 
principles that underlie our democracy are ap- 
plicable in other areas and to other people, or are 
they ]>ossible only in our special cii'cumstances. 

"A partial answer is to be found in the fact that 
we liave a mixed racial and cultural heritage, a 
tradition of universality. 

"Tlie second answer is that man, himself, is still 
man no matter where you find him. His physical 
wants are the same, and so, basically, are his 
spiritual wants. Indeed, here in our own country 
the environment, and the nature of the social prob- 



10 



Department of State Bulletin 



lems, have changed. A hundred and fifty j'ears 
ago ours was lai'gely a frontier society, predomi- 
nantly agricultural. One person in twenty lived 
in the city. Today that frontier has disappeared. 
We have become an industrial society. Two- 
thirds of our people live in cities. But the basic 
principles still apply and will as long as men 
remain men. 

'Tt would be a mistake, therefore, to regard 
these three wellsprings of our democratic society 
as something only of the past. 

"We are 'the continuous revolution,' the revolu- 
tion of ordered progress for the common man. 
It is operating today as powerfully as ever." 



These are some of the things that I would say 
to my young Italian friend if he were to ask me 
about American democracy. 

And then I would also saj^ : "We of the mid- 
twentieth century have an exciting prospect. We 
have the opportunity to lay the foundations of a 
democratic world. It is a challenge which none 
of us, anywhere, can escape. The rewards of suc- 
cess, or the penalties of failure, will accrue to 
everyone." 



The Meaning of Citizenship 

hy Howlamd H. Sargeant 

Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs ^ 

Standing here in the shadow of this memorial 
to one of the greatest of all Americans, I think 
of what the essence of good citizenship is as 
Jefferson saw it. To him citizenship meant an 
obligation and a sacred trust. 

The citizenship pledge of the 4-H Clubs re- 
flects Jefferson's ideals. I like particularly the 
closing paragraph : 

We will endeavor to transmit this nation to posterity 
not merely as we found it but freer, happier and more 
beautiful than when it was transmitted to us. 

You will not go far wrong if you make that 
pledge your test of good citizenship. 

In these troubled times young people are often 
confused. You wonder, very naturally, what 
you can do to make your America freer, happier, 
and more beautiful. The 4-H Clubs are, I think, 
showing you the way. They give you the basic 
principles of good citizenship — and teach you 
how to live and work by them. 

I was particularly impressed this morning 
when I watched a group of your club members 



' Address made before the National 4-H Clulis Camp at 
the Jeffersoa Memorial, Washington, on June 24 and 
released to the press on the same date. 



receiving their commissions as "Grass Roots 
Ambassadors." 

This particular group, I was told, will go to 
22 countries — in Europe, the Near East, and 
Africa. They will live and work with the peoples 
of these countries. They will learn, but they will 
also teach. 

What an opportunity ! And what an expan- 
sion of the concept of good citizenship ! For 
your generation the horizons have widened to in- 
clude the whole world, and you have the courage 
and confidence to handle that responsibility. 

Not all of you, of course, have been given this 
responsibility. You are, however, backing the 
4-H Clubs' "ambassadors of good will" with both 
material and moral support. Each of you par- 
ticipates, in a fashion, in everything these boys 
and gii'is do in spreading good will for America 
abroad. 

This fall some of you wijl cast your first vote. 
As free men and women you will have your say 
in the kind of Government under which this 
country will operate for the next 4 years, or 
perhaps longer. 

His vote is the good citizen's greatest privilege 
and greatest responsibility. I hope you, all of you 
who are eligible, are going to vote. Unfortunately, 
many Americans do iot. A recent survey, in fact, 
showed that in 1950 only 41 percent of the poten- 
tial voters of the United States actually cast a 
ballot. For some of these negligent citizens there 
was, perhaps, an excuse. For the great majority 
there was not. They merely failed to meet the 
responsibility entrusted to them. 

Some of you boys, this year perhaps, will be 
called upon to assume one of citizenship's gravest 
responsibilities — to defend, in uniform, the free 
dom won for you by such men as Jefferson. 

Here, again, it is a question of privilege and 
responsibility. A young veteran, Maj. [then 
Capt.] James Jabara, ace jet pilot of the U.N. 
Forces in Korea, returned from Korea. He was 
interviewed by a reporter from his home town of 
Wichita, Kans. The reporter asked him : "Why 
are we fighting in Korea, Captain?" 

Jabara answered : "So we won't have to fight in 
Wichita, Kans." 

Your duty may not take you to Korea. But 
wherever it takes you, keep that fact in mind. If 
you serve in Korea or Europe, or remain in the 
United States, the answer is the same. You are 
defending your freedom in Wichita, Kans., in 
Louisville, Ky., in any town in the United States 
you may name. 

'\^nien this Nation was young, we were able — we, 
its citizens — to devote ourselves to the development 
of our own beautiful land. We had only occasion- 
ally to worry about other lands and other peoples. 

That day is past. Wlien the North Koreans 
struck at the Republic of Korea, 2 years ago at just 
about this time, they struck at the freedom and 
security of every American community, every 



iu\y 7, J 952 



11 



American home, wlietlier a farm in the country or 
an apartment in the city. 

Major Jabara put it very tersely in that short 
interview. But in those brief words he said 
everything. 

Today the horizon of the good citizen has broad- 
ened. A "freer, happier and more beautiful 
America" is possible only if we think and act in 
these broa der terms. 

This does not mean, for any of us, that we love 
America the less. These boys and girls who are 
leaving for their overseas assignments — upon their 
return they will have tales to tell of these other 
lands they have seen and of the people they have 
met. I do not think, however, that any one of them 
will return loving their own America the less. 
They will be better, more loyal, and devoted Ameri- 
cans for their experiences. 

You have taken a pledge to serve America. 
Keep that pledge alive in your hearts. Work at it. 
And, with God's help, you will transmit to the 
generation that comes after you "a freer, happier 
and more beautiful America" indeed. 



Department Expresses Regret 
to Owen Lattimore 

[Released to the press June 28} 

On May 1, 1952, the Department announced that 
all passports were being stamped "Not Valid for 
Travel in the U.S.S.R. and its Satellites" unless 
such travel was specifically authorized.^ 

On May 26, 1952, the Department of State re- 
ceived from an official security source a report 
that Owen Lattimore was making arrangements 
to travel to the U.S.S.R. Pending further in- 
vestigation, the Department sent a confidential 
stop order to the Customs Bureau requesting it 
not to permit the departure of Mr. Lattimore 
from the United States. The confidential stop- 
order procedure has been in force for 11 years to 
prevent the possible violation of laws or of Gov- 
ernment regulations for controlling the travel 
abroad of American citizens. The existence of 
tliis confidential stop order was divulged in the 
newspapers on June 20.^ 



' I'.ui.i-ETiN of May 12, 19.j2, p. 73G. 

' In a press release issued on that date, the Department 
stated : 

"An allegation was recently made to the Department 
that Owen Lattimore was making arrangements for a 
possible visit to the Union of Soviet Socialist Repulilics 
and/or its satellites. The Department immediately be- 
gan an investigation of this allegation. 

"Pending the results of this investigation the Customs 
Bureau was notified that Mr. Lattimore (who was not 
in possession of a passport duly vali<lated for such travel) 
should not be permitted to leave the United States. 

"Mr. Lattimore last year applied for and was granted 
a passport to visit Great Britain. This passport is no 
longer in eHect and Mr. Lattimore has not since applied 
for a pa.ssport." 



The thorough investigation of the charges con- 
cerning Mr. Lattimore requested by the Depart- 
ment has now been completed. The F.B.I, has 
notified the Department that the original in- 
formant has admitted that the story which he had 
furnished concerning Lattimore's alleged travel 
abroad was a complete fabrication. 

Proceedings were instituted which resulted 
yesterday in the indictment by a Federal grand 
jury of the individual who initiated the false 
report. 

Accordingly, the Department has revoked its 
confidential stop order against Mr. Lattimore. 
The Department of State expresses to Mr. Latti- 
more its sincere regret over the embarrassment 
caused him. 



Visit of King Feisal II of Iraq 

[Released to the press June IS] 

King Feisal II of Iraq has accepted an invitation 
to visit the United States during the months of 
August and September. The 17-year-old heir to 
the throne of Iraq will be accompanied by his 
uncle the Regent of the Kingdom of Iraq, His 
Royal Highness Prince Abdul Illah. The coast- 
to-coast visit will be on an informal, unofficial 
basis, and will include trips to various irrigation 
and agricultural development projects in this 
country. The King and the Regent will meet with 
the President during the course of their visit. 

King Feisal will ascend the throne of Iraq on 
his 18th birthday. May 2, 1953. He is now a 
student at Harrow School in England, and will 
complete his studies there in July. 

Current Legislation on Foreign Policy 

The Mutual Security .\ct of 1!}.'32. S. Kept. 1575, 82d 
Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany S. 3086] 1 p. 

Amending the Foreign Service Buildings Act, 1926. S. 
Kept. 15SG, 82d Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany H. R. 
6661] 8 pp. 

Free Importation by Keligious Organizations of Altars, 
Pulpits, Communion Tallies, Baptismal Fonts, Shrines, 
or Parts of the Foregoing, and Certain Kinds of 
Statuarj'. S. Rept. 1601, 82d Cong., 2d sess. [To ac- 
company H. R. 7593] 2 pp. 

Official Contriliution of the United States Government 
to the United Nations Yearbook of Human Rights, 
19.50. S. Doc. 116, 82d Cong., 2d sess. 22 pp. 

Convention on Relations With the Federal Republic of 
Germany and a Protocol to the North Atlantic Treaty. 
Message from the President of the United States 
Transmitting the Convention on Relations Between 
the Three Powers and the Federal Republic of Ger- 
many, Signed at Bonn on May 26, 1952 and a Protocol 
to the North Atlantic Treaty Signed at Paris on 
May 27, 1952. S. Exec. Q and R, 82d Cong., 2d sess. 
328 pp. 

Emergency Powers Continuation Act. H. Rept. 2041, 82d 
Cong., 2d sess. [To accompany H. J. Res. 477.] 
46 pp. 

Mutual Security Act of 1952. H. Rept. 2031, S2d Cong., 
2d sess. [To accompany H. R. 7005.] 22 pp. 



12 



Department of State Bulletin 



Foreign Bondholders' Representatives 
and German Debt Conference 

[Released to the press June 24] 

FoUowing is the text of a statement issued at 
London on June 21^ iy Warren Lee Pierson, U.S. 
delegate to the Conference on German External 
Debts:'' 

I regret that the Foreign Bondholders Pro- 
tective Council has withdrawn its representative 
from the London debt discussions of the Young 
and Dawes loans. 

The settlement proposal for these loans, which 
is now under consideration by the London con- 
ference on German debts, is entirely tentative and 
is subject to consideration not only from the stand- 
point of its implications to U.S. holders of Young 
and Dawes bonds but also from the standpoint of 
its general effect upon other creditors of Germany 
including all the other classes of American 
creditors. 

Private creditor and governmental representa- 
tives of the United States, the United Kingdom, 
France, and the other interested countries have 
labored for more than a year to bring about a com- 
prehensive and equitable settlement of the German 
debts. In this effort, the German delegation on 
external debts has given excellent cooperation. 
As a result of these efforts, a satisfactory conclu- 
sion of the London debt conference is within sight. 

Efforts are continuing to be made to find a 
settlement arrangement with respect to the Dawes 
and Young loans which will be acceptable to all 
interested parties. It is to be hoped that the 
representatives of American holders of these bonds 
will return to the conference to resume negotia- 
tions regarding the Dawes and Young loans. 



Claims of Nationals For Return 
of Property in Japan 

[Released, to the press June 25] 

Under article 15 (a) of the peace treaty between 
the Allied Powers and Japan, which came into 
force on April 28, 1952, the Japanese Government 
is required to return all property of Allied Powers 
and their nationals within the present territorial 
limits of Japan, and in cases where such prop- 
erty was within Japan on December 7, 1941, and 
cannot be returned or has been damaged, to pro- 
vide compensation to property owners for their 
loss or damage sustained as a result of the war 



' This conference, which first convened at London on 
Feb. 28, recessed on Apr. 4 and was reconvened on May 
19. For previous announcements relating to the confer- 
ence, see Bulletin of Feb. 11, 19ii2, p. 206; ibid.. Mar. 
10, 19.->2, p. 397; Hid., Mar. 24, 1952, p. 4(51; and ibid.. 
May 26, 1952, p. 821. 



within Japan in accordance with terms of the 
Allied Powers Property Compensation Law 
(Japanese Law No. 264 of 1951). 

In order to assist American nationals who 
desire to file applications under the treaty for 
the return of their property in Japan or, in appro- 
priate instances, claims for compensation under 
the Allied Powers Property Compensation Law, 
the Department of State has prepared, after con- 
sultation with authorities of the Japanese Gov- 
ernment, a memorandum regarding the manner in 
which such applications or claims should be pre- 
pared and filed. A copy of the memorandum is 
being sent to all American nationals who, on the 
basis of information available to the Department 
of State, have indicated a desire to file applica- 
tions for the return of property or claims for 
compensation. American nationals who desire 
to file such applications or claims, but have not 
previously communicated with the Department, 
may obtain copies of the memorandum from the 
Office of the Legal Adviser, Department of State, 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Applications for the return of property must 
be submitted by this Government to the Japanese 
Government before January 28, 1953. Claims 
for compensation must be sulamitted by this Gov- 
ernment to the Japanese Government on or before 
October 28, 1953. However, to insure proper 
consideration of applications for restitution of 
property and claims for compensation, they 
should be filed with the Department of State with 
the least possible delay. 



Annex to U. S.-Panama 
Air Transport Agreement 

[Released to the press June 20] 

The Department of State announced on June 20 
an exchange of diplomatic notes between the De- 
partment and the Embassy of Panama implement- 
ing the route annex to the Bilateral Air Transport 
Agreement between the Government of the United 
States of America and the Government of the 
Republic of Panama, signed March 31, 1949,^ to 
provide for a route for Panamanian air carriers. 

Schedule two of the annex of the foregoing 
agreement has been amended to read as follows: 
"Airlines designated by the Republic of Panama 
are accorded in the territory of the United States 
of America the rights of "transit and non-traffic 
stop, as well as the right to pick up and dis- 
charge international traffic in passengers, cargo 
and mail via intermediate points in both directions 
at the points specified below : 

"1. From the Republic of Panama to Miami, 
Florida via intermediate points in the Carib- 
bean." 



' BtTLLETlN of Apr. 10, 1949, p. 466. 



July 7, J 952 



13 



U. S., Portuguese Defense Agreement 

[Released to the i>rcss June 19] 

The Portuguese and U.S. Governments on June 
19 released tlie text of an agreement regarding 
military facilities in the Azores signed at Lisbon 
on September 6, 1951.^ It was announced at that 
time that this agi'eement, which would be made 
public, was concluded in accordance with Noi'th 
Atlantic Treaty Organization (Nato) defense 
plans. 

Text of the agreement follows : 

The Portuguese Government and the Government of 
the United States of America : 

Having in mind the doctrine and obligations arising 
from Articles 3 and 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty signed 
in Washington April 4, 1949 ; 

Resolved, in accordance with the preamble of that 
Treaty to unite their efforts for the common defense and 
for the preservation of peace and security ; 

Considering the necessity of executing in peacetime the 
measures of military preparation necessary to the common 
defense, in conformity with plans approved by the nations 
signatory to the referred to Treaty ; 

Taking into consideration that according to the pro- 
visions adopted in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 
the area of the Azores directly interests Portugal and the 
United States and that between them they must establish 
agreements for the determination and utilization of the 
facilities which it is possible for the first of the mentioned 
Governments to grant in those islands ; 

Agree as follows : 

Article 1 

The Portuguese Government grants to the Government 
of the United States In case of war in which they are 
involved during the life of the North Atlantic Treaty and 
within the framework and by virtue of the responsibilities 
assumed thereunder the use of facilities in the Azores 
which will be provided for in technical arrangements to 
be concluded by the Ministers of Defense of the two 
Governments. 

Whenever reference is made in the text of this Agree- 
ment to technical arrangements, it is understood that such 
reference has to do with the technical arrangements to be 
agreed upon by the Jlinisters of Defense of the two Gov- 
ernments, and which are hereby authorized. 

Article 2 

The Governments of Portugal and of the United States, 
in technical and financial collaboration, and in harmony 
with technical arrangements to be agreed upon, will con- 
struct new installations and enlarge and improve those 
existing for the purpose of preparing and equipping the 
agreed facilities in the Azores with what is necessary for 
the execution of the missions for which under the defense 
plans they are charged with in time of war. 

1) These preparatory works shall include, among other 
things, the storage of oil, munitions, spare parts and any 
supplies considered necessary for the purposes in view. 

2) The term for the execution of what is set forth in the 
body of the present Article and in subparagraph 1 will 
run from the date of signature of this Agreement until the 
first of September 1956 with a period of grace of four 
months. 

Article 3 

All constructions and materials incorporated in the soil 
will from the start be considered property of the Portu- 
guese State without prejudice to the recognized right of the 



' lUrLLETiN of Sept. 17, 1951, p. 4G6. 



United States to use such constructions and materials in 
time of war or in time of peace to the extent and in the 
manner provided in this Agreement, and to raze and 
remove them for its account at the end of the term re- 
ferred to in Article 1 or if the hypothesis mentioned in 
Article 8 should eventuate, all in accordance with techni- 
cal arrangements to be agreed upon. 

At the end of the period referred to in Article 1, as 
well as in the hypothesis provided for in Article 8, and 
without prejudice to the technical arrangements referred 
to above, the United States may raze or remove for its 
account technical equipment belonging to it and not neces- 
sary to the future functioning of the bases, the Portuguese 
Government making e(]Uitable payment for that which 
it desires to acquire and which may be ceded to it. 

Article 4 

Having in mind their eventual use In harmony with the 
provisions of Article 1, the I'ortuguese Government will 
undertake the maintenance of the facilities in all the pe- 
riod subsequent to the withdrawal of the American per- 
sonnel, as stipulated in Article 7. 

Article 5 

For the purpose of the previous Article, and in accord- 
ance with what will be agreed upon between the Defense 
Jlinisters of the two Governments, the Government of the 
United States will provide facilities necessai? for the 
apprenticeship and training of Portuguese personnel hav- 
ing in mind the perfect functioning of the bases as well 
as facilitate duly qualified American personnel and mate- 
rial both deemed indispensable for the missions charged 
to the military forces in the Azores, in time of peace as 
well as in time of war, in harmony with the plans estab- 
lished by the competent organs of tlie North Atlantic 
Treaty Oi'ganization. This American personnel in the 
period subsequent to the evacuation of the bases in time 
of peace will be under Portuguese direction. 

Article 6 

During the period of the preparation of the bases, in 
conformity witli Article 2 subparagraph 2, and during the 
period of evacuation granted under Article 7, the transit of 
American military aircraft through the Lagens Airdrome 
continues to be permitted and there will be authorized 
on that base, during the same periods, the training of 
United States aviation and naval personnel, and United 
States military and civilian personnel stationed there may 
be increased up to the necessary. There will also be per- 
mitted the eventual visit to the airdrome of Santa Maria 
of some military aircraft which will be provided for by 
technical arrangements to be concluded between the Min- 
isters of Defense of the two Governments. 

These arrangements will fix the number and missions of 
the personnel employed and will define the legal statute to 
which they will be subject, as well as the exemptions 
which the personnel and material will enjoy in time of 
peace and in time of war. 

Ajktict^ 7 

For a term beyond the periods in which the facilities 
.should be utilized either in time of war or under condi- 
tions provided for in subparagraph 2 of Article 2, there 
will be granted by the Portuguese Government between six 
months and a year, in accordance with the circumstances 
and difficulties of the occasion, for the complete evacuation 
of the American personnel and their accompanying equip- 
ment, which will take place whether or not it has been 
possible to carry out the provisions of Article 5. 

Stockpiling of materials and supplies necessary to the 
preparation for war, in accordance with the reasonable 
exigencies of the international situation, and in accord- 
ance with technical arrangements to be agreed upon. Is 
authorized during the term referred to in Article 1. 



14 



Department of State Bulletin 



Aeticle 8 

The Government of the United States may at any 
moment renounce the concessions granted under the pres- 
ent Agreement in which case the ohligations assumed in 
this respect by the Portuguese Government will likewise 
cease. 

Aeticle 9 

In case of war the facilities granted may be utilized by 
the rest of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization mem- 
bers. The conditions for the utilization of the facilities 
by the members of the Nato will be established by agree- 
ment between the competent Portuguese and American 
authorities. 

The Portuguese Government reserves the right to extend 
to the Governnicnt of His Britannic JIajesty in the United 
Kingdom facilities analogous to those granted under this 
Agreement. 

Abticle 10 

The Portuguese Government will authorize, after the 
period of evacuation fixed in .Article 7, the transit through 
Lagens of military aircraft of the United States canning 
out missions within the framework of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization. This transit will be carried out 
by the utilization of the Portuguese services in the re- 
ferred to Base, whether or not it has been possible to 
carry out the qirovisions of Article 5. 

For beyond the period in question, and from time to 
time, as may be agreed between the Ministers of Defense 
of the two countries in the face of circumstances and in 
each case, the I.agens base may be utilized for the exer- 
cises of combined training of the appropriate forces of 
NATO. The non-Portuguese personnel necessary to effect 
this training will remain in the Azores only for the 
time necessary for each operation. 

Abticle 11 

Nothing in the technical arrangements to be agreed upon 
by the Ministers of Defense of the two Governments may 
be understood in a contrary sense to the provisions of the 
present Defense Agreement. 

Article 12 

This -Vgreenient will enter into effect on the date of its 
signature and on the same date the Agreement of Feb- 
ruary 2. 1948, will cease to have validity. 

In testimony thereof the respective plenipotentiaries of 
the two Governments have placed their signatures and 
affixed their seals to the present Agreement. 

Done in Lisbon in two copies, in Portuguese and English, 
both texts having equal value, this sixth day of September, 
1951. 

Lincoln MacVeagh 
Paulo Cunha 



Loan to Turkey To Help Finance 
Seyhan River Dam 

The International Bank for Eeconstruction and 
Development on June 18 made a loan of $1^5,200,000 
to the Republic of Turkey to assist in the develop- 
ment of the Adana Plain, a productive agricultural 
and industrial area in south-central Turkey. The 
loan will help to finance a multipurpose dam on the 
Seyhan River — to be used for flood control, irriga- 
tion, and hydroelectric power — and related power 
facilities. 

These installations form the key part of the 
Seyhan project, a comprehensive plan being 



carried out by the Turkish Government for the 
full control and utilization of the waters of the 
Seyhan River. The economic development of the 
Aclana Plain has thus far been limited by ruinous 
seasonal floods, by lack of water for irrigation in 
other seasons, and by a serious shortage of electric 
power. 

The works which will be financed by the Bank's 
loan include the construction of an earth dam, 
a powerhouse, step-up and step-down substations, 
and transmission lines to the industrial centers of 
Adana, Mersin, and Tarsus. The power plant 
will contain two 18,000-kilowatt generators. It is 
estimated that by 1965 the annual consumption of 
energy from these will reach 164 million kw.-hrs., 
which is about four times the total energy, both 
mechanical and electrical, consumed in the area in 
1951. Housing will be provided for a third 
generator which may be installed later. 

The total cost of these works will be the equiv- 
alent of about 35.8 million dollars. The Bank's 
loan will finance the foreign exchange costs, 
amounting to the equivalent of 25.2 million dollars. 
The loan will be used for purchases in the United 
States and Europe of construction materials and 
equipment, generating and transmission units, and 
for payment of engineering and contracting fees. 
Local currency requirements, equivalent to about 
10.6 million dollars, will be provided partly by the 
Turkish Government and partly by private in- 
vestors. The works are expected to be completed 
by the summer of 1956. 

Other parts of the Seyhan project will be 
financed out of Turkey's own resources. The en- 
tire project includes the building of a system of 
flood-control levees along the Seyhan, Berdan, and 
Ceyhan Rivers, and collection channels at the foot- 
hills of the Taurus Mountains to catch the run-ofl' 
of small streams; the construction of a network 
of canals to provide regular irrigation for ap- 
proximately 144,000 hectares (356,000 acres) of 
land; and the further expansion of power facili- 
ties. AVork on the flood-control levees is virtually 
completed and will be finished this year. A begin- 
ning has been made on the irrigation system ; work 
will be resumed in 1956 after completion of the 
dam and is expected to be finished in 1961. Some 
time after 1965, power requirements should justify 
the expansion of the facilities being financed by 
the Bank. The entire program will cost the equiv- 
alent of about 67 million dollars. 

Completion of the Seyhan project will bring 
substantial benefits to both agriculture and indus- 
try. The prevention of flood damage to crops and 
other property will result in average savings esti- 
mated at the equivalent of about 3 million dollars 
annually. Irrigation is expected to increase the 
production of crops in the Adana Plain, especially 
cotton, oilseeds, and citrus fruits, and ultimately 
will bring farmers additional profits estimated at 
the equivalent of about 16 million dollars annually. 



July 7, J 952 



15 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ^ 

Adjourned during June 1952 

West Point Sesquicentennial West Point Jan.-June 

International Exhibition of Drawings and Engravings Lugano Apr. 10-June 2 

UN Economic and Social Council: 

Human Rights Commission: 8th Session New York Apr. 14-June 6 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union): 

Administrative Council: 7th Session Geneva Apr. 21- June 6 

European Conference on VHF Broadcasting (41 mc/s to 216 mc/s) . . Stockholm May 28-June 30 

Paris International Trade Exhibition Paris May 17-June 2 

Wmo (World Meteorological Organization): 

Regional Association for Europe: 1st Session Zurich May 26-June 9 

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organiza- 
tion) : 

Executive Board: 30th Session Paris May 26-June 6 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization): 

Sixth Annual Assembly Montreal May 27-June 7 

International Conference on Large Electric High Tension Systems: 14th Paris May 28-June 7 

Session. 
Who (World Health Organization): 

Executive Board: 10th Session Geneva May 29- June 4 

International Convention for Protection of Industrial Property .... Vienna June 2-7 

Fao (Food and Agriculture Organization)' 

Meeting of Committee on Commodity Problems Rome June 3-7 

Council: 15th Session Rome June 9-14 

Latin American Forestry Commission: 4th Session Buenos Aires June 16-21 

International Whaling Commission: 4th Meeting London June 3-6 

Ilo (International Labor Organization): 

35th Session of the Ilo Geneva June 4-28 

International Meeting of Tonnage Measurement Experts The Hague June 4-14 

Third Session of the Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the Washington June 10-13 

Movement of Migrants from Europe (Picmme). 

Sample Fairs Barcelona June 10-30 

21st Session of the International Criminal Police Commission Stockholm June 9-12 

Annual Meeting of the Directing Council of the American International Montevideo June 13-14 

Institute for the Protection of Childhood. 

Committee on Highway Programming and Planning Washington June 23-28 

In Session as of June 30, 1952 

International Materials Conference Washington Feb. 26, 1951- 

International Conference on German Debts London Feb. 28- 

Universal Postal Union: 13th Congress Brussels May 14- 

UN (United Nations): 

Economic and Social Council: 14th Session New York May 20- 

Trusteeship Council: 11th Session New York June 3- 

26th Biennial International Exhibition of Art Venice June 14- 

Fao (Food and Agriculture Organization) : 

European Forestry and Forest Products Commission: Meeting of Nice June 28- 

Working Group on Torrent Control and Protection from Ava- 
lanches. 

Meeting on Home Economics and Education in Nutrition (Fao- Port-of-Spain June 30- 

Caribbean Commission). 

International Philatelic Exhibition Utrecht June 28- 

Icao (International Civil Aviation Organization): 

Fourth Special Meeting of Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services Paris June 30- 

Committee — European-Mediterranean Region. 
International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries: Annual St. Andrews (New Bruns- June 30- 

Meeting. wick). 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : 

Governing Body: 120th Session Geneva June30- 



' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State, June 24, 1952. 



16 Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 
Scheduled July 1-September 30, 1952 

International Wheat Council: 10th Session 

Fifteenth International Congress on Public Education 

Inter- American Commission of Women: 8th General Assembly. . . . 
Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : 

Conference for the Revision of the Bermuda Telecommunications 

Agreement of 1945. 
International Radio Consultative Committee (Ccir): Study Group 
X. 
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organiza- 
tion): 
International Center for Adult Education — Seminar on Workers' Edu- 
cation. 
International Conference To Negotiate a Universal Copyright Con- 
vention. 

Seminar on Museums 

International Congress of the Arts 

Wmo (World Meteorological Organization) : 

Commission for Maritime Meteorology, Meeting of 

Third Session of the Executive Committee 

International Soil Fertility Meeting 

Eighteenth Conference of the International Red Cross 

Paigh (Pan American Institute of Geography and History) : 

Third Consultation on Geog phy 

UN (United Nations) : 

Economic and Social Council: 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: 

Worliing Party on Small Scale Industries and Handicrafts 

Marlceting: 2d Meeting. 
Inland Transport Committee, Highway Subcommittee: 1st 
Session. 

Second Regional Conference of Statisticians 

Inland Transport Committee, Inland Waterway Subcommittee: 
1st Session. 

Commission on Prisoners of War: 3d Session 

Committee on Information from Non-Self-Governing Territories . . 
Ad Hoc Committee on Factors (Non-Self-Governing Territories). . . 

Administrative Unions Committee 

International Sugar Council 

Inter-American Seminar on Vocational Education 

Second International Congress on Analytical Chemistry 

Thirteenth International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art 

International Geographical Union: 8th General Assembly 

International Astronomical Union: Symposium on Radio Astronomy . 
Fourth World Assembly of the World Organization for Early Childhood 

Education. 
International Radio Scientific Union: 10th General Assembly .... 

Edinburgh Film Festival, Sixth International 

Grassland Congress, Sixth International 

Fourth International Congress of Onomastic Sciences 

International Championships for 1952 Military Pentathlon 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 

Aeronautical Information Services Division: 1st Session 

Special Diplomatic Conference to Conclude a Convention on Damage 
Caused by Foreign Aircraft to Third Parties on the Surface. 

Statistics Division: 2d Session 

International Wine Office, 32d Plenary Session of the Committee . . . 

Izmir International Trade Fair 

International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics: 2d General 
Assembly. 

Interparliamentary Union, XLI General Assembly • • 

Fourth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological 

Sciences. 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International — and Inter- 
national Monetary Fund: 7th Annual Meeting of the Boards of 
Governors. 
Third General Assembly of the International Union for the Protection 
of Nature. 

International Astronomical Union: 8th General Assembly 

Seventh International Congress and Exposition of Photogrammetry . . 

19th International Geological Congress 

Thirteenth International Horticultural Congress 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : 

Chemical Industries Committee: 3d Session 

Paso (Pan American Sanitary Organization) : 

17th Meeting of the Executive Committee 



London July 1- 

Geneva July 7- 

Rio de Janeiro .... July 8- 

London July 9- 

Geneva Aug. 20 

Paris July 12- 

Paris Aug. 18- 

New York Sept. 15- 

Venice Sept. 21 

London July 14- 

Geneva Sept. 9- 

Dublin July 21- 

Toronto July 23- 

Washington July 25- 

Bangkok July 28- 

Bangkok Aug. 18- 

Bangkok Sept. 1- 

Bangkok Sept. 16- 

Geneva Aug. 25 

New York Sept. 11- 

New York Sept. 18- 

New York Sept. 23- 

London July or Aug. 

University of Maryland . Aug. 2- 

Oxford Aug. 4- 

Venice Aug. 8- 

Washington Aug. 8- 

Sydney Aug. 11- 

M6xico, D. F Aug. 11- 

Sydney Aug. 11- 

Edinburgh Aug. 17- 

State College, Pa. . . . Aug. 17- 

Uppsala Aug. 18- 

Brussels Aug. 18- 

Montreal Aug. 19- 

Rome Sept. 9- 

Montreal Sept. 16- 

Freiburg Aug. 19- 

Izmir Aug. 20- 

Istanbul Aug. 25- 

Bern Aug. 28- 

Vienna Sept. 1- 

Mdxico, D. F Sept. 3- 

Caracas Sept. 3- 

Rome Sept. 4- 

Washington and Dayton Sept. 4- 

Algiers Sept. 8- 

London Sept. 8- 

Geneva Sept. 9- 

Habana Sept. 10- 



iuly 7, 1952 

213616—52- 



17 



Calendar of MeetingH — Continued 
Scheduled July 1-September 30, 19^2— Continued 
Paso (I'an American Sanitary Organization) — Continued 

Sixth Session of the Directing Council — and Fourth Regional Com- 
mittee of the World Health Organization. 

18th Meeting of the Executive Committee ... 

Fourth Meeting of the International Scientific Committee for Trypano- 
somiasis Research. 
Fag (Food and Agriculture Organization) : 

Fag-Ecla Central American Seminar on Agricultural Credit .... 

Technical Advisory Committee on Desert Locust Control: 2d Meetmg 

Eucalvptus Study Tour 

Fourth international Congress of African Tourism 

Twenty-first International Congress for Housing and Town Plannmg . 
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea ........ 

International Council of Scientific Unions: 4th Meeting of the Executive 
Board. 



Habana Sept. 19- 

Habana Sept. 26- 

Louren^o Marques (Moz- Sept. 10- 
ambique) . 

Guatemala City .... Sept. 15- 

Ronie Sept.- 

Australia Sept.- 

Lourengo Marques . . . Sept. 15- 

Lisbon Sept. 21- 

Copenhagen Sept. 29- 

Amsterdam Sept. 30- 



Current United Nations Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography ^ 



Disarmament Commission 

France, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North- 
ern Ireland and the United States of America : Work- 
ing Paper setting forth proposals for fixing numerical 
limitation of all armed forces. DC/10, May 28, 1952. 
5 pp. mimeo. 

First Report of the Disarmament Commission. DC/11, 
May 29, 1952. 6 pp. mimeo. 



Economic and Social Council 

Commission on the Status of Women. Resolutions of 
May 23, 26 and 28, 1952. E/2237, June 3, 1952. 7 pp. 
mimeo. 

Economic Development of Under-Developed Countries: 
Methods of Financing Economic Development. Sug- 
gestions from Member Governments on financing 
of economic development of under-developed coun- 
tries in respon.se to General Assemlily resolution 520 
A (VI) and Council resolution 368 (XIII). E/2242, 
June 2, 1952. 6 pp. miinpo. 

Implementation of Recommendations on Economic and 
Social Matters. Resolution 283 (X). E/2165/Add.35, 
April 23, 1952. 5 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development. B/2168/Add.l, April 30, 1952. 23 pp. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Document Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. Other 
materials fmimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 

The United Nations Secretariat has established an 
Official Records series for the General Assembly, the Se- 
curity Council, the Economic and Social Council, the 
Trusteeship Council, and the Atomic Energy Commission, 
which includes summaries of proceedings, resolutions, and 
reports of the various commissions and committees. In- 
formation on securing subscriptions to the series may be 
obtained from the International Documents Service. 



Development of Arid Land. Report by the Secretary- 
General on the Activities of the United Nations and 
the Specialized Agencies. E/2191, April 18, 1952. 52 
pp. mimeo. 

International Co-operation on Water Control and Utili- 
zation. Report of the Secretary-General under Coun- 
cil resolutinn 346 (XII). E/2205/Add.l, April 22, 
19.52. 118 pp. mimeo. 

Elections. Election of Members of the Permanent Central 
Opium Board. E/2216, May 1, 1952. 11 pp. mimeo. 

Implementation of Recommendations on Economic and 
Social Matters. Economic and Social Council Resolu- 
tion 2S3 (X). Texts of Replies from Governments of 
Member States. E/2165/Add.37, May 2, 1952. 7 pp. 
mimeo. 

Implementation of Recommendations on Economic and 
Social Matters. Report by the Secretary-General. 
E/2166, May 7, 1952. 117 pp. mimeo. 

Teaching of the Purposes and Principles, the Structure 
and Activities of the United Nations and the Special- 
ized Agencies in Schools and Educational Institutions 
of Member States. Report by the Secretary-General 
and the Director-General of UNESCO. E/2184, May 
2, 1952. 84 pp. mimeo. 

Narcotic Drugs. International Limitation of Opium Pro- 
duction. E/2]8G/Add.2, May 19, 19.52. 13 pp. mimeo. 

World Conference on Population. Report by the Secretary- 
General. E/2190/Add.l, May 15, 19.''i2. 5 pp. mimeo. 

Co-ordination of the Work of the United Nations and the 
Specialized Agencies. Information on Regional Co- 
ordination of Programs of the United Nations and the 
Specialized Agencies and Relations with Non-United 
Nations Regional Organizations. Report of the Sec- 
retary-General. E/2204, April 30, 1952. 44 pp. mimeo. 

International Co-operation on Water Control and Utiliza- 
tion. Report of the Secretarv-General under Council 
resolution 346 (XII). E/2205, April 25, 1952. 70 pp. 
mimeo. 

United Nations Programme of Technical As.sistance. 
Under General Assembly resolutions 200 (III), 246 
(III), 418 (V) and Economic and Social Council 
resolution 222 A (IX). Report bv the Secretary- 
General. E/2209, April 21, 1952. 106 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the International Refugee Organization. 
E/2211, April 23, 1952. 38 pp. mimeo. 

Freedom of Information. Enquiry under Council Resolu- 
tion 414 (XIII), Section B, III, Paragraph 28 on the 



18 



Department of State Bulletin 



Future Work of the United Nations in the Field of 
Freedom of Infoi'matlon. Report by the Secretary- 
General. E/2217, May 5, 1952. 21 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Development of Under-Developed Countries. 
Integrated Economic Development and Commercial 
Agreements (General Assembly Resolution 523 
(VI) ). Replies from Governments of Member States 
in response to General Assembly Resolution 523 (VI) 
on action taken concerning production, distribution 
and prices of commodities and measures to combat 
inflation. E/2243, June 3, 1952. 63 pp. mimeo. 

Freedom of Information. Report of the Sub-Commission 
on Freedom of Information and of the Press (Fifth 
Session). E/2251, June 11, 1952. 5 pp. mimeo. 

The Problem of Statelessness. Consolidated report by 
the Secretary-General. E/2230, A/CN.4/56, May 26, 
1952. 206 pp. mimeo. 

Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. Fourth 
Report of the Technical Assistance Board to the 
Technical Assistance Committee. E/2213 (Vol. I 
and Vol. II), May 8, 1952. Vol. I, 150 pp.. Vol. II, 
329 pp. mimeo. 

Migration. Report by the Director-General of the Inter- 
national Labour Office to the Economic and Social 
Council in accordance with Council re.solution 396 
(XIII) of 25 August 1951 on methods of international 
financing of European emigration. E/2235, May 28, 
1952. 11 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the World Health Organization. E/2239, June 
3, 1952. 86 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the Social Commission (Seventh Session). 
E/2065, August 4, 1951. 8 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Development of Under-develoi)ed Countries. 
Methods of financing economic development. (Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution .520 A (VI) ). 31 pp. mimeo. 

Replies of Governments to the Questionnaire on Forced 
Labour. E/AC. 36/11, May 9, 1952. 110 pp. mimeo. 

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. 
Financial Report for the Year Ended 31 December 

1951. E/ICEF/193, April 10, 1952. 15 pp. mimeo. 
Arrangement of Business at the Fourteenth Session. E/L. 

315, May 16, 1952. 8 pp. mimeo. 

Mutual Security Act of 1952. Hearings before the Com- 
mittee on Armed Services, 82d Cong., 2d sess. on S. 
3086. May 8, 9, and 13, 1952. 140 pp. 

General Ridgway. Hearing before the Committee on 
Armed Services, U.S. Senate, 82d Cong., 2d sess. 
Discussion with Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway re Far 
Eastern Situation, Koje-Do POW Uprising, and Nato 
Policies. May 21, 1952. 34 pp. 

Food and Famine. Procedures for International Action 
in the Event of Emergency Famines Arising from 
Natural Causes. E/2220, May 14, 1952. 16 pp. 
mimeo. 

Report of the Economic Commission for Europe. Work 
Programme and Priorities 1952-1953. E/2221, May 
19, 1952. 36 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Development of Under-developed Countries. 
Methods to Increase World Productivity (General 
Aissembly Resolution 522 (VI)). E/2224, May 21, 

1952. 5 pp. mimeo. 

Proceeds of Sale of Unrra Supplies. Report by the Sec- 
retary-General. E/2227, May 23, 1952. 35 pp. mimeo. 

Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. 
Report by the Secretary -General under Council resolu- 
tion 414 B 11 (XIII) on the future work of the United 
Nations in the fields of prevention of discrimination 
and protection of minorities. E/2229, May 23, 1952. 
36 pp. mimeo. 

Freedom of Information. Annotated list of documents 
prepared for the third, fourth and fifth sessions of 
the Sub-Commission on Free<lom of Information and 
of the Press. E/2231, May 27, 1952. 5 pp. mimeo. 

Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. Report of 
the Technical Assistance Committee on the admin- 
istration of the Expanded Programme. B/2238, May 
29, 1952. 18 pp. mimeo. 



Teaching of the Purposes and Principles, the Structure 
and Activities of the United Nations and the Special- 
ized Agencies in Schools and Educational Institutions 
of Member States. Report by the Secretary-General 
of the United Nalions and the Director-General of 
UNESCO. E/2184/Add. 2, May 23, 1952. 21 pp. mimeo. 



General Assembly 

Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for 
Refugees to the General Assembly. A/2126, May 29, 
1952. 39 pp. mimeo. 

Replies of Go%'ernments (Non-Self-Governing Territories) 
A/AC.58/l/Add.l, May 28, 1952. 10 pp. mimeo. 



Trusteeship Council 

Examination of Annual Reports. Observations of the 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Ortranization on the reports for 1951 on the Trust 
Territories of Tanganyika, Togoland under British 
administration, Togoland under French administra- 
tion, Cameroons under British administration, and 
Oameroons under French administration. T/1012, 
June 17, 1952. 21 pp. mimeo. 

Land Utilization in Somaliland Under Italian Adminis- 
tration. Memorandum submitted by the Italian Gov- 
ernment. T/AC.36/L.50, May 12, 1952. 10 pp. 
mimeo. 

Population, Land Categories and Tenure in Togoland 
Under French Administration. Working paper pre- 
pared by the Secretariat. T/AC.36/L.51, May 14, 
1952. 13 pp. mimeo. 

Memorandum Submitted by the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Trans- 
mitted in reply to the letter of the Secretary-General 
of April 18, 1952, inviting Unesco to consider the type 
and manner of assistance which it might give to the 
Committee on Rural Economic Development of the 
Trust Territories in connection with its study. 
T/AC.36/L.52, May 20, 1952. 6 pp. mimeo. 

Rural Economic Development of the Trust Territories. 
Draft Second Progress Report of the Committee on 
the Rural Economic Development of the Trust Ter- 
ritories. T/AC.36/L..53, May 26, 1952. 7 pp. mimeo. 

Land Utilization in Now Guinea. Memorandum sub- 
mitted by the Australian Government. T/AC.36/L.56, 
June 3, 1952. 5 pp. mimeo. 

Standing Committee on Administrative Unions. Texts of 
documents referred to in the letter dated March 
8, 1952 from the representative of France on 
the Trusteeship Council to the Secretarv-Gen- 
eral. T/C.1/L.24, April 29, 1952. 13 pp. mimeo. 

Social Advancement in Trust Territories. (General As- 
sembly Resolution 323 (IV)) Penal Sanctions for 
Breach of Labour Contracts by Indigenous Inhabi- 
tants. T/9S5, May 5, 1952. 15 pp. mimeo. 

Summaries of the Proceedings of the East Africa Central 
Legislative Assembly. Working paper prepared by 
the Secretariat. T/C.1/L.25, May 20, 1952. 8 pp. 
mimeo. 

Information Relating to Paragraph 7 of Resolution 293 
(VII) of the Tinjsteeship Council Concerning Ad- 
ministrative Unions. Working paper prepared by the 
Secretariat. T/C.1/L.26, May 23, 1952. 9 pp. mimeo. 

Conditions in the Trust Territory of Somaliland Under 
Italian Administration. Working paper prepared 
by the Secretariat. T/L.2C6, June C, 1952. 59 pp. 
mimeo. 

Conditions in the Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi. 
Working paper prepared by the Secretariat. T/L.267, 
June 11, 1952. 57 pp. mimeo. 

Tenth Report of the Standing Committee on PetitioD& 
T/L.273, June 4, 1952. 64 pp. mimeo. 



July 7, J 952 



19 



Two Covenants on Human Rights Being Drafted 



DRAFTS RELATING TO CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS AND TO ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND 
CULTURAL RIGHTS REVISED AT 1952 SESSION OF U. N. COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 



hy James Simsarian 



The U.N. Commission on Human Rights re- 
viewed sections of the two draft Covenants on 
Human Rights at its 9-week session at New York 
from April 14 to June 13, 1952. The Commis- 
sion decided to ask the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil to instruct the Commission to complete its work 
on the two draft Covenants at its next session in 
1953, prior to the consideration of the two drafts 
by the Council and the General Assembly. 

The Commission divided the previous draft of 
a Covenant on Human Rights into two Covenants 
at the request of the General Assembly — one Cove- 
nant on Civil and Political Rights and the other 
Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural 
Rights. The Commission rejected a proposal sub- 
mitted by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
to combine the two documents into a single 
Covenant. 

The two Covenants are being drafted in the 
form of treaties, to be opened for ratification or 
accession by Governments after they are finally 
drafted by the Commission on Human Rights and 
approved by the General Assembly. Each Cove- 
nant will come into force when it is ratified by 20 
countries and will apply only to countries which 
ratify it. The Covenants are in contrast to the 
Universal Declaration of Himian Rights (ap- 
juoved by the General Assembly on December 10, 
1948), which was drafted not in the form of a 
treaty but as a declaration without legally binding 
force. 

As Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, the U.S. rep- 
resentative on the Commission on Human Rights, 
pointed out at the close of the 1952 session of the 
Commission : ^ 

The drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human 
Kights and of the Covenants on Human Riglits are part 
of an international eit'ort designed to acquaint the world 



' BtTLLETiN of June ,30, 1902, p. 1024. 



with the ideas of freedom and of the vital necessity for 
their pre-servation and extension. Such an effort is in- 
dispensable in tliis day vphen totalitarian concepts are 
beinK spread vigorously not only by Communists but also 
by the remnants of nazism and fascism. The U.N. eam- 
paiKn for the promotion of human rights must be con- 
tinued and prosecuted successfully if our free way of 
life is to be preserved. 

Mrs. Roosevelt stressed the point that: 

Neither of the Covenants as now drafted contains any 
provisions which depart from the American way of life 
in the direction of communism, socialism, syndicalism or 
sialism. When such provisions have been proposed, the 
United States has opposed them ; every proposal by the 
Soviet Union and its satellites to write "statism" into 
the Covenant has been defeated. ... In its approach to 
the economic and social articles, as well as the civil and 
political articles, the U.S. delegation has been guided by 
our Constitution and by existing statutes and policies 
approved by the legislative and executive branches of the 
Federal Government. 



Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 

The Commission on Human Rights retained in 
the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights the 
basic civil and political rights which have been 
included in the draft Covenant since it was first 
considered by the Commission in 1947. They 
have been reviewed and revised by the Commis- 
sion and its Drafting Committee in 1947, 1948, 
1949, and 1950. as well as at its session in New 
York this year. These basic civil and political 
rights are well-known in American tradition and 
law. They include the right to life, protection 
against torture, slavery, forced labor, arbitrary 
arrest or detention, freedom to leave a country, 
freedom to return to one's country, right to a fair 
and public hearing by an independent and impar- 
tial tribunal, right to be presumed innocent until 
proved guilty, protection against ex post facto 



20 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



laws, freedom of religion, expression, assembly 
and association, and equality before the law.^ 



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 

As at previous sessions of the Commission, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics sought to 
weaken the provisions of the Covenant but these 
efforts were rejected by the Commission. For ex- 
ample, in the consideration of the article on free- 
dom of expression,^' the U.S.S.R. proposed that 
this freedom be limited "in the interests of democ- 
racy." The U.S.S.R. has repeatedly sought to 
distort the term "democracy" by claiming that it 
is descriptive of the Communist State. In line 
with its usual practice, the U.S.S.R. was obvi- 
ously seeking by its amendment to insert language 
so that it could later claim that this freedom 
did not go beyond the limited scope of the Soviet 
Constitution which allows the right of expression 
only to those supporting the Communist State. 
This effort of the U.S.S.R. to negate the provision 
on freedom of expression in the Covenant was re- 
jected, with only three members voting for it, 
the U.S.S.R. and its two satellites, the Ukraine 
and Poland. The U.S.S.R. submitted a similar 
amendment in an effort to limit the provisions of 
the Covenant on freedom of assembly and associa- 
tion, but this amendment was also rejected, with 
the same three being the only members of the 
Commission voting for the amendment. 

In the case of the article of the Covenant * call- 
ing for a fair and public hearing by an independ- 
ent and impartial tribunal, the U.S.S.R. proposed 
the elimination of the term "impartial" by an 
amendment it submitted to the Commission. The 
Commission, however, rejected this amendment. 



Complaint and Reporting Procedures 

The Commission had only sufficient time at its 
1952 session to review the substantive articles re- 
lating to civil and political rights and economic, 
social, and cultural rights. The Commission ac- 
cordingly did not review the complaint machinery 
drafted at previous sessions with respect to the 
consideration of alleged violations of the articles 
on civil and political rights."* The draft Cove- 
nant has thus far provided only for the filing of 
complaints by countries ratifying the Covenant. 
Such complaints may be filed only against coun- 
tries which have ratified the Covenant. The 
Commission has rejected proposals submitted by 
some members of the Commission to authorize 
individuals, groups, or non-governmental organi- 



° Articles 5 to 19 of Covenant on Civil and Political 
Rights. 

'Article 16 of Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. 

* Article 12, par. 1, of Covenant on Civil and Political 
Rights. 

'Articles 20 to 46 of Covenant on Civil and Political 
Eights. 



zations to file complaints. These issues will no 
doubt be considered again by the Commission at 
its session next year. The Commission will also 
no doubt consider at that time the reporting pro- 
cedure proposed for the Covenant ou Economic, 
Social, and Cultural Rights.^ 

Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights 

The draft Covenant on Economic, Social, and 
Cultural Rights sets forth provisions relating to 
employment, conditions of work, trade-unions, 
social security, motherhood, maternity, children, 
young persons, the family, food, clothing, hous- 
ing, standard of living, health, education, science, 
and culture.' 

Differences Between Two Covenants 

In drafting the Covenant on Economic, Social, 
and Cultural Rights, the Commission recognized 
that the provisions of this Covenant differed in a 
number of respects from the Covenant on Civil and 
Political Rights. These differences were set forth 
in the Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cul- 
tural Rights in a number of ways : 

(1) The economic, social, and cultural rights 
were recognized as objectives to be achieved "pro- 
gressively." ' In the case of the civil and political 
rights, countries ratifying the Covenant will be 
under an obligation to take necessary steps to give 
effect to these rights.^ A much longer period of 
time is clearly contemplated under the Covenant 
on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights for the 
achievement of the objectives of this Covenant. 
The term "rights" is used in both the civil and 
political articles and the economic, social, and cul- 
tural articles. This term is used, however, in two 
different senses. The civil and political rights 
are looked upon as "rights" to be given effect im- 
mediately. The economic, social, and cultural 
rights, although recognized as "rights," are looked 
upon as goals toward which countries ratifying 
the Covenant would undertake to strive and to 
achieve these objectives to the extent permitted by 
available resources. 

(2) It was recognized that economic, social, and 
cultural rights were to be achieved by many means 
and methods, private as well as public, and not 
solely through legislation. Article 2 of the Cov- 
enant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights 
expressly states that the rights recognized in that 
Covenant are to be achieved "by other means" as 
well as by legislation. The members of the Com- 
mission acknowledged that the reference to "other 
means" was a recognition by them that the rights 

" Articles 17 to 26 of Covenant on Economic, Social and 
Cultural Rights. 

' Articles 6 to 16 of Covenant on Economic, Social and 
Cultural Rights. 

" Article 2, par. 1, of Covenant on Economic, Social, and 
Cultural Rights. 

" Article 2, par. 2, of Covenant on Civil and Political 
Rights. 



July 7, 1952 



21 



set forth in this Covenant could be achieved 
throiijjh private as well as governmental action. 
The obligation of a country ratifying this Cove- 
nant will be to take steps to promote conditions for 
economic, social, and cultural progress and 
development. 

The U.S.S.R. repeatedly urged this year, in the 
same manner that it urged last year in the Com- 
mission, that economic, social, and cultural rights 
be stated in terms of state legislation only, but 
other members of the Commission rejected this 
approach. 

(3) The economic, social, and cultural rights 
were necessarily drafted in general terms as con- 
trasted to the articles on civil and political rights. 
It was felt by the Commission that since the eco- 
nomic, social, and cultural rights were stated in 
terms of broad objectives, general language would 
be adequate. 

Covenants Are Non-Self-Executing 

There is appropriate language in both Cove- 
nants to assure that they are non-self-executing. 

Article 2 of the draft Covenant on Civil and 
Political Rights provides that where the rights 
recognized in the Covenant have not already been 
"provided for by existing legislative or other 
measures, each [Contracting] State undertakes to 
take the necessary steps, in accordance with its 
constitutional processes and with the provisions 
of this Covenant, to adopt such legislative or other 
measures as may be necessary to give effect to the 
rights recognized in this Covenant". 

This article makes it clear that the provisions of 
the Covenant would not, themselves, be enforce- 
able in the courts as "the supreme Law of the 
Land" under article VI of the U.S. Constitution. 
The United States, however, when it becomes a 
party to the Covenant, would, together with other 
contracting countries, have a firm obligation to 
enact the necessary legislative or other measures 
to give effect to the rights set forth in the Cove- 
nant to the extent such measures have not already 
been enacted. Such legislative or other measures 
■which are enacted would, of course, be enforceable 
in the courts of the United States. 

Article 2 of the draft Covenant on Economic, 
Social, and Cultural Rights similarly ensures the 
non-self-executing character of its provisions. 
Under this Covenant, each contracting country 
undertakes to take steps "with a view to achieving 
progressively the full realization of the rights 
recognized in this Covenant by legislative as well 
as by other means." There is a recognition by this 
phraseology of the need for affirmative action for 
the achievement of the rights set forth in this Cov- 
enant. The provisions of this Covenant would 
not, themselves, be enforceable in the courts as 
"the supreme Law of the Land" under article VI 
of the United States Constitution. 



Covenants Not to Lower Existing Standards 

Provision is included in each of the Covenants 
to make it expressly clear that "there shall be no 
restriction upon or derogation from any of the 
fundamental human rights recognized or existing 
in any Contracting State pursuant to the law [of 
that State] ... on the pretext that the pres- 
ent Covenant does not recognize such rights or 
that it recognizes them to a lesser extent".^" The 
Commission included this provision in the Cove- 
nants to stress the point that under no circum- 
stances should either Covenant be utilized as a 
pretext for any decrease in the higher standards 
existing in some countries (such as the United 
States) with respect to fundamental human rights 
accorded to persons in these countries because of 
more advanced Constitutional safeguards or for 
any other reason. 

At the same time, the Commission changed the 
word "shall" to "may" in the provisions on ex- 
ceptions in the articles on freedom of religion, 
expression, assembly, and association " to make 
it entirely clear that the exceptions to these rights 
are permissive only and not in any sense manda- 
tory. In no instance is any country called upon 
to apply these permissive restrictions. 

With the inclusion of these provisions and 
changes, the members of the Commission sought 
to avoid the possibility of the Covenant lowering 
any existing higher standards of freedom in any 
country. They stressed the fact that the objective 
of the two Covenants is to raise standards in coun- 
tries not so advanced as other countries with re- 
spect to human rights and freedoms. 

Federal-State Article 

The Commission did not have sufficient time to 
consider the inclusion of a Federal-State article 
in the two Covenants. The U.S. delegation, to- 
gether with the delegations of Australia and India, 
laowever, submitted a new draft of a Federal-State 
article to the Commission; it will doubtless be 
considered at its 1953 session. The U.S. delega- 
tion has insisted on the inclusion of such an article 
in the Covenants since the earliest U.N. considera- 
tion of the Covenant in 1947. The Federal-State 
article would ensure that the constitutional bal- 
ance between the powers delegated by the Fed- 
eral Constitution to our Federal Government, on 
the one hand, and the powers reserved to the 
States, on the other, would not be altered by the 
proposed Covenants on Human Rights. 

Under the proposed Federal-State article, the 
United States, upon its ratification of a Covenant, 
would undertake the same obligations as other 



"° Article 4, par. 2, of Covenant on Civil and Political 
Rights ; see also article 5, par. 2, of Covenant on Economic, 
Social, and Cultural Rights. 

" Articles 15, 16, 17, and 18 of Covenant on Civil and 
Political Rights. 



22 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



ratifying countries with respect to rights set forth 
in that Covenant wliich fall within the constitu- 
tional jurisdiction of the Federal Government. 
With respect to provisions which are wholly or 
in part within the jurisdiction of the several states, 
the only obligation of the United States would be 
to bring these provisions to the notice of the ap- 
propriate authorities of the individual states with 
a favorable recommendation and a request for in- 
formation as to the law of the states in relation 
to these provisions of the Covenant. The United 
States would transmit this information to the 
United Nations. 

The Federal-State article as now proposed ex- 
pressly provides that the Covenant "shall not op- 
erate so as to bring within the jurisdiction of the 
Federal authority of a Federal State . . . any 
of the matters referi-ed to in this Covenant which 
independently of the Covenant, would not be 
within the jurisdiction of the Federal authority." 
The Federal-State division of powers in the 
United States would be preserved by this pro- 
vision ; the national power would not be increased. 
The proposal for a Federal-State article makes 
it clear that the obligations undertaken by the 
United States under the Covenant would be lim- 
ited to matters which under the Constitution of 
the United States are within the Federal jurisdic- 
tion independent of the coming into force of the 
Covenant itself. 

Self-Determination 

The Commission approved three paragraphs of 
an article on self-determination for inclusion in 
both Covenants. The first two paragraphs were 
along the lines of language adopted at the sixth 
session of the General Assembly on February ,5, 
1952. The third paragraph was added by the 
Commission. The United States Delegation voted 
for the first two paragi-aphs but opposed the third 
paragraph. In voting for the first two para- 
graphs, tha United States delegation explained 
that it, however, reserved its position to propose 
changes in these paragraphs in the future. 

The fii-st paragraph recognizes that "All peoples 
and all nations shall have the right of self-deter- 
mination, namely, the right freely to determine 
their political, economic, social and cultural 
status.' The second paragraph calls on all 
countries to promote the realization of the right 
of self-determination in all their territories and 
to respect the maintenance of that right in other 
countries in conformity with the provisions of 
the United Nations Charter. The third para- 
graph, which the U.S. delegation opposed, pro- 
vides that "the right of the peoples to self-deter- 
mination shall also include permanent sovereignty 
over their natural wealth and resources. In no 
case may a people be deprived of its own means 
of subsistence on the grounds of any rights that 
may be claimed by other States." 



DRAFT COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL 
RIGHTS 

(Preamble and first 19 articles were revised ty the Comr 
mission on Hunmn Rights at its April-Jv/ne 1952 Session) 

PreamMe 

The States Parties hereto, 

CoNsiDEEiNO, that, in accordance with the principles 
proclaimed in tlie Charter of the United Nations, recog- 
nition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and in- 
alienable rights of all members of the human family is 
the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, 

Recognizing that these rights are derived from the 
inherent dignity of the human person. 

Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal 
Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free men en- 
joying civil and political freedom and freedom from fear 
and want can only be achieved if conditions are created 
whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights, 
as well as his economic, social and cultural rights. 

Considering the obligation of States under the Charter 
of the United Nations to promote universal respect for, 
and observance of, human rights and freedoms. 

Realizing that the individual, having duties to other 
individuals and to the community to which he belongs, 
is under responsibility to strive for the promotion and 
observance of the rights recognized in this Covenant, 

Ayree upon the following articles : 

PARTI 

Article 1 [Self-Determination] 

[The Commission on Human Rights drafted this article 
at its 1952 Session. The Commission did not hai^e suffi- 
cient time to consider whether the provisions of Parts II 
and IV should apply to this Article 1] 

1. All peoples and all nations shall have the right of 
self-determination, namely, the right freely to determine 
their political, economic, social and cultural status. 

2. All States, including those having responsibility for 
the administration of non-self-governing and trust terri- 
tories and those controlling in whatsoever manner the 
exercise of that right by another people, shall promote 
the realization of that right in all their territories, and 
shall respect the maintenance of that right in other States, 
in conformity with the provisions of the United Nations 
Charter. . 

3. The right of the peoples to self-determination shall 
also include permanent sovereignty over their natural 
wealth and resources. In no case may a people be de- 
prived of its own means of subsistence on the grounds of 
any rights that may be claimed by other States. 

PART II [GENERAL PROVISIONS] 

Article 2 

1. Each State Party hereto undertakes to respect and 
to ensure to all individuals within its territory and sub- 
ject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in this Cove- 
nant, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, 
sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national 
or social origin, property, birth or other status. 

2. Where not already provided for by existing legisla- 
tive or other measures, each State undertakes to take the 
necessary steps, in accordance with its constitutional proc- 
esses and with the provisions of this Covenant, to adopt 
such legislative or other measures as may be necessary to 
give effect to the rights recognized in this Covenant. 

3. Each State Party hereto undertakes: 

(a) To insure that any person whose rights or free- 
doms as herein recognized are violated shall have an ef- 
fective remedy, notwithstanding that the violation has 
beei committed by persons acting in an official capacity ; 



July 7, 1952 



23 



(b) To develop the possibilities of judicial remedy 
and to ensure that any person claiming such a remedy 
shall have his right thereto determined by competent au- 
thorities, political, administrative or judicial ; 

(c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall 
enforce such remedies when granted. 

Article S 

1. In time of public emergency which threatens the 
life of the nation and the existence of which is otficially 
proclaimed, the States Parties hereto may take measures 
derogating from their obligations under this Covenant to 
the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situ- 
ation, provided that such measures are not inconsistent 
with tlieir other obligations under international law and 
do not involve discrimination solely on the ground of race, 
colour, sex, language, religion or social origin. 

2. No derogation from Articles 3, 4, 5 (paragraphs 1 
and 2), 7, 11, 12 and 13 may be made under this provision. 

3. Any State Party hereto availing itself of the right 
of derogation shall inform immediately the other States 
Parties to the Covenant, through the intermediary of the 
Secretary General, of the provisions from which it lias 
derogated, the reasons by which it was actuated and the 
date on which it has terminated such derogation. 

Article 4 

1. Nothing in this Covenant may be interpreted as im- 
plying for any State, group or person any right to engage 
in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruc- 
tion of any of the rights and freedoms recognized herein 
or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided 
for in this Covenant. 

2. There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from 
any of tlie fundamental human rights recognized or exist- 
ing in any Contracting State pursuant to law, conventions, 
regulations or custom on the pretext that the present 
Covenant does not recognize such rights or that it recog- 
nizes them to a lesser extent. 

PAKT in [CrilL AND POLITICAL EIGHTS] 

Article 5 

1. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life. 
Everyone's right to life shall be protected by law. 

2. In countries where capital punishment exists, sen- 
tence of death may be imposed only as a penalty for the 
most serious crimes pursuant to the sentence of a compe- 
tent court and in accordance with law not contrary to the 
principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 
or the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of 
the Crime of Genocide. 

3. Anyone sentenced to death shall have the right to 
seek pardon or commutation of the sentence. Amnesty, 
pardon or commutation of the sentence of death may be 
granted in all cases. 

4. Sentence of death shall not be carried out on a 
pregnant woman. 

Article 6 
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman 
or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, 
no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medi- 
cal or scientific experimentation involving risk, where 
such is not required by his state of physical or mental 
health. 

Article 7 

1. No one shall be held in slavery ; slavery and the 
slave trade in all their forms sliall be prohibited. 

2. No one shall be held in servitude. 

3. (a) No one shall be required to perform forced or 
compulsory labour. 

(b) The preceding sub-paragraph shall not be held 
to preclude, in countries where imprisonment with hard 
labour may be imposed as a punishment for a crime, the 
performance of hard labour in [mrsuance of a sentence to 
such punishment by a competent court. 



(c) For the puiTxise of this paragraph the term 
"forced or compulsory labour" shall not include : 

(i) Any work or service, not referred to in sub- 
paragraph (b), normally required of a ijerson who is un- 
der detention in consequence of a lawful order of a court ; 
(ii) Any service of a military character and, in 
countries where conscientious objection is recognized, any 
national service required by law of conscientious 
objectors ; 

( iii ) Any service exacted in cases of emergency or 
calamity threatening the life or well-being of the 
community ; 

(iv) Any work or service which forms part of 
normal civic obligations. 

Article S 

1. Everyone has the right to liberty and security of 
per.son. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or 
detention. No one shall be deprived of liis liberty except 
on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure 
as are established by law. 

2. Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the 
time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be 
promptly informed of any charges against him. 

3. Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge 
shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer 
authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be 
entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release. 
It shall not be the genera! rule that persons awaiting 
trial shall be detained in custody, but release may be sub- 
ject to guarantees to appear for trial, at any other stage 
of the judicial proceedings, and, should occasion arise, for 
execution of the judgment. 

4. Anyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or 
detention shall be entitled to take proceedings before a 
court, in order that such court may decide without delay 
on the lawfulness of his detention and order his release 
if the detention is not lawful. 

5. Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest 
or deprivation of liberty shall have an enforceable right 
to compensation. 

Article 9 

No one shall be imprisoned merely on the ground of 

inability to fulfil a contractual obligation. 

Article 10 

1. Subject to any general law of the State concerned 
which provides for such reasonable restrictions as may 
be necessary to protect national security, public safety, 
health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others, 
consistent with the other rights recognized in this 
Covenant : 

(a) Everyone legally within the territory of a State 
shall, within that territory, have the right to (i) liberty 
of movement and (ii) freedom to choose his residence; 

(b) Everyone shall be free to leave any country in- 
cluding his own. 

2. (a) No one shall be subjected to arbitrary exile; 
(b) Subject to the preceding sub-paragraph, anyone 

shall be free to enter his own country. 
Article 11 
An alien lawfully in tlie territory of a State party hereto 
may be expelled therefrom only in pursuance of a decision 
reached in accordance with law and shall, except where 
compelling reasons of national security otherwise require, 
be allowed to submit the reasons against his expulsion 
and to have his case reviewed by and be represented for 
the purpose before the competent authority or a person or 
persons specially designated by the competent authority. 

Article 12 

1. All persons shall be equal before the courts or tri- 
bunals. In the determination of any criminal charge 
against him, or of his riglits and obligations in a suit at 
law, everyone shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing 
by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal es- 
tablished by law. The Press and public may be excluded 



24 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



from all or part of a trial for reasons of morals, public 
order or national security in a democratic society, or wtien 
the interest of ttie private lives of the parties so requires, 
or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the 
Court in special circumstances where publicity would 
prejudice the interest of justice ; but any judgment 
rendered in a criminal case or in a suit at law shall be 
pronounced publicly except where the interest of juveniles 
otherwise requires or the proceedings concern matrimonial 
disputes or the guardianship of children. 

2. Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have 
the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty 
according to law. In the determination of any criminal 
charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to the 
following minimum guarantees, in full equality : 

(a) To be informed promptly in a language which 
he understands and in detail of the nature and cause of 
the accusation against him ; 

(b) To have adequate time and facilities for the 
preparation of his defence; 

(c) To defend himself In person or through legal 
assistance of his own choosing; to be informed, if he does 
not have legal assistance, of this right; and to have legal 
assistance assigned to him, in any case where the interests 
of justice so require, and without payment by him in any 
such case where he does not have sufBcient means to pay 
for it ; 

(d) To examine, or have examined the witnesses 
against him and to obtain the attendance and examina- 
tion of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions 
as witnesses against him ; 

(e) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if 
he cannot understand or speak the language used in court ; 

(f) Not to be compelled to testify against himself, 
or to confess guilt. 

3. In the case of juveniles, the procedure shall be such 
as will take account of their age and the desirability 
of promoting their rehabilitation. 

4. In any case where by a final decision a person has 
been convicted of a criminal offence and where subse- 
quently his conviction has been reversed or he has been 
pardoned on the ground that a new or newly discovered 
fact shows conclusively that there has been a mi.scarriage 
of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a 
result of such conviction shall be compensated unless it 
is proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown fact in 
time is wholly or partly attributable to him. 

Article 13 

1. No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence 
on account of any act or omission which did not consti- 
tute a criminal offence, under national or international 
law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a 
heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was appli- 
cable at the time when the criminal offence was committed. 
If, subsequent to the commission of the oft'ence, provision 
is made by law for the imposition of a lighter penalty, the 
offender shall benefit thereby. 

2. Nothing in this article shall prejudice the trial and 
punishment of any per.son for any act or omission, which, 
at the time when it was committed, was criminal accord- 
ing to the general principles of law recognized by the 
community of nations. 

Article IJf 
Everyone shall have the right to recognition every- 
where as a person before the law. 

Article 15 

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, 
conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom 
to maintain or to change his religion or belief, and free- 
dom, either individually or in community with others 
and in public or private, to manifest his religion or be- 
lief in worship, observance, practice and teaching. 

2. No one shall be subject to coercion whicli would 
impair his freedom to maintain or to change his religion 
or belief. 

3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may 



be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by 
law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, 
health, or morals or the fundamental rights and freedoms 
of others. 

Article 16 

1. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions with- 
out interference. 

2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expres- 
sion ; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive 
and impart Information and ideas of all kinds, regardless 
of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the 
form of art, or through any other media of his choice. 

3. The exercise of the rights provided for in the fore- 
going paragraph carries with it special duties and respon- 
sibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restric- 
tions, but these shall be such only as are provided by law 
and are nece-ssary, (1) for respect of the rights or reputa- 
tions of otliers, (2) for the protection of national security 
or of public order, or of public health or morals. 

AJticle n 

The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. 
No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right 
other than those imposed in conformity with the law and 
which are necessary in a democratic society in the in- 
terests of national security or public safety, public order, 
the protection of public health or morals or the protection 
of the rights and freedoms of others. 

Article 18 

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of associa- 
tion with others, including the right to form and join trade 
unions for the protection of his interests. 

2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of 
this right other than those prescribed by law and which 
are necessary in a democratic society in the Interests of 
national security or public safety, public order, the pro- 
tection of public health or morals or the protection of the 
rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not 
prevent the imiJosition of lawful restrictions on the exer- 
cise of this right by members of the armed forces or of 
the police. 

3. Nothing in this article shall authorize States Parties 
to the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right 
to Organize Convention, 194S, to take legislative measures 
which would prejudice, or to apply the law in such a 
manner as to prejudice, the guarantees provided for in 
that convention. 

Article 19 

All persons are equal before the law. The law shall 
prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persona 
equal and effective protection against discrimination on 
any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, 
political or other opinion, national or social origin, 
property, birth or other status. 

PAKT IV (COMPLAINT PBOCEDURE) 

[Part IV nas revised by the Commission on Human 
Riflhts at its 19'tl session and was not considered at its 
1952 sessi07i because of the lack of sufficient time to do 
so. The renumhcrinn of the articles of Parts IV arid V 
is not official, but has been done for the convenience of 
the reader. The Commis.non has not as yet decided 
lohether the implementation procedure set forth in this 
Part IV should also be included in the Covenant on Eco- 
nomic, Social and Cultural Riqhts. The discussion in the 
1951 session of the Commission indicated, however, xoide 
sentiment in the Commission against the applicability of 
this procedure to the economic, social and cultural rights. 
Tliis procedure ivas initially drafted by Hie Commission 
with respect to the civil and political rights in this Cove- 
nant. For these reasons this procedure is included only 
in this Covenant. '\ 



July 7, 1952 



25 



Article 20 
[formerly Article 33] 

[Note: The Commission decided at its 1951 session to 
postpone the vote on the whole of this article. The fol- 
lowing is the provisional text of the article.] 

1. With a view to the Implementation of the provisions 
of the International Covenant on Human Ri;,'hts, there 
shall be set up a Human Rights Committee, hereinafter 
referred to as "the Committee", composed of nine mem- 
bers vfith the functions hereinafter provided. 

2. The Committee shall be composed of nationals of the 
States Parties to the Covenant who shall be persons of 
high moral standing and recognized competence in the 
field of human rights, consideration being given to the 
usefulness of the participation of some persons having a 
judicial or legal experience. 

3. The members of the Committee shall be elected and 
shall serve in their personal capacities. 

Article 21 
[formerly Article 34] 

1. The members of the Committee shall be elected from 
a list of persons possessing the qualifications prescribed 
in Article 33 [now 20] and specially nominated for that 
purpose by the States Parties to the Covenant. 

2. Each State shall nominate at least two and not more 
than four persons. These persons may be nationals of 
the nominating State or of any other State Party to the 
Covenant. 

3. Nominations shall remain valid until new nomina- 
tions are made for the purpose of the next election under 
Article 39 [now 26]. A person shall be eligible to be 
renominated. 

Article 22 
[fonnerly Article 35] 

At least three months before the date of each election 
to the Committee, the Secretary General of the United 
Nations shall address a written request to the States 
Parties to the Covenant inviting them, if they have not 
already submitted their nominations, to submit them 
within two months. 

Article 23 
[formerly Article 36] 

The Secretary General of the United Nations shall pre- 
pare a list in alphabetical order of all the persons thus 
nominated, and submit it to the International Court of 
Justice and to the States Parties to the Covenant. 

Article 21, 
[formerly Article 37] 

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations, on 
behalf of the States Parties to the Covenant, shall re- 
quest the International Court of Justice to elect the 
members of the Committee from the list referred to in 
Article 36 [now 23] and in accordance with the conditions 
set out below. 

2. On receipt of the list from the Secretary-General of 
the United Nations, the President of the International 
Court of Justice shall fix the time of elections for mem- 
bers of the Committee. 

Article 2.5 
[formerly Article 38] 

1. No more than one national of any State may be a 
member of the Committee at any time. 

2. In the election of the Committee consideration shall 
be given to equitable geographical distribution of mem- 
bership and to the representation of the main forms of 
civilization. The persons elected shall be those who ob- 



tain the largest number of votes and an absolute ma- 
jority of the votes of all the members of the Court. 

3. The quorum of nine laid down in Article 25, para- 
graph 3, of the Statute of the Court shall apply for the 
holding of the elections by the Court. 

Article 26 
[formerly Article 39] 

The members of the Committee shall be elected for a 
term of five years and be eligible for re-election. How- 
ever, the terms of five of the members elected at the first 
election shall expire at the end of two years. Immedi- 
ately after the first election the names of the members 
whose terms expire at the end of the initial period of 
two years shall be chosen by lot by the President of the 
International Court of Justice. 

Article 27 
[formerly Article 40] 

1. Should a vacancy arise, the provisions of Articles 
35, 36, 37 and 38 [now 22, 23, 21, and 25] shall apply to 
the election. 

2. A member of the Committee elected to fill a vacancy 
shall, if his predecessor's term of oflBce has not expired, 
hold office for the remainder of that term. 

Article 28 
[formerly Article 41] 

A member of the Committee shall remain in office until 
his successor has been elected ; but if the Committee has, 
prior to the election of his successor, begun to consider 
a case, he shall continue to act in that case, and his suc- 
cessor shall not act in that case. 

Article 20 
[formerly Article 42] 

The resignation of a member of the Committee shall 
be addressed to the Chairman of the Committee through 
the Secretary of the Committee who shall immediately 
notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations and 
the International Court of Justice. 

Article SO 
[formerly Article 43] 

The members of the Committee and the Secretary, 
when engaged on the business of the Committee, shall 
enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunities. 

Article 31 
[formerly Article 44] 

1. The Secretary of the Committee shall be appointed 
by the International Court of Justice from a list of three 
names submitted by the Committee. 

2. The candidnte obtaining the largest number of votes 
and an absolute majority of the votes of all the members 
of the Court shall be declared elected. 

3. The quorum of nine laid down in Article 25, para- 
graph 3 of the Statute of the Court shall apply for the 
holding of the election by the Court. 

Article 32 
[formerly Article 45] 

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall con- 
vene the initial meeting of the Committee at the Head- 
quarters of the United Nations. 

Article SS 
[formerly Article 46] 

The Committee shall, at its initial meeting, elect its 
Chairman and Vice-Chairman for the period of one year. 



26 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Article Si 
[formerly Article 47] 

The Committee sliall establish its own rules of pro- 
cedure, but rhese rules shall provide that : 

(a) Seven members shall constitute a quorum; 

(b) The work of the Committee shall proceed by a 
majority vote of the members present; in the event of au 
equality of votes the Chairman shall have a casting vote ; 

(c) All States Parties to the Covenant having an 
Interest in any matter referred to the Committee under 
Article 52 [now 39] shall have the right to make submis- 
sions to the Committee in writing. 

The States referred to in Article 52 [now 39] shall fur- 
ther have the right to be represented at the hearings of 
the Committee and to make submissions orally. 

(d) The Committee shall hold hearings and other 
meetings in closed session. 

Article 35 
[formerly Article 48] 

1. After its initial meeting the Committee shall meet : 

(a) At such times as it deems necessary; 

(b) When any matter is referred to it under Article 
52 [now 39] ; 

(c) When convened by its Chairman or at the re- 
quest of not less than five of its members. 

2. The Committee shall meet at the permanent Head- 
quarters of the United Nations or at Geneva. 

Article 36 
[formerly Article 49] 

The Secretary of the Committee shall attend its meet- 
ings, make all necessary arrangements, in accordance with 
the Committee's instructions, for the preparation and 
conduct of the work, and carry out any other duties as- 
signed to him by the Committee. 

Article 37 
[formerly Article 50] 

The members and the Secretary of the Committee shall 
receive emoluments commensurate with the importance 
and responsibilities of their ofiice. 

Article SS 
[formerly Article 51] 

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall pro- 
vide the necessary staff and facilities for the Committee 
and its members. 

Article 39 
[formerly Article 52] 

1. If a State Party to the Covenant considers that 
another State Party is not giving effect to a provision 
of the Covenant, it may, by written communication, bring 
the matter to the attention of that State. Within three 
months after the receipt of the communication, the receiv- 
ing State shall afford the communicating State an ex- 
planation or statement in writing concerning the matter, 
which should include, to the extent possible and pertinent, 
references to domestic procedures and remedies taken, 
or pending, or available in the matter. 

2. If the matter is not adjusted to the satisfaction of 
both Parties within six months after the receipt by the 
receiving State of the initial communication, either State 
shall have the right to refer the matter to the Committee, 
by notice given to the Secretary of the Committee and to 
the other State. 

3. Subject to the provisions of Article 54 [noio 41] 
below, in serious cases where human life is endangered 
the Committee may, at the request of a State Party to 
the Covenant referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, 
deal forthwith with the case on receipt of the initial 
communication and after notifying the State concerned. 

July 7, J 952 



Article 40 
[formerly Article 53] 

The Committee shall deal with any matter referred 
to it under Article 52 [now 39] save that it shall have 
no power to deal with any matter: 

(a) For which any ojgan or specialized agency of 
the United Nations competent to do so has established 
a special procedure by which the States concerned are 
governed ; or 

(b) With which the International Court of Justice 
is seized other than by virtue of Article ... of the 
present Covenant. 

Article 41 
[formerly Article 54] 

Normally, the Committee shall deal with a matter 
referred to it only if available domestic remedies have 
been invoked and exhausted in the case. This shall not 
be the rule where tlie application of the remedies is 
unreasonably prolonged. 

Article 42 
[formerly Article 55] 

In any matter referred to it the Committee may call 
upon the States concerned to supply any relevant 
information. 

Article 43 
[formerly Article 56] 

The Committee may recommend to the Economic and 
Social Council that the Council request the International 
Court of Justice to give an advisory opinion on any legal 
question connected with a matter of which the Committee 
is seized. 

Article 44 
[formerly Article 57] 

1. Subject to the provisions of Article 54 [now 41], the 
Committee shall ascertain the facts and make available 
its good offices to the States concerned with a view to 
a friendly solution of the matter on the basis of respect 
for human rights as recognized in this Covenant. 

2. The Committee shall, in every case and in no event 
later than eighteen months after the date of receipt of 
the notice under Article 52 [now 39], draw up a report 
which will be sent to the States concerned and then com- 
municated to the Secretary-General of the United Nations 
for publication. The Committee shall complete its report 
as promptly, particularly when requested by one of the 
States Parties where human life is endangered. 

3. If a solution within the terms of paragraph 1 of this 
article is reached the Committee shall confine its report 
to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution 
reached. If such a solution is not readied, the Committee 
shall state in its report its conclusions on the facts and 
attach thereto the statements made by the parties to 
the case. 

Article 45 
[formerly Article 58] 

The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly, 
through the Secretary-General, an annual report of its 
activities. 

Article 46 
[formerly Article 59] 

The States Parties to this Covenant agree not to submit, 
by way of petition, to the International Court of Justice, 
except by special agreement, any dispute arising out of 
the interpretation or application of the Covenant in a 
matter within the competence of the Committee. 

27 



Article ^7 
[Territories Application Article] 

[This article iocs adopted hy the General AssemMy at 
its 1950 Session and revised only slightly by the Commis- 
sion on Human Rights at its 1951 Session] 

The provisions of tlie present Covenant sliall extend 
to or be applicable equally to a signatory metropolitan 
State and to all the territories, be they Non-Self-Govern- 
ing, Trust, or Colonial Territories, vphich are being 
administered or governed by such metropolitan State. 

Article 48 
[Federal State Article] 

[The comideration of this article was postponed until 
the 1953 Session of the Commission on Human Rights. 
The United States, together with Australia and India, 
submitted the following proposal for this article: 

1. A federal State may at the time of signature or 
ratification of, or accession to, this Covenant make a 
Declaration stating that it is a federal State to which 
this Article is applicable. In the event that such a 
Declaration is made, paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article 
shall apply to it. The Secretary General of the United 
Nations shall inform the other States Parties to this 
Covenant of such Declaration. 

2. This Covenant shall not operate so as to bring veithin 
the jurisdiction of the federal authority of a federal 
State making such Declaration, any of the matters re- 
ferred to in this Covenant which independently of the 
Covenant, would not be within the jurisdiction of the 
federal authority. 

3. Subject to paragraph 2 of this Article, the obliga- 
tions of such federal State shall be : 

(a) In respect of any provisions of the Covenant, 
the implementation of which is, under the constitution 
of the federation, wholly or in part within federal juris- 
diction, the obligations of the federal government shall, 
to that extent, be the same as those of Parties which have 
not made a declaration under this Article. 

(b) In respect of any provisions of the Covenant, 
the implementation of which is, under the constitution 
of the federation, wholly or in part within the jurisdic- 
tion of the constituent units (whether described as states, 
provinces, cantons, autonomous regions, or by any other 
name), and which are not, to this extent, under the con- 
stitutional system bound to take legislative action, the 
federal government shall bring such provisions with fa- 
vorable recommendations to the notice of the appropri- 
ate authorities of the constituent units, and shall also 
request such authorities to inform the federal government 
as to the law of the constituent units in relation to those 
provisions of the Covenant. The federal government 
shall transmit such information received from constitu- 
ent units to the Secretary General of the United Nations.] 

[Former articles 70 and 73 iccre revised by the Com- 
mission on Human Rights at its 1950 Session and were 
not considered at its 1951 or 1952 session because of the 
lack of sufficient time to do so.] 

Article .'i9 

[formerly Article 70] 

[Ratification and accession] 

1. This Covenant shall be open for signature and rati- 
fication or accession on behalf of any State Member of the 
United Nations or of any non-member State to which an 
invitation has been extended by the General Assembly. 

2. Ratification of or accession to this Covenant shall be 
effected by the deposit of an instrument of ratification or 
accession with the Secretary-General of the United Na- 
tions, and as soon as twenty States have deposited such 
instruments, the Covenant sliall come into force among 
them. As regards any State which ratified or accedes 

28 



thereafter the Covenant shall come into force on the date 
of the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession. 
3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall 
inform all Members of the United Nations, and other 
States which have si.sned or acceded, of the deposit of each 
instrument of ratification or accession. 

Article 50 

[formerly Article 73] 

[Amendments] 

1. Any State Party to the Covenant may propose an 
amendment and file it with the Secretary-General. The 
Secretary-General shall thereupon communicate the pro- 
posed amendment to the States Parties to the Covenant 
with a request that they notify him whetlier they favour 
a conference of States Parties for the purpose of con- 
sidering and voting upon the proposal. In the event that 
at least one third of the States favour such a conference 
the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under 
the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment 
adopted by a majority of States present and voting at the 
conference sliall be submitted to the General Assembly 
for approval. 

2. Such amendments shall come into force when they 
have been approved by the General Assembly and ac- 
c-epted by a two-thirds majority of the States Parties 
to the Covenant in accordance with their respective con- 
stitutional processes. 

3. When such amendments come into force they shall 
be binding on these Parties which have accepted them, 
other Parties being still bound by the provisions of the 
Covenant and any earUer amendment which they have 
accepted. 



DRAFT COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL 
AND CULTURAL RIGHTS 

(Preamble and first 16 articles were revised by the 
Commission on Human Rights at its April-June 1952 
Session) 

Preamble 

The States Parties hereto. 

Considering, that, in accordance with the principles 
proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recog- 
nition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalien- 
able rights of all members of the human family is the 
foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world. 

Recognizing that these rights are derived from the 
inherent dignity of the human person. 

Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal 
Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free men en- 
joying freedom from fear and want can only be achieved 
if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy 
his economic, social and cultural rights, as well as his 
civil and political rights. 

Considering the obligation of States under the Charter 
of the United Nations to promote universal respect for, 
and observance of, human rights and freedoms. 

Realizing that the individual, having duties to other 
individuals and to the community to which he belongs, is 
under responsibility to strive for the promotion and ob- 
servance of the rights recognized in this Covenant, 

Agree upon the following articles : 

PAET I 

Article 1 [Self -Determination] 

[The Commission on Human Rights drafted this article 
at its 1952 Session. The Commission did not have suf- 
ficient time to consider whether the provisions of Parts II 
and IV should apply to this Article 1.] 



Department of State Bulletin 



1. All peoples and all nations shall have the right of 
self-Jetermination, namely, the right freely to determine 
their political, economic, social and cultural status. 

2. All States, including those having responsibility for 
the administration of non-self-governing and trust terri- 
tories and those controlling in whatsoever manner the 
exercise of that right by another people, shall promote 
the realization of that right in all their territories, and 
shall respect the maintenance of that right in other 
States, in conformity with the provisions of the United 
Nations Charter. 

3. The right of the peoples to self-determination shall 
also include a permanent sovereignty over their natural 
wealth and resources. In no case may a people be de- 
prived of its own means of subsistence on the grounds of 
any rights that may be claimed by other States. 

PART II [general provisions] 

Article 2 

1. Each State Party hereto undertakes to take steps, 
individually and through international co-operation, to 
the maximum of its available resources, with a view to 
achieving progressively the full realization of the rights 
recognized in this Covenant by legislative as well as by 
other means. 

2. The States Parties hereto undertake to guarantee 
that the rights enunciated in this Covenant will be exer- 
cised without distinction of any kind, sucli as race, colour, 
sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national 
or social origin, property, birth or other status. 

Article 3 

The States Parties to the Covenant undertake to ensure 
the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of 
all economic, social and cultural rights set forth in this 
Covenant. 

Article -i 

The States Parties to this Covenant recognize that in 
the enjoyment of those rights provided by the State in 
conformity with this Covenant, the State may subject 
such rights only to such limitations as are determined by 
law only in so far as this may be compatible with the 
nature of these rights and solely for the purpose of 
promoting the general welfare in a democratic society. 

Article 5 

1. Nothing in this Covenant may be interpreted as im- 
plying for any State, group or person, any right to engage 
in any activity or to perform any act aimed at tlie de- 
struction of any of the rights or freedoms recognized 
herein or at tlieir limitation, to a greater extent than is 
provided for in this Covenant. 

2. No restriction upon or derogation from any of the 
fundamental human rights recognized or existing in any 
Country in virtue of law, conventions, regulations or cus- 
tom shall lie admitted on the pretext that the present 
Covenant does not recognize such rights or that it recog- 
nizes them to a lesser extent. 

PART III [ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL RIGHTS] 

Article 6 

1. Work being at the basis of all human endeavour, the 
States Parties to the Covenant recognize the right to 
work, that is to say, the fundamental right of everyone 
to the opportunity, if he so desires, to gain his living by 
work which he freely accepts. 

2. The steps to be taken by a State Party to this Cove- 
nant to achieve the full realization of this right shall in- 
clude programmes, policies, and techniques to achieve 
steady economic development and full iiroductive employ- 
ment under conditions safeguarding fundamental politi- 
cal and economic freedoms to the individual. 



Article 7 

The States Parties to the Covenant recognize the right 
of everyone to just and favourable conditions of work, 
including : 

(a) Safe and healthy working conditions; 

(b) Remuneration which provides all workers as a 
minimum with : 

(i) Fair wages and equal remuneration for work 
of equal value without distinction of any kind, in par- 
ticular, women being guaranteed conditions of work not 
inferior to those enjoyed by men, with equal pay for 
equal work ; and 

(ii) A decent living for themselves and their fam- 
ilies ; and 

(c) Rest, leisure and reasonable limitation of work- 
ing hours and periodic holidays with pay. 

Article 8 

The States Parties to the Covenant undertake to en- 
sure the free exercise of the right of everyone to form 
and join local, national and international trade unions 
of his choice for the protection of his economic and social 
interests. 

Article 9 

The States Parties to the Covenant recognize the right 
of everyone to social security. 

Article 10 

The States Parties to the Covenant recognize that : 

1. Special protection should be accorded to motherhood 
and particularly to maternity during reasonable periods 
before and after childbirth ; and 

2. Special measures of protection, to be applied in all 
appropriate cases within and with the help of the family, 
should be taken on behalf of children and young persons, 
and in particular they should not be required to do work 
likely to hamper their normal development. To protect 
children from exploitation, the unlawful use of child 
labour and the employment of young persons in work 
harmful to health or dangerous to life should be made 
legally actionable ; and 

3. The family, which is the basis of society, is entitled 
to the widest possible protection. It is based on mar- 
riage, which must be entered into with the free consent 
of the intending spouses. 

Article 11 

The States Parties to the Covenant recognize the right 
of everyone to adequate food, clothing and housing. 

Article 12 

The States Parties to the Covenant recognize the right 
of everyone to an adequate standard of living and the 
continuous Improvement of living conditions. 

Article IS 

The States Parties to the Covenant, realizing that health 
is a state of complete physical, mental and social well- 
being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, 
recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the 
highest standard of health. 

The steps to be taken by the States Parties to the 
Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall 
include those necessary for : 

(a) The reduction of infant mortality and the pro- 
vision for healthy development of tlie child ; 

(b) The improvement of nutrition, housing, sanita- 
tion, recreation, economic and working conditions and 
other a.spects of environmental hygiene ; 

(c) The prevention, treatment and control of epi- 
demic, endemic and other diseases ; 



Jo/y 7, 7952 



29 



(d) The creation of conditions which would assure 
to all medical service and medical attention in the event 
of sickness. 

Article H 

1. The States Parties to the Covenant recognize the 
right of everyone to education, and recognize that edu- 
cation shall encourage the full development of the human 
personality, the strengthening of respect for human rights 
and fundamental freedoms and the suppression of all 
Incitement to racial and other hatred. It shall promote 
understanding, tolerance and friendship among all na- 
tions, racial, ethnic or religious groups, and shall further 
the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance 
of peace and enable all persons to participate effectively 
in a free society. 

2. It is understood : 

(a) That primary education shall be compulsory 
and availnlile free to all ; 

ih) That secondary education, in its different forms, 
including technical and professional secondary education, 
shall be generally available and shall be made progres- 
sively free ; 

(c) That higher education shall be equally accessible 
to all on the basis of merit and shall be made progressively 
free ; 

(d) That fundamental education for those persons 
who have not received or completed the whole period of 
their primary education shall be encouraged as far as 
possible. 

3. In the exercise of any functions which they assume 
in the field of education, the States Parties to the Cove- 
nant undertake to have respect for the liberty of parents 
and, when applicable, legal guardians to choose for their 
children schools other than those established by the 
public authorities which conform to such minimum edu- 
cational standards as may be laid down or approved by 
the State and to ensure the religious education of their 
children in conformity with their own convictions. 

Article 15 

Each State Party to the Covenant which, at the time 
of becoming a party to this Covenant, has not been aljle 
to secure in its metropolitan territory or other territories 
under its .iinnsdiction compulsory jirimary education, free 
of charge, undertakes, within two years, to work out and 
adopt a detailed plan of action for the progressive im- 
plementation, within a reasonable number of years, to 
be fixed in tlie plan, of the princi|iie of compulsory pri- 
mary education free of charge for all. 

Article 16 

1. The States Parties to tlie Covenant recognize the 
right of everyone : 

(a) To take part in cultural life; 

(b) To enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and 
its applications. 

2. The steps to l)e taken Iiy the States Parties to this 
Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right 
shall include those necessary for the conservation, the 
development and the diffusion of science and culture. 

3. The States Parties to the Covenant undertake to 
respect the freedom indispensable for scientific research 
and creative activity. 

PAIIT IV [BEPORTINO PKOCEDUEE] 

(Part IV was initially drafted by the Commission on 
Human Rights at its 19.51 Session and was not considered 
at its 1952 Session because of the lack of sufficient time 
to do so. The renumbering of the articles of Parts IV and 
V is not official, l)ut has I)een done for the convenience of 
the reader. The Commission has not as yet decided 
whether the procedure set forth in this Part IV should 
also be applicable to civil and political rights. Senti- 
ment at the 19.51 session of the Commission was divided 



on this issue. This procedure was, however, initially 
drafted by the Commission with respect to the economic, 
social and cultural rights in this Covenant. For this 
reason this procedure is included only in this Covenant.) 

Article n 
[formerly Article 60] 

The States Parties to this Covenant undertake to sub- 
mit reports concerning the progress made in achieving 
the observance of these rights in conformity with the 
following articles and the recommendations which the 
General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council, 
in the exercise of their general responsibility may make 
to all the Members of the United Nations. 

Article IS 
[formerly Article 61] 

1. The States Parties shall furuLsh their reports in 
stages, in accordance with a programme to be established 
by the Economic and Social Council after consultation 
with the States Parties to this Covenant and the special- 
ized agencies concerned. 

2. Reports may indicate factors and diflSculties affect- 
ing the degree of fulfilment of obligations under this 
part of the Covenant. 

3. Where relevant information has already previously 
been furnished to the United Nations or to any specialized 
agency, the action required by this Article may take the 
form of a precise I'eference to the information so 
furnished. 

Article 19 
. [formerly Article 62] 

Pursuant to its responsibilities under the Charter in 
the field of human rights, the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil shall make special arrangements with the specialized 
agencies in respect of their reporting to it on the progress 
made in achieving the observance of the provisions of 
this Part of the Covenant falling within their compe- 
tence. These reports shall include particulars of de- 
cisions and recommendations on such implementation 
adopted by their competent organs. 

Article SO 
[formerly Article 63] 

The Economic and Social Council shall transmit to 
the Commission on Human Rights for study and recom- 
mendation tlie reports concerning human rights submitted 
by States, and those concerning human rights submitted 
l)y the competent specialized agencies. 

Article 21 
[formerly Article 64] 

The States Parties directly concerned and the special- 
ized agencies may submit comments to the Economic and 
Social Council on the report of the Commission on Human 
Rights. 

Article 22 
[formerly Article 65] 

Tlie Economic and Social Council may sulimit from 1 
time to time to the General Assembly, with its own re- ' 
ports, reports sununarizing the information made avail- 
able by the States Parties to the Covenant directly to the 
Secretary-General and by the specialized agencies under 
Article . . . indicating the progress made in achieving 
general observance of these right.s. 

Article 23 
[formerly Article 66] 

The Economic and Social Council may submit to the 
Technical Assistance Board or to any other appropriate 
international organ the findings contained in the report 
of the Commission on Human Rights which may assist 



30 



Departrr.enf of State Bulletin 



such organs in deciding each within its competence, on 
the advisaljility of international measures liltely to con- 
tribute to the progressive implementation of this 
Covenant. 

Article 2// 
[formerly Article 67] 

The States Parties to the Covenant agree that inter- 
national action for the achievement of these rights in- 
cludes such methods as conventions, recommendations, 
technical assistance, regional and technical meetings and 
studies with governments. 

Article 25 
[formerly Article 68] 

Unless otherwise decided by the Commission on Human 
Eights or by the Economic and Social Council or requested 
by the State directly concerned, the Secretary-General of 
the United Xations shall arrange for the publication of 
the report of the Commission on Human Rights, or re- 
ports presented to the Council by specialized agencies as 
well as of all decisions and recommendations reached by 
the Economic and Social Council. 

Article 2G 
[formerly Article 69] 

Nothing in this Covenant shall lie interpreted as im- 
pairing the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations 
and of the Constitutions of the specialized agencies, which 
define the respective responsibilities of the various organs 
of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies in 
regard to the matters dealt within this Covenant. 



Article 27 
[Territories Application Article] 

[This article was adopted iij the Oeneral Assemlili/ at 
its 1950 Session and revised only sUphtlii bij the Commis- 
sion on Human Rights at its 1951 Session] 

The provisions of the present Covenant shall extend to 
or be applicable equally to a signatory metropolitan State 
and to all the territories, be they Non-Self-Governing, 
Trust, or Colonial Territories, which are being adminis- 
tered or governed by such metropolitan State. 

Article 28 
[Federal-State Article] 

[The consideration of this article was postponed until 
the 1953 Session of the Commission on Human Rights. 
The United States, together with Australia and India, 
submitted the following proposal for this article: 

1. A federal State may at the time of signature or ratifi- 
cation of, or accession to, this Covenant make a Declara- 
tion stating that it is a federal State to which this Article 
Is applicable. In the event that such a Declaration is 
made, paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article shall apply to 
it. The Secretary General of the United Nations shall 
inform the other States I'arties to this Covenant of such 
Declaration. 

2. This Covenant shall not operate so as to bring 
within the jurisdiction of the federal authority of a fed- 
eral State making such Declaration, any of the matters 
referred to in this Covenant which independently of the 
Covenant, would not be within the jurisdiction of the 
federal authority. 

3. Subject to paragraph 2 of this Article, the obliga- 
tions of such federal State shall be: 

(a) In respect of any provisions of the Covenant, 
the implementation of which is, under the constitution 
of the federation, wholly or in part within federal juris- 
diction, the obligations of the federal government shall, 



to that extent, be the same as those of Parties which have 
not made a declaration under this Article. 

(b) In respect of any provisions of the Covenant, 
the implementation of which is, under the constitution of 
the federation, wholly or in part within the jurisdiction 
of the constituent units (whether described as states, 
provinces, cantons, autonomous regions, or by any other 
name), and which are not, to this extent, under the con- 
stitutional system bound to take legislative action, the 
federal government shall bring such provisions with fa- 
vorable recommendations to the notice of the appropriate 
authorities of the constituent units, and shall also request 
such authorities to inform the federal government as to 
the law of the constituent units in relation to those 
provisions of the Covenant. The federal government shall 
transmit such information received from constituent units 
to the Secretary General of the United Nations.] 

[Former Articles "10 and 13 were revised by the Com- 
miiision on Human Rights at its 1950 Session and ivere 
not considered at its 1951 or 1952 Session because of the 
lack of sufficient time to do so.] 

Article 29 

[formerly Article 70] 

[Ratification and Accession] 

1. This Covenant shall be open for signature and rati- 
fication or accession on behalf of any State Member of 
the United Nations or of any non-member State to which 
an invitation has been extended by the General Assembly. 

2. Ratification of or accession to this ("ovcnant shall be 
effected by the deposit of an instrument of ratiflcatiim or 
accession with the Secretary-General of the United Na- 
tions, and as soon as twenty States have deposited such 
instruments, the Covenant shall come into force among 
them. As regards any Slate which ratified or accedes 
thereafter the Covenant shall come into force on the date 
of the deposit of its instrument of ratification or 
acce.ssion. 

3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall 
inform all Members of the United Nations, and other 
States which have signed or acceded, of the deposit of 
eacli instrument of ratification or accession. 

Article 30 

[formerly Article 73] 

[Amendments] 

1. Any State Party to the Covenant may propose an 
amendment and file it with the Secretary-General. The 
Secretary-General shall thereupon communicate the pro- 
posed amendment to the States Parties to the Covenant 
with a request that they notify him whether thev favour 
a conference of States Parties for the purpose of consider- 
ing and voting upon the proposal. In the event that at 
least one-third of the States favour such a conference the 
Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the 
auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted 
by a majority of States present and voting at the confer- 
ence shall be submitted to the General Assembly for 
approval. 

2. Such amendments shall come into force when they 
have been approved by the General Assembly and accepted 
by a two-thirds majority of the States parties to the 
Covenant in accordance with their respective constitu- 
tional processes. 

3. When such amendments come into force they shall 
be binding on those parties which have accepted them, 
other parties being still bound by the provisions of the 
Covenant and any earlier amendments which they have 
accepted. 

*Mr. Simsarian is assistant oificer in charge of 
United Nations Cidtwral and Human Rights 
Affairs and also adviser to the U.S. representative 
on the Commission on Human Rights. 



July 7, J 952 



31 



U.S. Proposes Investigation of Bacteriological 
Warfare Charges 



Statements hy Ernest A. Gross 

Deputy U.S. Representative to the United Nations 



NEED FOR ELIMINATION OF GERM WARFARE' 

Mr. President:^ 

Despite the lateness of the hour, I feel that the 
situation and the comments which you have made 
require a reply on my part. With the permission 
of the Council I should like to proceed to make 
such a reply. 

Mr. President, it seems to me that we are faced 
with a situation which we must consider very 
carefully. For some time, there has been under 
way on the part of the Government of the Soviet 
Union a campaign which has been repeatedly char- 
acterized by all responsible officials of the Unified 
Command,"and by others in a position to know the 
facts, as a false and malicious campaign regarding 
the use of bacteriological warfare in Korea. 

In view of the nature of the statement which 
the representative of the Soviet Union has made 
this afternoon, I do not intend at this time to go 
into detail regarding the nature of that campaign 
of lies nor to elaborate other than to say that 
there has been no evidence, no evidence whatever, 
placed before the membership of the United Na- 
tions or manifested in any other way, on any other 
front, throughout the world that the Soviet Gov- 
ernment has abandoned its campaign of lies re- 
garding the question of germ warfare. 
It is a matter — 

[At this point, the I'resident, Mr. Jlalik, appeared to con- 
sider ruling Ambassador Gross out of order.] 

I believe I have the floor, Mr. President. I think 
that many people will be touched, if not interested, 
in the respect which the President of the Council 
purports now to observe for the rules of procedure 

■ Made in the Security Council June IS and released to 
the press by the U.S. Mission to the U.N. on tlie same date. 

''Takov Malik, U.S.S.R. representative to the U.N., 
.served as president of the Security Council during June. 
He also serves as representative of the U.S.S.K. on the 
U.N. Disarmament Commission. 



32 



in contrast to the abuse of those rules in August of 
lOoO.^' I think that it will be clear to the members 
of the Council, and I hope as well to the President 
of the Council, that what I am about to say will 
show very definitely and clearly why the comments 
which I have made are completely relevant to the 
question of the Geneva protocol and its ratifica- 
tion. 

I had started to say, Mr. President, that I do 
not intend to speak more about the germ warfare 
charge at this time, except to say that we are not 
yet convinced by any means that the Soviet Gov- 
ernment is prepared to abandon a false and mali- 
cious charge, the continuation of which can be 
fraught only with misfortune and disaster. 

The reference to the germ warfare propaganda 
campaign which the Soviet Government has been 
carrying on is quite relevant, inescapably con- 
nected with the subject of the Geneva protocol. I 
am sure that everyone will realize that in apprais- 
ing the merits of the proposal of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment in the resolution regarding the Geneva 
protocol, it is absolutely essential to keep in mind 
whether the motive ofthose who make that pro- 
posal stand the light of truth and of inspection. 

The draft resolution, which the Soviet repre- 
sentative submitted today and to which I shall 
address myself directly, the draft resolution would 
have the Security Council appeal to all states to 
accede and to ratify the Geneva protocol of 1925. 
And the protocol, as is known, provides for the 
prohibition of the use in war of asphyxiating, 
poisonous, or other gases, and of all analogotis 
liquids, materials, or devices, as well as bacteri- 
ological methods of warfare. 

As was said in the Disarmament Commission, 
when the proposal was made by the Soviet repre- 
sentative regarding the Geneva protocol, and when 
the claim was made that the ratification of that 



^ A reference to Mr. Malik's presidency of the Council 
in August 1950. 

Deparfmeni of Sfofe Bulletin 



protocol is an essential condition, an element of a 
peaceful world and of a disarmament program, it 
was our representative in the Commission, Am- 
bassador Cohen, who said then, and I repeat his 
words now : 

Those who make false charges concerning the use of 
bacteriological warfare can just as easily make false 
promises not to use bacteriological warfare.* 

When in 1925 the Geneva protocol was proposed 
and signed, statesmen still hoped that exchange 
of promises would be honored by all states. Most 
of them then, as most of them today, regarded 
treaties as binding on those who signed them. An 
agreement was an agreement; and many thought 
that this was sufficient without any need for ma- 
chinery to safeguard the observance of the 
agreements. 

The United States signed but did not ratify this 
protocol. The reasons why the United States 
Senate did not ratify the protocol may be of inter- 
est to the historian of American attitudes of that 
period. But these reasons are no more relevant 
to a consideration of the problem today than 
would, let us say, consideration by the Security 
Council of the attitudes of the Soviet Government 
toward the rest of the world in 1925. What mat- 
ters deeply to us and to all those who, we believe, 
comprise the freedom-loving world, what matters 
are the problems which confront us all today. It 
was in full recognition of these problems that we 
are talking about today, that in 1947 the President 
of the United States withdrew the Geneva protocol 
from the Senate calendar along with 18 other 
treaties which had become just as obsolete as the 
Geneva protocol. The world has moved since 1925 
and the (juestion of ratification must be viewed in 
the light of today's facts. 

Soviet Reservations 

One of those facts is that the Soviet Union, in 
acceding to the Geneva protocol, stated the fol- 
lowing reservation : 

(1) The said Protocol only binds the Government of 
the USSR in relation to tlie States which have sisned and 
ratified or which liave definitely acceded to the I'rotocol. 

(2) The said Protocol shall cease to be binding on the 
Government of the USSR in regard to all enemy States 
whose armed forces or whose Allies dc jure or in fact do 
not respect the restrictions which are the object of tliis 
Protocol. 

The first point, the point in the first reservation 
to which I have referred, means that the Soviet 
Government by its own reservation feels free to 
use poison gases or germ weapons against any 
state which for any reason has not ratified the pro- 
tocol. This, it seems to me, exposes the sham 
character of the pretense that poison gases or 
germ weapons should never be used under any 
circumstances, which is implied by the statement 
of the Soviet representative in his resolution that 



* Bulletin of Juno 9, 1952, p. 912. 



the use of these weapons is inadmissible. They 
are clearly not considered inadmissible for use by 
the Soviet Government under the conditions which 
are set forth in the reservations which the Soviet 
Government made to the protocol. 

The second point, the second reservation is 
equally important, even more important. It 
means that the Soviet Government regards itself 
as free to use poison gases or germ warfare against 
any state which it decides to label an enemy and 
which it declares has used these weapons, where 
as I have said the reservation states that the jjroto- 
col "shall cease to be binding on the Government 
of the USSR in regard to all enemy States whose 
armed forces or whose Allies de jure or in fact do 
not respect the restrictions which are the object of 
this Protocol." 

It is here that the President will observe that the 
close connection between the actions which his 
Government has taken in a campaign of lies re- 
garding germ warfare are so intimately related to 
the question of what the Geneva protocol means 
to the Soviet Government today. 

I do not mean to suggest for a moment that the 
reservation which I have quoted is in itself inap- 
propriate. Other states which acceded to the pro- 
tocol, including some members of this Council, 
have expressed a similar reservation. What I do 
say is that the Soviet Government by charging the 
U.N. Command with the use of bacteriological 
weapons has set the stage for using these weapons 
itself if it should decide to declare that the states 
resisting aggression in Korea are its enemies. 

The Chinese Communist and North Korean au- 
thorities are not parties to the protocol. But even 
if they signed it or should do so today, under the 
Soviet reservation and on the basis of the same 
false charges they have made against the United 
Nations regarding the use of germ warfare, they 
could proclaim this very afternoon their right to 
attack with germ weapons every member of the 
United Nations which is supporting the action 
against their aggression in Korea. 

It seems to me very clear how extremely limited 
is the nature of the illusion of a Soviet promise 
in the Geneva protocol. The Soviet representative 
in his statement a short while ago referred to a 
declaration of policy regarding the stockpiling of 
weapons. The Geneva protocol does not refer to 
or limit in any way the stockpiling of weapons. 
The Soviet Union has not by signing the proto- 
col or otherwise agreed to stop manufacturing 
weapons either for gas warfare or for bacterio- 
logical warfare. It has not even promised not 
to use such weapons. It has promised, for what 
that promise is worth, not to use them first except 
against countries which have not ratified the con- 
vention, and there they do not even attach that 
limitation of not using them first. 

The present resolution, therefore, the one before 
us, we characterize and stamp as a fraud, for in 



Jo/y 7, 7952 



33 



it the Soviet Government asks other states, or 
would have the Council recommend to other states, 
to ratify a protocol which the Soviet Union on 
the basis of its own false charges, which have not 
been withdrawn by anything whicli the represent- 
ative of the Soviet Union said today, on the basis 
of its own false charges his Government could 
declare no longer bincling upon itself. 

Tliat is the situation in which the world finds 
itself today. 

The real question is not the exchange of ]:)romises 
with or without reservations. The woi-ld is con- 
cerned not about the announced intentions of 
states, whether or not they plan to use or promise 
not to use certain weapons. It is concerned about 
the known abilities of states, whether or not they 
possess certai)! weapons, and of the capacities and 
means to employ them. 



Soviet Union Engaged in Research 

The Soviet Union admits it is engaged in re- 
search on bacteriological weapons. For instance, 
in 1938, Marshal Voroshilov said : 

Ten years aso or more the Soviet Union signed a con- 
vention abolishing the nse of poison gas and bacterio- 
logical weapons. To that we still adhere, but if our 
enemies use such methods against us I tell jou we are 
prepared and fully preiiared to u.se them also and to use 
them against aggressors on their own soil. 

There was never an attempt made on the part 
of the Soviet Union to conceal the fact that it was 
prepared and fully prepared, as Voroshilov said, 
to use this weapon, the use of which the Soviet 
resolution fraudulently describes, from its own 
point of view, as inadmissible. 

The United States, for its part, thinks it is ob- 
vious that until an effective disarmament program 
is agreed upon, we must build our own defenses, 
for this is the only way left to us to deter potential 
aggressors. 

It is the possibility that states may use bacterio- 
logical weapons that must be faced. It is the 
danger that aggressors may use bacteriological 
weapons that must be eliminated. 

The best evidence of the United States attitude 
toward germ warfare is our own record. The 
TTnited States has never used germ warfare in 
World War II or at any other time. I am au- 
thorized to say on behalf of the Unified Command 
tliat the United States has not and is not using 
germ warfare of any kind in Korea. The people 
of the United States, along witli the rest of tlie 
decent world, are sickened at the very thought of 
the use of the weapons of mass destruction. We 
are sickened also by aggression and the threat of 
aggression. That is why the United States stands 
ready to eliminate weapons of mass destruction 
through the establishment of an effective system 
based upon pffective safeguards so that their use 
may be prohibited effectively and would indeed be 
impossible. 



The United States, however, is unwilling, com- 
pletely unwilling to participate in committing a 
fraud on the world through placing reliance solely 
upon paper promises which permit the stockpil- 
ing of unlimited quantities of germ warfare or 
other weapoi'S that could be used at the drop of 
a hat; which permit the most elaborate prepara- 
tions behind the Iron and behind the Bamboo Cur- 
tains and with preparations that could not pos- 
sibly be detected. 

Let us eliminate tlie weapons. That will bring 
a sense, a real sense of security to the world. 

My Government proposes not the exchange of 
promises against the use of such weapons but the 
absolute ehmination of suclt weapons. We want 
to see the world in a situation where these weap- 
ons together with all weapons of mass destruc- 
tion cannot in fact be used at all, for the simple 
reason that no one has them and that everyone 
can be sure that no one has them. 

The Soviet Union now in effect proposes a 
"declaration" prohibiting atomic weapons. The 
United States proposes a system of international 
control of atomic energy, which will actually pro- 
hibit and prevent the use of atomic weapons be- 
cause no nation will possess the means to make 
them. An overwhelming majority of the mem- 
bers of the United Nations have shown through 
the years their conviction that only through 
this approach can the world be freecl from the 
danger of atomic warfare. An overwhelming 
majority showed a similar conviction with re- 
gard to germ warfare when they voted last fall 
to establish under the Security Council the Dis- 
armament Commission and directed it to find 
means of eliminating all weapons of mass destruc- 
tion under a system of safeguards adequate to 
insure that they really are eliminated. 

It is in the Disarmament Commission of course 
that this discussion, this very discussion, properly 
belongs. The Soviet representative, in my view 
erroneously invoking a point of order under the 
rules, has pointed out — I regret that he has not 
done so more frequently in the Disarmament Com- 
mission — has pointed out that there is a great and 
important distinction between the question of reg- 
ulation of armaments on tlie one hand and the 
question of charges, false charges, concerning their 
use on the other. 

By his own admission this question and this 
proposal deal not with the false charges of germ 
M-arfare. They deal with the problem of the reg- 
ulation of armaments and the prohibition of weap- 
ons of mass destruction. That admission merely 
confirms, what I think most of us realize, that the 
Disarmament Commission is the proper body in 
which to pursue this discussion and at the present 
time, I think, the only proper body. 

We have ourselves in the Disarmament Commis- 
mission, as have a number of our colleagues, 
already explained our position in regard to the 
Geneva protocol and in regard to the elimination, 



34 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



the actual elimination, of all -weapons of mass 
destruction, including atomic and germ warfare. 

By his draft resolution the Soviet representa- 
tive is attempting to transfer the discussion of 
one phase of the regulation of armaments from 
the Disarmament Commission at this time to the 
Security Council. I thinli I have shown that the 
Geneva protocol itself does not even begin to pro- 
vide the minimum requirements needed today to 
guarantee against the use of bacteriological 
warfare. 

Nevertheless, the declared objective of the 
Soviet draft resolution is to provide, and I quote 
from it, "for the ]:)rohibition of the use of bac- 
teriological weapons." That objective my Gov- 
ernment shares. That objective my Government 
believes, and I think the overwhelming majority 
of the members of the United Nations shares our 
view, can be achieved only by detailed jjlans of 
international control set in a framework of com- 
prehensive disarmament proposals covering all 
armed forces and all armaments. 

For these reasons the U.S. delegation moves, 
pursuant to rule 33, paragraph 4, of our rules of 
procedure, that the Soviet draft resolution, docu- 
ment S/2663, be referred to the Disarmament 
Commission for consideration, pursuant to the 
terms of reference of that commission, in connec- 
tion with the proposals which the General As- 
sembly has directed the Disarmament Commission 
to prepare "for the elimination of all major weap- 
ons adaptable to mass destruction." 

I respectfully hope that members of the Coun- 
cil will agree that this is the proper way for the 
Council to deal with the Soviet clraft resolution. 
Item 2 of the program of work adoj^ted by the 
Disarmament Commission on March 26 of this 
year reads : '"Elimination of weapons of mass de- 
struction and control with a view to ensuring their 
elimination." 

That is the program of work of the Disarma- 
ment Commission. Unless there be any doubt as 
to what that means, the U.S. representative on the 
Disarmament Commission, along with several 
otiier members, has said that this specifically is 
intended to include bacteriological weapons. He 
has also said, and this is pei-tinent to our discussion 
today, the U.S. Government is interested in dis- 
armament as a means of preventing war. outlaw- 
ing war, not as a means of regulating war. 

That statement of policy I think brings us, and 
I conclude with this, very close to the heart of 
our problem here. Aggression is the enemy, not 
the particular weapons used, as the General As- 
sembly has itself declared in a resolution over- 
whelmingly supported by the United Nations 
under the title Peace Through Deeds. Aggres- 
sion is the enemy. The elimination of weapons of 
mass destruction, the drastic reduction of armed 
forces, and the regulation of the weapons needed 
to support those armed forces will decrease the 
possibility of aggression. It is because we wish 



to see real progi'ess in this vital task that we pro- 
pose the referral of the Soviet draft resolution to 
the Disarmament Commission. 



REQUEST FOR IMPARTIAL INVESTIGATION ^ 

The resolution which the President of the Coun- 
cil has submitted to us has all the characteristics 
of a disembodied spirit. 

The Soviet representative has asked the Council 
to adopt a resolution urging the ratification of a 
protocol now 27 years old. However, if his argu- 
ments prove anything at all, it is not that the 
Council should act. On the contrary, taking his 
argument at face value, it shows the need for press- 
ing on in the Disarmament Commission with plans 
for the eflfective control of all weapons of mass 
destruction, including germ warfare weapons. 
Everything he says confirms our view that the 
Soviet draft resolution should be referred to the 
Disarmament Commission for consideration pur- 
suant to its terms of reference. 

In the Disarmament Commission, the Soviet 
representative spoke in a manner utterly contra- 
dictory to what he says here in the Security Coun- 
cil. In speech after speech he attacked my 
country with utterly false and malicious accusa- 
tions, that we were killing Korean and Chinese 
civilians and soldiers through the use of germ 
warfare. He does not now withdraw and abandon 
these lies. Instead, he submits to the Council a 
resolution asking for the ratification of the Geneva 
protocol of 1925 on the prohibition of bacteriologi- 
cal weapons. 

But between his resolution and the charges re- 
garding germ warfare he proceeds to draw a thin 
and rusty iron curtain. He tells us there is no 
connection whatever between the two. Why does 
he make these delicate distinctions? 

Can it be because the introduction of the germ 
warfare charges inevitably invites an investiga- 
tion into the charges ? 

The Soviet representative has concentrated on 
the Geneva protocol of 1925, implying that there 
must be something sinister in the fact that the 
United States has not ratified it. 

I have already called his attention to the fact 
that this is the year 1952, not 1925. We are con- 
cerned, the whole free world is concerned, with 
the facts of life which we face today. In light 
of the facts of history, is it any wonder that in the 
field of weapons control, the paper pledge has 
given way to insistence upon workable, practical 
systems for elimination of all weapons of mass 
destruction, including germ warfare and the atom 
weapon ? 

The Soviet representative brought in the report 
by the Special Committee of the League of Na- 



' Statement made in the Security Council June 20 and 
released to tlie press by the U.S. Mission to the U.N. on 
the same date. 



July 7, J 952 



35 



tions as authority for the contention that there 
could be no effective control of bacteriological 
weapons. The Soviet Government appai'ently 
believes that it is useless even to try to devise such 
controls. My Government differs. 

To wage bacteriological warfare on any large 
scale is a vast operation requiring extensive muni- 
tions of the conventional type, arsenals for manu- 
facturing and loading, and carriers. Prepara- 
tions for waging such warfare can be detected in 
a relatively open world. An open world such as is 
envisaged in the proposals before the Disarma- 
ment Commission where international inspectors 
have free access to the entire national territory 
of all states, we believe, would afford an effective 
safeguard against large-scale preparation for bac- 
teriological warfare. 

We are convinced that the methods for effective 
safeguards must be sought by sincere people work- 
ing honestly to accomplish that objective. The 
proper place to accomplish this is in the Disarma- 
ment Commission and in its committees. 

In his statement here on Wednesday [June IS], 
the Soviet representative indicated that the Dis- 
armament Commission was sidestepping the con- 
trol of germ warfare. He stated in particular 
that the United States had submitted no practical 
proposals on the prohibition of bacteriological 
weapons and that we opposed a proposal concern- 
ing the prohibition of bacterial weapons. He is 
wrong in both cases. "\'\liat are the facts? The 
United States has consistently taken the position 
that the elimination of bacteriological weaj^ons 
must be included in a comprehensive and coordi- 
nated disarmament program. To quote from a 
statement to the Disarmament Commission by the 
United States representative. Ambassador Cohen, 
on May 27 : " 

Bacteriological weapons can be eliminated only if cer- 
tain states are willing, as the United States is willing, 
to establish an effective s.ysteni of safeguards. The tech- 
nical safeguards connected with bacteriological warfare 
would differ from those of atomic energy and also from 
those in connection with other types of nonatomic 
weapons. . . . 

The first and all-important safeguard against bacterio- 
logical warfare, however, is an open world, a world 
where no state could develop the military strength neces- 
sary for aggression without other states having ample 
warning and the opportunity to protect themselves. 

But what of the Soviet representative's second 
claim, his contention that in the Disarmament 
Commission we opposed consideration of the ques- 
tion of banning bacteriological weapons? He is 
an accomplished creator of straw men and this is 
no exception. He has selected a paragrapli from 
the Soviet Plan of Work, which was voted down 
as a whole by a vote of 9 to 1. The Commission 
adopted as a better formulation another plan of 
work which covered the prohibition of germ war- 
fare. It is included in subparagraph B of the 

° Bulletin of June 9, 1952, p. 91.3. 



work plan on the elimination of all major weapons 
adaptable to mass destruction. It is therefore 
quite untrue to state that the United States op- 
poses or has opposed consideration of the prohibi- 
tion of germ warfare in the Disarmament 
Commission. 

In his statement here Wednesday, the Soviet 
representative also referred to the protracted dis- 
cussion in the United Nations on the reduction 
of ai'maments and the prohibition of atomic weap- 
ons as having diverted attention from the prohibi- 
tion of bacterial weapons. He added that atten- 
tion was drawn to this point by the report of the 
Secretary-General of the United Nations to the 
tltird session of the General Assembly. 

However, on this very report of the Secretary- 
General, of which Mr. Malik spoke so warmly on 
Wednesday, Pravda in its issue of September 16, 
19-18, declared: 

Trygve Lie twice refers to bacteriological warfare. Is 
not the definite purpose of this to distract the attention 
of the General Assembly and of world public opinion 
from the existing unresolved question of atomic energy? 
This attitude of Trygve Lie Is in accord with the interests 
of the Anglo-American Bloc, but in no way conforms with 
the interests of peace and security of the peoples of the 
world. 

In much the same vein on Wednesday, the Soviet 
representative accused us of diversionary tactics 
in connection with his resolution. For example, 
take the question of reservations to the Geneva 
l^rotocol. If you will recall, I jjointed out that 
the Soviet Union had made certain reservations 
to the Geneva protocol. These reservations had 
the effect of allowing the Soviet Government to 
use poison gas or germ warfare against any state 
which had not ratified the protocol. Further- 
more, I pointed out that the Soviet Goverinnent, 
through its reservations, was free to use poison 
gas or germ warfare against any state which it 
labeled an enemy, and which it declares has used 
these weapons. 

I pointed out that many states had expressed 
similar reservations concerning the Geneva pro- 
tocol. I was not criticizing them for having done 
so. The Soviet representative either misunder- 
stood or intentionally missed the point. Let me 
bring out the point as sharply as possible. 

These reservations become a fraud and a trick 
when the government which expresses them 
habitually and brazenly uses in its propaganda 
arsenal the weapon of the lie. There is a world 
of difference between the government which re- 
serves its right to fight fire witli fire and that 
which paves the way for using such weapons by 
falsely charging others with their use. 

We have witnessed for months now an inter- 
national campaigii, sponsored by the Soviet Union 
and designed to sell the world on the false and 
wicked lie, that the United States is waging 
bacterial warfare in Korea. Acting on this totally 
false premise, the Chinese and Nortli Korean 
Communists, even if they were full signatories 



36 



Department of State Bulletin 



to the Geneva protocol, could proclaim today their 
right to use germ warfare against the United 
Nations forces in Korea. 

Geneva Protocol Not Enough 

This is the point which the Soviet representa- 
tive avoided. This is how a legal and justifiable 
reservation can be twisted into a basis for criminal 
action. This is how even such a well motivated 
document as the Geneva protocol can be used not 
as a defense against an aggressive act but as an 
excuse for it. This is why the Geneva protocol 
is not enough. This is why we place our faith 
in an international, coordinated system for the 
control and elimination of weapons of mass de- 
struction, including bacteriological weapons. 

But we know, even if the Soviet representative 
chooses to state otherwise, that the Geneva proto- 
col has been invoked here for purposes other than 
the legitimate control of bacteriological weapons. 
It is, as we have said, part of the campaign of 
lies pressed so assiduously by the international 
Communist movement concerning the alleged use 
of germ warfare in Korea. For it is designed to 
"prove" that the United States has always wanted 
to have a free hand to wage germ warfare, if it 
chose to do so. 

The Soviet representative seems determined to 
isolate the Geneva protocol from the realities of 
Soviet propaganda. That is his privilege in the 
Council. We, on the other hand, have a right to 
expose the falsity of these charges and we intend 
to ask for it now. We are not misled by the sham 
device of the Soviet representative in pretending 
in this forum that his arguments on the Geneva 
protocol are not related to his Government's false 
charges of germ warfare. 

We believe the Council must concern itself with 
this question. We should have an impartial in- 
vestigation of the alleged use of germ warfare. 

I request the Security Council to meet on Mon- 
day, June 23, at 3 p. m. to consider the following 
new agenda item : "Question of request for investi- 
gation of alleged use of bacteriological warfare." 



I request the Acting Seci-etary-General and you, 
Mr. President, to place this new item directly after 
the item which deals with the Geneva protocol of 
1925, if action on that item has not been completed 
prior to the Monday meeting. 

On Monday if that item dealing with the Geneva 
protocol appears on the provisional agenda, I shall 
at that time vote for the adoption of an agenda 
with my Government's new item directly after the 
Geneva protocol item. 

Action by the Security Council is necessary to 
prevent the charges of bacteriological warfare 
from continuing to poison the relations between 
states and to obscure the historic and decisive sig- 
nificance of the U.N. action in repelling aggression 
in Korea. For the information of the Council, 
Mr. President, I am now handing to you a draft 
resolution for circulation under my agenda item. 
It is less than a page in length. For the informa- 
tion of the Council I should like to read it. 

Text of U.S. Draft Resolution ' 

THE SECURITY COUNCIL 

Noting the concerted dissemination by certain govern- 
ments and authorities of grave accusations charp;ing the 
use of bacteriological warfare by United Nations forces 
in Korea ; 

Noting that the Government of the USSR has repeated 
these charges in organs of the United Nations ; 

Recalling that when the charges were first made the 
Unified Command for Korea immediately denied the 
charges and requested that an impartial investigation be 
made of them ; 

Reqltests the International Committee of the Red Cross, 
with the aid of such scientists of international reputation 
and such other experts as it may select, to investigate 
the charges and to report the results to the Security 
Council as soon as possible ; 

Calls upon all governments and authorities concerned 
to accord to the International Committee of the Red Cross 
full cooperation, including the right of entry to, and free 
movement in, such areas as the Committee may deem 
necessary in the performance of its task, 

Requests the Secretary General to furnish the Com- 
mittee with such assistance and facilities as it may 
require. 



' U.N. doc. S/2671, dated June 20, 1952. 



Jo/y 7, J 952 



37 



The United States in the United Nations 



'[June 20-Jiily 3, 19521 

Security Council 

The Council on June 26 rejected the Soviet draft 
resohition calling on all states to accede to and 
ratify the Geneva Protocol of 1925 on the prohi- 
bition of bacteriological warfare. All the mem- 
bers, with the exception of the Soviet Union, 
abstained from voting after unanimously empha- 
sizing that the problem of dealing with mass- 
destruction weapons is one of eliminating the 
weapons rather than offering paper pledges con- 
cerning their use. They supported the view that 
the comprehensive program under discussion in 
the Disarmaiuent Commission would take care of 
the elimination of all weapons of mass destruction. 

Ambassador Ernest A. Gross (U.S.) , in explain- 
ing the United States vote on tlie motion, stated: 

. . . I think it is clear to all that the ten votes . . . 
have been ca.st as a measure of the scorn and of the re- 
piuliation which I think all ten members of the Council, 
•except the Soviet representative, feel for the futile and 
vain trick which the Soviet Government has attempted to 
perpetrate upon this Council, in raising the false issue of 
the ratification of the Geneva I'rotocol. It seems clear 
from the debate which has taken place and from the action 
■which we have witnessed .iust now as a symbol of unity, 
which will not crack and strain however violent the efforts 
may lie of the Soviet Government to confuse and to divide 
and to terrorize the free world. 

Ambassador Gross concluded by stating that in 
view of the Council's repudiation of the U.S.S.R.'s 
^'attempt to mislead us and others throughout the 
world into believing that the Geneva Protocol is 
the secret of security today," he did not consider 
it necessary to present the United States motion to 
refer to the Disarmament Commission the rejected 
Soviet resolution. 

On June 20 Ambassador Gross requested that 
the Council place on its agenda as of June 2-3 a 
United States item entitled "Question of Request 
for Investigation of Alleged Bacterfological War- 
fare" and in connection therewith submitted a 
■draft resolution ' requesting the International 
Committee of the Red Cross (IcRc), with the aid 
of such scientists of international reputation and 
such other experts as it may select, to investigate 
the charges against the United Nation^Forces in 

' For text, see p. 37. 



Korea and to report the results to the Security 
Council as soon as possible. The draft resolution 
also called upon all governments and authorities 
concerned to accord to the Icrc full cooperation, 
including the right of entry to and free movement 
in, such areas as the Committee may deem neces- 
sary in the performance of its task. 

Through the obstructionist tactics of Mr. Malik 
(U.S.S.R.), President of the Security Council for 
June, the vote — 10-1 (Soviet Union )-0 — to in- 
clude this item on the agenda was not taken until 
June 25. The Soviet representative insisted that 
before the item could be adopted it would be neces- 
sary to approve his proposal that representatives 
of the People's Republic of China (Pec) and of 
North Korea be invited to participate in the dis- 
cussion. Ambassador Gross pointed out that such 
a matter could not be decided in advance and that 
such a course had never been followed before. He 
recalled that in the Disarmament Commission the 
U.S.S.R. had repeatedly made the bacteriological 
charges and, in fact, had spoken for the Prc and 
Northern Korean representatives on those oc- 
casions. After adoption of the agenda item, the 
Council would decide what sort of problem it was 
faced with and then could consider any proposals 
regarding participation. He added, however, that 
the United States would oppose such an invitation. 
The United States was not asking for presentation 
of evidence in the Security Council, he said. The 
essence of the proposal was to conduct an investi- 
gation through an impartial liody. 

On July 1 the Council rejected the Soviet pro- 
posal by "a vote of 1 (U.S.S.R.)-IO-O, and de- 
cided— 9-1 (U.S.S.R.)-l (Pakistan)— to give 
priority to the United States item over the agenda 
item of admission of new members. Mr. Malik 
reiterated that the question of an investigation 
commission was impossible without the partici- 
pation of the representatives of the Prc and North 
Korea and that the Soviet delegation therefore 
would not participate in the debate and would 
vote against the United States resolution. 

Ambassador Gross (U.S.) remarked that the 
Soviet representative might try to evade the truth 
with a "sit-down strike" but he could not sit on the 
truth or "veto the facts." He explained the rea- 
sons for the United States request for an impartial 



38 



i 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



investigation and recalled in detail the facts of the 
origin and nature of the canijiaign of false charges 
concerning the use of germ warfare in Korea by 
the United Nations Command. In conclusion, 
he reiterated that the larger issue involved was the 
awful Soviet policy of hate. As this was a revolt 
against the fundamental purpose of the Charter, 
Ambassador Gross urged that the United Nations 
and the whole world keep alert to its effects. 

On July 3 the U.S.S.R., casting its forty-ninth 
veto, voted against the United States resolution 
requesting an investigation by the Icrc. The vote 
was 10-1-0. Ambassador Gross then introduced 
a resolution condemning the dissemination of 
false charges, "which increases tension among 
nations. . . ." 



Economic and Social Council 

A major item considered by Ecosoc during the 
past month of the fourteenth session was the larob- 
lem of economic development of underdeveloped 
countries and methods of financing such develop- 
ment. In this connection it considered the annual 
report of the International Bank for Reconstruc- 
tion and Development. Eugene R. Black, presi- 
dent of the Bank, stated that by March 31, 1952, 
the Bank had lent just over 1.3 billion dollars for 
more than 250 projects in 26 member nations. 

The Bank also submitted its report, which had 
been requested by Ecosoc, on the proposed estab- 
lishment of an International Finance Corporation 
"to promote the financing of productive private 
enterprise either through loans without govern- 
ment guarantee and through equity investments, 
or through other methods intended for the same 
purpose." Although not expressing opinions on 
the merits of such an institution and noting that 
further study would be required, the report de- 
clared that the corporation "would fill an impor- 
tant gap in the existing machinery for financing 
economic development." 

Isador Lubin, U.S. representative, stated that 
altliough Ills Government was favorable to a plan 
tlu-ough whicli private capital might be stimulated 
to invest in sound enterprises in underdeveloped 
countries, it was felt "that governments sliould 
wisli carefully to consider the various aspects and 
implications of tliis proposal before deciding 
whether to embark upon it. There is also need to 
increase tlie movement of domestic private savings 
in the underdeveloped countries into local business 
enterprises," lie said. He introduced a joint draft 
resolution, with Canada and Pakistan, which re- 
quested the International Bank to examine further 
this proposal for an International Finance Corpo- 
ration ; to consult with member governments and 
other interested governments on the desirability of 



establishing such a corporation ; and to report the 
results of its further examination and the action 
it has taken to Ecosoc during 1953. On June 23 
this resolution, with the additional cosfionsorship 
of the Philippines, was adopted by a vote of 
15-0-3 (Soviet bloc). 

Under this same item, the Council also adopted, 
June 23, by a vote of 15-0-3 (Soviet bloc), a draft 
resolution sponsored by Burma, Chile, Cuba, 
Egypt, Iran, the I'hilippines, and Yugoslavia 
which i^rovided for the establishment of a 9-mem- 
ber committee, serving in personal cajjacities, to 
prepare a detailed plan for establishing a special 
development fund for grants-in-aid and for low- 
interest, long-term loans to underdeveloped coun- 
tries. The Secretary-General was asked to 
appoint the members of the committee, which is to 
report to the Council not later than March 1, 1953. 

In connection with this resolution, Mr. Lubin 
(U.S.) stated: 

Our opposition is based on the grounds that the time Is 
not opportune. In addition, the Government of the 
United States has reservations, in principle, to the pro- 
vi.sion of grant aid by an international agency. . . . 
AVe fully recognize the need of the less developed countries 
for external assistance. We have iirovided and we will 
continue to provide aid in the form of grants, loans, tech- 
nical assistance and in other appropriate ways. . . . 
Subject to the conditions contained in the sixth General 
Assembly resolution, namely tliat "the study and elabora- 
tion of the plans . . . cannot and must not be regarded 
as in any way committing the governments ... in 
any degree, whether financially or otherwise," the United 
States Delegation is prepared to support the reso- 
lution. . . . 

Among other actions taken by the Council dur- 
ing the past month are the following : 

It noted the 1950-51 report of the Food and 
Agriculture Organization (F.vo) and (1) adopted 
by a vote of 15-0-3 (Soviet bloc) a French-Iranian 
resolution recommending that all members should 
take steps to help achieve the general objective of 
increasing the production of principal foodstuffs 
at an annual rate exceeding by from 1 to 2 percent 
the rate of the increase in population; and (2) 
adopted unanimously on June 30 a revised United 
States-Iran-Uruguay resolution calling upon the 
United Nations, individual governments, inter- 
national organizations, and voluntary organiza- 
tions to make plans for coming to the aid of the 
people in any country in the case of emergency 
famines with which the governments concerned are 
unable to cope. This resolution also requests, 
Inter alia, that the Fao continue to develop and 
perfect its arrangements to detect famine emer- 
gencies as early as possible, and that the Secretary- 
General arrange for the coordination of the 
famine-emergency relief activities and report to 
Ecosoc on action taken. 



Ju/y 7, 7952 



39 



Explanation of Passport Procedures 



Press Conference Remarks iy Secretary Acheson 



[Released to the press June IS] 

I should like to talk with you for a few moments 
about the passport work of the Department. I 
am doing this because it has been the subject of 
discussion throughout the country pretty much 
over the years but rather intensively in the last 
few weeks. 

The criticisms of the Department fall into two 
main categories. 

One of them comes from very determined efforts 
which have been made by Communist organiza- 
tions who attack the Department and undermine 
its work in order to obtain greater fi-eedom of 
movement for people engaged in the Communist 
movement and in Communist- front organizations. 
There was recently a meeting at Chicago which 
was devoted to this purpose. It was a meeting 
of an organization called the "American Commit- 
tee to Survey Labor Conditions in Europe." This 
was an organization which had sent propaganda 
groups to Moscow and the purpose of the meeting 
was to start a vigorous campaign against the State 
Department because of its passport policy with re- 
spect to Communists. With that criticism I am 
not concerned. We expect that and that, of 
course, is a matter to which we will pay no atten- 
tion. 

There are other discussions by people who are 
not in any way afliliated with such groups who are, 
I think, sincerely worried about procedures, al- 
though they do not, I think, attack the principles 
upon which we operate. They are concerned 
about our procedures, and it is about those pro- 
cedures, against the background of the passport, 
the development of the passport over the last 30 
.years or so, that I wish to speak. 

In tlie first place, I would like to say a woi'd 
about Mrs. Shipley, who is the head of the Pass- 
port Division in the State Department. She has 
been there for many years. I, myself, have been 
a colleague of Mrs. Shipley for the past 12 years, 
and in various capacities which I have held in 
the Department I worked very closely with her. 
I do not know any person in the service of the Gov- 
ernment who brings to her work greater devotion. 



greater sense of public obligation and public duty, 
greater knowledge of the field, and greater skill 
than does Mrs. Shipley. I believe quite fortu- 
nately that view is widely held throughout the 
country. I have the greatest confidence in Mrs. 
Shipley and her administration of the Passport 
Division. 

Now a word about passports and this matter of 
freedom of travel. Before World War I the pass- 
port was a fairly rare document. When I was a 
young man, the first two or thi-ee times that I 
went abroad one could, if one wished, come to the 
State Department and obtain a passport if the 
Government felt one was entitled to this official 
identification. But most people did not do that. 
It was not required and they traveled perfectly 
freely, got on a boat and went where they wished 
to go. 

During World War I an official document per- 
mitting one to travel was required almost univer- 
sally and this involved a sanction on the part of 
at least two governments. The government of the 
traveler's own country gave him an official paper 
signed by a high official of the government identi- 
fying the pei'son as a citizen of that country and 
sponsoring to that extent his travel abroad. The 
receiving country then had to look at the docu- 
ment and grant a visa. So travel took on a more 
official character than it had before. 

The American Government always in issuing 
passports exercised some judgment and was re- 
quired to exercise some judgment. Nobody has 
any serious question of the fact that people who 
are fugitives from justice, people who are mentally 
ill, people who are setting out on a mission ad- 
verse to the national interests of the country con- 
cerned cannot expect to be given an official docu- 
ment permitting them to travel. That has always 
been true, and under the law the Secretary of 
State has to exercise his discretion and his good 
sense in this matter. I believe that that has been 
exercised fairly and properly as long as I can re- 
member and that deals strictly with the adminis- 
tration of Mrs. Shipley. 

Recently other considerations have become in- 
volved : the growth of the Communist conspiracy; 



40 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



the growth of the Communist-front organizations ; 
the growing awareness both by our courts and 
Congress that members of this organization were 
engaged in activities detrimental to the national 
interests of the United States has led the Congress 
to pass some legislation dealing with people of this 
sort which is not yet operative and has led the De- 
partment to give consideration to the appropriate- 
ness of issuing passports to such people. This, by 
no means, concerns the gi'eat category of people 
who are denied them. There are all the other cate- 
gories which I mentioned earlier. 

Now, I would like to put this whole matter in a 
certain statistical perspective. For instance, be- 
tween July of last year and May 31 of this year, 
325,000 passports have been issued by the Govern- 
ment of the United States. During that period, 
95 requests for passports were denied because of 
evidence of membership in subversive organiza- 
tions and another 95 passports were recalled after 
action by the passport holders indicated subversive 
affiliation or intent. So, this is the quantitative 
dimension of the problem with which we are deal- 
ing. That, of course, does not solve the problem 
at all. Whether only 95 or only 1 have been 
denied, if that one was improperly denied 
through improper procedures, or was whimsically 
denied, or unjustly denied, that would be wrong 
and would require corrective action. 

In my judgment, there has been no arbitrary 
action of any sort. The action has been taken to 
the very best judgment of the persons concerned. 
Our procedures are not perfect. The judgment 
of these human beings may not be perfect but it 
is exercised as fairly and as well and as much in 
the devotion to the jiublic interest as is possible 
for human beings to do. We can always improve 
our procedures. We are always trying to improve 
our procedures. They are flexible in grow- 
ing, and we are at work now on improving our 
procedures. 



Procedures for issuing Passports 

Perhaps you would like to know what they are. 
They are as follows : Wlien an application is re- 
ceived for a passport at the Passport Division, the 
files of the Department are examined, and if there 
is nothing in those files to raise any questions re- 
garding the person concerned, the passport is 
issued immediately, as a matter of routine. 

Then we come to the second step. If there is 
adverse information, this information is reviewed 
at a higher level in the Passport Division, and if 
the information is not such as to provide reason- 
able grounds for belief that the passport should be 
denied — and the reasons for denial I have already 
mentioned to you — if there are not reasonable 
grounds from the totality of its evidence to indi- 
cate the applicant does not fall within any of the 
categories mentioned, then the passport is issued. 

Sometimes the infonnation in our files is not 



adequate to reach a fair decision. In that case, 
the proper investigative bodies of the Govermnent 
are asked to make a further examination regard- 
ing the applicant and to provide all the informa- 
tion regarding him or her wdiich they can collect. 
When this has been collected, the file is sent to the 
Security Division of the Department, where the 
information is evaluated to see whether it is mere 
gossip — whatever is said about the person in re- 
gard to any of these criteria — whether it is or is 
not in the judgment of the Security Division 
persuasive. 

If, after that review, it does not establish factual 
evidence suiRcient to deny a passport, the passport 
is issued. If there is sufficient factual evidence, 
it is denied, and the applicant is informed that his 
travel is not considered in the best interests of the 
United States. 

Third, if the case is complicated in any way — if 
there are difficult questions in it — the Passport 
Division submits the files and its decision to higher 
levels in the Department for decision, before the 
applicant is denied or granted a jjassport. The 
l^erson concerned is informed that he may supply 
any additional information or may discuss the case 
with officials of the Passport Division. This has 
been done in a great number of cases, and new evi- 
dence furnished by the apjDlicant has often resulted 
in the issuance of a passport. 

Fourth, if the question of denial is based on the 
ground that the travel of the applicant may be 
harmful to the national interests of the United 
States, the political officers of the geographic areas 
in which the travel is to take place are consulted, 
and they take part in the decision as to whether 
the passport should be granted or rejected. 

Fifth, any new evidence or information which 
the applicant may submit is referred to the officers 
who first evaluated the case. These officers are re- 
quired to evaluate the new infonnation and give 
their opinion as to whether the jjassport should or 
should not be issued. 

Sixth, although we cannot violate the confi- 
dential character of the passport files by making 
public confidential information contained therein, 
the disclosure of which would affect the national 
security, an effort is made to inform the applicant 
of the reasons for the denial to the fullest extent 
possible within the security limitations. 

Applicant Has Rigiit to Counsel 

The procedures which I have just described are 
pointed out to him so he may have opportunity to 
present his case. He is also informed that he 
may be represented by counsel of his choice, and 
that he or his counsel, or both, may be heard by 
the chief of the Passport Division or some other 
responsible officer. 

At the present time the Passport Division does, 
in this way that I have described, hear many 
appeals from a preliminary decision to deny a 



July 7, 7952 



41 



passport. In many cases this hearing, generally 
conducted by the chief or assistant chief of the 
Passport Division — far from being capricious or 
arbitrary — has led to the reversal of the prelim- 
inary procedure and the granting of a passport. 

Furtliermore, the chief of the Passport Division 
does not have final authority in the denial of 
passports, and the fact that this is so is made 
known to the applicant so that the applicant can 
ask for what further consideration he or she 
thinks necessary. 

These are the procedures under which we are 
operating. As I say, they are the best that we 
have been able to develop to date, in order to pro- 
tect both the interests of the United States, which 
are very great in this matter, and the interests 
of the citizen, which are also great. 

We are continually reviewing these procedures. 
They are being reviewed now as they have been 
many times before ; and if any improvements can 
be found, anything recommended by INIrs. Shipley, 
by the Deputy Under Secretary in charge of 
Administration, or by the Legal Adviser, all of 
■whom are interested — deeply interested in perfect- 
ing these procedui'es — those improvements will 
be put into effect. 

We are doing the best we can. We know that 
this is a situation in which we never can please 
everybody because we must, in the national inter- 
est, reject some applicants, and those applicants 
are always going to feel aggrieved by our action. 
Therefore, there will always be criticism. Some 
of the criticism will be honest criticism. I don't 
for a moment wish to impugn the motives of any 
of the persons other than this group of Com- 
munist-front organizations who are attacking the 
State Department in this manner. We know that 
our task is difficult. We know that we have great 
public responsibilities which we are trying to dis- 
charge in the best way that we can. We are doing 
the best that we know how to do. 



PUBLICATIONS 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Appointment of Officers 

Kenneth T. Tonng as Director of the Bureau of Far 
Eastern Affairs, effective March 20. 

George M. Ingram as Director of the OflRce of Interna- 
tional Administration and Conferences, effective Jlay 16. 

Edwin M. Martin as Special Assistant to the Secretary 
for Mutual Security Affairs, effective May 19. 

William I. Cargo as Deputy Director of the Bureau of 
United Nations Affairs, effective June 3. 



Point Four Appointment 

John Ralph Nichols as Director of Technical Coopera- 
tion in Egypt, effective May 20. 



Recent Releases 

For sale hp tlic Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Wasliinyton 25, U. C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
case of free publications, ichich may he obtained from 
the Department of State. 

Germany: External Debt. Treaties and Other Interna- 
tional Acts Series 2274. Pub. 4323. 13 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States, the United 
Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Ger- 
man.v — Signed at Bonn Mar. 6, 1951 ; entered into 
force Mar. 6, 1951. 

Oil Shale Study in Brazil. Treaties and Other Interna- 
tional Acts Series 2296. Pub. 4352. 9 pp. 5^ 

Agreement between the United States and Brazil- 
Signed at Rio de .Janeiro Aug. 16, 1950; entered into 
force Aug. 16, 1950. 

Army Mission to Venezuela. Treaties and Other Inter- 
national Acts Series 2299. Pub. 4365. 12 pp. 10<t. 

Agreement between the United States and Vene- 
zuela — Signed at Washington Aug. 10, 1951 ; entered 
into force Aug. 10, 1951. 

Agriculture: Cooperative Program in Panama. Treaties 
and Other International Acts Series 2302. Pub. 4368. 
9 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and Panama — 
Signed at Panam;l July 30, 1051 ; entered into force 
July 30, 1951. 

Defense Materials. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 2305. Pub. 4382. 4 pp. 5(f 

Agreement between the United States, the United 
Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Ger- 
many—Signed at Bonn Oct. 23, 1950 and Mar. 6, 1951 ; 
entered into force Mar. 6, 1951. 

Technical Cooperation. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 2307. Pub. 43S4. 5 pp. 5<(. 

Agreement between the United States and Saudi 
Arabia — Signed at Jidda Jan. 17, 1951 ; entered into 
force Jan. 17, 1951. 

Naval Mission to Cuba. Treaties and Otlier Interna- 
tional Acts Series 2310. Pub. 438S. 12 pp. 5«*. 

Agreement between the United States and Cuba — 
Signed at Washington Aug. 28, 1951 ; entered into force 
Aug. 28, 1951. 

Conference for the Conclusion and Signature of the 
Treaty of Peace With Japan, San Francisco, Calif., Sept. 
4-8, 1951 — Supplement. International Organization and 
Conference Series II, Far Eastern 3. Pub. 4392A. 101 
pp. Limited distribution. 

Supplement to the Record of Proceedings. 

Highway Project in Ethiopia: Services and Facilities of 
the United States Bureau of Public Roads. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 2312. Pub. 4394. 10 
pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Ethiopia — 



42 



Department of State Bulletin 



Sifrned at Addis Ababa Feb. 2G and 27 and May 2, 
1951 ; entered into force Feb. 27, 1951. 

Exchange of OfiScial Publications. Treaties and Other In- 
ternational Acts Series 2314. Pub. 4402. 3 pp. 5(}. 

Agreement between the United States and the United 
Kingdom— Signed at Washington July 13 and 30, 
1951 ; entered into force July 30, 1951. 

Vocational Education Mission to El Salvador. Treaties 
and Other International Acts Series 2315. I'ub. 4403. 3 
pp. 5<}. 

Agreement between the United States and El Salvador 
extending and modifying agreement of Jan. 27 and 
Feb. 12. 1951— Signed at San Salvador June 25. 1951; 
entered into force June 25, 1951; operative Julv 1, 
1951. 

Inter-American Highway. Treaties and Other Interna- 
tional Acts Series 2319. Pub. 4411. 4 pp. 5(?. 

Agreement between the United States and Costa Kica 
amending agreement of Jan. 16, 1942— Signed at 
Washington Jan. 13 and 17, 1951 ; entered into force 
Jan. 17, 1951. 

Parcel Post. Treaties and Other International Acts Se- 
ries 2322. Pub. 4414. 28 pp. 10«i. 

Agreement and detailed regulations between the 
United States and the Gold Coast Colon.v— Signed at 
Accra June 3, 1951, and at Washington June 14, 1951 ; 
entered into force Aug. 1, 1951. 

Norwegian Mobile Surgical Hospital: Participation in 
the United Nations Operations in Korea. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 2325. Pub. 4425. 3 pp. 

Agreement between the United States and Norway — 
Signed at Washington Sept. 17, 1951; entered into 
force Sept. 17, 1951. 

Economic Cooperation With Ireland Under Public Law 

472, 80th Congress, as Amended. Treaties and Other In- 
ternational Acts Series 2326. Pub. 4428. 2 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and Ireland 
amending agreement of June 28, 1948, as amended — 
Dated at Dublin Apr. 20 and June 7, 1951 ; entered 
into force June 7, 1951. 

Food Production: Cooperative Program in Haiti. Trea- 
ties and Other International Acts Series 2329 Pub 
4433. 4 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and Haiti sup- 
plementing agreement of Sept. 18 and 27, 1950— Signed 
at Port-au-Prince June 28, 1951 ; entered into force 
June 29, 1951. 

Food Production: Cooperative Program in Haiti. Trea- 
ties and Other International Acts Series 2330. Pub 4434 
4 pp. 5?'. 

Agreement between the United States and Haiti sup- 
plementing agreement of Sept. IS and 27, 1950, as 
amended— Signed at Port-au-Prince Aug. 23 and Sept. 
28, 1951 ; entered into force Sept. 28, 1951. 

Education: Cooperative Program in Honduras. Treaties 
and Other International Acts Series 23:«. Pub. 4439. 15 
pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States and Honduras- 
Signed at Tegucigalpa Apr. 24, 1951; entered into 
force Apr. 24, 1951. 

Fisheries Mission to El Salvador. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 2337. Pub. 4442. 8 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and El Salva- 
dor—Signed at San Salvador July 19, 1951 ; entered 
into force July 19, 1951. 

July 7, 1952 



Disposal of Defen.se Installations and Equipment. Trea- 
ties and Other International Acts Series 23.53. Pub. 4450. 
3 pp. 5(f. 

Agreement between the United States and Canada — 
Signed at Ottawa June 17 and 18, 1949; entered into 
force June 18, 1949. 

Health and Sanitation: Cooperative Program in Bolivia. 

Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2.354. Pub. 
4472. 3 pp. 54. 

Agreement between the United States and Bolivia- 
Signed at La Paz Aug. 27 and Oct. 19, 1951; entered 
into force Oct. 19, 1951. 

Aviation : Air Transit Facilities in the Azores. Treaties, 
and Other International Acts Series 2345. Pub. 4483. 
3 pp. 5(*. 

Agreement between the United States and Portugal- 
Signed at Lisbon Slay 30, 1940; entered into force 
May 30, 1946. 

Finance: Collection and Application of the Customs Rev- 
enues of the Dominican Republic. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 2365. Pub. 4490. 3 pp. 5i}. 

Termination of convention and exchange of notes be-^ 
tween the United States and the Dominican Republic 
signed Sept. 24, 1940— Exchange of notes signed at 
Washington Aug. 9, 1951. 

Automobiles, Customs Concessions. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 2370. Pub. 4407. 3 pp. 50. 

Provisional agreement between the United States and 
Chile— Signed at Santiago June 2, 1951 ; entered into 
force June 2, 1951 ; operative retroactively from Mar 
16, 1951. 

Education, Cooperative Program in Panama, Additional 
Financial Contributions. Treaties and Other Interna- 
tional Acts Series 2372. Pub. 4499. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Panama — 
Signed at Panama Aug. 10 and Oct. 23, 1951 ; entered 
into force Oct. 23, 1951. 

Economic Cooperation With Austria Under Public Law 
472, 80th Congress, as Amended. Treaties and Other 
International Acts Series 2380. Pub. 4507. 2 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Austria — 
Signed at Vienna May 11 and 15, 1951; entered into 
force May 15, 1951. 

Technical Cooperation. Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 2385. Pub. 4517. 5 pp. 5«?. 

Agreement between the United States and Costa Rica 
amending agreement of Jan. 11, 1951 — Signed at San 
.lose Dec. 19 and 20, 1951; entered into force Dec 
20, 1951. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Confirmations 

The Senate on June 24 confirmed nominations of the 
following: Burton Y. Berry as Ambassador to Iraq; 
Donald K. Heath as Ambassador to tlie State of Vietnam 
and to the Kingdom of Camliodia ; and James S. Moose, Jr., 
as Minister to the Republic of Syria. 

The Senate on June 26 confirmed the nominations of 
Phelps Phelps as Ambassador to the Dominican Republic 
and Angus Ward as Ambassador to Afghanistan. 

43 



July 7, 1952 



Index 



Vol. XXVII, No. 680 



Page 
American Principles 

The meaning of citizenship (Sargeant) ... 11 
Wellsprings of democracy (Russell) 7 

American Republics 

BRAZIL: Secretary Acheson departs for Europe 

and Brazil 6 

PANAMA: Annex to U.S. -Panama air transport 

agreement 13 

Asia 

IRAQ: Visit of King Feisal 11 12 

JAPAN: Claims of nationals for return of prop- 
erty in Japan 13 

KOREA: U.S. proposes investigation of bac- 
teriological warfare charges (Gross); text of 
draft resolution 32 

TURKEY: Loan by International Bank to help 

finance Seyhan River Dam 15 

Aviation 

Annex to U.S.-Panama air transport agreement . 13 

Claims and Property 

Claims of nationals for return of property in 

Japan 13 

Foreign Bondholders' Council and German Debt 

Conference 13 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 22-28, 1952 

Releases may be obtained from the Ollice of the 
Special Assistant for Press Relations, Department 
of State, Washington 25, D. C. Items marked (*) 
are not printed in the Bdxxetin ; items marked (f) 
will appear in a future issue. 

No. 

474 

477 

480 

482 

484 



Date 
6/18 
6/lS 
6/19 
6/20 
6/20 



Subject 
Acheson : Passport procedures 
Visit of King Feisal II of Iraq 
Military facilities in Azores 
U.S.-Panama air tranisport agreement 
Allegation regarding Ovpen Lattimore 

(combined with 505) 

485 6/22 Acheson : Departure for Europe & 
Brazil 
*4S6 6/23 Mesta: Honorary degree 
487 0/23 Sargeant : Meaning of citizenship 
*488 6/23 Pt. 4 personnel complete course 
t489 6/24 Lake Ontario high-water level 
*490 6/24 Thailand: Anniversary 
t491 6/24 S. African air force agreement 
492 6/24 Rus!3ell: The first front 
*493 6/24 Death of J. Hall Paxton 
494 6/24 Visit of British Ministers 
t495 C/24 Mesta : International questions 
*496 6/24 Exchange of persons 

497 6/24 Pierson : German external debts 

498 6/25 Claims of nationals in .Tapan 
*499 6/25 Bruce : Death of Gen. Brink 
*500 6/26 Exchange of persons 

501 6/27 Dedication of Berlin library 

502 6/27 Acheson : Presentation of book 
t503 6/27 Allison: U.S. and the Far East 

504 6/28 Acheson: Remarks at cornerstone 

laying 

505 6/28 Statement on Owen Lattimore 



Page 
Congress 

Current legislation on foreign policy listed . . 12 

Europe 

GERMANY: Laying the cornerstone of the 
American Memorial Library at Berlin 
(Acheson) 3 

U.K.: Visit of British Ministers of Defence and 

State 6 

PORTUGAL: U.S.-Portuguese defense agree- 
ment 14 

Finance 

Foreign Bondholders' Council and German Debt 

Conference 13 

Loan to Ttorkey by International Bank to help 

finance Seyhan River Dam 15 

Foreign Service 

Confirmations 43 

Human Rights 

Two Covenants on Human Rights being drafted 

(Simsarian) ; texts 20 

International Meetings 

Calendar of meetings 16 

Publications 

Recent releases 42 

State, Department of 

Appointment of officers 42 

Department expresses regret to Owen Lattimore . 12 

Explanation of passport procedures 40 

Secretary departs for Europe and Brazil ... 6 

Treaty Information 

Annex to U.S.-Panama air transport agreement . 13 
U.S.-Portuguese defense agreement 14 

United Nations 

Current U.N. documents: a selected bibliog- 
raphy 18 

International Bank: Loan to Turkey to help 

finance Seyhan River Dam 15 

U.S. in the U.N 38 

U.S. proposes investigation of bacteriological 
warfare charges (Gross) ; text of draft reso- 
lution 32 

Name Index 

Acheson, Secretary 3, 6, 40 

Alexander, Field Marshal 6 

Berry, Burton Y 43 

Bradley, Gen. Omar 6 

Bruce. David 6 

Cargo, William I 42 

Feisal II, King of Iraq 12 

Gross, Ernest A 32 

Heath, Donald R 43 

Ingram, George M 42 

Lattimore, Owen 12 

Lloyd, Selwyn 6 

Lovett, Robert 6 

Martin, Edwin M 42 

Moose, James S.. Jr 43 

Nichols, John Ralph 42 

Phelps, Phelps 43 

Pierson, Warren Lee 13 

Russell, Francis H 7 

Sargeant. Howland H 11 

Simsarian, James 20 

Ward, Angus 43 

Young. Kenneth T 42 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTINC OFFICE: 1952 



tJrie/ ^eha/yl7neni/ xw ^aie/ 




. XXVII, No. 681 
July 14, 1952 





A REVIEW OF U.S. -BRAZILIAN RELATIONS • by 

Secretary Acheson ............. 



A MATERIALS POLICY FOR THE UNITED STATES: 
Report of the President's International Materials 
Policy Commission 5^ 



INCREASING THE SAFETY OF THE WORLD'S 

SHIPPING • by Commander Leonard S. Hubbard . « 6{ 



U.S. PRESENTS EVIDENCE OF FORCED LABOR IN 

U.S.S.R. • Statement by Walter M. Kotschnig .... 7( 



For index see back cover 



_j^.»t o. 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMtNTS 

AUG 29 t9t>2 



tJAe ^e/i^t/y^^e^ ^k 




o/sfiak bullGtin 



Vol. XXVII, No. 681 • Publication 4659 
July 14, 1952 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price; 

62 issues, domestic $7.50, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 22, 1962). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
ot State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
selected press releases on foreign pol- 
icy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as icell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



A Review of U.S.-Brazllian Relations 



Address iy Secretary Acheson'' 



I am deeply gratified and greatly honored to be 
with you here. More than once I have envied my 
predecessors whose ofBcial duties brought them to 
Brazil : Elihu Root, Charles Evans Hughes, Cor- 
dell Hull, Edward Stettinius, George Marshall. 

I am extremely happy also to see here my old 
friend, Ambassador Herschel Johnson, who has 
made such a great contribution to the cause of 
Brazilian-United States friendship in the years 
that he has lived among you here in Brazil. 

With the same pleasurethat I have been looking 
forward to seeing Rio de Janeiro, President Tru- 
man has been looking back on his visit to this in- 
comparably beautiful capital. I bring from him 
to President Vargas a personal message of greeting 
and good will. As a sincere friend of this great 
country. President Truman has been deeply im- 
pressed by the tremendous progress which is being 
realized in Brazil under the administration of 
President Vargas. Like all Americans, President 
Truman remembers vividly the loyal and spon- 
taneous cooperation between our two countries 
during the last war as well as the close personal 
friendship between President Vargas and Presi- 
dent Roosevelt. 

President Truman's message of good will is 
extended from the people of the United States to 
the Brazilian people, who as peoples have an un- 
broken—I speak from the heart when I say, an 
unbreakable and very special — record of friend- 
ship. 

It has be«n a friendship never passive, but 
always actively cooperative. Brazil and tho 
United States have, as your President recalled in 
his message to Congress on March 1.5, "been joined 
m war and in peace with ties of friendship to 
which we have always given the most decided and 
loyal collaboration." And assuredly the "we"' 
applies to both our countries. As he also said on 
another occasion, both historical tradition and 

' Alade at a banquet given by Brazilian Foreign Minister 
foao Neves da Fontoura at Itamaraty Palace, Rio de 
Faneiro, Brazil, on July .3 and released to tbe i)ress (No 
>-■> ) on the same date. 



luly 14, 1952 



political and economic interests are conducive to- 
day, as always, to this policy of close collaboration. 
There can be no doubt— I am certain that you 
feel no doubt— that on Brazil, as on the United 
States, falls a great responsibility for cooperation 
with the other democracies in this period, when 
democracy is as never before the hope of all who 
love freedom. 



Inter-American Solidarity 

Your country is the fifth largest in the world : 
It is by far the largest of the American Repub- 
lics—as large as the United States plus another 
Texas, and it has the longest coast line of any 
nation. Like my own country, it has the re- 
sponsibility that comes with size, with strength, 
and with immense resources. 

Your great nation has an additional responsibil- 
ity deriving from your unique experience in trans- 
Atlantic relationships. It is one of the most 
dramatic incidents of history that when Europe 
was in the grip of the Napoleonic wars, the 
mother-government, Portugal, sought and found 
refuge here in her mighty colony of Brazil. You 
have had, therefore, the colonial, the imperial, and 
the republican experience. From that remark- 
able past you have emerged as one of the great 
democracies of the world. 

Brazil's influence in international relations has 
always been beneficent, constructive, and coopera- 
tive. It IS a peaceful and healing influence. It 
is an influence which we hope will be ever greater 
and ever more beneficent. It is a reflection of 
the inherent sense of kindness, loyalty, and re- 
sponsibility of the Brazilian people." Brazil's con- 
tinuous historical development as a nation has 
been accompanied always by a sense of respon- 
sibility toward the other peoples of the world, 
a realization that a country so richly endowed 
should promote the common welfare. That, un- 
doubtedly, is one reason why Brazil has labored 
zealously, as has my country, on behalf of the 
solidarity of the American Republics. 



47 



Since the end of World War II, my Government 
has necessarily devoted much attention in the field 
of foreign relations to organizing the defense of 
the free world against the immediate threat of ag- 
gression in Europe and in the East. We have 
had to face up to difficult and complex problems. 
This has required months and, in some cases, years 
of painstaking negotiation. All this has been 
done under the threat of one of the most terrible 
menaces to the freedom of mankind that the world 
has ever known. 

We live in an era of grave danger and we have 
had to address oui-selves to that danger. But the 
fact that we have been involved in these difficult 
problems in Europe and in the East does not mean 
any lessening of our interest in this part of the 
world. Although the United States has become, 
out of necessity, involved in many ways, against 
our natural inclination, in other parts of the world, 
our cooperative programs in this hemisphere are 
being carried out more intensively than at any 
time in our history. And we have continued 
meanwhile to weave the fabric of our inter- 
American relations. 

The problem of our security is indivisible. We 
cannot have categories or priorities in this re- 
gard. My country has been called upon to work 
simultaneously on all fronts, but these problems 
are not ours alone. For Western Europe or Indo- 
china or Iran or Turkey to fall into the hands of 
the Soviet Union would be just as catastrophic 
as for a citizen of Belo Horizonte or Recife or a 
citizen of Boston or San Francisco. Likewise, 
though we are involved very deeply in Europe 
and the East, our interest in the welfare of Canada 
or Brazil or Chile must necessarily be greater to- 
day than at any time in the past. We should not 
mistake new commitments in other parts of the 
world for a slackening of interest in this part of 
the world. 



Industrial Development 

During my recent visits to Europe I have been 
greatly encouraged by the resourcefulness of our 
democratic world. In our recent meetings at Lon- 
don, at Lisbon, at Paris, and at Bonn, the nations 
of Western Europe have created a new European 
community for the common defense. We have a 
long way to go before the European Defense Com- 
munity will be fully developed, but all of us on 
this side of the Atlantic can take heart over the 
courageous way in which the countries of Europe 
have already overcome difficulties of incredible 
magnitude. The spii'it of determinatioii in 
Europe, so magnificently shown by the unflinch- 
ing courage of the citizens of Berlin and Vienna 
whom I have seen in the last few days, can be an 
inspiration to us all. 

And I might especially mention in connection 
with my recent European travels that my visit to 

48 



Lisbon last February and my fii-st direct contact 
with a Portuguese-speaking people increased the 
anticipation with which I looked forward to my 
visit to Brazil. 

This last week I have been through countries of 
the sharpest contrasts imaginable. To fly in a few 
hours over the industrial countries of Western 
Europe and the desert areas of West Africa is a 
vivid experience. Brazil — unlike either of the 
other areas — is in a third stage of economic de- 
velopment. It would be wrong to refer to Brazil 
as an "underdeveloped" country. The tremend- 
ous industrial progress which you have achieved 
in Sao Paulo, at Velta Eedonda in the State of 
Rio de Janeiro, in the great State of Minas Gerais, 
and elsewhere in Brazil is proof enough of your 
development. Yet there is much that remains to 
be done to enable the citizens of this great country 
to enjoy the maximum benefits of its economic 
potential. 

The United States wants to help Brazil in every 
possible way in its efforts towards economic prog- 
ress. We are well aware that in a relatively short 
period of time Brazil can become one of the richest 
countries in the world. We in my country want 
Brazil to prosper. We want to see it strong eco- 
nomically. Brazil has always been our friend, 
and it is to the mutual interest that each member 
of the friendship should be as strong as possible. 
The proof of this conviction lies not just in 
words but in deeds. Beginning with Velta 
Eedonda we have shown the world that we can 
work together towards practical and constructive 
goals. 

Many people once expressed skepticism over the 
Joint Brazil-United States Economic Develop- 
ment Commission. The work of organizing this 
Connnission and of attacking the monumental 
problems of rehabilitating and integrating the 
transportation system of Brazil and of developing 
plans for electric energy adequate to the needs of 
the country has been a long and arduous one. A 
great American, Francis Adams Truslow, just a 
year ago gave his life to this cause. But the Com- 
mission has overcome all difficulties. With the 
financing last month of the first projects approved 
by the Commission, the work of this important 
body has entered on a new and decisive stage. 

I have familiarized myself with the work of the 
Commission, and I look forward to meeting with 
its members while I am here. The work that has 
already been completed and in process is an amaz- 
ing tribute to the untiring efforts of these patriotic 
men who are devoting their talents and energies 
to this important task. I have no doubt that this 
body will have a vital impact upon the future of 
the Brazilian economy. The Commission has cer- 
tain specific and well-defined tasks to perform, and 
it should do them in the quickest possible tune 
that it has entered into this new stage of„ 



now 



operations. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Constructive Contributors to Brazil's Progress 

1 wish to pay tribute to those in tlie Brcaziliaii 
Government who have so loyally supported the 
Commission at all stages. I include specifically 
your distinguished Minister of Foreign Afi'airs, 
Joao Neves da Fontoura, with whom I had the 
pleasure of exchanging views about tlie Commis- 
sion when he was in Washington in March 1951 ; 
your dynainic Minister of Finance, Horacio Lafer, 
whose mission to Washington last September was 
such a brilliant success ; ="the tenacious Brazilian 
Commissioner, Ary Torres, and his wise and 
trusted financial adviser, Valentim Boucas; and 
your young and extremely competent Ambassador, 
Waltlier Moreira Salles, whose arrival in Wash- 
ington coincided with the Commission's new phase 
of activities. 

Finally, I wish to express appreciation for the 
services of Burke Knapp as U.S. Commissioner 
since he took over last year. Although Mr. 
Knapp must go back to important work in Wash- 
ington next month, the continuity of the work of 
the Connnission will not be ' impaired. Mr. 
Knapp's place -will be taken by an outstanding 
friend. Ambassador Merwin Bohan. 

What I have said about our desire to help Brazil 
to become ever stronger applies to all of the other 
American Republics who seek our help. The 
Good Neighbor Policy is an unshakable and fun- 
damental part of the foreign policy of the United 
States. 

This month we are having two political conven- 
tions in our country, and from now until Novem- 
ber \ye shall be hearing the sound and fury of our 
Presidential election campaign. But it is certain 
that no one in either party will challenge the sanc- 
tity and the validity of the Good Neighbor Policy. 
And whichever candidate of whichever party 
comes into office next year will, I am certain, ad- 
here firmly to the principles of our inter-American 
policy which have been worked out by both Demo- 
crats and Republicans in our country over the 
last 25 years. 

One of the most pleasant recollections of my 

official career is of my participation in the Fourth 

Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign 

Affairs of American States which was held at 

Wasliington last year. It was a pleasure to sit 

around our common democratic council table with 

my friend. Dr. Neves da Fontoura, and our col- 

' leagues from the other American countries. I 

would note parenthetically that no single person 

I at that meeting made a greater contribution to its 

I work than Dr. Neves da Fontoura. As is typical 

I of his character and his career, he proved to be 

! a courageous and f arsighted colleague. In his 

t reply to President Truman at the opening session 

[ of the meeting, Dr. Neves da Fontoura spoke of 

I our inter-American relations and said, "the politi- 

' For a statement on this mission, see Bulletin of Oct. 
8, 19.51, p. 581. 



cal solidarity among the American republics has 
not undergone in these troubled post-war years the 
slightest alteration either in its integrity or in its 
intensity." 

As in every one of our inter-American confer- 
ences, the Fourth Meeting of Consultation re- 
sulted in greater progress towards unity of pur- 
pose in the Americas. We do not legislate in our 
inter-American meetings. But we have what is 
important in relations between nations, namely, 
community of purpose. As we go on with these 
meetings, that understanding and that community 
of purpose will grow and develop and through our 
inter-American organization we can continue to 
develop faith in each other. I firmly believe that 
friction among our countries disappears as true 
understanding of each other's objectives grows. 



Desire for Hemispheric Security 

That is one reason why I have welcomed with 
eagerness the opportunity accorded me by your 
Foreign Minister to visit Brazil. Direct meeting 
between government officials goes far to enhance 
mutual understanding. I am grateful to the gov- 
ernments of other countries in South America who 
have been so gracious as to invite me to visit their 
countries. I only wish that time would permit 
me to make a more extensive journey. Some day 
I hope to return, but meanwhile I shall have de- 
rived profit and pleasure from this first, too brief, 
glimpse of this great continent. 

I might say in passing that Rio de Janeiro has 
come to have a special significance in the history 
of inter-American cooperation. This beautiful 
city has been host to meetings whose deliberations 
have proved decisive for this hemisphere and, 
indeed, for the world in general. 

The Third Meeting of Consultation of Ministers 
of Foi-eign Affairs of American States, held in a 
dark hour in January 1942, was decisive in solidi- 
fying our hemisphere against the terrible peril 
that then confronted us. The result of those de- 
liberations was a transfusion of strength to the 
allied world whose cause then seemed to hang by 
such a slender thread. 

Five years later, and 5 years ago this month, the 
Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance 
of Continental Peace and Security forged the 
Treaty of Rio de Janeiro. This is the basic docu- 
ment for the maintenance of our freedom in this 
hemispliere. That treaty is a further extension 
of the expressions of solidarity which had been 
made here by the Foreign Ministers in 1942. 

More than 2 years ago, I told an inter-American 
audience in New York that one of tlie foremost 
]X)licies of my Government is to fulfill its obliga- 
tions under the Rio Treaty and to seek the maxi- 
mum cooperation among the American nations 
for the achievement of a secure and peaceful 
hemisphere. My country has striven and strives 
unceasingly to that end. I wish to acknowledge 



Ju/y 14, 1952 



49 



here the equ;illy tireless efforts of Brazil for the 
same high purpose. 

At the Fourth Meeting of Foreign Ministere 
held in Washington last March, our countries 
proceeded from where we had left off in Rio de 
Janeiro in 1947 and in Bogota in 1948 to broaden 
and strengthen the fabric of inter-American 
solidarity. To my mind one of the most impor- 
tant decisions of that meeting was resolution III 
on inter- American military cooperation. This 
resolution is of profound significance. For the 
first time in our inter- American history we agi-eed 
to direct the maintenance of our military estab- 
lishments toward the common goal of continental 
security which has been the theme of all our inter- 
American work for so many years. 

]My Government, to carry out the purposes of 
this resolution, and in line with plans made by the 
Inter-American Defense Board under the Rio 
Treaty, entered into a series of bilateral agree- 
ments with other countries in the hemisphere, 
including Brazil. There is nothing aggi-essive or 
warlike about these agreements. Our adversaries 
have tried to make them ajjpear so. But we have 
all come to know by now that what these adver- 
saries say is not designed to be helpful or 
constructive. 

These agreements are public documents. Their 
purpose is quite simply to cany out the purpose 
of resolution III by helping existing units of the 
armed forces of the countries concerned to act 
more effectively in common defense in the event 
of war. 



Interdependence of U.S. and Brazil 

In all of these cooperative actions we find what 
Thomas Jefferson more than a centui'y ago called 
"the advantages of a cordial fraternization among 
all the American nations." They also call to mind 
President Roosevelt's farsighted advice to the 
American peoples when he addressed the Supreme 
Court in Brazil in 19o6: "Each one of us has 
learned the glories of independence," he said ; "Let 
each one of us learn the glories of inter- 
dependence." 

That sense of interdependence has been quick- 
ened by the pressing needs of our time into co- 
operative achievement incredible even a generation 
ago. We have learned in the Americas tliat to live 
together — to continue to live at all — we must work 
together. 

In the words of Elihu Root, nobly spoken in 
your Monroe Palace 46 years ago, on July 31, 
1906 : 

No nation can live iintu itsi'lf alinic and (.■ontinup to 
live. Each nation's si'owtli is a part of the development 
of the [human] race. Tliere may be leaders and there 
may be laggards: but no nation can long continue very 
far in advance of the seneral profiress of mankind, and 
no nation that is not doomed to extinction can remain 
very far beliind. . . . There is not one that will not 
gain by the prosi)erity, the peace, the happiness of all. 



That same intei'dependence has caused Brazil 
and the United States, together with the other 
American Republics, to be partners in the great 
enterprise which is the United Nations. All of 
the nations of this hemisphere played an impor- 
tant role in the San Francisco Conference in 1945. 
Their firm support of the principles of the United 
Nations reflects the principles of justice which are 
so important in the minds of the leaders of this 
continent. 

The United Nations has given abundant evi- 
dence of the high value placed by fellow members 
on Brazilian cooperation. Your delegations to 
the United Nations are looked upon with respect 
by the other delegations. Brazilians have been 
frequently called upon to serve in jilaces of honor 
in the United Nations as well as in other associated 
bodies, such as the International Monetary Fund 
and the International Bank, International Court 
of Justice, UNESCO, and the Food and Agriculture 
Organization. I have no doubt that our countries 
shall continue to participate with effectiveness and 
solidarity in the great work of the United Nations. 

Cultural Amalgamation 

Our two countries have not limited their active 
interests to economic, political, and military prob- 
lems. This cooperation also extends to the more 
intangible and spiritual field of cultural relations. 
There are many differences between our Anglo- 
Saxon cultural traditions on the one hand and 
your Latin and Iberian traditions on the other. 
We in our country have understood the reasons of 
sentiment and tradition which have inspired your 
Foreign Minister to be one of the leaders in the 
creation of the Latin Union, the first meeting of 
which was convened here in Rio de Janeiro last 
October. It is not a paradox that the differences 
between our cultures give depth and strength to 
many things we have in common. 

Tlie United States is an Anglo-Saxon country 
in its origin and in the formulation of its political 
and social institutions. We are proud of these 
traditions, as you are proud of yours. But we 
have drawn heavily, not only in our population 
but in our cultural interests and habits, from 
Europe. Our States of Rhode Island and Cali- 
fornia are heavily populated by persons of Portu- 
guese ancestry. In the last election for Mayor of 
New York, the three princijjal candidates were of 
Italian ancestry. In the Southwest, Spanish tra- 
dition is still jjredominant in many parts. In tlie 
United States we have 35 newspapers printed in 
the Spanish language, 21 in Fi'ench, and no less 
than 11 in Portuguese. Though we are pre- 
dominantly a Protestant country, the Roman 
Catholic Church has a membership of over 150 
million of our people, which makes it the largest 
single denomination of any faith in our country. 
It is inidoubtedly the variety and catholicity in 
our cultural interests on both sides rather than any 



50 



Department of State Bulletin 



narrow insistence by either upon one superior 
50urce of wisdom, truth, and beauty which made 
it possible for our two countries to have signed a 
:onvention strengthenino; the cultural ties between 
3ur peoples — the first cultural treaty the United 
States has ever signed. In the United States we 
feel a genuine api^reciation of Brazilian art — 
^our painting, your magnificient architecture, and 
your music; the popular music of your carnival 
season and the creative works of your composers, 
IS well as the brilliant interpretations given them 
by your concert artists. Your literature also is 
ittaining wide popularity, a fact attested by the 
constantly increasing audience of translations of 
Brazilian books. 

Last year, in the Hall of the Americas of the 
Pan American Union, the 21 Republics of this 
tiemisphere adopted unanimously the Declaration 
jf Washington, which was based in large part 
jpon the proposal presented by the delegation of 
Brazil. That document, embodying our common 
faith and our united resolution, expresses "the firm 
determination of the American Republics to re- 
main steadfastly united, both spiritually and ma- 
terially, in the present emergency or in the face 



of any aggression or threat against any one of 
them." It also reasserts the belief of the Repub- 
lics of the hemisphere in "the efficacy of the prin- 
ciples set forth in the Charter of the American 
States and other inter- American agreements" and 
their supjDort of the action of the United Nations 
as "the most effective means of maintaining the 
peace, security, and well-being of the people of the 
world under the rule of law, justice, and inter- 
national cooperation." That Declaration, that 
meeting, were the hemisphere's steadily reiterated 
answer to every evil force that would plunge the 
world into darkness. The hemisphere is united 
in its determination to keep the torch of freedom 
aloft and burning. 

No stress, no emergency, can make a free people 
willing to relinquish its freedom. The American 
Republics, nations born of the will to liberty, 
nurtured on the principles of liberty, are resolved 
that libei-ty shall be the inalienable heritage of 
their children's children. In every crisis of our 
time, we have shown always in the hour of decision 
that for us only one outcome is possible : adherence 
to the principle of freedom, a truth by which we 
live as free men and as free peoples. 



U.S. Relations With Dominican Republic Reflect 
Trend Toward International Cooperation 



hy Ralph H. Ackerm-an 

Ambassador to the Dominican Repvhlic ^ 



Any diplomat to be successful must be well 
versed in the humanities and the philosophies, 
drawing from the bottomless well of the knowledge 
and the experience of the great thinkers of all 
times, and he must have an understanding of the 
effect of those philosophies on present human re- 
lationshijDS. As he spends a large part of his life 
away from his native land and is in daily associa- 
tion with peoples of different nations and speaking 
different languages, he cannot hold narrowly na- 
tionalistic views. It is his task not only to project 
to the governments and the peoples of the land in 
which he lives the thoughts, sentiments, aims, and 



' Excerpts from the English version of an address made 
at the University of Santo Domingo, Ciudad Trujillo, 
D.R., on June 9 ; printed from telegraphic text. The occa- 
sion was the conferring of an honorary degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy on Ambassador Ackerman, who has since 
left the Dominican Republic and on June .30 retired from 
the Foreign Service. 



ambitions of his own people and government in 
such manner as to win their understanding and 
friendship and to convince them of the mutual 
benefits which may flow from close cooperation 
and association but also he must be capable of 
envisioning and interpreting accurately to his own 
government the effect on the welfare of his nation 
which may stem from the acts, conditions, philoso- 
phies, and ideologies of the country to which he is 
assigned. 

To perform this task he should have a broad 
knowledge of the historical backgrounds of the 
peoples with whom he is in daily association, a 
knowledge of their institutions, of their accom- 
plishments, their aspirations, and their language. 
Without this knowledge his impressions from 
current acts or happenings may be false, and his 
erroneous interpretation may lead to misunder- 
standings and strained relations. It does not suf- 
fice for the diplomat to hold within himself these 



Ju/y 74, J 952 



51 



attributes, if his mission is to be successful, for 
the end is not mere speculative knowledge of what 
is to be done but rather the doing of it. His ac- 
complishments will be enhanced or diminished, in 
a large measure, by his courtesy and by the con- 
sideration he accords to the views of those with 
whom he treats. 

You may recall that Victor Hugo said, "Phi- 
losophy should be an energy. It should find its 
aims and its effect in the amelioration of man- 
kind." The philosophy of a diplomat should be 
an energy; the philosophj^ of Western nations 
today is the amelioration of mankind. 

Beginnings of Pan Americanism 

Early in their history, the nations of this con- 
tinent sought to put into practice this philosophy 
and gathered together, under the auspices of the 
great liberator, Bolivar, in a meeting to create a 
real spirit of pan-Americanism in 1826. After a 
lapse of 60 years, that is, in 1888, the idea was 
again activated by the first of the series of Pan 
American Conferences which has become normal 
procedure. The Pan American Union and the 
Organization of the American States were the in- 
struments selected for organizing and following 
up the work of these Conferences. As a conse- 
quence of this and the determination among the 
American nations to get along one with the other, 
strife between them has been reduced to a mini- 
mum, and the pan-Americanism that we know to- 
day gives a lesson in conduct which might well be 
emulated throughout the world. 

The United Nations was conceived as an instru- 
ment to attain and maintain the peace of the 
world. It soon discovered that the best assurance 
for a peaceful world lay in impi'oving the condi- 
tions under which mankind lives, to make them 
conscious of the fact that war promises benefits to 
neither the victor nor the vanquished and can only 
bring disaster to the human race and to its hopes 
for a better civilization. All Western nations, 
either through the United Nations or by individ- 
ual action, and many private groups, are today 
striving to make effective the philosophy enun- 
ciated by Victor Hugo, the amelioration of man- 
kind, by bringing to their fullest development the 
benefits available through the knowledge and 
progress we have made in science and the humani- 
ties. Governments are taking a greater interest 
in the welfare of their nationals and of other 
peoples. 

Your own illustrious President, Kafael Leoni- 
das Trujillo, gave illustration of this trend when, 
in a speech he made only a few daj's ago, he reit- 
erated an aspiration lie has often voiced before, 
to raise the standard of living in the Dominican 
Kepublic so that his people may benefit from a 
fuller life. No one can gainsay the great benefits 
he has already succeeded in bringing about in the 
form of better educational facilities, hospitaliza- 



tion, water supplies, port facilities, roads, and ir 
every branch of economic activity. My own Gov- 
ernment, concomitant with many domestic socia] 
reforms, has put into practical effect, in additior 
to its contributions to the United Nations, th( 
World Health Organization, the United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organiza 
tion, and other organizations complementing th( 
United Nations, a world-wide program designee 
to assist in the diffusion of skills and the products 
of modern science, to benefit mankind, a progran 
known as the Point Four Program, which has beer 
acclaimed by many nations as one of the most 
effective weapons in the struggle for peace. 

These are evidence that the Western World ii 
conscious of the need to give practical effect to th( 
philosophical counsel of Victor Hugo, a conscious 
ness which has become more acute as there ha; 
emerged in the years immediately succeeding th< 
last war the threat of a powerful state which seeki 
to destroy the systems of government and the mod< 
of living which have been evolved from the ex 
perience of the past and developed as civilizatioi 
has progressed, and to dominate all peoples. The 
influence of that state, and the appeal of its philos 
ophy of distrust and hatred, has prospered onh 
where force has coerced or where ignorance anc 
poverty have prevailed. It can be arrested or con 
quered by the combined strength of the democratic 
nations and by their cooperative effort to ameli 
orate conditions which breed unrest and despera 
tion. Many governments recognize that to thi; 
end we must make common cause, that we must 
set aside differences arising from a narrow nation 
alism and find that intelligent degree of intenia 
tionalism which will contribute to the maintenanct 
of our free institutions and permit our peoples 
to enjoy the fruits within our reach made possible 
by scientific advancements. 



U. S. -Dominican Republic Relations Improved 

Excelencia Senor Rector, it has been my privi- 
lege to live in this beautiful country for almost 
i years. It has been my duty to advance the in- 
terests of my country. I have considered that 
that duty imposed upon me the responsibility ol 
getting to know you and winning your friendship 
and your esteem. You have been most kind ir 
meeting me more than halfway in this process ol 
cultivation, and I believe it to be an incontestable 
fact that relations between our Governments and 
our peoples have shown a great improvement dur- 
ing these 4 years. 

The Governments of our two countries have en- 
tered into a number of agreements from which we 
are deriving mutual benefits. We have encour- 
aged the movement of Dominicans to the United 
States and Americans to the Dominican Republic 
as a means for our peoples to know one another 
better and to exchange information and knowl- 
edge. We are cooperating in a plan for the dis- 



52 



Department of State Bulletin 



semination of skills and experience under the 
Point Four Profiram whicli should redound to the 
benefit of the Dominican people and to the com- 
merce between our two countries; we have en- 
deavored to bring to your people, tlirough the 
Dominican-American Cultural Institute, a better 
understanding of the United States; we have both 
become parties to a multilatereal agi-eement affect- 
ing our tariffs and trade, and I sincerelj' hope this 
may be followed by a bilateral agreement of a 
somewhat more extensive nature. Your Govern- 
ment has made available to my Government gen- 
erous facilities for the conduct of experiments 
with guided missiles, and we have entered into 
mutually beneficial agreements concerning air 
commerce. It is my hope that these programs of 
cooperation can be extended as their benefits be- 
come api^arent and that the seeds which have been 
sown or cultivated during my short tenure of office 
will grow into a robust tree, for I, too, believe in 
the practical application of a philosophy seeking 
to benefit mankind. 



Military Assistance Agreement 
Witli Uruguay 

The Departments of State and Defense an- 
nounced on June 30 the signing at Montevideo of 
a bilateral military assistance agi-eement with the 
Government of Uruguay." 

This agreement is consistent with, and con- 
forms to, inter-American instruments already in 
effect, such as the Inter-American Treaty of Re- 
ciprocal Assistance (the Rio Treaty), the resolu- 
tion on inter-American military cooperation ap- 
proved at the Washington Meeting of Foreign 
Ministers of 1951, and the continuous planning of 
the Inter-American Defense Board. 

The agreement is the seventh of its kind to be 
signed between the United States and one of the 
other American Republics.^ Similar agreements, 
involving the provision of military grant-aid by 
the United States to promote the defense of the 
Western Hemisphere, have been signed with Ecua- 
dor, Peru, Cuba, Brazil, Chile, and Colombia. 
These agreements were initiated under the pro- 
gram of military grant-aid for Latin America, 
authorized in the Mutual Security Act of 1051. 
They illustrate the spirit of cooperation prevailing 
among the American Republics which makes it 
possible for them to concentrate, through self- 
hcl]) and mutual aid, upon increasing their ability 
to contribute to the collective defense of the West- 
fin Hemisphere and, by serving as a deterrent to 
potential aggressors, to contribute to the main- 
tenance of world peace. 

' For text of the agreement, see Department of State 
press release 513 of .June 30. 

■ For text of a similar agreement with Ecuador, see 
Bulletin of Mar. 3, 1952, p. 336. 



Educational Exchange 
Agreement With Finland 

Press release 527 dated July 3 

Finland and the United States signed an agree- 
ment on July 2 putting into operation the pro- 
gram of educational exchanges authorized by 
Public Law 584, 79th Congress (the Fulbright 
Act). The signing took place at Helsinki with 
Foreign Minister Sakaria Tuomioja representing 
the Republic of Finland and American Minister 
John M. Cabot representing the Government of 
the LTnited States. 

The agreement provides for an annual expendi- 
ture not to exceed the equivalent of $250,000 in 
Finnish currency for a period of 5 years to finance 
exchanges between that country and the United 
States for purposes of study, research, or teaching. 
The program will be financed from certain funds 
made available by the U.S. Government resulting 
from the sale of surplus property to the Republic 
of Finland. 

All recipients of awards under this program 
are selected by the Board of Foreign Scholarships, 
appointed by the President of the United States. 

Under the terms of the agreement, a U.S. Edu- 
cational Foundation in Finland will be estab- 
lished to assist in the administration of the pro- 
gram. The Board of Directors of the foundation 
will consist of eight members, four of wliom are 
to be citizens of Finland and four to be citizens 
of the United States. The American Minister to 
Finland will serve as honorary chairman of the 
Board. 

After the members of the foundation have been 
appointed and a program formulated, informa- 
tion about sjiecific opportunities will be made 
public. 



Letters of Credence 

VietTiam 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Vietnam, 
Trail Van Kha, presented his credentials to the 
President on July 1, 1952. For the texts of the 
Ambassador's remarks and the President's reply, 
see Department of State press release 519 of July 1. 



Cambodia 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Cambodia, 
Nong Kimny, presented his credentials to the Pres- 
ident on July 1, 1952. For the texts of the Am- 
bassador's remarks and the President's reply, see 
Department of State press release 520 of July 1. 



luly 14, J 952 



53 



A Materials Policy for the United States 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT'S INTERNATIONAL MATERIALS POLICY COMMISSION 



On June 23 there wm released volume I of a report by the Presi- 
denfs International Materials Policy Commission entitled Eesources 
for Freedom. The 178-page volume, ''■Founidations for Growth and 
Security,'' will be folloived by four others: ''The Outlook for Key 
Commodities'" {210 pages), ''The Outlook for Energy Sources'' {0 
pages), "The Promise of Technology" {228 pages), and "Selected 
Reports to the Commission" {15Jf pages). Following are the text 
of a letter, released June 23, from the President to William S. Paley, 
chairman of the Com/mission; a statem-ent by the President on actions 
taken to continue the Commissionh work; a letter from the President 
to Congressional^ leaders; and excerpts from, a digest of volume I pre- 
pared by the Convmission. 



THE PRESIDENT TO CHAIRMAN PALEY 

Dear Mr. Paley : Your Commission's report is 
a landmarlv in its field. I do not believe there has 
ever been attempted before such a broad and far- 
sighted appraisal of the material needs and re- 
sources of the United States in relation to the needs 
and resources of the whole free world. Nor, in 
my judgment, has the conclusion ever been so 
forcefully stated and documented that interna- 
tional cooi:)eration in resource development and 
international trade in raw materials is imperative 
to world peace and prosperity. 

Your report likewise makes clear exactly where 
and how we need to conserve and strengthen our 
natural resources here at home, and to maintain 
our dynamic progress in science and technology. 
The conviction you have expressed that this Na- 
tion, despite its serious materials problem, can 
continue to raise its living standards and 
strengthen its security in partnership with other 
freedom loving nations should be heartening to 
people everywhere. 

I have not yet had an opportunity to stvuly in 
detail each of your specific recommendations but 
I am sure they merit careful consideration, not 
only by the Congress and the executive branch of 
the Federal Government, but by state govern- 
ments, the general public and especially by farm, 
labor, industry and other private groups most 
closely related to the problem. It is my hope that 
your report will stimulate further study and dis- 
cussion, both in and out of Government, of all 
aspects of this vital problem. 

54 



I extend to your Commission and its staff niy 
thanks and congi'atulations for the public service 
you have rendered. Your study, I feel sure, will 
be appreciated not only in our own country but by 
people of other nations with which the United 
States is cooperating toward the preservation of 
freedom and peace, and the enrichment of human 
life. 

Sincerely yours, 

Harry S. Trtiman 



STATEMENT OF THE PRESIDENT 

White House press release dated July 1 

I liave today taken a number of actions to im- 
plement the report of the President's Materials 
Policy Commission, entitled "Eesources for Free-, 
dom," which was submitted to me a week ago. I 

This report tells the story of the needs and re- 
sources of this Nation and the nations of the free 
world extremely well. The document should 
serve for years to come as a basic guide in \>vo- 
viding adequate supplies of the materials we and 
other friendly nations of the world must have if 
we are to expand our economy and at the same 
time remain secure from threats of aggression. 

The Commission has done a very constructive 
job. and I propose to do all that I can to see to it 
that tlie Federal Government acts promptly and 
effectively in continuing the excellent work which 
the Commission has initiated. To this end I have 
today taken the following actions : 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



1. I am transmitting the Commission's report 
to the Congress. I am not at this time asking for 
action on specific recommendations, bnt rather I 
am calling the entire document to the attention 
of the Congress in the hope tliat it will be studied 
by each member and by the appropriate com- 
mittees of the Congress. 

2. I am directing the National Security Re- 
sources Board to undertake a continuing review 
of the entire materials situation, as recommended 
in the Cormnission's report. The National Se- 
curitj' Resources Board will, of course, need ade- 
quate funds if this activity is to be carried out 
effectively and I hope the Congress will provide 
needed appropriations for this vital project. 

3. I am also asking the National Security Re- 
sources Board to organize a special task force re- 
cruited from various Government agencies to study 
the detailed recommendations of the Commission 
and to give me, within no more than 60 days, sug- 
gestions for carrying them out. 

4. I am asking the heads of departments and 
agencies concerned with the materials problem to 
study the report and to advise me through the 
National Security Resources Board, within no 
more than 60 days, what steps they believe are 
appropriate in implementing these "recommenda- 
tions as they pertain to their respective agencies. 

5. I am directing the Bureau of the Budget to 
make a comprehensive review, from an organiza- 
tional standpoint, of the operations of the exe- 
cutive branch with respect to the materials prob- 
lem, and to advise me of its findings within no 
more than 60 days. 

The Government, of course, can only do a part 
of the job. Much of it will have to "be done by 
private industry. Labor organizations, farm 
groups, and other private bodies can help work 
out solutions. The universities and private foun- 
dations can make a very significant contribution. 
It is my hope that both public and private groups 
will join together in the vital task of making cer- 
tain that in the yeare to come through wise use of 
their resources the United States and the nations 
of the free world will enjoy continued growth and 
security. 

LETTER TO CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS' 

The President on July 1 sent the folio loing tet- 
ter to Alhen W. Barkley, President of the Senate, 
and Sam Eayburn, Speaker of the Rouse of Rep- 
resentatives: 

I am transmitting to the Congress the report of 
the President's Materials Policy Commission, "Re- 
sources for Freedom." Our laiowledge and un- 
derstanding of the materials position of the 
United States and of its allies throughout the free 
world will be considerably increased by the de- 

' H. doc. 527. 

July 14, 1952 



tailed review which has been prepared by the Com- 
mission. This is a document which deserves the 
most careful study by every member of the Con- 
gress, and I hope each one of them will take the 
time to familiarize himself with its contents. 

Tliis report, the fruit of months of intensive 
study by an independent citizen's group aided by 
experts drawn from Government, industry, and 
universities, shows that in the past decade the 
Unitecl States has changed from a net exporter to 
a net importer of materials, and projects an in- 
creasing dependence on imports for the future. 
The report indicates that our altered materials 
situation does not call for alarm but does call for 
adjustments in public policy and private activity. 

In more than seventy specific recommendations, 
the Commission points out the actions which, in its 
judgment, will best assure the mounting supplies 
of materials and energy which our economic prog- 
ress and security will require in the next quarter 
century. 

I am requesting the various Government agen- 
cies to make a detailed study of these recommen- 
dations, and I am directing the National Security 
Resources Board to assume the responsibility of 
coordinating the findings and of maintaining a 
continuing review of materials policies and pro- 
grams as a guide to public policy and private en- 
deavor. As the need arises for legislation to solve 
materials problems affecting this Nation and other 
free nations, appropriate recommendations will be 
made to the Congi-ess. 

It is my hope that this report and the actions 
M'hich may be taken as a result of it will contribute 
significantly to the improvement of this Nation's 
materials position and to the strengthening of the 
free workl's economic security, both of which are 
the continuing objectives of United States policy. 
Sincerely yours, 

Harry S. Truman 



DIGEST OF VOLUME I 

[Excerpts] 

There is a Materials Problem of considerable 
severity affecting the United States and the indus- 
trialized nations of Western Europe. Unless the 
jn-oblem is effectively met, the long range security 
and economic growth of this and other free na- 
tions will be seriously impaired. The Commis- 
sion's report is primarily concerned with the 
United States problem, which cannot, however, be 
isolated from the rest of the free world problem. 

The basic reason for the problem is soaring 
demand. This country took out of the gi-ound 
two-and-one-half times more bituminous coal in 
10.50 than in 1900; three times more copper, four 
times more zinc, thirty times more crude oil. The 
quantity of most m-etaJs and 7mneral fuels used 
in the United States since the first World War 



55 



exceeds th-e total iised throughout the entire world 
in all of history preceding 1911^. Although ahnost 
all materials are in heavily increasing demand, 
the hard core of the materials problem is minerals. 

In 1950, the United States consumed 2.7 billion 
tons of materials of all kinds — metallic ores, non- 
metallic minerals, agricultural materials, construc- 
tion materials, and fuels — or about 36,000 pounds 
for every man, woman, and child in the country. 
With less than 10 percent of free world popula- 
tion, and only 8 percent of its area, the United 
States consumed more than half of 1950's supply 
of such fundamental materials as petroleum, 
rubber, iron ore, manganese, and zinc. 

The President's Materials Policy Commission 
was asked by President Truman to investigate the 
long-term aspects of the materials problem as dis- 
tinct from short range or emergency aspects, and 
picked as the period for study the quarter century 
between 19.50 and 1975. The Commission's report 
does not overlook the possibility of war in this 
period but neither does it assume war. War would 
alter the patterns of materials demand and supply 
in swift and drastic ways; yet if permanent jjeace 
should prevail, and all the nations of the world 
should acquire the same standaixl of living as our 
own, the resvdting world need for materials would 
be six times pre.sent consumption. In considering 
materials at long range, therefore, we have roughly 
the same problems to face and actions to pursue, 
war or no war. 

For the last hundred years, the United States' 
total output of all goods and services (the (xross 
National Product, or Gnp) has increased at the 
average rate of three percent a yeai% compounded. 
Such a rate means an approximate doubling every 
twenty-five years (which would mean a nineteen- 
fold increase in a full century). As of 1950, the 
Gnp was approximately $283 billion. In consider- 
ing the next quarter century the Commission has 
made no assumption more radical than that the 
Gnp will continue to increase at the same three 
percent rate compounded every year, which is the 
average of the last century, all booms and depres- 
sions included. This would mean a Gnp in the 
middle of the 1970's of about $566 billion, measured 
in dollars of 1950 purchasing power. The Com- 
mission has also assumed, after consultation with 
the Bureau of the Census, that population will 
increase to 193 million by 1975, and the working 
foi'ce to 82 million, compared to the 1950 figures 
of 151 million and 62 million. It has also assumed 
a shortening work week, but that man-hour pro- 
ductivity will continue to rise somewhat more than 
in the recent past. But even these conservative 
assumptions bring the United States up against 
some very hard problems of maintaining materials 
supply, for natural resources, whatever else they 
may be doing, are not expanding at compound 
rates. 

Absolute shortages are not the threat in the ma- 
terials problem. We need not expect we will 



some day wake up to discover we have run out of 
materials and that economic activity has come to 
an end. The threat of the materials problem lies 
in insidiously rising costs which can undermine 
our rising standard of living, impair the dynamic 
quality of American capitalism, and weaken the 
economic foundations of national security. These 
costs are not just dollar costs, but what economists 
refer to as real costs — meaning the hours of human 
work and the amounts of capital required to bring 
a pound of industrial material or a unit of energy 
into useful form. Over most of the 20th century 
these real costs of materials have been declining, 
and this decline has helped our living standards to 
rise. But there is now reason to suspect that this 
decline has been slowed, that in some cases it has 
been stopped, and in others reversed. The central 
challenge of the materials problem is therefore to 
meet our expanding demands with expanding sup- 
plies while averting a rise in real costs per unit. 

In materials, there is always a tendency for real 
costs to rise because invariably people use their 
richest resources first and turn to the leaner sup- 
plies only when they have to. Wliat is of concern 
today it that the combination of soaring demand 
and shrinking resources creates a set of upward 
cost 25ressures much more difficult to overcome than 
any in the past. In the United States there are 
no longer large mineral deposits in the West wait- 
ing to be stumbled upon and scooped up with picks 
and shovels ; nor are there any longer vast forest 
tracts to be discovered. We^ can always scratch 
harder and harder for materials, but declining or 
even lagging pi-oductivity in the raw materials in- 
dustries will rob economic gains made elsewhere. 
The ailment of rising real costs is all the more 
serious because it does not give dramatic warning 
of its onset; it creeps upon its victim so slowly that 
it is hard to tell when the attack began. 

In recent years, the general inflation has struck 
with special force at many materials, causing their 
prices to rise more than the price structure as a 
whole. Some materials prices are high today be- 
cause demand has temporarily outrun supply; 
here we can expect the situation to adjust itself. 
But in other cases the problem is more enduring 
than this, and reflects a basic change of supply con- 
ditions and costs. It would be wishful, for exam- 
ple, to except lumber prices to settle back to their 
pre-1940 price relationship; we are running up 
against a physical limitation in the supply of 
timber, set by the size and growth rates of our for- 
ests, and cost relief through easy expansion is not 
to be expected. For such metals as copper, lead, 
and zinc. United States discovery is falling in re- 
lation to demand, and prices reflect the increasing 
pressure against limited resources. 

The Commission's report discusses at length the 
ways and means whereby rising real costs can be 
halted, and a trend toward lower real costs, such 
as we enjoyed through most of the first half of the 
20th century, re-established. It recognizes also 



56 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



the problem of having enough materials physi- 
cally available in the event of war, and considers 
various ways of assuring materials security. The 
report emphasizes that "there is no such thing as 
a purely domestic policy toward materials that all 
the world must have ; there are only world policies 
that have domestic aspects." The Commission 
states its conviction that if the United States and 
other free nations are, in the years ahead, to enjoy 
economic growth and national security, "they must 
coordinate their resources to the ends of common 
growth, common safety and common welfare." 
The Commission states as the major premise of its 
report that : 

The over-all objective of a national materials policy for 
the United States should be to insure an adequate and de- 
pendable flow of materials at the lowest cost consistent 
with national security and with the welfare of friendly 
nations. 



Three Major Paths 

In general, the United States has three major 
paths to follow in working out the problems of 
high consumption, prudent conserving, and a do- 
mestic resource base that is shrinking in compari- 
son with our needs : 

1 ) We can make new discoveries of needed ma- 
terials at home, and otherwise increase the useable 
fraction of our total resource base. 

2 ) We can alter our patterns of use away from 
scarce resources and toward more abundant ones. 

3) We can import larger quantities of materials 
from other nations of the free world on terms ad- 
vantageous to buyer and seller. 

Getting More From Imports 

If there is to be a 50 to 60 percent increase in 
onr use of materials in the next quarter century, 
this will mean that our total materials consump- 
tion will rise from 2.7 billion tons a year now to 
around 4 billion tons by 1975. The trend toward 
: greater imports, perhaps amounting to a fifth or 
: a quarter (by value) of what we use, thus seems 
inescapable. But here, too, we have flexibility. 
Wliere import conditions are unattractive we can 
always raise domestic output (at higher cost), 
develop substitutes or, if need be, use less. But 
where conditions for economic cooperation are 
favorable, it will, in the opinion of the Commis- 
sion, pay us to import. The resource-rich but 
relatively undeveloped nations of South America, 
Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East will also 
profit, for by exporting to us they can obtain the 
dollar exchange with which to acquire more of 
the capital goods they need to assist their own 
economic growth. Such an interchange can take 
place between the industrial and resource nations, 
the report states, "to the tremendous advantage of 
i each." The Commission rejects completely the 



concept of United States "self-sufficiency" as 
amounting to "nothing more than a self-imposed 
blockade." The report continues : 

The fact that nature distributed resources very un- 
evenly over the face of the earth in relation to human 
population and consumption alone argues in favor of in- 
creasing Integration of the various national economies 
of the free world. But the hard political facts of mid- 
twentieth century add further great weiglit to the propo- 
sition that it will be to the mutual advantage of all 
freedom-loving peoples of the earth to achieve a greater 
measure of economic and political cooperation than ever 
before, founded on the principles of mutual help and 
respect. Such cooperation can succeed only if it is based 
on a clear understanding of the varying needs and re- 
sources of all the nations concerned, and the opportuni- 
ties which lie in mobilizing the strength of all to meet 
the particular weaknesses of each. 

On paper, the economic opportunities in free 
world cooperation to produce materials are tre- 
mendous ; they suggest a possible new era of world 
advancement dazzling in its promise. Unfortu- 
nately a great many problems, mostly man-made, 
lie in the path. Less developed countries today 
are highly conscious of the disparity between their 
own standards of living and those of more highly 
developed countries. They resent the stigma of 
"colonialism" which often attaches to economies 
heavily dependent on raw material exports. They 
remember the great depression of the 1930's when 
falling prices for their big raw material exports 
wiped out their ability to buy the goods they 
needed from their more industrialized neighbors. 

On the other hand, individuals and corpora- 
tions with capital to invest in foreign raw ma- 
terials production hold back for fear of legal 
uncertainties, fear of expropriation, and the pos- 
sible impermanence of governments with whom 
they might make contracts. They fear arbitrary 
administration of import and export controls and 
limitations on the convertibility of their earnings 
into American dollars. At home, tariffs, "Buy 
American" legislation, and certain aspects of our 
tax laws add to the obstacles. 

It would be folly for policymakers in this or 
any other nation to assume that the present tur- 
moil of the world will work itself out in ideal 
fashion. The violent political upheavals of this 
century clearly have not yet spent their force. 
What happens internally in the less developed 
nations, and to their economic and political re- 
lations with the industrially advanced nations of 
the free world, will largely determine whether 
materials development can be used to help world 
progress. 

Enormous new investment would be needed for 
foreign resources expansion. Wliereas the recent 
level of private U.S. investment in mining and 
smelting development abroad has averaged around 
$50 million a year, the Commission estimates that 
$100 mililon a year will be needed for the next 
25 years to fulfill free world needs for copper 
alone. 



Ju/y 74, J 952 



57 



The Principle of Least Cost 

With the United States economy facing stronger 
and stronger pressures toward rising real costs 
of materials, this Commission believes that na- 
tional materials policy should be founded squarely 
on the principle of buying at the least cost possible 
for equivalent values. With growth pressing so 
heavily against our resource base we cannot anord 
to legislate against this principle for the benefit 
of particular producer groups at the expense of 
our consumers and foreign neighbors, and ulti- 
mately with prejudice to our own economic growth 
and security. 

This cardinal principle of least cost has appli- 
cation to all major sectors of national materials 
policy : to development of domestic resources, to 
energy and technology, to imports of foreign ma- 
terials, and to security. Its application is most 
often challenged, however, with respect to imports 
and security. 

That our economy can best develop by obtain- 
ing its material at the lowest possible cost is most 
often attacked by those whose costs are higher 
than those of foreign competitors. It is they who 
ask for restriction of imports on the grounds of 
"protecting the American standard of living from 
the competition of lower paid foreign labor." 
This argument is often buttressed with the asser- 
tion that we should strive to be as self-sufficient 
as possible in view of the security risks we face. 
The Commission feels strongly that this line of 
argument is fallacious and dangerous. The idea 
that the American standard of living must be pro- 
tected from low-cost foreign supplies based upon 
"cheap labor" is an idea based on unemployment 
psychology. In a full employment situation the 
supply of any material from abroad at a price 
below that of our domestic costs (provided it does 
not represent a temporary dumping), does not 
lower the standard of living but actually helps 
push it higher. In the United States it enables 
us to use manpower and equipment to better ad- 
vantage in making something that is wortli more 
than the cheaper material that can be obtained 
from abroad. Abroad, our purchases will con- 
tribute to a strengthening of economic life and 
improvement of working conditions in the nations 
from whom we import. 

It is true that where our domestic industries 
face a considerable reduction in output, witli em- 
ployees and capital unable to transfer quickly to 
more remunerative activities, the Government has 
the responsibility of easing the transition to the 
new situation. This, however, is hardly likely to 
be an important problem in the materials field, 
where even the declining industries are more likely 
to be faced with a shortage of manpower than 
with a surplus. 



The Problem of Security 

As, in one material after another, we reach the 
stage at which we must turn abroad for additional 
supplies, the point may be raised that we are en- 
dangering our security by dependence on foreign 
sources; on "fair weather friends" whose supplies 
in time of war will not be available to us. 

This point is substantial enough for serious con- 
sideration. The issue must be defined. It is to 
gain the greatest security at the lowest cost. 
Sometimes the least-cost route to security is to 
give special aid to domestic industry, sometimes 
it is not; when aid is indicated it is always best 
to tailor it to the specific situation. Self-suffi- 
ciency for many materials is impossible ; for many 
others it is economic nonsense. It is certainly not 
true that for all materials an unqualified depend- 
ence on domestic supplies is the best in the end, 
even when physically possible. With some mate- 
rials, peacetime dejiendence on domestic supplies 
may mean such depletion that if war comes a re- 
serve which might otherwise have existed will 
have been destroyed. With some materials it is 
much more economical to depend upon expanded 
output in safe areas abroad and on stockpiles built 
in whole or in part on foreign supplies than to 
maintain a domestic industry behind elaborate 
and expensive protection. With some materials 
it may be advisable to maintain a domestic in- 
dustry which normally supplies only part of our 
requirements, but is capable of a rapid expansion. 
It is far from obvious that because we need a 
material desperately in wartime, the one best solu- 
tion is to maintain a high-cost domestic industry 
in peacetime. That may sometimes be proper, but 
it is not generally so, and our policy must be to 
make separate decisions based on examination of 
the particular merits of each case. 

The fallacy of self-sufficiency as a basic guide 
to a soimd materials jDolicy is that it costs too 
much, in every way. A 50-cent increase per bar- 
rel of petroleinn or a 2-cent increase in the average 
price per ])ound of basic metals would add to our 
annual bill for these materials about $1.0 billion 
and $2.5 billion respectively. Yet it is not in 
dollars alone that the increased costs of self-suffi- 
ciency would be paid. Other countries in the free 
world find markets for their exports in the United 
States and we, to our profit, are a principal source 
of industrial products for them. Interferences 
with these normal channels of trade in the name 
of self-sufficiency would inevitably check economic 
growth both at home and abroad. The political 
consequences of self-sufficiency, with its accom- 
panying damage to carefully established security 
arrangements, would prove even more serious. 

Tlie dimensions of the materials security prob- 
lem are far broader than the needs of the United 
States alone, for we have a real concern to see 
that our allies are likewise well supplied with 
materials to support their own military strengths. 



58 



Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



If a war should cut off the flow of oil to Western 
Europe from the Middle East, the burden of fuel- 
ing Western Europe would fall heavily upon the 
oil producing nations of the Western Hemisphere. 
The problem then facing the United States of 
reconciling its own needs with those of its allies 
would transcend pm-ely domestic considerations. 
For the United States and the rest of the free 
world the geography and logistics of a possible 
wai-, the greater mechanization of our armed 
forces, the superior care and protection of our 
manpower and the higher living standards of our 
people all put a heavier drain upon our resources 
than our adversaries are likely to encounter. 
Hence, to accomplish the same war ends, the free 
nations would require more materials than would 
the enemy. To meet or anticipate our needs from 
the supply side, we stockpile, and we seek reserve 
materials capacity in safe areas, domestic and 
foreign. On the supply side, civilian authority 
remains more or less in control. But on the 
demand side, the military, particularly in wartime, 
is in a commanding position. With each succes- 
sive war, and now with preparation against the 
contingency of another, the military has become 
a greater and greater claimant against the mate- 
rial of the whole economy. It would be impossible 
to fix a maximum percentage of military claims 
to the total economy and say "beyond this point 
you may not go." But even though the point can- 
not be fixed it is known to exist — and to push mili- 
tary consumption beyond it is to collapse the 
civilian economy and hence, yer 5e, to lose the war. 
Thus the military carries a heavy responsibility 
to use materials efficiently and to hold its demands 
to the lowest limits properly consistent with ade- 
quate military strength, both in peacetime and 
wartime. Progress has been made here in recent 
years, but there is room, and pressing need, for 
more. 



The Fundamental Concepts 

The report sums up the convictions of the Com- 
mission as follows : 

First, we share the belief of the American people in the 
principles of Growth. Where there may be any unbreak- 
able upper limits to the continuing growth of our economy 
we do not pretend to know, but it must be part of the 
materials task to examine all apparent limits. 

Srcoiid, we believe in private enterprise as the must 
efficacious way of perfornilntt industrial tasks in the 
United, States. We believe in a minimum of interference 
with its patterns, but this does not mean we believe this 
minimum must be set at zero. Private enterprise itself 
has often asked for help or restraints from Government ; 
we have thus long experienced a mixture of private and 
public influences on our economy. The Commission sees 
no reason either to blink this fact or to decry it, believ- 
ing that the co-existence of great private and public 
strength is not only desirable but essential to our 
preservation. 

Third, we believe that the destinies of the United States 
and the rest of the free non-Communist world are in- 
extricably bound together. Applied to the Materials 



Problem, this belief implies that if the United States is 
to increase its imports of raw materials — as we believe 
it must — it must return in other forms strength for 
strength to match what it receives. If we fail to work 
for a rise in the standard of living of the rest of the free 
world, we thereby hamper and impede the further rise 
of our own, and equally lessen the chances of democracy 
to prosper and peace to reign the world over. 



The Recommendations of the Commission 

The Commission made over seventy recom- 
mendations to ease the materials problem and to 
ensure as far as possible against the threat of 
rising real costs. These recommendations appear 
in full in Volume I of the Commission's report. 



To Stimttlate Foreign Trade and Open ttp New 
Free World Material Sources — 

The Commission recommended that : 

The United States should negotiate government- 
to-government agreements with resource countries, 
designed to encourage and protect the enormous 
investment necessary to create new materials pro- 
duction abroad. (It was also the Commission's 
view that United States representatives should en- 
courage a wider use of United Nations technical 
assistance in geological surveying and minerals 
exploration in the underdeveloped countries.) 

The United States should expand, perhaps to 
as much as four million dollars a year, its own 
technical assistance along the lines of geological 
surveys, preliminary exploration and mining tech- 
nology advice, with assurances from the resource- 
countries' governments that they will proinote 
conditions favorable to developing new minei-al 
resources discovered. 

"Wlien current emergency agencies eventually 
disband, a permanent agency should be empow- 
ered to make long-term purchase contracts, in- 
cluding price guarantees, with resource nations; 
to make loans for foreign materials production 
where special security interests justify assump- 
tion of risks beyond those assumable by the Ex- 
port-Import Bank, 

Legislation explicitly authorizing the Govern- 
ment to enter into management contracts for for- 
eign materials expansion should be enacted by the 
Congress. 

There should be permanent legislation empow- 
ering the elimination of duty, apart from recipro- 
cal action by other countries, when U.S. need for 
imports of a particular material becomes crucial. 
(The Commission believes there should also be 
expansion of authority under the Reciprocal Trade 
Agreements Act to reduce duties on raw materials 
in which the United States is deficient.) 

The "Buy American" Act, characterized by the 
Commission as "a relic of depression psychology" 
should be repealed. 

There should be a continuing study of world 
materials demand and production, with statistics 



July 14, 1952 



59 



maintained by the United Nations; special inter- 
national study groups should be set up when par- 
ticular difficulties are encountered, similar to those 
now reviewing wool, rubber and tin. (For re- 
ducing marlvet instability the Commission saw 
promising possibilities in the multilateral con- 
tract, such as the International Wheat Agree- 
ment and in testing international buffer stocks as 
com))ensating inventories in a few materials.) 

Certain changes in the U. S. tax laws should be 
made to sj^ur materials investment by U. S. citi- 
zens in foreign countries as follows : allowing tax- 
payers to elect annually between "per country" 
and "over-all limitation" in claiming credits on 
their U. S. tax bill for taxes paid abroad ; permit- 
ting deferral of reporting income until actually 
received ; extending the privilege of filing consoli- 
dated returns with foreign subsidiaries ; allowing 
stockholders in foreign corporations which have 
invested in exploration and development to treat 
part of their dividends as a tax-free return of 
capital rather than as taxable income. 



Bombing of Power Plants 
in Nortli Korea 

Press release 516 dated June 30 

During the course of an informal private talk 
to memhers of the British Parliament on June 26, 
Secretary Acheson covered a variety of subjects 
concerning various areas of the world. At 07ie 
point during his talk the Secretary made sorne 
remarks about the bombing of power ^ plants in 
North Korea. There have been. con-fl.icting reports 
of what the Secretary actimlly said on this sub- 
ject. In view of this misunderstanding,^ Mr. 
Acheson on June 30 authorized the publicatio7i of 
the verbatim text of his remarks concerning these 
bomMngs, His remarks follow: 

If I may digress for a moment, I shall make 
some remarks about a matter which is one of con- 
troversy and which I would not speak about in 
England were it not for the fact that this is off- 
the-reoord. I shall restrict my remarks to what I 
think it is my duty to say to you at this time. This 
is about the matter that you have been debating 
in the last 2 or 3 days. 

You would ask me, I am sure, if I did not say 
this, two questions, and I should like to reply 
very frankly to both of them. One question you 
would ask is: Shouldn't the British Government 
have been informed or consulted about this? To 
that, my answer would be "yes." It should have 
been ; indeed, it was our intention to do it. It is 
only as the result of what in the United States 
is known as a "snafu" that you were not consulted 
about it. 

I am sure that you are wholly inexperienced 
in England with government errors. We, un- 

60 



fortunately, have had more familiarity with them, 
and, due to the fact that one person was supposed 
to do something and thought another person was 
supposed to do something, you were not consulted. 
Tlierefore, you should have been. We have no 
question about that. 

If you ask me whether you had an absolute 
right to be consulted, I should say "no," but I 
don't want to argue about absolute right. 

What I want to say is that you are a partner of 
ours in this operation, and we wanted to consult 
you ; we should have, and we recognize an error. 

Now you ask me whether this was a proper ac- 
tion. To that I say : Yes, a very proper action, an 
essential action. It was taken on military 
grounds. It was to bomb five plants, four of which 
were far removed from the frontier, one of which 
was on the frontier. We had not bombed these 
plants before because they had been dismantled, 
and we wished to preserve them in the event of 
unification of Korea. They had been put into 
ojjeration once more; they were supplying most 
of the energy which was used not only by airfields 
wliich were operating against us but by radar 
which was directing fighters against our planes. 

Statement by Acting Secretary Bruce 

Press release 526 dated July 2 

Asked for a timetable of developments arising 
out of failure to inform the British of the con- 
templated action in bombing power installations 
in North Korea, Acting Secretary Bruce made the 
following extemporaneous statement at his press 
conference on July 2 : 

"It would be very difficult for me to give you any 
chronological statement. But I might say this: 
the failure to inform the British of the contem- 
plated action was one which was due to a lack of 
coordination, if I may put it that way, between 
some of the departments of the Government. I 
think it is perfectly idle to try to ascribe the blame 
to one department or the other. There has been 
no difference of opinion between ourselves about 
it. We did not coordinate the action as we should 
have, and there it is." 



U.S.-Philippine Cooperation 
Rebuilds Highway System 

Press release 509 dated June 30 

June 30, 1952, has been set as the official date for 
the close of the highway rehabilitation program 
in the Philippines. Beginning in the fall of 1945, 
teams of trained engineers and administrators 
from the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads have been 
working side by side with the Philippine Bureau 
of Public Works in the gigantic task of rehabili- 
tating the war-ravaged highway system in thei 

Department of State Bulletin 



Philippines and extending it to serve the expand- 
ing needs of the country. 

Approximately 52 million dollars (104 million 
pesos) have been spent in the construction or re- 
construction of 263 bridges and 618 kilometers of 
highways. This work has put back in use all the 
highways existing before the war. In addition as 
a result of this program, many rich areas of the 
country are now receiving adequate highway serv- 
ice for the first time. As an example, tlie rich 
Cagaj'an Valley in north central Luzon will have 
all-weather highway connections with the rest of 
the island as bridges built with rehabilitation 
funds replace the seasonably inadequate ferries at 
several river crossings on Highway No. 5. 

Almost 4 years of war and enemy occupation 
had left the highway system in a deplorable state. 
Bridges had been blasted and roadway surfaces 
were shell-pocked and broken from the heavy 
military traffic. Even more noticeable was the 
surface deterioration caused by 4 years of 
neglected maintenance. Largely as a result of 
work done by the U.S. Army after the liberation, 
most of the important routes of travel were 
opened during 1945. However, much of that 
work was of a temporary, makeshift nature and 
pei'manent reconstruction was necessary. The 
United States recognized that the jirompt re- 
habilitation of the highways was beyond the 
physical and financial resources of the young 
Philippine Eepublic. They recognized, too, the 
essential role adequate highways play in the 
physical well-being of a nation. This "was par- 
ticularly true in the Philippines where the rail- 
road system, inadequate at best, had suffered equal 
if not greater damage during the war and where 
,'he very life of the young Republic depended upon 
free and ready movements of goods and people 
3ver the highways. 

In recognition of this need, as a gesture of 
ofood will and in a democratic effort to strengthen 
mother government of free peojile in the postwar 
roubled world, the Couirress of the United States 
3y Public Law No. 370 (79th Cong., 2d sess.) allo- 
cated 40 million dollars to the planning, design- 
ing, and building of such roads, essential streets, 
ind bridges as might be necessary for the national 
lefense and the economic rehabilitation and de- 
velopment of the Philippines. The U.S. Public 
Roads Administration (now the U.S. Bureau of 
Public Roads) was assigned to carry out this 
■vork. The highway-reconstruction project was 
)ut one of several rehabilitation programs pro- 
dded under that law. Those other programs, 
nvolving less extensive physical work, have all 
)een successfully completed and the termination 
)f the highway project brings to a close the United 
states' share of the rehabilitation work. 
The work that is just finishing is a shining ex- 
mple of the cooperation that can be effected be- 
ween two independent countries when they join 
inces in mutual trust and respect. While the 

o/y 14, 1952 

214697—52— — 3 



U.S. Government has supplied the larger part 
of the funds, the Philippine Government did con- 
tribute to the extent of their resources so that the 
work could be extended to all parts of the country. 
Approximately 12 million dollars (24 million 
pesos), or one dollar in every four, was provided 
by the local govermuent out of their meager re- 
sources in addition to even larger sums expended 
for normal highway maintenance needs. All the 
work was done by Philippine contractors, with 
Philippine labor, working under the direction of 
the Philippine Bureau of Public Works. In the 
beginning the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads had 
to contribute heavily in technical direction and 
engineering. As the Bureau of Public Works re- 
built its oi-ganization, more and more of the tech- 
nical and administrative work was given into its 
charge until now, as the program draws to a close, 
only a handful of American engineers remain. 

The close of the rehabilitation program does 
not mean the end of highway construction. The 
phenomenal growth in motor vehicle registration 
and the awakening development of the country 
demand that the construction and expansion of 
the highway system continue. The aid provided 
by the United States has made up for the losses 
during the 4 years of war and occupation. The 
experience gained working alongside the Amer- 
ican technicians has qualified the Bureau of Public 
Works to continue with the expansion and de- 
velopment necessary to maintain the Philippine 
highway system in its service to the nation. 



Mr. Andrews To Visit 
Indonesia and Burma 

Press release 528 dated July 3 

Stanley xVndrews, Point Four Administrator, 
will leave Washington July 6 for Djakarta and 
Rangoon to plan the continuation under the Tech- 
nical Cooperation Administration (Tca) of co- 
operative progi-ams for economic develoj^ment in 
Indonesia and Burma. 

Mr. Andrews is scheduled to be in Djakarta 
July 10-14 for discussions with officials of the 
Indonesia Government and the U.S. economic 
mission and in Rangoon for discussions with U.S. 
and Burma Government officials July 15-19. He 
plans to return to the United States via the 
Pacific, stopping briefly in Tokyo and reaching 
San Francisco about July 23. 

During fiscal year 1952, U.S. authorized eco- 
nomic aid to Burma amounted to 14 million dol- 
lars and to Indonesia to 8 million dollars. Both 
programs emphasized the development of agri- 
culture, health, education, small industry, trans- 
portation, and public administration and were 

61 



similar in many respects to Point Four programs 
administered by Tca in other countries. 

U.S. economic aid in Indonesia and Burma has 
been administered by the Mutual Security Agency 
(Msa). The transfer of administrative respon- 
sibility from Msa to Tca took place in accordance 
with the provision of the new legislation. Under 
the new Mutual Security Act (Public Law 400 of 
June 20, 1952) the Mutual Security Agency from 
now on will administer programs which directly 
support military preparedness and mutual de- 
fense, while the Tca will administer the long-term 
Point Four programs authorized by the Act for 
International Development. 



Point Four Programs 

Afghanistan 

Press release 515 dated June 30 

Help in overcoming effects of ravages during the 
twelfth and fourteenth centuries by Genghis 
Khan and Tamerlane on vital irrigation works in 
the Helmand Valley of southwest Afghanistan is 
among provisions of an allocation of $348,740 of 
Point Four funds made June 30 for that country 
by the Technical Cooperation Administration 
(Tca) of the Department of State. 

Afghanistan, with 12 million people, is a land- 
locked country, largely pastoral and agricultural, 
lying strategically between the U.S.S.R., Paki- 
stan, and Iran. 

The authorization includes $03,44fi to supply 
American technicians and some needed equip- 
ment to assist the Afghans in settling families on 
existing land and on an estimated 800,000 acres 
of newly arable areas expected to result from 
irrigation works financed by the Government of 
Afghanistan and a $21 million loan from the U.S. 
Export-Import Bank. The Tca program _ also 
embraces educational and agricultural projects, 
including aerial spraying against the age-old 
desert locust menace. " The Tca is cooperating 
with the United Nations in the technical assist- 
ance offered to Afghanistan and is preparing to 
pool efforts in a development plan in the Helmand 
Valley. 

The seven U.S. experts in the valley will include 
a chief of the technical mission, land reclamation 
and settlement officers, an agronomist, and agricul- 
tural extension specialists, one with experience in 
forestry. 

A system of dams and canals, with laterals and 
ditches, utilizing the Helmand and Arghand Ab 
Rivers, constitutes the irrigation project. The 
Arghand Ab Dam and a diversion dam have been 
completed, and the remaining structure across 
the Helmand Eiver — the Kajaki Dam— is expected 
to be ready for water storage in 1953. An Amer- 
ican engineering firm, Morrison-Knudsen of 

62 



Boise, Idaho, began large-scale construction work 
6 years ago upon invitation of King Mohammed 
Zahir Shah, who used foreign exchange accumu- 
lated during World War II and the Export-Im- 
port Bank loan to finance the project. 

Also included in the present authorization is 
$69,519 for education, $75,675 for 16 Afghan 
trainees in agriculture, coal mining, irrigation and 
education, and $43,300 for locust control. 

The Mongol conquests of Genghis Klian and 
Tamerlane swept from China as far as the Balkans 
before receding. Ruins of ancient cities and civil- 
ized amenities remain among the present day vil- 
lages dotting the relatively narrow cultivated 
strip beyond which stretches the alluvial desert to 
be reclaimed by the development. 

Wlieat cultivation and sheep raising are the 
country's principal occupations, and its chief ex- 
ports are karakul, fruit, nuts, and wool. Its 
industries now consist of two cotton textile and 
two woolen mills, a beet sugar refinery, a canning 
factory, and a few small power stations. 

Lebanon 

Press release 511 dated June 30 

The Governments of the United States and 
Lebanon have signed a program agreement out- 
lining a broad scope of activities to be undertaken 
through the Point Four Program, the Department 
of State announced June 30. The U.S. contribu- 
tion has been set at $3,100,000. 

The signing of this agreement brings the United 
States into a partnership for technical cooperation 
with another of the Middle Eastern nations 
Under the agreement an extensive list of projects 
is scheduled with major emphasis on agriculture 
health and sanitation, and natural resources de- 
velopment. Other broad project categories in- 
clude education and training grants, social affairs 
and transport and communications. 

More than two-thirds of Lebanon's people liv( 
on farms, and agriculture forms the principal sup- 
port of the country. The Point Four Prograir 
includes a number of agricultural projects, sucl 
as animal husbandry, irrigation, marketing, cp 
operatives, agronomy, and agricultural credit 
All are closely related as components of a broac 
rural-improvement program with concentratioi 
on food production. 

In the field of natural resources, projects wil 
be carried on in village water development anc 
salt-water fisheries. Work will also continue ii 
surveys connected with the Litani River basin 
The development of this 125-mile-long river val 
ley is of prime importance in a country only 4,00( 
square miles in area with a population of ove 
1.200,000. 

Health and sanitation programs are also o 
major importance in the new agreement. Pri 
mary projects are village health and medical serv 
ices and the construction of a central public healtl 

Department of State Bulletl 



laboratory, considered to be the key to the nation's 
public health efforts. 

The Point Four education programs are aimed 
at the establishment of primary and secondary 
schools and include teacher training as a basis for 
long-range progress in this important field. 

In social affairs, a portion of the total progi-am 
fund is being set aside for demonstration projects 
in housing, which will serve as a guide for pro- 
posed slum-clearance work. 

Anotlier major allotment is in the field of train- 
ing, with grants established for the training of 
Lebanese nationals in the United States. These 
students must agree to spend a year in the public 
service of the government after completion of 
their courses. There are also courses set up at the 
American University of Beirut through an earlier 
Point Four grant which are open to qualified stu- 
dents from the other Arab states. They will form 
1 nucleus of experts and teachers for the further 
spreading of technical knowledge. 

The agreement was signed June 26 at Beirut. 

Pakistan 

Press release 518 dated July 1 

The Department of State on July 1 announced 
:he details of a broad program of internal develop- 
ment in Pakistan to be undertaken with U.S. co- 
Dperation under the Point Four Program. An 
igreement outlining the specific projects to 
be carried out was signed June 30, providing for 
the expenditure of $10,000,000 of U.S. funds. 

The agreement was signed in New York by 
Jonathan Bingham, Deputy Administrator of the 
Technical Cooperation Administration, for the 
United States, and by Said Hasan, Joint Secre- 
tary, Ministry for Economic Affairs, who is in the 
United States attending sessions of Unesco as a 
representative of his country, for Pakistan. 

Matching funds in rupees, equivalent to a mini- 
mum of $10,000,000, are to be provided by 
Pakistan for the projects. 

The new agi-eement covers specific activities to 
oe undertaken under the terms of the Point Four 
Program agreement signed by the two govern- 
nents on February 2, 1952.' 

One outstanding project, to which $2,-390,000 of 
U.S. funds will be devoted, consists of a rural 
igricultural-industrial development program 
:'overing improved methods of crop and livestock 
iroduction, marketing and home management; 
lealth and education; village industries, notably 
landicrafts; and cooperative organizations in 

' Bulletin of Feb. 25, 1952, p. 296. 



marketing, purchasing, and rural credit. Some 
600,000 persons in approximately 1,000 villages 
will be reached through this work in the first year 
of operation. 

This is considered the beginning of a long- 
range village development program planned on 
such a simple scale that the provinces can carry 
forward the work after only a brief period of 
assistance from the Pakistan and U.S. Govern- 
ments. Institutes for training the necessary vil- 
lage workers for this program are to be attached 
to four provincial agricultural colleges, with the 
United States furnishing some of the teachers and 
equipment. 

A major provision is $4,000,000 for a fertilizer 
plant at Mianwali, in the West Punjab, to pro- 
duce 50,000 tons of ammonium sulphate annually 
toward meeting Pakistan's need for this aid to 
food production. In addition, 10,000 tons of fer- 
tilizer will be imported with Point Four funds, 
most of it to be sold to farmers for purposes of 
large-scale demonstration, which is expected to 
increase food grain production by about 20,000 
tons this first year. 

Another outstanding provision is $1,100,000 
toward a road demonstration and transportation 
project in East Pakistan where floods of the 
Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers and their tribu- 
taries have cut off farmers from markets for 
extended periods. 

Health measures include making available DDT 
for use in preventing disease among some 5,000,- 
000 refugees in Pakistani communities, a field in 
which U.N. health personnel are actively training 
local technicians. 

TcA administrator Stanley Andrews pointed 
out that: 

In its i% years of independence, Paliistan, with 80 
millions of people, has made remarkable progress. It 
has a stable government which is progressive and deter- 
mined to improve the income and living standards of the 
people. It has a 6-jear program of economic and social 
betterment comprising more than 100 projects. JIany of 
these are being financed and carried out entirely by 
Pakistan. For fiscal year 1951-52 alone, ,$175,000,000 in 
rupees is being supplied by the National Government and 
$150,000,000 in rupees by the Provincial Government. 
External aid is also being supplied by U.N. organizations, 
the Ford Foundation, and the Colombo Plan. 

There are now 60 Pakistanis training in the 
United States under earlier Point Four grants. 
The number will be increased to 200 by the new 
agreement. The over-all intent of the training 
program is to provide local experts to continue 
activity uninterrupted in future years. 



»\Y 14, J 952 



63 



Europe's Voluntary Unity 

by Perle Mesta 

Minister to Luxembourg ^ 

There never was a time when international ques- 
tions so demanded the attention of all people. It 
is no lonjier a question of "let "Washington worry." 
We have all got to worry. And we have plentj 
to worry about. 

I am, by nature, an optimist. But there is no 
blinking the facts. AVe, the free peoples, either 
win through this present crisis or freedom itself 
goes down. If we lose that, we lose everything. 
I doubt if very many of us present here this even- 
ing woidd see the day wlien we wovdd be free 
again. 

That sounds very discouraging. I am not, how- 
ever, discouraged. For I do believe we will win. 
Almost day by day, I seem to see the scales tipping 
in our favor. 

Luxembourg has been called the cross road of 
Europe. It is, indeed, about as good a place as 
one could find to get the pulse of Europe. 

I have seen and talked to many of Europe's 
leading statesmen. I have talked to professional 
and business people — to workers and to farmers. 
I find the attitude of these people amazing. 
These people have just come through the great- 
est and most destructive war in all history. They 
live today almost in the shadow of the Hammer 
and the Sickle. 

The threat under which we all live is very near 
to them. It is an ever-present danger. 

And yet these people have their heads up. They 
have performed miracles of faith and courage. 

When I try to be specific, I find it difficult to 
pick out just one development to mention first. 
All are important. 

Take, for example, the agreements signed re- 
cently at Bonn and Paris. 

As Secretary Acheson said of them : 
"These agreements touch the lives of everyone 
of us. They represent the birth of a new Ger- 
many, a new Europe, and a new period in 
history." 

Briefly, these agreements do three things. 
They end the Occupation of Germany. They 
create a new European Defense Community in 
which Gernumy will be a part. They extencl the 
mutual guaranties of help against armed attack 
among all the members of this new European De- 
fense Community and all the Nato nations. 

This is what this means. Just a few years ago 
these nations were at war. That war left death 



' Excerpts from an address made before the Interna- 
tional Federation of Business and Professional Women. 
New York, on June 20 and released to the press on the 
same date. 



and destruction in its wake unprecedented in 
history. 

Traditionally, the heritage of war is hatred. 
The Euro^Deans have known such hatred over the 
centuries. Today, they turn their backs upon it. 
They have chosen rather to build peace and to 
make their friendship the basis of that peace. 

This same spirit gave birth to the Schuman 
Plan, only last week finally ratified by the parlia- 
ments of all the nations involved. Here is a plan 
not only for peace, but peace with prosperity — 
prosperity for all. 

I would like to talk, if I had time, of Nato. 
Much of Nato's success, unquestionably, is clue to 
General Eisenhower's magnificent efforts. But 
General Eisenhower would have been powerless 
if the spirit to cooperate had not been there. 

Generations of statesmen and thinkers have ad- 
vocated what has been accomplished in Europe 
these past few years. Dante is the first name that 
comes to my mind. He probably wasn't the first, 
however, and there have been a host of others. 

There have been attempts to bring about such 
unity by force among the European peoples. We 
need think only of Hitler's "new order" for 
Europe. Happily this did not succeed. 

On the other hand, you and I have lived to see 
a great idea — a voluntary European unity — being 
put into effect. We are seeing it icork. 

It woidd be highly egotistical for me to claim, 
as an American, that the United States was re- 
sponsible for all of this miracle. We were not. 
The credit belongs to those wise and farsighted 
European statesmen who have put humanity be- 
fore nationalistic prejudice. It belongs to them 
and the millions and millions of Europeans, just 
the plain people, who have backed these men. 

Our foreign policy, however, has helped. 
Wherever and whenever it was possible, we have 
backed the European leaders to the limit. We did 
not create, but we have fostered. 

That is something, I think, in which we all — 
all Americans — can take pride. For we have 
backed our Government. We have backed it not 
only financially but with our moral support. 

I said I was an optimist. Looking back over the 
last few decades, I see many reasons for being 
just that. It isn't that mankind has changed, but 
his thinking most certainly has. 

Certainly, we still have a long way to go. There 
are many and great injustices still existing in 
not only the world but in our own country. But 
we have shown amazing capacity for progress. 
And I, personally, see no reason why this progress 
should not continue. 

Again, I am not unaware of the great dangers 
threatening us. But we are meeting them. And 
we are meeting them together. We are meeting 
them with faith in each other and courage in our 
hearts. Backed by that faith and courage, if we 
stay together, I have no doubt of the outcome. 



64 



Depatimeni of Sfafe Bo//efin 



Preliminary Step Taken Toward Construction 
of St. Lawrence Seaway by Canada 



U.S., CANADA SUBMIT APPLICATION TO JOINT COMMISSION 
FOR APPROVAL OF POWER DEVELOPMENT 



Press release 506 dated June 30 

The Department of State announced on June 
30 that an application has been submitted by the 
U.S. Government to the International Joint Com- 
mission for an order of approval of the construc- 
tion of works for power development in the Inter- 
national Rapids Section of the St. Lawrence 
River. The Canadian Government has also sub- 
mitted a concurrent application in Ottawa. 

Agreement was reached on the final details of 
the applications by the two Governments at a 
meeting in Washington on June 30 between 
Acting Secretary Bruce and the Canadian Min- 
ister of Transport, Lionel Chevrier. At the meet- 
ing in Washington, Mr. Bruce and the Canadian 
Ambassador, H. H. Wrong, exchanged notes in 
which the Ambassador reiterated the intention of 
the Canadian Government to construct a deep-sea 
waterway from Montreal to Lake Erie when ar- 
! rangements have been completed for power de- 
velopment.i The seaway, to be built on the Ca- 
nadian side of the international boundary, will be 
constructed as nearly as possible concuri-ently with 
the power development. 

Texts of the Canadian and U. S. notes of June 
30 follow. 



Canadian Note 

Sir, 

I have the honour to refer to our exchange of 
notes of January 11, 1952, relating to the St. Law- 
rence Seaway and Power Project. In my note to 
you, I informed you that the Canadian" Govern- 
ment is prepared to proceed with the construction 



'At a meeting in Washington on Sept. 8, 1951, Prime 
Minister Louis St. Laurent of Canada informed President 
Truman of Canada's willingness to construct the seaway 
as a Canadian project and to malie arrangements with 
the appropriate U.S. authority for the required power 
development. The President expressed his preference for 
joint United States-Canadian action on the seaway but 
said he would support Canadian action if an early com- 
mencement on the joint development does not prove 
possible. See Bulletin of Oct. 8, 1951, p. 581. 

July 14, J 952 



of the seaway as soon as appropriate arrangements 
can be made for the construction of the power 
base of the project as well. 

I have been instructed by my Government to 
inform you that, when all arrangements have been 
made to ensure the completion of the power phase 
of the St. Lawrence project, the Canadian Gov- 
ernment will construct locks and canals on the 
Canadian side of the International Boundary to 
provide for deep-water navigation to the standard 
s))ecified in the proposed agreement between 
Canada and the United States for the develop- 
ment of navigation and power in the Great Lakes- 
St. Lawrence Basin, signed March 19, 1941, and 
in accordance with the specifications of the Joint 
Board of Engineers, dated November 16, 1926, and 
that such deep-water navigation shall be provided 
as nearly as possible concurrently with the com- 
pletion of the power phase of the St. Lawrence 
project. 

The undertaking of the Government of Canada 
with respect to these deep-water navigation facili- 
ties is based on the assumption that it will not be 
possible in the immediate future to obtain Con- 
gressional approval of the Great Lakes-St. Law- 
rence Basin Agreement of 1911. As it has been 
determined that power can be developed economi- 
cally, without the seaway, in the International 
Rapids Section of the St. Lawrence River and as 
there has been clear evidence that entities in both 
Canada and the United States are prepared to 
develop power on such a basis, the Canadian Gov- 
ernment has, with Parliamentary approval, com- 
mitted itself to provide and maintain whatever 
additional works may be required to allow unin- 
terrupted 27-foot navigation between Lake Erie 
and the Port of Montreal, subject to satisfactory 
arrangements being made to ensure the develop- 
ment of power. 

Canada's undertaking to provide the seaway is 
predicated on the construction and maintenance 
by suitable entities in Canada and the United 
States of a sound power project in the Interna- 
tional Rapids Section. The features of such a 
power project are described in section 8 of the 



65 



applications to be submitted to the International 
Joint Commission by the Governments of Canada 
and of the United States. They are also described 
in the Agreement of December 3, 1951, between 
the Government of Canada and the Government 
of Ontario, forming part of the International 
Rapids Power Development Act, Chapter 13 of 
the Statutes of Canada, 1951, (Second Session), 
a copy of which is attached hereto. The Canadian 
Government wishes to make it clear that, even 
were the seaway not to be constructed, Canada 
would not give its approval to any power develop- 
ment scheme in the International Rapids Section 
of the St. Lawrence River which omitted any of 
the features so described. 

However, in order to ensure that construction 
of both the power project and the deep waterway 
may be commenced without any further delay and 
notwithstanding — 

(a) that the power-developing entities would 
be required, if power were to be developed alone, 
to provide for continuance of 14-foot navigation 
(such provision was indeed made in the 1948 
applications by the Province of Ontario and 
the State of New York), and that the Canadian 
Government's commitment to provide concur- 
rently a deep waterway between Lake Erie and 
the Port of Montreal does not alter the basic 
principle that any entity developing power in 
boundary waters must make adequate provision 
for the maintenance of existing navigation fa- 
cilities, and 

(b) that, in view of the clear priority given to 
navigation over power by Article VIII of the 
1909 Boundary Waters Treaty, provision of 
channeling to the extent specified in the Annex 
to the 1951 Canada-Ontario Agreement referred 
to above is reasonable and in conformity with 
Canadian practice, 

the Canadian Government is now prepared to 

agree — 

(a) that the amount to be paid to Canada, as 
specified in the Agi-eement of December 3, 1951, 
between Canada and Ontario, in lieu of the con- 
struction by the power-developing entities of 
facilities required for the continuance of 14- 
foot navigation, be excluded from the total cost 
of the power project to be divided between the 
Canadian and United States power-developing 
entities, in consideration of the fact that actual 
replacement of 14-foot navigation facilities will 
be rendered unnecessary by reason of the con- 
current construction of the deep waterway in 
Canada, and 

(b) that the Authority to be established pur- 
suant to the provisions of the St. Lawrence Sea- 
way Authority Act, Chapter 24 of the Statutes 
of Canada, 1951 (Second Session), contribute 
$15 million towards the cost of the channel en- 
largement which the power-developing entities 
must undertake in the St. Lawrence River, as set 



out in paragraph 4 of the Annex of the Canada- 
Ontario Agreement of December 3, 1951, and in 
section 8 of the applications to the International 
Joint Commission, in consideration of the bene- 
fits which will accrue to navigation from such 
channel enlargement. 

I understand that your Government approves 
the arrangements outlined in this note and that 
it is further agreed, subject to the modifications 
outlined in the preceding paragraph, that the Gov- 
ernment of Canada and the Government of the 
United States will request the International Joint 
Commission to allocate equally between the two 
power-developing entities the cost of all the fea- 
tures described in Section 8 of the applications to 
the International Joint Commission and in the 
Agreement of December 3, 1951, between Canada 
and Ontario. 
Accept [etc.] 

Hume Wrong 



United States Note 

Excellency : 

I have the honor to ac*knowledge the receipt of 
your note of June 30, 1952, in which you inform 
me that your Government, when all arrangements 
have been made to ensm-e the completion of the 
power phase of the St. Lawrence project, will con- 
struct locks and canals on the Canadian side of the 
International Boundary to provide deep-water 
navigation to the standard specified in the pro- 
posed agreement between the United States and 
Canada for the development of navigation and 
power in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin, 
signed March 19, 1941, and in accordance with the 
specifications of the Joint Board of Engineers, 
dated November 16, 1926, and that such deep- 
water navigation shall be provided as nearly as 
possible concurrently with the completion of the 
power phase of the St. Lawrence project. 

My Government approves the arrangements set 
forth in your note and, subject to the modifications 
there proposed and outlined below, agrees to re- 
quest the International Joint Commission to al- 
locate equally between the power-developing en- 
tities the cost of all the features described in Sec- 
tion 8 of the applications to the International 
Joint Commission and in the Agi-eement of De- 
cember 9, 1951, between the Governments of Can- 
ada and Ontario. 

These modifications are : 

(a) the amount to be paid to Canada, as speci- 
fied by the Agreement of December 3, 1951, be- 
tween Canada and Ontario, in lieu of the con- 
struction by the power-developing entities of 
facilities required for the continuance of 14-foot 
navigation, be excluded from the total cost of the 
power project to be divided between the Canadian 
and United States power-developing entities, in 
consideration of the fact that actual replacement 



66 



Departmenf of Sfafe Bullefin 



of 14-foot navigation facilities will be rendered 
unnecessary by reason of the concurrent construc- 
tion of the deep waterway in Canada, and 

(b) that the Authority to be established pur- 
suant to tlie provisions of the St. Lawrence Sea- 
way Authority Act, chapter 24 of the Statutes of 
Canada, 1951 (Second Session), contribute $15 
million toward the cost of channel enlargement 
which the power developing entities must under- 
take in the St. Lawrence River, as set out in Sec- 
tion 8 of the applications to the International 
Joint Commission and in paragraph 4 of the 
Annex to the Canadian-Ontario Agreement of 
December 3, 1951, in consideration of the benefits 
which will accrue to navigation from such chan- 
nel enlargement. 

Accept [etc.]. 

David Bruce 



U.S., Canada Refer Lake Ontario 
Complaints to Joint Commission 

The Department of State announced on June 
25 that the United States and Canada had agreed 
upon terms of a reference which was forwarded 
on that date to the International Joint Commis- 
sion — United States and Canada — relating to the 
high level of water in Lake Ontario. 

Residents along the shores of Lake Ontario have 
complained regarding serious damage to their 
property as a result of the unprecedented high 
level of water in Lake Ontario.^ Some of the 
complainants considered that the high level was 
caused to a considerable extent by the Gut Dam 
constructed in the St. Lawrence River by the 
Canadian Government in 1903-04 and by the di- 
version of the waters of the Long Lac and Ogoki 
Rivers from Hudson Bay into Lake Superior. 
The diversion of waters of Lake Michigan through 
the Sanitary Drainage Canal at Chicago was also 
an element which was considered of importance in 
regard to the present situation. 

In order that all possible methods of remedying 
this unfortunate situation might be considered and 
all possible measures taken to provide relief, the 
United States requested, and Canada has agreed, 
to have this matter referred to the Commission in 
accordance with the provisions of article IX of 
the treaty signed on January 11, 1909, relating to 
boundary waters. 

' BuiXETiN of June 9, 1952, p. 903. 



Supplementary Extradition 
Convention With Canada 

Press release 508 dated Juue 30 

The Department of State has been informed 
that the Canadian Parliament has approved a 
Supplementary Extradition Convention with the 
United States which covers securities frauds.' 
The U.S. Senate has already given its consent to 
ratification. The convention was signed at Ot- 
tawa on October 26, 1951, and amends the Ex- 
tradition Convention of December 13, 1900. 

For some years governmental authorities in 
both countries have been concerned over the activ- 
ities of a small group of stock promoters in 
Canada who have carried out securities frauds 
involving millions of dollars annually through 
sales in the United States. Existing extradition 
arrangements proved unsatisfactory to cope with 
the techniques of these brokers who operated 
through mass mail campaigns and extensive tele- 
phone solicitation. 

The Supplementary Convention redefines the 
list of offenses for which extradition can be had 
and adds the crime of mail fraud for the first time. 

The new convention will go into effect when 
instruments of ratification are exchanged. 

Senate Ratifies German Treaty 
and NATO Protocol 

Press Conference Statement hy Acting Secretary 
Bruce 

Press release 525 dated July 2 

In response to a request for comment on Sena- 
torial consent to ratification of the German Con- 
tractual Agreements and the NATO Protocol^ 
Acting Secretary Bi-nce made the foUoiving ex- 
temporaneous statement at his press con:ference on 
July 2: 

I think the action of the Senate was simply 
magnificent, and with a very encouraging major- 
ity. I think it will be very heartening indeed to 
the foreign countries which later on have to con- 
sider the ratification of the treaty and the protocol. 
I think we have set an extremely good example. 

' Bulletin of Dec. 3, 1951, p. 908. 

" The Senate on July 1 ratified the German Contractual 
Agreements by a vote of 77 to 5 and on the same date 
ratified the Nato Protocol by a vote of 71 to 5. For test 
of the latter document and for summaries of the German 
agreements, see Bulletin of June 9, 1952, p. 888 and 
p. 896. 



Ju/y 14, J 952 



67 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Increasing the Safety of the World's Shipping 



THE SIXTH INTERNATIONAL HYDROGRAPHIC CONFERENCE 

iy Commander Leonard S. Huhhard 

V.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Department of Commerce 



The International Hydrogi-aphic Conference 
met at Monte Carlo, Monaco, for its sixth quin- 
quennial session from April 29 to May 9, 1952. 
Delejiates from 24 of the 28 member states ^ con- 
vened at the permanent lieadquarters of the Inter- 
national Hydrographic Bureau (Iiib) to resolve 
administrative and technical problems relating to 
the activities of the Bureau and to review its 
achievements and program. The United States 
was represented by two delegates, Capt. Earl O. 
Heaton, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Department 
of Commerce, and Capt. George F. Kennedy, 
U.S.N.R., Navy Hydrograi^hic Office, Department 
of Defense, and by three technical advisers, H. K. 
Edmondson of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
and Guillermo Medina and William G. Watt, both 
of the Navy Hydrographic Office. 

At its opening session, the Conference divided 
itself into working committees on charts, tides, 
nautical documents, revision of resolutions, work 
of the Bureau, statutes, eligibility of candidates, 
and finance. These eight committees, one of which 
was headed by a U.S. delegate and two of which 
had a U.S. delegate as vice chairman, considered 
technical proposals and problems submitted by 
the member states and by the Ihb directing com- 
mittee, and also made appropriate recommenda- 

' Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Cbile, Cuba, Denmark, 
Eg.vpt, France, Germany, Greece, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, 
Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, 
Sweden, Thailand, the United States, Uruguay, and Yugo- 
slavia : the 24th member represented consists of Great 
Britain, Australia, and New Zealand, operating as a unit. 
Four members, China, Poland, Turkey, and the Union of 
South Africa were not represented. Belgium and Iceland 
sent observers. 



tions to the Conference in plenary session. The 
U.S. delegation believes that most of the technical 
proposals adopted are consistent with established 
policies and procedures of the United States.^ 

In 1939, at the invitation of the British Ad- 
miralty, the principal maritime states sent dele- 
gates to a conference of hydrographers at London. 
This conference, in which the United States par- 
ticipated, recognizing that maritime nations have 
a community interest in the compilation of ac- 
curate and standardized information on the coasts 
and coastal waters of the world and in the free 
exchange of this information, decided to establish 
an international bureau of hydrography to func- 
tion on a permanent basis, through elected direc- 
tors and a secretary general together with a tech- 
nical and administrative staff, all financed by the 
maritime member states. The Principality of 
Monaco donated the headquarters building and 
provided utility services. The United States, an 
active member since 1921, was instrumental in 
keeping the Bureau intact during World War II. 
Full activity was resumed after the war, and the 
Fifth International Hydrograjshic Conference 
was held in 1947 at Monte Carlo. 

The Bureau coordinates and encourages stand- 
ardization on an international basis of the efforts 
of the national hydrographic offices and promotes 
the facility and safety of navigation in all the 
.seas of the world. It provides a medium for free 
exchange of basic information in the form of 



^ Details of the work of the various committees and 
verbatim reports of the plenary sessions will be printed 
in the "Report of the Proceedings of the Sixth Inter- 
national Hydrographic Conference" and distributed to 
member states by the International Hydrographic Bureau. 



68 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



hydrographic surveys and up-to-date charts, as 
well as of comprehensive descriptions of coasts, 
ports, and navigation aids and of improved survey 
methods and navigational techniques as developed 
by national interest. 

Millions of nautical charts are printed in Wash- 
ington every year. The U.S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, Department of Commerce, prepares and 
issues charts and related publications on the 
coastal waters of the United States and its pos- 
sessions (Alaska, the Hawaiian Islands. Puerto 
Rico, and the Virgin Islands). The U.S. Navy 
Hydrographic Office, Department of Defense, pre- 
pares and issues charts and publications on all of 
the other coastal waters and oceans of the world. 
United States participation in the work of the 
Tnternational Hydrographic Bureau is princi- 
pally through the services of these two offices. 

Nautical charts are used by the fighting ships of 
;he Navy and by vessels of the Merchant Marine 
olying domestic and foreign waters. The Navy 
orotects the national welfare and our foreign com- 
nerce ; the merchant fleet transports a large part 
)f our foreign commerce, the annual total value 
)f which exceeds 12 billion dollars in exports and 
) billion dollars in imports. The yachting fleet 
)f this country, consisting of approximately 450,- 
)00 yachts and small craft, also demands a great 
uimber of charts each year. Moreover, some 
14 000 fishing craft use charts to aid in locating 
ishing banks. 

mportance of Nautical Charts 

Nautical charts are the navigator's road maps, 
3ut they are far more vital to him than road maps 
ire to an automobile tourist. No visible sign- 
oosts mark the sea lanes. Charts show whaf is 
mder the water— the deeps and shoals, the sub- 
nerged hills and valleys under the sea. Charts 
dso portray the shoreline, the bays and head- 
ands. lighthouses, and other aids to the navigator. 
Dn a large modern vessel worth millions of dollars 
md moving at high speed, the navigator must 
vnow at all times exactly where his vessel is and 
vhere he must guide it to reach his destination in 
he least possible time, consistent with safety. 

The navigator on such a ship has certain elec- 
ronic devices at his disposal to aid him in know- 
ng his position and the depth of water under his 
ihip. In coastal waters, he looks at a radar 
icreen, which is somewhat like a television screen, 
md sees a picture of the coastline and other above- 
vater objects. He can also quickly determine the 
ustance and direction of any object seen on the 
creen. In offshore waters." the navigator can 
nanipulate the dials of another electronic device, 
ailed loran, to find his distances from shore con- 
rol-stations. A glance at a flashing light or at 

trace on a graph of a third electronic instru- 
laent, called an echo-sounder, shows the depth of 
kater under his vessel. Having found the dis- 

'«/y 14, 7952 



tances from points on shore and the depths under 
the vessel from these electronic instruments, the 
navigator can spot his position on a chart. 

A modern chart is designed to utilize the infor- 
mation furnished by radar, loran, and echo-sound- 
ers to best advantage. It shows the shapes of 
coastal areas with shaded contouring, each succes- 
sively darker shade simulating the image seen on 
the radar screen at successively greater distances 
offshore. A lattice-like grid of fine lines over the 
chart, representing the loran-station readings, aids 
the navigator in plotting his position. "Depth 
curves of the ocean bottom, like the contour lines 
of a land map, show the navigator where he must 
be to match the depths he reads on his echo- 
sounder. Such is a modern chart, but before it 
can be printed an enormous amount of informa- 
tion must be obtained, both of the land areas and 
of the sea areas. 



Surveying Water Areas 

Land-surveys furnish the basis and the tie-in 
points for the surveys of the water areas. Most of 
us have seen land-surveyors at work, measuring 
distances and angles with tapes and transit-like in- 
struments and photographing land areas from the 
air. We are not, however, so familiar with the 
operations which produce surveys of the water 
areas, called hydrography. Hydrography meas- 
ures the depths and locates the positions of the 
depths. It finds out "how deep" and "where " so 
that all features of the bottom and the adjacent 
shores may be delineated on the charts. These 
operations must naturally be performed by or 
from vessels. 

The United States maintains 13 survey vessels 
each with from 60 to 400 men aboard. A tvpical 
survey vessel, which is between 150 and 420 feet 
long, has on her boat deck four to six launches 
and m addition whaleboats, dinghies, and skiffs! 
During the recent conference, survey vessels of 
England and France and the U.S. Hydroo-raiihic 
fiirvey Group One, consisting of"the'"uSS 
Mauri/, the U.S.S. StaUion. and the U.S S 'We- 
gheny, called at the port of Monte Carlo and <rave 
the delegates an opportunity to observe techniques 
and inspect equipment employed by different na- 
tions. Great interest was displayed in the ex- 
IV Vt°S i'^Jif^ed by the helicopter attached to 
the U.h.S. Maury which demonstrated lowering 
supplies from the air and hovering. The presi- 
dent of the Conference, on behalf of its members 
expressed appreciation to the United States for 
making its survey vessels available for inspection 
by the conference representatives. 

When a survey vessel arrives in a new region to 
be charted, one of its first tasks is to establish 
ground or shore control and to map the shoreline. 
Working parties ashore construct beacon-like sig- 
nals along the shoreline— conspicuous signals that 
men on the launches and the vessel can see when 



69 



they are measuring the depths under the water. 
Other working parties establish electronic control- 
stations and erect radio masts that are used to 
control the positions of the vessel and the launches 
when the beacon-like signals cannot be seen. 
Finally, survey parties determine the location ot 
the beacon signals and the radio masts, and tie-m 
points on the ground that show on aerial photo- 
graphs, so tlu-it the shoreline can be mapped in 
its true position from the photographs. 

With the shore control established and plotted 
on work sheets, the survey vessel and the launche| 
start actual hydrogi-aphic surveying. Vessel and 
launches track back and forth across the water 
areas in straight lines, each line parallel to the 
preceding, as a farmer plows a field. As the 
vessel and the launches travel along the sounding 
lines, electronically controlled echo-depth sound- 
ers trace a continuous profile on a roll of graph 
paper of the ups and downs of the sea bottom 
passed over. While sounding, the hydrographers 
keei:> track of and guide the path of the vessel and 
immediately plot the measured points on work 
sheets, called the hydrographic sheets, which be- 
come filled with row after row of depth figures. 

When the signals on shore cannot be seen, elec- 
tronic instruments are used to determine the posi- 
tion of the sounding craft. One of the most use- 
ful of these is shoran, a special type of radar which 
measures the distance to two shore receiving sta- 
tions. With shoran controlling, the navigator 
knows his exact position at all times, and sound- 
ings can be taken both day and night in foggy, 
rainy, or clear weather. 

Since the surface of the sea rises and falls with 
the tide, the height of the tide must be known 
continuously in order to correct the depth read- 
ino-s to the plane of low water. Automatic, clock- 
run instruments are set up near the shore to record 
a continuous graph curve of the rise and fall ot 
the tide. During the hydrographic operations, 
observers also measure the deviation of a compass 
needle from true north. This deviation will be 
shown on the compass rose printed on the nautical 
charts. 



Preparing the Chart 

When the field work is completed, the hydro- 
o-raphic sheets and the accompanying records are 
shipped to Washington, where cartographers re- 
duce and condense the scale and carefully select 
those soundings which will best picture the sea 
bottom to the mariner. Depth-curves or bathy- 
metric lines, similar to the contour lines on a land 
map, are drawn. From the topographic data on 
hand, the cartographers also prepare a draft of 
the land areas, emphasizing those that best serve 
the mariner's needs and eliminating others. The 
final chart original is then prepared. Some hy- 
drographic services still utilize the classical 
method of engraving on copper; some engrave 

70 



on glass; others draft their charts in their en- 
tirety or utilize a combination of drafting and 

engraving. , • ,, . f 

Nautical charts vary gi'eatly m the amount ot 
area covered and in the amount of detail shown. 
Harbor charts may show only one harbor, but this 
in great detail, including piers, objects on shore, 
bottom contouring, channels, and buoys. Coast 
charts, with smaller scales, cover great stretches 
of the coastline and the bordering ocean bottom 
and, although much detail of the ocean bottom is 
shown, only such shore objects are charted as can 
be seen from a distance off shore. General charts 
and sailing charts cover greater areas in much less 
detail and are for the use of vessels traveling far 

at sea. , , , i • 

In addition to nautical charts, the hydrographic 
services of the maritime nations must publish 
much supplemental information, such as tide 
tables, lists of navigational lights, sailing direc- 
tions, electronic aids, and dangers to navigation, 
all designed to promote safety at sea. In the in- 
terest of the mariner and of the offices preparing 
such information, it is essential that such details 
be prepared as uniformly as possible. 

The only way to obtain all this information on 
the coasts and coastal waters of foreigii countries 
is by freely exchanging such information of our 
own coasts for similar information from other 
countries. The International Hydrographic Bu- , 
reau contributes much to the safety of vessels ply- 
ing the shipping lanes of the world by encouraging 
the free exchange of accurate and up-to-date in- 
formation and the standardization of the efforts 
of the national hydrogi-aphic offices. 



U.S. Presents Evidence 

of Forced Labor in U.S.S.R. 

Folio win ff w the text of a .statement viade jnihlir 
on Jvne 30 on hehalf of the Department of Sf'iff 
by Walter M. Kot-^chnig, Deputy U. S. Bepre>« n- 
tative in the U.N. Economic and Social Covned. 
The statement, entitled ''Evidence of the. Exht- 
ence of Forced Labor in the U.S.S.R.'' ii^a^s for- 
vmrded, with appendia'cs listed, to the U.N. Ad 
Hoc Committee on Forced Labor by the U.S. 
Mission to the U.N. 

n.S./U.N. press release dated June 26 

The appendixes to this document contair 
abundant material, legal and factual, on forced 
labor in the U.S.S.R. Most of it is recent and 
lieretofore unpublished. It refers to forced lalioi 
in a narrow sense of the concept, namely to com- 
pulsory work performed by the inmates of prisons 
"labor-colonies," and "corrective labor camps' 
(the Soviet terms for concentration camps) in oi 
near their place of detention. 



Deporfmenf of Sfofe Bo/Jefir 



A careful study of the appendixes shows these 
features of Soviet forced hibor: 

1. It has been continuous throughout the exist- 
ence of the Soviet regime. It may be recalled that 
the first concentration camps were organized a few 
months after the Bolshevik Revolution ; since then 
they have grown into a vast institution. One- 
third of a century after its inception the Govern- 
ment of the U.S.S.R. still relies on forced labor 
ind concentration camps. 

2. The inmiber of ]:)risonei-s is a Soviet state 
secret. Scholarly computations made by Western 
}xperts run into many millions. Even tlie most 
;onservative calculations are far above what 
should be the prison population of tlie U.S.S.R. 
f tlie per capita figures of countries outside the 
I^onnnunist pale or even of Tsarist Russia were 
ised as a yardstick. 

3. Common criminals are a small minority 
,mong the forced laborers, and the camp admin- 
stration allows them to dominate or even terrorize 
he other prisoners. These other prisoners are (a) 
)olitical offenders, (b) people apprehended not 
lecause of any offense but because they were sus- 
lected of a lack of sympathy with the regime 
such as relatives of political offenders, "bour- 
:eois," or "kulaks" and their families), and (c) 
jeople who committed minor offenses or derelic- 
ions (infractions of factory discipline, petty 
ilack market operation, etc.) which in any hu- 
aane society would call for disciplinary measures 
■r a fine or, at most, a few days in prison. 

4. Forced labor in the U.S.S.R. is a punishment 
pplied eitlier in judicial proceedings based on 
Soviet criminal law (with its vaguely defined 
counter-revolutionary crimes") or under admin- 
strative procedure. Victims of administrative 
ncarceration have no court trial at all because 
hey are not necessarily charged with commission 
}f any illegal act. 

1 5. While in Soviet tlieory penal institutions 
lave the purpose to reeduca'te their inmates, in 
eality they are places of brutal punishment 
iharacterized by an arbitrary camp regime, over- 
.'ork, inhumane quarters, a hunger diet, insuffi- 
iient clothing, and lack of medical care. These 
londitions have continued through the decades. 
I 6. Forced labor is a significant feature of the 
oviet economy. This is clearly revealed by the 
oviet Economic Plan for 1941." 

7. It may be assumed that in general forced la- 
or lias been used, because the Government had 
1 its hands large nimibers of "undesirable" ele- 
ments on whom it wished to inflict punishment, 
hoin it wanted to "liquidate," but whom it could 
^ploit in the meantime for some economic pur- 
osp. Even so, the presumption need not be ruled 
lit that in practice — if not in principle — people 
ave been arrested because of the demand for 

need labor. The vast police empire must have 
natural inclination to maintain and even expand 
s activities. Its leaders are probably eager to 

ily 14, 1952 



lay their hands on interesting projects and the 
next step is to round up or retain the necessary 
number of prisoners. There are enough laws and 
decrees and their provisions are flexible enough 
to increase the number of forced laborers simply 
by insisting on a more severe and comprehensive 
enforcement policy. In such a case, minor infrac- 
tions which might otherwise have gone umioticed 
will lead to long forced labor terms, and unscrupu- 
lous agents of the judicial and police systems 
miglit even frame innocent people in order to curry 
favor in the eyes of their superiors. Tlie danger- 
ous combination of judicial and police power with 
"big business" in one single administration — the 
Mvd/Mgb — is one of the reasons for the magnitude 
of the Soviet forced labor system. 

8. Tliough the materials in the appendixes are 
limited to the U.S.S.R., it should be noted that 
forced labor as an establishment of great economic 
importance has followed the Soviet flag. It is 
well known that the countries in the Soviet sphere 
of influence are being patterned after the Soviet 
model and that the Soviet forced labor system is 
one of the institutions which has been copied. 
A brief description of the appendixes follows : 
Appendix A contains Soviet laws and regula- 
tions pertaining to forced labor. Items 1 to 3 are 
the Statute on Corrective Labor Camps of 1930, 
the Corrective Labor Codes of the Rsfsr of 1933, 
and the Law on the Special Conference of the 
Nkvd of 1934. These three laws and decrees— 
which seem to be still in force— probablv do not 
represent the entire legislation of tlie early 1930's 
on this subject. The additional decrees from this 
period as well as the entire body of rules and reg- 
ulations issued since then have' been hidden from 
the Soviet peoi^les and the world at large. Items 
4 and 5 are authentic Soviet documents which 
found their way to countries outside the Soviet 
realm. The Regulations for the Supply of the 
Ukhta-Pechora Nkvd Corrective Labor Camp, is- 
sued in May 1937, establish a starvation diet for 
the prisoners and tie rations to output. Thus a 
weakened prisoner is drawn into a vicious circle 
of declining work fulfillment and steadily reduced 
nourishment. It is these regulations which fix 
higher rations for guard dogs than for men. The 
1941 plan, classified by the Soviet authorities to 
prevent disclosure, presents official data on the 
contribution of forced labor to economic activities 
planned for that year and reveals the enormous 
scope of police enterprises. The economic mean- 
ing is analyzed in Item 6. 

Appendix B contains official Soviet administra- 
tive documents pertaining to forced labor as well 
as other Soviet admissions of forced labor in the 
U.S.S.R. Item 1 is a document concerning a Lat- 
vian who in 1942 had been sentenced by Special 
Conference to 5 years of exile. The Special Con- 
ference {Osoboye Saveskchaniye) is the admin- 
istrative body within the police agency which is 
authorized to punish people without judicial trial. 

71 



It existed as early as 1930 {U.S.S.R. Laws, 1930, 
22:248) and even earlier under a different name, 
but it still functions today. The act of 1934 estab- 
lishing the Nkvd included an article (No. 8) giv- 
ing the conference the right "to apply in an ad- 
ministrative procedure banisliment froni certain 
localities, exile, confinement in corrective labor 
camps up to five years and banishment from the 
U.S.S.E." ( U.S.S.R. Laws, 1934, 36 : 283.) This 
decree was supplemented by one of November 5, 
1934 {U.S.SM. Laws, 1935, 11:84; see appendix 
A-1) defining the composition of the Special Con- 
ference and the punishments it can impose on 
persons classified as "socially dangerous." 

Item 2 is the translation of a statement on 
forced labor made on March 8, 1931, by V. M. 
Molotov, at that time Chairman of the Council 
of Peoples Commissars. "The labor of prisoners," 
Molotov declared, "is being used by us in certain 
municipal and road operations. We have done 
this in the past, we are doing it now, and we shall 
do it in the future. It is in the interests of society." 
Item 3 is the photo copy of a Soviet poster ad- 
vertising in London a book on the White Sea 
Canal and its construction by forced labor in 
1931-33. 

Appendix C is devoted to hitherto unpublished 
materials from the so-called Anders Collection. 
In the years 1939-41 the Soviet authorities im- 
prisoned large numbers of Polish citizens, civil- 
ians as well as military personnel, from the parts 
of Poland occupied by the Red army. On July 
30, 1941, the Polish Government-in-Exile and the 
Soviet Government agreed upon a release of those 
prisoners, and subsequently ten thousand of them 
joined the Polish Armed Forces figliting in the 
JMediterranean theater of war under General 
Wladyslav Anders. Written depositions of their 
prison experience in the U.S.S.R. together with 
official Soviet documents sentencing or releasing 
Polish prisoners form the Anders Collection. It 
is now kept in the custody of the Hoover Institute 
and Library on War, Revolution and Peace, Stan- 
ford University, Palo Alto, Calif. 

Appendix C contains (1) a memorandum on 
Soviet forced labor based on 18,304 statements 
and short reports from the Anders Collection, 
(2) a list and brief description of forced labor 
camps mentioned in the Anders Collection, (3) a 
list of ships used to transport prisoners, and (4) 
photo copies and translations of a number of 
typical depositions from the collection. 

Appendix D, item 1, consists of selected official 
Soviet documents, dealing with mass arrests and 
deportations to forced labor and exile of Baits 
during 1941. These police documents include long 
lists of people to be deported as enemies of the 
Soviet state and, in some cases, the number of 
those removed and their destination. Few were 



able to escape. Among them were Dr. Michael 
Devenis, an American citizen who at the time of 
the first Soviet invasion resided in Lithuania, and 
the Rev. Julius Juhkental, who in the same period 
was a pastor in Tallinn, Estonia. Items 2 and 3 
of aiDpendix D are sworn depositions about their 
experiences in Soviet imprisonment. 

Of the many Soviet citizens who were victims 
of the forced labor system, few have had an op- 
portunity to escape to the West. Appendix E 
consists of depositions made by four Soviet citi- 
zens who spent some time in concentration camps 
either before or after the war. 

Appendix F contains the most recent eyewitness 
stories of forced labor conditions in the U.S.S.R. 
They were obtained from German prisoners-of- 
war who returned to their country in 19.50 under 
the so-called Stalin amnesty. Many of them had 
been sentenced to forced labor in regular Soviet 
concentration camps for alleged or actual viola- 
tions of Soviet laws, e. g., for the pilfering of food 
in the prisoner-of-war camps. A number of these 
interviews are in the form of affidavits (German 
original and translations) ; others are translations 
of interviews. The latter had to be masked in 
order to protect the soui'ces. 

Japanese prisoners of war have been used as 
forced laborers in the U.S.S.R. and, at the same 
time, were able to observe Soviet convicts at work. 
Appendix G consists of 10 affidavits sworn to be- 
fore the American consular officer in Tokyo by 
Japanese who had to work in the Soviet crab-meat 
industry. The first of the affidavits is reproduced 
in its entirety. The remaining include only the 
actual statements of the affiants. 

Appendix H consists of a number of affidavits 
obtained from former inmates of Soviet forced 
labor camps, sworn to by ethnic Germans from 
several countries (Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Ru- 
mania, Yugoslavia) who were arrested by thf 
Soviet authorities as the occupation progressed 
during the last stages of the Second World War 
These people are now in the United States in ac- 
cordance with the Displaced Persons Act and have 
freely related of their experiences in forced laboi 
camps in the U.S.S.R. Only in cases where it 
has been requested, is the detailed information oi 
names, places, and dates masked. 

Finally, appendix I analyzes the part of forcec 
labor in the Soviet economy, its important con- 
tributions to total output, and its doubtful pro- 
ductivity. 



The U.S. in the U.N. 

A weekly feature, does not appear in this issue. 



72 



Department of State Bulleth 



U.S. Position on Proposed 
International Development Fund 

State/nenf hi/ Isador Luhin. 

U.S. Representative in ECOSOC ^ 

I shall not take the time of the Council today 
oo repeat in detail the position of the United States 
n resi^ect to the proposed international fund for 
providing grants-in-aid and low-interest, long- 
erm loans for nonbankable projects in the less 
ndustrially developed countries. The matter 
jefore the Council is a technical matter, a matter 
)f constructing a detailed plan in response to a 
jeneral Assembly resolution. It does not involve 
)asic policy decisions on the desirability or feasi- 
)ility of creating a grant fund. 

The Government of the United States has con- 
dstently and strongly opposed the establishment 
)f international machinery for making grants and 
ong-term, low-interest loans. Our fundamental 
josition on this question of whether an intema- 
ional fund should be created for these purposes 
vas stated fully at the sixth session of the Gen- 
ial Assembly by the U.S. representative in Com- 
nittee 11.^ Briefly, he said : 

. . It is the view of niy Government that it would be 
either practicable nor feasible to establish an interna- 
ional agency for the purpose of distributing grants. . . . 
fo new organization will l)e a truly international insti- 
ution unless a .sufficient number of countries is prepared 
o make effective and significant contributions to its 
perations. It would seem extremely unlikely that coun- 
ries, which in the past have been capital-exporting coun- 
ries, would now be in a position to export additional 
apital in any large volume. . . . 

Unless member countries are in a position to make con- 
ributions to the fund which is contemplated by this 
esolution, the United Nations cannot possibly give life 
the blueprints and to the principles of action which 
his resolution calls upon the Economic and Social Council 
D elaborate. Unless such contributions are forthcoming, 
he fund which this resolution speaks of will remain 
lerely a piece of paper. 

I would be less than frank if I did not at this 
arly stage of my statement make it obvi(jus that 
hese renuiin the views of the U.S. Government. 

Our opposition is based on the grounds that the 
ime is not opportune. In addition, the Govern- 
lent has re.servations, in principle, to the provi- 
ion of grant aid by an international agency. 

In reaffirming the position of the United States 
a this matter, I trust I have made it unmistakably 
lear that it is the proposed machinery to which we 
re opposed. We are not opjDosed to the .purpose. 
Ve fully recognize the neecl of the less developed 
ountries for external assistance. We have pro- 
ideil and we will continue to provide aid in the 

' ^lade before' the U.N. Economic and Social Council on 
ui:c Zi and released to the press by the U.S. Mission to 
If r.N. on the same date. 

' See statement in Bulletin of Dec. 17, 1951, p. 989, by 
like J. Mansfield liefore Committee II (Economic and 
linancial) of the General Assembly. 



form of grants, loans, technical assistance, and in 
other appropriate ways. We are determined to 
do our full share toward meeting these needs. 

Mr. President, I trust that our opposition to the 
proposed special development fund will not give 
rise to any misunderstanding of our policy toward 
economic development. I am sure that you will 
agree that the attitude of the U.S. Government 
toward the welfare of the people of the less devel- 
oped countries requires no elaboration on my part. 
Our support of economic development can be 
measured in practical, concrete terms. 

During the last 6 years, the U.S. Government 
made available over 5 billion dollars in the form 
of loans or grants to countries iit underdeveloped 
areas. This figure does not include our paid-in 
subscription of 635 million dollars to the Inter- 
national Bank. Nor does it include the contribu- 
tions which we have made to the many U.N. 
programs which have directly, and indirectly, 
assisted in the improvement of economic and social 
conditions in underdeveloped areas. 

Although the larger part of the assistance which 
we have made available to the underdeveloped 
countries has been in the form of loans to Latin 
America, the Near East, Africa, and Asia, I should 
like to point out that in addition to such loans we 
appropriated last year alone over 400 million dol- 
lars to support widespread programs of grant 
assistance to agriculture and inclustry in these 
same areas. Within the past few weeks, the Con- 
gress authorized the appropriation of an addi- 
tional 460 million dollars to continue these 
programs during the coming year. 

I doubt whether it is necessary to present fur- 
ther proof of the sincerity of our interest in the 
welfare of the people of the underdeveloped coun- 
tries and our determination to help them improve 
their standards of living. 

Aside from this, the free countries of the world 
have had our technical assistance and our political 
support. They will continue to have that support. 
They will continue to have our aid. 

I can assure you, Mr. President, that the eco- 
nomic and social development of the less developed 
countries is one of the deepest concerns of Ameri- 
can foreign policy. And, Mr. President, I am 
confident that provision of financial assistance for 
this purpose has the basic approval of the Ameri- 
can people. We will continue to meet our re- 
sponsibilities in this area in the future as we have 
in the past. 

Subject to the conditions contained in the Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution, namely that "the study 
and elaboration of the plans . . . cannot and must 
not be regarded as in any way committing the 
governments ... in any degree, whether finan- 
cially or otherwise," the U.S. delegation is pre- 
pared to support the resolution submitted by Cuba, 
Egypt, Iran, and the Philippines and concurred 
in by Burma, Chile, and Yugo.slavia.'' 

' U.N. doc. E/L. 363/rev. 1. dated .Tune L'O, 19.52. 



<j\y 14, 1952 



73 



U.S. Delegations to 
International Conferences 

Latin American Forestry Commission (FAO> 

The Department of State on June IG announced 
that the fourth session of the Latin American 
Forestry Commission of the Food and Agfi'icul- 
ture Organization of the United Nations (Fag) 
will be held at Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 
June 16 to June 21, 1952. The U.S. delegation is 
as follows: 

Delegate 

Frank H. Wadsworth. Chief, Forest Management Re- 
search, Tropical Forest Experiment Station, US. 
Forest Service, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico 

Advisers 

C. A. Boonstra, Agricultural Attach^, American Embassy, 
Buenos Aires 

Edward B. Hamill, Forestry Consultant, Institute of Inter- 
American Affairs, Asuncion, Paraguay 

The United States, which has been officially rep- 
resented at all sessions of the Commission, believes 
that a rational development of Latin American 
forest resources and an increased output of forest 
products, both for domestic consumption and for 
export, will contribute very substantially to the 
economic strength and stability of the hemisphere. 

Since its establishment in 1948 by the Fao Latin 
American Conference on Forestry and Forest 
Products, the Commission, a subsidiary body con- 
sisting of technical delegates of all Latin Amer- 
lean countries, has met at regular intervals to 
advise Fao's forestry and forest-products work- 
ing group. It also works for the adoption by 
Latin American governments of all measures 
needed to implement the recommendations of the 
Conference. 

The forthcoming session will be concerned 
mainly with the question of establishing a Latin 
American Forest Research and Training Insti- 
tute; the problem of production, consumption, 
and trade of pulp and paper, on which experts of 
Fao and of the U.N. Economic Commission for 
Latin America have made a preliminary study ; a 
review of the work performed under the U.N. 
technical assistance program in forestry which 
Fag is carrying on in Latin America ; and prepara- 
tion for Latin American participation in the 
fourth World Foresti-y Congress, to be held in 
19.54. and for a Tropical Forestry Congi-ess. 



Northwest Atlantic Fisheries 

The Department of State on July 1 announced 
that the second annual meeting of the Interna- 
tional Commission for the Northwest Atlantic 
Fisheries opened on June 30 at St. Andrews, New 
Brunswick. Canada, and will continue until July 
9, 1952. The U.S. delegation is as follows : 



U.S. Commissioners 

John L. Kask, Chief, OflBce of Foreign Activities, Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior 

Bernhard K. Knollenberg, Chester, Conn. 

Francis W. Sargent, Director, Division of Marine Fish- 
eries, Department of Conservation, Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, Boston 

Advisers 

Herbert W. Graham, Chief, North Atlantic Fishery InvesJ 
tigations, Fish and Wildlife Service, Department ofl 
the Interior I 

Lionel A. Walford. Ph.D., Chief, Branch of Fisherjl 
Biology, Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of 
the Interior 

Observer From the United States Industry Advisobt 
Committee 

Patrick McHugh, Secretary-Treasurer, Atlantic Fisher- 
man's Union (Afl), Brighton, Mass. 

Ill accordance with the terms of the Interna- 
tional Convention for the Northwest Atlantic 
Fisheries, which entered into force in July 1950. 
the Commission provides the machinery for in- 
ternational cooperation in the scientific investiga- 
tion and development of the fishery resources of 
the waters off the west coast of Greenland and the 
east coasts of Canada and New England. While 
the Commission has no direct regulatory powers, 
it may recommend to governments the regulatory 
measures that it considers necessary for maintain- 
ing, at a maximimi level for sustained production, 
the stocks of fish which support the international 
fisheries in the Convention area. Upon approval^ 
by the governments directly concerned, regula-' 
tions become applicable to all member countries. 
The first meeting of the Commission was held at 
Washington in April 1951. 

This meeting will serve as an opportunity for ' 
a review of the first year of the Commission's 
operations. The Commission will hear committee 
reports on research and statistics, finance and ad- 
ministration, permanent headquarters site, rati- 
fications of the Convention, staff matters, and 
certain panel reports. The 195'2-53 budget iiiaj 
be revised, in accordance with decisions concern- 
ing a permanent headquarters and secretariat 
Membership of the panels, established under the 
Convention to exercise primary responsibilitj 
concerning each of the five subareas into which 
the Convention area is divided, will be reviewed 
The Commission will elect a new chairman, whc 
will serve for one year, and appoint a permanent 
Executive Secretary. It is also expected that tht 
Commission will formulate policies on the collec- 
tion, compilation, and dissemination of statistical 
data; on the development of research program! 
for the entire Convention area and its five sub- 
areas; and on the Commission's working relation- 
ship to other international organizations wit! 
related objectives. 

The United States and Canada are the memben 
of the panel for subarea V, covering that portior 
of the total area adjacent to the New England 



74 



DeparfmenI of State Bulletii 



coast. The Commission will consider a report 
from this panel, which met in February 1952 to 
determine whether measures for the regulation of 
fisheries in subarea V should be I'econnnended to 
the Commission for adoption. The panel is 
recommending that the Commission (1) instruct 
its Research and Statistics Committee to make a 
detailed study of all fish resources falling within 
the purview of the Convention; (2) consider a 
proposed regulation for haddock fishing, includ- 
ing a proposal to increase the average mesh size 
of the nets used in fishing for haddock off the New 



England coast; and (3) call the attention of inter- 
ested governments to a recommended research 
program concerning haddock. 

Invitations to participate in this meeting have 
been extended to Canada, Denmark, Iceland, 
Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United 
States, which are parties to the Convention; to 
France, Italy, Norway, and Portugal, which have 
signed but not yet ratified the Convention ; and to 
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
United Nations and the International Council for 
the Exploration of the Sea. 



President Directs Continued U.S. Defense Support to Italy 



(Vhite House press release dated June 24 

The President has sent identical letters regard- 
ing continuance of U.S. aid to Italy to Kenneth 
Mclvellar, Chairman., Committee on Appropria- 
tion.^, U.S. Senate; Richard B. Russell, Chairman, 
Committee on Armed Services, U.S. Senate; Tom 
Gonnally. Chairman, Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions, U.S. Senate; Clarence Cannon, Chairman, 
Oamm.ittee on Appropriations, House of Re.pre- 
■ientatives; Carl Vinson, Chairman, Committee on 
Armed Serrices, House of Representatives ; and 
■James P. Richards, Chairman, Com/miftee on 
Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives. The 
'c.i-t of the Presidents letter follaios, together with 
the text of an attached report by W. A . Harnman, 
Director for Mutual Security : 



LETTER TO CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES 

I have been advised that a centerless grinding 
nacliine was shipped from Italy to Rumania after 
:he effective date of the Mutual Defense Assistance 
Control Act of 1951 (The Battle Act). This 
grinding machine is an item listed by the Admin- 
strator, pursuant to Title I of the Battle Act, as 
)iu' embargoed in order to effectuate the purposes 
)f the Act. Any shipment of any such items 
isted automatically results in all military, eco- 
lomic and financial assistance to Italy being cut 
)ff, unless I determine, in accordance with the 
Dowers granted to me by Section 103 (b) of the 

'o/y 74, J 952 



Act, that "ceasation of aid would clearly be detri- 
mental to the security of the United States". The 
Administrator of the Act has advised me that aid 
to Italy should be continued. He made this 
recommendation after consultation with repre- 
sentatives of the Departments of State, Treasury, 
Defense, Interior, Agriculture, and Commerce; 
the Office of Defense Mobilization, the Mutual 
Security Agency, the Atomic Energy Commission, 
the Central Intelligence Agency, Export-Import 
Bank, and the ISational Security Resources 
Board. 

For your information, I am attaching a report 
of the Administrator of the Battle Act to me. 
This report sets forth the facts in this case, 
together with his recommendation thereon. 

After studying the report of the Administrator, 
and in accordance with the provisions of Section 
103 (b) of the Battle Act, I have directed that 
assi.stance by the United States to Italy be con- 
tinued. In reaching this determination, I have 
taken into account "the contribution of such 
country to the mutual security of the free world, 
the importance of such assistance to the security 
of the United States, the strategic importance of 
imports received from countries of the Soviet 
bloc, and the adequacy of .such country's controls 
over the export to the Soviet bloc of items of 
strategic importance". 

Very sincerely yours, 



Harry S. Trtjman 



75 



REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT BY THE DIRECTOR 
FOR MUTUAL SECURITY 

My Dear Mr. President: 

Italy, a country receiving military, economic, 
and financial assistance within the meaning of the 
Battle Act (Mutual Defense Assistance Control 
Act of 1951, Public Law 213, 82nd Congress), 
knowingly permitted, after the embargo provi- 
sions of Title I of the Act became effective (Jan- 
uary 24, 1952), the shipment to Kumania of an 
item which I included on the list of "those items 
of primary strategic significance used in the pro- 
duction of arms, ammunition, and implements of 
war" under Title I of that Act. I am accordingly 
required by Section 103 (b) either to recommend 
to you that all military, economic and financial as- 
sistance to Italy be terminated, or to render you 
advice on the basis of which you may exercise your 
authority to determine that "unusual circum- 
stances indicate that the cessation of aid (to Italy) 
would clearly be detrimental to the security of the 
United States." 

The shipment involved one grinding machine 
valued at $11,000. This particular machine is a 
centerless type that may be used in the production 
of innumerable non-strategic as well as strategic 
items. It might conceivably be used in Rumania 
or elsewhere within the Soviet bloc in manufac- 
turing operations for the ultimate production of 
agricultural and textile machinery, oil field equip- 
ment, locomotive jjarts, automotive vehicles, and 
ball and roller bearings. 

Although this type of machine could unques- 
tionably be used in connection with the manufac- 
ture of war materials, in the opinion of U.S. tech- 
nical experts one machine of this kind will not add 
significantly to the overall Soviet war potential. 

The original contract between the Italian ex- 
porter and the Rumanian purchaser was entered 
into nearly one year ago. This was befoi'e pas- 
sage of the Battle Act and several months before 
the effective date of the embargo provision of the 
Act. An export license for the grinder was is- 
sued by the Italian Government in November 1951 
as a result of an administrative error. Although 
the embargo provisions of the Battle Act were not 
in effect at that time, this machine was a mutually 
agreed embargo item on the list of the multilateral 
body concerned with export controls in Europe. 
Delivery was scheduled for February, some weeks 
after the cut-off date (January 21, 1952) under the 
Battle Act, beyond which any country knowingly 
pei-mitting shipments of strategic items to the 
Soviet bloc risks termination of United States aid. 

Immediately upon learning of the proposed 
shipment, the United States took steps to persuade 
the Italian Government to cancel the order and to 
find an alternative market for the machine. Al- 
though the Italians claimed that such action would 
be extremely difficult since payment for the 
grinder had been 75% completed, and because of 



serious legal obstacles involved in cancellation, 
they nevertheless agreed to a temporary delay in 
shipment, pending further discussions. When 
the temporary delay of shipment expired in mid- 
JNIarch 1952 the United States requested a further 
delay to which the Italians agreed and issued a 
staying order. Unfortunately, however, the stay- 
ing ordei' reached the customs control at the fron- 
tier too late to prevent export. In effect tlie 
grinder was licensed and shipped as the result of 
two administrative shortcomings for which the 
Italian Government has expressed its official re- 
grets and agreed to guard against in the future. 

Although there appeared to be some question us 
to whether or not, as a result of these administra- 
tive errors, the Italians "knowingly permitted" 
the shipment within the meaning of the Battle 
Act, I do not feel that the errors involved in this 
case, of themselves, constitute a basis for con- 
cluding that the provisions of the Act are 
inapplicable. 

Section 103 (b) of the Act provides that after 
receiving my advice and taking into account cer- 
tain stated considerations, you may direct the con- 
tinuance of assistance when unusual circumstances 
indicate that the cessation of aid would clearly 
be detrimental to the security of the United States. 
I am listing these considerations below, together 
with a statement of facts believed pertinent to 
each. 

A. Contrihvtion of Italy to the Mvtual Security 
of the Free World: 

Italy, as a partner in the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization, is of great importance to the defense 
of Western Europe by reason of its geographical 
position and its rearmament program which, in 
combination with end-items to be supplied by the 
United States, is designed to supply Italy's armed 
forces with the weapons and equipment required 
to carry out their Nato defense tasks. The pres- 
ent Italian Government is strongly anti-Commu- 
nist. In its foreign policy it enthusiastically 
supports, as a basic principle, action directed 
toward the military and economic integration of 
Western Europe. 

Italy, more than any other Western European 
Nato country, possesses industrial capacity which 
is under-utilized. This presently limits in some 
degree its contribution of defense materiel to the 
mutual defense etlort. However with continued 
U.S. aid Italy should be able to increase its pro- 
duction and to fulfill the substantial jiledges it 
has made for building up its defense forces within 
the structure of Nato. 

B. The Importance to the Security of the United 
States of Assistance to Italy: 

Since the war, Italy has effectively promoted in- 
dustrial and agricultural recovery, has given jobs 
to many, and has relieved some of the strain from 
the acute problem of surplus population. This 



76 



Department of State Bulletin 



strengthening of the Italian economy has contrib- 
uted substantially to the stability of the present 
strongly anti-Communist government. This prog- 
ress has been materially helped by virtue of U.S. 
assistance. 

Any setback, through the withdrawal of defense 
support, in the progress which has been made 
would undoubtedly be reflected in a weakening of 
the democratic forces in Italy, with consequent 
prejudice to the interests ancl security of the 
United States. With a reduction in the already 
very low standard of living, and an increase in 
unemployment, the appeal of Communist propa- 
ganda would be heightened. In addition, of 
course, withdrawal of defense support would have 
a serious effect on Italian arms production. These 
factors, together with discontinuance at this time 
of the supplying of military end-items by the 
United States would make it impossible forltaly 
to fulfill its pledges under the mutual defense 
program. 

C. Strategic Importance of Imports from the 

Soviet Bloc: 

Italian imports from the Soviet bloc during 1951 
amounted to $80 million; exports to the bloc 
amounted to nearly $66 million, or approximately 
4% of Italy's total export trade. The principal 
imports from the bloc were coal, wheat, and other 
agricultural products, and iron and steel. At- 
tempts to procure these commodities from other 
sources would involve serious problems of supply 
and financing. The principal difficulty would 
arise from the need to pay dollars. 

D. Adequacy of Italian Export Controls: 

The Italian Government cooperates with the 
United States and other countries of the free 
world to prevent or limit drastically export to the 
Soviet bloc of items that are considered by these 
countries to be strategic. The Italian controls are 
based on a system of export licensing similar to 
that used by the other cooperating coimtries and 
are supplemented by financial control exercised 
through tlie Italian Foreign Exchange Office. 
These controls have resulted in an important re- 
duction of shipments of strategic items to the 
Soviet bloc. The Italian Government has ac- 
cepted and recently put into effect the principle of 
the Import Certificate-Delivery Verification sys- 
tem, the purpose of which is to prevent the di- 
version or transshipment to the Soviet bloc of 
imports from the West. As for the manner in 
which this particular export was handled, the 
[United States has expressed its concern and urged 
Italy to tighten the administration of its controls 
m order to preclude further shipments of this 
nature. 

Italy is an integral, willing and important com- 
ponent of the security system designed to assure 
effective protection against aggression through 



the mutual efforts of the countries of the Free 
World. To terminate assistance to Italy would in 
my considered judgment seriously jeopardize 
Italian participation in our united effort. The 
impact of such a development within the Nato 
structure at this time represents a risk to the over- 
all security that far outweighs the relative im- 
portance of the shipment involved. 

I accordingly advise that you direct the con- 
tinuance of assistance to Italy since "unusual cir- 
cumstances indicate that the cessation of aid would 
clearly be detrimental to the security of the United 
States". I have reached this conclusion after con- 
sultation with the Departments of State, Treasury, 
Defense, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Office 
of Defense IMobilization, Mutual Security Agency, 
the Export-Import Bank, the Atomic Energy 
Commission, and the Central Intelligence Agency. 
Respectfully yours, 

W. A. Harriman 

Director for Mutual Security 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 30-July 3 

Releases may be obtained from the Office of the 
Special Assistant for Press Relations, Department 
of State, Washington 25, D. C. 

No. Date Subject 

4H8 <i/16 Latin-American Forestry Commis- 
sion 
Lake Ontario high-water level 
Mesta : International questions 
St. Lawrence power development 
Pacific Council meeting 
Extradition convention with 

Canada 
Philippine highway rehaliilitation 
Aekernian : retirement 
Lebanon : Point Four program 
ICAO regional meeting 
Uruguay: military agreement 
International Wheat Council 
Afghanistan : Point Four funds 
Bombing of Korea power plants 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries 
Pakistan : Point Four program 
Vietnam: Letter of credence (re- 
write) 
Cambodia ; Letter of credence ( re- 
write) 
Jernegan : Deputy Assistant Sec- 
retary 
Canada : Confederation Day 
Exchange of Persons 
Telecommunications talks 
Bruce : Ratification of treaties 
Bruce : North Korean bombing 
Finland : Exchange agreement 
Andrews : Visit to Indonesia and 

Burma 
Acheson ; Address in Brazil 
Philippines anniversary 
U.S. Advisory Commission report 
Exchange of persons 
Exchange of persons 

t Held for a later issue of the Bulletin. 
*Not printed. 



489 


6/24 


495 


6/24 


506 


6/30 


t507 


6/30 


508 


6/30 


509 


6/30 


*510 


6/30 


511 


6/30 


t512 


6/30 


513 


C/30 


t514 


6/30 


515 


6/30 


516 


6/30 


517 


7/1 


518 


7/1 


519 


7/1 


520 


7/1 


t521 


7/1 


*522 


7/1 


*523 


7/2 


t524 


7/2 


525 


7/2 


526 


7/2 


527 


7/3 


528 


7/3 


529 


7/3 


*.530 


7/3 


t531 


7/3 


*532 


7/3 


*533 


7/3 



Jo/y J 4, 1952 



77 



Immigration and Nationality Act Vetoed 



Message of the Preddent to the House of Representatives ' 



I return herewith, without my approval, H.K. 
5678, the proposed Immigration and Nationality 
Act. 

In outlining my objections to this bill, I want to 
make it clear that it contains certain provisions 
that meet with my approval. This is a long and 
complex piece of legislation. It has 164 separate 
sections, some with more than 40 subdivisions. 
It presents a difficult problem of weighing the 
good against the bad, and arriving at a judgment 
on the whole. 

H.R. 5678 is an omnibus bill which would revise 
and codify all of our laws relating to immigi-ation, 
naturalization, and nationality. 

A general revision and modernization of these 
laws unquestionably is needed and long overdue, 
particularly with respect to immigration. But 
this bill would not provide us with an immigration 
policy adequate for the present world situation. 
Indeed, the bill, taking all its provisions together, 
would be a step backward and not a step forward. 
In view of the crying need for reform in the field 
of immigration, I deeply regret that I am unable 
to approve H.R. 5678. 

In recent years, our immigration policy has be- 
come a matter of major national concern. Long 
dormant questions about the effect of our immi- 
gration laws now assume first rate importance. 
What we do in the field of immigration and nat- 
uralization is vital to the continued growth and 
internal development of the United States — to the 
economic and social strength of our country — 
which is the core of the defense of the free world. 
Our immigration policy is equally, if not more 
important to the conduct of our foreign relations 
and to our responsibilities of moral leadership in 
the struggle for world peace. 

In one respect, this bill recognizes the great in- 
ternational significance of our immigration and 
natui-alization policy, and takes a step to improve 
existing laws. All racial bars to naturalization 
would be removed, and at least some mininuun im- 
migration quota would be afforded to each of the 
free nations of Asia. 

I have long urged that racial or national bar- 



' H. ddc. ."I'jo. transmitted June 2.'>. 



riers to naturalization be abolished. This was one 
of the recommendations in my civil rights message 
to the Congress on February 2, 1948. On Febru- 
ary 19, 1951, the House of Representatives unani- 
mously passed a bill to carry it out. 

But now this most desirable provision comes be- 
fore me embedded in a mass of legislation which 
would i^erpetuate injustices of long standing 
against many other nations of the world, hamper 
the efforts we are making to rally the men of East 
and West alike to the cause of freedom, and in- 
tensify the repressive and inhumane aspects of our 
immigration procedures. The price is too high, 
and in good conscience I cannot agree to pay it. 

I want all our residents of Japanese ancestry, 
and all our friends throughout the Far East, to 
understand this point clearly. I cannot take the 
step I would like to take, and strike down the bars 
that prejudice has erected against them, without, 
at the same time, establishing new discriminations 
against the peoples of Asia and approving harsh 
and repressive measures directed at all who seek 
a new life within our boundaries. I am sure that 
with a little more time and a little more discussion 
in this country the public conscience and the good 
sense of the American people will assert them- 
selves and we shall be in a position to enact an 
immigration and naturalization policy that will 
be fair to all. 

In addition to removing racial bars to natural- 
ization, the bill would permit American women 
citizens to bring their alien husbands to this 
country as non-quota immigrants, and enable alien 
husbands of resident women aliens to come in 
under the quota in a preferred status. These pro- 
visions would be a step toward preserving the 
integrity of the family under our immigration 
laws, and are clearly desirable. 

The bill would also relieve transportation com- 
panies of some of the unjustified burdens and pen- 
alties now imposed upon them. In particidar, it 
would put an end to the archaic requirement that 
carriers pay the expenses of aliens detained at the 

Editor's Note. — On .Inne 26 tlie House overrode the 
President's veto by a vote of 278 to 113. The Immigra- 
tion and Nationality Act became Public Law 414 on June 
27, after the Senate voted .'57 to 26 to pass the bill again. 



78 



Depar/menf of State Bulletin 



port of entry, even though such aliens have ar- 
rived with proper travel documents. 



Improvements Outweighed by Defects 

But these few improvements are heavily out- 
weighed by other provisions of the bill which re- 
tain existing defects in our laws, and add many 
undesirable new features. 

The bill would continue, practically without 
change, the national origins quota system, which 
was enacted into law in 19'24, and put into effect 
in 1929. This quota system — always based upon 
assumptions at variance with o)ir American 
ideals — is long since out of date and more than 
ever unrealistic in the face of present world con- 
ditions. 

This system hinders us in dealing with current 
immigration problems, and is a constant handicap 
in the conduct of our foreign relations. As I 
stated in my message to Congress on March 24. 
1952, on the need for an emei'gency program of 
immigration from Europe, "Our present quota 
system is not only inadequate to meet pi'esent 
emergency needs, it is also an obstacle to the de- 
velopment of an enlightened and satisfactory im- 
migration policy for the long-run future." 

The inadequacy of the present quota system has 
been demonstrated since the end of the war, when 
we were compelled to resort to emergency legis- 
lation to admit displaced persons. If the quota 
system remains unchanged, we shall be compelled 
to resort to similar emergency legislation again, in 
order to admit any substantial portion of the 
refugees from communism or the victims of over- 
crowding in Europe. 

With the idea of quotas in general there is no 
quarrel. Some numerical limitation must be set, 
so that immigration will be within our capacity to 
absorb. But the overall limitation of numbers 
imposed by the national origins quota system is 
too small for our needs today, and the country 
by country limitations create a pattern that is 
insulting to large numbers of our finest citizens, 
irritating to our allies abroad, and foreign to our 
purposes and ideals. 

The overall quota limitation, imder the law of 
1924, restricted annual immigration to approxi- 
mately 150,000. This was about one-seventh of 
one percent of our total population in 1920. Tak- 
ing into account the growth in population since 
1920, the law now allows us but one-tenth of one 
percent of our total population. And since the 
largest national quotas are only partly used, the 
number actually coming in has been in the neigh- 
borhood of one-fifteenth of one percent. This is 
far less than we must have in the years ahead to 
keep up with the growing needs of our Nation 
for manpower to maintain the strength and vigor 
of our economy. 

Tlie greatest vice of the present quota system, 
however, is that it discriminates, deliberately and 



intentionally, against many of the peoples of the 
world. The purpose behind it was to cut down 
and virtually eliminate immigration to this coun- 
try from Southern and Eastern Europe. A 
theory was invented to rationalize this objective. 
The theory was that in order to be readily as- 
similable, European immigrants should be ad- 
mitted in proportion to the numbers of persons 
of their respective national stocks already here as 
shown by the census of 1920. Since Americans of 
English, Irish and (ierman descent were most 
numerous, immigrants of those three nationalities 
got the lion's share — more tlian two-thirds — of the 
total quota. The remaining third was divided up 
among all the other nations given quotas. 



Effect of 1924 Quotas 

The desired effect was obtained. Immigration 
from the newer sources of Southern and Eastern 
Europe was reduced to a trickle. The quotas 
allotted to England and Ireland remained largely 
unused, as was intended. Total quota immigra- 
tion fell to a half or a third — and sometimes even 
less — of the annual limit of 154,000. People from 
such countries as Greece, or Spain, or Latvia were 
virtually deprived of any opportunity to come 
here at all, simply because Greelvs or Spaniards or 
Latvians had not come here before 1920 in any 
substantial numbers. 

The idea behind this discriminatory policy was, 
to put it baldly, that Americans with English or 
Irish names were better people and better citizens 
than Americans with Italian or Greek or Polish 
names. It was thought that people of West 
European origin made better citizens than Ruma- 
nians or Yugoslavs or Ukrainians or Hungarians 
or Baits or Austrians. Such a concept is utterly 
unworthy of our traditions and our ideals. It 
violates the great political doctrine of the Decla- 
ration of Independence that "all men are created 
equal." It denies the humanitarian creed in- 
scribed beneath the Statue of Liberty proclaiming 
to all nations, "Give me your tired, your poor, 
your huddled masses yearning to breathe free." 

It reiDudiates our basic religious concepts, our 
belief in the brotherhood of man, and in the words 
of St. Paul that "there is neither Jew nor Greek, 
there is neither bond nor free, . . . for ye are all 
one in Christ Jesus." 

The basis of this quota system was false and 
unworthy in 1924. It is even worse now. At the 
present time, this quota system keeps out the very 
people we want to bring in. It is incredible to 
me that, in this year of 1952, we should again be 
enacting into law such a slur on the patriotism, 
the capacity, and tlie decency of a large part of our 
citizenry. 

Today, we have entered into an alliance, the 
North Atlantic Treaty, with Italy, Greece, and 
Turkey against one of the most terrible threats 
mankind has ever faced. We are asking them to 



July 14, J 952 



79 



join witli us in protecting the peace of the world. 
We are helping them to build their defenses, and 
train their men, in the common cause. But, 
through this bill we say to their people: You are 
less worthy to come to this country than English- 
men or Irishmen; you Italians, who need to find 
homes abroad in the hundreds of thousands — you 
shall have a quota of 5,64.5 ; you Greeks, struggling 
to assist the helpless victims of a communist civil 
war — you shall have a quota of 308; and you 
Turks, you are brave defenders of the Eastern 
flank, but you shall have a quota of only 225 ! 

Today, we are "protecting" ourselves, as we 
were in 1924, against being flooded by immigrants 
from Eastern Eurojie. This is fantastic. The 
countries of Eastern Europe have fallen under the 
communist yoke — they are silenced, fenced off by 
barbed wire and minefields — no one passes their 
borders but at the risk of his life. We do not need 
to be protected against immigrants from these 
countries — on the contrary we want to stretch out 
a helping hand, to save those who have managed 
to flee into W^estern Europe, to succor those who 
are brave enough to escape from barbarism, to 
welcome and restore them against the day when 
their countries will, as we hope, be free again. 
But this we cannot do, as we would like to do, be- 
cause the quota for Poland is only 6,500, as against 
the 138,000 exiled Poles, all over Europe, who are 
asking to come to these shores ; because the quota 
for the now subjugated Baltic countries is little 
more tlian 700 — against the 23,000 Baltic refugees 
imploring us to admit them to a new life here; be- 
cause the quota for Rumania is only 289, and some 
30,000 Rumanians, who have managed to escape the 
labor camps and the mass deportations of their 
Soviet masters, have asked our help. These are 
only a few examples of the absurdity, the cruelty 
of carrying over into this year of 1952 the isola- 
tionist limitations of our 1924 law. 

In no other realm of our national life are we so 
hampered and stultified by the dead hand of the 
past, as we are in this field of immigi-ation. We 
do not limit our cities to their 1920 boundaries — 
we do not hold our corporations to their 1920 capi- 
talizations — we welcome progress and change to 
meet changing conditions in every sphere of life, 
except in the field of immigration. 

The time to shake off tliis dead weight of past 
mistakes is now. The time to develop a decent 
policy of immigration — a fitting instrument for 
our foreign policy and a true reflection of the 
ideals we stand for, at home and abroad — is now. 
In my earlier message on immigration,- I tried to 
explain to the Congress that the situation we face 
in innnigration is an emergency — that it must be 
met promptly. I have pointed out that in the last 
few years, we have blazed a new trail in immigra- 
tion, through our Displaced Persons Program. 



^ For the President's Message of M:ir. 24, .see Bulletin 
of .\pr. 7. 1952, p. 551. 



Through the combined efforts of the Government 
and private agencies, working together not to keep 
people out, but to bring qualified people in, we 
summoned our resources of good will and human 
feeling to meet the task. In this program, we have 
found better techniques to meet the immigration 
problems of the 1950's. 

None of this fruitful experience of the last three 
years is reflected in this bill before me. None of 
the crying human needs of this time of trouble is 
recognized in this bill. But it is not too late. The 
Congress can remedy these defects, and it can 
adopt legislation to meet the most critical prob- 
lems befoi-e adjournment. 

The only consequential change in the 1924 quota 
system which the bill would make is to extend a 
small quota to each of the countries of Asia. But 
most of the beneficial effects of this gesture are off- 
set by other provisions of the bill. The countries 
of Asia are told in one breath that they shall have 
quotas for their nationals, and in the next, that the 
nationals of the other countries, if their ancestry 
is as much as 50 per cent Asian, shall be charged 
to these quotas. 

"Invidious Discrimination" 

It is only with respect to persons of oriental an- 
cestry that this invidious cliscrimination applies. 
All other persons are charged to the country of 
their birth. But persons with Asian ancestry are 
charged to the countries of Asia, wherever they 
may have been born, or however long their an- 
cestors have made their homes outside the land of 
their origin. These provisions are without 
justification. 

I now wish to turn to the other provisions of the 
bill, those dealing with the qualifications of aliens 
and immigrants for admission, with the adminis- 
tration of the laws, and with problems of natural- 
ization and nationality. In these provisions too, 
I find objections that preclude my signing this 
bill. 

The bill would make it even more difficult to 
enter our country. Our resident aliens would be 
more easily separated from homes and families 
under grounds of deportation, both new and old, 
which would specifically be made retroactive. 
Admission to our citizenship would be made more 
difHcult; expulsion from our citizensliip would be 
made easier. Certain rights of native born, fii'st 
generation Americans would be limited. AU 
our citizens returning from abroad would be sub- 
jected to serious risk of unreasotiable invasions 
of privacy. Seldom has a bill exhibited the dis- 
trust evidenced here for citizens and aliens 
alike — at a time when we need unity at home, and 
the confidence of our friends abroad. 

We have adequate and fair provisions in our 
present law to protect us against the entry of 
criminals. The changes made by the bill in those 
provisions would result in empowering minor 



80 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



immigration and consular officials to act as pros- 
ecutor, judge and jury in determining whether 
acts constituting a crime have been committed. 
Worse, we would be compelled to exclude certain 
people because they liave been convicted by 
"courts" in communist countries that know no 
justice. Under this provision, no nuitter how con- 
strued, it would not be possible for us to admit 
many of the men and women who have stood up 
against totalitarian repression and have been pun- 
ished for doing so. I do not approve of substi- 
tuting totalitarian vengence for democratic justice. 
I will not extend full faith and credit to the judg- 
ments of the communist secret police. 

The realities of a world, only partly free, 
would again be ignored in the provision flatly 
barring entry to those who have made misrepresen- 
tations in securing visas. To save their lives and 
the lives of loved ones still imprisoned, refugees 
from tyranny sometimes misstate various details 
of their lives. We do not want to encourage 
fraud. But we must recognize that conditions in 
some parts of the world drive our friends to des- 
parate steps. An exception restricted to cases 
involving misstatement of country of birth is 
not sulficient. And to make refugees from oppres- 
sion forever deportable on such technical grounds 
is shabby treatment indeed. 

Some of the new grounds of deportation which 
the bill would provide are unnecessarily severe. 
Defects and mistakes in admission would serve 
to deport at any time because of the bill's elimina- 
tion, retroactively as well as prospectively, of the 
present humane provision barring deportations on 
such grounds five yeare after entry. Narcotic drug 
addicts would be deportable at any time, whether 
on not the addiction was culpable, and whether 
or not cured. The threat of deportation would 
drive the addict into hiding beyond the reach of 
cure, and the danger to the country from drug 
addiction would be increased. 



Departure from American Tradition 

I am asked to approve the reenactment of highly 
objectionable provisions now contained in the 
Internal Security Act of 1950 — a measure passed 
over my veto shortly after the invasion of South 
Korea. Some of these provisions would empower 
the Attorney General to deport any alien who has 
engaged or has had a purpose to engage in activ- 
ities "prejudicial to the public interest" or "sub- 
versive to the national security." No standards 
or definitions are provided to guide discretion 
in the exercise of powers so sweeping. To punish 
undefined "activities" departs from traditional 
American insistence on established standards of 
guilt. To pimish an undefined "purpose" is 
thought control. 

These provisions are worse than the infamous 
Alien Act of 1798, passed in a time of national 
fear and distrust of foreigners, which gave the 

July M, J 952 



President power to deport any alien deemed 
"dangerous to the peace and safety of the United 
States." Alien residents were thoroughly fright- 
ened and citizens much disturbed by that threat to 
liberty. 

Such powers are inconsistent with our demo- 
cratic ideals. Conferring powers like that upon 
the Attorney General is unfair to him as well as 
to our alien residents. Once fully informed of such 
vast discretionary powers vested in the Attorney 
General, Americans now would and should be 
just as alarmed as Americans were in 1798 over 
less drastic powers vested in the President. 

Heretofore, for the most part, deportation and 
exclusion have rested upon findings of fact made 
upon evidence. Under this bill, they would rest in 
many instances upon the "opinion" or "satisfac- 
tion" of immigration or consular employees. The 
change from objective findings to subjective feel- 
ings is not compatible with our system of justice. 
The result would be to restrict or eliminate judi- 
cial review of unlawful administrative action. 

The bill would sharply restrict the present op- 
portunity of citizens and alien residents to save 
family members from deportation. Under the 
procedures of present law, the Attorney General 
can exercise his discretion to suspend deportation 
in meritorious cases. In each such case, at the 
present time, the exercise of administrative dis- 
cretion is subject to the scrutiny and approval of 
the Congi'ess. Nevertheless, the bill would prevent 
this discretion fi'om being used in many cases 
where it is now available, and would narrow the 
circle of those who can obtain relief from the letter 
of the law. This is most unfortunate, because the 
bill, in its other provisions, would impose hareher 
restrictions and greatly increase the number of 
cases deserving equitable relief. 

Native-born American citizens who are dual 
nationals would be subjected to loss of citizenship 
on grounds not applicable to other native-born 
American citizens. This distinction is a slap at 
millions of Americans whose fathers were of alien 
birth. 

Children would be subjected to additional risk 
of loss of citizenship. Naturalized citizens would 
be subjected to the risk of denaturalization by any 
procedure that can be found to be permitted under 
any State law or practice pertaining to minor 
civil law suits. Judicial review of administrative 
denials of citizenship would be severely limited 
and impeded in many cases, and completely elimi- 
nated in others. I believe these provisions raise 
serious constitutional questions. Constitutional- 
ity aside, I see no justification in national policy 
for their adoption. 

Section 401 of this bill would establish a Joint 
Congi-essional Committee on Immigration and 
Nationality Policy. This committee would have 
the customary powere to hold hearings and to sub- 
poena witnesses, books, papers and documents. 
But the Committee would also be given powers over 

81 



the Execiidve branch which are unusual and of a 
highly questionable nature. Specifically, section 
401 woul.l provide that "The Secretary of Stat« 
and the Attorney General shall without delay sub- 
mit to the ronin'littee all regulations, instructions, 
and all other information as requested by the 
Committee relative to the administration of this 
Act." 

Tliis section appears to be another attempt to re- 
quire the Executive branch to make available to 
the Congress administrative documents, communi- 
cations between the President and his subordinates, 
confidential files, and other records of that charac- 
ter. It also seems to imply that the Committee 
would undertake to supervise or approve regula- 
tions. Such proposals are not consistent with the 
Constitutional doctrine of the separation of 
powers. 

In these and many other respects, the bill raises 
basic questions as to'our fundamental immigi-ation 
and naturalization policy, and the laws and prac- 
tices for putting that policy into effect. 

Many of the aspects of the bill which have been 
most widely criticized in the ]niblic debate are 
reaffirmations or elaborations of existing statutes 
or administrative procedures. Time and again, 
examination discloses that the revisions of exist- 
ing law that would be made by the bill are in- 
tended to solidify some restrictive practice of our 
immigi-ation authorities, or to overrule or modify 
some ameliorative decision of the Supreme Court 
or other Federal courts. By and large, the 
changes that would be made by the bill do not 
depart from the basically restrictive spirit of 
our existing laws — but intensify and reinforce it. 



Need for Reassessment 

These conclusions point to an underlying con- 
dition which deserves the most careful study. 
Should we not undertake a reassessment of our 
immigration policies and practices in the liglit of 
the conditioiis that face us in the second half of 
the twentieth century? The great popular in- 
terest which this bill has created, and the criti- 
cisms which it has stirred up, demand an affirma- 
tive answer. I hope tlie Congress will agree to 
a careful reexamination of this entire matter. 

To assist in this complex task, I suggest the 
creation of a representative commission of out- 
standing Americans to examine the basic assump- 
tions of our immigration policy, the quota system 
and all that goes witli it, the effect of our present 
immigration and nationality laws, their admin- 
istration, and the ways in which they can be 
brought into line with our national ideals and 
our foreign policy. 

Such a commission should, I believe, be estab- 
lished by the Congress. Its memliershiji should 
be bi-partisan and divided eqtuilly among persons 
from private life and persons from pul)lic life. 
I suggest that four members be appointed by the 



Piesident, four by the President of the Senate, 
and four by the Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. The commission should be given suffi- 
cient funds to employ a staff and it should have 
adequate powers to hold hearings, take testimony, 
and obtain information. It should make a re- 
port to the President and to the Congress within- 
a year from the time of its creation. 

Pending the completion of studies by such a 
commission, and the consideration of its recom- 
mendations by the Congress, there are certain 
steps which I lielieve it is most important for the 
Congress to take this year. 

First, I urge the Congress to enact legislation 
removing racial barriers against Asians from our 
laws. Failure to take tliis step profits us nothing 
and can only have serious consequences for our 
relations with the peoples of the Far East. A 
major contribution to this end would be the 
prompt enactment by the Senate of H. R. 403. 
That bill, already passed by the House of Repre- 
sentatives, would remove the racial bars to the 
naturalization of Asians. 

Second, I strongly urge the Congress to enact 
tlie temporary, emergency immigi-ation legisla- 
tion which I recommended three months ago. In 
my message of March 24, 1952, 1 advised the Con- 
gress that one of the gi'avest problems arising 
from the present world crisis is created by the 
over])opulation in parts of Western Europe. That 
condition is aggravated by the flight and expul- 
sion of people from behind the iron curtain. In 
view of these serious ]irob]ems. I asked the Con- 
gress to authorize the admission of 300,000 addi- 
tional immigrants to the United States over a 
three-year period. These immigi'ants would in- 
clude Greek nationals, Dutch nationals, Italians 
from Italy and Trieste, Germans and persons of 
German ethnic origin, and religious and political 
refugees from communism in Eastern Europe. 
Tliis temporary program is urgently needed. It 
is very important that the Congress act upon it 
this year. I urge the Congress to give prompt 
and favorable consideration to the bills introduced 
by Senator Hendrickson and Representative 
Celler (S. 3109 and H. R. 7376),^ which will im- 
{)]ement the recommendations contained in my 
message of March 24. 

I very much hope that the Congress will take 
early action on these recommendations. Legisla- 
tion to carry them out will correct some of the un- 
just provisions of our laws, will strengthen us at 
home and abroad, and will serve to relieve a great 
deal of the suffering and tension existing in the 
world today. 

Harry S. Truman 
The Whii-e House, 

June 25, 1052. 



' For testimony by Under Secretary Bruce on H.R. 
7376 before the Subcommittee on Immisration of the 
House Judiciary Committee, see ihid., June 9, 1952, p. 920. 



82 



Department of State Bulletin 



Determination of Quotas Under 
Immigration and Nationality Act 

A PROCLAMATION' 

Whereas under the provisious of section 201 (b) of the 
Immigi-ation and Nationality Act, the Secretary of State, 
the Secretary of Comuieree. and tlie Attorney General, 
jointly, are required to determine the annual tjuota of any 
quota area established pursuant to the provisions of sec- 
tion 202 of the said Act, and to report to the President 
the quota of each quota area so determined ; and 

Whereas the Acting Secretary of State, the Acting 
Secretary of Commerce, and the Attorney General have 
reported to the President that in accordance with the duty 
imposed and the authority conferred upon them by section 
201 (b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, they 
jointly have made the determination provided for and 
computed under the provisions of section 201 (a) of the 
said Act; and have fixed, in accordance therewith, immi- 
gration quotas as hereinafter set forth : 

Now, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of 
the United States of America, acting under and by virtue 
of the authority vested in me by the aforesaid Act of 
Congress, do hereby proclaim and make known that the 
annual quota of each quota area hereinafter enumerated 
has been determined in accordance with the law to be, 
and shall be, as follows : 

Area 

No. Quota area Quota 

1 Afghanistan 100 

2 Albania 100 

3 Andorra 100 

4 Arabian Peninsula 100 

5 Asia-Pacific triangle 100 

6 Australia 100 

7 Austria 1,405 

8 Belgium 1,297 

9 Bhutan 100 

10 Bulgaria 100 

11 Burma 100 

12 Cambodia 100 

13 Cameroons (trust territory. United Kingdom) _ 100 

14 Cameroons (trust territory, France) 100 

15 Ceylon 100 

16 China 100 

17 Chinese 105 

18 Czechoslovakia 2,8.59 

19 Danzig, Free City of 100 

20 Denmark 1, 175 

21 Egypt 100 

22 Estonia 115 

23 Ethiopia 100 

24 Finland 566 

25 France 3,069 

26 Germany 25,814 

27 Great Britain and Northern Ireland 65, 361 

28 Greece 308 

29 Hungary 865 

30 Iceland 100 

31 India 100 

32 Indonesia 100 

33 Iran (Persia) 100 

34 Iraq 100 

35 Ireland (Eire) 17,756 

36 Israel 100 

37 Italy 5,645 

38 Japan 185 

39 Jordan 100 

40 Korea 100 

41 Laos 100 

42 Latvia 235 

43 Lebanon 100 

44 Liberia 100 



Area 

No. Quota area ' Quota 

45 Libya 100 

46 Liechtenstein 100 

47 Lithuania 384 

48 Luxembourg 100 

49 Monaco 100 

50 Morocco 100 

51 Muscat (Oman) 100 

52 Nauru (trust territory, Australia) 100 

53 Nepal 100 

54 Netherlands 3,136 

55 New Guinea (trust territory, Australia) 100 

56 New Zealand 100 

57 Norway 2,364 

58 Pacific Islands (.trust territory, United States 

administered) 100 

59 Pakistan 100 

60 Palestine (Arab Palestine) 100 

61 Philippines 100 

62 Poland 6,488 

63 Portugal 438 

64 Ruanda- Urundi (trust territory, Belgium) 100 

65 Rumania 289 

66 Samoa, Western (tiust territory. New Zea- 

land) r 1 00 

67 San Marino 100 

68 Saudi Arabia 100 

69 Somaliland (trust territory, Italy) 100 

70 South- West Africa (mandate) 100 

71 Spain 2.50 

72 Sweden 3,295 

73 Switzerland 1,698 

74 Syria 100 

75 Tanganyika (trust territory. United King- 

dom) "_ 100 

76 Thailand (Siam) 100 

77 Togo (trust territory, France) 100 

78 Togoland (trust territory, United Kingdom)-. 100 

79 Trieste, Free Territory of 100 

80 Turkey . 225 

81 Union of South Africa 100 

82 U. S. S. R 2,697 

83 Vietnam 100 

84 Yemen 100 

85 Yugoslavia 933 



The provision of an immigration quota for any quota 
area is designed solely for the purposes of the Immigra- 
tion and Nationality Act and shall not constitute recog- 
nition by the United States of the political transfer of 
territory from one country to another, or recognition of 
a government not recognized by the United States. 

The following proclamations regarding immigration 
quotas are hereby revoked : Proclamation 2283 of April 
28, 1938 : Proclamation 2003 of February 8, 1944 ; Procla- 
mation 2666 of September 28, 1945; Proclamation 2696 
of July 4, 1946 : Proclamation 2846 of July 27, 1949 ; and 
Proclamation 2911 of October 31, 1950. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and caused the seal of the United States of America to 
be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this thirtieth day of 

June, in the year of our Lord nineteen hun- 

[SEAi,] dred and fifty-two, and of the Independence 

of the United States of America the one 

hundred and seventy-sixth. 




'No. 2980 (17 Fed. Reg. 6019). 
Jo/y J 4, J 952 



By the President : 
David Bruce 

Acting Secretary of State 



Harrt S. Truman 



83 



July 14, 1952 



Ind 



ex 



Vol. XXVII, No. 681 



American Republics 

BRAZIL: A review of U.S. -Brazilian relations 

(Achesou) 47 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Relations with U.S. 
reflect trend toward International coopera- 
tion 51 

URUGUAY: Military assistance agreement with 

U.S 53 

Asia 

AFGHANISTAN, LEBANON, PAKISTAN: Point 

Four programs 62 

BURMA. INDONESIA; Mr. Andrews to visit . . 61 

KOREA: Bombing of power plants in North 

Korea (Acheson) 60 

PHILIPPINES: U.S. -Philippine cooperation re- 
builds highway system 60 

Canada 

Preliminary steps taken toward construction of 

St. Lawrence seaway 65 

Supplementary extradition convention with 

U.S 67 

U.S., Canada refer Lake Ontario complaints to 

Joint Commission 67 

Congress 

CORRESPONDENCE: Letters re materials policy 

(Truman) 54 

MESSAGES TO CONGRESS: Immigration and 

nationality act vetoed 78 

Senate ratifies German treaty and Nato 

protocol 67 

Europe 

FINLAND: Educational exchange agreement 

signed 53 

GERMANY: Senate ratifies German treaty and 

NATO protocol 67 

ITALY: Continuation of defense support 
directed, text of President's letter and 
Harriman report 75 

U.S.S.R. : U.S. presents evidence of forced labor 

(Kotschnlg statement) 70 

Voluntary union (Mesta) 64 

Fisheries 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, U.S. delegation . 74 

International Information 

Educational exchange agreement with Finland . 53 

International Meetings 

Report on Hydrographic Conference 68 

U.S. DELEGATIONS: 

Latin American Forestry Commission, Fao, 

4th session 74 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries 74 

Labor 

U.S. presents evidence of forced labor in U.S.S.R. 

(Kotschnlg statement) 70 

Mutual Aid and Defense 

ITALY: Continuation of defense support 
directed, text of President's letter and 
Harriman report 75 



North Atlantic Treaty Organization 

Senate ratifies German treaty and Nato 

protocol 67 

Presidential Documents 

CORRESPONDENCE: Continuation of defense 
support to Italy directed, text of letter and 
Harriman report 75 

Excerpts from International Materials Policy 
Commission report, letters to congressional 
leaders 54 

MESSAGES TO CONGRESS: Immigration and 

nationality act vetoed 78 

PROCLAMATIONS: Determination of quotas 

under immigration, nationality act ... 83 

Protection of U.S. Nationals and Property 

U.S., Canada refer Lake Ontario complaints to 

Joint Commission 67 

Strategic Materials 

A materials policy for the U.S.; statement, letters 

(Truman), excerpts from report 54 

Technical Cooperation and Development 

POINT FOUR: Programs for Afghanistan, Leb- 
anon, and Pakistan 62 

Treaty Information 

FINLAND: Educational exchange agreement 

signed 53 

GERMANY: Senate ratifies German treaty and 

Nato protocol 67 

XXRUGUAY: Military assistance agreement 

signed 53 

United Nations 

Bombing of power plants in North Korea 

(Acheson) 60 

Fao: Latin American Forestry Commission, 4th 

session, U.S. delegation 74 

U.S. position on proposed international develop- 
ment fund (Lubin) 73 

U.S. presents evidence of forced labor in 

U.S.S.R 70 

Name Index 

Acheson, Secretary 47, 60 

Ackerman, Ralph H 51 

Andrews, Stanley 61 

Bruce, David K. E 60, 65, 67 

Cabot, John M 53 

Harriman, W. Averell 75 

Hubbard, Leonard S 68 

Kask, John L 74 

Kha, Tran Van 53 

Kimny, Nong 53 

KnoUenberg. Bernhard K 74 

Lubin, Isador 73 

Mesta, Perle 64 

Sargent, Francis W 74 

Tuomioja, Sakaria 53 

Truman, President 54, 75, 78, 83 

Wadsworth, Frank H 74 

Wrong, Hume 65 



U S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1982 



^€/ u)efta/}^tme7ii/ ^ bnaier 




Vol. XXVII, No. 682 
July 21, 1952 



^eNT o^ 




-^tes o* 




SECRETARY ACHESON'S VISIT TO BRAZIL ... 87 

U.S. PARTICIPATION IN THE UNITED NATIONS: 

President's Message to the Congress 121 

U.S. PROBLEMS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN THE 

FAR EAST • by John M. Allison 97 

PLANNING FOR THE RELIEF OF FAMINE EMER- 

GENCIES • Statement by Isador Lubin ...... Ill 

UNITED EFFORTS SPEED MIGRATION FROM 

EUROPE • Article byjGeorge L. Warren 107 



For index see back cover 



. ^jMcNTS 



riuu Zii 1952 




i^Ae ^efict/ylment ^£ t/tate JLy LI V J. \J L 1 JL 1 



Vol. XXVII, No. 682 • Publication 4664 
July 21, 1952 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Oovernment Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.O. 

Peice: 

62 issues, domestic $7,60, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 22, 1962). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OK State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
deiwlopments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
selected press releases on foreign pol- 
icy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as tcell as 
special articles on various phases of 
interruitional affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Infornui- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of interruitional relations, are listed 
currently. 



Fundamentals of Inter- American Cooperation 



SECRETARY ACHESON'S VISIT TO BRAZIL 



Secretary Acheson arrived at Recife, Brazil, on 
July 2, after visits to London, Berlin, and Vienna. 
The following evening he spoke at a banquet given 
at Rio de Janeiro hi/ Foreign Minister Joao Neves 
da Fontoura (see BULLETIN of July H, 1952, p. 
i7) . On July 4 he addressed the Brazilian Senate 
and the Chamber of Deputies; on July 7, the last 
day of his visit, he spoke ait a banquet at Sao 
Paulo, inhere his host was Governor Lucas Garces 
of the State of Sao Paido. 

Folloioing are the text of his address to the 
Seiwte, excerpts from his remarks before the 
Chamber of Deputies, and the text of his Sdo 
Paulo address. 

A FRIENDSHIP DEEPER THAN 
SUPERFICIAL DIFFERENCES 

Press release 535 dated July 4 

Mr. President:'^ 

I am deeply moved at the reception you have 
accorded me here today. The generous words 
which have been addressed to me by Your Ex- 
cellency and by several members of the Senate are 
typical of the cordiality which has been extended 
throughout this beautiful capital of Brazil ever 
since my arrival here. On all sides I have sensed 
a warmth and sincerity which has made me feel 
truly that I am among friends. It is needless to 
say that I reciprocate this feeling of friendship 
toward the people of this great and beautiful land. 

It is particularly satisfying to me to recognize 
that the cordial hospitality that is being extended 
to me comes from the heart of the Brazilian peo- 
ple. Friendship between Brazil and my country 
rests upon a firm basis of popular feeling. It is 
with particular pleasure, therefore, that I take 
this opportunity to meet in the Brazilian Senate 
with the representatives of the Brazilian people. 
I should like to think that through you I may 
speak to all the people of this great nation. 

' .Joao Cafe Filho, Vice President of Brazil. 



To be sure there are many differences between 
us — of language and of customs. These differ- 
ences, however, merely add flavor and interest to 
a friendship that is deeper than superficial dif- 
ferences. 

What binds our two people together are factors 
which are fundamental to both our countries. "We 
are both American in the true sense of the word 
and cannot fail to express the optimistic and hope- 
ful spirit of the New World. We share a belief 
in the importance of the common man and in his 
great destiny. When we speak of the "people," 
we do not have in mind that impersonal mass 
which characterizes Communist and other totali- 
tarian concepts of humanity, but a number of in- 
dividuals, each endowed with a divine spark and 
each worthy of dignity and respect. 

It is inevitable, therefore, that in all our under- 
takings, both national and international, we start 
with the needs and aspirations of the people. 
They constitute the basic objective toward which 
we strive. Throughout the whole world the word 
"America" has stood for the effective realization 
of humanity's aspirations for a better life, meas- 
ured in both material and spiritual terms. 

It follows also from our basic concept of the 
dignity of the individual, that respect must be 
accorded not only to the majority, but also to the 
minority, provided the minority is willing to live 
loyally within the general framework of the law. 
A legislative body exists so that the views of the 
representatives of all the people may be expressed. 
It is bound to encounter differences of opinion. 
It is a natural human tendency for each of us to 
want to do things our own way. But we soon find 
that, to get things done at all, we must often com- 
promise those opinions in order to accommodate 
the interests and desires of others whose coopera- 
tion is essential to us, but whose opinions differ. 
In our civilization we have learned that differ- 
ences based upon local or occupational interests, or 
reflecting varied political and philosophical be- 
liefs, can be reconciled in an orderly and constnic- 



Ju/y 27, 7952 



«7 



tive fashion, provided all will accept a loyalty to 
the higher ideals of our civilization. The recon- 
ciliation and accommodation of different views 
and interests is another great function of a legis- 
lative body. 

The fact that we are meeting here today in this 
historic hall of the Brazilian Senate symbolizes, 
therefore, much of what our two countries are 
striving for at home and throughout the world. 
Here we find concrete expression of the two great 
factors wliich dominate our approach toward the 
solution of human problems — the representation 
of the interests of the people and the reconcilia- 
tion of differing views through debate, reason, and 
constructive compromise. These two factors are 
the basis of a way of life which the people of 
Brazil and of the United States, in company with 
those of many other free countries of the world, 
are trying to strengthen and to make prosper in 
the world. 

It is inevitable that these two principles, and the 
way of life they represent, should vitally influence 
our international relations. They lead us to only 
one possible purpose — the maintenance of a peace- 
ful order in which each nation may live out its 
own destiny free from alien control. 

OAS Contribution to Peaceful Solutions 

The historic cooperation between Brazil and the 
United States throughout more than a century of 
peaceful commerce and joint cooperation symbol- 
izes this spirit. On a broader scale, we find, for 
example, in the Organization of American States, 
to which Bi'azil has contributed such great talent 
and leadership, a larger projection of these same 
ideas. We start in our Organization of American 
States with a principle of respect for the individ- 
ual, recognizing as basic to our relationship the 
sovereign equality of all member states. We ac- 
cord to each of them the respect of not interven- 
ing in their internal affairs. And when we have 
differences of opinion, as is inevitably the case in 
any group of individuals or nations, we resolve 
them peacefully through debate in the organs of 
the Organization of American States, and work 
out settlements which give due accord to the just 
interests and aspirations of all. 

The fact that this is jiossible in our inter- Amer- 
ican relations is, no less than on the national scene, 
due to the fact that throughout our community of 
American States we have reached certain convic- 
tions of principle regarding the conduct of our 
relations. These principles are set forth in the 
Cliarter of the Organization and reflect the same 
two basic tenets ; namely, response to the needs of 
people and peaceful reconciliation of differences, 
to which I have referred. 

The Organization of American States forms an 
inspiring example of how these principles may be 
made to work for the preservation of peace and 



for the cooperation among nations even when they 
differ in size, race, language, and economic and 
military strength. It provides in the American 
region a joattern of relations, which in the broader 
world scene we are striving to achieve through the 
United Nations. 

Europe Finding New Unity 

Now, I have just come to this beautiful land 
from Europe, where new and powerful efforts are 
being made to strengthen and advance these same 
principles in national and international relations. 
Faced with the threat of aggression. Western 
Europe is finding a new unity which heretofore 
had existed only in dreams of its more enlightened 
statesmen and philosophers. 

The Schuman Plan for the unification of the 
coal and steel industries is a striking example of 
progress toward the gradual merger of rival eco- 
nomic interests. Military jealousies are being 
submerged in the creation of a unified army which, 
by its very nature, can have only a defensive pur- 
pose. Further steps in direct political association 
among the peoples of Europe are soon to be dis- 
cusseclin a meeting of ministers which is even now 
in course of preparation. 

Why do we find these constructive developments 
taking place in our Western civilization ? Clearly 
it is because today our civilization faces the stark 
necessity of strengthening itself or of perishing. 
The totalitarian principles which motivate Soviet 
communism in its creeping domination of neigh- 
boring states strike at all that we believe in — all 
that is symbolized in this meeting of the people's 
representatives here today. 

In the Communist practice there is no respect 
for the voice of the people. Wliile we have 
learned to settle our international disputes peace- 
fully and to live in mutual respect within our 
Organization of American States, the others have 
pursued the ancient course of conquest among 
their neighboring lands. 

Grave though the menace is at this time to those 
of us who still enjoy our liberties and our oppor- 
tunities for the future, it may be that this evil is 
not without some beneficial result. Faced with 
the awful alternative, we realize more assuredly 
now the advantages with which we have been 
blessed. We understand more clearly the need 
for strengthening the principles which, through 
centuries of history, we have learned to be all im- 
portant in the achievement of our peaceful ends. 
We perceive more readily that those nations which 
share this concept of peace must stand together 
firmly if that peace is to be preserved. 

And so I return to this happy occasion on which 
I am honored in the national Senate by repre- 
sentatives of the people of Brazil. It is fortunate 
that we are able to meet thus. For what your 
country, and my country, and the many others 
associated with us are striving to defend in our 



88 



Department of State Bulletin 



Collective Responsibility for 
Hemisphere Security 

Excerpts from Secretary Achesori's Re- 
marks Before the Brazilian Cliamher of 
Deputies on July Jp 

Today, we no longer have a unilateral concept of 
hemisphere security but rather we are engaged in 
an equal partnership symbolized by the treaty which 
bears the name of this beautiful city and which was 
signed by all 21 American Republics here in 1947. 
The essence of the inter-American system is col- 
lective responsibility plus absolute nonintervention 
in the affairs of other states. The United States 
intends to abide by both the letter and the spirit of 
these inter-American commitments. 

The essence of the democratic process is the re- 
spect that the people of a country have for their 
institutions. In the last 10 years witli the tre- 
mendous change which has occurred in the national 
position of the United States, we have had to devise 
new institutions and strengthen our existing ones 
to measure up to our responsibilities. Agencies of 
our Government, such as the National Security 
Council and Mutual Security Agency, are examples 
of this liind of institutional progress. Our Con- 
gress, likewise, has had to adapt many of its pro- 
cedures to meet the crushing burden of worlj which 
today falls upon our legislators. In botli the exec- 
utive and legislative branches of our Government, 
the adaptation of our procedures to the demands of 
modern life has often been irksome and difficult. 
However, it is proof of the stability of our demo- 
cratic institutions that we have met the challenge. 

It is interesting that in our international affairs 
democracies such as ours can also adjust their in- 
stitutional relationships to meet new demands. The 
joint Brazil-United States committee for economic 
development is to my mind an interesting and his- 
toric experiment in international cooperation. Your 
Congress and ours have done much to bring into 
practical reality the work and plans of this com- 
mittee. I sliall continue to follow with deep in- 
terest your deliberations here as you put into effect 
further measures to effectuate the purposes of our 
economic cooperation. 



gigantic effort throughout the world today is the 
right of people, through their chosen representa- 
tives, to determine their own system of govern- 
ment and to achieve their aspirations. We are 
striving to defend the dignity of each member of 
society and respect for all opinions which respect 
the law. Our struggle is to demonstrate the 
truth that, by honest and sincere reconciliation 
of differing opinions — and not by promoting 
strife, can we best maintain peace and achieve 
the true advancement of human life which we all 
seek. 

In this effort the people of Brazil and the 
United States are inevitably joined. May their 
long record of friendly cooperation be crowned 
with greater achievement. May they grow in 
under,standing and appreciation of each other 
through their artists, writers and musicians, their 
scholars and statesmen. 

And finally, may their friendship serve to 



strengthen throughout America and in other con- 
tinents the efforts of nations to preserve their 
freedom and to secure their opportunity of creat- 
ing a better world. 



GROWING STRENGTH OF THE FREE WORLD 

Press release 5o7 dated July 7 

In the few hours since my arrival in Sao Paulo 
I have had the pleasure of catching hurried but 
tantalizing glimpses of your beautiful and im- 
pressive city. 

I had heard that Sao Paulo has grown faster 
than any city in the hemisphere; that it is the 
center of the most rapidly expanding industrial 
area in South America. Now I have seen the 
reality. My imagination has been aroused by the 
dynamic spirit of the citizens of this progressive 
city and state. 

As I have gone in the last 2 weeks from Wash- 
ington to London, to Berlin, to Vienna, on to 
Recife, Rio, and now to your beautiful city, there 
have been vivid contrasts and important and 
marked similarities in the peoples I have seen on 
their streets. I started in my own country, whose 
roots go back to the Old World. Now coming to 
this country, new as it is to me is like coining home. 
I come back to a land which also has its origin in 
the Old World. It is apparent that Paulistas, 
like citizens of the United States, have had fathers 
and grandfathers from many countries of Europe. 

Each city I visited presented clearly its own 
brand of courage, determination, and ways of 
meeting the future and the dangers we face to- 
gether. In Europe it was the stern determination 
and courage to maintain the defense against mani- 
fest and close dangers, and the new vision of co- 
operation among the free countries there. Here 
in Sao Paulo, I feel the surging energy of a new 
country, which, like my own, has confidence in its 
ability to provide for the future, to provide a great 
flow of material goods and the great inspiration 
of firm belief in freedom and the dignity of man. 

I deeply appreciate the courte.sy of the kind in- 
vitation extended to me by your distinguished 
Foreign Minister and the warmth of your Ex- 
cellency's welcome. Mrs. Acheson and I have al- 
most been overwhelmed by the many courtesies 
shown us in Recife, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo. 

Calling my brief period among you a courtesy 
visit, as the press has frequently done, is an in- 
adequate discription. I have come to Brazil with 
a much more serious purpose than just to accept 
your gracious hospitality, which I deeply appre- 
ciate. I am here because I wanted to see Brazil 
with my own eyes. I wanted to know firsthand 
what it is in your groat country which has des- 
tined it to play an exceedingly important role in 
the history of our times. 

Development such as is occurring here is not 
an accident. It is the result of effort, of intelli- 



Jo/y 27, 7952 



89 



gently directed will. All worth-while achieve- 
ments mean overcoming obstacles. 

What has impressed me most is to realize more 
fully than ever before that Brazil, like my own 
country, has come of age among the great nations 
of the world. 

We in the United States know full well what 
coming of age means to a country, for it has oc- 
curred during the lifetime of my generation. In 
the world of yesterday, the world of my youth, 
we in the United States were almost exclusively 
absorbed in our own domestic problems. We had 
many ties with the countries from which our an- 
cestors had come. But we were only mildly in- 
terested in the ebb and flow of events in those dis- 
tant lands. This was because we felt ourselves 
secure, protected by two broad oceans. Behind 
those great bari-iers we devoted ourselves with in- 
dustry to developing the riches that nature has 
so generously bestowed upon us. 

Shock of World Wars, Depression 

That happy feeling of self-sufficiency was 
rudely shaken by the outbreak of World War I. 
At first we considered it no concern of ours. But 
gradually, as the bitterness of the struggle deep- 
ened, we realized that something more funda- 
mental than dynasties and frontiers was at stake. 
Both Brazil and the United States were drawn 
into the conflict. 

We had not, however, come of age, and when 
victory came we withdrew into our own life again, 
feeling that we had helped restore conditions 
which would permit us to live as we had before. 
Tliat illusion did not last long. It was with some- 
thing like amazement that my fellow countrymen 
woke up to the fact that the failure of a great 
bank in Austria in the heart of Europe could set 
in motion repercussions which gravely aff'ected all 
the world. The great depression respected no 
'frontiers. Still we, like most other countries, 
souglit purely national solutions to the problems 
with which we were faced. We had not yet come 
of age. 

In ID-'^O there was another tremendous shock. 
World War II. No one in my country viewed it 
as remotely as at first we had regarded the catas- 
trophe of 1914. 

Nevertheless, it seemed remote; and we clung 
to the illusion that it might, with luck, remain 
localized. This was not to be. Again the New 
World, with Brazil and the United States in the 
\-an, was called upon to play a saving role in the 
history of our times. 

When victory was finally won at great cost to 
all, the democratic world was determined that such 
a catastrophe should not occur again. To pre- 
vent such a tragedy, the United Nations was cre- 
ated, and we and our Allies rapidly demobilized 
our great armies, navies, and air forces. We 
tliought the world had learned its lesson and that 



we could devote the resources which had gone into 
armaments to more constructive purposes, pur- 
poses near our hearts. 

I said that we and our Allies disbanded our 
armies. That, unfortunately, was not entirely 
true. One great country remained fully mobi- 
lized and used the threat of its might to bend one 
of its neighbors after another to its will. It pro- 
claimed to the world a philosophy of government 
which we found repugnant. Nevertheless, we did 
not challenge its right to do what it chose witlun 
its own frontiers. We were willing to follow a 
policy of live and let live. 

Free Countries Must Mobilize 

It soon became apparent that even this imper- 
fect adjustment was impossible and that the free 
countries must mobilize their strength. 

With that realization we started upon a pro- 
gram of strengthening ourselves and other free 
nations of the world, in order that, acting together, 
we could safeguard our liberties and our civiliza- 
tion. Only through the creation of collective 
strength could we hope to preserve the peace and 
safeguard our liberties and our civilization. 

The building of the strength of the free world 
is progressing. In my visit to Brazil I have seen 
a great country which in the crisis of our century 
has joined its strength with that of those who hold 
liberty and freedom to be dear. 

I am impressed by the elements of strength I 
have seen here in Sao Paulo. Your fine buildings, 
your forest of factory chimneys, the manhood in 
your armed forces are impressive. 

But, still more important is the will, the deter- 
mination, I find in Brazil to preserve liberty and 
freedom as the principal aim in life. Do not 
think that I minimize the importance of material 
achievement. What you, and we, and our many 
partners of the free world have created in fac- 
tories, and farms, and mines provides the sinews 
of our strength. If we lacked that strength, firm 
resolution alone would not avail us. 

The leaders of the democratic world have as one 
of their first duties the improvement of the living 
standards of their peoples. Life must not only be 
made tolerable for the common man but it must 
be progressively improved. His faith that his 
leaders have this as their aim of government is 
what gives democracy its vitality. His belief in 
democracy is based on the knowledge that only 
through such a system of government will a better 
life become possible for him and his children. 

The achievement of that better life is one of the 
bases for our technical cooperation program, com- 
monly called Point Four. Cooperation is and 
must be the watchword of our democratic world 
if it is to survive. 

My coming here has given me the opportunity 
to see how cooperation between our two countries 
is working and how it can be improved. The 



90 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



areas in which we work together to our mutual 
benefit, and to the benefit of the world, must con- 
tinue to expand. 

There are those who are determined to prevent 
the democratic world from uniting in cooperative 
undertakings for its own security and develop- 
ment. A strong and united free woi'ld is a barrier 
to their ambition to dominate larger and larger 
areas. Where they cannot hope to dominate, they 
work steadily to weaken. In the New World their 
principal weapon is to sow seeds of discord and 
distrust in our inter- American family. They ac- 
cuse my country falsely of what they secretly seek 
for themselves, domination of others. Specifi- 
cally, they do their best to convince you that you 
cannot ti'ust the United States. They are equally 
strident in their efforts to convince other countries 
not to trust you. 

We should be simple-minded indeed if we per- 
mitted this unremitting campaign of slander and 
calumny to achieve its nefarious purpose. We 
must not let malicious enemies poison our minds 
against one another. 

The purposes of your country and mine are 
clear. We want peace with fi-eedom and justice. 
We do not threaten anyone. We build situations 
of strength because we must. We do this because 
only strength will permit us the blessings of peace. 

Ladies and gentlemen, last week, when I had 
breakfast in Africa and lunch in Recife, the small- 
ness of today's world was brought home to me. 
The contraction of our world must be followed by 
a shrinking in all those things that used to sep- 
arate us in mind and in spirit. We are more nec- 
essary to one another now than ever. 

It is in a sense symbolic that the last day of my 
visit is spent in Sao Paulo. People from many di- 
verse lands have shared in the progress of this 
dynamic city and state. I share with you the trust 
in your limitless future which you have inspired 
in me. 



Puerto Rican Constitution Signed 

Statement iy the President 

White House press release dated July 3 

I have today signed H. J. Res. 4.30, approving 
the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto 
Rico, which was adopted by the people of Puerto 
Rico on March 3, 1952. 

I welcome this early approval by the Congress 
of the Constitution of the Commonwealth of 
Puerto Rico, which I recommended in a Special 
Message on April 22, 1952.' 

'■ Bulletin of May 5, 1952, p. 721. 



The adoption of this Constitution was author- 
ized by the act of July 3, 1950. It is gratifying to 
me to be able to sign the act approving the Con- 
stitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico 
two years to the day after I approved the enabling 
legislation. 

The act of July 3, 1950, authorized the people 
of Puerto Rico to organize a republican form of 
govei'ument pursuant to a constitution of their 
own choosing. That act, adopted by the Congi-ess 
in the nature of a compact, became effective only 
when accepted by the people of Puerto Rico in a 
referendum. 

On June 4, 1951, the people of Puerto Rico 
voted by a large majority to accept the act of 
July 3, 1950, thereby reaffirming their union with 
the United States on the terms proposed by the 
Congress. Following the referendum, the voters 
of Puerto Rico elected delegates to a Constitu- 
tional Convention. The Convention convened in 
San Juan on September 17, 1951, and concluded its 
deliberations on February 6, 1952. 

The Constitution approved by the Constitu- 
tional Convention was submitted to the people of 
Puerto Rico in a referendum on March 3, 1952, 
and was approved by an overwhelming majority. 
On April 22, 1952, I transmitted the Constitution 
to the Congress for approval in accordance with 
the provisions of the act of July 3, 1950. The 
Constitution will now become effective upon the 
accei^tance by the Constitutional Convention of 
the conditions of approval and the issuance of a 
proclamation by the Governor of Puerto Rico. 

H. J. Res. 430 is the culmination of a consistent 
policy of the United States to confer an ever- 
increasing measure of local self-government upon 
the people of Puerto Rico. It provides additional 
evidence of this nation's adherence to the prin- 
ciple of self-determination and to the ideals of 
freedom and democracy. 

We take special pride in the fact that this Con- 
stitution is the product of the people of Puerto 
Rico. Wlien the Constitution of the Common- 
wealth of Puerto Rico is proclaimed by the Gov- 
ernor, Puerto Rico will have a government 
fashioned by the people of Puerto Rico to meet 
their own needs, requirements and aspirations. 

With the approval of H. J. Res. 430, the people 
of the United States and the people of Puerto 
Rico are about to enter into a relationship based 
on mutual consent and esteem. The Constitution 
of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the 
procedures by which it has come into being are 
matters of which every American can be justly 
proud. They are in accordance with principles 
we proclaim as the right of free peoples every- 
where. July 3, 1952, should be a proud and happy 
day for all who have been associated in a gi-eat 
task. 



iuiy 2J, 1952 



91 



U.S., U.K., France Propose Four Power Meeting 
To Discuss Commission on German Elections 



The Governments of the United States, the 
United Kingdom, and France, through their re- 
spective Embassies at Moscow, on July 10 deliv- 
ered identical notes to the Soviet Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs in reply to the Soviet note of May 
24 concerning Germany. Texts of the United 
States and Soviet notes follow: 



U.S. NOTE OF JULY 10 

Press release 543 dated July 10 

In its note of May 13 ^ the United States Gov- 
ernment made various proposals in tlie hope of 
facilitating four power conversations which could 
lead to the unification of Germany and to the nego- 
tiation with an all-German Government of a Ger- 
man peace treaty. It observes with regret that 
the Soviet Government in its note of May 24 does 
not answer these proposals. The United States 
Government fully maintains the views and pro- 
posals in its note of May 13. On this basis it 
wishes in its present note primarily to concentrate 
attention upon the immediate practical problem 
of the procedure for setting up, through free elec- 
tions, an all-German Government with which a 
peace treaty can be negotiated. 

In its note the Soviet Government once more 
proposes simultaneous discussions on a peace 
treaty, the unification of Germany, and the forma- 
tion of an all-German Govermnent. For its part, 
the United States Government maintains its posi- 
tion on this question, namely, that an all-German 
Government must participate in the negotiation of 
a peace treaty, and that, thei'efoi'e, before under- 
taking such negotiations Germany must be unified 
and an all-German Government established. Uni- 
fication of Germany can be achieved only through 
free elections. The essential first step is obviously 
the determination that conditions necessary for 
such free elections exist. The second step would 
be the holding of those elections. 



' BuiXETiN of May 26, 1952, p. SI 7. 
92 



In regard to the first step, the United States 
Government proposed in its note of May 13 that 
an impartial Commission should cletermine 
whether there exist throughout Germany the con- 
ditions necessary for the holding of free elections. 
While pointing out the great advantages of using 
the United Nations Commission, the United States 
Government nevertheless otfered to consider any 
other practical and precise proposals for an im- 
partial Commission which the Soviet Government 
might advance. The Soviet Government ad- 
vances no such proposals and limits itself to main- 
taining its position on the appointment of a 
Commission to carry out this verification by agree- 
ment among the four Powers. It is not clear to 
the United States Government whether the Soviet 
Government considers that the Commission should 
be composed of representatives of the four Powers 
or merely that the four Powers should agree on its 
composition, and the United States Government 
would be pleased to receive clarification on this 
point. The United States Government remains 
convinced that a Commission composed solely of 
nationals of the four Powers would be nnable to 
reach useful decisions since it could only reflect 
present differences of opinion among the four 
Powers as to conditions existing in tlie Federal 
Republic, in the Soviet Zone and in Berlin. The 
United States Govermnent considers that if the 
Commission is to carry out its work effectively, it 
should be composed of impartial members, should 
not be subject to veto or control by the four Powers 
and should be empowered to go freely into all 
parts of Germany and investigate conditions bear- 
ing on the possibility of holding free elections. 

In I'egard to the second step, the United States 
Government similarly proi^osed that as soon as the 
Commission's report was ready there should be a 
meeting of representatives of the United States, 
French, Soviet and United Kingdom Governments 
to discuss the early holding of free elections 
throughout Germany, including the creation where 
necessary of appropriate conditions. The United 
States Government maintains this proposal to 
which the Soviet Government has not yet replied. 

Department of State Bulletin 



The United States Government repeats what it has 
stated in paragraph 8 of its note of May 13 : "Such 
free elections can, however, only be "held if the 
necessary conditions exist in all parts of Gei-many 
and will be maintained not only on the day of 
voting, and prior to it, but also thereafter." 

The United States Government further pro- 
posed to examine at this same meeting the assur- 
ances to be given by the four Powers that the 
all-German Government formed as a result of 
these free elections will have the necessary free- 
dom of action during the period before the peace 
treaty comes into effect. It is the understanding 
of the United States Government that the only 
concrete proposal envisaged by the Soviet Gov- 
ernment is that the all-German Government must 
be guided by the Potsdam decisions. This would 
mean the reestablishment of the quadripartite sys- 
tem of control which was originally designed to 
cover only "the initial control period." An ar- 
rangement of this kind would revive a system of 
control which proved to be impracticable and 
would, moreover, ignore the whole evolution of 
events in Germany in recent years. A German 
Government subjected to such control would in 
practice enjoy no freedom in its relations with the 
four Powers and would not be in a position to 
participate freely with the four above-mentioned 
Governments in the negotiation of a peace treaty. 

The United States Government also observes 
with concern that while the Soviet Government 
ill its notes repeatedly i-eaffirms its desire for the 
unification of Germany, it has recently adopted 
without any justification a series of measures in 
the Soviet Zone and in Berlin which tend to pre- 
vent all contact between the Germans living in 
the territory under Soviet occupation and the 
50 million Germans in the Federal Republic and in 
the Western sectors of Berlin. These measures 
aggi'avate the arbitrary division of Germany. 
The United States Government wishes to em- 
phasize that the agi'eements recently signed with 
the Federal Republic open up to Germany a wide 
and free association with the other nations of 
Europe. The United States Government cannot, 
as it has already emphasized in its note of May 13, 
admit that Germany should be denied the basic 
right of a free and equal nation to associate itself 
with other nations for peaceful purposes. 
Furthermore, these agreements reafKrm the de- 
termination of the three Powers and the Federal 
Republic to promote the unification of Germany, 
and expressly reserve the rights of the three 
Powers relating to a peace settlement — a peace 
settlement for the whole of Germany to be freely 
negotiated by the four Powers and the all-German 
Government. 

In order to avoid further delay, the United 
States Government, in concert with the French 
Government and the United Kingdom Govern- 
ment, and after consultation with the German 
Federal Government and with the German 



authorities in Berlin, proposes that there should 
be an early meeting of representatives of the four 
Governments, provided it is understood that the 
four Governments are in favor of free elections 
throughout Germany as described in paragraph 
4 of the present note, and of the participation of 
a free German Government in the negotiation of 
a German peace treaty. The purpose of this meet- 
ing would be to reach agreement on the first ques- 
tion which must be settled if further progress 
is to be made, namely, the composition and fvmc- 
tions of the Commission of investigation to de- 
termine whether the conditions necessary for free 
elections exist. The United States Government 
proposes that the representatives discuss : 

A. The selection of members of the Commission 
in such a way as to insure its impartiality. 

B. T'he functions of the Commission with a 
view to insuring its complete independence to make 
recommendations to the four Powers. 

C. The authority of the commission to carry out 
its investigation in full freedom and without inter- 
ference. 

In order that free elections can be held it will 
also be necessaiy to reach agreement on the pro- 
gram for the formation of an all-German Govern- 
ment, as proposed in paragraph 11 (iv) of the 
United States Government's note of May 13. 
The United States Government therefore repeats 
that proposal for the discussion of these further 
important issues by representatives of the four 
Powers. Wlien such agi'eement is reached it will 
then be possible to proceed to the unification of 
Germany. 

Since the Soviet Government has repeatedly ex- 
pressed its desire for an early meeting in pref- 
erence to continued exchanges of notes, the 
United States Government trusts that the present 
proposal will commend itself to the Soviet 
Government. 



SOVIET NOTE OF MAY 24 

[Unofficial Translation] 

In connection with the note of the Government 
of the United States of America of May 13 of this 
year, the Soviet Government finds it necessary to 
state the following: 

1. Concerning the urgency of a decision of the 
German question and the delaying by the Western 
Powers of the exchange of written communica- 
tions on this question : 

In its note of March 10, 1952,= the Soviet Gov- 
ernment projDOsed to the Governments of the 
United States of America, Great Britain, and 
France that they examine together the question 
of the conclusion of a treaty of peace with Ger- 
many and of the establishment of an all-German 
Government. In order to facilitate and expedite 



' Ibid., Apr. 7, 1952, p. 531. 



July 27, 1952 



93 



preparation of a treaty of peace with Germany 
the Soviet Government put forward its draft of 
this treaty, expressing at the same time its readi- 
ness to consider other possible proposals on this 
question. The Soviet Government considers it 
necessary to solve this question immediately, being 
guided by the interests of the strengthening of 
peace in Europe and the necessity of satisfying 
the legitimate national demands of the German 
people. 

Inasmuch as there was advanced in the reply of 
the Government of the United States of America 
of March 25 ^ in connection with the question con- 
cerning the formation of an all-German Govern- 
ment a proposal for the study of conditions exist- 
ing for the conduct of general elections in Ger- 
many, the Soviet Government in its note of April 
9 agreed with this proposal, insisting, however, 
that the study in question should be conducted, 
not by a commission of the United Nations Or- 
ganization, which is not competent to deal with 
the question of the making of peace with Ger- 
many, but an impartial commission of the Four 
Powers exercising the occupational function in 
Germany. At the same time, the Soviet Govern- 
ment once again proposed to the Government of 
the United States of America and likewise to the 
Governments of Great Britain and France that 
the consideration of a treaty of peace with Ger- 
many should no longer be postponed and likewise 
the question of unification of Germany and the 
creation of an all-German Government. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the Soviet Gov- 
ernment accepted the proposal of the Government 
of the U.S.A. for verification of the presence of 
conditions for conducting in Germany free gen- 
eral elections and the proposal of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment for appointment of a commission for 
conducting this verification by agi-eement between 
the Four Powers guaranteeing the objectivity and 
impartiality of the commission in question, the 
decision on the question concerning the peace 
treaty with Germany and the unification of Ger- 
many as demonstrated by the note of the Govern- 
ment of the United Stat;es of America of May 13 
is again postponed for an indefinite period." It 
is evident from this note that the Govermnent of 
the U.S.A. is also unwilling to agree that the Four 
Powers proceed to the examination of these ques- 
tions without fiuther delays. 

In view of tliis tlie Government of the U.S.A. 
in its note of May 13 advanced a whole series of 
new preliminary conditions wliich it had not ad- 
vanced in its note of March 2h and about which it 
now proposes to negotiate by means of a continu- 
ation of the exchange of notes before proceeding 
to direct negotiations. Thus, in its note of May 13 
the Government of the U.S.A. proposes before the 
beginning of direct negotiations that agreement 
be reached "concerning the framework of negotia- 



' Ibid., p. .').30. 



tions and concerning the basic problems to be 
taken under consideration" and likewise to con- 
tinue the written exchange of communications 
concerning the composition and functions of the 
commission for verification of the conditions in 
Germany for general elections, etc. 

U.S. Blamed for Delays 

All these facts make evident that the Govern- 
ment of the U.S.A. is continuing to delay the con- 
clusion of a treaty of peace with Germany, a 
decision on the question of unification, and also 
the establishment of an all-German Government. 
Only this could explain the fact that in its note of 
May 13 the Government of the U.S.A. introduced a 
whole new series of questions for the prolongation 
of the exchange of notes which, apart from this, 
has already dragged on for several months, in- 
stead of the Four Powers proceeding to direct 
negotiations and beginning the joint consideration 
of a peace treaty with Germany and with all the 
related questions. 

In these circumstances the opinion cannot fail to 
be strengthened in Germany as well as beyond its 
borders that the Government of the U.S.A. in real- 
ity is not aiming at the conclusion of a peace treaty 
with Germany and putting an end to the division 
of Germany. But without the conclusion of a 
peace treaty and the unification of Germany a 
fully equal German Government cannot be re- 
stored, a German Government both independent 
and in full possession of rights and expressing 
the genuine will of the entire German people. 

Agreements With Bonn Government 

2. Regarding separate agreements of the West- 
ern Powers with Western Germany and their 
attempts to avoid conclusion of a peace treaty 
with Germany : 

The Soviet Government considers it necessary to 
direct special attention to the fact that, simulta- 
neously witli the extended exchange of notes, the 
Government of the U.vS.A., together with the Gov- 
ernments of Great Britain and France, is con- 
ducting separate negotiations with the Bonn 
Government of Western Germany regarding the 
conclusion of the so-called '"general" contract. 
Actually this is in no way a "general" contract 
but a separate treaty which is falsely called "gen- 
eral" in order to deceive the people. Thus the 
Potsdam Agreement by which the responsibility 
for the preparation of a peace treaty with Ger- 
many was placed upon the Four Powers — the 
United States of America, Great Britain, France, 
and the U.S.S.R. — was flagrantly violated. 

Despite the secret character of the negotiations 
carried on with the Bonn Government and despite 
the fact that the full text of this separate agree- 
ment until now has not been published, from the 
information which has apjseared in the press the 



94 



Depariment of State Bulletin 



contents of this separate treaty have become 
known ah-eady. From these facts it is evident 
that the peace treaty prepared by the Govern- 
ments of the U.S.A., Great Britain, and France 
witli West Germany in no way has as its aim the 
extension of freedom and independence of West- 
ern Germany. Together with formal abrogation 
of the Occupation Statute, this treaty preserves 
the regime of factual military occupation, keep- 
ing West Germany in a dependent and subservi- 
ent status with regard to the Governments of the 
U.S.A. and of Great Britain and France. 

In addition, by means of the conclusion of this 
separate treaty witli West Germany, the Govern- 
ments of the U.S.A., Great Britain, and France 
legalize the re-establisliment of the German 
Army headed by Hitlerite generals, whicli means 
that they open the way to the re-establishment of 
aggi-essive West German militarism. Actually 
this treaty is an open military alliance of the 
U.S.A., Great Britain, and France witli the help of 
West Germany by means of which the German 
people are drawn by the Bonn Government into 
preparations of a new war. 

Moreover, the Governments of the U.S.A., 
Gi'eat Britain, and France achieve tlie inclusion 
of West Germany into the group of powers cre- 
ated by them under the name of "European De- 
fense Community" : France, West Germany, Italy, 
Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg. This self- 
styled "European community" is supposed to be- 
come an integral part of the North Atlantic bloc 
and the great and so-called "European army" 
into which should go the presently created Ger- 
man armed forces in West Germany. It is quite 
obvious that the aim of the creation of a "Euro- 
pean community" and "European army" is not 
only to legalize the remilitarization of West Ger- 
many, as is taking place in fact, but also to include 
West Germany in the aggressive North Atlantic 
bloc. 



Support for "Revanchists" Charged 

It is known to all that in recent times the Gov- 
ernment of the U.S.A. has attempted to hasten 
by all means the conclusion of a separate treaty 
with West Germany as well as the inclusion of 
West Germany into the "European community." 
Likewise it attempts not only definitively to sepa- 
rate from but to oppose one portion of Germany 
to the other. Tliis means that the Government of 
the U.S.A. is interested not in the unification of 
Germany and not in a peace treaty with Ger- 
many but, by means of the new separate agree- 
ment, more strongly than before to tie Western 
Germany and the Western German army now 
created witli the North Atlantic bloc of j^owei's, 
which is incompatible with the possibilities of 
a peaceful development in Europe. 

All this shows that at the present time an agi-ee- 
ment is taking place between right-wing revanch- 



ist circles of Western Germany and the North 
Atlantic group of powers. This agreement can 
be based only on the support of the revanchist 
aspirations of the Bonn Government of Adenauer, 
which is preparing to unleash a new war in Eu- 
rope. The restoration now of a West German 
army under the leadership of Fascist Hitlerite 
generals can only serve the aggressive aims of the 
German revanchists. On the other hand, the 
inclusion of West Germany in the so-called Eu- 
ropean army, and consequently in the army of 
the North Atlantic bloc, even more underlines the 
aggressive character of the whole North Atlantic 
group. 

In the light of these facts, no one can believe 
that the presently created "European community" 
and "European army" can represent "a path to 
peace" as is stated in the American note of May 
13. The real meaning of the agreement of the 
North Atlantic bloc with the government of 
Adenauer can comprise only the further strength- 
ening of the aggressive character of the North 
Atlantic group of powers presently striving for 
the direct union with the German revanchists who 
represent the most aggressive circles in Europe. 

The conclusion with the Bonn Government of 
West Germany of agreements such as the above- 
mentioned separate treaty or agreement regard- 
ing the "European community" places upon this 
part of Germany new obligations strengthening 
its dependence on the Occupying Powei's and 
creating new difficulties for unification with the 
Eastern part of Germany which is not tied by 
such obligations and is developing in conditions 
favorable to national unification of Gennany into 
a unified independent democratic and peace-loving 
state. The desire of the Government of the U.S.A. 
to conclude as soon as possible the above-mentioned 
separate agreement with West Germany at the 
same time that negotiations regarding a peace 
treaty and unification of Germany again and again 
are postponed means that it intends by means of 
the mentioned separate agi'eements to confront 
the German people with a fait accompli: The 
German people will be confronted with the fact 
of the remilitarization of West Germany and the 
retention of Occupation troops in West Germany. 
And there will presently arise insunnountable 
obstacles in the path of the conclusion of a peace 
treaty and the unification of Germany. 

However, it is not possible on the one hand to 
make statements about recognition of the necessity 
of a peace treaty and the unification of Germany 
and on the other to do everything to make difficult 
and to impede the conclusion of a peace treaty 
with Germany and the restoration of a unified 
German state. This leads to the undermining of 
any kind of confidence toward the dual policy of 
such powers and places the German people in the 
necessity of seeking its own way to a peace treaty 
and national unification of Germany. 



Jo/y 21, 1952 



95 



Further Joint Discussions Urged 

?). Proposal of the Soviet Government : Despite 
the presence of disagreement regarding the peace 
treaty with Germany and also the unification of 
Germany and the formation of an all-German 
Government, the Soviet Government again pro- 
poses to the Government of the U.S.A. and also 
to the Governments of Great Britain and France 
to enter into joint discussion of these questions 
and not to permit extended delay in this matter. 

Continued review of these questions by means of 
further exchange of notes cannot produce the re- 
sults which might be achieved by direct negotia- 
tions and can only make achievement of agreement 
more difficult. Meanwhile, further delay of de- 
cision of the question of a peace treaty and unifi- 
cation of Germany cannot fail to arouse legitimate 
dissatisfaction of the German people, even over- 
looking the fact that delay in this matter is contra- 
dictory to the interests of the establishment of 
normal and permanent relations between Germany 
and neighboring states as well as the interests of 
strengthening of general peace. 

The Soviet Government proceeds on the prin- 
ciple that in working out a peace treaty with Ger- 
many the Government of the U.S.S.R. as well as 
the Governments of the U.S.A.. Gi'eat Britain, 
and France will be guided by the provisions of 
the Potsdam Agreement, particularly in the ques- 
tion of the boundaries of Germany as was men- 
tioned by the Soviet Government in its note of 
April 9.^ 

As regards the all-German Government and its 
powers, it is understood that this Government also 
must be guided by the Potsdam provisions and 
also, after conclusion of the peace treaty, by the 
provision of the peace treaty which serves the 
establishment of a permanent peace in Europe. 
Im this connection, the Soviet Government con- 
tinues to consider it the inalienable right of the 
(^Jerman people to have its own national armed 
forces necessary for the defense of the country 
without which it is impossible to decide the ques- 
tion of the powers of the all-German Government 
in a just and proper fashion. 

Proposing to enter into direct negotiations 
urgently regarding a peace treaty with Germany 
and the formation of an all-German Government, 
the Soviet Government proceeds also from the 
fact tliat no separate agreement of one or another 
])art of Germany with governments of other states 
can impose any kind of obligations and that the 
all-German Government which will have signed 
the peace treaty will possess all the rights which 
the governments of other independent sovereign 
states possess. 



• I hid.. May 26, 1952, p. 819. 



Prince Abdullah Faisal's Visit to U.S. 

Press release 547 dated July 11 

Prince Abdullah Faisal, gi'andson of King Ibn 
Sand of Saudi Arabia and Minister of Interior 
and Public Health of that country, arrived in the 
United States July 13 on an unofficial visit to 
study American techniques, knowledge, and skills 
in the fields of land reclamation, irrigation, police 
methods, education, and public health. He will 
visit selected areas where projects are in operation 
under conditions approximating those in his 
homeland. 

Abdullah's father is the second son of the Saudi 
Arabian King and is Minister of Foreign Affairs 
of the country. 

The Saudi Arabian Government is interested in 
advancing the standards of living of its people to 
a level commensurate with the country's recently 
increased income from oil production. 

After visits to various institutions in the Wash- 
ington area where American methods in maternal 
and child care will be demonstrated for the bene- 
fit of the Prince and his party, the visitors will 
inspect the public health system at Carville, La. 
From there they will move on to El Paso and 
Santa Fe to view activities in the field of public 
liealth where the problems in arid areas approxi- 
mate those found in Saudi Arabia. 

To study projects in the field of natural re- 
sources, Prince Abdullah Faisal will visit power 
and irrigation operations where emphasis is 
placed on the conservation and maximum utiliza- 
tion of water resources. These will include the 
irrigation and development of the El Paso and 
Santa Cruz areas of the Rio Grande and the Salt 
River Valley projects at Phoenix. From Phoenix 
the Prince and liis party will go to California 
where he will be given a brief view of the work 
being accomplished in American penal institu- 
tions. 

Under the Point Four agreement between the 
United States and Saudi Arabia, which became 
effective January 17, 19.51, technical "know how" 
is furnished in the country's effort to improve eco- 
nomic and social conditions. Saudi Arabia fur- 
nishes housing and travel expenses for the Ameri- 
can technicians as well as all other items incident 
to each jjroject. 

Recently the Technical Cooperation Adminis- 
tration finished a study of Saudi Arabia's mone- 
tary and fiscal systems. The report from this 
study resulted in the establishment by the King 
of a Central Fiscal Agency mider the manage- 
ment of an American financial expert. 



96 



Department of State Bulletin 



U.S. Problems and Accomplishments in the Far East 



hy John M. Allison 

Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs ' 



Just 100 years ago Commodore Perry was mak- 
ing preparations for his eventful voyage to Japan 
wlaich resulted in the opening of that great coun- 
try to intercourse with the rest of the world. It 
was also just about 100 years ago that Seattle 
was founded. The developments which have 
taken place in the last 100 years in Asia and on 
the Pacific Coast of the United States have been 
of far-reaching significance, and it is a special 
pleasure to talk witli you people who have grown 
up with a traditional interest in the Pacific and 
the affairs of Asia. 

During the past 100 years we have seen the prog- 
ress of China to a point where it was accepted 
in the councils of the world as one of the five great 
powers, and we have then seen the domination 
of the mainland of China by Communist hordes, 
who have for all pi'actical purposes turned their 
back on the jjeoples and governments of the West 
who had done so much to help China reach its 
high position. We have seen Japan grow from 
a small island country, hardly known except to 
a few brave sailors, merchants, and missionai'ies, 
to one of the great military powers of the world 
able to challenge even the strongest, and we have 
seen that power abused in such a manner as to 
bring disaster to Japan. But we have also seen 
the Japanese people rise from defeat and create 
with Allied help a new Japan which has recently 
signed a treaty of peace with 48 countries and 
which is now launched on a new course of peaceful 
cooperation with the nations of the free world. 
We have seen many new small nations who for 
years were under the domination of Western 
powers achieve their independence and freedom, 
and we have watched them take their places in the 
councils of the world. 

While these changes have on the whole been 
progressive and in a direction which we all have 



'Address made before the Institute of International 
Affairs at the University of Washington, Seattle, on .Inly 
1 and released to the press (no. 503) on the same date. 



desired, nevertheless they have created many 
problems and have greatly complicated the life 
of all of Asia. In mo.st recent years, particularly 
since the end of the late war, these profound 
changes in Asia have proceeded almost at a gallop, 
and they have naturally resulted in a certain politi- 
cal and economic instability. The older patterns 
of economic life have often been disrupted, and 
the influence of an alien, but usually efficient 
bureaucracy, has given way to governments ad- 
ministered to be sure by Asians themselves but 
who in many cases have not had the experience and 
training usually deemed necessary to carry out 
such respomsibilities. This lack of political and 
economic stability, complicated by the ravages 
of the recent war which destroyed much of the 
economic potential of many of these countries, 
could perhaps have been surmounted with rela- 
tive ease if it had not been for the introduction 
of another complicating factor — the influence of 
militant communism. "Wliile the interest of world 
Communist leaders in Asia is of long standing, 
it has taken its most aggressive form in recent 
years. Almost 30 years ago, in his lectures on the 
foundations of Leninism, Stalin pointed out that 
"the road to victory of the revolution in the West 
lies through the revolutionary alliance with the 
liberation movement of the colonies and depend- 
ent countries against imperialism." And as early 
as 1918 he wrote an article, the title of which makes 
clear his interest— it was "Do Not Forget the 
East." And you will all recall that soon after the 
Kussian revolution one of the first acts of the 
Connnunist leaders was to set up in Moscow, for 
students from all over Asia, the University of 
Toilers of the East and the Sun Yat Sen Univer- 
sity. These two specialist institutions have been 
constant reservoirs of Communists trained for 
work in Asia. 

This early interest has received renewed stimu- 
lation in recent years. The Communist leaders 
have made no secret of their interest or their plan. 



My 21, ?952 



97 



As recently as the 9tli of last December in an 
article on China and the lessons of China for 
revolution in colonial territories which appeared 
in the Moscow University Herald of that date, 
the blueprint of revolution was set out. 
Here it is : 

First, incite nationalism, which is inherent in all races. 

Second, promote a national "united front" including if 
necessary vacillating bourgeois political parties. 

Third, let the working class and its political party, the 
Communist Party, seize leadership of the United Front. 

Fourth, form an alliance of the working class and the 
peasantry, led by the Communist Party. 

Fifth, the Communist Party takes complete control, 
ousting the others. 

Sixth, remember that time national independence can 
be achieved only in unity with the Soviet Union. There 
is no third, middle, or neutral road. The choice is between 
the camp of imperialism on the one hand and the camp 
of .s<icialism and democracy [in the Communist sense] 
on the other hand. 

Seventh, form powerful "Peoples' Liberation Armies" 
under the leadership of the Communist Party. Identify 
the struggle of the masses with the armed struggle which 
is the chief activity in "colonial" national liberation 
movements. 

The wars which result from the implementa- 
tion of this Communist program are claimed by 
the Communist leaders to be either civil wars or 
"just" wars and therefore this incitement to war 
is not considered as being against the teachings of 
the Soviet "peace campaign." It should be 
pointed out that when the Communists speak of 
"colonial countries" they do not only mean 
colonies in the normal sense but all Asian coun- 
tries, independent or not, which are on friendly 
terms with the West and therefore regarded by 
the Kremlin as "puppets of the West." Point 
six in the above program is especially important. 
It says specifically that "there is no third, 
middle, or neutral road." It is the Communists 
themselves who say that there is no room for 
"coexistence" of neutralism. 



Meeting the Situation 

In meeting this situation in Asia, the United 
States is proceeding by means of three ap- 
proaches — military, economic, and political. We 
are convinced that no single one or these three 
approaches is sufficient. All must go together. 
In some places it is necessary to emphasize the 
military, in others the political, and in still others 
the economic. But in every case our objective is 
the same — to help in the creation in the free 
countries of Asia of strong, stable governments 
whieli can play their part in cooperation with the 
rest of the free world in building for peace. 

Let us look fir.st at what we are doing in the mili- 
tary field, and this, of course, brings us first of 
all to Korea. Some short-sighted persons have 
called our action in Korea "useless," and there is 
considerable understandable impatience at the 
long-drawn-out struggle going on in that penin- 
sula. But, before we make up our minds that 



the sacrifices made in Korea by many brave men 
have been useless, let us consider what they have 
accomijlished. We must remember that it was 
not the Kepublic of Korea, it was not the United 
States, nor was it the United Nations which 
started the fighting; but it was the Republic of 
Korea, the United States, and the United Nations 
which stood up to aggression and beat it back. 

Today, the aggressors have been thrown back 
beyond the point from which they started. It is 
the Communists who have utterly "failed in achiev- 
ing their objectives in Korea. They have lost 
well over a million trained soldiers and enormous 
quantities of materiel. North Korea has been 
devastated and for years to come will be an eco- 
nomic liability with nothing to compensate for 
this destruction. One of the most important re- 
sults of the Communist aggression in Korea has 
been the action of the United Nations. For the 
first time in modern history, an international or- 
ganization has shown that not only can it be effec- 
tive in times of peace but that it can and will 
resist aggression. The League of Nations was 
never able to accomplish this. A real forward 
step has been made in development of a world 
organization determined that aggression shall not 
prosper. 

In addition to meeting the aggression itself, the 
United States is helping to create a strong Re- 
public of Korea Army which, when the present 
fighting is over, will eventually be able to insure 
that the leaders of the Republic of Korea have 
the opportunity to carry out the constructive tasks 
of peace. 

Steps for Reconstruction of Japan 

In Japan we face a situation of extreme diffi- 
culty. The end of the war saw Japan's former 
great empire torn from her, its military machine 
dismantled, and its people, disillusioned by the 
former domination of the military, reluctant, even 
in their own defense, to see the re-creation of any 
sort of military machine. With the coming into 
force of the peace treaty and the disappearance of 
Occupation rights and duties the people of Japan 
would, for all practical purposes, have been left 
defenseless if some special measures had not been 
taken to meet this problem. 

Any consideration of the future of Japan must 
take into consideration its strategic situation and 
its relationship to the present power situation in 
Asia. As I have said before in other talks on this 
subject, it would be pleasant to ignore the question 
of power relationships and to consider only what 
would be wise and desirable from the moral, politi- 
cal, and economic viewpoints. Unfortunately, we 
cannot ignore the problem created by a change in 
the balance of power in the Far East any more 
than elsewhere in the world. An astute scholar 
has recently said that statesmen who profess not 
to believe in the "balance of power" are like scien- 
tists who do not believe in the law of gravity. 



98 



Department of State Bulletin 



So if we are to consider the future of Japan and 
our policy toward it as it emerges from a disas- 
trous war and 6 years of Occupation, we must 
consider tlie effect of the present power situation 
in Asia. This is particularly acute because of the 
comiiletely unarmed position in which Japan 
finds itself off the coast of Asia where Communist 
aggression has been most active. In fact, there is 
reason to believe that the outbreak of this Com- 
munist aggression was at least partially due to the 
unarmed condition of Japan and the belief of the 
aggi'essors that domination of the Korean penin- 
sula would make more easy the ultimate domina- 
tion of Japan with its great industrial base and 
industrially trained poiDulation. 

In an effort to help in meeting this situation, 
the United States concluded with Japan a mutual 
security treaty providing for the retention in 
Japan of American forces for the defense of Japan 
from external aggression. It was made clear to 
the Japanese Government and people that it was 
their choice as to whether or not they wished to 
continue this association with the United States. 
It was not an easy choice for Japan. It is never 
easy for a proud and vigorous people to rely on 
others for their defense or to welcome into their 
country troops of an alien power. 

At some point Japan must decide in what man- 
ner she wishes to contribute to her own self-de- 
fense, but, until such time as this decision is made 
and means are found to implement it, the United 
States will have to carry the major burden of the 
defense provided for in the treaty which it is 
believed will contribute to the true long-term good 
of both countries and the peace of the whole 
Pacific area. Whether this association will suc- 
ceed, only time can tell. It will be most difficult 
for all. Not only is this an association between 
peoples who have recently been at war with each 
other but it is an association between ]3eoples of 
different races, different cultures and backgrounds. 
If we can succeed, as we mean to do, in making this 
pact between a Western and an Asiatic country a 
real and living force for peace, on a basis of part- 
nership and equality, we shall have done as much 
as any other single thing toward cutting the 
ground from under Communist propaganda, 
which only sees in such a relationship an effort 
by the West to reassert its domination over the 
East. 



Military Problem of Indochina 

There is another area in Asia which is faced 
with an acute, immediate military problem and 
that is Indochina, where the three Associated 
States of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia are, in 
cooperation with France, fighting in another sec- 
tor of the war against Communist aggression. 
This war has been going on for 6 years, during 
most of which France stood alone. But now we 
are helping on a substantial scale. Only a short 



time ago there arrived in Saigon the 150th Amer- 
ican ship loaded with materials for the defense 
effort in Indochina. The main effort of the United 
States and France in recent months has been to 
develop national armies in the three Associated 
States, and, since this decision was taken in No- 
vember of 1950, there has been created a total 
of 52 battalions for the three states. As indica- 
tion of the gi-eat progress which the people of 
the Associated States are making and the gi'eat 
interest they have in developing their own na- 
tional armies, it is interesting to note that 20 out 
of 52 battalions have either none or not more 
than five French officers attached to them. All 
of the other officers are Vietnamese. The Chief 
of Staff of Vietnam's national army is a Vietna- 
mese, and in the past year approximately 1,000 
new Vietnamese officers were graduated from 
training schools in addition to substantial num- 
bers of technicians and noncommissioned officers. 

A further indication of the increasing share of 
the responsibility for their own defense which 
is being borne by the Associated States is the fact 
that whereas in 1946, 88 percent of the casualties 
were French and only 9 percent local troops, to 
date in 1952 the French casualties have been only 
17 percent as compared with 52 percent casualties 
for the troops of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. 
The other losses have been sustained by supple- 
mentary troops from other areas of the French 
Union not parts of either the French forces or the 
forces of the national armies of the three states. 

Just recently I participated in discussions in 
Washington with Jean Letourneau, Minister of 
State in the French Cabinet and responsible for 
relations with the Associated States of Indochina.^ 
There was definite agreement that the United 
States would not only continue but would increase 
the amount of aid it was giving to France and 
the Associated States for the special purpose of 
assisting in building up these national armies. 
The United States maintains in Indochina a mil- 
itary advisory group which cooperates with the 
French and the officials of the Associated States 
in creating a sound military defense effort. 

Indochina has been said to be the key to all of 
Southeast Asia. It faces a constant pressure not 
only from the rebels of Viet-Minh but also a 
threat from some 200,000 Chinese Communist 
troops poised on its borders who could at any time 
repeat what Communist troops have done in 
Korea. The United States has recognized that 
the struggle in Indochina in which the forces of 
the Associated States and France are engaged is 
an integral part of the world-wide resistance to 
Communist attempts at conquest and subversion 
and that while the primary role in Indochina rests 
with the French Union, just as the United States 
assumes the largest share of the Korean burden, 
each has an obligation to help the other. 



' Bulletin of June 30, 1952, p. 1009. 



Jvly 21, 1952 



99 



Defense of Other Asian Areas 

The other areas of Asia where definite military 
help is being given both in the form of advice and 
training through military advisory groups and 
in the supply of military equipment are Formosa, 
the Philippine Islands, and Thailand. In none 
of these areas are we doing as much as we would 
like to do, but the first priorities have had to go 
to Korea and Indochina where actual fighting on 
a large scale is taking place. However, the pro- 
grams in these other areas are being kept con- 
stantly under review, and every effort is being 
made "to speed up the quantity of materiel going 
forward. In addition to the help in building up 
the Chinese Government's military defense efforts, 
we all know that the United States is committed 
by the terms of President Truman's statement of 
June 27, 1950, to prevent Formosa from falling 
into Comnninist hands. This continues to be our 
policy. With the Philippines, in addition to 
agreements on military bases and for a military 
advisory group, we have recently signed a mutual 
defense treaty making clear publicly that the 
United States and the Philippines stand side by 
side in the defense of peace and freedom in Asia. 

Our military program in Thailand is much 
smaller, but we are working in close cooperation 
with the officials of this small but important 
nation, which has a long tradition of independence 
and is firmly committed against communism, to 
strengthen its forces so that it can continue to 
play a significant role. 

Through economic measures the United States 
is seeking to build the strength and unity of the 
free world in an effort to deter aggression and 
strengthen the fabric of peace. These economic 
measures have two aspects, positive and negative. 
Through the Mutual Security Agency we have 
provided essential economic aid, and through the 
imposition of a program of export control by the 
free nations we are attempting to limit shipments 
of strategic goods to countries which might be 
tempted to use them against us. Since 1949 the 
United States, Canada, and the major trading 
counti'ies in Western Europe have been cooperat- 
ing closely in the export control field. This co- 
operation has developed voluntarily because each 
has recognized the danger to free-world security 
of unrestricted exports to the Soviet bloc. With 
respect to the Far East, controls on the move- 
ment of strategic goods from the United States 
to Communist China have been progressively 
strengthened since January 19-1:9. The attack on 
the Republic of Korea resulted in much more 
stringent trade controls against both North Korea 
and Communist China. When the Chinese Com- 
munists openly intervened in Korea, the United 
States immediately stopped all exports to Com- 
munist China and banned American ships and 
aircraft from trading operations with the China 
mainland. A short while later all Communist 



Chinese and North Korean dollar assets under 
U.S. jurisdiction were frozen. 

Western European nations likewise instituted 
controls over trade with Communist China more 
severe than those over trade with other parts of 
the Soviet bloc. These controls also apply in the 
dependent overseas territories of the Western 
European countries, such as Hong Kong. 

In May 1951, the U.N. General Assembly rec- 
onnnended that every nation embargo shipments 
of arms, atomic energy materials, petroleum, and 
related strategic items to areas under control of 
the Chinese Comnumist and North Korean re- 
gimes. As of May 1952 a total of 45 countries 
had notified the United Nations that they had ac- 
cepted and were applying the resolution. This 
has helped to make even more complete the con- 
trols over strategic trade with Communist China. 



Economic Measures To Aid Japan 

It is important to note that in spite of the 
formerly great dependence of Japan upon its 
trade with the mainland of China, Japan has 
been carrying out a near embargo on exports to 
that area since the end of 1950. 

Many of the basic economic measures necessary 
to build a strong, stable government in Japan were 
taken initially during the Occupation. Such 
measures as land i-eform, the establishment of 
proper labor standards, and the dissolution of the 
largest concentrations of economic control all took 
place prior to Japan's regaining its freedom under 
the peace treaty. As Japan resumes responsi- 
bility for the conduct of its own affairs, it may be 
that certain aspects of the measures taken during 
the Occupation will be found inappropriate or 
not in keeping with Japan's traditional customs. 
However, it is believed the Japanese Government 
and people have demonstrated a real appreciation 
of the worth of many of these Occupation meas- 
ures and that they will not lightly alter them, but 
rather will consider, if necessary, how their spirit 
and true objectives can be assimilated by the new 
Japan. At the present time Japan's economic 
position looks extremely favorable. As compared 
with a rating of 100 for the base period 1932- 
.36, Japan's industrial production at the end of 
March 1952 was 145. Japan's foreign-exchange 
balances reached a postwar high in April 1952 of 
1*^1,106,000,000, more than twice the foreign-ex- 
change balance for the same period a year ago. 

In sjiite of these favorable omens the future of 
Japan's economy is not secure. Much of the for- 
eign-exchange balance has been due to special 
procurement in Japan by the United States for 
goods and services in connection with the fighting 
in Korea. While such expenditures averaged ap- 
proximately 30 million dollars a month from July 
1950 to February 1952, they have now declined 
to an average of only 8V2 million dollars in the 
period from March to May this year. A more 



100 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



accurate picture of Japan's economic situation is 
obtained by looking at Japan's foreign-trade fig- 
ures, particularly those regarding trade with the 
United States. During 1951 Japan's imports from 
the United States reached a value of 698 million 
dollars whereas the value of her exports to the 
United States was only 184 million dollars, leav- 
ing an adverse balance of over 500 million dollars. 
While Japan will continue for a time to earn 
dollars from the sale of goods and services for 
use in Korea and as a result of the stationing of 
U.S. forces in Japan, nevertheless these special 
sources of income will gradually decrease and 
eventually come to an end. It is therefore not at 
all certain that Japan will continue over the years 
to be in the good position it is today. The Jap- 
anese Government is fully aware of this and is 
studying what measures can be taken to meet this 
situation. 

Trade Assistance Necessary 

It should also be remembered in considering 
Japan's economic situation that many of her 
industries, because of the destruction of the war 
and the lack of contact with technological develop- 
ments in the West over the past 10 years, are not 
in a favorable competitive position with similar 
industries elsewhere. One of the ways in which 
it is hoped the United States will be able to con- 
tribute to the economic prosperity of Japan is 
through arrangements, both private and govern- 
mental, for the exchange of technical assistance 
and information by which advanced American 
techniques will be made available to the Japanese. 
Several such arrangements have already been con- 
cluded between various Japanese and American 
concerns, and it is expected that more will be con- 
cluded as time goes by. 

As indicated above, Japan is imposing controls 
on its trade with Communist China. There is 
considerable agitation in Japan at the present time 
for the removal of such controls. It is believed, 
however, that the recent decision by British trade 
firms to withdraw from Communist China has 
impressed the Japanese with the great difficulties 
of maintaining any profitable trade with Com- 
munist regimes. Japan must trade to live. It is 
in the highest interest of the United States that 
Japan be given an opportunity to sell her products 
to the rest of the world in order that she may 
develop a strong stable economy to support her 
position as a constructive member of the free 
world. The Japanese people can be assured that 
the American people are conscious of Japan's 
problems and that the American Government will 
take all appropriate steps to assist Japan in re- 
suming its rightful place as one of the great trad- 
ing nations of the world. 

In other areas in the Far East we are equally 
concerned with doing what we can to develop 
sound economiop. Even in the midst of the fight- 

Ju/y 21, 1952 

215258—52 3 



ing in Korea we have not lost sight of the economic 
necessities, and an American mission has recently 
concluded an agreement with the Government of 
the Republic of Korea looking toward the stabili- 
zation of the economic situation there with par- 
ticular reference to what can be done to combat a 
dangerous inflation. We have learned through 
sad experience that inflation can do as much dam- 
age to a country as enemy shells, and we have done 
what we can to meet this danger in Korea. 

In Formosa the Mutual Security Agency has a 
flourishing operation looking toward the develop- 
ment of the natural resources of that rich island in 
order to make it more nearly self-supporting. It 
is receiving the close cooperation of the Chinese 
Government, and reports of progress during the 
past year have been most encouraging. 

In the Philippines, you will recall that a special 
economic mission was sent from the United States 
to that country a little over a year ago, and, as a 
result of the vigorous action taken by the Philip- 
pine Government in carrying out the recommenda- 
tions of this mission, we have seen surprising 
economic progress. The Government's deficit 
dropped to less than 1 million pesos from 154 mil- 
lion pesos the year before. The production of 
export crops was greatly increased, and while 
much remains to be done we have reason to have 
confidence that the Philippines are on the road to 
the establishment of a stable economic society ._ 

In Indochina we hear usually about the fighting 
but not about the constructive measures which 
have been taken. Even in the midst of a war there 
has been an expansion in production of rubber and 
rice, and while the export of these commodities is 
still far below the prewar level, last year they 
were the highest they have been since V-J Day. 

Seven Nations Attain Independence 

It is in the political field that perhaps the most 
conspicuous progress has been made. If there is 
one matter upon which all of the nations of the 
Far East are united, it is their desire for national 
freedom and independence. We still hear crit- 
icism of Western imperialism and colonialism, 
and there are many who would have the United 
States take a strong stand against its European 
allies in order to remove such vestiges of colonial- 
ism as still remain. But, before we agree whole- 
heartedly with this stand, it may be helpful to 
think for a moment of what has happened in the 
Far East in the few years since the end of World 
War II. Seven nations with a population of over 
600 million have attained independence. These 
nations were formerly members of the colonial 
systems of the United Kingdom, France, the 
Netherlands, Japan, and the United States. This 
is by no means a negligible achievement. Much 
remains to be done, but in our impatience let us 
not forget that much has already been done. 

Perhaps the single most constructive acliieve- 

ilOl 



ment in the political field in the past year has been 
the negotiation and conclusion of the Treaty of 
Peace with Japan. After 6 years of Occupation 
a nation of almost 85 million vigorous, intelligent 
people has been freed from outside control and 
allowed to take its place as an equal member of 
the family of nations. This treaty broke new 
ground in international relations. We insisted 
that it should be a liberal treaty— one which would 
contain promise for the future and not the seeds 
for future wars. We negotiated this treaty with 
Japan on the basis of equality — there was mutual 
give and take. This was not a treaty drawn up 
in secret by one or two large powers and then 
presented for the acquiescence of the smaller 
powers. Kather, over a period of 11 months, 
through diplomatic negotiations and through 
trips which took the U.S. negotiators to the cap- 
itals of eight countries, all of the powers prin- 
cipally concerned in tlie settlement of the war with 
Japan were able to make their contribution to the 
final settlement. The importance of this treaty 
to relations between Asia and the West was made 
clear by Sir Zafrullah lOian, the distinguished 
Foreign Minister of Pakistan, when at the peace 
conference in San Francisco he said of the treaty : 

It opens to Japan the door passing through which it 
may take up among its fellow sovereign nations a posi- 
tion of dignity, honor, and eqiiality. ... It is evidence 
of a new departure in the relations of the East and the 
West as they have subsisted during the last few 
centuries. 

In Korea our political aim remains what it al- 
ways has been — the achievement of an independ- 
ent, united, and free Korea. I have already told 
how in cooperation with our friends in the United 
Nations we have repelled the aggression from 
North Korea and have thrown the aggressors back 
beyond the point from which they started. We 
are now engaged in armistice talks which we hope 
will put an end to the fighting. If we succeed 
we shall then proceed to the political stage where 
we will discuss how to bring about an independent, 
united, and free Korea, which is our objective. 
If the armistice talks fail we shall be confronted 
with a most serious situation, and what we would 
do in that unhappy event can only be decided 
when we know all the circumstances which will 
attend such a failure. There is no profit in spec- 
ulating at this time as to what the exact nature 
of our action might be. While the hostilities are 
still going on in Korea and while we are in the 
midst of these talks, we have received reports 
which have given us great concern regarding the 
dispute now going on between the President of 
the Republic of Korea and its National Assembly. 
It is our earnest hope that a mutually satisfactory 
solution of this dispute will soon be reached 
through the use of normal constitutional processes. 
It would be a great tragedy if this dispute should 
be magnified to the point where it would adversely 
affect the great effort being made by the United 



Nations to bring about a free and independent 
Korea. 

In China we are confronted with perhaps our 
most serious political problem. There is much 
dispute but there is also considerable agreement. 
W^e know that Communist China is an aggressor, 
declared so by the United Nations, and that mil- 
lions of Chinese on the mainland are suffering 
under the dictatorial and ruthless rule of a group 
which has turned its back on the finest traditions 
of China. I believe that in spite of tlie ruthless 
regime which now dominates them, the Chinese 
people do not forget the great feeling of friend- 
ship which the American people have historically 
held — and still hold — for them. This friendship 
at present can only be shown through the Chinese 
Government on Formosa. As I have said, the 
United States is committed to the defense of For- 
mosa from aggression from the mainland, and it 
is our continuing policy that Formosa not fall into 
Communist hands. The U.S. Government re- 
mains of the opinion that the National Govern- 
ment still represents China. In 96 votes on this 
question in more than 45 international organiza- 
tions and meetings under the general auspices of 
the United Nations and elsewhere, this opinion has 
been reinforced by the majority of the other free 
nations, and the National Government continues to 
occupy the Chinese seat in all these organizations. 
The United States believes this should continue to 
be the case. A real effort is being made at present 
by the Chinese Government to create conditions 
on Formosa, political, economic, and social, which 
will demonstrate to the world that it is deserving 
of world support. In this task we shall continue 
to help. 

Exchange of Ideas With Two Area Visitors 

Within recent weeks we have had two visitors 
from Asia, who have not only been an inspiration 
but who have reinforced our belief that there is 
hope for success in our objective of encouraging 
the establishment of free and independent nations 
in Asia which will be able to stand on their own 
feet and not become the tools of foreign "isms." 
The Defense Secretary of the Philippines, Ramon 
Magsaysay, and Jean Letourneau from Indochina 
have both demonstrated an awareness of the real 
problems of their areas and have told us of the 
constructive measures they are taking to solve 
these problems. 

Defense Secretary Magsaysay has given us con- 
crete examples of how, in his approach to the Huk 
problem, he has adopted the twin measures of 
punishment and rehabilitation — the former, stern 
when needed, the latter, a genuine and sincere at- 
tempt to get at the root cause of the trouble. 
While the Huk movement is dominated at the top 
by a small group of Moscow-trained leaders, many 
of the rank and file are people who have in one 
way or another an honest grievance. Through an 
enlightened policy of resettlement where neces- 



102 



Department of State Bulletin 



sary, of creating jobs, these people may have been 
given a cliance to earn an honest and a decent liv- 
ing. The back of the Huk rebellion has been 
broken, and in the past year there has been re- 
markable improvement in general security con- 
ditions throughout the Philippines. 

Mr. Letourneau talked with us for several days 
about the steps which have been taken in the three 
Associated States of Indochina to consolidate the 
independence of those states which was estab- 
lished in the accords of 1949. He told ns how 
those accords had been liberally interpreted and 
supplemented by other agreements and pointed 
out that the Governments of the Associated States 
now exercise full authority within their terri- 
tories except for a strictly limited number of 
services related to the necessities of the war now 
going on which temporarily remain in French 
hands. It was noted that 33 foreign governments 
have recognized the independence of these states. 
A vivid demonstration of this independence was 
given at the Japanese peace conference last Sep- 
tember where the Associated States were individ- 
ually represented and where they signed as repre- 
sentatives of independent powers rather than as 
part of the French delegation. Bonds between 
our country and the Associated States have re- 
cently been strengthened by the elevation of our 
missions in those countries to Embassies and the 
appointment of Cambodian and Vietnamese Am- 
bassadors to Washington. At a public luncheon 
given by the press correspondents in Washington 
and in the presence of the Ambassadors from 
Cambodia and Vietnam, Mr. Letourneau pointed 
out that when the fighting ceases it will be for the 
Associated States to determine what their future 
relationships with France will be. He expressed 
the strong hope that they would wish to stay as 
members of the French Union, but in this connec- 
tion he said, and I quote him : "The French Union 
is not a prison." 

Patience Required To Maintain Asian Security 

A year ago there was not even an embryonic 
security system embracing any part of the Far 
East, whereas today we have a series of mutual 
security and defense pacts with Japan, the Philip- 
pines, Australia, and New Zealand. The Presi- 
dent has said that these pacts are "initial steps" 
in the development of an over-all security system 
for the Pacific area. "Wliether such an over-all 
system will be soon consummated depends in 
large part upon the attitudes and wishes of the 
peoples of the Pacific area. This is not a field in 
which the United States can dictate the course of 
events, but we have made clear that we will look 
with sympathy on the efforts of the free peoples 
of Asia to develop a system of collective security. 
The present treaties have two purposes. They 
made possible the acquiescence of the governments 
of those areas in the terms of a peace treaty with 



Japan which was not punitive and which was 
based on trust and a spirit of reconciliation. The 
United States believed it was not possible to seek 
certainty about Japan's future actions by impos- 
ing restrictions in a treaty which would deny free- 
dom to Japan. However, because they had been 
much closer to Japanese aggression than we had, 
there was a natural reluctance on the part of these 
other countries to agree to such a treaty unless 
they were able to give their people the assurances 
they needed about their future security, and this 
was made possible by the conclusion of these 
mutual security and defense pacts. However, 
these treaties do not look only or even primarily 
to the past. They are a basis for hope in the 
future and set forth our sense of common destiny 
with these Pacific peoples. John Foster Dulles, 
the man most responsible for the great construc- 
tive elfort which culminated in the Japanese peace 
treaty and thes6 security pacts, had this to say 
about these treaties in his testimony before the 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee: 

It is highly appropriate that not only our friends, but 
our potential enemies, should learn that our concern 
with Europe, evidenced by the North Atlantic Treaty, 
and our concern with Japan, in no sen.se imply any lack 
of concern for our Pacific allies of World War II or lack 
of desire to preserve and deepen our solidarity with them 
for security. The security treaties with these three coun- 
tries are a logical part of the effort not merely to liquidate 
the old war, but to strengthen the fabric of peace in the 
Pacific as against the hazard of new war. 

This rather rapid survey of our Pacific problems 
and the manner in which we are trying to meet 
them has omitted much. You may believe it is 
on too optimistic a note, but I assure you there is 
no illusion in Washington that our problems are 
near solution or that there are no real dangers 
ahead. Even should we obtain an armistice in 
Korea in the near future it would not mean that 
our troubles are over. There is the continuing 
threat I have spoken of to Indochina and also to 
Formosa. I am afraid the United States and the 
other nations of the free world must learn to live 
for some time to come with crisis. We shall need 
all the resolution, firmness, and patience we can 
summon if the tremendous sacrifices we have al- 
ready made are not to be in vain. Of the above 
qualities, if any one can be more important than 
the others, I stress patience. We must not be- 
come, as we are all tempted to at times, so dis- 
maj'ed at what is going on that we rush into new 
adventures which might create more problems 
than they solve. We must not, on the other hand, 
at any sign of good news, give way to our natural 
desire to relax and turn our thoughts and efforts 
to more pleasant things. 

As has recently been said : 

The central objective has to be somehow to keep the 
threat of civilization alive — to avert war, if possible, 
because war is the second greatest threat to civilized 
survival ; but to be prepared for war, if necessary, because 
the greatest threat of all is totalitarian victory. 



July 27, 1952 



103 



Carl Schurz Centennial Award 

Press release 541 dated July 9 

The St. Louis Post Dispatch has selected 26- 
year-old Heinrich Koerner of Niirnberg, Gei'many, 
to receive the Carl Schurz Centennial Award 
which will enable him to spend the next 6 months 
as a regular reporter and special feature writer 
for that newspaper. The award is financed jointly 
by the International Information Administration 
of the Department of State and the St. Louis Post 
Dispatch. 

Mr. Koerner, who is due to arrive in this country 
within a month, is employed as state and national 
political affairs editor of the Niiriiberger Zeitimg, 
the second largest newspaper in northern Bavaria, 
which has a cii'culation of more than 100,000. One 
of Mr. Koerner's assignments with the Post Dis- 
patch will be to cover the various events planned 
in honor of Cai'l Schurz during this centennial 
celebration of his arrival in the United States. 



President Requests Special Survey 
of U.S. Trade Policies 

White House press release dated July 13 

The President has sent identical letters to the 
members of the Public Advisory Board for Mu- 
tual Security., ashing them to undertake a special 
survey of U.S. trade policies. This Board was 
established by the Mutual Security Act of 1951 
as the successor to the Public Advisory Board 
created in the European Recovery Act of 19 IS- 
Tinder the terms of these acts the members of the 
Board have been appointed with the advice and 
consent of the Senate.^ Folloioing is the text of 
the President's letter; 

I am writing you and the other members of the 
Public Advisory Board for Mutual Security to 
ask that the Board undertake an investigation of 
the foreign trade policies of the United States, 



' The Board's membership includes Miss Sarah G. Bland- 
ing, president, Vassar College ; Orin Lehman, New Yorli ; 
James B. Carey, secretary-treasurer. Congress of Indus- 
trial Organizations ; A. E. Lyon, executive secretary, 
Railway Labor Executives Association ; Jonathan W. 
Daniels, editor, Raleigh, N. C, News and Ohscrver; George 
H. Mead, chairman of the Board, the Mead Corporation, 
Dayton ; Robert H. Hincliley, v. president, American 
Broadcasting Co. ; George Meany, secretary-treasurer, 
American Federation of Labor ; Ei'ic A. Johnston, presi- 
dent, Motion Picture Association of America, Inc. ; Her- 
shel D. Newsom, master. National Grange ; Allan B. Kline, 
president, American Farm Bureau Federation ; and James 
G. Patton, president. National Farmers' Union. The 
Director for Mutual Security, Averell Harriman, is ex- 
offlcio cliairman of the Public Advisory Board, but for pur- 
poses of this special study it is expected that the Board 
win name an acting chairman who is not connected with 
the Government service 



particularly as they affect our efforts under the 
Mutual Security Program to achieve economic 
strength and solvency among the free nations. 

I am asking the Board to undertake this assign- 
ment because I fear that recent developments 
affecting our trade policy may work at cross pur- 
poses with the basic objectives of the Mutual 
Security Program. 

We are working night and day to help build up 
the military and economic strength of friends and 
allies throughout the free world. We are spend- 
ing very substantial sums of money to do this, to 
the end that our friends can grow strong enough 
to carry on without special aid from us. This is 
why we have urged upon them programs of in- 
creased production, trade expansion and tariff 
reduction, so that tlirougli world trade they can 
expand their dollar earnings and progressively 
reduce their dependence on our aid. 

Yet, at the same time, we find growing up in this 
country an increasing body of restrictive laws 
attempting to further the interests of particular 
American producers by cutting down the imports 
of various foreign goods which can offer com- 
petition in American markets. The so-called 
"cheese" amendment to the Defense Production 
Act — enacted despite a number of existing safe- 
guards — is a striking example of this trend. On 
the one hand we are insisting that our friends 
expand their own world trade ; on the other hand 
we seem to be raising new barriers against imports 
from abroad. This poses a very real dilemma for 
our whole foreign policy. 

In my judgment, the first step toward clarifying 
this situation is for a responsible public gi'oup to 
study this problem and recommend to the Presi- 
dent and the Congress the course we should follow 
in our trade policy. I can think of no group better 
qualified to do this than the Public Advisory 
Board for Mutual Security. Representatives of 
business, labor, agriculture, education, and the 
public at large make up your membership. Both 
major political parties are represented. Many of 
you have held other higli positions of public trust. 
From long association with the Marshall Plan and 
now the Mutual Security Program, you are 
familiar with the foreign policy of this country 
and the problems of international relations. 

I want you to consider all aspects of our foreign 
trade policy as coming within the scope of your 
investigation. In particular, I think you should 
examine our tariff policy, with special reference 
to the expiration of the Reciprocal Trade Agree- 
ments Act in 1953 ; import restrictions, including 
quotas and customs procedures ; agricultural pol- 
icies affecting foreign trade; maritime laws and 
regulations concerning carriage of American 
goods ; and what to do about the problems of do- 
mestic producers who may be injured by certain 
types of foreign commerce. I would also like to 
have your views on the role of international agen- 
cies in the trade field. 



104 



DeparfmenI of State Bulletin 



It is extremely important that the whole prob- 
lem be examined. The effect of raising a tariff 
to protect a domestic industry, for example, should 
be evaluated in terms of the counter-restrictions 
■which are raised against American exports abroad. 
Our tobacco producers know what this kind of 
discrimination can mean, but I am sure that there 
are many others who are not fully aware of it. 
Neither, I feel, have we really thought through the 
full implications of our efforts to prevent the rest 
of the free world from trading with the Iron 
Curtain bloc. Having insisted that these coun- 
tries severely restrict their trade in one direction, 
what can we suggest to replace it ? 

These are the kinds of problems which I want 
you to consider. Mr. Gordon Gray made a signifi- 
cant contribution in his study of foreign economic 
policies in 1950. More recently, the President's 
Materials Policy Commission, under the leader- 
ship of Mr. William S. Paley, has emphasized our 
national dependence on overseas sources of raw 
materials.- Both of these studies, however, were 
concerned primarily with other problems and 
touched rather inciclentally upon trade policy. 

In order that your recommendations may have 
the widest possible influence, I believe that you 
should proceed on an independent basis, not sub- 
ordinated in any way to the Government agencies 
concerned. I i-ecognize that the Director for Mu- 
tual Security is, by statute, Chairman of your 
Board. However, Mr. Harrinian has suggested, 
and I agree, that he not sit with the Board for 
the purposes of this undertaking. 

I am asking all the departments and agencies 
concerned with trade matters to give you full co- 
operation and whatever assistance you may desire 
in carrying this work forward. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Harry S. Truman 



Export- Import Bank Loans 

South Africa 

The Board of Directors of the Export-Import 
Bank of Washington announced on July 11 its 
authorization of a credit of $19.6 million to the 
Electricity Supply Commission of South Africa 
for the expansion of steam electric-power facili- 
ties. The credit will bear interest at the rate of 
4 percent and is repayable over a period of I8I/2 
years. "This is a strategic materials loan," Her- 
bert E. Gaston, chairman of the Board of Direc- 
tors of the Bank explained. "Its purpose is to 
enable the Electricity Supply Commission to pro- 
vide the additional electric power needed to op- 
erate uranium-separation plants in connection 
with South African gold mines. The Commis- 
sion's electric power grid is already fully loaded 

' For excerpts from a digest of volnme I prepared by 
the commission, see Bulletin of July 14, 1952, p. 55. 



with normal demands for domestic and industrial 
power and is unable to take on service to the 
uranium plants without additional generating 
capacity." 

The uranium plants were financed earlier by 
Export-Import Bank loans in the amount of $35 
million. 

France 

The Export-Import Bank of Washington an- 
nounced on June 25 the extension of a 200-million- 
dollar credit to the Republic of France in order 
that France may receive immediately dollar pro- 
ceeds of contracts now being placed in France 
under the Mutual Security Program for military 
supplies and materials to be delivered and paid for 
at later dates. The credit is a general obligation 
of the Republic of France and is further secured 
by contracts being placed by the Department of 
Defense. 

Disbursements under the credit will be limited 
to the dollar amount of contracts placed under the 
Mutual Security Program for the year ending 
June 30, 1952. The credit will bear interest at 
2% percent. Payments to the bank will be made 
as deliveries are accepted by the Defense Depart- 
ment and the credit will have a final maturity of 
June 30, 1954. 



Logistical Support Agreement 
With Union of South Africa 

Press release 491 dated June 24 

Acting Secretary Bruce and Ambassador G. P. 
Jooste of the Union of South Africa on June 24 
signed an agreement under which the Government 
of the Union of South Africa agrees to pay in dol- 
lars for the logistical support furnished by the 
United States to the South African Air Force 
squadron participating in the United Nations 
collective action in Korea. 

The South African fighter-bomber imit has been 
in combat in Korea since November 1950. The ex- 
ploits of its personnel have resulted in the award 
by the United States Air Force of 28 Distinguished 
Flyinp: Crosses, 126 Air Medals, 137 clusters to the 
Air Medal, 2 Silver Stars, 12 Bronze Stars, and 1 
Soldier's Medal. Their F-51 Mustang strikes 
against the Communist transportation system and 
their front-line close support have been heralded 
by Lt. Gen. O. P. Weyland, Commanding General 
of the Far East Air Force, as "classic examples of 
outstanding airmanship and courage." General 
Weyland also stated that "Members of Squadron 
No. 2 of the South African Air Force have served 
gallantly and valuably in the cause of the United 
Nations action against the Communists in Ko- 
rea . . . Members of the Far East Air Force are 
proud to have this South African Air Force unit 
on the team. Their motto 'Upwards and On- 



Jo/y 27, J 952 



105 



wards' is most descriptive of this outstanding 
squndrnn." 

The United States has been providing the South 
African Air Force squadron with materials, facil- 
ities, and services required in Korea. The pres- 
ent agreement fornuilizes the arrangement under 
■which South Africa has already paid the United 
States about 9 million dollars for logistical sup- 
port. Additional payments will be made as 
statements of account are presented by the United 
States. 

At the time arrangements are made for the par- 
ticipation of the forces of the United Nations in 
Korea, it has been the practice of the United States 
to reach an understanding in principle that the 
United States would be reimbursed for the logis- 
tical support provided. Under this procedure, 
the task of working out the detailed agreements 
has not delayed the movement of personnel to 
Korea. The "United States is now in the process 
of negotiating agreements with other nations with 
whom agreements have not yet been concluded. 

The text of the agreement with the Government 
of the Union of South Africa follows : 

Agreement Betvcen the Government of the Vnited Sfnfea 
of Anicricd (mil tlic Corrnimnit of the Union of Sovth 
Africa Coveerning Participation of tlie Forces of the 
Union of South Africa in United Nations Operations 
in Korea 

This agreement between the Government of the United 
Stntes of America {the executive agent of the United 
Nations Forces in Korea) and tlie Government of tlie 
Union of SoiUh Africa sliall govern relationships in 
matters specified lierein for forces furnislied hy the Union 
of South .Africa for tlie operations under the Commanding 
General of the Armed Forces of tlie Member States of the 
United Nations in Korea (hereinafter referred to as 
"Commander") designated by the Government of the 
United States of .'America pursuant to resolutions of the 
United Nations Security Council of June 25, 1050, June 
27, 1950 and July 7, 1050. 

Article 1. The Government of the United States of 
America agrees to furnish the forces of the Union of 
South .Africa with avallalile materials, supplies, services, 
and equipment whicli the forces of the Union of South 
Africa will require for these operations, and which the 
Government of the Union of South Africa is unable to 
furnish. The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica and the Government of the Union of South Africa will 
maintain accounts of material, supplies, services, and 
equipment furnished by tlie Government of the I'nited 
States of America to the Government of the Union of 
South Africa, its forces, or its agencies. Reimbursement 
for such materials, supplies, services, and equipment will 
be accomplished liy the Government of tlie Unicm of South 
Africa upon presentation of statements of account by the 
Government of the United States of .America. Such 
payment will be effected by the Government of the Union 
of South Africa in United States dollars. 

Article 2. Pursuant to Article 1, appropriate technical 
and administrative nrranL'ements will he concluded 
between authorized representatives of the Government of 
the United States of .'\merlca and authorized representa- 
tives of the Government of tlie Union of South Africa. 

Article 3. Classified Items, specialized Items, or Items 
in short supply furnished to the Government of the Union 
of South Africa by the Government of the United States 
of America will be returned to the Government of the 

10& 



United States of America upon request, as a credit 
against the cost of materials, supplies, and services pre- 
viously furnished. If the Government of the Union of 
South Africa determines at the time of redeployment of 
its forces that materials or supplies received from the 
Government of the United States of America hereunder 
are not desired for retention, such materials or supplies 
may lie offered to the Government of tlie United States 
of America, and, if accepted, their residual value as 
determined by the Government of the United States of 
America will be used as a credit against reimbursement 
for materials, supplies, and services previously furnished. 

Article i. Each of the parties to this agreement agrees 
not to assert any claim against the other party for injury 
or death of members of its armed forces or for loss, 
damage, or destruction of its property or property of 
members of its armed forces caused in Korea by members 
of the armed forces of the other party. Claims of any 
other government or its nationals against the Government 
or nationals of the Government of the Union of South 
Africa or vice versa shall be a matter for disposition 
between the Government of the Union of South Africa 
and such third government or its nationals. 

Article .5. The Government of the Union of South Africa 
will maintain accounts of materials, supplies, services, 
and equipment furnished by other governments to person- 
nel or agencies of the Union of South Africa, either di- 
rectly or through the Commander. Settlement of any 
claims arising as a result of the furnishing of such ma- 
terials, supplies, services, and equipment to the Union of 
South Africa by such third governments, whether directly 
or through the Commander, shall be a matter for consider- 
ation between such third governments and the Government 
of the Union of South Africa. 

Article 0. If, with the approval of the Commander, per- 
sonnel and agencies of the Government of the Union of 
South Africa use media of exchange other than Korean 
currency in Korea, obligations arising therefrom will be 
a matter for consideration and settlement between the 
Government of the Union of South Africa and the other 
concerned governments. 

Article 7. The Government of the Union of South Africa 
agrees that all orders, directives, and policies of the Com- 
mander issued to the forces of the Union of South Africa 
or Its personnel shall be accepted and carried out by them 
as given and that, in the event of disagreement with such 
orders, directives, or policies, formal protest may be pre- 
sented subsequently. 

Article S. Nothing in this agreement shall be construed 
to affect existing agreements or arrangements between the 
parties for the furnishing of materials, supplies, services, 
or equipment. 

Article 9. This agreement shall come into force upon 
the date of signature thereof, and shall apply to all ma- 
terials, supplies, services, and equipment furnished or 
rendered before, on, or after that date, to all claims 
referred to in Article 4 arising before, on, or after that 
date, and to all technical and administrative arrange- 
ments concluded pursuant to Article 2 before, on, or after 
that date. This agreement shall be deemed to have ter- 
minated when each party has notified the other party 
thereto that financial claims made by the one or the other 
have been adjusted and that no further claims are to be 
made. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned, being duly au- 
thorized hy their respective Governments, have signed 
this agreement. 

Done at Wasliington in duplicate, this twenty-fourth 
day of June, 1052. 

FOR THF GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA : 

DAvin Brtjce 

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNION OF SOUTH 
AFRICA : 

G. P. JOOSTE 

Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



United Efforts Speed Migration From Europe 

THIRD SESSION OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE 
FOR THE MOVEMENT OF MIGRANTS FROM EUROPE 

l>y George L. Warren 



The third session of the Provisional Intergov- 
ernmental Committee for the Movement of Mi- 
grants from Europe was held at Washington from 
June 10 through June 13. The representatives of 
the participating governments and international 
organizations were welcomed at the first meeting 
by Jolm D. Hickerson, Assistant Secretary for 
U.N. Affairs. The election of a director, review 
of operations to date, and consideration of plans 
for the balance of 1952 were the important items 
on the agenda. The Committee also agreed to 
consider a Brazilian proposal to explore the pos- 
sibilities of technical assistance and international 
financing with a view to securing a larger volume 
of migration. 

The Migration Committee was established by 15 
governments at Brussels in December 1951 imme- 
diately following the Conference on Migration, 
convened by the Belgian Government at the sug- 
gestion of the United States. The Committee held 
its second session at Geneva in February 1952, 
with 17 governments represented as full mem- 
bers.^ 

At the third session, 19 governments were repre- 
sented as members : Australia, Austria, Belgium, 
Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, France, 
Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Luxembourg, the 
Netherlands, Paraguay, Switzerland, the United 
States, and Venezuela. The following additional 
governments participated as observers: Argen- 
tina, Colombia, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, 



' For articles by Mr. Warren on the Brussels Conference 
on Migration and the first and second sessions of the 
Committee for the Movement of Migrants from Europe, 
see Bulletin of Feb. 4, 1952, p. 169, and ibid., Apr. 21, 
1952, p. 638. 

Ju/y 21, 1952 



Sweden, and the United Kingdom. There were 
indications at the session that New Zealand, Nor- 
way, Peru, and Sweden will join the Committee 
soon. The Holy See was represented, and ob- 
servers were jjresent from the United Nations, the 
Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refu- 
gees, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the 
International Labor Organization, tlie U.N. Edu- 
cational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 
the Council of Europe, and the Organization for 
European Economic Cooperation. Voluntary 
agencies interested in migration also participated 
in the session. 

The Executive Committee of the Migration 
Committee, consisting of Belgium, Brazil, Canada, 
France, Germany, Italy, and the United States, 
had originally been convened to meet at Washing- 
ton on June 3. After the notices of the meeting 
had been dispatched from Geneva, the U.S. Gov- 
ernment advised the chairman of the Committee 
that it would be prepared to nominate a candidate 
for the post of director at the next session of the 
Committee. In consequence, the full Committee 
was convened for its third session at Washington 
on June 10. Dr. J. Roberts (Netherlands) \yas 
elected chairman; Count Giusti del Giardino 
(Italy), first vice-chairman; Fernando Nilo cle 
Alvarenga (Brazil), second vice-chairman; H. von 
TrutzscMer (Germany), rapporteur. 



Hugh Gibson Elected Director 

At the second meeting of the third session, the 
U.S. representative nominated former U.S. Am- 
bassador Hugh Gibson for election as director of 
the Committee. Mr. Gibson has previously served 

107 



as American Ambassador to Belgium, as Minister 
to Luxembourg, and as Ambassador to Brazil. He 
has represented the U.S. Government at many 
international conferences and collaborated with 
Herbert Hoover in important relief activities 
abroad. The nomination was immediately sec- 
onded by the representatives of Belgium, Brazil, 
Canada, France, Germany, and Greece. Mr. Gib- 
son was elected unanimously and accepted the post. 

The deputy director reported that during the 
period February 1 to May 31 — 38,942 migrants and 
refugees had been moved out of Europe to coun- 
tries of resettlement. Of these 25,326 had come 
from Germany, 7,555 from Austria, 2,228 from the 
Netherlands, and 1,716 from Italy and Trieste. 
The receiving countries were the United States, 
28,423; Australia, 4,621; Canada, 2,068; and 
certain areas of Latin America, 1,559. The 
movement of approximately 12,000 refugees, re- 
sponsibility for which was turned over to the 
Committee on Feliruary 1 by the International 
Refugee Organization (Ieo), had been virtually 
completed by May 31. Included in this group 
were 300 refugees from Shanghai and Hong Kong, 
whose transport was paid for out of a special 
trust fund established with the Committee by Iko. 
Toward the total cost, $2,737,096, of movement of 
these refugees, the Iro has paid $2,284,255 and has 
undertaken to pay the balance of approximately 
$450,000 from further funds to be received during 
its period of liquidation. The Committee has also 
been reimbursed by the U.S. Dis])laced Persons 
Commission for the movement of German ethnics 
to the United States under the Displaced Persons 
Act. 

In making his report, the deputy director 
warned that the high rate of movement in the 
first 4 months of the Committee's operations should 
not be expected to be maintained in the succeeding 
months because anticipated movements from 
Germany to Canada and Australia would not 
reach their peaks until late summer. These 
movements have been delayed because of condi- 
tions in the receiving countries beyond the con- 
trol of the Committee. It was anticipated that 
there would be insufficient passengers to utilize 
the ships available to the Committee to the full in 
the succeeding 2 months, whereas the Committee 
might face a shortage of ships to move all the 
traffic available later in the year. This possibility 
may develop also from the fact that tlie organiza- 
tion of processing services for migrants in Greece 
and Italy has not been completed, and plans of 
the Latin American countries for recruitment in 
1952 in Greece and Italy await finalization. 

Optimism Prevails in Session 

In spite of these observations of the deputy di- 
rector, the Committee remained optimistic that 
the interrujotion in movement would prove tempo- 
rary, particularly as preparation for future move- 



ments is already well advanced. The keen 
interest of the emigration and immigration coun- 
tries in the work of the Committee, frequently 
expressed in the discussions, justified the spirit of 
optimism which prevailed throughout the session. 
In this connection, the report that the Netherlands 
would require three full ships from the Committee 
by midsummer for the movement of additional 
migrants to Canada and Australia was reassuring. 
However, the deputy director expressed his judg- 
ment that the total movement for 1952 would be 
nearer to 121,000 than to 137,000, the estimate 
made at the second session of the Committee in 
February. 

Ways and Means Considered 

The financial statements presented for the 
period from February 1 to May 31 showed that 
more than half of the obligatory contributions of 
member governments to the administrative ex- 
penditures had been received in the total of $1,- 
132,328. $5,818,716 had been contributed to the 
operating fund, and $8,295,721 had already been 
received from difl'erent governments and organi- 
zations in reimbursement for movements or cred- 
ited to governments for services rendered to the 
Committee. The Mutual Security Act of 1952 au- 
thorizes an appropriation of $9,240,500 to cover 
the U.S. contribution to the Committee for its 
second year. 

On examining the financial statements the Com- 
mittee did not consider that they were presented 
in a form that would be most useful to the member 
governments. To secure improvement in the fu- 
ture presentation of such statements and other- 
wise to advise the Committee and the director on 
financial and budgetary matters, the Committee 
established a Sub-Committee on Finance, com- 
posed of the Goveriunents of Australia, Canada, 
France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the 
United States. The Sub-Committee was also di- 
rected to prepare a revised scale of contributions 
to the administrative expenditures for the second 
year of operation to be presented for the consid- 
eration of the Committee at its fourth session. 
The Sub-Committee held one meeting during the 
third session and made recommendations to the 
full Committee concerning the future presentation 
of financial statements, which were accepted. 

Responding to the initiative of the Brazilian 
representative, the Committee adopted a resolu- 
tion requesting the director to confer with other 
international organizations active in the field 
of migration ancl to report to the Committee at 
its next session the findings and conclusions of 
these organizations with respect to ways and 
means of facilitating migration through technical 
assistance and international financing, which 
might be of significance to the Committee in its 
efforts to achieve greater movement out of Europe. 

On June 11, at the White House, the President 



108 



Department of State BuHetin 



welcomed the chiefs of delegations of the member 
governments, the representatives of governments 
participating as observers, and the representatives 
of international and voluntary agencies. The 
President expressed his personal interest in the 
Committee and extended his best wishes for the 
success of the Committee's efforts. 

George L. "Warren, Adviser on Eefugees and 
Displaced Persons in the Department of State, 
was chief of the U.S. delegation. Sen. Pat Mc- 
Carran of Nevada and Rep. Francis E. Walter 
of Pennsylvania were alternate U.S. representa- 
tives. Representative Walter addressed the Com- 
mittee briefly on June 12. The U.S. delegation 
entertained the representatives of the governments 
and organizations participating in the session at 
a reception on June 10. 

The Committee decided to convene the fourth 
session at Geneva early in October 1952. 



Soviet Propaganda, Not U.S. Press, Is 
Threat to World Peace 

Statement hy Walter Kotschnig 

Deputy U.S. Representative in ECOSOC 

U.S. /U.N. press release dated June 12 

I have no intention of participating in a gen- 
eral discussion on freedom of information, and 
that for the simple reason that we have had a veiy 
full discussion of that problem of the report of 
the Subcommission on Freedom of Information 
and a number of related questions in the Social 
Committee. Several days were spent on these 
subjects in the Committee. 

However, since my country has been singled so 
often for special attack, I hope you will allow me 
to say a few words. I will be very much briefer 
than the representative of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics. 

The first conclusion that I think all of us must 
have drawn from his speech is that he was ob- 
viously not interested in the work of the Council. 
He is not interested in whether or not this Coun- 
cil achieves anything in the field of freedom of 
information. What he really wants is a gallery 
to which he can speak; otherwise, why wasn't his 
speech made in the Committee in order to save the 
time of the Council ? What he really has in mind, 
what he is interested in, above all else, is propa- 
ganda and nothing but propaganda. And, we are 
getting tired of it. That is my first conclusion. 

As to the speech itself, the recipe for preparing 
these speeches on the part of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics and their friends here in this 
Council is very simple. It is like preparing a 
salad. Toss well a heap of assorted clippings 
from Western newspapers, add a dash of Marxist 



dialectics, and serve with plenty of Russian 
dressing ! 

I am not going to answer in detail. I can as- 
sure the members of the Council of that. I would 
just like to pick out one or two of the more obvious 
untruths that have been inflicted upon this 
Council. 

The American press, for the hundred thou- 
sandth time, has been accused of being a press of 
warmongers, a press that is poisoning the minds 
of millions of people. Everyone knows that in a 
free press like ours, statements may appear which 
might better have been left unpublished, state- 
ments that are irresponsible. However, anyone 
who looks at the tens of thousands of newspapers 
and magazines published in this country will see 
reflected in them one thing above all— and that is 
the passionate desire of the American people for 
peace. No quotations taken from here and there, 
and tossed together into this kind of Russian salad, 
is going to change that fact. 

One publication was quoted — the name was not 
given but it is a publication that I think was en- 
titled "We Charge Genocide"— which talks about 
alleged conditions in the southern part of this 
country. This publication was described by some 
of the most outstanding Negro leaders in this 
country as a piece of out-and-out Communist 
propaganda and nothing else. 

I am not going to talk about the question of 
newspaper monopolies in the United States, an- 
other pet subject of the Communist representa- 
tives. If we turn around and look at the Soviet 
press, the Soviet media of information, we are 
told, of course, that they have got complete free- 
dom — complete freedom I take it to repeat what- 
ever Stalin and the Politburo tells them to say. 
Far from being free, you have here a press that is 
completely controlled. The Soviet representative 
referred with approval to a New York paper, I 
believe it was the Daily Compass., but there is not 
a paper in the whole of the U.S.S.R. like the 
Daily Compass or other papers that may disagree 
with governmental policies in his country. Not 
a one. You just try and start one of those papers 
and see how quickly you will find yourself in a 
forced labor camp in Siberia. 

We are told their press is full of sweetness and 
light. We are told there is a law against war- 
mongers and that there is no warmongering any- 
where in the Soviet world. Fine! — but what is 
the truth? Gentlemen, whether you read the 
Soviet newspapers, or hear their radio broadcasts, 
or look at their history books you will find that 
the whole world's history has been rewritten to 
suit the purposes of the Communists in Russia. 
And, it has been rewritten not with the idea of 
spreading sweetness and light but to create mis- 
trust, fear and hatred against the countries of 
the Western World. 



July 27, J 952 



109 



We also can read. We do not have as easy ac- 
cess to Soviet papers as the Soviets have to our 
papers. They are very careful in controlling what 
may be let out of the country. However, let me 
give a few examples to show you what the Com- 
munist rulers mean by peaceful propaganda in 
the Soviet Union designed to spread truth and to 
create friendly relations among nations. 

Here is one from the New Times of 1946, written 
by a great Russian journalist, Ilya Ehi'enburg, 
after his visit to the United States. He says that 
he saw a large billboard in Times Square on which 
was depicted the crucifixion scene, and beneath 
the cross was the caption, "If Christ had been 
crucified today, he would not have asked for water 
but for coca-cola." Is that truthful reporting 
about the United States? I suppose that it was 
intended to give an idea of the depth of religious 
life in the United States. 

Take another one — "The overwhelming major- 
ity of Negro schools in America consist of one 
room. The majority of all these schools have 
only one female school teacher who lectures in all 
the classes. The native Negro language has heen 
eJhmnated from all these schools in America.'''' 
The italics are mine. 

Or take another one from Pravda, October 21, 

1951. "A specialist has been found to tag all 
Ajnerican school children. The tags are to state 
the name and address of the child and the number 
of his school. All children are to be luunbered 
and registered as if they were already in a con- 
centration camp." We shall next hear that these 
concentration camps are just outside of New York 
City. "Having terrified the children and poisoned 
infant minds with the thought of death, the in- 
famous warmongers are now trying to create panic 
among adults. A panic which is needed to empty 
the people's pockets. The whole loathsomeness 
of the American way of life can be judged from 
this example alone." 

Now, I submit, this is the kind of writing that 
goes on day after day in the Soviet press. It is 
the kind of writing to which, I take it, the dis- 
tinguished representative of the Soviet Union re- 
ferred when he spoke of news designed to create 
better relations among peoples. 

The Soviet Home Radio Service on May 30, 

1952, broadcast that "Up to 111,000 infants, less 
than one year old, die yearly in the United States." 
It happens we have one of the lowest infant death 
rates in the world, but of course it would not make 
for friendly relations if that kind of fact were 
mentioned in tlie Soviet press. And then the 



broadcast continued : "Many working people in 
order to save their children from starvation are 
selling them as slaves." 

I have a few more quotations, Mr. President, 
that are so filthy, so evidently the ravings of 
warped minds, that I do not want to put them 
before the Council. Yet, that kind of sinister 
falsehood is served up to the Soviet people, 
intrinsically a friendly people, day in and day out, 
year after year. 

For what purpose? In order to create peace, 
in order to create understanding among us? 
Obviously not ! 

Mr. President, we see the results of that kind of 
propaganda, insistent, pernicious propaganda, 
destructive of any basis for peace. We see the 
results in this very room here. We see the results 
of this at this very table, Mr. President. We see 
the results in the persons of the representatives 
of the Communist countries. Their own thoughts, 
their own ideas of the United States, of the whole 
free world have become completely warped and 
perverted. They have become victims of their 
own propaganda and the very arguments which 
they are putting before this Council are twisted 
and full of lies, and are dripping with hatred. 

I do not think I have to add anything else, Mr. 
President. I am speaking in sorrow rather than 
in anger when I say that it is Soviet propaganda 
which is the real threat to the peace we want so 
desperately to maintain. 



First Meeting of Pacific Council 

Press release 507 dated June 30 

The Department of State on June 30 announced 
that the Governments of Australia, New Zealand, 
and the United States have agreed that the first 
meeting of the Council, created by the security 
treaty which came into effect on April 29, 1952, 
will be held in Honolulu during the first week of 
August. 

The treaty established a Council, consisting of 
the three Foreign Ministers of the Governments 
concerned, or their deputies, to consider matters 
concerning the implementation of the treaty. It 
is expected that Secretary Acheson, the Australian 
Minister for External Affaii'S, Richard G. Casey, 
and the New Zealand Minister for External Af- 
fairs, T. Clifton AVebb, will attend the first meet- 
ing. 

A simultaneous announcement is being made in 
Canberra and Wellington. 



110 



Department of State Bulletin 



Planning for the Relief of Famine Emergencies 



Statement hy Isador Lvhin 

U.S. Representative in the U.N. Economic and Social Coimcil 



U.S. /D.N. press release dated .June 27 

It is a matter to which all of us can point with 
some pride that tlie United Nations and the spe- 
cialized agencies, in cooperation with govern- 
ments and with the various voluntary relief or- 
ganizations, are making progress toward the 
establishment of arrangements by which they can 
come promptly to the aid of populations which 
may suffer famine as a consequence of natural 
catastrophe. We, at this session of the Council, 
have an opportunity to take an important new 
step in this direction. 

A number of actions taken thus far have pre- 
pared the ground. For example, the General 
Assembly, in resolution 202 (III) of December 8, 
1948, in connection with the problem of food 
wastage, called attention to the need for increasino; 
the world's available supply of food, and called 
for action by governments and by intergovern- 
mental organizations looking to the increase in 
food supply not only througli the elimination of 
wastage but also through increased production. 

This Council subsequently put the problem for- 
ward at its thirteenth session, taking note of the 
increasing effectiveness of the woi-k of the Fao 
[Food and Agriculture Organization] toward im- 
proving agricultural production and recommend- 
ing that the Fao keep the food-shortage situation 
under surveillance with a view to making emer- 
gency reports in instances of critical food short- 
ages or famine. The Fao, from the time that it 
was established, has been working at this problem. 
The Sixth Annual Conference of the Fao adopted 
three resolutions. The first imposed on the Di- 
rector General of the Fao the responsibility of 
keeping watch for emergency food shortages and 
famine, investigating the nature of the emer- 
gency, and reporting on the extent of international 
assistance needed. The second provided for the 
convening of a meeting of the Council of the Fao 
and of interested governments in the case of a 



famine emergency. The third provided for the 
exjDloration of suitable ways and means of estab- 
lishing an emergency food reserve. In February 
1952 the General Assembly adopted a resolution 
on food and famine, calling upon governments and 
intergovernmental organizations to attack the 
problem in a variety of ways.^ And, now we have 
before us the excellent study of the Secretary- 
General (E/2220), prepared in response to that 
resolution, discussing procedures for bringing 
about promptly concerted and effective interna- 
tional action in the event of a famine emergency. 
As a background for discussing the appropri- 
ate action for the Council to take in the light of 
that report, it seems useful to make a distinction 
between, on the one hand, the general problem of 
food shortage and undernourishment in the world 
as a whole and, on the other, the particular prob- 
lem of meeting extreme famine emergencies caused 
by natural catastrophes of an unpredictable 
nature. 



The General Problem of Food Shortages 

As concerns the general problem, all of our 
governments — at least all of them cooperating in 
the work of the Fao — are engaged in an all-out 
struggle which must be progressively increased 
in intensity if enough food for all of the people 
of the world is to be produced. Many countries 
have been finding ways of stimulating their agi'i- 
cultural production. We in the United States 
have been pai-ticularly fortunate in recent years 
because nature has cooperated with us in our ef- 
forts in this direction. But other factors have also 
been imiDortant in our success. We have main- 
tained price supports as an inducement to pro- 
duction. We have stepped up our research and 
extension work so that our farmers can know of 



'U.N. doc. A/L. 60. 



Jo/y 21, 1952 



111 



the more advanced techniques for maximizing 
agricultural production. We have called upon 
our producers to make a maximum effort to in- 
crease their output. As a result, we have been 
able to increase our agricultural production as a 
whole from 40 percent above its level prior to the 
war. In the same period, in the face of rising 
standards of living and a rapid increase in popu- 
lation, we increased the quantities of food avail- 
able for export. In the year 1951 we exported 
about four times as much food as we did on the 
average during the 5 years just prior to the war. 
Some of this food has been used to respond to the 
needs of populations suffering from famine emer- 
gencies. AVe hope always to be able to spare some 
of our food when such emergencies arise. 

Under present prospects, given normal weather 
conditions and a sustained market, we may see 
an increase of as much as another 15 or 20 percent 
by 1960. Such an increase would be substantially 
larger than the probable rise in our population 
and would, therefore, provide larger food sup- 
jjlies for export to the other parts of the world. 

But these favorable figures do not mean that 
victory is in sight in the battle to provide enough 
food for the peoples of the world. On the con- 
trary, most countries have not had as good fortune 
in this matter as we have. As the representa- 
tive of the F.\o in this Council informed us, the 
population of the world as a whole is growing 
faster than the food supply. Morover, the pro- 
gress of industrialization in a number of im- 
portant food-exporting countries has increased 
domestic utilization of food and decreased the 
quantity available for export. The campaign to 
increase world food production must go on and 
must gain greater and greater momentum if the 
general problem of providing enough food is to 
be solved. 



Factors Limiting Relief Efforts 

But even if we assume its solution, even if our 
food production efforts succeed beyond present 
hopes, the famine emergency problem will still be 
with us. 

At some time, in some places, there will be 
drought or pestilence, or other natural causes of 
crop failure. And when such disaster strikes, the 
peoples of the world will wish to come to the help 
of their suffering fellowmen as far as they can. 
They expect vis, who are forging the instruments 
of intergovernmental collaboration in common 
purposes, to establish institutions that will facili- 
tate the relief of populations suffering from 
famine. 

In this connection it might be appropriate if I 
were to say a word more about the Fad action to 
investigate the possibilities of creating an emer- 
gency famine reserve. The Secretariat of the Fao 
was called upon to initiate the study of this prob- 
lem and responded with an admirable paper which 



draws few conclusions but presents a penetrating 
analysis of many of the important problems in- 
volved and suggests a few among many possible 
alternative solutions. A study of the Fao report 
brings out that the problem is greatly aggravated 
by the general world-food-shortage situation to 
which I have just referred at some length. At a 
time when, as the Fao has told us, many people in 
the world are receiving less than enough food to 
maintain strength and health and when some 
people are, in fact, starving, it is a matter of some 
question at least whether it is justifiable to with- 
hold food from current consumption in order to 
build up a reserve to be held against the possibility 
of future emergency need. Even if it is decided 
to create such a reserve, the Fao report raises the 
question as to how severe the famine circumstances 
must be in order to bring about the release of por- 
tions of the reserve. Unless there is a definite 
answer to this question, the holders of the reserve 
food would find it rapidly disappearing to meet 
the current real needs of undernourished popula- 
tions. In addition, there are many other problems 
raised by the Fao report, as for example: Where 
and how to hold the reserve food so that it is most 
readily available; what commodities to use — 
whether to use surpluses that may appear or to 
make a reserve of a certain ideal composition from 
the point of view of maximum nutritive effective- 
ness in relieving famine conditions — and so on. 

The Council of the Fao, at its session 2 weeks 
ago, decided on the establishment of a working 
party of experts to be provided by five govern- 
ments — two of exporting countries, two of import- 
ing countries, and one of a country havinof an 
approximate balance in its food trade. This 
working party is to continue the work begun by 
the Fao Secretariat with the idea of producing a 
recommendation as to how best to meet the vari- 
ous problems brought out in the Secretariat study. 

One thing that appeal's from the Fao discussion, 
as far as it has proceeded, is the need for a care- 
ful review of the circumstances associated with 
efforts to relieve notable famines of recent times. 
It is important that we know what factors have 
limited those efforts. Has it been the lack of food 
supplies available in the world? Has it been the 
lack of international purchasing power available 
to the famine country ? Or have some other con- 
ditions limited the provision of adequate relief? 
There is some noteworthy opinion that the im- 
portant limiting factor has been the failure of 
governments and agencies to make the necessary 
advance preparations to act promptly when fam- 
ine conditions become known. 

The fact of the matter is that, to an extraor- 
dinary degree, the people and governments of 
the world- — certainly of the free world — are gen- 
erous when disaster strikes a population in an- 
other country. They are more generous after the 
disaster has hit than they are when it is still only 
a future probability. Planning for the relief of 



112 



Department of State BuUetin 



U.S., Iranian, Uruguayan Draft Resolution 

U.N. doc. E/L.S73/Rev. 2 
Dated June 27, 1952 

The Economic and Social Council, 

Being deeply conscious of tlie wish of the peo- 
ples of the United Nations, as expressed in resolu- 
tions of the General Assemljly and the Conference 
of the Fao, to be prepared to come to the aid of 
people in any country whenever the vagaries of 
nature may visit upon them famine emergencies 
with which their governments are uiialjle to cope, 

Recognizing that such famine emergencies may 
sometimes occur despite every effort to solve the 
continuing problem of world food shortages through 
increases in food production, 

Having before it the report (E/2220) prepared 
by the Secretary-General on procedures for inter- 
national action in the event of emergency famines 
arising from natural causes. 

Recommends : 

1. That governments, inter-governmental organ- 
izations, and voluntary agencies prepare themselves 
to act in concert promptly and effectively in the 
event of such famine emergencies, and, in particular, 

2. That governments malie appropriate advance 
aiTangements for the designation of ministries or 
agencies to be responsible for carrying out famine 
relief activities in their territories ; this should 
include: (a) the mobilization of local resources, 
(b) liaison with other governments and organiza- 
tions, (c) the co-OTdlnation of the activities of na- 
tional voluntary agencies, (d) the provision of 
transport, direct distribution mechanisms and other 
facilities for delivering available food to famine 
areas, (e) suitable publicity to assure fullest puWic 
co-operation in local and international relief ac- 



tivities, and (f ) the preparation of reports to the 
United Nations, 

3. That governments obtain authority for the 
suspension of customs duties and other Ijarriers to 
the emergency importation of food, 

4. That, in these arrangements, the famine relief 
activities of local and international voluntary 
agencies be given fullest opportunity and encourage- 
ment, and support be given for the establishment 
and co-operation of duly organized voluntary or- 
ganizations such as the national Red Cross and 
Red Crescent Societies noted in General Assembly 
resolution 55 (I), 

5. That the Fao continue to develop and perfect 
its arrangements to detect famine emergencies as 
early as possible, ascertain their scope and probable 
duration, and advise the Secretary-General 
promptly when international action is needed, and 

6. That the Secretary-General, as circumstances 
may require, arrange for co-ordination of the famine 
emergency relief activities of, and seeli the co-op- 
eration of, inter-governmental organizations, gov- 
ernments and voluntary agencies through consulta- 
tion and other appropriate mechanisms, and report 
to the Economic and Social Council on action under 
this resolution, and 

Commends the Fao for the study, begun by the 
Pao Secretariat and being carried forward by a 
committee of experts set up by the Fao Council, to 
determine whether suitable ways and means can 
be found for establishing an emergency food reserve 
which would increase the ability of the United Na- 
tions to come to the aid of peoples threatened by 
famine emergencies. 



future disaster is an intellectual process based 
upon hypothetical situations. But acting together 
in an existing emergency is an essentially emo- 
tional process. We respond with our hearts to a 
need that is real and actual. But when every- 
body wants to do something about something at 
the same time, without previous arrangement as to 
wlio is to do what, the very promptness and inten- 
sity of the response may cause confusion and delay 
and inefficiency. 

Such lack of organization sometimes contributes 
to despair in the famine area. A panic situation 
may greatly aggravate the sufferings of the 
affected population. Hence the proposal before 
us that we organize so that the international 
organizations and the governments of the world 
will be ready to work together promptly in a con- 
certed fashion with maximum effectiveness is an 
important step in preparing to deal with famine 
emergencies. There must not only be a ready 
response but there must be pre-arranged channels 
for coordination and liaison and pre-arranged 
mechanisms for alerting the world in time. It is 
to this problem that the Secretary-General ad- 
dressed himself in the paper before ns. That 
paper shows a very good understanding of the pro- 
July 27, 7952 



cedural problems involved. In particular it 
stresses the need for flexibility in the methods 
used under differing circumstances for coordinat- 
ing assistance from governments, intergovern- 
mental organizations, and voluntary agencies. At 
the same time, it makes clear the importance of 
advance arrangements for the assignment of re- 
sponsibility and for coordination and liaison. 

The delegations of Iran and Uruguay and my 
delegation have put before you a resolution (E/L. 
373/Ilev. 2) which calls upon governments, inter- 
national organizations, voluntary agencies, and 
the Secretary-General to make the necessary 
arrangements in a flexible but coordinated way. 

In conclusion, I should like to mention one inci- 
dental but not unimportant byproduct of our 
taking this action. Through cooperation in the 
necessary advance arrangements, the agencies in- 
volved — and people everywhere — will have a 
present sense of participation in the world's 
arrangements for dealing with this age-old prob- 
lem of famine. As one can do only by participa- 
tion, they will realize that the United Nations is 
aware of this famine danger and has taken the 
lead in putting the world in a position to meet 
the danger. 

113 



Report of U.N. Command Operations in Korea 



FORTY-SECOND REPORT: FOR THE PERIOD 
MARCH 16-31, 1952 ' 



U.N. doc. S/2662 
Transmitted June 13. 1952 

I herewith submit report number 42 of the United 
Nations Command Operations in Korea for the period 
16-31 March 1952, inclusive. United Nations Command 
communiques numbers 1205-1220, provide detailed ac- 
counts of these operations. 

Substantive progress was made on agenda item 3, con- 
crete arrangements, through the persistent efforts of 
United Nations Command staff officers. 

The subject of ports of entry was finall.y resolved when 
the United Nations Command reduced its requirement 
for these complexes from six to five and the Communists 
agreed to the following United Nations Command provi- 
sions : 

A. A port of entr.v shall Include the railheads, airheads 
and seaport facilities associated with and supporting a 
city, and 

13. Rotation and replenishment shall be conducted only 
in the mutually agreed ports of entry. 

Detailed maps of the ports of entry were prepared b.v 
each side and were exchanged. The following specific 
ports of entry have been prepared : 

A. By the Communists : Sinuiju, Chong.1in, Manpojin, 
Hunguam and Sinanju. 

B. By the United Nations Command : Pusan, Inchon, 
Kangnung, Kunsan and Taegu. 

Slight progress was made on the sul:)ject of the neutral 
nations in.spection teams when the Communists agreed, 
on the staff officers level, that these teams will not be 
authorized to inspect or examine secret designs or char- 
acteristics of combat aircraft, armored vehicles, weapons 
or ammuuitiiin. 

The United Nations Command Representatives have 
brought up repeatedly the problem of neutral nations and 
the previously agreed to principle which stated that the 
neutral nations would be selected on the basis of being 
mutually acceptable to both sides, reiterating their stand 



'Transmitted to the Security Council by Ambassador 
Warren R. Austin, U.S. representative in the Security 
Council, on June 13. Texts of the 30th, 31st, and 32d re- 
ports appear in the Bulletin of Feb. 18, 1952, p. 266 ; the 
33d report, ibid.. Mar. 10, 19.52, p. 305 ; the 34th report, 
iliii.. Mar. 17, 1952, p. 4.30; tlie 35th report, ihid.. Mar. 31. 
19.52, p. 512 : the 36th and 37th reports, ibid., Apr. 14, 1952, 
p. 594; the .3Stli report, ibid.. May 5, 19.52. p. 715; the .39th 
report, ibid.. May 19, 19.52, p. 7SS ; the 40th report, ibid., 
June 23. 1052, p. 998; and the 41st report, ibid., June 30, 
1952, p. 1038. 



that the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is not accept- 
able to the United Nations Command as a neutral nation. 
In each instance the Communist side answered with 
vague generalities. 

There are only two important issues remaining to be 
settled under agenda Item 3. United Nations Command 
reports numbers thirty-seven, thirty-eight and forty have 
explained the United Nations Command position on these 
issues, which are : 

A. Agreement to limit airfield construction and 
rehabilitation. 

B. Agreement on the composition of the neutral nation 
inspection teams. 

In discussions on agenda item 4 the United Nations 
Command delegation, realizing that discussions at sub- 
delegation level had reached a point at which progress 
was extremely slow, proposed to the Communists that 
talks revert to staff officer level. It was emphasized by 
the United Nations Command that the respective staffs 
might be able to better explore and clarify the stated 
positions of each side, provided the Communists were sin- 
cerely Interested in seeking a fair and honest solution to 
a problem to which they had added unnecessary compli- 
cations. The Communists agreed, and on 10 March staff 
officers' meetings were convened. 

The initial meetings at the lower level started with 
characteristic Communist stubbornness and ambiguity. 
United Nations Command efforts to crystallize the exact 
meaning of a Communist proposal made In early March, 
on which they apparently place<l much importance, pro- 
duced little result. No firm commitments could be secured 
on what they termed a reasonable proposal — that both 
sides should establish the principle of release and re- 
patriation of all Prisoners of War after an armistice is 
realized on the basis of data which have already been 
exchanged concerning the prisoners In the custody of 
both sides. 

The Communists indicated they would negotiate more 
freely and informally if the dally developments of dis- 
cussions were witliheld from the press. While the United 
Nations Command had favored prompt and accurate 
reporting of negotiations to all news media in the belief 
that such information was of vital and material interest 
to the world, it accepted the suggestion of a news blackout 
in the Interest of eventual agreement. Accordingly, dis- 
cussions were moved to executive sessions, but only after 
it was clearly explained to the press that reports of the 
day-to-day discussions were to be withheld to permit the 
representatives of both sides to express them.selves frankly 
witliout any implication of a commitment prior to the full 
development of their respective views. The United Na- 
tions Command gave its assurance to all news reporters 



114 



Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



that any substantive agreement reached would be an- 
nounced promptly. 

The Communists alleged that, on 16 March at 0135 
hours, a United Nations Command aircraft strafed a 
Prisoner of War camp in the vicinity of Chang-Song, 
wounding at least one British prisoner. An immediate 
investigation by United Nations Command indicated that 
while night intruder aircraft were operating in the area 
at that time, it was impossible to verify the Communist 
claim since no Prisoner of War camp had ever been lo- 
cated in thi.s vicinity, marked or unmarked. 

The United Nations Command made another strong pro- 
test to the Communists over their failure to carry out the 
agreement they made on 24 January to mark every camp 
so as to be identifiable from the air. Further, it appears 
that the locations of war prisoners camps and even their 
total number have been purpo.sely obscured by failure to 
mark them properly and by contradiction as to location so 
as to establish a semi-sanctuary for military installations 
in the immediate area. Of those camps reported by the 
Communists, nine are on or very near main routes vital to 
the Communist supply system. In addition, three im- 
marked camps reported as being in the vicinity of 
Pyong>ang have served to deter the United Nations Com- 
mand from normal air action in that area, even though it 
is fully realized the Communists are using this opportunity 
for establishment of a strategic supply point. The Com- 
munists avoided direct queries by the United Nations 
Command as to the marking and adequate night lighting 
of their camps, claiming only that they had marked such 
installations and that the agreement reached by both sides 
did not specifically require camps or their markings to be 
lighted at night. After strong pressure from the United 
Nations Command, the Communists agreed to another 
meeting of representatives of both sides to resolve defi- 
nitely the exact locations of war prisoner camps and the 
identifying markings of each. 

Of those national Red Cross Societies previously invited 
to participate in the joint Red Cross operation to assist 
in the exchange of Prisoners of War. all have replied 
except Greece. Some representatives have already arrived 
in the Far East and notification has been received that 
others will be enroute soon. Detailed planning for the 
training, logistical and administrative support, and for 
field operations of the Red Cross teams is now being 
prepared in co-ordination with United Nations Command 
military agencies which will be Involved in the over-all 
use of the joint teams. The enthusiastic support and high 
degree of interest which this project has received has been 
extremely gratifying and holds high promise for its 
success. 

The status of agenda item 5 remains unchanged. The 
United Nations Command delegation is prepared to meet 
with the Communists at staff officer's level to incorporate 
the agreed article, as quoted in United Nations Command 
report number 40, into the armistice agreement. The 
Communists have not yet requested this meeting. 

Combat action along the battle line continued to be 
minor in nature. Hostile units on the front again directed 
their principal efforts towards turning back United Na- 
tions Command patrols. The majority of the patrols were 
used to provide security for United Nations Command 
main battle positions. Other patrols maintained a con- 
tinuous reconnais.sance of enemy positions and activities, 
while patrols of still another category were dispatched 
with tlie mission of seeking combat with specific enemy 
elements or positions. These latter patrols, through the 
capture of prisoners and by accurately ascertaining enemy 
strengths and dispositions, continued to constitute a pri- 
mary source of front line intelligence. For this same 
purpose, hostile units launched scattered exploratory at- 
tacks against United Nations Command forward positions, 
usually during the hours of darkness, employing small 
units, normally of squad strength. A single unsuccessful 
battalion-size assault constituted the only deviation from 
this pattern of action. Enemy armor failed to participate 

July 21, 1952 



in the battle action, but hostile units continued to expend 
relatively liberal amounts of artillery and mortar am- 
munition. This expenditure continued to reflect the 
enemy's strong logistical position, but it failed even to 
approximate the much larger quantities expended by 
United Nations Command elements against hostile targets. 
Front lines, enemy capabilities and enemy dispositions 
along the battle front remained unchanged during the 
period. 

Scattered patrol clashes and enemy probing actions oc- 
curred along the length of the fifty-mile western front 
extending from Hungwang to the vicinity of Chingdong. 
However, enemy interest was centered on the six-mile area 
east of Punji. In addition to numerous patrol clashes, 
the enemy conducted more probing attacks against United 
Nations Command positions in the Punji area than else- 
where on the western front. The Punji area was also 
the site of the enemy's most aggressive attack, when a 
hostile battalion launched a limited objective thrust 
against forward United Nations Command positions on 
18 March. Although vigorous, the enemy failed to make 
any gains and was forced to retire after three hours of 
fighting. Hostile armor, although not engaging in battle 
action, was evident in the enemy's rear areas on the west- 
ern front. The enemy thus far has shown little inclina- 
tion to employ his armor in any manner which would ex- 
pose it to United Nations Command fires. 

A similar pattern of patrol clashes and scattered enemy 
probing action typified hostilities on the central and east- 
ern fronts during the period. The majority of the action 
consisted of United Nations Command-initiated patrol 
clashes, the greatest number of which took place in the 
Talchon and Mulguji areas. Enemy artillery and mortar 
fires were heaviest on the eastern front, and again in- 
cluded a sprinkling of propaganda leaflets. Weather did 
not adversely affect ground operations along the battle 
line during the period, although poor visibility occasion- 
ally hami)ered the effectiveness of light aircraft. 

The enemy's capability for waging offensive action was 
undiminished during the period. Despite the enemy's pre- 
paredness there is little evidence to suggest any early 
hostile offensive. The preponderance of hostile activity 
and statements of Prisoners of War continued to reflect 
a defensive attitude without disclosing when this attitude 
may terminate. 

United Nations Command carrier-based aircraft, operat- 
ing in the Sea of .Japan, concentrated their attacks on 
vulnerable rail lines along the Korean east coast. .Tet and 
conventional flahters and bombers successfully cut rail 
lines in many strategic places and destroyed or damaged 
transportation and supply installations, facilities and 
material. 

United Nations Command carrier aircraft operating in 
the Yellow Sea provided cover and air spot for surface 
units on blockade and anti-invasion stations. They also 
flew offensive strikes and reconnaissance missions as far 
North as Yongyu and Hanchon, into the Chinnampo area 
and Hwanghai Province, and along the North bank of the 
Han River. 

Patrol planes conducted daylight reconnaissance mis- 
sions over the Sea of Japan, the Yellow Sea and the 
Formosa Straits. Day and night patrols and weather 
reconnaissance missions were also conducted for the sur- 
face units. 

United Nations Command fire support vessels operating 
in support of the United Nations Command ground forces 
successfully attacked many enemy positions, destroying 
or damaging bunkers, gun positions and inflicting casual- 
ties on enemy personnel. 

The Naval blockade continued along the East coast from 
the line of contact to Chongjin. The ports of Wonsan, 
Hungnam and Songjin were kept under siege. Enemy 
shipping was reduced to a minimum and enemy positions 
and tran,sportation facilities were damaged or destroyed. 

A friendly unit, occupying a small island South of Kojo, 
was attacked by an enemy force supported by artillery. 
One enemy junk was captured, another sunk, and two more 

115 



probably sunk before friendly forces evacuated the island. 

Enemy shore batteries were active on eight clays in the 
Wonsan and Hungnam areas. One hit was made on a 
United Nations Command vessel but damage was negligi- 
ble. Return fire from United Nations Command vessels 
succeeded in destroying or damaging several bunkers and 
gun positions. 

United Nations Command surface units manned anti- 
invasion stations along the West coast, from Chinnamix) 
to the Han River estuary, in support of the friendly is- 
lands north of the battle lines. During darkness, enemy 
positions and invasion approaches were illuminated and 
signs of enemy activity taken under fire. Daylight mis- 
sions started many fires and inflicted troop casualties. 
Enemy shore batteries were active against friendly islands 
and United Nations Command ships, particularly the mine 
sweepers. The enemy launched an attack against Yong- 
mae-Do b.y crossing the mud flats at low tide. The attack 
was successfully repulsed by United Nations Command 
vessels which illuminated and fired into the attacking 
force. 

Mine sweepers continued to conduct day and night ex- 
ploratoi-y. clearance and check .sweeps. These operations 
were conducted along the East coast to Songjln, and on the 
AVest Coast to the waters off Chinnampo. The sweepers 
were taken under fire on several occasions but suffered 
no damage or casiialties. 

Ships of the amphibious forces lifted personnel, mate- 
rial and supplies to Koje-Do in connection with Prisoners 
of War operations. Naval auxiliai-y. Military Sea Trans- 
port Service, and Jlerchant vessels under contract pro- 
vided logistic support to the United Nations Command 
ground, air and naval forces oix'rating in Korea. 

United Nations Command Air Forces, operating In bet- 
ter than noraial weather conditions, maintained high 
sortie rates. Minor changes In operations, both b.v the 
enemy and the TTnited Nations Command, were effected. 

The systematic attacks on the rail lines in northwestern 
Korea were successfully continued during daylight hours. 
The principal rail lines were cut in many places and rolling 
stock was subjected to destruction and damage. 

The identification of two Communist supply installa- 
tions in the forward areas provided the targets for a heavy 
attack by United Nations Command fighter bombers. The 
first installation, near Mulgae-Ri, was continuously at- 
tacked b.v fighter bombers throughout one day. The sec- 
ond installation, near Hoeyang, was subjected to a similar 
attack. Detailed evaluation of the resultant damage to 
these two installations was impractical because of the 
clever camouflage and wide di.spersal of supplies. I\Iany 
secondary explosions were noted by pilots during the at- 
tacks. Photographs, taken after the attacks were com- 
pleted, revealed craters and fire scars where supply dumps 
and buildings had previousl.v been. 

The close air support effort of the United Nations Com- 
mand fighter bombers continued to be effective in support- 
ing United Nations Command groimd operations. Many 
bunkers, gim positions and supply buildings were de- 
stroyed or damaged. 

The air-to-air combat between the United Nations Com- 
mand and Communist air forces continued at a high 
rate with a heavy advantage being attained by the United 
Nations Command pilots. A total of 1,009 MIG-l.^'s 
were sighted on the nine days the Communists were 
active. United Nations Command Interceptors succeeded 
in destroying thirteen MIG-15's and damaging forty-three 
more while suffering the loss of one interceptor and dam- 
age to four more. Of the fort.v-three MIG-1.5's damaged, 
six were probably destroyed. United Nations Command 
fighter bombers, in conducting their attacks against the 
enemy's rail lines, damaged an additional three MIG-15's 
while defending themselves from air attacks. The MIG- 
15's which have excellent performance characteristics at 
high altitudes, were observed on several occasions to be 
flying at lower than nonnal altitudes, as well as flying in 
smaller formations than previously reported. On three 
occasions the MIG's were able to evade United Nations 



Command escort aircraft and attack friendly fighter 
bombers. 

Night intinider aircraft continued to patrol the main 
supply routes throughout North Korea and to attack 
motor vehicles and locomotives when observed. 

United Nations Command medium bombers continued 
to execute night leaflet drops, close air support missions 
and reconnaissance and surveillance flights. In addition, 
missions were conducted against the enemy's communica- 
tion systems with emphasis being placed on key river 
crossings. 

Aerial reconnaissance units continued to secure infor- 
mation on enemy dispositions, weather, target damage 
and the status of enemy airfields. Special emphasis was 
placed on securing aerial photographs of the Communist 
Prisoners of War camps. In several instances, these mis- 
sions directed friendly aircraft or Naval gun fire against 
transient targets. 

Combat cargo aircraft provided for the aerial resupply 
of many forward installations as well as for the evacua- 
tion to Japan of wounded United Nations Command per- 
sonnel. Air rescue operations continued to provide life 
saving services to all United Nations Command forces and 
personnel. 

The United Nations Command intensified its efforts to 
disseminate news as widely as possible among enemy sol- 
diers and civilians in North Korea. Although less than 
a third of the Korean people remain under Communist 
occupation, this minority continues to be subjected to 
every Communist device for distortion and suppression 
of tlie truth. In recent false propaganda allegations that 
the United Nations Command has used bacteriological 
weapons, the Communists, both in and out of Korea, have 
demonstrated once again their characteristic unscrupu- 
lousness by resorting to absolute falsehoods in order to 
hide their own crimes or absolve themselves of responsi- 
bility. United Nations Command radio broadcasts and 
news leaflets are vigorously exi^osing the Communists 
incompetence and negligence in failing to provide effec- 
tive medical facilities in North Korea. 

The dollar value of supplies and equipment actually 
delivered to Korea in support of the Korea economic aid 
program from 1 July 1950 to 15 March 1952 by the United 
States Government agencies is $227,000,000. This figure 
includes the following: 

A. Supplies and equipment for direct relief and short 
term economic aid under the United Nations Command 
program from United States funds in the amount of ap- 
proximately $101,000,000. 

B. Supplies and equipment procured by Economic Con- 
struction Agency during the period 1 July 1950 to 7 April 
1951 for economic rehabilitation in the amount of 
$26,000,000. 

C. Civilian type supplies and equipment provided by the 
United Nations Command for cnniraon military-civilian 
pui^poses in the approximate amount of $6.j,000,000. This 
category of supplies is provided as a military necessity, but 
is considered within the framework of Korean economic 
aid since the Korean economy derives considerable benefit 
therefrom. Included in this category are such projects as 
construction and reconstruction of roads and bridges ; 
rehabilitation and improvement of ports and harbors ; 
rehabilitation of railroads, including construction and 
reconnaissance of bridges and tunnels ; provision of rail- 
road rolling stock, coal and operation supplies for the rail- 
road : rehabilitation and improvement of communication 
facilities ; and rehabilitation of public utilities such as 
water works, ice plants, electric power system and coal 
mines. 

D. Raw materials provided for support of the Republic 
of Korea Army as a military requirement. These sup- 
plies are considered within the sphere of the Korean eco- 
nomic aid program since the manufacture of end items in 
Korea affects the Korean economy by sustaining industry, 
providing a livelihood for a portion of the civilian popula- 
tion, and reduces the withdrawal of similar items from 



116 



Department of State Bulletin 



civilian supplies. It is conservatively estimated that ai> 
proximately $35,000,000 worth of raw materials have been 
delivered to Korea for this purpose. 

The figure of $227,000,000 does not include the dollar 
cost of the following : Purchase of supplies and ser\'ices in 
Korea ; services of United States senice troops in re- 
habilitation projects such as are enumerated in paragraph 
C above ; power furnished from floating power barges and 
destroyer escorts ; movements of refugees by ship, air- 
plane, rail and truck; salaries of all personnel solely en- 
gaged in Korean Economic Aid at all levels. The cost of 
such services is conservatively estimated to be over 
$225,000,000. 

Contributions of supplies and equipment delivered to 
Korea from other United Nations member nations and non- 
governmental agencies are estimated at $19,5(X),000. 

In summary, the tinancial statement for civilian relief 
and economic aid to Korea may be stated as follows : Sup- 
plies and equipment from United States Government 
sources : $227,000,000. Services from United States gov- 
ernmental sources: $225,000,000. Total $452,000,000. 
Contributions from United Nations member nations and 
non-governmental agencies: $19,500,000. Total: 1 July 
1950-15 March 1952, $471,500,000. 



Cotton-Cotton Linters Committee 
of EMC To Disband 

On June 24 the Cotton-Cotton Linters Com- 
mittee of the International Materials Conference 
announced that it has decided unanimously to 
recommend to member governments that the Com- 
mittee should automatically terminate its activi- 
ties on September 15, 1952, unless the supply situ- 
ation in cotton or cotton linters had deteriorated 
materially by then. 

The Committee, which held its first meeting 
on March 5. 1951, has had the situation in cotton 
and cotton linters imder continuous review since 
that date. It has, however, never found it neces- 
sary to recommend allocation of either of these 
commodities. In March of this year the Com- 
mittee agreed to suspend its activities until Au- 
gust, when the prospects for the next season could 
be appraised. However, reports in May indicated 
that the situation has improved so that supply and 
demand for cotton and cotton linters appear to 
be approximately in balance. The Committee, 
therefore, felt it advisable to review the situation 
now instead of waiting until August. 

In the light of this improved situation the Com- 
mittee decided that it could safely take a decision 
now to end its activities, subject only to the condi- 
tion that, if there were a marked change for the 
worse by the middle of September, the position 
could then be reviewed. Unless this change takes 
place, which is not at the moment expected, there 
will be no more meetings of this Committee. 

Thirteen countries are represented on the Com- 
mittee. They are Belgium (representing Bene- 
lux), Brazil, Canada. France, the Federal Re- 
public of Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, 
Peru, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the 
United States. 



IIVIC Allocations Announced 
for Third Quarter of 1952 

Tungsten and Molybdenum 

The Tungsten-Molybdenum Committee of the 
International Materials Conference announced on 
July 11 its recommended distribution of tungsten 
and molybdenum for the third calendar quarter 
of 1952.1 ^i^g Governments of all 13 countries 
represented on the Committee have accepted the 
recommendations. These countries are Australia, 
Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, the Fed- 
eral Republic of Germany, Japan, Portugal, 
Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the 
United States. 

In accepting the recommendations, the Govern- 
ment of the United States made the condition that 
domestic users of tungsten and molybdenum in 
the United States should be authorized to pur- 
chase the quantity of such materials allocated to 
other countries participating in the International 
Materials Conference and not used by any such 
participating country. In view of this, the Com- 
mittee agreed to make arrangements whereby such 
domestic users in the United States or other 
countries would have the o]:)portunity to purchase 
tungsten or molybdenum allocated to other coun- 
tries participating in the International Materials 
Conference but not used by any such participating 
country. 

Tungsten and molybdenum have been under in- 
ternational plans of distribution since July 1, 
1951. Although availabilities of the two metals 
have been increasing, both continue to be in short 
supply as compared with the requirements of the 
consuming countries. This is especially so when 
the stockpiling requirements of these countries 
are taken into consideration. 

The total free world production of tungsten in 
the third quarter of 1952 is estimated by the Com- 
mittee at 4,690 metric tons metal content, and the 
free world production of molybdenum at 5,650 
metric tons metal content. The above estimate 
of tungsten production shows an increase of about 
30 percent as compared with the actual rate of 
production in the second half of 1951 and more 
than double the rate of production in 1950. 
Molybdenum production as above estimated shows 
an increase of nearly 15 percent as compared with 
actual production in the second half of 1951 and 
over 50 percent above the rate of production in 
1950. On the other hand, the defense and stock- 
piling requirements of the free world are still in 
excess of the production in the case of both metals. 
It is necessary, therefore, that all countries of 
the free world should do their utmost to imple- 
ment the present recommendations for the dis- 
tribution of the metals and give every attention 



' The recommended plans of distribution, labeled tables 
I, II, and III are not printed here. See Imc press re- 
lease dated July 10. 



Ju/y 27, J 952 



117 



to tlie measures recommended by the Committee 
for conservation and substitution. 

The phxns recommended provide for the dis- 
tribution of the whole free world production of 
tungsten and molybdenum, both in the form of 
ores and concentrates and primary products. Pri- 
mary products are defined, as in the case of pre- 
vious distributions by the Committee, as ferro- 
tungsten, tungsten powder, tungstic acid and 
tungsten salts, and ferro-molybdenum, molybdic 
acid and molybdenum salts, including calcium- 
niolybdate and molybdic oxide. Roasted molyb- 
denum concentrates are regarded by the Commit- 
tee as being included in ores and concentrates, as 
in the case of previous distribution plans. 

In framing the recommended plans of distribu- 
tion, the needs of all countries, whether members 
of the Tungsten-Molybdenum Committee or not, 
were carefully considered. The distribution plans 
are now transmitted to all governments, including 
those not represented on the Committee, wherever 
the countries concerned are interested in the ex- 
port or import of tungsten or molybdenum in the 
form of ores and concentrates or primary prod- 
ucts. All governments are being requested to 
carry out the plans of distribution recommended. 

Of the quuTitity of 4,690 metric tons metal con- 
tent of tungsten estimated to be produced in the 
third calendar quarter of 1952, the distribution 
plan provides that 4,470.7 metric tons is to be dis- 
tributed in the form of ores and concentrates and 
219.3 metric tons in the form of primary products. 
This latter quantity is distributed, in the first 
instance, in the form of ores and concentrates to 
countries manufacturing this material into the 
primary products. Similarly, of the total esti- 
mated production of 5,650 metric tons metal con- 
tent of molybdenum to be produced in the third 
calendar quarter of 1952, the distribution plan 
provides that 5,391.25 metric tons be distributed in 
the form of ores and concentrates and 258.75 metric 
tons as primary products, this latter cjuantity also 
being distributed, in the first instance, to coun- 
tries manufacturing primary products from ores 
and concentrates. 

The distribution proposed is set forth in tables 
I and II, showing the distribution of tungsten 
and molybdenum, respectively. These tables ap- 
ply as follows : 

A. The quantities set forth are the share of 
total production in the free world which it is rec- 
ommended that each consuming country named 
shall retain either (a) out of its own domestic pro- 
duction, and/or (b) out of imports in the period 
July 1 to September 30, 1952. 

B. The figures of quantities set forth in the 
columns headed "Export of Primary Products" 
are the additional quantities of ores and concen- 
trates which are assigned to certain countries for 
processing ores and concentrates into primary 
products, on the understanding that these addi- 
tional quantities will, after processing, be re- 



exported to the countries requiring such products, 
as shown in the column headed "Distribution of 
Primai-y Products." 

Table III shows the export and import quotas 
of the two metals derived from the distribu- 
tion shown in tables I and II. The quantities 
shown in table III are the export and import 
quotas of tungsten and molybdenum (ores and 
concentrates only) for the period July 1 to Sep- 
tember 30. These quotas correspond with the 
quantities set forth in tables I and 11. The import 
quotas include the quantities to be impoi'ted for 
processing and reexport as primary products. 

In issuing the above-described plans of distri- 
bution, the Committee recommends that existing 
contracts be resfiected as far as possible. If such 
contracts provide for the supply of tungsten or 
molybdenum to any one importing country in 
excess of the amounts allocated, it is recommended 
that the importing country should divert ship- 
ments to other importing countries which have not 
yet filled their import quotas so far as possible 
without upsetting the original contractual 
arrangements. 

The Committee has also given consideration to 
distribution arrangements for the fourth calen- 
dar quarter of 1952. For the fourth quarter the 
estimated production of tungsten is 4,940 metric 
tons metal content and of molybdenum 5,751 met- 
ric tons. The distribution arrangements for these 
quantities are at present in a formative stage, and 
a further announcement relating to them will 
be made at a later date. 

Primary Copper 

The Copper-Zinc-Lead Committee of the In- 
ternational Materials Conference on July 11 an- 
nounced that its member governments have ac- 
cepted its proposals for the allocation of copper 
for the thii'd quarter of 1952.^ Twelve countries 
are represented on the Committee. They are Aus- 
tralia, Belgium (repi'esenting Benelux), Canada, 
Chile, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, 
Italy. Mexico, Norway, Peru, the United King- 
dom, and the United Stiites. 

The Committee agi'eed to make arrangements 
wherebj' domestic users in the United States or 
in other countries would have the opportunity to 
purchase any copper allocated to other countries 
participating in the International Materials Con- 
ference and not used by any such participating 
country. In accepting the Committee's recom- 
mendations, the Chilean Government made a res- 
ervation by which, without reference to the 
distribution plan, it may dispose of a limited ton- 
nage of its copper. Notwithstanding this reser- 
vation, the Chilean Government has stated its 
desire to take into account the recommendations 



10. 



' For distribution plan, see Imo press release dated July 



118 



Deparfment of Sfofe Bulletin 



of the Committee and to duly consider tliem when- 
ever possible. 

The plan of distribution has been forwarded 
also to the governments of 27 other countries not 
represented on the Committee for which alloca- 
tions have been recommended. 

As in the previous quarter, primary copper only 
(blister and refined) is included in the plan. 
While semifabricated products have not been al- 
located, all exporting countries are asked to con- 
tinue to maintain their exports of such products 
at a level commensurate with their allocation of 
primary metal for civilian consumption, in ac- 
cordance with normal patterns of trade. Also, 
as in previous quarters, all countries are requested 
to continue measures for conservation and end-use 
control. 

The Committee has recommended a plan of dis- 
tribution of 744,290 metric tons of copper in the 
third quarter, as compared to 723,680 metric tons 
for the second quarter. Direct defense needs have 
been given priority. Provision has also been made 
for sti-ategic stock piling by tlie United States. 

NicJcel and Cobalt 

The Manganese-Nickel-Cobalt Committee of the 
International Materials Conference announced on 
Jidy 14 its recommended distribution of nickel and 
cobalt for the third quarter of 1952.^ The coun- 
tries represented on the Committee are Belgium 
(for Benelux), Brazil, Canada, Cuba, France, the 
Federal Republic of Germany, India, Norway, 
the Union of South Africa, the United Kingdom, 
and the United States. 

All of the 11 member governments have accepted 
the plan of distribution for cobalt. The plan for 
nickel has been accepted, with reservations on the 
part of India and under protest by the Federal 
Republic of Germany. 

The Connnittee agreed to make arrangements 
\\ hereby domestic users in the United States or in 
otlier countries would have the opportunity to 
purchase any nickel or cobalt allocated to coun- 
tries participating in the International Materials 
Conference and not used by any such participating 
countiT. 

The plans of distribution have been forwarded 
to all intei'estecl governments for implementation. 

As in the first half of 1952, the distribution of 
nickel covers all primary forms of metal and 
oxides. Nickel salts have not been included in 
recommended plans of distribution since Decem- 
ber .31, 1951. 

Estimated total availabilities of primary nickel 
and oxides for the third quarter amount to 3G,580 
metric tons, in terms of metal content, as against 
35,195 in the second quarter. 

As in the previous allocation period, the Com- 
mittee has accepted a U.S. pi'oposal that the 



^ For distribution plan, see Imc press release dated 
July 11. 



amount of production represented by the Nicaro 
(Cuba) output should be distributed among 
various countries in jDroportion to their direct de- 
fense programs. 

France has agreed to make available for export 
155 tons of New Caledonian fonte, in terms of 
nickel content, of which 30 tons represent import 
quotas granted in the second quarter which have 
been cancelled by the Committee. Fonte is a di- 
rectly smelted nickel cast iron of about 30 percent 
nickel content. 

The total quantity of cobalt available for dis- 
tribution in the third quarter, in the form of 
primary metal, oxides, and salts, is estimated at 
2,475 metric tons of cobalt content, including a 
carry-over of 100 tons from previous production. 
This compares with 4,413 tons distributed in the 
first half of 1952. 

The Committee is unable to foresee when it will 
be possible to dispense with international distribu- 
tion plans for nickel and cobalt, since increased 
availabilities are inadequate to meet continu- 
ing heavy demands for essential rearmament 
production. 



U.S. Delegations to 
International Conferences 

International Wheat Council 

On June 30 the Department of State announced 
that the International Wheat Council will con- 
vene its tenth session at London on July 1. Each 
of the 46 member countries may be represented at 
Council sessions by a delegate, an alternate dele- 
gate, and such technical advisers as are necessary. 
The U.S. delegation is as follows: 

Detegaie 

Elmer F. Kruse, Assistant Administrator for Commodity 
Operations, Production and Marketing Administra- 
tion, Department of Agriculture 

Menibers 

Anthony R. DeFelice, Office of the Solicitor, Department 
of Agriculture 

Eric Englund, Agricultural Attach^, American Embassy, 
London 

Robert L. Gastineau, Head, Grain Division, Office of For- 
eign Agricultural Relations, Department of Agricul- 
ture 

Earl O. Pollock, Assistant Agricultural Attach^, American 
Embassy, London 

L. Ingemann Highby, Chief, Food Branch, Agricultural 
Products Staff, Office of International Materials 
I'olicy, Department of State 

The Council was created by an International 
Wheat Agreement signed at Washington on 
March 23, 1949. The purpose of the agreement, 
which expires in 1953, is to overcome the hardship 
resulting from surpluses and shortages of wheat 
by assuring supplies to importing countries and 



Ju/y 27, 7952 



119 



markets to exporting countries at fair and stable 
prices. 

At its forthcoming session, the Council will give 
detailed consideration to amendments required to 
make renewal of the agi'eement generally accept- 
able to all the member countries. In this connec- 
tion the Council will review a progress report by 
its Recommendations Committee, established at 
the eighth session (London, May 1952), on the 
study of questions related to price structures and 
drafting problems. The Council will also decide 
on the site for its eleventh session, tentatively 
scheduled for January 1953, which will be con- 
vened for the primary purpose of considering 
further the extension of the wheat agreement. 



Rules of the Air and Air Traffic 
Services Committee (ICAO) 

On June 30 the Department of State announced 
that the fourth special meeting of the Rules of 
the Air and Air Traffic Services Committee, Euro- 
pean-Mediterranean Region, of the International 
Civil Aviation Organization (Icao) will convene 
at the IcAO regional office at Paris on June 30, 1952. 
The United States is included in the list of Icao 
member states invited since it operates extensive 
air services in this region. The U.S. delegation is 
as follows: 

Chairman 

Hugh H. McFarlane, Regional Icao Representative, Civil 
Aeronautics Administration, Department of Com- 
merce 

Advisers 

G. C. Jolinson, Lt. Col., U.S.A.F., Flight Division, Director 
of Operations, Headquarters U.S.A.F. 

James L. Kinney, Representative Flight Operations Icao, 
Civil Aeronautics Administration, Department of 
Commerce 

The third European-Mediterranean Regional 
Air Navigation Meeting recommended tltat this 
conference be convened to complete the develop- 
ment of an airways system for the European- 
Mediterranean region. The conference will there- 
fore review the jDrogress in the implementation 
of an integrated, controlled airways plan for the 
region as developed by the Icao Rules of the Air 
and Air Traffic Services Committee, which recom- 
mended that the plan be put into effect not later 
than September 1, 1952. The plan includes pro- 
vision for the development of a uniform system 
of control over military and civilian air traffic. 

Delegates to the conference will also discuss 
common air-traffic-control instructions and in- 
flight procedures for use in the European-Med- 
iterranean region; the development of an airways 
designator system: and simplified air-traffic-serv- 
ices procedures for aircraft over-flying the region 
at levels higher than those dealt with in the con- 
trolled airways plan. 



Renegotiation of Telegraphic 
and ExcFiange Rates 

Press release 524 dated July 2 

On July 9, 1952, representatives of the United 
States, Australia, Canada, Ceylon, India, New 
Zealand, Pakistan, Southern Rhodesia, the Union 
of South Africa, and the United Kingdom will 
convene at London to discuss a renegotiation of 
the telegraphic rates and exchange rates estab- 
lished by a telecommunications agreement signed 
at London in 1949 which superseded a similar 
agreement signed at Bermuda in 1945. The 
United States will be rejaresented by: 

Chair7nan 

Edward M. Webster, Commissioner, Federal Communi- 
cations Commission 

Vice Chairman 

T. H. E. Nesbitt, Assistant Chief, Telecommunications 
Policy Staff, Department of State 

Members 

William H. J. Mclntyre, Telecommunications Attach^, 
American Embassy, London 

Jack Werner, Chief, Common Carrier Branch, Federal 
Communications Commission 

Marion W^oodward, Chief, International Division, Com- 
mon Carrier Branch, Federal Communications 
Commission 

It is also anticipated tliat Ronald Egan, Euro- 
pean representative of "Western Union; John 
Hartman, assistant vice president, American Cable 
and Radio Cor]ioration ; Albert Alfred Hennings, 
superintendent of tariffs, American Cable and 
Radio Corporation ; K. Bruce Mitchell, vice presi- 
dent, Western Union Telegraph Company; and 
Edwin Peterson, manager, Traffic Bureau, RCA 
Communications, Inc., will be present in the in- 
terests of their several operating companies. 

The Bermuda Agreement of 1945 placed ceil- 
ings on certain rates to be charged between the 
United States and the Commonwealth countries 
and fixed the rate of exchange for the settlement 
of accounts. In addition, it provided for certain 
direct radio circuits, to the great advantage of 
the United States communications industry as a 
whole, and set certain terminal transit and press 
rates. This agreement was revised at London in 
1949 at the request of the LTnited States, which 
had found that the ceiling rates originally agi'eed 
to were too low to permit charges that would 
bring U.S. carriers a fair return. Following the 
London revision, which equalized the effects of the 
rate structure, the devaluation of the pound ster- 
ling adversely affected a number of American 
companies. It is hoped that the negotiations dur- 
ing the forthcoming conference will remove the 
penalties on American companies resulting fi'om 
the i^resent rates of exchange. 



120 



Departmenf of Stafe Bulletin 



U.S. Participation in the United Nations 



PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE TO THE CONGRESSi 



I transmit herewith, pursuant to the United 
Nations Participation Act, a report on the worlc of 
the United States in the United Nations during 
1951. 

This will be my last report, as President, to the 
Congress on our participation in the United 
Nations. 

I have dedicated my seven years as President of 
the United States to working for world peace. 
That has been my paramount aim since becoming 
President. The first order I issued after being 
sworn into office on April 12, 1915, was that the 
United States should carry out its plan to partici- 
pate in the United Nations Conference, which met 
on April 25 in San Francisco. Since that time 
the United Nations has been the mainstay of our 
work to build a peaceful and decent world. 

During these years the United Nations has faced 
many trials and difficulties. In 1915 there were 
high hopes that this partnership of nations would 
quickly lead to permanent peace and the advance- 
ment of the general welfare of the nations. But 
these hopes have been dimmed by the conflicts of 
the succeeding years and by the hostile attitude of 
the Soviet Union. As a result, voices have been 
raised, questioning the value for us of the United 
Nations and the need for maintaining it. 

Nevertheless, in spite of all these difficulties and 
discouragements, the United Nations remains the 
best means available to our generation for achiev- 
ing peace for the community of nations. The 
United Nations, in this respect, is vital to our fu- 
ture as a free people. In this message I want to 
explain why this is true and to sum up a few of the 
reasons why we should continue to support the 
United Nations in this dangerous period in the 
history of mankind. 

'Included in Department of State publication 45S3, 
United States Partieipatinn in the United Nations, Re- 
port bv the President to the Congress for the Tear 1951, 
for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington 25. D. C. Price 650 
(paper) . Also contained in H. doc. 449, 82d Cong., 2d sess. 

July 21, 7952 



The need for a world organization of nations 
should have been made clear to us by the First 
World War. But President Wilson's pioneering 
efforts to organize world peace through the League 
of Nations were thwarted by some Americans who 
still thought we could turn back the clock of his- 
tory. We had to pay a terrible price for that kind 
of narrow thinking in the Second World War. 

Our victory over the Axis gave us another 
chance to work with the other nations in a united 
effort to prevent war. This time we assumed our 
responsibilities and took part in launching a far 
stronger world organization for peace. 

In the United Nations we have pledged our sup- 
port to the basic principles of sovereign equality, 
mutual respect among nations, and justice and 
morality in international affairs. By the Charter 
all United Nations members are bound to settle 
their disputes peacefully rather than by the use 
of force. They pledge themselves to take common 
action against root causes of unrest and war, and 
to promote the common interests of the nations 
in peace, security, and general well-being. 

These principles are not new in the world, but 
they are the only sure foundation for lasting 
peace. Centuries of history have made it clear 
that peace cannot be maintained for long unless 
there is an international organization to embody 
these principles and put them into effect. 

The United Nations provides a world-wide 
forum in which those principles can be applied 
to international affairs. In the General Assembly 
all member nations have to stand up and be 
counted on issues which dii'ectly involve the peace 
of the world. In the United Nations no country 
can escape the judgment of mankind. This is 
the first and greatest weapon against aggression 
and international immorality. It is the greatest 
strength of the United Nations. And because we, 
as a Nation, sincerely desire to establish the rule 
of international justice, this is a precious instru- 
ment, a great asset, that we should constantly seek 

121 



to reinforce, that we should never ignore or cast 
away. 

This great moral value of the United Nations 
has been clearly demonstrated with respect to the 
conduct of the Soviet Union. 

The Soviet leaders have been dominated by their 
doctrines of communism, by the concept of the 
use of force, unchecked by ethical considerations. 
This concept has led the Kremlin into a course 
of international conduct, which threatens the 
peace of the world. By stirring up class warfare, 
subverting free governments, and employing lies, 
intimidation, and conquest, the Soviet Union has 
pursued a policy of extending its control without 
regard to the sovereignty of other nations or re- 
spect for their rights. 

This policy might have been irresistible if it 
had not been clearly and decisively brought to the 
bar of world opinion in the United Nations. 

The proceedings of the United Nations, time 
and time again, liave proclaimed to the woi'ld that 
the Soviets have not lived up to the principles of 
liberty, morality, justice, and peace to which they 
profess to subscribe. Through the United Na- 
tions the international conscience has relentlessly 
exposed and sternly resisted the attempts of the 
Kremlin to impose a rule of force upon the peace- 
loving nations of the world. 

This process has strengthened freedom. It has 
given courage to the faint-hearted, who might 
otherwise have yielded to the forces of commu- 
nism. It has presented the truth to those who 
might have been deceived by Communist propa- 
ganda. And, as a result, the principles of inter- 
national justice, of freedom and mutual respect, 
still exercise a far greater sway over the minds of 
men than the false beliefs of communism. 

By itself, of course, this moral function of the 
United Nations would not be enough. The collec- 
tive conscience of the world is not enough to repel 
aggression and establish order. We have learned 
that moral judgments must be supported by force 
to be effective. This is why we went into Korea. 
We wei'e right in what we did in Korea in June 
1950; we are right in holding firm against ag- 
gression there now. 

Korea might have been the end of the United 
Nations. When the aggression began, the free 
nations might have yielded their principles and 
followed the dreary road of appeasement that, in 
the past, had led from Manchuria to Munich and 
then to World War II. But Korea had the op- 
posite effect. When the Communist aggi-essors 
brutally violated the Republic of Korea, the 
United Nations acted with unprecedented speed 
and rallied the international conscience to meet 
the challenge. And, with our country proudly in 
the lead, the free nations went into the conflict 
against aggression. 

It is profoundly heartening to remember that 
far-off Ethiopia, whicli had been one of the first 
victims of the fatal policy of the 1930's, sent troops 



to fight in Korea. The free nations now under- 
stand that nobody can be safe anywhere unless 
all free nations band together to resist aggression 
the first time it occurs. 

In Korea the United Nations forces have re- 
pelled Communist aggi'ession, they have forced 
the aggi-essors to abandon their objectives and 
negotiate for an armistice, and they have demon- 
strated that the course of conquest is mortally 
dangerous. The success of the United Nations in 
repelling the attack in Korea has given the free 
world time to build its defensive strength against 
Communist aggression. 

We are working to strengthen the United Na- 
tions by building up a security system in accord- 
ance with the purposes of the Charter that will 
protect the community of nations against aggres- 
sion from any source. We are working, in im- 
portant regions of the world, to build the pillars 
of this collective strength tlirough the North At- 
lantic Treaty Organization, the Rio treaty, and the 
security treaties in the Pacific. All this is being 
done under the Charter as a means of fulfilling the 
United Nations purpose of maintaining world 
peace. The progress we have made since the 
Korean aggression started has now begun to tip 
the scales toward real security for ourselves and 
all othpr peace-loving peoples. 

Such measures are necessary to meet the present 
threat of aggi-ession. But we cannot admit that 
mankind must suffer forever under the burden of 
armaments and the tensions of greatly enlarged 
defense programs. We must try in every way not 
only to settle differences peaceably but also to 
lighten the load of defense preparations. In this 
task the United Nations is the most important if 
not the only avenue of progress. 

On October 24, 1950, in an address to the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the United Nations, I outlined 
the principles whicli must guide disarmament. 
This was followed up by concrete proposals, which 
were presented at the 1951 session of the Genei-al 
Assembly in Paris. These proposals involved a 
world census of armaments, a reduction of arma- 
ments and armed forces, and the elimination of 
weapons of mass destruction, all under a foolproof 
system of inspection. The Disarmament Com- 
mission of the United Nations is now discussing 
these proposals, and if they are adopted they will 
not only enhance world security but also free vast 
energies and resources of the world for construc- 
tive ends. This program of disarmament offers a 
way out of the conflict of our times. If the Soviet 
Union will accept it in good faith, it will be pos- 
sible to go forward at the same time to reconcile 
other conflicting national interests under the 
principles of international morality. 

These disarmament proposals emphasize anew 
that our objective is world peace. We hope that 
the day will come when tlie Soviet Union, seeing 
that it cannot make aggi'ession and subversion 
work, will modify its policies so that all nations 



122 



Department of State Bulletin 



can live together peacefully in the same world. 
Therefore we must continue to test Soviet willing- 
ness to take tangible steps toward easing interna- 
tional tensions. We must continue to keep the 
door open in the United Nations for the Soviet 
Union to join the great majority of countries on 
the road to peace. 

Among the nations of the f I'ee world, the United 
Nations performs the valuable function of settling 
disputes and terminating conflict. It has been 
notably successful in localizing and diminishing 
dangerous situations which might otherwise have 
torn the free world apart and paved the way for 
Communist expansion. In Indonesia, Palestine, 
and Kashmir the United Nations stopped serious 
fighting and persuaded the combatants to take 
steps toward a peaceful settlement of their differ- 
ences. In many other cases the United Nations 
has prevented disputes from erupting into 
violence. 

We must remember that the challenge of inter- 
national lawlessness is not only military but also 
political and economic. The United Nations is 
helping dependent peoples to move toward gi-eater 
freedom. The United Nations is taking measures 
to promote extensive international progress in 
such fields as agi'iculture, communication and 
transportation, education, health, and living 
standards. Its technical assistance programs and 
our own Point Four activities are providing 
dramatic examples of tangible accomplishments 
at relatively little cost. The United Nations in 
this way is helping to build healthier societies, 
which in the long run are the best defense against 
communism and the best guaranty of peace. 

During the jjast seven years our work in United 
Nations has been carried out on a strictly nonpar- 
tisan basis. Able men and women from both po- 
litical parties and both Houses of Congress have 
represented this country in the General Assembly. 
Nevertheless partisan attacks have been made on 
the United Nations. Some of these attacks are 
made in a spirit of impatience that can only lead 
to the holocaust of world-wide war. Most of those 
who urge us to "go it alone" are blind to the fact 
that such a course would destroy the solid progi-ess 
toward world peace which the United Nations has 
made in the past seven years. I am confident that 
the American people will reject these voices of 
despair. We can win peace, but we cannot win it 
alone. And, above all, we cannot win it by force 
alone. We can win the peace only by continuing 
to work for international justice and morality 
through the United Nations. 




STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 

White House press release dated July 3 

I have sent up to Congress today a report on this 
country's activities in the United Nations during 
the last year. 

As I said in my letter of transmittal, I believe 
the United Nations is the mainstay of our work 
to build a peaceful and decent world. I think 
the United Nations is vital to our future as a free 
nation. I am sure that the great majority of the 
people of the United States, regardless of political 
party, support the United Nations. 

I have asked Mrs. Roosevelt to talk about the 
United Nations at the Democratic National Con- 
vention, and she has kindly consented to do so. 
I made this request because Mrs. Roosevelt has 
rendered a great service to her country in her 
work at the United Nations and because I want 
everyone to appreciate clearly what the United 
Nations means to us. 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Appointment of Officers 

John Diirnford Jernegan as Deputy Assistant Secretary 
for the Bureau of Near Eastern, South Asian and African 
Affairs, effective July 1, 1952. 



The White House, 
July 3, 1952. 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: July 4-12, 1952 

Releases may be obtained from the Office of the 
Special Assistant for Press Relations, Department 
of State, Washington 2.5, D.C. 

Subject 

8. Africiin air force agreement 
Allixon: U.S. and the Far East 
Pacific Council meeting 
IcAo regional meeting 
International Wheat Council 
Jernegan: Deputy Assistant Secretary 
Telecommunications talks 
Aeheson : Democratic process (ex- 
cerpts) 
Acheson : U.S.-Brazllian principles 
VOA coverage of conventions 
Acheson : Creation of collective 

strength 
"Clinicar" on exhibit 
Development in Paraguayan town 
Hayes to Afghanistan (rewrite) 
Carl Schurz award 
American studies conference 
Reply to Soviet note of May 24 
Australian letter on Coral Sea Battle 
VOA Inaugurates digest report 
Exchange of persons 
Visit to U.S. of Prince Faisal 
Pan Am. geography consultation 

+Held for a later issue of the Bclletin. 
*Not printed. 



No. 


Date 


491 


6/24 


503 


6/27 


507 


6/30 


.512 


6/30 


514 


6/30 


521 


7/1 


524 


7/2 


534 


7/4 


535 


7/4 


*536 


7/5 


537 


7/7 


*538 


7/7 


*539 


7/8 


t540 


7/9 


541 


7/9 


t542 


7/10 


543 


7/10 


*544 


7/11 


*545 


7/11 


*546 


7/11 


547 


7/11 


t548 


7/12 



July 21, 1952 



123 



July 21, 1952 



Index 



Vol. XXVII, No. 682 



Africa 

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA: 

Agreement to pay U.S. for logistical support 

In Korea ^°^ 

Export-Import Bank loans 105 

American Republics 

Fundamentals of Inter-Amerlcan cooperation 

(Acheson) ^'^ 

Asia 

KOREA: Command operations, 42d report . . 114 
SAUDI ARABIA: Prince Abdullah Faisal's visit 

to U.S 96 

U.S. problems and accomplishments In Far East 

(Allison) 9'' 

Aviation 

Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services Com- 
mittee (ICAO) ^^° 

Communism 

Soviet propaganda, threat to world peace . . 109 

Congress 

MESSAGES TO CONGRESS: U.S. participation 

In the United Nations 121 

Europe 

FRANCE: Export-Import Bank loans .... 105 
United efforts speed migration from Europe 

(Warren) •^°'^ 

U.S., U.K., France propose four power meeting to 

discuss Commission on German Elections . 92 
U.S.S.R.: Soviet propaganda, threat to world 

peace 10^ 

Finance 

FRANCE: Export-Import Bank loans .... 105 
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA: Export-Import 

Bank loans 105 

International Information 

Carl Schurz Centennial Award 104 

International Meetings 

First meeting of Pacific Council 110 

IMC: Allocations for third quarter of 1952 

announced 117 

International Wheat Council 119 

Picmme: United efforts speed migration from 

Europe 107 

Renegotiation of telegraphic and exchange 

rates 120 

Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services Com- 
mittee (IcAo) 120 



Mutual Aid and Defense 

First meeting of Pacific Coimcil 110 

President requests special survey of U.S. trade 

policies 104 

U.S. problems and accomplishments In Far East 

(Allison) 97 

Presidential Documents 

President requests special survey of U.S. trade 

policies 104 

Puerto Rican Constitution signed 91 

Puerto Rico 

Puerto Rican Constitution signed 91 

State, Department of 

Appointment of officers 123 

Strategic Materials 

Cotton-Cotton Llnters Committee of Imc to 

disband 117 

Imc allocations, third quarter of 1952 an- 
nounced 117 

Telecommunications 

Renegotiation of telegraphic and exchange 

rates 120 

Trade 

President requests special survey of U.S. trade 

policies 104 

Treaty Information 

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA: Agreement to pay 

U.S. for logistical support in Korea . . . 105 

United Nations 

Command operations In Korea, 42d report . . 114 
Planning for the relief of famine emergencies; 

text of draft resolution Ill 

Soviet propaganda, threat to world peace . . 109 
United efforts speed migration from Europe 

(Warren) 107 

U.S. participation in the U.N 121 

Name Index 

Acheson, Secretary 87 

Allison, John M. 97 

Bruce, David 105 

Faisal, Prince Abdullah 96 

Gibson, Hugh 107 

Hairiman, W. Averell 104 

Jernegan. John D 123 

Jooste, G. P 105 

Kotschnig, Walter 109 

Kruse, Elmer P 119 

Lubin, Isador Ill 

McFarlane, Hugh H 120 

Saud, King Ibn 96 

Truifian. President 91, 104, 121 

Warren, George L 107 

Webster, Edward M 120 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE) I9B2 



-^ 



<yA^ ^e^€f/y/h7ze7il/ /C^ Crtaie^ 




^ol. XXVII, No. 683 
July 28, 1952 

W 




'ates o* 




SECRETARY ACHESON'S IMPRESSIONS OF HIS 

RECENT VISIT ABROAD • 132 

HUMAN WELFARE: A PRACTICAL OBJECTIVE • 

Statement by Walter M. Kotschnig 142 

U.S. SUSPENDS PUBLICATION OF "AMERIKA" . . 127 

PROGRESS TOWARD EUROPEAN INTEGRATION— 
10th Quarterly Report of the U.S. High Commis- 
sioner^for Germany 134 

THE SOVIET GERM WARFARE CAMPAIGN • State- 

ments by Ernest A. Gross •••.•....«, 153 



For index see back cover 




<tj/ie zl^eha/y^me^t jo£^ tyCate 



bulletin 



Vol. XXVII, No. 683 • Publication 4666 
July 28, 1952 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing OiSce 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

C2 Issues, domestic $7.50, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
beeii approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 22, 1952). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Buixetin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
selected press releases on foreign pol- 
icy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of internatioTuil relations, are listed 
currently. 



U.S. Suspends Publication of Russian-Language Magazine ''Amerika'' 



Toward the end of World War II the Depart- 
ment of State, in an effort to improve Russo- 
American understanding, made an unprecedented 
proposal to the Soviet Government. It proposed 
tliat an official U.S. Government magazine be cir- 
culated in the Soviet Union. Five months of 
negotiations in 1943-44 finally resulted in ap- 
proval of the magazine Amerika by the Soviet 
Government. The U.S.S.R. agreed to handle cir- 
culation of 10,000 copies through its own distrib- 
uting agency, Soyuzpechat. 

Amerika, as a magazine telling of American 
life, never attacked or even discussed Soviet in- 
stitutions or policy. However, it soon became 
evident that the Soviet Government was disturbed 
at the existence of a publication permitting its 
citizens easy and frequent comparison between 
life in the United States and in the U.S.S.R. The 
Kremlin's efforts to curtail effectiveness of 
Amerika by restricting its circulation became in- 
creasingly drastic. 

The story falls into three phases: (1) Early 
flourishing: tolerance by the Soviet Government 
(1945^7) ; (2) indirect attack by intimidation 
of readers : the mounting anti-American campaign 
(1947-52) ; and (3) direct attack by cutting dis- 
tribution (1950-52). 

After 7 years and 53 issues of publication, the 
Department of State has reluctantly decided that 
mounting Soviet obstructions to Amerika''s dis- 
tribution has made its continued publication 
undesirable. 

Tolerance by the Soviet Government (1945-47) 

The first issue of Amerika appeared in January 
1945. Its size and format were similar to that of 
Life magazine. Since it was designed with a 
"people to people" approach — to bring the United 
States as close as possible to Russians who could 
never go there — it contained many pictures, in- 
cliKling color photographs on the cover and inside. 
Paper and printing typified the best American 
typographical standards. On first seeing the 
magazine, a professional Soviet writer commented 
enthusiastically : 



Text of U. S. Note 

Press release 553 dated July 14 

The Department of State on July 15 announced 
the suspension of Amerika, Russian-languaye maga- 
zine produced hj/ its International Information Ad- 
ministration for circulation in the Soviet Union, 
and at the saine time directed the U.S.S.R. to sus- 
pend Soviet Embassy publications in the United 
States. Soviet publications suspended in retaliation 
are the U.S.S.R. Information Bulletin, supplements 
to the Bulletin, and pamphlets distributed by the 
Soviet Embassy. The text of the U.S. note follows: 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
pre.sents its compliments to the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
and has the honor to state that it has been instructed 
to inform the Soviet Government that publication 
of the magazine "Amerilia" is being suspended 
immediately. 

Since the beginning of 1949 it has become in- 
creasingly apparent that the Soviet Government, 
through its agencies, has been engaged in progres- 
sive restriction of the full distribution and free 
sale of the magazine. As a result of this obstruc- 
tion the number of copies which can be presumed 
to reach the Soviet public lias become so small as 
not to justify a continuation of this effort of the 
Government of the United States to supply Soviet 
readers with a true picture of American life and 
thus to promote understanding between the two 
peoples. 

In view of the evident unwillingness of the Soviet 
Government to reciprocate the privileges granted 
by the Government of the United States to Soviet 
publications, the Soviet Government is requested to 
suspend immediately the publication and distribu- 
tion in the United States of the U.S.S.R. Information 
Bulletin and supplements tliereto. The distribution 
in the United States by the Soviet Embassy in Wash- 
ington of pamphlets published at the expense of the 
Soviet Government or its organs should also be 
suspended. 

The Government of the United States will con- 
sider resumption of the publication of "Amerika" at 
such time as the Soviet Government is willing to 
grant the magazine the same freedom of publica- 
tion, distribution and sales which bas been accorded 
Soviet publications in the United States and to 
grant to representatives of the United States Gov- 
ernment facilities which would make it possible 
for them to verify the extent of distribution actually 
made. 



inly 28, 1952 



127 



The paper must come from the United States, because 
there is nothing lilce it in the Soviet Union. In fact, we 
cannot match this magazine at all. We have Ogonyek,^ 
but it is nothing compared to Amerika. 

The Moscow correspondent of the New York 
T'hyies, catching the flavor of Amerika' s early days 
in Moscow, reported on October 25, 1945: 

Sudden quivers of excitement shot through American 
offices in Moscow yesterday. Succession of visitors 
opened doors and made anxious inquiries. Telephones 
kept buzzing. What had happened was very simple. 
Word had leaked out that advance copies were being 
distributed of the third issue of Amerika. . . . Naturally, 
everyone wanted a copy at once. . . . No advertising and 
no editorials. Just information about America. . . . 
When Amerika appears it is a great day in Moscow. . . . 

And the correspondent of TiTne magazine cabled 
(issue of March 4, 1946) : 

Amerika was hot .stuff. Russians liked its eye-filling pic- 
tures of Arizona deserts, Tva dams, the white steeples of 
a Connecticut town, Radio City, the Bluegrass country, 
the Senate in session, Manhattan's garment district. 



Evidences of Popularity 

In content, Amerika's only "formula"' was to 
present the truth about life in the United States 
as vividly as possible. It featured profiles of 
average Americans — an Iowa farmer; a steel- 
worker in Gary, Ind. ; a white-collar girl in Chi- 
cago; an Oklahoma oil worker; a country doctor 
in Colorado. Advances in American industry, 
science, and medicine were described for the in- 
creasingly important professional groups in the 
U.S.S.R. Art, music, theater, and movies were 
treated regularly for culture-conscious Soviet 
readers. The operation of the American Govern- 
ment, its labor unions, its schools and colleges 
were explained. No direct comment on the Soviet 
system was ever made. 

Signs of Amerika's popularity soon appeared. 
Newsstands sold out their copies a few hours after 
it went on sale. Would-be readers unable to ob- 
tain the magazine telephoned the American Em- 
bassy for copies. Second-hand copies began to 
be privately sold on the street above the original 
price of 10 rubles ; sometimes single pages entered 
the market. The magazine even came to be used 
as a medium of exchange. On one occasion, the 
promise of a copy was the only lure by which an 
American official could persuade a reluctant Soviet 
plumber to fix his bathtub. A woman reader 
stated that a doctor refused to treat her unless she 
could supply him with a new issue of the 
magazine. 

Despite the general restrictions imposed by the 
Soviet Government on contacts between Russians 
and Americans, many comments from readers 
were gathered by Russian-speaking members of 
the American Embassy staff in the course of con- 
versations with Russians on trains, in parks, be- 
tween acts at the theater, and in other public 

^ Offcmi/ek ("Little Flame") is the largest and most 
elaborate plcture-and-text magazine in the U.S.S.R. 



places. For example, an article on commercial 
transoceanic flying elicited approval of a Soviet 
Air Force lieutenant colonel, who particularly 
commented on safety factors. A surgeon was fas- 
cinated by the pictures of operations in an article 
on anesthesia and was amazed by the equipment 
shown. An engineer was "astounded" at the "im- 
possible" things being done with plywood in 
America, as reported in an article on wood prod- 
ucts. A university jirofessor, when asked which 
picture of the United States Russians believe — 
that presented by the Soviet press or as portrayed 
in Ainerika — replied that they distrust their own 
press and believe Amerika. 

Reports from Americans on the Embassy staff 
also contained these observations on the maga- 
zine's circulation : 

I was passing the newsstand on the corner of Gertzen 
and Nikit-ski Streets in downtown Moscow as i-ssue No. 19 
went on sale. In the course of 15 minutes, almost every 
person who pas.sed the stand commented, 'Ah, Amerika 
est" (Amerika has cornel. All copies were bought. 

Sunday afternoon, at the newsstand near the Maly 
Theater, there was a line of 15 people waiting to buy the 
magazine. 

A spectator at a football match between the Dynamo 
and Spartak teams read a copy of Amerika between the 
halves. His neighbors craned their necks to look over 
his shoulder. 

A conversation was overheard in a post office between 
the clerk and a man who was mailing a copy of Amerika 
to his brother in Alma Ata (Soviet Central Asia). The 
man impressed on the clerk that this was a copy of 
Amerika which he had wrapped carefully, and he asked 
that she give it special handling. 

A tour through the center of the city the day No. 27 
went on sale showed that many persons were buying copies 
and that some were reading it on streets and in 
restaurants. 

A Russian was seen near a second-hand book shop 
offering several old issues for sale. 

Increase from 10,000 to 50,000 Copies 

On tlie basis of the broad popularity which 
Amerika quickly achieved with Soviet readers, it 
was obvious that the circulation of 10,000 copies 
allowed by the Soviet Government under the origi- 
nal 1944 agreement was far short of satisfying 
the demand. Therefore, in 1946, an authorization 
to increase circulation to 50,000 copies was re- 
quested from the Soviet Govermnent. 

After the sending of three notes and an oral 
request by Ambassador Walter Bedell Smith, au- 
thorization was granted in a note, dated April 
23, 1946, from S. A. Lozovski, then Deputy Min- 
ister for Foreign Affairs, to Ambassador Smith. 
The note stated that the distributing agency could 
"undertake the distribution of 50,000 copies of 
Amerika, starting June 1, 1946." 

After this increase to 50,000 copies, distribution 
of the magazine was, until 1949, reasonably satis- 
factory. Although the Soviet Government never 
complied with the Embassy's requests for a nation- 
wide breakdown of circulation figures, there was 
evidence that Amerika was distributed outside 



128 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Moscow. The Embassy received reports in 1947 
and 1948 that the magazine was being sold in over 
20 cities and towns, inchiding Leningrad (north- 
ern Russia) ; Tiflis and Baku (Caucasus) ; Kliar- 
kov (Ukraine) ; and Saratov and Stalingi-ad 
(Volga River) . 

Tlie situation in 1947 was summed up by Neal 
Stanford, correspondent of the Christian Science 
Monitor, as follows : 

Each month fifty thousand copies are put on sale at 
go%-iet newsstands for 10 rubles. . . . They are said to 
disappear, however, quicker than such scarce commodi- 
ties as butter and bananas during the war. If the Krem- 
lin would permit the United States to ship more copies 
into Russia it could sell five or ten times the ijresent 
number. The scarcity puts a real premium on them, so 
that second-, third-, fourth-, and even 0fth-hand copies 
sell on the "black market" at several times the original 
price. 

Intimidation of Readers (1947-52> 

During the spring of 1947, Soviet propaganda 
launched a virulent attack on all things American, 
which has continued ever since with mounting in- 
tensity. Amerika's popularity with Soviet read- 
ers was obviously hampering this attack. The 
first step taken to combat its effect was a series of 
bitter criticisms in the press, aimed at deterring 
Soviet citizens from buying or reading the maga- 
zine. The first of these appeared on August 10, 
1947, in the journal Culture and Life. The article, 
"A Catalog of Noisy Advertisement" set the pace 
for tactics used throughout the campaign. The 
article stridently and contemptuously dismissed 
Amerika as vulgar, false, and wicked ; it admitted 
to no virtues in the magazine. 

It is significant that the Embassy received sev- 
eral anonjTiious telephone calls after publication 
of this first Culture and Life article. The callers 
expressed the hope that the article would not be 
accepted as reflecting "general opinion" of 
Amerika. 

Since that time, over 35 separate press attacks 
have appeared, in the guise of "reviews" of single 
articles or diatribes against the magazine as a 
whole. The usual line was that the magazine 
was "lying," "decadent," and "rotten bourgeois 
journalism." 

The technique was to use an Amerika article as 
a springboard for a polemic against some phase of 
American life, rather than to make any specific 
refutation of the article in question. For exam- 
ple, Pravda of June 4, 1951, attacked an Amerika 
article entitled "Wages and Prices in the United 
States," which, by pointing out that the average 
living standard in the United States had improved 
40 percent since 1940, directly contradicted Soviet 
propaganda about inevitable depressions and pov- 
erty-stricken workers. The Pravda article stated 
flatly : "Almost three-quarters of the population 
of the U.S. constitute indigent masses who are 
starving or under threat of starvation." Accus- 
ing the magazine of giving Soviet readers "Amer- 

Ju/y 28, 7952 



ica in saccharine syrup," the author, David Zaslov- 
sky, leading Soviet "critic," accused Amerika of 
"telling fairy tales on wages and prices" to the 
Soviet people, who, he said, "know no poverty or 
unemployment, but only grandiose peaceful 
construction." 

There was evidence that the Soviet Government 
feared Amerika's competition in relation to Soviet 
magazines. In 1948 the Central Committee of the 
Communist Party gave a severe dressing-down to 
Ogonyek., AmeriJca's nearest counterpart in the 
Soviet Union, charging it with publishing "sec- 
ond-rate articles," saying that it "suffered from 
monotony and lack of imagination," and contained 
"too many small photographs and few colored 
photographs." Ogonyek was ordered to "dras- 
tically improve its production," especially in 
printing more and better color pictures. 

In addition to attempts at intimidation through 
the press, direct pressure was applied to readers. 
Cases were reported of purchasers of Amerika 
being questioned by the police and having their 
copies confiscated. Readers who had formerly 
called at the Amsrika office, located in a building 
separate from the Embassy to obtain copies, now 
ceased to do so since a policeman was stationed at 
the door. In 1949 telephone inquiries about the 
magazine, formerly averaging 10 or 20 a week, 
abruptly dropped off to 1 or 2 a month. Russians 
to whom copies were offered on trains read avidly 
as in the past but were more careful about being 
seen and refused to carry the copies home with 
them. 

On the whole, however, the intimidation cam- 
paign was a failure. For one thing, the planners 
of the press attacks failed to realize that this press 
attention helped to publicize the magazine and 
increased demand for it. Wlien they realized 
this, the frequency of the attacks diminished. 
Basically, however, intimidation failed because 
there were too many enthusiastic readers willing 
to take some risk to obtain Amerika. These "reg- 
ulars" had come to depend upon the magazine. 

Although the press attacks and other methods 
of attempted intimidation continued, stronger 
measures were needed to cut off Amerika al the 
source. 

Distribution Cut (1950-52) 

In December 1949 the Soviet distributing 
agency abruptly informed the Embassy that "un- 
sold copies" of Amerika would henceforth be re- 
turned. This was the first intimation of any 
sort from the Soviet Government that the maga- 
zine had been anything other than a complete 
sell-out ; during the previous 5 years, every issue 
had been paid for in full. The Embassy, there- 
fore, replied by asking the distributor to supply 
details as to national distribution and number of 
copies sold, citing extreme inadequacies in distri- 
bution which had developed outside of Moscow, 
specifically in the city of Vladivostok, where offi- 

129 



cials of the American consulate (since closed, but 
then the only center of U.S. personnel in the 
U.S.S.R. outside of Moscow) had never been able 
to observe the magazine on sale. The distributor's 
answer, dated February 11, 1950, stated that 
Amerika was sold in "70 cities of the Soviet Union, 
including all the largest centers'' and that "in 
every one of these cities Amerika magazine is on 
sale at from 3 to 50 newsstands, depending on the 
size of the city." No information was given as to 
which cities were involved, or how many copies 
went to each. 

Regarding the number of copies sold, the dis- 
tributor cited figures purporting to show a pro- 
gressive decline in circulation during the year 
1949 of almost 50 percent. Throughout this 
period, when sales were alleged to have "declined," 
the distributor had continued to pay in full for 
each issue. 

Such a sudden "drop in sales" of a magazine 
which had an established readership and popu- 
larity over a 5-year period seemed quite implau- 
sible to Embassy officials, especially since they con- 
tinued to receive enthusiastic comments from 
readers; vendors were still to be observed selling 
second-hand copies on the streets of Moscow, and 
during 1949 the Soviet authorities issued nine 
separate attacks on the magazine in their press 
and radio. 

Embassy Protests to Foreign Ministry 

In a note to the Foreign Ministry dated March 
21, 1950, Ambassador Alan Kirk said that the dis- 
tributor's reply was unsatisfactory, that distribu- 
tion methods were inadequate, and that "all in- 
formation at the Embassy's disposal indicates that 
well over 50,000 copies could be sold in the Soviet 
Union if distribution were made in a satisfactory 
manner." The note also referred to the absence 
of copies at Vladivostok, and reminded the Min- 
istry that the Soviet Government was "distribut- 
ing freely in the United States an official publica- 
tion of the Soviet Embassy in Washington and 
other information media." 

The Ministry's reply, dated March 31, 1950, re- 
peated the distributor's statement that A7n-erika 
was distributed in 70 cities but named only Vladi- 
vostok; denied that any deterioration of distri- 
bution had occurred; referred to a "fall in 
demand" for the magazine; and stated that "the 
Ministry cannot have influence for increasing de- 
mand on the part of Soviet citizens for the maga- 
zine Amerika.'''' Allegations were also made that 
the distribution of the Soviet Embassy's Informa- 
tion Bulletin was not free and that "U.S. officials 
systematically put obstacles in the path of dis- 
tribution of the Informatiori Bulletin.'''' (This 
latter charge may have been based on the fact that 
certain schools and libraries in the United States, 
entirely of their own volition, had removed the 
Soviet Bulletin from their shelves and asked that 
their names be stricken from the distribution list.) 



In its reply, dated May 26, 1950, the United ' 
States Government expressed regret that the 
Soviet Government appeared unwilling to con- 
tinue to carry out the 1946 arrangement to dis- 
tribute 50,000 copies. It stated that it was "im- 
possible to accept" the Ministry's statements on 
lack of reader interest in Amerika. This Govern- 
ment also amiounced a price cut from 10 to 5 
rubles as a measure to give the magazine maxi- 
mum availability. Ambassador Kirk's note 
summed up the situation, as follows : I 

My government, which in the present Instance as in 
the past, desires to make every possible effort to develop 
and increase exchange of ideas between our countries, 
sincerely hopes that the Soviet government wilt show 
itself more cooperative regarding this magazine than it 
has with regard to other suggestions for cultural ex- 
change in recent years. 

A reply from the Foreign Ministry on June 20, 
1950, denied that an agreement ever existed to 
distribute 50,000 copies. It stated that questions 
regarding the magazine's circulation were matters 
"having a commercial character" and hence were 
not in the province of the Ministry but should 
be taken up with the distributor. The note closed 
with the statement that "on the part of the Soviet 
government there has not been and is no prohibi- 
tion or limitation whatever of the free sale of the 
magazine Amerika in the U.S.S. R." 

The U.S. reply, dated August 25, 1950, stated 
that the U.S. Government could not agree that 
there had never been any prohibition or limitation 
on free sale of Amerika in the past but expressed 
the hope that Moscow would speedily validate its 
claim to that effect. Furthermore, in view of the 
statement that questions of circulation were in the 
province of the distributor, the Ministry was in- 
formed that the Embassy "is presenting a series of 
suggestions for improving and extending the dis- 
trihution of the magazine Amerika^'' The note 
concluded : 

My government understands that, in the light of the 
statement that there is no limitation on the free sale of 
A7nerika, the Soviet government will place no obstacles in 
the path of this further American attempt to increase 
understanding and the exchange of ideas between the 
American people and the peoples of the U.S.S.R. 

Negotiations With Distributor 

On August 2, 1950, a series of proposals for 
better distribution of the magazine was made to 
the distributing agent, Soyuzpechat. These 
included : 

1. Distribution at more than the 20 newsstands 
in Moscow then being supplied and increasing the 
distribution outside of Moscow. 

2. Advertising the magazine both in AmeriJca 
itself and in the Soviet press. 

3. Use of posters and placards at newsstands. 

4. Institution of subscriptions in addition to 
newsstand sale. 

In a conversation during which a memorandum 
containing these proposals was submitted, the 



130 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



head of Soyrizpechat requested that the Embassy 
report details of unsatisfactory distribution as 
they arose. On September 29, 1950, and February 
17, 1951, the Embassy gave detailed reports to 
Soyuzpechat of declining distribution both in and 
outside of Moscow. The reports showed that over 
a period of more than a year the magazine had 
been offered at fewer and fewer Moscow news- 
stands, dropping from 20 to an average of 3 or 4 ; 
travelers saw none in other cities. 

On April 17, 1951, the Embassy summarized the 
evidence : 

The Embassy can only conclude that the distributor 
has deliberately embarked on a campaign of dilatoriness 
In handling the magazine, and of limiting its distribution. 
The Embassy would welcome your assurances that you 
are prepared to distribute the magazine properly for 
sale in the Soviet Union. 

On May 15, 1951, the Embassy received a belated 
reply from the distributor to its three letters. 
The letter read in full : 

I received your letter of April 17. Measures have been 
taken by Soyuzpechat to remove existing technical defects 
in the distribution of the magazine through our retail 
network. 

This brief and somewhat vague reply was, not- 
withstanding, the first admission that the maldis- 
tribution charged by the Embassy existed. 

On June 14, 1951, the Embassy protested to 
Soyuzpechat that issue 46 of Am.erika, which con- 
tained the article on "Wages and Prices in the 
United States," attacked in Pravda, had been 
removed from circulation by the Soviets shortly 
after the attack appeared. 

On July 10, 1951, the Embassy protested the 
delay in reporting on sales. Reports on the last 
six issues had been delayed from 100 to 300 days 
after receipt of the issue by Soyuzpechat. Nor- 
mally they should have been available the follow- 
ing month. On July 18, Soyuzpechat reported 
on sales of five of the six issues in the following 
letter : 

Figures were not reported to you previously, since this 
question is connected with the receipt of reports from 
local agencies ; i.e., from 70 cities in which the magazine 
is distributed. 

On August 3, 1951, the Embassy again requested 
an answer to its proposals for improving distribu- 
tion, submitted almost a year before. In an at- 
tempt to elicit some sort of answer from Soyuz- 
pechat on national distribution more explicit than 
the oft-repeated "70 cities," Soyuzpechat was 
asked to supply details on distribution in the fol- 
lowing 15 cities, including the largest centers in 
the U.S.S.R. : 



Moscow 


Kiev 


Leningrad 


Odessa 


Gorki 


Dnepropetrovsk 


Rostov 


Minsk 


Stalingi'ad 


Baku 


Sverdlovsk 


Tbilisi 


Novosibirsk 


Erivan 


Kharkov 




uly 28, 1952 





A reply to this letter was received on August 
17. Soyuzpechat again offered its standard reply : 
"The magazine Amerika is distributed in more 
than 70 cities in the U.S.S.R. . . ." No further 
details were given. However, after a year's delay, 
the letter gave replies to the Embassy's proposals 
for improvement of distribution. These were as 
follows : 

On subscriptions: "Distribution by subscrip- 
tion was not agreed on." (This was interpreted 
to mean: "Since there was no mention of sub- 
scriptions in the original agreement, we can never 
discuss the question".) 

On advertising : "In regard to the hundreds of 
magazines published in Moscow, the practice of 
advertising them does not exist." This statement 
simply is not true. Advertisements of forth- 
coming publications are frequently carried in 
Soviet periodicals and newspapers. 

On November 20, 1951, the Embassy made a 
last attempt to obtain information on Ameriha's 
distribution. Soyuzpechat was reminded that it 
had ignored the Embassy's request of August 3 
for a breakdown of circulation for 15 of the major 
cities of the U.S.S.R., and the request was repeated. 

In Soyuzpechat's reply dated December 6, 1951, 
this query again was ignored completely. 

Further "Decline in Sales" 

Wliile the above-described negotiations were 
going on, sales figures, as belatedly reported by 
Soyuzpechat, had been steadily declining. From 
27,000 in December 1949, alleged "sales" decreased 
to a low of 14,000 as of March 1952 and 13,000 in 
June 1952. During the same period, unofficial re- 
ports received by the Embassy showed that not 
a single copy was on sale in cities other than 
Moscow. Thus, it appeared questionable whether 
even 13,000 copies were being distributed by 
Soyuzpechat as claimed in statements to the 
Embassy. 

Meanwhile, the "unsold" copies returned by the 
Soviets have been used in countries outside the 
U.S.S.R to reach emigres and escapees from the 
Soviet Union and satellites. During the first ne- 
gotiations with the Soviets in the spring of 1950, 
a world-wide survey was made to determine the 
most useful outlets for returned copies. This dis- 
closed a potential audience of at least 200,000 Rus- 
sian and other Slavic peoples who could read 
Russian. Returned copies, ranging from 25,000 
to 35,000 an issue, have been distributed to these 
groups in such countries as Germany, Iran, Israel, 
Brazil, Greece, Sweden, and Argentina. 

Censorship 

As an absolute condition to the admission of 
any such publication from America, the Krenilin 
had insisted that all copy for Amerika be subject 
to precensorship in Moscow. Vyacheslav M. 
Molotov explained that this censorship was "purely 

131 



a wartime emergency measure." For 6 years, 
however, censorship was not a problem, since the 
censor's cuts were rare and consisted of only a 
sentence or two at a time. In 1951, howevei', the 
censor started on a new policy of rejecting entire 
articles. One of these, "The World's Conscience," 
consisted of the full text of the United Nations 
Declaration on Human Rights. Another was a 
comparison of the operation of public opinion in 
democracy and dictatorship, using Nazi Germany 
as the example of the latter. The third was a 
biographical article on William Saroyan. 

The method of rejection used by the censor was 
simply failure to return the texts of these articles. 
When the Embassy requested their return with 
written notation of rejection, the censor refused. 
Wlien the Embassy repeatedly telephoned to ask 
him the reason for rejection, he refused to come 
to the telephone and callers were referred to a 
clerk. The clerk finally stated, still over the tele- 
phone and not in writing, that the articles were 
rejected because they were "not objective." 

Conclusion 

Despite the Soviet Government's reports of de- 
clining circulation over the past 6 months, De- 
partment of State officials believed that it might 
still be reaching some Russians and were reluctant 
to suspend publication. However, the mounting 
restrictions placed on distribution and the lack 
of evidence that it was reaching any Russian 
readers led to the decision that suspension would 
be in the best interests of the United States at this 
time. The Department is ready to resume publi- 
cation as soon as the Soviet Government is pre- 
jjared to permit free circulation in the U.S.S.R. 



Secretary's Impressions of 
His Recent Visit Abroad 

Press release 559 dated July 16 

At his press conference on July 16, Secretary 
Acheson made the following extemporaneous re- 
marks concerning the impressions he gained dur- 
ing his recent visit to the United Kingdom, Berlin, 
Vienna, and Brazil: 

I suppose what is useful to talk about is not so 
much an itinerary but outstanding impressions. 

The meetings that I had, the discussions that I 
had in England, were primarily business dis- 
cussions. Those are pretty well covei'ed by the 
note which has come out in answer to the Russian 
note on Germany so I won't dwell on those.' It 



is the sort of meeting which we have had many 
times before. 

The visits to Berlin, Vienna, and Brazil were 
not for the purpose of conducting business. They 
were for the purpose of having a Cabinet officer, 
the Secretary of State of the United States, go to 
these various countries because they wished me to 
come, and invited me to come, as an expression 
in my presence of the great interests of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States in the peoples of 
Berlin, the peoples of Vienna, and in our great 
sister Republic of Brazil. 

Now the impression that I get from that is the 
tremendous confidence, certainly in these three 
parts of the world, and the tremendous friendship 
which exists there for the United States — the be- 
lief in the power of the United States, the disin- 
terestedness of the United States, our desire to be 
helpful and friendly and not to impose ourself 
upon others. That stood out in all three of these 
places. 

There is gi-eat trust and great confidence in us, 
and I wish everybody in the United States could 
realize that fully, because it brings to us a correl- 
ative responsibility that we should perform in a 
way which is worthy of that confidence and that 
trust. 

The atmosphere in all of these places was dif- 
ferent. I don't think that I have ever been in 
the presence of such an impressive assembly as 
there was in the great square in Berlin when we 
laid the cornerstone of the American Library." 
It was estimated that upwards of 90,000 Germans 
were standing in the sun through quite a long 
ceremony on a hot day, while the mayor, various 
other dignitaries of the city, the High Commis- 
sioner, John J. McCloy, and I made speeches. The 
stone was laid and for over an hour in the hot sun 
90,000 people stood there warmly applauding on 
certain occasions. 

After this was all over, there were crowds of 
people that gathered around McCloy and me, 
many of them coming from the Soviet areas of 
Germany — people pushing at me their passports, 
or their travel papers to indicate that they lived in 
the eastern sector of Berlin, or in the Soviet 
sector somewhere, and asking for a word or some- 
thing, some expression, some chance to talk with 
me for a moment or two. One old lady said that 
this was something that she was going to cherish 
for months and months and months — this would 
be the thing that she would think over to give her- 
self hope; that she had spoken to me and that I 
represented America. 

It was very impressive : the gi'im determination 
of those Berliners to stay with it, to hold on to 
their freedom. It was a great experience, a great 
tiling to see. I had an opportunity to meet and 



' For text of the .l\ilv 1(1 trioiirtite note on Germany, see 
BuiMTiN of July 21, 1952, p. 92. 



^ For text of the Secretary's remarks on this occasion, 
see ibii., July 7, 1952, p. 3. 



132 



Department of State Bulletin 



talk with the mayor and most of the submayors 
of the western sectors of Berlin at dinner the night 
before. We did not attempt to transact any busi- 
ness but we talked, got an understanding of one 
another's point of view. From there we went to 
Vienna. 

In Vienna one had the same feeling of determi- 
nation. The situation was not as exposed in 
Vienna because the Government of Austria is 
operating in the Soviet parts of Austria, but there 
was the same determination to maintain their free- 
dom, and the same attitude that the Russian oc- 
cupation was a passing thing, that it was not 
accejited as anything permanent. 

I met with the President of Austria, who is a 
most distinguished and fine gentleman indeed, and 
talked with Chancellor Leopold Figl, the Vice 
Chancellor, the Foreign Minister, and many mem- 
bers of the party. I was there only two nights 
and one day, but I saw a vast number of people. 

Perhaps one of the most striking things to me 
was coming into Vienna. We landed at our air- 
port, which is in the Soviet area — it's 20 miles out 
of Vienna. And we came in on the railroad. The 
train consisted of a locomotive, a baggage car, and 
one sort of observation coach at the back with 
large glass windows. It was a Sunday and people 
were out, either bathing or boating on the Danube 
or playing games in a sort of park area between 
the railway track and the Danube. There were 
great crowds of people and as our train came 
along — sometimes just along the railroad track, 
at other times at crossroads or little stations or 
where the train would go through a small village — 
in all the backyards and up on the roofs of the 
houses there were masses of people waving hand- 
kerchiefs, towels, flags, everything at this train 
as it went by. 

In some little jilaces, signs woven out of flowers 
that said "Welcome" were put up. You would 
see in the background some Russian soldiers walk- 
ing about. But nobody paid any attention to 
that. These crowds were expressing a cordial, 
warm, friendly attitude toward us. 

The Chancellor kept saying at our meetings in 
Austria that I was the first Cabinet officer in the 
whole history of the United States who had ever 
visited Austria ; that he was the first head of the 
Government of Austria who had ever visited the 
United States. This was a symbolic thing which 
brought comfort and reassurance to the Austrian 
officials and the Austrian people. It was some- 
thing which I was profoundly happy that I had 
done — this visit to Austria. 

After that day and two evenings, we left on 
our long journey to Brazil. The evenings were 
typically Viennese, very charming. The first 
evening we were there the Chancellor had a per- 
formance of The Marriage of Figaro in the little 
theater in the Winter Palace which had been built 
by the Emperor for the performance of Mozart. 
This performance was beautifully done, exquisitely 

July 28, 1952 



done. And afterwards we met the artists and had 
supper with them. 

The next evening he had a dinner for us, and 
after the dinner some artists from the opera sang 
and then he had a surprise for us, and the surprise 
was a performance by the children who were in the 
Ballet School in the Vienna Opera, the Children's 
Ballet. These little girls who I suppose were 6, 
7, or 8 years old put on a most charming and 
delightful ballet, which was beautifully done. 

From Vienna we had two hard days of flying, 
one long day across the Alps, through the Mediter- 
ranean, along the coast of Africa, leaving at about 
nine in the morning and getting into Dakar at 
about ten at night. We had a very brief look at 
Dakar, which is a most impressive city. Tlie 
French are doing gi-eat things in Dakar. A 
beautiful city is arising on this hot West Coast 
of Africa. All sorts of housing developments are 
going on for the people. You see on one side of 
the road what is left of some primitive sort of 
Innish and straw shacks which are being removed 
while on the other side of the road the French 
are building very neat, fine, little cement houses, 
and as they clear away one of these old shacks 
they replace it with the new, clean, painted cement 
structures. Great school buildings are going up 
all the way out from Dakar to the airport. It was 
very interesting to me. We stayed with, and I 
had most interesting talks with, a most able and 
energetic French High Commissioner. 

We then flew to Brazil, and again, without going 
into details, what struck me so forcefully in 
Brazil was the warmth, the cordiality, the friendli- 
ness, with which I was received by all the Govern- 
ment people — President Getulio Vargas; the 
Foreign Minister, Nevas da Fontoura ; the Finance 
Minister, Horacio Lafer; the head of the Banco 
do Brasil, Mr. Ricardo Jaffet.' All these people 
were warm and friendly and cordial, but every- 
where on the streets there were crowds of people 
who were equally warm and cordial. And that 
is one outstanding impression. There is afi'ection, 
regard, for the United States and a complete lack 
of any worry about our attempting to dominate 
or impose. 

The other great impressions I received were of 
the vigor and vitality and growth of Brazil. One 
knows this, one looks at the maj), one reads re- 
ports. But to fly over it all day long from early 
morning until it gets dark — every ditferent kind 
of country — to see and hear the reports of the 
Joint Commission as to the colossal resources 
which are being discovered ; to see the energy and 
beauty of Rio, and then go to Sao Paulo and see a 
city which is now 2.5 million, which has grown a 
million in the last few years, and which has almost 
any industry that you can think of located thei-e; 
this just boiling ahead with terrific power and 

" For texts of addresses made by Secretary Aeheson at 
Rio de Janeiro and at Sao Paulo, see ibid., July 14, 1952, 
p. 47, and July 21, 1952. p. 87. 

133 



terrific energy — what yon see here is a country 
already great, which is entering upon a period of 
development to which you can see no end. There 
are no limits to the possibilities of this country. 

I met with the Joint Commission made up half 
of Americans and half of Brazilians, who are 
working out projects for the consideration of the 
Export-Import Bank and the International Bank 
and others here in the United States. Here I was 
struck by the gi'eat competence of everybody in- 
volved. We have under the leadership of Eddie 
Miller* here sent down competent men to work 
on the United States side, and they are certainly 
matched and pushed hard by the competent people 
which the Brazilians have put on the Brazilian 
side — engineers, economists, sociologists of the 
greatest ability. And they have gone about this 
thing in a most intelligent way. 

You can be utterly flummoxed by the vastness 
of the problem if you start sitting down and 
deciding everything that should be done to de- 
velop Brazil. In the first place, you would be 
wrong — you couldn't, your mind couldn't encom- 



pass it ; it's too vast a problem. So what the Joint 
Commission undertook to do was to concentrate 
on those things which must be done in order to 
permit the gi-eat development which will come 
fi'om private effort and private initiative; and 
those tilings which have to be done are tlie creation 
of power, creation of transport, and the creation 
of harbors. If you can do those things, none of 
which are for the best opportunities for private 
investment, then you have laid a foundation where 
anything can happen through private effort and 
that's where the Joint Commission is concentrat- 
ing its effort, and that is where the two banks are 
concentrating their effort. And it's already 
having tremendous results. 

Well, as I say, the outstanding impressions of 
my trip to Brazil were the great friendliness of 
the Brazilian people, officials, and private citi- 
zens — the belief that we have a gi"eat friend and 
a great ally in Brazil, and the terrifi^c possibilities 
of that country, both in the present and in the 
future. 

That is a brief resume of impressions. 



Progress Toward European Integration 



TENTH QUARTERLY REPORT OF THE U.S. HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR GERMANY 



On March 31 John J. McCloy, U.S. High Com- 
missioner for Germany^ subinitted to Secretary 
Acheson and to Mutual Security Director W. 
Averell Harriman his 10th Quarterly Report on 
Germany for the period January 1-March 3U 
1952. The report was released to the press in 
Washington on July 11. It contains sections en- 
titled Decisive Steps Toward European Unity, 
The Contractual Agreements, Negotiating a West 
Get^ian Financial Contribution to Western De- 
fense, Southwest State Elections, Berlin Guards 
Its Heritage, The American Houses^ in Germany, 
and West Germany^ Stranded People. The last- 
named section, lohich summarizes the postwar 
refugee problem, is reprinted here, together with 
Mr. McCloy\s letter of transmittal to Secretary 
Acheson and Mr. Harriman. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

I have the honor of transmitting my Tenth 
Quarterly Re^Dort covering the period from Jan- 
uary 1 to March 31, 1952. 

Notwithstanding its tensions and dramatic de- 

* The Assistant Secretary for Inter-Ameriean Affairs, 
Edward G. Miller, Jr. 

134 



velopments of international scope, this period 
marked significant progress and again demon- 
strated that the idea of integration was beginning 
to take roots in Western Europe. The fact that 
attempts, though still undeveloped, were again 
made to remove the Saar question as a constant 
irritant in Franco-German relations was a hope- 
ful sign, particularly as many of the proposed 
solutions involved a so-called European dealing 
with the issue; the Nato Council at its Lisbon 
meeting settled a series of difficult problems in- 
cluding the relationship between Nato and Edc; 
the German financial contribution to defense was 
subsequently agreed upon; and both the Federal 
Lower House and the French National Assembly, 
although with reservations, empowered their gov- 
ernments to proceed with tlie already far-ad- 
vanced negotiations on the establishment of the 
European Defense Force. The rather enticing 
Soviet offer for German unity of March 10,^ ob- 
viously calculated to disrupt the progress of con- 
tractual negotiations with the Federal Republic, 
thus far failed to produce the effect desired by the 
Communist worm, though it did prompt serious 
Allied reexamination of the terms upon which 

' Bulletin of Apr. 7, 19.52, p. .531. 

Department of Sfo/e Bulletin 



unification could be safely advanced. The con- 
tractual arrangements were moving steadily to- 
ward conclusion. The economic situation looked 
bright; production indices continued to be high, 
while unemployment was on the downgrade. 

The Saar question has long been a serious ob- 
stacle to the building of harmonious relations be- 
tween France and the German Federal Republic. 
Since close Franco-German cooperation is the key- 
stone in the development of such supra-national 
agencies as the Schuman Plan and the Edc on 
which European integration hinges, the obstacle 
inherent in a disturbed Saar issue remains ap- 
parent. Wlien the elevation of the French High 
Commissioner in the Saar to the rank of Ambas- 
sador caused a commotion in Western Germany, 
counter-reactions in France were immediately set 
up and together they contributed to prejudices to 
solid progress in building the emerging European 
Community. Yet the determination of the West- 
ern Foreign Ministers and Chancellor Adenauer 
to prevent the Saar, located in the heart of Europe, 
from becoming a stumbling block in the realization 
of the century-old dream of European unity, and 
the understanding of the situation demonstrated 
in the German and French Parliaments, were evi- 
dence that this concept of European solidarity 
has transcended the debating stage. 

By mid-February, the negotiations on the con- 
tractual arrangements had reached a stage where 
important decisions had to be made in order to 
permit further progress leading to the substitution 
of a series of contracts for the Occupation Statute 
and to Germany's participation in Western de- 
fense. At their February 18-19 meeting in Lon- 
don, the Foreign Ministers and Chancellor 
Adenauer reached agreement on many fundamen- 
tal questions up to then unresolved, among them 
the subsequent treatment of war criminals and 
the approach to be taken for the determination of 
Germany's contribution to Western defense. In 
the Lisbon meeting held on February 20-25 by 
the Nato Council, a solution was found for the 
difficult question of the relationship between the 
Edc, of which Germany is a member, and the Nato, 
in which Germany is not a member. These sig- 
nificant developments permitted the negotiations 
both of the contractual arrangements and the 
European Defense Community Treaty to enter 
into their final phase. 

There still remained important problems to be 
solved. One of them concerned the division of 
Germany's defense contribution between Edc 
forces stationed in Gei-many, including the Ger- 
man contingents, and the non-Eoc- forces (the 
U. K. and U. S. contingents) . The problem of an 
arbitration court to consider disputes between the 
Western Allies and Germany was not yet resolved. 
But solutions for these and other difficult questions 
were in the offing. 

These successes of Western policies were certain 
to draw a reaction from the Communist world. 



It came in the form of another Soviet proposal for 
German unification. The Soviet note of March 10 
was the most far-reaching bid so far made to lure 
West Germany away from the West and eventually 
into the Communist orbit. On the surface, the 
note appeared to contain considerable concessions, 
but an analysis of its provisions indicated again 
that the Soviet objective was a solution which 
would leave Germany either under continued Four 
Power controls or in a suspended state where the 
possibilities of Soviet domination would be greatly 
advanced. 

German unity continues to be a major objective 
of Allied postwar policy in Europe; repeated 
earnest attempts of the three Western Allies to 
obtain Soviet cooperation for Germany's unifica- 
tion on a free society basis have remained unan- 
swered. At the close of the period which this 
report covers, the doors of the Soviet Zone and of 
East Berlin had not been opened to the UN Com- 
mission charged to investigate whether conditions 
exist for free elections in the Four Zones and 
Bei'lin. The tripartite reply to the Soviets of 
March 25 • made it clear that the Western Powers 
would continue to exert their efforts to achieve 
German unity in freedom and dignity. At the 
end of this period, the Soviet rulers still gave no 
assurances that they were prepared to give a truly 
free opportunity to East Germans to select their 
own government. Meanwhile the Soviet propa- 
ganda machine thundered on with Peace and 
Unity themes strongly interspersed with germ 
warfare charges strongly reminiscent of the "po- 
tato bug" line of other years. 

The overall economic developments in Western 
Germany continued to be favorable. The produc- 
tion indices continued to be high, achieving 136, 
the highest figure ever recorded for this season of 
the year. Unemployment was again diminishing, 
notwithstanding the continuing influx of refugees 
from the East, and in the month of March there 
was the greatest decrease in unemployment in any 
month since the ciu-rency reform in June 1948. 
The German financial structure appeared healthy 
and capable of absorbing West Germany's contri- 
bution to defense without causing any negative 
ramifications; on the contraiy, it appeared that 
as the only nation with a great untapped reservoir 
of manpower and technical facilities, the Federal 
Republic's participation in the defense effort of 
the West was likely to ensure a steadily rising 
standard of living in Western Germany, notwith- 
standing defense expenditures. 

Gei-man coal production, a vital factor in the 
economic life and defense program of the whole 
of free Europe, showed a noteworthy increase and 
reached a daily average of 411 thousand metric 
tons in the month of March. 

In the elections for a Constituent Assembly, 
held on March 9 in the three states of Wuerttem- 
berg-Baden (U. S. Zone), Baden and Wuert- 

= Ibid., p. 530. 



July 28, ?952 



135 



temberg-Hohenzollern (French Zone), strong 
national issues were injected. Notwithstanding 
an intensive campaign by the government opposi- 
tion, the elections confirmed rather than censored 
the government policy. Chancellor Adenauer's 
Cdtj, despite some losses, came out again as the 
strongest party. The composition of the govern- 
ment for the new Southwest State, which at the 
end of this period had not yet been formed, could 
considerably affect the efficient operation of the 
Federal Govermnent, since each state sends to the 
Upper House a delegation voting in bloc. 

During these elections, the neo-Nazi Srp, which 
participated actively only in Wuerttemberg- 
Baden, where it could campaign for one week 
only, succeeded in obtaining 3.9 percent of the 
vote. Since Wuerttemberg-Baden's economy is 
relatively healthy and jjrosperous, and therefore 
not conducive to the development of radical ele- 
ments, this fact should not be lightly overlooked. 
The neo-Nazi movement in Germany, still unim- 
portant, remained a factor to be watched. 

Although gaining a slight foothold in Wnert- 
temberg-Baden, the Srp ran afoul of German jus- 
tice in Lower Saxony, its original stronghold. 
The Court, considering the case of one of the 
Srp's leaders who was accused of making deroga- 
tory remarks against the participants of the July 
20 plot on Hitler, found him guilty and pro- 
nounced a sentence of three months' imprison- 
ment. The trial was conducted by the Court with 
great earnestness in an obvious endeavor to arrive 
at a morally and legally sound decision. 

Berlin took a firm stand against radical 
nationalism of which there were sporadic indica- 
tions. It appeared very unlikely, however, that 
this outpost of freedom would provide a fertile 
ground for any radical movement. Berlin's eco- 
nomic position showed little change owing to the 
continuation of Communist harassment of Berlin's 
trade. 

The time is approaching for the transformation 
of the Office of the United States High Commis- 
sioner into an Embassy. With this change of 
status, the Quarterly Keport will no longer ap- 
pear; judging by the present stage of negotiations, 
this 10th Report may well be the last regular issue. 
A summary "Report on Germany'' covering the 
whole period of my tenure of office will mark the 
change-over. 

That events have justified this transformation 
is demonstrated by the growing maturity of the 
Federal German Government and its increasing 
stature in international affairs. 

Some may and do say we have proceeded too 
rapidly to this stage — others too slowly. All but 
a few demagogues will concede that the occupa- 
tion is far from oppressive. Indeed, Germany has 
received a full measure of aid from those western 
countries which first met and defeated the Nazi 
attack. With this help, and behind the shield of 
the forces of those countries. Western Germany 



has greatly prospered economically, politically, 
and socially since the dark days of 1945. But to 
continue even this concept of occupation will not 
reduce the risks of totalitarian revival. The exer- 
cise of her own rights and the honest fulfillment of 
her obligations as a partner in a free world is the 
best help for Germany's democratic future. Upon 
conclusion of the contractual arrangements the 
Federal Republic rather than the High Commis- 
sion will have the responsibility for that future. 



Bonn/Mehlem 

Oermany 
March 31, 1952 



.ToHN J. McClot 
U. S. High Commissioner for Oermany 



WEST GERMANY'S STRANDED PEOPLE 

One of the most serious problems in postwar 
Germany is posed by "the refugees"^ who form 
one fifth of the Federal Republic's population. 
While the presence of a vast unused manpower 
reservoir could be a great asset to the West German 
economy, their concentration in predominantly 
agricultural areas and the slow pace of their re- 
settlement to industrial regions causes grave 
concern. 

Since November 1951, there have been increas- 
ing indications that large numbers of refugees 
now concentrated in Schleswig-Holstein and 
Bavaria were organizing "treks" to more prosper- 
ous areas of the Federal Republic. The public 
announcement of this move came as a stark re- 
minder that the problem of West Germany's 
"stranded people" had by no means been solved. 
At the same time it served to point up a problem 
of even broader scope : the virtual immobility of 
important segments of the German population 
resulting from the great housing shortage and 
from the prohibitive cost of building construction. 

Much publicity has been given to the trek plans. 
In a full-scale Lower House debate the govern- 
ments of the Federal Republic and of some of the 
states drew heavy fire for their alleged failure 
to push the refugee resettlement scheme which has 
been lagging far behind schedule. At the same 
time efforts were made to persuade the trek or- 
ganizers of the hopelessness of their endeavor. 
Nevertheless these leaders adhered to their plans 
and agreed to postpone their venture only after 
receiving assurance from Federal Expellee Min- 
ister Hans Lukaschek that renewed efforts to re- 
settle an increased number of refugees would be 



' The groups of persons generally known as "refugees," 
and so referred to in tins article, include the following 

groups : 

1 ) the "expellees" who were forced to leave their homes 
in the prewar German territory east of the Oder-Neisse 
rivers, or ethnic Germans formerly living in countries now 
behind the iron curtain ; 

2) those German "refugees," who have fled from the 
Soviet Zone of Occupation because of political or other 
pressures. 



136 



Department of State Bulletin 



immediately attempted. In fulfillment of this 
pledge the Federal Cabinet completed on March 
14 the draft of a new law providing for the re- 
settlement of 200,000 refugees during the current 
year and announced that sufficient funds were 
now available to build housing for another 100,000 
refugees to be resettled by June 1953. Should 
the redistribution of refugees not be resumed in 
the very near future, some kind of trek movement 
may be expected by the summer of 1952. If it 
occurs, the situation will be one of potential dan- 
ger with which it will be difficult to cope. 

About 9.8 million people who now reside in 
the Federal Republic lived outside the Federal 
Kepublic's boundaries at the outbreak of World 
War 11.^ The bulk of these people, some 8 million 
strong, consists of Gennans who came from Ger- 
man areas east of the Oder-Neisse Line or from 
countries such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hun- 
gary, and Rumania. In addition there are some 
1,700,000 persons from the Soviet Zone or from 
East Berlin who have sought refuge in the Federal 
Republic for political or other reasons. One of 
the chief causes of the present plight of these new 
citizens is their uneven distribution over the eleven 
states of the Federal Republic. 

Expellees and refugees began arriving during 
the last stages of the war and after the conclusion 
of the Potsdam Agi'eement in August 1945. Al- 
though plans had been carefully made by inter- 
national agreement to assure the humane and or- 
derly transfer of certain groups of Germans to the 
Zones of Occupation, the precipitate manner in 
which excessively large ninnbers of pei'sons were 
expelled by the east European governments made 
it extremely difficult to transfer and resettle these 
groups in accordance with the plans agreed on. 
It proved necessary to provide immediate emer- 
gency housing, food and medical care for millions 
of people in the U. S. and U. K. controlled areas. 
With the German economy in a state of near 
collapse, little attention could then be given to the 
long-range aspects of the problem. 

Housing was not available in regions of indus- 
trial concentration where the worst destruction 
had been wrought during the war. Only pre- 
dominantly agricultural areas had remained fairly 
intact and thus were the only source of immediate, 
albeit primitive, accommodations for the homeless 
millions. Available space was further restricted 
by the fact that France, not a party to the Pots- 
dam Agreement, for a long time denied its Zone 
of Occupation to refugees. In April 1950 the 
French first began to accept small numbers of 
expellees repatriated to Germany. 

Thus today's refugee population is still mainly 
concentrated in the agricultural states of Schles- 
wig-Holstein, Lower Saxony (both in the U. K. 
Zone), and Bavaria (U. S. Zone), although their 

' This figure does not include displaced persons of non- 
German nationality. See "Assimilation of Displaced 
Populations," 5th Quarterly Report, p. 56 ff. 

July 28, 1952 



vH 



presence in such states as Wuerttemberg-Baden 
or Hesse also poses serious problems. While the 
three first-mentioned states account for only 38 
percent of the total West German population, 
they harbor within their borders 54 percent of all 
expellees and refugees now living in the Federal 
area. The two extremes are to be found in 
Schleswig-Holstein, where 37 percent of the popu- 
lation are refugees, and Rhineland-Palatinate 
(Fr. Zone), where only 8.5 percent are refugees. 

This obvious maldistribution did not become the 
burning problem it is today until the currency re- 
form of 1948. Up to that point industrial pro- 
duction had been at a virtual standstill. Since 
consumer goods were all but unobtainable, agri- 
cultural workers, many of them refugees, were 
in a better position to obtain food than were city 
dwellers, but with the sudden rise of industrial 
production following the reform, and as payment 
in kind lost some of its premium value, agricul- 
tural jobs became less desirable. At the same time 
the demand for industrial employment and for 
money wages increased sharply while employment 
generally went up. Refugee employment, on the 
other hand, declined at first. Wlien it later showed 
some signs of improvement it did not rise suffi- 
ciently to reflect the true ratio of refugees to the 
total German population. At the same time 
refugee unemployment far exceeded unemploy- 
ment among the native population. This dis- 
crepancy diminished slightly as enterprises were 
established in areas of heavy refugee concentration 
and as the slow process of relocation got under 
way. Nonetheless, in February 1952 there were 
still 568,000 unemployed refugees in the Federal 
Republic, a number roughly equal to one third 
of all jobless while the refugees still constitute one 
fifth of the population. In Schleswig-Holstein 
more than half of all unemployed are refugees. 

Wliile the agricultural areas are still over- 
crowded by job seekers, a shortage of labor has 
been reported from industrial regions of Western 
Germany. Skilled workers are needed in many 
industries and the shortage of miners in the coal 
districts of the Ruhr has long plagued German 
authorities. This state of affairs led to the obvi- 
ous decision to transplant the unused pool of man- 
power to the available job opportunities, and 
thus to serve both the displaced populations and 
the German economy. This plan, simple in its 
conception, has proved to be a difficult one to carry 
out. 

In November 1949, a Federal Ordinance based 
on an agreement concluded earlier by the various 
states decreed that in the course of 1950, 300,000 
refugees would be removed on a voluntary basis 
from Schleswig-Holstein, Bavaria, and Lower 
Saxony and distributed according to a set plan 
among the other states of the Federation, the larg- 
est number to go to the industrial state of North 
Rhine-Westphalia and to the French Zone. By 
the end of 1950 a total of 226,000 had actually 



137 



moved, either by organized transports or on their 
own initiative. 

The results achieved in 1951 were much less 
gratifying. In accordance with a law passed by 
both Houses of the Federal Parliament in May 
1951 another 200,000 were scheduled to leave the 
overcrowded areas during this year. By the end 
of tlie year, however, only 94,000 people had been 
accepted by the receiving states. Of this number 
only 43,000 had been included in organized 
transports. 

It is the comparative failure of this program 
which has led to the present wave of discontent 
among refugees who have spent nearly seven 
years waiting for a chance to move out of their 
emergency dwellings. By the terms of the Basic 
Law they are free to move anywhere within the 
confines of the Federal Republic. Many of them 
have done so and not a few have found employ- 
ment and housing elsewhere. But because only 
those moved in organized transports are reason- 
ably sure to find a job and a home in their place 
of destination, uncertainty about the future has 
been a strong deterrent, so far, to individual 
migration. 

With the large bulk of the refugee population 
definitely dependent on organized transports, the 
failure of such resettlement to continue on a large 
scale takes on serious aspects. Federal authorities 
have countered refugee criticism by pointing out 
that there is little they can do to enforce a Federal 
law which depends so much on the whole-hearted 
cooperation of the several states. Tlie states, on 
their part, reject these charges and state that the 
redistribution scheme for 1951 simply could not 
be carried out in the time allotted. 

The situation is particularly acute in North 
Rhine- Westphalia. This, the largest industrial 
state of Western Germany, had been assigned the 
greatest quota of refugees in 1951 but showed the 
poorest record of fulfillment. State authorities 
point out that acceptance of the refugees implies 
much more than permission for them to enter the 
state. Unless they are to continue to exist in con- 
ditions as bad or worse than in their present habi- 
tat, new jobs and satisfactory housing must be pro- 
vided for them in the receiving state. Jobs can 
undoubtedly be obtained, but the question of hous- 
ing is much more difficult. The density of popu- 
lation in North Rhine-Westphalia is the greatest 
in the Federal Republic, save for that of the city- 
states of Hamburg and Bremen. Despite a great 
amount of construction, housing is still at a pre- 
mium and many of the present residents are f oi-ced 
to commute long distances to get to work. Thus 
the State Government insists that it must be given 
more time to prepare for the arrival of over 
150,000 people. Such arguments are being ad- 
vanced by almost all of the "receiving states." 

Overcrowding, it must be noted, is not a prob- 
lem for the refugee alone. Germans, in general, 
live in much more crowded conditions today than 



they did in 1938. More than 2 million dwelling 
units were destroyed during the war. Some 
800,000 new ones have been constructed since then. 
Owing to the influx of expellees and refugees, how- 
ever, it is estimated that a total shortage of 3.75 
million units still exists if prewar housing stand- 
ards are to be applied. The average number of 
persons occupying one unit (consisting of two 
small rooms and a kitchen) has risen from 3.5 
to 5.3. 

The housing problem is seriously complicated 
by prohibitive building costs which in 1951 alone 
increased by about 25 percent. Private building 
consequently is out of reach for people in the low 
and even medium income brackets. No rent ceil- 
ings apply to housing constructed with private 
funds. House owners building at their own ex- 
pense usually demand from the lessee, in addition 
to the high rent, payment of a sizable sum as a 
means of recovering their investment or in order to 
finance the building (the so-called "Baukosten- 
zuschuss"). As a result large sections of the pop- 
ulation, including the refugees, are totally 
dependent on housing constructed, at least par- 
tially, with public funds since the rents for such 
units are substantially lower. 

Construction of housing with non-private capi- 
tal is mainly financed from three sources: 1) com- 
pulsory investment by insurance companies and 
certain banks, 2) loans from employers who stand 
to benefit from the fact that any dwellings so 
constructed will be reserved for their employees, 
and 3) public funds granted as loans. Since 
building costs are on the upswing and investments 
of the first two types are limited, a much higher 
proportion than before must now come from public 
funds, which in view of other drains on the public 
treasury are also limited. Erp funds especially 
earmarked for housing construction have been of 
considerable help in eliminating this bottleneck.' 
A2)proximately 37 percent of all newly constructed 
public housing is now going to refugees. This 
quota varies in the several states, reaching a high 
in Lower Saxony of 85 percent. 

Wliile resettlement is being retarded by lack of 
housing, manpower, including considerable skilled 
labor, is going to waste. Owing to their peculiar 
position, most refugees have found it impossible 
to make full use of their previous training and ex- 
perience. Many of those who were formerly 
professionals or self-employed have been forced to 
accept jobs, as far as jobs were to be had, as manual 
laborers. This is illustrated by the fact that only 
8 percent of todays refugee population consists 
of self-employed or family helpers as compared 
to 37 percent before their expulsion or flight. At 
the same time, the proportion of refugee workers 
and salaried employees has risen from 59 to 89 
percent. 

In the course of time many of these people have 

' See "More Coal from the Ruhr", 9th Quarterly Report, 
p. ?,i fC. 



138 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



come to think of themselves as second-class citi- 
zens.* Their living conditions are, for the most 
l^art, sub-standard. At the end of 1951, some 
300,000 refugees were still living in camps and an 
estimated two thirds of the remainder in dwellings 
which frequently offer worse accommodations 
than the camps. Cases of several families living 
in one room are frecjuent, and sufficient space is 
the exception rather than the rule. Employment 
prospects are particularly limited for children and 
adolescents who have little if any hope of finding 
apprenticeships or jobs when leaving school. 

A special problem for West Berlin is the arrival 
of refugees at an average rate of over 1,200 per 
week, seeking haven from oppression in the East 
Zone. Although only about one third are ac- 
cepted as political refugees and entitled to employ- 
ment, housing, and social insurance benefits, most 
of the newcomers remain in West Berlin and re- 
ceive public assistance. The Federal Emergency 
Admission Law which became applicable to Berlin 
on February 4, 1952, provided for the transfer of 
80% of the accepted refugees to Western Ger- 
many; West Berlin, however, continues to be re- 
sponsible for the remaining 20% of the accepted 
refugees (estimated to be 40% of those arriving) 
plus all of those who are unrecognized. About 
200,000 persons have applied in West Berlin for 
recognition as political refugees since the begin- 
ning of 1949 ; and an additional number estimated 
to be at least 100,000 persons, reside in West Berlin 
"black" or illegally. 

Attempts to solve the refugee problem have not 
been restricted to redistribution plans. While a 
more equitable redistribution has been the primary 
goal of authorities dealing with the refugee ques- 
tion, serious attention was also paid to plans for 
the improvement of conditions in the present 
refugee areas. Even before the establishment of 
the Federal Republic, the states most concerned, 
singly and together, had worked out large-scale 
plans. In this endeavor they received active sup- 
port, first from Military Government and later 
from HicoG and the Eca-Msa Mission. Another 
decided boost to these efforts was the establishment 
by the Federal Republic of the Expellee Ministry 
as central coordinating agency of refugee affairs. 
Mucli has already been accomplished on the local, 
state and federal levels and more can still be 
expected. 

Four different lines of action have, so far, been 
pursued: 1) social welfare, 2) investment aid, 
3) farm resettlement and 4) housing construction. 

Social welfare services have been of primary 
importance, especially in the early days when it 
was simply a question of keeping the new arrivals 
alive. The refugees had lost relatively more 
during the war and its aftermath than local resi- 
dents; they placed a heavy burden, therefore, 
on German public funds. To aid them and other 

'Tlie largest political refugee organization calls itself 
the "Bloc of Expellees and Victims of Injustice." 



war victims, the Federal Government in 1949 in- 
troduced a Law for the "Equalization of Burdens" 
(Lastenausgleich) geared to tax for the benefit 
of the war victims those best able to afford it. 
This law, not yet enacted, is the subject of an 
extensive political debate. In the meantime most 
of the refugee expenditures have come from an 
Immediate Aid Tax (Soforthilfe), initially in- 
troduced by the Bizonal Economic Administration 
in 1949. 

Steps were also taken to put the refugees back 
on their own feet by making capital available to 
them for investment in new enterprises. It is 
the aim of this program not only to utilize the 
managerial skill and the business experience to be 
found among the new citizens, but also to create 
job openings, most of which are likely to be filled 
by refugees. To assure easy credit to these enter- 
prises, the Federal Government in 1950 established 
the Expellee Bank ( Vertriebenenbank) , capital- 
ized with Erp counterpart funds, which has the 
functions of guaranteeing loans issued by local 
banks and of refinancing investment loans. The 
initially slow operation of the refugee credit sys- 
tem was improved considerably during 1951. 
Great emphasis was also placed on the so-called 
"Point-of -Main-Effort Program" (Schwerpunkt- 
programm). Adopted in March 1950 as the core 
of a general Federal labor procurement scheme, 
this plan provides for the investment of DM 300 
million in the areas of chief refugee concentration. 
The money is to be spent for the creation of the 
largest possible number of permanent jobs and 
special attention is to be paid to refugee enter- 
prises. The funds, almost all of which have al- 
ready been distributed to the recipient states 
(Schleswig-Holstein, Lower Saxony, Bavaria and 
the northern part of Hesse) are allocated by these 
states to various sectors of the economy. Accord- 
ing to estimates of the Federal Erp Ministry, this 
progi'am is chiefly responsible for the reduction 
of refugee unemployment by 120,000 during 1950 
and 1951. By the end of 1951 employment in 
refugee enterprises stood at about 200,000. 

Considerable progress has also been made in 
resettling refugees on farms. By the end of 1951 
some 20,000 farms had been taken over by expellee 
families under a law, enacted in 1948, giving them 
priority in the acquisition or lease of idle, heirless, 
or reclaimed farms. The rate of settlement is 
now estimated at 10,000 per year and it is unlikely 
therefore, that all of the estimated 100,000 refu- 
gee families now waiting for farmland can be 
accommodated before 1962. An additional diffi- 
culty is presented by the size of these farms. 
While the minimum economical size of a farm is 
considered in Western Germany to be 10 to 15 
hectares, the average refugee farm is much smaller 
and may not be viable in the long run. 

Action that has already been taken to solve the 
question of the displaced jjopulations should not 
be underestimated. Many of them have been re- 



Ju/y 28, 1952 



139 



established on farms or in businesses, jobs have 
been created, and refugee employment is on the 
increase. Housing has been continually improv- 
ing since 1945. 

On the other hand, it must be realized that all 
these programs are of necessity limited in their 
effect. The farm program, even should it be com- 
pletely successful, assists only a segment of the 
refugee population, and the payment of social 
benefits will not solve the question in the long 
run. Nor can an unlimited number of refugee 
enterprises be founded in areas where most of 
these people are now located. Industry and, to a 
lesser extent, handicrafts are dependent on a fa- 
vorable environment where raw materials, power 
resources, and markets are easily accessible. These 
conditions do not obtain in Schleswig-Holstein, 
Lower Saxony, and northeastern Bavaria. As far 
as construction of housing is concerned, it seems 
pointless, in the long run, to spend vast amounts 
of money for housing projects in regions where 
the refugees are concentrated today, and where 
the majority of them have little chance of obtain- 
ing employment and making a living. 

The great importance attached to the resettle- 
ment plan is therefore quite evident. There is 
hope that housing construction, the lack of which 
has been the determining factor in the reluctance 
of the "receiving states," will be stepped up con- 
siderably during the spring season, since Federal 
funds have now been guaranteed. If this is the 
case, refugee movements may start rolling again ; 
it remains to be seen, however, whether there will 
be enough tangible evidence of progress to per- 
suade Germany's stranded people to wait for or- 
derly relocation and to maintain their sorely tried 
patience. There is no doubt, moreover, that an 
adequate solution of the problem requires not 
only the forbearance of the refugees, but also 
determined action and a tremendous amount of 
good will on the part of the authorities and of 
the German people as a whole. 



International Bank Makes 
$50 Million Loan to Australia 

The International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development on July 9 announced that it has 
made a loan of 50 million dollars to the Common- 
wealth of Australia. The loan will be used for 
the import of capital goods and equipment needed 
for development programs in the following fields : 
agriculture and land settlement, coal mining, iron 
and steel production, electric power, railways, 
road transport, the production of nonferrous 
metals and industrial minerals, and manufacturing 
industries. Commonwealth and State authorities, 
business enterprises, and individual farmers will 
benefit from the loan. 

About one-third of the Bank's loan will aid 



agricultural development. In spite of Australia's 
rapid industrial growth, her exports still consist 
almost entirely of farm products. If she is to 
raise her foreign-exchange earnings and at the 
same time grow enough to feed her increasing pop- 
ulation, she will have to produce more wool and 
food. The agricultural program consists of im- 
proving production on existing farms through in- 
creased mechanization, the use of fertilizers and 
the adoption of more scientific methods of cultiva- 
tion and animal husbandry, and the creation of 
new farms through land reclamation and irri- 
gation. By 1958, farm production is expected to 
increase by 10 percent. 

Nearly half of the Bank's loan will be used for 
coal mining, the iron and steel industry, railways, 
road transport, and electric power. Coal mining 
is basic to every sector of the Australian economy 
and especially important to the iron and steel in- 
dustry, electric power, and transportation. Be- 
fore and during World War II, Australia was able 
to meet her own needs for coal and had a surplus 
for export. Now, however, because of the rapid 
growth of industry and population, demand ex- 
ceeds supply and coal must be imported at high 
cost. The program for which Bank-financed 
equipment will be used aims at enabling Australia 
to dispense with coal imports. As a short-term 
measure, coal deposits lying near the surface are 
being mined by open-cut methods, and at the same 
time underground mines are being modernized 
and improved. Extensive open-cut brown-coal 
deposits are also being exploited. The Bank's 
loan will finance the import of tractors and earth- 
moving equipment for open-cut workings and 
machinery and equipment for underground 
operations. 

About one-fifth of the loan will be spent on in- 
creasing the production of nonferrous metals and 
industrial minerals and for other industrial de- 
velopment. In recent years, production of lead 
and zinc, Australia's most important metal ex- 
ports, has not been expanding. The production 
of other important nonferrous metals has been 
insufficient to meet domestic needs. The program 
for which the Bank's loan will be used includes 
expansion in the production of lead and zinc, cop- 
per, tin, aluminum, tungsten, and pyrites. The 
loan will pay for tractors and earth-moving equip- 
ment, mining equipment and machinery, and plant 
and equipment for concentrating, smelting, and 
refining. 

The Bank's loan will provide the Common- 
wealth with foreign exchange with which to pay 
for some of the imports of capital goods needed 
for these development programs. The programs 
themselves will be financed in Australian pounds, 
partly out of public funds and partly out of the 
capital resources of business enterprises and 
individuals. 

The Bank's loan of 50 million dollars is for a 
term of 20 years and bears interest at the rate of 



140 



Department of State Bulletin 



434 percent per annum, including the 1 percent 
commission whieli, under the Bunk's Articles of 
Agreement, is allocated to a special reserve. 
Amortization payments will begin in June 1957. 

This is the second loan the International Bank 
has made to Australia. In August 1950 a loan 
of 100 million dollars was made for the purchase 
of capital goods and equipment needed for 
Australia's development. About two-thirds of 
that loan ha.s been disbursed, and it is expected 
that the remainder will have been entirely dis- 
bursed early in 1953. Today's loan will help carry 
forward development in 1954. 

After having been approved by the Bank's Ex- 
ecutive Directors, the Loan Agreement was signed 
on July 8, 1952, by Sir Percy Spender, Australian 
Ambassaclor to the United States, on behalf of the 
Commonwealth of Australia, and by Eugene R. 
Black, president, on behalf of the International 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development. 



Export- Import Bank to Finance 
Agricultural Equipment for Brazil 



Financing of the importation by the State of 
Minas Gerais, Brazil, of American agricultural 
equipment in the amount of $5,000,000 was an- 
nounced on July 3 by Herbert E. Gaston, chair- 
man of the Export-Import Bank of Washington. 

This financing will make possible the resale of 
tractors and implements to the farmers of the 
State on terms comparable with those tradition- 
ally enjoyed by farmers in the United States. The 
distribution of this amount of equipment through- 
out the State will constitute a large scale demon- 
stration of mechanized farming in those areas 
which should greatly stimulate the introduction of 
modern methods. 

This modernization program is sponsored by 
the State administration headed by Governor Jus- 
celino Kubitschek. The State government ranks 
high in Brazil in activities in aid of the farmer and 
stock gi'ower and maintains one of the best agri- 
cultural schools of that country. 

This financing has the support of the Brazilian 
Government and is one of the projects endorsed 
by the Joint Brazil-U.S. Economic Development 
Commission, of which the Brazilian head is Dr. 
Ary Torres and the American head is Burke 
Knapp. 

Minas Gerais, while renowned for its great min- 
eral resources, is also the second State of Brazil in 
agricultural production. It is comparable in area 
and population with the State of Texas in this 
country. 

The terms of the credit call for repayment in 10 
semiannual installments with interest at the rate 
of 4 percent per annum. 

July 28, 1952 

215876—52 3 



ANZUS Council Meeting 

Press Conference Statement by Secretary Acheson 

Press release 558 dated July 16 

I should like to mention again the meeting 
which is being held in Honolulu the first week in 
August and which I plan to attend. This will be 
the first meeting of the Council created by the 
treaty ratified by Australia, New Zealand, and 
the United States on April 29, 1952. It is ex- 
pected that Richard G. Casey, Australian Minister 
for External Affairs, and T. C. Webb, New Zea- 
land Minister for External Affairs, will attend the 
first meeting. 

The reason for my repeating this information, 
which is already familiar to you here, is that there 
still appears to be some misunderstanding about 
the nature of this meeting, especially outside this 
country. 

The treaty signed by Australia, New Zealand, 
and the United States recognizes that armed at- 
tack in the Pacific area on the territories, armed 
forces, public vessels, or aircraft of any of these 
three countries would be dangerous to the peace 
and security of all. Each country is pledged to 
take action in accordance with its constitutional 
processes should such an attack take place.^ 

The Council is meeting in the words of the 
treaty "to consider matters concerning the im- 
plementation of this treaty." The agenda is now 
being drafted by representatives of the three 
Governments. Since this is the first meeting, the 
Council will naturally have to devote a consider- 
able amount of its energies to problems relating 
to its own organization and functions. In addi- 
tion, its members will wish to review matters af- 
fecting their common relationships in the Pacific 
area. 

This treaty is one of three which we have 
recently negotiated with nations in the Pacific, 
the other two being with the Philippines and 
Japan. The United States has a deep and con- 
tinuing interest in the peace, security, and wel- 
fare of all the free nations of the Pacific area in- 
cluding those not parties to these treaties. We 
hope to continue to work with them as they may 
desire to work with each other and with us. 

Parenthetically I should like to add that in 
reading press comments from various parts of the 
world, I have noticed the wide variety of names 
by which the treaty and the Council are called. 
Unofficially here in the Department, we are using 
the term Anzus Treaty and Anzus Council, be- 
cause we think it is the most convenient way of 
referring to the treaty and the Council established 
by it. 



' For text of the treaty, see Bulletin of July 23, 1951, 
p. 148. An announcement of the first meeting of the 
Council appeared in the Bulletin of July 21, 1952, ij. 110. 

141 



Human Welfare: A Practical Objective 



Statement by Walter M. Kotschnig 

Deputy U.S. Representative to V.N. Economic and Social Govmcil 



U.S. /U.N. press release dated July 14 

For the first time in its history, this Council is 
engaged in a comprehensive review of world-wide 
social conditions. This week, after many and 
important debates on the world economic situa- 
tion, we are for the first time attempting to com- 
prehend the full impact of economic factors, of 
technological development, and of ideas and as- 
pirations upon the lives of individuals everywhere, 
and upon their communities and their nations. 

We have embarked on this review because we 
realize that the final test of our work and achieve- 
ment is to be found in human contentment, in 
higher standards of living, in gi-eater freedom. 
Improved agricultural and industrial techniques, 
larger investments, bigger industries, increased 
trade — they all have but one purpose. And that 
purpose is a fuller life for the millions inhabiting 
this earth — a life which will allow them to grow 
to the full attainment of human stature. This is 
the realm in which the foundations of peace are 
laid — the peace which the United Nations is in- 
tended to secure. 



The Report Before the Council 

As background for our review, we have before 
us a remarkable document — the Secretary-Gen- 
eral's Preliminary Report on tlie World Social 
Situation.^ This document is remarkable because 
it presents — also for the first time, and in one 
monumental volume — a composite picture of the 
global social scene by the world's leading interna- 
tional organization. It is, to be sure, a preliminary 
picture. As such — and on the basis of knowledge 
already available to the United Nations and the 
specialized agencies — it concentrates on actual 
human needs rather than on programs to alleviate 
them. Still, by the very assemblage of so vast an 
array of facts on human beings and how they live, 

' U.N. doc. E/CN.5/2(57. 



the report makes a central contribution to the 
interrelated social and economic work of this 
Council. The Secretary-General and his staff, to- 
gether with the specialized agencies, are to be 
congratulated on so able and fair-minded an ac- 
complishment. It is an historic and dramatically 
impelling work. 

Of course, as in any report of such proportions, 
points are made and inferences are drawn with 
which my delegation might disagree. But, with 
one or two exceptions these points are minor. 

There is, though, one serious deficiency to which 
I must refer at the outset. And that is the dearth 
of information about social conditions in some of 
the most important areas of the world. Un- 
happily, information is least available where the 
jDroblems seem most acute. For example, many of 
the less developed countries had very few facts to 
offer. This is understandable. Economic poverty 
and poverty of information go hand m hand. 

But information on a wide range of subjects 
is also unavailable from areas of the world where 
statistics is a flourishing science and where poverty 
is said to have disappeared. I refer to the vast 
areas under Soviet domination. As far as this 
report is concerned, these areas might very well 
lie on the other side of the moon. This darkness, 
this lack of information about Soviet-controlled 
territory, is apparent chapter after chapter, be- 
ginning with the very facts of life itself. 

On births and deaths and morbidity — on the 
whole of the population problem — the record of 
the U.S.S.R. is a blank. On food production and 
consumption it is almost equally blank. And so 
it goes, with some few exceptions, throughout the 
entire report. This dearth of Soviet information 
is most unfortunate, for it deprives the Council 
of the type of analysis which is truly global. And 
it reinforces suspicions that all is not well in the 
Soviet world. 

Still, and despite this, the report is remarkable 
for what it does show : namely, that the achieve- 



142 



Departmenf of Sfate Bulletin 



ments of a hundred years of science and technol- 
ogy have been such as to spread far and wide the 
conviction that neither poverty nor disease is 
inevitable; that fatalism is an outmoded ethic; 
and that life, liberty, and the achievement of 
happiness are within the reach of all. As the re- 
port states in one of its most telling passages : 

. . . there has spread among impoverished peoples of the 
world an awareness — heightened by modern communica- 
tions and movements of men — that higher standards of 
living not only exist for others but are possible for them- 
selves. Fatalistic resignation to poverty and disease is 
giving way to the demand for a better life. The demand 
is groping and uncertain in direction, charged with con- 
flicting emotions regarding the old and the new, but it 
is nontheless a force that is establishing an irreversible 
trend in history. 

Thus, two revolutions are being fused in one : The 
revolution in the thought and institutions of man 
that has resulted from the consistent application 
of free inquiry and social intelligence to natural 
and human problems ; and the revolution of rising 
expectations of man everywhere. New tools for 
human betterment have been created and a new 
ethic has been born, dynamic and affirmative, 
which make it possible, in the words of the report, 
"to think of the welfare of the whole human race 
as a practicable objective." 

This is a challenging objective but there is 
a long road ahead of us before it can be attained. 
It is paradoxical, but true, that by comparison 
with the more developed countries the conditions 
of the people in the economically underdeveloped 
countries seem in many respects worse today than 
they were 100 or even 50 years ago. New tensions 
have thus been created in the world which demand 
our undivided attention. 



Areas of Danger 

Let us look at some of the jiroblems of the 
peoples of the less developed countries as they are 
brought out in this report. 

Population Increase — There is wide disparity in 
standards of living among the world's 21/2 billion 
persons. The ai^plication of practical measures 
to raise these standards in underdeveloped areas 
is made the more difficult because these are the 
very places on the globe where population is in- 
creasing most rapidly, infant mortality is highest, 
and mass disease most prevalent. 

Disparity in Income Levels — Associated with 
this population problem are wide differences in 
income. At a time when the social distance be- 
tween the world's people is narrowing with each 
technological advance, any widening of the eco- 
nomic distance between the different peoples of 
the world is especially poignant. 

Of course, no statistics can measure the varying 
contributions of environment — climate, culture, 
economic institutions, community services — to 
real incomes and standards of living. Still, and 
with all their limitations, the summary of per 



capita income figures given in the report show 
sliockingly low incomes in much of Asia, Africa, 
and Latin America. It shows, too, little relative 
l^rogress in some of these areas in comparison with 
prewar years. 

In the matter of income distribution within 
communities, there are sharp contrasts between 
the economically developed and the less developed 
countries. In the more developed countries there 
has been a general leveling-up process by which 
the lower income groups have progressively had 
a larger share of the national income. 

In the less developed countries, by contrast, as 
the report — perhaps with too great moderation — 
puts it, "the wealthj' few . . . enjoy a larger pro- 
portion of the total income" than in the indus- 
trialized countries. And these disparities are 
widening rather than narrowing. 

Inadequate Food Production — World food pro- 
duction as a whole is still too small to feed its 
growing population even as well as in prewar 
days. There is tragically low food production 
in many of the less developed countries of the 
Far East, the Near and Middle East, and even in 
parts of Latin America. Europe has made an 
impressive recovery from its war devastation but 
it, too, is still below its prewar standard. 

Over most of the Far East, where nearly half of 
the world's population lives, food supplies per 
capita are lower than in the prewar period by 
about 10 percent. Average calorie supplies, in 
general, are short of minimum requirements in 
all regions except Europe, large parts of the 
Americas, and Oceania. Malnutrition is an ever- 
present ijroblem for the vast majority of the 
world's people. They look to, but have not yet 
received, the positive advantages of the revolution 
in food ijroduction techniques. 

Housing Needs — As regards housing, no coun- 
try, as the report says, is without its housing 
problem. There may be as many as 150 million 
families in the less developed areas in need of 
better shelter and as many as 30 million families 
in the more developed countries. Even before the 
last war, there was a long-standing housing defi- 
cit in the industrialized countries. Now obsoles- 
cent and unhealthy homes need to be replaced and 
new ones must be built for an ever-growing popu- 
lation — at costs people can afford. 

In the less developed countries, however, hous- 
ing is an even more serious problem. We 
scarcely know its dimensions, either in the cities 
or on the farms. But, by and large, we do know 
that such housing is incredibly poor by any mod- 
ern standard. 

Conditions of Work — Next, let us look at con- 
ditions under which people work to earn their 
living. These conditions — while generally much 
improved in the past half century in the indus- 
trialized countries — give no cause for compla- 
cency. The report high lights the fact that three- 
fifths of the world's people make their living from 



Jul/ 28, 1952 



143 



agriculture. And agriculture, as we all know, is 
not only beset by natural hazards of flood, 
drought, and pests. And all too common in the 
very countries where the largest part of the popu- 
lation lives on the land are such problems as in- 
security of tenure, uneconomic land holdings, un- 
deremployment, and low returns that give bare 
subsistence from the land. In general, agricul- 
ture is best off in the very countries where indus- 
try, too, is most prosperous and best organized. 

It must also be noted that the small-scale handi- 
craft industries which prevail in vast areas of 
the world have not shared in the progress of the 
industrialized countries toward social better- 
ment — in the progress toward the 8-hour day, the 
shorter workweek, the vacations with pay, the 
social security and minimum-wage legislation, and 
other elements of the good life in all their striking 
improvements since the turn of the century. 

I have noted five of the major problems which 
beset the people of the less developed countries. 
They are diversities in levels of living, housing, 
and conditions of work; and underproduction of 
food in the very areas where population is rising 
most rapidly. 

Encouraging Developments 

Health — Taken alone, these facts add up to a 
dismal picture. But hand in hand with them 
there are a few encouraging developments. There 
is, in the first place, a world-wide improvement in 
health. Modern methods of medicine, environ- 
mental sanitation, and communicable-disease con- 
trol have contributed to a lowering of death rates. 

DDT has eliminated malaria from Italj', Brazil, 
and Ceylon. These are actual accomplislunents. 
Yet 300 million people still continue to suffer from 
malaria, and, of these, 3 million die annually. The 
discovery of penicillin has enabled attacks on 
other mass diseases. Yaws, which once was ramp- 
ant over most of the land between the two tropics, 
can now be stamped out. 

It is true that developments such as these have 
the effect of increasing total population. But, and 
this is the hopeful side, such developments can 
at the same time be a factor in increasing the food 
supply. A farmer free of malaria is better able 
physically to attend his crops. 

Increase in Literacy — And there is another 
hopeful development: the recent world-wide in- 
crease in literacy. Of course, literacy is not a sole 
measure of the educated man — witness the vast 
areas where most of the people may be illiterate 
but by no means uneducated. These areas have 
thousands of years of civilized history behind 
them. They have created great strengths and 
great cultural institutions; they possess rich oral 
traditions and provide a moral texture which 
make many of the traditions of so-called developed 
countries seem thin by comparison. Still, in so- 
cieties moving from handicraft to industry. 



literacy is prized if only as insurance that the in- 
dustrial signs will be read and that the new 
methods of work will be widely communicated 
and understood. 

Hence, the recent progress in adult education 
and in mass literacy campaigns is providing the 
ground work for a highly practical transitional 
form of training called fundamental education. 
It is "fundamental" in the sense that it provides 
the minimum knowledge and skills needed to at- 
tain a better life. And it is "education" in that 
it helps people understand the problems of their 
immediate environment and their rights and duties 
as citizens and individuals so that they can partici- 
pate more effectively in the social and economic 
life of their communities. 

I have gone to some length to review the social 
conditions of the world as the report gives them 
to us. Review is necessary as a starting point 
for concerted action. The fact that we have this 
picture before us as a basis for practical action is 
itself an indication of progress. Fifty years ago, 
the very putting together of such a picture would 
have been impossible. Now we have both a chal- 
lenge and an opportunity in this Council to con- 
sider in an over-all way what can be done to realize 
"the welfare of the whole human race as a practi- 
cable objective." 

There is another reason for taking encourage- 
ment. It is apparent to my delegation, as it must 
also be to you, that the less developed countries 
are now in a situation from which the West only 
recently emerged. In this very fact there is a 
tremendous advantage. The report puts this very 
aptly when it states that the progress of the less 
developed countries must necessarily differ from 
ours 

if only for the reason that Western development has al- 
ready taken place and the present end-products of this 
development are clearly evident. Improvements in sani- 
tation, education, communications, labor policy, social 
services, etc., that developed in a slow or more or less 
experimental fashion in Western countries, are being 
deliberately taken over in their end-form . . . while 
there is at the same time a conscious effort to avoid the 
mistakes. 



The Choice Before the Contemporary World 

At this point we posit the most fundamental 
question before the contemporary world. The 
end-products, as of 19.52, of a long and painful 
process in scientific and technological develop- 
ment are here, for everyone to see, for everj'one 
to take over and to adapt to their conditions. The 
question is: "Will they be taken over imbedded in 
the spirit which created them and which makes 
them cajiable of continuous change and improve- 
ment? Or, will thej' be taken over in terms of a 
political creed which is at fundamental variance 
with the spirit that created and continues to ex- 
pand them? 

This question has been forced upon all of us by 
the vociferous prophets of communism. It is of 



144 



Department of State Bulletin 



particular relevance to tlie underJeveloped coun- 
tries, especially those \Yhich have only recently 
freed themselves from external domination. The 
Soviets have usurped the fruits of Western in- 
ventiveness and free inquiry to the point of deny- 
ing their Western origin. And, having done so, 
they now pose as the saviors of the downtrodden 
and the oppressed. 

They hold out a mirage of the perfect society, 
free of poverty and disease — a society run by 
leaders free of error and possessed of final and 
total wisdom. So great is their alleged wisdom 
that disgrace, imprisonment, or even death is 
the fate of those who dare to deviate. Whether 
it is a question of the physiology of plants, or the 
laws of physics, of political "lines" or social con- 
cepts, the ultimate in achievement has been 
reached. 

These claims cannot be rejected out of hand. 
The very fact that they have sown confusion in 
the mincis of many who are striving to improve 
their own conditions makes it necessary to ana- 
lyze them. The propaganda directed by the Com- 
munists against the free world — against the cra- 
dle of the gi-eat advances — calls for a reply. 
There can be no intelligent choice between the free 
society and the totalitarian state, unless there is 
a clear understanding of their differences in social 
achievement and organization. 

And this obliges me to probe more deeply into 
what might be called the difference between the 
way of the free and the way of the controlled^- 
between the social achievements of a democratic 
society and the achievements of the totalitarian 
state. I hope I shall be forgiven if I use illus- 
trations primarily taken from the social evolution 
of the United States. It is the evolution I know 
best, and it is the evolution which is the prime 
target of Soviet propaganda. 

The Way of the Free 

Freedom, though its origins reach well beyond 
its Western orbit, is the greatest heritage of the 
Western World, whether we think of the intellec- 
tual history of Europe or of the Western Hemi- 
sphere. In the United States it found expression 
in our Declaration of Independence which pro- 
claims that all men are created equal, and are en- 
dowed by their Creator with an unalienable right 
to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, and 
that the sole purpose of government is to secure 
these rights. 

This is the creed which has been and continues 
to be the origin of whatever strength we may have, 
whatever progi-ess we have achieved in social and 
political organization. It is the source of ever 
new initiative and inventiveness, and of devia- 
tions from common practices which mean new dis- 
coveries. 

It is the beginning of the continuing revolution 
which has brought the United States to its present 
state of living and achievement. It is the basis 

July 28, 1952 



from which the people of the United States started 
out in their search for gi-eater equality among 
men, not only as a philosophical concept but as 
an economic and political reality. The road has 
been long and arduous and the end is not in sight, 
but there can be no doubt about the dynamics 
which are driving us forward. Fundamental 
changes have been wrought even within the last 
two generations, a fact deliberately overlooked 
by our critics. 

Gains Spread Throughout Population 

The extraordinary rise in production, in in- 
come, and in the standard of living in the United 
States in the last half century is well known. 
Equally important, but less well known, is the way 
in which these economic and social gains have been 
spread throughout the entire population, and 
especially in the lower income groups. 

In this connection, I would like to quote from a 
forthcoming book by Frederick Lewis Allen, the 
disinguished editor of Harpers magazine. In 
this book, entitled The Big C'ha7ige, Mr. Allen 
points out that in 1900, Andrew Carnegie's an- 
nual income was at least 20 thousand times gi-eater 
than that of the average American. Since then, 
however, the change in the U.S. scene has been 
such as to be described by the Director of Research 
of the National Bureau of Economic Research as 
"one of the great social revolutions in history." 

This revolution, however, has not been well un- 
derstood. To quote Mr. Allen again : 

When Vishinsky, or Gromyko, or Malik berates the 
United States, talking for instance, about "lackeys of 
Wall Street", what he is doins is berating, exaggeratedly, 
the United States of 1900 rather than that of today. 

If what he says makes an impression among many 
non-Communists in other countries, this is at least partly 
because a large number of non-Americans, aware of the 
importance of business and of businessmen in the Ameri- 
can scene, imagine that these, today, closely resemble 
their counterparts of a generation or two ago. 

The mental picture of the United States that the 
average non-American carries about with him is lamen- 
tably irrelevant to the real United States of today. 

"Leveling Up" of Income Distribution 

I wish to correct this erroneous picture. Take 
income redistribution first. Over the past 20 
years the evolution in the United States — an evo- 
lution which has so greatly increased the size of 
our national income — has been accompanied by a 
vast leveling up in the distribution of income. 

In 1929 the national income was less than 90 
billion dollars. By 1951 it had risen to nearly 280 
billion dollars. In 1929 the 5 percent of our citi- 
zens in the top income brackets got 34 percent of 
the national income. By 1946, after paying the 
higher income taxes imposed during the war 
years, this group received only 18 percent of the 
national income. This same general distribution 
has continued, with minor variations, since 1946. 
Or, to put it another way : In 1929, 66 percent of 

145 



the national income was shared by the 95 percent 
of the population in the lower income brackets; 
in 1951, their share of this much larger income had 
risen to 82 percent. 

Thus, the average income of families in the 
lower and middle income groups has risen very 
sharply. In 1951, one in every three families had 
an income of $3,000 to $5,000 ; another one in every 
five between $5,000 and $10,000. Thus, millions 
and millions of families have climbed an income 
bracket or two. They are industrial workers, of- 
fice workers, farmers — millions of whom, in the 
past two decades, have moved up the income scale 
to a position where they can enjoy what has been 
traditionally considered a middle-class way of 
life. 

Take factory workers. Their average weekly 
earnings increased from less than $10 a week in 
1909 to about $60 in 1951 or sixfold. Real earn- 
ings, after allowance for rising prices, more than 
doubled. All this time, the length of the working 
week was gradually reduced from 60 hours to 40 
hours. This gave everyone very much more leis- 
ure in which to enjoy the fruits of his earnings. 

Underlying this increase in real income are not 
merely our large natural resources but a continu- 
ing rise in the country's productivity — in indus- 
try, in agriculture, and in transportation. In the 
20 years from 1929 to 1950, and after allowing for 
the rise in prices which took place during the 
period, there was an increase in total output of all 
private industry in this country of 75 percent. 
At the same time, of course, the population was 
increasing. But, taking that into account, the 
average increase in production in private industry 
per person was 1% percent per person per year — 
again in real terms, after allowing for the price 
rise. 

This phenomenal increase was the result, as I 
have said, of inci-easing productivity in agricul- 
ture, mining, transportation, and manufacturing. 
And I might point out that this productivity in- 
crease represents not only the application by man- 
agement of technological progress in industrial 
production. It also represents gi'owing coopera- 
tion between labor unions and management. As 
these years have gone by there have been increased 
profits for management, higher wages for labor, 
and more goods for everyone to buy. 

The doctrine of low profit mai'gins in a mass 
market, at moderate prices, is but one phase of this 
picture — the consumer's side. The rapid rise in 
the share of the national income going to wage 
and salaried workers has given strength to that 
mass market. And the rise in wages has been 
assisted by the growth of free trade-unions in 
membership and in bargaining strength. 

A Day's Work Buys More 

Tlie very real increase in the buying power of 
the worker's dollar can be shown by a simple 



example — namely, and as compared to the years 
before World War I, liow many hours must an 
American factory employee work today to get 
some of the common, everyday necessities of life. 

In 1914 it took 21/^ ten-hour workdays to buy a 
ton of coal to heat the house. Now it takes less 
than half as long — 10 hours and 20 minutes. In 
1914 it took 17 minutes to buy a pound of bread. 
Now it takes 6 minutes. It took 24 minutes' work, 
then, to buy one quart of milk; now it takes 9 
minutes — about one-third as long. 

Another indicator of the rise in standards of 
living of the industrial workers is the share of 
the worker's earnings which must be spent for the 
first necessities of life — food, shelter, fuel, and 
light — as compared with what is left for clothing, 
home furnishings, and all the other things that 
make life more enjoyable. 

By this standard, progress in this half century 
has been most striking. At the turn of the cen- 
tury, a typical city worker's family averaged 
about five persons and its income in those days of 
cheap dollars was about $750 a year. At that 
time, after paying for food and shelter alone, a 
typical family had left only 37 percent of its earn- 
ings, or $277. 

Fifty years later, at the half century, the typi- 
cal worker's family was much smaller, averaging 
3.4 persons, and its income had multiplied over 
fivefold to $3,870. After paying for food and 
shelter, these families now have more than half 
of their income left. Moreover, there is freedom 
to choose what they will buy and an adequate sup- 
ply of goods and services from which to select. 

Among other things, they have chosen — indeed, 
have learned — to buy better food, especially such 
protective foods as milk, fruits, and vegetables. 
The nutritional content of food consumption per 
person in the United States in 1909 as compared 
with the current year shows marked increases in 
such important food elements as calcium and iron 
and the most important vitamins. Per capita 
consumption of milk — so important for the health 
and growth of children — has increased more than 
10 percent. And this has happened despite the 
great population shift from the farms to the 
cities in this more than 40-year period. 

The rise in food ]iroduction, which has made 
better nutrition possible, has been the result of a 
variety of factors — more mechanization, soil-im- 
provement programs, improved seed, price incen- 
tives, and so on. Not the least important are the 
social factors. The great spread in rural elec- 
trification has brought better farm living, better 
roads in farm areas, and better technical educa- 
tion for the fanners themselves. 

Second only to food in importance in the stand- 
ard of living is housing. The United States be- 
lieves in home-ownership. Over half of America's 
families own their homes. Outside this island of 
Manhattan, where building must go up and not 
out, and except for one or two other very large 



146 



Department of State Bulletin 



cities, postwar home building has largely been 
single-family homes for purchase by owners. 

Between i940 and 1950, single-family, owner- 
occupied homes increased by more than 6 million. 
As before the war, building has been stimulated by 
providing families with Federal mortgage insur- 
ance for loans, with a relatively small initial pay- 
ment and monthly payments like rent. 

Despite the progress achieved, and despite the 
added fact that 85 percent of American homes 
have one person or less per room, there is much 
that remains to be done. There are still slums to 
be cleared in our large older cities. Our neighbors 
to the south — in Montevideo and Buenos Aires — 
are in a better position than we in the United 
States to speak of their slumless cities. 

More housing must be built for very low income 
groups. This has been part of our Federal, State, 
and local programs for some years. Altogether, 
housing experts estimate that an average of one 
million new dwellings should be built per year 
for a number of years to come. This figure has 
been equaled or exceeded for several years, and 
this year it seems likely that at least another mil- 
lion will be built. 

I now turn to the problem of health. One of the 
basic sources of national strength is the health 
and well-being of the people. The vital and health 
statistics over the last 50 years describe progress 
in this field more vividly than almost anything 
I might say. 

Back in 1915, when we first took stock of infant 
mortality on a Nation-wide basis, we were losing 
10 percent of our babies before they were a year 
old. Now, the rate is less tlian 3 percent. Side by 
side with lowered infant mortality has come re- 
duction in the loss of mothers from childbirth, 
until today there is less than one such loss per 1,000 
childbirths. 

The crude death rate, despite the growing pro- 
portion of older people in the total population, is 
less than 10 per 1,000 population for 1950. Since 
the beginning of the current century, life expect- 
ancy has increased 20 years. This means that the 
average American now lives to nearly 68 years — 
or more than twice the life expectancy in two- 
thirds of the world. 

Mass diseases which beset the United States at 
the turn of the century today are under control. 
Some diseases listed in the report, such as typhoid 
fever, have reached the vanishing point. In fact, 
the only one named which even appears in the list 
of leading causes of death in the United States is 
tuberculosis. And it has dropped in incidence 
from 194 deaths per 100,000 people to 22. As a 
result, we now are concentratmg on such diseases 
as heart trouble and cancer which are more apt to 
occur in later life. 

How Did It Happen? 

Initiative of Citizens — Now, what is the story 
behind this improvement? How did it happen? 



We started in what has become a typical pattern 
in this country. The initiative came first from 
a few interested and enlightened citizens uniting 
to attack immediate health problems in their own 
communities. 

From such tiny beginnings in voluntary as- 
sumption of responsibility, there have grown up 
in the United States vast medical and public- 
health services. Gradually, local and State gov- 
ernments and, finally, the Federal Government 
began to supply health services, medical care, and 
widespread sanitation programs — all of these sup- 
plementing what the pioneering private agencies 
were doing. 

In 1915 only 14 out of more than 3,000 counties 
had full-time public health services. Today, such 
services are operating in nearly 2,000 counties. 
The program still is expanding. In the last 5 
years, the Federal Government has provided 
nearly half a billion dollars in aid to State hospi- 
tal construction — to take but one example — and 
the States themselves have provided a billion dol- 
lars more for this purpose. 

Even so, 70 percent of our hospitals were estab- 
lished by voluntary efforts, another 25 percent by 
local and State governments, and only 5 percent 
by the Federal Government. These private and 
public agencies work together with the medical 
profession to provide coordinated local medical 
services. 

Along with these developments has gi'own a 
group of medical schools and colleges, most of 
which are privately financed. They train doctors, 
dentists, and nurses, and conduct extensive medi- 
cal research. Currently some 25,000 doctors and 
over 100,000 nurses are in training. Wlaile more 
are needed, we now have 211,000 doctors — or one 
for every 717 people in the population. 

Thus, through the combined efforts of private 
practitioners, voluntary organizations, private 
industry, public and private institutions, and all 
levels of government — local. State and Federal — 
the many facets of our democratic society have 
been brought into close collaboration in the quest 
for better and better health. 

Care for the Disadvantaged — What has been 
done to care for the disadvantaged — the old, the 
poor, the needy mothers with young children, the 
disabled? The picture is much the same as in 
the case of health: first, privately financed local 
institutions ; then, growing responsibility by gov- 
ernmental agencies to supplement voluntary 
efforts. 

Again, these programs are administered by local 
or State bodies close to where the people live, with 
grants of funds and guidance on standards com- 
ing from Federal sources. The great exception is 
the Federally administered system of old-age and 
survivors' insurance. 

To look back a bit. As late as in 1929, li/^ bil- 
lion dollars in private benefactions accounted for 
nearly three-fifths of the total spent for welfare 



Jw/y 28, 7952 



147 



projects. Twenty years later, private giving had 
more tlian doubled, but it represented less than 
one-fifth of the total. The stake of private agen- 
cies had grown. But, because there was a much 
bigger job to be done, the Federal Government had 
expanded public expenditures for welfare nine- 
fold. 

In 1935 a system of Federal grants to States 
began to supplement the work already being done 
to aid dependent children, the blind, the disabled, 
and the indigent aged. Last year, more than 5 
million people were receiving help from Federally 
aided public assistance, and another three-fifths 
of a million from State and local public funds, in 
addition to those helped by private agencies. 

Social Insurance — But this is not all. The past 
two decades have brought to the United States 
the system of social insurance which European 
countries had begun to adopt even before World 
War I. We learned from them and made adapta- 
tions to our own peculiar set of circumstances. 

The social-insurance system, adopted on a 
Nation-wide basis by the United States in 1935, 
is financed by contributions of employers and 
employees. Today, nearly 9 in every 10 paid 
workers are covered by this and other retirement 
programs. Dependents and survivors of benefici- 
aries also receive benefits. Since its inception, 
over-all benefit payments have increased by 75 
percent and only this month — July 1952 — the 
Congress voted another increase to help keep up 
with rising living costs. 

Since life expectancy has been extended and a 
growing share of the U.S. population is over 65 
years of age, old-age insurance is of great present 
significance. It provides by right of contrilni- 
tions a means for living out one's life with dignity 
and independence — a right so important in an 
urbanized, industrializecl society where families 
are often scattered and do not and cannot assume 
the same responsibilities as in an agrarian society. 

Mininnvm Wages; Injury and Vnemployment 
Compensation — Finally, there are the number of 
social programs instituted in the past three dec- 
ades to assure equitable pay and greater security 
on the job : minimum-wage legislation for women 
and, later, for men ; workmen's compensation for 
those injured on the job; and, in the early 
1930"s, unemployment compensation — adminis- 
tered jointly by the Federal Government and State 
governments and financed by contributions from 
employers. This unemployment compensation 
system has been a great factor in maintaining 
stability in the economic scene and removing the 
fear of total loss of income in periods of un- 
employment. 

Growth in Education 

The same multilateral and cooperative tech- 
niques are apparent in the way we educate our- 
selves. The goal of free and compulsory education 



dates back to our early development. Yet, as 
recently as 1870 only a little over half of our chil- 
dren, aged 5 to 17 years, were enrolled in school 
and the average attendance was less than 80 days 
a year. 

Consider the contrast today. According to an 
advance release f I'om the 1949-50 Biennial Survey 
of Education publislied by the U.S. Office of Edu- 
cation, practically all of our school-age children 
actually are now in school and for exactly twice 
as much time each year. Compulsory education 
ranges from age 8 up to age 12. Over 19 million 
children are in elementary schools and nearly 6 
million more are in secondary schools — for an av- 
erage of nearly 160 days out of a 178-day session. 

In addition, 38 oiit of each 100 secondary-school 
graduates are going on to college or university. 
Over 214 million students are enrolled in regular 
sessions — to say nothing of summer sessions and 
evening and part-time enrollments. Today there 
are more Negroes enrolled in institutions of higher 
learning thxm were enrolled- in high schools in 
1920. 

According to the same Biennial Survey., nearly 
9 billion dollars — over 4 percent of the national in- 
come — was spent on public and private education. 
Of this, only a small portion — less than 3 per- 
cent — came from Federal sources in support of 
public education. Over half was supplied by local 
communities and the i-est by counties and States. 
Education, in fact, has become the biggest public 
enterprise within the States. 

This system of education represents a gradual 
refining and application of beliefs rooted in the 
tradition of tlie country. With us, education is 
the responsibility of the people, with legal control 
resting in local and State authorities — not the Fed- 
eral Government. Education, as conceived in the 
United States, assures the survival of individual 
freedom. Everyone has the inherent right to edu- 
cational opportunities consistent with individual 
requirements and ability to become a productive 
citizen. 

Practically every child now has the opportunity 
for vocational, technical, or professional education 
beyond the secondary school. This better educa- 
tion has meant higher skills, more efi'ective work 
and higher income. These in turn mean still bet- 
ter education in the future. 



Progress Springs From Freedom 

I have gone to some pains to show the extent to 
which the United States has transformed itself 
in a relatively short time from an underdeveloped 
country to a high state of industrial and social de- 
velopment. But, in detailing our high levels of 
living, I have not meant to boast. Instead, I have 
used these details of living and housing and health 
to show how problems which affect all countries 
are being dealt with here. 

I have attempted to bring out some of the mate- 



148 



Department of State Bulletin 



rial and intangible reasons which have made for 
progress in the United States. I have mentioned 
the logic of our mass production, the contributions 
of free labor unions, the value of cooperative tech- 
niques, and others. 

But there is more. We have, of course, been 
helped by our location which has protected us 
from the ravages of war and invasion. But again, 
it is far more than that. 

As I said earlier, freedom is the fundamental 
ethic of the people of the United States. As a 
result of this freedom, there is initiative and in- 
ventiveness, a basic belief in growth and progi'ess. 
There is a lack of class consciousness which 
springs from our faith in the dignity of the indi- 
vidual and the mobility — as much social as geo- 
graphic — of the American, who does not hesitate 
to abandon one job and seek another that gives 
him greater satisfaction. 

And, speaking of mobility, we cannot forget 
that we are a Nation of immigrants from scores 
of countries. These immigrants liave brouglit 
with them their ideas and aspirations, which have 
become fused in the powerful dynamic which dom- 
inates American life. And if, in our present state, 
we are able to contribute ideas and methods to 
other countries, it is but one form of "the native's 
return." 

The Totalitarian Way 

By contrast, let us now look at the promise and 
reality of the Communist world. 

The Soviet system, as I said earlier, has taken 
over the end products of Western technology and 
some of its momentum. By introducing Western 
techniques and applying the fruits of scientific re- 
search, the Soviet Union has made progi'ess in its 
agricultural, industrial, and above all, in its mili- 
tary equipment. I shall have more to say on that 
later on. 

At the same time, the political philosophy and 
the social organization of the Soviets constitute 
a complete denial of those human values and con- 
cepts which have made for freedom and for prog- 
ress in other parts of the world. This trend has 
become particularly marked during the last 20 
years. These are the years which saw in Russia a 
resurgence of its traditional forms of despotism. 
And, in connection with this, there was brought 
about a marriage of shopworn and badly under- 
stood nineteenth century social theories with a 
militant anti-Western nationalism. 

The result is a society with no understanding, 
let alone respect for the dignity and the rights of 
the individual. He, an unhappy man, is a tool of 
the all-powerful state. He has no political rights. 
True, there are the trappings of Western democ- 
racy; a constitution stipulating popular repre- 
sentation, the rights of man, and limits to 
governmental power. But, as Andrei Vyshinsky, 
the authoritative interpreter of Soviet law, has put 



it: "The dictatorship of the proletariat is un- 
limited by any statutes whatsoever." 

Thus we have before us the pathetic picture of a 
great nation which, having cast off the yoke of an 
inefficient and corrupt monarchy, has fallen victim 
to an even worse despotism. All decisions on its 
political, social, cultural, and economic develop- 
ment are made by a few men in the Politburo of 
the Communist Party. 

Distortions of Propaganda 

The individual is not allowed to conduct his own 
affairs, and he must even be careful about think- 
ing his own thoughts. Completely shut-off from 
outside contacts, he is subjected day-in and day-out 
to an unrelenting propaganda which uses per- 
version and distortion as effectively as it uses the 
Big Lie, both as regards conditions at home and 
elsewhere in the world. This propaganda never 
fails to extol the wisdom of the leader and to 
expound the latest edition of the Marxist dogma. 
Woe to the heretic who sticks to the orthodox 
view of yesterday. He is fortunate, if let off 
after an abject recantation. 

Wliere the propaganda of the dictatorship does 
not achieve its goals, terrorization does. Every 
totalitarian regime apparently needs and has its 
concentration camps. In the Soviet Union the 
victims of forced labor are not only political of- 
fenders who dared to speak out or act against the 
regime; they are also ordinary citizens who were 
suspected of a lack of sympathy with the 
Government. 

I shall not enlarge upon these camps, even 
though they are an integral part of the socio- 
economic system prevailing in that country. 
There will be other opportunities to tui'n the 
searchlight of public inquiry and opinion on these 
camps when the report of the Ad Hoc Committee 
on Forced Labor becomes available.- 

Subservience of Trade-Unions 

Instead let us consider the conditions of the 
ordinary worker in the Soviet Union. There was 
a time, in the early 192U's, when trade-unions in 
the U.S.S.R. tried to act as defenders of the 
workers' interests against the Government as the 
almighty employer. This interpretation of the 
trade-union's role in a socialist state was short- 
lived; in fact, its jiroponents were equally 
short-lived. 

Since they perished, the organizations which 
call themselves trade-unions in the U.S.S.R. have 
chiefly one function : To increase, in the interest 
of the State, the volume and quality of production 
while lowering the cost of production. Collective 
bargaining is not among their functions and the 
strike not among their weapons. 

' For a statement by Mr. Kotschnig on evidence of forced 
later in the U.S.S.R., see Bulletin of July 14, 1952, p. 70. 



July 28, 1952 



149 



The speed-up, as we know, is common and the 
norms ai'e continually being raised. Soviet work- 
ers have to put up with whatever labor conditions 
their one and only employer dictates. Wages are 
fixed by the Govermnent ; so are prices, and work- 
ing hours. Labor discipline is strict and any 
breach of its numberless provisions is severely 
punished. All jobs are frozen. Leaving the 
pLice of employment without the express permis- 
sion of the management is punishable in court by 
imprisonment for from 2 to 4 months or, in defense 
industries, up to 8 years. 

Since 1938 every worker has been required to 
have a labor book with detailed data on his em- 
ployment history; this internal passport enables 
the boss to control the worker effectively at all 
times. To sum up : Labor is defenseless against 
the monopolistic em/ployer — the omnipotent State. 
It is hedged in hy punitive legislation. It is 
under constant pressure to increase output. 

It is a question whether the main purpose of 
the rulers of the Kremlin is really the economic 
and social progress of their country, and the hap- 
piness of their people ; or whether they are driven 
by an unlimited lust for power which knows no 
frontiers, be it the sacred preserves of the indi- 
vidual or the borders of other nations. 

One thing, of course, is evident : The Soviet re- 
gime, at the cost of developing consumers indus- 
tries, has built up a gigantic military machine and 
heavy and engineering industries able to support 
a prolonged war effort. 

There is another question to ask : Has the Soviet 
system of complete regimentation paid off in 
terms of social dividends? Has the sweat and 
toil of the Soviet worker, not to mention his loss 
of freedom, been compensated by a better life for 
the people and by higher standards of living? 
Or has this regimentation resulted in a lack of 
individual initiative, a lack of productivity, a 
lack of social inventiveness, and hence a lack of 
achievement in terms of better living? 

As I stated earlier, Russia has made progress in 
certain fields during the past third of a century. 
I am the last to deny that. The education of the 
masses, once woefully neglected, has gi'eatly im- 
proved; you cannot build a modern industrial 
society with illiterate people. Besides, the writ- 
ten word is one of the most powerful means of 
pro]iaganda. 

Women in the Soviet Union are, by and large, 
on an equal footing with men. This means, for 
all practical purposes, that they have as much or 
more work and as little to say. At the cost of a 
loss of all freedom, full employment is said to 
have been secured, even though f I'ictional and sea- 
sonal unemi^loyment continues. Facilities for 
leisure time activities have been created. But, 
here again, leisure has been made to serve the 
interests of the almighty party-state rather than 
the enhancement of the individual. 



To Earn a Loaf of Bread 

But what of the basic elements which enter into 
what is commonly called the standard of living? 

An approach to this question can be found by 
comparing the time it takes a worker in Moscow 
and in some of the free countries to earn the neces- 
sities of life. Take food, for example. A recent 
study shows that it requires 4I/2 hours of working 
time for a typical factory worker to buy a pound 
of butter in Moscow as compared with a little 
under 2 hours in Germany, three-quarters of an 
hour in Denmark, and half an hour in the United 
States. 

It takes 9 minutes of work in a factory to earn 
a pound of potatoes in Moscow. Throughout 
Western Europe and North America it requires 
not more than 5 minutes, and as few as 2 minutes, 
whether it be in Italy or Denmark or Germany or 
the United States. The cost of a pound of bread 
varies from about 14 minutes of work in Moscow 
to 6 to 10 in the United States, Switzerland, Ire- 
land, Denmark. 

It takes nearly twice as long to earn the money 
to buy a pound of poi'k in Russia as in Italy and 
three and a half times as long as in Norway. 
For a pound of sugar it takes a little under 2 
hours work in Moscow as compared with 37 min- 
utes in Itiily, 21 minutes in France and Germany, 
and 4 minutes in the United States. 

In part, of course, these great variations are the 
result of governmental policies with reference to 
food prices and production. But they are quite 
as much a reflection of greater productivity of 
workers in real terms in the free countries of the 
world. 

This picture can be supplemented by a few 
figures regarding that part of the national income 
in the U.S.S.R. which enters the consumers mar- 
ket. It may be recalled that as a result of Lenin's 
New Economic Policy, which meant a return to a 
limited free-market economy, Russia recovered 
from war and revolution and doctrinaire experi- 
ments and by 19'28 had roughly regained its 1913 
level of national income. According to a careful 
and objective paper recently submitted to the 
Conference on Soviet Economic Growth sponsored 
by Columbia University, total consumption in 1928 
amounted to 21 billion rubles. 

There followed the introduction of economic 
planning a la Stalin. The result was that by 1937, 
i.e., before the conversion to a full war economy 
once again reduced the standard of living, Soviet 
consumption — expressed in rubles of the same pur- 
chasing power — had increased to 23.3 billion. In 
the meantime, however, the population had risen 
from 149 to 168 million people. Thus consump- 
tion per capita in 1937, the peak before the Second 
World War, remained as low as in 1928, the peak 
before the period of socialist planning, and as low 
as 1913, the last year of peace in Tsarist Russia. 

There is every evidence that since then per 
capita consumption has increased only slightly 



150 



Department of State Bulletin 



if at all. To illustrate this startling statement I 
wish to introduce a few unpublished figures from 
the 1951 houseliold budget of a Moscow family — 
figures which, incidentally, have been carefully 
checked. 

How a Moscow Family Lives 

The family consists of three people, a couple 
and their only child, who enjoy an income far 
above the average. The average monthly Moscow 
wage is approximately 600 rubles, but our man, 
a white-collar worker, earns almost twice as much, 
i.e., nearly 1,200 rubles a month. His take-home 
income is about 1,000 rubles, since approximately 
200 rubles are deducted for taxes and for sub- 
scriptions to the governmental lottery loan. These 
subscriptions are, for all practical purposes, com- 
pulsory, and vary with the income. They are, 
therefore, but a form of taxation. 

The rent amounts to 60 rubles with 9 rubles 
added for gas, between 10 and 20 rubles for elec- 
tricity, anct 25 rubles for private telephone. This 
comes to 104 to 114 rubles in all. The telephone, 
of course, is a luxury for Moscovites, but the man 
needs it for his job. The rent seems to be cheap 
but you have to consider Soviet housing condi- 
tiojis. 

This family shares its 3i/^-room apartment with 
two other families. Our white-collar worker, 
having a relatively high income, lives with his 
wife and child in li/o rooms. The two other fami- 
lies are crowded into one room each, altliough one 
consists of four, the other of seven persons. Al- 
together, there are 14 people in the Si^-room apart- 
ment and they all share one toilet and one kitchen. 
With such crowding, the rent is high enough. 

It should be said in parenthesis that Soviet 
housing necessarily continues to be poor despite 
crying needs which have been accelerated by war 
damage. This is because the military establish- 
ment and heavy industry have first claim on in- 
vestment funds. I quote from the Ece (Eco- 
nomic Commission for Europe) Economic Survey 
of Europe in 1951 (page 80) : 

The extent of over-crowding in [Soviet] cities is indi- 
cated by the fact that in 1939, urban dwelling space 
averaged only about five square meters per person, or 
about % to % as much as in most Western European 
countries. 

Since then, housing conditions have deterio- 
rated. In recent years the average Soviet urban 
dweller had slightly more than 3.5 square meters 
of dwelling sjsace or about 38 square feet. May I 
mention in this connection that in the United 
States the inmates of Federal prisons are allotted 
54 to 65 square feet per person? 

To go back to our white-collar worker. After 
paying his taxes, his rent and utilities, and about 
30 rubles for subway fares, he is left with a little 
over 800 rubles, all of which go for the purchase 
of food. And this, in fact, is barely enough to 



feed the entire family, let alone to provide ade- 
quate clothing. 

His wife has to work in order to help meet the 
family bills for the bare necessities of life. This 
is not surprising, considering that even after the 
jjrice cut of March 31, 1952, a liter of milk costs 
about 3 rubles, a kilogram of butter almost 32 
rubles, and a kilogram of pork or fresh fish about 
24 rubles. With such prices, 800 rubles are 
quickly spent. It should be remembered that 800 
rubles are more than the average wage earner's 
total monthly income. 

An Ideal Place for Millionaires 

I said earlier that over the past two decades in- 
come distribution in the United States has been 
substantially leveled up. In the U.S.S.R. the op- 
posite development can be observed in the same 
period. There is a growing diversification in in- 
comes and with it there has emerged a new class 
structure. 

The Soviet Union has developed several upper 
classes. These are formed, at the toj), by the lead- 
ers of the party and government, the managers of 
large enterprises, and well known intellectuals; 
and, on the next level, by minor dignitaries and 
luminaries, while the toilers are left behind. The 
upper class may not own enterprises but they run 
them ; they have large incomes and endow their 
children with an expensive education, valuable 
contacts and, at their death, with a considerable 
inheritance. For not only are income taxes in 
the U.S.S.R. low on high incomes but there ap- 
pears to be no inheritance tax. From a fiscal point 
of ^^ew the Soviet Union is an ideal place for 
millionaires. 

These are telling facts. The student of Soviet 
affairs, as he puts together the bits and pieces of 
information which penetrate the Iron Curtain, 
cannot help feeling that there is something funda- 
mentally wrong in the Soviet system. 

There appears little, if anything, left of the 
revolutionai-y fervor of the early years of the 
regime. And there is none of the drive for change 
and individual improvement and a better society 
which characterizes the world of the free. 

All that appears to remain is an eager expec- 
tancy, a make-belief that the free countries of the 
world will collapse, and that their people too will 
be pulled down to the levels of the i^roletarian 
state. 

Experience in Satellite States 

We have examples of that kind of "leveling" 
in the satellite states which embraced the Stalin- 
ist creed not because they wanted it, but because a 
Communist minority under the protection of the 
Soviet flag established a ''dictatorship of the pro- 
letariat" in accordance with the Soviet pattern. 
There is nothing missing: Purges and forced 
labor camps, the same system of exploitation, the 



Jo/y 28, 1952 



151 



same policy of militarization, including the forced 
construction of armament factories at the expense 
of consumer industries. There is only one basic 
difference. Some of these countries once enjoyed 
not only model democratic institutions but also a 
high standard of living. All that is gone. 

Czechoslovakia, for instance, was a prosperous 
country before the war and was on its way to re- 
covery in 1947, but living standards have steadily 
deteriorated there since the Stalinist seizure. The 
President of Czechoslovakia himself, in his New 
Year's message of 1952, had to refer to "the diffi- 
culties we experienced during the past year, es- 
pecially in the general consumer market, and 
which admittedly caused a good deal of irritation, 
particularly to our housewives." 

This statement is not unexpected when it is re- 
called that Communist Czechoslovakia, 7 years 
after the war, had to maintain or reintroduce 
strict rationing of bread and other foodstuffs, 
soap, and textiles. At that, the rationing system 
does not even work. In the words of Commis- 
sioner of Trade Jan Busniak, as broadcast on 
January 18, 1952 : 

We have witnessed frequent defects in our rationing 
system. . . . Often not enough commodities were avail- 
able to honor valid ration cards. . . . The free market 
■was not supplied with enough commodities to cover the 
justified requirements of the working people. 

The reintroduction of bread rationing in March 
1951, incidentally, was due to Soviet withholding 
of promised grain deliveries. This fact seems 
strangely at variance with what the Czech dele- 
gate called the U.S.S.R.'s "brotherly aid" to his 
country. 

General Conclusions 

I wish now to draw a few conclusions from all 
that has gone before. The first is that the socio- 
economic problems of the world, although formi- 
dable, are not insoluble. Anyone reading the re- 
port on the world social situation must be im- 
pressed and encouraged by the striking advances 
in standards of living and social organization 
which have been achieved within a few genera- 
tions in large parts of the world. There is hope 
for the poor and the oppressed, the sick and the 
illiterate everywhere. It has indeed become pos- 
sible to think of "the welfare of the whole human 
race as a practical objective." 

Second, these advances are the direct result of 
scientific discoveries and technological progress 
which are in turn based on free inquiry and the 
application of social intelligence. They are at- 
tributes of evolving democratic societies which 
derive their dynamic qualities from a recognition 
of the dignity of the individual and his ability to 
think and act for himself. 

Third, the claim of international communism to 
be able to meet the needs and the rising expecta- 
tions of people, particularly in the underdeveloped 
countries, appears to be hollow. Its methods are 



at complete variance with the values and concepts 
which have made for progress elsewhere. 

Still, and to test the Communist claim, I have 
made an analysis of their society as it exists today. 
The result, I believe, has been to show that mere 
technology cannot solve human problems. Hu- 
man values and human rights — the rights of indi- 
viduals — these are all important. In spite of the 
fact that the Soviet people have been driven to 
ever greater production their living standards con- 
tinue to appear pitiably low. And, having con- 
tributed so little to the welfare of its own people, 
one wonders what the Kremlin can contribute to 
the welfare of others. 

If there is any further proof needed of the 
soundness of these conclusions we only need to 
look for a moment at the United Nations and the 
specialized agencies. They are a signal expression 
and a confirmation of one further conclusion 
reached in the report. This states 

Governments have accepted the principle that in the 
interests not only of their ovm communities but of the 
world in which these communities exist, they mu.st or- 
ganize and undertake mutual aid. 

Yes, we have organized for purposes of mutual 
aid. We have ci-eated a technical assistance pro- 
gram which is perhaps the best means of making 
available, wherever it may be most needed, the 
end-products of 100 years of progress in technical 
knowledge and social organization. 

Through the World Health Organization we 
are combating the great killers of mankind such as 
malaria, tuberculosis, and the endemic diseases 
that are the scourge of tropical countries, and we 
are laying the foundations for health services 
which will mean greater productivity and happier 
lives for untold millions of people. Through 
Unicef (United Nations International Children's 
Emergency Fund), millions of children have been 
helped to survive and to grow into useful citizens 
of tomorrow. 

Through the International Labor Organization 
we are assisting in the training of manpower and 
the improvement of wages and working condi- 
tions. We are aiding in the establishment of sys- 
tems of social security and other guarantees to 
assure those who need it most a proper share of 
any economic advance their countries can achieve. 

And through the United Nations itself, in coop- 
eration with the specialized agencies, we are help- 
ing in the development of community service and 
welfare centers as part of the drive for higher 
standai-ds of living. 

In formulating all these programs and in build- 
ing up the organizations to carry them out, the 
nations of the world have shown real social in- 
ventiveness. They have shown that the days of 
fatalism are indeed over. They are — in the words 
of the report — inspired by a new ethic and are 
carried forward by new dynamics which augur 
well for their future and the future of the world. 

It is significant, however, that one group of 



152 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



countries refuses to have any share whatsoever in 
that heroic drive for a better world whicli is within 
our reach. Tliese are the countries under Com- 
munist controh Tliey have refused to liave any 
part in such organizations as the World Health 
Organization, the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization, or the Food 
and Agriculture Organization. They have not 
made a single expert available to advance the ex- 
panded program of technical assistance. They 
have contributed neither funds nor supplies. 
They have offered nothing but obstruction and 
sterile criticism. 

Since these are the countries in which freedom 
has died, we have in our very midst a striking 
confirmation of my thesis that freedom is not just 
a philosophical concept but a most powerful force 
for human advance. 

Still, and despite the abstention and the obstruc- 
tionism of the Communist countries within the 
United Nations, our efforts to advance the eco- 
nomic and social standards in the world by mutual 
effort are becoming increasingly effective. We 
feel certain that when another edition of the Re- 
port on the World Social Situation appears a few 
years hence it will reflect these efforts. 

Of course, more, much more, needs to be done. 
I shall not enter into any details at this point. I 
shall have more to say when we discuss the report 
of the Social Commission. I would like, though, 
to emphasize certain points as matters of im- 
mediate concern. 



My delegation, together with the Government 
and people of the United States, is looking for- 
ward to the publication in 1954 of a companion 
volume to the present report — a volume which will 
offer us a survey of national and international 
measures taken to improve the world social con- 
ditions outlined here. My delegation believes that 
such a companion volume will help us to dis- 
cover and to refine the most effective methods that 
can be used nationally and internationally to im- 
prove world social conditions. . . . 

Second, we hope that the present report and 
our discussions of it, as well as the consideration 
of the report of the Social Commission, will lead 
to greater concentration of efforts in advancing 
those social objectives which can most effec- 
tively be attained by way of international co- 
operation. . . . 

In the demand by the underdeveloped coun- 
tries for higher living standards there lies a great 
challenge to the United Nations. As one of the 
United Nations, the Government and people of the 
United States have deeply committed themselves 
to the gi'eat effort of mutual aid in which we are 
here engaged. We shall continue to cooperate in 
this effort through the United Nations and the 
specialized agencies for a social advance beyond 
today's achievements. And we fervently hope 
that some day the bells of freedom will ring 
throughout every land of this world. For it is 
or.l}' in freedom that ever greater progress can be 
attained and secured for all. 



The Soviet Germ Warfare Campaign: The Strategy of the Big Lie 

Statements iy Ernest A. Gross 

Deputy U.S. Representative to the United Nations 



SECURITY COUNCIL STATEMENT OF JULY 1 

U.S./U.N. press release dated July 1 

I should like to explain to the Security Council 
why the U.S. Government felt impelled to request 
on June 20 the addition to our agenda of a new 
item entitled "Question of request for in- 
vestigation of the alleged use of bacteriologi- 
cal warfare."^ 

The draft resolution circulated by the U.S. dele- 
gation on the same date, document S/2671,- refers 
to the concerted spreading of grave charges by 
Communist governments and authorities, includ- 
ing charges made in the United Nations by repre- 
sentatives of the Soviet Union, that U.N. Forces 

' For text of statement made on June 20 by Ambassador 
Gross, see Bulletin of July 7, 1952, p. 35. 
'Ibid., p. 37. 



fighting against Communist aggi-ession in Korea 
have resorted to the use of bacteriological 
weapons. 

For many months the world has been exposed 
to a campaign, both false and malicious, the tar- 
get of which is nothing less than the United Na- 
tions itself. Few people are deceived. The very 
methods employed to fabricate evidence and to 
propagate the charge have revealed the lie for 
what it is. 

However, the campaign should not be shrugged 
off or ignored as merely another example of the 
evil nature of international communism. The 
venom which is being injected into the minds of 
men is intended to confuse, to divide, and to 
paralyze. 

Another objective clearly is to isolate the free 
world from the United States. They try to do 



July 28, J 952 



153 



this by singling us out for special condemnation. 
This is why the people of the free wox'ld should, 
for their own security, take a cold, hard look at 
the facts. 

It must be remembered that the germ warfare 
charges, as such, are but a part of a still larger 
campaign of hatred now in progress in the Soviet 
Union and areas under its control and influence. 
The United Nations will do well to watch this 
development closely in all of its manifestations. 
Wliatever the basic motivations behind it, how- 
ever, one fact stands out clearly : They are utterly 
contradictory to any claim by the Soviet regime, 
the self-styled leader of the international Com- 
munist movement, that it is interested only in 
world peace and the improvement of international 
relations. The campaign of hatred is the very 
contradiction of an expression of peaceful 
intentions. 



Origins and Nature of the Campaign of Hate 

Now, what are the facts concerning the origins 
and nature of the campaign of false charges con- 
cerning the use of germ warfare in Korea by the 
Unified Command? 

In 1951, during the period of Communist mili- 
tai'y set-backs in Korea, there was a minor cam- 
paign alleging the use of bacteriological weapons 
by the U.N. Forces in Korea. The 1951 campaign 
was launched on March 22— by a brief item on the 
Peiping radio, immediately picked up by Pravda. 
The Peiping item reporting that the U.N. Com- 
mand was engaged in the production of bacteri- 
ological weapons for Korea was allegedly drawn 
from Japanese sources. The actual source of the 
report was a Soviet publication, reviewed in Red 
Star on April 4 and titled : "Bacteriological War- 
fare Is a Criminal Weapon of the Imperialist 
Aggressore." In March and April there were 
other brief mentions preparatory to a major 
charge on April 30. Pravda repeated the false 
charge on INIay 5, and on May S the North Koreans 
dutifully sent an official protest to the United 
Nations. But this campaign soon died out except 
in North Korea, which had to justify a break- 
down of sanitation and medical facilities and a 
smallpox epidemic. It was not until the present 
1952 cam])aign that tlie heavy guns of Soviet 
propaganda blasted out on germ warfare. 

The present campaign has been gaining mo- 
mentum since February 23, when the official Mos- 
cow press repeated a brief Peiping radio broad- 
cast alleging that U.N. aircraft had dropped 
germs on North Korea. There followed protests 
by the North Korean and Chinese Communist 
Foreign Ministers, a sliarp increase in Soviet 
press and radio comment, denunciations by the 
Soviet-controlled World Peace Council, and 
staged mass meetings of protest in the Soviet 
Union. 

My Govermnent and the U.N. Command real- 



ized that the charges aired in February 1952 por- 
tended a world-wide campaign of far greater 
scope than the sniping character of previous germ 
warfare charges. 

On March 4 the Secretary of State of the United 
States thei'efore said : 

I would . . . like to state categorically and un- 
equivocally that these charges are entirely false; the 
United Nations Forces have not used, and are not using, 
any sort of bacteriological warfare.^ 

I now repeat and reaffirm this denial. 

Similar flat denials were made by the Secre- 
tary-General of the United Nations, by the U.N. 
Commander in Chief, by the Secretary of Defense 
of the United States, and by numerous other re- 
sponsible officials of other U.N. members, includ- 
ing those contributing forces to the repulsion of 
aggression in Korea. All of tliese persons were 
in a position to know what they were talking 
about. 

My Government took further steps in an attempt 
to forestall this campaign of hate before it de- 
veloped to dangerous proportions. As soon as 
the campaign was launched, the Secretary of 
State challenged the Communists to submit their 
charges to the test of truth by allowing an im- 
partial investigation. On March 11 he requested 
the International Committee of the Red Cross 
(IcRc), as a disinterested, international body, to 
determine the facts.'* This investigation, the Sec- 
retary said, would determine the extent of the 
epidemic then apparently in progress in North 
Korea and would provide additional evidence of 
the falsity of the biological warfare charge. 

To these ends, the Secretary emphasized the 
need for an investigation on both sides of the bat- 
tle lines in Korea. A specific invitation was 
issued to the Red Cross investigators to cover the 
areas behind the U.N. lines. 

The International Committee of the Red Cross 
agreed to set up a committee to make such an 
investigation, provided both parties agreed to it 
and offered their cooperation. The committee was 
to consist of "persons who will offer every guar- 
antee of moral and scientific independence which 
could be offered by experts who have the highest 
qualifications, especially in epidemiology," and 
would include scientific experts proposed by Far 
Eastern countries "not taking part in the conflict." 

The Secretary of State accepted the offer of the 
International Committee of the Red Cross at once.^ 

Communist Reversal of Attitude Toward the ICRC 

The Communists have yet to give the Inter- 
national Committee of the Red Cross an official 
and definite answer. However, the Soviet-con- 
trolled propaganda machines all over the world 

' Ihid., Mar. 17, 1952, p. 427. 
' Piid., Mar. 24, 1952, p. 452. 
•/6id., p. 453. 



154i 



Department of State Bulletin 



at once began a drive to blacken the character of 
tlie IcRC. 

The attacks on the Icrc have not diminished 
the respect in whicli it has long been held by the 
world for its impartiality and its works of mercy. 
My Government still believes that it is pre-emi- 
nently the logical choice to conduct an investiga- 
tion into these charges, with the aid of such 
scientists of international reputation and other 
experts as it may select. 

The Kremlin has often tried to divert public 
attention from its own wrongful acts by seeking 
to destroy confidence in fair methods of learning 
the truth. There is no excuse for their attacks 
upon the Ickc. They should not be permitted to 
destroy so valuable and important a servant of 
the international community. 

Only 5 days before Soviet propaganda de- 
nounced the Icrc as a tool of the "imperialists," 
Humanite, the Communist newspaper in Paris, 
itself suggested the possibility of a Red Cross 
investigation. The Icrc was not "imperialist" 
then, because the Communists had not yet labeled 
it so. 

Moreover, Red Cross societies in a number of 
the Soviet satellite countries had themselves shown 
their respect for the Icrc. On March 6, 1952, the 
Rumanian Red Cross asked the Icec and the 
League of Red Cross Societies "to make urgent 
approaches to the United States Government and 
the United Nations to the end that immediate 
measures would be taken" to end the use of germ 
weapons in Korea. The Soviet-controlled Polish 
and Hungarian Red Cross societies in Februai-y 
of this year made similar appeals to the Inter- 
national Committee of the Red Cross. The Red 
Cross of Communist China itself, in 19.51, ad- 
dressed appeals to the Icrc — the very organization 
it now began to assault and seek to undermine. 

The rapid reversal of attitude on the part of the 
international Communist movement toward the 
Red Cross is in itself an exposure of the falsity of 
the germ warfare campaign. We see that Com- 
munist parties around the world actually appealed 
to the Red Cross up until that moment when a 
real investigation became possible. Then, sud- 
denly, the Soviet propaganda apparatus went hur- 
riedly into reverse gear, and the International 
Committee of the Red Cross became overnight an 
alleged "tool" of Wall Street. 

Soviet propaganda, on the heels of the United 
Nations denials and the request for impartial 
investigation, at once began to push the campaign 
of hate and lies with intense vigor. 

On March 13, the day after the IcRC communica- 
tion to the Communists, the Soviet authorities 
launched in Moscow an organized mass meeting 
of "workers" — a meeting characterized by par- 
roting of the charges in a manner designed to 
create a bitter and burning hatred against the 
United States and the U.N. effort in Korea. 



Typically, Pravda on March 14 reported the 
following statement from the Moscow meeting : 

Their barbarous activities threaten the spread of terrible 
epidemics of fatal illness in countries of Asia and Europe. 
The peoples' conscience cannot reconcile itself to inhu- 
mane and savage crimes of these misanthropists who 
defy elementary laws of general morality. 

The venom was being injected. The Moscow meet- 
ing formed the pattern for similarly staged ses- 
sions throughout the controlled world of inter- 
national communism. 

The Moscow newspapers, Pravda and Isvestia, 
both devoted full pages on March 14 to the Moscow 
"hate" session and the Soviet radio gave far 
greater attention to the germ warfare charges than 
to any other item. 

On March 13 Peiping announced the formation 
of a so-called "investigation commission" care- 
fully selected from among Chinese Communists to 
insure its partiality. Before it began its work, 
its chairman announced that its purpose was "to 
gather the various criminal facts on bacteriologi- 
cal warfare waged by the American imperialists." 
On March 14 the Soviet representative made a fur- 
ther move to enlarge the scope of the camiDaigii by 
introducing the charges of germ warfare into the 
Disarmament Commission. On March 15 the 
satellite Hungarian Government loyally echoed 
the Soviet "Fatherland" protest campaign. And 
on March 16 the French Communist paper, 
Ewnanite, came forth with its first big spread on 
germ warfare. The major Communist papers of 
India, Brazil, and Canada took up the chai-ges. 
Thus, within 4 days of the United Nations accept- 
ance of the Icrc otter of investigation, the heavy 
guns of Soviet world-wide propaganda had begun 
to blast. 

Another so-called investigation was staged by 
a committee of the International Association of 
Democratic Jurists, another of the many Soviet- 
front organizations. This group was sent out, ac- 
cording to Pravda, on March 4 "in order to 
investigate and establish the crimes committed by 
the interventionists in Korea, in violation of all 
international agreements." ^ Indeed, it received 
directives while in Soviet Siberia on its way to 
Korea to prove other so-called crimes against the 
U.N. Command. The commission was made up of 
currently faithful followers of the party line, al- 
though its chairman, Brandweiner, was a former 
Nazi, as was another member. Dr. Melsheimer. 
Brandweiner was not merely a Nazi party mem- 
ber — he was a member of the Rechtswahreriund 
of Berlin. 

In short, all the familiar elements of Soviet 
propaganda are present in this campaign: The 
linking of alleged Japanese bacteriological war- 
fare experiments with the United States, the 
charges of "war criminals" and the demand for 



° U.N. doc. S/2684/add. 1, dated June 30, 1952, contains 
the "findings" of this association. 



Jo/y 28, 1952 



155 



trials, the accusations of violating the Geneva pro- 
tocol and Eed Cross conventions, the so-called 
"eye-witness accounts," the so-called "confessions" 
of American prisoners of war who suddenly begin 
talking in Marxist cliches, the so-called "scientific" 
evidence revealing the unnatural appearance of 
bugs out of season in unusual places, the allegedly 
"impartial" investigations by puppet groups, the 
hollow i^rotests by Communist-front organi- 
zations. 

Moscow's Planning and Coordination 

These devices became increasingly apparent as 
the campaign gained momentum. In the last 
weeks of March, the Soviet propagandists con- 
centrated their fire primarily on the captive audi- 
ence behind the Iron Curtain. It can be assumed 
that there was some degree of corrosion of the 
minds of men and women behind the Iron Cur- 
tain, who have so little opportunity for access to 
the truth. A most ominous aspect of the cam- 
paign is its intensity within the Soviet Union 
itself. 

During Marcli, Moscow was preparing the Com- 
munist press and other organs outside the Curtain 
for their major effort. At the meeting of the 
Soviet-controlled World Peace Council Executive 
Committee at Oslo on March 29 to April 1, Moscow 
gave the signal to open the major phase of the 
germ warfare campaign throughout the non-Com- 
munist world. The basic propaganda material 
was passed out either at Oslo or the World Peace 
Council headquarters at Prague. To take one ex- 
ample, the Uruguayan "i^eace" leader, Jose Laris 
Mas,sera, was summoned to Prague on April 4 
and was given instructions by Soviet agents to 
wage an intensive germ warfare campaign back 
home. 

From April to the present time, the so-called 
"peace partisans" have danced to the Kremlin 
tune. In each country, they have gone through 
virtually the same act : A national meeting, a series 
of local meetings, pamphlets, posters, petitions, 
lumors, statements by other front organizations, 
doctors, scientists, lawyers, and so forth; all the 
familiar Communist fronts, stooges, and war- 
horses have been dragged out to support the germ 
warfare campaign. In a few countries there have 
been added flourishes: In Brazil, a traveling ex- 
hibit, modeled after a Peiping sjiow, attempts to 
introduce the charges into parliamentary bodies 
in Israel, India, Denmark, Brazil, and Sweden; 
a "word of mouth" campaign in Iraq. At the 
same time, the Communist press in these countries 
has continued to blare forth. 

The parallel tactics of the so-called "peace parti- 
sans," and the repetition by Communist news- 
papers throughout the world of stories and 
propaganda material first emanating from Mos- 
cow and Peiping, make clear the high degree of 
coordination and planning exercised by Moscow 
in the germ warfare campaign. 



The official Soviet press and radio organs set 
the tone for the world-wide campaign of venom 
and hate. Typical of Moscow's words of hate are 
three recent statements in Pravda and Izvestia, the 
official organs of the Soviet Communist Party and 
the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. From 
Pravda, June 7, 1952: 

The ideologies of American Imperialism call for a halt in 
the growth of population in all countries, except the USA, 
and more killing of the living by wars, hunger and epi- 
demics. And this isn't just a "theory" of the cannibals. 
Their whole practice corresponds entirely to the can- 
nibalistic ideology. 

The American cannibals are walking in tJie footsteps of 
the Hitlerite plunderers. In Korea they have killed 
luindreds of thousands of the peaceful inhabitants, in- 
cluding 300,000 children. Unleashing germ and chemical 
war, the American interventionists have the wicked aim 
of making Korea a desert land, uninhabited. 

Again in Pravda on June 25, 1952 : 

The American Invaders are using the most inhuman, 
barbaric means of warfare on a large scale . . . 
Trampling on generally recognized international usages, 
the American military used criminal, large-scale bac- 
teriological and chemical warfare . . . bombs. 

Again in Izvestia on June 25, 1952 : 

But . . . this is a trifle compared with the atrocities to 
which the United States interventionists resorted later — 
the U.S. interventionists who beat their predecessors in 
international brigandage, the Hitlerite fascists. In Korea 
and Northeast China, the U.S. imperialists used the 
barliarous bacterial weapon which is condemned by the 
entire mankind and prohibited by the Geneva Protocol 
of 1925. 

Such accusations have been reiterated by the Soviet 
representative in the Disarmament Commission. 
Typical is the following statement by Mr. Malik, 
U.S.S.R. representative in Committee 1 of the Dis- 
armament Commission, on April 9, 1952 : 

Having launched a bloody war against the heroic free- 
dom-loving Korean people, the United States aggressors 
in the very first days of their murderous adventure in 
Korea became guilty of atrocities and unheard-of savagery 
towards that country's unarmed and peaceful popula- 
tion. After all their attempts to break that heroic 
population's fighting spirit had failed, the United States 
aggressors committed a horrible crime against peace and 
against mankind. They resorted to the use, in Korea 
and China, of the bacterial weapon, which has long been 
condemned by all civilized countries and nations as shame- 
ful and criminal. 

Moscow's direction and control of the enter- 
prise is illustrated by an event at the beginning of 
May. The Kremlin's propagandists realized tliat 
a very poor reception had been given the so-called 
"report" of the hand-picked "Democratic Jurists 
Committee." Soviet agents in Korea reprimanded 
the Chinese Communists and North Koreans for 
not having produced enough so-called "evidence" 
for these jurists. The jurists had been provided 
only with the standard tours of bombed-out areas 
in Pyongyang and a few photographs, which were 
obviously meaningless. The Soviet agents re- 
quested their Chinese and North Korean stooges 
to get busy and jjrovide a higher quality of propa- 



156 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



janda evidence for the summer phase of the germ 
ivarfare campaign. 

It was only a few days later that Peiping an- 
lounced the so-called "confessions" of two Ameri- 
can fliers. The so-called "confessions" were dic- 
tated, if not written, by someone unfamiliar with 
:he English language. For example, a photostat 
)f a handwritten document called a "confession" 
ivas published in the Paris newspaper Ce tSoir on 
Fune 13. The title of the letter reads: "How I 
ivas forced to take part in bacteriological warfare 
)y the US Wall Street." The last line of the photo- 
stat letter reads : "I was blamed by my conscience 
md good will for the crimes." There are other 
expressions typical of the Communist propaganda 
line, which we have heard so often from the 
■loviet representative in the Security Council, 
riiese phrases would be as unfamiliar to the two 
iviators as the Russian language itself.'' 

Such Soviet cynicism about "evidence" is not 
musual. The Communists have always had a 
■epugnance for open legal inquiry and proceed- 
ngs. The glare of open publicity has had the 
iifect of wilting the "evidence" so carefully manu- 
factured by Soviet propagandists. The extraordi- 
larily clumsy nature of the attempts to fabricate 
evidence reveals the Soviet contempt for the com- 
non sense of free men. 



Sugs Out of Season in Unusual Places 

In the original Communist broadcasts, each 
alleged incident was described in detail. Putting 
them together, the charge is tliat germs were 
5pread by a variety of germ-carriers which would 
surely enrich any museum of natural history. 

Independent scientists, including at least 10 
Nobel prize winners, have publiclj^ expi'essed com- 
plete skepticism of the charges. They have ridi- 
culed the tales of spreading typhus and plague 
through the medium of infected fleas and lice in 
the freezing winter temperature of Korea. They 
liave pointed to the established pattern of epi- 
demics in that part of the world, where diseases 
such as typhus and plague may be expected to 
assume epidemic proportions unless the authori- 
ties are tireless in controlling their natural car- 
riers. Dr. Feisal Sheikh El-Ard, of Syria, chief 
Q.N. public health officer in Korea, has recalled 
he task the United Nations faced in combating 
disease in the Republic of Korea. He said : 

Eighteen million people were vaccinated against typhoid, 
16 million against typhus, 15 million against smallpox, 
and 2 million against cholera. 

All this resulted in the decrease of victims of these epi- 
iemics from 15 thousand or 30 thousand a month to -10 
to 70 a month. 

Dr. Feisal pointed out that the only North 



' For a press conference statement by Secretary Acheson 
m these "confessions," see Bulletin of May 19, 1952, 

3. 777. 



Korean comment on this life-saving work was a 
radio broadcast saying that the U.N. Forces were 
spreading germs in South Korea and that we 
were trying to kill the greatest number possible 
of its i^opulation. 

It is typical of the real U.N. attitude toward 
epidemic and disease that, when the charges of 
bacteriological warfare were first made, the World 
Health Organization oifered to provide technical 
assistance in controlling the reported epidemics 
in North Korea.** This offer was transmitted to 
the North Korean and Chinese Communist au- 
thorities in three successive cablegrams by the 
U.N. Secretary-General. After one month of 
silence, this offer of assistance was rejected. 

If the Soviet Government had any regard for 
the truth, recourse to the Security Council was 
always open to it. 

Instead, the Soviet representative brought the 
charges to the Disarmament Commission, which 
was not competent to discuss them under its terms 
of reference. In the Security Council, in con- 
trast, he insisted with a straight face that his 
Government saw no connection whatever between 
their germ warfare charges and their resolution 
on the Geneva protocol. The distinction was not 
as apparent to Soviet authorities on June 15. The 
June 15 issue of Pravda stated that the United 
States "began to apply the criminal methods of 
mass homicide condemned by all honest men and 
banned by international conventions on poisonous 
substances, bacterial weapons, and napalm." 

Also on the Moscow radio on June 23, 1952 : 

The American militarists, as is known, have already 
brought barbaric germ weapons into use against the 
civilian population of Korea and China. It is impossible 
not to link these facts with the refusal of the United 
States Government to ratify the Geneva Protocol of 1925. 

The Soviet pretense that its request for Security 
Council action on the Geneva protocol has noth- 
ing to do with its germ warfare charges is also 
shown up by a request of its puppet organization, 
the International Association of Democratic Jur- 
ists. At the Vienna session of the association's 
council meeting April 16 to 18, 1952, it passed a 
resolution, including the following appeal to the 
U.N. Security Council : "We propose that the Se- 
curity Council immediately consider the findings 
of our commission as well as other proofs per- 
taining to bacteriological warfare." 



Soviet Charges Seen as Direct Assault on U.N. 

In asking for an investigation of these charges^ 
we believe that much more is at stake than the 
establishment of their falsity. We are not asking 
mere vindication of the honor and good name of 
the people of the states which compose the Unified 
Command in Korea. The history of the states re- 

' For a statement by Secretary Acheson relating to 
Who's offer, see ibid.. Mar. 31, 1952, p. 495. 



luly 28, 1952 



157 



sisting aggression in Korea, tlie character of their 
people, and the nature of their governments can 
withstand this type of attack. 

The strategy of aggi-ession by lie demonstrates 
what can happen when a tyrannical state, pos- 
sessed of modern means of mass communication, 
chooses to whip up hostility against freedom- 
loving peoples. Here is a case study of a means 
that is being used to a clearly defined end. It is 
apparently necessary to the security of the totali- 
tarian state that its people fear and hate the 
peoples of other countries. Chronic hate cam- 
paigns are, therefore, essential to the perpetuation 
of the authority of the regime in power. 

The charges are a direct assault by the Soviet 
Government upon the members of the United 
Nations who have sent their sons to protect the 
independence of Korea from Connnunist aggi-es- 
sion. It is part of the campaign of lies which the 
Kremlin leaders have waged ever since the un- 
provoked Communist attack of June 25, 1950— 
a campaign which centers upon the Big Lie that 
the United States and the United Nations were 
the aggressors in Korea. It is a part of the cam- 
paign which pretends that the Soviet Union has 
taken an inituitive for peace in Korea when the 
truth is that at each step and at every turn it is 
the United Nations which has taken the initiative 
for peace, whereas the Soviet leaders have aided 
in the aggression and have refused to say the word 
which could bring it to a halt. 

This is why, up to now, at least, the Soviet Gov- 
ernment has conducted this campaign, while using 
its power to stave off an impartial investigation 
into the facts. If what I say is not true, then the 
Soviet Government must allow the investigation 
to proceed. If it is true, then we will witness 
here, as we have witnessed elsewhere, a calculated 
attempt to prevent the world from determining 
the real nature and purpose of these baseless 
accusations. 

The methods used to spread these charges are 
not unknown to modern history. In the past, 
both Hitler and the Soviet authorities resorted 
to the deliberate lie as an instrument of national 
policy — both at home and abroad. Tliere is an 
ominous similarity between the tactics used by 
the Nazis and those of the Kremlin leaders. 

The resolution which I have submitted to the 
Council is an honest challenge to the Soviet Gov- 
ernment. Having been caught in a lie, it may 
be difficult for that Government to accept an im- 
partial body which exposes their conspiracy. 

When I make this prediction of exposure, it is 
because the United Nations is charged with germ 
warfare and we know as a stark fact that iio sucli 
weapon has been used by the United Nations in 
Korea or anywhere else. 

The former U.N. Commander, General Ridg- 
way, said in Rome on June 17 : 

I know of no better iUustration of the deliberate use 
of deliberately fabricated falsehoods by Commuuist lead- 



ers than their charses that the United Nations Command 
employed germ warfare in Korea. 

As former Commander-iu-Chief of United Nations forces 
in Korea, and as God is my witness, I tell you that no 
element of that Command employed any form of germ 
warfare at any time, and that all of the so-called "proof," 
including photographs, was manufactured by the Com- 
munists themselves. 

Any truly impartial body will verify these 
facts. 

But if I may repeat in different words a state- 
ment I made a few moments ago, tliere is a much 
larger issue involved here. 

Recently, in the official newspaper of the Presid- 
ium of the Supreme Soviet, Izvestla^ there was a 
front page editorial which carried a message of 
hatred to the peoples of the Soviet Union. The 
very violence of the language is almost incredible. 
The U.N. Command in Korea — in Moscow they 
call it the American Command — is accused of 
"utilizing the most fantastic and revolting means 
for achieving their criminal purposes." 

Speaking on behalf of the Soviet Government, 
Izvestia tells the Russian people that the U.N. 
Forces in Korea have tortured prisonere with red 
hot irons and forced them to sign so-called 
"treasonable" statements in their own blood. 

It is sinister indeed that a modern government, 
of the size and power of the Soviet Union, should 
be feeding its citizens on such raw poison. In 
this campaign, truth is the first casualty of a 
calculated policy of state. Nor is this campaign 
confined to the Soviet Union. As the source of 
lies that go out by conveyor belt to Communist 
Parties around the world, the Soviet regime 
spreads this message of hate far beyond its own 
frontiers. 

We do not know where this policy of hate will 
lead the Soviet Government. We do know that 
the United Nations and the world as a whole must 
be vigilant and alert to its effects. For it is a 
revolt against the fundamental purpose of the 
Charter to develop friendly relations among 
nations. 

But the United Nations can deal with this threat 
to international peace and security — a threat 
which is made in Moscow. The charges have been 
sponsored and spread by the Soviet Government. 
That Government has made allegations as to dates 
and places of so-called germ raids. The Soviet 
Government has conspired in fabricating and 
publicizing so-called "evidence" in support of 
these charges. 

An impartial commission of investigation is the 
only means of getting to the bottom of these 
charges. If what we say about the campaign of 
hate is not true, the Soviet Government can show 
us up. What we propose is an impartial investi- 
gation into the facts. We are confident that any 
such investigation will wreck their germ warfare 
campaign. But if they reject the investigation, 
they wreck the campaign just as surely, for then 



158 



Department of State Bulletin 



they confess to the world that they know the 
bharges will not bear the light of day. 

There is the challenge. Let them accept it in 
the name of the truth. 



SECURITY COUNCIL STATEMENT OF JULY 3 

U.S. /U.N. press release dated July 3 — Excerpts 

The U.S. Government voted in favor of an im- 
partial investigation of the charges made against 
the United Nations, which charges were sponsored, 
pread, publicized, repeated here by the Soviet rep- 
resentative and by his government elsewhere. The 
Security Council itself has voted to investigate 
these charges. The Soviet representative has 
frustrated by his veto the effectiveness of the vote 
(•ast by the other 10 members of the Security 
Council. 

We feel and we believe that all members of the 
United Nations who are loyal to the Charter feel 
that the Soviet Union by its action here today 
has revealed its true purpose in the campaign of 
lies and of hate which it has sponsored and which 
it has disseminated. 

By his vote the Soviet representative has told the 
Security Council that the Soviet Government in- 
sists on preventing an investigation of these 
charges through an impartial agency, and yet the 
Soviet Government has sponsored, has published, 
has disseminated these lies as a systematic part 
of its foreign policy and of its domestic policy of 
lying to its own people. 

Before we leave the consideration of this sub- 
ject, my delegation feels that the record should be 
entirely clear. The record should show the con- 
certed dissemination by certain governments and 
authorities of grave accusations, as grave as they 
are unfounded, charging the use of germ warfare 
by U.N. Forces. 

The record should show that when the charges 
were first made, when the accusations were first 
brought before the world, that the U.N. Command 
denied the charges and requested an impartial in- 
vestigation, that the Chinese Communists and the 
North Korean authorities failed and refused to 
accept an offer of investigation by the Interna- 
tional Committee of the Red Cross, that in the face 
of such a refusal these authorities — and this fact 
is not only admitted by the Soviet representative 
but boasted of by him — these authorities continued 
to circulate, to publicize, to disseminate these false 
charges. 

The record should show that when the World 
Health Organization offered to assist in combat- 
ing any epidemics in North Korea and China, any 
epidemics which might exist regardless of the 
source, and the Unified Command agi'eed to do its 
share and to cooperate fully, the Chinese Com- 
munists and the North Korean authorities re- 
jected the offer of the World Health Organization 
and refused to permit its entry into territories 
under their control. 



We should also note, and the record should 
show, that the Government of the Soviet Union 
in the United Nations has repeated these charges 
against U.N. Forces and that it is the Soviet nega- 
tive vote on the U.S. draft resolution which is 
supported by all other members of the Security 
Council, that it is the Soviet negative vote that 
has prevented the Council from arranging an im- 
partial investigation. 

From these facts, which are all on our record, 
there is only one conclusion that can be drawn: 
That the charges of germ warfare against the 
U.N. Forces must be jDresumed to be utterly false. 

The Security Council in our judgment should 
condemn the fabrication and the dissemination of 
these false charges which involve no less than an 
attempt to undermine the efforts of the United 
Nations to combat aggression in Korea and the 
support of the people of the world for these ef- 
forts, and which have the effect of increasing ten- 
sion among nations. 

Text of Draft Resolution ' 

The Security Council, 

Noting the concerted disisemination by certain Govern- 
ments and authorities of grave accusations charging the 
use of bacteriological warfare by United Nations Forces, 

Recalling that when the charges were first made the 
Unified Command for Korea immediately denied the 
charges and requested that an impartial investigation 
be made of them. 

Noting that the Chinese Communist and North Korean 
authorities failed to accept an offer by the International 
Committee of the Red Cross to carry out such an investi- 
gation but continued to give circulation to the charges. 

Noting that the World Health Organization offered to 
assist in combating any epidemics in North Korea and 
China, and that the Unified Command for Korea agreed 
to co-operate. 

Noting with regret that the Chinese Communist and 
North Korean authorities rejected the offer and refused 
to permit the entry of the World Health Organization 
teams into territories controlled by these authorities. 

Noting that the Government of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics has, in the United Nations, repeated 
the charges that United Nations Forces were engaging 
in bacteriological warfare. 

Noting that the draft resolution submitted by the Gov- 
ernment of the United States proposing an impartial in- 
vestigation of these charges by the International Com- 
mittee of the Red Cross was rejected by the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, and that by reason of the nega- 
tive vote of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the 
Security Council was prevented from arran.ging for such 
an Impartial investigation. 

Concludes, from the refusal of those Governments and 
authorities making the charges to permit impartial inves- 
tigation, that these charges must be presumed to be with- 
out substance and false. 

Condemns the practice of fabricating and disseminat- 
ing such false charges, which increases tension among 
nations and which is designed to undermine the efforts 
of the United Nations to combat aggression in Korea 
and the support of the people of the world for these 
efforts. 



'U.N. doc. S/2688, dated July 3, 1952. On July 9 the 
Soviet Union, casting its iiOth veto, defeated the resolu- 
tion. The vote was 9-1-1 (Pakistan). 



July 28, J 952 



159 



The United States in the United Nations 



[July 4-July 24, 1952] 

General Assembly 

The seventh regular session of the General 
Assembly will be convened at United Nations 
Headquarters on October 14, 1952. 

Timuia — The United Nations Headquarters an- 
nounced on July 21 that the request of the 13 
Arab-Asian States for a special session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly to take up the question of Tunisia 
failed of adoption. The favorable replies from 
member governments totaled 8 less than the re- 
quired majority of 31 needed to hold the special 
session. 

Security Council 

Investigation of alleged hacteriological ivar- 
fare charges — The Council was compelled to reject, 
July 9, the United States draft resolution con- 
demning "the practice of fabricating and dis- 
seminating" false charges of the use of germ war- 
fare by the United Nations Unified Command in 
Korea because of the fiftieth veto exercised by the 
Soviet Union. 

Ambassador Ernest A. Gross stated : 

We thought it right to put the resolution to a vote for 
the reason that we consicler, and I thinls that it is clear 
that the majority of the members of the Council consider 
that the campaign of hate and of lies which is being 
carried on by the Soviet Government, which is being spon- 
sored by that government, disseminated by that govern- 
ment, and which that government continues to carry on 
with unabated vigor, that this campaign Is directed 
against no less than the United Nations itself. ... A 
campaign of lies and of hate has been exposed for what 
it is, but unless the Soviet government withdraws and 
abandons its campaign, we surely cannot forget our 
responsibilities as custodians and trustees of the Charter 
of the United Nations, and we will have to take, it seems 
to me, action that is requisite and appropriate to meet 
this challenge to the standards of decency and of civil- 
ization which we all of us had agreed to when we signed 
the Charter of the United Nations. 

Admission of New Members — On the same date, 
the Council approved (8-1 (U.S.S.R.)-2 (Paki- 
stan, Chile) ) the Greek proposal to postpone fur- 
ther discussion of the question of the admission 
of new members to the United Nations until Sep- 
tember 2, 1952. 



Economic and Social Council 

During the past few weeks the Economic and 
Social Council, among other things, adopted the 
following resolutions : 

1. It adopted three resolutions relating to full 
employment : 

(a) A resolution submitted by Mexico and 
Uruguay (15-0-3 (Sov. bloc)) takes note of the 
replies received from governments to the Secre- 
tary-General's questionnaire on full employment 
and urges all governments in the future to submit i 
adequate replies as promptly as possible in order 
that "the Secretary-General may prepare an 
analysis of such a nature as to facilitate the Coun- 
cil's consideration of the full employment prob- 
lem." 

(&) Resolution submitted by Sweden (11-3 
(Sov. bloc)-3 (Iran, Pakistan, Philippines)), 
which requests the Secretary-General to prepare 
a report on national and international measures H 
designed to attain and maintain full employment 
while avoiding the harmful effects of inflation. 
During the discussion of this resolution Mr. Lubin 
(U.S.) pointed out that the Soviet Union's replies 
to the questionnaire on full employment indicated 
that that Government continued to conceal "mean- 
ingful data" from the United Nations and "infor- 
mation which has been refuted continues to be 
presented as incontrovertible fact. The kind of 
statistical deception practiced by the U.S.S.R. 
provides its spokesmen with pood experience for 
distorting the truth about other nations as well 
as their own." 

(c) A joint resolution submitted by Belgium, 
Canada, Cuba, France, United Kingdom, and the 
United States, and amended by Cuba and Paki- 
stan (13-3 (Sov. bloc)-2 (U.S., France)), invites 
the International Bank, in assessing the credit 
wortliiness of a country, not to be unduly affected 
by the economic situation of the latter in time of 
temporary recession; invites governments to pre- 
pare programs for additional investments in the 
case of a recession ; and urges the Monetary Fund 
to apply its rules flexibly and to kec]) under con- 
tinuing review the adequacy of monetary reserves 
for the purpose of helping countries to meet tempo- 
rary disequilibria in their balances of international 



1«0 



Department of State Bulletin 



ayments. Joseph Coppock (U.S.) explained 
lat his Government had abstained on this resoki- 
on mainly because of the deletion of what it con- 
dered the key operative part of the original reso- 
ition which referred to the negotiation of inter- 
overnmental commodity agreements as a means 
f reducing instability in the world markets — a 
oint upon which, Mr. Coppock said, the experts' 
jport to the Council had laid primary emphasis. 

2. The Council adopted (15-0-3 (Sov. bloc)) a 
)int 7-power resolution on increasing productiv- 
y in underdeveloped countries. It recommends 
lat governments of undei-developed countries 
insider the problems of raising productivity as 
11 integral part of their efforts to promote their 
jonomic development; reconunends regional 
,udies of the problem; and recommends to gov- 
;-nments the promotion of economic integration 
f international markets through the extension of 
>reign trade. 

3. It adopted (15-0-3 (Sov. bloc)) a joint 
Argentina, Pakistan, Sweden, U.K. resolution on 
itegrated economic development of underde- 
eloped countries which requests the Secretary- 
reneral to prepare a working paper regarding 
oncrete proposals referred to in the General 
Lssembly resolution 521 (VI) for the rapid indus- 
rialization of the underdeveloped countries. 

4. The Council adopted a Canadian-United 
itates resolution (14^ (Argentina, Sov. bloc)-3 
Iran, Egypt, Mexico) ) requesting the Secretary- 
Jeneral to again invite the Governments of 
lumania, Spain, and the U.S.S.R. to reply to pre- 
ious requests regarding allegations of infringe- 
iients of trade-union rights in those countries, and 
o bring to the attention of the proper authorities 
he allegations regarding infringement of trade- 
mion rights in Trieste and the Saar, and to invite 
ubmission of their observations on the matter. 

5. The Council concluded a 2-day general dis- 
ussion of the United Nations report on the world 
ocial situation and will take up in plenary the 
•arious draft resolutions introduced after discus- 
ion of the Social Committees reports. In com- 
nenting on the report, Walter Kotschnig (U.S.) 
^ave a full factual and statistical picture of the 
locial situation in the United States, including 
ncome distribution, living standai'ds, housing, 
lealth, and education, and describing the exten- 
live nongovernmental efforts which are part of 
he United States social system. He stated : 

. . . The government and the people of the United 
States are deeply committed to the great eft'ort of mutual 
id in which we are here engaged. We shall continue 
o cooperate in this effort through the United Nations 
nd the specialized agencies for a social advance beyond 
oday's achievements. . . . We fervently hope that 
;ome day the bells of freedom will ring throughout every 
and of this world. For it is only in freedom that ever 
.reater progress can be attained and secured. 



6. The Council deferred until 1953 discussion 
of assistance to Libya, and postponed this session 
consideration of Korean relief and rehabilitation, 
by votes of 11-1 (Egypt) -6 (Iran, Pakistan, 
Philippines, Sov. bloc) and 13-0^ (Egypt, Sov. 
bloc), respectively. 

7. The Coimcil approved unanimously the Sec- 
retary-General's report on the United Nations 
regular Technical Assistance Program, and 
adopted, by a vote of 13-0-5 (Sov. bloc, Mexico, 
Argentina) , the report of the Technical Assistance 
Committee on the United Nations Expanded Tech- 
nical Assistance Program, including the recom- 
mendation that member governments contribute 
a 25-million-dollar fund for 1953, and urging that 
members delinquent in meeting their obligations 
for the first and second financial periods to the 
expanded program make early payment into the 
special account. 

Both Sir Gladwynn Jebb (U.K.) and Isador 
Lubin (U.S.) expressed concern that 12 govern- 
ments were still in arrears on their pledges for 
1950 and 1951, and only 19 had made any pay- 
ments this year. Mr. Lubin pointed out that un- 
less these pledges were fulfilled, some current 
projects could not be completed and other requests 
could not be undertaken. He also emphasized 
the importance of implementing the reorganiza- 
tion plan for the Technical Assistance Board at 
the earliest moment, hoping that in the next 60 
days tangible results would be seen. 

8. The Council approved, 15-0-3 (Sov. bloc), 
a revised Cuba-Mexico-U.S. resolution on teach- 
ing about the United Nations and the specialized 
agencies. It requests the Secretary-General and 
UNESCO to cooperate in concentrating on teaching 
materials for use in primary-elementary, adult, 
and teacher education through reviewing and re- 
vising basic material and publications in the light 
of information newly available and the experience 
of neighbors, and in encouraging its widest pos- 
sible dissemination. 

The Council expects to complete its fourteenth 
session by August 1. 

Specialized Agencies 

International Lobar Organization {ILO) — At 
its Thirty-fifth Conference, held in Geneva from 
June 4 to June 28, the Ilo approved three new 
conventions and three new reconnnendations. The 
conventions cover social security, maternity pro- 
tection, and holidays with pay for workers in agri- 
culture. One of the recommendations is designed 
to promote cooperation between employers and 
'workers in the world's industrial establishments. 
The others supplemented the conventions on ma- 
ternity protection and agricultural holidays. 



lu// 28, 1952 



161 



PUBLICATIONS 



New Foreign Relations Volume 
Deals With Rise of Nazism 

Press release 554 dated July 15 

The processes by which a totalitarian regime 
extends and strengthens its control over the life of 
a country are illustrated in documentation on Nazi 
Germany presented in Foreign Relations of the 
United States, 1935, volume 11 : The British Com- 
monioealth; Europe, released by the Department 
of State on July 19. This volume deals with bilat- 
eral relations of the United States with the coun- 
tries of the areas covered as well as with domestic 
developments in Germany which were of signifi- 
cance in the rise of Nazi power threatening the 
maintenance of peace. The largest section is that 
dealing with Germany. 

The Department was kept well informed of 
developments as the Hitler government was con- 
solidating its political power, seeking to dominate 
the Evangelical and Roman Catliolic Chui'ches 
from which the most significant opposition to 
nazification came, making educational institutions 
serve its j^urposes and tightening restrictions on 
the Jews. Along with these disturbing domestic 
developments came the open rearming of Germany 
with rejiudiation of the disarmament provisions 
of the Treaty of Versailles. 

The Secretary of State manifested increasing 
concern over the current situation and expressed 
a desire for an alleviation of the existing tension 
(page 311). The Department also solicited esti- 
mates of the situation from leading American 
diplomatic missions in Europe. The most pro- 
phetic analysis came from the Embassy in Moscow 
which asserted (page 326) : "Wliile Germany may 
not be deliberately planning a war of aggi-ession 
German aims and aspirations are such that in the 
final analysis they can be satisfied only by war." 

On September 23, 1935, Ambassador Dodd ar- 
ranged for S. R. Fuller, Jr., to meet at the Em- 
bassy with Hjalmar Schacht, at that time Minister 
of Economics in Hitler's cabinet and president of 
the Reichsbank. Apparently this meeting was at 
the suggestion of President Roosevelt or at least 
with his approval. Fuller sounded out Schacht as 
to the future course of Germany. In reply 
Schacht was strong in his praise of Hitler as a 
great, conservative leader, told of the laws "pro- 
tecting" the Jews, said he had told Felix Warburg 
of the American Jewish Committee "to have his 
people stop making a noise and accept this protec- 
tion," declared colonies necessary to Germany and 
that they would be obtained by negotiation iJE pos- 
sible but if not "we shall take them," asserted 
Germany must "create a German world of the 
mark," but favored currency stabilization and re- 



newal of a commercial treaty with the United 
States (pages 282-286). 

Unsatisfactory financial and trade relations as 
well as unsettled claims arising in World War I 
were subjects of negotiations between the United 
States and Germany in 1935, and on its part Ger- 
many complained of anti-Nazi activities in the 
United States. 

Negotiations with other countries treated in this 
volume related largely to commercial relations, es- 
pecially the promotion of Secretary of State Hull's 
trade-agreement program. Reciprocal trade 
agreements were signed with Canada, the Belgo- 
Luxemburg Union, the Netherlands, and Sweden. 
Preliminary discussions or negotiations regarding 
such agreements were carried on with the United 
Kingdom, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, Aus- 
tria, Czechoslovakia, Finland, France, Italy, Nor- 
way, Spain, and Switzerland. The United States 
discouraged suggestions from Newfoundland for 
such an agreement. Other trade negotiations 
were conducted with the Union of South Africa, 
Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, 
Poland, Portugal, and Rumania. Papers on mis- 
cellaneous minor subjects complete the volume. 

Volumes I, III, and IV, which will complete the 
series for 1935, will be published at a later date. 
Papers on relations with the Soviet Union are not 
included in volume II, as such documentation has 
already been published in Foreign Relations of 
the United States, the Soviet Union, 1933-1939, 
which was released on May 24, 1952.' Interna- 
tional conferences and other multilateral subjects 
for 1935 which relate to Europe will be treated in 
volume I. 

Foreign Relations of the United States, 1935, 
volume II, was compiled in the Division of His- 
torical Policy Research of the Department of State 
chiefly by N. O. Sappington and Miss Matilda F. 
Axton under the direction of E. R. Perkins, editor 
of Foreign Relations. The preparation of the in- 
dex, the list of papers, and the editing and proof- 
reading of copy were done in the Foreimi Rela- 
tions Editing Branch of the Division of Publica- 
tions under the direction of Miss Elizabeth A. 
Vary. Copies of this volume (Ixxi, 81(5 pp.) may 
bo purchased from the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, Government Printing Office, Washington 
25, D. C, for $3 each. 

Recent Releases 

For sale l>y the Superintendent of Documents, Ooi^ern- 
ment Printinu Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address re- 
quests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except 
in the ease of free publications, which 7nay be obtained 
from the Department of State. 

Mexican Agricultural Workers. Treaties and Other In- 
ternational Acts Series 22G0. Pub. 4284. 107 pp. 30«'. 

Agreement between tlie United States and Mexico — 
Signed at Mexico August 1, 1949 ; entered into force 
August 1, 1949. 



' For an article on the documents in this volume, see 
Bu.'LETiN of May 1!», 1952, p. 767, and May 26, 1952, p. S22. 



162 



Department of State Bulletin 



outh Pacific Commission. Treaties and Other Inter- 
lational Acts Series 2317. Pub. 44G1. 53 pp. 20(*. 

Agreement between the United States and Other Gov- 
ernments — Opened for signature at Canberra Febru- 
ary 6, 1947 ; entered into force July 29, 1948. 

nter-American Highway. Treaties and Other Interna- 
ional Acts Series 2321. Pub. 4413. 7 pp. 5<t. 

Agreement between the United States and Panama 
amending agreement of May 15 and June 7, 1948 — 
Signed at Washington January 16 and 26, 1951 ; en- 
tered into force January 26, 1951. 

ilexican Agricultural Workers. Treaties and Other In- 
ernatlonal Acts Series 2331. Pub. 4435. 57 pp. 20(i;. 

Agreement between the United States and Mexico 
replacing agreement of August 1, 1949 — Signed at 
Me.xico August 11, 1951 ; entered into force August 
11, 1951. 

Education, Cooperative Program in Honduras. Treaties 
ind Other International Acts Series 2340. Pub. 4453. 
t pp. 5<t. 

Agreement between the United States and Honduras — 
Supplementing Agreement of April 24, 1951 — Signed 
at Tegucigalpa August 7 and September 8, 1951 ; 
entered into force September 8, 1951. 

Technical Cooperation, Economic Development Mission 
o El Salvador. Treaties and Other International Acts 
Series 2341. Pub. 4454. 8 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and El Salva- 
dor — Signed at San Salvador October 23, 1951 ; en- 
tered into force October 23, 1951. 

Economic Cooperation With Luxembourg. Treaties and 
ather International Acts Series 2342. Pub. 4455. 3 pp. 

Agreement between the United States and Luxem- 
bourg amending agreement of July 3, 1948, as 
amended — Signed at Luxembourg August 30 and 
October 17, 1951 ; entered into force October 17, 1951. 

Economic Cooperation. Treaties and Other Interna- 
tional Acts Series 2343. Pub. 4459. 25 pp. 10(f. 

Agreement and notes between the United States and 
Cambodia — Signed at Phnom Penh September 8, 
1951 ; entered into force September 17, 1951. 

Mutual Defense Assistance. Treaties and Other Inter- 
national Acts Series 2349. Pub. 4465. 8 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and Yugo- 
slavia — Signed at Belgrade November 14, 1951 ; en- 
tered into force November 14, 1951. 

Education, Cooperative Program in Peru. Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 2350. Pub. 4468. 4 pp. 
50. 

Agreement between the United States and Peru sup- 
plementing agreement of September 25 and 29, 1950— 
Signed at Lima August 8 and September 6, 1951 ; 
entered into force September 19, 1951. 

Economic Cooperation With France Under Public Law 

472, 80th Congress, as Amended. Treaties and Other In- 
ternational Acts Series 2359. Pub. 4476. 2 pp. 54- 

Agreement between the United States and France 
amending agreement of June 28, 1948, as amended — 
Signed at Paris September 25 and 27, 1951 ; entered 
into force September 27, 1951. 



Commission Reports on Sliift 
in Overseas Information Policy 

Press release 531 dated July 3 

The shift in the policies of America's overseas 
information was tlie focus of attention in the 
Sixth Semiannual Report to the Congress by the 
U.S. Advisory Commission on Information.^ 

In the last 2 years this country's information 
program has changed its over-all objectives from 
presenting a "full and fair picture" of the United 
States to what now is called the propaganda of- 
fensive — a counterattack on the Soviet's far-flung 
propaganda apparatus. The Advisory Commis- 
sion, in giving its approval to this shift in policy, 
discusses in detail 13 policies which form the keys 
to the effective and efficient operation of the In- 
ternational Information Administration. 

Another section of the report covers the recent 
reorganization of the Department of State's over- 
seas information program. The Advisory Com- 
mission reviews the major changes in this reor- 
ganization, reiterates its earlier viewpoint which 
favors keeping the International Information Ad- 
ministration in the Department of State, and en- 
dorses the Senate's action on the Benton-Wiley 
resolution for an investigation of this program. 
The Commission states that it favors the present 
semiautonomous position of the International In- 
formation Administration within the Department 
of State, but the members further state that they 
will withhold their final view on the reorganiza- 
tion until all of the proposed changes have become 
a reality. 

In addition to the operational policies of the 
propaganda offensive and the reorganization of 
the information program, the Commission's report 
contains brief sections on the International Infor- 
mation Administration's facilities, evaluation pro- 
gram, public acceptance, and future. 

The U.S. Advisory Commission on Information 
was established by Public Law 402, 80th Congress, 
to review the information program and make rec- 
ommendations concerning it. The members sign- 
ing this report are Mark A. May, chairman, direc- 
tor of the Institute of Human Relations at Yale 
University; Erwin D. Canham, editor of the 
Christian Science Monitor; Philip D. Reed, chair- 
man of the Board of the General Electric Com- 
pany; and Ben Hibbs, editor of the Saturdaxj 
Evening Post. The fifth member of the Commis- 
sion, Justin Miller (chairman of the Board of the 
National Association of Radio and Television 
Broadcasters), did not sign the report. He is on 
leave of absence from the Commission since his 
appointment as chairman of the Salary Stabiliza- 
tion Board on November 8, 1951. 

' H. doc. 526 



Jo/y 28, 1952 



163 



July 28, 1952 



Ind 



ex 



Vol. XXVII, No. 683 



American Republics Page 

BRAZIL: 

Export-Import Bank to finance agricultural 

equipment 141 

Secretary's impressions of his recent visit 

abroad 132 

Australia 

Anztjs Council Meeting 141 

International Bank makes $50 million loan . . 140 

Europe 

AUSTRIA: Secretary's Impressions of his recent 

visit abroad 132 

GERMANY: Progress toward European integra- 
tion; 10th Quarterly Report of the U.S. 
High Commissioner 134 

U.S.S.R. : The Soviet germ warfare campaign: 

The strategy of the Big Lie (Gross) . . . 153 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: July 14 19, 1952 

Releases may be obtained from the Office of the 
Special Assistant for Press Relations, Depart- 
ment of State, Washington 25, D. C. 

Press release issued prior to July 14 which ap- 
pears in this issue of the Bulletin is No. 531 of 
July 3. 

Subject 
Trade negotiations with Venezuela 
French national holiday 
Kelchner : Retirement 
Aeheson: Death of Israeli minister 
Amerika suspended 
Foreign Relations volume II 
S. African tax conventions 
Pancoast : Tca appointment 
Aeheson : Geneva Pow conventions 
Aeheson : Anzus Council meeting 
Aeheson : Impressions of visits 
Grassland Congress 
McCloy : Resignation 
Woodward : Foreign Service per- 
sonnel 
U.S.-Canadian TV channels 
Exchange of persons 
Exchange of persons 
Turkish trade agreement ends 
German educational agreement 
Geographical Union (Igu) 
"Courier" sails for Rhodes 

*Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


t.'>49 


7/14 


*550 


7/14 


*551 


7/14 


*552 


7/14 


553 


7/14 


554 


7/15 


t555 


7/15 


t556 


7/15 


t557 


7/16 


558 


7/16 


559 


7/16 


t560 


7/17 


t561 


7/18 


t562 


7/17 


t563 


7/18 


*564 


7/18 


*565 


7/18 


t566 


7/18 


t.567 


7/1 S 


t568 


7/18 


f5m 


7/19 



Finance page 

Export-Import Bank to finance agricultural 

equipment to Brazil 141 

International Bank makes $50 million loan to 

Australia 140 

Human Rights 

Human welfare: A practical objective 

(Kotschnlg) 142 

International Information 

Commission reports on shift In overseas Infor- 
mation policy 163 

U.S. suspends publication of Russian-language 

magazine Amerika 127 

New Zealand 

Anzus Council Meeting 141 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization 

Progress toward Etiropeau integration; 10th 
Quarterly Report of the U.S. High Commis- 
sioner for Germany 134 

Publications 

New Foreign Relations volume released . . . 162 

Recent releases 162 

U.S. suspends publication of Russian-language 

magazine Amerika 127 

State, Department of 

New Foreign Relations volume released . . . 162 
U.S. suspends publication of Russian-language 

magazine America 127 

Treaty Information 

Anzus Council Meeting 141 

United Nations 

Human welfare: A practical objective 

(Kotschnlg) 142 

International Bank makes $50 million loan to 

Australia 140 

The Soviet germ warfare campaign; The strat- 
egy of the Big Lie (Gross) 153 

U.S. In U.N 160 

Name Index 

Aeheson, Secretary 133, 141 

Gross, Ernest 153 

Kotschnlg, Walter M 142 

McCloy, John J 134 



U 5. GOVERNMENT PRINTINS OFFICE: l»SZ 



1^S5, 



tJ/i€/ z!/)ehcvy£menl/ /C^ cnai& 




'^ol. XXVII, No. 684 
August 4, 1952 




'ATEa o* 



CREATING SITUATIONS OF STRENGTH • by Charles 

E. Bohlen 167 

THE ECONOMIC BASIS OF OUR FOREIGN 

POLICY • by Willard L. Thorp 173 

RELATION BETWEEN DOMESTIC AND INTER- 
NATIONAL ECONOMIC SECURITY • Statement by 
Isador Lubin ..............a 187 

GREATER STABILITY FORECAST FOR WORLD 

COTTOIS TRADE • Article by Eulalia L. Wall ... 185 



For index see back cover 



..;>a3 



^S^°*». 




•^*T„ O* *■ 



tj/ie 



^efio/yim^e^ ^l ^a^ VJ LA 1 1 vl/ L 1 1 1 



Vol. XXVII, No. 684 •Publication 4672 
August 4, 1952 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Peice; 

82 Issues, domestic $7.60, foreign $10.26 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 22, 1952). 
Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Depaetuent 
OF State Bdlletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De» 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
selected press releases on foreign pol- 
icy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well aa 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to- 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of interruttional relations, are listed 
currently. 



Creating Situations of Strength 



hy Charles E. Bohlen 

Counselor of the De'partment of State 



Exactly what do we mean when we say "situa- 
tions of strength"? How and why was the con- 
cept developed? How has U.S. foreign policy 
operated to create situations of strength on behalf 
of the free woi'ld? 

These are vital questions. They demand 
pointed answers. But they can be adequately 
answered only if we understand the qualities of 
U.S. foreign policy which have made it possible 
to think in terms of global strategy. So I should 
like to begin by briefly examining some of these 
qualities. 

The first point I would make here is that our 
foreign policy must be one of enlightened self- 
interest. A nation that does not constantly look 
to its self-security toys with its very existence. 
That, I think, is perfectly obvious. 

But there are different roads to security even 
as there are different concepts as to what security 
involves. Security has been used as a disguise for 
conquest and imperialism. 

Our concept of self-security is quite different. 
Our concept is firmly rooted in the belief that we 
can best preserve our way of life in a world of 
peace and decency. It is dedicated to the con- 
viction that our best hope for such peace and 
decency lies in the full-time cooperation of 
sovereign nations, all of them seeking the common 
progress of humanity. It is based upon the un- 
derstanding that the free nations — the United 
States among them — cannot be unconcerned so 
long as poverty, disease, and illiteracy remain the 
constant companions of two-thirds of the human 
race. 

This concern is not only humanitarianism, al- 
though this element must be present in the foreign 
policy of a democracy. But that does not mean 
that it is a policy of simple charity. Emphati- 
cally not ! We are willing to help others to help 
themselves because, in doing so, we are helping 
ourselves. 



' Adrlress made at the Coljrate University Conference 
on American Foreign Policy, Hamilton, N. Y., on July 26 
and released to the press (No, 586) on the same date. 

Augus/ 4, 1952 



And that brings me to a second quality of U.S. 
foreign policy. It is a cooperative policy. It 
accepts the principle that we cannot stand alone 
in this kind of world — that we dare not stand 
alone. 

The days when the Atlantic and Pacific served 
us as protective moats — as "insulation" to use the 
phrase of the late Senator Vandenberg — are be- 
hind us. Great oceans have become mere puddles. 
The miracle of modern technology has given us 
immediate neighbors in London, Paris, Canberra, 
and Bangkok. Horse and buggy isolationism is 
outmoded in an atomic age. What happens any- 
where in the world is of concern everywhere. 

When you couple this smaller, more closely knit, 
technologically advanced world with the rise of 
a new great power, the Soviet Union, you can 
easily see why we Americans cannot stand alone. 
The emergence of the Soviet Union as a great 
power at the close of World War II was bound to 
have a global impact. Soviet policies and actions 
since the close of the war have made that impact a 
dangerous one. 

There is no need to belabor the Soviet menace 
before this audience. You know the Soviet post- 
war record. You understand the nature of the 
threat posed for all free men. And you under- 
stand — I am sure — that the United States must 
work closely with other free nations if freedom 
and peace are to weather the onslaughts of this 
new imperialism. 

Realistic Policy Needed 

A third and necessary element of U.S. foreign 
policy is realism. Our foreign policy must reflect 
the ideals and principles so deeply rooted in our 
tradition. It must concern itself with things as 
they really are — not only with things as we would 
like them to be. It seeks to meet specific situations 
as they arise as well as to anticipate such situa- 
tions. 

It would be wonderful if this were indeed the 
best of all possible worlds. It would be fine if we 
could immediately realize our fondest ideals. 

But this is not that kind of world. There are 



167 



many influences and many ambitions at work on 
the international scene. And these influences and 
ambitions are not readily subject to control by a 
push button in Washington. 

Foreign policy cannot be made in a vacuum. 
Foreign-policy objectives cannot be accomplished 
in keeping with a strict timetable. There are just 
too many intangibles. 

There are those who would apply the rigid rules 
of abstract physical science to international poli- 
tics. It would be vei-y helpful if it were possible 
to reduce foreign policy to an exact science. But 
it is not possible to do so. 

A sound foreign policy must deal in possibilities 
and probabilities as well as in certainties. Only 
then can it be realistic. Only then can it operate 
with reasonable flexibility. 

A fourth quality of U.S. foreign policy which 
I should like to mention is its genuine democracy. 
It is not made in an ivory tower. 

U.S. foreign policy is fully representative of 
domestic public opinion. It is an expression of 
our way of life. 

Secretary of State Dean Acheson made that 
clear in a Nation-wide address back in 1949. He 
said: 

In the long run, and very often in the short run, it is 
you citizens of this Republic, acting directly through pub- 
lic opinion and throufih the Congress, who decide the 
contours of our policies and whether those policies shall 
go forward or waver and stop. 

Current events clearly support Mr. Acheson's 
statement. The 1952 political conventions at 
Chicago are cases in point. Foreign policy has 
been a fundamental issue before both conventions. 
Foreign policy is a basic plank in both platforms. 

Are not political parties the vehicles through 
which the people grant governmental power to 
those of their choice? Of course they are. 

In the last analysis, the makers of foreign policy 
in any democracy must — as a matter of right and 
necessity — be responsive to the voice of the people. 

These, then, are some of the basic qualities which 
should be in U.S. foreign policy. Enlightened 
self-interest, realism, democratic inspiration, and 
the cooperative spirit — these are the qualities nec- 
essary to bring into being the "situations of 
strength" concept we are here to discuss. 

These are the qualities which have made it possi- 
ble for the United States to assume its responsi- 
bilities of free-world leadership in meeting the 
No. 1 problem posed by World War II. What was 
that No. 1 problem ? 

It was a problem of power relationships made 
acute by the approach taken by Soviet Russia. 

Using Power to Curb Power 

There is an old Chinese proverb which says: 
"Use power to curb power." 

In a sense, that is what the free nations have 
had to do in the postwar period. 

168 



Now, I do not mean to imply by this that power 
is an end in itself or that we have gone power-mad. 
Power, insofar as free men are concerned, is a 
means to an end. It is a means through which the 
United States is seeking to preserve its security 
and to work with others in building a world of 
peace and progress. It is a means through which 
the free nations can work together to deter totali- 
tarian aggression. 

This, I might say, is a highly significant point. 
In international politics, power does not neces- 
sarily have to be used to be effective. The very 
fact that it exists is often enough to get results. 

Now, I have said that the No. 1 problem of the 
postwar period — from our point of view — was one 
of power relationships. And I have already noted 
that the rise of a new and special form of state 
power — Soviet Russia — was of crucial importance. 

The fact is that the power situation in the post- 
war world is very diflFerent from anything we have 
had at any other time since the rise of the modern 
nation-state system. For the first time in modern 
history, we have a world in which there are only 
two major centers of power. Power — to use the 
technical phrase — is bipolarized. 

On the one hand, we have the Soviet Union and 
its satellites. On the other, we have what amounts 
to a coalition of free nations with the United 
States playing a leading role. 

This role is not one we have sought. It has been 
thrust upon us by the very nature of our position 
in world affairs. It has been thrust upon us and 
we have been obligated to accept it. 

When I say that the United States is central to 
the free-world coalition, I say it with humility and 
understanding of the grave responsibilities im- 
posed upon us. I say it in the urgent hope that 
we shall not fail to help preserve in the world that 
freedom and liberty to which our entire foreign 
policy is dedicated. I say it with the conviction 
that our own well-being is dependent upon our 
free-world partners even as theirs is dependent 
upon us. 

This is true — to a great extent — ^because existing 
power relationships leave a good deal less room 
for maneuver in foreign affairs than was once the 
case. Balance of power politics no longer means 
what it meant before the first global war was 
fought. The day of the buffer state and the zone 
of influence is rapidly passing. Any major stra- 
tegic move in today's world is of immediate con- 
cern to all nations and all peoples. 

At the turn of the century, there were half a 
dozen or more nations who could lay claim to being 
powers of the first rank. If one of these nations 
became unduly threatening, or aggressive, there 
were always several other nations who — by uniting 
with the weaker of the two — could offset the power 
of the stronger. This was the classical conception 
of balance-of-power politics in operation. 

At the turn of the century, it was possible for a 
war to be fought in the Balkans, the Near East, or 

Department of State Bulletin 



the Far East without involving or even directly 
affecting the major powers. 

But today's world is different. There is a Cold 
War on between freedom and calculated tyranny. 
And that war is global in scope. There is fric- 
tion at virtually every point where the free and 

, slave worlds meet. 

j The fight against aggression in Korea is all too 

I tangible proof of this. Every major power has 
had a hand in tlie Korean situation in one way or 
another. 

Korea, I might add, will appear in the history 
books of the future as one of the most significant 
events of this or any other era. For here, genuine 

, collective security operated to halt a deliberate, 
naked aggression for the first time in modern 
history. The United Nations has truly won its 
spurs in Korea. It has upheld, in full, the prin- 
ciples upon which it was founded. 

Think of what the United Nations has accom- 
plished in Korea. It has driven the Communists 
back along most of the battle line beyond the 
point from which they started their unprovoked, 
brutal assault in June of 1950. It has preserved 
the independence of the Republic of South Korea. 
It has served notice on all potential aggressors 
that aggression cannot be launched anywhere with 
impunity. 

Had the United Nations allowed the Commu- 
nists to get away with their aggression, the 
existing power situation would have developed to 
the extreme disadvantage of the free world. To 
have allowed Korea to go by default would have 
been a tremendous blow to the free peoples of Asia. 
It would have encouraged the Kremlin and its 
cohorts to move against the periphery of the free 
world again at their convenience. It would have 
strengthened the possibilities of an all-out global 
war and weakened considerably the containment 
policy which is so basic to U.S. foreign policy and 
the defense of the free world as a whole. 

Emergence of the Containment Policy 

I should like now to talk a little about the con- 
tainment policy and about the creation of situa- 
tions of strength which that policy demands. 

The first thing that we must bear in mind in 
this connection is that the conditions which gave 
rise to the idea of containment did not spring up 
overnight. They were in the process of develop- 
ment for many months. 

World War II did see the Soviet Union emerge 
as a great power. But it was not until the free 
nations had exhausted every possibility at the 
conference table and the Soviets had clearly 
indicated by their actions their unwillingness to 
cooperate that the containment policy emerged. 

In short, the containment policy was a reaction 
to Soviet actions. It was a reaction to an aggres- 
sive imperialism which became more and more 
evident in the months immediately following the 



war. It was a reaction to Soviet moves which 
represented an utter departure from pledges taken 
at the conference table. 

The Soviet Union refused to honor its agree- 
ment to sponsor free elections in Eastern Europe. 
The Soviets shook their fist at Turkey and at Iran. 
They encouraged Communist subversion of the 
legitimate Greek Government. They allowed 
huge stocks of Japanese military equipment to fall 
into the hands of the Chinese Communists in 
Manchuria and thus — in effect — went back on the 
promise they had made at Yalta to throw their 
full support to the Chinese Nationalist Govern- 
ment. 

Speaking of Yalta, the charge has been made 
that our failure to "get tough" at the conference 
table allowed Moscow to help itself to Eastern 
Europe, China, and North Korea. I want to state 
categorically that this charge is absolutely with- 
out foundation. 

The fact is that the Soviets received nothing by 
negotiation that they did not already or were not 
about to control by the presence of the Red army. 
Soviet territorial gains have not been made by 
words exchanged at the conference table._ 

The containment policy — being a realistic pol- 
icy — has thus had to concern itself more with 
Soviet actions than with Soviet words. In fact, it 
was a specific concrete action which can be said to 
have brought the containment policy into opera- 
tion. 

The scene was Iran. In early 1946, Soviet 
troops were still stationed in northern Iran. Fur- 
ther, they were interfering with the Iranian Gov- 
ernment's attempts to govern in Azerbaijan, a key 
province in northern Iran. The Soviets refused 
to withdraw their troops from Iran despite a clear 
treaty obligation to do so. 

The situation was brought to the attention of 
the United Nations. It was thoroughly aired in 
open debate. The peoples of the world were given 
a chance to learn — in great detail — what was going 
on in Iran. The result : Pressures exerted by an 
aroused world opinion — an opinion educated by 
U.N. debate — forced the Soviets to withdraw their 
troops. 

The United Nations had proved itself an effec- 
tive forum for the settlement of a dispute which 
was threatening the peace. The containment 
process operated for the first time because the free 
nations — working through the United Nations — 
contained an obvious Soviet effort to extend its 
influence into neighboring Iran. 

You will note that I have referred to the "con- 
tainment process." The Truman Doctrine of 
March 1947 was the first application of the con- 
tainment policy in its more definitive form. The 
President's decision to aid the Greeks and the 
Turks, and congressional support of that decision, 
brought the containment policy to fruition as a 
total plan of action. 

We helped the legitimate Greek Government to 



August 4, 1952 



169 



defeat the Communist-led revolt and thus created 
a situation of strength in Greece. Today, a stable 
Greece is a full-fledged partner in the North At- 
lantic Treaty Organization. 

In helping the Turks to modernize and equip 
their army, we helped to support a strong deter- 
mination to withstand Soviet demands for control 
of the vital Dardanelles. We helped to create a 
situation of strength which has been vitally im- 
portant in keeping Soviet imperialism from driv- 
ing to the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean. 

Now it has been said that the containment pol- 
icy is a purely negative affair. Words such as 
"negative" and "positive" are very misleading 
unless we understand clearly what we mean. 

Containment is negative only in the sense that 
it does not envisage the use of armed force in 
aggressive action. It is no more negative than 
the doctrine of individual and collective defense 
is negative. It has meant and it means that the 
free nations of the world will do all in their 
power — including armed resistance — in the event 
of aggression, to prevent the free areas of the 
world from falling under Connnunist tyranny. 
In every other sense our present policy, of which 
containment is only one element, is positive. 

The programs of mutual assistance among the 
nations of the free world are anything but nega- 
tive. They are not only designed to contain and 
deter the aggressor; they are designed to main- 
tain and strengthen the stability of free nations 
everywhere. They are designed to give us a 
strong boost on the road toward universal peace 
and humanitarian cooperation. They are de- 
signed to supplement, in full, the work of the 
United Nations. 

Let us look briefly at some of these programs. 
Take the Marshall Plan, for example. The end 
of World War II saw the nations of Western 
Europe in economic chaos. Poverty was ram- 
pant. Destruction in most countries was terrible 
to behold. Countries which have served as battle- 
fields look like battlefields long after the cannon 
have stopped roaring. Morale was at a danger- 
ous low. Communist parties were at the height 
of their power. The possibility that Soviet power 
miglit move into much of Western Europe with- 
out firing a shot was a grim one. 



Objectives of the Marshall Plan 

In the face of this situation, Secretary of State 
George C. Marshall arose to make a public 
address which was to initiate the great plan which 
bears his name. In that address, he said : 

Our policy is directed not against any country or doc- 
trine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. 

The Marshall Plan was designed to help the 
Europeans help themselves get back on their eco- 
nomic feet. It was designed to help them develop 
internal stability. It was designed to help them 
preserve their freedom and their liberties through 

170 



an economic rebirth capable of coping with sub- 
version from within and expansionism from 
without. 

Self-help and mutual cooperation — these were 
the terms upon which the United States offered 
the Western Europeans the means of helping 
themselves. And the nations and peoples of 
Western Europe accomijlished a near miracle in 
the process. 

The situation in Western Europe today speaks 
for itself. And to the extent that stability has 
been restored and communism forced into re- 
treat — to that extent have we Americans helped 
to build a bastion of strength on behalf of our own 
security and free men everywhere. 

Let us look at another of our positive programs : 
The Point Four Program. 

Here is a program which first saw the light of 
day some 3 years after the containment policy be- 
came effective. But it is a logical outgrowth of 
the latter. 

Point Four is a happy combination of genuine 
idealism and a means of strengthening the free 
world as a whole. Its purpose is to help the free 
peoples of the world, through their own efforts, 
to produce more food, more clothing, more mate- 
rials for housing, and more mechanical power to 
lighten their burdens. 

In helping underdeveloped areas to help them- 
selves, we are working for a better standard of liv- 
ing among the less fortunate peoples. We are 
helping to eliminate the discontent of the poverty- 
stricken. We are helping to build their fortitude 
and strengthen their desire to withstand the impact 
of communism. 

Are we not — through Point Four — building 
situations of strength ? Of course, we are. 

Consider, if you will,-T;he various i-egional de- 
fense pacts to which we are party. All of these 
have been developed in conformity with the U.N. 
Charter. They are designed to strengthen the 
security of the nations immediately involved. 
But they are also designed to help the United 
Nations move more efficiently to meet a breach of 
the peace should it occur in an area covered by a 
regional agreement. 

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
(Nato) is the most far-reaching of these regional 
agreements. But our mutual defense arrange- 
ments in the Pacific and with our Latin American 
neighbors are certainly of equal importance to our 
security and the peace of the world. 

Through Nato, the free nations have erected 
an expanding defense force — a deterrent power 
designed to preserve the security of Western 
Europe and that of the entire North Atlantic area. 
Equally impressive is the fact that we have man- 
aged to w^ork out the organization and the tech- 
niques for making this defensive mechanism 
o^Derate effectively. 

This, I might say, was no simple task. Extreme 
nationalism has always been a difficult problem 

Department of State Bulletin 



for those who would build unity. The distrust 
of ages is not easily dispelled in months or even 
years. 

Nato — like the Schuman Plan, the Marshall 
Plan, and the European Payments Union — is a 
tribute to the masterful statesmanship of the West- 
ern Europeans themselves. They have overcome 
much of the pride and prejudice of centuries in 
tlieir common interest. In doing so, they have 
added much to our own w