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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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VOLUME XXIX: Numbers 732-757 



July 6-December 28, 1953 



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Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 



INDEX 

Volume XXIX: Numbers 732-757, July 6-December 28, 1953 



Adenauer, Chancellor Konrail : 
Correspondence : 
Ambassador Coiinnt, on application of handicraft 

order in U.S. Zone of Germany, texts 459 
President Eisenhower, texts: 
Clothing for East Berlin, 45S 
Demonstrations in East Berlin, 9 
Food for Soviet Zone, U.S. offers, 67, 147 
Administering Authority of Pacific Islands, consideration 
of land claims and claims against nationals of Japan, 
125 
Administrative Tribunal of U.N., personnel policy report 
re U.N. personnel, discussed in statement (Richards), 
S73 
Adult Workers' Education, Seminars and Meeting of Ex- 

I)€rts, U.S. delegation, listed, 87 
Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid of MSA, 
statement of chairman (Taft), re inquiries on U.S. 
food for East Germany, 20S 
Aerology, Commission for, 1st session, U.S. delegation, 

listed, 251 
Afghanistan, Ambassador to U.S. (Ludin), credentials, 

740 
Africa : 
Accra, Gold Coast, elevation of consulate to consulate 

general, 224 
Ethiopia, treaty of amity and economic relations, with 

U.S. (1951), ratification, 380 
Ewe-Togoland unification question, statement (Bolton), 
876 

♦ Morocco. iSfee Moroccan question. 

Tunisia. See Tunisian question. 

U.N. Children's Fund program, article (Eliot), 289 

U.S. consulate, Accra, Gold Coast, elevation to rank of 
consulate general, 224 
Afric.n, South, Union of: 

Atomic weapon production capability, discussed in cor- 
respondence by Representative Cole to Senator Wiley, 
330 

Balance-of -payments, in Netherlands and South Africa, 
relaxation of discriminatory restrictions, C77 

Indians, treatment of, statement (Bolton), 728 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment, loan to, cited, 451 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

I Sugar agreement, international, new, signature, 823 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, proposed, 245 



[Index, July to December 1953 



Africa, South, Union of — Continued 

U.S. Ambassador to (Gallmau), continuation of duties, 

157 
U.S. position on question of, statement (Bolton), 805 
Africa, South of Sahara, discussed, article (Byroade), 

658 
Africa, West, closing of U.S. consulate at Mombasa, 

Kenya, 689 
Agricultural commodities : 
Emergency aid, authority to utilize requested in Pres- 
ident's message to Congress, 60 
Government-held, Presidential authorization to use for 

emergency relief, statement (Waugh), 159 
Purchases by FOA for resale overseas for foreign cur- 
rencies, proposed, 638 
Surplus commodities for relief of Bolivia, Presidential 

request for, 518 
Text of Section 550, Public Law 118, 83d Congress, ap- 
proved July 16, 1953, re, 639 
Agricultural development in foreign countries, IBRD loans 

for, 451, 456 
Agricultural Meteorology, Commission for, of WMO, 1st 

session, U.S. delegation, listed, 613 
Agriculture, Department of, wool production, letter from 
President to Secretary Benson requesting study of 
effect of imports on domestic program, text, 185 
Agriculture program in Trust Territory of Pacific Islands, 

development of, statement (Midkiff) , 24 
Aid to foreign countries. iS'ee Colombo plan ; economic 
assistance ; Foreign Operations Administration ; mu- 
tual defense and security; Mutual Security Agency; 
technical assistance; and individual countries. 
Air nnviL'ation services, North Atlantic ocean-station 
agreement for (ICAO), U.S. position on future par- 
ticipation, 629 
Air transport agreement, with Venezuela, signature, 321 
Air transport agreements, discussed in article (Snowden), 

44, 44n. 
Aircraft, alleged attacks on : 

Czechoslovak shooting down of U.S. F-S4 over U.S. Zone 
of Germany, texts of exchange of notes re U.S. re- 
quest for information on, ISO, 183 
Soviet attack on RB-50 plane over Sea of Japan, U.S. 
protests and texts of exchange of notes with U.S.S.R., 
179, 206 
Soviet charges re incident in Korean Zone of hostilities, 

exchange of notes, texts, 179, 237 
Soviet planes in Korean Zone, statement (Lodge), 286 



915 



Akihito, Crown Prince of Japan : 
Visit to U.S., proposed, 274 

Welcome statemeut (Uiilles) iiiul reply by Crown I'rince, 
texts, 380 
Alaska, Haines-Fairbanks pipeline, agreement with Can- 
ada, announcement, 320 
Albania : 
Albanian Independence Day, 819 
Greek violations of frontier or air spaces in 1952, charges 

by, discussed (Howard), 253 
Membership in U.N., charter requirements for, article 4, 
failure to qualify under, discussed, statement 
(Byrnes), 606 
Plight of peoples of, expression of U.S. concern for, 
exchange of letters between Secretary Dulles and 
Hasan Uosti, texts, 529 
Aldrieh, Winthrop W., article on America's expanding 

economy, 482 
Alexander, Robert C, designation in State Department, 

234 
All, Mohammed, Prime Minister of Pakistan, message to 

President Eisenhower re U.S. Wheat Aid Act, 16 
All, Syed Amjad, Ambassador of Pakistan, credentials, 481 
Aliens, clas.ses eligible for nonquota visas under Refugee 

Relief Act of 1953, article (Auerbach), 231 
Allied High Commission for Germany, text of statement 
re procedures for clemency and parole of war crim- 
inals, 391 
Allison, .John M., Ambassador to Japan : 

Japanese-American economic relations, address, 35 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Copyricht protection, reciprocal, understanding with 

Japan, text of notes re, 825 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, with Japan, 
exchange of notes re reservations and entry into 
force, 525 
U.S. forces in Japan, jurisdictional arrangements 
for, texts of protocol to amend and official minutes 
re article XVII of administrative agreement, sig- 
nature, 595 
Almonds, shelled, import quota and fees on, continuation, 

text of Proclamation 3034 re, 602 
Alonzo, Manuel de Moya, Dominican Ambassador to the 

U.S., credentials, 603 
Al-Shabander, Moussa, Ambassador of Iraq, credentials, 

481 
Amami Oshima Islands, resumption of Japanese authority 
over, under article 3 of treaty of peace with Japan, 
208 
American Federation of Labor, opposition to communism, 

discussed in address (Dulles), 446 
American principles {see also Foreign policy) : 
Addresses and statements: 
America's changing relationships with Germany 

(Straus), 10 
America's expanding economy (Aldrieh), 482 
Americas in world scene of today (Dreier), 681 
Building a community of free nations (Smith), 630 
Caribbean, forces for changes in (Cabot), 855 
Columbus' contribution to religion of New World 

(Dulles), 580 
Despotism, basic weakness of (Lourie), 771 



American principles {sec also Foreign policy) — Continued 
Addresses and statements — Continued 

East-West trade, facts about (Hansen), 271 
Economic growth and human welfare in the Western 

Hemisphere (Rockefeller), 5.S1 
Economics of U.S. foreign policy (Asher), 3 
Falcon Dam — monument to inter-American coopera- 
tion (Kisenhower), 579 
Far East, policy problems in (Robertson), 519 
Foreign policy Issues, major, confronting the United 

States (Morton), 661 
Foreign policy problems, realistic review of (Smith), 

371 
Four power meeting, proposed, Soviet notes of reply 

to U.S. invitation, U.S. attitude (Reap., Suydam), 

283, 786 
Individual liberty and the national .'security, im- 
portance of .^.mericaii principles re, discussed 

(Morton), 348 
Inter-.\merican cooperation and hemispheric solidar- 
ity (Cabot), 554 
International affairs, force and consent in (Halle), 

376 
Moral forces, power of (Dulles), 510 
Moral initiative (Dulles), 741 
Mutual security program, importance to national 

security (Dulles), 88 
Mutual understanding, need for (Dulles), 556 
Negotiating solutions of today's problems (Smith), 

475 
Peace, business of building (Wadsworth), 84 
Representative government, an expression of faith 

(Eisenhower), 541 
Standard for Americans (Eisenhower), 507 
Strengthening inter-American ties (Cabot), 513 
Understanding the United Nations (Dulles, Murphy, 

Morton, Bolton), 619 
United States and Germany, ties of friendship 

(Martin), 820 
U.S.-Bulgarian relations (White), 375 
U.S. deijendence on foreign trade, principles resulting 

from, discussed (Eisenhower), 540 
U.S. domestic and international economic policies 

(Baker), 259 
U.S. foreign policy, fundamentals of (Eisenhower, 

Dulles), 811 
U.S.-Latin -American trade, importance of (Cabot), 

751 
U.S.-Puerto Rican relations, nature of (Bolton, 

Fernos-Isern), 797 
U.S. responsibility— a society of consent (Dulles), 587 
U.S. views on Japanese economy (Allison), 35 
World leadership, accepting burdens of, excerpts 

(Eisenhower), 199 
World's colonies and ex-colonies: a challenge to 

America (Byroade), 655 
American Republics {see also individual countries) : 
Coffee and economic progress, review of, address 

(Cabot), 753 
Conference and meetings : 

Chile's request for U.S. purchase of surplus copper, 

talks on, representatives listed, 442 



916 



Department of State Bulletin 



American Republics {see also individual couutries) — Con. 
Conference and meetings — Continued 
Inter-American Conference, 10th, at Caracas, pro- 
posed, agenda, discussed (Itoekefeller), 584 
Panama Canal, conversations re, representatives and 

statements, 418 
Panama's noth anniversary of independence. U.S. 
(lelejjntion to, 586 
Good will mission to (Milton Eisenhower) : 
Hc'port to the President, text, 095 
Statement re, 184 
Immigration, curtailment of quotas for European mi- 
grants, report (Gibson), 118 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs, transfer from De- 
partment of State, statement (Lourie), 28 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, objectives 

and progress, 489 
Latin America, Economic Commission for, purpose and 

functions, discussed, article ( Asher ) , 
Latin American industry, aid to, address (Cabot), 752 
Mutual security program in, relation to U.S. national 

•security, discussed in statement (Dulles), 91 
Organization of American States (OAS), Inter-Ameri- 
can Economic and Social Council of, consultation of 
Randall Commission with, proposed, 685 
Pan American medical group, text of letter (Eisen- 
hower) endorsing program of, 896 
Time Limit (TL) License for Latin America, export 

licensing procedures, listed, 318 
Trade. See American principles : Trade ; and individ- 
ual countries. 
Treaties. See Treaties and individual countries; see 

under Mutual defense and security. 
U.N. Children's Fund program in Latin America, article 

(Eliot), 289 
United States-Latin American relations, text of report 

to the President (Milton Eisenhower), 695 
U.S.-Latin American trade relations, importance of 
(Cabot) address, 751 
Americans in Soviet prison camps, reply to question re, 

(Dulles), 675 
Amity and economic relations, treaty with Ethiopia 

(1051 ) , exchange of ratifications, 380 
Amjad All, Syed, Ambassador of Pakistan, credentials, 

481 
AMVET supixjrt of proposed mutual defense pact in Pa- 
cific (Morton), 344: support of release of William 
Oatis from Czech prison (Morton) , 344 
Anderson, Samuel W., good will mission to South Amer- 
ica, member, 184 
Antarctica, ship movements to, by Argentina, Chile, and 

United Kingdom, 828 
ANZUS Council, 2d meeting, delegation, listed, 327 ; final 
communique and statements re security problems of 
Pacific area, 414 
Applegate, Richard, U.S. prisoner in Communist China, 

request for information concerning, 552 
Appropriations, supplemental, for fiscal year ending June 
30, 1954, signature of act approving, 200 



Arab-Israeli relations : 
Arab refugees, question of : 

Concern of U.S. for, statement (Eisenhower) , 553 
Continuation of assistance to, statement (Richards), 

759 
Eligibility for special nonquota visas under Refugee 

Relief Act of 1953, article (Auerbaeh), 232 
Resettlement of, transfer of U.S. relief program from 

Department of State, statement (Lourie), 28 
UNICEF aid for mothers and children, discussed 
(Eliot), 289 
Johnston, Eric, mission to Near East to study, 553 
.Jordan River Valley pro.iect. Sec Jordan River Valley. 
Qibiya, attack on, by Israeli forces. See Qibiya. 
Tension between, di.«cussed in communique issue<l at 

London meeting of Foreign Ministers, 546 
U.S. position, article (Russell), 281 
Violence between, discussed in address (Dulles) , 588 
Araki, Eikichi, Ambassador from Japan, treaty of friend- 
ship, commerce, and navigation with Japan, exchange 
of instruments of ratification, 525 
Argentina : 

Ship movements to Antarctica, 828 
Situation in, di.scussed in address (Cabot) , 557 
Armistice, Korean. ~See Korean Armistice. 
Arms and armed forces : 

Aircraft, alleged attacks on. Sec Aircraft. 
Armaments, limitation of, discussed in relation to inter- 
national tensions, address (Dulles), 406 
Arms, ammunition, and implements of war, listing of, 

text of Presidential proclamation re, 792 
Atomic weapons. See under Atomic energy. 
Buildup, safeguard in Korean Armistice Agreement, dis- 
cussed in address (Morton), 346 
Burma, foreign forces in, statements : 

Complaint re, before Political Committee of U.N., dis- 
cussed (Lodge), 497 
Evacuation of, U.S. position (Carey), 701 
Disarmament. See Disarmament. 
Europe, withdrawal of U.S. forces from, denial (Dulles), 

632 
German, liability of German nationals in U.S. to com- 
pulsory service in armed forces of U.S., text of ex- 
change of notes re provisions in treaty of friendship, 
commerce, and consular rights (1923) , 225 
Greek: 

Detention of members of, article ( Howard ) , 293 
Repatriation of, statement (Wadsworth), 297; Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution, text, 298 
Hydrogen bomb, development by U.S.S.R., evaluation of 
speech by Soviet Premier re, statement (Dulles), 236 
Japan, jurisdictional arrangements for U.S. forces in, 
text of protocol to amend article XVII of adminis- 
trative agreement under article III of security treaty 
with Japan, 595 : text of official minutes re protocol, 
597 
Korea : 

Air, land, and sea forces (ROK), maintenance and 
development of, discussed in joint statement 
(Dulles, Rhee), 204 
Korean casualties, discussed in statement (Lodge), 
285 



Index, July fo December 7953 



917 



Arms and armed forces — Continued 
Korea — Continued 

Tribute to KOK and allied forces in Korea, U.N. draft 

resolution on Korean armistice, text, 287 
United Nations Command operations, status of forces, 

joint statement (Dulles, Rhee), 203 
Withdrawal of foreign forces from, statement (Lodge) 
and text of U.N. draft resolution on Korean 
armistice, 284, 287 
Militaiy assistance. See Military assistance. 
NATO. Sec North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 
Prisoners of war. See Prisoners of war. 
Reduction, U.S. interest in, discussed in address 

(Smith), 478 
U.S. purchase of equipment overseas, discussed, address 
(Stassen),39 
Army, Department of, enforcement of Oil Pollution Act of 
1924, Corps of Engineers statistics, discussed in article 
(Mann), 776 
Arth, Carol Renner, designation in State Department, 2(54 
Asher, Robert E., article on U.S. foreign-economic policy, 

3 
Asia (see also Par East ; Near and Middle East ; and 
individual countries) : 
Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic Development 
in South and Southeast Asia, Consultative Com- 
mittee of: 
Attendance, proposed, of Assistant Secretary Waugh, 

450 
Meeting, statement (Dulles), and U.S. delegation, 494 
Treaties and agreements. See Treaties and individual 

countries; see under Mutual defense and security. 
U.N. Children's Fund program in, discussed : 
Article (Eliot), 289 
Statement (HeffellJnger), 291 
Asia, South, and Far East, Vice President Nixon, pro- 

iwsed visit to, 74 
Asia, South, and Near East, political tension and economic 
hardship in, mutual security program objectives in, 
statement (Dulles), 90 
Asia and Far East, Economic Commission for, purpose 

and functions, discussed, article (Asher) , 6 
Assistance program for relief and rehabilitation of Korea. 

text of summary report to President (Tasca), 313 
Associated States. See Cambodia, Laos, and Viet-Nam. 
Atomic energy : 

Atomic power for peace, address (Eisenhower) , 847 
Atomic tests, U.S. and Soviet, statement (Straus.s), 237 
Atomic weapons: 

Production capability of various countries, discussed, 

330 
Soviet progress in development of, statement (Eisen- 
hower), 508 
Storage in Spain, question of, denied, statement 
(Dulles), 674 
"Atoms for peace" proposal (Eisenhower) : 
Address before U.N. General Assembly, 847 
Soviet reaction to, statement (Hagerty) , 851 
Fissionable material defined, statement (Eisenhower), 

897 
Hydrogen bomb, evaluation of Malenkov speech re, 
statement (Dulles), 236 



Atomic energy — Continued 
International development of, correspondence between 
members of Congress (Wiley, Cole) and Department 
of State re, 330 
Atrocities question, text of letter from Ambassador Lodge 
to U.N. Secretary-General requesting inclusion on 
General Assembly agenda, 685; statements (Lodge), 
757 
Auerbach, Frank L., article on Refugee Relief Act of 

1053, 231 
Australia : 

ANZUS Council, 2d meeting (Washington, D. C.) : 
Announcement and proposed representation, 327 
Statement (Casey), 416 
Atomic weapon production capability, discussed in cor- 
respondence by Representative Cole to Senator Wiley, 
330 
Immigration, curtailment of quotas for European 

migrants, rejrort (Gibson), 118, 119 
Prisoners of War, U.N. Ad Boc Commission on, 4th ses- 
sion, participation, 328 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Security treaty with U.S. and New Zealand (1951), 

discussed (Dulles), 307 
Sugar agreement, international, new, signature, 823 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on, waiver for 
according duty-free treatment for certain products 
from Papua and New Guinea, 680 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, eligibility 
terms for becoming party to, 245 
U.S. consular offices : 
Adelaide, closing, 766 
Brisbane, closing, 302, 766 
Austria : 

Aliens (escapee) in, eligibility for special nonquota 
visas imder Refugee Relief Act of 1953, article (Auer- 
bach), 232 
Claims, compensation, of former nationals of, instruc- 
tion for filing under Victims Welfare Law and Civil 
Servants Indemnity Law, 492 
Emigration problem, ICEM report (Gibson), 119 
Membership in U.N., status of application for, state- 
ment (Byrnes), 605 
MSA productivity agreement, allotment, 17, 178 
Point of tension, mutual assurance by Secretary Dulles 

re, 528 
Political situation in, discussed in joint report (Dulles, 

Robertson), 99 
Resianation of William Harlan Hale as Public Affairs 

officer for, 60 
Soviet proposal on, U.S. willingness to consider, text 

of note re, 785 
Tension in, discussed in address (Dulles), 405 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
-Vustrian state treaty negotiations: 

Bermuila meeting of leaders (U.S., U.K.. France) : 
Commuai(iuc, (ripartite, text, n< allied unity, NATO, 

U.N., Germany, Au.stria, and Far East, 851 
Meeting sche<luled for December, 740 
Postponement of proposed talks, text of message 
(Eisenhower) to Prime Minister Churchill re, 49 



918 



Department of State Bulletin 



Austrian state treaty negotiations — Continued 

Bermuda meeting of leaders (U.S., U.K., France) — Con. 
Proposal for four power meeting in January 1954, 

texts of exchange of notes with U.S.S.R., 852 
Deputies' meeting proposed, texts of exchange of notes 

with U.S.S.R., 282 
Foreign Ministers' meeting of July 1953 (U.S., U.K., 

France) : 
Announcement, text of final communique, and con- 
eluding remarks, 49, 104, 106 
Statements of welcome (Dulles) to British and 

French delegations, with texts of reply (Salisbury, 

Bidault), 70 
Foreign Ministers' meeting of October 1953 (U.S., U.K., 

France) : 
Communique, text, invitation to London meeting, and 

statement (Dulles), 546 
E\3ur power meeting proposed : 

Bermuda meeting, proposal for meeting in January 

1954, texts of exchange of notes with U.S.S.R. re, 

852 
Discussed in report on world political situation 

(Dulles, Robertson), 99 
Questions relating to, invitation to U.S.S.R. to attend, 

exchange of notes, 107, 745 
Renewal of invitation to U.S.S.R. to attend, text of 

exchange of notes re, 351 
Soviet notes of reply to invitation to, U.S. attitude, 

283, 786 
Soviet refusal to confer on Germany and Austria, 

statement (Eisenhower), 670 
Soviet reluctance toward, discussed in address 

(Smith), 476 
U.S. willingness to discuss, texts of exchange of notes 

with U.S.S.R. re, 547 
Western allies proposal for meeting in January 1954, 

texts of exchange of notes with U.S.S.R., 852 
Need for treaty, discussed in address (Morton), 664 
Aviation (see also Air transport; Aircraft; International 
Civil Aviation Organization) ; U.S. policy, legislation 
on article (Snowdon), 41 

Bacterial warfare by U.N. forces, alleged : 

Forced confessions in Communist propaganda cam- 
paign, role of, statement (Mayo), 641 

"Germ warfare" charges, U.S. objective in discussion of, 
statement (Ford), 758; U.S. position, discussed In 
address (Murphy), 783 

"Investigation, Impartial, of Charges of Use by U.N. 
Forces of Bacterial Warfare, Question of," text of 
Lodge letter transmitting documentation by U.S. of- 
ficers to Secretary-General of U.N., 648 
Baker, John C. : 

Statements on U.S. domestic and economic policies, 259 

U.S. representative to 16th session of ECOSOC, 57 
Balance of payments: 

Consultations re, at 8th session of contracting parties 
to GATT, 678 

Difficulties of free world re, motivation for East-West 
trade, discu.ssed, article (Hansen), 272. 

Discriminatory restrictions in the Netherlands and 
South Africa, relaxation of, 677 



Balance of payments — Continued 

Foreign Economic Policy, Commission on (Randall 
Commission), duties and powers of (Public Law 215, 
S3d Congress), re, 279 
International Monetary Fund consultations with con- 
tracting parties of GATT re, 678 
U.S. picture, change in, discussed in address (Waugh), 
449 
Balkan Sub-Commission, review of work of, discussed In 

article (Howard), 253 
Balloons, release by Crusade for Freedom, exchange of 

notes with Czechoslovakia, texts, 210 
Baltic Republics : 
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, Republics of, U.S. 
assurances to captive peoples of, statement (Dulles), 
818 
Incorporation, forced, by Soviets, U.S. attitude, address 
(Lourie), 771 
Bank, Export-Import. See Export-Import Bank. 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development, InternationaL 
See International Bank for Reconstruction and De- 
velopment. 
Bank notes, Italian, withdrawal from circulation, 897 
Battle Act. See Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act 

of 1951. 
Beaulae, Willard L., appointment as U.S. Ambassador 

to Chile, 329 
Belgium : 

Atomic weapon production capability, discussed in cor- 
respondence by Representative Cole to Senator 
Wiley, 330 
Colonial policy in Belgian Congo, reviewed in address 

(Byroade), 6.58 
FOA surplus agricultural commodities for, proposed, 

638 
International Bank report for fiscal 1953, prepayment 

by shipping companies in, 319 
MSA productivity agreement concluded, 18 
Prisoners of war, U.N. Ad Hoc Commission on, 4th ses- 
sion, participation, 328 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Income-tax convention, double (1948) and supple- 
mentary convention (1952), with U.S., entry into 
force, 460 
Sugar agreement, international, new : 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan), 543 
Signature, 823 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
Bell, James D., address on objectives of U.S. policy in 

Philippines, 523 
Bennett, W. Tapley, Jr., good will mission to South 

America, member, 184 
Berlin, East and West. See under Germany, East; Ger- 
many, Federal Republic of. 
Bei-muda meeting of December 1953 (U.S., U.K., France) : 
Communique, tripartite, text, re allied unity, NATO, 

U.N., Germany, Austria, and Par East, 851 
Meeting scheduled for December, 740 
Postponement of proposed talks, text of message 
(Eisenhower) to Prime Minister Churchill re, 49 



Index, July to December 1953 



919 



Bermuda meeting of December 1953 (U.S., U.K., France) — 
Continued 
Proposal for four power meeting in January 1954, 
texts of exehanjie of notes with U.S.S.R. re, 852 
Bibliography and Publications Commission of World 
Meteorological Organization, 1st session, U.S. del- 
egate, 705 
Bidault, Georges, French Foreign Minister, statement of 
reply to welcome (Dulles) to Washington Conference 
of Foreign Ministers, 72 
Black, Eugene R., President, International Bank for Re- 
construction and Development, excerpts from ad- 
dress on international investment and economic 
progress, 451 
Black, Martha M., article on German debt settlement, 479 
Bolivia : 

Inter-American cooperation and hemispheric solidarity, 
review of situation in, discussed in address (Cabot), 
554 
U.S. Ambassador to (Sparks), continuation of duties, 

614 
U.S. assistance to; 

Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) : texts of let- 
ters (Eisenhower to Departments of State and 
Agriculture and FOA and Paz Estenssoro) discus- 
sing transfer of agricultural commodities to, 518, 
585 
Emergency aid : 

Economic, shipment of wheat under economic as- 
sistance agreement, 822 
Food-production effort in, Foa planning team for, 

membership, 822 
Request for, texts of exchange of letters and tele- 
gram (Eisenhower, Paz Estenssoro) re, .584 
Technical-assistance for agricultural development, 

recommendation for increase, 82, 822 
Tin concentrates, purchase by U.S. at world market 
price for 1 year, 82 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of in- 
strument of acceptance, 245 
Bolton, Mrs. Frances P., U.S. Representative to U.N. 
General Assembly: 
Addresses and statements : 
Ewe-Togoland unification question, 876 
General Assembly votes to recess, 910 
Non-self-governing territories, educational needs In, 

686 
Puerto Rico : 

Independence I'arty, request for oral hearing before 

U.N., U.S. opposition, 499 
U.S.-Puerto Rican relations, nature of, 797, 802 
U.S. relationships with Puerto Rico, 841 
South and Southwest Africa : 
Indians in, treatment of, 728 
U.S. position on question of, 80.') 
Trust territories, request for oral hearings re, 498 
U.N. : a family of nations, 628 
Confirmation as U.S. representative to 8th session of 
I'.N. (ieneral Assembly, 223 
Bond issues to increase IBRD resources in Switzerland, 
cited, 319, 451 

920 



Books in International Information Administration 11. 
braries, policy on: instructions (IIA) re, text, 122 
letter (Dulles to Hennings and Jackson), text, 58 
memorandum to Mr. Johnson (McCardle), text, 58 
statements (Johnson), 59, 77, 121; support programs 
for IIA, text of Department Circular No. 37 re, 123 
Boundary Commission, International. See International 

Boundary Commission. 
Brazil : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Munlz), credentials, 603 
Atomic weapon production capability, discussed in cor- 
respondence by Representative Cole to Senator Wiley, 
330 
Coffee, relation to economic progress of, discussed in 

address (Cabot), 751 

Export-Import Bank credit to, terms of repayment, 243 

Inter-American cooperation and hemispheric solidarity, 

review of situation in, discussed in address (Cabot), 

558. 

International Bank loans to. cited in address (Black), 

451 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Sugar agreement, international, new : 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan), 543 
Signature, 823 
Tariff concessions, compensatory, and internal tax 
discriminations against imports, resolution at 8th 
session of contracting parties to GATT requesting 
rectification by, 680 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, eligibility 
terms for becoming party to, 245 
U.S. Ambassador to (Kemper) , confirmation, 30 
U.S. consular offices at Fortaleza and Vitoria, closing, 
30 
Brier pipes, text of letter (Eisenhower) rejecting Tariff 
Commission recommendation for increase in duties 
on, 754 
Briggs, Ellis O., U.S. Ambassador to Korea, confirma- 
tion, 192 
Britain. See United Kingdom. 

British Guiana, U.S. Consulate at Georgetown, closed, 766 
Broadcasting Service, International, of USIA. See Inter- 
national Broadcasting Service. 
Brownell, Samuel Miller, appointment to Board of For- 
eign Scholarships, 897 
Buchanan, Wiley T., Jr., appointment as .U.S. Minister to 

Luxembourg, 430 
Building, Civil Engineering, and Public Works Committee 

of ILO, 4th session, U.S. delegation, 613 
Bulgaria : 

Greek violations of frontier or air spaces in 1952, 

charges by, discussed (Howard), 253 
Membership in U.N. : 

Charter requirements for, article 4. f.nilure to qualify 

under, discussed, statement (Byrnes), 60 
"Package proposal" of U.S.S.R. for admission to 
membership in U.N., U.S. position, 607 
U.S.- Buljiarian relations, statement (White), 375 
Burma, Union of: 
Foreign forces in : 

Complaint re, before Political Committee of U.N., 
discussed in statement (Lodge), 497 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bo//ef/n 



Burma, Union of — Continued 
Foreign forces in— Continued 

Evacuation of, U.S. ijosition, statements (Carey), 761 
U.S. Ambassador to (Sebald), continuation of duties, 
157 
Buron, I{ol)ert. French Minister of Kcoiiomic Affairs, text 
of letter (excerpt) re USA productivity agreement, 
17 
Burrows, Cliarles U., designation in State Department, 60 
Butterwortli, W. Walton, U.S. Ambassador to Sweden, 
assignment to London as Minister and Deputy Chief 
of Mission, 766 
Byrnes, .lames F., U.S. Representative to U.N. General 
Assembly : 
Admission of new members to U.N., statements, 605 
Charter review, statements : 
Preparatory work re, 908 
U.S. views re, 649 
Confirmation as U.S. representative to U.N. General 

Assembly, 223 
"Package propos.il" by U.S.S.R. for U.N. membership, 

607 
Prisoners of war, missing, review of prolilem, state- 
ment, 89S 
Byroade, Henry A., addresses : 
Iran, present situation in, S94 

World's colonies and ex-colonies, challenge to America, 
655 

Cabot, .John M.. Assistant Secretary for Inter-American 
Affairs : 
Addresses : 

Caribbean, forces for change in, 855 
Coffee and economic progress in Brazil, discussed, 753 
Inter-American cooperation and hemispheric solidar- 
ity, 554 
Inter-American ties, strengthening, 513 
U.S.-Latin American trade, importance, 751 
Good will mission to South America, member, 184 
Panama Canal, conversations re, U.S. representative, 
418 
Calendar of international meetings, 24, 54, 1.57, 188, 323, 

401, 604, 796 
Callauan. Paul E., article im new international sugar 

agreement, 542 
Cambodia, Kingi'om of: 

Addre.sses and statements re : 

Indochina, restoration of peace in, necessary party to 

discussion re (Dulles), 343 
Indochina, w.ir in, aid to Associated States, discussed 

(Dulles), 342 
Membership in U.N., status of application for 
(P.yrnes), 605 
U.S. Ambassador to (Heath), continuation of duties, 157 
Canada : 

Atomic weapon production capability, discussed in cor- 
resiiondenee by Representative Cole to Senator Wiley, 

Canadian-American partnership, address (Eisenhower) 
and texts of joint communique and documents re 
establishment of new U.S.-Canadian engineering and 
economic bodies, 735 

Index, July fo December 1953 



Canada — Continued 
Gouzenko, Igor, case. See Gouzenko. 
Heeney, Arnold Danford Patrick, Ambas-sador to U.S.: 
Appointment as Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 202 
Gouzenko, Igor. See Gouzenko, Igor. 
St. Lawrence River Project, Joint Board of Engi- 
neers, establishment, texts of exchanges of notes 
with Secretary Dulles re, ISQ 
Trade and Economic Affairs, Joint Committee on, 
establishment, texts of exchange of notes with Sec- 
retary Dulles re, 739 
Immigration, curtailment of quotas for European mi- 
grants, report (Gibson), 118, 119 
Invitation to visit Ottawa, acceptance by President 

Eisenhower, 530 
Joint Economic and Trade Committee, with U.S., estab- 
lishment approved, (U.-^cussed in address (Eisen- 
hower), 737; talks with U.S. re, 864 
Trade, foreign, trade figures with, discussed in address 

(Rockefeller), 584 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Groundfish fillets and oats, restrictions on U.S. Im- 
ports, exchange of notes, texts, 244 
Haines-Fairbanks pipeline agreement, with U.S., 

negotiations completed, 320 
Halibut fishery convention and amendment to Halibut 
Fishery Act (1937), with U.S., entry into force, 723 
Niagara River waters, uses of (U.S.-Canada, 1950), 
approval of recommendations by International Joint 
Commission for Niagara River Falls remedial 
works, 184 
Oats and groundfish fillets, restrictions on U.S. im- 
ports, proposed, exchange of notes, texts, 244 
Trade and Economic Affairs, Joint U.S.-Canadian 
Committee on : 
Exchange of notes ( Heeney, Dulles ) , texts. 739 
Joint talks re first meeting, 864 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
U.S. consulates, closing: Hamilton, Ontario, 689; 
Regina, Saskatchewan, 302, 7G6; Victoria, British 
Columbia, 689 
Canary Islands, closing of U.S. consulate at Tenerife, 157, 

766 
Cannon, Cavendish W., U.S. Ambassador to Greece, con- 
firmation, 192 
Capital, private, investment abroad. See Investment of 

private capital abroad. 
Captive peoples, indomitable spirit of, statements 
(Dulles), 40, 818; text of letter (Merchant) to Cen- 
tral and Eastern European Conference and Central- 
Eastern European Committee, 183 
Caracas Conference, Inter-American, proposed, agenda 

items for, discussed in address (Rockefeller), 583 
Carey, Archibald J., Jr., U.S. Representative to U.N. 
General Assembly : 
Confirmation as U.S. alternate representative to 8th 

session of U.N. General Assembly, 223 
Foreign forces in Burma, evacuation of, U.S. position, 
statements, 761 
Caribbean, forces for change in, address (Cabot), 855 

921 



Caribbean Commission : 

Commissioners, appointment, 398 

McIIvaine, Robinson, appointment as Commissioner and 

Cliairman of U.S. section, 731 

Cartels, reports by Commission on Foreign Economic 

Policy, text of provision in Trade Agi-eements Kx- 

tension Act (1953), 279 

Cartwright, Robert P., designation in State Department, 

614 
Casey, Richard G., Australian Minister for External Af- 
fairs, text of statement at 2d meeting of ANZUS 
Council, 416 
CCC. See Commodity Credit Corporation. 
CEB. See Combined Economic Board. 
Central Committee of International Materials Conference, 

"stand-by" basis, 765 
Ceylon ; 
Membership in U.N., status of application for, statement 

(Byrnes), 60.5 
U.S. Ambassador to (Crowe), confirmation, 157 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
Instrument of acceptance, 245 
Chapin, Selden, recess appointment as U.S. Ambassador 

to Panama, 489 
Charter (U.N.) review, proposed: 
Correspondence re (Wiley, Dulles), texts, 310 
General Assembly resolution, text, 909 
Preparatory work re, statements (Lodge, Byrnes), 413, 

908 
Statements (Dulles), 343, 412 
U.S. views re, statement (Byrnes), 649 
Chemistry, Pure and Applied, International Union of, 

U.S. delegation, 190 
Children, Exhibition of Films for, 5th International, U.S. 

delegation, listed, 292 
Children's Fund, U.N. See United Nations Children's 

Fund. 
Chile : 

Copper, talks on request for U.S. purchases of, 442 
Freedom of information, text of U.N. draft resolution, 

sponsorship of, 764 
Ship movements to Antarctica, 828 
U.S. Ambassador to (Beaulac), appointment, 329 
China, Communist : 
Aggression in Far East, preparation for, discussed in 

address (Dulles), 342 
Battle Act, third report to Congress on, text of chapter 

IV re, 569 
Bubbling Well Cemetery, Shanghai, removal of bodies 

from, instructions to U.S. re, 598 
Conquest of China, results, address (Robertson), 592 
Foreign Ministers' meeting of July 1953, text of final 
communique, and concluding remarks, on common 
policies re, 104 
Indochina, aggressive front in, discussed in address 

(Dulles), 341 
Korean Political Conference : 

Meeting at I'anmunjom, exchange of messages with 
Chinese and North Korean Communists re, texts, 
650 
I'reliminary meeting in Korea, statement (Dulles) 
and text of Chinese Communist message, 590 



China, Communist — Continued 
Korean Political Conference — Continued 
U.S. me.ssage to Chinese and North Korean Com- 
munists re, text, 486 
Views re. Communist, text of U.S. message to Chinese 
and North Korean Communists, 526 
Prisoners of war. See Prisoners of war. 
Relations with Soviet Union, address (Stevens), 113 
Representation in U.N., position of U.S.: address (Mur- 

pliy), 408; statement (Dulles), 412 
Trade with, strategic controls : 
Discussed, article (Hansen), 271 
Enforcement, summary of 3d report to Congress <m 
Battle Act (Stassen), 570 
U.S. citizens in, treatment of, 551 
China, Nationalist: 

Foreign forces in Burma, evacuation of, U.S. position, 

statements (Carey), 761 
Refugees, Chinese, eligibility for special nonquota visas 
under Refugee Relief Act of 1953, article (Auerbach), 
232 
Representation in U.N., question of unseating, post- 
ponement of discussion at 8th session of General 
Assembly, statement (Dulles), 412 
Suirar agreement, international, new : 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan), .543 
Signature, 823 
Cinematographic Art, 14th International Exhibition of, 

U.S. delegation, 292 
Civil Aviation Organization, International. See Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization. 
Civil Engineering, Building, and Public Works Committee 

of ILO, 4th session, U.S. delegation, listed, 613 
Civilian Relief in Korea (CRIK), attitude toward (Tasca 

report), 313 
Civilians, Korean, displaced, provision of Armistice Agree- 
ment for Committee for Assisting Return of Displaced 
Civilians, 139 
Claims : 

Cuban Government, extension of time limit for filing 

claims against, 319 
Egypt, instructions to American firms or citizens having 

claims against former ruling family of, 750 
German damage claims, extension of time limit for filing, 

320 
German debt agreements, with U.S., on setllement of 
claims against Germany : 
Article (Black), 479 
Entry into force, stipulations, 420 
German external debts, intergovernmental agreement 
on, for settlement of claims against Germany : 
Article (Black), 479 
Entry into force, 420 
International Claims Settlement Act of 1949, an act to 

amend, approved by President, 200 
Japan, land, and against nationals, consideration by 

Administering Authority of Pacific Islands, 25 
Mexico, 12tli payment to U.S., under claims convention 

(1941), 750 
Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of, administrative prob- 
lems re land claims in, 25 



922 



Department of State Bulletin 



Claims Commission, International, terms of office of Com- 
missioners Marvel and McKeough, termination, 59 
Clark, Gen. Mark, U.N. Commander in Korea : 
Correspondence : 
Connnnnist commanders, on Communist charges on 

release of Korean prisoners, 46 
Gen. K. S. Tliinia.vya. finpstionini; procedures of Neu- 
tral Nations Repatriation Commission (NNRC), 
r.«7 
Military Armistice Commission agreement concerning 
repatriation of captured personnel, information re, 
discussed in address (Dulles), 340 
Clearinghouse Service, Contact, of MSA, utilization by 

Israel and Philippines, 211, 212n. 
Coal and Steel Community, European. See European Coal 

and Steel Community. 
Cochran, H. Merle, resignation as Ambassador to Republic 

of Indonesia, 306 
Coe, Robert D., U.S. Ambassador to Denmark, confirma- 
tion, 192 
Coffee, importance in foreign relations with Latin America, 

discussed in article (Cabot), 752 
Cole, Rep. Sterling, text of letter to Senator Wiley on 
atomic weapon production capability of foreign coun- 
tries, 330 
Collective security. See Blutual security. 
Collisions at sea, regulations for preventing, text of Presi- 
dential proclamation re, 321 
Colombia : 

Agenda for Political Committee of U.N., items proposed 

by representative of, statement (Lodge) , 496 
Ambassador to U.S. (Zuleta-Angel), credentials, 202 
Coffee exports to U.S., discussed in address (Cabot), 

751 
International Bank Loan to: cited in address (Black), 

451 ; announcement of purpose, 455 
Sugar agreement, international, new, quota for, listed, 

article (Callanan), 543 
U.S. Ambassador to (Schoenfeld) appointment, 614 
Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic Development in 
South and Southeast Asia, Consultative Committee 
of: 
Attendance, proposed, of Assistant Secretary Waugh, 

450 
Meeting, statement (Dulles) , and U.S. delegation, 494 
Participating countries, listed, 494 
Colonialism and new nations, discussed in address (By- 

roade), 659 
Columbus' contribution to religion of new world, message 

(Dulles), 580 
Combined Economic Board (CEB), for efficient use of 

U.S. aid in Korea, report (Tasca) , 314 
Commerce, Department of, recent changes in export licens- 
ing procedures, 318 
Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) : 

Request by President for release of surplus agricultural 

commodities for aid to foreign countries, 60, 518 
Letters (Eisenhower to Departments of State and Agri- 
culture and FOA and Paz Estenssoro) discussing 
transfer of agricultural commodities to Bolivia, 518, 
585 



Commonwealtli Development Corporation (London), ve- 
hicle for investment of American dollars, discussed 
in letter (Douglas to Eisenhower) , 278 
Communism : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
AMVETS, position on, discussed (Morton), 344 
Bacterial warfare by U.N. forces, alleged : 

Forced confessions in Communist propaganda cam- 
paign, role of, statement (Mayo), 641 
"Germ warfare" charges, U.S. objective in discus- 
sion of, statement (Ford), 758; U.S. position, 
discussed in address ( Murphy ) , 783 
"Investigation, Impartial, of Charges of Use by 
U.N. Forces of Bacterial Warfare, Question of," 
text of Lodge letter transmitting documentation 
by U.S. officers to Secretary-General of U.N., 648 
Berlin and Korea, sites of aggression, discussed 

(Eisenhower), 199 
Bolshevik plot re organized labor, discussed (Dulles), 

445 
Captive peoples, unquenchable spirit of ( Dulles ) , 40 
Captive world front, discussed (Dulles), 743 
Caribbean area, activities in, discussed (Cabot) , 857 
Doctrine of, evolution of, U.S. foreign policy re, dis- 
cussed ( Stevens) , 109 
Escapees and refugees from persecution in Europe 
and Asia, special nonquota visas for, under Refugee 
Relief Act of 1953 ( Auerbach ) , 231 
Far East, Communist campaign in (Robertson) , 592 
Far East, Communist Uii'eat in (Robertson) , 814 
"Germ warfare" charges. See Bacterial warfare, 

ante. 
Global struggle against, contributions to, discussed 

(Morton), 345 
Greek-Turkish aid program, cited as weapon against, 

address (Stevens), 112 
Indochina, situation in : appreciation of French ef- 
forts (Dulles), 342; French plans for (Dulles), 405, 
443; French sacrifices in (Morton), 345; political 
arrangements with Associated States (Dulles), 
588 ; struggle in re ( Smith ), 631 
Iran, activities in ( Dulles ) , 178 
Iron Curtain, significance ( Lourie) , 772 
Korea : 
Aggresision in: Dulles, 203, 339, 373; Eisenhower, 

201 ; Morton, 345 ; Pearson, 205 ; Smith, 631 
Dilatory tactics at armistice conference (Dulles), 

405 
Prisoners of war: Armistice provisions for (Dul- 
les), 339; return of U.S. POW's (Dulles), 236 
"Labor, forced, evidence of existence of," report of 
ILO Ad Hoc Committee on Forced Labor, General 
Assembly agenda, 8th session (Lodge), 298 
Labor, organized, fight against (Dulles), 443 
Latin America, Communist challenge in (Cabot), 517 
Negotiation practices of Communists, discussed 

(Dulles), 341 
Prisoners of war. World War II, detention of : Lodge, 

497 ; Murphy, 411 
Religion, attack on, discussed (Smith), 475 
Viet-Nam, text of note to U.S. re plans for intensifi- 
cation of struggle against, 552 



Index, July /o December 7 953 



923 



Communism — Continued 

Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued 
Weapons of ooniiminism, discussed (Robertson), 815 
Worliing conditions under, discussed (Dulles), 44r> 
Arrests and trials of Polish clergy (Kiiczmarelc, 

Wyszynski), 456, 528 
European refugees from communism. See under Ref- 
ugees and displaced persons. 
Gouzenljo, Igor, subcommittee's request for talks with, 
text of exchange of notes (Dulles, Heeney), statement 
(Dulles), and texts of exchange of letters (Jenner, 
Dulles), 789 
Impri-sonment of William N. Oatis in Czech prison, 
release of: support of AMVETS, discussed (Morton), 
344; text of exchange of letters (Oatis, Dulles) re, 
401 
Indochina situation : 
Assistance to, text of joint U.S. -French memorandum, 

486 
Coumiendation of valiant forces fighting in, discussed 
in text of tripartite communique issued at Bermuda 
meeting, 852 
Current situation in French Union, discussed in text 
of final communique of meeting of Foreign Min- 
isters at Washington, 105 
Korean armistice negotiations and meetings. See 

Korean Armistice. 
Prisoners of war, retention, U.S. attitude, 205 
Soviet power, threat of, discussed in President's semi- 
annual report on MSA, 385 
Tactics in terms of force and consent, article (Halle), 

378 
Terror tactics in Soviet Zone of Germany, release 
from OflJce of U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, 
Berlin Element, 786 
Conant, James B., U.S. High Commissioner for Germany : 
Correspondence : 

Adenauer, Chancellor, on application of handicraft 

order in U.S. Zone, and statement re, 459 
Semenov, Soviet High Commissioner; 

Food distribution in Soviet Zone, texts, 209 
Freedom of movement for German nationals, texts, 
391, 490 
Personal title of Ambassador conferred on, 94, 
Congress : 

Agricultural commodities, surplus ; 
Excerpt from Public Law 118, 83d Congress, approved 

July 16, 1953, text, 639 
Statement (Waugh), 159 
Baltic Republics : 
Forced incorporation by Soviet Union, proposed in- 
vestigation by House Committee, discussed, address 
(liourle), 771 
U.S. a.ssurances to, statement (Dulles) to House Com- 
mittee, 818 
Battle Act. See Mutual Defense Assistance Control 

Act of 1951. 
Customs Simplilication Act of 1953 (H.R. 5877), changes 
in procedures of Bureau of Customs, approved, state- 
ment (Eisenhower), 202 
Disarmament, text of Senate Re.solutiou 150 on, 299 



Congress — Cont i n ued 

Export-Import Bank, Reorganization IMnn No. 5, trans- 
mitted by President to, 49 
Foreign Eroiioiiiie Policy, Joint Executive-Legislative, 
Commission on : 
Oeation of, statement (Eisenhower). 202 
Establishment by, for expanding international trade, 
discussed in text of U.S. note to Canada, 245; text 
of Public Law 215, sections relating to, 279 
Foreign policy legislation, current, listed, 26, 40, 103, 

149, 187, 213, 265, 283, 312, 500 
Foreign policy legislation passed by 83d Congress, 1st 

session, approval by President, 200 
German debt settlement agreements, ratification of, 

420 
Glassware, hand-blown, request by President for more 
information re and text of letter to Tariff Commis- 
.sion, 823 
Gouzenko, Igor, request by Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee for talks with, texts of exchange of notes with 
Canada (Dulles. Heeney) re, 7S0 ; statement (Dulles), 
790; texts of exchange of letters (Jenner, Dulles), 
791 
Judiciary Committee, consideration of report on work 
of Intergovernmental Committee for European Mi- 
gration (Gibson), 117 
Legislation listed, 26, 40, 103, 149, 187, 213, 265, 283, 

312, 500 
Messages and letters from the President : 

Agricultural commodities, surplus, for emergency aid, 

use of, recommendation for legislation re. 60 
Brier pipes, increase in import duties on, text of 
letters to Senator Millikin aud Representative Reed, 
declining Tariff Commission recommendations re, 
754 
Employment Act of 1946, recommendations re (Elsen- 
hower), discussed in statements (Baker), 260 
E.scape clauses in existing trade agreements, report 
of Interdepartmental Committee on Trade Agree- 
ments, 92 
Friendship, commerce, and consular rights, treaty with 
Germany, letter of transmittal to, texts of letter 
(Dulles) and agreement, 93, 94 
Friendship, commerce, aud navigation, treaty with 
Japan, message of transmittal to Senate (Eisen- 
hower) and statement (Johnson), 160, 162 
Germany, France, Norway, and U.K., continued as- 
sistance to, text of letter to congressional chair- 
men and text of letter to President (Stassen) 
recommending, 300, 301 
Korea, recommendation for increased aid to, 193 
Mutual security funds, position on, test of letter to 

Senator Bridges, 158 
Mutual securily progiam for the six months ended 
July 30, 1903, a report on, letter of transmittal to, 
and text of chapter I, 384 
State of Union message, 1953, labors confronting 
Government, quoted iu address (Eisenhower), 199 
U.S. participation in the I'.N., message of transmittal 
to, 265 



924 



Department of State Bulletin 



Congress — Continued 

Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951 (Battle 
Act), 3d semiannual report, letter of transmittal 
to (Stassen), summary, and chapter IV, 569 
Mutual security jiroKram, importance to national secu- 
rity, statement (Dulles), before Senate Appropria- 
tions Committee, SS 
Refugees Relief Act of 19.53: 

Immigration quotas for 3-year period under, legisla- 
tion re, 200 
Provisions, discussed in article (Anerbacb), 231 
Signature, statement (Eisenhower), 201 
Reorganization plans for Department of State, Pres- 
ident's, effects of, statement (Laurie), to House Com- 
mittee, 27 
Senate confirmations, 191, 192, 223. 224, 828 
Synthetic rubber plants. Government-owned, disposal 
of, text of letter (Dulles) to Senator Capehart re, 
159 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 19.j3, extension for 

1 year, signature, statement (Eisenhower), 202 
Treatymaking power, proposed Constitutional amend- 
ment to curb : 
S. J. Res. 1, provisions of: statements (Eisenhower), 
192, 309; text of resolution (Knowland). 193; 
threat to foreign policy, address (Morton), 663 
U.S. Constitution and U.N. Charter, an appraisal, ad- 
dress ( Dulles ) , 307 
U.N. Charter, review of, proposed, text of exchange of 

letters (Wiley, Dulles), re S. Res. 126, 310 
Wlieat agreement, international, statement (Waugli) to 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee, in support of 
ratification, 61 
Constitution of U.S., treatymaking power under, proposed 
amendment to curb : 
S. J. Res. 1, provisions of: statements (Eisenhower), 
192, 309; text of resolution (Knowland), 19.> ; threat 
to foreign policy, address (Morton), 663 
U.S. Constitution and U.N. Charter, an appraisal, ad- 
dre.ss (Dulles), 307 
Consulates, consular offices. See under Foreign Service. 
Consultative Committee on Economic Development in 

South and Southeast Asia. See Colombo Plan. 
Contracting parties to GATT. .S'ec binder Tariffs and 

trade, general agreement on. 
Contractual agreements with Germany, for relationship 
between occupying powers and Germany pending 
peace treaty, discussed, address (Straus), 11 
Coordinating Board, Operations. See Operations Coordi- 
nating Board. 
Copper, Chile's request for U.S. purchase of surplus, talks 

on, representatives, listed, 442 
Copyright arrangement with Japan, new, reciprocal pro- 
tection, text of proclamation, remarks (Allison, Oka- 
zaki), and text of exchange of notes, S24, 825, 826 
Cordova Diaz, Jorge I/Uis, appointment as Commissioner 

of U.S. section of Caribbean Commission, 398 
Costa Rica : 

Inauguration of President Jos6 Figueres, Governor 
Lodge mission to, U.S. delegation and texts of ex- 
change of letters (Dulles, Lodge), 586 
U.S. ambassador to, (Hill) appointment, 614 



Costa Rica — Continued 

Wheat agreement, internatioal, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
Cotton purchases by Japan, from U.S., Export-Import 

Bank loan for, 676 
Cowen, Myron M., exchange of letters with President 
ELsenhower re significance of Philippine elections, 
texts, 677 
Cowles, Gardner, appointment as member of International 

Development Advisory Board, 493 
Cox, Homer H., alleged imprisonment in Soviet camp, 

statement (Dulles), 675 
CRIK. Sec Civilian Relief in Korea. 
Criminals, war. Sec War criminals. 

Crowe, Philip K., U.S. Ambassador to Ceylon, confirma- 
tion, 157 
Crusade for Freedom, release of balloons by, text of 

exchange of notes with Czechoslovakia, 210 
Cuba: 
Claims against, extension of time limit for filing, 319 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Rice tariff quotas, agreement with U.S., under GATT, 

texts of exchange of notes, 82 
Sugar agreement, international, new : 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan), 543 
Signature, 823 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
Gumming, Hugh S., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Repulilic of Indonesia, 366 
Currency convertibility : 

Dollar-sterling unbalance, solution through currency 
convertibility and trade, discussed in exchange of 
letters (Eisenhower, Douglas), 275 
Italy, withdrawal of banknotes, 897 

Par value for Jordan's currency, International Mone- 
tary Fund announcement, 553 
Rep<^rts on inconvertible currencies by Commission on 
Foreign Economic Policy, text of provision in Trade 
Agreements Extension Act (1953) , 279 
Transfer of program from Department of State, state- 
ment (Lourie),28 
Customs Simplification Act, approved, statement (Eisen- 
hower), 202 
Customs Unions, reports by Commission on Foreign Eco- 
nomic Policy, text of provision in Trade Agreements 
Extension Act (1953), 279 
Cyrus, Bindley C, appointment as Commissioner of U.S. 

section of Caril)bean Commission, 398 
Czechoslovak Independence Day, messages (Eisenhower, 
Dulles) to Czechoslovak National Council of Amer- 
ica, 675 
Czechoslovakia : 

Attack on U.S. plane in U.S. Zone of Germany, by, texts 

of exchange of notes with U.S., 180, 183 
Crusade for Freedom balloons, relea.se in Czechoslo- 
vakia, protest re, exchange of notes with U.S. re, 210 
Korean Armistice Agreement, Neutral Nations Super- 
visory Commission for, membership, 135, 346 
Release of William N. Oatis from imprisonment in: 
support of AMVETS, discussed (Morton), 344 ; text of 
exchange of letters (Oatis, Dulles), 491 



Index, July to December 1953 



925 



Czechoslovakia — Continued 
Sugar agreement, international, new : 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan), 543 
Signature, 823 
UNICEF program in, statement (Heffelflnger), 291 
U.S. Ambassador to (Johnson) appointment, 731 

Dairy products, duties on imports of, text of proclamation, 

62 
Daniel, Dr. Kobert P., reappointment as member of Inter- 
national Development Advisory Board, 493 
Davis, Roy Tasco, U.S. Ambassador to Haiti, confirmation, 

157 
Dean, Ambas.sador Arthur H. : 

Appointment as deputy to Secretary of State for pro- 
posed Korean Political Conference, 470 
Panmunjom talks : 

Statements and excerpt from proceedings at October 

31 session, texts, 666 
Statement at November 17 session, text, 788 
Text of proposal of December 8 re arrangements and 
procedures for Korean Political Conference, 877 
Debt agreements, U.S. and Germany, signature and entry 

into force, 419, 420, 479 
Debt payment to U.S., initial, by Germany, under debt 
agreements, text of note (Krekeler) to Secretary 
Dulles, statements (Krekeler, Kalijarvi), 598, 599 
Defense. See Colombo plan ; European Defense Commu- 
nity (EDO; Foreign Operations Administration; 
Korean Armistice; Mutual defense and security; Mu- 
tual Security Agency ; North Atlantic Treaty Organ- 
ization (NATO) ; treaties under mutual defense and 
security, 
de Moya Alonzo, Manuel, Ambassador of Dominican Re- 
public, credentials, 603 
Denmark : 

Agricultural commodities, surplus, FOA program for 
purchase for resale overseas, under section 550 of 
Mutual Security Act of 1953, in, 638 
Economic aid to, proposal for suspension of, discussed 
in President's semiannual report on mutual security 
program, 388 
FOA surplus agricultural commodities for, proposed, 

638 
International Bank report for fiscal 1953, prepayment 

of loan by, 319 
MSA productivity agreement, cited, 17 
Sea water pollution, damage to coast of, discussed in 

article (Mann), 777 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Sugar agreement, international, new: 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan), 543 
Signature, 823 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
U.S. Ambassador to (Coe), confirmation, 192 
Deputies' meeting on Austrian state treaty, proposed, 

texts of exchange of notes with U.S.S.R., 282 
Deressa, Ato Yilma, Ambassador of Ethiopia, credentials, 

460 
Despotism, basic weakness of, address (Lourie), 771 



Development Advisory Board, International, reconstitu- 
tion by President, 493 

Diplomatic representatives in U.S.: Afghanistan (Ludin), 
740; Brazil (Muniz), 603; Canada (Heeney), 202; 
Colombia (Zulet;i-Angel), 202; Dominican Republic 
(de Moya Alonzo), 603; Ethiopia (Deressa), 460; 
Hungary (Szarka), 481; Indoue.sia (Notowidigdo), 
603; Iran (Entezam), 6S0; Iraq (Al-Shabander), 
481; Laos (Souvannavong), 114; Pakistan (Amjad 
All), 481 

Disarmament: 

Addresses and statements : Dulles, 406, 788 ; Lodge, 829, 
830, 833, 837 ; Morton, 346, 664 ; Murphy, 410 ; Smith, 
478; Wadsworth, 829, 837; Zellerbach, 839 
Declaration on use of savings achieved through, draft 

resolution, text, 839 
Japan, U.S. position on error of, statement (Dulles), 788 
Senate Resolution 150, text, 299 
Soviet draft resolution, text, 834 
U.N. resolution, text, 838 

Disarmament Commission of United Nations, Third Re- 
port, statement (Lodge), 829 

Displaced persons. See Intergovernmental Committee for 
European Migration ; International Refugee Organi- 
zation ; Refugee Relief Act of 19.J3 ; refugees, dis- 
placed persons, and escapees. 

Dixon, Donald, U.S. prisoner in Communist China, report 
of request for information re, 552 

Documentary and Short-Length Films, 4th International 
Exhibition of, U.S. delegation, listed, 292 

Dollar bond validation in Germany, agreement with U.S. 
re, signature and entry into force, 420, 479 

Dollar Bonds, Board for Validation of, establishment, 599 

Dollar-gap problem, address (Waugh), 146 

Dollar-sterling relationship, report of Douglas Mission, 
text of correspondence re (Eisenhower, Douglas), 275 

Domestic and international economic policies, statements 
(Baker), 259 

Dominican Republic : 
Ambassador to U.S. (de Moya Alonzo), credentials. 603 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Sugar agreement, international, new : 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan), 543 
Signature, 823 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
Instrument of acceptance, 245 

Donovan, Howard, designation as deputy U.S. representa- 
tive to 4th session of U.N. Ad Eoc Commission on 
Prisoners of War, 328 

Donovan, William J., confirmation as U.S. Ambassador 
to Thailand, 224 

Dosti, Hasan, exchange of letters with Secretary Dulles 
re U.S. concern for plight of Albanian people, texts, 
529 

Double taxation, income-tax convention (1948) and sup- 
plementary convention (1952), with Belgium, entry 
into force, 460 

Douglas, Lewis W., report on dollar-sterling relationship, 
text of correspondence with President Eisenhower, 
275 

Dreier, John C, address on Americas in world scene of 
today, 681 



926 



Department of State Bulletin 



Dulles, Allen W., appointuient to Operations Coordinating 

Board, 421 
Dulles, John Foster, Secretary of State : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Akihito, Crown Prince of Japan, welcome on arrival, 
380 

Amami Oshiraa Islands, authority over resumed by 
Japan, 208 

Americans in Soviet prison camp (Towers, Cox) , 675 

ANZUS Council, discussion of security problems in 
Pacific area, 415 

Atomic weapons, storage in Spain, denial, 674 

Captive peoples, U.S. assurances to, 40, 818 

Chinese representation in U.N., 412 

Colombo plan meeting, 4&4 

Death of King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, condolence, 
723 

Despotism, excerpt from address quoted (Lourie), 
772 

Diplomacy, Western, re Soviet note of Nov. 26 and 
relation to possible four-power meeting, 813 

Disarmament of Japan, U.S. pcsition, 788 

East Berlin demonstrations, discussed, 40 

East-West trade in Europe, discussed, 272 

European Defense Community Treaty, approval by 
Netherlands, 141 

Foreign Ministers' meeting of July 1953, welcome and 
opening session statements, 70 

Foreign Ministers' meeting of October 1953, objec- 
tives, 546 

Germany, conference on, essence of Soviet note re- 
jecting, 722 

Germany, partition of, U.S. position, 353 

Gouzeuko, Igor, re congressional subcommittee's re- 
quest for talk with, 790 

Hydrogen bomb, Soviet claims, U.S. position, 236 

Indochina, restoration of peace in, 342 

Iranian friendship with U.S., 590 

Israel, aid to, status and recommendations, 589, 674 

Jordan Valley, Eric Johnston mission re, 750 

Korea : 
Armistice negotiations and problems : 
Agreement, signing, 131 
Negotiations, 45 
Problems, 339, 141 
U.N.'s special meeting on, 235 
Mutual defense treaty, joint statement with Presi- 
dent Rhee, 203 ; signing ceremony, 484 
Political conference for, preliminary meeting, 361, 
590, 666 

Labor's figlit against world communism, 443 

Moral forces, power of, 510 

Moral initiative, 741 

Mutual securitj' program, importance to national se- 
curity, 88 

NATO Ministers, meeting of, 854 

Panama Canal, conversations concerning, 419 

Prisoners of war, Korea : repatriation, 235, 749 ; wit- 
ness to return of, 236 

Robertson, Walter S., return from mission to Korea, 
103 



Dulles, John Foster, Secretary of State — Continued 
Addresses, statements, etc.- — Continued 
Soviet good faith, test of, 353 

Soviet Government, anniversary of recognition of, 749 
Tension, international, points of, question of nonag- 

gression pacts with areas, 527 
Trieste's relation to defense of South Europe, 589 
United Nations, understanding of, 619 
U.N. Charter, revision of, 343 
U.N. role in easing international tensions, 403 
U.S. Constitution and U.N. Charter, an appraisal, 307 
U.S. forces in Europe, question of withdrawal, denial, 

632 
U.S. foreign policy, fundamentals of, 811 
U.S. responsibility, a society of consent, 587 
World political situation, joint statement with Robert- 
son, 99 
Bermuda meeting of December 1953, U.S. representa- 
tive, 740 
Boundary Commissioner, U.S., International Boundary 
and Water Commission, U.S. and Mexico, text of 
legislation, 725 
Conversation with Madame Pandit re work of General 

Assembly, 550 
Correspondence : 

Senator Capehart, on disposal of Government-owned 

synthetic rubber plants, text, 159 
Dosti, Hasan, on U.S. concern for plight of Albanian 

people, texts of exchange of letters, 529 
Ambassador Heeney (Canada), on establishment of 

Joint Board of Engineers for St. Lawrence River 

project, texts of exchange of notes, 739 
Ambassador Heeney, re request by Senator Jenner 

for Subcommittee talk with Igor Gouzenko, texts of 

exchange of notes, 789, 812 
Senators Hennings and Jackson, on policy on books in 

IIA libraries, text of letters, 58 
Governor Lodge, on mission to Panama and Costa 

Rica, texts of exchange of letters, 586 
Oatis, William N., exchange of letters re release of, 

from imprisonment in Czechoslovakia, texts, 491 
Senator Wiley, correspondence on review of U.N. 

Charter, texts, 311 
Messages : 

Czechoslovak National Council of America, in com- 
memoration of Czechoslovak Independence Day, 675 
Inter-American Affairs, Leaders' Conference on. 

General Federation of Women's Clubs, on the need 

for mutual understanding, 556 
Prime Minister Papagos of Greece, on U.S. aid to 

victims of Greek earthquake, text, 312 
Mrs. Ernst Renter, condolence on death of husband, 

489 
UNESCO National Commission, 4th session, 468 
Remarks : 

Foreign Ministers' meeting of July 1953, concluding 

remarks, 106 
Iran, Commimist activities in, 178 
Israeli Foreign OflBce, U.S. position on transfer of, 177 
Post-armistice problems, 176 
U.N. achievements in Korea, 175 



Index, July to December 1953 



927 



Dulles, John Foster, Secretary of State — Continued 
Reports : 

Friendship, conuneree, and consular rights treaty, 
with Germany, si^ed at Washington on Dec. 8, 
1923, as amendetl, report to President for trans- 
mission to Senate, 93 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaty, with 
Japan, with protocol, report to President for trans- 
mission to Senate, 160 
Dunn, James Clement, Ambassador to Spain : 

Agreements for defense, economic aid, and mutual de- 
fense assistance, texts : 
Mutual benefits from, address, 793 
Signature, efforts re, 435 
U.S. representative at 4th session of U.N. Ad Floe 

Commission on Prisoners of War, 328 
World War II prisoners, missing, Soviet attitude, state- 
ment, 428 

Earthquake in Greece, U.S. aid to victims of, texts of 

exchange of messages and notes re, 311 
East Berlin. See under Germany, East. 
East-West trade, article (Hansen), 271 
ECAFE. See Economic Commission for Asia and Far 

East. 
BCB. See Economic Commission for Europe. 
ECLA. See Economic Commission for Latin America. 
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) : 
Disarmament, world, excerpt of ECOSOC resolution re, 

quoted in address (Murphy), 411 
Documents listed, 21, 191, 223, 329, 502, 806 
Economic Development, Special U.N. Fund for, proposed 

consideration by, 839 
Forced Labor, postponement to 17th session of discus- 
sion of ILO Ad Hoc Committee on Forced Labor report 
on, 299 
Freedom of information, postponement of discussion 

at 16th session, 764 
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions re- 
quest for action on problem of reconversion after 
rearmament, discussed (Baker), 259 
16th session (Geneva), U.S. delegation, listed, 57 
Social field, action in, support for, statement (Mayo) 

566 
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) : 
Continuation of, 288 
Permanent basis, statement (Lord), 533 
Retention of symbol UNICEF, 288 
Symbol of free world cooperation, article (Eliot), on 

16th session of ECOSOC, 288 
UNICEF, proof of man's love for children, statement 
(Heffelfinger), 291 
Economic and Social Council of OAS, Inter-American, 
proposed consultation of Randall Commission with, 
685 
Economic assistance (see also Foreign Operations Ad- 
ministration; Mutual Security Agency): 
Agricultural commodities, surplus: 

Bolivia, emergency relief for. Presidential request 

for use of, 518 
Emergency aid for foreign countries, authority to 
utilize requested in message by President to Con- 
gress, 60 



928 



Economic assistance («ee alto Foreign Operations Ad- 
ministration; Mutual Security Agency) — Continued 
Agricultural commodities, surplus — Continued 

Purchases by FOA for resale overseas for foreign 

currency, 638 
Support for President's request to Congress for use 
of (Waugh), 159 
Asia, Colombo plan for. See Colombo plan. 
Berlin, economic needs of, U.S. concern, texts of ex- 
change of letters (Renter, Eisenhower, Adenauer), 
re, 457 
Bolivia : 

Increa.se in U.S. aid, projxised, by purchase of tin con- 
centrates for 1 year, S'2 
Request for aid, text of exchange of letters (Paz 
Estenssoro, Eisenhower), ,584 
East Germany, offers by U.S. of food for : 

Advisory Committee on 'Voluntary Foreign Aid of 

MSA, statement by chairman (Taft), 208 
Statements and exchange of correspondence (Conant, 

Semenov), texts, 209 
Statements and exchange of notes (Eisenhower, 
Adenauer, Molotov), texts, 67 
Greek earthquake, U.S. aid to victims of, texts of ex- 
change of messages and notes re, 311 
Iran, emergency aid to: 
Allotment of funds by President, 350 
Correspondence re, texts (Zahedi, Eisenhower, Hen- 
derson), 349 
Israel, allocation of funds, following settlement of dif- 
ferences with U.N. Truce Supervision Org;inization, 
statement (Dulles), 674; deferment of, statement 
(Dulles), 589 
Korea : 

Increased aid for, text of President's message recom- 
mending, 193 
Reconstruction program for, statement (Ford) and 

text of U.N. resolution, 904, 908 
Voluntary aid for, statement (Eisenhower), 907 
Pakistan, shipment of wheat to : 
Progress in shipments, 822 

U.S. assistance, discussed In President's semiannual 
report on mutual security program ending June 30, 
1953, 388 
Wheat Aid Aid Act, signature : exchange of messages 
(Eisenhower, Mohammed All), 16; statements 
(Eisenhower, Hildreth), 15 
Postwar, for Germany, agreement with U.S. re, signa- 
ture and entry into force, 419, 479 
Productivity agreements. See under Mutual Security 

Agency. 
Spain, economic aid agreement with U.S., text and 

signature, 436 
■Viet-Nam, appreciation for aid to flood sufferers, texts 
of exchange of notes (Prime Minister of 'Viet-Nam, 
Ambassador Heath), 487 
Economic Commission for Asia and Far East (ECAFE), 
purpose and functions, discussed, article (Asher), 6 
Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), purpose and 
functions, discussed, article (Asher), 6 

Deparfment of State Butletin 



Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA), pur- 
pose and functions, discussed, article (Astier), 6; 
studios re econoniy, discussed (Roclvcfeller), 5S2 
Economic Cooperation, Enrojiean, Organization for 
(OEEC) : 
ForeifTU Economic Policy, Commission on (Randall 
Commission) : 
Consultations with, proposed, 685 
Duties and powers re, 279 
Manpower movements, decision of liberalization of, 
text, 721 
Economic Development, Committee on Special U.N. Fund 

for, discussed in address (Baker), 263 
Economic Development in South and Southeast Asia, 
Consultative Committee on (Colombo Plan) : 
Attendance, proposed, of Assistant Secretary Waugh, 

450 
Meeting, statement (Dulles), and U.S. delegation, 494 
Participating countries, listed, 494 
Economic situations, national and international: 
Addresses and statements : 

America's expanding economy (Akiric-h), 4S2 
Arab refugees, continuation of economic and humani- 
tarian assistance to (Richards), 759 
Economic aid to Israel (Dulles), 674 
Economic challenge to America in fostering healthy 
world economy and maintaining stability at home, 
discussed, address (Morton), 664 
Economic growth and human welfare in Western 

Hemisphere (Rockefeller), 581 
Economic needs, world, U.S. position (Baker), 262 
Economic planning, bases for, discussed, address 

(Waugh), 448 
Economic progress in Europe, past, present, and fu- 
ture (Stassen), 718 
Economies of U.S. foreign jwlicy (Asher), 3 
Economy, Japanese, views of U.S. (Allison), 35 
Free-world economy, healthy, America's stake in 

(Waugh), 142 
Interdependence, economic, in today's world (Stas- 
sen), 39 
Investment, international, and economic progress 

(Black), 451 
Joint Economic and Trade Committee, with Canada, 
establishment approved, discussed, address (Eisen- 
hower), 737; talks with Canada re, 864 
PoUcies, U.S. domestic and international (Baker) , 259 
Berlin, economic needs of, discussed in correspondence 

(Eisenhower with Adenauer and Renter), re, 457 
Dollar-sterling relationship and effect on U.S. foreign 
economic policy (Douglas Mission report), corres- 
jjondence re, 275 
Ethiopia, treaty of amity and economic relations with 

U.S. (1951), ratification, 380 
Foreign Economic Policy, Commission on (Randall 
Commission) : 
Consultations with international organizations, dis- 
cussed, 685 
Creation, statement (Eisenhower), 202 
Establishment and texts of sections of Public Law 215, 

S3d Congress, re duties and powers of, 279 
Organization of, statement (Eisenhower), 450 



Economic situations, national and international — 
Continued 
Iceland, loan from IBRD for economic development, 456 
Israel, allocation of funds for, following settlement of 
differences with U.N. Truce Supervision Organization, 
statement (Dulles), 674 
Korean rehabilitation program, appointment of Eco- 
nomic Coordinator (Wood), 236 
Visit of German Economic Minister (Erhard), 670 
Economic Strength for Free World — Principles of a United 
States Foreign Development Program, Advisory Com- 
mittee report on U.S. programs in underdeveloped 
areas, released, 16 
ECOSOC. Sec Economic and Social Council. 
Ecuador : 
Escape clau.ses in trade agreements, discussions with 
U.S. re inclusion of, discussed in message to Congress 
(Eisenhower), 92 
Export-Import Bank Credit increased, for highway 

completion, 493 
Trade agreement with U.S., negotiations re insertion of 

escape clause, 92 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of in- 
strument of acceptance, 245 
EDC. See European Defense Community. 
Eden, Anthony, Foreign Secretary, invitation to Secre- 
tary Dulles and Foreign Minister Bidault to Lon- 
don meeting to discuss common problems, 546 
Edinburgh Film Festival, Vllth, U.S. delegation, listed, 

328 
Education : 
Adult Workers' Education, Seminars and Meeting of 

Experts (UNESCO), U.S. delegation, 87 
Exchange programs, retention by Department of State 
under President's reorganization plans, statement 
(Lourie), 30 
Non-self-governing territories, needs for, statement 

(Bolton), 686 
Peaceful world, education for, remarks (Eisenhower), 

774 
Public Education, International Conference on 

(UNESCO), U.S. delegation, 57 
Trust Territory of Pacific Islands, teacher-education 
program in, statement (MidkifE), 26 
Egypt : 

Claims against former ruling family of, instructions 

to American firms and citizens re, 750 
Liberation Day, 1st anniversary of, text of President's 

message to President of Republic of, 178 
Wheat agreement, international, I'evised, deposit of in- 
strument of acceptance, 245 
Eisenhower, President Dwight D. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Americans, standard for, 507 
Atomic power for peace (atoms-for-peace proposal), 

address before U.N. General Assembly, 847 
Atomic weapons, Soviet progress in development of, 

508 
Austria and Germany, Soviet refusal to confer on, 670 
Canadian-American partnership, address and text of 
joint communique with Prime Minister St. Laurent, 
735 



Index, July fo December 7953 

339369—55 3 



929 



Eisenhower, President Dwight D. — Continued 
Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued 

Customs Simplification Act of 1953, signature, 202 

ralc6n Dam, monument to inter-American coopera- 
tion, 579 

Fissionable material defined, 897 

Food for distribution in Soviet Zone of Germany, U.S. 
offer, 67 

Foreign Economic Policy, Commission on, organiza- 
tion, 450 

Foreign policy, U.S. fundamentals of, 811 

Foreign trade, U.S. dependence on, 539 

Germany and Austria, Soviet refusal to confer on, 670 

Korea, voluntary aid to, 907 

Near East, mission of Eric Johnston to, 553 

King Paul and Queen Frederika of Greece, toast to, 
673 

Refugee Relief Act of 1953, signature, 201 

Renter, Mayor Ernst, West Berlin, death of, 489 

Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1953, extension 
for 1 year, 202 

Treatymaking power, amendment to S.J. Res. 1, 192 

U.N., significance of, 457 

USIA, definition of mission of, 756 

Wheat Aid Act for shipment of wheat to Pakistan, 
signature, 15 

World leadership, accepting burdens of, excerpts, 199 

Wyszynski, Cardinal Stefan, arrest of, 529n. 
Appointments : 

Caribbean Commission, chairman (McUvaine) and 
Commissioners of U.S. section, 398, 731 

Economic Coordinator for Korea (Wood), 486 

Foreign Service oflicers. See Foreign Service. 

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), 
U.S. representative on Council of (Jones), 223 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr., as special adviser, 896 

Public Advisory Board of FOA, 828 

South Pacific Commission, 327 

United States Information Agency : Streibert, Theo- 
dore C, Director, 238; Washburn, Abbott McCon- 
nell, Deputy Director, 828 
Communications : 

Prime Minister Mossadegh, on U.S. position on 
Iranian oil dispute, 74 

Secretary of State, Secretary of Agriculture, and Di- 
rector of FOA, on surplus commodities for reUef 
of Bolivia, 518 
Conversations with Madame Pandit re work of General 

Assembly, 550 
Correspondence : 

Adenauer, Chancellor Konrad, texts of exchange of 
correspondence : 
Berlin, concern of U.S. for economic needs of, 457 
Disturbances in East Germany, 9 
U.S. offers of food for Soviet Zone of Germany, 

07, 147 
U.S. views on German unity, 147 

Bridges, Sen. Styles, text of letter warning against 
cuts in mutual security funds, 158 

Congress, text of letter of transmittal of semiannual 
report on mutual security program, 384 



Eisenhower, President Dwight D. — Continued 
Correspondence — Continued 

Congressional chairman, text of letter directing con- 
tinuance of assistance to Germany, France, Nor- 
way, and U.K., 300 

Cowen, Myron M., texts of exchange of letters on 
significance of Philippine elections, 676 

Douglas, Lewis W., test of letter re report of Douglas 
mission, 275 

Eller, Dr. Joseph, text of letter endorsing program 
of Pan American medical group, 896 

House Ways and Means Committee, chairman (Reed), 
text of letter declining recommendations for in- 
creases in duties on low-priced brierwood pipes, 755 

Governor Muiioz (Puerto Rico), text of letter on 
occasion of 1st anniversary of Commonwealth, 398 

Paz Estenssoro, President Victor (Bolivia), texts of 
exchange of letters on aid to Bolivia, 584 

President of American Federation of Labor (Meany) 
and President of Congress of Industrial Organiza- 
tions (Reuther), on request for U.S. aid to workers 
in East Germany, texts, 69 

President Quirino, texts of exchange of letters on 
Philippine proposals for revision of trade relations 
with U.S., 316 

Randall, Clarence, chairman, Commission on Foreign 
Economic Policy, text of letter transmitting re- 
port of Lewis W. Douglas Mission, 275 

Renter, Mayor Ernst, texts of exchange of letters re 
U.S. concern for economic needs of Berlin, 457 

Secretary of Agriculture '(Benson), text of letter 
requesting studies of wool imports and production, 
185 

Senate, text of letter of transmittal on treaty of 
friendship, commerce, and consular rights, with 
Germany, 1923, as amended, 93 

Senate, text of letter of transmittal on treaty of 
friendship, commerce, and navigation, with Japan, 
with protocol, 160 

Senate Finance Committee, chairman (Millikin), text 
of letter declining recommendations for increases 
in duties on low-priced brierwood pipes, 755 

Shaw, Ambassador George P., excerpt of text of letter 
re retirement of, 689 

U.S. Tariff Commission, chairman (Bross.ird) : 

Hand-blown glassware case, text of letter requesting 

more information, 823 
Wool imports and production, text of letter request- 
ing studies, 185 

Prime Minister Zahedi (Iran), texts of exchange of 
letters on U.S. aid to Iran, 349 
Executive orders. See Executive orders. 
Export-Import Bank : Reorganization Plan No. 5, text, 

49 
Palc6n Dam, dedication of, announcement of plans of 

President to attend, 360 
International Development Advisory Board, reconstltu- 

tion of, 493 
Messages : 

American-Lithuanian Council, National Convention 
of, congratulation on achievements, 774 

Armistice in Korea, message to Nation, text, 131 



930 



Oeparfmenf of Sfafe Bullefin 



Eisenhower, President Dwight D. — Continued 
Messages — Continued 
Prime Minister Churchill, on postponement of Ber- 
muda talks, text, 49 
Czechoslovak National Council of America, on Czech- 
oslovak Independence Day, 675 
Far East Conference, ou importance of Far East's 

trade, test, 520 
GATT, contracting parties to, Sth session, on reap- 
praisal of international trade practices, 447 
IBRD and International Monetary Fund, chairmen 
and members, on U.S. support for objectives of, 452 
Mohammed All, Prime Minister of Pakistan, on wheat 

grant to Pakistan, texts, 16 
Gen. Mohammed Xaguib, on 1st anniversary of Egypt's 

Liberation Day, text, 178 
Prime Minister Mossadegh of Iran, re U.S. position 

on Iranian oil dispute, texts, 74, 70 
King Paul of Greece, on U.S. aid to earthquake vic- 
tims, text, 311 
President of International Peasant Union (Mikolaj- 

czyk), 897 
King Saud of Arabia, on death of King Ibn Saud, text, 

723 
Shah of Iran, on U.S. aid to Iran, 349 
UNESCO National Commission, 4th session, 467 
Messages to Congress : 
Agricultural commodities, surplus, use for emergency 

aid, text, 60 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaty with 
Japan, with protocol, text of message of trans- 
mission to Senate, 160 
Korea, recommendation for increased aid to, text, 193 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951, escape 

clauses in existing trade agreements under, 92 
U.S. participation in U.N., transmittal of report on, 
265 
Operations Coordinating Board, establishment, 420 
Ottawa, proposed visit to, 530 

Presidential authority to furnish famine relief assist- 
ance, 200 
Proclamations. See Proclamations, Presidential. 
Proposal for joint atomic contributions, S50 
Refugee Relief Act of 1953, approval, 859 
Remarks : 

Peaceful world, education for, 774 

Representative government, an expression of faith, 

541 
Souvannavong, Ourot, Minister of Laos, exchange of 
remarks on occasion of presentation of credentials, 
114 
Eisenhower, Milton S., Special Ambassador : 

Good will mission to South America, statement, 184 
United States-Latin American relations, report to the 
President, text, 695 
Elections, free all-German : 

Electoral law for, Soviet position, discussed in state- 
ment (Lodge), 830 
Results of elections in, U.S. position, 356 
Soviet obstructionism, U.S. position (Reap) , 283 
Electric power in Brazil, expansion of, IBRD loan for, 451 



Eliot, Martha M., article on UNICEF as symbol of free 

world cooperation, 288 
Elizalde, J. M., Foreign Minister of Philippines, text of 
letter to U.S. Ambassador (Spruance), transmitting 
report of committee for readjustment of trade rela- 
tions with U.S., 317 
El Salvador : 

Coffee imports by U.S., discussed in address (Cabot), 

751 
Trade agreement with U.S., negotiations re Insertion of 

escape clause, 92 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of in- 
strument of acceptance, 245 
Embargo : 
Communist China, post-armistice trade with, status, 

discussed (Stassen), 574 
Foreign Economic Policy, Commission on, duties and 

powers re, 279 
Strategic materials for Soviet bloc, fallacy re, discussed 

in article (Hansen) on East-West trade, 273 
Strategic shipments, enforcement of trade controls re, 
summary and text of chapter IV of 3d report to 
Congress on Battle Act, 569 
Western European countries, shipments of category B 
items, discussed in letter (Stassen) to President 
Eisenhower, text, 301 
Emblem symbolizing cooperation, adoption by FOA, 242 
Emigration. See Intergovernmental Committee for Euro- 
pean Migration ; International Refugee Organization ; 
Refugee Relief Act of 1953 ; refugees, displaced per- 
sons, and escapees. 
En-lai, Chou, preliminary meeting in Korea, text of mes- 
sage re, 590 
Entezam, NasroUah, Ambassador of Iran, credentials, 590, 

680 
EPU. See European Payments Union. 
Equal rights of men and women, discussed in report on 
9th session of U.N. Commission on Himian Rights 
(Lord), 215 
Erhard, Dr. Ludwig, German Economics Minister, visit to 

U.S., proposed, 670 
Erkin, Feridun C, Turkish Ambassador to U.S., signature 

of NATO agreement, 491 
Escapees. See Intergovernmental Committee for Euro- 
pean Migration ; International Refugee Organization ; 
Refugee Relief Act of 1953 ; refugees, displaced per- 
sons, and escapees. 
Estonia, assurances to captive people of, statement 

(Dulles), 818 
Ethiopia : 

Action in Korea, discussed in address (Murphy), 410 

Ambassador to U.S. (Deressa), credentials, 460 

Amity and economic relations, treaty with U.S. (1951), 

exchange of ratifications, 380 
U.S. Ambassador to (Slmonson), confirmed, 329 
Europe («ee also individual countries): 

Captive peoples, U.S. attitude toward, statement 
(Dulles), 40; text of letter (Merchant) to Central 
and Eastern European Conference and Central-Euro- 
pean Committee, 183 
Defense of, address (Gruenther), 633 



Index, July fo December 1953 



931 



Europe {see also indiiidual countries) — CoutinueU 

Defense production In, MSA report, European Industrial 

Projects, 212 
Dollar improvement, discussed in President's semi- 

iuimial report on mutual security program, 388 
Economic proj?ress in Western Europe — past, present, 

and future, address (Stassen), 718 
Loa!is from IBRD, discussed in address on international 

investment and economic progress (Black), 451 
Migration from. See Intergovernmental Committee for 

European Migration. 
Military aid to, under mutual security program, state- 
ment (Dulles), 89 
Office of U.S. Siiecial Representative in, reorganization 

of, text of memorandum, 48 
UNICEP program in, discussed in article (Eliot), 289; 

statement (Heffelfinger), 291 
U.S. forces in, question of withdrawal, denied, state- 
ment (Dulles), 632 
Western Europe : 

Defense production in, MSA report, 212 

Economic progress, past, present, future, address 
(Stassen), 718 

Military defense of, discussed in address (Eisen- 
hower), 200 
Europe, Economic Commission for, purjjose and functions, 

discussed, article (Asher) , 6 
European Affairs. Bureau of. Department of State, merger 

of Bureau of German Affairs with, Deijartment Cir- 
cular 66, 689 
European Coal and Steel Community : 

Action by, discussed in President's semiannual report 

on mutual security program, 388 
Consultations of Commission on Foreign Economic 

Policy with, proposed, 685 
Foreign Economic Policy, Commission on (Randall 

Conimissi(iii) , duties and powers re, 279 
Success of, under international authority, discussed in 

address (Smith), 375 
U.S. support of, texts of telegram and letter (Monnet to 

Secretary Dulles) and Assembly resolution, 107, 108, 

108n 
Waiver of obligations under GATT, at 8th session of 

contracting parties, 679 
European Defense Community (EDC) : 

Objectives of, discussed in address (Dulles) , 405 
Outlook for, improved, discussed in address (Gruen- 

tlier), 634 
Tripartite communiques (U.K., France, U.S.), issued at 
July meeting of Foreign Ministers and Bermuda 

meeting, support of, 104, 852 
U.S. policy re, discussed in address (Smith) , 478 
European Defense Community Treaty : 

Approval by Netherlands Parliament, statement (Dul- 
les), 141 
Security guarantees under, address (Straus) , 12 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for 
(OEEC) : 
Council of Ministers, meeting of, address (Stassen), 

718 



European Economic Cooperation, Organization for 
( OEBXJ ) —Continued 
EurojK'an Productivity Agency of, contributions from 
MSA for productivity agreements, 178; establishment, 
17 
Foreign Economic Policy, Commission on (Randall Com- 
mission) : 
Consultations with, proposed, 685 
Duties and iwwers re, 279 
Manpower movements, decision on liberalization of, text, 
721 
European Industrial Projects, MSA report, 212 
European Payments Union (EPU) : 

Duties and iwwers of Commission on Foreign Economic 

Policy (Randall Commission) re, 279 
Military exi)enditures in, discussed in address (Stas- 
sen), 718 
European Productivity Agency of OEEC, contributions 
from MSA for productivity agreements, 178; estab- 
lishment, 17 
European productivity agreements. See Productivity 

agreements. 
Euroi^ean Regional Organizations, Department of State 

terms of reference for new mission, text, 48 
Evacuation of foreign troops from Burma : 

Complaint re, before Political Committee of U.N., dis- 
cussed in statement (Lodge) , 497 
U.S. position, statements (Carey), 761 
Ewe-Togoland unification question, statement (Bolton), 

876 
Exchange of teachers and students program, retained as 
function of State Department, under President's Re- 
organization Plan Xo. 8, 238 
Executive agreement and treatymaking power under U.S. 
Constitution, proposed amendment to curb: 
S.J. Res. 1, provisions of: statements (Eisenhower), 
102, 309; text of resolution (Knowland), 193; threat 
to foreign policy, address ( Morton ) , 6C3 
U.S. Constitution and U.N. Charter, an appraisal, ad- 
dress (Dulles), 307 
Executive Committee of World Meteorological Organiza- 
tion, U.S. delegation, listed, 496 
Executive orders : 

Foreign aid, administration of, and foreign information 

functions (Ex. Or. 10476), 240 
Foreign excliange, handling by government agencies. 492 
Foreign Service fees, regulations relating to (Ex. Or. 

10473), 191 
Operations Coordinating Board, establishment (Ex. Or. 

1(MS3),421 
Pacific Trust Territory, administration of (Ex. Or. 

1(M70), 157 
Refugee Relief Act of 1953, providing for administration 

of (Ex. Or. 10487), 861 
Security regulations (Ex. Or. 10450) of May 1953, dis- 
cussed re Department security cases, 689 
St. Lawrence works, N. Y. power authority designated to 
construct (Ex. Or. 10500), 724 



932 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



ExLH'utiv(> onlors — Coiitiiuied 

United States Intormation Agency, director of, assign- 
ment of certain authority available by law to Secre- 
tary of State and FOA (Ex. Or. 1W77) , 238 
Exhibition of Cinematographic Art, 1-lth International, 

U.S. delegation, listed, 292 
Exhibition of Documentary and Short-Length Films, 4th 

International, U.S. delegation, listed, 202 
Exhibition of Films for Children, 5th International, U.S. 

delegation, listed, 292 
Export-Imiwrt Bank : 

Foreign Economic Policy, Commission on, duties and 

powers re, 279 
Guarantee of transferability of dollars in sterling loans, 

discus.sed in letter (Douglas to Eisenhower), 27S 
Loans to foreign countries : 

Brazil, utilization of balance of credit established for 
liquidation of past due U.S. dollars accounts, 243 
Ecuador, for completion of highway, 493 
Japan, for purchase of U.S. cotton, 676 
Peru, for iron ore production, 185 
Reorganization Plan No. 5, transmittal by President to 

Congress, 49 
Report, semiannual, ending June 30, 10.53, summary, 

493 
Support for objectives of, text of message (Eisenhower), 
452 
Exports and imports. Sec Trade. 

External debts, German, agreement, U.S. and Germany, 
signature and entry into force, 419, 470 

Falcon Dam, dedication of : 
Attendance of President Eisenhower, proposed, 3G0 
Inter-American cooperation, monument to, address 
(Eisenhower), 579 
Famine relief assistance: 
Agricultural commodities, surplus, request of President 

for authority to use, 60, 159, 518 
Bolivia, text of President's letter recommending help 

for, 518 
Foreign policy legislation re, signature, 200 
Pakistan, wheat shipments to, 15, 16, 822 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization. 
Far East {see also Asia) : 

Bermuda meeting of December 1953 (U.S., U.K., 
France) : 
Communique, tripartite, text, re allied unity, NATO, 

U.N., Germany, Austria, and Far East, 8.51 
Postponement of proposed talks, text of message 
(Eisenhower to Prime Minister Chui-chill) re, 49 
Collective security for, joint statement (DuUes-Rhee), 

204 
Colombo Plan. See Colombo Plan. 
Communist campaign in, address (Robertson) , 592 
Communi.st threat in, address ( Robertson) , 814, 817 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1935, Volume 
III, The Far East, released by Department of State, 
265 
JIutual security program, Increased emphasis for, state- 
ment (Dulles), 90 
Policy problems in, address (Robertson ) , 519 



Far East («ee also Asia) — Continued 

Refugees (Asian and non-Asian), eligibility for visas 
under Refugee Relief Act of 1953, article (Auer- 
bach), 232 
Trade, importance of, with, message (Eisenhower), 520 
U.S. objective in, address (Robertson), 817 
U.S. policy in, discus.sed in address ( Smith) , 465 
U.S. position in, address ( Robert.son ) , 504 
Far East and Asia, Economic Comrai.ssion for (ECAFE), 

purpose and functions, discussed, article (Asher), 6 
Far East and South Asia, Vice President Nixon, proposed 

visit to, 74 
Federal Power Commission, license to New York Power 
Authority for construction of St. Lawrence project, 
cited in Ex. Or. 10500, 724 
Fernos-Isern, Antonio, Resident Commissioner of Com- 
monwealth of Puerto Rico, statements on Puerto Rico : 
nature of relations with U.S., 798; political status, 
new, 393 
Film Festival, Edinburgh, Vllth, U.S. delegation, listed, 

328 
Films, Documentary and Short-Length, 4th International 

Exhibition of, U.S. delegation, listed, 292 
Films for Children, 5th Internatioiuil Exhibition of, U.S. 

delegation, listed, 292 
Finland : 

Membership in U.N., status of application for, statement 

(Byrnes), 605 
"Package proposal'' of U.S.S.R. for admission to mem- 
bership in U.N., U.S. position, 607 
Fiscal year 1053, report of International Bank for Recon- 
struction, 319 
Fisheries, Northwest Atlantic, International Commission 

for, 3d meeting, article (Terry) , 19 
Fissionable material defined, statement (Eisenhower), 897 
Flinn, Dennis Allen, designation in State Department, 614 
Flood sufferers in Viet-Nam, appreciation for aid to, texts 
of exchange of notes (Prime Minister of Viet-Nam, 
Ambassador Heath), 487 
FOA. See Foreign Operations Administxation. 
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) : 

Relief and rehabilitation of Korea, Tasca mission sup- 
port for recommendations of, 314 
U.N. Children's Fund, assistance from, discussed in 
article (Eliot), 288, 290 
Food shortages and distribution : 
Bolivia, 518, 584, 585, 822 
Pakistan, 15, 16, 822 

Soviet Zone of Germany, 67, 147, 208, 209, 210, 457 
Food surplus problem, address (Waugh) , 145 
Force and consent in international affairs, article (HaUe), 

376 
Forced labor : 

Forced Labor, Ad Hoc Committee on, report of : 
Discussed in statements ( Lord) , 865, 870 
Explanatory memorandum, text, 299 
General Assembly draft resolution, text, 873 
Placement on agenda of 8th session of General Assem- 
bly, 208, 430 
Text of report, excerpts, 167 
U.S. reaction to, statement (Lodge) , 168 



Index, July to December 7953 



933 



Forces in Europe, denial of plans for withdrawal of, 

(Dulles), 632 
Ford, Henry II, U.S. Representative to General Assembly : 
Confirmation as alternate U.S. representative to 8th 

session of U.N. General Assembly, 223 
"Germ warfare" charges, U.S. objective, statement, 758 
Korean reconstruction, challenge to free world, state- 
ment, 904 
U.N. technical assistance program, U.S. support for, 
statement, 531 
Foreign aid (see also Economic assistance: Foreign Op- 
erations Administration; Mutual defense and secu- 
rity ; Mutual Security Agency ; Technical assistance ; 
and itidividunl countries: 
Pros?rams, transfer of functions (Ex. Or. 10476), 240 
Relationship to national security, article (Hansen), 274 
Foreign distribution license, change in export licensing 

procedures, discussed, 318 
Foreign economic policy : 
Dollar-sterling relationship effect on, texts of corre- 
spondence re Douglas Mission report (Eisenhower, 
Douglas), 275 
Problems re, discussed in address (Waugh), 142 
Foreign Economic Policy, Commission on (Randall Com- 
mission) : 
Consultations with international organizations, dis- 
cussed, 685 
Creation, statement (Eisenhower), 202 
Establishment and texts of sections of Public Law 215, 

83d Congress, re duties and powers of, 279 
Organization of, statement (Eisenhower), 450 
Progress in work, discussed in address (Morton), 665 
Foreign exchange, handling by Government agencies, text 

of Executive order re, 492 
Foreign forces in Burma, evacuation of, U.S. position, 

statements (Carey), 761 
Foreign Ministers' meetings, tripartite (U.S., U.K., 
France) : 
Bermuda meeting of leaders and Foreign Ministers. 

See Bermuda meeting. 
Four power meeting, proposed. See Four power meet- 
ing. 
Meeting of July 1953 (Washington) : 

Announcement, text of final communique, and con- 
cluding remarks, 49, 104, 106 
Statement o/ welcome (Dulles) to British and French 
delegations, with texts of reply (Salisbury, 
Bidault), 70 
Meeting of October 1953 (London) : 

Communique, tripartite, text, invitation to meeting, 
and statement (Dulles), 546 
Foreign Ministry of Israel, transfer from Tel Aviv to 
Jerusalem : announcement, 82 ; U.S. position, remarks 
(Dulles), 177 
Foreign Operations Administration (FOA) (sec also Mu- 
tual Security Agency) : 
Agricultural commodities, surplus, purchases for over- 
seas for resale for foreign currencies, 638 
Bolivia : 

Allocation of funds for emergency aid, discussed In 
text of letter (Eisenhower) to President Paz 
Estenssoro, 585 



Foreign Operations Administration (FOA) (see also Mu- 
tual Security Agency — Continued 
Bolivia — Continued 

FOA planning team for food-production effort in, 

membership, 822 
Shipments of wheat, progress, 822 
Surplus commodities for, text of President's com- 
munication to Secretary of State, Secretary of 
Agriculture and Director of FOA, 518 
Development Advisory Board, International, for advis- 
ing President and FOA on foreign aid policy, recon- 
stitution, 493 
Emblem symbolizing cooperation, adoption of, for new 

agency, 242 
Foreign aid : 

Administration of, text of Ex. Or. 10476, delegating 

certain functions of President to Director of, 240 

Reorganization of, discussed in President's semiannual 

report on mutual security program, 387 

Germany, West, allotment for construction of housing 

for refugees, 356 
Iran, allotment to, for technical assistance, 349 
Israel, allocation of funds to, following settlement of 
differences with U.N. Truce Supervision Organization, 
statement (Dulles), 674 
Korea : 

Economic coordinator in, appointment of deputy di- 
rector of FOA (Wood), 236 
Recommendations for relief and rehabilitation of, 
summary of Tasca report, released, 313 
Pakistan, progress in shipment of wheat to, 822 
Philippines, roadbuilding program in, cited in address 

(Bell), 524 
Public Advisory Board of, appointments, 828 
Refugees from Iron Curtain countries, continuation of 

aid to, 862 
Spain : 
Authorizations for purchases by, under, 821 
FOA mission in, appointment of director (Williams), 

601 
Initial allotment to, 676 
Strategic trade controls, enforcement, 3d report to Con- 
gress on Battle Act, text of letter of transmittal 
(Stassen), with summary of report and text of chap- 
ter IV, 569 
United Kingdom, allotments to, 864 
Foreign policy (.see a ?so American principles) : 

Complexities of, discussed in address (Morton) , 347 
Current legLslation, listed, 26, 40, 103, 149, 187, 213, 265, 

2S3, 812, 500 
P'conomics of, article (Asber), 3 
Far East, problems in, address (Robertson) , 519 
ForeUjn Relations of the United states, 19S5, VoUime 

III, The Far East, released, 265 
Fundamentals of, statements (Eisenhower, Dulles), 811 
Issues, major, confronting the U.S., address (Morton), 

661 
Problems, realistic review of, address (Smith) , 371 
Treaty power amendment, threats to, discussed in ad- 
dress (Morton), 663 
U.N. support, basic to, discussed in address (Morton), 

662 
U.S. policy and Soviet Union, address ( Stevens) , 109 



934 



Department of State Bulletin 



Foreign Relations of the United States, 1935, Volume III, 

The Far East, released, 2G5 
Foreign Scholarships, Board of, appointment of new mem- 
bers, 897 
Foreign Service: 

Ambassadors, appointments and confirmations : Brazil 
(Kemper), 30; Ceylon (Crowe), 157 ; Chile (P.eaulac), 
329; Colombia (Schoenfeld), 61-1; Costa Rica (Hill), 
614; Czechoslovakia (Johnson), 731 ; Denmark (Coe), 
192; Ethiopia (Simonson), 329; Greece (Cannon), 
192; Guatemala (Peurifoy), 534; Haiti (Davis), 157; 
Indonesia (Gumming), 366; Jordan (Mallory), 224; 
Korea (Briggs), 192; Lebanon (Hare), 192; Liberia 
(Locker), 329; Netherlands (Matthews), 489; Nor- 
way (Strong), 30; Panama (Chapin), 489; Portugal 
(Guggenheim), 30; Saudi Arabia (Wadsworth), 614; 
Switzerland (Willis), 192; Thailand (Donovan), 
224; Turkey (Warren), 192; Uruguay (Mcintosh), 
489 

Ambassadors, continuation at post of duty : Bolivia 
(Sparks), 614; Burma (Sebald), 157; Nicaragua 
(Whelan), 157; Peru (Tittmann), 157; Philippines 
(Spruance), 614; Union of South Africa (Gallman), 
157; Venezuela (Warren), 157; Viet-Nam, Cambodia, 
and Laos (Heath) , 157 

Ambassadors, resignations and retirements : Indonesia 
(Cochran), 366; Panama (Wiley), 489; Paraguay 
( Shaw ) , 689 ; Thailand ( Stanton ) , 224 

Commercial attach^ to U.S. Embassy in Spain (Rubot- 
tom), appointment, 60 

Consulates and consular ofBces, closing: Adelaide, Aus- 
tralia, 76G; Bari, Italy, 224, 766; Bradford, England, 
224; Brisbane, Australia, 302, 766; Cebu, Philippines, 
264; Dunedin, New Zealand, 689; Fortaleza, Brazil, 
30; Georgetown, British Guiana, 766; Gibraltar, 157, 
302, 766; Godthaab, Greenland, 264, 766; Guaymas, 
Mexico, 157 ; Hamilton, Ontario, 689 ; Malaga, Spain, 
264. 766; Mombasa, Kenya, West Africa, 689; New- 
castle-on-Tyne, England, 302, 766 ; Regina, Saskatche- 
wan, 302, 766; Tenerife, Canary Islands, 157, 766; 
Torrefin, Mexico, 157; Victoria, British Columbia, 
689; Vitoria, Brazil, 30 

Consulates and consular oflBces, elevation to Consulate 
General. Accra, Gold Coast, Africa, 224 

Deputy Chief of aiission, Athens (Mann), assignment, 
226 

Israeli Foreign Oflice and Ministry, U.S. position on 
transfer to Jerusalem, 82; remarks (Dulles), 177 

Ministers, appointments and transfers: United King- 
dom (Butterworth), 766; Luxembourg (Buchanan), 
430; Yemen (Wadsworth), 614 

Per.sonal title of Ambassador (Conant), 94 

Public Affairs oflBcer in Austria (Hale), resignation, 60 

Regulations re Foreign Service fees, text of Ex. Or. 
10473, 191 

Trieste, special assignment re (Holmes), 766 

U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, Office of, ap- 
pointments: Assistant High Commissioner (Park- 
man), 731; Executive Director (L'Heureux), 614 
Foreign trade. See Trade. 



Four power meeting of Foreign Ministers, proposed : 
Bermuda meeting, proposal for January 1954 meeting, 

texts of exchange of notes with U.S.S.R. re, 852 
Discussed in report on world political situation (Dulles, 

Robertson), 99 
Questions relating to invitation to U.S.S.R., text of ex- 
change of notes, 107, 745 
Renewal of invitation to U.S.S.R. to attend, text of ex- 
change of notes re, 351 
Soviet notes of reply to invitation to, U.S. attitude 

(Reap, Suydam), 283, 786 
Soviet refusal to confer on Germany and Austria, state- 
ment (Eisenhower), 670 
Soviet reluctance toward, discussed in address (Smith), 

476 
U.S. willingness to discuss, text of exchange of notes 
with U.S.S.R. re, 547 
France : 

Atomic weapon production capability, discussed in 

correspondence (Cole to Wiley), 330 
Austrian state treaty negotiations, tripartite meetings 
re. See Austrian treaty negotiations ; Bermuda meet- 
ing ; Foreign Ministers' meetings of July and October 
1953 ; Four power meeting, proposed. 
Bermuda meeting. See Bermuda meeting. 
Colonial policies in French North Africa, discussed in 

address (Byroade), 658 
Demonstrations in East Berlin, texts of Allied Com- 
mandants' statements re, 8, 9 
Economy, French self-criticism of, discussed in address 

(Gruenther), 636 
FOA surplus agricultural commodities for, proposed, 

638 
German External Debts, Tripartite Commission on, cre- 
ation, 479 
Indochina situation : 
Appreciation of French efforts in, discussed in address 

(Dulles), 342 
Assistance to Indochina, text of joint U.S.-French 

communique, 486 
Commendation of valiant forces fighting in, discussed 
in text of tripartite communique issued at Bermuda 
meeting, 852 
Current situation in French Union, discussed in text 
of final communique of meeting of Foreign Ministers 
at Washington, 105 
French sacrifices in, discussed in address (Morton), 

345 
Independence for Associated States, French plans for, 

discussed in address (Dulles), 405 
Peace in, restoration of, statement (Dulles), 342 
Political arrangement with Associated States, dis- 

cus.sed in address (Dulles), 588 
Struggle in, re communism, discussed in address 
(Smith), 631 
Morocco. See Moroccan question. 
MSA assistance for, continuation, text of letter 
(Eisenhower) to congressional chairmen and observa- 
tions of MSA Director (Stassen), 300; productivity 
agreement, allotment, 17 



Index, July 'o December 1953 



935 



France — Coutinued 

Reunification of Germany, tripartite meetings re. See 
Bermuda meeting ; Foreign Ministers' meetings of 
July arid October 1953 ; Four power meeting, pro- 
posed ; Germany, Federal Republic of. 
Shipment of "prior-commitment" items to Eastern 

Europe, discussed (Sta.ssen), 301 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Sugar agreement, international, new : 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan), 543 
Signature, 823 
Wheat agreement, International, revised, eligibility 
terms for becoming party to, 245 
Tripartite meetings of Foreign Ministers and leaders 
(U.S., U.K., France). See Bermuda meeting; Foreign 
Ministers' meetings of July and October 1953 ; Four 
power meeting, proposed. 
Tunisia. See Tunisian question. 

Visit of leaders (Laniel, Bidault) to U.S., proposed, 460 
War criminals in allied zones of Germany, procedures 
for clemency and parole of, text of Allied High Com- 
mission statement re, 391 

FrancLsco, Roberto, appointment as Commissioner of U.S. 
section of Caribbean Commission, .398 

Frederika, Queen of Greece, visit to U.S., 312 

Free nations, building a community of, address (Smith), 
630 

Free world cooperation, symbol of U.N. Children's Fund 
re, 288 

Free world front, discussed in address (Dulles), 742 

Free world strength through NATO, statement (Hughes), 
47 

Free world unity, importance of, address (Stevens), 111 

Freedom of information, need for, statement (Lord). 764; 
text of draft resolution on, 764 ; text of resolution 
on condemnation of propaganda against peace (1950), 
discussed in statement (Lodge), 833 

Friendship, commerce, and consular rights, treaty with 
Germany (1923), application of, signature, texts of 
I'resident's letter of transmittal to Congress, Secre- 
tary Dulles' letter to President, and agreement, 93, 
94; statement re application of (Waugh), 224; ex- 
change of notes with (Jerman Charge d'Affaires 
(Krekeler), 225 

Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaty, with 
protocol, with Japan, signature, text of letter of trans- 
mittal (Eisenhower) to Senate, text of report 
(Dulles), and statement (Johnson), 160; entry into 
force, 525 

Fruit Company, United, lands in Guatemala, expropriation 
by, text of U.S. aide-memoire protesting, 357 

Functions of Secretary of State, discussed in statement 
(Lourie), 28 

Gallman, Waldemar J., Ambassador to Union of South 

Africa, continuation of duties, 157 
GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on. 
General agreement on tariffs and trade (GATT, 1947). 

See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on. 
General Assembly: 
Arab refugees, continuation of assistance to, statement 

(Richards), 759 



General Assembly — Continued 

"Atoms for peace" proposal, address (Eisenhower), 847 
Atrocities question, text of letter from Ambassador 

Lodge to U.N. Secretary-General requesting inclusion 

on General Assembly agenda, 685 ; statements 

(Lodge), 757 
Bacterial warfare by U.N. forces, alleged. See Bac- 
terial warfare. 
Charter review, proposed. See Charter review. 
Disarmament. See Disarmament. 
Documents, listed, 766 
Draft resolutions: 

Disarmament, declaration on use of savings achieved 
through, text, 839 

Forced labor, test, 873 

Freedom of infonnation, text, 764 

Greek armed forces, repatriation of members of, text, 
298 

Greek children, repatriation of, text, 297 

Korea, reconstruction of, request for support of, text, 
908 

Korean armistice and implementation of armistice 
agreement, 287 

Measures to avert threat of new world war and to 
reduce international tension, text (Soviet), 834 

Political conference on Korea, recommendations for, 
text (Soviet), 286n. 

Prisoners of war, problem of, measures for peaceful 
solution of, text, 904 
Eighth regular session : 

Agenda : provisional, 326 ; supplementary, 430 

Korean Political Conference, discussion of, U.S. posi- 
tion, statements (Lodge), 469, 470 

Problems confronting, address (Murphy), 408 

Recess, vote for, statement (Bolton), 910 

Scheduled date, 326n. 

U.S. representatives to, confirmation, 223 
Ewe-Togoland unification question, statement (Bolton), 

876 
Foreign forces in Burma, evacuation of, U.S. i>osition, 

statements (Carey), 761 
Freedom of information : 

Statement (Lord), 764 

Text of draft resolution on, 764 

Text of resolution on condemnation of propaganda 
against peace (1950), discussed in statement 
(Lodge), 833 
Greek armed forces, repatriation of members of, state- 
ment (Wadsworth), 297 
Greek children, repatriation of, statement (Sampson), 

296 
"Hate" propaganda, Soviet, discussed in statement 

(Lodge), 8.32 
Human rights : report on 9th .session of Commission of 

Human Riglits (Lord), 215: safeguarding of, pro- 
posals for, statement (Lord), 725 
Korean political conference, U.S. opposition to Assembly 

discussion, statements (Lodge), 469, 470 
Korean question. Sec Korea. 
Membeiship in U.N., admission to, statements (Byrnes) 

on charter requirements, 605 ; "package" proposal, 607 



936 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



General Assembly — Continued 

Non-self-governing territories, educational needs in, 

statement (Bolton), GSli 
Personnel policy in the U.N., statement (Richards), 873 
Political Committee of, order of items on agenda, state- 
ment (Lodge), 496 
Prisoners of war, nonrepatriable, text of letter (Ham- 
marskjold) to Syngman Rhee requesting cooperation 
re, 1-1 
Prisoners of war, review of problem of, statement 

(Byrnes), 898 
Puerto Rico, relations with U.S., statements : Bolton, 
499, 797, 802, 841 ; Fernos-Isern, 393, 798 ; Lodge, 841 ; 
Sears, 392 
Resolutions adopted : 
Cliarter review, text, 909 
Disarmament, text, 838 

Korean armistice agreement, Implementation of para- 
graph 60 of, 366 
Korean reconstruction, support for program, text, 908 
Puerto Rican status as Commonwealth, recognition, 
text, 841 
Seventh session : 

Greek questions in, article (Howard), parts I and II, 

252, 293 
Reconvening of, for consideration of Korea. See 

under Korea. 
Third part, U.S. delegation, listed, 251 
South Africa, treatment of Indians in, statement 

(Bolton), 728 
Southwest Africa, question of, U.S. position, statement 

(Bolton), 805 
Trust territories, request for oral hearings re, state- 
ments (Bolton), 498, 499 
Tunisian question, U.S. attitude, statements : Lodge, 

730; Wainhouse, 730 
UNICEF, continuation on permanent basis, statement 

(Lord), 533 
U.N. budget for 1954, statement (Richards), 562 
U.N. report on refugees, commendation by U.S., state- 
ment (Mayo), 610 
U.N.'s technical assistance program, U.S. support for, 
statement (Ford), 531 
Genetics, 9th International Congress of, U.S. delegation, 

listed, 292 
•'Germ warfare." See Bacterial warfare. 
Germany, East : 
Berlin, East : 

Demonstrations in : 
.\ctive participation by Soviets, playing down of 

use of terror tactics, 786 
Addresses and statements, discussed : Stassen, 39 ; 

Dulles, 40; Eisenhower, 200 
Captive peoples, unquenchable spirit of, statement 

(Dulles), 40 
Communications re, texts : Allied Commandants' 
.statement and letter to General Dibrova, 8, 9 ; 
General Dibrova to General Tlmberman, 8 ; ex- 
change of notes (Adenauer, Eisenhower), 8, 9 
Impact of, discussed in article (Lewis), 883, 890 
Soviet failure to deal with, discussed in address 
(Lourie), 773 



Germany, East — Continued 

Economic needs (clothing), U.S. concern for, texts of 
exchange of letters (Reuter, Eisenhower, Adenauer), 
457 
Elections, free all-German, U.S. position, 283, 356, 830 
Food situation in : 
Distribution of: 

MSA statement (Taft), text of reply to Soviet pro- 
test (Conant), texts of statements, 208 
U.S. offers of : 

Text of statement (Eisenhower), 67; exchange of 
letters (Adenauer, Eisenhower), 67, 147; Soviet 
reply to, 68 ; U.S. note to U.S.S.K., 68 
Soviet "concessions" to, statement (White) , 311 
Sugar agreement, international, new, quota for, listed, 

article (Callanan), 543 
Workers in, request for U.S. aid for, texts of exchange of 
communications (Meany, Reuther, Eisenhower) re, 69 
Germany, Federal Republic of : 
Adenauer, Chancellor Konrad. Sec Adenauer. 
Agricultural commodities, surplus, FOA program for 
purchase for resale overseas, under section 550 of 
Mutual Security Act of 1953, in, 638 
Aliens (escapee) in, eligibility for special nonquota 
visas under Refugee Relief Act of 1953, article 
(Auerbach), 231, 232 
America's changing relationship with, address (Straus), 

10 
Appointment of Herve J. L'Heureux as Executive Di- 
rector of OlBce of U.S. High Commissioner for Ger- 
many, 614 
Berlin, West : 
Airlift (1948), discussed in address (Stevens), 112 
Appointment of Henry Parkman as Assistant U.S. 
High Commissioner for Germany for Berlin affairs, 
731 
Economic needs of (unemployment), U.S. concern re, 
texts of correspondence between President Eisen- 
hower and Mayor Reuter and Chancellor Adenauer 
concerning, 457 
Expellees and escapees, German, eligibility for special 
nonquota visas under Refugee Relief Act of 1953, 
article (Auerbach), 231 
Reuter, Mayor Ernst: death of, statement (Eisen- 
hower) and message (Dulles) of condolence to Mrs. 
Reuter, 489; economic needs of Berlin, text of 
letter to President Eisenhower re, 457 
Conant, James B., U.S. High Commissioner for. See 

Conant, James B. 
Crusade for Freedom balloons, released from, 210 
Damage claims, war, extension of time limit for filing, 

320 
Dollar Bonds, Board for Validation of, establishment, 

599 
Elections, free all-German : 

Electoral law for, Soviet position, discussed in state- 
ment (Lodge), 830 
Results of elections in, U.S. position, 3.j6 
Soviet suggestions re, U.S. position (Reap) , 283 
Emigration jiroblems, I(_:EM rejiort (Gih.son), 119 
Erhard, Dr. Ludwig, Minister for Economics, visit to 
U.S., 670 



Index, July fo December 7953 

339309—55 4 



937 



Germany, Federal Republic of — Continued 

European Coal and Steel Community. See European 

Coal and Steel Community. 
FO.V allotment for refugee housing program, 356 
FOA surplus agricultural commodities for, proposed, 638 
Freedom of movement for German nationals between 
Soviet and Western Zones, text of U.S. note (Conant), 
391; test of exchange of notes (Conant, Semenov) 
repeating request for lifting of restrictions, 490 
Friendship vrith U.S., address (Martin), 820 
GATT, 8th session of Contracting Parties to, agreement 
with Norway re discriminatory treatment of Norwe- 
gian sardines, 680 
German External Debts, Tripartite Commission on, cre- 
ation, 479 
Handicraft order in U.S. Zone, application of, texts of 

exchange of letters (Conant, Adenauer) re, 459 
Housing program for refugees, FOA allotment for, 356 
International Bank and Monetary Fund, membership 

in, cited, 319 
MSA assistance for, continuation, text of letter (Eisen- 
hower) to congressional chairmen and observations of 
MSA Director (Stassen), 300 
MSA productivity agreement, allotment, 17, 69 
Payment to U.S. under debt agreements, text of note 
(Krekeler) to Secretary Dulles, statements (Kreke- 
ler, Kalijarvi), 598, 599 
Prisoners of war held by U.S.S.R., discussed in state- 
ment (Byrnes), 899 
Reunification of (sec also Bermuda meeting; Foreign 
Ministers' meetings of July and October 1953 ; Four 
power meeting, proposed) : 

U.S. views: discussed in address (Eisenhower), 
200; statement (Dulles), quoted (Lewis), 883; 
statements (Dulles), 853, 722; text of letter 
(Eisenhower) to Chancellor Adenauer, 147; text 
of Soviet note, 354 
Service in U.S. armed forces, compulsory, liability of 
German nationals in U.S. for, text of exchange of 
notes re provisions in treaty of friendship, commerce, 
and consular rights, 225 
Shipment of "prior-commitment" items to Hungary, dis- 
cussed (Stassen), 301 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Contractual agreements, with Western occupation 
powers, for governing relationship pending peace 
treaty for, discussed (Straus), 11 
Debt agreements with U.S. : 

Initial payment to U.S. under, text of note (Kreke- 
ler) to Secretary Dulles, statements (Krekeler, 
Kali.iarvi), 598, 599 
IntergovernmentJil agreement on German external 

debts, signature and entry into force, 419, 479 
Mixed Claims Commission awards to Germany, set- 
tlement, signature, and entry into force, 419, 470 
Postwar economic assistance, claims for, signature 

and entry into force, 419, 479 
Suri>Ius property obligations, settlement, signature 

and entry into force, 420, 479 
Validation of German dollar bonds, signature and 
entry into force, 420, 479 



Germany, Federal Republic of — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Friend.ship, commerce, and consular rights, with U.S. 
(1923), application of, signature, texts of Presi- 
dent's letter of transmittal to Congress, Secretary 
Dulles' letter to President, and agreement, 93, 94; 
statement re application of (Waugh),224; exchange 
of notes with German Charge d' Affaires (Krekeler) , 
225 
Sugar agreement, international, new, signature, 823 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
inistrument of acceptance, 245 
Tripartite meetings of Foreign Ministers and leaders 
(U.S., U.K., France), re reunification. See Bermuda 
meeting; Foreign Ministers' meetings of July and 
October 1953 ; Four power meeting, proposed. 
UNICEF program in, discussed ( Heffelflnger ) , 291 
U.S. High Commissioner for Germany. See Conant, 

James B. 
War criminals in allied zones : 

Procedures for clemency and parole of, text of Allied 

High Commission statement re, 391 
War Criminals, Interim Mixed Parole and Clemency 
Board for persons convicted by War Crimes Tri- 
bunal, membership, listed, 599 
Gibraltar, U.S. Consulate, closing, 157, 302, 766 
Gibson, Hugh, director of Intergovernmental Committee 

for European Migration, report on ICEM, 117 
Glassware, hand-blown, text of President's letter to chair- 
man of Tariff Commission requesting more informa- 
tion re, 823 
Good will mission to South America, membership listed, 

184n ; text of report to Congress, 695 
Gouzenko, Igor : 
Questioning of, by Internal Security Subcommittee: 
Arrangements with Canadian Government for : text 
of note (Dulles) to Canadian Ambassador (Heeney) 
re, 812 
Request for talk: exchange of notes (DuUes, 
Heeney), texts, 789; statement (Dulles), 790; ex- 
change of letters (Jenner, Dulles), 791 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom. 
Greece : 

Earthquake victims, U.S. aid to, texts of messages 
(Eisenhower, Dulles), and Greek note (Politis), 311 
Emigration problem, ICEM report (Gibson), 119 
FOA surplus agricultural commodities for, proposed, 

638 
Greek armed forces, detention of members of : 
Article (Howard), 293 
Statement (Wadsworth), 297 

Repatriation of. General Assembly resolution, text, 
298 
Greek children, displaced, problem of: 
Repatriation of, General Assembly resolution, text, 

297 
Reports of Red Cross and U.N. Secretary-General, 

discussed in article (Howard), 254 
Statement (Sampson), 296 
Greek refugees and relatives, eligibility for special non- 
quota visas under Refugee Relief Act of 1953, article 
(Auerbach), 232 



938 



Department of State Bulletin 



Greece — Continued 

MSA productivity agreement, cited, 17 

Questions re, before 7tli session of General Assembly, 

article (Howard), 252, 293 
Relations, present-day, with Turkey, discussed in ad- 
dress (King Paul), G72 
Tariff concessions, increases under GATT schedule, 
permission voted at Sth session of Contracting Parties 
to GATT, 6S0 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Military facilities agreement, with U.S., signature and 

text, 863 
Sugar agreement, international, new, signature, 823 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
U.N. preventive action in, cited in address (Murphy), 

781 
U.S. Ambassador to (Cannon), confirmation, 192 
U.S. Deputy Chief of Mission at Athens (Mann), as- 
signment, 226 
Visit of King Paul and Queen Frederika to U.S., 312; 
gratitude of Greeks to people of U.S., address (King 
Paul ) , C71 ; Legion of Merit award to King Paul, texts 
of toast (Eisenhower) and response (King Paul), 673 
Greek-Turkish aid program, cited as weapon against com- 
munism, address (Stevens), 112 
Greenland, U.S. Consulate at Godthaab, closed, 264, 766 
Groundfish fillets and oats, restrictions on U.S. imports 
from Canada, proposed, texts of exchange of notes, 
244 
Gruenther, Gen. Alfred M., Supreme AUled Commander, 

Europe, address on defense of Europe, 633 
Guatemala: 

Coffee, imports by U.S., discussed in address (Cabot), 

751 
Escape clauses in trade agreements, attitude of Trade 
Agreements Committee re, discussed in message to 
Congress (Eisenhower), 92 
Situation in, discussed in address (Cabot), 555 
United Fruit Company lands in, expropriation by, text 

of U.S. aide-memoire protesting, 357 
U.S. Ambassador to (Peurifoy), appointment, 534 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
Guggenheim, M. Robert, U.S. Ambassador to Portugal, 

confirmation, 30 
Guizado, Jos6 Ram6n, text of statement re conversa- 
tions on Panama Canal, 418 

Hagerty, James C, statements : atomic proposal, U.S., 
Soviet reaction to, 851; food to East Germany, U.S. 
offer, 6Sn. 
Haines-Fairbanks pipeline agreement with Canada, nego- 
tiations completed, 320 
Haiti : 

International .Monetary Fund and IBRD, membership 

in, 383 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Sugar agreement, international, new : 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan), .543 
Signature, 823 

Index, July fo December 1953 



Haiti — Continued 

Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
U.S. Ambassador to (Davis), confirmation, 157 

Hale, William H., Public Affairs officer of American Em- 
bassy in Austria, resignation, 60 

Halibut Fishery Act of 1937, amendment to, signature, 723 

Halilnit fishery of North Atlantic Ocean and Bering Sea, 
convention on, U.S. and Canada, exchange of instru- 
ments of ratification, 723 

Halle, Louis J., Jr., article on force and consent in 
international affairs, 376 

Hand, Judge Learned, statement on preservation of liber- 
ties, quoted, 114, 348 

Hand-blown glassware case, text of President's letter to 
chairman of Tai'iff Commission requesting more infor- 
mation re, 823 

Handicraft order in U.S. Zone of Germany, application of, 
texts of exchange of letters (Conant, Adenauer) re, 
459 

Hansen, Kenneth R., article on East-West trade, 271 

Hare, Raymond A., U.S. Ambassador to Lebanon, confir- 
mation, 192 

"Hate" propaganda, Soviet, discussed in statement 
(Lodge), 832 

Hatred or violence, article 20 in proposed Draft Covenant 
on Civil and Political Rights, discussed (Lord), 217 

Heath, Donald R., Ambassador to Cambodia, Laos, and 
Viet-Xam : 
U.S. Ambassador to Viet-Nam, Cambodia, and Laos, con- 
tinuation as Chief of Mission, 157 
Vietnamese flood sufferers, U.S. aid to, exchange of 
notes with Prime Minister (Nguyen Van Tam) re, 487 

Heeney, Arnold Danford Patrick, Canadian Ambassador 
to U.S. : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Canada), credenUals, 202 
Gouzenko, Igor, questioning of, by Internal Security 
Subcommittee, arrangements with Canadian Govern- 
ment for, texts of exchange of notes with Secretary 
Dulles re, 789 
St. Lawrence River Project, Joint Board of Engineers, 
establishment, texts of exchange of notes with Secre- 
tary Dulles re, 739 
Trade and Economic Affairs, Joint Committee on, estab- 
lishment, texts of exchange of notes with Secretary 
Dulles re, 739 

HefCelfinger, Elizabeth E., statement on UNICEF, 291 

Hefner, Frank K., designation in State Department, 689 

Hemisphere solidarity and inter-American cooperation, 
address (Cabot), 554 

Henderson, Loy W., Ambassador to Iran, conveyance of 
message from President to Shah, 349; texts of ex- 
change of notes with Prime Minister (Zahedi), on 
FOA technical assistance program for Iran, 3.50 

Highway development in foreign countries, Export-Import 
Bank and IBRD loans for, 382, 451, 455, 493 

Hildreth, Ambassador Horace A., remarks at shiploadiug 
ceremony of U.S. wheat for Pakistan, 15 

EUU, Robert C, appointment as Ambassador to Costa 
Rica, 614 

Holmes, Julius C, special assignment in Department re 
Trieste, 766 

939 



Honduras : 
Escape clauses in trade agreements, attitude of Trade 
Agreements Committee re, discussed In message to 
Congress (Eisenhower), 92 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, eligibility 
terms for becoming party to, 245 
Hoover, Herbert, Jr. : 
Appointment as special adviser on worldwide petroleum 

matters, 470 
Visit to Iran for study of oil situation, 553 ; discussed in 
address (Byroade), 895 
Howard, Harry N., article on Greek questions before 7th 
session of D.N. General Assembly, parts I and II, 
252, 293 
Hughes, Ambassador John C, statement on NATO, ulti- 
mate purpose, 47 
Human rights : 
Captive peoples, U.S. attitude, statement (Dulles), 40; 
text of letter (Merchant) to Central and Eastern 
European Conference and Central-Eastern Committee, 
183 
Commission on Human Rights, 9th session, report 

(Lord), 215 
Safeguarding of, proposals for, statement (Lord), 725 
Treatment of Indians in South Africa, statement 
(Bolton), 728 
Human welfare, economics in terms of, discussed in ad- 
dress (Rockefeller), 582 
Hungary, People's Republic of : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Szarka), credentials, 481 
Legation personnel in U.S., texts of exchange of notes 

with U.S. re, 601 
Membership in U.N. : 

Charter requirements for, article 4, failure to qualify 

under, discussed, statement (Byrnes), 606 
"Package proposal" of U.S.S.R. for admission to mem- 
bership, U.S. position, 607 
Sugar agreement, international, new, quota for, listed, 
article (Callanan), 543 
Hyde, Dr. H. van Zile, confirmation as U.S. representative 

on Executive Board of WHO, 191 
Hydrogen bomb, evaluation of speech by Soviet Premier 
re U.S.S.R. development of, statement (Dulles), 236 

Ibn Saud, King of Saudi Arabia, death of, message 
(Eisenhower) and statement (Dulles), texts, 723 

IBRD. See International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development. 

lOAO. See International Civil Aviation Organization. 

Iceland : 
Economic aid to, proposal for suspension of, discussed 
in President's semiannual report on mutual security 
program, 388 
Loan from International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development, for agricultural and economic develop- 
ment, 451, 456 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of in- 
strument of acceptance, 245 

ICEM. See Intergovernmental Committee for European 
Migration. 

ICFTU. See International Confederation of Free Trade 
Unions. 



IIA. See International Information Administration. 

IIAA. See Institute of Inter-American Affairs. 

IJC. See International Joint Commission. 

Ikeda, Hayato, text of joint statement with Assistant 

Secretary Robertson, re Japan, 637 
ILO. See International Labor Organization. 
IMC. See International Materials Conference. 
Immigration. See Intergovernmental Committee for Euro- 
pean Migration ; International Refugee Organization ; 
Refugee Relief Act of 1953 ; Refugees, displaced per- 
sons, and escapees. 
Immigration and Nationality Act (1952), visa services for 

aliens, amendment, cited in Ex. Or. 10473, 192 
Importance of U.S.-Latin American trade, address 

(Cabot), 751 
Imports and exi)orts. See Trade. 

Income-tax, double, conventions (1948, 1952), with Bel- 
gium, entry into force, 460 
India : 
Atomic weapon production capability, discussed in cor- 
respondence by Representative Cole to Senator Wiley, 
330 
Indians in South Africa, treatment of, statement (Bol- 
ton), 728 
Loan from International Bank for Reconstruction and 

Development, cited in address (Black), 451 
Madame Pandit, visit to President Eisenhower and 

Secretary Dulles, 550 
Red Cross of, and NNRC, period of aid for prisoners of 
war refusing repatriation, discussed in text of letter 
(General Clark) to chairman of NNRC, 568 
U.S. position on inclusion of India at Korean political 

conference, 340 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of in- 
strument of acceptance, with qualifications, 24."i 
Indians in South Africa, treatment of, statement (Bolton), 

728 
Indochina : 
Situation in : 
Appreciation of French efforts in, discussed in ad- 
dress (Dulles), 342 
Assistance to, text of joint U.S.-French communique, 

486 
Commendation of valiant forces fighting in, discussed 
in text of tripartite communique issued at Bermuda 
meeting, 8.52 
Current situation in French Union, discussed in text 
of final communique of meeting of Foreign Ministers 
at Washington, 105 
French sacrifices in, discussed in address (Morton), 

345 
Independence for Associated States, French plans for, 

discussed in addresses (Dulles), 405, 443 
Peace in, restoration of, statement (Dulles) , 342 
Political arrangement with Associated States, dis- 
cussed in address (Dulles), 588 
Struggle in, re communism, discussed in address 
(Smith), 631 
Indonesia : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Notowidigdo), credentials, 603 
Resignation of U.S. Ambassador to (t^ochrau), 366 



940 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Indonesia — Continued 

Treaties, agieements, etc. : 

Sugar agreement, international, new, quota for, listed, 

article (Callanan), 543 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
U.S. Ambassador to (Gumming), appointment, 366 
Information Administration, International. See Inter- 
national Information Administration. 
Information Agency, United States (USIA). See United 

States Information Agency. 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs (IIAA), transfer from 
Department of State under President's reorganization 
plans, discussed (Lourie),28 
Instruments and Methods of Observation, Commission for, 

1st session, U.S. delegation, listed, 251 
Inter-American Conference at Caracas, Venezuela, pro- 
posed, agenda items for, discussed in address (Rocke- 
feller), 583 
Inter-American cooperation, Falc6n Dam, monument to, 

address (Eisenhower), 579 
Inter-American cooperation and hemisphere solidarity, 

address (Cabot), 554 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council of OAS, 
proposed consultation of Randall Commission with, 
685 
Inter-American relationship, special, discussed in address 

(Dreier), 684 
Inter-American ties, strengthening of, address (Cabot), 

513 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (1949), mem- 
bership of Panama, i>er adherence to convention, with 
Costa Rica and U.S., 489 
Interdepartmental Committee on Trade Agreements, re- 
port on escai^e clauses In trade agreements, 92 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration 
(ICEM) : 
Authorization for Secretary of State for financing of 
transportation costs for refugees Issued visas under 
Refugee Relief Act of 1953, discussed In article 
(Auerbach), 234 
Report on activities of ICEM (Gibson), text, 117 
Sixth session of, U.S. delegation, listed, 534 
Transfer of functions from Department of State under 
President's reorganization plans, discussed (Lourie), 
28 
U.S. participation in, cited in statement (Mayo), 613 
International affairs, force and consent in, article (Halle), 

376 
International Association of Limnology, 12th Congress of, 

U.S. delegation, listed, 328 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
(IBRD) : 
Announcement of loans, 455 
Bond issues to Increase resources : Switzerland, 451 ; 

U.S., 319, 451 
Consultations of Commission on Foreign Economic 

Policy, proposed, 685 ; duties and powers re, 279 
Eighth annual report to Board of Governors of, excerpts 

from address re (Black), 451 
Fiscal year 1953, report, 319 



International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
(IBRD)— Continued 

Loans and credits: 

Africa, South, cited, 451 ; Brazil, for expansion of elec- 
tric power, 451; Colombia, for improvements in na- 
tional highway system, 455; for Integration of rail- 
way system, 451 ; Europe, as a whole, cited, 451 ; Ice- 
laud, for agricultural and economic development, 451, 
456; India, for production of steel by private enter- 
prise, 451 ; Italy, southern, for development of, 600 ; 
Nicaragua, for highway construction and electric 
power, 382, 451 ; Turkey, to Industrial Development 
Bank of, 456 

Membership in : Germany, 319 ; Haiti, 383 ; Japan and 
Jordan, 319 

Objectives of, support for, text of message (Elsen- 
hower) re, 452 

Prepayment of loans, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, 
Nicaragua, 319 

Private investment in foreign countries, creation of 
favorable environment, discussed in Douglas Mission 
report, 278 
International Boundary Commission : 

Construction of FalcOn Dam, supervision of, cited, 360 

Praise for, in address (Elsenhower), at dedication of 
Falc6n Dam, 579 
International Boundary and Water Conmilssion, U.S. and 

Mexico: delegation of authority to U.S. Commissioner, 

test and signature (Dulles), 725 
International Broadcasting Service of U.S. Information 
Agency (Voice of America) : 

Program policy of, discussed (Streibert), 322 

Transfer of jurisdiction over Voice of America to new 
U.S. Information Agency, 238 
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) : 

Council, appointment of Harold A. Jones as U.S. repre- 
sentative, 223 

Establishment, discussed in article on aviation policy 
and international relations (Snowden), 41 

North Atlantic ocean-station program, U.S. position on 
further participation, 629 
International Claims Settlement Act (1949), signature, 

200 
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions 
(ICFTU) : 

Reconversion after rearmament, request for action by 
ECOSOC Council, 259 

World Congress of, 3d, request for U.S. aid to workers 
in East Germany, texts of exchange of communica- 
tions (Meauy, Reuther, Eisenhower) re, 69 
International Development Advisory Board, reconstitu- 

tion by President, 493 
International development of atomic energy. See under 

Atomic energy. 
International Information Activities, President's Com- 
mittee on : 

Establishment of Operations Coordinating Board (Ex. 
Or. 10483), text, 420, 421 

Recommendations re overseas program, 322 

Report and recommendations re Information program 
abroad, 124 



Index, July fo December 1953 



941 



International Information Administration (IIA) (see 
also United States Information Agency) : 

Books in IIA libraries, policy on : 
Instructions (IIA) re, text, 122 
Letter (Dulles to Hennings and Jackson), text, 58 
Memorandum to Mr. Johnson (McCardle), text, 58 
Statements (Johnson), 59, 121 

Support programs for IIA, text of Department Circu- 
lar No. 37 re, 123 

Information for U.S. public, recommended in report of 
President's Committee on International Information 
Activities, 126 

Overseas programs, consolidation of functions recom- 
mended in report of President's Committee on Inter- 
national Information Activities, 126 

Transfer of functions to United States Information 

Agency (USIA), under Reorganization Plan No. 8. 

discussed in Department Circular 37, 123 ; statement 

(Lourle), 28 

International investment and economic progress, address 

(Black), 4.51 
International Joint Commission (IJC) (U.S.-Canada), 
recommendations for Niagara Falls remedial works, 
approval, 184 
International Labor Organization (ILO) 

Building, Civil Engineering, and Public Works Com- 
mittee, 4th session, U.S. delegation, listed, 613 

Forced Labor, Ad Hoc Committee on, report of : 
Discussed in statements (Lord), 865, 870 
Explanatory memorandum, text, 299 
General Assembly draft resolution, text, 873 
Placement on agenda of Sth session of General As- 
sembly, 298, 430 
Text of report, excerpts, 167 
U.S. reaction to, statement (Lodge), 168 
International law and order, discussed In appraisal of 
U.S. Constitution and U.N. Charter, address (Dulles), 
307 
International Materials Conference (IMC) : 

Central Committee, "stand-by" basis, 765 

Manganese-Nickel-Cobalt Committee : 

Allocation of nickel, third-quarter 1953 plans, 56; 

fourth-quarter plans, discontinued, 329 
Termination of 499, 765 

Tungsten-Molybdenum Committee, termination, 190 
International meetings, calendar of, 24, 54, 157, 188, 323. 

461, 604, 796 
International Monetary Fund : 

Balauce-of-payments consultations with contracting 
parties of GATT, 678 

Foreign Economic Policy, Commission on : 
Consultations with, proposed, 685 
Duties and powers re, 279 

Haiti, membership in, 383 

Jordanian dinar, establishment of par value of, 553 

Ob.lectives of, support for, text of message (Eisen- 
hower) re, 452 

Turkey, purchase of U.S. dollars and German Deutsche- 
marks from, in exchanne for liras, 245 
International Peasant Union, text of message of greet- 
ing (Kisenhower), 897 



International Refugee Organization (IRO) : 
Liquidation, ICEM report (Gibson), 118 
Ships, charter by Intergovernmental Committee for 
European Migration, 117 
International Statistical Institute, 2Sth session, U.S. 

delegation, listed, 430 
International sugar agreement, new : 
Article (Callanan), 542 

Principles and safeguards, discussed, 542, 544 
Quotas for individual countries, listed, 543 
Signatories, listed, 823 
International Sugar Conference, London meeting, U.S. 

delegation, listed, 87, 542 
International trade. See Trade. 
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 17th 

Conference of, U.S. delegation, listed, 190 
International wheat agreement, agreement renewing and 
revising : 
Basic differences from international sugar agreement, 

discussed (Callanan), 543 
Deposit of instruments of ratification, signature, 115 
Entry into force and parties to, listed, 245 
Ratification of, statement (Waugh), 61 
Interparliamentary Union, test of remarks of welcome 

(Eisenhower), 541 
Investment of private capital abroad : 
Addresses and statements: encouragement of (Waugh), 
145, 146 ; favorable environment through IBRD 
(Douglas), 278; Japan's need for (Allison), 36, 37; 
migration resettlement program for (Gibson), 121; 
recommendations for South America (Milton Eisen- 
hower), 185, 702; role in Latin America (Cabot), 515; 
support for (Stassen),39 
Douglas Mission report on financial and economic con- 
versations, U.S., U.K., discussion, 277, 278 
Foreign Economic Policy, Commission on, duties and 
powers re, under section 309 of Public Law 215, 83d 
Congress, 279 
Migrant resettlement projects, ICEM report, 121 
MSA Contact Clearinghouse Service for Israel and Phil- 
ippines, for encouragemept of American investment, 
211 
Underdeveloped countries, recommendations of Advisory 
Committee on Underdeveloped Areas to MSA Director 
(Stassen), 16 
United Fruit Company in Guatemala, expropriation of 
lands by Guatemalan Government, 357 
Iran : 
Ambassador to U.S. ( Entezam) , credentials, 590, 680 
Communist activities in, U.S. concern, remarks (Dulles), 

178 
Economic and financial assistance from U.S. : 

Emergency aid for, made available by President, 350, 

895 
FOA allotment for technical assistance, texts of let- 
ters ( Henderson, Zahedi ) re, 349, 350 
Request for, texts of exchange of letters (Zahedi. 
Eisenhower) re, 340 
Relations with U.K.. resumption, discussed in address 

(Byroade), 894 
Shah, return to Iran, text of message of felicitation 
(Eisenhower), 349 



942 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Iran — Continued 

Situation in, address (Byroade), 894 
U.S.-Iraniau friendship, statement (Dulles), 500 
Visit of Vice President Nixon, purpose and reception, 
discussed, 89C 
Iranian oil dispute: 

Hoover, Herbert, Jr.. upixiiiitnient for study of, an- 
nouncement, Ti'iS : mission re, discussed (Byroade), 
895 
U.S. position on, texts of exchange of communications 
(Eisenhower, Mossadegh) , re, 74, 76 
Iraq, Ambassador to U.S. (Al-Shabander), credentials, 

481 
Ireland : 

Membership in U.N., status of application for, statement 

(Byrnes), 605 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of in- 
strument of acceptance, 245 
IRO. See International Refugee Organization. 
Iron Curtain countries, refugees from, U.S. assistance for, 

862 
Iron ore production in Peru, Export-Import Bank loan 

for, 185 
Island Trading Company, extension of activities, state- 
ment (MidkifE), 25 
Israel : 

Arab-Israeli relations : 
.•\rab refugees in, responsibility for repatriation of, 
discussed in statement (Richards), 760; transfer 
of relief program from Department of State, state- 
ment (Lourie), 28 
Johnston, Erie, mission to Near East to study, 553 
Tension with Arab States, discussed in communique 
issued at Loudon meeting of Foreign Ministers, 546 
U.S. position, article (Russell), 281 
Violence with neighbors, discussed in address (Dul- 
les), 588 
Attack on Qibiya : 
Discussed in text of communique of London meeting 

of Foreign Ministers, 546 
Security Council censure, statement (Wadsworth), 

and text of Security Council resolution, 839, 840 
U.S. position, 552 
Economic and financial aid to : 

Allocation of funds, following settlement of differ- 
ences with U.N. Truce Supervision Organization, 
statement (Dulles), 674 
Deferment of, statement (Dulles), 589 
Jordan River Valley project. See Jordan River Valley. 
MSA Contact Clearinghouse Service for promotion of 

American investment of capital in, 211 
Transfer of Foreign Ministry from Tel Aviv to Jeru- 
salem : 
Announcement, 82 

U.S. position, remarks (Dulles), 177 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
Italy : 

Banknotes, withdrawal from circulation, announcement, 

897 
Emigration problem, ICEM report (Gibson), 119 



Italy — Continued 

International Hank, loan to. for development of southern 

Italy, (iOO 
Membership in U.N., status of : 

Application for, statement (Byrnes), 605 
"Package proposal" of U.S.S.R., U.S. position, 607 
MSA agreements : 

Defen.se-support project, production of jet engine 

parts for NATO, 48 
Productivity agreement, cited, 17 
Refugees and relatives, eligibility for special nonquota 
visas under Refugee Relief Act of 1953, article (Auer- 
bach), 232 
Trieste, Free Territory of, administration of : 

Communique of Foreign Ministers' meeting at 

London, discussion of, 546 
Defense of South Europe, relation to, statement 

(Dulles), 589 
Security Council agenda, inclusion on, statements 

(Lodge, Wadsworth), 609, 610 
Zone A: Administration of, by, with cessation by U.S. 

and U.K., 529; discussed (Dulles), 588 
Zone B : Continuation of administration by Yugo- 
slavia, 529 
U.S. Consulate at Bari, closed, 224, 766 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, eligibility 
terms for becoming party to, 245 

Jackson, C. D., member. Operations Coordinating Board, 

421 
Japan : 

Crown Prince Akihito, visit to U.S., proposed, 274 ; wel- 
come statement (Dulles) and reply by Crown Prince, 
380 

Claims against, consideration by Administering Au- 
thority of Pacific Islands, 25 

Disarmament of, U.S. position on error of, statement 
(Dulles), 788 

Economy of, U.S. views on, address (Allison), 35 

Membership in international organizations : Interna- 
tional Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 319, 
383 ; International Monetary Fund, 383 ; U.N., status 
of application for, statement (Byrnes), 605 

Prisoners of war held by U.S.S.R. : provisions for re- 
turn of, in Potsdam Proclamation, Soviet disregard 
for, discussed in statement (Byrnes), 899; review of 
negotiation problems, 900 

Purchase of U.S. cotton, Export-Import Bank credit for, 
676 

Representative from (Ikeda), concludes conferences 
with U.S. representative (Robertson), text of joint 
communique, 637 

Trade with Communist China, discussed in joint com- 
munique (Robertson, Ikeda), following conferences, 
637 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Amami Oshima Islands, resumption of authority over, 

under article 3 of treaty of peace, 208 
Copyright arrangement with U.S., new, reciprocal 
protection, text of proclamation, remarks (Allison, 
Okazaki), and text of exchange of notes, 824, 825, 
826 



Index, July to December 7953 



943 



Japan — Co ntinued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaty, wltli 
protocol, witti U.S., signature, text of letter of 
transmittal (Eisenhower) to Senate, text of report 
(Dulles), and statement (Johnson), 160; entry into 
force, 525 
Peace treaty (1951) : Article 3, resumption of author- 
ity over Amami Oshima Islands, under, 208 ; cited 
(Dulles) ; 307 
Security treaty for, jurisdictional arrangements for 
U.S. forces in Japan, text of protocol to amend 
article XVII of administrative agreement, under 
article III of, 595 ; text of official minutes re pro- 
tocol, 597 
Sugar agreement, international, new, signature, 823 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 

Advantage in U.S. markets of reduced duties under, 
per treaty of friendship, commerce, and naviga- 
tion, 38 
Application for association with, statement 

(Wa ugh), 495 
Provisions for provisional participation in delibera- 
tions, 677 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
Jenner, Sen. William E., chairman of Internal Security 
Subcommittee, request for questioning of Igor Gou- 
zenko: correspondence re (Dulles, Heeney), 789; text 
of exchange of letters with Secretary Dulles, 791 
Johnson, Robert L., Administrator of IIA : 
Books in IIA libraries, policy on : 
IIA instructions, text, 122 
Statements, 59, 121 
Overseas library program, evaluation of, statements, 
77, 81 
Johnson, U. Alexis : 

Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaty with 

Japan, statement, 162 
U.S. Ambassador to Czechoslovakia, appointment, 731 
Johnston, Eric, personal representative of President with 
rank of Ambassador : 
International Development Advisory Board, appoint- 
ment as chairman, 493 
Mission to Near East : 
Departure, 553 

Jordan River Valley development, talk over CBS, 891 
Report to President on Near East talks, 749 
Joint Commission, International (IJC) , approval of recom- 
mendations by, for remedial works for Niagara Falls, 
under Niagara River treaty (U.S.-Canada, 1950), 184 
Joint Economic and Trade Committee, with Canada : 
establishment approved, di.scussed (Eisenhower), 
737; talks with Canada re, 864 
Jones, Harold A., appointment as U.S. representative on 
Council of International Civil Aviation Organization, 
223 
Jordan, Kingdom of : 

Malaria and tuberculosis control, UNICEF and WHO 
programs for, statement (Heffelfinger), 291 



Jordan, Kingdom of — Continued 

Membership in international organizations : Inter- 
national Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 
319, 383; International Monetary Fund, 383; U.N., 
status of application for membership, statement 
(Byrnes), 605 

Par value for currency of, International Monetary 
Fund announcement, 553 

Qibiya incident : 
Armed action by Israeli forces, problem of, discussed 
In text of communique issued at London meeting of 
Foreign Ministers, 546 
Censure of Israeli action, by Security Council, state- 
ment (Wadsworth), 839 
Text of Security Council resolution re, 840 
U.S. concern re, 552 

U.S. Ambassador to (Mallory ) , appointment, 224 
Jordan River Valley project : 

Deferment of U.S. aid funds, pending settlement of 
differences between Israel and U.N. Truce Super- 
vision Organization, statement (Dulles), 674 

Johnston, Eric, mission to Near East to study : 
Departure, 553 
Report to President re, 749 
Talk over CBS re, 891 

Refugee problem, necessity of development plan for 
solution of, discussed in statement (Richards), 761 

Kabua, Dorothy, greetings to Trusteeship Council from 

Micronesia, statement, 151 
Kaczmarek, Bishop Czeslaw, sentencing by Polish Com- 
munists, 456 
Kalijarvi, Thorsten V., Deputy Assistant Secretary for 
Economic Affairs : 
Appointment as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Eco- 
nomic Affairs, 366 
Statement on acceptance of initial payment by Federal 
Republic of Germany on German debt, 599 
Kashmir, U.N. action in, cited in address (Murphy), 783 
Keesing, Felix M., appointment as Senior U.S. Commis- 
sioner on South Pacific Commission, 327 
Kellermann, Henry, designation in State Department, 689 
Kemper, James S., U.S. Ambassador to Brazil, confirma- 
tion, 30 
Kersten amendment to Mutual Security Act of 1951, es- 
capee program under, transfer from Department of 
State, statement (Lourie), 27 
Key, David McKendree, appointment as Assistant Secre- 
tary for U.N. Affairs, 842 
King Paul of Greece, visit to U.S., 312, 671, 673 
Knowland, Sen. William F., treatymaking power, state- 
ment by President re amendment of Constitution, 
192 ; text of amendment as substitute to S. J. Res. 1, 
193 
Korea, Republic of : 
Aid from U. S. : 

Relief, rehabilitation, and defense support program: 
Congressional authorization for additional funds, 

discussed in address (Eisenhower), 200 
Economic Coordinator (Wood), appointment, 236, 
486 



944 



Department of State Bulletin 



Korea, Republic of — Continued 
Aid from U.S. — Continued 
Relief, rehabilitation, and defense support program — 
Continued 
Free world challenge, statement (Ford), 904 
Increase in, recommendation for, test of message 

(Eisenhower) to Congress, 193 
Recommendations for, summary of Tasca report to 

President, 313 
Voluntary aid to, statement (Eisenhower), 907 
Air, land, and sea forces (ROK), maintenance and de- 
velopment of, discussed in joint statement (Dulles, 
Rhee), 204 
Aircraft incident in Korean Zone of hostilities, Soviet 
protest re: discussed in statement (Lodge), 286; 
texts of exchange of notes, 179, 237 
Assault on, discussed in address ( Robertson) , 816 
Atrocities question, text of letter from Ambassador 
Lodge to U.N. Secretary-General requesting inclusion 
on General Assembly agenda, 685 ; statements 
(Lodge), 757 
Consultations (Dulles) with President Syngman Rhee: 
Joint statement re relationship of U.S. and Korea, 

203 
Political Conference to follow armistice, proposed, 
statement (Dulles), 204 
"Germ warfare." See Bacterial warfare. 
Membership in U.N., status of application for, statement 

(Byrnes), 605 
Mutual defense treaty, with U.S. : 
Draft, text, 204 
Pacific security system, part of, discussed (Dulles), 

340 
Signature, discussed (Dean), 666; test of statements 
(Dulles, Pyun), 484, 485 
Problems of, address (Dulles), 339 
United Nations Command operations reports: 
61st report (Jan. 1-15, 1953), 50 
64th report (Feb. 16-28, 1953), 51, 278 
65th report (Mar. 1-15, 1953), 52 
67th report (Apr. 1-15, 1953), 423 
68th report (Apr. 16-30, 1953), 425 
69th report (May 1-15, 1953), 426 
U.N. achievements in, remarks (Dulles), 175 
U.N. forces in, tribute to, in final communique of July 
meeting of Foreign Ministers (Washington, D. C), 
105 
U.S. Ambassador to (Briggs), confirmation, 192 
U.S. leadership against aggression, reference in ad- 
dress (Stevens), 112 
Visit of Vice President Nixon, proposed, 74 
Korean Armistice : 

Displaced civilians, Korean, provision for Committee 

for Assisting Displaced Civilians, 139 
Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission (NNRC) : 
Freeing of prisoners of war, provisions of armistice 

re, discussed (Dulles), 749 
Membership, discussed, statements (Lodge, White), 

287, 666 
Procedures of, text of letter (General Clark) to, 
questioning, 567 

Index, July to December J 953 



Korean Armistice — Continued 

Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission (NNRC) — 
Continued 
Supplementary agreement on prisoners of war, cited, 
139 
Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, establish- 
ment and membership, listed, under terms of, 135, 346 
Post-armistice trade with Communist China, status, 

discussed (Stassen), 574 
Prisoners of war : 
Atrocities committed against, by North Korean and 
Chinese Communist forces, statements (Lodge), 
757 
Communist retention of, U.S. position, 205 
Freeing of, per armistice provisions, statement 

(Dulles), 749 
Political asylum for, establishment of principle, dis- 
cussed in address (Dulles), 339 
Repatriation of, safeguards in Armistice re withhold- 
ing of, reniarljs (Dulles), 235 
Sick and injured personnel, captured, text of agree- 
ment for repatriation of, under article 109 of 1949 
Geneva Convention, 424 
Treatment of, discussed (Dulles), 340; U.N. Com- 
mand reports, 51, 52 
Prisoners of war, nonrepatriable North Korean : 
Escape of, texts of letters (General Clark, U.N. Com- 
mand) to Communist Commanders re, 46, 73 
Release of, U.N. position, text of message (Hammar- 
skjold), to President Syngman Rhee re part in, 
14 
Prisoners of war, U.S., return of, statement (Dulles) 

on witnessing, 236 
Problems of, statements (Dulles), 140, 176 
Reconvening of Sth session of General Assembly: 
Political Conference, proposed, statement (Pearson), 

205 
Problems of, discussed (Murphy), 409 
Resolutions, draft, on armistice and implementation 

of, texts, 287 
Statements (Dulles, Lodge), 235, 284, 285, 286 
Vote to recess, pending developments in Korea, state- 
ment (Bolton), 910 
Report (Lodge) to Secretary-General Hammarskjold, 

text, 205 
Signature, text of President's message to Nation, 131 
Statement (Dulles), 131 
Text of agreement and supplementary agreement on 

prisoners of war, 132, 139 
Unified Command, text of special report on armistice, 
with text of letter of transmittal (Wadsworth), to 
members of Security Council and General Assembly, 
246 
Violation of, U.S. position, discussed ( Smith) , 463 
Korean Armistice negotiations : 

Continuation of talks, agreement of Communist Com- 
manders re, text of letter to General Clark, 73 ; state- 
ment (Dulles), 45 
Robertson, Walter S., President's special representative : 
Departure for Korean consultations, statement, 14 
Return from Korea, texts of statements (Dulles, 
Robertson), 103 

945 



Korean Armistice negotiations — Continued 

Robertson, Walter S., President's special representa- 
tive — Continued 
Talks wltli Syngman Rliee, conclusion, text of joint 

statement with, 72 
Views of, discussed witli Secretary Dulles, 101 
Situation in Korea, discussed in joint report on world 

political situation (Dulles, Robertson), 101 
Text of reply (Rhee) to President's letter re, 13 
Korean Political Conference: 
Communist views on, text of message to Chinese and 

North Korean Communists, 526 
Composition of : 

Question of, discussed (Dulles), 340 
Statements ( Lodge) , 361, 362, 364, 366 
Dean, Arthur H., appointment as deputy for Secretary 

of State, with personal rank of Ambassador, 470 
General Assembly activities re : discussion of, U.S. posi- 
tion, statements (Lodge), 469; efforts re, statement 
( Lodge) , 49<5 ; resolutions re, text, 366 
Preliminary meeting at Panmunjom : 
Message from Chinese People's Government re, text, 

590 
Proceedings: October 31 session, 669; November 17 

session, 788 
Statements : Dean, 666, 788 ; Dulles, 590, 666 ; White, 
666 
Proposal for composition, place, and time of, text 

(Dean), 877 
Proposed, statements (Dulles, Pearson) , 204, 205 
Recommendations by U.S.S.R., text of Soviet draft reso- 
lution re, 286n. 
Time and place, discussed, statement (Dulles) , 361 
Krekeler, Heinz L., Ambassador to U.S. from Federal Re- 
public of Germany : 
German debt settlement, initial payment to U.S., texts 
of exchange of notes with Secretary Dulles and state- 
ment, 598, 599 
Friendship, commerce, and consular rights, treaty with 
U.S., as amended (1925), text of exchange of notes 
re, 225 
Kyes, Roger M., member, Operations Coordinating Board, 
421 

Labor, organized, fight against world communism, address 

(Dulles), 443 
Labor Organization, International. See International 

Labor Organization. 
Land reform : 
Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of, review of program 

in (Midkiff), 24 
U.S. influence in development of programs abroad, arti- 
cle (A.sher), 7 
Laniel, Joseph, President of French Council of Ministers, 

proposed visit to U.S., 460 
Laos, Kingdom of: 

Indochina, restoration of peace; in, necessary party to 

discussion re (Dulles), 343 
Indochina, war in, jiid to Associated States, discussed 

(Dulles), 342 
Membership in U.N., status of application for, state- 
ment (Byrnes), 605 



Laos, Kingdom of — Continued 

Minister to U.S. (Souvannavong), credentials and text 
of remarks exchanged with President Eisenhower, 
114 
U.S. Ambassador to (Heath), continuation of duties, 
157 
Latin America. See American principles ; American Re- 
publics ; and individual countries. 
Latvia, assurances to captive people of, statement 

(DuUes), 818 
Lebanon : 

Jordan River Valley development project. See Jordan 

River Valley project. 
Malaria and tuberculosis control, UNICEF and WHO 

programs for, statement (HefEel finger), 291 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Sugar agreement, international, new, signature, 823 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, eligibility 
terms for becoming party to, 245 
U.S. Ambassador to (Hare), confirmation, 192 
Legislation, current foreign policy, listed, 26, 40, 103, 149, 

187, 213, 265, 283, 312, 500 
Legislation, foreign policy, approved by President, 200 
Lend-lease .settlement negotiations, with U.S.S.R., for re- 
turn of vessels, 391 
Lewis, Geoffrey W. : 
Designation in State Department, 689 
Soviet Germany, article, 883 
L'Heureux, Herve J., appointment as Executive Director 
of Oflice of U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, 614 
Liability of German nationals in U.S. for compulsory serv- 
ice in U.S. armed services, text of exchange of notes 
re provisions in treaty of friendship, commerce, and 
consular rights, 255 
Liberia : 

U.S. Ambassador to (Locker), confirmation, 329 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, eligibility 
terms for becoming party to, 245 
Liberties, preservation of, statements (Hand, Stevens), 

114 
Liberty, individual, and national security, address 

(Morton), 344 
Libraries of International Information Administration, 
policy on books in: instructions (HA) re, text, 122 
letter (Dulles to Hennings and Jackson), text, 58 
memorandum to Mr. Johnson (McCardle), text, 58 
statements (Johnson), 59, 77, 121; support programs 
for IIA, text of Department Circular No. 37 re, 123 
Libya, membership in U.N., status of application for, 

statement ( Byrnes ) , 605 
Limnology, International Association of, 12th Congress of, 

U.S. delegation, listed, 328 
Lithuania : 
Assurances to captive people of, statement (Dulles), 

818 
Basic weakness of despotism, address ( Louiie) , 771 
Loans to foreign countries : 

Export-Import Bank, 185, 243, 493, 676 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment, 382, 451, 456, 600 
Locker, Jesse D., U.S. Ambassador to Liberia, confirma- 
tion, 329 



946 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Lodge, Ainbassiicior Henry Cabot, Jr., U.S. Representative 
to United Nations : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Agenda of Political Committee, order of items, 496 
Charter revision, preparatory conference on, 413 
ni.sarmament, report of Disarmament Commission, 

82!), S-SO, S33, 837 
Forced labor : 
Evidence of existence of, agenda item of eightli 

session of General Assembly, 298 
Report of Ad Hoc Committee on Forced Labour, 
text, U.S. reaction to, 168 
'•Hate" propaganda, Soviet, discussed, 832 
Korean Political Conference : 
Composition of, 361 

U.S. opposition to General Assembly discussion of, 
469, 470 
Korean situation, reconvening of seventh session of 

General Assembly for discussion, 284 
Moroccan question, 325 
Moroccan self-government, U.S. attitude, 610 
Palestine, U.N. discussion on, 64S 
Puerto Rico, relationship with U.S., 841; transmittal 
to Secretary-General of new Constitution and other 
documents re, 223 
Trieste, in<lu.siou on Security Council agenda, 609 
Tunisian question, U.S. attitude, 730 
U.N., support for, testimony before Senate Foreign 

Relations Committee, quoted (Wadsworth), 560 
World War II prisoners. Communist retention of, 497 
Appointment as special adviser to President on U.N. 

and other matters, 896 
Conlirmatiou as U.S. representative to U.N. General 

Assembly, 223 
Correspondence : 
Atrocities question, inclusion on General Assembly 
agenda, letter to Secretary-General (Hauunar- 
skjold ) , text, 685 ; statements, 757, 758 
Bacterial Warfare, Question of Impartial Investiga- 
gation of Charges of Use by U.N. Forces, text of 
letter transmitting documentation re, 648 
Korean Armistice, text of letter to Secretary-General 
(Hammarskjold) of U.N., 205 
Lodge, John D., Governor of Connecticut : 

Mission to Panama and Costa Rica, as personal repre- 
sentative of the President, with rank of Ambassador, 
586 ; texts of exchange of letters with Secretary 
Dulles re designation, 586 
London meeting of Foreign Ministers (U.S., U.K., France), 

546 
Lord, Mrs. Oswa)d B., U.S. Representative to U.N. General 
Assembly : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Forced labor in Soviet Union, 865 

Freedom information, need for action on, 764 

Human rights: 

Safeguarding of, proposals for, 725 
U.S. action program for, report on ninth session of 
U.N. Commission on Human Rights, 215 
UNICEF, continuation on jjermanent basis, 533 
Confirmation as U.S. representative to U.N. General 
Assembly, 223 



Lourie, Donold B., Under Secretary for Administration : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Despotism, basic weakness of, 771 
Reorganization Plans 7 and 8, President's, effect on 
Department of State, 27 
German debt agreements, exchange of instruments of 
ratification or approval of, 419 
Ludin, Mohammad Kabir, Ambass.idor from Afghanistan, 

credentials, 740 
Luxembourg, U.S. Minister to (Buchanan), appointment, 
430 

Malaria : 

Malaria and Medicine, Tropical, 5th International Con- 
gress on, U.S. delegation, listed, 292 
Malaria and tuberculosis control, in Jordan and 
Lebanon, through UNICEF and WHO programs, 
statement (Hefifelfinger), 291 

Malaya, Communist pressures In, cited In address (Mor- 
ton), 345 

Mallory, Lester D., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 
Jordan, 224 

Malta, U. S. Consulate at Valletta, continuation of and 
transfer of jurisdiction, 157 

Manganese-Nickel-Cobalt Committee of International Ma- 
terials Conference : 
Allocation of nickel, third-quarter 1953 plans, 56 ; 

fourth-quarter plans, discontinued, 329 
Termination, 499, 765 

Mann, John W., article on problem of sea water pollution, 
775 

Mann, Thomas C, assignment as Deputy Chief of Mission, 
Athens, Greece, 226 

Manpower movements, OEEC decision on liberalization of, 
text, 721 

Margolies, Daniel, designation in State Department, 689 

Marine research program, adopted by International Com- 
mission for Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, article 
(Terry), 20 

Marriage and the family, article 22 of proposed Draft 
Covenant on Civil and Political Bights, discussed 
(Lord), 218 

Marshall plan, relation to Western European defense 
production, cited in MSA report, 212 

Martin, Joseph W., Jr., address on ties of friendship be- 
tween U.S. and Germany, 820 

Marvel, Josiah, Jr., International Claims Commissioner, 
termination of office, 59 

Massey, Vincent, Governor General of Canada, invitation 
to President Eisenhower to visit Ottawa, 530 

Materials Conference, International. See International 
Materials Conference. 

Matthews, H. Freeman, U.S. Ambassador to Netherlands, 
appointment, 489 

Mayo, Charles W., U.S. Representative to U.N. General 
Assembly : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

"Germ warfare" propaganda campaign. Communist, 

role of forced confessions in, 641 
Refugees, U.N. report on, commendation by U.S., 610 
U.N. action in social field, 566 



Index, July to December J 953 



947 



Mayo, Charles W., U.S. Representative to U.N. General 
Assembly — Continued 
Confirmation as U.S. representative to U.N. General 
Assembly, 223 
McCardle, Carl W., Assistant Secretary for Public 
Affairs : 
IIA libraries, policy on use of books in, text of direc- 
tive to Administrator of (Johnson), re use of ma- 
terials by Communist authors, 58 
UNESCO's goals, progress toward, remarks, 467 
Mcllvaine, Robinson, appointment as Commissioner and 
Chairman of U.S. .section of Caribbean Commission, 
731 
Mcintosh, Dempster, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Uruguay, 4S9 
McKeough, Ra.vmond S., International Claims Commis- 
sioner, termination of office, 59 
McLeod, R. W. Scott, Administrator of Bureau of Security, 
Consular Affairs, and Personnel : 
Administrator of Refugee Relief Program, proposed 
visit to Naples for issuance of first visas under Ref- 
ugee Relief Act of 1953, 860 
Security provisions of Refugee Relief Act of 19.53, text 
of excerpt of letter to Rep. Patrick J. Hillings re, 233 
Jleany, George, president of American Federation of La- 
bor, exchange of letters with President Eisenhower re 
U.S. support for liberation of East German workers, 
69 
Sledical Group, Pan American, text of letter (Eisenhower) 

endorsing program of, 896 
Medicine and Malaria, Tropical, 5th International Con- 
gress on, U.S. delegation, listed, 292 
Meetings of Foreign Ministers. See Bermuda meeting; 
Foreign Ministers' meetings of July and October 
1953 ; Four power meeting, proposed. 
Membership in U.N. : 

Charter requirements, statement (Byrnes), (505 
"Package proposal," Soviet, statement ( Byrnes) , 607 
Merchant, Livingston T., text of letter to Central and 
Eastern Euroi)ean Conference and Central-Eastern 
European Committee, re U.S. policy toward captive 
peoples, 183 
Metal scrap, susi)ension of duties and import taxes on, 

signature of act approving, 200 
Meteorological Organization, World. See World Meteor- 
ological Organization. 
Mexican border, identification card for use on, provision 

of Ex. Or. 10473, text, 192 
Mexico : 

Boundary and Water Commission, International, U.S. 
and Mexico, U.S. Commissioner for, delegation of 
authority to, text and signature (Dulles) , 725 
Debt obligations, direct, and Mexican railway obliga- 
tions, holders of, deadline for registration of, 320 
Falcon Dam, dedication of : 

Attendance of President Eisenhower, proposed, 360 
Inter-American cooperation, monument to, address 
(Eisenhower), 579 
Situation in, discussed in address (Cabot) , 557 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Claims convention (1941), 12tb payment to U.S., 750 



Mexico — (Continued 

Treatie.s, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Sugar agreement, international, new : 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan),543 
Signature, 823 
Visa agreement, with U.S., exchange of notes and 

text of summary of agreement, 827 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, eligibility 
terms for becoming party to, 245 
U.S. Consulates, closing and transfer of functions : 
Guaymas, 157 ; Torreon, 157 
Microbiology, Gth International Congress of, U.S. delega- 
tion, listed, 292 
Middle East. See Near and Middle East. 
Midkiff, Frank E., Special U.S. Representative to U.N. 
Trusteeship Council : 
Pacific Trust Territory, statements : 
Administration of, 150 
Problems of administration, 22 
Migration, European. See Intergovernmental Committee 

for European Migration. 
Military assistance (see also Arms and armed forces; 
atomic energy; European Defense Community; mu- 
tual defense and security; North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization). 
Indochina. See Indochina. 
Korea. See Korea. 

Militai-y shipments, global, acceleration of, semiannual 

report on mutual security program (Eisenhower), 

387 

Western Europe, defense of, address (Eisenhower), 200 

Military facilities agreement with Greece, signature and 

text, 863 
Military facilities and military end-item assistance agree- 
ments with Spain, signatures and texts, 435 
Minorities, rights of, article 25 of proposed Draft Cov- 
enant on Civil and Political Rights, discussed (Lord), 
217 
Mixed Claims Commission awards to Germany, agreement 
with U.S. re, signature and entry into force, 419, 479 
Molotov, Vyacheslav, Soviet Foreign Minister, test of 
note replying to U.S. offer of food for Eastern Zone of 
Germany, 68 
Molybdenum-Tungsten Committee of International Mate- 
rials Conference, termination, 190 
Monetary Fund, International. See International Mone- 
tary F'und. 
Mongolian People's Republic, admission to membership in 
U.N., failure to qualify under article 4 of charter, 
discussed, statement (Byrnes), 600 
Monnet, Jean, President of High Authority, European 
Coal and Steel Community : 
Success of Coal and Steel Community under interna- 
tional authority, discussed with (Smith), 375 
Texts of telegram and letter from High -Vuthority to 
Secretary Dulles, re U.S. support of. 107, 108, lOSn 
Moral and political challenges faced by U.S., discussed in 

address (Morton), 001 
Moral forces, power of. address (Dulles), 510 
Moral initiative, address (Dulles), 741 
Moroccan question: 

French position re, discussed in address ir.yronde), 
659 



948 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Moroccan question — Continued 

Self-government in, statement (Lodge), 610 
Situation in, statement (Lodge), 325 
Morris, Brewster, designation in State Deiiartment, GS9 
Morton, Tlirnston B., Assistant Secretary for Congres- 
sional Relations : 
Addresses and statements : 

Foreign policy issues, major, confronting U.S., 6C1 
Liberty, individual, and national security, 344 
Peace, our best hope for, 624 
Jlossadegh, Prime Minister of Iran, texts of correspond- 
ence with President Eisenhower re U.S. position on 
Iranian oil dispute, 74 
MSA. See Mutual Security Agency. 
Muniz, Joao Carlos, Brazilian Ambassador to the U.S., 

credentials, 003 
Murphy, Robert D., Deputy Under Secretary of State : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

General Assembly, eightli session, problems confront- 
ing, 408 
ilutual understanding, need for, test of message 

(Dulles) , quoted by, 556 
United States, role of, in understanding United Na- 
tions, 619 
United States looks at United Nations, 780 
Deputy Under Secretary, designation, 842 
Mutual defense and security : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Collective security on battlefield, discussed (Jlorton), 

625 
Economic interdependence in today's world (Stassen) , 

39 
Foreign policy problems, realistic review (Smith), 371 
Free-world, relationship to East-West trade (Han- 
sen), 271 
Free-world economy, healthy, America's stake in 

(Waugh), 142 
Mutual security program, importance to national 

security (Dulles), 88 
Purpose of, discussed (Aldrich), 484 
AMVET support of proposed mutual defense pact in 

Pacific (Morton), 344 
ANZUS Council. See ANZUS Council. 
Appropriations : 

Fiscal year 1954, approval by President, 200 
Warning against cut in, text of letter (Eisenhower) 
to Senator Bridges, 158 
Associated States of Cambodia, Laos, and Viet-Nam. 

See Cambodia, Laos, and Viet-Nam. 
Colombo plan. See Colombo Plan. 
Defense pact, mutual, in Pacific, AMVET support of, 

discussed (Morton), 344 
Europe, efforts in, increase of MSA activities for period 

ending June 30, 1953, MSA report, 388 
Euroiie, Western, production in, discussed in MSA 

report, 212 
European Defense Community (EDC). See European 

Defense Community. 
FOA allotments and programs. See Foreign Operations 
Administration. 



Mutual defense and security — Continued 

Foreign Ministers' meetings. See Bermuda meeting; 
Foreign Blinisters' meetings of July and October 1953 ; 
four power meeting, proposed. 
Good will mission to South America. See Good will 

mission. 
Indochina. See Indochina. 
Korean Armistice. See Korean Armistice. 
Mutual Security Agency. See Mutual Security Agency. 
Mutual security program : 

Appropriations for fiscal year ending June 30, 1954, 

signature of act approving, 200 
"Mutual Security Program, Report on, for Six Months 
ended June 30, 1953," texts of letter of transmittal 
(Eisenhower) to Congress and chapter 1, 384 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 
Productivity agreements (MSA). See Productivity 

agreements. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

European Defense Community (EDC) treaty, ap- 
proval by Netherlands Parliament, 141 
Military facilities agreement, with Greece, signature 

and text, 863 
Military facilities and military end-item assistance 

agreements with Spain, signatures and texts, 435 
Mutual defense treaty, with Korea : 
Draft, text, 204 
Pacific security system, part of, discus.sed (Dulles), 

340 
Signature, discussed (Dean), 666; texts of state- 
ments (Dulles, Pyun), 484, 485 
Security treaties with Europe and Pacific areas, pur- 
pose of, discussed (Dulles), .307 
Spain, agreements with U.S. : 
Defense agreement, text and signature, 436 
Economic aid agreement, with annex, text and 

signature, 430, 440 
Mutual benefits from, address (Dunn), 793 
Mutual defense assistance agreement, with annex, 
text and signature, 440, 441 
Status of NATO, national representatives, and inter- 
national staff, signature by Turkey, 491 
U.S. forces in Japan, jurisdictional arrangements for, 
text of protocol to amend article XVII of admin- 
istrative agreement, under article III of security 
treaty with U.S., 595; text of official minutes re 
protocol, 597 
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). See United 
Nations Children's Fund. 
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951 (Battle 
Act) : 
Aid to foreign countries under. See Foreign Operations 

Administration and Mutual Security Agency. 
Assistance to Germany, France, Norway, and U.K., con- 
tinuation of, discussed in text of letter (Eisenhower) 
to congressional chairmen, 300. 
East-West trade-control program, termination of aid to 
countries not cooperating under, discussed in article 
(Hansen), 274 



Index, Juty fo December 7 953 



949 



Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951 (Battle 

Act) — Continued 

Trade controls, strategic, enforcement of, third report 
to Congress on, text of letter of transmittal ( Stassen) , 
summary, and text of chapter IV, 5G9 

Western Europe, shipment of strategic materials to 
Communist groups, request for continuance of aid to, 
for security reasons (Stassen), 301 
Mutual Security Act of 1951, program for aiding refugee 
escapees from Iron Curtain countries, transfer from 
Department of State (Lourie), 27 
Mutual Security Act of 1953, text of section 550, excerpt 
from Public Law 118, 83d Congress re use of surplus 
agricultural commodities, 639 
Mutual Security Agency (MSA) {see also Foreign Opera- 
tions Administration) : 

Agricultural commodities, surplus, text of message 
(Eisenhower) to Congress, requesting use of, for 
urgent relief of foreign countries, 60 

Apijropriations for, text of Eisenhower letter to chair- 
man of Senate Committee on Appropriations 
(Bridges), warning against cuts, 158 

Assistance to Germany, France, Norway and U.K., con- 
tinuation, text of letter (Eisenhower) to congi'es- 
sional chairmen and observations of MSA Director 
(Stassen), 300 

Bolivia, increased technical-assistance aid for, proposed, 
82 

East Germany, food from U.S., statement by chairman 
of Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid 
(Taft), on inquiries re, 208 

Europe, Western, report on defense production in, 212 

Information services of, transfer to U.S. Information 
Agency, 238 

Israel, clearinghouse service for, opening, 211 

Italy, production of jet engine parts for NATO, as MSA 
defense-support project, 48 

Mutual security program, importance to national secu- 
rity, statement (Dulles), 88 

Operations of mutual security program, appointment of 
three-man team for evaluation of, 213 

Overseas information programs, recommended consoli- 
dation of functions, 126 

Philippines, clearinghouse service for, opening, 211 

Productivity agreements with foreign countries, allot- 
ments and contributions: Austria, 178; Belgium, 18; 
Denmark, cited, 17 ; European Productivity Agency, 
178; Prance, 17; Germany, 17, 60; Greece, cited, 17; 
Italy, cited, 17; Netherlands, cited, 17; Norway, 18; 
Turkey, 178 ; U.K., cited, 17 

Publications of, 16, 212 
Mutual understanding, need for, text of message (Dulles) 
to Leaders' Conference of Inter-American Affairs, 556 

National Security Council (NSC) : 

Information Activities Committee, International, study 

of report by, 124 
Korea, survey on, review of, message (Eisenhower), 193 
Korean economy, study of, recommendations for ap- 
pointment of Henry J. Tasca as special representative 
of President for mis.sion for, 313 



National Security Council (NSC) — Continued 
Operations Coordinating Board : 

Establishment, text of Ex. Or. 104S3, 421 

Membership, listed, 421 

Recommendations re establishment, 125 
Psychological Strategy Board, recommendation for 

abolishment, 125 
U.S. Information Agency, responsibility to President 

through, 238 
Nationalism, problems of, discu.ssed in address (Cabot), 

515 
Nationals, U.S., protection of. See Protection of U. S. 

nationals and property. 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 
Near and Middle East (see also Asia; and itidividual 

countries) : 
Aid from U.S. See under individual countries. 
Arab-Israeli relations. See Arab-Israeli relations. 
Iranian oil dispute. See Iranian oil dispute. 
Israeli-Arab relations. See Arab-Israeli relations. 
Israeli Foreign Ministry, transfer from Tel Aviv to 
Jerusalem : 

Announcement, 82 

U.S. position, remarks (Dulles), 177 
Jordan River Valley project. See Jordan River Valley 

project. 
Mediterranean area, Eastern, UNICEF program in, 

article (Eliot), 289 
Palestine situation. See Palestine situation. 
Political tension and economic hardship in, mutual se- 
curity objectives for relief of, statement (Dulles), 

90 
Problems facing Near East, discussed in address 

(Smith), 373 
Qlbiya incident. See Qibiya incident. 
Refugees, Arab. See under Arab-Israeli relations. 
Tensions in, easement of, article (Rus.sell), 2S0 
Negotiating solutions to today's problems, address 

(Smith), 475 
Nepal, membership in U.N., status of application for, 

statement (Byrnes), 605 
Netherlands : 

Agricultural commodities, surplus, FOA program for 

purchase for resale overseas, under section 550 of 

Mutual Security Act of 1953, in, 638 
Atomic weapon production capability, discussed in cor- 
respondence by Representative Cole to Senator 

Wiley, 330 
Balauce-of-payments, in Netherlands and South Africa, 

relaxation of discriminatory restrictions, 677 
Dutch refugees and relatives, eligibility for special non- 
quota visas under Refugee Relief Act of 1953, ar- 
ticle (Auerbach), 232 
Economic aid, proposal for suspension of, discussed in 

President's semiannual report on mutual security 

program, 388 
Emigration problem, ICEM report (Gibson), 119 
International Bank report for fiscal 1953, prepayment of 

loans to, 319 
MSA productivity agreement, cited, 17 



950 



Department of State Bulletin 



Netherlands — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

European Defense Conuminity (KDC) treaty, ap- 
proval by Second Chamber of Parliament, 141 
Sugar agreement, international, new : 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan), 543 
Signature 823 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
U.S. Ambassador to (Matthews), appointment, 489 
Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission (NNRC) : 
Freeing of prisoners of war, provisions of armistice re, 

749 
Membership, discussed, statements (Lodge, White) , 287, 

666 
Prisoners of war refusing repatriation, period of aid 
from Red Cross of India and NNRC, discussed in text 
of letter (General Clark) to chairman of, 568 
Procedures of, text of letter (General Clark) to, ques- 
tioning, 567 
Supplementary agreement on prisoners of war, cited, 
139 
Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, establishment 
and membership, listed, under terms of Armistice 
Agreement, 135, 346 
New York Power Authority, designation to construct St. 

Lawrence works, text of Ex. Or. 105(X), 724 
New Zealand : 

ANZUS Council, 2d meeting (Washington, D.C.) : 
Announcement and proposed representation, 327 
Statement (Webb), 417 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Security treaty with U.S. and Australia (1951), dis- 
cussed (Dulles), 307 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
U.S. Consulate at Dunedin, closing, 689 
Niagara River waters, treaty for u.ses of (U.S.-Canada, 
1950), approval of recommendations by International 
Joint Commission for Niagara Falls remedial works, 
under, 184 
Nicaragua : 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment, loans for highway construction and electric 
power, 382, 451 ; prepayment of loans, 319 
Rama Road, construction of, request for U.S. assistance, 
texts of Department announcement and exchange of 
notes re, 381 
U.S. Ambassador to (Whelan), continuation as Chief of 

Mission, 157 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, eligibility 
terms for becoming party to, 245 
Nickel, allocation of, by International Materials Confer- 
ence : third-quarter 1953 plans, 56 ; fourth-quarter 
plans, discontinued, 329 
Nixon, Richard, Vice President of the U.S., visit to Far 

East and South Asia, proposed, 74 
NNRC. See Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission. 
Nonimmigrants in U.S., provisions under Refugee Relief 
Act of 1953 for application of adjustment of status, 232 
Nonquota visas, special, classes of aliens eligible for, dis- 
cussed in article ( Auerbach) , 231 



Non-self-governing territories : 

Educational needs in, statement (Bolton) , 686 

Puerto Uico, status as self-governing, transmission by 
U.S. to U.N. of new Constitution and related docu- 
ments, 223 
North Atlantic Planning Board for Ocean Shipping, 5th 

session, U.S. delegation, listed, 496 
North Atlantic ocean-station agreement for air navigation 
services (ICAO) , U.S. position on future participation, 
629 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Appropriations for, discussed in joint report on world 

political situation (Dulles), 100 
Balance, problem of, in relation to (Dulles) , 742 
Economic strength, U.S. interest in ( Asher) , 3 
Free-world defense system, keystone of (Morton), 663 
Free-world strength through, continuing need for 

(Hughes), 47 
Purpose, discussed (Dulles), 307 
Purpose of and strength, reviewed (Gruenther) , 633 
Status of forces, agreement, U.S. position re (Smith), 

374 
Strengthening of, under MSA (Dulles), 89 
U.S. policy in Western European defense (Smith), 478 

Escapees in NATO countries, eligibility for special non- 
quota visas under Refugee Relief Act of 1953, article 
(Auerbach), 232 

Foreign Economic Policy, Commission on : 
Consultations with, proposed, 085 
Duties and powers re, 279 

Foreign Ministers' meeting of July 1953, tripartite sup- 
port of, discussed in final communique, 104 

Foundation of common policy with allies, discussed in 
text of Bei-muda meeting communique, 852 

Jet engine parts for, MSA defense-support project in 
Italy for, 48 

NATO Ministers, meeting of : 
Stiitement (Dulles), 854 
U.S. delegation, listed, 855 

Status of NATO, national representatives, and interna- 
tional staff (1951), agreement on, signature by Tur- 
key, 491 

Support for, discussed in President's semiannual report 
on mutual security program, 388 

U.S. Mission to, terms of reference for, text of Depart- 
ment Circular No. 36, 48 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, International Commission 

for, 3d meeting, article (Terry), 19 
Norway : 

Agricultural commodities, surplus, FOA program for 
purchase for resale overseas, under section 550 of 
Mutual Security Act of 1953, 638 

Atomic weapon production capability, discussed in cor- 
respondence by Representative Cole to Senator Wiley, 
330 

MSA assistance for, continuation, text of letter (Eisen- 
hower) to congressional chairman and observations 
of MSA Director (Stassen), 300 

MSA productivity agreement, allotment, 18 

Strategic materials, shipment to Soviet-bloc countries, 
under terms of Battle Act, discussed (Stassen), 301 



Index, July to December 7953 



951 



Norway — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, discriminatory treatment of Nonvegian sar- 
dines under, settlement of differences with Ger- 
many re, 680 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
U.S. Ambassador to (Strong), confirmation, 30 
Notowidigdo, Moekarto, Indonesian Ambassador to the 

U.S., credentials, 003 
NSC. See National Security Council. 

OAS. See Organization of American States. 

Oatis, William N. : 

Release from imprisonment in Czechoslovakia : 
Support of AM VETS, discussed (Morton), 344 
Te.xt of exchange of letters with Secretary Dulles re, 
491 

Oats and grouiidflsh fillets, restrictions on U.S. imports 
from Canada, proposed, texts of exchange of notes, 
244 

Ocean Shipping, North Atlantic Planning Board for, 5th 
session, U.S. delegation, listed, 496 

Ocean Station program, North Atlantic, U.S. position on 
further participation, 629 

OEEC. See European Economic Cooperation, Organiza- 
tion for. 

Office of International Trade, recent changes in export 
licensing procedures, 318 

Offshore procurement, discussed in President's semian- 
nual report on mutual security program, ending June 
30, 1953, 388 

Oil, refinery program in Europe, MSA report on, 213 

Oil dispute in Iran. See Iranian oil dispute. 

Oil pollution of sea water, article (Mann), 775 

OIT. See Office of International Trade. 

Okazaki, Katsuo, Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
texts of exchange of notes with Ambassador Allison 
and statements re : copyright arrangements with 
Japan, 825, 826; friendship treaty with U.S., entry 
into force, 525 

Operations Coordinating Board : 

Arrangements and procedures for backstopping activi- 
ties of. Department Circular 50, 422 
Establishment by President, 420 
Membership, listed, 421 
Text of Ex. Or. 10483, 421 

Organization for European Economic Cooperation 
(OEEC). See European Economic Cooperation, Or- 
ganization for. 

Organization of American States, Inter-American Eco- 
nomic and Social Council of, proposed consultation of 
Randall Commission with, 685 

Organizations, U.N. See under United Nations. 

Orphans, eligibility for special nonquota visas under 
Refugee Relief Act of 19.53, article (Auerhach), 232 

Overl)y, Andrew N., good will mission to South America, 
member, 184 

Overseas library program, policy on and evaluation of, 
59, 77, 81, 121, 122 

Pacific Commission, South, appointments to, listed, 327 

952 



Pacific Council, ANZUS, 2d meeting, delegation, listed, 
327 ; final communique and statements re security 
problems of Pacific area, 414 
Pacific Islands, Administering Authority for, considera- 
tion of claims for land and claims against nationals of 
Japan, 125 
Pacific Island.s, Trust Territory of : 
Administration of, statement (Midkifl), 1.50 
Administrative problems, statement (MidkitT), 22 
Micronesian representative (Kabua), introduction to 

Trusteeship Council, text of statement, 151 
Transfer of administration in specific areas from Sec- 
retary of Interior to Secretary of Navy (Ex. Or. 
10470), text, 157 
Pacific Science Congress, 8th, U.S. delegation, listed, 013 
"Package proposal" for membership in U.N., Soviet, state- 
ment (Byrnes), 607 
Pakistan : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Amjad Ali), credentials, 481 
Indians in South Africa, treatment of, statement 

(Bolton), 728 
Wheat shipments from U.S. : 
Progress in shipments, 822 

U.S. assistance, discussed in President's semiannual 
report on mutual security program ending June 30, 
1953, 388 
Wheat Aid Act, signature: Exchange of messages 
(Eisenhower, Mohammed Ali), 16; statements 
(Eisenhower, Hildreth), 15 
Palestine situation : 

Arab refugees, question of; 

Concern of U.S. for, statement (Eisenhower), 553 
Continuation of assistance to, statement (Ricliards), 

7.59 
Eligibilit.v for special nonquota visas under Refugee 

Relief Act of 1953, article ( Auerbach) , 232 
Resettlement of, transfer of U.S. relief program from 

Department of State, statement (Lourie), 28 
UNICEF aid for mothers and children, discussed 
(Eliot), 289 
U.N. action in, address (Murphy), 783 
U.N. discussion of, statements (Lodge), 048 
Pan American Medical Group, text of letter (Eisenhower) 

endorsing program of, 896 
Panama : 

Anniversary celebration, 50th, Governor Lodi.'e mission 

to, 586 
Canal, conversations with T'.S. re, delegations, listed, 
418 ; text of statement liy Panamanian F(U'eign Min- 
ister (Guizado), 419 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commi-ssion, member- 
ship of, per adherence to convention witli U.S. and 
Costa Rica, 489 
Internati(mal Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment, loans for agricultural development, 488 
Situation in, discussed in address (Cabot), 558 
U.S. Ambassador to (Chapin), appointment, 489 
U.S. Ambassador to (Wiley), resignation, 489 
Visit of President (Remto) to U.S., text of joint state- 
ment, 487 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, eligibility 
terms for becoming party to, 245 

Deparfment of Sfaie Bulletin 



I'iuidit, MiKliiiMo Vijaya Lakshmi, visit to President 
Kisouliowei- and Secretary Dulles, 550 

I'auinuujoin discussions. Sec under Korean Political 
Conference. 

Papagos, Alexander, Prime Minister of Greece, text of 
message of reply to Secretary Dulles re sympathy for 
Greek earthquake victims, 312 

King Paul and Queen Frederika of Greece, visit to U.S., 
312; gratitude of Greeks to people of U.S., address 
(King I'aul), G71 ; Legion of Merit award to King 
Paul, texts of toast (Eisenhower) and response (King 
Paul), 673 

Paraguay, U.S. Ambassador to (Shaw), retirement, 689 

Parkmau, Henry, appointment as Assistant U.S. High 
Commissioner for Germany, for Berlin affairs, 731 

Passports, provisions respecting affidavit of American 
birth (Ex. Or. 10473), text, 192 

Paz Esteussoro, Victor, President of Bolivia, text of ex- 
change of letters and telegram with President 
Eisenhower, concerning U.S. aid to Bolivia, 584 

Peace, our best hope for, statement (Morton), G24 

Peace treaty with Japan (1951) : Article 3, resumption of 
Japanese authority over Amami Oshima Islands, 
under, 208; cited (Dulles), 307 

Pearson, Lester B., President of U.N. General Assembly : 
General Assembly, reconvening of, for discussion re 

Korean Political Conference, statement, 205 
Korean Armistice negotiations, text of message to Presi- 
dent Syngman Rhee, 14 

Peasant Union, International, text of message of greeting 
(Eisenhower), 897 

Penal systems, article 10 of proposed Draft Covenant on 
Civil and Political Rights, discussed (Lord), 217 

Perkins, John A., confirmation as U.S. representative to 
2d extraordinary session of General Conference of 
UNESCO, 191 

Personnel in State Department, reduction in force, dis- 
cussed, 29, 375 

Personnel policy in the United Nations, statement (Rich- 
ards), 873 

Peru: 

Exp<}rt-Import Bank loan for iron ore production, 185 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Sugar agreement, international, new, quota for, listed, 

article (Callanan), 543 
Wheat agi'eement, international, revi.sed, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
U.S. Ambassador to (Tittmann), continuation of duties, 
157 

Petroleum refinery program in Europe, MSA report on, 
213 

Peurifoy, Johu E., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 
Guatemala, 534 

Philippines, Republic of: 

Elections, significance of, texts of exchange of letters 

( Eisenhower, Cowen ) , re, 676 
MSA Contact Clearinghouse Service for promotion of 

American investment of capital in, 211 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Mutual defense treaty with U.S. ( 1951) , cited, 307 



Philippines, Republic of — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Sugar agreement, international, new: 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan), 543 
Signature, 823 
Trade and related matters, agreement on, with U.S. 
(1946), Philippine proposals for modification of^ 
texts of exchange of letters (Quirino, Eisenhower), 
and texts of exchange of notes (Blizalde, Spruance), 
316, 317 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
U.S. Ambassador to (Spruance), continuation of duties, 

614 
U.S. consular office at Cebu, closing, 2(54 
U.S. policy in, address (Bell), 523 
Phillips, Christopher H., designation in State Department, 

614 
Poland : 
Attack on U.S. by Polish representative to U.N. re 

Korean situation, U.S. position (Lodge), 414 
Kaczniaiek, Bishop C'zeslaw, and assistants, sentencing 

by Polish Communists, 456 
Korean Armistice Agreement, Neutral Nations Super- 
visory Commission for, membership, 135, 346 
Praca, Polish flag tanker, charges of U.S. participation 

in seizure, text of note re, denial by U.S., 640 
Sugar agreement, international, new : 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan), 543 
Signature, 823 
Veterans in, eligibility for special nonquota visas under 
Refugee Relief Act of 1953, article (Auerbach), 232 
Wyszynski, Cardinal, Primate of, arrest and forced re- 
tirement by Communists, U.S. position, 528 
Policy, State Department, on use of books by HA libraries,. 

58, 59, 77, 121, 122, 123 
Policy problems in Far East, address (Robertson) , 519 
Political Committee of General A.sseml)Iy, order of items 

on agenda, statement (Lodge), 496 
Political Conference, Korean. See Korean Political Con- 
ference. 
Politis, Athanase G., Ambassador of Greece, text of mes- 
sage to Secretary Dulles re U.S. sympathy for Greek 
earthquake victims, 312 
Portugal : 

Colonial policy in Africa, discussed in address (By- 

roade), 658 
Membership in U.N., status of application for, statement 

(Byrnes), 605 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Sugar agreement, international, new, signature, 823 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrvmient of acceptance, 823 
U.S. Ambassador to (Guggenheim) , confirmation, 30 
Potsdam proclamation (1945), provisions re return of 
Japanese prisoners of war, Soviet disregard for, 
statement (Byrnes), 899 
Power facilities, world, need for, discussed in address 

(Black), 4.52 
Praca, Polish flag tanker, charges by Poland of U.S. par- 
ticipation in seizure, text of Polish note re, denial by 
U.S., 640 



Index, July fo December J 953 



953 



Press Relations, Special Assistant for. State Department, 

transfer of functions to Office of Assistant Secretary 

for Public Affairs, Department Circular 33, 58 
Preventive action by U.N., discussed in address (Mur- 
phy), 781 
Prisoners of war : 
Nonrepatriable North Korean : 

Escape of, texts of letters (General Clark, U.N. Com- 
mand) to Communist Commanders re, 46, 73 

Release of, U.N. position, text of message (Hammar- 

skjold) to President Syngman Rhee re part in, 14 

Prisoners refusing repatriation, period of aid from Red 

Cross of India and NNRC, discussed in text of letter 

(General Clark) to chairman of NNRC, 568 
U.N. Command : 

Atrocities committed by North Korean and Chinese 
Communist forces against, statements (Lodge), 757 

Communist retention of, U.S. position, 205 

Freeing of, per armistice provisions, statement (Dul- 
les), 749 

Korean Armistice Agreement, article III, text, 137 

Negotiations and summaries of deliveries, discussed 
in U.N. Command reports, 423, 426, 427 

Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission (NNRC). 
See Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission. 

Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, establish- 
ment and membership, listed, under terms of Armis- 
tice Agreement, 135, 346 

Political asylum for, establishment of principle, dis- 
cussed in address (Dulles) , 339 

Repatriation of, safeguards in armistice re withhold- 
ing of, remarks (Dulles) , 235 

Sick and injured personnel, captured, text of agree- 
ment for repatriation of, under article 109 of 1949, 
Geneva Convention, 424 

Supplementary agreement to Annistice Agreement on, 
text, 139 

Treatment of, discussed (Dulles), 340; U.N. Command 
reports, 51, 52 
United States, in Korea, witness of return of, statement 

(Dulles), 23G 
World War II : 

German, held by U.S.S.R., review of situation, state- 
ment (Byrnes), 899 

Japanese, held by U.S.S.R., provisions in Potsdam 
Proclamation for return of, Soviet disregard for, 
statement (Byrnes), 899; review of negotiation 
problems, 900 

Missing, review of problem of, statement (Byrnes), 
898 

Problem of, measures for peaceful solution of, text 
of General Assembly resolution, 904 

Retention by Soviets, discussed in address (Murphy), 
411; statement (Dunn), 428; statement (Lodge), 
497 

U.N. Ad Hoc Commission on : 
Fourth session, designation of U.S. representative 

(Dunn), and review of purpose re, 328 
Report of, on, discussed (Byrnes), 901 
Privacy, right of, article 17 of proposed Draft Covenant 

on Civil and Political Rights, discussed (Lord), 218 



Private capital, investment abroad. See Investment of 

private capital abroad. 
Private relief shipments under Mutual Security Act, pay- 
ment of ocean freight, transfer from Department of 
State, statement (Lourie), 28 
Proclamations, Presidential : 

Almonds, shelled, import quota and fees continued, 

text, 602 
Arms, ammunition, and implements of war, listing of, 

text, 792 
Collisions at sea, regulations for preventing, test, 321 
Copyright arrangement with Japan, new, text, 824 
Dairy and other products, imports of, text, 62 
United Nations Day, 1953, text, 222 
Productivity Agency, European, of OEEC, contributions 
from MSA for productivity agreements, 178; estab- 
lishment, 17 
Productivity agreements, MSA with foreign countries, 
allotments and contributions : Austria, 178 ; Belgium, 
18; Denmark, cited, 17; European Productivity 
Agency, 178; France, 17; Germany, 17, 69; Greece, 
cited, 17; Italy, cited, 17; Netherlands, cited, 17; 
Norway, IS ; Turkey, 178 ; U.K., cited, 17 
Propaganda {see also Bacterial warfare; communism) : 
Condemnation of propaganda against peace, text of 
General Assembly resolution (1950), quoted (Lodge), 
833 
Soviet "hate" campaign, discussed in statement (Lodge), 
832 
Propert.v, protection of. See Protection of U.S. nationals 

and property. 
Protection of U.S. nationals and property : 
Americans in Soviet prison camp (Cox, Towers), al- 
leged, statement (Dulles), 675 
Claims. See Claims. 

Friendship, commerce, and consular rights, treaty of, 
with Germany (1923), provisions of article IV for 
rights of disposal of property, discussed (Waugh), 
225 
Investments of private capital abroad. See Invest- 
ments of private capital al)road. 
Lands of United Fruit Company in Guatemala, expropri- 
ation of, text of U.S. aide-memoire to Guatemalan 
Government protesting, 357 
Oatis, William N., release from imprisonment in Czecho- 
slovakia, 344, 491 
Prisoners of war. See Prisoners of war. 
U.S. aircraft, alleged attacks on: 

Czechoslovak shooting down of U.S. F-S4 over U.S. 
Zone in Germany, texts of exchange of notes re U.S. 
request for information on, 180, 183 
Soviet attack on RB-50 plane over Sea of Japan, U.S. 
protests and texts of exchange of notes, 179, 206 
U.S. citizens in Communist China, treatment of, con- 
cern re, 551 
Public Affairs area. State Department, establishment of 
new organizational units under Assistant Secretary 
for Public Affairs, Department Circular 63, 614 
Public Education, 16th International Conference on, U.S. 

delegation, listed, 57 
Public Works, Building, and Civil Engineering Committee 
of ILO, 4th session, U.S. delegation, listed, 613 



954 



Department of State Bulletin 



Publications : 

BooIjs in IIA libraries, policy on. See Books; Interna- 
tional Information Administration. 

Congress: Current legislation on foreign policy, listed, 
2G, 40, 103, 149, 1S7, 213, 265, 2S3, 312, 500 

ForeUjn Relations of the United States, 19S5, Volume 
III, The Far East, released, 2G5 

Recent releases, 194, 226, 332, 500, 689, 842, 878 

United Nations documents, current, listed, 21, 191, 223, 
328, 502, 7GC, S06 
Publications, Division of, transfer from Office of Public 
Affairs to Office of Operating Facilities, Department 
Circular 35, 57 
Publications and Bibliography Commission of World Me- 
teorological Organization, 1st session, U.S. delegate, 
765 
Puerto Rico : 

Anniversary of establishment of Commonwealth, 1st, 
text of letter (Eisenhower) to Governor llufioz re, 
quoted (Fernos-Isern), 398 

Independence Party request for oral hearing before 
Fourth Committee, U.S. opposition to, statement (Bol- 
ton), 499 

Political status, new, texts of statements (Sears, Fer- 
nos-Isern ) , 392, 393 

Relationship with U.S. : 
Nature of, statements (Bolton, Fernos-Isern), 797, 

798, 802 
Test of General Assembly resolution re and state- 
ments (Lodge, Bolton) , 841 

Status of self-governing Commonwealth, transmission 
by U.S. to U.N. of new Constitution and related docu- 
ments, 223 
Pyun, Y. T., statement made at signing ceremony of 
mutual defense treaty with Korea, 485 

Qibiya, armed attack on, by Israeli forces : 

Censure of Israeli action, by Security Council, state- 
ment (Wadsworth),839 
Problem of, discussed in text of communique issued at 

London meeting of Foreign Ministers, 546 
Text of Security resolution re, 841 
U.S. concern re, 552 
Queen Frederika of Greece, visit to U.S., 312, 671, 673 
Quirino, Elpidio, President of Republic of Philippines, 
text of exchange of notes with President Eisenhower 
re Philippine proposals for modifications in agreement 
on trade and related matters (1946) , 316 

Railway integration in Colombia, IBRD loan for, 451 

Rama Road In Nicaragua, construction of, request for U.S. 
assistance, text of Department announcement and 
exchange of notes re, 381 

Randall, Clarence B., Chairman of Commission on Foreign 
Economic Policy, appointment by President, 279 

Randall Commission. See Foreign Economic Policy, Com- 
mission on. 

Reap, Joseph W., statement re U.S. position on Soviet 
note on free all-German elections, 283 

Reappraising international trade practices, address 
(Waush), 447 



Recognition of Soviet Government, 20th anniversary of, 

.statement (Dulles), 749 
Reconversion, proljlems of, discussed in statement 

(Baker), 2.59 
Red Cross, International Committee of, request by U.S. 
for arrangements for impartial investigation of "germ 
warfare" charges, 641 
Red Cross of India, prisoners of war refusing repatri- 
ation, period of aid from NNRC and Red Cross of 
India, discussed in text of letter (General Clark) 
to chairman of NNRC, 568 
Red Cross teams, .ioint: 

Establishment under terms of Korean Armistice Agree- 
ment, 138 
Visits to U.N. prisoners in Communist camps, proposed, 
remarks (Dulles), 235 
Reductions in force in State Department personnel, ad- 
dress (Smith), 375; statement (Lourie),29 
Refugee Organization, International. See International 

Refugee Organization. 
Refugee Relief Act of 1953 : 

Administration of, text of Ex. Or. 10487 re, 861 
Administrator of Refugee Relief Program (McLeod) : 
Proposed visit to Naples for issuance of first visas 

under, 860 
Security provisions re, text of excerpt of letter to 
Rep. Patrick J. Hillings, 233 
Article discussing nonquota visas, security provisions, 

and administration of (Auerbach), 231 
Authorization for Secretary of State for financing of 
transportation for refugees issued visas under, dis- 
cussed (Auerbach), 234 
Classes of aliens eligible for nonquota visas, listed, 231 
Immigration quotas, special, for admittance of 214,000 
refugees over 3-year period, signature of approval, 200 
Nonquota visas, rate of issuance of, discussed, 859 
Regulations and forms, procedure for Americans spon- 
soring aliens under, discussed, 861 
Signature, discussed (Auerbach), 231; statement 
(Eisenhower), 201 
Refugees, displaced persons, and escapees : 
Arab refugees, question of: 

Concern of U.S. for, statement (Eisenhower), 553 
Continuation of assistance to, statement (Richards), 

759 
Eligibility for special nonquota visas under Refugee 

Relief Act of 1953, article (Auerbach), 232 
Resettlement of, transfer of U.S. relief program from 

Department of State, statement (Lourie), 28 
UNICEP aid for mothers and children, discussed 
(Eliot), 289 
Classes of aliens and countries affected by Refugee 

Relief Act of 1953, listed, 232 
Definition of escapee and reftigee, discussed, article 

(Auerbach), 231 
East German, financing of business enterprises for, 

MSA productivity program, 70 
Escapees from Iron Curtain countries, U.S. program 
for, text of message (Eisenhower) to, and authoriza- 
tion of funds for, 862 
European migration. See under Intergovernmental 
Committee for European Migration (ICEM). 



Index, July to December 1953 



955 



Refugees, displaced persons, and escapees — Continued 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration. 
See Intergovernmental Committee for European Mi- 
gration. 
International Refugee Organization. See International 

Refugee Organization. 
Korean civilians, displaced, provision of Armistice 
Agi-eement for Committee for Assisting Return of 
Disi)laced Civilians, 139 
Transfer of aid programs for, from Department of 
State, discussed in statement (Lourie), on effects of 
President's reorganization plan for Department, 27 
U.N. report on (Goedliart), commendation by U.S. 
(Mayo), 610 
Reiustein, .Jacques J., designation in State Department, 

689 
Relief assistance, emergency, signature of act enabling 

President to furnish, 200 
Religion, addresses, statements, etc. : 

Communist tactics in relation to, discussed (Smith), 475 
New World, Columbus' contribution to (Dulles), 580 
U.S. political institutions, reliance on (Dulles), 510 
Rem6n C, Jos6 Antonio, President of Panama, visit to 
U.S., text of joint statement with President Eisen- 
hower, 487 
Representative government, an expression of faith, re- 
marks (Eisenhower), .541 
Responsibilities, U.S., facing of, address (Eisenhower), 

509 
Reunification of Germany. See under Germany, Federal 
Reputilic of ; see also Bermuda meeting ; Foreign Min- 
isters' meetings of July and October 1953 ; Four 
power meeting, proposed. 
Renter, Ernst, Mayor of West Berlin : 

Death of, statement (Eisenhower) and message 

(Dulles) of condolence to Mrs. Renter, 489 
Economic needs of Berlin, text of letter to President 
Eisenhower re, 457 
Reuther, Walter, president of Congi-ess of Industrial Or- 
ganizations, exchange of letters with President Ei.sen- 
hower re U.S. support for liberation of East German 
workers, 69 
Review of U.N. charter, proposed. See Charter review. 
Rhee, Syngman, President of Republic of Korea : 

Consultations with Secretary Dulles, texts of joint 
statement and draft of U.S.-ROK mutual defense 
treaty, 203. 204, 340 
Korean Armistice negotiations, text of reply to letter 

(Eisenhower) re, 13 
Nonrepatriable prisoners of war, escape, part in, 14, 

46,73 
Talks with Assistant Secretary Robertson re mutual 
understanding, text of joint statement, 72 
Rice-tariff quotas, agreement with Cuba under GATT, 

texts of exchange of notes, 82 
Richards, James P., U.S. Representative to U.N. General 
Assembly : 
Arab refugees, continuation of aid to, statement, 759 
Confirmation as U.S. representative to U.N. General 

Assembly, 223 
Personnel policy in U.N., statement, 873 
U.N. budget for 1954, statement, 502 



Rights of men and women, equal, article 3 of Draft 
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, discussed 
(Lord), 217 
Robbins, Robert R., appointment as alternate U.S. Com- 
missioner on South Pacific Commission, 327 
Robertson, Walter S., Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern 
Affairs : 
Addresses on Far East : 

Communist campaign in, 592 
Communist threat in, 814 
Policy problems in, 519 
Joint statements and reiwrts : 

Dulles, Secretary, on world political situation. 99 
Ikeda, Hayato, personal representative of Prime 

Minister of Japan, on problems of Japan, 637 
Rhee, President Syngman, on Korean Armistice prob- 
lems, 72 
Korean mission, statements on departure for and arrival 
home from, 14, 103 
Rockefeller, Nelson A., address on economic growth and 

welfare in Western Hemisphere, 581 
ROK. See Korea, Republic of. 
Role of forced confessions in Communist "germ warfare" 

propaganda campaign, statement (Mayo), 641 
Rubber plants, synthetic, text of letter (Dulles) to Senator 

Capehart on di.sposal of, 159 
Rubottom, Roy R., Jr., assigned as commercial attach^ to 

American Embassy in Spain, 60 
Rumania : 

Membership in U.N. : 

Charter requirements for, article 4, failure to qual- 
ify under, discussed, statement (Byrnes), 606 
"Package proposal" of U.S.S.R. for admission to mem- 
bership, U.S. position, 607 
Russell, Francis H., Coun.selor, American Embassy in 
Israel, excerpts from address ou cooperation to ease 
Middle East tensions, 280 
Ryerson, Knowles A., appointment as U.S. Commissioner 
on South Pacific Commission, 327 

Safeguards in Korean Armistice, discussed in address 
(Morton), 346 

Safeguards in new international sugar agreement for pro- 
tection of importers, discussed (Callanan), 544 

Safety of life at sea, text of Presidential proclamation for 
preventing collisions at sea, 321 

St. Laurent, Prime Minister Louis S., of Canada, text of 
joint communique with President Eisenhower on 
Canadian-American partnership, 738 

St. Lawrence River works project : 
Joint U.S.-Canadian projects, discussed in address 

(Eisenhower), 735 
N.Y. power authority designated to construct, text of 

Ex. Or. 10500 re, 724 
St. Lawrence River Joint Board of Engineers: 
Establishment, announcement and texts of exchange 

of notes (Hceiiey, Dulles), 731) 
U.S. section of, text of Ex. Or. 10500 re, 724 

Salisbury, Lord, British Acting Foreign Minister, state- 
ments : opening session of Washington Conference of 
Foreign Ministers, 72; reply to welcome (Dulles), 71 



956 



Department of State Bulletin 



Sampson, Eilith, statement on problem of abducted Greek 

children, 2)6 
Sardines, Norwegian, discriminatory treatment under 
GATT, settlement of differences between Norway and 
Germany at eighth session of contracting parties to 
GATT, 6S0 
Satellite countries, report of Ad Hoc Committee on Forced 

Labor, statements (Lord), 869 
Saudi Arabia : 
Death of King Ibn Saud, message (Eisenhower) and 

statement (Dulles), texts, 723 
U.S. Ambassador to (Wadsworth), appointment, 614 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, eligibility 
terms for becoming party to, 245 
Science Congress, Pacific, 8th, U.S. delegation, listed, 613 
Scrap, metal, susi^ension of duties and import taxes on, 

signature of act approving, 200 
Schoenfeld, Rudolf E., U.S. Ambassador to Colombia, ap- 
pointment, 614 
Sea water pollution, problem of, article (Mann), 775 
Sears, Mason, statement on Puerto Rico's new political 

status, 392 
Sebald, William .T., U.S. Ambassador to Burma, continua- 
tion as Chief of Mission, 157 
Secretariat of li.N., documents, listed, 191 
Security and defense treaties (see also Mutual defense 
and security) with Europe and Pacific area, discussed 
(Dulles), 307 
Security cases in Department of State, separations under 

Ex. Or. 10450, discussed, 689 
Security Council, National. See National Security 

Council. 
Security Council, U.N. : 
Documents listed, 806 
Moroccan question : 

Request by Asian and African States for meeting of, 

to consider, 325n. 
Self-government for, U.S. attitude, statement 

(Lodge), 610 
Statement (Lodge), 325 
Nonmembers, participation in discussion of agenda for, 

statement (Wadsworth), 498 
Palestine, U.N. discussion of (Lodge), 648 
Qibiya, attack by Israeli forces: 
Request by U.S. for consideration of, 552 
Statement (Wadsworth), 839 
Text of resolution of censure by, 840 
Trieste, inclusion on agenda of, statements (Lodge, 
Wadsworth), 609, 610 
Security, national : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Defense of Western Europe, relation to, discussed 

(Eisenhower), 200 
East-West trade, relationship, discussed (Hansen), 

271 
Individual liberty, relationship (Morton), 344 
Korean rehabilitation, relationship to (Eisenhower), 

193 
Refugee Relief Act of 1953, security provisions re 
(Auerbach), 233 



Security, national — Continued 

Continuance of U.S. aid to countries trading with So- 
viet bloc, necessity to U.S., texts of letter (Eisen- 
hower) to congressional chairmen, 300; text of letter 
(Stassen) to President, 301 
National security policies, implementation of, establish- 
ment of Operations Coordinating Board for, text of 
Ex. Or. 10483, 421 
Overseas personnel, importance of morale to, 125 
Trade aspects in relation to, provisions in section 309 
of Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1953 re, 279 

Security guarantees under the European Defense Com- 
munity treaty, address (Straus), 12 

Security of Pacific area, ANZUS Council, 2d meeting, dele- 
gation, listed, 327 ; final communique and statements 
re security problems of Pacific area, 414 

Security provisions of Refugee Relief Act of 1953, text of 
excerpt of letter (McLeod) to Rep. Patrick J. Hillings 
re, 233 

Security treaty, Australia, New Zealand, and U.S. (1951), 
discussed (Dulles), 307 

Self-government for dependent peoples, aspirations for, 
discussed (Murphy), 411 

Semenov, Vladimir, Soviet High Commissioner for Ger- 
many, texts of exchange of notes with Ambassador 
Conant re ending of restrictions for interzonal travel 
for German nationals, 490 

Sevilla-Sacasa, Guillermo, Ambassador of Nicaragua, text 
of exchange of notes with U.S. on expenditure of U.S. 
funds for construction of Rama Road, 381 

Shaw, George P., retirement as U.S. Ambassador to Para- 
guay, 689 

Shelled almonds, import quota and fees on, continuation, 
text of Proclamation 3034 re, 602 

Shipping. iSee Trade ; transportation. 

Simonson, Joseph, confirmation as U.S. Ambassador to 
Ethiopia, 329 

Smith, Walter Bedell, Under Secretary of State : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Building a community of free nations, 630 
Building a cooperative peace, 463 
Foreign policy problems, a realistic view of, 371 
Today's problems, negotiating solution to, 475 
Atomic energy, development by other nations, text of 

letter to Senator Wiley re, 330 
Lend-lease negotiations with U.S.S.R., discussed, 391 
Member, Opera! ions Coordinating Board, 421 
Rama Road in Nicaragua, expenditure of U.S. funds 
for, text of Department announcement and exchange 
of notes with Ambassador of Nicaragua (Sevilla- 
Sacasa ), 381, 382 

Snowden, Henry T., article on aviation policy and inter- 
national relations, 41 

South Africa, Union of. See Africa, South, Union of. 

South Pacific Commission, appointments to, listed, 327 

Souvannavong, Ourot, Minister of Laos, credentials and 
text of remarks exchanged with President Eisenhower, 
114 

Soviet bloc countries. See under Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics. 

Soviet Germany, the unruly satellite, article (Lewis), 883 



Index, July to December 1953 



957 



Soviet note re four power meeting, victory for Western 

diplomacy, statement (Dulles), 813 
Soviet Union. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 
Spain: 
Agricultural commodities, surijlus, FOA program for 
purchase for resale overseas, under section 550 of 
Mutual Security Act of 1953, in, 638 
Commercial attacli6 to American Embassy (Rubottom), 

appointment, 60 
FOA allotment to, under new economic aid agreement 
with U.S., issued, 676; authorizations for purchases, 
821 
FOA mission in, under mutual security agreements, with 

U.S., appointment of director (Williams), 601 
Storage of atomic weapons in, statement of denial 

(Dulles), 674 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Mutual defense and security agreements, with U.S. : 
Defense agreement, text and signature, 436 
Economic aid agreement, with annex, text and sig- 
nature, 436, 440 
Mutual benefit.s from, address (Dunn), 793 
Mutual defense assistance agreement, with annex, 
text and signature, 440, 441 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, deposit of 
instrument of acceptance, 245 
U.S. consulate at Malaga, closed, 2G4, 766 
Sparks, Edward J., continuation as U.S. Ambassador to 

Bolivia, 614 
Specialized agencies. See under United Nations. 
Spruance, Raymond Ames, U.S. Ambassador to Philip- 
pines : 
Continuation as U.S. Ambassador to Philippines, 614 
Readjustment of trade relations with U.S., report of 
committee for, text of letter to Foreign Minister of 
Philippines (Elizalde) re, 317 
Stanton, Edwin Forward, resignation as U.S. Ambassador 

to Thailand, 224 
Stassen, Harold E., Director of Foreign Operations Ad- 
ministration (see also Mutual Security Agency) : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Economic interdependence in today's world, 39 
Relationship with Eastern World, discussed, quoted 

in address (Hansen), 272 
Western Europe's economic progress, past, present, 
future, 718 
Germany, France, Norway, and U.K., continued assist- 
ance to, text of President's letter to congressional 
chairmen and observations by, 300 
Member, Operations Coordinating Board, 421 
Mutual Security Program for Six Months Ended June 
30, 1953, a Report on, part in preparation of, discussed 
(Eisenhower), 384 
Operation of mutual security program, appointment of 

thi-ee-man team for evaluation of, 213 
Operations mission in Spain, appointment of director 

(Williams), 601 
Strategic trade controls, enforcement, 3d report to 
Congress on Battle Act, text of letter of transmittal 
with summary of report and text of chapter IV, 509 
Title as Director of Foreign Oiwrntions Administration, 
effective Aug. 1, 1953, text of Ex. Or. 10476, 240 

958 



Stassen, Harold E., Director of Foreign Operations Ad- 
ministration {see also Mutual Security Agency) — 
Continued 
Western European countries, shipments of Category B 

items, discussed in letter to President Eisenhower, 

text, 301 
State, Department of : 
Appointments and designations : 

Alexander, Robert C, as Assistant Administrator for 
Refugee Relief Program in Bureau of Security and 
Consular Affairs, 234 

Arth, Carol Renner, as Special Assistant to Assistant 
Secretary for Public Affairs, 264 

Burrows, Charles Robert, as Director of Office of Mid- 
dle American Affairs, Bureau of Inter-American 
Affairs, 60 

Cartwright, Robert P., as Deputy Administrator, 
Bureau of Security, Consular Affairs, and Person- 
nel, 614 

Dean, Arthur H., as Deputy for Secretary of State for 
Korean Political Conference, 470 

Flinn, Dennis Allen, as Director of the Office of Secu- 
rity, Consular Affairs, and Personnel, 614 

Hefner, Frank K., as Deputy Executive Director for 
German matters in EUR Office of Executive Di- 
rector, 689 

Hoover, Herbert, Jr., as special adviser to Secretary 
of State on petroleum matters, 470, 553 

Kalijarvi, Thorsten V., as Deputy Assistant Secretary 
for Economic Affairs, 366 

Kellermann, Henry, as Public Affairs Adviser, Office 
of German Affairs, 689 

Key, David McKendree, as Assistant Secretary of 
State for U.N. Affairs, 842 

Lewis, Geoffrey W., as Deputy Director and Acting 
Director in Office of German Affair.s, 689 

Margolies, Daniel, as Officer in Charge of Economic 
Affairs, Office of German Affairs, 689 

Morris, Brewster, as Officer in Charge of Political 
Affairs, Office of German Affairs, 689 

Murphy, Robert, as Deputy Under Secretary, 842 

Phillips, Christopher H., as Special Assistant to As- 
sistant Secretary for United Nations Affairs, 614 

Reinstein. Jacques J., as Special Assistant to As- 
sistant Secretary for European Affairs, 689 

Straus, Richard, as Acting Public Affairs Adviser, 
Office of German Affairs, 6S9 

Stretch, David A., as Chairman of Board for Valida- 
tion of German Dollar Bonds, 599 

Suydam, Henry, as Chief of News Division, 502 

Tappin, John L., as Special Assistant to Under Secre- 
tary for Administration, 842 

Woodward, Robert F., as Deputy Assistant Secretary 
for Inter-American Affairs, 226 
Foreign Service. See Foreign Service. 
Functions of Secretary of State, discussed in statement 

(Lourie),28 
Policy on use of books by IIA libraries, 58, 59, 77, 121, 

122, 123 
Position re international development of atomic en- 
ergy, text of letter (Smith) to Senator Wiley, 330 

Department of State Bulletin 



) 



state, Dppai-tineut of — Continued 
Publications : 
Foreiyn lichitions of the United States, 1933, Volume 

III, The Far East, released, 265 
Recent releases, listed, 194, 122C, 332, 500, 689, 842, 878 
Reduction in force, discussed : 
Address (Smith), 375 
Statement (Lourie), 29 
Reorganization : 

European Affairs, Bureau of, merger of Bureau of 

German Affairs with. Department Circular 66, 689 

Foreign information activities reorganized, text of 

Ex. Or. 10477 and Department Circular 45, 239 
Operations Coordinating Board, establishment by Ex. 
Or. 104S3, arrangements and procedures for back- 
stopping activities of. Department Circular 56, 422 
President's Reorganization Plans 7 and 8, effect on, 

statement (Lourie), 27 
Press Relations, Special Assistant for, transfer of 
functions to Office of Assistant Secretary for Public 
Affairs, Department Circular 33, 58 
Public Affairs area, establishment of new organiza- 
tional units under Assistant Secretary for Public 
Affairs, Department Circular 63, 614 
Publications, Division of, transfer from Office of Pub- 
lic Affairs to Office of Operating Facilities, Depart- 
ment Circular 35, 57 
Shipping Policy Staff and Inland Transport Policy 
Staff, Office of Transport and Communications Pol- 
icy, abolished. Department Circular 70, 878 
Security cases, separations under Ex. Or. 10450, dis- 
cussed, 089 
U.S. Mission to NATO, terms of reference for. Depart- 
ment Circular 36, 48 
Views on Soviet note re four power meeting, statements 

(Reap, Suydam), 283, 786 
Visas under Refugee Relief Act of 1953, first, provisions 
for, discussed, 859 
Statistical Institute, International, 28th session, U.S. dele- 
gation, listed, 430 
Steel and Coal Community, European. See Euroi)ean Coal 

and Steel Community. 
Steel production by private enterprise in India, IBRD 

loan for, 451 
Sterling-dollar relationship and its effect on U.S. foreign 
economic policy, report of Douglas Mission, text of 
correspondence re (Eisenhower, Douglas), 275 
Stevens, Francis B., address on U.S. foreign policy and 

Soviet Union, 109 
Strategic materials : 
Copper, Chile's request for U.S. purchase of surplus, 

talks on, representatives, listed, 442 
Iron ore in Peru, Export-Import Bank loan for produc- 
tion of, 185 
Manganese-Nickel-Cobalt Committee of IMC, termina- 
tion, 499, 765 
Nickel, allocation by Manganese-Nickel-Cobalt Commit- 
tee: third-quarter 1953 plans, 56; fourth-quarter 
plans, discontinued, 329 
Oil. See Iranian oil dispute. 

Rubber plants, synthetic, text of letter (Dulles) to 
Senator Capehart on disposal of, 159 



Strategic materials — Continued 

Shipments to Communist China, embargo under pro- 
visions of Battle Act, discussed in 3d report to Con- 
gress on Battle Act, 570 
Shipments to Soviet bloc countries, alleged : 
Allies embargo on, discus.sed in article (Hansen), 273 
Western European countries, shipments of category B 
items, discussed in letter (Stassen) to President 
Eisenhower, text, 301 
Steel, IBRD loan to India for production of, 451 
Tin concentrates in Bolivia, purchase by U.S. at world 

market price for 1 year, 82 
Tungsten-Molybdenum Committee of IMC, termination, 

190 
Wool imports and production, President's request for 
study of, 185 
Straus, Richard : 
America's changing relationship with Germany, address, 

10 
Designation in State Department, 689 
Strauss, Lewis L., Chairman of Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion, statement on Soviet atomic test, 237 
Streibert, Theodore C, Director of U.S. Information 
Agency (USIA) : 
Appointment, 238 
Area offices of, creation for regional coordination of 

program, 390 
Mission of, defined, statement (Eisenhower) and text 

of letter to President from, 756 
Overseas information program for future 10 months, 
announcement, 321 
Stretch, David A., appointment as Chairman of Board for 

Validation of German Dollar Bonds, 599 
Strong, L. Corrin, confirmation as U.S. Ambassador to 

Norway, 30 
Submarines, loan of two to Turkey, signature of act re, 

200 
Suffrage and public office, right of, article 23 of proposed 
Draft Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, dis- 
cussed (Lord), 217 
Sugar agreement, international, new : 
Article on (Callanan), 542 
Principles and safeguards, discussed, 542, 544 
Quotas for individual countries, listed, 543 
Signatories, listed, 823 
Sugar Conference, International, U.S. delegation, listed, 

87, 542 
Supervisory Commission, Neutral Nations, establishment 
and membership, listed, under terms of Armistice 
Agreement, 135, 346 
Surplus agricultural commodities. See under Agricul- 
tural commodities. 
Surplus property obligations, agreement, U.S. and Ger- 
many re, signature and entry into force, 420, 479 
Suydam, Henr.v, Chief of News Division : 
Designation in State Department, 502 
Views of Department on new Soviet note re four power 
meeting, statement, 786 
Sweden : 
Atomic weapon production capability, discussed in cor- 
respondence by Representative Cole to Senator Wiley, 
330 



Index, July to December 1953 



959 



Sweden — Continued 

Intermediary for U.S. in transmittal of message to Chi- 
nese and Nortli Korean Communists re reply on 
Korean Political Conference plans, 486 

Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, participation 
in, 135, 346 

Wlieat agreement, international, revised, eligibility 
terms for becoming party to, 245 
Switzerland : 

Bond issues to increase IBRD resources, purchase of, 
319, 451 

Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, participa- 
tion in, 135, 346 

U.S. Ambassador to (Willis), confirmation, 192 

Wlieat agreement, international, revised, deposit of In- 
strument of acceptance, 245 
Szarka, Karoly, Minister of Hungarian People's Re- 
public, credentials, 481 

Taft, Charles P., chairman of MSA Advisory Committee 

on Voluntary Foreign Aid, statement, 208 
Tappin, John L., designation as Special Assistant to 

Under Secretary for Administration, 842 
Tariff Act of 1930, as amended : 

Administrative provisions, signature of act approv- 
ing amendment of, 200 
Authority of President to enter into trade agreements 
under section 350 of, signature approving, 200 
Tariff Commission, U.S. : 

Almonds, shelled and prepared, findings and recom- 
mendations re, and text of Proclamation 3034 im- 
posing import fees on, 602 
Brier pipes, recommendation for increase in duties on, 

text of letter (Eisenhower), rejecting, 754 
Groundflsh fillets, Canadian, proposed restrictions of 
U.S. import of, investigation by, text of exchange of 
notes (Wrons. Dulles) re, 244 
Hand-blown glassware, request by President Eisen- 
hower for more information on, 823 
Oats, Canadian, proposed restrictions of U.S. Import 
of, investigation by, text of exchange of notes (Wrong, 
Dulles) re, 244 
Wool imports and production, request by President 
Eisenhower for studies by, 185 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (GATT, 1947) : 
Eighth session of contracting parties (Geneva) : 
Australia, waiver for according duty-free treatment 
for certain products from Papua and New Guinea, 
680 
Brazil, request for rectification of compensatory 
tariff concessions and internal tax discrimination 
against imports, 680 
Departure of Assistant Secretary Waugh and U.S. 

delegation, 449 
Norwegian sardines, discriminatory treatment of, 
under, settlement of differences with Germany re, 
680 
Results of, 677 

Trade practices, international, reappraisal of, ad- 
dress and text of message (Eisenhower) to, 447 



Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (GATT, 1947) — 
Continued 
Foreign Economic Policy, Commission on : 
Consultations with, proposed, 685 
Duties and powers re, 279 
Japan : 

Advantage in U.S. market.s of reduced duties under, 
per treaty of friendship, conunerce, and navigation, 
38 
Application for association with GATT, statement 

(Waugh), 495 
Provision for provisional participation in delibera- 
tions, 677 
Ninth session of Contracting Parties, proposed, 680 
Reduction of tariffs through, discussed in address 

(Morton), 665 
Rice tariff quota provisions for Cuba (Cuban schedule 
IX), agreement with U.S. re, 82 
Tasca, Henry J., special representative of President for 
Korean Economic Affairs, summary of report on relief 
and rehabilitation of Korea, 313 
Taxation, double, income-tax convention (1948) and sup- 
plementary convention (1952), with Belgium, entry 
into force, 460 
TCA. See Technical Cooperation Administration. 
Technical assistance (see also Foreign Operations Admin- 
istration; Mutual Security Agency) : 
Benefits of, discussed in article (Asher), 7 
Development Advisory Board, International, reconsti- 
tuted to advise President and Director of FOA re, 493 
Iran, allotment by FOA for 1954, 349 
Israel, continuation of aid to, statement (Dulles), 589, 

674 

Productivity agreements. See Productivity agreements. 

Program of, discussed in chapter I of Report on Mutual 

Security Program for Six Months Ended June 30, 

1053, 389 

U.N. program of, U.S. support for, statement (Ford), 

531, 904 
U.S. program, aid to aviation, discussed in article 

(Snowden), 42 
U.S. program in Bolivia, MSA recommendations for 
increasing, 82, 822 
Technical Cooperation Administration (TCA) : 

Information services : recommended consolidation of 

functions, 126 ; transfer to USIA, 238 
Transfer of program from Department of State, re 
President's Reorganization Plans, statement (Lourie), 
28 
Tello, Manuel, Mexican Ambassador to U.S., claims pay- 
ment to U.S., 750 
Terror tactics in East Berlin demonstrations, playing down 

of, by Soviets, 786 
Terry, William M., article on 3d annual meeting of Inter- 
national Commission for Northwest Atlantic Fish- 
eries, 19 
Thailand : 

Foreign forces in Burma, evacuation of, U.S. position, 
statements (Carey), 761 



960 



Department of State Bulletin 



Thailaiul — Continued 

U.S. Ambassador to (Donovan), appointment, 224 
U.S. Amiiassador to (Stanton), retirement, 224 
Three power meetings of Foreign Ministers. See Bermuda 
meeting; Foreign Ministers' meetings (U.S., U.K., 
France). 
Timliprnian, Maj. Gen. Thomas S., U.S. Commander in 
I'.erlin, arrests and trials in Soviet Zone of Germany, 
press release statement re, 786 
Time Limit (TL) License for exports to Latin America, 
unlimited quantities, except item B commodities, 
318 
Tin concentrates, Bolivian, U.S. purchase at world market 

prices, 82 
Tlttmanu, Harold H., Jr., Amt)assador to Peru, continua- 
tion of duties, 157 
Togoland-Ewe unification question, statement (Bolton), 

876 
Tourism, U.S., benefit to free-world economy, 36, 39 
Towei's, Leland, alleged imprisonment in Soviet camp, 

statement (Dulles), 675 
Trade : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Canada and Latin America, Increased trade with, 

since 19.38, summarized (Rockefeller), 584 
East-West trade, facts of (Hansen), 271 
Foreign trade, U.S. dependence on (Eisenhower), 539 
Imjwrt policy, liberal, need for, discussed (Black), 

454 
Importation, situation in U.S., discussed (Aldrich), 

483 
Imports, need for increase in, discussed ( Stassen ) , 39 
Japan, trade deficit problem, discussed (Allison), 37 
Latin America, increased trade, necessity for, dis- 
cussed (Cabot), 514 
Pattern of unbalanced world trade discussed 

(Asher), 5 
Relationship to diplomacy (Eisenhower), 201 
Trade practices, reappraisal of (Waugh), 447 
Wheat imports and exports, wheat agreement provi- 
sions for normal trade, discussed (Waugh), 61 
Brier pipes, increase in duties on, text of letter (Eisen- 
hower) to U.S. Tariff Commission rejecting, 754 
Canada, restrictions on U.S. imports of oats and ground- 
fish fillets, proposed, texts of exchange of notes with 
U.S. re, 244 
Controls, strategic, enforcement of, 3d semiannual re- 
port of FOA under Battle Act, text of letter of trans- 
mittal to Congress (Stassen), summary, and text of 
chapter IV, 569 
Dairy and other products, imports of, text of Presiden- 
tial proL-lamation re, 62 
Export of U.S. cotton to Japan, Export-Import Bank 

loan for, 676 
Far Eastern, importance of, text of messasie (Eisen- 
hower) to Far Eastern Conference, 520 
Foreign Economic Policy, Commission on, duties re, 279 
Hand-blown glassware industry, effect of imports on, 
text of letter (Eisenhower) to U.S. Tariff Commission 
requesting information re, 823 



Trade — Continued 

Import quota and fees on shelled almonds, continuation 

of, text of Proclamation 3034, 602 
Japanese trade with Communist China, discussed in 
joint communique (Kobertson, Ikeda), following con- 
ferences, 637 
Metal scrap, .suspension of duties and import taxes on, 

act signed, 200 
Tariff Act of 1030. See Tariff Act of 1930. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaty, with 
protocol, with Japan, signature, text of letter of 
transmittal (Eisenhower) to Senate, text of report 
(Dulles), and statement (Johnson), 160; entry into 
force, 525 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on. See Tariffs 

and trade, general agreement on. 
Trade agreements, escape clauses, inclusion in, text 

of message (Eisenhower) to Congress, 92 
Trade and Economic Affairs, U.S.-Canadian Commit- 
tee on, agreement establishing, texts of exchange 
of notes (Heeney, Dulles), 739, 740; discussed in 
address (Eisenhower), 737; talks with U.S. re, 864 
Trade and related matters, agreement on, U.S. and 
Philippines (1946), Philippine proposals for modi- 
fication of, texts of exchange of letters (Quirino, 
Eisenhower), and texts of exchange of notes 
(Elizalde, Spruance), 316, 317 
Unbalanced world trade : 

Freer world trade, necessity for, discussed in text of 

letter (Douglas) to President Eisenhower, 275 
Pattern of, discussed (Asher) , 5 
Wool imports and domestic production, request of Presi- 
dent for study of, 185 
Trade, International, Office of (OIT), recent changes in 

export licensing procedures, 318 
Trade Agreements, Interdepartmental Committee on, re- 
port on escape clauses in trade agreements, 92 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951, trade agree- 
ments escape clauses, provisions of subsection (b) of 
section 6 re, 92 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1953, signature and 

statement (Eisenhower), 202 
Trading With Enemy Act, section 39, signature of act to 

amend, 200 
Transportation : 

Highway completion in Ecuador, Export-Import Bank 

loan for, 493 
Highway system in Colombia, International Bank loan 

for improvement of, 4.55 
Migrants and refugees, problem of : 

Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion, report of (Gibson), 117 
Refugee Relief Act of 1953, visas for refugees issued 
under, authorization for financing of transporta- 
tion of, 234 
North Atlantic Planning Board for Ocean Shipping, 5th 

session, U.S. delegation, listed, 496 
Rama Road in Nicaragua, expenditure of U.S. funds 
for, texts of Department announcement and exchange 
■ if notes ( Sevilla-Sacasa, Smith ) , 381, 382 



Index, July lo December 1953 



961 



Transi)ortation — Continued 

Shipping Policy Staff and Inland Transport Policy Staff, 
Office of Transport and Coiumunications Policy, De- 
partment of State, abolished, Department Circular 
70, 878 
Travel : 

Freedom of movement for German nationals between 
Soviet and Western Zones in Germany, text of U.S. 
note (Conant), 391; text of exchange of notes (Co- 
nant, Semenov), repeating request for lifting restric- 
tions, 490 

Hungarian Legation i)ersonnel in U.S., texts of exchange 
of notes with Hungary, 601 

Restrictions in U.S.S.R., reiJorted easing of, statement 
(White), 8 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport agreement, with Venezuela, signature, 321 

Air transport agreements, discussed in article (Snow- 
den), 44, 44n 

Amaml Oshima Lslands, relinquishment by U.S. of rights 
over, under article 3 of treaty of peace with Japan, 
statement (Dulles), 208 

Amity and economic relations, with Ethiopia (1951), 
exchange of ratifications, 380 

Austrian state treaty. See Austrian state treaty nego- 
tiations. 

Claims convention (1941), with Mexico, 12th Mexican 
payment to U.S., 750 

Copyright arrangement with Japan, new, reciprocal pro- 
tection, text of proclamation, remarks (Allison, Oka- 
zaki), and text of exchange of notes, 824, 825, 826 

Debt agreements, U.S. and Germany : 

Initial payment to U.S. under, text of note (Krekeler) 
to Secretary Dulles, statements (Krekeler, Kali- 
jarvi), 598, 509 
Intergovernmental agreement on German external 

debts, signature and entry into force, 419, 479 
Mixed Claims Commission awards to Germany, settle- 
ment, signature, and entry into force, 419, 479 
Postwar economic assistance, claims for, signature 

and entry into force, 419, 479 
Surplus property obligations, settlement, signature, 

and entry into force, 420, 479 
Validation of German dollar bonds, signature and 
entry into force, 420, 470 

Friendship, commerce, and consular rights, treaty with 
Germany (1923), application of, signature, texts of 
President's letter of transmittal to Congress, Secretary 
Dulles letter to President, and agreement, 93, 94: 
statement re application of (Waugh), 224; exchange 
of notes with German Charge d'Affaires (Krekeler), 
225 

Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaty, with 
Japan, signature, text of letter of transmittal (Eisen- 
hower) to Senate, text of report (Dulles), and state- 
ment (Johnson), 160; entry into force, 525 
General agreement on tariffs and trade (GATT, 1947). 

See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on. 
Germany, contractual agreements with, for governing 
relationship with Western occupation powers pending 
peace treaty for, discussed ( Straus) , 11 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Haines-Fairbanks pipeline agreement, with Canada, ne- 
gotiations completed, 320 
Halibut fishery of North Atlantic Ocean and Bering 
Sea, convention on, U.S. and Canada, exchange of 
instruments of ratification, 723 
Income-tax convention (1948) and supplementary con- 
vention (1952), with Belgium, entry into force, 460 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (1949) con- 
vention re membership in, adherence by Panama, 489 
Japan, treaty of peace with (1901) : Article 3, resump- 
tion of Japanese authority over Amami Oshima Is- 
lands, under, 208 ; cited (Dulles), 307 
Korean ArmLstice. See Korean Armistice. 
Mexican agreements with U.S. : 

Claims convention ( 1941 ) , 12th payment to U.S., 750 
Visa agreement, texts of exchange or notes and sum- 
mary of, 827 
Mutual defense and security : 

European Defense Community (EDC) treaty, ap- 
proval by Netherlands Parliament, 141 
Military facilities agreement, with Greece, signature 

and text, 863 
Mutual defense treaty, with Korea : 
Draft, text, 204 
Pacific security system, part of, discussed (Dulles), 

340 
Signature, discussed (Dean), 666; texts of state- 
ments (Dulles, Pyun), 484, 4S5 
NATO, national representatives, and international 

staff, status of (1951), signature by Turkey, 491 
Security treaties with Europe and Pacific areas, pur- 
pose of, discussed (Dulles) , 307 
Security treaty with Japan, .nirisdictional arrange- 
ments for U.S. forces in Japan, text of protocol to 
amend article XVII of administrative agreement, 
under article III of, 595; text of official minutes 
re protocol, 597 
Spain, agreements with U.S. : 
Defense agreement, text and signature, 436 
Economic aid agreement, with annex, text and sig- 
nature, 436, 440 
Mutual benefits from, address (Dunn) , 703 
Mutual defense assistance agreement, with annex, 
text and signature, 440, 441 
Niagara River waters, treaty for uses of (U.S.-Canada, 
1950), approval of recommendations by International 
Joint Commission for Niagara Falls remedial works, 
184 
North Atlantic ocean-station agreement for air naviga- 
tion services (ICAO), U.S. position on future partici- 
pation, 629 
Potsdam proclamation (1945), provisions for return of 
Japanese prisoners of war, Soviet disregard for, 
statement (Byrnes), 899 
Productivity agreements (MSA). See Productivity 

agreements. 
Sugar agreement, international, new : 
Article (Callanan),542 
Principles and safeguards, discussed, 542, 544 
Quotas for individual countries, listed, 543 
Signatories, listed, 823 



962 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Trade agreements : 

Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaty, with 
protocol, with Japan, signature, text of letter of 
transmittal (Eisenhower) to Senate, text of report 
(Dulles), and statement (Johnson), 160; entry into 
force, 525 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (GATT, 
1947) . See Tariffs and trade, general agret>ment on. 
Trade agreements, escape clauses, inclusion in, text of 

message (Eisenhower) to Congress, 92 
Trade and Economic Affairs, U.S.-Canadian Commit- 
tee on, agreement establishing, texts of exchange 
of notes (Heeney, Dulles), 739, 740; discussed in 
address (Eisenhower), 737; talks with Canada re, 
864 
Trade and related matters, agreement with Philip- 
pines (1946), Philippine proposal for modification 
of, texts of exchange of letters (Quirino, Eisen- 
hower), and texts of exchange of notes (Elizalde, 
Spruance), 316, 317 
Wheat agreement, international, agreement renewing 
and revising : 
Basic differences from international sugar agree- 
ment discussed (Callanan), 543 
Deposit of instruments of ratification, si.gnature, 115 
Entry into force and parties to, listed, 245 
Treatymaking power of President, proposed Constitutional 
amendment to curb : 
S.J. Res. 1. provisions of: statements (Eisenhower), 
192, 309; text of resolution (Knowland), 193; threat 
to foreign policy, address (Morton), 603 
U.S. Constitution and U.N. Charter, an appraisal, ad- 
dress (Dulles), 307 
Trieste, Free Territory of: 

Defense of South Europe, relation to, statement 

(Dulles), 589 
Problem of, discussed in text of communique issued at 

London meeting of Foreign Ministers, 546 
Security Council agenda, inclusion on, statements 

(Lodge, Wadsworth), 609, 610 
Zone A : Oes.sation of administration by U.S. and U.K., 

529; discus.sed (Dulles), 588 
Zone B : Continuation of administration by Yugoslavia, 
529 
Tripartite meetings of Foreign Ministers and leaders 
U.S., U.K., France). See Bermuda meeting; For- 
eign Ministers' meetings of July and October 1953; 
Four power meeting, proposed. 
Tropical Medicine and Malaria, 5th International Con- 
gress on, U.S. delegation, listed, 292 
Tropical Tuna Commission, Inter-American, adherence of 

Panama to convention with Costa Rica and U.S., 489 
Trusteeship Council : 

Documents, listed, 191, 328, 502 

Ewe-Togoland uniUcation question, statement (Bolton), 

876 
Micronesian representative (Kabua), introduction to, 

test of statement, 151 
Oral hearings concerning trust territories, request for, 
statements (Bolton), 498 

Index, July to December 1953 



Trusteeship Council — Continued 
Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of, statements (Mid- 
kiff) : 
Administration of, 150 
Visiting mission to, 22 
Trust Territory of Pacific Islands. Sec Pacific Islands, 

Trust Territory of. 
Tuberculosis and malaria control, in Jordan and Liberia, 
through UNICP'F and WHO programs, statement 
(Heffelfmger), 291 
Tuna Commission. Inter-American Tropical, adherence of 

Panama to convention with Costa Kica and U.S., 489 
Tungsten-Molybdenum Committee of International Ma- 
terials Conference, termination, 190 
Tunisian question : 

Self-government, demands for less control by France, 

discussed (Byroade), 659 
U.S. position re, statements (Wainhouse, Lodge), 730 
Turkey : 

Greek relations with, present-day, discussed in address 

(King Paul of Greece), 672 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment loan to Industrial Bank of, 456 
International Monetary Fund, purchase of currency 

with liras, 245 
JISA productivity agreement, allotment, 17, 178 
Submarines, loan of two from U.S., signature of act re, 

200 
Status of NATO, national representatives, and inter- 
national staff', agreement, signature, 491 
U.S. Ambassador to (Warren), confirmation, 192 

Underdeveloped areas : 

Food production increase, importance, discussed in 

article (Asher), 7 
UNICEF program in: article (Eliot), 288; statement 

(Heffelfinger), 291 
U.S. programs in. Advisory Committee report, 16 
UNESCO. See United Nations Educational, Scientific 

and Cultural Organization. 
UNICEF. See United Nations Children's Fund. 
Unified Command. See under Korea. 
Union of South Africa. See Africa, South, Union of. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : 
Aircraft incidents : 

Attack on U.S. RB-50 plane over Sea of Japan, texts 
of exchange of notes with U.S. denying protests, 179, 
206 
Charges re incident in Korean Zone of hostilities, 
texts of exchange of notes with U.S., 179, 237 
All-German elections, free, U.S. position on Soviet ob- 
structionism, 283, 356, 830 
Americans in Soviet prison camps, alleged, statement 

(Dulles),, 675 
Atomic weapons, progress in, discussed in statement 

(Eisenhower), 508 
Atoms for peace proposal, reaction to, discussed in 

statement (Hagerty), 851 
Austrian state treaty, position re. See Austrian state 
treaty negotiations ; Bermuda meeting ; Foreign Min- 
isters' meetings of July and October 1953 ; four power 
meeting, proposed. 

963 



Union of Soviet Socialist Uepubllcs — Coiitimiea 
Baderial warfare by U.N. forces In Korea. See Bac- 
terial warfare, alleged. 
Baltic Repulilic's, forced incorporation by, U.S. attitude, 

address (Lourie), 771 
Colonialism, ruetliod of, discussed in address (B.vroade), 

655 
Communism. See Communism. 
"Concessions" to East Germany, statement (White), 

311 
Demonstrations in East Berlin, part in : 
Active participation by, use of terror tactics, 786 
Addresses and statements, discussed : Sta.ssen, 30 ; 

Dulles, 40; Eisenhower, 200 
Captive peoples, unquenchable spirit of, statement 

(Dulles), 40 
Communications re, texts: Allied Commandants' 

statement and letter to General Dihrova, 8, 9 
Impact of, discussed in article (Lewis), 883, 890 
Soviet failure to deal with, discussed in address 
(Lourie), 773 
Disarmament, text of Soviet draft resolution re, 834 
Economic progress, analysis of, address (Waugh), 143 
Forced labor in, alleged. See Forced labor. 
Four power meeting of Foreign Ministers, proposed : 
U.S. invitation to, texts of exchange of notes re: 
Questions relating to, 107, 74.^, 852 ; refusal of So- 
viets to confer on Germany and Austria, statement 
(Eisenhower), 670; renewal of invitation, 351; U.S. 
willingness to discuss, 547 
Freedom of movement for German nationals between 
Soviet and Western Zones of Germany, discussed, 490 
"Germ warfare" charges against U.N. forces in Korea. 

See Bacterial warfare, alleged. 
Germany, reunification of, position re. See Bermuda 
meeting; Germany, Federal Republic of; Foreign 
Ministers' meetings of .July and October 1953; four 
power meeting, proposed. 
"Hate" propaganda campaign, discussed in statement 

(Lodge), 832 
Hydrogen bomb, possession by, statement (Malenkov) 

re, evaluation of statement (Dulles), 236 
Korean situation. See Korea, Republic of; Korean Ar- 
mistice; Korean Armistice negotiations; Korean 
Political Conference. 
Lend-lease settlement negotiations with, U.S. attitude, 

391 
"Package proposal" for membership of countries In 

U.N., 607 
Prisoners of war, retention of. See Pri.soners of war. 
Recognition of Soviet Government by U.S., anniversary, 

statement (Dulles), 749 
Resolutions in General Assembly, draft: 
Korean Political Conference, recommendations for, 

text, 286n. 
"Measures to avert threat of new world war and to 
reduce International tensions," text, 834 
Satellites in Europe, discussc^d in address (Dulles), 406 
Soviet weaknesses, address (Stevens), 112 
Soviet Zone of Germany, food situation in : 

MSA statement (Taft), text of reply to Soviet pro- 
test (Conant), texts of statements, 208 



964 



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics — Continued 

Soviet Zone of Germany, food situation in — Continued 
U.S. offers of food: Exchange of letters (Adenauer, 
Eisenhower), 67, 147; Soviet reply to, 68, note to 
U.S.S.R., 68 

Strategic materials shipments to, discussed (Hansen, 
Stassen), 273, 301 

Struggle for power within, discussed in address 
(Smith), 372 

Sugar agreement, international, new : 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan), 543 
Signature, 823 

Threat to free world, discussed in statement (Ihilles), 
88 

Trade with free world, discussed in article (Hansen), 
271 

Travel in, easing of restrictions, alleged, statement 
(White), 8 

United Nations, tactics in, discussed in address 
(Murphy), 782 

Working conditions in, discussed in address (Dulles), 
445 
United Fruit Company lands in Guatemala, expropriation 
by Government of Guatemala, text of U.S. aide- 
memoire protesting, 357 
United Kingdom: 

Agricultural commodities, surplus, FOA program for 
purchase for resale overseas, under section 550 of 
Mutual Security Act of 1953, in, 638, 864 

Aldrich, Ambassador Winthrop W., article on America's 
expanding economy, 482 

Antarctica, ship movements to, 828 

Austrian state treaty negotiations, tripartite meetings 
re. See Austrian state treaty negotiations ; Bermuda 
meeting; Foreign Ministers' meetings of July and 
October 195:! ; Four power meeting, proposed. 

Bermuda meeting. See Bermuda meeting. 

Colonial policy in Africa south of Sahara, discussed In 
address (Byroade), 658 

Demonstrations in East Berlin, texts of Allied Comman- 
dants' statements re, 8, 9 

Eden, Anthony, Foreign Secretary, invitation to Secre- 
tary Dulles and Foreign Minister Bidault to London 
meeting to discuss common problems, 546 

FOA allotment to, for purchase of agricultural com- 
modities, 864 

German External Debts, Tripartite Commission on, 
creation, 479 

Iran, relationship with, discussed in address (Byroade), 
894 

Iranian oil dispute. See Iranian oil dispute. 

Malaya, aid to, against conununism, discussed in ad- 
dress (Morton), 345 

MSA assistance for, continuation, text of letter (Eisen- 
hower) to congressional chairmen and observations 
of MSA Director (Stassen), .300 

MSA prodiictivity agreement, cited, 17 

Reunification of Germany, tripartite meetings re. See 
r.ermuda meeting; l•^lreign Ministers' meetings of 
.July and October 1953 ; Four power meeting, pro- 
posed ; Germany, Federal Republic of. 

Department of State Bulletin 



United Kingdom — Contiinu'd 

Sterling-dollar relationship, correspondence re Douglas 

Mission n-jiort (Eiscnlmwcr, Douglas), 275 
Sugar agreement, international, new : 
Signature, 823 

Requirements of, exclusion from free market, dis- 
cussed in article (Callanan), 544 
Trade : 
Duties on products from within Commonwealth, GATT 

provisions re, 6S0 
Trade with China : licensing of British flag ships to 
prevent carriage of strategic materials from non- 
British sources to Red China, discussed, 573 
Trade with Soviet hloc : shipment of "prior-commit- 
ment" and Category B items to, discussed ( Stassen) , 
301 
Trieste, Free Territory of. .See Trieste, Free Territory 

of. 
Tripartite meetings of Foreign Ministers and leaders 
(U.S., U.K., France). See Bermuda meeting; Foreign 
Ministers' meetings of July and October 1953; Pour 
power meeting, proposed. 
U.S. consular offices: 
Bradford, closing, 224 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, closing, 302, 766 
U.S. Embassy at London, jurisdiction over U.S. con- 
sulate at Gibraltar, 157 
War criminals in allied zones of Germany, procedures 
for clemency and parole of, text of Allied High Com- 
mission statement re, 391 
United Nations : 
Addresses and statements : 
Action in social field (Mayo), 566 
Disarmament, U.N. position, discussed (Murphy), 410 
Role in easing international tensions (Dulles), 403 
Self-determination of peoples, U.N. interest in, dis- 
cussed (Byroade), 657 
Support of, basic to foreign policy, discussed 

(Morton), 662 
U.N. in focus (Wadsworth), 559 
U.S. looks at U.N. (Murphy), 780 
U.S. policy, focal point of, discussed (Smith), 630 
Anniversary of signing of charter, 8th, address (Wads- 
worth), 84 
"Atoms for peace" proposal (Eisenhower) : 
Address before U.N. General Assembly, 847 
Soviet reaction to, statement (Hagerty), 851 
Bacterial warfare charges. See Bacterial warfare, 

alleged. 
Bermuda communique, tripartite, discussion of univer- 
sal guaranties against aggression, 852 
Budget, 1953, discussed in address (Murphy), 785 
Budget, 1954, statement (Richards), 562 
Charter review, proposed : 

Correspondence re (Wiley, Dulles), texts, 310 
' General Assembly resolution, text, 909 

Preparatory work re, statements (Lodge, Byrnes), 

413, 908 
Statements (Dulles), 343, 412 
U.S. views re, statement (Byrnes), 649 
Confirmation of U.S. representatives, 191, 223, 251 
l^lsnrniament. See Disarmament. 

Index, July to December 1953 



United Nations — Continue<l 

Documents, current, listed, 21, 191, 223, 328, 502, 766, 806 
Economic Development, Committee on Special U.N. Fund 

for, proposed, discussed in statement (Baker), 263 
ECOSOC. See Econcjmic and Social Council. 
FAO. Sec Food and .\griculture Organization. 
Forced labor in Soviet countries. Sec Forced labor. 
Foreign Economic Policy, Commission on : 
Consultations with, proposed, 685 
Duties and powers re, G85 
General Assembly. See General Assembly. 
Greek armed forces, detention of members of. See 
under Arms and armed forces; General Assembly; 
Greece. 
Greek children, displaced, problem of. See under Gen- 
eral Assembly and Greece. 
Human rights. See Human rights. 
Indians in South Africa, treatment of, statement 

(Bolton), 728 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment. See International Bank for Reconstruction 
and Development. 
International Civil Aviation Organization. See Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization. 
International Labor Organization. See International 

Labor Organization. 
International Monetary Fund. See International Mon- 
etary Fimd. 
Korean situation. See Korea, Republic of; Korean 
Armistice; Korean Armistice negotiations; Korean 
Political Conference. 
Membership question : 
Charter requirements, statement (Byrnes), 605 
Communist China, representation, U.S. position : ad- 
dress (Murphy), 408; statement (Dulles), 412 
"Package proposal," Soviet, statement (Byrnes), 607 
Moroccan question. See Moroccan question. 
Non-self-governing territories. See Non-self-governing 

territories. 
Organizations. See specific organizations. 
Palestine, U.N. discussion of, statements (Lodge), 648 
Personnel policy in, statement (Richards), 873 
Prisoners of War, Ad Hoc (Commission on, 4th session, 

U.S. representatives, 328 
Prisoners of war, problem of. See Prisoners of war. 
Puerto Rican status. See Puerto Rico. 
Qibiya incident. See Qibiya. 

Refugees, displaced persons, and escapees. See Refu- 
gees, displaced person.s, and escapees. 
Resolutions. See under General Assembly and Security 

Council. 
Security Council. See Security Council. 
Specialized agencies [see also specific agencies): 
Activities of. discussed in address (Murphy), 784 
Work of, discussed in address (Wadsworth), 560 
Sugar Conference, International, U.S. delegation, 

listed, 87 
Trieste, Free Territory of. See Trieste, Free Territory 

of. 
Trust territories. See Trust territories. 
Trusteeship Council. See Trusteeship Council. 
Tunisian question. See Tunisia. 
U.N. Command operations in Korea. See under Korea. 

965 



United Nations — Continued 

UNESCO. See United Nations Educational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organization. 

UNICEF. See United Nations Children's Fund. 

U.S. Participation in the U.N., Report l)y the President 
to the Congress for the Year 1952, text of message of 
traasmittal (Eisenhower), 265 

World Health Organization. See World Health Organi- 
zation. 

World Meteorological Organization. See World Meteor- 
ological Organization. 
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) : 

Change in name from U.N. International Children's 
Emergency Fund, discussed (Eliot), 2S8 

Continuation on iiermanent basis, statement (Lord), 
533 

Czechoslovakia, program in, discussed, 291 

Discontinuance of aid to Palestine refugees, discussed 
(Eliot), 289 

Malaria and tuberculosis control in Lebanon and Jor- 
dan, statement (Heffelfinger), 291 

Program in Germany, discussed, 291 

Transfer of functions from Department of State, state- 
ment (Lourie), 28 
United Nations Day 1953 : 

Presidential proclamation re, test, 222 

Statements : Bolton, 628 ; Dulles, 619 ; Eisenhower, 457 ; 
Morton, 624 ; Murphy, 619 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization (UNESCO) : 

Adult Workers' Education, Seminars and Meetings of 
Experts, U.S. delegation, listed, 87 

Appraisal of, discussed in address (Murphy) , 784 

General Conference, 2d extraordinary session, U.S. dele- 
gation, listed, 57, 191 

Public Education, 16th International Conference on, 
U.S. delegation, listed, 57 

UNESCO National Commission : 
Addresses : 
Building a cooperative peace (Smith) , 463 
Message (Dulles), quoted by Assistant Secretary 

McCardle, 468 
Progress toward UNESCO's goals (McCardle), 467 
Fourth annual conference, 463 
United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency (UNKRA) : 

General Assembly resolution in support of work of, 
text, 908 

Participation in meetings with U.S. mission to study 
Korean economy (Tasca mis.siou), 313 

Role of, in Korea, discusse<l in address (Murphy), 410 

Transfer of functions from Department of State, state- 
ment (Lourie), 28 

Work in Korean reconstruction, statement (Ford), 904 
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 
Refugees (UNRWA) : 

Arab refugees: discussed in statement (Eisenhower), 
D53; report on problems of, statement (Richards), 
759 

Transfer of functions from Department of State, state- 
ment (Lourie), 28 

966 



United Nations Technical Assistance Program (UNTA) : 
Transfer of functions from Department of State, state- 
ment (Lourie), 28 
U.S. support for, statement (Ford), 531 

United States-Bulgarian relations, statement (White), 
375 

United States colonial policy, bases of, address (Byroade), 
656 

United States Constitution and U.N. Charter, an appraisal, 
address (Dulles), 307 

United States Employment Service, certification of skills 
and services for visa priorities under Refugee Relief 
Act of 1953, 234 

United States forces in Europe, withdrawal of, statement 
(Dulles), 632 

United States forces in Japan, jurisdictional arrangements 
for, text of protocol to amend article XVII of admin- 
istrative agreement under article III of security treaty 
with Japan, 595 ; text of oflBcial minutes re, 597 

United States High Commissioner for Germany. See 
Conant, James B. 

United States Information Agency (USIA) (see also In- 
ternational Information Administration (IIA)) : 
Authorization for transfer of certain functions from 
Secretary of State and Director of FOA to Director 
of USIA (Ex. Or. 10477) , text, 238 
Establishment, transfer of personnel, and effective 

date, text of Department Circular No. 45 re, 239 
Establishment of USIA area offices, announcement 

(Streibert), 390 
International Broadcasting Service (Voice of Amer- 
ica) : 
Program policy of, discussed (Streibert), 322 
Transfer of jurisdiction over Voice of America from 
Department of State to, 238 
Mission of, defined, letter to President (Streibert), text, 

756; statement (Eisenhower), litQ 
Overseas information program, objectives for efficiency, 

discussed (Streibert), 321 
Streibert, Theodore C., confirmation as Director of, 

238, 239 
Washburn, Abbott McConnell, appointment as Deputy 
Director, 828 

United States Information Service (USIS), continuation 
of office at Bari, Italy, 224 

United States-Latin American relations, text of report 
to the President ( Jliltiui Eisenhower), 695 

United St.ites policy in Philippines, objectives of, address 
(Bell), 523 

United States Public Health Service, responsibility for 
medical examination of aliens under Refugee Relief 
Act of 1953, 234 

United States-Puerto Rican relations, nature of, state- 
ments (Bolton, Fenios-Isern). 797, 798, 802 

United States responsibility, a society of consent, address 
(Dulles), 587 

United States Special Representative in Europe, Office of, 
reorganization, text of memorandum, 48 

United States support for technical assistance program of 
U.N., slatfmcnt (Ford), 531 

UNKRA. See U.N. Korean Reconstruction Agency. 

Department of State Bulletin 



UNRWA. Sec United Nations Kelii^f and Works Agency 

for Palestine Itefugees. 
UNTA. See United Nations Technical Assistance. 
Uruguay, U.S. Ambassador to (Mcintosh), appointment, 

489 
USIA. See United States Information Agency. 
USIS. See United States Information Service. 
USRO. See European Regional Organizations. 

Van Tarn, Ngu.ven, I'lime Minister of Viet-Nam, texts of 
exchange of notes with Ambassador Heath re U.S. 
aid to flood sufTprers of Viet-Nam, 487 
Venezuela : 

Treaties and agreements : 

Air transport agreement, with U.S., signature, 321 
Wheat agreement. International, revised, eligibility 
for becoming party to, 245 

U.S. Ambassador to (Warren), continuation of duties, 
157 
Vessels : 

American vessels, provisions respecting tariff fees (Ex. 
Or. 10473), text, 191 

British flag ships, licensing of, to prevent carriage of 
strategic materials from non-British sources to Red 
China, discussed, 573 

Lend-lease, to U.S.S.R., negotiations for return of, 391 

Polish flag tanker Praca, seizure of, denial by U.S. of 
charges of participation in, text of Polish note re, 640 

Submarines, loan of two to Turkey, signature of act 
approving, 200 

Transfer of charter of ships used by International Ref- 
ugee Organization to Intergovernmental Committee 
for European Migration, 117 
Viet-Nam, State of : 

Addresses and statements : 

Indochina, restoration of peace in, necessary party 

to discussion re (Dulles), 343 
Indochina, war in, aid to Associated States, discussed 

(Dulles), 342 
Membership in U.N., status of application for, state- 
ment (Byrnes), 605 

Communist aggression, intensification of struggle 
against, text of note from Embassy of, 552 

Flood sufferers in, texts of exchange of notes (Prime 
Minister Van Tarn, Heath) re U.S. aid to, 487 

U.S. Ambassador (Heath), continuation of duties, 157 
Visas : 

Agreement with Mexico, texts of exchange of notes and 
summary of agreement, 827 

Refugee Relief Act of 1953 : 

Allotment of visas under, listed, 231, 860 
Nonquota visas, provisions for issuance, 231, 859 

Service for aliens, text of provisions under regulations 
relating to Foreign Service fees (Ex. Or. 10473), 192 

"Treaty merchant" visas to German nationals under 
article I of 1923 treaty of friendship, commerce, and 
consular rights with Germany, discontinuation of 
issuance, pending new agreement re, 225 
Voice of America (VGA). Sre International Broadcast- 
ing Service. 



Voluntary Foreign Aid, Advisory Committee of MSA, 
statement of chairman (Taft), re inquiries on U.S. 
food for East Germany, 20S 

Wadsworth, Cieorge, U.S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia 

and Minister to Yemen, appointment, 614 
Wadsworth, James J., Deputy Permanent U.S. Repre- 
sentative to United Nations : 
Addresses and statements : 
Anniversary, Sth, of the signing of U.N. Charter, 84 
Disarmament, Soviet draft resolution re, 829, 837 
Greek military personnel detained in various coun- 
tries of Eastern Europe, 297 
Nonmembers of Security Council, participation in 

discussion of agenda for, 498 
Qibiya, Security Council censure of action at, 839 
Trieste, inclusion on Security Council agenda, CIO 
United Nations in focus, 559 
Appointment as U.S. representative to 7th session, 3d 

part, of U.N. General Assembly, 251 
Armistice in Korea, special report of Unified Command, 
text of letter transmitting to Secretary-General of 
U.N., 246 
Wainhouse, David W., statement on U.S. attitude on 

Tunisian question, 730 
War criminals in allied zones of Germany : 

Procedures for clemency and parole of, text of Allied 

High Commission statement re, 391 
War Criminals, Interim Mixed Parole and Clemency 
Board for persons convicted by War Crimes Tribunal, 
membership, listed, 599 
Warren, Avra M., U.S. Ambassador to Turkey, confirma- 
tion, 192 
Warren, Fletcher, U.S. Ambassador to Venezuela, contin- 
uation as Chief of Mission, 157 
Washburn, Abbott McConnell, appointment as Deputy 

Director of U.S. Information Agency, 828 
Watson, Thomas J., chairman of U.S. Committee for U.N. 

Day, cited in statement (Eisenhower), 457 
Waugh, Samuel C, Assistant Secretary for Economic 
Affairs : 
Addresses and statements : 

Agricultural commodities, surplus, use for foreign 

aid, 159 
Free-world economy, healthy, America's stake in, 142 
Friendship, commerce, and consular rights, treaty 
with Germany (1923), as amended (1925, 1935), 
application of, 224 
GATT, application of Japan for association with, 495 
Trade practices, international, reappraisal of, 447 
Wheat agreement, international, revised, support for, 
61 
Colombo Plan meeting, U.S. representative to, 494 
GATT, Sth session, chairman of U.S. delegation to, 449 
Webb, T. Clifton, New Zealand Minister of External 
Affairs, text of statement at 2d meeting of ANZUS 
Council, 417 
West Africa, closing of U.S. Consulate at Mombasa, 

Kenya, 689 
Western Europe: 

Defense production in, MSA report, 212 



Ittiiex, July to December 1953 



967 



Western Europe — Continued 

Economic progress, past, present, future, address ( Stas- 

sen), 71S 
Military defense of, discussed In address (Eisenhower), 
200 
Wlicat agreement, international. See International 

wheat agreement. 
Wheat Aid Act for shipment of wheat to Pakistan, signa- 
ture: exchange of messages (Eisenhower, Moham- 
med Ali), IC; statements (Eisenliower, Hildreth), 15 
Wheat shipments to foreign countries : 

Bolivia, economic assistance agreement for, 822 
Pakistan, disoiissfil in I'ri'sideiit's semiannual report 
on mutual security program ending June 30, 1953, 
388; progress in, 822; Wheat Aid Act for: signature, 
exchange of mes.sages (Eisenhower, Mohammed Ali), 
16; statements (Eisenhower, Hildreth), 15 
Whelen, Thomas E., Ambassador to Nicaragua, continua- 
tion as Chief of Mission, 157 
White, Lincoln, Acting Chief, News Division, statement: 
Paumunjom. preliminary talks at, U.S. position re India 
as member of Neutral Nations Repatriation Commis- 
sion, 666 
Soviet "conceissions" to East Germany, 311 
Travel restrictions in U.S.S.It., reported easing of. 8 
U.S.-Bulgarian relations, 375 
U.S. position on Korean situation, 15, footnote 2 
WHO. See World Health Organization. 
Wiley, Senator Alexander, Chairman, Senate Foreign 
Relations Committee: 
Atomic energy, international development of, text of 
letter to Secretary Dulles transmitting letter from 
Keprescntative Cole re, 330 
U.N. Charter, proijosed review of, texts of exchange 

of letters with Secretary Dulles re, 310 
U.N. General Assembly, 7th session, 3d part, member 
U.S. delegation, 251 
Wiley, John C, U.S. Ambassador to Panama, resignation, 

489 
Williams, Edward L., appointment as Director of U.S. 

Operations Mission for FOA in Spain, 601 
Willis, Frances E., U.S. Ambassador to Switzerland, con- 
firmation, 192 
Willkie, Philip, appointment to Board of Foreign Scholar- 
ships, 897 
WMO. Sec World Meteorological Organization. 
Wood, C. Tyler, appointment as Economic Coordinator in 

Korea, 236, 486 
Woodward, Robert F., appointment as Deputy Assistant 

Secretary for Inter American Affairs, 226 
Wool imports and production. President's request for 

study of, 185 
World Health Organization (WHO) : 

Hyde, Dr. H. van Zile, confirmation as U.S. representa- 
tive on Exe<'Utive Board of, 191 
Malaria and tuberculosis control in Lebanon and Jor- 
dan, assistance in control of, statement (Heflfel finger), 
291 
U.N. Children's Fund, assistance from, discus.'^od (Eliot, 
Heffelfinger), 288, 290, 201 



968 



World leadership, U.S.: 

Burdens of, address (Eisenhower), 199 
Reluctant acceptance of, statement (Murphy), 620 
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) : 
Aerology, Commission for, 1st .session, U.S. delegation, 

listed, 2.51 
Agricultural JIete<irology, Commission for, 1st session, 

U.S. delegation, listed, 613 
Bibliography and Publications, Commission for, 1st 

session, U.S. delegate, 765 
Executive Committee of, 4th session, U.S. delegation, 

listed, 490 
Instruments and Methods of Observation, Commission 
for, 1st .session, U.S. delegation, listed, 2.")1 
World War II prisoners of war, missing, 328, 411, 428. 497, 

899, 900, 904 
World's colonies and ex-colonies, a challenge to America, 

address (Byroade), 655 
Wyszynski, Cardinal, Primate of Poland, arrest by Com- 
munists, U.S. attitude, 528 

Yemen, U.S. Minister to (Wadsworth), appointment, 614 1 
Yugoslav Emergency Relief Assistance Act (1950), trans- 
fer of functions from Department of State, statement 
(Lourie), 28 
Yugoslavia : 

Agricultural commodities, surplus, F0.\ program for 
purchase for resale overseas, under section 550 of 
Mutual Security Act of 1953, in. 638 
Sugar agreement, international, new: 
Quota for, listed, article (Callanan), 543 
Signature, 823 
Trieste, Free Territory of, administration of: 

Defen.se of South Europe, relation to, statement' 

(Dulles), .589 
I'roblem of, discussed in text of communique issued 

at London meeting of Foreign Ministers, 546 
Security Council agenda, inclusion on, statements 

(Lodge, Wadsworth), 609, 610 
Zone A : Cessation of administrati<m by U.S. and U.K., 

529; discussed (Dulles), .")S8 
Zone B : Continuation of administration by, 529 

Zahodi, Gen. Fazlollah, Prime Minister of Iran, texts of 

exchange of letters with President Eisenhower and 

Ambassador Henderson re technical and economic aid 

for Iran. .'549, 350 
Zaroubin, Ambassador Georgi N., negotiations with U.S. 

re lend-lease settlement, 391 
Zellerb.ul!, James D., U.S. Representative to U.N. General 

Assembly : 
Confirmation at U.S. representative to U.N. General 

Assembly, 223 
Disarmament and international development, relation' 

between, statement, S39 
Zoology, XlVth International Congress of, U.S. delegation, 

listed, 22:-! 
Zuleta-Angel, Eduardo. Aiubassador of Colombia, cre<ien- 

tials, 202 



Department of State Bulletin 



Corrections in Volume XXiX 

Tlie Editor of the Bulletin wishes to call atten- 
tion to the following errors : 

July IS: page 51, footnote 2, right-hanci column, 
64th report of U.N. Command operations in Korea, 
the date of transmittal should read : 

June IS 

October 12: page 481, left-hand column, 11th line, 
the German deht settlement, should read : 

a half hillion dollars of private debts. . . . 

November 23: page 730, left-hand column, first 
line of last paragraph of text should read : 

It is ivith these thoughts and purposes that . . . 

and the next-to-last line of footnote 2 should read : 
Bulletin of November 2-i, 1952 



Department of State Publication 5806 

Released June 1955 

UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1955 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Waehington 25. D. C. - Price 35 cents 



^/i€^ ^efia/^tTneni^ xw t/tai& 




Vol. XXIX, No. 732 
July 6, 1953 




EFFECTS OF THE PRESIDENT'S REORGANIZATION 
PLANS ON THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE • State- 

ment by Under Secretary Lourie 27 

THE ECONOMICS OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY • Article 

by Robert E. Asher 3 

AMERICA'S CHANGING RELATIONSHIP WITH 

GERMANY • by Richard Straus 10 

PROBLEMS OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE 

PACIFIC TRUST TERRITORY • Statement by Frank 

E. Midkiff 22 

THE NORTH ATLANTIC MARINE RESEARCH PRO- 
GRAM • Article by William M. Terry 19 



For index see back cover 



Boston Public Library- 
Superintendent of Documents 

AUG 6 1S53 




^ 



fjA^ 



e 



Qe/umtm^nt ^ y^te JDUllGllIl 



Vol. XXIX, No. 732 • Publication 5114 
July 6, 2953 



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U.S. Qovernment Printing Offlc* 

Washington 25, D.O. 

Price: 

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been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 22, 1962). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bulletin as tbe source will be 
appreciated. 



Tlie Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with in- 
formation on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes selected press releases on 
foreign policy issued by the White 
House and the Department, and 
statements and addresses made by 
the President and by the Secretary of 
State and other officers of the Depart- 
ment, as well as special articles on 
various phases of international affairs 
and the functions of the Department. 
Information is included concerning 
treaties and international agree- 
ments to which the United States is 
or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international reUilions, are listed 
currently. 



The Economics of U.S. Foreign Policy 



by Robert E. Asher 



The broad objectives of the economic side of 
U.S. foreign policy can be stated rather simply: 

1. We want economic conditions in the free 
world which will attract peoples and governments 
toward the democratic system of political free- 
dom, as opposed to totalitarian systems like Soviet 
communism. 

2. We have a special interest in the economic 
strength of our partners in the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization, and of the countries on the 
periphery of Soviet power. In the North Atlantic 
Treaty area we want economic conditions which 
will enable the Nato countries to devote a sub- 
stantial part of their resources to the common 
militai-y effort for as long as is necessary, without 
preventing improvements in their standards of 
living. In countries on the periphery of Soviet 
power we want to eliminate economic weaknesses 
that threaten political stability and invite Com- 
munist subvei-sion. 

3. We want economic conditions in the free 
world which will promote material well-being and 
which will allow employment, production, trade, 
and investment to develop in ways that enrich 
human life. 

4. A free-world economy which would meet 
these objectives ought to be one of healthy, stable 
expansion. It ought to afford all countries in- 
creasing opportunities for economic growth and 
improving standards of living. It ought to op- 
erate so that economic gains are distributed equita- 
bly within countries. It ought to be free of pro- 
longed or severe depressions and to be capable of 
weathering temporary economic crises without 
serious strain. 

5. The way in which these goals are pursued 
is also, in a sense, a part of the objectives them- 
selves. We should try to create an international 
community of effort for common purposes, a 
process to which each member would make an 
equitable contribution. We should try to avoid 



the extremes of either forcing unwanted pro- 
grams and policies on others as a condition of our 
help, or of undertaking actions ourselves which 
are unmatched by appropriate actions in the coun- 
tries which benefit from them. 

Let me add promptly that I know of no corre- 
sponding 5-point program for achieving the 
strong, prosperous, democratic world we would like 
to see. Americans tend to believe that everything 
that is desirable is possible, that America can do 
anything it sets out to do. Denis Brogan has 
referred to this as "the illusion of American om- 
nipotence." Not only do we cling to this inspiring 
illusion but after allowing it to oversimplify our 
problems, we try to shortcut our way to a solution. 
One year it's the Bretton Woods agreement that 
will solve our postwar economic problems; an- 
other year it's the Marshall plan ; then it's tech- 
nical assistance; today, it's "trade, not aid." We 
tend to overwork these slogans and, in doing so, 
to blind ourselves to the complexity and the long- 
range character of our foreign-economic prob- 
lems. To avoid this pitfall, the new administra- 
tion is extremely anxious to obtain a cai'eful, 
impartial re-examination of our whole foreign- 
economic policy. The job in all probability will 
be done by a 17-member commission that will in- 
clude bipartisan representation from both Houses 
of Congi-ess, as well as public members appointed 
by the President.^ 

The administration wants to make sure that we 
have a well-rounded, consistent foreign policy 
whose economic aspects properly reinforce and 
complement its political and military aspects. To- 
day, 8 years after the end of World War II, the 
economic situation of the free world is still shaky 
and still in need of shoring up. Canada and the 
United States remain islands in a troubled sea. 

' For the President's letter to Vice President Nixon and 
Si)eaker of the House Joseph W. Martin, Jr., recommend- 
ing the establishment of this commission, see Bulletin 
of May 25, 1953, p. 747. 



Jo/y 6, 7953 



Interest Abroad in U.S. Economy 

The importance of our foreign-economic policy 
has been driven home to me again and again at 
international meetings during the past few years. 
At tliese conferences the U.o. delegation has to 
listen attentively to wliat other deleg^es say be- 
cause most of them aim their ren^Sts at the 
United States. We have to be even more careful 
about what we say. A slight error in emphasis, 
a minor bit of carelessness, on the part of one of 
our delegates would have the room buzzing and 
the press representatives phoning their offices in 
no time flat. This is because relatively minor 
policy changes on our part — the prospect of a new 
tariff rate on garlic, an embargo on imports of 
peanuts, little ups and downs in our requirements 
for coffee, copper, bananas, or tin — can have major 
repercussions in other parts of the world. 

Coffee, which I just mentioned, is our leading 
imported commodity. We spend more dollars 
for coffee than for anything else we buy abroad. 
But because our shopping list is big, coffee accounts 
for only 11 or 12 percent of the dollar value of our 
total imports. A $100 million increase or de- 
crease would have no significant effect on the U.S. 
economy. 

From the point of view of relations with our 
neighbors, the matter is much more serious. There 
are at least G countries — Brazil, Colombia, El 
Salvador, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Haiti — 
that earn from 50 to 90 percent of all their dollars 
from coffee exports. Whether they can maintain 
or improve the living standards of their people 
depends very largely on the U.S. coffee market 
which, in turn, depends primarily on the general 
level of U.S. prosperity. 

This example may help to explain why other 
countries are so deeply concerned about the health 
of the U. S. economy. Will we maintain an ex- 
panding economy at home? Will we avoid de- 
pression or recession ? Will we make it harder or 
easier for other countries to sell us their goods? 

Our foreign policy is thus not something apart 
from domestic policy. What we do here at home 
to control inflation and avoid deflation, to main- 
tain full employment, to protect minorities, to en- 
courage freedom of speech and thought has pro- 
found effects througliout the world. Foreign 
policy is not something that can be left to experts 
in the State Department, the Defense Department, 
and the Mutual Security Agency. It's a job for 
everyone. An effective foreign policy requires an 
(alert and informed citizenry in the United States, 
sensitive to the foreign implications of what some- 
times seem to be purely domestic issues. 

As Secretary Dulles reminded the House Ways 
and Means Committee recently, tlie United States 
accounts for "50 percent of the total produc- 
tion of non-Communist countries. We are the 
world's largest exporter and the world's largest 
importer. We are the greatest creditor nation in 
the world and the most important single source of 



the free world's capital needs. We lead in the de- 
velopment of new inventions and new skills." '^ 

In spite of the fact that, in absolute terms, we 
export and import in such huge quantities, our 
economy as a whole is less dependent on foreign 
trade than that of almost any other country ex- 
cept the Soviet Union. Nevertheless, important 
segments of the American economy have a large 
stake in export markets. During the last few 
years we have exported nearly i/o of our wheat, 2/5 
of our cotton and rice production, and i/4 of our 
production of tobacco. We also export more than 
% of our output of tractors. On the import side, 
the United States is heavily dependent on imports 
for a number of essentials, including 100 peixent 
of our supplies of tin and natural rubber, 92 per- 
cent of our manganese requirements, and 50 per- 
cent of our tungsten. 

Trade Pattern Unbalanced 

The pattern, however, is extremely unbalanced. 

The U.S. exports far more than it imports ; most 
other countries are unable to export enough to pay 
for the imports that they desperately need. This 
continues to be true despite the tremendous as- 
sistance rendered under the Marshall plan and the 
fact that, by the end of 1952, industrial production 
in Western Europe was 40 percent above prewar 
levels. It continues to be true desjjite technical 
assistance, development loans, and other measures 
which have helped some of the underdeveloped 
countries make notable advances in recent years. 

The imbalance is more persistent and deeper 
rooted than any of us realized a few short years 
ago. It is attributable only in small part to the 
fact that rearmament has required resources which 
might otherwise have been used to increase Euro- 
pean exports or civilian consumption in Europe. 
Western Europe has had difficulty in obtaining 
dependable markets in the United States for its 
exports, and in competing with American export- 
ers in Latin America and Asia. Theoretically, 
Western Europe could restrict its imports still 
further to correspond with its relatively lower 
earning power in world markets. In practice, this 
policy w^ould threaten Eurojjean living standards 
to the point where political stability would be 
imperiled, and it might jeopardize tlie economic 
health of non-European nations. For Western 
Europe, increased production and productivity 
within Europe, the further development of Asia 
and Africa as sources of supply and as markets for 
European products, as well as increased European 
exports to the United States and the dollar area, 
are essential. 

Similarly, the economic future of Japan hinges 
on her ability to develop expanding trade with 
the rest of the free world. On the one hand, 
Japan is cut off almost completely from tradi- 



' Ihii.. May 25, 1953, p. 743. 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



tional markets and sources of supply on the main- 
land of China. At the same time, she faces sub- 
stantial barriers to the export of goods to free- 
world countries. In the United States the tariff 
rates on Japanese goods are still at the high levels 
imposed by the Tariff Act of 1930. Japan is able 
to sustain her economy today only because of the 
very large purchases being macle there by the 
United States for the support of U.N. forces in 
Korea. Sooner or later such purchases are sure to 
be cut drastically. 

The reduction of barriers to world trade has 
been and continues to be a major economic objec- 
tive of tlie United States. The Reciprocal Trade 
Agreements Act adopted in 19.34 authorizes reduc- 
tions of tariffs and other barriers to trade in re- 
turn for comparable concessions from other coun- 
tries. It has been renewed every 2 or 3 years. In 
1951 it was extended until June 12, 1953, and at 
the same time it was substantially amended.^ 

There are vocal groups in the United States who 
want greater protection against foreign competi- 
tion. They may extoll "competition" among 
American industries- preface the word "competi- 
tion" with the word foreign," however, and it im- 
mediately becomes something sinister. People 
who would reject out-of-hand the notion that 
the Government should tax the television industry 
for the purpose of protecting the motion-picture 
industry, or tax nylon producers to protect wool- 
growers, or put a quota on cigarette production 
to avoid injury to cigarmakers and pipemakers, 
see nothing inconsistent in demanding protection 
for some of these same industries from the lesser 
threat of foreign competition. 

Can highly paid American workers compete 
with lower-paid foreign workers? The thing to 
compare is not the daily or weekly wage of the 
American and the foreign worker, but the wage 
cost per unit of output. If a gadget taking 25 
man-hours to produce in some other country can 
be produced here in 10 man-hours, the wage cost 
will be lower here than abroad, even though the 
hourly earnings here are twice as high as in the 
foreign country. If the American wage is $2 an 
hour, the labor cost of the gadget will be $20. 
If the wage in the foreign country is half the 
American level, or $1 an hour, the labor cost of 
the imported gadget would be $25, and the chances 
are that the American product could undersell the 
foreign one. 

Our high wage levels are possible because such 
factors as up-to-date machinery, good organiza- 
tion, mass markets, and eagerness to adopt im- 
proved methods have resulted in a phenomenally 



' For the President's message to Congress recom- 
mending tlie further extension of this act for 1 year, see 
ibid., Apr. 27, 1953, p. 634. For statements by Secretary 
Dulles and the Director for Mutual Security, Harold E. 
Stassen, in support of its extension, see ibid., May 25, 
1953, pp. 743 and 746, respectively. 



high output per worker. One of our major prob- 
lems is to re-store international balance by en- 
couraging a stepping up of productivity in other 
parts of the free world so that their output per 
man or per acre will be less lopsided in relation 
to ours. Tliey must get themselves into a better 
position both to satisfy their own needs and to 
market their products throughout the world, in- 
cluding the rich North American market. 

Alternatives to Increasing Imports 

The plain fact is that unless we are prepared 
to import more, or to continue foreign aid in- 
definitely on a massive scale, we will not be able 
to maintain anything like our present level of 
exports. Other countries have to be able to sell 
to us in order to buy from us. They are now 
selling to us at a rate of less than $11 billion per 
year. They are receiving more than $15 billion 
worth of American goods. The gap between what 
they earn and what they get is being closed by 
military and economic assistance programs that 
create ,a donor-recipient relationship as irksome to 
our allies as it is to us. The slogan "trade not aid" 
was imported from Great Britain, not made in 
America. 

Within the last year or so, more and more 
Americans have been facing up to the only alter- 
natives the trade front offers, i. e., larger imports, 
lower exports, or continued free grants of U. S. 
resources to make up the difference. Not all of 
them come out with the same answer, of course. 
Some feel that our postwar exports have been 
freakishly high and should be reduced. Others 
believe that more turmoil would be created if 
wheat, cotton, and tobacco growers were deprived 
of their export markets and forced to turn to 
poultry raising, truck farming, and other forms of 
production for the domestic market. 

Many leaders of U.S. opinion in recent months 
have spoken in favor of a more liberal import 
policy. The National Association of Manufac- 
turers, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the Ameri- 
can Farm Bureau Federation, the National Cotton 
Coimcil, the United States Tobacco Associates, the 
Committee for Economic Development, the Con- 
gress of Industrial Organizations, the American 
Federation of Labor, and the Detroit Board of 
Commerce have gone on record to this effect. 

Other countries, particularly Japan and the in- 
dustrialized countries of Western Europe, tend to 
regard U.S. import policy as the key to whether 
or not we can be depended upon to behave as the 
world's largest creditor nation and most important 
supplier of essential commodities. They tell us 
in the U.N. Economic and Social Council, the 
Economic Commission for Europe, and elsewhere, 
how vitally they will be affected by our decisions 
next year on the future of the Trade Agreements 
Act. On a lesser scale they regard simplification 
of our complicated customs procedures as an- 



July 6, 1953 



other important index of the way in which Amer- 
ica is moving. Almost every foreign official one 
talks to can give hair-raising examples of business- 
men in his country whose products got hopelessly 
tangled in the jungle of Ainerican tariff and cus- 
toms procedures. Some learned to their sorrow 
that tariff rates for plate glass differ according 
to the thickness and area of the glass, that dolls 
and toys are subject to 11 different rates, that cot- 
ton shirts ordinarily charged a 25 percent duty 
must pay a 50 percent duty if initials are em- 
broidered on them. Some grew old and gray and 
cynical in the months or years that elapsed before 
their final liability was decided. 

Other European manufacturers have from time 
to time bumped their heads against the "Buy 
American" laws under which our Government pro- 
curement agencies give preference to domestic 
suppliers unless the price of the foreign cormnod- 
ity, after payment of the tariff, is at least 25 per- 
cent below the comparable American product. 
They would like to see this extra road block re- 
moved. 

Soviet delegates attend the plenary sessions of 
the Economic Commission for Europe. They're 
not the least bit bashful. Recently, they have said, 
in effect, to the European nations : "Look, fellows, 
it's a pipe dream to expect the United States to 
adopt more liberal trade policies and make it 
easier for you to compete with American produc- 
ers. Americans want to dump their surplus pro- 
duction abroad, but they donx want to buy from 
you and they don't want you to sell to us. Don't 
let the Americans push you around. We'd love 
to buy your machinery, we'd love to increase our 
trade with you." 

We, the United States, have pointed to the 
progress toward trade liberalization that we and 
other free countries have made since 1934, and 
particularly to our magnificent record of interna- 
tional assistance during the postwar period. As 
for machinery exports to the U.S.S.R., as long as 
millions of people live in fear of Soviet aggres- 
sion it has seemed elementary commonsense for us 
to urge our friends to withhold from the Soviet 
bloo any goods that might increase its war po- 
tential. Moreover, we believe, the Soviets eventu- 
ally want to become self-sufficient anyhow, and 
therefore don't desire a permanent strengthening 
of trade ties with the free world. 

Nevertheless, the East- West trade issue remains 
a thorny one. Unlike the United States, a number 
of other countries have traditionally secured a 
substantial portion of essential imports — grain, 
coal, and timber, in particular — from Eastern 
Europe and have sold both producer's and con- 
sumer's goods to that area in return. In the pres- 
ent situation, they are more than willing to 
withhold items of obvious strategic importance. 
But they are responsible sovereign states, not satel- 
lites. They do not recognize any U.S. right to 
decide unilaterally what course of action they 



should follow. As for Japan, trade with mainland 
China was even more important to her in prewar 
days than trade with Eastern Europe was to 
Western Europe. Until Burma, Thailand, For- 
mosa, and the rest of Southeast Asia become more 
important markets, it is hard to see where Japan 
should turn to compensate adequately for the loss 
of her China trade. 



Purpose of Regional Economic Commissions 

The United States is a member not only of the 
U.N. Economic Commission for Europe (Ece), 
but also of the Economic Commissions for Latin 
America and for Asia and the Far East. All three 
commissions have the same general purpose: to 
expedite economic reconstruction, to expand the 
level of economic activity, to strengthen the ties 
between the countries of the region and between 
the region and the rest of the world. They have 
no laws to administer, no funds to distribute, no 
sanctions to impose. Their function is largely the 
educational one of discussing common problems 
and persuading officials of the member govern- 
ments to adopt measures that are recognized as 
desirable in the common interest. Each commis- 
sion has a competent professional secretariat 
which prepares an annual economic survey of the 
region and other basic information.* 

The Economic Commission for Europe has 
been seriously handicapped by the East- West split. 
Its members are politically and economically more 
sophisticated than the members of the Asian and 
Latin American commissions. Whereas the Euro- 
peans are more interested in trade problems, the 
members of the other commissions, coming from 
so-called underdeveloped areas, are concerned pri- 
marily with economic development problems. 

The Economic Commission for Asia and the Far 
East is by all odds the most picturesque. It offers 
more variety in delegates' costumes, with tur- 
baned Indians, Burmese men in colorful skirts, 
Philippine delegates in beautifully embroidered 
shirts, and all in the exotic but poverty-ridden 
surroundings of the Far East. Its problems are 
the most overwhelming. 

The Latin American Commission falls some- 
where between the other two. Impressive eco- 
nomic headway has been made in Central and 
South America in the last 5 or 6 years. The gov- 
ernments, by and large, are determined to main- 
tain and, if possible, increase the pace. The aver- 
age per capita income in the area is still under 
$250 per year. In Asia it is less than half of that. 
In the United States it is about $2,000. 

A number of the underdeveloped countries are 
one-crop countries, nations whose welfare depends 
almost entirely on the American and European 
markets for their tin, or rubber, or sugar. Small 



* For a review of the most recent Ece economic survey, 
see md., Apr. 13, 1953, p. 534. 

Department of State Bulletin 



shifts in demand can cause great misery. Con- 
tinued economic progress on their part requires, 
in their view, greater stability in the world market 
for their raw material exports. They are conse- 
quently groping for arrangements that would re- 
duce the violent and often uneconomic fluctuations 
in the prices of primary connnodities. 

International commodity agreements have been 
suggested as a means of stabilizing the market. 
Sucli agreements are hard to negotiate. "Wlien 
surpluses are in the oiling, consumers hope for 
price declines and shy away from premature com- 
mitments. When shortages occur, producers are 
anxious to make up for lean times and charge what 
the market will bear. The result is that whether 
we and other governments feel kindly or unkindly 
toward commodity agreements in principle, not 
very many are concluded in practice. The Inter- 
national Wheat Agreement stands almost alone. 

A second area of concern to the underdeveloped 
areas is the need for increased food production. 
In the early postwar years, every country wanted 
a steel mill, every country was going to be self- 
sufficient in textiles and export to other countries; 
none was going to import. Gradually the over- 
riding importance of increased food production 
has come to be understood, thanks in part to the 
educational work of U.S. representatives. The 
tremendous possibilities of enriching the poorer 
areas of the world through better seeds, fertilizers, 
and farm implements, fairer distribution of the 
available land, cheaper credit, and agricultural 
extension work, are being realized. A comprehen- 
sive land-reform program has been undertaken 
in Formosa. The same is true in India. A dra- 
matic effort is being made in Iran. Important 
reforms were introduced in Japan during the pe- 
riod of American military occupation. The new 
Government in Egypt seems determined to move 
forward in the field of land reform. A progi'am 
has been initiated in Southern Italy, an area which 
can properly be classed with the underdeveloped 
areas of the world. The results of such programs 
in terms of increased human dignity are even more 
important than the immediate economic results. 

Despite the importance of increased food pro- 
duction and agrarian reforms in the imderde- 
veloped areas, industrial undertakings still have 
the greatest allure. Politically, they symbolize 
development in the eyes of the have-nots. Eco- 
nomically, they draw surplus population from the 
countryside and, by diversifying the economy, 
make it less vulnerable to shocks fi-om abroad. 
Through loans and technical assistance the United 
States is helping in the construction of steel 
plants, cement plants, power plants, and other 
basic facilities in various parts of the world. We 
will have to continue to help transform ancient, 
static, agrarian economies into more dynamic, 
more diversified, better-balanced mixtures of 
industry and agriculture. 



Benefits of Technical Assistance 

Technical assistance remains one of the most 
important weapons in our foreign economic policy 
arsenal. The underdeveloped countries tend to 
stress their need for grants and loans, but grants 
and loans without 'adequate prepai'ation to use 
them effectively will do little to speed the actual 
de\elopment process. One of the reasons for the 
feeling of greater hopefulness one gets in India 
and Pakistan, is the presence there of a corps 
of responsible trained public officials and business- 
men who know how to prepare and organize 
projects, how to teach and supervise others, how to 
put paper plans into operation. With their co- 
operation, the fruits of some of the U.S. and 
U.N. technical-assistance projects are becoming 
apparent. In Latin America, where technical 
assistance has had a longer history, progi'ess is 
even more notable. 

The touchiness regarding outside aid which 
exists among peoples of the underdeveloped coun- 
tries is not always appreciated by Americans. It is 
even more acute in nations that have just won their 
independence than in those that have had it for 
a long time. Nothing could be more erroneous 
than the notion that Asia, the Middle East and 
Africa are eager to get U.S. aid and reluctant to 
stand on their own feet. Their people are ex- 
tremely sensitive about outside aid, though less 
sensitive when it comes via the politically irre- 
proachable United Nations than when it comes 
directly from the United States. They need for- 
eign technicians, foreign capital, and foreign 
equipment, but the conditions under which they 
obtain them can make or break their governments. 
At the U.N. meetings the Soviets have repeatedly 
pointed out the risks which other countries run 
when they increase their dependence upon foreign 
technicians and foreign capital, or strengthen their 
ties with the United States. 

Our own security is too intimately bound up 
with the security of other free-world nations to 
allow us the luxury of washing our hands of coun- 
tries that exasperate us. Neither can we impose 
alien programs and policies upon other peoples. 
Yet we have to reconcile these hard facts with the 
commonsense policy of avoiding a bigger burden 
than we can carry. Our assistance should be 
matched by reasonable efforts on the part of other 
countries. After all, their future depends pri- 
marily on their own domestic decisions; what we 
do, at best, is to provide the extra push that can 
get them started or help them over the hump. 

Other countries have erected trade barriers that 
ought to be eliminated. Many of their financial 
and exchange and credit policies could stand re- 
vamping. So coiild their tax programs. Under- 
developed countries in need of capital can do much 
to improve the climate for foreign and domestic 
investment. Their development plans will have 
to be flexible enough to encourage more initiative 



July 6, 1953 



and experimentation. We have a right to ask for 
action along these lines from them. We exercise 
that right both in our international discussions 
and in our direct dealings with foreign govern- 
ments. 

In this process of mutual education, frictions 
and misunderstandings are bound to arise. Tlie 
development process, like the course of true love, 
is seldom smooth; it creates lots of stresses and 
strains. The lure of higher wages may bring peo- 
ple off the land and into the cities, where a change 
in the economic situation may leave them tempo- 
rarily jobless and stranded. Selfish groups now 
occupying a privileged status may lose their priv- 
ileges, resent that fact, and stir up trouble. The 
Communists will fish where the waters are 
troubled. Progress and stability are hard to 
reconcile. 

We will be quite unrealistic if we expect 100 
percent success in the sense that all nations aided 
directly or indirectly by the United States will 
adopt our brand of politics or economics, or will 
agree with us in the United Nations or elsewhere. 
Failure on our part to act in ways that will ex- 
pand trade and help fulfill the pent-up aspirations 
of the underdeveloped areas can assure the loss of 
large regions important to tlie security of the 
United States. Unfortunately, though, even the 
most skillful actions cannot guarantee that those 
areas will stay on our side. 

• Mr. Asher^i author of the above artiole, is a spe- 
cial assistant to the Assistant Secretary for Eco- 
nomic Affairs. He has been a delegate to several 
sessions of the V.N. Economic and Social Council 
and of its regional economic commissions. His 
article is based on an address made before the 
Economic Education Workshop at Marshall Col- 
lege, Huntington, W. Va., on June 11. 



imposed on a reciprocal basis.'' In answer to that, 
information on the Soviet action is not sufficiently 
detailed to permit any judgment about modifica- 
tion of our travel restrictions. 



Disturbances in East Germany 

Following are the texts of a statement on the 
East Berlin demonstrations issued on June 17 by 
the Allied military authorities in West Berlin; a 
letter sent on June 20 by Maj. Gen. P. T. Dibrova, 
Soviet military commander in Berlin, to Maj. Gen. 
Thomas S. Timberman, U.S. Commandant in Ber- 
lin; the Allied C ommandavts^ joint message sent 
on June 2^ in reply to Gen. Dibrova^s letter; 
and an exchange of corresporulence between the 
President and Chancellor Konrad Adenauer of the 
Federal Republic of Germany. 



Allied Commandants' Statement, June 17 

The British, French, and U.S. Commandants 
met with the Berlin municipal authorities this 
morning. Together they considei-ed all aspects of 
the present situation. The Commandants and the 
Berlin authorities fully agi-eed on the need of 
maintaining public order in the Western Sectors 
and on the advisability of adopting a completely 
calm attitude. 

They noted certain information according to 
which demonstrations in the Soviet Sector were 
alleged to have been incited by West Berlin agents. 
Since such allegations may give rise to serious 
misunderstandings as to the origin of such demon- 
strations, the French, British, and U.S. Com- 
mandants stressed clearly that neither the Allied 
authorities nor the West Berlin authorities have, 
in any manner whatsoever, either directly or indi- 
rectly, incited or fostered such demonstrations. 



Reported Easing of Restrictions 
on Travel in U.S.S.R. 

Statement by Press Officer Lincoln White ^ 

I have had a number of questions about reports 
of the removal of Soviet travel restrictions. The 
Department has not received detailed information 
as to the extent of the reported easing of travel 
restrictions on foreigners in the U.S.S.R. Infor- 
mation so far available indicates that there are 
still considerable areas within the Soviet Union 
which are not open for travel and that, further- 
more, some of the travel permitted is only for pur- 
poses of transit between points in the Soviet Union. 

Now, I have also been asked what our thinking 
is with respect to the travel restrictions we liave 



Gen. Dibrova to Gen. Timberman, June 20 ^ 

Confirming the receipt of your letter of June IS,* 
I consider it necessary to draw j'our attention to 
the fact that in your letter the events in Berlin on 
June 17 are represented in a distorted way, and I 
decisivelj' reject the protest contained in tliat letter 
as devoid of any basis. 

In connection with this, I must inform you that 
the measures taken on June 17 by the military 
authorities in the Eastern sector of Berlin were 
completely necessary to curtail the burnings and 
other disturbances caused by groups of provoca- 



' Made to correspondents on June 23. 



= For t(>xt of the tT.S. note of .Mar. 10. l!),-)2 to tlie U.S.S.R. 
on this subject anil for a raai) .showing areas in the U.S.S.R. 
which were close 1 to foreign travel as of Jan. 15, 1952, 
see Hui.i.ETiN of Mar. 24. 1!».'>2. ji. -l.'il. 

'Texts of this and the following letter were released to 
the jiress by the Department on June 24 (press release 
3;54). 

* HuLi-ETiN of June 2!>, 195,S, p. 897. 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Butlefin 



teurs and fascist agents from the Western sectors 
of Berlin who were sent here. 

It has been determined that the instigators of the 
disorders, sent out from West Berlin, were supplied 
with arms and radio transmitters, and were espe- 
cially instructed. Of the numerous proofs on 
hand, it is sufficient to indicate only the following. 
Investigative agencies of the German Democratic 
Republic published on June 11) the text of the 
interrogation of the arrested Werner Kalkowski, 
residing in the American sector of Berlin at Naun- 
instrasse 34, which showed that he was sent, in a 
group of 90 persons, into the Soviet sector of Berlin 
to set fires, loot shops, and create other disturb- 
ances, and which also showed that he, like other 
hirelings, performed this for money as mei'cenary 
agents of a foreign intelligence. So that you 
should have a fuller presentation of the matter, I 
enclose the text of the testimony of Werner Kal- 
kowski of June 19.° 

In view of the above and of other specifically 
determined facts, your letter can only be appraised 
as a futile effort to remove the responsibility for 
the crimes of the hirelings-provocateurs of war 
and instigators of excesses from the representatives 
of the three powers in West Berlin. 

In the circumstances cited, the Soviet occupying 
authorities could not remain inactive, nor afford 
freedom of action to the agents sent out from 
West Berlin. It is fully natural to ask you how 
the United States, English, and French authorities 
would have acted if agents-provocateurs had been 
sent out from East Berlin to set fires, conduct 



° Following is a summary of the enclosure : 

"Werner Kalkowski arrested with other agents-provoca- 
teurs by the East German security police on June 17, 1953, 
made the following admissions : 

"He was a resident of West Berlin. On June 16, at 
6 p. m. he had accepted the offer of a good reward from one 
Paul Gunting to stir up disorders in East Berlin. 

"On June 17, at 8 a. m. he joined a group of over 90 men. 
The leaders of the group were Paul Gunting, one Hans 
Jurgen, and an American by the name of Heaver. Heaver 
was in uniform and wore two stars on his "shoulder- 
boards". Instructions were given to join the strikers in 
the Eastern sector, to incite them to demand the overthrow 
of the Gdb Government, and to transform a peaceful 
demonstration into a riot. Furthermore, the group was to 
take an active part in the riot, raid government buildings, 
set fires, loot stores, knock down the Vopo's and rouse the 
mob against the lawful authority, using weapons if neces- 
sary. The group moved to Potsdamer Platz, joined the 
strikers and started shouting slogans against the govern- 
ment. Twenty men had bottles filled with gasoline which 
they had received from an American truck standing on the 
Potsdamer Bridge. On Potsdamer Platz, those who had 
bottles started to set fire to a number of buildings. Others 
threw stones at the police and at windows. The group 
then proceeded to Leipzigerstrasse where it continued to 
cause violence and shots were fired at the German police 
and crews of Soviet tanks. Kalkowski himself did not 
shoot because he did not have a weapon. His part con- 
sisted only in rousing the mob against the government. 
In this he was helped by the Americans who had set up 
two loudspeakers and continuously broadcasted incitement 
to violence." 



pogroms, commit murders and other disturbances, 
and instigate acts of violence in West Berlin. 

Of course, those guilty of the fires, looting, and 
other acts of violence will be brought to trial and 
severely punished. 

So far as the re-establishment of communication 
between the Eastern and Western sectors of Berlin 
is concerned, I consider it necessary to draw your 
attention to the fact that the Soviet military au- 
thorities see no hindrances either as to transport or 
other communication between the two sectors of 
the city, on condition that the Connnandants of the 
three powers in West Berlin take all measures nec- 
essary to guarantee the curtailment of forays by 
provocateurs and other criminal elements onto the 
territory of East Berlin. 

Allied Commandants to Gen. Dibrova, June 24 

We, the French, British and American Com- 
mandants, have received your letter of June 20 
and hasten to reject your allegations that the dis- 
turbances of June 17 were the result of action by 
groups sent from Western sectors of Berlin. The 
statement in the inclosure to your letter that an 
American called Heaver who was wearing a uni- 
form with two stars, which are the insignia of a 
major general, was seen giving the instructions to 
organize the disorders is, we are sure you will 
agree. Major General Dibrova, unworthy of seri- 
ous consideration and must be held to discredit 
the rest of the informant's testimony. 

You and the world are well aware of the true 
causes of the disorders which have recently oc- 
curred in Ea,st Berlin, and it is therefore unneces- 
sary for us to tell you that the three powers in 
West Berlin had no responsibility whatever for 
instigating them. 

We must therefore continue to demand that the 
remaining restrictions imposed on the Berlin pop- 
ulation be lifted and that the steps which you have 
already taken to reestablish circulation within 
Berlin be carried to their logical conclusions, free 
and unfettered movement between all sectors. 

We on our side shall continue as always to ful- 
fill our responsibility for the maintenance of law 
and order in our sectors, and we are ready to do 
our part in reestablishing normal conditions of 
life throughout the whole city. 

President's Correspondence With Chancellor 

White House press release dated June 26 

Chancellor Adenauer to the President, June M 

The people of the East sector of Berlin and of 
the East zone have despite the use of Soviet troops 
and tanks risen up unarmed against the regime of 
terror and force and demanded their rights of 
freedom. Many have had to pay for their bravery 
and courage with their lives. Nothing shows more 
clearly than the outcry of these tormented people 



Ju/y 6, 7953 



how intolerable the conditions in this area of Cen- 
tral Europe are. I should like to appeal to you 
urgently, Mr. President, in accordance with a reso- 
lution of June 10 of the German Bundestag, of 
which the American Government was notified, to 
do everything in your power in order that these 
conditions may be done away with, the human 
riglits which have been violated may be restored 
and the entire German people may be given back 
the unity and freedom which alone guarantee a 
lasting peaceful development in Europe. 

President Eisenhower's Reply, June 25 

I have received with deep interest and sympathy 
your message of June 21st. The latest events in 
East Berlin and Eastern Germany have stirred 
the hearts and hopes of people everywhere. This 
inspiring show of courage has reaffirmed our be- 
lief that years of oppression and attempted in- 
doctrination cannot extinguish the spirit of 
freedom behind the Iron Curtain. It seems clear 
that the repercussions of these events will be felt 
throughout the Soviet satellite empire. 

The United States Government is convinced that 
a way can and must be found to satisfy the justified 



aspirations of the German people for freedom and 
unity, and for the restoration of fundamental hu- 
man rights in all parts of Germany. It is for the 
attainment of these purposes that the government 
you head and the United States Government have 
been earnestly striving together. Although the 
Communists may be forced, as a result of these 
powerful demonstrations in East Germany to mod- 
erate their current policies, it seems clear that the 
safety and future of the people of Eastern Ger- 
many can only be assured when that region is uni- 
fied with Western Germany on the basis of free 
elections, as we urged the Soviets to agree to in 
the notes of Septernber 23, 1952, dispatched by the 
American, British and French Governments.^ It 
is still our conviction that this represents the only 
realistic road to German unity, and I assure you 
that my Government will continue to strive for 
this goal. 

In their hours of trial and sacrifice, I trust that 
the people of Eastern Germany will know that 
their call for freedom has been heard around the 
world. 



' BuiXETiN of Oct. 6, 1952, p. 517. 



America's Changing Relationship With Germany 



iy Richard Straus ' 



I am honored to have the opportunity to speak 
to you this evening about a problem which is very 
much on the minds of a great many Americans 
these days: our changing relationship with Ger- 
many. I know that this new relationship raises 
numerous questions, especially in the minds of 
those of us who, like you and me, fought against 
Germany and defeated her and are now asked to 
understand the re-establishment of German armed 
forces. To understand this new relationship be- 
tween the two countries we must first understand 
why it became necessary to alter our initial concept 
of Germany's treatment in the postwar era. We 
must understand how extensive the changes are 
and on what conditions they are predicated. Once 
we have examined these questions we can draw 
certain conclusions and, on the basis of the current 
structure of the German political scene, arrive at 

' Address made before the Convention of Jewish War 
Veterans of New Jersey at Mt. Freedom, N. J., on June 20. 
Mr. Straus is public-affairs specialist in the Bureau of 
German Affairs. 



an understanding of the forthcoming events in that 
area. 

It became apparent as early as 1946 that our 
long-range objectives which sought to establish in 
Germany a democratic people firmly allied with 
the free democratic world and without any mili- 
tary might to threaten the security of her neigh- 
bors was going to be tempered by a factor which 
arose as the result of the changing balance of 
power brought about by World War II. The 
Soviet Union's drive to gain control not only over 
the territory of other peoples but, tlirough the use 
of Communist projiaganda, over tlie minds of men 
the world over, was a factor wliich had an imme- 
diate impact in Germany where the Soviet Union 
was a co-occupier. I need not remind you of the 
Berlin blockade and the clarity with whicli Soviet 
intentions were demonstrated during that period. 
Nor need I remind you of the meaning of the im- 
position of the Iron Curtain which prevented the 
flow of people, of goods, of news, and of ideas from 
West to East. 



10 



Depatiment of State Bulletin 



This Iron Curtain became a gradual reality in 
Gennauy until it reached the point where Four 
}-*ower control in Germany became completely im- 
possible. Since the Western Powers, the United 
States, the United Kingdom, and France, wanted 
to proceed with the objectives which they had 
initially set for themselves, namely the establish- 
ment of democratic forces in Ciermany including 
the establishment of a democratic government, the 
Federal Republic of Germany was established in 
September 1949 and has proved itself to be a 
bulwark of democracy during the last 4 years. 

Up until 1950, however, no one had given any 
serious thought to ever again establishing German 
armed forces, in any context. In June of that 
year, however, war broke out in Korea. The 
analogy between Korea divided at the 38th parallel 
into free and subjected areas to a Germany divided 
at the Elbe into similar areas was all too obvious. 
The parallel had become even clearer when the 
Soviet Union began to arm a so-called ''People's 
Police" in Eastern Germany. It was clear from 
the beginning that this, now 130,000 man-strong, 
police corps was nothing but an army or, at any 
rate, would serve as a cadre for armed forces in 
case of hostilities. 

The ^A'^estern Powers were, therefore, faced with 
the necessity of having to expect an attack upon 
Western Germany at any time. As occupation 
powers, we had tlie responsibility to defend that 
area, and, as military strategists, we realized that 
Germany must be defended if Europe is not to fall. 
We could do this job ourselves and have the Ger- 
mans sit by and watch their country being de- 
fended by soldiers of other countries, or we could 
try to raise German armed forces under such safe- 
guards as to make a German military venture 
impossible. In September 1950, in New York, the 
Foreign Ministers of the United Kingdom, France, 
and this Government approved the principle of 
the establislunent of German contingents under 
appropriate safeguards. Later that year they de- 
termined that these contingents should be raised 
within the framework of a European Defense 
Community, a plan that had been expounded by 
the French Prime Minister Rene Pleven. 

Chancellor Adenauer, a European statesman at 
heart, who has always recognized the dangers in- 
herent in German militarism and in a German 
national army, wholeheartedly endorsed this 
decision. 

AAHien it had been determined that German 
armed contingents were to be raised and that 
Germany was to participate in the defense of 
Western Europe, it became obvious that she could 
participate only as an equal partner and that the 
occupation rules which still governed her had to 
be removed. In the meantime, the German Gov- 
ermnent had demonstrated its basic democratic 
nature and its strength to maintain a basically 
democratic posture. It was, therefore, an appro- 
priate step on the part of the three Western Powers 



to accept Germany as an equal partner and to 
conclude with her the Convention on Relations 
between the Three Powers and the Federal Repub- 
lic of Germany which was signed at Bonn on May 
26, 1952. 



Contractual Agreements 

These agreements, commonly known as the 
"Contractual Agreements with Germany," will 
serve to govern the relationship between the three 
Western occupation powers and Germany until a 
peace treaty can be concluded for all of Germany. 
The contractual agreements return to Germany 
virtual sovereignty. They maintain for the 
United States, the United Kingdom, and France 
only such powers as relate to Germany as a whole 
(that is, the relationship with the Soviet Union), 
certain emergency powers, and the right to station 
troops in the territory of the Federal Republic. 
In addition to a general agreement establishing 
the principles of the new relationship, there are 
specific conventions relating to the rights and 
obligations of the foreign forces, to settlement of 
matters arising out of the war, and to the financial 
relationship between Germany and the current 
occupying powers. 

Treaties between nations are only valuable if 
the political conditions in both countries permit 
the treaties to become effective. The relaxation 
of the restrictions on Germany's sovereignty must, 
therefore, be viewed in the context of the current 

Solitical situation in that country. We could not 
ave concluded or ratified the contractual agree- 
ments if certain basic political conditions had 
not been established in Germany — conditions upon 
which our whole policy is predicated. These con- 
ditions require a firm commitment on the part of 
the Federal Republic for an alliance with the 
free world. They require the maintenance in 
Germany of a government with a basically demo- 
cratic structure. They require adequate guar- 
antees on the part of Germany not only in writing 
but in political reality that they will never again 
attack a peaceful neighbor. And, finally, they 
require what the agreements themselves concede 
to the Western powers, the right to station our own 
forces in Germany for the defense of the free world 
and the right to proclaim a state of emergency in 
any of the following four conditions: In case of 
an attack upon the Federal Republic; in case of 
subversion of tlie liberal democratic order; in 
case of a serious public disturbance; and in case 
of a grave threat of any of these events. 

Let us, therefore, examine whether these con- 
ditions on which our agreements are predicated 
now exist in Germany. Tlie current government 
composed of members of the moderate right-wing 
parties is firmly allied with the West. Chancellor 
Adenauer himself, as you are unquestionably 
aware, is a statesman who has made the re-estab- 
lishment, perhaps the establishment for the first 



July 6, 1953 



n 



time, of harmonious Franco-German relations one 
of the basic tenets of his policy. His Government 
is firmly convinced that Germany's future lies in 
the free world and that unless her ties with the 
free world are bound firmly, Germany will be 
subjected to pressures both from the extreme left 
and the extreme right which would cause consid- 
erable political unrest. Popularly, the thesis of 
the firm alliance with the West has deep roots. 

It may be one of the results of Germany's attack 
on the Soviet Union that the average German has 
thereby become aware of the dangers of Soviet 
communism and is extremely skeptical of any Rus- 
sian move. This general feeling and especially 
the opposition to communism is equally as firmly 
rooted in the Socialist Party and its members. 
Socialism and communism have traditionally been 
forces in Germany, the more so since 1945 when 
the Gorman Socialists realized that the Communist 
Party was no more than a puppet of a foreign gov- 
ernment. Even the voice of those who would have 
a "neutral" Germany between East and West have 
become very quiet of late. Nothing can better 
demonstrate German-Communist relations than 
the recent demonstration in East Berlin. 

An appraisal of the basic democratic structure 
of Germany is more difficult. Mr. McCloy in his 
last report to the American people appraised the 
situation as follows : 

The results of five years of study of the values, hopes, 
fears and confusions of the West German rank and file 
do not add up to any simple answer to the question of 
whether or not democracy as a way of life will win out 
against non-democratic ideologies in the Germany of the 
future. Although it is not possible to say on the basis 
of the facts at hand that a strong and genuine democracy 
will grow in Germany, it is possible to say that it can- 
grow. There is evidence of sufficient support in Germany 
today for democratic principles to provide the conditions 
for future progress. 

The U.S. Government has accepted this position 
as the basis for its program in Germany. It will 
continue a vigorous public-affairs program de- 
signed to aid and stimulate the democratic forces 
inherent in German public life to assure that in 
Germany there will grow a democratic structure 
of such proportions as to make the alliance between 
Germany and the Western World a true alliance 
not only of expediency but of moral and political 
values. 



Security Guarantees 

The desire for adequate security guarantees is 
one which our Allies share with us and in which 
they are perhaps more emotional than many of us. 
I am thinking particularly of France, whicli lias 
fought three wars with Germany in the last 100 
years. It is, therefore, particularly noteworthy 
that the plan under which German contingents are 
being establi.shed was a plan of Frencli origin. 
This plan provides for a European army under a 



European general staff. The structure of these 
forces is such as to make it virtually impossible 
for Germany to assume control over her own forces 
for an aggressive venture at any time. These se- 
curity guarantees were basic Allied requirements 
in permitting the establishment of a new relation- 
ship between the victors and the vanquished of 
World War II. 

The new relationship is still in the making. The 
United States, the United Kingdom, and the Ger- 
man Parliament have ratified the contractual 
agreements. The German Parliament has also 
ratified tlie European Defense Community (Edc) 
treaty. In order for the treaties to go into effect, 
the ratification of France to both of these treaties 
is still required as is the ratification of the four 
other signatories (Holland, Belgium, Luxem- 
bourg, Italy) to the Edc treaty. Until both of 
tliese treaties are fully ratified, none of the treaties 
will go into effect. In the meantime we have grad- 
ually moved from the occupation era to the era 
of cooperative action. 

Many problems which initially had to be solved 
by Allied action have now been turned over to the 
Germans and are being solved satisfactorily by the 
German Government. I am thinking particularly 
of the restitution agreement with Israel and the 
World Jewish Organizations under which Ger- 
many has agreed to pay the sum of $12 billion in 
indemnity for the wrongs done to Jews by the 
Third Reich. The German Government itself has 
stated that this sum in no way can make up for 
the human and material losses which were caused 
by the Nazi regime but they felt that it represents 
in as far as Germany can bear the burden a mate- 
rial restitution and thereby an aid to the new 
Republic of Israel. I am thinking also of the 
recently concluded agreement on German debts. 
I am thinking further of individual restitution, of 
decartelization and deconcentration, all of which 
have been or are being assumed by the German 
authorities. And finally, I would like to bring to 
your attention the action of the German Govern- 
ment and German people in creating within the 
German society such democratic institutions as a 
National Conference for Christians and Jews, a 
League of Civil Rights and many other semigov- 
ernmental and private institutions designed spe- 
cifically to safeguard the initiative which was 
taken by the Allied Powers in the immediate post- 
war period to establish a democratic Germany 
which could become a partner in the free world. 

I have every reason to believe that tliis trend 
will continue. Tliere is to be an election in Ger- 
many tliis year and as in all elections there will 
be recriminations and nationalistic speeches. 
Many of them may be misunderstood bj' foreign 
listeners. But I sincerely believe that once the 
election campaign is completed, regardless of 
which of the major parties is successful, the trends 
which liave been set in Germany over the past 4 
years will continue. 



12 



Department of State Bulletin 



Syngman Rhee's Reply to President's Letter 
on Korean Armistice 



Follounng is the text of a letter dated June 19 
from. Syngman Rhee, President of the Republic 
of Korea, in reply to President Eisenhower'' s letter 
of Jv/rie 6:^ 

Dear Mr. President : First of all, I must apolo- 
gize for my long delay in answering your good 
letter of June 6, 1953. To confess the truth, I 
made more than one draft, but I could not express 
myself clearly without appearing to be argumen- 
tative, which I wanted to avoid. I do hope you 
will read this letter in the same friendly spirit in 
which it is written. 

From the beginning, we repeatedly tried to 
make clear to all friendly nations that if an armi- 
stice permitting the Chinese aggressors to remain 
in Korea should be concluded we could not survive. 
This apprehensiveness has not abated. 

Evidently our friendly nations seem to take it 
for granted that the withdrawal of the Chinese 
Communists from Korea and the subsequent uni- 
fication of Korea can be accomplished by the po- 
litical conference scheduled to follow the armi- 
stice. I do not wish to enter detailed argument 
over this point but I feel I must say, at least, that 
we do not believe in the possibility. 

It is true that is a matter of opinion. Our opin- 
ion is, however, supported by facts which we can 
never ignore or forget. The experiences we have 
gone through ourselves will remain a guiding 
factor in forming our judgments until something 
happens which convincingly counter-attacks them. 

Now that the United Nations is to conclude a 
cease-fire agreement with the Communist aggres- 
sors regardless of what may happen to Korea, in 
practical terms we are constantly haunted by the 
question of how we can survive as a nation at all. 
The following passages will, I hope, give you some 
idea of our reactions to the situation. 

We desire to remain friendly to the United 
States to the last, remembering what it has done 
for us, both militarily and economically in our 
struggle against aggression. 

If the United States forces have to stand by, for 



' Bulletin of June 15, 1953, p. aSS. 
Ju\y 6, 1953 



some reason, ceasing to participate in any further 
struggle or to withdraw from Korea altogether as 
an aftermath of the impending armistice, we have 
nothing to say against it. 

Whenever they find it necessary or desirable to 
leave Korea they can do so with a friendly feeling 
toward us just as we are trying to remain their 
friends. So long as either party does not inter- 
fere with the plans of the other, both can main- 
tain the cordial relations between them. 

In the first year of this three-year-old war, both 
the United States and the United Nations alter- 
nately and repeatedly announced, as the war ob- 
jectives, the establishment of a united, independent 
and democratic Korea and the punishment of the 
aggressors. It was at the time of the United Na- 
tions drive to the Yalu that they made these an- 
nouncements so that we naturally took them as 
their declared war objectives. But later, when the 
Communist forces proved to be stronger than ex- 
pected, the United Nations statesmen took to the 
interpretation that it had never been intended to 
unify Korea by war. That was an open confes- 
sion of weakness; very few people took it at its 
face value. Nowadays we hear no more about the 
unification of Korea or the punishment of the 
Communist aggressors, as if either we had achieved 
these objectives or abandoned them. 

All we hear about is an armistice. There is 
grave doubt that an armistice reached in such an 
atmosphere of appeasement can lead to a perma- 
nent peace acceptable and honorable to us. Per- 
sonally, I do not believe that the Communists will 
agree, at a conference table, to what they have 
never been made to agree to on the battlefield. 

Your generous offers of economic aid and an 
increase of the E.O.K. defense forces are highly 
appreciated by all Korean people, for they are 
what we badly need. But when such offers come 
as a price for our acceptance of the armistice as 
we know it, they cannot but have little induce- 
ment, because, as I have said before, to accept such 
an armistice is to accept a death warrant. 

Nothing would be of much avail to Korea, to 
say the least, after that fatal blow should have 
been dealt it. 



13 



President's Rapresentative 
Departs for Korea 

Statement by Walter 8. Robertson 
Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs^ 

I am flying to Korea ns the personal representa- 
tive of tlie President and the Secretary of State 
and in response to an invitation from President 
lUiee. I talie with me a message from the Secre- 
tary to President Khee, the contents of which I am 
not at liberty to disclose. I will discuss with Gen- 
eral Clark and Ambassador P>riggs, as well as with 
President Rhee and the other Korean leaders, all 
aspects of the situation in Korea where we and 
the Korean ponple have fought and sacrificed heav- 
ily for 3 years. In this way my visit should enable 
us in Washington to have a firsthand and up-to- 
date picture of how things stand in Korea. I hope 
that my visit will also give General Clark and 
Ambassador Briggs — as well as President Rhee — 
the clearest picture of the views of the U.S. Gov- 
ernment. 



* Made at Washington National Airport on June 
22 (press release 332). Other members of the mis- 
sion included Carl W. McCardle, Assistant Secre- 
tary for Public Affairs, and Kenneth Young, Director 
of the Oflice of Northeast Asian Affairs. 



We do not question the sincerity with which 
you kindly promised to use your authority to bring 
about a mutual defense pact between our two na- 
tions, after the conclusion of the armistice. As a 
matter of fact, a mutual defense pact is what we 
have constantly sought, and we are behind it heart 
and soul; but if it is tied up with the armistice its 
efficacy would be diminished almost to a vanishing 
point. 

Mr. President, you will easily imagine what a 
hard situation we confront. We committed every- 
thing, including our arms and forces, to the United 
Nations action in Korea, incurring frightful losses 
in manpower as well as material destruction, in 
the sole belief that we and our friends had the self- 
same objectives of unifying sundered Korea and 
punishing the Communist aggressors. Now the 
United Nations seems to stop short of its original 
aims and to come to terms with the aggressors 
which we cannot accept, not because we have never 
been consulted but because those terms would mean 
sure death for the Korean nation. Moreover, the 
United Nations is now putting pressure on us in 
cooperating with it; and is joining hands, it seems, 
with the enemy in this matter of armistice terms. 

We cannot avoid seeing the cold fact that the 
counsels of appeasers have prevailed in altering 
the armistice positions of the United States. In 
our view, this perilous trend, if perpetuated by 
the conclusion of this fatal armistice, will even- 
tually endanger the remainder of the free world 
including the United States, which millions of 
both free and enslaved hope and pray from the 
bottom of their hearts will lead tliem in liberation 
of the peoples in chains behind the Iron Curtain. 

14 



At this very moment, the Communist forces are 
launching a large-scale offensive when the armis- 
tice talks have scarcely left anything except the 
afhxing of signatures by the parties concerned. 
This should be a warning for our immediate 
future. The terms of the armistice being what 
they are, the Communist build-up will go on 
unhampered until it is capable of overwhelm- 
ing South Korea with one swoop at a moment of 
the Communists' own choosing. AYliat is to fol- 
low for the rest of the Far East ? And the rest of 
Asia ? And the rest of the free world ? 

Still looking to your wise leadership for a 
remedy in this perilous hour, 
Yours very sincerely, 

Syngman Rhee. 



General Assembly President 

Asks Syngman Rhee's Cooperation 

Secretary-General Dag Ilammarskjold on June 
22 tranf^mitted to President Syngjnan Rhee of 
South Korea the following message from Le-^tcr B. 
Pearson, president of the U.N. General Assembly: ^ 

As President of the General Assembly of the 
United Nations I have been shocked to hear of the 
unilateral action which you have sanctioned in 
bringing about the release of nonrepatriable North 
Korean prisoners from the United Nations Pris- 
oner of War Camps in Korea. 

I take this occasion to recall the decisive action 
taken by the United Nations when aggression was 
initiated in June 1950 and the satisfaction which 
you expressed in the response of the United 
Nations to the urgent appeals made by you for 
military and other assistance. That collaboration, 
aimed at the repelling of aggression and the resto- 
ration of your country to a condition of peace and 
economic well-being, has been marked by 3 years 
of effective effort on the part of members of the 
United Nations, and of your Government and 
people, under the direction of the United Nations 
Command. In view of what this collaboration has 
meant to your people, it is most regrettable that 
3'ou have taken action which threatens the results 
already achieved and the prospect of a peaceful 
solution of remaining problems. 

This release of North Korean prisoners from 
United Nations Prisoner of War Camps in Korea 
is particularly sliocking in view of the progress 
made by the armistice negotiators in Panmunjom, 
which has resulted in the acceptance of principles 
laid down in the United Nations General Assem- 
bly's Resolution of 3 December 1052, endorsed by 
64 member nations. The acceptance of the prin- 
ciples underlying this resolution, especially that of 
no forcible repatriation of prisoners, which has 
been the basis of your position as well as that of the 
United Nations, has only been obtained after 2 



• U.N. doe. A/2308 dated .Tune 23. 



Department of State Bulletin 



years of patient and persistent negotiation by the 
United Nations Command. 

The action taken with your consent, in releasing 
the Nortli Korean prisoners, viohites the agree- 
ment reached by tlie two sides on June 8, 1953, 
embodying these principles, and it occurs at a time 
when hostilities are about to cease, and when the 
questions of the unification of Korea and related 
Korean problems can be dealt with by a political 
conference involving the parties concerned. 

In July 1950, as a means of assuring necessary 
military solidarity with the United Nations effort 
in repelling aggression, you undertook to place the 
land, sea and air forces of the Republic of Korea 
under the "command authority" of the United 
Nations Command. Your action referred to above 
violates that undertaking. 

As President of the General Assembly of the 
United Nations I feel it my duty to bring to your 
attention the gravity of this situation. I hope and 
trust that you will cooperate with the United Na- 
tions Command in its continuing and determined 
efforts to obtain an early and honourable armistice. 

I should like to take this occasion to express, as 
President of the United Nations General Assemblj', 
my profound sympathy for the sufferings of the 
people of Korea during the past 3 years, and my 
admiration for the valiant efforts of the Army in 
its cooperation with the foixes of the United Na- 
tions. It is my earnest hope that this cooperation 
will continue, not only in the immediate task of 
obtaining the armistice but in assuring that the 
armistice is thereafter faithfully observed, in 
order that we may jointly proceed toward our 
common objective of the unification of Korea by 
peaceful means. If this cooperation were ended, 
it would be the Korean people who would suffer 
first and suffer most.' 



Pakistan To Receive U.S. Wheat 

Signature of the Wheat Aid Act 

Statement hy the President 

White House press release dated June 25 

1 am deeply gratified to sign this act which 
makes it possible to send up to 1 million tons of 
wheat to help avert famine among the people of 
Pakistan. We are fortunate in being able to help 
them by sharing some of the fruits of our labor and 
soil. 

Americans have a strong feeling of friendship 
for the people of Pakistan. We have great admira- 

2 On June 2.3 Department Press Officer Lincoln White 
made the following statement to correspondents : 

"The United Nations has a major and immediate interest 
in the Korean situation. Mr. Pearson, as President of the 
General Assembly, has forcefully expressed this interest in 
a message to President Rhee which has just been released. 
The views contained in Mr. Pearson's message accord with 
those expressed to President Rhee by spokesmen for the 
United States Government." 



tion for this young country which is engaged in a 
valiant and determined effort to overcome prob- 
lems of tremendous magnitude. Their efforts re- 
mind us of the turmoil and struggle of our own 
early days — and the struggle which confronts us 
on a broader scale today. 

AVe are proud to have such staunch friends as 
the people of Pakistan, who are dedicated to the 
democratic way of life. We are happy to be able 
to respond to their need with this aid. 

The swift action by tlie Congress in making pos- 
sible this aid, within 2 weeks after my message 
requesting such assistance,* reflects the sympathy 
and concern of the people of the United States for 
the people of Pakistan. 

Our sincere holies for peace and prosperity go 
with this grain. 

Shiploading Ceremony 

Remarks by Horace A. Hildreth^ 

As American Ambassador to Pakistan, I am 
naturally very pleased to be present at this 
ceremony. 

The Secretary of State, Mr. Dulles, has asked 
me to express to you his sincere regret that he is 
unable to be here personally He does want me to 
tell you how impressed he was with what he saw 
on his recent visit to Pakistan. 

Certainly there are many features about the 
country and its people which have great appeal 
for Americans. It is a nation of hard-working 
people who are determined to achieve their pri- 
mary goals, which include increasing their stand- 
ard of living. In its few years of existence as a 
nation, it has accepted grave responsibilities in 
world affairs. 

Although it has not been long since I was ap- 
pointed to my post, the first and outstanding thing 
I learned of at firsthand was the deep amount of 
good will and friendship which exists on the part 
of the people of Pakistan toward the United 
States. At this critical moment in history, when 
our country and the rest of the free world is threat- 
ened by the most imperialistic, godless power the 
world has known, our people can indeed be happy 
that these warm feelings exist. The swift action 
of the U.S. Government in approving emergency 
wheat aid to Pakistan has been cited by a leading 
Pakistani paper as "proof of infallible friendship 
between two free nations." It is evident from the 
response in the United States that this sentiment 
of friendship is reciprocated here. 

Why do we give this wheat to Pakistan ? 

Let me say what I think about it as the American 
Ambassador to that country. 

I have seen at firsthand the needs of this young 
nation. Its Government and people are faced with 

' For text of the President's message, see Bulletin of 
June 22, 1953, p. 889. 

' Made at Baltimore, Md., on June 26 (press release 
337.) 



July 6, 1953 



15 



President Eisenhower, Prime Minister 
of Pal<istan Excliange Messages 

On June 2.9 the White House made puilio the 
folloioinr/ exchange of messages between the Presi- 
dent and Mohammed Ali, Prime Minister of 
Pakistan: 

The Prime Minister's Message 

I have received with much pleasure the news that 
you signed, on the 2r)th June, 1953, the Bill providing 
one million tons of vpheat grant to Paliistan. This 
news has been received here witli a general sense of 
relief because we Ijnow now that with this generous 
aid we shall be able to meet the food shortage with 
which Pakistan was faced. This generous grant 
from the people of the United States of America and 
the promptness with which your Government has 
acted is a fine practical proof of friendliness and 
good will which the United States of America bears 
towards my country. I assure you that this timely 
help, which will relieve distress in the country, has 
earned the deep gratitude of the nation. 

I also wish to convey my personal thanks to you 
and your Government for all that has been done to 
help Pakistan. 

The President's Reply 

I appreciate the warm expression of your grati- 
tude for the action of our people in providing wheat 
for your stricken country. Our response to your 
call was made in the American tradition of giving 
help to the best of our ability where help is needed. 
It is also a true measure of the friendly feeling and 
admiration which Americans liave for the people of 
Pakistan. We are proud to count your vigorous, 
young nation among our friends. 



internal economic problems of great magnitude. 
They are facing them with courage and imagina- 
tion. Meanwhile the forces of nature have not 
been kind. 

Pakistan is now faced with a critical food short- 
age which threatens many of its people with 
famine and starvation. It is sometimes difficult 
for Americans to imagine the sufferings of men 
and women who live far from our shores unless we 
have personally seen them for ourselves. But these 
sufferings are nonetheless real. This wheat will 
help prevent many, many human beings from 
starving. At the same time, this aid will be of 
tremendous help in alleviating what otherwise 
would be a grave danger to the economy and 
internal stability of Pakistan. 

Pakistan sprang from the deep desire of its 

geople to be free and to remain free. The United 
tates can be proud of its support. 
We have shown our interest in many ways — 
through Point Four and other economic help, our 
exchange of persons i)rogram, the work of private 
American organizations, and now with this gi'ant 
of wheat. I will indeed be happy and proud to 
return to my post at Karachi knowing that my 
country has responded so quickly to this request 
of a friend. 



16 



Long-Range Program Recommended 
For Underdeveloped Areas 

A long-range program for building up the less 
developed areas will help achieve economic bal- 
ance throughout the free world, an Advisory Com- 
mittee on Underdeveloped Areas has reported to 
Mutual Security Director Harold E. Stassen. 

The observation was made by the group of pri- 
vate citizens after a 2-month study of past and 
current U.S. programs in underdeveloped areas. 
Their report, made public on June 13, is titled 
"Economic Strength for the Free World — Prin- 
ciples of a United States Foreign Development 
Program." The report concerns the less indus- 
trialized countries of Southern Europe as well as 
those of Latin America, South and Southeast Asia, 
the Middle East, and Africa, and proposes guide- 
posts for future programs for their development. 

In recommending a long-range program, the 
Committee suggests that private investment, stim- 
ulated by an expanded U.S. Government invest- 
ment-guaranty program, should play a greater 
role in the underdeveloped areas and that, while 
industrialization is necessary, it should not be 
emphasized to the point where it would unbalance 
the economy. 

In a foreword to the report, Mr. Stassen describes 
it as "a thoughtful and reasoned document which 
contributes to our understanding of the problems 
of the underdeveloped areas and to our apprecia- 
tion of the widening United States interest in those 
areas." Calling the publication of the report 
"most timely," Mr. Stassen also said it "can serve 
as one of the guides in the review of programs 
for Mutual Security now under way or wliich may 
be undertaken in the future." 

Warning that "economic development [in these 
areas] cannot be promoted effectively on a year-to- 
year basis," the report concludes : 

There should be some assurance to the free world that 
we are "in the world for good" and that our interest in 
the less developed areas is not a short-run emergency 
policy. Recognition of the inevitable and continuing role 
and responsibilities of the United States in today's inter- 
dependent world is a fundamental problem of American 
public policy and legislative understanding. 

In discussing the potential role of the under- 
developed areas in the balancing of free world's 
economy, the Committee points out that these 
regions are "a significant segment of the trading 
world," with untapped sources of raw materials. 
The development of these areas, the Committee 
concludes, could help, for instance, to reduce 
Western Europe's dollar deficit. 

The report suggests that increased U.S. invest- 
ments would aid tlie development of these regions 
and, at tlie same time, lielp produce commodities 
r(M]uiiTd in Europe and now obtainable only from 
dollar areas. 

Other recommendations and findings in the 
report include: 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



— Public financing should develop basic serv- 
ices, such as transport, power, communications, 
and liealth and sanitary services wliich, in turn, 
would attract more private capital into the less 
developed areas; 

— The advisability of broadening the U.S. 
Government guaranty program, administered by 
MsA, to cover war risks under certain conditions 
should be carefully explored; 

— The financing of projects for direct produc- 
tion, especially in mining or industry, should nor- 
mally be left to private capital, "wjiere the rislv 
of loss will help to assure careful screening;" 

— While industrialization "has become a power- 
ful symbol, the economic counterpart of nation- 
alism and political independence," there should 
be countersteps to the tendency of some less 
developed countries "to make industrialization 
the principal . . . focus of their efforts toward 
economic development, and to undermine their 
position as materials producers in seeking to 
achieve it;" 

— In view of the extra financial burdens placed 
en some underdeveloped areas as a result of the 
free world's defense buildup, military programs 
should be integrated with economic and financial 
piograms. 

The report also considers a variety of other 
phases of development programs and possibilities, 
including the need for technical assistance, types 
of financing, population problems, and questions 
involved in the search for basic and strategic 
materials. 

The members of the Advisory Committee who 
made the study are : 

Chairman, John E. Orchard, professor of economic 
geograpiiy. Graduate School of Business, Columbia Uni- 
versity ; Edwin G. Arnold, executive associate, Ford 
Foundation, New York ; C. W. de Kiewiet, president, 
University of Rochester ; John W. Harriman, dean of tlie 
Graduate School, Syracuse University; Lester K. Little, 
inspector general of Chinese Customs (retired) ; Edward 
S. Mason, dean, Littauer School of Puhlic Administra- 
tion, Harvard University ; Stacy May. economic adviser 
on staff of Nelson A. Rockefeller and adviser to the Inter- 
national Basic Economy Corporation, New York City ; and 
Whitney H. Shepardson, president, National Committee 
for Free Europe. 



MSA Productivity Allotments 

To France 

The Mutual Security Agency (Msa) on June 5 
announced the allotment of $30 million in defense- 
support funds to France under terms of a special 
agreement concluded on May 28. The new alloca- 
tion enables France to create a fund of 9,450,000,- 
000 francs to finance an expanded industrial and 
agricultural productivity program. 

France is the sixth Western European country 
to conclude a productivity agreement with the 
United States. Earlier agreements have been 



reached with the United Kingdom, Western Ger- 
many, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Italy. A 
total of $77 million in defense-support funds has 
now been committed for the six countries under 
the productivity agreements. Negotiations for 
similar agreements are pending with Norway, Bel- 
gium, Austria, Turkey, and Greece. 

Tlie productivity agreements are being made 
under the terms of 1951 and 1952 amendments to 
mutual-security legislation which direct the 
Agency to conclude agreements that would make 
possible the utilization of the equivalent of ap- 
proximately $100 million in Western European 
currencies in an area-wide productivity drive of 
expanded proportions. 

France will immediately launch a three-pronged 
productivity campaign designed to stimulate 
French free enterprise through the cooperative 
action of all elements of the economy. 

The purpose of the French productivity pro- 
gram was stated by Robert Buron, French Minister 
of Economic Affairs, in his May 28 letter to Henry 
R. Labouisse, Msa Mission Chief in France, con- 
cluding the agreement. The letter stated: 

The development of the mutual security and the indi- 
vidual and collective defense of the free world depends in 
large measure on the establishment in France of a healthy 
and expanding economy capable of assuring a progressive 
rise in standards of living. In order to attain these ob- 
jectives, the French Government considers that it is highly 
desirable to stimulate the expansion of the French economy 
by encouraging the increase of production and produc- 
tivity of industry and agriculture in cooperation with the 
union organizations which have been members of the 
National Productivity Committee and with like-minded 
labor groups. To make this action effective, it is recog- 
nized that competition should be encouraged, while re- 
strictive trade practices which result in decreased 
production and higher prices, should be combatted. 

In the three-phase program, France will pro- 
vide (1) francs equivalent to approximately $10 
million as grants for use in industrial, housing, 
distribution, agricultural, and research projects 
designed to increase output, lower prices, and 
raise wages; (2) francs equivalent to $2,400,000 
for the European Productivity Agency established 
May 1 under the Organization for European 
Economic Cooperation (Oeec) ; and (3) francs 
equivalent to approximately $14.6 million to make 
loans and loan guarantees to private enterprises 
and cooperatives wishing to modernize their op- 
erations for the purpose of improving produc- 
tivity. The franc equivalent of $3 million will 
be reserved for the U.S. Administrative Account. 

Notable in the uses that will be made of the 
franc funds is the tentative allocation of 
700,000,000 francs (equal to $2 million) for as- 
sistance to industrial firms or cooperatives who 
wish to improve methods of organization and man- 
agement as examples which may be followed by 
other firms and cooperatives. Typical of this 
type of project are those currently being carried 
out in cooperation with the French shoe and men's 
clothing industries. Similar "pilot projects" 



Jo/y 6, 7953 



17 



will be encouraged in such industries as cotton, 
silk, and building construction. 

Also noteworthy in the intensified French pro- 
gram is the allocation of 850 million francs (equal 
to $2,420,000) in the agricultural field, chiefly for 
the development of a unified extension service 
for farmers. Other projects in this field are aimed 
at the improvement of product quality market or- 
ganization and distribution. 

The principles governing the 5.11 billion franc 
(equivalent to $14.6 million) loan progi'am re- 
strict such loans to enterprises which are con- 
sidered by the French Productivity Commissariat 
(established by decree. May 28) to be adaptable 
to improved productivity techniques, and which 
will use such loans for the purpose of expanding 
production and improving productivity. Loans 
may be made for the purpose of purchasing equip- 
ment, supplies, and services or for plant expansion 
and the increase of working capital. Directed 
primarily toward small and medium-sized enter- 
prises, the loans will regularly be at 6 percent 
interest. 

In entering into the agreement the French Gov- 
ernment noted that the additional funds will give 
vastly greater impetus to France's productivity 
effort, which has been under way since 1948. 

To Norioay 

The Mutual Security Agency (Msa) on June 
10 announced the allotment of $4 million in de- 
fense-support funds to spur Norway's productiv- 
ity drive. Industry, commerce, agriculture, and 
fisheries will be affected. 

The Norwegian Government will use the $4 
million credit to purchase commodities needed in 
her defense program, but will deposit an equiva- 
lent amount of kroner to finance the expanded 
productivity drive. The Norwegian Storting 
(Parliament) is appropriating an additional 5 
million kroner (equal to about $700,000) to fur- 
ther the productivity drive. 

The MsA allotment was made under the terms of 
a special productivity agreement between the Gov- 
ernments of Norway and the United States, as pro- 
vided by 1951 and 1952 amendments to mutual- 
security legislation authorizing the use of up to 
$100 million to stimulate productivity and free 
enterprise. 

Under the expanded Norwegian productivity 
drive, about 10 million kroner (equal to $1,400,000) 
generated by the Msa allotment will be used to 
help finance the operations of a new nongovern- 
mental Norwegian productivity institute. The 
institute's main functions will be to promote pi'o- 
ductivity, make grants of funds to public, private 
and cooperative institutions and organizations 
pursuing productivity goals, and provide advice to 
the Norwegian Government on the operation and 
administration of a revolving productivity loan 
fund. 



18 



The Government will launch the revolving loan 
fund with another 10 million kroner (equal to 
$1,400,000) generated by the Msa dollar allotment. 
Six million kroner (equal to about $840,000) will 
be used to finance intensive productivity programs 
for agriculture and fisheries under guidance of the 
respective ministries. The kroner equivalent of 
$320,000 will be set aside as Norway's contribution 
to the new European Productivity Agency estab- 
lished on May 1 by the Organization for European 
Economic Cooperation (Oeec). 

The new institute will take over the major re- 
sponsibility for carrying on Norwegian produc- 
tivity and technical-assistance activities organized 
in cooperation with Msa. In the past, these activi- 
ties have been handled by special offices in the 
Norwegian Departments of Industry and 
Commerce. 



To Belgium, 

The Mutual Security Agency on June 16 al- 
lotted $1 million to Belgium to launch an expanded 
agricultural and industrial productivity program 
in that country. 

Belgium is the eighth Western European coun- 
try to conclude a special agreement with the 
United States for such a program. 

The Belgian Government has indicated that it 
will use the $1 million allotment to pay for com- 
modities and services which have "direct bearing 
on the improvement of productivity or the pro- 
motion of the productivity program." 

Belgium is to match the dollar allotment with 
50 million Belgian francs to be used as follows : 41 
million for agricultural and industrial loans and 
grants in direct support of the expanded pro- 
ductivity drive; 4 million to be contributed to the 
new European Productivity Agency established 
under the Organization for European Economic 
Cooperation (Oeec) ; and 5 million to be reserved 
for use of the U.S. Government as provided by 
the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948. 

Apart from funds for technical-assistance proj- 
ects, Belgium has received no dollar grants since 
1950 when it was indicated that the country needed 
no further dollar assistance. The agreement for 
economic cooperation between Belgium and the 
United States, drafted in July of 1948, continues 
in effect, however, and the June 16 allotment was 
made under its provisions. 

Belgium is one of the first countries to plan the 
use of its MsA-generated productivity funds to 
establish demonstration plants in various indus- 
tries to convey "to the broadest segment possible 
of the Belgian population" the results which can 
be obtained from -application of productivity 
principles. It is proposed to launch the demon- 
stration program in the Belgian shoe industry, 
adding other consumer goods industries as the 
program progresses. 

Department of State Bulletin 



The North Atlantic Marine Research Program 



MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL CCMMISSION FOR THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC FISHERIES 
AT NEW HAVEN, CONN., MAY 2S-30. 1953 



hy 'William M. Terry 



The International Commission for the North- 
west Atlantic Fisheries held its third annual meet- 
ing at New Haven, Conn., from May 25 to May 30, 
1953. Commissioners and advisers from the 10 
member nations met at the Bingham Oceano- 
graphic Laboratory as guests of Yale University 
to review the status of the great groundfish fish- 
eries off the west coast of Greenland, the coast of 
Labrador, and on the banks of Newfoundland, 
Nova Scotia, and New England. The member 
nations are Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, 
Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, the United King- 
dom, and the United States. The U.S. Commis- 
sioners are John L. Kask, Assistant Director, 
Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of 
the Interior, Bernhard KnoUenberg, attorney, 
Chester, Conn., and Francis W. Sargent, Director 
of Marine Fisheries, Massachusetts Department of 
Conservation. 

The Commission, established pursuant to a con- 
vention signed in February 1950, is responsible for 
the investigation, protection, and conservation of 
the fisheries of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. In 
essence its task is to keep these fisheries imder con- 
stant revi?w, to guide and coordinate the research 
efforts of its 10 member nations, and, when condi- 
tions warrant, to propose regulatory measures to 
the member nations. The first such I'egulation, 
recommended by the Commission at its second 
annual meeting in 1952, limits the size of meshes 
in nets used in the haddock fishery off the New 
England coast. It entered into force on June 1, 
1953. 

The U.S. interest in certain of these fisheries, and 
consequently in the Commission, is great. In- 
deed, it was the initiative of the United States 
which brought the Commission into being. Each 
year American fishermen catch approximately 800 
million pounds of fish, valued at about 35 million 
dollars, in the Northwest Atlantic area. Some 
15,000 fishermen in New York and the New Eng- 
land States are dependent upon these fisheries for 



their livelihood. In recent yeurs New England 
fishermen had become increasingly concerned about 
the conservation of the haddock fishery and had 
urged the Government to seek means of restoring 
haddock to previous levels of abundance. Since 
this important fishery was conducted by the fish- 
ermen of many nations, it was clear that onlj' 
through international cooperation could the had- 
dock resources be protected. Accordingly, in 1949 
the United States invited the governments of the 
10 nations most interested in the problem to meet 
in Washington to arrange for joint action. As a 
result of this conference, the International Con- 
vention for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, es- 
tablishing the Commission, was concluded on 
February 8, 1949.^ 

The Commission has made great progress toward 
its objectives. Prior to its third annual meeting 
it had acquired a small staff and developed a sys- 
tem for the collection and dissemination among 
its members of statistical and scientific informa- 
tion. At its second annual meeting it proposed 
the mesh regulation, mentioned previously, as a 
likely answer to the problem in the New England 
haddock fishery. Tlius, concrete action which will 
benefit the United States was taken only a short 
time after the creation of the Commission. Also, 
at the second annual meeting, the Commission 
established a working group of scientists to draw 
up a comprehensive research program for the Con- 
vention area, in a sense a master plan for future 
investigations. Progress on the whole was some- 
what hampered, however, by the fact that only 
six of the signatory governments had ratified the 
convention. Until membership was complete, all 
phases of the work could not go forward. 



' For text of the final act of this conference and of the 
International Convention for the Northwest Athintic Fish- 
eries, see Documents and State Papers (Department of 
State publication 3484) for March and April 1940, p. 707; 
for a report on the International Commission's first meet- 
ing, in April 1951, see Bulletin of June 11, 1951, p. 954. 



July 6, 7953 



19 



At the third annual meeting, all signatory 
governments were represented by Commissioners 
for the first time. The remaining four signatory 
nations had ratified the convention during the past 
year, so tiiat membership is nov? complete. 

The most important items of business before the 
Conmiission at this meeting were (1) a review 
of the status of the fish stocks in the several sub- 
areas into which the Convention area is divided; 
(2) consideration of research activities sched- 
uled for the coming year; (3) recommendations 
to member governments for improvement of the 
Commission's statistical work; and (4) considera- 
tion of a comprehensive research program for the 
Convention area. 



Problems of the Subareas 

Tlie first two of these items were dealt with at 
meetings of the five panels, committee-like organi- 
zations set up to keep under continuous review the 
fisheries of the five subareas. The United States 
is a member of panels V, IV, and III which include 
the fisheries on the New England Banks, the Nova 
Scotian Banks and the Grand Banks, respectively. 
Generally speaking, the reports of the scientists 
who worked in the five subareas in past years pre- 
sented an encouraging picture. Only in subareas 
4 and 5 was there evidence of need for immediate 
action. In subarea 5, the New England haddock 
fishery is at a low level. The Commission had 
already proposed a mesh regulation as a partial 
answer to this problem, and at this meeting it 
adopted certain amendments to increase the regu- 
lation's effectiveness. The report of Canadian 
scientists on the fisheries in subarea 4, the Nova 
Scotian Banks, indicated possible decline in the 
cod fisheries and considerable destruction of im- 
mature haddock at sea. A special committee of 
scientists was constituted to study intensively the 
situation in subarea 4 and report to the Commis- 
sion at its next annual meeting. If the evidence 
warrants, the Commission will consider regulation 
of the fisheries in subarea 4 at that time. 

Except for its proposal for amending the mesh 
regulation for subarea 5, the Commission's recom- 
mendations to member governments dealt largely 
with improvements in the system of collecting fish- 
ery statistics. The problem of statistics is both 
important and difficult to solve. A current and 
complete statistical picture of the fisheries is essen- 
tial to a clear understanding of the status of the 
fisheries, the progress of research, and the effec- 
tiveness of management measures. Ten nations 
fish in the Convention area, each using its own sys- 
tem of collecting data, its own standards of meas- 
urement, and its own methods of reporting. This 
great mass of data must be brought together by the 
Commission, the various types of measurement 
must be converted to a single standard, and the 
data analyzed, interpreted, and made available to 

20 



researchers. Much progi-ess has been made in this 
direction, and it will be furthered by the recom- 
mendations adopted at New Haven. 

Possibly the most significant of the Commis- 
sion's actions at its third meeting was the adoptior 
of a comprehensive research program for the Con 
vention area. At its second annual meeting th( 
Commission had agreed that it was essential U. 
develop a research program which would coordi 
nate and direct at a single goal the efforts of th( 
research agencies of the member governments 
Most of those governments had conducted inves 
tigations of the fisheries for years and had obtained 
considerable information. However, each govern 
ment carried on these studies independent of thi 
others with the result that there was duplicatioi 
of effort, certain problems were completely over 
looked, and the scientists of one nation frequent! 
were unaware of, and therefore did not bene^ 
from, the work of those of other nations. Th 
progress of research was necessarily slow. To cor 
rect this situation, the Commission appointed 
special committee of scientists to work during th 
year on the development of a comprehensive re 
search program. The progi-am developed by thi 
committee was adopted by the Commission at thi 
third annual meeting. 



Research Program Adopted 

Briefly, the program designates cod, haddocl 
redfish, and halibut as the four species of rao& 
importance in the Convention area and poses thre' 
fundamental questions with respect to these specif 
which must be answered if the Commission is t 
achieve its objectives. The questions are : 

a. What are the principal fish stocks, where are thf 
located, how are they divided, and how are they now usee 

6. How do intensity and method of fishing afifert tl 
stocks and the long-term yield? 

c. How are the stocks affected by natural factors? 

The program then outlines the work to be done i 
answering these questions, specifying (1) essei 
tial records on all fisheries which must be collet'te 
by all countries, i. e., statistics on catch and effoi 
and samples of catch for analysis of lengtli an 
age composition; (2) essential records to be ol 
tained cooperatively, not necessarily by ever 
country, i. e., data defining the stocks and thei 
movements, data making possible the asscssniei 
of the sizes of stocks and rates of mortality an 
recruitment, and data making possible a determ 
nation of the effects of natural factors on abui 
dance and distribution; and (3) contributory ii 
formation to be obtained as opportunity permit 
e. g., measures of basic pi-oductivity which wi 
give the rate of production of the organic materij y 
on wliicli fish ultimately depend for food. 

The program then pi-()]ioses means of coordina 
ing the work. It is contein[)lated that the wori 
will be carried out by national rosoarcli agencies i 

Department of Slate Bulleti 



enters far removed one from the other. If the 
»rogram is to be etfective, witli no duplication of 
ffort, special provision must be made for pooling 
he varied knowledge and experience, for the coor- 
lination of the work, and for the development of 
ound recommendations. The program proposes 
bur measures to accomplish this coordination : 
1) the establishment of three working parties on 
od and haddock, redtish and halibut, and hydrog- 
aphy respectively, to consist of active research 
rorkers; (2) provision of opportunity for work- 
ng scientists to make visits to the research stations 
,nd ships of other countries to observe and prac- 
ice techniques and develop ideas; (3) maintenance 
,t Commission headquarters of an up-to-date reg- 
ster of scientists engaged in the various branches 
if the Commission's work; and (4) exchange, 
hrough the Commission, each December or as soon 
hereafter as possible, of programs for the ensuing 
'ear. This coordinated program will result in 
)roviding the Commission with more accurate and 
omprehensive data on the fish stocks and a better 
inderstanding of the effects of man and nature 
ipon them which will enable it to undertake timely 
aanagement measures to insure the continued pro- 
luctivity of these important fisheries. 

Other important actions at the New Haven meet- 
Qg were ( 1 ) the selection of Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
s the site of the Commission's permanent head- 
uarters; (2) the adoption of a budget of $33,000 
or the coming fiscal year; and (3) the election of 
Jtewart Bates, Deputy Minister of Fisheries of 
yanada, as chairman, and Commander Tavares de 
Umeida, of the Portuguese Fishery Department, 
s vice chairman of the Commission for the next 
1 yeare. Mr. Bates succeeds Dr. Kask of the 
Jnited States; Commander de Almeida succeeds 
L. T. A. Dobson of the United Kingdom. 

The U.S. Commissioners are of the opinion that 

* be Commission's accomplishments during its first 
years are significant. With ratification of the 

onvention during the past year by France, Italy, 
*ortugal, and Spain, the Commission has reached 
^ ull membership and has perfected its organiza- 
t( ion. The adoption of a comprehensive research 
'a »rogram has made it possible for the first time in 
ii he history of the Northwest Atlantic fisheries to 
ol oordinate the efforts of more than 100 scientists, 
ei dozen vessels, and some 15 research laboratories 

* rom 10 nations. The Commission has become an 
■ffective working organization, and promises to 

I'come a model of international cooperation in 
lie investigation and conservation of international 
shery resources. 

' Mr. Terry, author of the above article, is a for- 
iijn affairs specialist in the Office of Foreign 
Activities, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Depart- 
Knt of the Inferior, 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography^ 

Economic and Social Council 

Full Eniploymeut. Implementation of full employment 
and balance of payments policies. E/240S/Add. 1, 
May 18, 1953. 153 pp. mimeo; E/240S/A(ld. 2, May 
29, 1953. 53 pp. mimeo; Analysis of replies of gov- 
ernments to the questionnaire on full employment, 
balance of payments and related policies, 1952-53. 
Report by the Secretariat. Relative economic prog- 
ress of the more developed and the less developed 
countries between 1948 and 1952. E/2445/Add. 2, 
June 12, 1953. 3 pp. mimeo ; Report by the Secretary- 
General under Council resolution 426 B (XIV). 
E/2449, June 11, 1953. 16 pp. mimeo. 

Freedom of Information. Comments and suggestions of 
governments transmitted for the information and 
assistance of the Rapporteur on Freedom of Informa- 
tion. E/2427/Add. 1, June 9, 1953. 6 pp.; Summary 
of comments and suggestions received by the Rap- 
porteur on Freedom of Information from information 
enterprises and national and international profes- 
sional associations. E/2439, June 10, 1953. 26 pp. 
mimeo. 

Economic Development of Under-Developed Countries. 
Impact of Selected Synthetics on Demand for Natu- 
ral Products in International Trade. Study by the 
Secretariat. E/2438, May 29, 1953. 38 pp. mimeo; 
Question of Methods To Increase World Productivity. 
Working paper prepared by the International Labour 
Office on the role of labour in programmes for in- 
creasing productivity, and measures needed to safe- 
guard the interests of workers. E/2440, May 22, 
1953. 33 pp. mimeo; Relative Prices of Primary 
Products and Manufactures in International Trade. 
Report by the Secretary-General. E/2455, June 8, 
1953. 107 pp. mimeo. 

Proceeds of Sale of UNRRA Supplies. Report by the 
Secretary-General. E/2444, May 28, 1953. 8 pp. 
mimeo. 

Financial Implications of Actions of the Council. Work 
Programmes and Costs of the Economic and Social Ac- 
tivities of the United Nations. Note by the Secretary- 
General. E/2448, May 28, 1953. 53 pp. mimeo. 

Participation of the United Nations Educational, Scien- 
tific and Cultural Organization in the Expanded Pro- 
gramme of Technical Assistance. E/2452, May 29, 
1953. 5 pp. mimeo. 

Question of Admission to Membership in the Regional 
Economic Commissions of States Not Members of the 
United Nations. Memorandum by the Secretary- 
General. E/2458, June 8, 1953. 9 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the Regional Conference on Mineral Resources 
Development. E/CN. 11/I&T/85, May 18, 1953. 
80 pp. mimeo. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. 
Other materials (mimeographed or processed documents) 
may be consulted at certain designated libraries in the 
United States. 

The United Nations Secretariat has established an 
Official Records series for the General Assembly, the 
Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the 
Trusteeship Council, and the Atomic Energy Commi-ssion 
which includes summaries of proceedings, re.solutions, and 
reports of the various commissions and committees. In- 
formation on securing subscriptions to the series may be 
obtained from the International Doctiments Service. 



fd 



lei «'y 6, 1953 



21 



Problems in The Administration of The Pacific Trust Territory 



Statement by Frank E. Midhijf 

Special U.S. Representative to the U.N. Trxisteeship Council ^ 



I am happy to appear here before you as special 
representative of the United States to assist in 
your review of the report on the administration 
of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands for 
the year July 1951 to June 1952. 

Almost a full year has elapsed since the period 
of the report. Although I, myself, have been in 
office only a little over 3 months I shall endeavor — 
using in part the experience of a recent 5-week 
tour of the trust territory — to bring you up to date 
on developments regarding some of the major 
problems in which I am sure the Council is 
interested. 

I should like to say that we derived mucli benefit 
from the presence of the Council's Visiting Mission 
with us at Honolulu and throughout the territory. 
Their understanding of our problems and their 
thorough and patient examination of every phase 
of our administration has been most encouraging. 

In the opening paragraph of chapter 1 of its 
report, the mission lias stated the three factors that 
make our problem of administration of the Trust 
Territory of tlie Pacific Islands particularly diffi- 
cult and challenging. These factors are, first, the 
vast oceanic zone over which the very small land 
areas are scattered; second, the negligible re- 
sources; and third, the diversity of the population. 
The mission's report gives a concise description of 
each of these factors. I would emphasize that the 
problems arising from the geography, the meager 
resources, and the diverse population are numer- 
ous. I feel, however, that continual progress is 
being made by the administration in meeting these 
problems. 

The Council in its examination last year of the 
previous report on tlie utlminist ration of the Trust 



'Made in tlie Trustoosliip Cduncil on .Tune 2;{ and re- 
leased to the press on the same dale by tlie U.S. Mission to 
the IJ.N. Mr. Midkiff was appointed hy the President on 
Mar. l."? as Hifih Commissioner of the Trust Territory of 
the Pacific Islands, succeeding the late Elbert Thomas. 

22 



Territory of the Pacific Islands made a number of 
suggestions and recommendations in the political, 
economic, social, and educational fields. The 
Visiting Mission has also commented on problems 
in these fields. I should like to review certain of 
these items. 

The Council last year expressed the hope that the 
administration would foster local initiative for 
jjurposes of creating additional regional organiza- 
tions. The Government of the trust territory in its 
program of developing regional political organs is 
attempting to enlist the widest possible support for 
these bodies throughout the areas they serve. In 
this process, and in the operation of the regional 
bodies themselves, guidance by the administrative 
staff is, of course, very necessary. This leadership 
however, must be neither so persuasive nor sc 
obvious that the members of the bodies themselves 
feel powerless and without indejjendent voice 
This danger has been recognized in the case of the 
Ponape Congress, which has been organized in the 
past year. Every effort is being made, therefore, 
to provide judicious administrative assistance ir 
the form of advice to members, and explanation oJ 
procedures for conducting meetings and of com- 
mittee organization, in preference to direct leader- 
ship by the administration on the floor at congres- 
sional sessions. Though the new organizations 
introduce methods new to the Micronesians, they 
can be expected to learn quickly by practice and 
exi^erience. 

The Palau Congress presents a somewhat differ- 
ent case. There the emphasis must now he placed 
upon gradually reducing the reliance of the Con- 
gress upon leadershii) by the administration. 
This problem was noted by the Visiting Mission 
and is recognized by the Government of the trust 
territory. 

The Truk District is planning to conduct annual 
conferences of chiefs from all islands of the dis- 
trict ;is a step toward regional integration and 
eventual formation of a regional congress. 

Department of Stale Bulletin, 



It is of significance, to note that to date regional 
bodies liave developed around existing groups 
having distinct cultural identities. Future bridg- 
ing of traditional gaps to provide wide represen- 
tation in the form of territorial legislature will 
depend for success upon gradual and concurrent 
development of closer economic and social ties be- 
tween the diverse population groups. The devel- 
opment of these ties and the breakdown of present 
localized loyalties and interests will take place 
only over a period of some time and, as the Visit- 
ing Mission observed, cannot be forced without a 
resultant disintegration of the age-old and nor- 
mally evolved social structure that would have 
unforeseeable repercussions throughout the indig- 
enous societies. 



Fostering Political Development 

Conscious of the need for caution in this respect, 
the administration is continuing its fostering of 
political development and, as a part of this activ- 
ity, has planned a conference on self-government 
to be held this summer at Truk from July 3-10. 
The conference will be attended by Micronesian 
and administration representatives from each dis- 
trict to discuss problems confronting the local 
communities. 

In the local communities, the trend of develop- 
ment is, I believe, in accord with the expressed 
recommendations of the Council last year. The 
electoral system of selecting magistrates and other 
local officials is now utilized by 97 out of the 117 
municipalities. This is encouraging, although I 
think note should be taken of the statement of the 
Visiting Mission that these figures do not neces- 
sarily indicate a drastic casting off of the tradi- 
tional authority of the chiefs. The acceptance of 
electoral machinery reflects a willingness to try 
out democratic processes of government and rec- 
ognition of the need, as the mission stated, for 
local officials who because of their education or 
acculturation are more able to serve in a liaison 
capacity with the administration. 

I would like to suggest, however, that this is a 
desirable form of development. Until the Micro- 
ncsians have made a fuller adaptation to the bene- 
ficial aspects of the new cultures they are meeting, 
they must rely in large part uponthe old ways 
and tlie cultures they themselves evolved over a 
period of centuries in order to live in the unique 
situation of these small islands on a great ocean. 
Basically, theirs is a family organization with 
adaptation to an economy of scarcity, wherein 
strict observance of rules and of resource distri- 
bution must be observed. These rules were learned 
in infancy and childhood and were taken for 
granted as normal. Without such control enforced 
by responsible family leaders, the Micronesians 
even today would be faced with desperate eco- 
nomic and social maladjustments. The demo- 
cratic changes that are being brought about must 



therefore be watched carefully and t imod properly 
to avoid a serious dislocation which none would 
desire or advocate. 

The Council in its review last year expressed the 
view that the administering authority should 
study means of giving more effective participation 
to indigenous judges in the district courts and 
the Court of Appeals of the High Court. The 
report that is before you describes what has been 
done in this respect. As stated there, Microne- 
sians have been appointed to all judicial positions 
in the district courts and 21 special Micronesian 
judges have been appointed to assist in the trial 
division of the High Court. As the Council is 
aware, all judges in the municipal courts are Mi- 
cronesians. 

I turn next to the administrative machinery of 
the trust territory. One of our big problems, of 
course, is transportation, to which the Council and 
the Visiting Mission have called attention. The 
recent acquisition of a second vessel of 4,800- 
ton capacity will improve markedly the interdis- 
trict supply situation and the movement of copra 
to markets. Its presence also should reduce ma- 
terially further disruption in the scheduling of 
district field trips. It is hoped that one auxiliary 
schooner will be in the service next month in the 
Yap District, as a replacement for one district 
motor vessel (AKL) of 200-ton capacity now in 
use. Acquisition of additional schooners is 
planned as rapidly as possible. These sailing 
vessels are more economical and more in line with 
the experience of the Micronesians than the present 
motor vessels. 

The Visiting Mission has commented upon the 
problem of obtaining well-qualified personnel to 
staff positions in the trust territory. I fully 
concur in the existence of this problem. We are 
aware of it and are giving it attention. Our 
people must meet standards as to education, train- 
ing, and demonstrated performance. On the 
whole I think they do, and the few who do not are 
being replaced by appointees of higher qualifica- 
tions. I am pleased to say that there has been a 
steady rise in the quality and ability of our staff 
over the past 2 years. This trend will be con- 
tinued. 



Training of Administrative Personnel 

The desirabilities of pre-service and in-service 
training for enrployees is appreciated by the ad- 
ministration. Our staff members are now given 
an orientation in Honolulu prior to assigninent 
in the Islands, and attention is being given to an 
extension of this training to provide additional 
study in the fields of ethnology and anthropology 
of the Pacific Islands. 

On the subject of in-sei-vice training, I believe 
the Council would be interested in our training 
program for Micronesian employees. We have 
had a training specialist in Truk for some months 



July 6, J 953 



23 



with the purpose of establishing as a pilot project 
in the Truk District, an in-service training pro- 
gram of wide scope for Microncsian employees. 
The purpose of this program is to accelerate the 
training of Micronesians to replace American 
personnel wherever practical. I hope next year 
to be able to give you further details on the pro- 
gram that will be established as a result of this 
undertaking. 

The Council has on several occasions urged the 
passage of organic legislation for the territory. I 
can say at this time that hearings are planned on 
this legislation early next month by the appropri- 
ate committee of the House of Representatives in 
the Congress. 

The Council and the Visiting Mission have both 
commented upon the location of the headquarters 
of the trust territory. As the mission noted, Pres- 
idential authorization has been given to locate the 
headquarters on Dulbon Island in the Truk Atoll. 
I would like to say frankly to the Council that no 
money is being requested at this time for the con- 
struction of the facilities that would be needed to 
make such a move of the headquarters possible. 
The location of the trust territory headquarters is 
one on which there is considerable difference of 
opinion. Some of the disadvantages of a move 
at this time to Truk were noted by the Visiting 
Mission. The factors must be carefully weighed 
and considered before a final move is made. Re- 
cently we have moved a large part of our staff 
forward to Guam and Truk. Our central staff, 
whether stationed in Honolulu or in the field, must 
be on the move from district to district, like circuit 
riders. There is no one place, even a central spot 
in the Truk Atoll, that is near the other districts or 
convenient as a center of transportation and com- 
munications. It would be over 400 miles to the 
nearest other district center and over 1,100 miles 
to the next nearest district center. 



The Agricultural Program 

In the economic field, as the mission has ob- 
served, agricultui-e is the principal economic ac- 
tivity of the territory. In our agricultural 
program we are encouraging and assisting the 
islanders in the improvement of their subsistence 
and cash crops and are conducting experimental 
work with new crops in an effort to diversify these 
crops. The introduction of cacao is progressing 
satisfactorily in Palau where several thousand 
seedlings have been set out on the plantation on 
Babeldaup and further clearing of trees is under 
way. Similar experimenting v/ith cacao is in 
pi-ogress at Netalanim plantation on Ponape. 

I wish to comment on the suggestion of the Vis- 
iting Mission that there should be a separate 
department of agriculture in tlie trust territory 
organization. I would like to point out that the 
chief agriculturist of the territory is stationed in 
the field and has broad program responsibilities 



in respect to agricultural development. Orsjani- 
zation changes which were effected June 30 will 
create a field agricultural division witlnn the eco- 
nomic program of the territory, and it is believed 
probable that this organization will meet present 
needs. 

Currently, the Government of the trust territory 
employs seven district agriculturists and five inter- 
district agriculturists. The district agriculturists 
spend the greater part of their time administering 
the agricultural program of their districts and 
part of their time teaching and supervising in- 
digenous teachers of agriculture. In addition to 
these activities, there are special agricultural proj- 
ects under the interdistrict personnel. These proj- 
ects include cacao development, the Matalanim 
plantation, the agricultural experimental station 
at Ponape, and the cattle introduction program. 
Moreover the work of the entomological specialists 
are primarily concerned with agriculture. The 
combined expense of these agricultural activities 
totals 90 percent of all expenditures in the past 
year on economic development. This, I believe, 
illustrates the emphasis which agriculture is, and 
should be, receiving. 

The Visiting Mission drew attention in its re- 
port to methods of land utilization and land con- 
servation. The indigenous methods of shifting 
cultivation are being changed through education 
to the rotation concept, and through regulations, 
which are admittedly difficult to enforce, govern- 
ing the burning off of land. Projects have been 
approved for the reclaiming of swampland for 
giant taro, and also for the reclaiming of tracts 
of land by re-establishing coconut culture where 
intensive cultivation has robbed the land of its 
fertility. Commercial fertilizers will be used to 
establish leguminous plants which will be used as 
green manure for the coconut culture. 

Insofar as agricultural research to serve low 
islands is concerned, experiments are being con- 
ducted at Ngatik in Ponape, and an allotment of 
funds has been made for the conduct of low-island 
agricultural experiments in the Jalint Atoll. 

The in-service training program which I previ- 
ously mentioned will include the training of indig- 
enous agricultural personnel. This program is to 
be given emphasis in our future operations. 

A long-term agricultural program which is being 
formulated includes an agricultural survey, the 
rehabilitation of indigenous agriculture, plant and 
animal introduction, conservation and reforesta- 
tion, agricultural extension education, and in- 
creased effectiveness in the enforcement of quar- 



Calendar of Meetings 

The "Calendar of Meetings," regularly featured 
in tlie Bulletin's first issue of the month, will 
appear in the July 13 issue. 



24 



Department of State Bulletin 



antine regulations. This program should help in 
placing agricultural development in the territory 
on a sound footing. 

The Island Trading Company and its projected 
termination have been of concern to the Visiting 
Mission. I might say that the Government of the 
trust territory recognizes and values the help that, 
the company has been to the people of the trust 
territory. Its services filled the tremendous vac- 
uum caused by the war and have made an invalu- 
able contribution to maintaining the flow of trade 
and developing local private enterprises in the 
area. Since the determination by the Congress 
last .year that this company should be liquidated as 
of December 31, 1953, considerable thought has 
been given to how the services of the company 
could be replaced and, I might add, we would like 
to see it replaced, if possible, by the activities of the 
Micronesians themselves rather than by outside 
companies in order that the greatest possible mone- 
tary return might accrue to the people of the terri- 
tory. This replacement, I venture to hope, will be 
possible, but it may be more surely and more satis- 
factorily accomplished if the Island Trading Com- 
pany's activities were temporarily extended. The 
question of extending the life of the corporation is 
now under consideration. Every effort will be 
made to protect the economy of the area whenever 
the company is finally liquidated. 

Land Claims Problems 

I found on my trip through the trust territory, as 
did the Visiting Mission, that land problems exist 
in all districts and that the people are anxious for 
their settlement. These land problems center 
around three principal issues: first, the public 
domain with respect to which there are claims for 
land alienated by the Japanese ; second, claims aris- 
ing out of the use or deterioration of lands as a 
result of war activities; and third, use of some 
lands for current trust territory administrative 
installations. 

The first of these, claims with respect to the pub- 
lic domain, is being tackled promptly by the land 
claims personnel, which is now being reconstituted 
as the Division of Land Titles and Claims. Con- 
siderable work, as revealed in the report of the 
Visiting Mission, has been done in Saipan. That 
work is now being extended to the other districts. 
Difficulties lie in the fact that many land records 
and survey markers were destroyed during the war 
years. There is the further necessity of translat- 
ing such land records as exist from Japanese. I 
assure the Council that this work of settling land 
problems is being given a high priority. I should 
also like to add that it is anticipated that islanders 
now holding revocable permite to public domain 
lands, if they are not otherwise claiming title to 
particular lands, will be afforded the opportunity 
to homestead permanently the public domain pres- 
ently under their cultivation. 



The .second categoi-y of land claims, which arose 
largely out of the war, and which relate to the use 
of private or public lands by the Armed Forces of 
the United States, are currently under considera- 
tion by the administering authority. 

The third category of land claims, those result- 
ing from use of public land by the trust territory 
administration, is also one that the Division of 
Land Titles and Claims will look into. On Uliga 
Island in Majuro discussions have been in progress 
with the owners of land occupied by the District 
Headquarters for some months. The land claims 
here were established in 1952, and in April 1953 
a committee of the Marshallese claimants under- 
took to propose a fair rental value for use of the 
occupied land. As yet there has not been agree- 
ment between the administration and the claim- 
ants on the amount of compensation. This agree- 
ment, however, will be the last step to settlement 
of this problem at Majuro. 

Another type of claims problem which is cur- 
rently under consideration by the Administering 
Authority is that involving claims against Japan 
and Japanese nationals. Members of the Council 
are no doubt aware that article 4 (a) of the Treaty 
of Peace with Japan provides, in part, that claims 
of the residents and administering authorities of 
certain areas, including the Trust Territory of the 
Pacific Islands, against Japan and its nationals 
shall be the subject of special arrangements be- 
tween Japan and such authorities. The United 
States is currently giving consideration to the type 
of claims which may be appropriately included 
in any special arrangements to be negotiated with 
Japan on behalf of the residents of the trust ter- 
ritory pursuant to the provisions of article 4 (a) 
of the treaty. The Council will appreciate that 
the problems raised by these claims are numerous 
and complex. The Administering Authority how- 
ever, is acutely conscious of the importance of this 
problem to the people of the trust territory, and 
plans are imder study looking toward the disposi- 
tion of these claims. 

The Administering Authority is also aware of 
the difficult situation resulting from the partial 
redemption of yen currency by military authori- 
ties immediately after the war. This matter is 
also being given attention by the Administering 
Authority, and it is hoped that a satisfactory solu- 
tion will be found for this problem which, under- 
standably, is of concern to the people of the trust 
territory. 

The United States will, of course, keep the Coun- 
cil informed of the progress made in dealing with 
the various types of claims of the people of the 
trust territory. 

The Council asked last year for additional infor- 
mation regarding those repatriated Japanese who 
have Micronesian wives or families in the territory. 
This question has been carefully considered. The 
Administering Authority considers, as previously 
stated to the Trusteeship Council, that the return 



July 6, 1953 



25 



en hloc of former Japanese or other foreign resi- 
dents is undesirable tor social and economic rea- 
sons. Nevertheless, subject to appropriate security 
clearance, the Government of the trust territory 
would be willing to permit the return of Japanese 
spouses and children of mixed unions where the 
members of the family concerned are agreeable 
and when prior investigation reveals in each case 
that the returnees would be acceptable to the par- 
ticular Micronesian community and their return 
would not create serious social and economic situ- 
ations. 

The Council asked last year that we continue to 
accelerate the training of Micronesian medical per- 
sonnel. That has been done. As the Visiting Mis- 
sion noted, 38 are attending the Central Medical 
School at Suva, Fiji, and 3 are being given ad- 
vanced hospital training at hospitals in Hawaii. 



Teacher-Education Program 

The training of teachers is always a key factor 
in any educational system. Accordingly, we are 
strengthening our teacher-education program in 
the direction of training teachers to meet the needs 
of their own communitj' and are concentrating 
effort on teacher education. An 8-week summer- 
school program is held each summer in each of 
the districts and attended by all indigenous teach- 
ers in the district. In most districts demonstra- 
tion schools, where teachers attend and practice 
teaching under competent supervision, are part of 
the summer teacher-education progi'am. 

Throughout the rest of the year, the supervisor 
of teacher education in each district visits elemen- 
tary schoolteachei's in their island schools, and 
works with them on the job for extended periods 
of time ironing out difficulties which the teacher 
may be having and helping the teacher prepare 
materials locally to enrich the teaching program. 
In Palau District this year several teachers were 
called in for a 6-week teacher-training period in 
the fall while in the spring others were called in 
for a 12-week program. Thi'ough such training 
we are continually improving the quality of our 
teaching staff. 

The Visiting Mission points up a real problem 
in the difficulty which graduates of Pics (Pacific 
Islands Central School) face in obtaining scholar- 
ships for advanced training overseas due to the 
fact that the level of education provided by Pics 
is not quite sufficient for scholarship requirements. 
Experience has shown that carefully selected 
students from Pics have been able to enter the 
senior year at the Honolulu University High 
School and then to go on to the university during 
the second year of residence in Honolulu. 

This attendance at an accredited high school in 
Hawaii or elsewhere for a year may well be the 

26 



most i^ractical solution to the problem. Often very 
intensive preparatory coaching in fundamentals 
of learning and in background material is required. 

Continued attention has been given to scholar- 
ship possibilities for Micronesian students to study 
abroad. As stated in the annual report a Micro- 
nesian scholarship committee administers a schol- 
arship fund. This committee just recently met 
and acted upon seven scholarship appointments 
for study in Hawaii. 

A teaching function is central in all our efforts. 
We are trying to train and develop the Microne- 
sians and to help them become as effectively self- 
governing in meeting the challenges of the modern 
world as their traditional social organization 
proved to be long ago. We are working to develop 
democratic institutions in such a way that they 
may rest upon and be sustained bj' a sound econ- 
omy that will support standards of living such as 
they desire and can become able to pay for. 

Nearly all new ideas in these fields should be 
subjected to patient testing to see whether or not 
they are really beneficial, and by such testing and 
possible subsequent adjustments to avoid serious 
disappointments and discouragements that result 
when visions turn into mirages. 

By wise guidance and cautious approach the 
Administering Authority is certain that sound 
and enduring progress can be attained. 



Current Legislation on Foreign Policy 

Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce Appropri- 
ation Bill, 1954. Report (To accompany H. II. 4974). 
S. Rept. 309, SSd Cong., 1st Sess. 30 pp. 

Reorganization Plan No. 9 of 1953. Message From the 
President of the United States Transmitting Reor- 
ganization Plan No. 9 of 1953. H. Doc. 159, S3d Cong., 
1st Sess. 4 pp. 

State Department Information Program — Voice of Amer- 
ica. Hearings Before tlie Permanent Subcommittee 
on Investigations of the Committee on Government 
Operations, United States Senate, Eighty-third Con- 
gress, First Session Pureuant to S. Res. 40. A Resolu- 
tion Authorizing the Committee on Government Oi>- 
erations To Employ Temporary Additional Personnel 
and Increasing the Limit of Expenditures. Part 6, 
March 4, 1953. 79 pp. ; Part 7, March 5 and 6, 19.-3. 
120 pp.; Part S, March 12, 1953. 79 pp.; Part 9, 
March 13, 16, and 19, 1953. 100 pp. 

Ninth Semiannual Report on Educational Exchange Activ- 
ities. Letter Fi-om Chairman United States Advisory 
Commission on Educational Exchange Transmitting 
the Semiannual Report of All Programs and Activities 
Carried on Under Authority of Section H03 of Public 
Law 402, Eightieth Congress. H. Doc. 154, S3d Cong., 
1st Sess. 29 pp. 

The Agreement Revising and Renewing the International 
Wheat Agreement. Message From the President of! 
the United States Transmitting A Certified Copy ofl 
the Agreement Itevisiiig jind Renewing the Inter- 
national Whciit Agreement, Which Was Open for 
Signature in Washington April l:! to 27, Inclusive, 
1!>.")3, and Was Signed During That Period on Behalf 
of the Government of the United States of America l-^T, 



;ind the Governments of 44 Other Countries. 
II, .S3d Cong., 1st Sess. 38 pp. 



S. Exec. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Effects of the President's Reorganization Plans 
on tiie Department of State 



Statement hy Donold B. Lourie 
Under Secretary for Administration'^ 



This is the first time I have been called before 
your Committee, and I am pleased to have the 
opportunity to explain as best I can what effects 
the President's Reorganization Plans 7 and 8 will 
have on the State Departments 

Mr. Dodge and General Smith ^ have given you 
a comprehensive picture of the j^roposals outlined 
in Reorganization Plans 7 and 8 and I would like 
to give you a more detailed discussion of tliose pro- 
posals. The President has pointed out in his mes- 
sage on the reorganization that there are two major 
deficiencies in the organization of the executive 
branch for conducting foreign affaii-s : 

( 1 ) There has been no clear assignment of cen- 
tral responsibility for foreign policy below the 
President; 

(2) A number of programs which implement 
3ur foreign policy have been scattered within the 
jxecutive branch rather than appropriately 
p'ouped together for the most efficient and econom- 
.cal administration. 

The President made it clear in his message trans- 
nitting the reorganization plans to the Congress 
;hat our organization for the conduct of foreign 
iffairs has been built upon a patchwork of statutes. 
I This must be studied carefully as a basis for new 
egislation, but this will take time. The President 
idded that by early next year we should be pre- 
pared, with appropriate consultation with the Con- 
gress, to recommend such legislation, but in the 
neantime we should go ahead to improve the pres- 
nt arrangements within the framework of existing 
egislation. That is what these measures are de- 
igned to do. This is a move in the direction of 



* Made before the Committee on Government Operations 
if the House of Representatives on June 22 ( press release 
31). 

'For texts of these plans and the President's Message 
>1 ransmitting them to the Congress, see Bulletin of June 
5, 19.o3, p. 849. 

•Joseph M. Dodge, Director, Bureau of the Budget, and 
Inder Secretary Walter Bedell Smith. 



« 



lil uly 6, 1953 



making it ^^ossible for the Secretary of State to 
spend more of his time and that of his i^rincipal 
assistants on the development and control of 
foreign policy and our relations with foreign gov- 
ernments. 

I believe that these proposals offer the oppor- 
tunity for the Secretary of State and the State 
Department to concentrate attention on the advice 
and assistance which the President desires in the 
formulation and control of foreign policy and, 
in addition, provide a focal point for coordina- 
tion of foreign-affairs activities througliout the 
Government. 

May I add that I came to the Department of 
State without preconceived ideas on how the De- 
partment of State could best be organized. One 
of the things that impressed me was the fact that 
I, like most people in this country, never realized 
the extent of the administrative burdens that fall 
on the Secretary of State under the present ar- 
rangement where he is ultimately held responsible 
for personnel, for budget, for regulations, and 
other administrative aspects of operating pro- 
gi'ams, such as the information program. At the 
present time these operating responsibilities tend 
to keep him and his principal assistants from con- 
centrating on the primary role of the State Depart- 
ment in the formulation and control of foreign 
policy itself. Under the proposals before the com- 
mittee, there are more than a dozen operating pro- 
grams for which the Secretary now has this kind 
of responsibility, which would be placed in other 
agencies where they can be effectively consolidated 
into truly hard-hitting instruments to support our 
national objectives. 

Under these proposals, the Secretary of State 
would be relieved of operating responsibility for 
the following programs : 

(1) The program authorized by the Kersten 
amendment of the Mutual Security Act of 1951 for 

27 



aiding persons wlio have escaped from Communist 
areas ; 

(2) the foreign-information programs of the 
International Information Administration includ- 
ing those large-scale and important programs in 
Germany and Austria ; 

(3) the special U.S. program for the relief and 
resettlement of I'efugees coming into Israel ; 

(4) the technical-cooperation program carried 
out by the Technical Cooperation Administration; 

(5^ the Institute of Inter- American Affairs; 

(6) administration of the local currency fund 
generated by the food-relief assistance program 
for the Yugoslav people, authorized by the Yugo- 
slav Emergency Relief Assistance Act of 1950; 

(7) the payment of ocean freight for private 
relief shipments under the terms of the Mutual 
Security Act; 

(8) the program for guaranteeing convertibil- 
ity of currency acquired by U.S. exporters of in- 
formation media materials under the terms of the 
Mutual Security Act; 

(9) operating phases of U.S. participation in 
five special multilateral programs in the general 
mutual-security field, 

{a) United Nations Technical Assistance 
(Unta) — the multilateral technical-assistance 
program carried out by the United Nations and its 
specialized agencies to enlist technical skills from 
many nations to help the governments and peo- 
ples of underdeveloped areas to develop their eco- 
nomic resources; 

(6) the program of the United Nations Inter- 
national Children's Emergency Fund (Unicef), 
which assists underdeveloped countries in Asia, 
Africa, and Latin America in the development of 
long-range maternity and child welfare activities; 

(c) relief and rehabilitation for the Korean 
people, provided thi'ough the United Nations Ko- 
rean Reconstruction Agency (Unkea) ; 

id) aid to Arab refugees from Palestine pro- 
vided through the United Nations Relief and 
Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (Unrwa) ; 

{e) the program carried out by the Intergov- 
ernmental Committee for European Migration 
(Icem) to assist in the movement of migrants from 
Europe to overseas areas desiring to receive 
immigration. 

Secretary's Role Clarifled 

In the past it has not always been clear that the 
President looked to the Secretary of State as the 
Cabinet officer primarily responsible for foreign 
affairs in the executive de]:)artment. During the 
war and at other times in tlie past, agencies were 
created which dealt primarily in foreign affairs 
but which were not responsible to the Secretary 
of State in any way, not even policy coordination. 
As a result, we often found various agencies of 
the Government operating overseas expressing 

28 



different views and different policies and working 
at cross-purposes. These two reorganization plans 
make it crystal-clear that the Secretary of State 
is the Cabinet officer within the executive branch 
who is primarily responsible for foreign relations, 
subject to the guidance and direction only of the 
President himself. 

I believe tliat the reorganization proposals 
which you are considering will result in a single 
and straightforward organization of agencies and 
functions relating to foreign affairs, and I am sat- 
isfied that these proposals clarify the role of the 
Secretary of State and will make it possible for 
him to function with much greater effectiveness in 
Washington and abroad. 

One of the chief problems faced by those re- 
sponsible for drafting Reorganization Plans 7 and 
8 was separating foreign economic aid and foreign- ^ 
information programs from the Department of ^ 
State and yet retaining overall control of foreigm ^ 
policy for the Secretary of State. This difficulty^ jj 
has, I believe, been resolved in these proposals.. ^ 
Ultimately, the only way that the primary re- jf 
sponsibility of the Secretary for foreign policyi 
within the executive branch can be assured is by 
the reliance of the President himself on the Sec- ,(( 
retarj' of State and by the President's use of the j, 
Secretary of State as his principal channel of jj 
aiithority on foreign policy. The President haa ^ 
clearly stated his intention of doing exactly thia . 
in his message to the Congress and in his letteii \ 
to the heads of the executive departments and to 
the Director for Mutual Security.* 

There are also some other very important safe-! 
guards in these proposals. For example, the Pres- ^ 
ident has given the Secretary clear authority tclC. 
provide guidance on our foreign policies to all 
other agencies of the Federal Government. The 
President has directed that other officials of the - 
executive branch will work with and through the 
Secretary of State on matters of foreign ]ioli('y. 
The plans also specifically provide Presidential *'' 
assurance that the Foreign Operations Adminis- 1 1 
tration and the U.S. Information Agency will be 
headed by men who support and enjoy the full 
confidence of the Secretary of State. This is es- 
sentially a plan for teamwork. It will avoid many 
of the frictions and frustrations which so often 
jeopardize the harmonious collaboration of agen- 
cies working in closely related fields. 

The Secretary's leadership will also be made 
effective by the authority given him to review the 
plans and policies relative to the programs and 
legislative proposals of the two principal operat- 
ing agencies in the foreign-affairs field. To assure 
his ability to carry out this responsibility, the 
requirement is laid down by the President that the 
heads of the Foreign Operations Administration 
and the U.S. Information Agency shall at all tinief 
keep the Secretary informed in such a way that he 



' Bulletin of June 15, !!>.">;?, p. 855. 

Department of %tate Bulletin 



•all be certain that the programs of the agencies 
iml the implementation of their programs further 
lie attainment of our foi'eign-policy objectives. 

The President, in his message to the Congress, 
iKule it clear that only part of the job can be done 
)y giving the Department of State the clear au- 
liority to provide guidance on our foreign policies 
(I all agencies of the Federal Government. He 
.vent on to say : ". . . it is equally important that 
■aih chief of diplomatic mission in each foreign 
•oiintry provide effective coordination of, and for- 
'ign policy direction with respect to, all United 
States Government activities in the country." 

The chief of a diplomatic mission plays a vital 
■ole in applying this clear-cut assignment of re- 
iponsibility for foreign policy to the conduct of 
)ur foreign relations overseas. A chief of mission 
eceives all of his instructions from the President 
md the Secretary of State and is responsible for 
■xorcising general direction and leadership of 
lie entire U.S. effort in the country to which he 
s accredited. He assures unified development and 
xeeution of U.S. progi-ams. In addition to coor- 
linating activities of U.S. representatives carry- 
ng out programs in his country, he sees that the 
nterpretation and application of instructions re- 
eived by U.S. representatives are in accord with 
stablished U.S. policy. The chief of mission is 
efively concerned with the programs developed 
ly the Foreign Operations Administration for 
lis country and with the programs developed by 
he U.S. Information Agency for that country. 
t is his responsibility to see that representatives 
'f these and other U.S. agencies in his country 
re adequately informed as to current and pro- 
]iective U.S. policies. "\^niere the chief of mission 
DHsiders it necessary in the interests of the United 
Uates, he may recommend the withdrawal of any 
J.S. personnel assigned to his country. 



(eduction in Size of Department 

AVhen these proposals become effective, the State 
)eiiartment will have only about one-half the num- 
'L'v of positions that exist today. 

I have tried to .study the evolution of the De- 
lartment of State in the postwar years to see what 
he causes were of the rapid increase in the size 
f the Department. Just before and immediately 
fter the end of the war, for example, there were 
nly 12,910 positions in the State Department, both 
t home and abroad, including U.S. nationals and 
ical employees in this total. Now this was the 
ime when the Department was in the process of 
•establishing normal diplomatic and consular ac- 
vities in almost one-half the countries of the 
■orld, when the United Nations had just been 
orn, and when such activities as issuing passports 
lid visas, or the demands made upon the Depart- 
lent for maintaining the security of its estab- 
shments overseas, were all at abnormally low 
'vels. 



It was at this time, in the early part of the fiscal 
year 194G, that nearly 13,000 more positions were 
added to the Department — in effect, doubling the 
size of the Department in tiie period of just a few 
short weeks. How was this done? It was done 
by transfers to the Department in the period im- 
mediately after V-J Day of responsibility for 
programs which had been carried on during the 
War by independent agencies — the Office of War 
Information, the Coordinator of Inter-American 
Affairs, the Office of Strategic Services, the For- 
eign Economic Administration, and the Office of 
the Foreign Liquidation Commissioner. 

These swollen wartime functions were dras- 
tically and rapidly reduced in size. The fact re- 
mains that 2 years later, by fiscal 1948, the con- 
solidation of some of the wartime functions that 
had to be carried on in peacetime as continuing 
functions of the Department of State (such as 
intelligence), together with the continued rise in 
the volume of normal peacetime activities, resulted 
in a 50 percent increase in the number of employees 
working on regular State Department functions. 
From 1948 to 1953, however, the staff on regular 
diplomatic and consular activities had been i-e- 
duced from 17,989 positions to 12,851— a reduction 
of over 20 percent. 

In the fiscal year 1950 there came another enor- 
mous addition to the size of the Department, re- 
sulting from the transfer of responsibility from 
the military services to the State Department for 
programs in Germany and Austria. This resulted 
in the addition of nearly 19,000 positions. In ef- 
fect we had once again doubled the size of the 
Department. 

By the current fiscal year, the total number of 
employees of the Department at home and 
abroad — still including not only U.S. nationals but 
local employees as well — had reached 42,000. Of 
these, approximately 13,000 were engaged on the 
regular functions of the Department, 9,500 on 
German and Austrian Affairs, 3,500 on the Tech- 
nical Cooperation Administration programs, 
12,000 on foreign information and exchange pro- 
grams, and another 4,000 who were rendei-ing ad- 
ministrative services to programs carried on by 
other agencies, such as the Department of Defense 
and the Mutual Security Agency. 

As I said in my opening remarks about the size 
of the Department, the immediate result of the 
reorganization proposals is to cut the size of the 
Department approximately in half. However if 
we look ahead and take into account the antic- 
ipated reduction in appropriations for the Depart- 
ment in fiscal year 1954 we find that the number 
of positions allocated to the normal State Depart- 
ment functions will in fact be smaller than the 
number in the fiscal year 1946, before the addition 
to the State Department of any of the continuing 
peacetime functions arising from the war. We 
estimate that there will be approximately 11,700 
positions for the regular State Department func- 



u/y 6, 1953 



29 



tions in the coming fiscal year as compared with 
12,910 in the fiscal year 1946. In fact, my study 
of the history of the postwar evolution of the De- 
partment of State shows clearly that the Depart- 
ment resources devoted to the traditional respon- 
sibilities and basic policy functions have actually 
declined during this period. 

I find that very few people understand the fact 
that out of the present 42,000 employees of the 
Department of State, 32,000 are overseas. Under 
these reorganization proposals, the Department of 
State expects to have approximately 16,000 people 
overseas — including U.S. nationals and all local 
employees. 

Educational Exchange Retained 

I should point out that the Department of State 
retains, under these reorganization proposals, the 
educational-exchange programs now administered 
by the International Information Administration. 
These programs differ from those of the mass 
media like radio broadcasting or motion pictures 
of the present International Information Admin- 
istration. They involve direct face-to-face com- 
munication and contact between the people and 
institutions of the United States and those of other 
countries. 

In fact official educational-exchange programs 
began before the present combined information 
and educational-exchange program was started. 
They originated before the Second "World War and 
have been administered continuously by the De- 
partment of State. I should also say that they 
have not created the same kind of complex operat- 
ing and policy problems as those faced by other 
media. Perhaps in part for this I'eason, their 
administration within the framework of the 
Department has been effective. 

The responsibilities of the Department of State 
for the exchange program are to a great extent 
supervisory, rather than operational, in nature. 
Certain aclministrative functions with regard to 
about three-quarters of the program are delegated 
to private organizations and other Federal agen- 
cies in this country and to binational commissions 
and committees abroad. 

I should also point out that the Department of 
State is instructed by the President to control the 
content of a progi-am designed to assure accurate 
statements of official U.S. positions on important 
issues and current developments. Such oOicial 
statements, specifically identified by an exclusive 
descriptive label, will normally be disseminated on 
a worldwide basis by the new U.S. Information 
Agency. This is a new concept. Its objective is 
clear. It is to present accurately, without exag- 
geration and witliout the slightest tinge of "propa- 
ganda" the olllcial position of the United States 
on major current problems and issues. It is the 
President's desire that such an official ))rogram 

30 



come to be known by the leaders and governments 
of other nations as a completely dependable state- 
ment of the official position of the United States on 
important problems and issues. The President 
hopes that by use of the official program technique, 
such leaders of other countries will in fact come to 
rely on what is stated in such a program as a cor- 
rect statement and an official statement of tlie U.S. 
position. 

I do believe that these first steps outlined in th& 
reorganization proposals which are before you 
will result in much clearer assignments of respon- 
sibilitj' and far more effective teamwork on the 
part of the President's executive departments and 
principal advisers and assistants. From the point 
of view of the Secretary of State, these proposals 
move in the right direction. They constitute a 
blueprint of the first essential steps toward meet- 
ing the needs of our Government in the conduct 
of foreign affairs. If adopted, they will liave these 
main results: (1) provide for the assignment of 
primary responsibility for all foreign-policy mat^ 
ters to the Secretary of State; (2) gi'oup togethec 
a number of homogeneous programs wliich help 
to implement our foreign policy; (3) make po& 
sible more efficient administration of the respective 
programs; and (4) permit the Secretary of State 
and his principal assistants to devote a major pro- 
poi'tion of tlieir time and resources to concentra- 
tion on basic foreign-policy functions. 

For these reasons I respectfully urge that this 
committee approve Reorganization Plans 7 and i 
as submitted by the President. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Confirmations 

The Senate on .Tune 24 confirmed the following: Jamei 
S. Kemper as Ambassador to Brazil ; L. Corrin Strong as 
Ambassador to Norway ; M. Robert Guggenheim as Ambas 
sador to Portugal. j 



Consular Offices 

Tlie consulate at Vitoria, Brazil, will be closed to till 
public as of June 19, and will be officially closed on JuM 
;^0, 195:^. The Vitoria consular district will bo transferrec 
to the .iurisdietion of the consular section of the Kmbassj 
at lUo de .Taneiro. 

The consulate at Fortaleza, Brazil, will be closed to the 
jjiiblic as of June '.iO, and will bo officially closed on August 
1,5, 195.'5. The Fortaleza consular district will be dividec 
between the consulate at Uecife and the cons\ilate a1 
Belem. The State of Ceara will be transferred to the 
Recife consular district and the State of I'laui will b« 
transferred to the Belem consular district. 



Department of Stale Bulletirf 



July 6, 1952 



Index 



Vol. XXIX, No. 732 



Aid to Foreign Countries 

Pakistan to receive U.S. wheat (Elsenhower, 

Hlldreth) 15 

American Principles 

America's changing relationship with Germany 

(Straus) 10 

The economics of U.S. foreign policy (Asher) . 3 

American Republics 

Consular oflBces closed 30 

Asia 

KOREA: 

General Assembly president asks Syngman 

Rhee's cooperation 14 

Syngman Rhee's reply to President's letter on 

Korean armistice (text) 13 

PAKISTAN: 

To receive U.S. wheat (Elsenhower, Hlldreth) . 15 

President Eisenhower, Prime Minister of Paki- 
stan exchange messages 16 

Congress 

Current legislation on foreign policy .... 26 
Effects of tlie President's reorganization plans 

on the Department of State (Lourle) . . 27 

Europe 

BELGIUM: MSA productivity allotments ... 18 
FRANCE: MSA productivity allotments ... 17 
GERMANY: 

America's changing relationship with Ger- 
many (Straus) 10 

Disturbances In East Berlin 8 

NORWAY: MsA productivity allotments ... 18 
U.S.S.R.; 

Disturbances In East Berlin 8 

Reported easing of restrictions on travel In 

U.S.S.R 8 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 22-26, 1953 

Releases may be obtained from the OflSce of the 
Special Assistant for Press Relations, Department 
of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Subject 
Lourie : Reorganization plans 
Robertson : Visit to Korea 
U.S. teachers under exchange program 
Allied message on Berlin riots 
Farrar : Retirement 
Dulles : Iia library booljs 
Hildreth : Wheat loading ceremony 
Waugb : International Wheat Agree- 
ment 
Dulles : tJ.N. Day ob.servance 
French teachers in exchange program 
Termination date of Claims Commis- 
sioners 
Hale : Resignation from post 

later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


331 


6/22 


332 


6/22 


*333 


6/24 


334 


6/24 


*335 


6/26 


1336 


6/25 


337 


6/26 


t338 


6/26 


*3.S9 


6/26 


*340 


6/26 


t341 


6/26 


t342 


6/26 


♦Not 


printed 


fHeld for a 



Finance 

The economics of U.S. foreign policy (Asher) . 3 

Fisheries 

The North Atlantic marine research program 

(Terry) ... 19 

Foreign Service 

ConHrmations (Kemper, Strong, Guggenheim) 30 

Consular offices 30 

International Meetings 

The North Atlantic marine research program 

(Terry) ig 

Labor 

The economics of U.S. foreign policy (Asher) . . 3 

Mutual Security 

Long-range program recommended for under- 
developed areas 16 

Productivity allotments to France, Norway, 

Belgium 17 

Prisoners of War 

General Assembly president asks Syngman 

Rhee's cooperation 14 

Syngman Rhee's reply to President's letter on 

Korean armistice (text) 13 

State, Department of 

Effects of the President's reorganization plans 

on the Department of State (Lourie) ... 27 

Trust Territories 

Problems In the administration of the Pacific 

trust territory (Midkiff) 22 

United Nations 

Current U.N. documents: A selected bibliog- 
raphy 21 

General Assembly president asks Syngman 

Rhee's cooperation 14 

Problems in the administration of the Pacific 

trust territory (Midkiff) 22 

Syngman Rhee's reply to President's letter on 

Korean armistice (text) 13 

Name Index 

Adenauer, Konrad g 

All. Mohammed 15 

Asher, Robert E 3 

Eisenhower, President 9, 15 

Guggenheim, M. Robert 30 

Hlldreth, Horace A 15 

Kemper, James S 30 

Lourie, Donold B 27 

Midkiff, Frank 22 

Orchard, John E 17 

Rhee, Syngman 13, 14 

Strong, L. Corrin 30 

Robertson, Walter S 14 

Straus, Richard 10 

Terry, William M 19 

White. Lincoln 8 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I9SS 



FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES 

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Just published: 1935, Volume I, General, 



The Near East and Africa 



. . . another volume in the continuing, comprehensive record 
of the United States in world affairs. The documents con- 
tained in this volume show the increasing threat of a rapidly- 
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deep concern over the Ethiopian-Italian conflict. In the face 
of growing danger, the United States adopted new principles 
of strict neutrality to keep out of any war, and endeavored, by 
use of its moral influence, to preserve peace and uphold inter- 
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This volume (xcvii, 1,074 pp.) was compiled in the Division 
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tJrve/ ^eha^wieTvf/ xw t/tate^ 




Vol. XXIX, No. 733 
July 13, 1953 




•»tes o 



U.S. VIEWS ON THE JAPANESE ECONOMY • by 

Ambassador Allison ............. 35 

THE CONTINUING NEED FOR BUILDING FREE- 
WORLD STRENGTH THROUGH NATO • Statement 

by Ambassador Hughes 47 

AVIATION POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL RE- 
LATIONS • Article by Henry T. Snowdon 41 



For index see inside back cover 



Boston Public Lil)rary 
Superintendent of Documents 

AUG 6 1953 




■^T.. «' 



<jAe zl^^ia/y^nie^ /i^ CHate Vj U 1 1 \j L i 1 1 



Vol. XXIX. No. 733 . PnaLicATioN 5125 
July 13, 1953 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.O. 

Pbick: 

62 issues, domestic $7.50, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 22, 1962). 

Note: Oontenta of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of Stat^ BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of the 
Government uiith information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
selected press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the W^hite House 
and the Department, and statements 
and addresses made by tlie President 
and by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and tfie func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of interruitional relations, are listed 
currently. 



U.S. Views on the Japanese Economy 



by John M. Allison 
Ambassador to Japan'^ 



I consider it a great honor that you have invited 
^nie to become your honorary president. This invi- 
tation is, I hope, a symbol of the close relationship 
whicli has in the past been maintained between the 
American Embassy and the American business 
community. I give you my assurance that I shall 
do my part in seeing to it that the relationship 
continues. 

As you kiaow. an ambassador has a double func- 
tion; he interprets his country to tlie country in 
which he lives and the country in which he lives 
to his own coimtry. If I am to do a reasonable job 
in making clear to the Government of Japan the 
ideals, liopes, and desires of America, I shall need 
the advice and counsel of you gentlemen of the 
American Chamber of Commerce with your 
knowledge of the part American business ancl in- 
dustry can play. And then because of the fact that 
you have contacts with many sectors of Japanese 
life wliicli I do not often reach, you can advise me 
af liow American policy is understood or not un- 
lerstood by our Japanese friends and what we can 
lo to improve matters. So, for these reasons as 
i\ ell as for the very real pleasure of personal asso- 
'iation, I am pleased to accept your invitation and 
o become officially associated witli you. 

I am also particularly pleased to be witli you 
oday and through your kindness be privileged to 
neet and speak with so many of your Japanese 
olleagues. I hope that the cooperation between 
Vmerican and Japanese business interests evi- 
lenced by your joining together for luncli is sym- 
)olic of a wider cooperation between Japan and 
Vmerica. I believe that if we are to have peace 
nd economic and political stability in this part of 
lie world it must be based upon Japanese- Amer- 
can cooperation, such as is evident here today. 

Today I do not intend to speak to you as an eco- 
loinic expert for I am not such. I shall not even 
ttempt to forecast the future course of Japanese- 



' Address made before the American Chamber of Com- 
lerce at Tokyo on June 23. 



\y 



/y 13, 1953 



American economic relations. I shall only speak 
to you very informally about what we are doing 
at the present and how we hope what we are doing 
will result in a better and stronger Japan and 
hence in better times for all of us. 

First, I believe it should be made clear that the 
U.S. Government and its leaders are keenly aware 
of the economic problems confronting Japan. Be- 
cause of the awareness, there is no feeling of facile 
optimism but rather a true understanding of the 
great needs which exist and a determination to 
do all that is possible to meet those needs. As I 
told the members of the America-Japan Society 
tlie other day, President Eisenhower expressed to 
me during my farewell call his great concern over 
the economic future of Japan. He understands 
the problems created by the war and also by the 
limitations on trade with certain areas as a result 
of Communist aggi-ession. The President realizes 
the great concern felt by the people of Japan over 
the problem of how to create means to defend 
themselves, so that they will not be dependent 
upon others, and at the same time not wesiken the 
economic fabric of the nation. 

In this connection, I believe it important that 
you know that President Eisenhower believes 
strongly that the defensive strength of any nation 
depends upon three factors: spiritual, economic, 
and lastly military. If a people do not have a 
strong belief in their own cause and a will to 
defend their way of life, and if they do not have 
a sound economic base, the mere possession of 
arms will be of no avail. The spiritual element in 
national strength is something which no foreign 
aid can give; it must come from the people and 
their leaders. The actual tools of defense can be 
received through foreign aid if desired and needed 
but that is not what I wish to talk about today. 
Rather, let us consider for a while what is being 
done to build up the second element in national 
defense — the economic stability of Japan. 

There are many ways in which America has been 
helping Japan, some direct and some indirect. 
For, gentlemen, it is American policy to assist 

35 



Japan in the attainment of a self-supporting econ- 
omy. What are we doing to implement this 
policy? Most conspicuous and important in re- 
cent years have been the special dollars which the 
United States has expended in Japan for goods 
and services. Such dollar expenditures in pro- 
curement for U. N. forces in Korea, the support 
of American security forces in Japan, and the 
purchase of yen by those forces for their personal 
requirements amounted, last year, to more than 
$800 million. These dollars performed the valu- 
able service of financing Japan's trade deficit 
which amounted to $750 million. But this is not 
the whole story. These expenditures have filtered 
through the entire Japanese economy, aiding 
manufacturers, merchants, labor, and government 
as well. 



"A Built-in Tourist Industry" 

Procurement has provided employment for 
Japanese labor; it has enabled manufacturers to 
increase their operations, earn profits, and pay 
taxes to the Government of Japan. It has en- 
hanced the demand for steel, coal, cement, cotton 
textiles, and leather products. Engineers and 
mechanics, in addition to factory workers, have 
received salaries and wages which otherwise could 
not have been paid, and this purchasing power has 
stimulated the sale of food, clothing, and shelter 
throughout the country. Expenditures in sup- 
port of our security forces in Japan have stimu- 
lated the sale, and hence the production, of cam- 
eras, cultured pearls, china and lacquer ware, 
cloisonne, and all of the other objects which are 
the delight of tourists. In fact the money spent 
by the American security forces and their de- 
pendents in Japan, which amounts to the rather 
astounding total of United States $25-30 million 
a month, constitutes a built-in tourist industry the 
like of which few countries can boast. In truth, 
this distribution within the economy of $800 
million has added materially to the national in- 
come ; it is as though the exports of Japan had been 
increased by this substantial sum. 

I do not claim that these expenditures constitute 
American aid, but I do assert that they are a very 
important form of assistance. And as you all 
recall, we have made clear our belief that the end 
of fighting in Korea will not bring these expendi- 
tures suddenly to an end. Last April the official 
spokesman of the Department of State said : "The 
Department believes that total U.S. expenditures 
in Japan will not be sharply reduced but will re- 
main at a relatively high level for at least the next 
2 years." ^ And more important, he added : "How- 
ever, if a serious situation were ever to develop in 
the Japanese economy, the Department is sure tliat 
the U.S. officials would want to sit down together 



' Bulletin of Apr. 27, 1953, p. 611. 



36 



with Japanese representatives to consider ways in 
which this Government could help." 

What else are we Americans doing to aid Japan ? 
You may recall that recently the Export-Import 
Bank of Washington extended, for a second time, 
a cotton credit of $40 million.^ This is another 
illustration of cooperative action which is mutually 
advantageous. Japanese manufacturers of cotton 
textiles, currently faced with grave problems in 
their export markets, can obtain cotton at lower 
rates of interest than would otherwise be possible, 
thus reducing their costs and improving their com- 
petitive position. American producers of cotton, 
on the other hand, are enabled to sell larger quan- 
tities than might otherwise be possible. 

You all know that the International Bank for 
Keconstruction and Development is giving favor- 
able consideration to a loan of $40 million for the 
development of thermal electric power in Japan. 
This project is soundly conceived and engineered, 
and will add 300,000 kilowatt hours to the produc- 
tive capacity of this nation. Moreover, arrange- 
ments have been made so that equally efficient units 
may ultimately be produced in Japan, providing 
added strength to the economy and improving the 
export position of the electrical equipment in- 
dustry. Because the reports were prepared before 
I arrived, and therefore none of the credit belongs 
to me, I can say that much of the credit for en- 
couraging the extension of this loan should go to 
the officers in our Embassy here who have helped to 
convince Washington of the good such a loan could 
do. 



Mutual Benefits of Private Investment 

There is another field with great potentialities in 
which Americans can render service. I refer to 
private investment and technical assistance. As 
you members of the American Chamber of Com- 
merce know, foreign investments helped build our 
country. In the colonial period and the earlv days 
of the Federal Government, capital from Eiurope 
built toll roads, canals, and railroads, and estab- 
lished factories. The transportation facilities 
opened the fertile territory of the West, and the 
factories added to the wealth of the Nation. The 
investors received dividends from their profitable 
ventures, and the country profited by the enhanced 
availability of resources and increased production, 
exports, employment, and tax revenue. 

Although America was a young and relatively 
weak country when it accepted those loans from 
the then more advanced nations of Europe, they 
did not result in America's becoming a tool of 
Europe but, rather, gave America tlie start with- 
out which we could not have become the nation we 
are today. Japan can ex])erience similar benefits, 
if it will. In this competitive day and age, it is 
essential to employ the latest and most efficient 

" Ibid., May 11, 1953, p. 681. 

Department of State Bulletin 



is, 



methods of production in order that manufac- 
turers may be able to sell their products in world 
markets. 

In this connection, may I sound a note of cau- 
tion? Since my arrival I have noted a tendency 
to emphasize loans as the type of forci<rn capital 
most desired in Japan. I urge you not to overlook 
the possibility of attracting equity capital, because 
of the advantages which are certain to be derived 
from it. If modern machinery, modern tech- 
niques, and efficient methods are really desired, 
equity capital is perhaps the best and surest way 
to obtain them. 

I was pleased to learn that private American 
investments in Japan totaled approximately $75 
million in 1952, and that, as of last December 31, 
Japanese companies had 164 technological assist- 
ance contracts with American companies. There 
are opportunities for further development of this 
type of cooperative endeavor which I am confident 
will bear rich fruit for both private enterprise and 
our two countries. 

In this matter of private investment, the con- 
tribution which American banks have made to the 
economy of Japan should not be overlooked. Not 
only have they helped to finance trade between our 
two countries — Japanese trade as well as Amer- 
ican — but also they have financed Japanese trade 
with third countries and assisted Japanese banks 
by participating directly with them in carrying 
their heavy financial burden. These institutions 
have rendered a valuable service in supporting the 
financial structure of the country and promoting 
its economic well-being. 

Since my arrival I have been disturbed to note 
that in the field of foreign trade, exports have been 
declining and imports increasing; in fact, the im- 
port balance for the first 5 months of 1953 amounts 
to $478 million. This sum is only a little less than 
the import balance incurred in the first 8 months 
of 1952. On an annual basis, the trade deficit in 
1953 could reach the very large figure of $1,150 
million. This sum would certainly be in excess of 
the anticipated receipts of special dollars, result- 
ing in a reduction in foreign-exchange reserves of 
approximately $350 million. This is a situation 
which obviously deserves the most thoughtful at- 
tention of all of us. 



The Trade Deficit Problem 

This trend toward a rising deficit in Japan's 
balance of payments has been evident for some 
time, although it was not until my arrival here 
that it became so marked. What are the causes, 
what are the remedies? I will not presume to tell 
you gentlemen what you probably know far better 
than I, but it may perhaps be of some value to 
pass on to you comments which I have heard from 
American bankers and others who have visited 
Japan in recent months and who have been con- 
cerned with what they saw. 



uly 13, 1953 



These observers, I should say in the beginning, 
have all come away from Japan with the highest 
regard for the industriousness and skill of the 
Japanese people. They have been impressed by 
the financnil integrity of the Japanese and the 
manner in which they have met their prewar finan- 
cial obligations. But they have also been dis- 
turbed by certain things. They have noted that 
the shift in Japan's foreign trade from primary 
dependence upon light industry to heavy industry, 
which had begun before the war, has been con- 
tinuing ajKice since the war. And they have seen 
that it is in this very field of heavy industry that 
Japan finds itself at a competitive disadvantage 
in world markets because of its high prices. These 
high prices have been attributed to lack of modem 
techniques in industry; to the fact that many 
Japanese industrialists do not employ modern sys- 
tems of cost accounting, so they often do not know 
just what each unit docs or should cost; to lack 
of quality control with the resulting large per- 
centage of rejects; and to the lack of adequate 
market surveys. 

I have heard it said that if industrial efficiency 
were increased, unemployment would be created 
which Japan could ill afford. But I venture to 
suggest that if costs could be reduced, increased 
sales, both abroad and at home, would sustain em- 
ployment and perhaps even increase it. You will 
notice that I have not suggested a reduction in 
wage levels as a method of reducing costs. I have 
not done so because we in the United States have 
found that by increasing the efficiency and pro- 
ductivity of labor it is possible to pay high wages, 
maintain purchasing power, and yet obtain a low 
labor cost for each unit produced. 

It is possible, of course, for a government to 
strengthen the economy of a country by encourag- 
ing essential development, such as the expansion 
of facilities for the generation of power and the 
modernization of industrial plants. This can be 
done in many ways. I need only mention, for ex- 
ample, such incentives as a stabilized price level 
through sound fiscal policies, the modification of 
taxation, and the availability of credit at mod- 
erate rates of interest. If capital is scarce, it is 
sometimes necessary to direct its utilization so 
that basic requirements of the economy will re- 
ceive the attention they merit. And if imports 
are exceeding a country's capacity to buy, it has 
sometimes been found necessary, regrettable as 
that may be, to restrict the acquisition from abroad 
of luxuries and nonessentials until conditions have 
improved. There is nothing new in these sugges- 
tions; they are merely cited as illustrations of 
restraints which some countries have found essen- 
tial in periods of readjustment. 

Although it is sometimes necessary to adopt a 
negative or restrictive approach, it is also possible 
to take a positive attitude in seeking a solution 
to the problems which confront us, and the two 
are not necessarily mutually exclusive. I have in 

37 



mind the attraction of foreign capital to assist in 
the rehabilitation and development of the econ- 
omy. It may interest you to know that U.S. citi- 
zens liave invested $8 billion in Canada, one-half 
of which has provided equity capital for Canadian 
firms. This money has lielped develop tlie natural 
resources of that country and lias contributed sub- 
stantially to the construction of its manufacturing 
plant. It has provided employment for Canadian 
citizens and paid tax revenues to the Government 
of Canada. These foreign funds are welcome in 
Canada because of the contribution they have 
made to its economy. 

Private American capital could also make a con- 
tribution to the economy of Japan. But if it is 
desired, it must be offered substantial inducements 
before it is willing to leave America. There are 
sound opportunities at home. If it is thwarted by 
regulations, if there are restrictions upon tlie re- 
mittance of profits, if there is discrimination in 
relation to domestic capital, foreign capital pre- 
fers to remain at home. It will only go where it 
is made welcome, where the climate is hospitable. 



Need for Mutual Trust 

It is important to stress, I believe, that this 
favorable climate is not dependent only upon regu- 
lations and laws. It is also dependent upon an 
atmosphere of mutual trust and regard. There 
cannot be the close cooperation necessary if one 
partner believes the other is trying to take advan- 
tage of him or is discriminating against him. 
This atmosphere of mutual trust can only be built 
by a mutual exchange of ideas and information, by 
a realization by each of what the other is doing. 
And tliat is why I have tried to tell you something 
this afternoon of what America is doing to help 
Jajian and how perhaps we could do more. 

We have recently signed with Japan a treaty 
of friendship, commerce, and navigation * wliicli 
we hope will further extend the field of economic 
cooperation between our two countries. "Wlien 
this treaty is ratified and goes into effect it will 
guarantee that each nation will extend to the other 
unconditional most-favored-nation treatment. 
This means, for example, that under the treaty, 
Japan will have the advantage in the markets 
of the United States of reduced duties under the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Gatt) 
although Japan is not yet a member of Gatt. I 
wonder if you realize liow important this guaran- 
tee really is. In 1951, for example, 75 percent 
of Japan's dutiable trade entered the United 



* Signed at Tokyo on Apr. 2 ; for announeenipnt of the 
signing, see ibid., Apr. 13, 1953, p. 531. 



States under rates whicli had been reduced under 
the authority of the Reciprocal Trade Agi'eements 
Act. Therefore, although Japan is not yet a mem- 
ber of GAT-r and does not yet have a trade agi'ee- 
nient with the United States, a very substantial 
part of its exports to my country is now accorded 
the privilege of entering at rates reduced in agree- 
ments with other countries, and this privilege will 
be guaranteed under the treaty of friendship, 
commerce, and navigation. You might also be 
interested to know that in 1951 approximately 25 
percent of Japan's total exports to the United 
States were admitted free of duty, and 56 percent 
came in at rates which had been reduced since 
1945. Tlierefore, more tlian 80 percent of Japan's 
trade in that year entered tlie United States either 
free of duty or at reduced rates. 

There is not time to go into other benefits which 
accrue to Japan under tliis treaty but it is only an- 
other example of our desire to lielp. This policy 
of the United States of helping Japan to create 
a stable economic foundation is not based on 
charity or merely because we like your ready 
smile — which we do — but on the very real belief 
that it is in the true long-term interest of tlia 
United States to have strong, independent, and) 
enlightened states in Asia which can and will work 
with us in building peace in this part of the world. 
That is why we are helping the other free nations 
of Asia also and why we shall continue to do so. 

But the most important thing of all is what the 
Japanese can and will do for themselves. ^-Vmeri-« 
can aid can help but it can only be successful ii 
the Japanese can and do help themselves. And 
that is why I am optimistic about the future, be-i 
cause I am optimistic about the Japanese and 
about their ability to help themselves. May I con- 
clude with words I used almost 2 years ago in New 
York, but which I believe are still appropriate : 

"It is from the past history of Japan that w* 
can draw encouragement regarding the future 
We sliould remember that when Commodore Perrj 
first visited Japan in 1853, he found a nation o) 
approximately 30 million people living in a stag* 
of economic development no more advanced tliar 
that of 15th century Europe, and then less thai 
100 years later, by 1940, Japan liad transformec 
itself into a front-rank industrial and military 
power supporting a population of 73 million pec 
pie witli a standard of living above anything 
known by their ancestors. Wliile the conditioi 
of the world today is certainlj' different and n© 
as favorable to the future growth of Japan as wai I* 
that prevailing in tlie previous 100 years, never) 'ft 
theless, I believe we can liave confidence that givfflj sb 
a fair chance, the Japanese people can and wi 1 
make their nation into a prosperous, peaceful, aDI tor 
cooperative member of the free world." i tif 



•i 
I II Si 



38 



Department of State Bullem 



July 



Economic Interdependence 
in Today's World 

h 1/ Harold E. S fas.se n 
Director for Mutual Security ^ 

In the conduct of President Ei^enliowor's mutual 
security program, with its objective of a just peace 
and of economic progress for the peoples of the 
world, we have very much in mind two words — 
freedom and security. We are aware that the very 
nature of man is such that he ever wishes to have 
personal freedom and reasonable security for him- 
self and for his loved ones. We know full well 
that both freedom and security require economic 
health, military strength, and social justice. 

Thus, we have a very special interest in what 
happens to the enterprise and to the workers of the 
nations of the world. Thousands of those workers 
on the streets of East Berlin on June 17 made a 
dramatic impact on the thinking of the world. 
Oiie of them took action which will ever be remem- 
bered. As the Red army tanks rumbled down the 
streets of his home city with machineguns rattling 
to disperse the protesting workers, he ran out to 
meet the steel monster and with his bare hands 
picked up a fallen timber, jammed it into the treads 
of the vehicle and ran the tank off its tracks. That 
unknown Berlin worker tore a hole in the Iron 
Curtain that will never be repaired. 

There can be no doubt that a long and difficult 
course lies ahead before freedom and security can 
be restored throughout Eastern Europe and peace 
can be assured around the world. But it is clear 
that the determination and the courage exists on 
the part of the workers now within the Iron 
Curtain to win that freedom, to gain that security. 

I am confident that the courage and determina- 
tion is also present in the peoples of the free na- 
tions to follow through in the difficult, and com- 
plex, and long steps that will be needed to win. a 
victory for freedom and security without the trag- 
edy of a third world war. 

In our discussion this afternoon, let us concen- 
trate especially upon the economic phase of this 
worldwide issue. The future economic health of 
the free nations of the world is the essential foun- 
dation for progi-ess in better living for the free 
peoples, and it is also the indispensable base for 
effective military strength to attain security and 
shield freedom itself. 

The economic success of the free nations of the 
world is closely interlinked. The best course to 
the improvement and the maintenance of good 
standards of living in any nation is a course that 



' Address made before the Junior Chamber International 
at San Francisco, Calif., on June 21 ; released to the press 
by the Office of the Director for Mutual Security. 

Jw/y 73, 7953 



facilitates economic progress by all free nations. 

This broad principle, frequently confirmed in 
the past half century, is nevertheless difficult to 
implement. There is an understandable extreme 
nationalism in the approach to economic questions 
in every country. The hope of the future rests 
with the alert understanding of young men such 
as those assembled in this convention from many 
nations. 

One of the problems before us, as you realize, is 
the establishment of a sound and durable economic 
relationship between the United States and the 
rest of the world. Our system of individual eco- 
nomic freedom, our natural resources, our protec- 
tion from the ravages of recent wars, the indus- 
triousness of our people have combined to estab- 
lish a very high level of production and strong 
creditor nation position. 

Currently our exports amount to approximately 
$15 billion per year. Our imports are approxi- 
mately $10 billion per year. A temporary balance 
has been established the past year with $5 billion 
of grants and loans. The.se grants and loans have 
been an extremely important and desirable pro- 
gram under the circtimstances. But everyone 
agrees that this is not a sound basis for a long-term 
relationship for either the giver or recipient. 

In its place there must be developed a sound 
economic relationship between the United States 
and the other nations. It will take time. It will 
not be easy. But it must be done and it can be 
done. 

This is of special interest to young men of com- 
merce of all nations. They not only can help this 
needed development take place but they will also 
find many opportunities connected with such a 
development. 

Here are some of the factors required in such 
a development: 

1. A major increase in U.S. private capital 
investment abroad. This is most likely to take 
place if the laws of our own and other countries 
are amended to give direct encouragement to this 
investment. It will also be facilitated if other 
coimtries stimulate the expression of their own 
private capital and if these individual business- 
men present joint proposals for U.S. capital 
participation. 

2. Some increase in U.S. imports, especially raw 
materials and other items which best complement 
and fit in with our domestic economy. This entire 
subject will be studied by a special commission to 
be established by this session of our Congress. 

3. Expanded U.S. travel and tourism overseas. 
This is now a major item for balancing accounts 
and it can be a much larger factor in the future. 

4. U.S. purchase overseas of arms and equip- 
ment needed by our joint defense forces in Nato 
and in other parts of the world. 

5. Increased wages in other industrial countries 
which will expand consumer markets, stimulate 

39 



production, and facilitate an upward climb of liv- 
ing standards. 

6. Better credit availability in other nations 
for small and new independent industries and 
enterprises to facilitate their establishment and 
their growth. 

Tliis is onlj' a partial list, but each of these six 
points is very important. 

I am optimistic that steady progress can be made 
in evolving a sound economic relationship which 
will contribute to a steady advance in the living 
conditions of the free peoples of the world. 

Such an advance may well prove to be an irre- 
sistible attraction which, added to the inherent 
love of freedom, will ultimately release the grip 
of ruthless totalitarian rulers over vast millions of 
the peoples behind the Iron Curtain. 

This is a course which holds promise of peace. 
It is a humanitarian course. It needs the vigor 
and vitality, the ingenuity and intelligence, which 
the members of Junior Chamber International, 
and the young men of your generation, can give 
to it. 

Meanwhile, let us ever be alert and strong, ready 
to defend freedom with our lives if need be. Only 
thus can there be security. Only thus can the 
prospects of peace be bright. 



The Unquenchable Spirit 
of the Captive Peoples 

Press Conference Statement hy Secretary Dulles 

Press release 344 dated June 30 

I have long believed and preached that the 
Soviet was overextended, having under its control 
some COO million non-Russians representing what 
had been 15 or more independent nations. I have 
been confident that these people could not be 
moulded into the Soviet Communist pattei'n, par- 
ticularly if the free jDeoples kept alive the hope of 
the captives and showed them that they were not 
forgotten. 

There has now developed extensive unrest with- 
in the satellite countries of Europe. It demon- 
strates that the people do retain their love of God 
and love of country and their sense of personal 
dignity. They want to run their own affairs and 
not be run from Moscow. 

The unquenchable spirit of the peoples was 
dramatized in East Berlin, where unarmed youths 
tore up paving stones from the streets to hurl in 
defiance at tanks. Such a spirit can never be re- 
pressed, and this love of freedom is more and more 
manifesting itself through the captive peoples. 

The cry everywhere is for "free elections." The 
people want to be governed by those whom they 
select as responsive to their needs and their de- 
sires, ratlier than to be ruled by those who take 



their orders from aliens and who give their orders 
with a view to achieving their own ambitions with- 
out regard to the welfare of the people concerned. 

In my book War or Peace, written over 3 years 
ago, I said : "The Communist structure is over-ex- 
tended, over-rigid and ill-founded. It could be 
shaken if the difficulties that were latent were ac- 
tivated." I went on to point out that this does 
not mean an armed revolt which would precipitate 
a massacre, but that short of this the people could 
demonstrate an independence such that the Soviet 
Communist leaders would come to recognize the 
futility of trying to hold captive so many peoples 
who, by their faith and their patriotism, can never 
really be consolidated into a Soviet Communist 
world. 

The developments of recent weeks show the cor- 
rectness of that diagnosis. 



Current Legislation on Foreign Policy 

Taxation Convention With Australia. Message From the 
President of the United States Transmitting the Con- 
vention Between the United States of America and 
the Commonwealth of Australia for the Avoidance of 
Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion 
With Respect to Taxes on Income, Signed at Wash- 
ington on May 14, 1953. S. Exec. I, 83d Cong., 1st 
Sess. 14 pp. 

Establishing the OflBce of Commissioner of Refugees. Re- 
port (To accompany S. 1766). S. Kept. 374, 83d 
Cong., 1st Sess. 4 pp. 

Mutual Security Act of 1953. Report of the Commit- 
tee on Foreign Affairs on H. R. 5710 A Bill To Amend 
Further the Mutual Security Act of 1951, As Amended, 
and For Other Purposes. H. Rept. 569, S3d Cong., 1st 
Sess. 74 pp. ; Minority Views To Accompany H. R. 
5710 A Bill To Amend Further the Mutual Security 
Act of 1951, As Amended, and For Other Purposes. H. 
Rept. 569, Part 2, 83d Cong., 1st Sess. pp. 

The Mutual Security Program For Fiscal Year 1954. Basic 
Data Supplied by the Executive Branch. June 5, 
1953. Revised Committee Print. 83d Cong., 1st 
Sess. 113 pp. 

Constitutional Amendment Relative to Treaties and 
Executive Agreements. Report together with Min- 
ority Views (To accompany S. J. Res. 1). S. Rept. 
412, 83d Cong., 1st Sess. 63 pp. 

Defense Production Act Amendments of 1953. Confer- 
ence Report (To accompany S. 1081). H Rept. 571, 
83d Cong., 1st Sess. 14 pp. ; Hearing Before the 
Committee on Banking and Currency, House of Rep- 
resentatives, Eighty-Third Congress, First Session 
on S. lOSl An Act To Provide Authority for Tem- 
porary Economic Controls, and for Other Purposes. 
May 21, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, June 1 and 2, 1953. 374 pp. 

Wheat for Pakistan. Report (To accompany S. 2112). 
S. Rept. 404, 83d Cong., 1st Sess. 3 pp.; Report (To 
accompany H. R. 5659). H. Rept. 570, S3d Cong., 
1st Sess. 4 pp. ; Message From tlie President of tlie 
United States Transmitting Recommendation for 
Grant of Wheat to Pakistan. H. Doc. 171, 83d Cong., 
1st Sess. 3 pp. 

Extending the Authority for the Investigation With 
Respect to the Effectiveness of Foreign Information 
Programs. Report (To accompany S. Res. 117). 
S. Rept. 372, 83d Cong., 1st Sess. 2 pp. 

Investigation of the Effectiveness of Foreign Information 
Programs. Report (To accompany S. Res. 117). S. 
Rept. 392, 83(1 Cong., 1st Sess. 2 pp. 



40 



Department of State Bulletin 



Aviation Policy and International Relations 



by Henry T. Snowdon 



Tlie United States is this year celebrating the 
50tli anniversary of powered flight. On December 
17, 1903, at Kitty Hawk, N. C, the Wright brothers 
made the first powered flight, which lasted 12 
seconds and covered only 120 feet. From this 
modest beginning aviation has developed and ex- 
panded until it has become an integral segment of 
modern civilization and an essential component of 
international relations. As the Government 
agency directly responsible for the conduct of the 
foreign affairs of the United States, the Depart- 
ment of State has been active in the growth of in- 
ternational aviation and continues to participate 
in U.S. efforts for the unhampered but orderly 
development of worldwide civil aviation. These 
efforts entail a broad range of activities which the 
layman may not associate with foreign relations 
but which do have a direct bearing upon U.S. in- 
terests abroad. 

The U.S. Government early recognized the im- 
portance of aviation. World War I gave great 
impetus to its development, and the techniques 
learned in wartime were adapted to peacetime uses. 
The "barnstormers" of the 1920's proved also that 
civil aviation could be made commercially profit- 
able. It was probably they more than any other 
force that brought aviation into the public eye, and 
largely because of them the significance of this 
new transportation medium received early Gov- 
ernment cognizance. 

The first Federal legislation on the general 
subject of aviation was the Air Commerce Act of 
1926, designed to develop an orderly and rational 
relation between the Government and the oper- 
ators of aircraft. The act established in the U.S. 
Department of Commerce a Bureau of Air Naviga- 
tion responsible for the advancement of civil avia- 
tion, and, in addition to other promotional activi- 
ties, the Government for the first time took 
responsibility for erecting and maintaining air- 
ways and aids to air navigation. However, it was 
not until 1928 that the first international air route 
was established for the transportation of U.S. 
mail — a 90-mile route from Key West, Fla., to 



Habana, Cuba. This route not only heralded the 
enti-y of the United States into the international 
air market but marked the beginning of what in a 
mere 25 years has culminated in today's vast 
worldwide network of U.S. international airline 
operations. 

The U.S. Government did not take an active part 
in the negotiations for permissions for the early 
international civil air operations conducted by 
U.S. carriers. These operations expanded in 
Latin America and across the Canadian border 
during the 1930's, and late in that decade also 
reached across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 
The rights for U.S. air carriers to operate on 
international routes were negotiated during this 
period almost completely by private enterprise. 
Since in each case only one U.S. carrier was op- 
erating on the route and since few foreign air- 
lines had as yet aspired to compete in interna- 
tional services, few complications arose that 
required the attention of the Department of State. 
Nevertheless, the Department did cooperate in 
requesting Embassies at various points to give 
such assistance to the U.S. carriers as could ap- 
i:)ropriately be made available. By 1935 British 
carriers wished to operate in tlie United States 
under reciprocal arrangements which would per- 
mit a U.S. carrier to operate in U.K. territory. 
Intergovernmental negotiations to this end re- 
sulted in the issuance of permits to the U.S. and 
British carriers by the governments of the terri- 
tories to be entered. By the beginning of World 
War II, the initial bilateral air transport agree- 
ments had been concluded with Canada and with 
France. The United States had also concluded 
with several other countries agreements relating 
to the general principles to be followed in navi- 
gation of foreign aircraft. 

New Legislation Needed 

The rapid expansion and increased complexity 
of domestic airline operations made new aviation 
legislation imperative and resulted in the passage 



JoJy ?3, 7953 



41 



of the Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938. The au- 
thors of this legislation had the foresight to lay 
down policies for international as well as domestic 
flying, although no serious problems had yet arisen 
in the international field. The Civil Aeronautics 
Act of 1938, together with amendments and the 
few remaining effective sections of the Air Com- 
merce Act of 1926, constitutes the legislation un- 
der which all U.S. aircraft operate today and un- 
der which foreign aircraft are granted access to 
U.S. territory. This act, much broader than the 
Air Commerce Act of 1926, had as its purpose 
inter alia "the encouragement and development of 
an air transportation system properly adapted to 
the present and future needs of the foreign and 
domestic commerce of the United States, of the 
Postal Service, and of the national defense." In 
section 802 of the act, the Congress recognized 
the responsibilities of the Secretary of State in 
connection with the negotiation and conclusion of 
international agreements, directing that the Sec- 
retary should advise the "Authority" of, and con- 
sult with the "Authority" concerning, the nego- 
tiation of such agreements. 

The progi-am of negotiating air navigation 
agreements, which had already been begun by the 
Department, was found to be consistent with the 
requirements of the new Civil Aeronautics Act 
and was continued. The growing importance of 
the international operations of IJ.S. air carriers 
in the Western Hemisphere, and their expansion 
across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, was be- 
coming more of a factor in the international rela- 
tions of the United States. The time had come 
to adopt a national policy with r'egai-d to the 
expansion of such services and to conduct through 
diplomatic channels the negotiations necessary 
for these services. Moreover, expanding aviation 
enterprises in other countries were making it 
necessary for this Government to permit the air- 
lines of such other countries to enter the United 
States in return for corresponding privileges for 
U.S. airlines operating abroad. 

However, uniform aviation policy was not 
feasible under the Department's organizational 
structure of that time. There was no focal point 
or central clearinghouse to process questions 
arising in the various geographic areas or to 
assess proposed legislation. To meet these needs 
in the field of aviation as well as in the other fields 
of transportation and communications, the De- 
partment in August 1938 established the Division 
of International Communications, one section of 
which was to deal with aviation. Secretary 
Stimson in his announcement of August 19, 1938, 
concerning tlie establishment of this division,^ ex- 
jilained that 

The international aspects of problems connected with 
telecommunications, aviation, and shipping have devel- 
oped in importance at an extraordinary rate during recent 



' Press ReleascK, vol. xix : No. 464, Aug. 20, 1088, p. 127. 



years, and it has become increasingly apparent for some 
time that the system heretofore followed of handling these 
problems in the political and otiier policy-making divisions 
of the Department was no longer adequate. 

The purpose of the aviation section of the new 
division was to give consistency to overall U.S. 
international aviation policy and to establish prin- 
ciples that might be given worldwide application. 
This section, the forerunner of the present Avia- 
tion Policy Staff, was immediately confronted not 
only with coordination of aviation matters in the 
Department and with the negotiation of agree- 
ments concerning various aspects of international 
operation of aircraft, but also with a problem of 
major political proportions. German aviation in- 
terests had deeply penetrated Latin America, and 
with the war clouds hovering, the security of the 
Western Hemisphere was at stake. Prompt action 
was required to assist in the denazification of the 
airlines operating under the guise of national flag 
carriers of various countries in the Western Hem- 
isphere. This task was successfully accomplished, 
and in the process the interests and responsibilities 
of the United States in the security and policy 
aspects of international aviation became firmly 
established. 

A by-product of this process was the basic for- 
mula for what is now known as the U.S. Techni- 
cal Assistance Program iii aviation. 

The technical know-how, the specialized equip- 
ment, and in many cases the financial assistance 
of the United States were made available to for- 
eign governments for the national development of 
their air facilities and services. This cooperation 
not only advanced national aviation in Latin 
America but through greatly improved interna- 
tional air communications provided the opportu- 
nity for closer economic and political integration 
within the Western Hemisphere. 



Functions of Aviation Policy Staff 

Successive reorganizations of the transportation 
and communications responsibilities in the Depart- 
ment have been effected to meet changing condi- 
tions and requirements. In January 1944 the 
Office of Transport and Communications was es- 
tablished, with broader responsibilities than those 
of the former Division of International Commu- 
nications. By June 1, 1946, the involved and 
diverse problems in these fields had so multiplied 
that the Department created the post of Assistant 
Secretary with primary responsibility for trans- 
portation and communications matters. Subse- 
quent adjustments were made in 1948. At jires- 
ent, the Aviation Policy Staff within the Office of 
Transport and Communications Policy is a func- 
tional staff of the Department responsible for 
overall policy-making activities, including repre- 
sentation on interdepartmental committees con- 
cerned with aviation and other relationships with 
interested Government agencies. This staff is also 



42 



Department of State Bulletin 



responsible for the conduct of all multilaterul ne- 
gotiations, including relationships with interna- 
tional organizations, and talves the lead or assists 
in bilateral aviation negotiations when necessary. 
The staff also serves as a focal point for all avia- 
tion policy matters in the Department. 



Planning for the Postwar Era 

The advent of World War II halted the ex- 
pansion of international civil aviation except as 
a supplement to military aviation, but it acceler- 
ated phenomenally the development of aviation 
techniques. With the airplane no longer closely 
bound by geographic or topographic factors, the 
Department hud to be prepared for a postwar era 
in whicli civil aviation operations would be able to 
cover the globe. Instead of gradual expansion 
and development, the Government must be ready 
to face practically a fait accompli. In anticipa- 
tion of this situation, the Department of State and 
the Civil Aeronautics Board issued a joint state- 
ment on October 15, 1943,- serving notice that here- 
after U.S. air operators would be permitted to 
operate onlv under direct authority from the Gov- 
ernment. ^To longer would the airlines obtain 
their own foreign operating rights, and the entire 

{)ostwar route structure would be reviewed in the 
ight of national interest. Military interest in 
civil aviation was being proved by wartime ex- 
perience, and the interrelationship of the two 
gave new significance to postwar civil operations. 

In 1943 the Civil Aeronautics Board also issued 
a detailed study of postwar international traffic 
potentials and announced that all airlines inter- 
ested in conducting international air services in 
the postwar period should file appropriate ap- 
plications with the Board. The res^xinse was en- 
thusiastic. The larger U.S. domestic airlines 
were gaining experience in international aviation 
through military contract operations, and the new 
horizons of international operations attracted 
ihem. The Civil Aeronautics Board sifted the 
evidence, studied the requirements, and finally was 
prepared to make recommendations to the Presi- 
dent. The Department participated in much of 
the detailed early work and advised the President 
on the foreign-])olicy implications of the recom- 
mendations of the Civil Aeronautics Board. 

The entire concept of U.S. civil air operations 
abroad had to be explored and evaluated. Should 
there be a single international flag carrier, com- 
monly referred to as a "chosen instrument," or, 
at the other extreme, should point-to-point com- 
petition be generally permitted between rival U.S. 
carriers on their certificated routes? In ]\Iarch 
1945 the first major route decision was issued, 
covering postwar services across the North Atlan- 
tic to Europe, North Africa, and the Middle 



East, and this offered a workable compromise 
between the concepts of monopoly and of excessive 
competition. "Area competition," in which dup- 
licating routes were to be avoided but equitable 
access on a competitive basis to traffic generating 
areas was to be provided, was adopted as a U.S. 
policy in this decision, and the number of U.S. 
airlines certificated to cross the Atlantic was in- 
creased from one to three. This same policy was 
subsequently ajiplied to route decisions in other 
areas of the world. 

During the planning for postwar civil aviation, 
the need for multilateral coordination became 
obvious. There had to be common ground on 
which all the allied and neutral nations could 
base their respective planning. Therefore, on 
November 1, 1944, the International Civil Avia- 
tion Conference was convened at Chicago at the 
invitation of the U.S. Government.^ Assistant 
Secretary of State Adolf A. Berle, Jr., was elected 
president. 

This Chicago conference took into account prior 
developments in the field of international aviation. 
The International Convention Relating to the 
Regulation of Aerial Navigation, signed at Paris 
on October 13, 1919, contained basic principles 
regarding the international navigation of air- 
craft. Many of these principles had been applied 
by the United States in its negotiation of bilateral 
air navigation agreements. Many were also in- 
corporated in the Habana Convention on Com- 
mercial Aviation, signed February 20, 1928, to 
which the United States was a party. 

The concepts which had thus been established 
prior to World War II and the experience that 
had been gained between 1919 and 1940 were care- 
fully evaluated and studied at the Chicago con- 
ference. Some of the earlier concepts which were 
retained included the doctrine of sovereignty of 
each state over the air space above its territory, 
the principle that the laws and i-egulations of each 
contracting state should be applied without dis- 
crimination to the navigation of foreign aircraft 
over its territory, and the provision to the effect 
that air transport services could not be established 
without the prior permission of the state whose 
territory might be entered. 



Results of Chicago Meeting 

The conference laid the groundwork for most 
of the basic principles which still apply to inter- 
national civil aviation. The most important 
document to come out of the conference was the 
Convention on International Civil Aviation,* 



= BiTLLETiN of Oct. 16, 1943, p. 265. 
Ju/y 13, 1953 



'For text of the invitation to tbe Conference, see 
iUd., Sept. 17, 1944, p. 298. 

* For an article comparinR tlie Chicago convention with 
those signed at Paris and Habana, see ihid.. Mar. 11, 1945, 
p. 411 ; for a report by Acting Secretary Grew on the 
Chicago convention, see ihid.. Mar. 18, 1945, p. 436. 

43 



which set forth f^eneral principles to govern world 
aviation and provided for the establishment of the 
International Civil Aviation Organization (Icao) , 
now a specialized agency of the United Nations 
with 59 member states. The United States 
strongly supports the Chicago convention and 
IcAO in the belief that the multilateral approach 
with discrimination toward none is the real solu- 
tion to many of the world's problems, including 
those of aviation. 

U.S. objectives abroad, if they were to be at- 
tained, required international negotiation. At the 
Chicago conference general agreement could not be 
reached on principles to govern air transport op- 
erations. An international air transport agree- 
ment — commonly referred to as the "Five Free- 
doms" Agreement ^ — which reflected some aspects 
of the U.S. position was adopted as an ancillary 
document. The U.S. preference for relatively 
complete freedom of operation met resistance from 
states which insisted upon close governmental 
regulation of capacity offered, frequency of serv- 
ice, and rates charged. 

Bilateral Agreements 

After the conference a major progi'am for 
the negotiation of a series of bilateral air trans- 
port agreements to meet U.S. requirements was 
undertaken by the Department of State. Forty- 
six of these agreements have so far been concluded 
and more are now under negotiation.** In general 
the United States has been able through these 
agreements to sustain its basic principles for inter- 
national civil aviation. An agreement reached in 
Bermuda in 1946 between the United States and 
the United Kingdom on air transport operations 
to and through their respective territories ^ ef- 
fected a workable compromise between the views 
of the two governments. The principles of the 
Bermuda agreement later formed the basis for 
subsequent U.S.-U.K. air transpoi't agreements. 

The restrictionist doctrine, nevertheless, still ex- 



° Article 1, section 1 of the International Air Transport 
Agreement reads as follows : 

"Each contracting State grants to the other contract- 
ing States the following freedoms of the air in respect of 
scheduled international air services : 

"(1) The privilege to fly across its territory without 
landing; 

"(2) The privilege to land for non-traffic purposes; 

"(.3) The privilege to put down passengers, mail and 
cargo talien on in the territory of the State whose nation- 
ality the aircraft possesses; 

"(4) The privilege to take on passengers, mail and 
cargo destined for the territory of the State whose nation- 
ality the aircraft possesses; 

"(.')) The privilege to take on passengers, mail and 
cargo destined for the territory of any other contracting 
State and the privilege to put down passengers, mail and 
cargo coming from any such territory." 

" For text of the most recent of these agreements, con- 
cluded with Cuba on May 26, 1953, see Bulletin of June 
15, 1953, p. S:iQ. 

' Ibid., Feb. 24, 1946, p. 302. 



ists elsewhere, and the Department must con- 
stantly defend U.S. principles. Informal discus- 
sions on existing agreements, formal consultation 
as provided for in most of the agreements, and 
even renegotiation of some of the agreements are 
the responsibility of the officers of the Department 
concerned with air transport matters. Interpre- 
tations of the agreements and clarification of dis- 
puted points are frequently sought. In all this 
the basic foreign policy of the United States must 
be reflected and U.S. aviation policy must be 
crystallized. 

Tlie Department also makes arrangements for 
international operations by U.S. r.onscheduled air 
carriers. These carriers, although they do not 
have route certificates issued by the Civil Aero- 
nautics Board, operate throughout the world, fre- 
quently under military contract, and serve as a 
valuable supplement to the scheduled operators. 



Postwar Need for Air Navigation Aids 

Since the war, the vital question of the availabil- 
ity of air navigation aids, air communications, and 
meteorological information has arisen. The war- 
time development of long-range air transports, the 
postwar expansion of the civil air network, and the 
greatly increased air activity have brought with 
tiiem technical requirements not previously even 
contemplated by the civil governments. During 
the war years, the U.S. military forces had in- 
stalled many facilities throughout the world and 
had developed equipment that could well serve 
peaceful interests ; the question was how to arrange 
for the use of this equipment by civil aviation. 
Througli negotiation and agreement, the Depart- 
ment of State was able to transfer as military sur- 
plus much of the equipment to the countries in 
which it was located and to assist in the procure- 
ment of additional equipment when such transfer 
proved inadequate. 

The technical-assistance program adopted by 
the United States in 1949 proved a boon to the 
safety, efficiency, and economy of international 
aviation and, in turn, benefited the U.S. interna- 
tional carriers. The Aviation Policy Staff studied 
foreign requirements in consultation with the Civil 
Aeronautics Administration and made recom- 
mendations to the Technical Cooperation Admin- 
istration, the Mutual Security Agency, the Inter- 
national Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment, and the Exiiort-Imixirt Bank on how avia- 
tion fluids and assistance might be most jtrofitably 
provided. 

International aviation objectives of the United 
States cannot be defined solely in terms of the 
statutory responsibilities of one or two agencies 
of the Government. Close coordination among 
many segments of the Government must be 
achieved in order that all necessary considera- 
tions may be integrated in a U.S. position. The 
Air Coordinating Committee, established by Exe- 



44 



Department of State Bulletin 



cutive Order 9781 of September 19, 1946, has met 
an important need. It is composed of the Govern- 
ment agencies having a substantive interest in avi- 
ation matters and is directed to examine aviation 
[)roblems and to develop and recommend inte- 
grated policies in the field of aviation. The Avia- 
(ion Policy Staff represents the Depai'tment of 
State in the Committee, which deals not only with 
broad policy decisions but also with specialized 
problems in the economic, technical, and legal 
fields of aviation. 

The Air Coordinating Committee is especially 
important in developing U.S. positions in the 
Council and Assembly of the International Civil 
Aviation Organization and other Icao meetings. 
In all fields of aviation Icao attempts to resolve 
national differences and to obtain international 
agreements on standards and practices — broad 
objectives which are entirely consistent with U.S. 
views on the basis for the orderly growth of inter- 
national aviation. Moreover, all Icao activities 
are international negotiations, and, despite the 
technical nature of some of the problems, the De- 
partment of State participates in the program in 
order to maintain a consistent international posi- 
tion and to prevent the development of political 
frictions as a result of technical discussions. Spe- 
cific issues in Icao in which the Department some- 
times becomes directly involved include questions 
that have political implications, that require 
consistency with U.S. positions in the United 
Nations, or that require interpretation of treaty 
obligations of the United States. Other Icao 
matters that require departmental action are the 
selection of the U.S. representative to the Icao 
Council and his staff and of U.S. delegations to 
the periodic meetings of the Icao components. 

However, not all aviation matters can be handled 
effectively by the Air Coordinating Committee; 
some require treatment by the Department of 
State and whatever other Government agency may 
have a primary interest in the subject. A few 
examples may be cited as typical of matters re- 
quiring such bilateral interdepartmental contacts. 

Foreign policy considerations on route recom- 
mendations of the Civil Aeronautics Board are 
coordinated directly with the Board and, if neces- 
sary, the Bureau of the Budget, which screens the 
Board's recommendations on U.S. international 
routes prior to their submission to the President 
for his approval. Coordination between the De- 
partment of State and the Civil Aeronautics Ad- 
ministration, which has responsibility for the 
policies and programs in the technical and oper- 
ating fields of civil aviation, is often required in 
order that opportunities for improvement of air 
navigation practices and of deficient facilities 
along U.S. certificated routes abroad can be 
explored. 

In the United States there is unique coordina- 
tion between military and civil aviation. The De- 
partment of Defense is concerned with matters of 



common civil-military interest, such as air navi- 
gation facilities and services, standards and prac- 
tices proposed or adopted by the International 
Civil Aviation Organization, civil regulations and 
decisions that may affect the size of the civil air 
fleet, civil routes of military interest, etc. Close 
liaison must, therefore, be maintained so that dis- 
cussions and negotiations on these subjects may 
reflect or incorporate military views. Questions 
regarding the civil use of military facilities and 
the military use of civil facilities must fi-equently 
be resolved thi-ough the Department of State. In 
addition to its other supplementary services to 
civil aviation interests, the Department of Defense 
provides certain search and rescue facilities and 
services which are available to civil aircraft and 
should be integrated to the greatest extent possible 
with the international program for protection of 
aircraft in distress. 

The active interest of the Department of State 
in aviation matters within the Government re- 
sults in the benefits of integrated nutional aviation 
policies and the opportunity for the Department 
to monitor decisions directly related to the U.S. 
foreign policy. In activities abroad the Depart- 
ment is able to support and indeed to promote both 
the spirit and the letter of the Civil Aeronautics 
Act as amended. The progress of U.S. civil avia- 
tion is at least to some extent contingent upon the 
development of world aviation. Equally true is 
the fact that world stability and economic develop- 
ment are dependent upon the continuing improve- 
ment of international communications, facilities, 
and services. The United States must therefore 
continue its substantial and ever-increasing in- 
terest in the entire field of international aviation. 

• Mr. Snawdon, author of the above article., is 
Assistant Chief of Staff of the Aviation Policy 
Staff, Office of Transport and G owrnvmications 
Policy. 



Armistice Discussions in Korea 

Press Conference Statement hy Secretary Dulles 

Press release 345 dated June 30 

The discussions with the Republic of Korea and 
the negotiations with the Communists with refer- 
ence to an armistice are continuing. The princi- 
pal representatives, Assistant Secretary Robertson 
from the political side, and General Clark from 
the military side, are thoroughly familiar with 
our basic thinking and our continuing desire to 
achieve an armistice under the conditions set 
forth in President Eisenhower's letter of June 6 
to President Rhee.' The basic position of this 



' BuixETiN of June 15, 1953, p. 835. 



IJu/y 73, J 953 



45 



Government has not changed since that time. 
Within the framework of President Eisenhower's 
letter our representatives have been given a large 
measure of discretion as to procedure. We have 
not yet received any reports as to what took place 
there yesterday — that is last night our time — and 
I do not think it wise for me to make any state- 
ments here which might embarrass the discussions 
in Korea. 



Communist Charges Regarding 
Release of Korean Prisoners 

Following is the text of a letter which Gen. Mark 
W. Clark sent on June 29 to the Cominunist Cotn- 
mxniders in reply to their letter of June 19: ^ 

Marshal Kim II Sung, 

C o))imander of the Korean Peofle''s Army 
General Peng Teh-huai, 

Commander of the Chinese Peofle's Volun- 
teers 

The United Nations Command agrees, of course, 
that the escape of about 25,000 captured personnel 
of the Korean People's Army is a serious incident 
and unfortunately has not been conducive to the 
early armistice for which both sides have been 
earnestly striving. The United Nations Com- 
mand, by means of General Harrison's letter of 18 
June 1953, immediately informed you of the facts 
regarding the loss of these prisoners.^ 

We felt that you deserved to have this informa- 
tion at the earliest possible time. However, in 
your letter of 19 June I note that for one reason or 
another you fail to accept the realities of the situa- 
tion which we accurately reported to you, and you 
have made several inaccurate statements of fact. 
In an earnest endeavor to achieve an early armis- 
tice, I shall further clarify these facts. 

Despite our voluntary and accurate presentation 
of these facts you still seem to consider that the 
"escape" of the prisoners and their "release" by 
order of the Republic of Korea Government are 
contradictory terms. The fact is, as you are well 
aware by this time, that the prisoners "escaped" by 
breaking through the prison fences and barricades 
and, except for those who were captured, disap- 
peared into the civil population. They were "re- 
leased" in that the Republic of Korea Government, 
■without the knowledge of, and contrary to the in- 
tent of, the United Nations Connnand, planned and 
arranged the breakout, and the Republic of Korea 
Army security guards made little real effort to pre- 
vent the escape. 

In replying to the questions which you asked in 
your letter, I believe that you realize the armistice 



■ Bulletin of June 29, 1953, p. 906. 
' Ibid., p. 905. 



46 



which both of us seek is a military armistice be- 
tween the military commanders of both sides. 
The United Nations Command is a military com- 
mand and, contrary to the opinion indicated in 
your letter of 19 June, does not exercise authority 
over the Republic of Korea, which is an inde- 
pendent sovereign state whose government is the 
product of the self-determination of its millions 
of people. The Republic of Korea Army was 
placed by its Govermnent under the control of the 
United Nations Conmiand in order to more effec- 
tively repel the armed aggression against the Re- 
public of Korea. I believe it should be clear to 
you that the United Nations Connnand, as the 
result of a commitment made by the Republic of 
Korea, does not command the Republic of Korea 
Army. In this incident that Government violated 
its commitment, issuing orders which were un- 
known to me, through other than recognized mili- 
tary cliannels to certain Korean army units, which 
permitted the prisoners of war to escape. 

You also asked whether the armistice in Korea 
included the Republic of Korea as represented by 
President Syngman Rhee ; another question, which 
is closely related, expressed your interest in know- 
ing what assurances there may be for the imple- 
mentation of the armistice agreement on the part 
of South Korea. It is necessary here to reiterate 
that the armistice which we seek is a military 
■ armistice between the commanders of both sides 
and involving the forces available to the com- 
manders of both sides. 

It is recognized that certain provisions of the 
armistice agreement require the cooperation of 
the authorities of the Republic of Korea. You are 
assured that the United Nations Command and the 
interested governments concerned will make 
every effort to obtain the cooperation of the Gov- 
ernment of the Republic of Korea. Where nec- 
essary the United Nations Command will, to the 
limits of its ability, establish military safeguards 
to insure that the armistice terms are observed. 

Our willingness to do this should be appai'ent 
to you by the concurrence which we have given 
to those portions of the terms of reference which 
require the United Nations Command to take 
certain action to insure the safety and security 
of the neutral nations reparation commission and 
its personnel. 

It is regrettable that you choose to allege that 
the United Nations Connnand connived in the 
escape of the prisoners. Besides being contrary 
to the obvious facts, such accusation tends to ob- 
struct rather than to facilitate an armistice agree- 
ment. The United Nations Connnand is continu- 
ing its efforts to recover the prisoners of war who 
have escaped. It would be unrealistic, however, 
and misleading to imply that an appreciable num- 
ber of these jirisoners could be recovered now tliat 
they have disap])eared among the population, 
wliich is disposed to slielter and protect them. 
You undoubtedly realize that the recovery of all 

Department of State Bulletin 



these prisoners would be as impossible for us as 
it would be for your side to recover the 50,000 
South Korean prisoners "released" by your side 
during the course of hostilities. You, of course, 
understand that the cessation of hostilities will 
facilitate the return of the escaped Korean pris- 
oners of war to your side if they are not opposed 
to such return. Under the provisions of Para- 
iri'aph 59 of the draft armistice agreement, the 
I'scaped prisoners of war can proceed to your side 
if they so desire after the armistice becomes 
effective. 

Following the signing of an armistice, the ex- 
change of tliose prisoners of war who desire re- 
patriation will involve the 12,000 of our personnel 
reported by 3'ou in April 1952, plus the additional 
ones captured since that date and now in your 
hands, as compared with about 74,000 of your 
personnel, including approximately G9,000 Kor- 
eans, now in our hands, whom we are prepared to 
return to you. 

This letter is an earnest effort by the United 
Nations Command to acquaint you with the facts. 
It is suggested that the delegations meet immedi- 
ately to exchange information as to the time at 
which respective components of the neutral nations 
supervisory commission can be prepared to func- 
tion in order that an effective date for the armis- 
tice may be established and, on receipt of that in- 
formation, the armistice agreement as has been 
developed by our respective delegations be signed. 

Mark W. Clark, 
General^ United States Army, 
Commander in Chief, United 
Nations Command. 



The Continuing Need for Building 
Free-World Strength Through NATO 

hy Amhassador John C. Hughes 

U.S. Permanent Representative to NAC'^ 

On this occasion of my first appearance in the 
North Atlantic Council, I want to say that it is 
an honor and a privilege for me to have the oppor- 
tunity to ^participate in an organization which 
means so much to the people of my own country 
and to the future of the entire civilized world. 

It is unnecessary for me to attest to the deep and 
enduring interest which the Government and 
people of the United States have in Nato. The 
facts speak more forcefully than any words I 
might utter. Even before Nato was formed, the 



' Statement made before the North Atlantic Council at 
Paris on .lune 24 and released to the press on the same date 
by the Council's information service. 

Jo/y 13, 7953 



basic community interests of the Atlantic peoples 
found recognition in an unprecedented program 
of coopei-ation to relieve Europe's postwar eco- 
nomic distress. My country has already contrib- 
uted more than 10 billion dollars to the Nato de- 
fense system, and this contribution is continuing. 
We have assigned a substantial number of Ameri- 
can troops to participate in the Nato defense 
forces, the largest body of American troops ever 
stationed outside the United States in peacetime. 
I believe it is highly significant that the man who 
is now the President of the United States had a 
major role in the development of the Nato de- 
fense system. Both publicly and privately the 
President has pointed out that the passage of time 
has reinforced his faith in Nato. 

During recent months we have heard the voices 
behind the Iron Curtain assume a new tone, and 
men and women throughout the free world have 
anxiously asked whether the leaders of the Soviet 
Union may be willing at last to cooperate sincerely 
in a program for lasting peace. It is only natural 
that all of us who are bearing heavy financial 
burdens in creating and maintaining our defenses 
should look eagerly for any evidence of peaceful 
intentions within the Soviet Union. Recent events 
in Berlin and East Germany may have dimmed 
our hopes, but so long as a reasonable hope exists, 
we must not ignore any practical and honoi-able 
opportunity to bring genuine peace to the world. 
Actions speak louder than words, however, and 
in the absence of proof to confirm our hopes, we 
cannot afford to let our guard down. 

It is for this reason that we can continue to 
pursue with confidence the proven manciples 
which underlie the Nato partnership. From the 
beginning, our purposes and practices have been 
peaceful. We have threatened no nation nor have 
we committed aggression against any people. We 
have sought strength and unity solely for our own 
security and well-being. If our strength and unity 
have, in fact, produced a willingness by others 
to consider a peaceful approach to international 
problems, then it is all the more important that 
we continue to develop our strength and to tighten 
the bonds of our association. 

Despite the great progress made in building 
Nato defenses, we all idealize that these defenses 
are still inferior to the monstrous military forces 
which exist behind the Iron Curtain. Until our 
defenses are adequate, it would be extremely dan- 
gerous for us to take comfort in the hope that the 
Soviet leaders have no intention of using these 
forces against the Nato area. Human intentions 
are fragile and uncertain things. We cannot af- 
ford to gamble the fate of Western civilization on 
a polite smile or a flattering word. We cannot 
pin our hopes on the intentions of others; we must 
find security in our own strength. 

Whatever the future may hold for us, we may 
be certain that the unity which we are creating 
among ourselves will pay tremendous dividends. 

47 



Sometimes we build better than we know. If the 
day for which we hope at last arrives — if we 
are able to establish the necessary conditions for 
enduring peace and universal security — our part- 
nership can divert its principal energies to im- 
proving the spiritual and material well-being of 
our peoples. I am convinced that the institutions, 
the habits of consultation and cooperation, the 
spirit of mutual confidence and respect, and the 
harmony of thought and action which we are 
developing in Nato will not only protect our com- 
mon civilization through the years ahead, but will 
also afford us an unparalleled opportunity for 
creating a better, stronger, and happier civiliza- 
tion. This, I believe, is our ultimate purpose, and 
it will be our ultimate triumph. 



Terms of Reference for U. S. Mission to NATO 

Department Circular No. 36 dated June 30. 1953 

Subject: U.S. Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization and European Regional Organiza- 
tions (USRO) 

1. The President, on June 16, 1953, approved the at- 
tached terms of reference for the U.S. Mission to the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Regional 
Organizations (Useo). The transition from the present 
organization of the Office of the Special Representative 
in Europe (See) will be effected by subsequent actions. 

2. Action responsibility in the Department on Usbo 
matters will reside primarily in the Bureau of European 
Affairs. 



Enclosure 

Memorandum with Reference to the Reorganization of 
the Special Representative in Europe (See) 

May 26, 1953 

1. To succeed the U.S. special representative in Europe, 
a U.S. Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion and European Regional Organizations (Usro) is to 
be established on a pattern similar to the U.S. country- 
team pattern. 

2. The head of the Usbo team will be the U.S. permanent 
representative on the North Atlantic Council and will be 
appointed by the President. He will report directly to 
the Secretary of State and will he responsible to the Sec- 
retary of State. He will also serve as the U.S. representa- 
tive to the Ministerial Council of the Oeec (Organization 
for European Economic Cooperation). He will have a 
deputy appointed by the Secretary of State who will be 
the head of the Political Section of U.seo, will serve as 
alternate permanent representative to Nac (North Atlan- 
tic Council), and will act as Charge d'Affaires of the 
mission in the absence of the chief of Usro. At the Wash- 
ington level, the Secretary of State will provide necessary 
coordination with responsible departments and agencies. 

3. The Secretary of Defense will have a principal 
representative on Usro, appointed by him, who will report 
to him through the chief of ITsro, will he the Defense ad- 
viser to the chief of Usuo cimcerning the Secretary's re- 
sponsibilities in Nato (North .Atlantic Treaty 
Organization) and his responsibilities for multilateral 
asijects of the Msp (Mutual Security Program) in Kurojje, 
and will he the head of the Defense section of Usro. 

There will be full coordination between tlie chief of 
Usbo and U.S. Cinoeue (Commander-in-Chief, Europel. 
The chief of Usbo may secure advice from U.S. Cinceur 



and other military officers designated by the Secretary 
of Defense or the Joint Chiefs of Staff on problems falling 
within UsBo's responsibility. 

4. The Director for Mutual Security will have a princi- 
pal representative on Usro, apiwinted by him, who will 
report to him through the chief of Usro, will handle DmS 
(Director for Mutual Security) responsibilities for multi- 
lateral mutual-security-program operations in Europe, 
and will be the alternate U.S. representative to the Min- 
isterial Council of the Oeec, the U.S. observer on Oeec at 
the working level, the economic adviser to the chief of 
UsEO, and the head of the economic section of Usbo. 

5. The Secretary of the Treasury will have the princi- 
pal representative on Usro, appointed by him, who will 
report to him, through the chief of Usbo, and will be the 
financial adviser to the chief of Useo. 

6. Usbo will function only with Nato, Oeec, and such 
other multilateral or supranational organizations as may 
be determined, and will not have any supervisory pow- 
ers over the U.S. country teams of Europe. 

7. The communications channels of Usro will be similar 
to the communications channels of a country team and 
subject to the same limitations. The Ambassador (the 
chief of USEO) will report to and receive instructions from 
the Secretary of State on all matters relating to foreign 
policy. 

8. The chief of Useo, as U.S. permanent representative 
on the North Atlantic Council, will be the only one with 
rank of Ambassador, and his principal advisers will have 
the rank of Minister. The staff of Usbo will be integrated 
in the sense that the chief of Usbo will be responsible for 
providing it with general direction, leadership, and co- 
ordination and that he has authority to utilize it as he 
deems necessary for the effective conduct of the operations 
of the mission. 

9. It is anticipated that: 

(a) It will constantly be necessary for the departments 
concerned in Washington to reach, under the leadership 
of the Secretary of State, U.S. positions which will be 
transmitted in joint messages to Usbo and will be carried 
out by the multilateral team ; 

(6) Usro, under the leadership of the chief of Usro, 
will consistently seek to work out agreed joint recom- 
mendations on multilateral problems to the representative 
Washington departments concerned ; 

(c) administrative services will be provided by the De- 
partment of State ; 

((J) the members of Usbo will not initiate directly with 
officials of other governments, except for those govern- 
ments' representatives on the multilateral organization, 
any item of U.S. business. 

Approved: 

Department of State 
Department of Treasury 
Department of Defense 
Director for Mutual Security 

Approved D. B. June 16, 1953 



Walter B. Smith 
G. M. Humphrey 
C. E. Wilson 
H. B. Stassen 



Italian Firm To Produce 
Jet Engine Parts for NATO 

The Fiat Company of Italy will produce turbo- 
jet engine spare parts for North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization (Nato) planes, under a $;?.470,000 
defense-support project, the Mutual Security 
Agency announced on June 18. 

Fiat, leading Italian ttutomotive and aero- 
nautical firm, was designated by the U.S. Air 
Foicc and the De]iartnient of Defense as a 
European source of jet engine spare parts, as a 



48 



Department of State Bulletin 



result of a survey of European manufacturers by 
U.S. military authorities. 

The Fiat project is designed to relieve the United 
States of having to supply Nato requirements of 
turbojet components from domestic sources. The 
Fiat production also will provide a source of the 
parts for the Nato countries without requiring 
dollar payments or credits. 

Other advantages of the Italian source will be 
shorter supply lines, reduction of quantities in the 
"pipeline," elimination of bottlenecks caused by 
items in short supply, and development of 
European know-how in this segment of military 
production. 

Under the Msa defense-support project, 
$3,470,000 out of MsA funds, programed for the 
Italian Government, will be provided in dollar 
exchange for the purchase of $2,440,000 in machine 
tools, $450,000 in metal-working machinery, $240,- 
000 in electrical equipment, and $340,000 in other 
miscellaneous items needed to establish the spare- 
parts production at Fiat. All these items are to 
be purchased in the United States. In addition 
to the equipment financing, ocean-freight charges 
are estimated at $230,000. 

Besides its obligation to finance the lira equiv- 
alent of the MsA-dollar grant, which is made to the 
Italian Government, Fiat will cover the non-dol- 
lar costs of setting up the production facilities, 
including the equivalent of $1,000,000 in Italian 
lira costs and $1,904,000 equivalent for other 
European currency procurement. 



Bermuda Talks Postponed; 
Foreign Ministers To Meet 

White House press release dated June 27 

The President on June 27 sent the following 
message to the Prime Minister of Great Britain: 

Dear Winston : 

I am deeply distressed to learn that your physi- 
cians have advised you to lighten your duties at 
this time and that consequently you will be unable 
to come to Bermuda for our talks. 

I look upon this only as a temporary deferment 
of our meeting. Your health is of great concern 
to all the world and you must, therefore, bow to 
the advice of your physicians. 

With best wishes from your friend. 

Ike 



Press release 347 dated June 30 

In view of the postponement of the Bermuda 
talks, the Secretary of State of the United States, 
the Acting Foreign Secretary of the United King- 
dom, and the Foreign Minister of France have 
agreed to meet in Washington beginning July 10 
to discuss problems of common interest to their 
three countries. 



The Export- Import Bank: 
Reorganization Plan No. 5 ' 

Prepared hy the President and Transmitted to 
the Senate and the House of Representatives in 
Congress Assembled, April 30, 1953, Pursuant to 
the Provisions of the Reorganization Act of IQJfi, 
Approved Jwne 20, 19Jfi, as Amended 

Section 1. The Managing Director. There is 
hereby established the office of Managing Director 
of the Export-Import Bank of Washington, here- 
inafter referred to as the Managing Director. The 
Managing Director shall be appointed by the 
PresKlent by and with the advice and consent of 
the Senate, and shall receive compensation at the 
rate of $17,500 per annum. 

Sec. 2. Deputy Director. There is hereby estab- 
lished the office of Deputy Director of the Export- 
Import Bank of Washington. The Deputy Direc- 
tor shall be appointed by the President by and with 
the advice and consent of the Senate, shall receive 
compensation at the rate of $16,000 per annum, 
shall perform such functions as the Managing 
Director may from time to time prescribe, and 
shall act as Managing Director during the absence 
or disability of the Manamng Director or in the 
event of a vacancy in the office of Manaeino- 
Director. "^ '' 

Sec. 3. Assistant Director. There is hereby es- 
tablished the office of Assistant Director of the Ex- 
port-Import Bank of Washington. The Assistant 
Director shall be appointed by the Managing Di- 
rector under the classified civil service, shall re- 
ceive compensation at the rate now or hereafter 
fixed by law for Grade GS-18 of the general sched- 
ule established by the Classification Act of 1949, as 
amended, and shall perform such functions as the 
Managing Director may from time to time 
prescribe. 

Sec. 4. Functions transferred to the Managing 
Director. All functions of the Board of Directors 
of the Export-Import Bank of Washington are 
hereby transferred to the Managing Director. 

Sec. 5. General policies. The National Advi- 
sory Council on International Monetary and Fi- 
nancial Problems shall from time to time establish 
general lending and other financial policies which 
shall govern the Managing Director in the conduct 
of the lending and other financial operations of the 
Bank. 

Sec. 6. Performance of transferred functions. 
The Managing Director may from time to time 
make such provisions as he deems appropriate au- 
thorizing the performance of any of the functions 
of the Managing Director by any other officer, or 
by any agency or employee, of the Bank. 

Sec. 7. Abolitions. The following are hereby 

' 18 Fed. Reg. 3741. Effective June 30, 1953, under the 
provisions of section 6 of the act; published pursuant to 
section 11 of the act (63 Stat. 203 ; 5 U. S. C. Sup. 133z). 



J«/y 73, 7953 



49 



abolished : (1) The Board of Directors of the Ex- 
port-Import Bank of Washington, inchiding the 
offices of the members thereof provided for in sec- 
tion 3 (a) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, 
as amended; (2) the Advisory Board of the Bank, 
together with the functions of the said Advisory 
Board; and (3) the function of the Chairman of 
the Board of Directors of the Export-Import 
Bank of Washington of being a member of tlie 
National Advisory Council on International 



Monetary and Financial Problems. The Man- 
aging Director shall make such provisions as may 
be necessary for winding up any outstanding 
affairs of the said abolished boards and offices not 
otherwise provided for in this reorganization plan. 
Sec. 8. Effective date. Sections 3 to 7, inclu- 
sive, of this reorganization plan shall become effec- 
tive when the Managing Director first appointed 
hereunder enters upon office pursuant to the pro- 
visions of this reorganization plan. 



Reports of U.N. Command Operations in Korea 



SIXTY-FIRST REPORT: FOR THE PERIOD 
JANUARY 1-15, 19531 

U.N. doc. S/2991 
Dated April 17, 1953 

[Excerpts] 

I herewith submit report number 61 of the United Na- 
tions Command Operations in Korea for the period 1-15 
January 1953, inclusive. United Nations Command com- 
muniques numbers 1481-1495 provide detailed accounts 
of these operations. 

Armistice negotiations continued in recess, but com- 
munications were retained through liaison officers. At 
a meeting of liaison officers on 1 January 1953 the United 
Nations Command Liaison Officer rejected a Communist 
protest of an alleged overflight of the conference site 
which reportedly occurred on 24 December 1952. Ac- 
cording to eye witness and radar surveillance reports the 
United Nations Command aircraft did not approach closer 
than one mile to the neutral conference area. 

On 2 January 1953 the United Nations Command Senior 
Liaison Officer delivered another letter rejecting a Com- 
munist protest of an overflight which occurred on 26 
December 1952. His letter included the following state- 
ment: 

Experience has demonstrated that in spite of costly and 
elaborate physical measures to insure pilot recognition 
of the conference site at Panmunjom, and careful instruc- 
tion of United Nations Command pilots in order to prevent 
overflight of the Kaesong-Panmunjom area and road, 
overflights will occasionally occur. Where no hostile act 



' Transmitted on Apr. 16 to the Secretary-General, for 
circulation to members of the Security Council, by the 
U.S. representative to the U.N. Text of the ijOth report 
appears in the Bulletin of Dec. 15, 1952, p. 958 ; the 51.st 
and 52d reports, Dec. 29, 1952, p. 1034; the 53d report, 
Jan. 26, 1953, p. 155; the ,54th report, Feb. 9, 1953, p. 224; 
the 55th report, Feb. 16, 19.53, p. 276; the 56th report. 
Mar. 2, 19.53, p. 34S ; and excerpts from the 57th, 5Sth, 
and 59th reports. May 11, 19,53, p. 690. The C.Otli report 
(U.N. doc. S/2982 dated Apr. 6, 1953) was not printed. 



is committed within these areas, such overflights do not 
violate the spirit of the existing understanding between 
liaison officers, but fall within the exceptions, "weather 
and technical conditions beyond control", provided for 
by paragraph 5 of the understanding. 

On 7 January 1953 the Senior Communist Liaison Of- 
ficer delivered a letter protesting an overflight alleged 
to have occurred on 4 January 1953. On 11 January 1953 
the Senior United Nations Command Liaison Officer re- 
.jeeted the Communist protest of 7 January. His letter 
contained the following statement : 

The United Nations Command has never agreed that 
overflight of the conference site by military aircraft by 
itself constitutes a hostile act. The United Nations Com- 
mand did agree that ; "Except under weather and tech- 
nical conditions beyond control the military aircraft of 
both sides shall not fly over the conference site area at 
Panmunjom." Your statement that these harmless inci- 
dents of inadvertent overflight would make it "utterly 
impossible to assure the maintenance of the conference 
cite area" is patently untenable, since such incidents have 
unavoidably occurred at intervals during the rntire iHTiod 
of the agreement's existence without prejudice to the 
continued maintenance of the conference site. 

The United Nations Command has every intention of 
abiding by the spirit of the Security Agreements reached 
at Panmunjom on 22 October 1951, but does not propose 
to accept the picayune complaints registered by your side 
on every slightest pretext. Your protest of 7 January is 
accordingly rejected. 

On 15 January 1953 the Senior United Nations Com- 
mand Liaison Officer delivered the following letter to the 
Communists in a meeting at Panmunjom : 

In accordance with instructions from the Senior Dele- 
gate of the United Nations Command Delegation, you 
are hereby notified that effective 25 January 1953 the 
United Nations Coniinand will grant iniiiumity from 
attack on two convoys per week between Kaesong and 
Pyongyang, consisting of not more than six trucks and 
three jeeps each, provided that : 

ii. One such convoy dei)art Kaesong anil the other de- 
part Pyongyang between 0600 and 0700 hours on Sunday 
of each week ; 



50 



Deporfmenf of Sfafe BMllet'in 



b. Such convoys follow the prescribed route that passes 
throuKh SohunR and Namchonjom and complete travel by 
2(X)0 hours on Sunday ; 

c. All convoy vehicles are marked with red panels 
easily distinguishable from the air, and remain in convoy ; 

d. On the approach of aircraft, convoys will not seek 
cover but remain in movement along the road without 
increasing speed. 

Under present conditions with the armistice negotia- 
tions in recess, no valid reason for the continuance of 
the privilese granted on 25 November 1951 exists, and 
the United Nations Command will hereafter allow only 
that immunity described above. However, at any time 
that meetings of the main delegations are resumed, the 
United Nations Command will reconsider your require- 
ments for immunity to attack of your delegation's con- 
voys. As your authorities have been previously informed, 
the United Nations Command Delegation stands ready to 
resume meetings at any time upon receipt of a letter from 
your Senior Delegate stating that he is ready to accept 
one of the United Nations Command proposals for the 
attainment of an armistice, or offering a constructive 
proposal which could lead to an honorable armistice. 

The Senior Communist Liaison Officer after scanning 
the letter made the following statement : "I hereby notify 
your side that in due course of time our side will talk 
with your side regarding this matter." 



Communications directed to enemy civilians and troops, 
informing them of the sincerity of United Nations Com- 
mand peace efforts and the humanitarianism embodied 
in the principle of non-forced repatriation, were continued, 
employing leaflets and radio broadcasts. This campaign 
to penetrate the informational blackout imposed by the 
Communist leaders in Korea has assumed major pro- 
portions during recent months in an effort to counter the 
effects of the calculated hate program of the Communists. 

The United States Government has agreed to a request 
from the Government of the Republic of Korea to re- 
examine the procedures now being followed in making 
dollar payments to the Republic of Korea for the United 
States share of won expended for military purposes in the 
Korean effort. New arrangements were being developed 
in early January 1953 whereby United States payments 
to the Republic of Korea for won received will be made 
monthly on a pay-as-you-go basis. 

The Government of the Republic of Korea is preparing 
a comprehensive budget for FY 1953-54, which begins 
1 April 19.53. Reliance upon the comprehensive budget 
technique, not used by the Republic of Korea before, is 
designed to disclose in a single document the total inte- 
grated requirement for expenditure and receipt of public 
funds by the Government of the Republic of Korea. The 
deficit disclosed by the comprehensive budget may be 
viewed as suggestive of the magnitude of additional in- 
digenous receipts required as well as the area of further 
foreign-aid contributions. Initial hearings were held in 
December 1952 by a sub-committee of the Combined 
Economic Board. Data thus made available to the United 
Nations Command will be useful in determining military 
assistance as well as economic aid required to assist the 
people of the Republic of Korea in their struggle with 
Chinese and North Korean Communists. 

A representative of the United Nations Korean Recon- 
struction Agency met with United Nations Command offi- 



cials in Tokyo on 14 January 1953. The program which 
the United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency will 
undertake in supplementing the Commander in Chief's 
United Nations Command oi)erations in civil relief and 
economic aid to the Republic of Korea was discussed. 
During the di.scussion it was indicated that action has 
been taken to expedite the implementation of the United 
Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency's expanded 
operations. 



SIXTY-FOURTH REPORT: FOR THE PERIOD 
FEBRUARY 16-28, 1953' 

U.N. tloc. S/3037 
Dated June 19, 1953 

[E-xcerpts] 

I herewith submit report number 64 of the United Na- 
tions Command Operations in Korea for the period 10-28 
February 1953, inclusive. United Nations Command com- 
muniques numbers 1527-1539 provide detailed accounts of 
these operations. 

Armistice negotiations continued in recess but liaison 
was maintained. There were six meetings between liaison 
officers. 

At a meeting on 19 February, a letter from the Senior 
United Nations Command Delegate to the Communist 
Senior Delegate was delivered in which General Harrison 
rejected a Communist charge that the United Nations 
Command had, on 26 November 1952, bombed a prisoner- 
of-war camp in North Korea, holding United Nations 
Command personnel. An excerpt of General HarrLson's 
letter follows : 

In your letter of 1 December 1952 you alleged, without 
any substantiating evidence, that United Nations Com- 
mand aircraft bombed Prisoner-of-War Camp Number 9 
at Sunchon on 26 November 1952. 

It has been determined that no United Nations air- 
craft expended any ordnance in the vicinity of Sunchon 
at the time stated. Your charges are, therefore, proved 
to be false and are rejected. 

Also on 19 February the credentials of Lieutenant 
Colonel Harry M. Odren, United States Air Force, were 
presented appointing him as a United Nations Command 
Liaison Officer to replace Lieutenant Colonel Earl H. 
Robinson, United States Air Force. 

On 23 February the Senior Communist Delegate re- 
plied to General Harrison's letter of 19 February and 
repeated the ridiculous chai-ge that the United Nations 
Command had, in violation of agreement, bombed the 
Communist Prisoner-of-War Camp at Sunchon. It is 
anticipated that a reply to General Nam Il's typically 
abusive letter will be made in order to set the record 
straight and expose the falsity of the Communist position. 

The prisoner of war incidents continued their now 
familiar pattern of harassment. The practice of attack- 
ing unarmed security personnel who entered the various 
enclosures continued. On 23 February, a civilian in- 



^ Transmitted on Apr. 18. The 62d and 63d reports 
(U.N. docs. S/2999 dated Apr. 27, 1953 and S/3017 dated 
May 25, 1953, respectively) are not printed here. 



July 13, 1953 



51 



ternee on Pongam-do attacked an unarmed United Na- 
tions Command worli supervisor who was forced to defend 
liimself witli a pick handle. 

At Chogu-ri, on Koje-do, the prisoners in one enclosure 
refused to form for head count and work details. Ini- 
tially, orders were issued to form for work details by 
the compound commander, then by the enclosure com- 
mander, and finally by the camp commander. All orders 
were refused and the usual inciting chants were started. 
The chanting started similar chanting in the neighbouring 
enclosures as the prisoners worked themselves into a 
frenzy. A small amount of non-toxic irritants was used, 
and the camp commander again called upon the recalci- 
trant prisoners to form for the work detail. The order 
was still refused, and the camp commander was forced to 
use additional non-toxic irritants and a security platoon 
to enforce order. The demonstrations in the neighbouring 
enclosures ceased as soon as order was restored in the 
compound that had instigated the harassment. 

The following day, at the same camp, the prisoners 
again attempted to harass the camp officials by refusing 
to obey orders. Non-toxic irritants again had to be used 
to restore order. Later that day, the enclosure com- 
mander apprehended a prisoner stealing coal. Upon being 
ordered to rejoin his work detail, the prisoner, with three 
others, attempted to assault the enclosure commander. 
Prompt action on the part of the tower guard circum- 
vented the attack. 

On the following day, 25 February, a civilian internee 
at Pongam-do attacked the compound commander when 
ordered to report to the enclosure command post. The 
enclosure commander was able to defend himself with a 
stick until armed assistance arrived. 

The highlight of activities during this period was the 
letter addressed to Kim II Sung, Supreme Commander 
of the Korean People's Army, and Peng Teh-Huai, Com- 
mander of the Chinese People's Volunteers, by General 
Clark, Commander in Chief, United Nations Command. 
This letter, delivered by the Senior United Nations Com- 
mand Liaison Officer to his Communist counterpart on 
22 February 1953, pointed out that the Executive Com- 
mittee of the League of Red Cross Societies, in a resolu- 
tion adopted in Geneva, Switzerland, on 13 December 
1952, had called on both sides in the Korean conflict, as a 
gesture of good will, to implement the humanitarian prin- 
ciples of the Geneva Convention by repatriating sick and 
wounded prisoners of war in accordance with appropriate 
articles of the Geneva Convention. The letter stated, 
further, that the United Nations Command had always 
adhered scrupulously to the humanitarian principles of 
the Geneva Convention, and still remained ready to im- 
plement, immediately, the repatriation of seriously sick 
and wounded prisoners of war. The United Nations Com- 
mand wished to be informed if the Communists were 
prepared to proceed with the repatriation of seriously 
sick and wounded prisoners of war in their custody. 

Informational media directed to Communist-controlled 
areas called for immediate exchange of sick and infirm 
prisoners of war. A resolution urging such an exchange 
was passed by the Executive Committee of the League of 
Rod Cross Societies at Geneva "n 13 December 1952. The 



statement of Commander in Chief, United Nations Com- 
mand, broadcast on 22 February, indicated once more the 
willingness of the Command to comply with the terms of 
the Red Cross re.solution. In broadcasts of this proposal 
to the people of North Korea and the troops of the North 
Korean and Chinese Communist forces, the humanitarian 
spirit which has characterized the United Nations attitude 
toward Korea — from the initial efCort against Communist 
aggression to the negotiations at Panmunjom — was 
reiterated. 

Discussions with the Government of the Republic of 
Korea regarding Korean currency provided to the United 
States Forces were concluded on 25 February 1953. The 
United States Government agreed to pay $85,800,000 to 
the Republic of Korea for full and final settlement of all 
unpaid Korean currency provided to the United States 
Forces prior to 7 February 1953. This payment brings the 
total to $163,490,444.99, which the United States Govern- 
ment will have paid for Korean currency provided by the 
Republic of Korea. Payment for Korean currency drawn 
each month will hereafter be made by the 20th day of the 
following month. These arrangements with the United 
States Government do not affect the arrangements with 
respect to acquisition of and settlement for Korean cur- 
rency on the part of United Nations Forces, other than 
those of the United States. 



SIXTY-FIFTH REPORT: FOR THE PERIOD 
MARCH 1-15, 1953 3 

n.Ni doc. S/3038 
Dated June 19, 1953 

[Excerpts] 

I herewith submit report number 65 of the United Na- 
tions Command Operations in Korea for the period 1-15 
March 1953, inclusive. United Nations Command com- 
muniques numbers 1540-1554 provide detailed accounts 
of these operations. 

Armistice Negotiations continued in recess, but liaison 
officers continued to meet during the period. On 4 March, 
the Senior United Nations Command Liaison Officer re- 
minded the Communist Senior Liaison Officer that it was 
inappropriate to introduce propaganda into the corre- 
spondence and meetings between liaison officers. 

On 11 March, Colonel Carlock, the Senior United Na- 
tions Command Liaison Officer, delivered a reply to the 
Communist protest of 23 .lanuary. This protest alleged 
that United Nations Command aircraft had strafed a 
Communist convoy enroute from Kaesong to Pyongyang 
in violation of the United Nations Command fn^ant of 
immunity. The text of Colonel Oarlock's letter follows: 

This is in reply to your letter dated 23 January 1953 
in which you allege that military aircraft of the United 
Nations Command strafed vehicles of your delegation 
enroute from Kaesong to I'yimgyang at a point approxi- 
niatelv six kilometers south of Hwanirju on 21 January 
19.53. ■ 

After careful internal investigation by the United Na- 
tions Command, it has been determined that several Com- 
munist xeliicU'S wore ob.scrved by Uniteii Nations 
Coniiiiand pilots in the general area of the attack alleged 



'Transmitted on .tunc l.S. 



52 



Department of State BuUetin 



in your letter of 23 January 1953. One such vehicle, 
carrying a rod flag, was observed on the north edge of 
Sariwou and aiiollier IriK-k, marked with a red flag, was 
later seen in tlie vicinity of tlie alleged strating. These 
vehicles were not in convoy and all vehicles observed 
along the road between Sariwon and Pyongyang were 
widely scattered. Although a single truck was attacked 
at the position reported by you, no vehicle bearing red 
flags or panels was attacked. The United Nations Com- 
mand therefore rejects your protest as fraud, and con- 
cludes that the evidence furnished by you on 12 February 
1953 was not related to any vehicle traveling in a convoy 
under the United Nations Command grant of immunity. 
Your attention is directed to the fact that the grant of 
immunity to convoy vehicles of your delegation specifies 
that such vehicles must remain in convoy. You are ad- 
vised that the grant of immunity to your delegation convoy 
vehicles which became effective on 25 January 1953 con- 
tains the same stipulation. The United Nations Com- 
mand cannot undertake to grant immunity from attack 
to your convoy vehicles which fail to observe the provi- 
sions of the grant contained in my letter of 12 January 
1953. 

On 13 March, a letter from Lieutenant General Harrison 
addressed to General Nam II was delivered to Communist 
Liaison Officers. This letter was in reply to a letter 
received from the Communist Senior Delegate on 23 
February 1953, in which he reiterated the false charge 
that the United Nations Command was responsible for 
the bombing of a Communist I'risoner of War camp at 
Sunchon on the night of 2G November 1952. The text of 
General Harrison's letter is quoted : 

Your propaganda letter of 23 February 1953 repeats 
the fraudulent charge that the United Nations Command 
bombed the Prisoner of War camp of your side at Sunchon 
on the night of 26 November 19.52. Although, after 
careful investigation, this false charge was rejected in 
my letter of 19 February, your most recent letter makes 
it necessary to set the record straight with respect to the 
whole matter of prisoner of war camps. 

As you should be aware. Article 23 of the Geneva Con- 
vention states : 

"No prisoner of war may at any time be sent to, or 
detained in areas where he may be exposed to the fire 
of the combat zone, nor may his presence be used to 
render certain [inints or areas immune from military 
operations. 

"Prisoners of war shall have shelters against air 
bombardment and other hazards of war, to the same 
extent as the local civilian population. With the ex- 
ception of those engaged in the protection of their quar- 
ters against the aforesaid hazards, they may enter such 
shelters as soon as possible after the giving of the 
alarm. Any other protective measure taken in favour 
of the ixtpulation shall also apply to them. 

"Detaining Powers shall give the Powers concerned, 
through the intermediary of the Protecting Powers, all 
useful information regarding the geographical locations 
of jirisoner of war camps. 

"Whenever military considerations permit, prisoner 
of war camps shall be indicated in the daytime by the 
letters PW or PG, placed so as to be clearly visible from 
the air. The Powers concerned may, however, agree 
upon any other system of marking. Only prisoner of 
war camps shall be marked as such." 

You are reminded that it was only upon the insistent 
demand of the United Nations Command that your side 
finally furnished information as to the geographical loca- 
tions of your prisoner of war camps. Upon checking the 
reported locations by means of aerial photography, a 
number were found not to be located at the reported posi- 

Jofy 73, 1953 



tions and others were found not to be properly marked. 
It was then necessary for the United Nations Command 
to make repeated reciuests in order to get you to furnish 
accurate locations and to have your prisoner of war camps 
properly and clearly marked. 

The whole world is aware of the continued refusal of 
your side to permit observation of your prisoner of war 
camps by any Protecting Power or an impartial organiza- 
tion such as the International Committee of the Red Cross. 
This policy of your side which prevents on-the-spot obser- 
vation by impartial and unbiased investigators, conclu- 
sively demonstrates unwillingness or inability to produce 
any real evidence to support your allegations regarding 
happenings within the territory controlled by your side. 
Even the most perfunctiu-y study of Article 2.'{ makes it 
clearly apparent that if, at any time, any personnel of the 
United Nations Command held prisoner by your side have 
been wounded or killed by our aerial attacks, the 
primary responsibility attaches to your side. The gross 
negligence exhibited by your side in failing to abide by 
the cited article of the Geneva Convention is clearly 
documented in the record of the Armistice Negotiations. 
If there is any truth in the statement contained in your 
letter of 23 February 1953, it only serves to more clearly 
establish your criminal refusal to be governed by tlie 
provisions of International Law. 

Your continued use of the liaison machinery at Pan- 
munjom as a channel for your propaganda is a repetition 
of the same unethical conduct which forces a recess of 
Armistice Negotiations. Under the circumstances, I must 
point out that neither the Armistice Negotiations nor the 
arrangements for continued liaison between both sides 
imposes any obligation upon the United Nations Command 
to accept communications from your side which are in 
no way related to the armistice. I, therefore, suggest 
again that you confine your communications to matters 
which may be considered related to attainment of the 
armistice and that you cease to pervert the liaison arrange- 
ments to the purposes of your endless propaganda. 

In the same meeting at which the United Nations Com- 
mand Senior Delegate's letter was delivered the Senior 
Communist Liaison OflBcer orally protested an alleged 
bombing of Kaesong at 5 : 40 a. m. on 13 March. Colonel 
Carlock replied that the United Nations Command would 
investigate the alleged incident, and on 14 March a United 
Nations Command party including investigators and press 
representatives proceeded to Kaesong. All evidence ob- 
tained was turned over to the Commanding General of 
the Fifth Air Force, who will conduct a formal investiga- 
tion to determine the responsibility for this apparent vio- 
lation of the security agreement under which Kaesong is 
protected from attack. Upon conclusion of this investiga- 
tion a reply will be made to the Communists, and the 
findings will be included in the appropriate United Na- 
tions Command report. 

• ♦ • « 

"Voice of United Nations Command" broadcasts con- 
tinued to give warnings of impending air attacks against 
military targets in North Korea, advising civilians in the 
vicinity of these targets to evacuate their families to 
safety. 

The historical shortage of trained medical personnel 
ministering to the needs of the people of the Republic of 
Korea is currently aggravated by the heavy demands 
placed on the native physicians by the current situation. 
Assistance of incalculable value to the civilian population 
is being given by two complete non-military ho.spital units, 
one staffed and operated liy the Italian Red Cross and 
the other by a group from Sweden. 



53 



Calendar of Meetings^ 



Adjourned during June 1953 

Oeec (Organization for European Economic Cooperation) : Con- 
ference on European Inland Transport. 
U. N. (United Nations) : 

Commission on Human RigVits: 9th Session 

International Conference To Adopt a Protocol on Limitation of 

the Production of Opium. 
Economic Commission for Europe: 3d Regional Meeting of 
pAiropean StatisticiaiLS. 
Itu (International Telecommunication Union) : 

Administrative Council: 8th Session 

International Telegraph Consultative Committee: 7th Plenary 
Assembly. 
Fag (Food and Agriculture Organization) : 

Latin American Seminar on Land Problems 

Committee on Commodity Problems: 21st Session 

17th Session of the Council 

International Chestnut Commission 

Who (World Health Organization) : 

Executive Board: 12th Session 

Ilo (International Labor Organization) : 

Governing Body: 122d Session 

Annual Conference: 36th Session 

Meeting of Directing Council of the American International Insti- 
tute for the Protection of Childhood. 
Ad Hoe Committee on Quarantine Regulations (South Pacific Com- 
mission). 
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 

Organization): Executive Board: 34th Session. 
Eighth Pan American Railway Congress 

Pan American Highway Congress, Provisional Committee .... 

International Tin Study Group, Working Party 

13th International Dairy Congress and International Dairy Expo- 
sition. 

International Whaling Commission, 5th Annual Meeting 

International Commission for Criminal Investigation: 22d General 
Assembly. 



Paris Mar. 18-June 17 



Geneva. . 
New York 



Apr. 7-June 1 
Mav U-June 19 



Geneva June 15-20 



Geneva . 
Arnheim 



Mav 2- J una 1 
Mav 26- June 13 



Sao Paulo 

Rome 

Rome 

Spain and Portugal . . . 

Geneva May 26-June 6 



Mav 25- June 26 
June 3-11 
June 15-26 
June 18-30 



Geneva . . 
Geneva . . 
Montevideo . 

Noumea . . 



Paris . 



Washington and Atlantic 
City. 

Washington 

Brussels 

The Hague 



liOndon 
Oslo . . 



Mav 26-June 1 
June 4-27 
June 2 (1 day) 

June 8 (1 day) 

June 8-17 

June 12-25 

June 15-18 
June 1.5-27 
June 22-26 

June 22-30* 
June 24-29 



' 



In Session as of June 30, 1953 

International Materials Conference Washington Feb. 26, 1951- 

Unesco (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Brussels June 29- 

Organization): International Conference on the Role and Place 
of Music in Education. 

Horticultural Congress and Exposition Hamburg Mav-Oct. 

U. N. (United Nations): 

International Law Conunission: 5th Session Geneva June 1- 

Trusteeship Council: 12th Session New York June 16- 

16th Session of the Economic and Social Council Geneva June 30- 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization): Assembly: 7th Brighton (England) June 16- 

Session. 

Agricultural Industries — International Commission for Unification Paris June 22- 

of Methods of Sugar Analysis. 

Aeronautical Exposition, 20tli International Paris June 26- 

' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State, June 30, 1953. .Vsterisks indicate 
tentative dates. 



54 



Department of S/afe BuWeiin 



Calendar oj Meetings — Continued 

In Session as of June 30, 1953 — Continued 

International Commission for Agricultural Industries: General As- Paris June 29- 

sembly. 

Icsu (International Council of Scientific Unions): Committee on Brussels June 30- 

the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. 

Scheduled July 1-September 30, 1953 

tJNEsco (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization) : 

General Conference: 2d Extraordinary Session Paris July 1- 

Working Party on International Advisory Committee on Scien- Paris July 6- 

tific liesearch. 

International Center for Workers Education Compi^gne July 11- 

International Seminar on Teaching of Modern Languages . . . Nuwara Eliya Aug. 3- 

luPAP (International Union of Pure and Applied Physics): Com- Bagnferes-de-Bigorre .... July 5- 
mission on Cosmic Rays. 

16th International Conference on Public Education Geneva July 6- 

Icsu (International Council of Scientific Unions): 

Executive Board: 5th Meeting Strasbourg July 6- 

Joint Commission on High Altitude Research Stations Boulder Aug. 22- 

IcAO (International Civil Aviation Organization): 

3d Conference on North .\tlantic Ocean Weather Stations . . . Brighton July 8- 

Legal Committee: 9th Session Rio de Janeiro Aug. 25- 

U.N. (United Nations): 

Technical Assistance Committee Working Party Geneva July 8-* 

International Sugar Conference London July 13- 

Technical Assistance Committee Geneva July 15-* 

ylrf Woe Committee on Factors (Non-Self-Governing Territories) . New York July 21- 

Committee on International Criminal Jurisdiction New York July 27- 

Conference on Non-Governmental Organizations Interested in Geneva Aug. 10- 

Migration: 4th Session. 

Committee on Information from Non-Self-Governing Territories: New York Aug. 18- 

4th Session. 

Special Committee on the Question of Defining Aggression . . . New York Aug. 24- 

EcAFE Subcommittee on Iron and Steel Bangkok Aug. 31- 

International Workshop on Budgetary Classification and Man- Mexico, D. F Sept. 3- 

agement. 

EcAFE Working Party oa Financing Economic Development Bangkok Sept. 7- 

in Asia. 

EcAPE Highway Subcommittee: 2d Session Bangkok Sept. 14- 

General Assembly: 8th Session New York Sept. 15- 

EcAFE Working Party on Small Scale Industries and Handi- Bangkok Sept. 21- 

crafts Marketing: 3d Meeting. 

International Children's Emergency Fund: E.xecutive Board New York Sept. 

and Program Committee. 
Fag (Food and Agriculture Organization): 

Regional Meeting in Asia and the Far East Bangalore July 27- 

Regional Meeting in the Near East Alexandria or Cairo .... Sept. 1- 

Working Party on Rice Breeding: 4th Meeting Bangkok Sept. 21- 

Working Party on Fertilizers: 3d Meeting Bangkok Sept. 21- 

Joint Fao/Ece Timber Committee Rome Sept. 28- 

r Home Economics, Training Center for Caribbean Region . . . Puerto Rico Sept. 

Fourth International Astronautical Congress Ziirich Aug. 3- 

^Wmo (World Meteorological Organization): 

Regional Association for North and Central America: 1st Ses- Toronto Aug. 3- 

sion. 

Commission for Aerology: 1st Session Toronto Aug. 10- 

Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation: 1st Toronto Aug. 10- 

Session. 

I Regional Association for South America Rio de Janeiro Sept. 15- 

t| 14th International Congress of Zoology Copenhagen Aug. 5- 

15th International Veterinary Congress Stockholm Aug. 9- 

14th International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art Venice Aug. 11- 

Eighth International Congress on Home Economics Edinburgh Aug. 12- 

Silent Games (Deaf Mutes), 7th International Brussels Aug. 15- 

Third International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Ziirich and Lausanne .... Aug. IB- 
Engineering. 

International Union of Biological Sciences: 11th General Assembly . Nice Aug. 17- 

12th Congress of the International Association of Limnology . . . Cambridge & Windermere . . Aug. 20- 

Ninth International Congress of Genetics Bellagio Aug. 24- 

Eighth International Congress on Rheumatic Diseases Geneva & Aix-les-Bains . . . Aug. 24- 

Fifth International Congress on Tropical Medicine and Malaria . . Istanbul Aug. 28- 

International Association for Hydraulic Research Minneapolis Aug. 30- 

Fourth International Congress of the International Association on Rome & Pisa Aug. 30- 

Quaternary Research. 

July J 3, 1953 55 



Calendar oj Meetings — Continued 

Scheduled July 1-September 30, 1953 — Continued 

Inter-American Commission of Women: 9th General Assembly . . 

Third International Biometric Conference 

Itu (International Telecommunication Union): International 
Radio Consultative Committee: 7th Plenary Meeting. 

International Institute of Administrative Sciences: 9th Inter- 
national Congress. 

Sixth International Congress for Microbiology 

International Statistical Institute: 28th Session 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and In- 
ternational iVIonetary Fund: 8th Annual Meeting of Boards 
of Governors. 

Seventh International Congress on Vineyards and Wine 

Ad Hoc Committee for the Study of the Low-Cost Housing Problem 
(lA-Ecosoc). 

Ilo (International Labor Organization): Asian Regional Conference; 
2d Session. 

Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses: 
18th Congress. 

International Conference on Theoretical Physics 

Gatt (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) : 8th Session of the 
Contracting Parties. 

Third Congress of the International Union of Architects 

International Exhibition and Fair at Jerusalem ("Conquest of the 
Desert"). 

Consultative Committee on Economic Development of South and 
Southeast Asia (Colombo Plan). 



Asunci6n Aug. - 

Bellagio Sept. 1- 

London Sept. 2- 

Istanbul Sept. 6- 

Rome Sept. 6- 

Rome Sept. 6- 

Washington Sept. 9- 

Rome Sept. 12- 

Washington Sept. 14- 

Tokyo Sept. 14- 

Rome Sept. 14- 

Kyoto and Tokyo Sept. 15- 

Geneva Sept. 17- 

Lisbon Sept. 21- 

Jerusalem Sept. 22- 

India Sept. 23- 



IIVIC Announces Distribution 
of Primary Nici^el 

The Manganese-Nickel-Cobalt Committee of the 
International Materials Conference on June 28 
announced acceptance by member governments of 
a third-quarter 1953 plan of distribution for pri- 
mary nickel and oxides. The recommended plan 
has been forwarded to all interested governments 
for implementation.^ 

In this plan, as in all those which have been rec- 
onnnended by the Committee since the third quar- 
ter of 1952, provision hiis been made whereby any 
nickel allocated to countries participating in the 
distribution, but not used by them, will become 
available for purchase by consumers in the United 
States and in other countries. 

The quantity of primary nickel which is allo- 
cated under the recommended plan amounts to 
30,315 metric tons. The comparable figure in the 
second quarter was 3r),r)75 metric tons. The de- 
cline in the availabilities does not arise from a 
decrease in production, which is estimated at 124 
tons more for the third quarter than for the second 



' For distribution plan, see luc press release of June 26. 



56 



quarter, but from the fact that second quarter 
availabilities included greater "carryovers" of pro- 
duction from previous quarters. Such carryovers 
represent the nickel which, in previous periods, 
was produced in excess of the estimates used in 
allocation plans. 

Although the amount of nickel available for dis- 
tribution in the third quarter is lower than in the 
second quarter, it has been possible to maintain thei 
allocations of most countries at or near their secondl 
quarter level. 

New Caledonian fonte (nickel cast iron), thei 
production of which has increased considerably 
has been excluded from the third quarter alloca- 
tion. The Committee has not been able to formu- 
late a definite distribution for this material, mainlj 
because it is not entirely interchangeable with re- 
fined nickel. As in the previous quarter, Japanese 
nickel available for export has also been exchulec 
from this allocation. 

The countries represented on the Manganese 
Nickel-Cobalt C!ommittee are Belgium ( for Bene 
lux), Brazil, Ciuiada, Cuba, France, the Federa 
Republic of Germany, India, Italy, Japan, NoFi 
way, Sweden, the Union of South Africa, tb 
United Kingdom, and the United States. 

Department of Slate Bulleth 






U.S. Delegations 

To International Conferences 

General Conference of UNESCO 

The Department of State announced on July 1 (press 
release 352) that the second extraordinary session of the 
General Conference of the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco) would 
convene at Paris, on that day, for the primary purpose 
of electing a new Director General for Unesco. The U.S. 
Government will be represented at the meeting by the 
following delegation : 

U.S. Representative 

Irving Salomon, Escondido, Calif.. VhtiiDunn 

Alternate U.S. Rcpracntutivc 

Elizabeth E. Heffelfinger, Wayzata, Minn. 

Advisers 

Luther Evans, Librarian of Congress 

Carol C. Laise, Division of International Administration, 

Department of State 
Walter Laves, Chairman, U.S. National Commission for 

UNESCO 

Max McCuIlough, Director, Unesco Relations Staff. De- 
partment of State 

Robert S. Smitli, Assistant Attach^, American Embassy, 
Paris 

Charles Thomson. Counselor of Embassy for Unesco 
Affairs, American Embassy, Paris 



Economic and Social Council 

The Department of State on June 30 announced (press 
release 346) that John C. Baker will be U.S. representa- 
tive to the 16th session of the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil of the United Nations, which will convene on June 30 at 
Geneva.' Mr. Baker's appointment was confirmed by the 
Senate on June 24. 

The other members of the U.S. delegation at the forth- 
coming meeting will be as follows : 

Deputy U.S. Representative 

Walter M. Kotschnig, Director, OflSce of United Nations 
Economic and Social Affairs, Department of State 

Advisers 

Robert E. Asher, Special Assistant to the Assistant Sec- 
retary of State for Economic Affairs 

Kathleen M. Bell, Assistant to the Director, OflBce of United 
Nations Economic and Social Affairs, Department of 
State 

Willard H. Elshree, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

Kathryn G. Heatli. Office of International Relations, De- 
partment of Health, EMucation and Welfare 

Elizabeth E. Heffelfinger, Wayzata, Minn. 

Otis E. Mulliken, Office of United Nations Economic and 
Social Affairs, Department of State 

Kathleen B. Rivet, Office of International Trade, Depart- 
ment of Commerce 

Irving Salomon, Escondido, Calif. 

William J. Stibravy, Office of Financial and Development 
Policy, Department of State 



Thomas E. Street. Office of Foreign Agricultural Service, 
Department of Agriculture, and Secretary, U.S. Fad 
Interagency Committee 

Johanna von Goeckingk, Division of International Ad- 
ministration, Department of State 

William H. Wynne, Office of International Finance, De- 
partment of the Treasury 

Secretary of Delegation 

Henry F. Nichol, Conference Attach^, U.S. Resident Dele- 
gation to International Organizations, Geneva 

Administrative Officer 

Mason A. LaSelle, Assistant Conference Attach^, U.S. 
Resident Delegation to International Organizations, 
Geneva 

Press and Public Information Officer 

J. Howard Garnish, Public Affairs Officer, American Con- 
sulate General, Geneva 



Reports Officer 

Frederick D. Vreeland, 
Geneva 



American Consulate General, 



Documents Officer 

John Jason, U.S. Resident Delegation to Internationa! Or- 
ganizations, Geneva 



Conference on Public Education (UNESCO) 

The Department of State announced on July 1 (press 
release 348) that the 10th International Conference on 
Public Education will be held under the sponsorship of 
the U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organiza- 
tion (UNESCO) and the International Bureau of Education 
at Geneva, Switzerland, July 6-15. The U.S. delegation at 
this conference will be as follows : 

Earl Armstrong, chief, Division of Teacher Education and 
acting head of the Division of Higher Education of 
the Office of Education, Department of Health, Educa- 
tion and Welfare ; chairman 
George W. Dlemer, president, Central Missouri State Col- 
lege, Warrensburg, Mo. ; also member, U.S. National 
Commission for Unesco 
Anne Maloney, grade school teacher, Gary, Ind. ; also 
memlier, American Federation of Teachers 
The major topic for discussion at the conference will be 
the training and status of primary teachers, together with 
brief reports on the progress of education during the year 
1952-53, presented by Ministries of Education. Study of 
these questions forms part of Unesco's long-term program 
for the gradual application of the principle of free and 
compulsory education, in which teacher-training is an im- 
portant factor. 



THE DEPARTMENT 



' See press release 322 dated June 16 for information 
regarding the nomination of Mr. Baker. 



Transfer of Division of Publications 

Department Circular No. 33 dated June 26 

1. Effective July 1, 1953, the Division of Publications 
(PB) is transferred from the Office of Public Affairs 
(PA) to the Office of Operating Facilities (OOF). In- 
cluded in the transfer are all functions, supplies, funds, 
and equipment of the Division of Publications except as 
provided in paragraph 3. 



July 13, 1953 



57 



2. The names and positions of personnel to be trans- 
ferred, together with the effective date of such transfers, 
will lie prepared in accordance with the provisions of 
1 RP 353.5. 

3. The functions, supplies, equipment, funds, and per- 
sonnel of tlie Program and Special Writing Branch, Divi- 
sion of Publications, are not included in the transfer. 
This unit will remain under the jurisdiction of the Office 
of Public Affairs until further notice.' 

4. Tlie mail and routing symbol for the Division of 
Publications, Office of Operating Facilities, will continue 
to be PB. 



Transfer of Responsibility for Press Relations 

Department Circular No. 33 dated June 23 

1. Effective immediately, the functions, jiersonnel, sup- 
plies, funds, and equipment of the Special Assistant for 
Press Relations (SA-M) are transferred from the office 
of the Secretary (S) to the Assistant Secretary for Public 
Affairs (P). SA-M is abolished. 

2. There is hereby established under the jurisdiction 
of the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs the News 
Division. The mail and routing symbol for the News 
Division is ND. 



Policy on Use of Books 
in IIA Libraries 

On June 25 Secretary Dulles addressed identical 
letters to Senators Thomas C. Hennings, Jr., and 
Henry M. Jackson in reply to their letters of June 
18 requesting infonnation regarding policy on the 
xise of hooks in the Iia library program. Jn his 
letter, the Secretary made reference to a guidance 
memorandum sent on March 17 to Rohert L. John- 
son, Administrator of the International Informa- 
tion Administration. 

Following are the texts of the Secretary\s letter, 
the memorandum addressed to Mr. Johnson, and 
a statement tchich Mr. Johnson made at a press 
conference 07i June 26: 



Letter to Senators Hennings and Jackson 

Press release 336 dated June 25 

My dear Senator: 

I liave your letter of June 18 ^^ inquiring about 
the policy with relation to the ovei-seas liliraries 
of the International Information Administration. 
These libraries, unlike the usual reference li- 
braries, are special purpose libraries, designed in 
accordance with the "United States Information 
and Education Exchange Act of 1948" to 



'Tlie Department's principal jieriodical.s — the Bulletin, 
Field Reporter, and Foreign Poliejf Itriefs — are pr(Kluct'd 
in the Special Writing Branch and will rcniuiii under the 
jurisdiction of the Office of Public Affairs. 

" Not printed here. 

58 



disseminate abroad information about the United States, 
its people, and policies promulgated by the Congress, the 
President, the Secretary of State and otlier responsible 
officials of Government having to do with matters af- 
fecting foreign affairs. 

The Administration itself is a semi-autonomous 
agency and the Executive Branch of the present 
government has, since it took office, contemplated 
that it should become an independent agency. 
Under the reorganization plan now pending be- 
fore the Congress, this will occur on July 30, 1953.^ 

However, pending such complete legal separa- 
tion, I felt an obligation to act to correct what 
seemed to me abuses which had developed. The 
overseas book program, I had reason to believe, 
was disseminating information which coidd not 
with any reasonable interpretation fall within the 
Congressional mandate. In particular I wanted 
to make sure that it would not disseminate infor- 
mation which might advance the ciiuse of Soviet 
Communism. 

On February 24, 1953, with the President's ap- 
proval, I appointed Dr. Robert L. Johnson to be- 
come Director of the International Information 
Administration, and on March 17, 1953, 1 advised 
him that I did not think that the Iia should make 
the works of Communist authors a part of its 
foreign libraries or subscribe to periodicals which 
are receptive to international Communist propa- 
ganda. My memorandum to Dr. Johnson con- 
cluded "if you find these ideas acceptable, I must 
rely on you to translate them into what is an ap- 
propriate and practicable 'working level" di- 
rective". I have not since pereonally intervened 
in this matter. 

Dr. Johnson did find the above guidance from 
me acceptable and, I am informed, issued one or 
more directives designed to reflect it at the work- 
ing level. These directives, however, seem to have 
been interpreted and applied in different ways in 
different overseas libraries, with some results of 
which I, and I am confident Dr. Johnson, cannot 
approve. 

Dr. Johnson tells me that he and his advisers 
and staff have recently been conducting a review 
of the situation with a view to seeking a more prac- 
ticable "working level" directive. 
Sincerely yours, 

John Foster Duli.es 

Memorandum to Mr. Johnson 

iLvRCH 17, 1953 

Subject: Directives to tlie Iia concerning use of 
material by Cominunist Authors 

I have your memorandiun of March 5.' The 
Secretary's decision is as follows : 

1. Material by Communists or their agents or 



'For text of the reorganization plan, see Bumxtin of 
June 15, ia53, p. 854. 
" Not printed here. 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



sympathizers should only be used with great care 
and when responsible persons iud<2;e them to be 
an effective way — and the uniquely effective way — 
to confound international Conmuuiism with its 
own words, to expose its fallacies and refute its 
doctrines. 

2. Our policy is not to identify by name any 
living international Communist unless necessary. 
This must not be carried to the point of absurdity 
in straight news but even here a conscious effort 
not to build up our living opponents by naming 
them should be made. As often as possible, 
writings or statements of living persons can be 
ascribed to such anonymity as "a leading interna- 
tional communist or Stalinist". Skillful use of 
tliis treatment in commentary and in our anti- 
Communist publications can be especially effective. 

Our press and radio have in the past built 
Soviet personalities to such an extent that what- 
ever they do or say commands widespread atten- 
tion. I believe we should replace individual 
build-ups with anonymity to those hostile to us. 

3. Responsible U.S. periodicals of pi'ogram 
value may be included in Usis overseas libraries. 
However, the Mission should withdraw any indi- 
vidual issues containing any material detrimental 
to U.S. objectives. Periodicals which are recep- 
tive to international Communist propaganda have 
no place in the program and cannot be used. 

4. I do not think we should make the works of 
Communist authors a part of our public libraries. 

5. If you find these ideas acceptable, I must 
rely on you to translate them into what is an 
appropriate and practicable "working-level" 
directive. 

For the Secretary of State: 

Carl, W. McCardle, 

Assistant Secretary [for Piihlic Affairs^ 



Statement by Mr. Johnson 

Existing instructions which require elimina- 
tion from U.S. libraries abroad of books by au- 
thors who are Communists, or follow the Com- 
munist line, or participate in Communist-front 
organizations, have led to confusion in the field 
as to interpretation. 

In keeping with the American principle that 
the individual is innocent until proven guilty, it 
has been virtually impossible to define who is and 
who is not a Communist. "We have not been able 
to furnish our field staff with a complete list of 
authors whose works are to be excluded. We 
have only been able to specify certain authors who 
either are avowed Communists or have publicly 
refused to answer questions regarding possible 
Communist affiliations. Such refusal to answer 
questions has created a public impression regard- 
ing tliese authors which, whether justified or not, 



raises serious doubts as to whether their works con- 
tribute to the puri)Oses of the program. 

Beyond this limited list, our people in the field 
have had to use their own judgment as to what 
works should be excluded. Some of them, in a 
natural desire to play it safe, have removed from 
libraries works which were never intended to be 
covered by the instructions. Others have taken 
the occasion to do a general weeding out of little- 
used or out-of-date books or others which they 
felt were not compatible with the objectives of the 
program entirely aside from the purpose of the 
instructions. 

Actually, a substantial number of the books 
eliminated in the course of this review was never 
specifically acquired for the purposes of the U.S. 
information progi-am but was included in col- 
lections which were taken over from sources out- 
side of the program. 

We are preparing clarifying instructions which 
will base the decision as to inclusion or exclusion of 
a book upon the effect reasonably to be expected 
from its ^jresence in a Government-sponsored 
library abroad. In other words, the essential 
question will be whether distribution of the book 
will further the purposes of the program. 

When the revised instructions have been sent 
out the substance of them will be made public. 



Termination Date for International 
Claims Commissioners 

The Department of State on .Tune 26 announced ( press 
release 341) that the President on that date had fixed the 
terms of office of Josiah Marvel, Jr., and Raymond S. 
McKeough, chairman and member, respectively, of the 
International Claims Commission of the United States, as 
terminating June 30, 1953. The Commission was estab- 
lished in the Department of State by an act approved 
March 10, 1950, and the Commi.ssioners were appointed by 
President Truman in the summer of 1950. 

The act establishing the Commission provided for a 
deduction of 3 percent from claims funds, to be covered 
into the Treasury, as reimbursement for expenses incurred 
by the United States in financing the operations of the 
Commission. It was made clear in the Congress that 
appropriations to defray the expenses of the Commission 
would be limited to the total of the amounts deductible. 
The total amounts deductible, with respect to claims now 
within tlie jurisdiction of the Commission, would be ap- 
proximately $500,000 and the Congress has already appro- 
priated approximately that amount. 

The Truman administration sent to the 82d Congress 
(2d sess.) draft legislation designed to increase the deduc- 
tions from 3 percent to 6 percent, but the Congress did not 
enact it. When the Truman administration submitted its 
budget in the fall of 1952, it did not include a budget 
estimate for the Commission, and on December 29, 1952 
that administration "suggested" that the Commissioners 
tender their "letter of resignation on or before January 7, 
1953." The suggestion was ignored by Messrs. Marvel 
and McKeough. 

When the present administration took office, it found 
that very little had been accomplished by the Commis- 



J\3\y 73, J 953 



59 



sioners in the elapsed 34 months of the 48-inonth period 
fixed by law for completing the task, and it concluded 
that in the light of the past record the present organization 
could not complete its work in the ensuing 14 months. It 
was ascertained that in the elapsed 39 months of the 
48-mouth period the Commission had entered 132 awards, 
or proposed awards, in the total amount of some $740,000 
as against expenses of some $500,000. Some 1,000 claims 
have not .vet been passed upon. In order to exi)edite the 
settlement of claims, and decrease expenses the State De- 
partment prepared, for transmission to Congress if ap- 
proved by the Bureau of the Budget, draft legislation reor- 
ganizing the Commission. This administration also trans- 
mitted to the Congress draft legislation to authorize an 
increase from 3 percent to 5 percent in the amount of de- 
ductions. It also prepared and submitted to the Congress 
a budget estimate to defray the expenses of the Commis- 
sion for the coming fiscal year. 

In view of the contemplated reorganization of the Cora- 
mission and since no appropriated funds will be available 
for payment of salaries after June 30, the Department of 
State recommended to the President that he fix June 30 
as the termination date of the terms of office of Commis- 
sioners Marvel and McKeough, who had ignored the writ- 
ten suggestion of the Truman administration and the oral 
request of this administration that they submit their resig- 
nations. As authorized by the basic act, the Department 
has recommended that the President designate acting 
members to serve pending the completion of the reorgani- 
zation plan or until appropriated funds are available to 
defray expenses. 

It is the view of the Department of State that nothing 
which has transpired in any way jeopardizes the existing 
funds received from any foreign government for the pay- 
ment of claims of American citizens against those 
governments. 



Resignation of William Harlan Hale 



The Department of State on June 26 announced (press 
release .342) that William Harlan Hale, Public Affairs 
Officer of the American Embassy in Austria, had expressed 
his desire to return to the profession of journalist and 
historian which he left in 1950 at the suggestion of former 
Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs Edward 
Barrett. He intended to serve in Vienna for 2 years. 

In his letter, dated June 4, Mr. Hale pointed out that he 
had now served almost 3 years and desired to return to his 
profession. 

Robert L. Johnson, Administrator of the Department's 
International Information Administration, replied to Mr. 
Hale on June 26, mentioning the high regard in which 
C. D. Jackson ' and others held Hale's work in Austria. 

U.S. Ambassador and High Commissioner to Austria 
Ivlewellyn Thompson, presently in Washington on consulta- 
tion, had the following comment on Mr. Hale's resignation : 

"I have known of Mr. Hale's desire to return to his pro- 
fession for some time. I regret very much that he is leav- 
ing the High Commission. I consider that he has done an 
outstanding job in Austria." 



Appointment 

Charles Robert Burrows as Director of the Office of 
Middle American Affairs, Bureau of Inter-American 
Affairs, effective July 2. He succeeds Roy Richard 
Rubottom, Jr., who has been assigned as commercial 
attache to the U.S. Embassy in Spain. 



Use of Surplus Agricultural 
Commodities for Emergency Aid 

Message of the President to the Congress ^ 

Because of the great productivity of our farms, 
the people of the United States have been able, on 
several occasions in recent years, to come to the 
aid of friendly countries faced with famine. In 
1951 agricultural supplies were provided to India, 
and only recently wheat has been made available 
to the people of Pakistan. In both instances we 
were able to provide assistance in meeting famine 
or other urgent relief requirements by using stocks 
of commodities held by the Commodity Credit 
Corporation. On each of these occasions the Con- 
gress has been forced to add consideration of these 
emergency programs to its very heavy workload. 
This procedure not only adds to the Congressional 
burden but also slows the speed with which this 
Government can come to the assistance of a nation 
urgently needing relief. 

I therefore believe it advisable to have general 
legislation which, within appropriate limitations, 
would permit the President to meet these situa- 
tions. The legislation I am requesting would give 
the President the authority to utilize agricultural 
commodities held by this Government, but it 
woidd limit that authority to meet only the occa- 
sional needs arising from famine or other urgent 
relief requirements. 

The objectives of such a program are not to be 
confused with the principal objective of our Mu- 
tual Security Program. The Mutual Security 
Program aims at promoting the long-range se- 
curity of the United States by assisting our friends 
to strengthen their long-range economic and de- 
fensive capabilities. The program I am now 
proposing aims at mitigating the hard blows of 
unusual and urgent emergencies. 

Since we cannot adequately foresee the specific 
needs to be met under the legislation I am request- 
ing, we cannot now determine the most effective 
and equitable conditions under which such assist- 
ance may be rendered in a particular situation. 
Consequently, I am requesting authority to estab- 
lish, when the need arises, the terms and conditions 
under which these agricultural commodities shall 
be made available. 

In order that there may be a minimum of delay 
in assisting nations stricken with famine or having 
other urgent relief requirements, I am requesting 
that the Commodity Credit Corporation be given 
authority to make available from its stocks the 
necessary agricultural commodities to meet these 
emergency needs. To prevent impairment of the 
operations of the Commodity Credit Corporation, 
and to permit necessary budgetary adjustments, I 
am recommending an authorization to reimburse 



{ 



t 



' Special Assistant to President Eisenhower. 



60 



' H. doc. 202, 83d Cong., 1st sees. 

Department of State Bulletin 



the Coniinodity Credit Corjjoration to (lie cxleiit 
of its investment in commodities furnished by it, 
plus any other costs, including interest, which it 
iiKiy incur in carrying out programs authorized 
under this act. When the costs of any programs 
carried out under terms of this act can be ascer- 
tained, the Congress will be asked to appropriate 
the necessary funds to reimburse the Connnodity 
Credit Corporation. I further propose that the 
authority to undertake progi-ams of famine and 
other urgent relief assistance under this legisla- 
t ion expire on June 30, 1955. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 
The White House, 
Jwm 30, 1953 



Support for Ratification 
of Wheat Agreement 

statement by Samuel C. Waugh 
A.ssistant Secretary for Economic Affairs ^ 

As Assistant Secretary of State for Economic 
Affairs, I am appearing before this committee 
in support of Senate consent to ratification of the 
International Wheat Agreement. The new agree- 
ment is an effective method of marketing surplus 
wlieat abroad while presei-ving stability in world 
wheat markets for the benefit of both surplus and 
deficit countries. It involves a minimum of inter- 
ference with private trade. The alternative to 
this agreement could well be disorderly and in- 
efficient competition between friendly governments 
in their search for outlets for their export sur- 
pluses or assured sources of supply. 

The extent of State Department participation 
in the negotiation of the terms of the agreement 
should be made clear. The Department has, of 
course, an interest in seeing that any international 
agreement promotes our foreign policy. In the 
negotiations themselves, the function of the De- 
partment of State was essentially the contribu- 
tion of its experience in international negotiations 
and its legal advice on the form of the treaty and 
its administrative provisions. It is not the re- 
sponsibility of the Department of State to de- 
termine the level of prices and quantities estab- 
lished in the agreement. These decisions were 
made by the Department of Agriculture with the 
advice of the wneat and flour trade, wheat pro- 
ducers, farm organizations, and the congressional 
advisory group. 

It is recognized by the overwhelming majority 
of exporting and importing countries alike that 



^ Made before the subcommittee of the Senate Foreign 

Relation.? Committee on the proposed International Wheat 

' Agreement on June 26 (press release .338). For the an- 

^ nouncement of the signing of the agreement on Apr. 13 

and a list of signatories, see Bulletin of May 18, 1953, 

p. 714. 



some agreement to provide for international mar- 
keting cooperation in wheat is necessary and de- 
sirable at this time. An agreement is necessary 
because of the peculiar characteristics of the wheat 
trade. The United States has a price-support 
progi'am. Every major producing country has 
some method of insulating its wheat farmers 
against w^idely fluctuating prices. Wheat is so 
vital a commodity to importing countries that few 
of them are willing to leave their wheat supplies 
to chance. 

The result is that nearly all governments make 
decisions that affect the wheat markets. Acting 
alone, without knowledge of the needs and plans 
of others, governments may work at cross-pur- 
poses. They may cancel out one another's efforts, 
aggravating the problems and giving rise to a need 
for more, not less, government intervention in 
wheat. 

One of the accomplishments of the drafters of 
the wheat a";reement is the extent to which they 
have succeeded in keeping interference with nor- 
mal trade to a minimum. The agreement does not 
prevent competition from determining the differ- 
ence in value between the various grades of wheat. 
It does not displace private exporters. And, ex- 
cept at the maximum or minimum price in the 
agreement, it does not interfere with the free 
market as a determinant of price. It does not at 
all restrict trade in wheat outside of the agreement. 

The agreement also avoids interference with the 
internal policies of participating governments. 
Those governments have certain obligations as to 
total exports or total imports when the maximum 
or minimum prices are reached, but the internal 
methods they use to enable them to meet these 
obligations are entirely their own affair. 

If world wheat trade is carried out without in- 
ternational agreement, there will nevertheless be 
governmental interference with the trade because 
the policies and progi-ams of both exporting and 
importing countries require it. There will be 
competition, but it may be of the kind we do not 
want, a competition between governments of 
friendly countries, under conditions that could 
lead to bitter rivalry, with damage to all. It was 
this consideration that led to the new wheat agree- 
ment after long and arduous negotiations. 

It would be a mistake to look upon this agree- 
ment as one intended to benefit any one country or 
group of countries alone. It is a contract that 
has no reason to exist unless all parties to it find 
it better than no contract. The obligations and 
rights of the importing countries are balanced by 
the obligations and rights of the exporting coun- 
tries. True, unforeseen events can result in the 
terms later proving more advantageous to one side 
than the other. That is the nature of all con- 
tracts. Every country participating in the 1949 
agreement went into it knowing it took that 
chance. But each country was willing to do so 
because it preferred stability to uncertainty. 



, July 13, 1953 



61 



At the conclusion of the recent negotiations, the 
delegations of every participant but one signed the 
agreement. This, Mr. Chairman, constitutes per- 
suasive evidence that the negotiators struck a bal- 
ance that, insofar as present knowledge permits us 
to foresee, is fair to both sides and advantageous 
to all. It is regi-etted that the one country to 
abstain was not only the largest single wheat 
importer in the world but a country with which 
we maintain such close and friendly ties. It will 
still be possible for the United Kingdom to par- 
ticipate in the agi'eement, and it is our hope that 
it will decide to do so. But we are convinced 
that the agreement will be advantageous even 
without Great Britain. After the necessary ad- 
justments, it would still cover about one-half of 
the world's trade in wheat. 

There will presumably be enough wheat avail- 
able outside the agreement to meet British require- 
ments, though without the same assurance as to 



price. And since the British abstention would 
not reduce the amount of wheat needed by the 
United Kingdom, exporters would enjoy the same 
world demand for their wheat, though a larger 
part of the total would have to be sold at the free- 
market price. 

It is believed that most, if not all, the signatories 
will ratify the agreement if the United States does 
so. If the United States, as the world's largest 
exporter, should fail to ratify, there is little doubt 
that the agreement would be abandoned. 

The Department considers this agreement 
clearly in the best interests of the United States. 
It offers an orderly method of insuring an export 
outlet for a substantial quantity of IJ.S. wheat. 
It will serve to eliminate some unnecessary stresses 
and strains in the field of our foreign economic 
relations. On behalf of the Department of State, 
I therefore urge this committee to act favorably at 
the earliest possible time. 



Imports of Certain Dairy 
and Otiier Products 

A PROCLAMATION' 

Whereas, pureuant to section 22 of the Agricultural 
Adjustment Act, as added by section 31 of the act of 
August 24. Ifl85, 49 Stat. 773, reenacted by section 1 of 
the act of June 3, 1937, 50 Stat. 246, and amended bv 
section 3 of the act of July 3, 1948, 62 Stat. 1248, section 3 
of the act of June 28, 1950, 64 Stat. 261, and section 8(b) 
of the act of June 16, 1951, Public Law 50, 82d Congress 
(7 U. S. C. 624), I issued a proclamation on June 8, 19.53,^ 
Ijroviding tliat in the event of the expiration on June 30, 
19.53. of section 104 of the Defense Production Act of 
19.50, as amended, the products specified in Lists I, II, and 
III appended to, and made a part of, my proclamation 
shall, on entry on and after July 1, 19.53, be subject to the 
quantitative limitations and fees set forth in such lists; 
and 

Whereas, it now appears that the said proclamation is 
unduly restrictive in certain respects; and 

Whereas, it also appears that the terms of the said 
proclamation do not specifically state that certain dairy 
products are to be covered by one or another description 
in List I according to the percentage content of butterfat 
which detemiines the rate of duty applicable under the 
Tariff Act of 1930 : 

Now, THEBEEX)HE, I, Dwight D. Eisenhowcr, President of 
the United States of America, do liereby find and declare 
that the release on and after July 1, 19.53, of those prod- 
ucts specified in Lists I and II under the conditions herein 



'No. 3025; 18 Fed. Reg. 3815. See also the import 
regulation issued liy the Secretary of Agriculture on June 
30, 18 Fed. Re(i. 3819. 

'Bulletin of June 29, 1953, p. 919. 



prescribed will not render, or tend to render ineffective or 
materially Interfere with any program or operation of the 
Department of Agriculture referred to in the said proc- 
lamation of June 8, 1953, nor reduce substantially the 
amount of products processed in the United States from 
agricultural commodities with respect to which any of 
such programs or operations are being undertalien. Ac- 
cordingly, pursiiant to the aforesaid section 22, I hereby 
proclaim that the provisions of the said proclamation of 
June 8, 19.53, shall not apply with respect to articles spe- 
cified in Lists I and II which may be imported as samples 
for taking orders for merchandise, or for the personal use 
of the importer (including articles for disposition by the 
importer as bona fide gifts), when the aggregate value of 
such articles in any importation is not over $10. I hereby 
further find and declare that a clarifying statement should 
be added as a footnote to List I in order that the provi- 
sions of my original proclamation may be fully under- 
stood, and, accordingly, I hereby proclaim that there shall 
be added as a footnote to List I this statement : "Each 
enumeration of an article in this list shall include any 
other article dutiable under the Tariff Act of 1930 as 
such enumerated article by reason of butterfat content." 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this thirtieth day of 

June in tlie year of our Lord nineteen hundred 

(SEAL) and fifty-three and of the Independence of the 

United States of America the one hundred and 

seventy-seventh. 



X^ Cts-^ ii-t>O^C'-<-t*- X-t<j-^ 



By the President : 
John Foster Dulles 

Secretary o/ State 



62 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



July 13, 1953 

Agriculture 

Imports of certain dairy and other products 
(Presidential proclamation) 

Support for ratification of wheat agreement . . 

Use of surplus agrlculttiral commodities for 
emergency aid (Elsenhower) 

Aid to Foreign Countries 

Use of surplus agricultural commodities for 
emergency aid (Elsenhower) 

American Principles 

U.S. views on the Japanese economy (Allison) . 

Asia 

JAPAN: U.S. views on economy (Allison) . . . 
KOREA: 

Armistice discussions In Korea (Dulles) . . 
Communist charges regarding release of 

Korean prisoners 

Reports of U.N. Command operations in Korea 
(61st. 64th, and 65th reports) 

Aviation 

Aviation policy and International relations 
(Snowdon) 

Claims and Property 

Termination date for International Claims 
Commissioners 

Communism 

The unquenchable spirit of the captive peoples 
(Dulles) 

Congress 

Current legislation on foreign policy . . . . 
Support for ratification of wheat agreement . . 

Europe 

Bermuda talks postponed; foreign ministers to 
meet 

GERMANY: The unquenchable spirit of the 
captive peoples (Dulles) 

ITALY: Italian firm to produce Jet engine parts 
for NATO 

Finance 

The Export-Import Bank (Reorganization Plan 
No. 5) 

Foreign Service 

Resignation of William Harlan Hale 

Industry 

iMC announces distribution of primary nickel . 
Italian Arm to produce Jet engine parts for 

Nato 

U.S. views on the Japanese economy (Allison) . 



Index 



Vol. XXIX, No. 733 



62 
61 

60 

60 

35 

35 
45 
46 
50 

41 

59 

40 



40 
61 



49 



40 



48 



49 



60 



56 



48 
35 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 30-July 3, 1953 

Releases may be obtained from the Office of the 
Special Assistant for Press Relations, Department 
of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Press releases issued prior to .June 30 which 
appear in this issue of the Bitlletin are nos. 336 of 
June 25, 33S of June 26, 341 of June 26, and 342 of 
June 26. 

Subject 

Exchange of notes on rice 

Dulles : Captive peoples 

Dulles : Armistice discussions 

Ecosoc: U.S. delegation 

U.S., U.K., France to meet 

Public education meeting at Geneva 

Erikson : Post with Voice of America 

American studies meeting at Oxford 

Babcock : Visit to India 

UNESCO meeting at Paris 

Burrows : Appointment 

*Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


t343 


6/30 


344 


6/30 


345 


6/30 


346 


6/30 


347 


6/30 


348 


7/1 


*349 


7/1 


*3.50 


7/1 


*351 


7/1 


352 


7/1 


3.53 


7/3 



International Information 

Policy on use of books In Iia libraries . . . 

International Meetings 

Calendar of meetings 

U.S. DELEGATIONS: 

Conference on Public Education (Unesco) 

Economic and Social Council 

General Conference of Unesco 



Mutual Aid and Defense 

Bermuda talks postponed; foreign ministers to 
meet 

The continuing need for building free-world 
strength through Nato 

Mutual Security 

Economic interdependence in today's world 
(Stassen) 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization 

The continuing need for building free-world 
strength through Nato 

Italian Arm to produce Jet engine parts for 
Nato 

Terms of reference for U.S. Mission to Nato . . 

Presidential Documents 

The Export-Import Bank (Reorganization Plan 
No. 5) 

PROCLAMATIONS: Imports of certain dairy 
and other products 

Use of surplus agricultural commodities for 
emergency aid 

Prisoners of War 

Communist charges regarding release of Korean 
prisoners 

State, Department of 

Appointment (Burrows) 

Aviation policy and international relations 

(Snowdon) 

Policy on use of books in Iia libraries .... 
Termination date for International Claims 

Commissioners 

Terms of reference for U.S. Mission to Nato . . 

Transfer of Division of Publications 

Transfer of responsibility for press relations . 

Strategic Materials 

IMC announces distribution of primary nickel . 

Trade 

Imports of certain dairy and other products . 
Support for ratification of wheat agreement . . 

United Nations 

Aviation policy and international relations 
(Snowdon) 

Communist charges regarding release of Korean 
prisoners 

Reports of U.N, Command operations in Korea 
(61st, 64th, and 65th reports) 



58 



54 

57 
57 
57 



49 



47 



39 



47 



48 
48 



49 
62 



60 



46 



60 

41 
58 

59 
48 
57 
58 



56 



62 
61 



41 



46 



50 



Name Index 

Allison, John M 35 

Baker, John C 57 

Burrows, Charles R 60 

Clark, General 46 

Dulles, Secretary 40, 45, 58 

Eisenhower, President 49, 60, 62 

Hale, William H 60 

Hughes, Jolin C 47 

Johnson, Robert 58 

Kotschnig, Walter M 57 

Marvel, Joslah, Jr 59 

McCardle. Carl W 58 

McKeough, Raymond S 59 

Salomon. Irving 57 

Snowdon. Henry T 41 

Stassen, Harold E 39 

Waugh, Samuel C 61 







Department 

of 
State 



FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES 

... the basic source of information on U.S. diplomatic history 



Just published: 1935, Volume I, General, 

The Near East and Africa 

. . . another volume in the continuing, comprehensive record 
of the United States in world affairs. The documents con- 
tained in this volume show the increasing threat of a rapidly 
rearming Nazi Germany, and the confusion and lack of co- 
operation among the other European powers. They reflect 
deep concern over the Ethiopian-Italian conflict. In the face 
of growing danger, the United States adopted new principles 
of strict neutrality to keep out of any war, and endeavored, by 
use of its moral influence, to preserve peace and uphold inter- 
national obligations. 

This volume (xcvii, 1,074 pp.) was compiled in the Division 
of Historical Policy Research, Department of State. It may 
be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov- 
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Vol. XXIX, No. 734 
July 20, 1953 




THE IMPORTANCE OF THE MUTUAL SECURITY PRO- 
GRAM TO OUR NATIONAL SECURITY • Statement 

by Secretary Dulles 88 

FRENCH, BRITISH, U.S. FOREIGN MINISTERS' 

WASHINGTON CONFERENCE • Texts of statements 
made at the Opening Session 70 

DISTRESS IN THE SOVIET ZONE OF GERMANY: 

U.S. Ofifer of Food and the Soviet Reply 67 

Aid Requested for East German Workers 69 

EVALUATING THE OVERSEAS LIBRARY PROGRAM 

• Statements by Robert L. Johnson 77 



For index see inside back cover 



Boston Pulflic Li'n-ary 
Superintendent of Documents 

AUG 6 1953 




Me Qje/ut^lme^ ^ 9iule OUllGlin 



Vol. XXIX, No. 734 • Publication 5137 
July 20, 1953 



For sale by the Saperlntendent of Document!! 

D.8. Qovernment Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.C. 

Price: 

6i Issaes, domestic t7.C0, foreign $10.2fi 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Depaetment 
or Stati Bullitd) aa the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
selected press releases on foreign pol- 
icy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as icell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



U. S. Offers Food for Distribution in Soviet Zone of Germany 



Following are texts of a statement issued by the 
Pres-ident on July 10, an exchange of letters with 
Chancellor Konrad Adenauer of the Federal Re- 
publ/c of Germany, and a note sent by the U.S. 
Embassy at Moscow to the Soviet Government on 
July 10: 



White House press release dated July 10 

Statement by the President 

Chancellor Adenauer has addressed to me a 
letter asking that the U.S. Government participate 
in aiding the people of Eastern Gennany whose 
food supply has been steadily deteriorating. 

I have been distressed to learn of the plight of 
the people of Eastern Germany. I have, therefore, 
replied to Chancellor Adenauer informing him 
that this Government would join him in making 
food available to the people of Eastern Germany. 
Simultaneously, I have instructed the ^imerican 
Charge d'Affaires in Moscow to make an offer 
of food to be distributed in Eastern Germany. 
I have directed the Secretary of State and the 
Mutual Security Administrator to take steps to 
see that this food is made available in Germany 
without delay. I have indicated to the Soviet 
Government my confidence that practical ways for 
immediate distribution can be developed so that 
the food shortages afflicting the East German pop- 
ulation may be alleviated quickly. 

I invite the other nations of the free world to 
join us in this action of aiding the people of 
Eastern Germany in this emergency. 



Exchange of Letters With West German Chancellor 

Chancellor Adenauer to the President, July 4 

My dear Mr. President : 

During recent months, I have discussed with Dr. 
Conant. the United States High Commissioner for 
Germany, on repeated occasions the position of the 
population in the Soviet-occupied zone. The Fed- 

lu\y 20, 7953 



eral Government watches with serious apprehen- 
sion the steadily increasing political pressure to 
which the Germans living there are subjected. 
Apart from that, the steadily deteriorating food 
supply in the Soviet-occupied zone fills the Fed- 
eral Government with growing anxiety. It is true 
that the events of 17 June 1953 have prompted the 
rulers of the Soviet Zone to; announce, in this par- 
ticular field, certain relaxations, but according to 
information received by us, it is extremely doubt- 
ful whether the Communist rulers are actually 
willing, or able, to fulfill these promises. There- 
fore, the food supply of the Soviet Zone must 
continue to be regarded as definitely endangered. 

As it is, the Federal Government is, unfortu- 
nately, unable to remove the political pressure 
weighing upon the people in the Soviet Zone. 
However, it feels itself under an obligation to do 
everything in its power to at least protect the pop- 
ulation from hunger as far as this will be possible. 

The Bundestag, too, dealt with this question, 
during the last few days and requested the Federal 
Government on 1 July by a resolution to take all 
possible measures to ensure as speedily as possible 
an adequate supply of food for the distressed 
Soviet Zone and East Berlin. 

The Federal Government, therefore, intends to 
make available funds on a large scale for food sup- 
plies to be sent to the Soviet-occupied zone. The 
churches and charitable organizations will be en- 
trusted with the implementation of this action so 
as to ensure that these food supplies are used for 
the intended purpose. 

I should much appreciate it if the United States 
Government, too, were prepared to participate in 
this aid action which is in the interest of the entire 
Western world. 

Sincerely yours, 

Adenatter 

The President to Chancellor Adenauer, July 10 

My dear Mr. Chancellor : 

The receipt of your letter of July 4, 195,3, in 
which you outlined the serious situation existing 
in the Soviet Zone of Germany concerning the 

67 



Soviet Reply to U.S. Offer of Food 



Following is an nnofflcial translation of a note 
sent on July 11 to Elim O'Shauyhnessy, U.S. Chargi 
d' Affaires at Moscow, by Soviet Foreign Minister 
Vyacheslav Molotov: 



Dear Mb. Charge d'affaires: 

In your letter of July 10, it is said that the Presi- 
dent of the U.S.A. is allegedly concerned over the 
food situation in the eastern part of Germany and 
that the Government of the U.S.A. has a.ssigned .$15 
million for sending and distributing certain food 
products among the population of this part of 
Germany. 

In connection with this, I consider it necessary 
to call the attention of the Government of the 
U.S.A. to the following : 

From your communication, it is clear that the 
Government of the U.S.A. has been incorrectly in- 
formed regarding the situation in the eastern part 
of Germany. In this it is impossible to see anything 
unexpected inasmuch as you state that information 
regarding Eastern Germany has been received from 
such sources as the American High Commissioner 
in Germany and Bonn Chancellor Adenauer, who 
bear the chief responsibility for the infractions of 
the social order in the eastern part of Berlin which 
you mention. If on June 17 tliere had not been 
organized on their [lart the dispatch from the Amer- 
ican sector of Berlin of whole groups of hirelings 
and criminal elements for setting fire to food and 
other stores, for attaclsing officials, state institutions 
of the German Democratic Republic, etc., then in 
general there would have taken place no infractions 
of order in Berlin. 

Prom your letter it is also evident that the Gov- 
ernment of the U.S.A. tooli the decision to send $15 
million worth of food products even without having 
asked the opinion of the Government of the German 
Democratic Republic in this connection. Such man- 
ners at the present time would Insult even the 
population of a colony, to say nothing of the German 
people and its legal democratic government. 

From all this it foUows that in the given case, 
the U.S.A. Government has not shown any sort of 
solicitude as to the food supply of the German peo- 
ple, but has decided to resort to a propaganda ma- 
neuver having nothing in common with concern for 
the real interests of the German population. 

By the present letter, I request you to transmit 
to the Government of the U.S.A. that on the strength 
of stable, friendly relations established between the 
Soviet Union and the German Democratic Republic, 
the Soviet Government has even earlier given food 
assistance to the German population. The Soviet 
Government is also ready in the future, when there 
shall be need of it, to grant the population of tlie 
German Democratic Republic all necessary food and 
other assistance in correspondence with the existing 
agreement between the Governments of the U.S.S.R. 
and the G.D.R.' ., , 

MoLOTOV 



' In a statement on July 11, White House Press Secre- 
tary James C. Hagerty said: "The President's offer of 
food for the people of East Germany still stands regardless 
of any Soviet rejection of that offer or any Soviet allega- 
tion that the p«'ople do not need food." 

The Department of State said on July 11 (press relea.se 
376) that tlie Soviet rejection of the U.S. offer of food was 



supply of food for the population, has confirmed 
reports which I have received from High Com- 
missioner Conant and which have been of consid- 
erable concern to me over the past few weeks. 

I am, therefore, anxious to respond affinn- 
atively to your appeal that this Govermnent join 
you in aiding the people of East Germany in tliis 
hour when many of those demonstrating are de- 
manding more food. 

I have, therefore, today instructed the American 
Charge d'Affaires in Moscow to offer the Soviet 
Government shipments of food for distribution to 
the population of East Germany. I have sug- 
gested that arrangements for the distribution be 
made between the staffs of the United States and 
Soviet High Commissioners in Germany and that 
consideration be given to distribution through 
German religious institutions. 

I sincerely hope that this effort on our part to 
relieve the plight of tlie people in P2ast Germany 
will be welcomed by the Soviet Government. 
Sincerely yours, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



U.S. Note to the U.S.S.R. 

I have been instructed by the President to con- 
vey to you his deep concern with the conditions 
existing in (he Soviet Zone of Germany and the 
increasing hardships to which the population of 
that area is being subjected. The government 
and the people of the United States are especially 
concerned over the steadily deteriorating food 
supply for the population of that area which has 
been an important factor in recent demonstrations 
against the local authorities. 

The United States has traditionally sought to 
alleviate suffering, stan'ation and disease wher- 
ever it might be foimd. Because of its position as 
an occupying power in Germany my Government 



based on the flimsiest of reasons. Officials further made 
it clear that the contention that no food shortage exists 
in East Germany was obviously fallacious, since demon- 
strations for food in East Berlin during tlie last 3 weeks 
were witnessed not only by U.S. Government ob,servers 
but by newsmen of the free world. The Soviet Govern- 
ment's reference to the necessity of fii'St approaching tlie 
government of the East German regime was lield to be 
ridiculous, since the fact that the recent demonstrations 
in East Berlin and the Soviet zone were put down liy 
Russian armed forces clearly demonstrates the identity 
of tlie real authority for that area. Additionally, they 
made it clear tliat the United States has never recognized 
anyone but the Soviet Union as the legal authority for 
tli.it area, the so-called government of the (Juu having been 
constituted by decree without an expression of the popular 
will. 

Officials responsible for carrying out the President's 
program said procureiiicnt was already under way and 
shipments to port had lieen arranged for 2,000 tons of 
flour, 1,000 tons of lard, 1.000 tons of beans, and 500 tons 
of dried milk. 



68 



Department of State Bulletin 



lias a le_<rit.imate iiitei'est in the welfare of the 
people of Germany. The urgent need for aid for 
the people in the Eastern part of Germany has 
again been brought to the attention of my Govern- 
luent by its High Commissioner in (Jermany and 
also by Chancellor Adenauer. 

Mindful of the.'ie needs, my Government has, 
therefore, decided to offer to the Soviet Union as 
the occupying power for distribution to the popu- 
lation of Eastern Germany shipments of food 
amounting in value to approximately $15 million 
and consisting of grain, sugar, lard, soy bean oil 
and some other commodities. 

Details as to the methods of distribution and 
placCvS of delivery can unquestionably be worked 
out by the staffs of our respective High Commis- 
sioners in Germany, and the United States au- 
thorities there will approach the Soviet authorities 
for this purpose as soon as the Soviet Government 
u has reached a decision in this matter. 

The Governments of the United Kingdom and 
France have been informed of this offer. 

I trust that you will inform me of the acceptance 
of this offer by the Soviet Government as quickly 
as possible so that the food shortage afflicting the 
East German population may be alleviated 
speedily. In order that no time Ije lost during 
this grave emergency, the initial shipments of food 
will be transported to the zonal and sector bound- 
aries in Germany beginning immediately. 

Accept, etc. 



Request for U.S. Aid 

to Workers in East Germany 

White House press release dated July 9 

The White House on July 9 made public the 
foUowing exchange of com'munication,s between 
the President and George Meany^ president of the 
American Federation of Labor, and Walter 
Reuther, pi'esident of the Congress of Industrial 
Organisations, sent while Messrs. Meany and 
Reuther were attending the International Con- 
federation of Free Trade Unions meeting at 
Stockholm : 



Messrs. Meany and Reuther to the President 

On behalf IG million American workers whose 
representatives are in Stockholm, Sweden, today 
attending Third World Congress International 
Confederation of Free Trade IJnions, we call upon 
government of United States immediately to take 
initiative in aiding workers of Soviet occupied 
Germany in their struggle against Soviet totali- 
tarianism. 

Assembled delegates at Icftu World Congress 
who speak for more than 53 million M'orkers 
throughout world have unanimously and with 
American labour's uncompi-omising support voted 
to aid their fellow workers in East Germany in 

Jo/y 20, 1953 



every manner possible. We ask that our govern- 
ment press for immediate negotiations for free 
elections in a united Germany, for establishment 
of free political parties and free trade unions, and 
for (he immediate liberation of German workers 
imprisoned by the Soviet occupation authorities 
for their resistance June 17. 

We further call for submission of formal com- 
plaint to United Nations against the Soviet Union's 
violation of human rights and freedom of associa- 
tion in Soviet occupied Germany. In the historj' 
of mankind's struggle for liberty, June 17 will go 
down as memorable moment during which heroic 
German workers fought not only for themselves 
but also battled for all free peoples of the world. 
Their struggle must have unyielding support of 
all who cherish freedom. We ask your immediate 
consideration of our plea. 

The President to Messrs. Meany and Reuther 

Your message on behalf of the American Trade 
Union movement sent from the Third World 
Congress of the Inter-national Confederation of 
Free Trade Unions is a splendid example of the 
contributions that free trade imionism is making 
to the cause of freedom and justice all over the 
world. The Government of the U.S. shares 
wholeheartedly with you and your associates your 
feelings about the workers of East Berlin who by 
their heroism have demonstrated that totali- 
tarianism has not extinguished the desire for 
freedom in the enslaved countries of Eastern 
Europe. I can assure you that this government 
will study carefully the proposals you have out- 
lined in your message with a view to employing 
every peaceful means to lift the burdens of 
occupation from the German people. 



$10 Million Allotted to Germany 
for National Productivity Drive 

The Mutual Security Agency (Msa) on June 
29 announced the allotment of $10 million in de- 
fense-support funds to the Federal Republic of 
Germany to make possible an intensified drive to 
increase West German industrial and agricultural 
productivity. 

Under terms of a special agreement with Msa, 
under which the new allotment was made, the 
German Government is to deposit 42 million 
Deutschemarks (equal to $10 million) in the Ger- 
man Republic-mutual security counterpart fund. 

The agreement provides that $9 million worth 
of these marks (37.8 million marks), plus an ad- 
ditional 80 million marks (equal to $19 million) 
from previous counterpart deposits, will be used 
in the stepped-up productivity drive. The U.S. 
Government will receive 4.2 million marks (worth 
$1 million) or 10 percent of the new allotment, to 
defray Msa mission and other costs in Germany. 

69 



On March 2 the Msa mission to Germany and 
the German Government agreed to undertake an 
intensified productivity drive to strengthen the 
West German economy. The resulting productiv- 
ity program, which will concentrate on assisting 
consumer-goods plants of medium and small size, 
largely through loans, was completed on June 17. 

Of the 37.8 million marks, 30 million will be 
used to make such loans, 4.4 million as grants, and 
3.4 million as Germany's contribution to the re- 
cently established European Productivity Agency 
of the Organization for European Economic Co- 
operation. 

Loans will be approved to business firms, includ- 
ing food processors and distributors, that are pre- 
pared to take steps to increase their productivity 
and share the resulting experience with other com- 
panies in the same industrial field. Applicants 
will be required to demonstrate that their plans 
lead to the expectation of higher productivity. 
The maximum life of any loan will be limited to 8 



years. After a loan application has been approved 
by the German productivity institute established 
under the agreement, the applicant will proceed to 
negotiate with private banks which will receive 
pi'oductivity fund credits through the German Re- 
construction Loan Corporation. 

Grant funds will be used only in connection 
with applications judged worthy of assistance be- 
cause of the soundness of productivity plans and 
inability to qualify for loan financing. Projects 
most likely to be approved for grants are those in 
the fields of marketing, standardization, industry- 
wide efficiency studies, technical assistance, and 
technical-information dissemination. 

Of the 80 million marks to be withdrawn from 
previous counterpart deposits and used in the pro- 
ductivity drive, 7 million (equal to $1,666,666) 
will be used to finance busine.ss enterprises of East 
German refugees and expellees, through the 
Refugee Bank. The balance of the 80 million 
marks will be used for small business loans. 



French, British, U.S. Foreign Ministers Begin Washington Conference 



ARRIVAL OF FRENCH AND BRITISH 
DELEGATIONS 

Following are the, texts of statements of welcome, 
made by Secretary Dulles to French Foreign Min- 
ister Georges Bidault and Lord Salisbwry, the 
British Acting Foreign Minister, together ivith 
their replies, on the occasion of the arrival of the 
British and French delegations at Washington on 
July 9 for the Foreign Ministers' meeting: ^ 

Secretary Dulles 

Mr. Bidault, it is a very great pleasure, indeed, 
to welcome you as the Foreign Minister of France 
at this meeting which we will have with yourself, 
the Acting Foreign Minister of Great Britain, and 
myself. 

These are going to be informal talks, not of a 
rigid nature, but I am sure we will have an ex- 
change of views which will be very profitable and 

'Press release 362 dated July contains the exchange 
of remarks between Secretary DiiUes and Foreign Min- 
ister Bidault ; press release 'MV) dated July contains the 
Secretary's exchange of remarks with Lord Salisbury. 



which will seal again the unity and fraternity 
of our two countries. You are a veteran in the 
ser\ic6 of foreign affairs. I remember that you 
were the Foreign Minister in 1945 when we worked 
together in London at the first meeting of the 
Council of Foreign Ministers. We need the type 
of wisdom and experience which you can bring to 
our deliberations. 

I have already complimented you on the fact 
that you brought Madame Bidault, something 
which Lord Salisbury failed to do with respect 
to his wife, so you have already scored something 
at the first meeting of the Three Ministers. 

It is a great pleasure to have you here. 

Foreign Minister Bidault 

[Translation] 

At the moment I arrive in America, I am very 
happy to have the opportunity to talk with my 
colleagues of the United States and the United 
Kingdom concerning the main developments in 
the international situation since our last meeting. 

We should have met with President Eisenliower 



70 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



and the Prime Minister of Great Britain. We 
regret the reasons why we could not liave this pro- 
jected meeting. I would like to tell you how much 
all the French warml}' wish the quick recovery 
of the famous statesman, and they will never for- 
get tliat in tlie darkest hours he maintained with 
us his full confidence in the mission which Provi- 
dence assignetl to the French nation in the making 
of the future world. 

I am glad, at the same time, to pay to President 
Eisenhower, whom we will feel with us during 
our meetings, the tribute of the gratitude which 
my country will always have for one of the greater 
among its liberators. 

Mr. Foster Dulles, Lord Salisbury, and myself 
are going to survey the problems which deserve 
in the most acute numner the attention of all those 
who are concerned with the future of the world, 
with freedom, and with peace. From the shores 
of Europe to those of Asia we are going to con- 
sider together, and I am convinced that we will be 
able to choose jointly the most appropriate meth- 
ods in order to face ditferent possibilities or cases 
which might arise and to define the possible initi- 
atives. You know that the French (lovernment, 
as regards Indochina, has precisely taken decis- 
ions of a very wide scope of which we await the 
result with confidence and which outline very 
clearly the true nature of the fight which France, 
together with the Associated States, wages against 
the Conmiunist aggression. 

We will carry on with this task with a renewed 
strength and with the increased help of those who 
are determined with us to contain the blind drive 
of a materialism which ignores and despises the 
dignity of man. 

(In English) : About Europe now, I would say 
that the events that happened during the last weeks 
can but give us a stronger feeling of the responsi- 
bilities we must shoulder. It is our duty to think 
of the oppressed people in that spirit of peace 
from which we shall never depart. One of our 
poets said that every day's life is "a work of faith 
that needs much love." The same thought applies 
to international life. In order to consolidate 
peace, to lead the world toward a better future, 
we must keep our faith, we must be patient, re- 
sourceful, and determined. In such a spirit, with 
my colleagues of the United States of America and 
of the United Kingdom, I shall endeavor to con- 
tribute in the name of France to the making of a 
world where the real values of life will at last find 
their place — the first place. 



Secretary Dulles 

Lord Salisbury, we are very happy, indeed, to 
welcome you and your associates here for a meet- 
ing of the three Foreign Ministers of the United 
Kingdom, of France, and of the United States. 



We were vei-y disappointed when the Bermuda 
Conference was called off, and, particularly, we 
were disappointed and grieved that the cause of 
that postponement was the illness of your Prime 
Minister whom we so greatly admire and respect 
in this country. The only compensation for that 
disappointment is that it has brought you here to 
Wasliington. 

You and your associates are old friends of mine, 
I auT happy to be able to say. We have known 
each other, you and I, I think for at least 10 years, 
and I remember our working together on many 
occasions, particularly the San Francisco Con- 
ference of 1945. I think we will resume here, 
you and I and our French colleague, the kind of 
informal conversations which are the best way in 
whicli our countries and all of our friends get 
along. 

You will read here probably, as we read in your 
papers, of some differences between us. To me, 
the significant thing is that between our countries 
a difference is news. Now. in the Soviet Union 
any agreement is news, and I hope the time will 
never come, and I am sure it will never come, when 
agreement between our countries is news. It's 
much happier the way it is now. And what little 
differences there are I hope we shall iron out at 
this meeting and that it will promote the con- 
tinuing good will and cooperation of our countries, 
which is so es.sential to world peace, security, and 
justice. 

Thank you very much, and I am glad you are 
here. 



Lord Salisbury 

Mr. Secretary, may I thank you, very warmly, 
for the words that you have just said. You say 
that you are disappointed that the Bermuda Con- 
ference had to be postponed. Well, we are ex- 
tremely disappointed too. But, of course, I hope 
and think that it is only a postponement and that 
some later opportunity may occur in which such 
talks can be renewed. 

In the meantime, I have come here to have what 
I may call an intermediate conference. There are 
a number of new events in the world which we 
ought, I think, to review together, and there are 
policies which we agree about and which we wish 
to reaffirm, and perhaps there are a few differences 
which we may wish to iron out. All these things 
can be done, as you say, informally and as friends; 
and, indeed, I think that I may say, between you 
and me as old friends. 

I am looking greatly forward to my being in 
Washington. I am looking forward to the con- 
versations which we shall have over the many 
problems that face us, and I am, above all, glad, 
if I may say so, to be back in the United States. 

Thank you very much. 



July 20, J 953 



71 



OPENING SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE 

FoUowhig are texts of statements made hy Sec- 
retary Dulles, Lord Salisbury, and Foreign Min- 
ister Bidault at the opening session of their 
conference on July 10: 



Statement by Secretary Dulles 

Press release 365 dated July 10 

I am confident that the conference now begin- 
ning will be worthwhile. France, Great Britain, 
and the United States have many interests and 
responsibilities in common. We meet at the time 
of great opportunity. In East Berlin, East Ger- 
many, and other satellite areas the people are 
moved by a new hope. Freedom is again in the 
air. Free elections is the slogan whicli now cap- 
tures the imagination of the captive peoples. 

Witliin Eussia itself, Beriya, the leader and 
symbol of the police state, is himself put under 
arrest. A new convulsion is underway. The old 
system may remain and may continue to threaten, 
but inherent weakness is disclosed. 

Totalitarian states always seem hard and united 
when they are looked upon from without. But 
their very rigidity is a basic defect. 

The free societies seem by their differences to 
be weak and divided. But these differences, char- 
acteristic of a free society, are actually what gives 
strength and durability. 

We three meet here not to deal with the affairs 
of any other free country, for we do not dispose of 
the interests of others in their absence or behind 
their backs. We do meet to coordinate our own 
views with reference to such great matters as the 
significance of the dramatic developments now 
occurring within the Soviet Union. ALso, the 
three of us have special responsibilities in relation 
to Germany. That in turn involves looking for- 
ward to realizing European unity, and particu- 
larly the European Defense Community. Indo- 
china presents a challenge. 

These and the other matters we shall discuss are 
to us not merely problems, but opportunities. We 
must be alert to create, to find, and seize every 
opportunity to enhance the prospects of peace, 
justice, and well-being in the world. I believe the 
esphange of views which we now begin will be 
pr6ductive of good results. 



Remarks by Lord Salisbury 

Press reloase SGS dated July 10 

I am very happy to take part with Mr. Dulles 
and M. Bidault in this meeting here in AVashing- 
ton. I believe it to be of the first importance that 
it should be held, and it should, with that good 
will wliich I am sure will be present, produce 
fruitful results. 



I described it yesterday as "intermediate." It 
might also, I hope, be described as one of those 
periodic exchanges of view which should in any 
case take place between faithful allies. 

We live nowadays in a world where the interna- 
tional situation is constantly changing and evolv- 
ing. We had an example of this only today in the 
news from Russia. It seems to me essential, 
therefore, that we should meet from time to time 
to assess the latest developments, to review our 
policy, and to reaffirm our unity. That, as I see 
it, is the purpose of this meeting at Washington. 

I should like to thank the U.S. Government, 
who are our hosts on this occasion, for inviting us 
here, and to say how greatly I look forward to 
working with Mr. Dulles and with M. Bidault 
toward a solution of our joint problems. 



Statement by Foreign Minister Bidault 

Press release 3G6 dated July 10 

Our present meeting in Washington marks one 
of the most significant moments since the end of 
World War II. The complex evolution toward a 
truce in Korea, the French initiatives concerning 
the Associated States and the war in Indochina, 
the events in Eastern Europe, the dramatic news 
from Moscow, all these facts are as many im- 
portant elements in an international situation 
which is everywhere in motion. 

In the coming weeks and months we will know 
what hopes together with what dangers this evo- 
lution may bring about. 

Facing this situation, those who are responsible 
for the future of the free world must avoid two 
things: Passivity and differences of opinion be- 
tween themselves. That is why we are gathered 
in Washington with the determination to favor 
the hopes and to avert the dangers. 



Mr. Robertson Concludes Talks 
With Syngman Rhee 

Press release 369 dated July 11 

Following is the fcTt of a joint statement hy 
President Syngman Rhee and Walter S. Rohert- 
son. Assistant Serretai^y of State and special ref- 
resentative of President Eise7ihotcer, following 
the conchision of thsir talks at Seoul, Korea: 

During the pa.st 2 weeks we have had many 
frank and cordial exchanges of views which have 
emphasized the deep frieiulsliip existiiig between 
the Republic of Korea and the United States and 
have gone far toward achieving mutual under- 
standing of the troubled questions wliich have 
arisen in connection with arrangements for an 
armistice, the excliange of prisoners, and the forth- 
coming political conierence. 



72 



Department of State Bulletin 



These discussions have cemented our determi- 
nation to continue and extend in the postarmi.stice 
period the close coUaboration for our connnon ob- 
jectives, marking; our rehitions since the Com- 
munist aggression conunenced 3 years ago. 

In res{5ect to tiie prisoners of war, wo have re- 
affii"med our determination that no prisoners shall 
be subject to coercion and that, at the end of the 
specified i)eriod, all prisoners desiring to avoid 
returning to Coinnuuiist jurisdiction shall be set 
free in South Korea, or, in the case of the non- 
Communist Chinese, to proceed to a destination 
chosen by them. 

Our two Governments are in agreement in re- 
spect to entering into a mutual-defense pact, nego- 
tiations for which are under way. 

We have likewise discussed collaboration along 
political, economic, and defense lines, and our con- 
versations have disclosed a wide area of agreement 
concerning these matters. 

In particular, we wish to emphasize our deter- 
mination to work together for the realization 
witliin the shortest practical time of our connnon 
objective; namely, a free, independent, and uni- 
fied Korea. 

We are confident that the spirit of accord in 
which our talks have progressed, and the large 
areas of agreement which have resulted, will be 
followed by continuing mutual consideration and 
by the spirit of mutual accommodation which will 
lead most certainly to our broad objective of a 
secure and lasting peace in the Far East. 



Communist Commanders Agree 
To Continue Armistice Talks 

The United Nations Com/mand on July 8 re- 
leased the following letter to Gen. Mark W. Clark 
frovi the Commxtnist commanders dated July 7 : 

In your letter of reply dated June 29, 1953,^ you 
admit that the incident of coercing the captured 
personnel of the Korean People's Army into leav- 
ing the prisoner-of-war camps and of forcible re- 
tention of them by the Syngman Rhee clique is 
a serious and unfortunate incident. It is right that 
you do so. However, your explanation and han- 
dling of this incident are not satisfactory. 

Every obvious fact proves that the United Na- 
tions Command cannot completely evade the re- 
sponsibility for this incident. Your side was 
aware of the premeditated scheme of the South 
Korean Government and Army for this incident, 
of which there had been indications long ago, but 
your side did not take any preventive measures. 

Following the occurrence of the incident, your 
side not only failed to apply any effective sanc- 
tions against the acts of coercing the prisoners of 



war into leaving prisoner-of-war camps in viola- 
tion of the prisoner-of-war agreement on the part 
of the South Korean security units who were 
under the control of the United Nations Command, 
but even after our side, by our letter of June 19,'' 
called for the full attention of your side, you 
still allowed the South Korean security units to 
continue to coerce the prisoners of war into leav- 
ing the camps so that the total of prisoners of war 
retained forcibly by the Syngman Rliee clique has 
amounted to more than 27,000, in which are in- 
cluded more than fifty captured personnel of the 
Chinese People's Volunteers. 

Both General Harrison, senior delegate of your 
side, in his letter on June 18, and in your letter 
of reply of June 29, indicate that efforts are being 
made to recover the "escaped" prisoners of war; 
however, you assert at the same time that it is 
impossible to recover all those prisoners of war. 
In actuality, your military police are instructed 
not to interfere with any prisoners of war who 
"escape," but to allow them to be forced to report 
to the military training centers run by Syngman 
Rhee. 

The attitude taken by the United Nations Com- 
mand during this period has connived, at least in 
fact, at the Syngman Rhee clique in carrying out 
unscrupulously its activities of violating the pris- 
oner-of-war agreement and obstructing the real- 
ization of an ai'mistice. 

Your side also attempts to compare the humani- 
tarian action of our side of releasing prisoners of 
war in the battlefield prior to the armistice negoti- 
ations with the disruptive action taken by the 
South Korean security units of coercing prisoners 
into leaving the camps after the signing of the 
prisoner-of-war agi-eement. This is totally im- 
proper. Your side bears at all times the responsi- 
bility for recovering all the "escaped" prisoners 
of war. 

It must be warned that the Syngman Rhee clique 
now is still clamoring for the continued "release," 
that is forcible retention, of the more than 8,500 
remaining captured personnel of the Korean's 
People's Ai-my not to be directly repatriated, and 
is attempting, in league with the special agents of 
Chiang Kai-shek, to coerce the captured personnel 
of the Chinese People's Volunteers into leaving 
the prisoner-of-war camps, in an attempt to violate 
thoroughly the prisoner-of-war agreement which 
is already signed by both sides. 

We hold that, regarding this, your side must 
shoulder the absolute responsibility for insuring 
that no such incidents will occur again. 

In your letter, you give assurance that the 
United Nations Command will, to the limit of its 
ability, establish military safeguards, where neces- 
sary, to insure that the armistice terms are ob- 
served. We consider tliat this is necessaiy. How- 
ever, your side indicates that it is not yet definitely 



' Bulletin of July 13, 1953, p. 46. 



' Ihid., June 29, 1953, p. 906. 



Ju/y 20, J 953 



73 



sure of a guarantee that the South Korean Govern- 
ment and Army will abide by the annistice agree- 
ment reached by the delegations of both sides. 
Moreover, the Syngman Rhee clique has been and 
still is clamoring for unification of Korea by force ; 
this is sufficient in itself to prove from which side 
the aggression was launched three years ago. 

Now, should the United Nations Command con- 
tinue to connive at the Syngman Rhee clique and 
permit it to lay out various premeditated schemes 
for undermining the possibilities of a peaceful 
settlement of the Korean question, armed aggres- 
sion against the Korean Democratic People's 
Republic might break out again at any time, even 
if the Korean armistice agreement were signed. 

Therefore, our side holds that your side must 
take effective steps regarding the observance of 
the South Korean Government and Army of the 
armistice agreement and all other related agree- 
ments; it is only thus that the Koi-ean armistice 
can be safeguarded against disruption. 

To sum up, although our side is not entirely 
satisfied with the reply of your side, yet in view 
of the indication of the desire of your side to strive 
for an early armistice and in view of the assur- 
ances given by your side, our side agrees that the 
delegations of both sides meet at an appointed time 
to discuss the question of implementation of the 
armistice agreement and the various preparations 
prior to the signing of the armistice agreement. 

The date for the meeting will be discussed and 
decided by the senior delegates of both sides 
through the liaison officers. 

Kim II Sung, 
Marshal, Svpreme Com/mander of the Korean 
PeopIe\s Army. 

Peng Teh-huai, 
Commayider of the Chinese People's Volunteers. 



Vice President Nixon To Visit 
Far East and South Asia 

White House press release dated July 7 

At the request of the President and the Secre- 
tary of State, th^ Vice President will visit the 
Far East and South Asia next fall, probably dur- 
ing the months of October and November. The 
Vice President will be accompanied by Mrs. Nixon 
and by representatives of the Department of State. 
The definite time of departure and the precise 
itinerary will be announced later. 

The purpose of the visit will be for the Vice 
President and his party to become acquainted with 
the leaders of the countries visited, to hear their 
views, to gain firsthand impressions, to convey the 
sincere greetings of the peoi)le of the United States 
to the peoples of the areas visited, and to carry the 
personal greetings of the President. 



U.S. Position on Iranian Oil Dispute 

White House press release dated July U 

Folloioing are the texts of coinmunications ex- 
changed between the President and Prime Minister 
Mossadegh of Iran: 

The President to the Prime Minister 

June 29, 1953 

Dear Mr. Prime Minister : 

I have received your letter of May 28 in which 
you described the present difficult situation in Iran 
and expressed the hope that the United States 
might be able to assist Iran in overcoming some 
of its difficulties. In writing my reply which has 
been delayed until I could have an opportunity to 
consult with Mr. Dulles and Ambassador Hender- 
son, I am motivated by the same spirit of friendly 
frankness as that which I find reflected in your 
letter. 

The Government and people of the United States 
historically have cherished and still have deep feel- 
ings of friendliness for Iran and the Iranian 
people. They sincerely hope that Iran will be able 
to maintain its independence and that the Iranian 
people will be successful in realizing their national 
aspirations and in developing a contented and free 
nation which will contribute to world prosperity 
and peace. 

It was primarily because of that hope that the 
United States Government during the last two 
years has made earnest efforts to assist in eliminat- 
ing certain differences between Iran and the United 
Kingdom which have arisen as a result of the na- 
tionalization of the Iranian oil industry. It has 
been the belief of the United States that the reach- 
ing of an agi'eement in the matter of compensation 
would strengthen confidence throughout the world 
in the determination of Iran fully to adhere to 
the principles which render possible a harmonious 
community of free nations; that it would contrib- 
ute to the strengthening of the international credit 
standing of Iran; and tliat it would lead to the 
solution of some of the financial and economic 
problems at present facing Iran. 

The failure of Iran and of the United Kingdom 
to reach an agreement with regard to compensa- 
tion has handicapped the Government of the 
United States in its efforts to help Iran. There is 
a strong feeling in the United States, even among 
American citizens most symjiathetic to Iran and 
friendly to the Iranian people, that it would not 
be fair to the American taxi)ayers for the Ignited 
States Government to extend any considerable 
amount of economic aid to Iran so long as Iran 
could have access to funds derived from the sale 
of its oil and oil products if a reasonable agi'cement 
were reached with regard to compensation whereby 
the large-scale marketing of Iranian oil would be 
resumed. Similarly, many American citizens 



74 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



would be deeply opposed to the purchase by the 
United States Government of Iranian oil in the 
absence of an oil settlement. 

There is also considerable sentiment in the 
United States to the effect that a settlement based 
on the payment of compensation merely for losses 
of the physical assets of a firm which has been 
nationalized would not be what mijiht be called a 
reasonable settlement and that an ajri'eement to 
such a settlement might tend to weaken mutual 
trust between free nations engaged in friendly eco- 
nomic intercourse. Furthermore, many of my 
countrymen who have kept themselves informed 
regarding developments in this unfortunate dis- 
pute believe that, in view of the emotions which 
have been aroused both in Iran and the United 
Kingdom, efforts to determine bj' direct negotia- 
tion the amount of compensation due are more 
likely to increase friction than to promote under- 
standing. They continue to adhere to the opinion 
that the most practicable and the fairest means 
of settling the question of compensation would be 
for that question to be referred to some neutral 
international body which could consider on the 
basis of merit all claims and counter-claims. 

I fully understand that the Government of Iran 
must determine for itself which foreign and do- 
mestic policies are likely to be most advantageous 
to Iran and to the Iranian people. In what I have 
written, I am not trying to advise the Iranian 
Government on its best interests. I am merely 
trying to explain why, in the circumstances, the 
Government of the United States is not presently 
in a position to extend more aid to Iran or to 
purchase Iranian oil. 

In case Iran should so desire, the United States 
Government hopes to be able to continue to ex- 
tend technical assistance and military aid on a 
basis comparable to that given during the past 
year. 

I note the concern reflected in your letter at the 
present dangerous situation in Iran and sincerely 
hope that before it is too late, the Government of 
Iran will take such steps as are in its power to pre- 
vent a further deterioration of that situation. 

Please accept, Mr. Prime Minister, the renewed 
assurances of my highest consideration. 

D^VIC,IIT D. Eisenhower 



The Prime Minister to the President 

M.\y28, 1953 

Dear Mr. President : 

In the kind reply which you sent to my message 
of last January you suggested that I might in- 
form you direct or through diplomatic channels of 
any views that may be of mutual interest. 

In that message I had briefly referred to the 
hardships and privations which the Iranian peo- 
ple had undergone during the last two years in 
their efforts to attain their aspirations and also to 



the difficulties which the British Government has 
created for Iran in its support of the illogical 
claims of an imperialistic company. 

During the few months that have elapsed since 
the date of that message the Iranian people have 
been suffering financial hardships and struggling 
with political intrigues carried on by the former 
Oil Company and the British Government. For 
instance, the purchasers of Iranian oil have been 
dragged from one court to another, and all means 
of propaganda and diplomacy have been employed 
in order to place illegal obstacles in the way of 
the sale of Iranian oil. Although the Italian and 
Japanese courts have declared Iranian oil to be 
free and unencumbered, the British have not as 
yet abandoned their unjust and unprincipled 
activities. 

Although it was hoped that during Your Excel- 
lency's administration attention of a more sym- 
pathetic character would be devoted to the Iranian 
situation, unfortunately no change seems thus far 
to have taken place in the position of the Amer- 
ican Government. 

In the message which the Secretary of State 
sent me from Karachi,^ he expressed regret that 
the efforts of the United States to contribute to the 
solution of the problem of compensation had thus 
far been unsuccessful. It should be recalled that 
the Iranian Government was prepared to pay the 
value of the former Company's properties in Iran 
in such amount as might be determined by the 
International Court of Justice. It was also pre- 
pared to accept the jurisdiction of the said court 
with regard to the amount of compensation pro- 
vided the British Government would state the 
amount of its claim in advance and that claim 
would be within the bounds of reason. Obviously 
the Iranian Government also had certain claims 
against the former Oil Company and the British 
Government which would have been presented at 
the time of the hearing of the case. 

The British Government, hoping to regain its 
old position, has in effect ignored all of these pro- 
posals. 

As a result of actions taken by the former Com- 
pany and the British Government, the Iranian 
nation is now facing great economic and political 
difficulties. There can be serious consequences, 
from an international viewpoint as well, if this 
situation is permitted to continue. If prompt and 
effective aicl is not given this country now, any 
steps that might be taken tomorrow to compensate 
for the negligence of today might well be too late. 

We are of course grateful for the aid heretofore 
granted Iran by the Government of the United 
States. This aid has not, however, been sufficient 
to solve the problems of Iran and to ensure world 
peace which is the aim and ideal of the noble 
people and of the Government of the United 
States. 



' Not printed. 



July 20, 7953 



75 



The standard of living of the Iranian people 
has been very low as a result of century-old im- 
perialistic policies, and it will be impossible to 
raise it without extensive programs of develop- 
ment and rehabilitation. Unfortunately the aid 
heretofore granted has been in principle primarily 
of a technical nature, and even in this respect the 
assistance needed has not at times been accorded. 
For example, the Export-Import Bank which was 
to have advanced Iran twenty-five million dollars 
for use in the sphere of agriculture did not do so 
because of unwarranted outside interference. 

The Iranian nation hopes that with the help and 
assistance of the American Government the ob- 
stacles placed in the way of sale of Iranian oil can 
be removed, and that if the American Govermnent 
is not able to effect a removal of such obstacles, 
it can render effective economic assistance to en- 
able Iran to utilize her other resources. This 
country has natural resources other than oil. The 
exploitation of these resources would solve the 
present difficulties of the country. This, however, 
is impossible without economic aid. 

In conclusion, I invite Your Excellency's sym- 
pathetic and responsive attention to the present 
dangerous situation of Iran, and I trust that you 
will ascribe to all the points contained in this mes- 
sage the importance due them. 

Please accept, Mr. President, the assurance of 
my highest consideration. 

Dr. M. Mossadegh 



TEXTS OF JANUARY MESSAGES RELEASED 

On July 11 the White House released the follow- 
ing messages exchanged with Prime Minister 
Mossadegh in January 1953: 



General Eisenhower to Dr. Mossadegh 

Januart 10, 1953 
His Excellency 
Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh 
Prime Minister of Iran 
Teheran, Iran 

Please accept my thanks for your kind greetings 
and felicitations. Likewise I am happy to have 
a summary of your views on your country's situa- 
tion and I shall study those views with care and 
with sympathetic concern. I hope you will accept 
my assurances that I have in no way compromised 
our position of impartiality in this matter and 
that no individual has attempted to prejudice me 
in the matter. This leads me to observe that I 
hope our own future relationships will be com- 
pletely free of any suspicion, but on the contrary 
will be characterized by confidence and ti-ust in- 
spired by frankness and friendliness. I shall be 



delighted to receive either personally and directly 
or through established diplomatic channels at any 
time a communication regarding your views on 
any subject in which we may have a common 
interest. 

AVith renewed thanks for the kindly courtesy of 
your message and with expression of my continued 
esteem. 

Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



Dr. Mossadegh to General Eisenhower 

January 9, 1953 
His Excellency 
The President Elect of the United States of 

America 
General Dwigiit D. Eisenhower 
Columhia University 
Neio York City 

Mr. President Elect : 

I take this opportunity to convey to you the 
cordial congratulations of the Iranian people on 
your election to the high office of President of the 
United States and to wish you every success in the 
carrying out of the important tasks which that 
office imposes. 

I dislike taking up with you the problems of my 
country even before you assume office. I do so 
partly because of their urgency and partlj' because 
I have reason to believe that they have already 
been presented to you by those who may not share 
my concern for the future of Iran and its people. 

It is my hope that the new administration which 
you will head will obtain at tlie outset a true under- 
standing of the significance of the vital struggle 
in which the Iranian people have been engaging 
and assist in removing the obstacles which are 
preventing them from realizing their aspirations 
for the attainment of [omission] life as a politi- 
cally and economically independent nation. For 
almost two years the Iranian people have suffered 
acute distress and much misery merely because a 
company inspired by covetousness and a desire 
for profit supported by the British Government 
has been endeavoring to prevent them from ob- 
taining their natural and elementary rights. 

I am happy to say that during this struggle so 
injurious to the people of Iran the American peo- 
ple on many occasions have demonstrated their 
sympathy for the Iranian nation and an under- 
standing of its problems. I persoiuilly witnessed 
many manifestations of this sympathy and under- 
standing when I was in the United States. Un- 
fortunately the government of tlie Ignited States 
while on occasions displaying friendship for Iran 
has pursued what appears to the Iranuxn people 
to be a polic3' of supporting the British Govern- 
ment and tlie former company. In this struggle 
it has taken the side of the British Govermnent 



76 



Department of State Bulletin 



against that of Iran in international assemblies. 
It has given financial aid to the British Govern- 
ment while witliliolding it from Iran and it seems 
to ns it has given at least some degree of support 
to the endeavors of tlie British to strangle Iran 
with a financial and economic blockade. 

It is not my desire that the rehitions between the 
United States and the United Kingdom sliould be 
strained because of differences with regard to Iran. 
I doubt however whetlier in this day and age a 
great nation which lias such an exalted moral 
standing in the world can afford to support the 
internationally immoral policy of a friend and 
ally nierelj' in order not to disturb good relations 
with that friend and ally. The Iranian people 
merely desire to lead their own lives in their own 
way. They wish to maintain friendly relations 
with all other peoples. The former company 
which for years was engaged in exploiting tlieir 
oil resources unfortunately persisted in interfering 
in the internal life of the country. 

The Iranian people finally became convinced 
that so long as this company continued to operate 
within Iran its systematic interference in Iranian 
internal life would continue. The Iranian people 
therefore had no choice other than to exercise 
their sovereign rights by nationalizing their oil 
and terminating the activities of the former com- 



pany in Iran. The Iranian Government made it 
clear at the time of nationalization that it was 
willing to pay fair compensation to the former 
company due consideration being given to such 
claims and counterclaims as Iran might have 
against the former company. The former com- 

Fany instead of entering into negotiations with 
ran for the purpose of determining the amount of 
compensation due took steps with the support of 
tlie British Government to create an economic and 
financial blockade of Iran with the purpose of 
forcing the Iranian people again to submit to the 
will of the former company and to abandon their 
right to exploit and utilize their own natural re- 
sources. 

It is my sincere hope that when the new Admin- 
istration of which you are to be the head will 
come into power in the United States it will give 
most careful consideration to the Iranian case so 
that Iran would be able to attain its just aspira- 
tions in a manner which will strengthen the cause 
of world peace and will renew confidence in the 
determination of the United States to support 
with all its power and prestige the principles of 
the charter of the United Nations. 

Please accept the assurances of my high esteem. 

Prime Minister of Iran 
Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh 



Evaluating the Overseas Library Program 

Statement iy Robert L. Johnson 

Administrator^ Internatiorial Information- Administration^ 



The U.S. Government operates a book and li- 
brary program abroad for a simple reason that 
can be simply put : It is the vital responsibility of 
the x\merican Government to protect the good 
name of the Anierican people, no less than their 
vital interests. 

The mighty force we have been mobilizing in 
the defense of freedom has meaning only as people 
throughout the world understand and respect our 
purposes. Leadership cannot assert itself through 
power alone. American leadership is meaningless 
if it isn't built upon respect for our moral purposes 
in the world. 

Tliis hiis been recognized by the American peo- 
ple from our earliest beginnings as an independent 

^ Releaspd to the press on July 8. 

Jo/y 20, 1953 



nation. Our Declaration of Independence speaks 
of a "decent respect" for the "opinions of man- 
kind." Everything of a major nature we have 
done in our history has taken into account such a 
"decent respect" for the opinions of others. 

We are concerned about the opinions of others, 
because a free nation has the obligation in the con- 
duct of its foreign affairs to justify its actions 
before the world community. This obligation be- 
comes a sober mandate when so large a part of the 
world looks to us for responsible leadership. Our 
well-being and survival as a free people today re- 
quire more than big dollars and big bombs; we 
require big ideas. 

We must not allow the Soviet to rack up cheap 
victories throughout the world through a cam- 
paign of lies against us — a campaign of lies that 

77 



can best be demolished — I should say can Gnly 
be demolished — through the counteroffensive of 
truth. 

And when I say "counteroffensive of truth," I 
am not just dealing in slogans. I mean exactly 
that. We in America have nothing to hide. We 
want the world to know us just as we are. We don't 
have to dress up or dress down. We don't have to 
put on any show of perfection. If we did, no one 
would believe us anyway. We can tell the full 
story — a story about the magical mixture of 
America. We can share our hopes just as we can 
share our honest fears, for there are hopes and 
fears in the world today which constitute a chal- 
lenge to all free peoples everywhere. 

We in America can have the privilege of talking 
about democracy as unfinished business. We leave 
to the totalitarians the necessity to boast of the 
complete fulfillment of their goals. 



Background of World Crisis 

This is said by way of reaffirmation and re- 
minder at a time when it is important to review 
our information program against the big and 
broad background of world crisis. 

As long ago as 1942, a TJ. S. library was estab- 
lished in Mexico City. This was done under a 
grant from the Office of the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs. The library was operated by 
specialists of the American Library Association. 
The success of the Mexico City library led to the 
establishment of two other libraries in Latin 
America under the authority of the Coordinator 
of Inter-American Affairs. 

Later in the war, the effectiveness of libraries 
and book programs in advancing the American 
cause led to the creation of a library service under 
the Office of War Information. The central pur- 
jDose of this service was to make available at key 
spots throughout the world written materials that 
furthered American aims in war and peace. 

As this library program developed, it became 
obvious that dinerent areas represented different 
problems and called for different materials and 
different lines of emphasis. For example, the 
Latin American libraries required emphasis along 
cultural lines. As against this, the English-speak- 
ing nations were given materials designed to "de- 
velop an informed and intelligent understanding" 
of the activities and aims of the U.S. Government. 
The Occupied Areas required a special emphasis 
on democratic reconstruction and rehabilitation. 

Tluis, very early, the special-purpose character 
of these libraries became manifest. This special- 
purpose cliaracter remains the key to the operation 
of our book and library program today. A strong 
chain of instructions and legislation gives binding 
force to this dominant character of that program. 

The Manual of Operations for the Division of 

78 



Libraries and Institutes issued in June 1946 by the 
Department of State says : 

The objective of the United States Information Libraries 
is to provide foreifin communities throughout the world 
with facts and solidly documented explanations of the 
United States, its people, geography, culture, science, gov- 
ernment, institutions, industries and thinking ; in short, 
the American scene. . . . 

Wlien the 80th Congress turned to consideration 
of basic legislation for the overseas information 
program and educational exchange, the Senate set 
up a special subcommittee of the Foreign Rela- 
tions Committee to study the matter. On the 
basis of field studies, this subcommittee took a 
broad view of the proper scope and functions of 
the Usis (U.S. Information Service) library 
programs. It recommended that: 

The supply of books, musical scores and recordings, 
periodicals and exhibits should be increased and should 
cover the widest possible field. 

American textbooks in all tields should be supplied to 
foreiftn schools and universities for reference purposes. 

Subject matter of particular interest in a given country 
should be emphasized and sufficient books supplied to meet 
the demand. ( Senate Report 855, Jan. 30, 1948) 

This subcommittee was composed of Senators H. 
Alexander Smith, chairman; Bourke B. Hicken- 
looper; Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.; Alben W. Bark- 
ley; and Carl A. Hatch and worked in close co- 
operation with a subcommittee of the House Com- 
mittee on Foreign Affairs consisting of Congress- 
men Karl E. Mundt, chairman; Lawrence H. 
Smith ; Walter H. Judd ; John Davis Lodge ; Pete 
Jarman; Thomas S. Gordon; and Mike Mans- 
field. 

The same Congress took the single biggest step 
in the determination of the American people to 
make their voice heard in the world. Senator H. 
Alexander Smith and the then Representative, 
now Senator, Karl E. Mundt sponsored a bill that 
defined, crisply and powerfully, the need for 
dramatic measures to present America's case in 
the battle of ideas against totalitarianism. 

The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, in 
reporting the Smith-Mundt Act, referred to the 
"hostile propaganda campaigns directed against 
democracy, human welfare, freedom, truth, and 
the United States, spearheaded by the Govern- 
ment of the Soviet Union and the Communist 
Parties throughout the world." The Committee 
also spoke of the need for "urgent, forthright, and 
dynamic measures to disseminate truth." 

The Smith-Mundt Act clearly defined its objec- 
tives "to promote a better understanding of the 
United States in other countries, and to increase 
mutual understanding between the people of the 
United States and tlie people of other countries." 
Among the means to achieve these objectives the 
act called for "an information service to dissemi- 
nate abroad information about the United States, 
its people, and policies," and an educational ex- 
change service including "the interchange of de- 

Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



velopments in the field of education, the arts, and 
sciences." Under this act, too, the library services 
■were coordinated, integrated, and expanded. 

The Congress and the American people can be 
proud of the results of this legislation. There 
have been legitimate criticisms of the program in 
the past few years, but these criticisms must be 
■viewed against the larger achievements of the pro- 
gram and the considerable difficulties involved in 
launching and operating a project of this size and 
scope. 

It is important that the American people know 
that this program has not been operated in a 
vacuum. 

First, the program has the continuing benefit 
of an ofhcial Advisory Commission on Informa- 
tion. This Connnission has maintained constant 
examination and appraisal of the program and 
reports its findings semiannually to the Congress. 
The present membership includes Dr. Mark A. 
May, of Yale University; Erwin D. Canham, 
editor of the Christian Science Monitor; Philip 
D. Reed, chainnan of the board of General Elec- 
tric; Ben Hibbs, editor of the Saturday Evening 
Post; and Justin Miller, chairman of the board 
and general counsel of the National Association 
of Radio and Television Broadcasters. 

Second, the program has benefited from the rec- 
ommendations of the U.S. Advisory Commission 
on Educational Exchange, ■which at present con- 
sists of J. L. Morrill, president. University of 
Minnesota, chairinan; Mark Starr, educational 
director, International Ladies' Garment Workers' 
Union; Harold Willis Dodds, president, Prince- 
ton University; Edwin B. Fred, president. Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin ; and Martin R. P. McGuire, 
professor, Catholic University. 

This Commission has established a special Sub- 
committee on Books Abroad, whose members are 
Martin R. P. McGuire, professor. Catholic Uni- 
versity, chairman; George P. Brett, president, the 
Macmillan Company; Cass Canfield, chairman of 
the board. Harper & Bros.; Robert L. Crowell, 
president, Thomas Y. Crowell Co.; Robert B. 
Downs, director of libraries. University of Illi- 
nois; Morris Hadley, president. New York Pub- 
lic Library; Lewis Hanke, director. Institute of 
Latin American Studies, University of Texas; and 
Keyes D. Metcalf, director of libraries, Harvard 
University. 

Third, the program has profited from a special 
study undertaken by a subcommittee of the Senate 
Committee on Foreign Relations under the chair- 
manship of Sen. Bourke B. Hickenlooper. 

Other members of this subcommittee are Sen- 
ators Alexander Wiley, Karl E. Mundt, William 
F. Knowland, J. William Fulbright, Guy M. Gil- 
lette, Theodore Francis Green, and Lister Hill. 
This subcommittee has only recently completed its 
report.^ 



' S. Kept. 406, 83d Cong., 1st Sess. 



Recommendations as to Libraries 

It may be in order to review briefly the findings 
and recommendations of these three groups with 
specific reference to the book and library program. 

The U.S. Advisory Commission on Informa- 
tion, in its February 20, 1953, report, reallirmed 
the importance of the program and emphasized 
the need to tailor our materials to the specific 
needs of specific areas. It highlighted once again 
the "special-purpose" aspect of the job. 

The U.S. Advisory Commission on Educational 
Exchange, shortly after the enactment of the 
Smith-Mundt Act, endorsed the statement pre- 
pared by the Division of Libraries and Institutes 
on the philosophy, goals, and operating principles 
of our overseas libraries. Again, this statement 
stressed the special-purpose nature of the program 
but also stressed the basic principle of "freedom 
of information." It emphasized the fact that "ac- 
cessibility" to information was an important part 
of the effectiveness of the program. 

The June 15, 1953, report of the Hickenlooper 
subcommittee is a detailed study of all phases of 
our foreign information services. One of the rec- 
ommendations of the report calls upon the Admin- 
istrator to establish the specific criteria for the 
selection of books. As the general basis for such 
criteria, the subcommittee recommends that: 

An adequate cross section of American literature should 
be provided for a better understanding of American life 
and culture but writings of Communists or Communist 
sympathizers should not be tolerated in any manner 
which would Indicate their acceptance by the American 
people. 

There is a workable consistency in the advice 
and findings of the above groups and committees 
concerned with the appraisal of this program. 
With this guidance, we have been operating a 
library program involving some 2 million books 
at 189 centers. These libraries are doing these 
specific jobs: 

First, they provide basic information. There 
is a shortage of accurate information abroad about 
the American people and their policies. Our de- 
tractors have capitalized on that shortage. They 
have been spending many millions to distort our 
policies and to damage the reputation of the 
American people. 

One of the main ways we are combating this 
campaign is by supplying source materials about 
the United States that are free of any direct prop- 
aganda taint. In short, we are opening up the 
books about America. These books cover a wide 
range of subjects. They deal with our history, 
our religions, our industries, our farms, our pro- 
fessions. They tell the story of our founding 
fathers and our great political leaders and states- 
men. They tell of our great writers, our musi- 
cians, our inventors, our scientists, our great men 
of achievement and learning. 

Second, our libraries provide much-needed piib- 



Jo/y 20, 7953 



79 



lished materials of a scientific and technical na- 
ture. We have received testimonials from many 
universities abroad, especially from universities 
in the countries of Asia and the Near East, ac- 
knowledging their debt to American books. We 
also have letters from public officials, from busi- 
nessmen, from scientists, fiom doctors, and from 
farmers telling us of their appreciation for the 
substantial help they received from our libraries. 



Building Good Will for U. S. 

This is the kind of goodwill that counts. It is 
not only what we say to people but what we do 
for people that builds a solid foundation for 
friendship. 

Third, another specific assignment for our books 
is to combat the notion that the American people 
lack a cultural background or tradition. Our 
libraries are well stocked not only with the ideas 
that made America great but with the distin- 
guished books that are part of our literary and 
cultural heritage. 

In this connection, we have also tried to provide 
something of a representative cross section of con- 
temporary American writing. Our yardstick 
here is necessarily flexible. We say to other 
peoples, in effect: "Here is a good slice of con- 
temporary American writing. It covers a wide 
range, from biographies to books on foreign af- 
fairs. These are the books America is reading 
and talking about. We have no hesitation in 
making these books available to you." 

Any evaluation of the operations of our libraries 
in carrying out these three big jobs must take into 
account the overall record of performance, rather 
than the inclusion or exclusion of specific titles. 

The book and library program is to be judged 
not by any single title or even group of titles but 
by the total use to which the libraries are put and 
by the basic policies that guide the program. 
Similarly, any evaluation of the individual library 
should consider not a single incident in the news 
but its continuing influence in the community it 
serves. 

It is unfair to the loyal men and women who 
operate these libraries to allow their contribution 
to be obscured by a controversy over a few titles, 
no matter how objectionable these titles may be. 
Our overseas staffs should be judged by their ef- 
fectiveness in winning friendship and respect for 
the American people and in advancing an under- 
standing of our objectives as a free nation. 
Largely as a result of their efforts, some 36 million 
people throughout the world last year made use 
of our various library services. 

Let us be vigilant and critical, but let us also 
maintain some sense of proportion in our estimate 
of the libraries as a whole. 

No such prof^ram can be guaranteed to be com- 
pletely free of error. But it is also one of the 
vital glories of a free nation that mistakes are 



made in the open where the wonderful balance 
wheel of a democratic people can come into play. 
So far as the rest of the world is concerned, I 
think we can come out of this with a real gain. 
The confusion and the mistakes have hurt us 
abroad as they have hurt us at home. But far 
more important than this is the evidence of a free 
people being unafraid of mistakes made in the 
open. 

With the best faith in the world, with the great- 
est diligence in the world, and with the finest staff 
in the world, it will be impossible to avoid some 
mistakes in the selection of books. But we should 
do everything possible to maintain a constructive 
and affirmative atmosphere for the library pro- 
gram as a whole. 

I believe that this, essentially, is what the Con- 
gress and the American people want. They are 
interested in the general approach and the general 
soundness of a project. They want to know that 
they are getting their money's worth. I think 
they are. 

The Congress and the American people also 
want the unequivocal assurance that this program 
is not a soft spot for subversives. This is far more 
basic in the public mind than some isolated titles 
that may appear here and there on the bookshelves 
of our libraries. 

I believe the Congress and the American people, 
as of this moment, can satisfy themselves on this 
basic issue. Whatever else I have done or failed 



to do in my job, 
this respect. 



I have been diligently tough in 



Basis for Selection of Books 

Concerning the selection of books, this agency 
believes emphatically that it is not the obligation 
of the American Government to make available 
in special-purpose libraries any books that advo- 
cate directly or indirectly the destruction of our 
freedoms and our institutions. These libraries are 
in business to advance American democracy, not 
Communist conspiracy. 

But the determination as to which books are to 
be placed in this subversive category calls for the 
most careful and skillful judgment. In eliminat- 
ing Communist titles, we should be sure of our 
ground. We should not make the mistake of ex- 
cluding as Communist or Communistic all those 
books which contain any criticism of American 
policies or institutions, even though those books 
may criticize the same things that Communists 
also criticize. AVe don't want to create the impres- 
sion that any American writer who honestly criti- 
cizes the policies of his Government is deprived 
of a ])lace on our bookslielves abroad. 

Basically, the yardstick for selection is the use- 
fulness of a particular book in meeting tlie particu- 
larized needs of a particular area. 

Our library service is able to select only a frac- 
tion of the yearly literary output of the United 



80 



Department of State Bulletin 



States. Any book that finds a place on our shelves 
must have a special reason for being there. Books 
that are not accepted are not to be reg:ardc(l by 
their authors or publishers as being specifically 
"excluded." 

We must begin with the content of a book. "We 
must examine its special usefulness in terms of our 
overseas needs. An appraisal of this usefulness 
cannot disregard the reputation or standing of 
the author. 

It is conceivable that the special-purpose char- 
acter of our libraries may require, in special cases, 
the inclusion of books by Conununists or Commu- 
nist sympathizers if such authors may have writ- 
ten something which affirmatively serves the ends 
of democracy. There is no objection to the inclu- 
sion of such books so long as the purpose is clear. 

Our libraries have acquired some books by Com- 
munists or Communist sympathizers that have 
nothing to do with communism. Mystery stories, 
for example, are a highly developed form of Amer- 
ican literature. Humor or humor anthologies are 
another example. Most of such books were among 
the thousands of volumes acquired from U.S. 
Army overstock at the end of the war or as the 
result of gifts. To remove or destroy these books 
arbitrarily would be to defeat the very purposes 
which brought these libraries into being. 

There is an important practical difference be- 
tween deciding not to buy a book for our libraries 
abroad and taking it off the shelves once it is there. 
In principle, the criteria are the same, but the 
psychological impact may be quite different. 

It is not meant by this to suggest that once a 
book gets on a shelf its place is permanently as- 
sured. The weeding out and discarding process 
is a natural one for any library with only a cer- 
tain amount of shelf space. 



Distinction Between Controversy and Conspiracy 

"Controversial" books are of course acceptable 
and indeed essential, if by "controversy" we mean 
honest differences of opinion honestly expressed. 
It goes w^ithout saying that we must not confuse 
honest controversy with conspiracy. 

Nothing could be more basic in our book pro- 
gram abroad than the need to make this distinction 
between controversy and conspiracy. Contro- 
versy is as American as the varied sounds in the 
bleachers in a ball park. The best thing our 
libraries abroad can do is to make known the fact 
that our people, politically speaking, are full of 
beans. 

America loves controversy and, indeed, thrives 
on it. There is no reason why we need conceal 
this from the world. It is one of our richest as- 
sets. Let totalitarian nations advertise the fact 
that their people are deprived of political dissent. 
For our part, we can speak up and out. In a 
phrase, then : Controversy, yes ; conspiracy, no. 



But the general problem of book selection is not 
one which any Government agency is well quali- 
fied to do by itself. Books cover everything 
under the sun. A book is not merely a collection 
of words in a bound volume. A book is as varied 
;us history itself, as wide ranging as the human 
mind which brings it to birth. 

Because of this, I suggest that the responsibil- 
ity for recommending the selection of books be 
entrusted to carefully selected advisoi-y commit- 
tees composed of persons of unimpeachable repu- 
tation who are experts in their respective fields. 
The staff of Iia (International Information Ad- 
ministration) would then select books for ship- 
ment overseas on the basis of the recommended 
list. 

Each book is to be considered on its merits. 
The emphasis should be not on negative criteria 
but on positive criteria. The only list that should 
be drawn up is the recommended list. 

Next, about book burnings. Under no circum- 
stances should any book be burned, and I wish to 
emphasize the word "any." The burning of a 
book is a wicked symbolic act. There is no place 
for book burnings in an American library, let 
alone a library operated by our Government. We 
don't deal with ideas we dislike by imitating the 
totalitarian techniques we despise. The burning 
of a book is not an act against that book alone; 
it is an act against free institutions. 

I have every reason to believe that the continu- 
ing book and library program will be exercised 
with the fullest sense of public responsibility and 
with the vital interests of the American people 
constantly in mind. As I said at the outset, the 
purpose of this agency is to protect the good name 
of the American people and to maintain for them 
the goodwill they deserve. 

The original mandate of Congress continues to 
define our basic purposes. The report of the Sub- 
committee on Overseas Information Programs 
gives us valuable new directions. And the sup- 
port of the Congress and the American people as 
a whole will give us the encouragement we need 
to do the best possible job. 



SUPPLEMENTARY STATEMENT » 

My statement of yesterday indicated that: 

It is conceivable tliat the special-purpose character of 
our libraries may require, in special cases, the inclusion 
of books by Communists or Communist sympathizers if 
such authors may have written something which affirma- 
tively serves the ends of democracy. There is no objec- 
tion to the inclusion of such books so long as the purpose 
is clear. 

This passage should be read in the context which 
makes it clear that we have no use for books which 



^ Released to the press on July 9. 



July 20, 1953 



81 



advocate, directly or indirectly, the undermining 
of our institutions. I quote from the statement: 

These libraries are in business to advance American 
democracy, not Communist conspiracy. 

I do not for a moment believe that a Com- 
munist author ever speaks affirmatively for de- 
mocracy. But it would be unwise to foreclose the 
opportunity of using, to serve affirmatively the 
ends of democracy, something that a Communist 
has written for an entirely different purpose. In 
some cases, the most effective way to refute the 
propaganda of the Communists may be to turn the 
words of their own writers against them. 

There may also be exceptional situations where 
the omission of a scientific or technical work, 
which happens to have been written by a Com- 
munist or Communist sympathizer, may make a 
library incomplete with respect to information on 
a particular subject of special concern to the 
country where the library is located and where 
American interests are promoted by furnishing 
such information. 

Finally, in cases where books by Communists 
or Communist sympathizers are already in our 
libraries — especially in cases of fiction or other 
popular literature — we must consider whether the 
disadvantages of keeping such books in our 
libraries may be outweighed by publicity regard- 
ing their sudden removal which may be unfavor- 
able to the United States and actually promote 
popular interest in the author and his works. 
This judgment must be made in the light of our 
basic duty under the law "to promote a better 
understanding of the United States in other 
countries." Wliere public relations are involved, 
we must not create situations which will be ex- 
ploited by the Communists to induce a misunder- 
standing among our friends abroad as to Ameri- 
can principles of freedom of thought. 

The presence of a book in our libraries places 
no official stamp of approval on the contents or 
the author. It is not in the tradition of American 
freedom of the press for the Government to pass 
judgment on what is published. In this program 
the role of the Government is merely to operate 
libraries in a way which will best serve the 
national interest. 



Transfer of Israeli Foreign 
Ministry to Jerusalem 

Press release 370 dated July 11 

The Department was informed on July 10 by 
the Israeli Government that it intends to transfer 
its Foreign Ministry from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem 
as of July 12, 1953. 

The United States does not plan to transfer its 
Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. It is felt 
that this would be inconsistent with the U. N. 



resolutions dealing with the international nature 
of Jerusalem and that it would not observe the 
solution regarding Jerusalem which was set forth 
in the Secretary of State's address of June 1, 1953.^ 



U. S. Aid to Bolivia 

Press release 354 dated July 6 

In order to assist the people of Bolivia in the 
present difficult period, the Department of State 
has informed the Bolivian Ambassador in Wash- 
ington that the U.S. Government is pi-epared to 
conclude a one-year contract for the purchase of 
Bolivian tin concentrates at the world market 
price at time of delivery and to consider with the 
Bolivian Government what further steps the two 
govermnents might take together looking toward 
the long-term solution of Bolivia's economic prob- 
lems, including, if desired, the sending of a com- 
mission to Bolivia. In addition, the Mutual Se- 
curity Agency will recommend that the U.S. con- 
tribution to the technical-assistance program in 
Bolivia be more than doubled in order to help 
accelerate Bolivia's agricultural development and 
reduce its dependence on the tin industry, and thus 
to contribute to the improvement of the living 
standards of the Bolivian people. 

The Bolivian Ambassador has been informed 
that these proposals are being made in recognition 
of the measures which Bolivia itself has recently 
taken toward economic diversification and in fur- 
therance of the long-standing policy of the United 
States of assisting Bolivia to make fuller use of 
its resources. 



U. S., Cuba Reach Agreement 
on Rice Tariff Quotas 

Press release 343 dated June 30 

The Governments of Cuba and the United States 
have just notified the contracting parties to the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that a 
mutually satisfactory solution has been reached 
with respect to the future administration of the 
rice tariff-quota provisions set forth in the note 
under tariff item number 253-B in part II of the 
Cuban Schedule IX of the general agreement. 

The note under Cuban tariff item 253-B, nego- 
tiated in 1947 at Geneva, provides for a yearly 
tariff quota of 3,250,000 quintales (roughly 100 
pounds) of rice, which shall be increased for any 
year by the amount which the Cuban Government 
may determine to be necessary to supply the dif- 



' Bulletin of June 15, 1953, p. 831. For the text of an 
aide-memoire roncernin;; the proposed move of the Israeli 
Foreisn Ministry to .lerusaleiu wliich was delivered by the 
Kmbassy at Tel Aviv to the Israeli Government on July 9, 
1052, see ibid., Auj;. 4, 1952, p. 181. 



82 



Department of State Bulletin 



ference between the estimated Cuban production 
of rice and tlie total estimated Cuban consump- 
tion of rice in such year. Imports from the United 
States under this tariti quota are dutiable at $1.85 
per 100 kilograms. Imports of rice in excess of 
the tariff quota are, in the case of the United 
States, dutiable at $3.70 per 100 kilograms. 

Under the arrangement which has now been 
worked out by the two Governments a formula 
will apply for the calculation of Cuban consump- 
tion and import requirements of rice for each quota 
year, the quota year to start on July 1 rather than 
Januarj- 1 as originally negotiated. In addition, 
the following basis has been arrived at for deter- 
mining the size of the low-duty import quotas and 
the timing of announcements by the Cuban Gov- 
ernment regarding the quotas: 

1. On July 1 of each rice-quota year the Cuban 
Government will announce the basic low-duty im- 
port quota of 3,250,000 quintales, plus an initial 
supplementary low-duty quota comprising G6 per- 
cent of the remaining amount necessary to com- 
plete estimated requirements for the entire quota 
year. 

2. Not later than the following March 15, ef- 
fective not later than April 1, the Cuban Govern- 
ment will announce any additional supplementary 
low-duty quota that may be needed to complete 
the quota year's import requirements. 

The formida outlined will come into operation 
beginning with the new quota year on July 1, 1953. 

During the 1952-53 quota year the Cuban Gov- 
ernment has authorized entry, at the low-duty 
rate, of the basic quota of 3,250,000 quintales of 
rice plus supplementary quotas amounting to 
2,250,000 quintales, a total of 5,500,000 quintales. 

An exchange of notes, setting forth the solu- 
tion arrived at, was signed on December 17, 1952, 
by the U.S. Ambassador to Cuba, Willard L. 
Beaulac, and the Cuban Minister of State, Miguel 
Angel de la Campa. 

Following are the texts of the notes: 



Text of U.S. Note 



No. 45« 



American Embassy 
nabana, December 17^ 1952. 



Excellency : 

I have the honor to refer to the negotiations 
just terminated between delegations of Your Ex- 
cellency's Government and of my Government re- 
garding the rice trade between the United States 
and Cuba. 

As a result of those negotiations it is my Govern- 
ment's understanding that agreement as set fortli 
below has been reached on the following questions, 
and, furthermore, that it constitutes satisfactory 
** solution of outstanding representations previously 
made by either Government regarding the impor- 



tation of rice from tlie United States into Cuba and 
the fulfillment of the stipulations of Item 253-B 
and its annexed Note, as appears in Part II, 
Schedule IX of the General Agreement on TariflFs 
and Trade, with the exception that the question of 
preferential duty rates on over-quota rice has been 
left pending. 

I.-DATES OF CUBAN RICE QUOTA YEAR. 

My Government agrees to the Cuban request 
that each year's operations referred to in the Note 
appended to Item 253-B of Part II, Schedule IX 
of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade be 
dated from July 1 to June 30 of the following 
year. 

II.-CUP.AN SUPPLEMENTARY DEFICIT QUOTA 
Pt)K THE REJIAINDER OF THE iy.j2-53 CUBAN 
RICE YEAR. 

The Cuban Government agrees to announce at 
this time an additional supplementary deficit 
quota of 500,000 quintals of rice, to be imported 
into Cuba after April 1, 1953 and before June 30, 
1953. It is likewise understood that the Cuban 
Government considers this supplementary deficit 
quota as a minimum which will be increased in 
accordance with the findings of the studies that 
are being made regarding the estimates of Cuban 
consumption and production for the rice year now 
nearing completion. Consequently, the Govern- 
ment of the United States in making the assign- 
ment of rice export quotas for the first semester 
of 1953 shall take into account the supply require- 
ments of Cuba and their possible increase. 

III.-PROCEDURE TO BE EMPLOYED BY THE. 
CUBAN GOVERNMENT IN DETERMINING ITS* 
ESTIMATES OF IMPORT REQUIREMENTS 
AND IN ANNOUNCING IMPORT QUOTAS. 

The following formula is agreed upon as the 
procedure to be employed in the establishment of 
Cuban import requirements of rice under Tariff 
Item 253-B, Part II, Schedule IX, of the General 
Agreement, and in the announcement of the cor- 
responding quotas : 

A) Determi7iatio7i of Consumption: 

1. Determination of duty-paid stocks in the 
hands of Cuban importers and wholesalers at the 
beginning of the previous quota-year ; 

2. Determination of the total imports of the 
previous quota-year; 

3. Determination of national production during 
the {previous quota-year; 

4. Deduct from the total sum of the three above- 
mentioned amounts the stocks on hand at the end 
of the previous quota-year. 

This final figure shall represent the consump- 
tion for that quota-year. 

This same figure shall also serve as the estimate 
of consumption for the next quota-year. 



July 20, J 953 



83 



B) Determination of the Preliminary Deficit 

Quota: 

1. From the above-mentioned estimate of con- 
sumption there shall be deducted the total na- 
tional production of the previous quota-year (par- 
agraph III, A-3). The result shall be the esti- 
mate of the total import quota for the quota-year. 

2. From the above-mentioned total import 
quota, the basic quota of 3,250,000 quintals shall 
be deducted. The remainder shall be considered 
the estimate of the total deficit. Of this figure 
66 percent shall constitute the preliminary deficit 
quota for the quota-year. 

3. On July 1 of each quota-year, the above- 
mentioned preliminary deficit quota shall be an- 
nounced together with the basic quota of 3,250,000 
quintals. 

4. When the national production in any quota- 
year is lower than that of the previous quota- 
year by more than 25 percent, the Cuban Govern- 
ment may select, for the determination of the 
various estimates, the national production figui-e 
of the previous year, provided that said year be 
considered a normal year, and, if this was not the 
case, the next preceding year considered as nor- 
mal shall be used as the base. 

C) Additional Supplementary Deficit Quota: 

Not later than March 15 of the quota-year, the 
Cuban Government shall announce, effective not 
later than April 1, the additional supplementary 
deficit quota necessary to make up the quota for 
the total year to the amount of the import require- 
ments for the year. This shall be the 34 percent 
not announced under III above, adjusted by the 
amount that estimated consumption and/or dom- 
estic production may have varied above or below 
the original estimate of national consumption and 
the previous normal quota-year's production. ^ 

Should the results realized on the above basis 
of calculation demonstrate that no additional sup- 
plementary deficit quota be needed to meet Cuba's 
rice import requirements for the quota-year, the 
Cuban Government shall likewise make public of- 
ficial announcement to that effect. 

I would appreciate advice as to whether the 
above conforms to the understanding of Your Ex- 
cellency's Government. 

Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of 
my highest consideration. 

WiiXARD L. Beaulac 
Text of Cuban Note 

[Translation] 

Republic of Cuba 

Ministry of State 

C-1793 

Habana, December 17, 1952. 

Mr. Ambassador: 

I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of Your 
Excellency's note, number 456, of December 17, 

84 



1952, with reference to negotiations which dele- 
gations of the Government of Cuba and of the 
United States have recently held with regard to 
the rice trade between both countries, and whose 
text in English and in Spanish is as follows: 

[Exact text, in English and in Spanish, of Em- 
bassy's note No. 456 of December 17, 1952 is re- 
peated here.] 

I am happy to make known to Your Excellency 
that my Government gives its approval to that set 
forth in the Note under reference, the text of which 
in English and in Spanish, equally valid, has been 
transcribed above. This exchange of Notes con- 
stitutes an agreement between the Governments of 
Cuba and of the United States on the trade in rice, 
in the terms set forth. 

I avail myself of this opportunity to reiterate 
to Your Excellency the assurances of my highest 
consideration. 

Miguel Angel Campa 



The Business of Building Peace 



hy James J. Wadsicorth 

Deputy U.S. Representative to the 

United Nations ^ 



U.S./U.N. press release dated June 24 

Eight years ago yesterday in San Francisco 50i j, 
countries signed the U.N. Charter. That was a 
time of high hope — hope that nations of the world 
had found a sure blueprint to peace. Here in 
San Francisco 50 nations laid a foundation for the 
business of building peace. They began the skele- 
tal structure and the task of filling out that struc- 
tui-e block by block with the experience and the^ 
skill and the determination that peace one day 
might become a world reality. 

Since 194G we have brought down to earth some( 
of the unreal hopes for the United Nations. We| 
are seeing more clearly what ai'e its faults, whati 
are its accomplishments, and what are its prospects 
for the future. . . . 

On the 7th of June, President Eisenhower, in 
a note to President Rhee of Korea,= said : 

. . . we h.Tve drmonstrnteil not imly our dedication 
to tlie cause of luiman freedom and political liberty. l)Ut 
also our dedication to an equally important principle 
which is that there cannot be independence without inter- 
dependence, and there camiot be human liberty except 
as men recognize tlmt they are bound together by ties 
of common destiny. 

The President has expressed an idea which liea 



i 



' Excerpts from an address made before the Righth. 
Annu:il Congress of the .Tunior Chamber International ati 
.San Francisco, Calif., on .Tune 20. 

' L{uli.b;tin of June 15, I'.iSS, p. 835. 

Department of State Bulletim 



in the heart of the United Nations. He has ex- 
pressed an idea which is a force througliout the 
free world. There can be no independence with- 
out interdependence. This is what brings you 
together today. 

That nations nuist stand togetiier or fall singly 
is a political lesson which has been rammed home 
in the 20th century. Free countries have leai-ned 
that, unless they stand united against the aggi-es- 
sive power of tyranny, freedom will die. 

When the United Nations was founded, it was 
assumed that the great allies of World War II 
would stay together to keep peace. But tlie Soviet 
Union became hostile to the free world and, by its 
abuse of the veto, caused the Security Council to 
become less and less active, with the result that the 
General Assembly has become the busy place. 

A veto-proof method has at last been evolved for 
bringing a collective-defense program into being 
by reconnnendations passed by a majority vote .of 
the General Assembly. When, as, and if aggres- 
sion occurs in the future, we will no longer be 
paralyzed by the Communist abuse of the veto. 

This growth of the General Assembly is in many 
ways a sound development, because a solid foun- 
dation for peace actually depends on two things : 
(1) the existence of common interests and (2) 
the existence of a common sense of justice, which 
means a common sense of right and wrong and a 
common view of the relation of the incfividual 
to his government. 

Until both of these things exist, those who insist 
on schemes for world union or world government 
do more harm than good because, like someone 
feeding fried potatoes to a newborn baby, they are 
trying to ram something down the throat of the 

- world which it cannot digest. If any one of the 
13 colonies, at the time of the American Revolu- 

■ tion, had had a view of life as different from the 
other 12 as the view of the Soviet Union is differ- 
ent from the free world today, there would have 
been no United States. The American Revolu- 
tionists had the same general thoughts about the 

: nature of man. Today the world is split between 

' those who believe in men and those who follow 
the false revolution of slavery and hold that the 
State stands above God and man. 



Public Opinion Developed at U.N. 

The United Nations is a place where world 
public opinion is developed. World public opin- 
ion makes things happen in spite of iron curtains. 
In the United Nations one can see what the Com- 
munists are doing in the war of ideas. It is a 
place where each nation can watch what its public 
servants are doing. It helps those of us who 
represent the United States to correct mistakes 
more quickly and with greater assurance than we 
could do otherwise. 



In the United Nations it is possible to watch 
the free world become consolidated before one's 
very eyes. Those that are free, the non-Commu- 
nist nations, naturally tend to go their own way 
and drift apart. But sooner or later some Com- 
munist spokesman will make a monstrous state- 
ment which unites the representatives of those 
countries which are dedicated to freedom and to 
the principles of the U.N. Charter. 

The United Nations is for its members a great 
insurance policy. Wars prevented by the United 
Nations could have caused enormous human and 
material loss. I am thinking of how the United 
Nations, working with the Netherlands and with 
Indonesia, found a way to give full independence 
to Indonesia's 76 million people. I am thinking 
of how the United Nations, working through men 
like Ralph Bunche and Count Bernadotte, halted 
armed conflict between Arabs and Jews in Pales- 
tine. I am thinking of the strong influence the 
United Nations is exercising to prevent the dispute 
between India and Pakistan over Kashmir from 
breaking out into open war. In all of these cases, 
armed conflict was in progress until it was stopped 
by the United Nations. 

In contemplating something that is as impor- 
tant as the United Nations, it is vital to look at the 
thing as it is and not to overstate the case. Can- 
dor, of course, compels the admission that the 
United Nations has not lived up to all the things 
that we claimed for it and that many of those 
things were impossible. 

The greatest aggression since the end of World 
War II was that in Korea. In Korea, the United 
States was the fii-st to go to the aid of the South 
Koreans and we prevailed upon the United Na- 
tions to recognize the action as an aggression and 
to join forces with us. Since that time, 16 nations 
have furnished armed forces and out of every hun- 
dred men in the division forward zone in Korea 52 
are Koreans, 38 are Americans, and 10 are from 
other U.N. countries. This is assuredly not as 
many from the United Nations as we would like, 
but equally assuredly, 10 is better than nothing 
and if the 10 were not there, we would have had to 
supply them ourselves. The fact that the United 
Nations has only supplied 10 percent of the front- 
line troops is largely not the fault of the United 
Nations. There were many states who would have 
gladly supplied more troops but who could not 
supply the highly mechanized equipment of 
modern war and who did not have the dollars with 
which to buy it. And in 1951 and 1952, the ad- 
ministration made requirements of logistical and 
dollars support which many U.N. members could 
not meet. If it had not been for this materiel 
factor, the U.N. troops might well have been 20 or 
30 percent instead of 10. Recognizing all these 
factors to be true, we should nonetheless be grate- 
ful for and pay our tribute to the heroic service of 
the troops who have borne the battle. 



July 20, 1953 



85 



Achievements of Specialized Agencies 

It is the political work of the United Nations 
that makes the headlines, yet other phases of U.N. 
activity, less dramatic, are of primary importance 
to two-thirds of the world's population living in 
underdeveloped areas: 

World Health Organization, which has done hig 
things in the fight against malaria in Southeast 
Asia and Greece ; 

Food and Agriculture Organization, which, with 
its technicians and vaccines, is battling effectively 
to eliminate rinderpest, the deadly cattle plague 
in Asia and Africa, particularly in Thailand, 
Ethiopia, and Iran, and which has introduced pre- 
viously unknown handtools into Afghanistan, 
thereby increasing agricultural productivity; 

International Civil Aviation Organization, 
which is responsible for the safety of all interna- 
tional air travel through its navigation aids, com- 
munications, and oceanic weather stations. It is 
highly esteemed by American airlines flying more 
than 56 percent of the world's international air 
transports. This organization, in particular, 
maintains the North Atlantic network of 10 
weather stations and facilities in Greece and 
Iceland ; 

International Children's Emergency Fund, 
which has made possible supplementary feedings 
for 11 million children, the testing of 58,900,000 
children for tuberculosis, and the feeding of 3,- 
500,000 children and mothers among Arab refu- 
gees, drought sufferers in Brazil and India, and 
natives of Equatorial Africa. 

As I said, work of this sort counts for very little, 
but it is the sort of work which over a long period 
of time can provide the economic foundation 
which a political peace will require. The Eco- 
nomic and Social Council, which meets on June 
30 in Geneva, will consider some problems of 
vital interest to you. The Council will have be- 
fore it a report of a committee on a special U.N. 
fund for economic development. This, essen- 
tially, is a proposal for international grants to 
finance economic development. The Council will 
also consider a report of the International Bank 
on the question of creating an international finance 
corporation — a proposal for encouraging govern- 
ment and private investment in economic develop- 
ment. The Council will discuss a report of 
another committee which has been considering 
ways of eliminating harmful cartel practices. 
These subjects are controversial. The United 
States, because of its great economic resources, is 
often asked to finance international projects on a 
scale which we can ill-afford to follow. On the 
other hand, the United States must continue to 
give leadership to a program which will look to- 
ward a reduction of the world's armament bur- 
den — a reduction that contains adequate 
safeguards for the disarming nations. The United 



States must assist in devising means through 
which some of the savings resulting from an arma- 
ments reduction can be used for the purpose of 
international economic development. 

The U.N. expanded program of technical as- 
sistance, a program to which the Soviet Union 
has given not one red ruble, is a powerful answer 
to the false promises of communism. 

The Technical Assistance Program, with its 700 
experts of Gl different nationalities, assists in 
draining the swamps, irrigating the deserts, elimi- 
nating disease, and increasing the food supply in 
underdeveloped areas. This activity, which does 
not operate on a give-away "rat hole" basis, is a big 
good-will builder for the United States and other 
countries which participate actively in the pro- 
gram and tends to increase the number of freedom- 
loving people in the world. A hungry man is 
more interested in four sandwiches than he is in 
four freedoms. The U.N. Technical Assistance 
Program helps people who are presently devital- 
ized and discouraged to develop to the point 
where life is worth living and worth fighting for. 
This is important for the United States — a coun- 
try with only C percent of the world's population 
(although most of the world's wealth) and which 
needs all the friends it can get. 

At a meeting this month at our ofBce, representa- 
tives of leading U.S. business organizations dis- 
cussed informally some of the problems in stimu- 
lating the flow of capital to underdeveloped areas. 
A suggestion was made at this meeting which I 
would like to pass on to you. One member of the 
group said that a spotlight should be thrown on 
governments which are building up "conditions of 
confidence" in which free enterprise can flourish. 
He mentioned legislation being drafted by the 
Greek Government in the field of foreign invest- 
ment. Another member of the group took the 
position that countries usually do not restrict the 
flow of capital deliberately, but at times have re- 
sorted to harsh nationalization measures because 
they felt practices of private business left them 
with no other alternative. Here, again, a spot- 
light might be thrown on examples of the best 
practices by private business in their dealings 
with underdeveloped countries. 

Your organization is considering seeking con- 
sultative status with the Economic and Social 
Council. I have taken the liberty of talking with 
you about some of the problems and proposals 
which confront the Council, for these are areas 
which you will want to consider carefully in order 
to play a constructive role in U.N. discussions. 

You come here to San Francisco from more 
than 40 different countries. Most of you come 
from nations that are members of the United Na- 
tions. The United Nations is, for every member 
nation, a place where each nation demonstrates 
its own foreign policy and strives to gain accept- 
ance for it among other member nations. 



86 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Often the issues delineate the sharp division 
between the slave world and the free. For this 
very reason, the United Nations is a place where 
the free nations see most clearly their common 
interests and develop a stronger bond of unity. 

The United Nations task is a task which con- 
cerns business and government. In the economic 
field private enterprise must have a predominant 
role, but the United Nations can facilitate eco- 
nomic cooperation among free men. In the politi- 
cal field the United Nations must have the kind 
of guidance that comes from informed public 
opinions in every section of the world. 

Abraham Lincoln once said, "As I would not 
be a slave, so I would not be a master.'' These 
words of Lincoln set alongside those of President 
Eisenhower, "There can be no independence with- 
out interdependence," might well guide us all in 
the business of building peace. Our task is to 
release the kind of creative energy which must be 
applied to realize the goals of the U.N. Charter, 
signed here in San Francisco 8 years ago. 



U.S. Delegations 

to International Conferences 

U.N. Conference on Sugar 

The Department of State on July 7 announced (press 
release 3.^5) that True D. Morse, Under Secretary of 
Agriculture, has been designated by the President to serve 
as U.S. delegate to an international conference which is 
being convened at London on July 13, under the au.spices 
of the United Nations, to consider the conclusion of an 
International sugar agreement. 

Other members of the U.S. delegation to the U.N. 
Conference on Sugar are as follows : 

Alternate delegates 

Lawrence Jlyers, Director, Sugar Branch, Production and 
Marketing Administration, Department of Agriculture 

Winthrop G. Brown, Counselor, American Embassy, 
London 

Oovemment advisers 

Paul E. Callanan, Agricultural Products Staff, Department 

of State 
John J. Czyzak, Assistant Legal Adviser for Economic 

Affairs, Department of State 
Eric Englund, Agricultural Attach^ American Embassy, 

London 

Industry advisers 

Frank A. Kemp, President, Great Western Sugar Company, 

Denver, Colo. 
Wallace C. Kemper, President, Southdown Sugars, Inc., 

New Orleans, La. 
Gordon L. Lyons, Executive Manager, California Sugar 

Beet Growers Association, Stockton, Calif. 
Robert S. Shields, President and General Counsel, U.S. 

Beet Sugar Association, Washington, D.C. 

On May 6, 1937, an International Agreement Regarding 
the Regulation of Production and Marketing of Sugar was 
signed at London. Although the international controls 



provided for in that agreement with respect to sugar 
stocks and quotas have been inoperative since the onset 
of World War II, the International Sugar Council estab- 
lished by tlie agreement has been maintained to study 
changing conditions in the world sugar market ami to 
recommend the negotiation of a new agreement should it 
be considered necessary and desirable. At a meeting on 
November 24, 1952, the Council resolved to ask the United 
Nations to call a world sugar conference in 1953 to con- 
sider all pha.ses of the question. 

Study of this request by the Interim Coordinating 
Committee for International Commodity Arrangements 
resulted in a decision by the Secretary-General of the 
United Nations to convene a conference on July 13, 1953. 
The two major items on the provisional agenda of the 
Conference are (1) discussion of international measures 
designed to meet the special difficulties which exist or are 
expected to arise concerning sugar and (2) the incorpo- 
ration of such measures in an international agreement. 
A draft international agreement prepared by the Inter- 
national Sugar Council will serve as the basis for dis- 
cussion at the Conference. 

Invitations to participate in the Conference have been 
extended, at the recommendation of the Interim Coordi- 
nating Committee for International Commodity Arrange- 
ments, to "all Member States of the United Nations, of 
the Interim Commission for the International Trade 
Organization, of the Food and Agriculture Organization 
of the United Nations and of the International Sugar 
Council, and to other States which have evinced their 
interest by sending representatives to meetings of the 
Sugar Council or its Special Committee." In issuing the 
invitations, the Secretary-General of the United Nations 
also requested that each government accrediting a dele- 
gate to the Conference authorize that delegate to nego- 
tiate and sign such agreement as might be concluded at 
the Conference. 

The present members of the International Sugar Coun- 
cil are Australia, Belgium. Brazil, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, 
the Dominican Republic. France, Haiti. Indonesia, Mex- 
ico, the Netlierlands, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, 
Portugal, the Union of South Africa, the United Kingdom, 
the United States, and Yugoslavia. 



Seminars and Meeting of Experts 

on Adult Workers' Education (UNESCO) 

The Department of State announced on July 10 (press 
release 367) tliat, during the period July 11 to August 8, 
the United States will be represented at two seminars on 
workers' education, to be held under the sponsorship of 
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization (Unesco) at Paris, by Thomas R. Byrne, 
education and research director, Gla.ss Bottle Blowers' 
Association, American Federation of Labor, Philadelphia, 
Pa., and Thomas Murray, assistant to the secretary-treas- 
urer of the United Steelworkers of America, Congress of 
Industrial Organizations, Pittsburgh, Pa. Participants in 
the seminars will consider the promotion of international 
understanding through the workers' educational organi- 
zations and methods of teaching citizenship in the work- 
ers' educational movements. 

During the period August 8-15, Unesco will convene a 
meeting of experts to di.scuss Unesco's responsibilities in 
the field of adult workers' education, the participants to 
be chosen by Unesco from among delegates to tlie semi- 
nars and other experts. This meeting and the two semi- 
nars will be held at an International Center of Workers' 
Education, which is functioning at Paris under the spon- 
sorship of UNESCO, from May 30 through August 29, 1953. 
Except for the period of these meetings, the center is at 
the disposal of various international organizations en- 
gaged in workers' education to enable them to hold work- 
ing meetings for the education of their members in inter- 
national affairs. 



July 20, 1953 



87 



The Importance of the Mutual Security Program 
to Our National Security 



Statement hy Secretary Dulles ' 



What I would like to do this afternoon is give 
you the reasons, from the overall foreign-policy 
point of view, why we feel that the full authorized 
amount for mutual security should be appropri- 
ated by this Committee. 

I would like to make one point vei-y clear. The 
funds President Eisenhower is requesting are in 
no sense a give-away. On the contrary, they repre- 
sent in his opinion the cheapest possible way of 
providing a maximum of national security. The 
President put it this way : 

Unequivocally I can state that this amount of money 
judiciously spent abroad will add much more to our Na- 
tion's ultimate security in the world than would an even 
greater amount spent merely to increase the size of our 
own military forces in being." 

In other words a cut in mutual security can only 
be made up by a much larger increase in our own 
national appropriations. 

Let me make the same point by describing how 
we have arrived at the figure before you. What we 
did was first to reappraise our entire national-secu- 
rity program. In the National Security Council, 
and elsewhere, we reached basic decisions as to 
what our national-security objectives were and 
what our capabilities were, in terms of our own 
fiscal and economic strength. We kept always in 
mind that nothing would be more self-defeating 
than a program which imjiosed backbreaking 
strains on our own economy. Having determined 
what we should and could do, our next task was to 
determine the best means for doing it. This was 
])aitly a task of determining how to distribute the 
iiurdcn between our own national-defense effort 
and the defense efforts of our allies, as supported 

'Made before the Senate Appropriations Committee on 
the Mutual Security Program on July 9 (press release 
356). 

The Congress on .luly 13 passed a bill authorizing 
3!.5.ir)7,232,.'')()() for the 19.')4 Mutual Security Program. 

' BuLijn-iN of May 25, lO.^S, p. 736. 



by the mutual-security program. It also involved 
a very careful re-examination of the details of our 
national-security programs. We feel that we liave 
eliminated from the mutual-security program 
fimds all items which are not clearly needed to 
be appropriated this year to attain our objectives. 

Before describing the relation of the mutual-se- 
curity program to our foreign-policy programs in 
specific areas, I would like to describe first how the 
program supports our overall objectives. 

First of all, this program supports the basic 
principle that our national security cannot rest on 
the strength of the United States alone. We must 
have allies to join their strength with ours, and 
we must also prevent their strength from falling 
into Soviet hands. This latter aspect we some- 
times tend to neglect. If the Soviets take over 
the great land masses of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 
the scales of world power would be heavily 
weighted against us. 

Next I want to emphasize the often forgotten 
fact that the Soviet threat to the free world is a 
dual one. There is a military threat, but there is 
also the threat of internal subversion. If the 
Soviets take over Europe, Asia, and Africa by 
internal subversion and other means sliort of war, 
our situation will be very serious, for we will be 
faced with a hostile world that would have its 
population unharmed and its industries and re- 
sources intact. Economic health of the free world 
is the best preventive against tliis eventuality. 
We must therefore be concerned not only with the 
military strength of our allies but with economic 
strength as well. That is why this program must 
be concerned with both military and economic as- 
sistance, depending partly on the areas of the 
world involved. The amounts requested for eco- 
nomic aasistance are small comjiared to what is 
required for military aid, but they represent just 
as sound an investment in our security. 

A third point to be noted is that the mutual- 



88 



Department of State Bulletin 



security prof]frain is p;lobal iii scope. Any pro- 
gram concerned priniiirily with security in the Far 
East, or in Europe, or in any other area would be 
danjierous. You will notice that while the overall 
profji-ani is smaller than last year, we are request- 
ing a larger amount than in tlie past for the Far 
East, reflecting our decision tiiat we nmst give in- 
creasing emphasis to that area. 

Long-Range Nature of the Struggle 

Fourth, this program takes account of the fact 
that we are not faced with a sudden emergency sit- 
uation, which will somehow miraculously disap- 
pear and permit us to relax our efforts. Sudden 
and spasmodic efforts threaten to upset the eco- 
nomic health of both ourselves and our allies, and 
I do not need to remind you that without sound 
economies here at home and among our allies the 
success of our whole effort will be thrown into 
jeopardy. The planning which went into this 
program is based on our recognition of the long- 
range nature of the struggle with which we are 
faced. 

I would like now to turn to some of the specific 
areas of the world in order to point up the specific 
problems we are facing and the role of the mutual- 
security program in meeting those problems. 

For Europe, we have requested just about half 
of the total of the program. Practically all of 
this sum is for military assistance. Why is there 
such emphasis on military aid for Europe? 

The reason lies in certain inescapable facts 
which show how completely our security is bound 
up in that of Europe. Take, for example, the two 
basic commodities, coal and steel. Today we and 
our Nato allies have a three-to-one lead over the 
Soviet bloc in steel production. We have a five- 
to-two lead in the production of coal. If the 
Soviets took over Europe, they would be equal to 
us in steel production and would have a three-to- 
two advantage in coal production. The industrial 
strength which is our greatest single advantage 
would be completely wiped out. 

The serious consequences would not be confined 
to the industrial field. The nearly 300 million 
people of Western Europe are not only a huge 
source of military manpower ; they also represent 
the largest single body of skilled workers in the 
world. Consider also the strategic advantages 
which the fall of Europe would give the Soviets. 
They would acquire the world's largest and finest 
complex of airfields and seaports. 

I think that few will question the importance of 
Western Europe to our security. The question 
immediately before us is whether the $2,227,000,000 
in military assistance we are asking for is really 
necessary. For instance, it is natural to ask 
whether the Europeans are doing all they can to 
contribute to Xato, especially in the light of all 
we have done and are doing. It is also natural to 



ask wliy military aid to Nato is needed when Nato 
alieady has a sizable force which reportedly can- 
not be much increased in size. 

It is true that we have already made a tremen- 
dous contribution to the buildup of Nato strength. 
Since the North Atlantic Treaty was signed, we 
have sent over 10 billion dollars worth of military 
and economic aid to P]urope. It is natural to ask 
what the Europeans have been doing during this 
period. They have spent for defense about 30 
billion dollars, and their annual defense budgets 
have more than doubled. This is a very significant 
effort, for their total resources as measured in 
terms of their gross national product are not much 
more than a third of ours, although the popula- 
tion is 50 million larger. 



NATO Forces Not Yet Adequate 

It is frequently said that no further U. S. mili- 
tary aid to Nato is necessary because Nato now 
has a sizable force and there is little chance of its 
being further built up. It is true that the force 
available to Nato today is a sizable one, especially 
when compared with the virtually nonexistent 
forces of 3 years ago. But these forces are not yet 
adequate. They must be further strengthened, in 
both quality and quantity, before the security of 
both Europe and the United States can be assured. 

This fact was clearly recognized at the Nato 
Council meeting in April, when it was agreed tliat 
Nato must continue to increase its strength.^ But 
at that meeting we came face to face witli the fact 
that the Nato countries had just about reached 
the upper limit of their ability to maintain the 
past rapid rate in the buildup of forces, while at 
the same time improving the quality of their exist- 
ing forces. The sti-ain on the economies of both 
ourselves and our European allies was becoming 
too great. Therefore, rather than continue ex- 
hausting our resources and sacrificing quality in 
a too-rapid buildup, it was agreed to undertake 
a more gradual and steady buildup, while at the 
same time placing greater emphasis on improving 
the equipment and combat-readiness of existing 
forces. 

Thus there has been no decision to "abandon" 
Nato or to cut back the Nato program. We have 
only shifted to a more rational and realistic plan 
of action which will give us the maximum of de- 
fense within the limits imposed by our resources. 
Our program for the coming year calls for a 
moderate increase in the size of Nato forces and 
a considerable improvement in the quality of 
forces now in being. It is for this essential pur- 
pose that the military-assistance funds have been 
requested. 

A major problem in our European program con- 
cerns European unity. The Congress has long 
recognized the importance of European unity to 

= Ibid., May 11, 1953, p. 673. 



July 20, 7953 



89 



the success of our eflforts to build strength in 
Europe and has encouraged action in this field. 
A great deal has been accomplished by the Euro- 
peans to date, but I would be the first to admit that 
much remains to be accomplished. As you know, 
the most important step to be taken toward unity 
today is entry into force of the European Defense 
Community (Edc) treaty, which was developed 
bv the Europeans themselves as a means to bring 
aoout a German contribution to the defense of 
Western Europe. It is natural that the parlia- 
ments would want to give careful and thorough 
consideration to a treaty which calls upon them 
to surrender sovereignty over their own national- 
defense establishments. However, the need for 
the Edc is so great that we can hope that the 
parliaments will overcome their natural reluctance 
and soon vote for the treaty. It is all the more 
important because a prime purpose of Soviet 
policy in Europe is to prevent and disrupt progress 
toward unity. 

There are other European countries which re- 
ceive assistance under the program. We now have 
under negotiation with Spain agreements concern- 
ing economic and technical assistance, military 
assistance, and base rights. When these agree- 
ments are completed, Spain will be eligible to 
receive assistance and participate in the mutual- 
defense program. Yugoslavia, which broke with 
the Cominform in 1948, is a recipient of both mili- 
tary and economic assistance and makes its con- 
tribution to the defense of Western Europe. 
Austria is a recipient of a considerably reduced 
amount of economic aid, which is still necessitated 
by the difficult position of that country, part of 
which is still under Soviet occupation. 

Tension In Near East and South Asia 

I would like to turn now to the area which I 
recently visited, the Near East and South Asia. 
The area is characterized by political tension and 
economic hardship, which present an open invita- 
tion to internal and external subversion. 

Our basic political problem in this vitally im- 
portant region is to improve the attitude of the 
Moslem States toward the Western democracies, 
including the United States, because our prestige 
in the area has been steadily declining since the 
war. It is also important for our security that 
Arab-Israel tensions be lessened and that the 
economy of the area be strengthened and stabilized. 

In order to attain our objectives, we must put 
greater empliasis on a regional approach to the 
problems of the area. For this reason we have 
prepared a "single package" program designed to 
lay emphasis on the need for the comitries of the 
region to cooperate with each other and to marshal 
their resources collectively, wherever fe«asible. 

Because of the nature of the problems in this 
region, the program must necessarily place greater 



emphasis on technical assistance and economic aid. 
The program calls for continuance at present 
levels of existing programs for technical assist- 
ance, maintenance of programs for refugees, and 
special regional economic assistance. We con- 
sider these programs, although relatively small in 
dollar cost, to be vitally important in terms of 
their contribution to our security. 

We are also requesting funds for a limited 
military-assistance program which should make a 
significant contribution to the achievement of our 
basic objectives. It will contribute to internal 
security, will aid in promoting plans for peace 
between the Arab nations and Israel, and will 
assist in establishing a regional defense organiza- 
tion. 

The two nations of India and Pakistan, which 
make up the subcontinent of South Asia, have a 
combined population as large as that of China. 
They are free from Communist control, but the 
economic conditions in the area make political 
instability or Communist subversion a constant 
threat. Food production is the basic problem. 
Although 80 percent of the population is engaged 
in agriculture, actual production is appallingly 
low, with resulting hardship and privation. 

Both India and Pakistan have shown initiative 
in undertaking programs for economic develop- 
ment, despite the very limited resources at their 
disposal. Economic progress is demanded by the 
people in these new nations and the survival of 
free governments in them depends on whether 
such progress will take place. It is important for 
us that these nations do continue along the path of 
free development, and it is worthwhile for us to 
help them through the assistance requested in this 
measure. 

I do not need to stress the importance of the Far 
East to our own security, or the seriousness of the 
threat in that area. The Communists are en- 
gaged in open aggression in Korea and Indochina. 
They are directly responsible for the continuing 
threats to the stability of virtually all of the other 
countries in the area. Economic weakness and 
political and social instability are a common de- 
nominator through most of the area. Hunger, 
poverty, disease, and illiteracy provide an open 
invitation to subversion. 



Increased Empiiasis on Far East 

The increased emphasis on the Far East is 
clearly reflected in the fact that we are requesting 
substantially larger amounts for defense in the 
area than in the past. The direct aims of our 
progi-ams are to lielp develop internal stability 
and strength and to develop the will and ability 
of the free nations of the area to remain free and 
to make an effective contribution to the collective 
security of the free world. 



90 



Department of State Bulletin 



In Formosa a primary objective of our policy 
must be to strengthen the defenses of the ishmd. 
Equally essential is it that we bolster the island's 
economy. The support of a sizable military force 
and a population swollen with immigrants from 
the mainland has imposed severe economic drains. 
If P^ormosa can be made both militarily strong 
and economically healthy, it will exercise a power- 
ful attraction on mainland China. 

The situation in Indochina today represents 
one of the most serious present threats to the free 
world. Primary responsibility for the conduct of 
military operations rests upon France and the As- 
sociated States. Their manpower must do the 
fighting and they are bearing a large part of the 
costs of the military effort. But they are clearly 
incapable of bearing the entire cost. Our 
mutual-security program provides 400 million 
dollars for the support of the forces of France and 
the Associated States of Indochina and a program 
to provide military end items for the purpose of 
helping the French and Indochinese peoples re- 
duce this Communist pressure to manageable 
proportions. 

Japan is one of the prime targets of Commu- 
nist expansion in the Far East. Of all the far 
eastern nations, Japan possesses the most ad- 
vanced industry and the greatest reservoir of 
technical skills and commercial experience. She 
is in a position to contribute substantially to the 
strengthening of the security of the free nations 
of the Pacific and to the raising of living stand- 
ards in the area. Under the security treaty with 
Japan, it is expected that Japan will increasingly 
assume responsibility, within its economic capa- 
bilities for its own defense against aggression, di- 
rect and indirect. The forces envisaged are 
purely of a defensive nature, directed exclusively 
toward contributing to the defense and internal 
security of the Japanese homeland. 

The modest amounts requested for Thailand, the 
Philippines, and Indonesia are designed to help 
each of these countries meet their special prob- 
lems of development and security, while remain- 
ing free from the twin threats stemming from 
communism and instability. 

I turn now to the mutual-security program for 
Latin America. The Latin American countries 
are our good friends with whom we have had bene- 
ficial political and economic relations since the 
time when they, like the United States, were colo- 
nies of European powers. They have assumed 
with us collective responsibility for the defense 
of this hemisphere. Their strength and their 
■weakness is a part of the strength and weakness 
of the hemisphere. 

The United States, in my opinion, has in the 
past too often failed to give proper attention to 
them. As you know, the President's brother, Mil- 
ton Eisenhower, is now in South America on a 
good will, factfinding mission, the purpose of 

July 20, 1953 



wliicli is to strengthen our ties with our sister 
republics. 

Military Aid Program in Latin America 

The mutual-security program for Latin Amer- 
ica for fiscal year 1954 woidd provide for the con- 
tinuation of the military-aid program," which was 
initiated 2 years ago, and for the technical-coop- 
eration program which is now more than 10 years 
old in the area. The purpose of the military-aid 
program, as you know, is to provide in advance 
for the participation of Latin American armed 
force units in the protection of vital installations 
and lines of communication in this hemisphere. 
The sum requested for the well-established and 
highly valued technical-cooperation program is 
to help increase the economic strength of the hem- 
isphere by increasing economic productivity. The 
program is especially important at the present 
time, because a number of the Latin American 
countries are facing increased economic difficul- 
ties as a result of declining markets for some of 
the principal export products on which their econ- 
omies depend. The technical-cooperation pro- 
gram by contributing to economic and social sta- 
bility in Latin America is a very positive check 
on the spread of communism in the hemisphere. 

I want to conclude with some general remarks 
about the amount requested and its relationship 
to the present world situation. 

First, the amount the administration requested 
is $1,772,000,000 less than the amount originally 
requested by the previous administration and over 
$500 million less than the amount appropriated 
last year. I tliink that these substantial reduc- 
tions result in good part from the new and hard 
look which we have given our entire national- 
security program. I am frankly disappointed 
that the reductions could not have been larger. 
They are, however, in our view the maximum re- 
ductions which can be reconciled with the essen- 
tial security of the United States. As Secretary 
Humphrey ^ put it before the House Foreign Af- 
fairs Committee: "No one is more economy- 
minded than I am. ... I just do not want econ- 
omy at the expense of security." 

It is natural to question whether we can be at 
all certain as to specific amounts requested for 
mutual security in the light of the present fluid 
world situation. This is a very important ques- 
tion. I want to assure you that our policy is not 
frozen in a rigid inflexible pattern. We are con- 
stantly alert to any development which in the fu- 
ture will enable us to achieve our fundamental ob- 
jective of national security at less cost. We hope 
in fact that as other aspects of our policy succeed 
we will be able to reduce our expenditures on this 



* For a survey of this program, see ibid., Mar. 30, 1953, 
p. 463. 

" George M. Humphrey, Secretary of the Treasury. 

91 



part of our program. There arc signs of unrest 
behind the Ii-on Curtain. It is too early to at- 
tempt with wisdom to make a determination as to 
tlie long-range meaning of these developments. 
Therefore, we should not now let down our guard. 

There is no clear evidence in the present situa- 
tion that the threat to our national security has 
basically diminished or that it will diminish in 
the foreseeable future. The Soviet Union con- 
tinues to be a totalitarian regime which controls 
the destinies of a third of mankind and which 
has at its disposal a vast and powerful military 
force. Nothing has happened to change that 
basic fact. The so-called "peace offensive" ap- 
pears to represent only a tactical shift, not a basic 
change in Soviet policies. Until real conditions 
for world peace have been firmly established, the 
only sure course for us is to move calmly and 
steadily forward in building free-world strength. 
The funds re(iuested for the mutual-security pro- 
gram provide the means for carrying out tliis task, 
so vital to our national security. 

In stressing the importance of the mutual- 
security program to our national security, I do not 
mean to imply that this Committee should not 
examine the program very carefully and vei-y 
critically. To do so is your right and duty, and 
it is also your right and duty to eliminate funds 
for any items which you do not feel to be essen- 
tial, in spite of what the witnesses may say. All 
'I really want to do is to restate for emphasis some- 
thing that I know will be the case, whether or not 
I say it: That this Committee be guided in its 
woi'k by a full awareness of the importance of this 
program to our essential national-security 
interests. 



Report on Escape Clauses 
in Trade Agreements 

Message of the President to the Congress ^ 

Pursuant to the provisions of subsection (i) of 
section G of the Trade Agreements Extension Act 
of 1951 (Public Law 50, 82nd Congress), I hereby 
submit to the Congress a report on the inclusion 
of escape clauses in existing trade agi-eements. 

This detailed report was prepared for me by the 
Intei-depaitmental Committee on Trade Agree- 
ments. 

DwiGiiT D. Eisenhower 



The Wiirra House, July 9, 1953. 



Report on Trade Agreement Escape Clav.ses (Pur- 
suant to the Provisions of Sec. 6 {h) of the 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951) 

Section 6 of the Trade Agreements Extension 
Act of 1951 reads as follows : 

(a) No reduction in any rate of duty, or binding of any 
existing customs or excise treatment, or other concession 
hereafter procl;nmed under section 350 of the Tariff Act 
of 1930, as amended, shall be permitted to continue in 
effect when the product on which the concession has been 
granted is, as a result, in whole or in part, of the duty 
or other customs treatment reflecting such concession, 
being imported into the United States in such increased 
quantities, either actual or relative, as to cause or threaten 
serious injury to the domestic industry producing like or 
directly competitive products. 

(ft) The President, as soon as practicable, shall take 
such action as may be necessary to briii;.' trade agreements 
heretofore entered into under section .j.")0 of the Tariff 
Act of 1930, as amended, into conformity with the policy 
established in subsection (a) of this section. 

On or before .January 10, 1952, and every sis months 
thereafter, the President shall report to the Congress on 
the action taken by him under this subsection. 

The reports of July 10, 1952 ^ and January 10, 
1953 ^ referred to discussions then in progress be- 
tween the Government of the United States and 
the Government of Ecuador with regard to the • 
existing trade agreement, including the possibility 
of inserting an escape clause in the agreement. In 
1952 the Government of Ecuador was informed 
that it would be necessary to amend the trade 
agreement to include an escape clause. The dis- 
cussions with Ecuador are continuing. 

The Trade Agreements Committee believes it is 
still not i^racticable, for the reasons given in the 
reiDort on escape clauses of July 10, 1952, to ap- 
proach the Governments of El Salvador, Guate- 
mala, and Honduras with respect to the insertion 
of the escape clause in the trade agreements with 
those countries. These reasons as stated in the 
report of July 10, 1952 are : 

Many of the products on which the United States 
granted concessions in these agreements are on the free 
list, and none of them is likely to be produced in tlie 
United States in commercial quantities. The dutiable 
products on which concessions were granted by the United 
States are largely tropical products, imports of most of 
which result in no, or neglii;ible, comix'titiou with United 
States producers, whereas a relatively high proportion of 
the conces;?ions granted by the other countries are on 
products which comjiete with their domestic proiluction. 
Furthermore, the Trade Agreements Committee was con- 
vinced that an attempt to secure the escape clause at this 
time would probably lead to the renegotiation of the 
agreements with these countries and result in a less satis- 
factory situatioit than now exists. 

Unally, it should be pointed out that all of these three 
agreements are already subji'ct to unilateral termination, 
by the United States, on six months' notice, pursuaiU to 
the requirements of the Trade Agreements Act. 



Sei 



■ H. doe. 205, 83d Cong., 1st sess. 



' H. doc. 42, 83d Cong., 1st sess. 
" H. doc. 54, 83d Cong., 1st sess. 



92 



Department of State Bulletin 



Senate Receives Agreement Concerning Application 
iof 1923 Friendship Treaty Witli Germany 



i. Exec. N., 83d Cong., 1st Sess. 



PRESIDENT'S LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

The White House, June 27, 1953. 

With a view to receiving the advice and consent 
of the Senate to ratification, I transmit herewith 
Ein agreement between tlie United States of 
America and the Federal Republic of Germany, 
signed at Bonn on June 3, 1953, concerning the 
application of the treaty of friendship, commerce, 
and consular rights between the United States of 
America and Germany, signed at Wasliington on 
December 8, 1923, as amended. 

1 transmit also, for the information of the 
Senate, the texts of i-elated notes exchanged at 
Washington, June 2, 1953, and the report by the 
Secretary of State with respect to the agreement 
and related notes. 



DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



i 



LETTER TO THE PRESIDENT FROM 
SECRETARY DULLES 

Department of State, 
Washington, June 22, 1953. 

The President, 

The White House: 

I have the honor to submit to you, with a view 
to the transmission thereof to the Senate for its 
advice and consent to I'atification, an agreement 
between the United States of America and the 
Federal Republic of Germany, signed at Bonn on 
■June 3, 1953, concerning the application of the 
treaty of friendship, commerce, and consular 
rights between the United States of America and 
Germany, signed at Washington on December 8, 
1923, as amended. In addition, there are sub- 
mitted herewith the texts of related notes ex- 
changed at Washington, June 2, 1953, which it is 
recommended be transmitted to the Senate for its 
nformation. 



As a result of hostilities between the United 
States and Germany during World War II, and 
of actions taken by the occupying powers after 
the cessation of hostilities, the status of the 1923 
treaty, as amended, has been somewhat uncertain. 
The Government of the United States and the Gov- 
ernment of the Federal Republic of Germany 
deemed it desirable to clarify the status of the 
treaty, pending the conclusion of a more modern 
treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation, as 
an important step toward the normalization of 
relations between the two countries. The agree- 
ment signed at Bonn on June 3, 1953, is designed 
to accomplish this purpose. 

The agreement (art. I) will restore to full force 
and effect, on and after the entry into force of the 
agreement, the provisions of the 1923 treaty, as 
amended (44 Stat. 2132, 49 Stat. 3258), as they 
existed prior to the outbreak of hostilities between 
the United States and Germany. On the German 
side, the restoration will apply (art. TV) to the 
territory of the Federal Republic of Germany 
and of the western sectors of Berlin. The agree- 
ment (art. II) clarifies the meaning of article 
XIX of the treaty of 1923 in respect of the right 
of either party to acquire, in the territory of the 
other, property for governmental (other than 
military) purposes. Article III of the agreement 
provides a modern security escape clause and safe- 
guards the status of the United States and its 
personnel in Germany. The agreement of both 
parties to commence negotiations for a new treaty 
of friendship, commerce, and navigation is set 
forth in article V. The final article (art. VI) 
provides for ratification of the agreement, entry 
into force on the day of exchange of ratifications, 
and termination by either party on 6 months' 
notice. 

By a note dated June 2, 1953, the Government 
of the United States gave notice, in accordance 
with the provisions of article XXXI of the 1923 
treaty, of intention to modify that treaty by omit- 
ting article VI thereof which deals with the sub- 
ject of military service. This note was acknowl- 
edged by a note from the Diplomatic Mission of 



My 20, J 953 



93 



the Federal Republic dated June 2, 1953. Accord- 
ingly, article VI of the 1923 treaty will cease to 
have any force or effect 1 year from the date of the 
aforementioned United States note. The words 
in article I of the present agreement — 

insofar as either High Contracting Party may not have 
heretofore notified the other Party in accordance with 
Article XXXI of the aforesaid Treaty an intention to 
modify or omit any of its Articles — 

were inserted for the sole purpose of recognizing 
the notification contained in the aforementioned 
United States note. No other such notifications 
have been given by either party. 
Respectfully submitted. 

John Foster Dulles. 



TEXT OF AGREEMENT SIGNED AT BONN ON 
JUNE 3, 1953 

The United States of America and the Federal Republic 
of Germany, desirous of strengthening the bonds of friend- 
ship existing between them and of placing their relations 
on a normal and stable basis as soon as possible, have 
resolved as a step toward that end to restore to full force 
and effect, except as otherwise provided in the following 
Articles, the provisions of the Treaty of Friendship, Com- 
merce and Consular Rights between the United States of 
America and Germany signed at Washington, December 
8, 192.3, as amended, as a provisional measure pending the 
conclusion of a more comprehensive, modern treaty or 
treaties for such purposes, and have, through their duly 
authorized representatives, agreed as follows : 

Article i 

The provisions of the Treaty of Friendship, Commerce 
and Consular Rights between the United States of America 
and Germany signed at Washington December 8, 1923, as 
amended by an exchange of notes dated March 19 and 
May 21, 1925, and the agreement signed at Washington 
June 3, 193.5, shall be applied and be considered fully oper- 
ative between the United States of America and the Fed- 
eral Republic of Germany on and after the effective date 
of the present agreement insofar as either High Contract- 
ing Party may not have heretofore notified the other Party 
in accordance with Article XXXI of the aforesaid Treaty 
an intention to modify or omit any of its Articles, and 
except as otherwise provided in the following Articles, 
without prejudice to the previous status of any provisions 
of the aforesaid Treaty which may have remained opera- 
tive or may have again become operative at any time since 
the outbreak of hostilities between the United States of 
America and Germany. 

Article n 

In accordance with the intent of Article XIX of the 
aforesaid Treaty, that Article is hereby amended by add- 
ing the following : 

The Government of either Party may, in the territory 
of the other, acquire, own, lease for any period of time, 
or otherwise hold and occupy, such lands, buildings, 
and appurtenances as may be necessary and appropriate 
for governmental, other than military, purposes. If 
under the local law tlie permission of the local authori- 
ties must be obtained as a prerequisite to any such ac- 
quiring or holding, such permission .shall be given on 
request. 



Aeticue in 

None of the provisions of the present agreement or of ' 
the aforesaid Treaty shall be considered as affecting In 
any way (1) the rights or obligations of either Party 
in respect of measures to safeguard essential security 
interests or (2) the status of the United States of Amer- 
ica and its i)ersonnel In Germany. Until the effective 
date of the Conventions signed at Bonn on May 26, l!)r)2 ' 
the provisions of legislation, regulations or directives 
which may be in effect by virtue of the status in Germany 
of the United States of America shall prevail over any 
inconsistent provisions of the present agreement or of 
the aforesaid Treaty ; and thereafter the provisions of the 
said Conventions, and of any other related agreements 
that have been or may be entered into, shall so prevail 
in case of any such inconsistency. 

Abticle IV 

Pending the peaceful reunification of Germany, the 
German territory to which the aforesaid Treaty shall be 
applied and considered fully operative shall be understood 
to comprise all areas of land, water and air over which 
the Federal Republic of Germany exercises jurisdiction. 
The present agreement shall also enter into force, and the 
aforesaid Treaty shall he applied and considered fully 
operative, in the area of Berlin (West) when the Govern- 
ment of the Federal Republic of Germany furnishes the 
Government of the United States of America a notification 
that all legal procedures in Berlin necessary therefor have 
been complied with. 

Article v 

It is agreed that negotiations for a new treaty of 
Friendship, Commerce and Navigation .shall be entered 
into without delay. 

Article vi 

1. The present agreement shall be ratified, and the 
ratifications thereof shall be exchanged at Washington as 
soon as possible. 

2. The present agreement shall enter into force on the 
day of exchange of ratifications. 

3. Either Party may terminate the present agreement 
by giving six months' written notice to the other Party. 

In witness whereof the respective duly authorized 
representatives have signed the present agreement. 

Done in duplicate, in the English and German lan- 
guages, both equally authentic, at Bonn, this third day 
of June, one thousand nine hundred fifty three. 

For the United States of America : 

James B. Conant 



For the Federal Republic of Germany : 



Adenauis 



Mr. Conant Given Personal Title 
of Ambassador 

The White House announced on June 29 that the Presi- 
dent has given the personal title of Ambassador to James 
B. Conant, the U.S. High Commissioner in Germany. This 
step has been taken in recognition of the developing rela- 
tions between the United States and the Federal Republic 
of Germany and the return of Germany to the family of 
free and equal nations. For the time being. Ambassador 
Conant will continue his position as High Commissioner, 
but the U.S. Government looks forward with anticipation 
to the disappearance of this function as soon as the other 
states concerned have completed the process of ratifying 
the contractual agreements and the European Defense 
Treaty. 



' For a summary of the German contractual agree- 
ments, see Bulletin of June 9, 19.52. p. SSS. 



94 



Department of State Bulletin 



July 20, 1953 



Ind 



ex 



Vol. XXIX, No. 734 



American Principles 

The business of building peace (Wadsworth) . 84 
The Importance of the Mutual Security Pro- 
gram to our national security (Dulles) . . 88 

American Republics 

BOUVIA: U.S. aid 83 

Asia 

IRAN: U.S. position on Iranian oil dispute . . 74 
KOREA: 

Communist commanders agree to continue 

armistice talks 73 

Robertson concludes talks with Syngman 

Rhee 72 

Vice President Nixon to visit Far East and South 

Asia 74 

Caribbean 

CUBA: U.S., Cuba reach agreement on rice tariff 

quotas (exchange of notes, text of notes) . 82 

Congress 

Report on escape clauses In trade agreements 

(Elsenhower) 92 

Senate receives agreement concerning applica- 
tion of 1923 friendship treaty with Ger- 
many 93 

Europe 

GERMANY: 

$10 million allotted to Germany for national 

productivity drive 69 

Request for U.S. aid to workers In East Ger- 
many 69 

Senate receives agreement concerning applica- 
tion of 1923 friendship treaty with Ger- 
many 93 

U.S. offers food for distribution In Soviet Zone 

of Germany 67 



Check List of Department of State 


Press Releases: July 6-11, 1953 


Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 


Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 


Press release issueti prior to July 6 which appears 


in this issue 


of the Bulletin is No. 343 of June 30. 


No. 


Date 


Subject 


354 


7/6 


Economic aid to Bolivia 


355 


7/7 


Conference on sugar agreement 


356 


7/9 


Dulles : Mutual-security program 


t357 


7/8 


Waugh : Broadcasting agreement 


*358 


7/9 


Crowe : Sworn in as Ambassador 


t359 


7/9 


Stevens : U. S. foreign policy and the 
U.S.S.R. 


360 


7/9 


Dulles : Welcome to Salisbury 


*361 


7/9 


Ball : Visit to Africa 


362 


7/9 


Dulles : Welcome to Bidault 


•363 


7/10 


Chamberlain : Visit to India 


*364 


7/10 


UsRO terms of reference 

[See Bulletin of July 13, p. 48.] 


365 


7/10 


Dulles : Foreign Ministers' meeting 


366 


7/10 


Bidault : Remarks at Ministers' meet- 
ing 


367 


7/10 


UNESCO seminars on workers' educa- 
tion 


368 


7/10 


Salisbury : Remarks at Ministers' 
meeting 


369 


7/11 


Robertson — Rhee statement 


370 


7/11 


Transfer of Israeli Foreign Ministry 


•Not printed. | 


tHeld for 


a later issue of the Bulletin. 



Foreign Service 

Mr. Conant given personal title of ambassador . 94 

International Information 

Evaluating the overseas library program (John- 
son) 77 

International Meetings 

French, British, U.S. foreign ministers begin 

Washington conference 70 

U.S. DELEGATIONS: 
Seminars and meeting of experts on adult 

workers' education (UNESCO) 87 

U.N. Conference on Sugar 87 

Mutual Aid and Defense 

French, British, U.S. foreign ministers begin 

Washington conference 70 

Mutual Security 

»10 million allotted to Germany for national 

productivity drive 69 

The Importance of the Mutual Seciu-ity Program 

to our national security (Dulles) ... 88 

U.S. aid to Bolivia 82 

Near and Middle East 

Transfer of Israeli Foreign Ministry to Jeru- 
salem . . : 82 

Presidential Documents 

Report on escape clauses In trade agreements . 92 
Request for U.S. aid to workers In East Ger- 
many 69 

U.S. offers food for distribution in Soviet Zone 

of Germany 67 

Prisoners of War 

Mr. Robertson concludes talks with Syngman 

Rhee 72 

State, Department of 

Evaluating the overseas library program (John- 
son) 77 

Transfer of Israeli Foreign Ministry to Jeru- 
salem 82 

Strategic Materials 

U.S. position on Iranian oil dispute 74 

Trade 

Report on escape clauses In trade agreements 92 

U.S., Cuba reach agreement on rice tariff quotas 

(exchange of notes, text of notes) .... 82 

Treaty Information 

Senate receives agreement concerning applica- 
tion of 1923 friendship treaty with Ger- 
many 93 

United Nations 

The business of building peace (Wadsworth) . . 84 
Communist commanders agree to continue 

armistice talks 73 

U.N. Conference on Sugar 87 

Name Index 

Adenauer, Konrad 67 

Bidault, Georges 70 

Byrne, Thomas R 87 

Clark, General 73 

Conant, James B 94 

Dulles, Secretary 70, 88, 93 

Eisenhower, President 67, 69, 92, 93 

Johnson, Robert L 77 

Kim U Sung 73 

Meany, George 69 

Molotov, Vyacheslav 68 

Morse, True D 87 

Murray, Thomas 87 

Nixon, Vice President 74 

Peng Teh-Hual 73 

Reuther, Walter 69 

Rhee, Syngman 72 

Robertson, Walter S 72 

Salisbury, Lord 70 

Wadsworth, James J 84 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I96S 




Department 

of 

State 



Another new release in the unique documentary series Foreign 
Relations of the United States 



1935, Volume IV 



The American Republics 

Documents included record: 

The end of hostilities in the Chaco War between Bolivia and 
Paraguay. (One of the difficulties was to secure a proper ar- 
rangement for the exchange of prisoners of war.) 

The end of the dispute between Colombia and Peru over 
Leticia. 

The reestablishment of diplomatic relations between Costa 
Rica and Guatemala. 

The conclusion of reciprocal trade agreements by the United 
States with Brazil, Colombia, Haiti, and Honduras; and pre- 
liminary work toward similar agi-eements with eight other 
countries. 

Agrarian and oil interests of American citizens in Mexico. 

Continued political unrest in Nicaragua. 

The Brazilian Government's receipt of a message from its 
Ambassador in Tokyo : "A rather alarming picture of Japanese 
preparation for eventual hostilities with the United States" ; 
and its assurance to the United States of "whole-hearted Bra- 
zilian support and cooperation" in case of an emergency. 

This volume (Ixxxix, 988 pp.) was compiled in the Division of 
Historical Policy Research, Department of State. It may be 
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., for $4 a copy. 



Order Form 

To: Supt. of Documents ,^ Please send me copies of Foreign Relations of the United States, 

Govt. Printing Office m ,„,, ,, , ,,/ t; i i? m- 

,,,.._ „, ry ^ a 1935, Volume IV, The American Kepublics. 

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EneloBed find: 

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$ 

(cash, check, or ^. „ 

moneu order). City, Zone, and State. 



tJ/i€/ u)e^a^imten(^ x)^ C/ial& 




'ol. XXIX, No. 735 
July 27, 1953 




REPORT ON WORLD POLITICAL SITUATION • by 

Secretary Dulles and Assistant Secretary Robertson , . . 99 

FOREIGN MINISTERS' MEETING 104 

U.S. FOREIGN POLICY AND THE SOVIET UNION • 

Address by Francis B. Stevens 109 

PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE REPORTS ON INTERNA- 
TIONAL INFORMATION ACTIVITIES 124 

» 

MIGRATION FROM [WESTERN EUROPE • by Hugh 

Gibson 117 



For index see inside back cover 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

AUG 13 1953 




S/Ae Qje/ia/y^me^ ^/ y^te JOLlllGtlli 



Vol. XXIX, No. 735 • Publication 5140 
July 27, 1953 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.O 

Price: 

62 Issues, domestic $7.60, forelgp $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing ot this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 22, 1952). 

Note : Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State BULLKTm as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a uieekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of the 
Government icith information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the itorfc of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
selected press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House 
and the Department, and statements 
and addresses made by the President 
and by the Secretary of State and 
other officers of the Department, as 
well as special articles on various 
phases of international affairs and the 
functions of the Department. Infor- 
mation is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of general 
international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of internatioTuil relations, are listed 
currently. 



Joint Report on the World Political Situation 



hy Secretary Dulles and Walter S. Robertson * 



Secretary Dulles: This has been an important 
week for us in the State Department. Last Tues- 
day night we finished a 5-day meeting of the For- 
eign Ministers of Britain, France, and the United 
States.- On Wednesday, Mr. Walter Robertson, 
Assistant Secretary of State, returned from Ko- 
rea. He had gone there at the President's and at 
my request to work out witli President Rhee the 
conditions wliich would make an armistice possi- 
ble if the Communists want one. A little later I 
am going to ask Mr. Robertson some questions 
about his mission, but first I shall speak about the 
Foreign Ministers' meeting. 

It was a good meeting. It developed ways for 
us to work together for peace and justice in many 
parts of the world. President Eisenhower's 
great speech of April 16,^ which he called "The 
Chance for Peace," was heard around the world. 
Leaders in other free countries joined in the same 
refrain. Now we have gone ahead to put these 
ideals into practice. 

GERMANY AND AUSTRIA 

Of our many agreements, perhaps the most sig- 
nificant was our invitation to the Soviet Union to 
talk with us about unity and freedom for Ger- 
many and Austria. That invitation was delivered 
the day before yesterday.* If the Soviet accepts, 
we shall have a Four Power meeting. So far, we 
have no clue as to what the response will be. 

Germany remains divided because the Soviet 
Union has continuously blocked our efforts to end 
the occupation and to unite Germany. The Ger- 
man people in the Russian zone are suffering 
cruelly. Their sufferings are not only material but 
moral. They are desperately short of food and 
the Soviet Union will not let them take it from 



' Delivered to the Nation over radio and television 
networks on July 17 (press release 387). Mr. Robertson 
is Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern ,\ffnirs. 

' For text of the final communique, see p. 104. 

" BuiXETiN of Apr. 27, 1953, p. 599. 

«See p. 107. 

Jo/y 27, 1953 



us.^ I wonder why. Ever since the end of the 
war, these East Germans have been living under 
a reign of terror. But even 8 years of this has not 
crushed their spirit, and their mood is becoming 
more and more rebellious. Since last month there 
have been serious outbreaks. The Russians had to 
call in their tanks and impose martial law. The 
situation is explosive. The Soviets admit that 
their regime there has been a failure. 

Chancellor Adenauer, the head of the Federal 
Republic of West Germany, thinks that now, at 
last, it might be possible to unite Germany. So, 
in consultation with him, we are trying again to 
achieve that goal. 

Soviet rulers keep talking about peace. If they 
really want peace they ought to allow the Ger- 
mans to unite and, by free elections, to establish 
their own all-German government. That is our 
proposal. 

At the Foreign Ministers' meeting we decided 
to try again to bring to Austria an end of the 
military occupation. As long ago as 1947 a 
treaty giving independence had been almost 
totally agreed upon between the Soviet Union and 
the three Western Powers. However, the Soviet 
Union always refused to complete the treaty. It 
has gone on occupying Eastern Austria and gone 
on exploiting its economy. Here again the oc- 
cupied people are reaching a stage of exasperation. 
It is another situation where the Soviet rulers, if 
they really want the peace of which they talk so 
much, will now at long last agree to a treaty which 
will give freedom and independence to Austria. 

SATELLITE STATES 

We did not forget the other peoples of Eastern 
Europe who at one time formed free and inde- 
pendent nations but who are now in bondage to 
Soviet Russia. Such countries as Czechoslovakia, 



■ For text of the U.S. note to the U.S.S.R. offering food 
to East Germany, and the Soviets' reply, see Bulletin of 
July 20, 1953, p. 67. 

99 



Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania, and the 
Baltic States ought to recover the real inde- 
pendence of which their people were so justly 
proud. They are entitled to institutions which 
reflect their belief in God, their love of country, 
and their desire for human dignity. The Foreign 
Ministers of Britain and France agreed with us 
to express our desire to see true libeity restored 
in the countries of Eastern Europe. 

The mounting resentment of the oppressed peo- 
ples is a danger to Russia and a danger to peace. 
Here again is an area within which the Soviet 
Union can, if it wishes, act to assure the peace of 
which it talks so much. 



NATO 

We thought much about the Atlantic commu- 
nity. The North Atlantic Treaty binds 14 nations 
to work together to safeguard the freedom, the 
common heritage, and the civilization of their 
peoples. Under that treaty there has been created 
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, com- 
monly known as Nato. It has a military force to 
which the members contribute and which safe- 
guards the vital interests of them all. 

Our Congress is at the point of appropriating 
funds which will represent our next year's contri- 
butions to this Nato force. Some talk as though 
this were a "give-away" program. It is no more 
of a "give-away" of U. S. money than it is a "give- 
away" when you and I pay to provide for a mu- 
nicipal police force or fire department to protect 
us. We pay for collective security, because by 
joining together we get the most protection at the 
least cost. The Nato force is a police force for the 
Atlantic Community. The other members to- 
gether, contribute to it much more than we do. 
The resultant military force, which General 
Eisenhower first commanded and which General 
Gruenther now commands, gives protection which 
is vital to the United States. 

To illustrate, let us suppose that the coal and 
iron and the tremendous industrial capacity of 
Western Europe were to fall into hostile hands. 
That would be a disaster which would cost us far 
more than our contribution to Nato. So, to get 
insurance against such risks, we affirmed that 
Nato must go on. 

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY 

At the heart of this Nato organization there 
lie six continental countries of Western Europe. 
They are developing organic unity. Already 
they have created a Coal and Steel Community. 
They have signed a Defense Community Treaty to 
create a common defense force. A treaty for po- 
litical unity is being worked on. The three Minis- 
ters agreed that these develojiments were of the 
utmost imi)ortanco and that the creation of the 
European Defense Community was "a necessary 
step. 

100 



h 
■i> 
ai 
erii 

ere 



fie 



HI 



Mi 



There have been disappointing parliamentary 
delays in taking this step. Some seem to think 
that this European Defense Community has no 
purpose except to meet the threat from the Soviet 
Union, so that if that threat were to diminish 
then the community would be unnecessary. That 
is not the true case at all. The basic reason for 
European unity is that disunity has for 150 yeai-s 
been a source of wars which have disastrously 
weakened the Western European countries them- 
selves, and have involved others in grievous 
trouble. The United States is among the suf- 
ferers. 

President Eisenhower, on the basis of his ex 
perience in Europe, both as Supreme Commander 
during the Second World War and also as head 
of the Nato forces, is convinced of the necessity 
of unity between the nations of Continental 
Europe. If that unity does not come about, if 
the old structure of national rivalry is rebuilt as 
the world's greatest fire hazard, that will mark [ 
the bankruptcy of statesmanship. 

This point of view was shared by all at our 
Foreign Ministers meeting. We particularly em- 
phasized that the unity of Euroj)e was necessary 
in itself and that its consummation should in no 
way be dependent upon the existence of tension 
with the Soviet Union. If there were no Soviet 
tension at all, the uniting of Europe would still 
be essential for lasting peace. 

That unification is not directed against East 
em Europe or Russia, as the three Ministerslm 
pointed out. The European Community is open 
to others, provided only that they are fi-ee. If 
for example, true liberty were restored to Czecho- 
slovakia, it could become a member of the Euro- 
pean Community and enjoy the vast economic and 
security benefits which are available to the com- 
munity members. 

It is really amazing that the Soviet rulers are 
trying so hard to prevent this unification oi 
Europe. Russia was one of the principal victims 
of the two world wars which began in Western 
Europe. If the Soviet rulers really want the 
peace about which they talk so much, they wiU 
stop the fanatical and senseless Commiuiist oppo- 
sition to European unity and, instead, endorse it, j|' 

INDOCHINA 

We turned to the Far East and exclianged views 
about Indochina. In the past, there has beeni » 
some criticism of the French Republic for failingi 
to promise liberty and independence to the three 
Associated States of Indochina — Viet-nam, Laos, 
and Cambodia. It was felt that the jjeoplos of 
these countries noeiled something of their own for 
which to fight. The basis for that criticismfom 
should now be removed. The French Govern 
ment has given assurance that it stands readj' toinii 
grant complete sovereignty and independence toi id] 
the three Associated States. Negotiations on thisi 
matter will start in the near future. 

Department of State Bulletini ij^ 



:oRi 



ilk- 
ffci 



Last Monday Mr. Bidault, the French Foreign 
Minister, and I invited the representatives of these 
hree States to meet with us. AVe found that they 
ookcd forward eagerly to working out arrange- 
nents witli tlie French Government to complete 
heir sovereignty and independence. It seemed 
hat the}' do not want to be wholly divorced from 
France. They have, with France, strong bonds of 
I cultural, economic, and military nature. These 
•an be preserved, consistent with full indepcnd- 
nce, within the French Union, which, like the 
British Connnon wealth, offers a possibility of 
ree association of wholly independent and sov- 
reign nations. 

This action of the French Government makes 
lear the distinction between those who would 
rrant independence and those who would destroy 
t. It should make it easier to stop Communist 
gcression in that part of the world. 

We discu.ssed plans for military operations in 
ndochina. These are being developed by the 
"rench General Navarre, who has recently gone 
here. Our Government sent General O'Daniel to 
onf er with hi m.^ We believe that the new French 
ilans are vigorous and deserve to be implemented 
n that spirit. The United States has a large in- 
?rest in the matter, because our position in the 
Western Pacific could be put in jeopardy if Com- 
lunists were allowed to overrun the southeast 
Lsian peninsula of which Indochina forms a 
lajor part. We are already helping there with 
laterial aid. This involves the second largest 
ast item of our Mutual Security progi-am, par- 
cipation in the Nato army being first. I believe 
e should help effective resistance to Communist 
ggressors everywhere, and in Indochina it may 
ive us from having to spend much more money 
) protect our vital interests in the Pacific. 



iREA 

Of course, otir Foreign Ministers' meeting gave 
luch consideration to Korea. We endorsed the 
forts of the United Nations Command to con- 
ude ii.n early armistice on the honorable terms 
hich the Command has proposed. But we are 
3t suppliants. We are ready for honorable 
ace. But if the Conxniunists want war, we must 
J ready for that, too. 

The Communists have been pretending that 
lere cannot be an armistice because the U.N. 
ommand does not guarantee the future conduct 
the Republic of Korea. That is absurd. The 
"oposed armistice does not guarantee the future 
nduct of any government. I wish that someone 
ould guarantee the future good conduct of the 
jmmunist regime of China. But President Rhee 
IS given explicit assurance that he will not ob- 

Iruct in any manner the implementation of the 

]-oposed armistice. 



'Ibid.. June 29, 1953, p. 909. 
■ily 27, 7953 



At the Foreign Ministers' meeting, France and 
Great Britain joined with us in some important 
commitments about Korea. We agreed that if 
thei'e is an armistice and political conference, we 
shall try our best to bring about Korean unity by 
peaceful means. 

Furtiiermore, we agreed that if the Coimnunists 
should violate the armistice, we will all three vig- 
orously react to restore peace and security. 

We agreed that, at least until further confer- 
ence, we will maintain our common policies in 
relatioii to Communist China. This means that 
a Korean armistice would not automatically lift 
our embargo on strategic goods to Red China or 
lead to the acceptance of Communist China in the 
United Nations. 

We also agreed that an armistice in Korea must 
not result in jeopardizing the restoration of peace 
in other parts of Asia. In this comiection we 
thought particularly of Indochina., 

As President Eisenliower said in his April 16 
address, an armistice in Korea that merely re- 
leased aggressive armies to attack elsewhere would 
be a fraud. We are on our guard against that. 

Now let me ask a few questions of Mr. Robert- 
son. 



Views of Assistant Secretary Robertson 

Secretary Dulles: Won't you tell us wliy you went 
to Korea? 

Assistant Secretary Robertson: I went, Mr. Sec- 
retary, because you and President Eisenliower 
sent me. My mission, as you know, was to clear 
up misunderstandings which were threatening to 
wreck allied unity at a time when we needed most 
to be unified. I carried messages from President 
Eisenhower and from you to President Rhee as- 
suring him of America's good will and friendship 
for the people of Korea ; of America's admiration 
for the magnificent and enduring fortitude shown 
by the South Korean people in defense of their 
liberties ; and of your personal , sympathetic 
understanding of President Rhee's concern for the 
future of his country. 

Secretary Dulles: What did you find the Korean 
attitude toward an armistice to be? 

Assistard Secretary Robertson: The Korean peo- 
ple were not opposed to the armistice because they 
like to suffer and to die. They were opposed to it 
because of a deep fear that the armistice is but a 
Communist trick and device to win by negotiation 
what they have failed to achieve on the battle- 
field — a deep fear that the United Nations were 
weary of the struggle and might sacrifice Korea as 
Koreans feel they have been sacrificed in the past 
to great power interests. My task was to convince 
President Rhee that the U.N. objective, the U.S. 
objective, and the Republic of Korea objective, 
namely, a free, independent, and united Korea, 

101 



were one and the same — that our differences lay 
not in objectives but in methods to be used for the 
achievement of a common objective. Tlie bitter- 
ness here and among some of our United Nations 
allies, caused by President Rhee's unilateral action 
in releasing some 27,000 anti-Communists prison- 
ers, is duplicated in Korea by a bitterness dis- 
tilled of their fears. Whatever the cause of the 
bitterness on both sides, it needed to be removed. 

Secretary Dulles: Why is it so important for us to 
stand shoulder to shoulder with the Republic of 
Korea ? 

Assistant Secretary Robertson: Because the enemy 
we face in Korea is the same ruthless, evil force 
which threatens free people along the perimeter 
of the globe. It seeks to destroy not only Korea 
but the entire free world as well. By no possible 
circumstance consistent with honor should we per- 
mit a situation to develop where we find ourselves 
fighting against our ally, the brave people of 
Korea who are bearing the human brunt of the 
battle and who have suffered incredibly for their 
cause and ours. 

The devastation and suffering which has struck 
this little country adds up to a ghastly total. Ap- 
proximately 1 million human lives have been lost. 
There are an estimated 2i/^ million refugees, 5 
million are destitute, approximately 600,000 houses 
have been destroyed, with war damages of ap- 
proximately 1 billion dollars. Despite this fright- 
ful toll, the crusading spirit of President Rhee 
has inspired the people with an amazing courage, 
fortitude, and will to fight Communist aggres- 
sion — a spirit unexcelled in any other country of 
the world. The Korean Army, equipped by us, 
holding two-thirds of the battlefront, is the larg- 
est, best-trained anti-Communist army in Asia. 
Such an indomitable spirit and such an army are 
powerful assets to be preserved, not destroyed. 

Secretary Dulles: What was the final attitude of 
President Rhee toward an armistice when you said 
goodby to him in Seoul last Sunday ? 

Assistant Secretary Robertson: We were both very 
pleased that we had been able to reach a wide area 
of agreement.^ The agreement was such that the 
United Nations Command was satisfied that it 
could in good faith proceed with an armistice; 
confident, as you said earlier, Mr. Secretary, that 
President Rhee would offer no obstruction to its 
implementation. 

Secretary Dulles: I know that you had a gi-eat 
deal of discussion with President Rhee about the 
political conference wliich might follow an armis- 
tice. This was one of the things about which he 



has been worried. What was his final attitude on 
this matter ? 

Assistant Secretary Robertson: You are quite 
right, Mr. Secretary, that was one of the great 
■worries of President Rhee. He was afraid that 
the political conference might be carried on in- 
definitely as a device to perpetuate uncertainty 
and as a cover behind which his country might 
be infiltrated and his people subjected to hostile 
propaganda. We agreed that if it should turn 
out that way, if it were obvious that the Com- 
munists were not negotiating in good faith, we 
would try to end the conference as a sham and a 
hostile trick. 

Secretary Dulles: Many here ask if we can trust 
President Rhee to carry out his assurances. What 
is your impression ? 

Assistant Secretary Robertson: It is natural that 
there should be doubts. I might say that there 
are many in Korea who ask whether the Republic 
of Korea can trust the United States to carry out 
its assurances. I have no doubt on either score. 
I feel confident of President Rhee's sincerity and 
of his intention to carry out in good faith his as- 
surances to me. This is no time for us to doubt 
each other. We need to work together in confi- 
dence as friends and allies. I hope that my# 
mission helped to put our relationship on thati » 
basis. 



II 



& 



;ii 



' For text of a Joint statement issued at the conclusion 
of Mr. Robertson's tnllcs witti President Rbee, see 
Bulletin of July 20, 1953, p. 72. 

102 



Secretary Dulles: Thank you very much, Mr, 
Robertson. You have done a fine job of diplomacy 
in accordance with our best American tradition. 

Assistant Secretary Robertson: Thank you very 
much, Mr. Secretary. I should have been com- 
pletely helpless without the wise counsel and sup- 
port of President Eisenhower, of yourself, and of 
the congressional leaders with whom I know you 
were in frequent consultation. 

Conclusion 

Secretary Dulles: Now, I conclude with two 
points : 

1. The policies we are now pursuing are show- 
ing their worth. Today it is the despots who are 
worried and seeking new leadere and new plans. 
The satellite countries are in a state of unrest, 
and within the Soviet Connnunist Party convul- 
sions are occurring. The number 2 man of the 
triumvirate [Lavrenti P. Beriya] which was sup- 
posedly to govern Russia, who was head of the 
secret police, is today a victim of his own system 
of terror. It is impossible to predict what may 
happen in Russia. What can be said with con- 
fidence is that, under such policies as President 
Eisenhower has proclaimed, the free world is get- 
ting stronger, while strain and stress rocks the. 
Soviet and Siitellite world. 

Department of Stale BuUeliny 



2. Our program for Europe and Asia is a pro- 
gram for peace and for the liberty and justice 
vhicli are necessary if peace is to be durable. Ke- 
jression can give the illusion of peace — but it is 
mly illusion. For sooner or later the repression 
)ecomes unbearable and human emotions explode 
■nth violence. That is why we seek liberty for 
he satellite countries. That is why we seek unity 
Lud freedom for Germany and for Austria. That 
s why we seek for Europe a unity which will end 
he petty jealousies and confinements which frus- 
rate men and make them feel that only thi'ough 
vav can they win adequate opportunity. That is 
vhy we seek peace for Korea and, through peaceful 
neans, the unity of Korea. That is why we seek 
)eace in Indochina on the basis of freedom and 
ndependence which the French Government now 
)roraises the peoples. 

As the three Foreign Ministers agreed, the con- 
litions which we seek will safeguard peace for all, 
ncluding Russia, and if the Soviet rulers really 
yant peace they will cooperate with, and not ob- 
truct, what we propose for Europe and Asia. 

It was reassuring to find that the Foreign Min- 
sters of Britain and France, both wise men of 
arge experience, shared our view of the world 
ituation. We can feel confident and, with our 
riends and allies throughout the world, we should 
Qove ahead with vigor to create the conditions of 
. stable peace. 



leturn of Walter S. Robertson 
'rom Mission to Korea 

'ress release 382 dated July 1." 

FoUoioing are the texts of a statement of wel- 
OTTie made hy Secretary Dulles on July 15 to As- 
istant Secretary Robertson on the latiefs arrival 
% Washington from his mission to Korea and Mr. 
lobertsoji's reply : 

ecretary Dulles 

I am very happy to welcome back again to the 
United States Assistant Secretary Robertson and 
Lssistant Secretary McCardle, who have been for 
■Tie last 2 weeks or more in Korea. Secretary 
lf)bertson has done a splendid job in talks with 
'resident Rhee, our good friend and ally, in get- 
ing our relationship on a more friendly and solid 
asis than it has been up to the present time. He 
nil be going shortly to talk to the President. In 
he meantime I know we will all be glad to hear a 
'ord or two from Assistant Secretary Robertson. 



Assistant Secretary Robertson 

I can say in all sincerity that I am delighted to 
bo welcomed back to the United States again. I 
went to Korea bearing messages of friendship and 
good will from President Eisenhower and Secre- 
tary Dulles to President Rhee. I return bearing 
warm messages of friendship and good will from 
President Rhee to President Eisenhower and Sec- 
retary Dulles. 

I went to Korea as a friend. I returned as a 
better friend because I have a clearer idea of the 
incredible sacrifice and suffering through which 
tliese people have gone. 

Our talks in Korea were conducted throughout 
the period in an atmosphere of friendliness and 
cordiality. I was treated at all times with un- 
failing courtesy and consideration. I do not want 
to discuss before reporting to my chiefs the sub- 
stance of our agi'eements. I do want to say, how- 
ever, that we can go ahead and sign an armistice 
in ^ood faith at any time the Communists are 
ready to sign. 

And there is one more thing that I should like 
to say: tlint nil Americans can well be proud of 
Gen. Mark Clark, the Commander of the U.N. 
Forces in Korea. He is doing a wonderful job 
for all of us. 



Current Legislation on Foreign Policy 

Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1953. Report (To 
accompany H. R. 5495). H. Rept. 521, 83d Cong., 1st 
Sess. 12 pp. 

The Universal Copyright Convention of 1952. Message 
From the President of the United States Transmitting 
a Certified Copy of the Universal Copyright Conven- 
tion Together With Certified Copies of Three Related 
Protocols, Signed at Geneva Under Date of Septem- 
ber 6, 1952, by the Respective Plenipotentiaries of the 
United States of America and the Other States Con- 
cerned. S. Exec. M, 83d Cong., 1st Sess. 30 pp. 

Protocol Prolonging the International Agreement Regard- 
ing the Regulation and Marketing of Sugar. Message 
From the President of the United States Transmitting 
Protocol Dated in London August 11, 1952, Prolong- 
ing the International Agreement Regarding the Regu- 
lation and Marketing of Sugar Signed at London on 
May 6, 1937. S. Exec. L, 83d Cong., 1st Sess. 6 pp. 

St. Lawrence Seaway. Hearings Before the Subcommit- 
tee of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United 
States Senate, Eighty-Third Congress, First Session 
on S. 589 and amendments thereto, S. 1065, and S. J. 
Res. 45 Bills and Joint Resolution Relating to the St. 
Lawrence Seaway and Power Project ; and For Other 
Purposes. April 14, 15, 16, May 20 and 21, 1953. 
565 pp. 

The Mutual Security Act of 1953. Report of the Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations on S. 2128 A Bill To 
Amend the Mutual Security Act of 1951 and For Other 
Purposes. S. Rept. 403, 83d Cong., 1st Sess. 84 pp. ; 
Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions, United States Senate, Eighty-Third Congress, 
First Session on A Bill To Amend the Mutual Se- 
curity Act of 1951, and For Other Purposes. May 5, 
6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 23, 25, 27, and 
29. 803 pp. 

Continued on page 108 



uly 27, 1953 



103 



U.S., U.K., and France Discuss Major International Problems 



FINAL COMMUNIQUE 

Press release 379 dated July 14 

The Foreign Minister of France, M. Georges 
Bidault, the Acting Foreign Secretary of the 
United Kingdom, the Marquess of Salisbury, and 
the Secretary of State of the United States, Mr. 
John Foster Dulles, met and consulted together 
at Washington from July 10 to 14, 1953. 



In the course of their consultations, they re- 
viewed a wide range of common problems of con- 
cern to the three Govermnents. The topics 
considered have been diverse, but the entire con- 
ference has been inspired by one dominant pur- 
pose. That has been to seek solutions fulfilling 
the conunon hope of their governments and peoples 
for peace, freedom, and justice. They are cer- 
tain that these same aspirations are shared by 
peoples eveiywhere. 

The three Ministers are convinced that solid 
foundations for peace can be built only by con- 
structive action to end oppression and remove 
causes of instability and sources of conflict. Those 
who genuinely want peace must seek to restore 
liberty, hope, and human dignity. In their meet- 
ings the Ministers have sought answers to exist- 
ing problems consistent with these principles. 

This has been the spirit leading to their conclu- 
sions on tlie future of Europe, tlie restoration of 
German unity and of Austrian independence, and 
the establishment of peace in Korea and Indo- 
china. The same spirit inspires their desire to 
see true liberty restored in the countries of Eastern 
Europe. In each case, they have sought means 
offering the greatest hope of satisfying the general 
desire for freedom, security, and well-being. 
They believe that their proposed solutions will 
help to achieve that stability based on consent 
which alone can reduce tension and guarantee a 
durable peace. 

It is the earnest hope of the tlu'ee Ministers that 
the Soviet Union will approach outstanding prob- 
lems in the same spirit. In so doing the Soviet 
Union would contribute to a lasting peace assur- 
ing the security of all. 

104 



II 

The three Foreign Ministers have reaffirmed 
their resolve to pursue vigorously the policies 
upon which their Governments have agi-eed withi: 
the framework of the Atlantic Treaty. These 
policies include the work for European unity ol 
the six European countries which have already 
set up the Coal and Steel Community and whose 
Govermnents have signed the treaty for the 
European Defense Community. 

The three Governments are determined to safe- 
guard, in accordance with the North Atlantici 
Treaty, the freedom, the common heritage and the" 
civilization of their peoples, based on the princi- 
ples of democracy, freedom of the individiuil and 
the rule of laM*. They have emphasized tlieir re- 
solve to continue the common defense effort neces- 
sary to redress the present lack of balance of powei 
and thus to contribute to collective security anc 
to the maintenance of international peace. Th( 
Ministers reaffirmed that the North Atlantic Alli- 
ance is fundamental to the foreign and defenst 
policies of the three Governments. They we.r( 
agreed that the improved prospects of peace were 
largely due to the existence of the alliance and 
that its defensive strength must be maintained 
They wish to pay tribute to the vital work of the 
North Atlantic Council. 

The three Ministers are instructing their Gov- 
ernments' Permanent Representatives to the North 
Atlantic Council concerning the discussions they 
have held in order that the other member nations 
of Nato may be informed in accordance with 
established practice. 

Ill 

Convinced tliat no effort should be spared to 
strengthen European unitv within the Atlantic 
Community, the three Ministers have noted that 
the Coal and Steel Connuunity, the result of a 
French initiative, is now operating successfully. 
The establishment of the European Defense Com- 
munity constitutes a necessary step to the sam( 
goal ; meanwhile the work of creating a Europeani 
iPolitical Comnumity is being pin-sued by the six 
Governments. They have noted the steps alre^uly 

Department of State Bulletin 



akcn or contemplated by the British Government 
establish close links with these conununities. 
The three Ministers were therefore agreed that : 

(a) the above institutions of a European Com- 
nunity will strengthen the Atlantic Community 
ind will in turn be strengthened by association 
,vith it; 

(b) those constructive efforts to build a stable, 
secure European Community are a major con- 
rilnition toward world peace. Since the Euro- 
ican Community corresponds to the lasting needs 
ii its membci-s and their people for peace, secur- 
ty and welfare, it is to be looked upon as neces- 
i[\ry in itself and not linked up with existing 
nternational tensions. 

(c) such a Community, peaceful by its vei"y 
lature, is not directed against anyone. The in- 
erests and security of all countries cannot be bet- 
ei- safeguarded than by the removal of causes of 
(inflict in Europe. Indeed, the provisions laid 
lown in the European Defense Conununity 
Treaty are a guarantee that its forces would never 
le used in the service of aggi'ession. 

(d) designed to put an end to the conflicts of 
he past, the European Community does not ex- 
•lude any State; on the contrary, the six member- 
ountries have repeatedly stressed that other free 
■ountries of Europe may become members of the 
( ommunity or be associated with it. 

IV 

The three Ministers have also given further 
consideration to the problem of the reunification 
of Germany. The grave events which took place 
recently in Berlin and in the Soviet Zone once 
again gave proof of the will to independence and 
the indomitable determination for freedom of the 
inhabitants of these areas. 

These developments have confirmed the view of 
the Ministers, that the early reunification of Ger- 
man}', in accordance with the legitimate aspira- 
tions of the German population, would be a great 
contribution to the easing of international tension. 

The three powers have made sustained efforts to 
reach this goal. They have, in the course of re- 
cent years addressed several notes with construc- 
tive proposals to the USSR, the last dated Sep- 
tember 23, 1952 to which no reply has yet been 
received. These notes responded to the over- 
whelming desire of the German people to see unity 
reestablished in freedom, as reflected most recently 
by the Resolution of the German Bundestag of 
June 10 of this year. 

An early and orderly progress in this direction 
requires the cooperation of the Soviet Govern- 
ment. 

Mindful of the special urgency which recent 
events have given to the question of the unification 
of Germany, the three powers have resolved to 
make a new effort to bring to an end the division 
of Germany. 



The three Governments have therefore decided, 
in consultation with the German Eederal Gov- 
ernment, to propose a meeting in the early autumn 
of the Foreign Ministers of France, the United 
Kingdom, the United States of America, and the 
USSR to discuss dii-ectly the first steps which 
should lead to a satisfactory solution of the Ger- 
man problem, namely, the organization of free 
elections and the establishment of a free all-Ger- 
man government. 

This meeting should also consider the conclusion 
of the Austrian Treaty. 



The three Ministers reviewed the situation in 
the Far East. 

In reviewing the Korean situation the three 
Ministers reaffirmed their admiration for the gal- 
lantry of the United Nations forces, including 
the indomitable forces of the Republic of Korea, 
defending the free world's cause. They reaf- 
firmed their strong support of the efforts of the 
United Nations Command to conclude an early 
armistice consistent with the United Nations' aims 
and the determination of their governments to 
continue to work toward that end. They agreed 
to pursue every effort to assist the stouthearted 
and sorely tried Koreans to reunite peacefully 
under institutions of their own choosing. 

They considered that, in existing circumstances 
and pending further consultation, the common 
policies of the three Powers tow^ards Communist 
China should be maintained. They resolved that, 
if the Communists should renew their aggression 
in Korea after an armistice and again threaten 
the principles defended by the United Nations, 
their governments would as members of the United 
Nations again support the restoration of peace 
and security. 

The Foreign Ministers were of the opinion that 
an armistice in Korea must not result in jeopard- 
izing the restoration or the safeguarding of 
peace in any other part of Asia. They hope that 
any armistice accepted by the United Nations 
would be a step forwai-d in the cause of peace 
everywhere, and in particular in the Far East. 

The current situation in Indochina was ex- 
amined. The three Foreign Ministers paid trib- 
ute once again to the heroic efforts and sacrifices 
of the soldiers of the French Union, be they fi-om 
France, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos or other parts 
of the Union. They agreed that the struggle in 
defense of the independence of these three na- 
tions against aggi-essive Communism is essential 
to the Free World, and they exchanged views on 
various measures to hasten a satisfactory out- 
come and the restoration of peace in Indochina. 

The Foreign Ministers of the United Kingdom 
and the United States noted with great satisfac- 
tion the proposal of the French Government to 
open discussions with each of the Governments 



July 27, 1953 



105 



of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam with a view to- 
ward completing their sovereignty and independ- 
ence. They agreed that this initiative was a 
most important and auspicious step toward per- 
fecting a free association of these four nations, 
since the internal security and stability of the 
Associated States are best safeguarded by freely 
established constitutional regimes. 

They noted that the French Union offers a 
harmonious and flexible framework within which 
the mutual interest of the participants may be 
guaranteed and their individual interests recon- 
ciled. They are convinced that the objective of 
the French Government is to perfect with the 
Associated States that mutually desirable cohesion 
which is indispensable to the success of the com- 
mon struggle for the independence of the three 
states and which is therefore of fundamental im- 
portance to the security of the whole of Southeast 
Asia. 



CONCLUDING REMARKS BY THE FOREIGN 
MINISTERS 



Press release 378 dated July 14 

Secretary Dulles 

We have just finished a 5-day meeting of the 
Foreign Ministers of our three countries, France, 
Great Britain, and the United States. We have 
reached some very important conclusions. One 
which will attract most importance, no doubt, is 
the decision to invite a Four Power Conference, 
the three of us and the Soviet Union, at the 
Foreign Ministers level to discuss the unification 
of Germany and the liberation of Austria through 
a treaty. 

There are other decisions that we have reached, 
that we have concluded, which are, I think of 
equal importance — perhaps in the long run of 
more importance— the affirmation of the im- 
portance of the unity of Germany, the extension 
of the true independence and sovereignty of the 
people of Indochina, and the support of the po- 
sition that we are taking on behalf of the United 
Nations Command in Korea. All of these de- 
cisions will, I think, prove of very great im- 
portance. 

Throughout all runs a single theme— the de- 
termination to seek peace, and the only way in 
which peace can successfuly be gained, namely, 
by taking steps which will promote the freedom, 
the welfare, the justice, the dignity of human 
beings that are involved. That has been our pur- 
pose and it is through such deeds that we hope to 
really achieve peace. 

We took an important decision today on Ko- 
rea. We agreed that in existing circumstances 

106 



F 



and pending further consultation, the common 
policies of the Three Powers towards Communist 
China should be maintained, and we agreed that 
if the Communists should renew their aggression 
in Korea after an armistice and again threaten 
the principles defended by the United Nations,, 
our three Governments would as members of the 
United Nations again support the restoration of 
peace and security. 



M. Bidault 

I wish, first of all, to warmly thank Mr. Foster 
Dulles, Chairman of our meetings, for the wise 
and understanding way in which he conducted 
our work. 

The results of the conversations, held in an at- 
mosphere in which mutual confidence has con- 
stantly furthered our respective efforts to reacb 
a common agreement, are set fortli in the final 
communique of this Conference. This communi' 
que enters into details and contains matters of 
moment. 

The general spirit of the communique may be 
summed up as follows : To continue our policy of 
solidarity and concrete achievements, a policy 
which has already borne fruit; to respond, with' 
no reservations other than that dictated by es- 
sential caution, to the hope which lies in the hearti 
of the people in the coming of a lasting peaces 
based upon justice and freedom, everywhere re-i 
stored or safeguarded. 

The declaration in support of an indivisiblei 
peace in Asia, the affirmation of loyalty to the( 
Atlantic Pact and those concerning the future oi 
Europe, the invitation to a Four Power Con- 
ference in order to try to solve the German and; 
Austrian problems, as indispensable preliminariea 
to the possibility of a broader settlement — theses' 
are all actions which seek the same goal : to serve( 
the cause of peace and to safeguard our common^ 
ideal. 



Lord Salisbury 

Today, as Mr. Dulles has just said, the talks( 
of the three Foreign Ministers here in Washing- 
ton have come to an end. We can, I believe, view 
them with real satisfaction, that they have both 
shown once more the broad unity of view and 
purpose which inspires our countries and they 
have also led to more considerable results than 
seemed possible when we started. 

For this, we owe a special debt of gratitude to 
the Secretary of State, Mr. Dulles, who has pre 
sided with such wisdom and ability over our 
deliberations. 

It is my belief that what we have done herei 
during the last few days will prove to have made 
a solid contribution to the lessening of tension 
in Europe and the Far East, which is the aim andl 
hope of us all. 



i 



ii 



I 



Department of State Bulletin 



U.S.S.R. Asked To Participate in 
Foreign Ministers' Conference 

On July 15 the Governments of the United 
'^/ates, U/iited Kingdom, and France sent similar 
notes to the Government of the U.S.S.R. proposing 
I four-power conference of foreign ministers. Fol- 
lowing is the text of the U.S. note to the U.S.S.R.: 

Priss release 3S3 dated July 15 

The development of tlie international situation 
and the recent events in Eastern Germany and in 
Berlin have intensified the universal desire to see 
peace more firmly established and to ease existing 
tensions in a way consistent with the fundamental 
riiilit to freedom. 

While recognizing the fact that enduring peace 
run only be ultimately assured when certain basic 
problems, such as controlled disarmament, can be 
dealt with, the United States Government desires 
to dispose now of those problems which are capable 
(if early solution. 

The conclusion of the German and Austrian 
treaties which are long overdue clearly constitutes 
an essential element of the European settlement 
which the United States Government regards as 
a major contribution to peace. 

A German peace treaty can only be negotiated 

with the participation of a free and representative 

all-German Government in a position freely to dis- 

■ cuss such a treaty. Such a government can only 

result from free elections. 

The conditions under which such a Government 
should be formed and enjoy full liberty of action, 
constitute a problem which is capable of early solu- 
tion if there is good will on all sides. It is equally 
clear that no real progress can be made toward a 
general relaxation of tension in Europe so long 
as this problem remains unsolved. 

In its notes to tlie Soviet Government, the last 
of which is that of September 23, 1952,^ to which 
no answer has yet been received, the United States 
Government made constructive proposals, which 
were fully reflected in the resolution of the German 
Bundestag of June 10th of this year. These pro- 
!.> posals are designed to satisfy the unanimous desire 
; ' of the German people for unity in freedom. 
' Mindful of the even greater urgency which the 
: recent events have given to German unification, 
the United States Government is determined to 
; make a new effort so as to brine to an end the 
: abnormal situation to which the German people is 
subjected. It has therefore decided, after consult- 
ing the German Federal Government and the Ger- 
man authorities in Berlin, to propose to the Soviet 
' Government a meeting of Foreign Ministers of 
France, the United Kingdom, United States, and 
the Soviet Union. This meeting of limited dura- 
tion might begin about the end of September at a 



place to be mutually agreed. The subjects for 
discussion should be the following : 

(1) The organization of free elections in the 
Federal Republic, the Eastern Zone of Germany, 
and in Berlin. This would involve discussion 
inter alia of the necessary guarantees for freedom 
of movement, freedom of action for political 
parties, freedom of the press, and the enjoyment 
of the basic freedoms by all Germans before, 
during and after elections. 

(2) Conditions for the establishment of a free 
all-German Government, with freedom of action 
in internal and external affairs. 

These are essential steps which must precede the 
opening of discussions with the Soviet Government 
for a German peace treaty, itself a major element 
of a general settlement. 

The United States Government also considers 
that at this first meeting agreement should finally 
be reached on the Austrian Treaty. 



Coal and Steel Community 
Thanks U.S. for Support 

Press release 375 dated July 13 

Following are the texts of a telegram from 
Jean Monnet, President of the High Authority 
of the European Coal and Steel Community, and 
a letter from the High Authority transmitted to 
Secretary Dulles on July 9. 

M. Monnet to Secretary Dulles 

The High Authority has asked me to transmit 
to you its warmest thanks for the welcome which 
Mr. Etzel, Mr. Spierenburg, and I received in 
"Washington from the President, from yourself 
and the other members of the Government, and 
from the Members of Congress.^ 

The public expression of the support which the 
President and the Government of the United 
States have brought to our enterprise constitutes 
for us all an encouragement of the greatest 
importance. 

The High Authority reported to the parlia- 
mentary assembly of the European Coal and Steel 
Community on our talks in Washington. In a 
motion voted unanimously the assembly enthusi- 
astically welcomed the establishment of relations 
between the United States and the new Europe on 
the basis of mutual understanding and cooper- 
ation. 

The High Authority requests you to transmit 
to Senator Wiley and Congressman Chiperfield 



' BuiXETiN of Oct. 6, 1952, p. 517. 
Jo/y 27, J 953 



" For text of a White House statement Issued on June 
3 during the visit to Washington by the members of the 
High Authority and for an article on the Coal and Steel 
Community, see Bulletin of June 8, 1953, p. SOU, p. 799. 

107 



and to their colleagues our greetings and our 
thanks for the good wishes they have expressed 
for the success of the European Coal and Steel 
Community and the progress of European 
integration. 



High Authority to Secretary Dulles 

[Translation] 

Mr. Secretary: 

The High Authority of tlie European Coal and 
Steel Community has noted with great satisfac- 
tion the exchange of letters between the President 
of the United States and the Chairmen of the 
Foreign Relations Committee of the Senate and 
the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of 
Representatives, as well as the resolution voted 
by the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House 
of Representatives.^ 

The spirit of mutual imderstanding and coop- 
eration which marks the development of relations 
between the United States and the European Com- 
munity is most gratifying to the High Authority. 
The parliamentary assembly of our Community 
has associated itself with this view in a motion 
voted unanimously on June 23. The text of the 
motion is attaclied to this letter.^ 

The High Authority is now preparing its pro- 
gram of action in the field of investments with the 
objective of encouraging the development of pro- 
duction and productivity in the Community. The 
purpose of this action is not to substitute the re- 
sponsibility of the High Authority for that of the 
enterprises, but to contribute to them a solution of 
their difficulties of financing by assisting those 
enterprises whose projects are most useful for the 
Community as a whole. The enter])rises retain 
their full initiative with regard to investments. 

In particular, the High Authority is now de- 
fining the different possibilities of financing 
which result from the creation of the Community 
and from the existence of a reserve fund, regu- 
larly supplied by the proceeds of a levy to be col- 
lected by the High Authority on coal and steel 
production. 

With this work in mind, the High Authority 



■For texts of these letters anil the resolution, see ihid, 
June 29, 1903, p. 927. 
" The text of this resolution is as follows : 
"The Assembly takes notice with satisfaction of the 
discussions which the High Authority had at Washington, 
welcomes warmly the declaration of the President of the 
United States according to the terms of wliich the uniting 
of Europe is a necessity for the peace and prosperity of 
Europeans and of the world, ai\d the creation of the Com- 
munity is the most hopeful and constructive development 
so far toward an economic and political integration of 
Europe, and emphasizes that as a result of the exchange 
of letters between the American authorities, the relations 
between the United States and the new Europe, of which 
the European Coal and Steel Community is the first con- 
crete expression, are establishing themselves not on the 
basis (if aid, but of cooperation." 



lias noted in particular the declaration of Presi 
dent Eisenhower to the effect that "a portion o 
the financing of this development progrant b' 
the United States Government or by one of it 
agencies, out of moneys available for such pur 
poses and under conditions ensuring its prope 
use and ultimate repayment, would foster Euro 
pean integration in a tangible and useful way.' 
The High Authority has also noted with satisfac 
tion the wishes expressed in a similar manner b; 
the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House o 
Representatives. 

In order to implement the proposition con 
tained in the President's letter mentioned above 
the High Authority intends in the near futur 
to communicate a specific proposal to the Govern 
ment of the United States for discussion. 

The High Authority is convinced that this wil 
lead to decisive progress both in the developmen 
of the Coal and bteel Community and in the real 
ization of economic and political integration o; J 
Europe. .i 

Please accept, Mr. Secretary, the assurance o: j, 
my high consideration. 

For the High Authority 

Je.\x Moxxet 



Current Legislation on Foreign Policy> 

Mutual Security Act Extension. Hearings Before th 
Committee on Foreign Affairs, Hous'e of Represent! 
tives, Eighty-Third Congress, First Session on H. 1 
5710 To Amend Further the Mutual Security A< 
of 1951, As Amended, and For Other Purixise; 
March 11, 19, 25, 30, April 29, 30, May 5, 6, 7, 8, l: 
13, 14. 15, IS, 19, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, June 2, 3, 4, ; 
and 6, 1953. 1303 pp. 

State Department Information Program — Informatio 
Centers. Hearing Before the Permanent Subcon 
mittee on Investigations of the Committee on Uoveri 
ment Operations, United States Senate. 83d Congres: 
1st Session Pursuant to S. Res. 40 .\ Resolutio 
Authorizing the Committee on Government Open 
tions To Employ Temporary Additional Personn( 
and Increasing the Limit of Expenditures. Marc 
24, 25, and 26, 19.'i3. Part 1. 95 pp.; Part 2, Marc 
27, April 1 and 2, 1953. 68 pp. 

Activities of United States Citizens Employed by th 
United Nations. Hearing Before the Subconunitte 
To Investigate the Administration of the Intern;i 
Security Act and Otlier Internal Security Laws of th 
Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate 
Eighty-Third Congress, First Session on Activities o 
United States Citizens Employed by the Unite- 
Nations. February 19 and April 27, 1953. Part 1 
58 pp. 

Customs Simplification. Hearings Before the Committe 
on Ways and .Means, House of Uepresentative.- 
Eighty-Third Congress, First Session on II. R. 5106 , 
Bill To Amend Certain .\dministrative Provisions o 
the Tariff Act of 1930 and Related Laws, and Fo 
Other Purposes. May 27, 2S, and 29, 1953. 227 pp. 

Proposed Supplemental -Vppropriation for the Deparlnieii 
of State. Conununication From the President of th 
United States Transmitting A l"ropo.sed Supplementn 
Appropriation for the Fiscal Year 19.54, in the Anioun 
(if .'!;24(l.( X 10. For the Depart ment of State. II. Do( 
201, fvid Cong., 1st Sess. 2 pp. 



II 



108 



Department of State BuUetir 



I.S. Foreign Policy and the Soviet Union 



hy Frarwis B. Stevens ^ 



What I would like to do today is to discuss the 
lature of the Soviet menace, how U. S. foreign 
lolicy lias sought to cope with the menace, and 
rhat, if any, conclusions can be drawn as to U.S.- 
'toviet relations in the future. 

What, then, is the Soviet menace? What is 
he nature of the problem? AVhy does the Soviet 
Jnion act as it does? 
There is no precise formula for explaining the 
ctions of the Soviet Union any more than there 
3 such a formula for explaining our own. Inter- 
lational relations are not conducted with a slide 
ule. And foreign policy is not concocted in a 
est tube. 

Furthermore, nations — like the people who com- 
)Ose them — make their share of mistakes in for- 
,j, ign policy as they do in all policies. 

There are, however, some obvious influences 

i fhich liave played an important role in shaping 

he course of Soviet foreign policy in the postwar 

'■^ leriod. Among these influences are Communist 

ieology, the historic Russian urge to expand, the 

w adividual lust for power of the Soviet leaders, 

,nd the insecurity complex which is characteristic 

if totalitarian chieftains everywhere. 

ati I will not attempt to discuss any of these in 

Teat detail. But some points do need to be made 

a regard to each. 

I," Communist doctrine has gone thi'ough so many 

w wists, turns, and gyrations since Karl Marx first 

ft) ave it to the world that many wonder whether 

* here is indeed any solid core of consistency to it. 

j|„ It is apparent that the Soviet leader's have been 

fil lost "flexible" in matters of doctrine. They have 

[lifted their theoretical position to meet internal 

'* r external emergencies when necessary. How- 

II' ver, there are certain essential principles which 

,s( .ave not been shifted and which I believe Com- 

Fi lunist leaders have always accepted as gospel. 



ij 'Address made before the Fourth Annual Conference 
jj! nProhlems of U.S. Foreign Policy at Indiana University, 
^ sloomington, Ind., on July 11 (press release 3.")9 dated 
[i uly 9). Mr. Stevens is special assistant to the Director 
f the Office of Eastern European Affairs. 



There has been no change in the Soviet-Com- 
munist premise that capitalism — and in today's 
world that means primarily us — is doomed. There 
has been no change in the premise that time is on 
the side of the "proletariat" and of the Soviet 
Union as the heait of the world Communist 
movement. 

There has been no change in the premise that 
the democratic nations are bound to fall out 
amongst themselves in competition for markets. 

In 1919, Lenin told the Eighth Communist 
Party Congi-ess: 

We are living not merely in a state but in a system of 
states. The existence of the Soviet Union side by side 
with imperialist states over a long period is unthinkable. 
One or the other must triumph in the end. 

The United States was and remains the leading 
"imperialist" state from the Soviet point of view. 

Neither Stalin nor his successors have indicated 
any deviation from this long-term belief of 
Lenin's. This, despite Stalin's ideas on capital- 
ist-Communist "coexistence" and his successors' 
current crop of peace gestures. 

It is well for us to bear this basic axiom of So- 
viet doctrine in mind when we set out to evaluate 
Soviet words or Soviet actions. 



Historic Russian Imperialism 

The imperialistic urges of the Tsars — urges 
which were translated into efforts to penetrate the 
Near East, the Far East, and Eastern Europe — 
did not die with the Tsars. The history of the 
past 30 years is replete with examples of the 
anxiety of the Soviet leaders to give expression to 
this historic impei-ialism. 

Stalin was not less an imperialist than Tsar 
Nicholas II despite the ideology in which he — • 
Stalin — cloaked himself. On the contrary, Com- 
munist ideology merely broadened his horizons. 
The countries of Eastern Europe can testify to 
that by virtue of bitter experience. Turkey, Iran, 
and Korea can testify to it by virtue of having 



o/y 27, 1953 



109 



been immediately exposed to the threat of such 
experience. 

Individual lust for power is something that 
we cannot measure. And it is not limited to total- 
itarian political leaders or to political leaders of 
any kind. But the leader or leaders of a totalitar- 
ian state are most likely to have a particularly 
strong desire for power as well as the greatest 
opportunity to indulge it. 

The insecurity complex which beset Hitler and 
Mussolini also ruled Stalin, even as it must torture 
his successors. Those who achieve power by force 
and retain it by force cannot help but feel 
threatened. Otherwise, they would not depend 
upon force as much as they do. This chronic in- 
security is, I believe, a very important factor 
which conditions the Soviet Union's conduct of 
foreign affairs. It is very closely related to the 
constant Soviet charges that they are being "en- 
circled" by capitalist states. 

These, then, are four of the influences which 
condition Soviet actions in world affairs: Ideol- 
ogy, the historic imperialist urge, the lust for 
power, and the insecurity complex of Soviet 
leaders. 

How about the Soviet people ? Don't the people 
have an impact upon their Government's activ- 
ities ? 

During World War II, I spent 3 years in Mos- 
cow. These were years of great trials for the 
Soviet Union and for its people. The people knew 
despair, defeat, and deprivation. They also knew 
victory, exaltation, and hope. 

Although little travel was possible, contact with 
the local populace was relatively free, and I was 
in an excellent position to see what made the aver- 
age Russian tick. 

The average Great Russian does not expect or 
particularly want a democratic government. In 
the first place, he doesn't know what democracy is. 
It is outside his experience. In the second, he has 
come to accept absolutism as something which 
is natural "because it has always existed." The 
transition from the despotic Tsar who was "the 
little Father" of all the Russians to the "God" 
which Josef Stalin's skillful propagandists cre- 
ated was not a difficult one. 

The average Russian is a glutton for punish- 
ment. He has taken and is taking the most diffi- 
cult of living conditions. He can suffer much. 
And, generally, he suffers in silence. During the 
war and immediately after it, millions of Russians 
lived in most precarious circumstances. 

But throughout the bitter ordeal they were 
buoyed up by the hope that after the victory, 
which they never doubted, things would be better, 
and by the even deeper hope that, as a reward 
for their suffering and steadfastness, the regime 
would moderate its controls and grant them some 
measure of personal freedom. 

Though he is able to sustain great hardship, the 

110 



typical Russian is neither an animal nor does he 
lack the usual human wants, desires, and inhibl 
tions. Generally speaking, he is quite cheerfu: 
and friendly. He would be a good deal more 
friendly to foreigners if he weren't terrorized bj 
his Government's tactics. 

Further, the Russian has begun to realize thai 
there is such a thing as a better standard of living 
Soldiers have brought back stories of life in tht 
occupied countries farther west which do no 
square with the assertions of Soviet propaganda 
The interrogation of escapees reveals a growing 
demand for relief from police oppression and foi 
higher standards of living which, though still in 
articulate, must be reckoned with. 

What can we conclude from this? 

I think that we can certainly conclude that eve} 
totalitarian leaders do not operate in a vacuum 
The peoples whom they dominate cannot be end 
lessly disregarded. Government policies mus 
take into consideration the basic needs and want 
of the people, though certainly not to the exten 
that such consideration exists in a democracy. 

A police state may have a monopoly of weap 
ons. And it may have a monopoly of the instru 
ments of propaganda. But that does not mea 
that police-state tactics can forever control a popu 
lation existing at little more than a subsistenc 
standard. 

Soviet leaders understand this quite well. An 
I believe that their effort to raise living standard 
without lowering their munitions output is s 
least partially responsible for the manner in whic 
they have pillaged the satellite areas. 

In the past 10 minutes or so I have tried t 
paint a very general picture of some of the forcf 
which motivate the Soviet rulers as well as of tb 
Soviet people as I saw and knew them. 

Wliat sort of world has the Soviet state create 
for us and how have we tried to cope with it ? 

It is obvious that today's world is one in whio 
two huge aggregations of power face each other i 
a long-term struggle — a struggle which evidencf 
itself in many different forms. On the one hami 
there is the Soviet Union, its Communist Chinei 
junior partner, and its satellites. Tliis cannot l 
called a coalition. There is no coalition between 
master and slave. 

On the other hand, there is the coalition of dew 
ocratic nations led by America. We and our allii 
truly represent a coalition. We represent fn 
peoples standing together because they want 
and because they recognize the need for unite 
action if freedom is to survive. 



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Guiding Principles of U.S. Foreign Policy 

How has American foreign policy operated il 
this world of bipolarized power? To put it ai 
other way, what have been the guiding principle 
of American foreign policy in the period since th 
closing months of World War II ? 

Deparfment of State Bullet'i 



Km 






h] 



goi 
lie 



I should like for a moment to go back to the Big 
Power conferences which were held at Tehran, 
Yalta, and Potsdam during the war. And I want 
to be as realistic as I can in the process. 

There has been much discussion about these 
conferences. Some of that discussion has been 
logical and factual. Some of it has been highly 
emotional and, I fear, not so logical. I have no 
intention of stirring up the fires of controversy 
here. But I do think it is necessary to get the 
facts in proper perspective. 

What are the facts? These conferences were 
held during the war at a time when the Soviet 
Union was an ally. They were held by the top 
leaders of the major Allied Powers with the idea 
of developing a decent machinery for peace as 
well as for finishing off our mutual enemies. They 
were hekl in the general belief — a belief that most 
Americans shared — that the major powers were 
oing to work together for a lasting peace after 

e war. 

Another point of interest : Neither at Yalta nor 
at Potsdam did American leaders sign their names 
to pieces of paper which committed us to any pol- 
icy which compromised our security. In spite of 
controversy, the threat to American security in- 
sofar as Yalta and Potsdam were concerned arises 
not so much out of the agreements made there but 
out of the Soviet Union's violation of these 
agreements. 

The Declaration on Liberated Europe ^— an in- 
tegral part of the Yalta agreements — stated : 

They [meaning the United States, the United Kingdom, 
and the Soviet Union] jointly declare their mutual agree- 
ment to concert during the temporary period of iustalJility 
in liberated Europe the policies of their three Govern- 
'ments in assisting . . . the peoples of the former Axis 
': satellite states to solve by democratic means their press- 
ing political and economic problems. 

The fact that democratic means were not ap- 
plied is the fault of the Soviet Union — not of what 
we agreed to at Yalta or anywhere else. This 
Government has consistently attempted to hold 
!the Soviet Union to its commitments and has re- 
; peatedly protested violations. 

Well — you might ask — why didn't we see to it 
gjthat the Soviet Union was held to its promises? 

Do you remember the words that were on the 
rJips of most Americans in 1945 and 1946? I cer- 
itainly do. They were "bring the boys home." 

Were the American people prepared in 1945 or 
1 1946 to use force to hold the Soviets to their com- 
rlmitments? I do not think so. No democratic 
government — no matter how wise or how far- 
sighted — can do what those whom it represents 
will not allow it to do. This is the essence of 
democracy. 

When it became obvious in the months follow- 
ing World War II that the Soviet Union was not 



going to honor its commitments and that conquest 
was her chosen path, the United States had to shift 
gears. 

And we did. We developed a foreign policy 
based upon the vital fact that the Soviet Union 
had chosen to be a deadly enemy rather than re- 
main a desired friend. And there has been a con- 
tinuity of policy from that day to this. Given a 
complex world situation, it has of necessity been 
a complex policy. 

But U.S. foreign policy has been consistent in 
basic principles. This is as it must be. The 
major objectives of the United States do not 
change. They are determined on the basis of an 
objective evaluation of the national interest, not 
by partisan consideration. The realities of for- 
eign affairs are not altered by a change in admin- 
istration. And so, while faces and emphasis may 
change, the general objectives of U.S. foreign 
policy remain constant. 

Importance of Free-World Unity 

Our policy today is based on the understanding 
that peace and security for the free nations can 
be found only in united effort. The United Na- 
tions, our various regional agreements in Europe, 
Latin America, and in the Pacific, the mutual se- 
curity program — all of these things testify to the 
importance of the unity principle. 

In a world threatened by Communist expan- 
sionism and shrunken by technology, the United 
States cannot, dare not, stand alone. President 
Eisenhower put it this way in a recent speech : * 

No nation's security and well-being can be lastingly 
achieved in isolation but only in effective cooperation with 
fellovp nations . . . the defense of Western Europe 
imperatively demands the unity of purpose and action 
made possible by the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion. . . . aggression in Korea and in southeast Asia 
are threats to the whole free community to be met by 
united action. 

United action in a voluntary coalition places a 
particularly heavy burden on the leader — in this 
case the United States. The other and weaker 
members look to us for maturity and wisdom 
which we do not always display. We tend to for- 
get that our allies are proud and ancient peoples, 
that they have their own ways of doing things, 
and, above all, that they are much closer to the 
Soviet threat than are we. To make the coalition 
effective, it is essential that we exercise forbear- 
ance with our allies and induce them by persua- 
sion and a recognition of common interests to 
move in the direction we wish them to go. 

A second constant of American foreign policy 
in the postwar period has been shown in our rela- 
tions with the Soviet Union. If we have based 
our policy toward our allies upon unity, we have 
also opposed Soviet moves with firmness. We 



' Bulletin of Feb. 18, 1945, p. 21.". 
J-jIy 27, 1953 



'Ibid., Apr. 27, 1953, p. 599. 



m 



have understood that those who grasp for power 
respect power. 

"Wlien the Soviets refused to withdraw their 
troops from northei'n Iran in early 1946, we 
worked through the United Nations to force that 
withdrawaL And we did it by mustering the 
opinion of an aroused world and committing our- 
selves to do everything within reason to free Iran 
of foreign occupation forces. 

When the Soviets put pressure on Greece and 
Turkey in 1946 and early 1947, we acted with firm- 
ness. The Greek-Tui-kish Aid progi-am literally 
sped through Congress and the material aid and 
moral support of our counti-y helped the Greeks 
and Turks to maintain their freedom. 

When, in mid-1948, the Soviets sought to starve 
Westei-n Berlin and force the Western Allies out 
by economic strangulation, we again acted with 
firmne.ss. And with disiiatch. The British and 
French joined us in a fabulous airlift which kept 
Berlin fed, fueled, and clothed. Once again, the 
Soviet Bear was forced to pull in his claws. 

In June 1950, the Communists launched their 
cruel, unprovoked, and naked aggression in Ko- 
rea. They ignited a spark which was to destroy 
the physical resources of a people, millions of 
lives, and untold millions in property. They 
opened the door to global war. 

And only firmness, the firmness of the United 
Nations and of the United States in its role of 
leadership, closed that door. I shall not here go 
into details of why we went into Korea or what 
is likely to happen there. 

You know why we went in. James Jabara, the 
air ace from Kansas, whose succinct explanation 
on this point made headlines more than a year ago, 
deserves to be quoted repeatedly. Upon his re- 
turn from Korea, he was asked the 64-dollar ques- 
tion. His response : "I fought in Korea so that I 
would not have to fight in Wichita." I don't 
think it can be stated any better than that. 

The point is that we met the Korean aggi'ession 
with firmness. It has cost us dear. It is costing 
us dear. But the alternative might well have been 
catastrophe. 

We Americans are not a patient people. And it 
is not easy for a mother with a son in Korea or a 
wife with a husband there to think in political or 
strategic terms. I certainly do not expect them 
to want to think in these terms. But it is never- 
theless urgent that all Americans, no matter how 
involved in Korea, recognize that we had no safe 
alternative to what we did to counter aggi-ession 
there. 

American foreign policy in the postwar period 
has had a rough road to travel. But it has 
traveled that road fully in keeping with the de- 
mands of our national security. It has adhered to 
those principles which alone can bring us safety 
and a peaceful world. 

It must continue to be these things if we are to 



112 



survive. It must continue to be tolerant of our 

friends and flexible to the extent necessary to meet 
changing conditions. The world does not stand 
still. 

Can American foreign policy continue to meet 
the challenge it faces? I believe that it can. But 
there are certain essentials all Americans must 
keep in mind if we are to achieve national security 
in a decent world. 

One of these things is an awareness of Com- 
munist weaknesses. Another is an awareness of 
our own great strength. A third, and in some 
ways the most important, is an awareness of the 
moral foundation upon which oiu* strength restsj 



Soviet Weaknesses 

Let us examine Soviet weaknesses — actual and 
potential. For the Soviet Union is the center of 
the world Communist movement as well as its 
greatest source of power. 

One possible source of Soviet weakness lies in 
the struggle for power which may well break out 
among the contenders for Stalin's mantle. Ai 
totalitarian state by its very nature demands a 
single head. 

There is no way of telling how long it will take 
for one man to become the new undisputed head 
of the Soviet Union. But that various key in 
dividuals will seek or are seeking that role may be 
taken for granted. In a dictatorship energies 
pulling in different directions do not make for thi 
best use of political power. They certainlj' do not 
make for stability. 

I am not suggesting that the Soviet Govern- 
ment is in or near a state of chaos. I am suggest- 
ing that a totalitarian structure can be effective 
only when under unified direction. 

The Soviet Government today is clearly not 
controlled by any single man. Malenkov may be 
Stalin's successor in name, but he must go a long 
way to acquire his prestige and political power. 

This raises the possibility of a second source ol 
weakness. The Soviet Union not only requires 
unified direction ; it also requires a new god which 
the peoples can worship as Stalin's true successor. 

I have mentioned that Stalin was the inheritor 
of the Tsarist tradition in that he became a Father 
image to the Soviet peoples. As such, he was a 
strong unifying influence. Everything good ac- 
complished in the Soviet Union was attributed 
to him — everything bad to real or fancied enemies. 

A people used to living in a totalitarian atmos- 
phere needs a Father image. The Soviet peo]iles 
are no exception to (he rule. However, it will he 
no easy matter to create a true successor to Stalin 
in this sense. 

It took Stalin and his propagandists 25 yeai*s to 
do the trick. A new "Father" will not be devel- 
oped in a few months or even in several yeai'S. 

Another source of weakness is the discrcjiancv 
between Communist theory and practice, between 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



propaganda and reality. In the land of the liber- 
atinl proletariat, workers and peasants are ground 
uiuler the lieel of a merciless police system. The 
apostles of jieace bring war to Korea; the heralds 
of national liberation impose slavery on the coun- 
tries of Eastern Europe. The world is rapidly 
learning to distrust the words of Soviet leaders; 
and as this distrust grows, the appeal of Commu- 
nist propaganda is progressively undermined. 

A fourth source of potential weakness in the 
Soviet Union lies in the possibility of mass dissat- 
isfaction among the peoples of the Soviet Union — 
a dissatisfaction fed by their resentment at op- 
pression and their very low standard of living. 
The Great Russians, as I have said, can bear un- 
told hardships and bear them for long periods 
of time. 

But not all the Soviet peoples are Great Rus- 
sians and none of them will suffer economic hard- 
ship and deprivation of freedom endlessly. Par- 
ticularly is that the case when these peoples have 
standards for comparison with living conditions 
in the West. 

Soviet living standards today are probably 
better than at any time in the postwar period. 
But they are still very low. And the Soviet con- 
sumer is still playing second fiddle to the needs 
of the Soviet war machine. 

A fifth source of weakness, and this is not just 
potential, lies in the dissatisfaction and revulsion 
of the satellite peoples. In the past month, we 
have seen detailed newspaper accounts of popular 
uprisings in Eastern Germany and Czechoslovakia. 

Soviet tanks and guns liave suppressed the 
rioters. But the Communist governments have 
had to make concessions. And these uprisings are 
symptomatic of real unrest among important seg- 
ments of the Communist-controlled populations 
behind the Iron Curtain. 

This unrest is, of course, beneficial to the cause 
of freedom and detrimental to the cause of Com- 
munist enslavement. It should not, however, be 
confused with bona fide political revolution, nor 
should we draw the conclusion that revolt is just 
around the corner. 

Because riots and protest meetings have oc- 
curred does not necessarily mean that revolt is 
possible under existing conditions. Hmnan 
beings — no matter how dissatisfied — have yet to 
demonstrate their ability to fight a police state 
holding a monopoly of modern weapons. Bare 
fists, sticks, and stones, no matter how energeti- 
cally wielded, have yet to defeat machineguns 
and tanks. 

It is well for us to bear this ugly tiiith in mind. 
And we should develop and implement our for- 
eign policies accordingly. 

A final source of potential weakness in the 
Soviet orbit lies in the relationship between 
Moscow and Peiping. Communist China is not a 
satellite. She possesses the raw ingredients from 



which great powers are molded. She is acting as 
a power and as a partner to the Soviet Union. 

]\Iao Tse Tung, the Chinese Communist leader, 
may well possess greater doctrinal antliority and 
]>restige in Asia than does any one of the current 
band of Soviet leaders. Malenkov, Stalin's suc- 
cessor as premier, is not yet his successor as the 
recognized leader of world communism. 



Possible Friction Between Moscow and Peiping 

Given this situation, there is always the possi- 
bility that friction could develop between Soviet 
Russia and Communist China. 

A knowledge of Soviet weaknesses, actual and 
potential, is, as I have said, essential to our under- 
standing of the complex problems we face in inter- 
national afi'airs and to the development of an ef- 
fective foreign policy. Equally essential, however, 
is a knowledge of our own strength and of the 
bases upon which it rests. 

Today, the United States is the world's strong- 
est power. Our economic potential is second to 
none. Our productive capacity is unmatched. 
Our militaiy force is large and well equipped. 
Our technology and our research resources are the 
envy of friend and foe alike. In terms of material 
power, we need take a back seat to no nation. 

But material power is not the only measure of 
strength in today's world. Other measures in- 
clude our economic staying power and the spirit, 
morale, and morality of our society. 

The Communists — as you know — expect depres- 
sion to overtake and destroy us. The thesis that 
America will suffer economic collapse is basic to 
their doctrine. They not only say this; tliey 
believe it. 

If they were right, the mightiest army and the 
greatest stockpile of atom bombs would not be 
enough to save us. 

But they are not right. And they will not be 
right if we but remember that strength abroad 
and stability at home go arm in ann. We can 
and will maintain the strength with which to 
check and control communism, if we maintain our 
economic stability and our high standard of 
living. 

Perhaps most important of all to an America 
intent upon preserving its freedom and stability 
in this trying world is our belief in ourselves and 
capability to cause others to believe in us. 

Belief in ourselves and the confidence of our 
foreign friends are two sides of the same priceless 
coin. For without self-confidence, we become the 
victims of unreasoned fear. Without the confi- 
dence and trust of other nations, we lose the 
leadership of the free world and see the unity we 
have labored to build crumble into dust. 

Here, I think, lies the greatest challenge of all 
for America and Americans. We cannot have 
security — and we cannot provide leadership for 
the free world — if we do not maintain the liberties 



July 27, 7953 



113 



and the freedoms wliich have made us a great 
nation. 

If we allow the extremists and the fanatics to 
make inroads into our cherished liberties, we sur- 
render to the fears and uncertainties which are 
tlie hallmarks of totalitarianism. We surrender 
the birthright which permits us to call ourselves 
a democi-acy. We are not combating the Commu- 
nists. We are aiding them. 



we and other nations can live in peace and 
security. 

I believe that we can achieve all of these objec- 
tives. I believe tliat we have made considerable 
progress in that direction. 

We will reach all of these objectives only if we 
continue to believe in ourselves and act so that 
other free peoples continue to believe in us. 



Preservation of Liberties 

The first premise of American survival today 
is that we must — and I reiterate this — we must 
preserve our liberties — our liberty to speak, to 
write, and to think as we please. 

Judge Learned Hand, one of the greatest of 
American jurists, made the point better than I 
can hope to when he said : 

I believe that that community is already in process of 
dissolution where eacli man begins to eye his neighbor 
as a possible enemy, where non-conformity with the ac- 
cepted creed, political as well as religious, is a mark of 
disaffection; where denunciation, without specification or 
backing, takes the place of evidence; where orthodoxy 
chokes freedom of dissent; where faith in the eventual 
smiremacy of reason has become so timid that we dare 
not enter our convictions in the open lists to win or lose. 

We Americans must not allow fear of the Com- 
munist menace to cause us to lose confidence in 
ourselves and in our ability to survive and flour- 
ish. We cannot have the strength we need to de- 
feat communism if that strength has to be drawn 
from wellsprings of unreasoned fear. 

And we cannot expect our allies to follow our 
leadership if we do not demonstrate our freedom 
from fear. We cannot expect it if we fail to prac- 
tice the very principles we preach. 

Insofar as we are concerned, leadership is not a 
royal crown which heredity has bestowed upon us. 
It is not ours by divine right. We did not seek 
it. 

Circumstances beyond our control have forced 
us to accept leadership because we cannot live in 
security unless we exercise it. We will not exer- 
cise it for long if those who look to us for guid- 
ance find us wanting in defending the very 
liberties which we declare the Communists are 
threatening. 

We must lead our free-world partners by 
setting an example that they will want to follow. 
And no amount of propaganda on our part will 
convince them that we are still worth following 
if our deeds do not match our words. 

America's objectives in today's world are basic- 
ally three in number : We seek to reduce the Soviet 
Union's capabilities for aggressive action. We 
seek to frustrate world communism's basic inten- 
tions and to build the defensive strength of a free 
world coalition. Most important of all, we seek 
to create a just and decent world order in which 



First niinister of Laos 
Presents Credentials 

Press release 374 dated July 13 

Following is the text of remarks exchanged be- 
tween President Eisenhower and Ourot Souvan- 
navong, newly appointed Minister of Laos, on the 
occasio7i of the presentation of his letter of cre- 
dence on July 13: 

Remarks of Ourot Souvannavong 

ITransIation] 

Mr. President: 

I have the honor to transmit to Your Excellency 
the letters whereby my August Soverei,o;n has been 
good enough to accredit me in the capacity of first 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary of Laos to the President of the United States 
of America. 

That is for me a signal honor which I appreciate 
deeply. It is also a responsibility the importance 
and extent of which I fully realize. But, although 
the high mission with which I have been entrusted 
is a heavy burden, I assume it with complete con- 
fidence, aware of the bonds which have already 
been formed between our two countries and the 
firm friendship which your country, Mr. President, 
is displaying toward mine in so enlightened a 
manner. 

Powerful material and ideological forces have 
recently threatened the independence and freedom 
of the Kingdom of Laos. 

Gathered around their King, the symbol of 
steadfastness and greatness of soul, the citizens 
of Laos have risen up to resist the invader. 
Strongly supported by the troops of the French 
Union, the National Army has broken the force 
of the enemy's attack, and will not pause until 
he has been driven from the Kingdom. 

In these difficult times your country's firm 
friendship and ready understanding have been of 
the greatest comfort to us. 

Thus in the hour of peril the country's essential 
unity was strengthened when it was threatened by 
foreign rebels whose success would mean, in the 
domestic sphere, an odious state of subjection 
wliich is I'ejiiignant to all L:io traditions and 
beliefs, and, in the international sphere, a wide- 



114 



Department of State Bulletin 



open gateway to tlie rich tenitoiies of Southeast 
Asia. 

Althougli in this first phase our country's forces 
have been able to repulse the invader victoriously, 
the Eoyal Government does not lose sight of the 
dangers whith may once again threaten the coun- 
try should the circumstances favor them. It has 
talcen the necessary measures to alleviate those 
dangers, but it is well aware that its means alone 
would be insufficient to contain successfully a new 
onslaught which, so every evidence indicates, will 
be of great force and extent. 

Nevertheless, the Royal Government continues, 
now more than ever, to believe, realistically, in 
material progress, social justice, and spiritual 
values. It is exerting every effort toward their 
attainment. The difficulties caused by the danger 
from abroad will not halt its progress along that 
road. 

The significance of my mission to Your Excel- 
lency is to impart a constructive purpose to the 
friendship and understanding between our two 
countries. It will be my greatest reward if my 
efforts make it possible for reason and peace to 
triumph in our countries and, in a broader sense, 
throughout the world. 

In order that I may bring this work to a success- 
ful conclusion and thus merit the confidence of my 
August Sovereign and of my Government, one of 
the most valued elements of encouragement that 
I could desire is to be worthy of your powerful 
and benevolent support. 

In return. Your Excellency may be sure that all 
my efforts will be devoted to strengthening be- 
tween our nations the bonds of a common will to 
build a just and free world. 

On behalf of His Majesty the King of Laos and 
of the Royal Government, I have the honor to ex- 
press to you the warm and sincere wishes of Laos 
for your personal happiness, for the success of 
the work undertaken by your Government, and for 
the prosperity of the people of the United States 
of America. 



President Eisenhower's Reply 

Mr. Minister: 

It is my great pleasure to receive the Envoy 
of His Majesty Sisavang Vong and to see estab- 
lished in Washington the first diplomatic mission 
from the Kingdom of Laos. Your presence here 
can only strengthen the already firm bonds of 
friendship between our two countries. 

It is additionally an honor to receive the repre- 
sentative of a country which recently demon- 
strated its gi'eat valor and its attachment to the 
cause of liberty when it was invaded by the armed 
forces for a foreign movement dedicated to the 
overthrow of free governments. I have followed 
with close attention the valiant resistance of 
the National Army. Inspired by the example of 



the King and the Royal Family in remaining at 
the virtually beseiged capital, the citi/^ens as well 
as the army showed their determination to resist 
the aggression. This country is i^roud to be able 
to contribute some material means to the Na- 
tional Army and the gallant forces of the French 
Union, and thus associate itself with tiie victorious 
struggle. 

But we realize that the menace is but tem- 
porarily abated. The positive measures now 
being taken in your country to strengthen the 
armed forces are a reassurance that the Kingdom 
will be prepared to resist the enemy to the limits 
of its capacity. American aid, I am sure, will 
play its part in this mobilization of the resources 
of Laos. 

The example of courage and national unity dis- 
played to the world in the face of this threat to 
the existence of the Kingdom is a tribute to the 
popularity of the Sovereign and the Royal Gov- 
ermuent, for no oppressive dictatorship could ex- 
pect the spontaneous and voluntary support which 
characterized the actions of the Lao people dur- 
ing the time of crisis. The establishment in 1947 
of a constitutional, parliamentary monarchy, im- 
bued with a democratic spirit, has proved its merit 
under the most difficult of circumstances. Laos 
has demonstrated to the world its belief in a pro- 
gressive and just form of goveriunent through the 
enthusiastic acceptance and participation in that 
government by its citizens. 

Mr. Minister, may I extend to you my very best 
and sincere wishes for the success of your mission 
in the United States, and may I ask you to convey 
to your King and your Government my warmest 
hope for the prosperity and happiness of the 
Kingdom. 



U.S. Ratifies Revised 
International Wheat Agreement 

Press release 380 dated July 15 

On July 14, the President signed the ratification 
by the United States of the Agreement Revising 
and Renewing the International Wheat Agree- 
ment. The new agreement was open for signature 
at Washington from April 13 to 27, inclusive, and 
was signed during that period on behalf of the 
United States and 44 other countries. It was 
transmitted to the Senate with the President's 
message of June 2 ^ for advice and consent to 
ratification. The Senate approved the agreement 
on July 13. 

The U.S. ratification, constituting the instru- 
ment of acceptance in accordance with the terms 
of the new agreement, was deposited on July 14. 

' S. Exec. H, 83(J Cong., 1st sess. For text of the agree- 
ment, see also Cong. Rec, July 13, 1953, p. 8891. 



July 27, 1953 



115 



STATUS OF WHEAT AGREEMENT 

Press release 385 aated July 10 

As a result of action taken by the interested 
governments through July 15, 1953, an adequate 
basis has been laid for bringing into force the 
Agreement Revising and Renewing the Interna- 
tional Wheat Agreement. Because of the need 
for further action by the governments of certain 
importing countries, it may not be possible until 
August 1 to determine whether the new agreement 
will become effective. 

The Agreement Revising and Renewing the In- 
ternational Wheat Agreement was open for signa- 
ture at Washington April 13 to 27, inclusive, 1953, 
and was signed during that period on behalf of 
the United States and 44 other countries. 

It is provided in article XX of the new agree- 
ment that the agreement shall be subject to accept- 
ance by the signatory governments and that in- 
struments of acceptance by such governments 
shall be deposited with the U.S. Government not 
later than July 15, 1953, provided, however, that if 
any signatory government gives, by July 15, 
1953, a notification of intention to accept the agree- 
ment and thereafter, not later than August 1, 1953, 
deposits its instrument of acceptance, the notifica- 
tion shall be deemed to constitute acceptance on 
July 15 for the purposes of bringing the agree- 
ment into force. 

It is provided further in article XX that the 
agreement shall enter into force on July 15, 1953, 
except as to part 2 thereof, which shall enter into 
force on August 1, 1953, as between those govern- 
ments which have accepted the agreement, pro- 
vided that governments of countries responsible 
for certain percentages of the gunranteed sales 
and purchases shall have accepted the agreement 
by July 15. Under this provision, it was necessai-y 
that either instruments of acceptance be deposited 
by July 15 or notifications of intention be given by 
July 15 on behalf of the governments of countries 
listed in annex A to article III responsible for 
at least 50 percent of the guaranteed purchases 
(i. e., importing countries) and the governments 
of countries listed in annex B to article III respon- 
sible for at least 50 percent of the guaranteed 
sales (i. e., exporting countries). 

The instrument of acceptance by Canada was 
deposited on May 18, 1953. The instrument of 
acceptance by the United States was deposited on 
July 14, 1953. Both the United States and Canada 
are exporting countries listed in annex B to article 
III and, together, are responsible for approxi- 
mately 87 percent of the guaranteed sales. Ac- 
cordingly, the i-equireinents of article XX with 
respect to action by the exporting countries for 
the purpose of bringing the agreement into force 
have been fully satisfied. 



Through July 15, 1953, instruments of accept- 
ance by the following importing countries listed 
in annex A to article III had been deposited : 
Bolivia, Ceylon, Costa Rica, Cuba, Egypt, Guate- 
mala, Iceland, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Japan, 
Peru, Philippines, and Switzerland. 1'hiough 
July 15, 1953, notifications of intention under arti- 
cle XX had been given by the following import- 
ing countries listed in annex A to aiticie III: 
Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Dominican Republic, 
El Salvador, Federal Republic of Germany, 
Greece, Haiti, India, Netherlands, New Zealand. 
Nicaragua, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and the 
Union of South Africa. 

Those two groups of importing countries, to- 
gether, are responsible for approximately 57 per- 
cent of the guaranteed purchases. In the case of 
each country which has given a notification of 
intention, it will be necessai-y, in order for that 
notification to be effective for the purpose of 
bringing the agreement into force, for the countrj' 
which gave the notice to deposit its instrument 
of acceptance of the agreement by August 1. If, 
by that date, instruments of acceptance by im- 
porting countries responsible for at least 50 per- 
cent of the guaranteed purchases have been de- 
posited, the requirements of article XX with 
respect to action by the importing countries for 
the purpose of bringing the agreement into force 
will have been fully satisfied. 

The signature of the agreement on behalf of 
Peru was made subject to an understanding with 
respect to an adjustment of the guaranteed quan- 
tity specified for Peru in the agreement. The 
notification of intention given by India indicates 
that India's acceptance of the agreement will in- 
clude a statement with respect to adjustment of 
the guaranteed quantity specified for India in the 
agreement. 

Certain exporting and importing countries on 
whose behalf the new agreement was signed did 
not deposit an instrument of acceptance or give 
a notification of intention, as follows: exjiorting 
countries — Australia and France ; importing coun- 
tries — Brazil, Ecuador, Honduras, Italy, Lebanon, 
Liberia, Mexico, Panama, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, 
and Venezuela. It is possible, however, for any 
of these countries to request the International 
"Wlieat Council, pui-suant to the provisions of 
paragraph 4 of aiticle XX, to extend the period 
of time during which the instrument of accept- 
ance may be deposited. Any signatory govern- 
ment which fails to take advantage of those pro- 
visions may yet become a party to the agreement 
through the accession procedure stipulated in 
article XXI. If the agreement enters into force, 
the Council may also approve accession to the 
agreement by nonsignatory governments. 



116 



Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



Migration From Western Europe Under the Intergovernmental 
Committee for European Migration 



hij Hugh Gibson 



Shortly after the President sent to congressional leaders his letter of April 
22 requesting emergency immigration legislation,^ the Committee on the 
Judiciary of the House of Representatives gave consideration to the resettle- 
ment possibilities for European migrants and refugees in all countries of 
im?nigration. At the Gommittee''s request, Hugh Gibson, director of the 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration, originally known 
as the Provinionnl Intergovernmental Committee for the Movement^ of 
Migrants from Europe, prepared a report on the work of the organization. 
The report was transmitted to the Judiciary Committee by the Department 
of State on June 22 and is printed heretvith. 



Migration has since the beginning of time been 
the escape route for populations threatened witli 
the loss of their livelihood by war and economic 
upheavals. The gi'eat migration from Europe 
began in the early part of the nineteenth century 
and reached a peak of approximately IV2 million 
annually in the years preceding World War I. 
Between 1820 and" 1950 more than 33 million Euro- 
peans entered the United States as inunigrants. 
These jDeople, and those who quit Europe for 
South America, the British Commonwealth, and 
the white African colonies, left behind the threats 
of starvation and futility and built the strength 
which is now called the free world. 

The economic depression following World War 
I, the introduction of protective immigration 
legislation and practices m the countries of the 
new world, and the disruptions of World War II 
have partially barred the escape route of migra- 
tion. Consequently the surplus population in the 
Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Italy, and Greece 
has mounted to a present total in excess of 3I/2 
million people. They face the constant fear of 
unemployment and of a cramped and unproduc- 
tive life. They seek the oppoitunity still existing 
in the growing economies of the overseas countries 
of the free world. As surplus population they 
represent a social and political danger; as would- 
be migrants they are potential builders of greater 
prosperity and strength in the new homelands. 

The Committee agreed to create a small and ex- 



perimental administration with an initial life of 
one year (since extended by a further year) and 
gave it the task of fulfilling the objective of the 
founding resolution,- namely : 

(a) to provide and arrange for land, sea and air trans- 
portation, as required ; 

(b) to assume responsiljility for the charter of such 
sliips operated under tlie auspices of I.R.O. as may be 
required ; 

(c) to co-ordinate a shipping programme utilising com- 
mercial shipping facilities to the maximum extent possible 
and the chartered ships transferred from the I.R.O. to 
secure those movements for which commercial facilities 
are inadequate; 

(d) to take such actions as may be directly related to 
these ends, taking account of such national and interna- 
tional services as are available ; 

(e) to take such other actions as will be necessary and 
appropriate to discharge the foregoing functions. 

The Committee further adopted an adminis- 
trative budget of $2,359,060 of which the United 
States accepted to contribute $785,507, and an op- 
erational budget of $31,594,940 of which $9,214,433 
was to be the United States contribution. It ap- 
proved an operational program envisaging the 
movement of 115,000, the indicated destinations 
being 

Australia 25,000 

Canada 40,000 

Latin American Countries 23,000 

New Zealand 2,000 

U. S. A 25, 000 

115, 000 



' Bulletin of Jlay 4, 1953, p. 639. 



'■ Ibid., Feb. 4, 1952, p. 171. 



July 27, 7953 



117 



The Results to Date 

Operations were begun on February 1, 1952, six 
weeks after the Committee had come into being, 
and 10,574 migrants were moved in the first month. 
These were mainly migrants who had been brought 
to the point of final clearance for emigration by 
the International Refugee Organization which 
went into liquidation simultaneously witli the ac- 
tivation of the Committee's program. This was 
an encouraging beginning, but it was soon fol- 
lowed by developments which have pi'ejudiced the 
Committee's operations from that time, and the 
effect of which is only now beginning to recede. 

The basic conception behind the creation of the 
Committee had been that one of the principal ob- 
stacles to additional migration at that time was 
the lack of sufficient suitable shipping and the lack 
on the part of many intending migrants of the 
necessary funds or appropriate currency to pay 
for their journey. Consequently, the Committee's 
task was closely tied to the supply of these two 
putative deficiencies. The role was further lim- 
ited, with the object of avoiding overlap with the 
functions of other national, international, and 
commercial agencies, to giving assistance not 
otherwise available to migrants who would not 
otherwise be moved. 

This dangerous and wasteful situation had been 
recognized by Governments soon after the war 
and was the subject of much debate in many places 
for several years. Public statements were made 
by such authorities as the President of the United 
States and by European Foreign Ministers calling 
attention to the dangers and recommending vari- 
ous solutions. The United States Congress recog- 
nized the situation in its legislation. Finally the 
Brussels Conference on Migration, assembled on 
the initiative of the United States Government, 
created the Provisional Intergovernmental Com- 
mittee for the Movement of Migrants from Eu- 
rope, which held its first Session in December 1951 
immediately following the Brussels Conference. 
Sixteen member governments then adhered to its 
founding resolution, and they have since been 
joined by a further six. The complete list is : 



Argentina 

Austr.-ilia 

Austria 

Belgium 

Brazil 

Canada 

Chile 

Costa Rica 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 



Greece 
Israel 

Italy 

Luxembours 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Parnpiay 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United States 

Venrziiela 



Unfortunately the situation which developed in 
early 1952 did not accord with this role. The two 
largest immigration countries involved, namely 
Australia and Canada, almost sinuiltaneously be- 
came unavailable to the Committee as destinations 
for additional migrants who would not otherwise 



118 



move. Australia, following a period of inflation 
and economic upheaval, drastically reduced its 
program. Canada restricted its intake in the 1952 
immigration season following a period of excep- 
tional seasonal unemployment which dictated 
caution in the admission of new labor. Further- 
more, several Latin American countries which had 
been taking a substantial though fluctuating num- 
ber of migrants simultaneously reached a point of 
at least temporary saturation. Finally, the 
United States special legislation which had pro- 
vided for the admission of 400,000 refugees and 
ethnic Germans expired. 

The new Committee with funds and shipping 
at its disposal, and with unlimited potential mi- 
grants within its reach, thus was apparently faced 
with the unexpected fundamental problem of find- 
ing keys to open closed doors to immigration op- 
portunities. 

Nevertheless by the end of 1952 assistance in 
movement by the supply of transportation or par- 
ticipation in voyage costs had been given to 
migrants who had gone to the following destina- 
tions from the countries indicated : 



to: 



Australia 15, 486 

Brazil 9, 707 

Canada 8, 853 

Chile 1, 324 

Israel 739 

New Zealand 397 

U.S.A 38, 102 

Venezuela 1, 488 

miscellaneous 1, 440 



77, 626 



from : 



Austria 11,012 

Germany 38, 276 

Greece 467 

Italy 11, 589 

Netherlands 10, 052 

Shanghai/HongKong 878 

Trieste 689 

miscellaneous 4, 663 



77, 626 



'On July 22 Mr. Gihson reported that 7,610 micrants 

were moved durins; .Tune and that the July total was 
expected to he about 10,000. 

Department of State Bulletin 



It is particularly noteworthy that of these, 
48,200 were refugees in the broad sense, including 
20,856 falling within the mandate of the United 
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. It is 
gratifying that the special efforts made on their 
behalf, in conjunction with the international vol- 
untary agencies, were successful despite the over- 
all difficulties, and this otherwise impossible re- | , 
establishment of these needy people is by itself a I 
justification of the Committee's first year of life. 

In the 5 months of 1953 a further 23,000 mi- 
grants had been assisted making a total of over 
100,000 in IG n.ontlis, and there seems to be reason- 
able hope of reaching a figure of 10,000 per month 
before the winter season again brings its normal 
diminution of potentials.' 



Reassessment of the Problem 

The five European countries wliicli have sought 
assistance for their migrants are the Netherlands, 
Germany, Austria, Italy, and Greece. The sur- 
plus in these countries is conservatively estimated 
at a minimum of 3i/^ million persons. 

The quality of the surplus suitable for, and 
desirous of, emigration can only be ascertained 
empii'ically when actual opportunities occur. It 
is virtually certain, however, that there is no sig- 
nificant excess of skilled artisans, and govern- 
ments concerned do not encourage their emigi-a- 
tion, though among such persons there are num- 
bers who desire to better themselves by migration. 
The substantial part of the excess consists of 
skilled and unskilled agricultural and rural popu- 
lation, and unskilled and partly sliilled urban 
labor. 



The Main Immigration Countries 

The United States. The United States of Amer- 
ica is one of the important immigration coun- 
tries because of the size of its normal quotas for 
immigration, and particularly because of the 
special possibilities which it has provided from 
time to time by emergency legislation. 

Australia. Australia presents natural possibili- 
ties for increased immigration, and, in view of its 
strategic problems arising from comparative iso- 
lation coupled with population pressures in South- 
east Asia, large scale immigration is normally 
politically acceptable to its inhabitants even if this 
involves them in slight personal inconveniences. 
However, the economic crises of 1952, arising in 
part from the fall in wool prices and in part from 
other economic causes, and resulting in inflation 
and some unemployment, centered critical opinion 
on immigration. The migrant, who is most con- 
spicuous when unemployed or unhoused and who 
can be blamed for his contribution to inflation, 
became unwelcome to the public, and the program 
for the 12 months beginning July 1, 1952, was re- 
duced from the intended intake of 150,000 to only 
80,000. The situation has now righted itself to 
some extent and the year beginning July 1, 1953, 
should show a higher figure in which the Com- 
mittee's participation may run as high as 30,000. 

Australia needs population for its development. 
It needs rural workers to increase food production 
which is not keeping pace with recent population 
increases. It needs workers to exploit its urban 
production potentials and to assist in the develop- 
ment of its natural power and mineral resources. 
The natural increase of births over deaths is insuf- 
ficient, but a planned immigration program is sub- 
ject, for internal political reasons, to disruption 
whenever serious economic fluctuation occurs. 
Australia has been trying to meet this problem by 
increasing investment in basic production and in 
basic utilities and housing. Since the necessary 



capital has not been adequate from internal sav- 
ings, it has had recourse to external borrowing. 

Canada. Canada like Australia is a country of 
comparatively recent development. That develop- 
ment is substantially the work of immigrants in 
the last half century. Immigration continues to 
be regarded as one of the natural methods of fur- 
ther developing the country's resources, and the 
availabilitj' of capital for the investment which 
must parallel increase of ]3opulation is currently 
no problem. However Canada's severe winter and 
the accompanying annual slow down of commerce 
result in very seasonal demands for labor and 
consequent concentration of immigration in the 
summer months. This results in the failure to 
achieve optimum performance which is inevitable 
in any activity conducted on a stop and go basis. 
Heavy demands for shipping occur in the peak 
tourist season and workers thus often arrive later 
than needed, and opportunities go by default. The 
need is for planning the program further in ad- 
vance and for more flexibility in the provision of 
shipping than is now available from commercial 
sources. 

Latin America. The potentialities and difficul- 
ties are common to most countries of South 
America. These countries present potentials for 
exploitation of natural resources. Some of them 
need additional population to assist in this task 
and in particular for rural development and food 
production. However, various factors including 
the lack of internal services for the placement of 
migrants, the unavailability of capital for appro- 
priate investment, and political considerations are 
the reasons for the failure to absorb greater num- 
bers of migrants. Superficially it is difficult for 
emigrants to be found employment, but organized 
and planned etforts with the Committee's assist- 
ance to find individual opportunities in Brazil 
turned up over 5,000 possibilities in 9 months. 
These gaps exist and can be filled without the need 
for specific capital investment. On the other hand 
in some countries the greatest potential exists in 
the possibilities for land settlement which require 
considerable capital. 



Technical Aspects of the Problem 

Aside from overriding political and economic 
considerations and from transportation problems, 
migration today requires the technical capacity 
to identify migration potentials, to select suitable 
immigrants for specific potentials, and to improve 
these selected migrants by orientation language 
training and when necessary by occupational in- 
struction. Failure in any of these techniques re- 
sults in lost opportunity and often in the more 
damaging result of dissatisfied migi-ants returning 
to their homelands. Adequate services of these 
kinds require trained personnel and competent or- 
ganization which are often lacking. There is fail- 
ure frequently to identify opportunities, bad 



Ju/y 27, J 953 



119 



placement of migrants unprepared practically and 
psychologically for their new lives, and failure to 
select, from the vast jiool available, those who have 
the best qualifications and capacities for their 
country of destination. Thougli final selection 
and visaing must remain the prerogative of the 
immigration countiy, assistance and training are 
needed in all the other steps of these important 
processes. 

The transport problem in migration arises from 
the nature of its impact on commercial shipping. 
In general it is a traffic which is subject to dislo- 
cation at very short notice, subject to seasonal 
fluctuation, and difficult to estimate in advance. 
It is a traffic which will carry only low fai-es, and 
a traffic of a one-way, one-time nature, which con- 
stitutes a difficult trade in which to establish a 
sound long term program of operation on 
building. 

Consequently, though the improvements natural 
in competitive trade are gradually taking place, 
commercial shipping tends to be unable to meet 
peak periods of migration movement and cau- 
tiously to lag behind in tlie provision of transport 
when a new flow begins to develop on a rovite. 
The need therefore is for shipping, uninfluenced 
by such commercial considerations, to be available 
to take care of high peak periods and to operate on 
new routes until their commercial feasibility has 
been demonstrated. 



The Road Ahead 

The complexity of the problem and the need for 
cooperative international effort, more complicated 
than the provision of subsidized transportation, 
to complement existing national and international 
facilities became progi'essively more obvious to 
the member governments of Icem. The situation 
was finally recognized by its adoption of a resolu- 
tion (No. 36 of October 1952) of which the opera- 
tive clause read in part: 

Rpsolves to request the Director to improve and develop 
technical services related to the movement of migrants 
likely to increase the volume of such movements, such 
Improvements and developments to he within the frame- 
work of the Brussels Kesolution and the programme of 
the Committee and by seeking the maximum collaboration 
of interested governments and competent organizations ; 
and to request the Director to encourage the preparation 
of settlement plans of Member Governments wishing to 
increase the numbers of migrants to be received, to par- 
ticipate in the drafting of such jilans and to further the 
completion of such plans as the Governments concerned 
may be prepared to adopt. . . . 

Tliis view is also reflected in the main article of 
the new draft constitution now before member 
governments and in the recognition by most of 
the members that appropriate international as- 
sistance implies a longer life span than an annu- 
ally renewable tenure of life for tlie operating 
agency. The Committee furthermore approved 



an allocation from the operational budget for 1953 
of $600,000 for the pui'pose of assisting national 
services in developing techniques of selection, 
training, and placement designed to exploit exist- 
ing opportunities to the optimum. 

The Director of the Committee believes that the 
problem of moving the surplus population of 31/^ 
million from Europe to productive life overseas, 
while presenting grave dangers if unsolved, and 
demanding the unremitting support and coopera- 
tion of Governments, is not insolvable, nor over- 
whelming in the light of the history of migration. 

Spontaneous migration from the five countries 
concerned under bilateral and personal arrange- 
ments unassisted by the Committee accounts for 
an annual movement of approximately 200,000 
(out of a total movement from Western Europe 
of approximately 250,000) . The Committee's own 
efforts in its 11-month program in 1952 added a 
further 78,000 in that year. During 1953 it is 
planned to assist 120,000 whose destinations are 
expected to be : 

Australia and New Zealand 28,600 

Canada 20, 700 

Latin America 52, 500 

U.S.A , 12, 500 

Others 5, 700 

120, OOO 

The approved budget for operations is $34,- 
608,475, and for administration $2,147,000, of 
which the U.S. contributions are $8,524,905 and 
$715,595 respectively. 

Though it is too early to estimate in detail, it 
should be possible to surpass this 1953 figure in 
1954, pi'ovided that the Committee's efforts in the 
field of technical help receive the full cooperation 
of Governments and are as successful as antici- 
pated. If it be accepted that the target is to 
transfer the excess in a period of less than 10 
years, the object is to increase progressively the 
expected annual total of spontaneous and Com- 
mittee assisted migration from slightly over 300,- 
000 to what is believed to be an optimum of 400,- 
000. The speed with which this increase can be 
obtained will govern the period of time during 
which international aid will be required, before 
assistance can once more be left to bilateral ar- 
rangements and, in the case of refugees, to private 
international aid. 



International Assistance Required 

The categories of assistance needed to achieve 
this optimum may be stated as follows: 

(a) Assistance in the provision of transport 
and its financing. 

(b) Assistance in tlie techniques of migration 
services. 

(c) Wlioleliearted coo[)eration on a bilateral 
and nuiitilateral basis of the members of Icem. 



120 



Department of State Bulletin 



(d) The making aviiilable of capital from na- 
tional and international resources for the capital 
investment which must accompany large-scale 
innnigration. 

Transport — A small luunber of vessels must be 
available on call of the Committee to assist in peak 
periods. Financial subsidy from sources other 
than the countries concerned will be required as 
to approximately one-third of the costs involved. 

Migration Service Assistance — Such services 
are vital to the increase of migration to existing 
potentials and essential to the development and 
satisfaction of increased possibilities. 

International Cooperation — Such cooperation 
implies the need for full recognition by both emi- 
gration and immigration countries of the neces- 
sity to resolve the implicit conflict of interests in- 
volved in the selective transfer of population. It 
implies the necessity for some sacrifice on the part 
of both countries financially, and in the case of the 
immigration countries of the inconveniences asso- 
ciated with increase of population above the natu- 
ral rate. The rewards will be measurable in terms 
of economic, cultural, and political gains over the 
longer term. Such cooperation also implies finan- 
cial and political support from the countries not 
directly involved and presents the opportunity for 
those countries which do not need immigrants but 
can absorb them without undue difficulty to make 
the most constructive contribution of all. 

Capital Investment — If these three first re- 
quirements can be met it should not be impossible 
to make substantial inroads into the surplus. If, 
however, the problem is to be solved within 10 
j'ears, capital investment in Australia, and in agri- 
cultural development in Latin America will be 
required. Such capital investments will not only 
help to make immigi-ation more politically ac- 
ceptable in these countries, but may increase their 
ability to be self-supporting in times of peace and 
war, and may help to create new opportunities 
for work and production for other new migrants 
not diiectly provided for by the investment itself. 



Conclusion 

If the IcEM continues to receive the support of 
its members in working along the foregoing lines 
on matters within its ]iowers and in stimulating 
the development of the settlement projects re- 
quired, including the provision of cai)ital for in- 
vestment in these projects where they lie outside 
its mandate, there is every reasoix to expect that 
the contribution of overseas migration to the solu- 
tion of the surplus population problem in Western 
Europe economies, coupled with other methods 
being used to strengthen their economies, will re- 
sult in overall success. 

Redistribution of this population removes the 
breeding gromid of revolutionary ideologies in 
Europe, creates new areas of strength in the free 



world, increases food and industrial production, 
and creates new markets. It also provides the op- 
portunity for the frustrated individual to live and 
work in self-respect and freedom. 

The Director is convinced that this double prob- 
lem of excess population on the one hand, and need 
of selected manpower on the other, can be dealt 
with effectively only by international cooperation. 
He is convinced that, with hard work, good will, 
and adequate resources, the problem can be solved 
as a major contribution to world peace. The al- 
ternative, failure, would be doubly disastrous for 
it would not be limited to an immediate setback. 
It would create a widespread conviction that inter- 
national cooperation had proved a failure, with the 
result that, for many years to come at least, it 
would serve as a pretext for blocking future pro- 
posals to deal with the problem on an international 
basis. Regardless of the discouragement insepa- 
rable from any such complicated and unpi'ece- 
dented ojieration, we simply cannot afford to fail 
when we know we can succeed. 



Policy on Selection of Books 
for IIA Libraries 

Following is the text of a statement hy Robert 
L. Johnson, Administrator of the International 
Information Administration, lohich was read to 
the press on July 15 iy Martin Merson, Special 
Assistant to Mr. Johnson, together vnth the text 
of the instmctions issued hy IIA for selection and 
retention of material in the book and library 
program : 

Statement by Mr. Johnson 

Today I am making public for the first time the 
details of the International Information Admin- 
istration's campaign to distribute anti-Communist 
books as part of its book and library activities 
abroad. 

In a comprehensive report ^ which will be handed 
to you in a few moments, it will be seen that more 
than 6 million anti-Communist books have been 
distributed in either book or serial form. This 
report covers the full history of the progi-am lead- 
ing up to the July 8 policy statement that has the 
approval of the President and the Secretary of 
State.- With the report we are also releasing the 
operational instructions to the field putting that 
policy statement into effect. 

We have been anxious to avoid any impression 
abroad that our primary purpose was propaganda 
rather tlian information. For this reason we have 
been reluctant to discuss in detail some aspects of 
our counter-offensive of truth. But in view of 



' Not printed. 

"■ Bulletin of July 20, 19.53, p. 



Jo/y 27, J 953 



121 



some of the charges implying that we were some- 
how "soft" on the Communist question, it now 
becomes necessary to tell the full story. 

Viewed in total perspective it will be seen that 
books figuring in I'ecent public criticisms amounted 
to a minute fraction of one percent of the books 
on our shelves. On the other hand there are these 
specific contrasting figures : 

1. Since 1948 the Department has purchased 
16,73G copies of anti-Communist books for use in 
our overseas libraries. 

2. Apart from library use, more than 6 million 
copies of 44 anti-Communist titles were distrib- 
uted through commercial channels as a result of 
assistance furnished under this program. 

3. Thirty U.S. Government documents on com- 
munism have been distributed, representing a total 
of 84,785 copies, through the book and library 
program. 

I am hopeful that the Congress and the Ameri- 
can people will judge the usefulness of their li- 
braries abroad by their overall record, rather than 
by spot judgments based on a controversy over a 
handful of titles. I am hopeful, too, that there is 
a clear understanding of what it is we stand to 
lose if we cut down on this program or jeopardize 
it in any way. 

In a short while I shall be leaving Government.^ 
One of the great dangers I have sensed during 
my term of office is that many of our most effec- 
tive programs in fighting communism are being 
impaired by unsupported charges that they are 
somehow soft on communism. I do not say that 
there is a deliberate effort to kill or cripple these 
anti-Communist programs through the simple 
device of making such charges. I merely point 
out that it is one of the tragic ironies of our 
time that some of those who are in the forefront 
of the fight against communism are among those 
who are damaging the action programs that do 
battle against it. 

It is the intention of the State Department to 
stand firmly behind the policy statement of July 
8, 1953, which makes a sharp distinction between 
conspiracy and honest controversy in the selection 
of books. 

The statement of July 8 is an attempt to apply 
common sense and American principles of free- 
dom to the operation of our book program. That 
statement has the backing of the President and the 
Secretary of State. Just so there will be no mis- 
take about this, we are spelling this out for our 
people in the field in a directive which puts that 
policy statement into effect. 



'On July 3 Mr. Johnson submitted to the President 
his resignation, to be effective williin ;iO days. For text 
of his letter and of the President's reply, see White House 
press' release dated July C. 



IIA Instructions Dated July 15 

I. Purpose 

The Administrator's Policy Statement on the 
Book and Library Program dated July 8, 1953, as 
amplified by his statement of July 9,^ defines the 
basic principles under which this program is to 
be operated. The following instructions give 
effect to and are to be construed in the light 
of that statement. 

The Information Center Service operations 
covered by this instruction include (1) the selec- 
tion and maintenance of publications in the over- 
seas library collections, (2) the selection of pub- 
lications for presentation to individuals, groups, 
and institutions, and (3) the selection of publica- 
tions for translation, serialization and condensa- 
tion with the assistance of the program. 

The Information Media Guaranty Program, 
for conversion into dollars of earnings from sales 
of American publications through commercial 
channels abroad, will continue to operate under 
the criteria already approved in the light of its 
specialized character. 

II. Basic Test 

The basic test, as indicated in the Policy State- 
ment, is the usefulness of material in meeting the 
particularized needs of the program in the area 
in question. The selection of material will be based 
on its usefulness in achieving the ends defined in 
the Policy Statement. As indicated in the Policy 
Statement, appraisal of usefulness must begin with 
and must be based primarily on contents, but can- 
not disregard the reputation or standing of the 
author. 

III. Specific Criteria For Selection 

A. Material shall be selected in accordance with 
the general principles of the Policy Statement 
and with specific reference to the following pri- 
mary purposes: 

1. Providing useful information about the 
United States, its people, culture, institutions, 
policies, problems, achievements, and diverse 
views on national and international issues, in- 
cluding materials suitable to counteract hostile 
propaganda campaigns directed against the 
United States; 

2. Demonstrating the interest of the United 
States in other nations, including provision of 
needed scientific and technical information ; or 

3. Furnishing evidence of the American intel- 
lectual, artistic and s]iiritual heritage, and com- 
batting the charge that our people are lacking in 
cultural background and tradition. 

B. No materials shnll be selected which, as 
judged by their content, advocate destruction of 
free institutions, promote or reinforce Communist 
propaganda, or are of inferior literary quality, as 



* Jbid., p. 81. 



122 



Department of State Bulletin 



evidenced by salacious, pornoj^raphic, sensational, 
cheap or shoddy treatment, or matter inherently 
offensive. 

C. Works of avowed Communists, persons con- 
victed of crimes involving a threat to the security 
of the United States, or persons who publicly 
refuse to answer questions of Congressional com- 
mittees regarding their connections with the Com- 
munist movement, shall not bo used, even if their 
content is unobjectionable, unless it is determined 
that a particular item is clearly useful for the spe- 
cial purposes of the program. Application of tliis 
rule to authors who refuse to testify does not mean 
that they are presumed to be Communists or Com- 
munist sympathizers, but simply reflects the fact 
that such action by an author normally gives him a 
public reputation which raises serious questions 
as to the usefulness of his books in the program. 
This paragraph does not apply to anthologies, 
other comi^ilations, and periodicals which only in- 
cidentally include material written by persons de- 
scribed above, if the writers included in the entire 
publication are predominantly non-Communist. 

IV. Selection of Periodicals 
Subscriptions will be placed for responsible and 

representative periodicals selected on the basis of 
their overall usefulness in terms of the criteria 
indicated above for books. 

V. No Official Endorsement 

Since the objectives of the program may be pro- 
moted by showing American democracy in opera- 
tion through the free discussion of different points 
of view, the inclusion of a book or periodical in the 
book and library program does not imply any offi- 
cial endorsement of the contents or of the author. 

VI. Removals 

Librarians are expected to continue the normal 
routine of weeding out books and periodicals 
which are outdated, worn out or deemed to be no 
longer useful. 

VII. Allocation of Responsibility Between 
Washington and Field 

A. Pending the proposed establishment of ad- 
visory committees referred to in the Policy State- 
ment, initial selections for U.S. libraries abroad 
will, as far as possible, be made in Washington 
pursuant to field requests from lists of available 
titles. 

B. Where selections are made in the field for any 
program use, field officers will be held responsible 
for complying with the criteria indicated above. 
All doubtful cases shall be referred to Washington. 

C. Future removals must be referred to Wash- 
ington for advance approval if the responsible 
field officer believes that the removal is question- 
able. AH removals not required to be cleared 
with Washington in advance must be regularly 
reported with a brief indication of the reason. 

D. As regards periodicals, all subscriptions for 



American publications are to be placed through or 
cleared with Washington, where a review based 
on general content will be maintained. 

VIII. Disposal 

Items removed from libraries will be disposed of 
in accordance with applicable statutes and regula- 
tions, including those regarding disposal of sur- 
plus property. Book burning will not be tolerated. 

IX. Rescission of Previous Instructions 

This instruction supersedes all instructions on 
selection or retention policy relative to the book 
and library program, issued to the field before July 
8, 1953, except that instructions requiring the re- 
moval of specific items by title or author remain 
in effect unless otherwise directed in the course of 
the re-examination which is now being undertaken. 

X. Classification 

This instruction is unclassified and may be 
shown to any interested person. 



Support for Programs of 

International Information Administration 

Department Circular No. 37 dated July 9, 1953 

1. General 

When Reorganization Plan No. 8 ' becomes effective, prob- 
ably about July 30, the information programs of Iia (In- 
cluding those financed from the Goa [Ooverninent of Occu- 
pied Areas'^ appropriation) will be transferred to a new 
agency, the United States Information Agency (Usia). 
The Department will supply to Usia such supporting serv- 
ices as may be requested by it and agreed to by the De- 
partment on the basis of such financial arrangements as 
may be mutually agreed upon. It is expected that Usia 
will establish most domestic services within Its own or- 
ganization and that arrangements will be made for the 
Department to supply general administrative services 
overseas. 

2. Interim Period 

All services now being provided to Iia by any areas of 
the Department should be continued on the present basis 
until changes are authorized. The agreements for ad- 
ministrative support services within the Department to 
Iia developed for fiscal year 1953 will remain in effect both 
as to the kind and level of services to be rendered and as 
to the basis or amount of reimbursement for such services 
until they have been specifically modified. While it is 
expected tliat many of the agreements will be terminated 
upon the completion of preparations for Usia to provide 
Its own services, any of these agreements may be reexam- 
ined and adjusted either as to the kind and level of serv- 
ices on the basis or amount of reimbursement upon the 
initiative of the area supplying service, Iia or Obe [Of- 
fice of Budget and Reports]. Agreements for such modi- 
fication must have the approval of Iia and Obr. Where 
justified by the facts of the situation, such agreements 
should be made effective July 1, 1953. 

3. Transition to USJA 

3.1 Iia is developing plans for the establishment of 
its own facilities for providing certain services as soon 
as practicable after the reorganization plan becomes ef- 
fective. All ofilcers of the Department sliould provide full 
cooperation to Iia in assisting with the development of 



' For text, see Bulletin of June 15, 1953, p. 854 



July 27, 1953 



123 



such plans or in making arrangements for the continuation 
or modification of services now being provided wlien such 
arrangements would he to the mutual advantage of State 
and UsiA and in the interest of overall economy to the 
Government. 

3.2 Plans for separate Usia services will provide for 
the transfer of certain State Department personnel en- 
gaged in such services to Usia under the provisions of 
Keorganization Plan No. 8. Agreement on the personnel 
to be tran.sferred will be negotiated between the Depart- 
ment and IiA (Usia), and the personnel transferred 
should represent an equitable division of available per- 
sonnel of a given category as to competence. Employees 
cannot be made available without their consent, but em- 
ployees should be advised where applicable of the possi- 
ble effect upon them of prospective reductions in force 
should they elect to remain with the Department. Such 
transfers must have the approval of Dp [Dmsion of 



Departmmtal Personnel], of the Iia (Usia) personnel 
officer, and of the Director of the Bureau of the Budget. 

4. Financial Arrangements 

Iia (Usia) is responsible for the cost of providing depart- 
mental services to its programs and for the actual cost of 
liquidating any staff or facilities maintained for Iia 
(Usia) when such liquidation is undertaken by State. 
There may be many variations as to the timing of service 
adjustments and in the proportions of IiA-supporting per- 
sonnel who may be transferred to Usia in any particular 
service area. The financial arrangements made in each 
case should be designed to reimburse State for the actual 
costs involved in adjusting or terminating services or in 
liquidating staff. Every effort should be made to keep 
such costs to a minimum. 

(Office of the Assistant Secretary foe 
Administration — A ) 



President's Committee Reports on International Information Activities 



WMte House press release dated July S 

The President's Committee on International 
Information Activities ^ presented a unanimous 
report to tlie President on June 30. Tlie Pres- 
ident asked William H. Jackson, chairman of the 
Committee, for supplementary material upon re- 
ceipt of which the Committee's conclusions and 
recommendations were turned over to the Na- 
tional Security Council (Nsc) for study and con- 
sideration. 

After analyzing the nature of the Soviet drive 
for world domination and the policies by which 
the United States, in cooperation with other free 
nations, is striving to build a world order con- 
forming to the ideals of the Charter of the United 
Nations, the Committee stressed that there is no 
reliable evidence that the recent changes in the 
Soviet regime and in Soviet tactics involve any 
change in the basic Soviet objective of a Com- 
munist world controlled by the Kremlin. 

The Soviet rulers so far seem to prefer the proc- 
ess of encroachment to the risks of general war, 
but in tlie struggle between the imposed coalition 
dominated by the Kremlin and the free coalition 
led by the United States, the latter must base its 
policies on the assumption that the purpose of the 
Soviet rulers is world domination and that this 
purpose will constitute the fundamental motiva- 
tion of all their actions. 

The United States as the center of power in the 
free world is the principal obstacle in the path of 
the Soviet drive. The isolation of the United 
States as the first step toward its domination or 
destruction is a major goal of Soviet policy. 

' Bulletin of Feb. 0, 1053, p. 217. 

124 



1 



The Kremlin will intensify its efforts to isolate 
the United States and to promote dissension 
\vithin and between the free nations by political 
warfare methods, including propaganda, subver- 
sion and penetration, economic pressures and in- 
ducements, and the instigation of violence wher- 
ever and whenever conditions seem favorable. 

In the face of this Soviet drive the United 
States and allied nations must continue to 
strengthen their military capabilities until it is 
possible to perceive with clarity that the Soviet 
Union is unwilling to risk general war, has aban- 
doned its goal of world domination, and will live 
up to its obligations under the Charter of the 
United Nations. 

There is danger in formulating foreign policies 
beyond the capabilities of the United States to 
carry out. This has been a prevalent error in the 
past. Witnesses appearing before the Committee 
revealed in their testimony a failure to take ade- 
quate account of the capability factor by advocat- 
ing courses of action which exceed the present 
capabilities of the United States and its allies. 
The United States will be judged not only by the 
things it is able to do and does but also by the 
gap between these and its announced policies. A 
clear distinction must be made between policies 
and aspirations. Objectives witli respect to which 
the United States commits itself to act must be 
clearly identified as distinct from those ends to 
which we, as a nation, aspire but regarding which 
the Goveriunent is not committed to take action. 

The Conunittee submitted a number of sjiccific 
recommendations, many of which are of a liighly 
classified nature. However, witli resjiect to the 
more general aspects of tlie rejiort, the President 

Department of State Bulletin 



lias directed that the following recommendations 
111' the Connnittee be released immediately to the 

public. 



Importance of Overseas Personnel Morale 

The Committee stressed that no plan or pro- 
uram for our conduct of the world struggle can be 
any better than the personnel whose task it is to 
larry out that program. For service overseas we 
must have the finest and ablest personnel obtain- 
able — dedicated men and women with ideals of 
I'lt'cdom — and we must give them every support. 
Fortunately there are thousands of our fellow citi- 
zi'us so serving overseas today. Their morale is 
<it' the utmost concern to all of us, for upon them 
rests a major share of the responsibility for our 
future. This support means infinitely more than 
the removal of an occasional offender. 

The Committee recommended the creation, 
within the structure of the National Security 
Council, of an Operations Coordinating Board. 
The chief function of this Board would be to co- 
ordinate the development bj' departments and 
agencies of detailed operational plans to carry out 
national-security policies. Such coordination in 
Washington should lead to similar strengthening 
of coordination in U.S. missions abroad under the 
direction of the respective chiefs of mission. 

Establishment of such an Operations Coordi- 
nating Board would complete what the President 
has described a.s "the reconstitution and revitali- 
zation of the National Security Council" begun 
last March with the appointment of Robert Cut- 
ler as special assistant to the President for Na- 
tional Security Affairs, the development of the 
Nsc Planning Board,- and the taking of other 
steps to strengthen Nsc operations. The Opera- 
tions Coordinating Board is designed to achieve 
better integi-ated direction of the program of the 
United States in the world struggle and to fill the 
gap which has existed in the past between the 
formulation of general objectives and the detailed 
actions needed to give effect to them. 

It is the Committee's recommendation that the 
new Board consist of the Under Secretary of 
State, as chairman ; the Deputy Secretary of De- 
fense; the Deputy Dii"ector for Mutual Security; 
tlie Director of Central Intelligence; and a Spe- 
cial Assistant to the President. A chief executive 
officer of the Operations Coordinating Board 
would be appointed by the President. The chief 
executive otlicer should be assisted by a highly 
qualified staff. 

It is the Committee's view that the existing 
Psychological Strategy Board, established in 
1951,^ does not meet the real need which exists in 
Government and should be abolished. It is 
fomided upon the misconception that "psychologi- 

= Ibid., Apr. 13, 1953, p. 530. 
' Ibid.. July 2. 1951, p. 36. 



cal activities" and "psychological strategy" some- 
how exist apart from official policies and actions 
and can be dealt with independently by experts in 
this field. In reality, there is a "psychological" 
aspect or implication to every diplomatic, eco- 
nomic, or military policy and action. This im- 
plication should receive more careful attention, 
both in the planning and execution stage of policy, 
but not to the exclusion of other vital factors. 
Except for propaganda, there are no "psychologi- 
cal warfare" instruments distinct from traditional 
instruments of policy. Evei-y significant act of 
virtually every department and agency of Govern- 
ment has its effect, either positively or negatively, 
in the global struggle for freedom. The impor- 
tant task is to build awareness throughout the 
entire Government of the impact of day-to-day 
governmental actions and to coordinate and time 
such actions so as to derive from them the maxi- 
mimi advantages. 

"Cold war" and "psychological warfare" are un- 
fortunate terms. They do not describe the efforts 
of our Nation and our allies to build a world of 

?ieace and freedom. They should be discarded in 
avor of others which describe our true goals. 
New terms are needed to express the solidarity of 
freedom-loving men and women evei-ywdiere. 

With respect to the overseas information pro- 
grams of the United States, the Committee makes 
the following recommendations : 

Explaining U. S. Goals 

The primary and overriding purpose of the in- 
formation program should be to submit evidence 
to the peoples of other nations that their own 
aspirations for freedom, progi'ess, and peace are 
supported and advanced by the objectives and 
policies of the United States. The efforts of all 
media — radio, press and publications, motion pic- 
tures, exchange of persons, and libraries and in- 
formation centers — shoidd be directed to this end : 
to show the identity of our goals with those of 
other peoples. These goals and desires which we 
hold in common must be explained in ways that 
will cause others to join with us in achieving them. 

In carrying out this purpose, American broad- 
casts and printed materials should concentrate on 
objective, factual news reporting, M'ith particular 
selection and treatment of news designed to pre- 
sent a full exposition of U.S. actions and policies, 
especially as they affect the jjarticular country 
addressed. The tone and content shovdd be force- 
fid and direct, but a propagandist note should be 
avoided. The information services should not, 
however, be precluded from making forceful and 
factual refutations of false Soviet accusations. 

The United States has important advantages in 
the world conflict which should receive greater 
attention in its information programs. As a 
people, we share fundamental beliefs and values 
with millions of other men and women we are 



July 27, J 953 



125 



attempting to win to our side. These include be- 
lief in God, belief in individual and national 
freedom, belief in the right to ownership of prop- 
erty and a decent standard of living, belief in the 
common humanity of all men and in the vision of 
a peaceful world with nations comprising their 
differences and cooperating in the United Nations. 
In the words of the report : 

The military strength of the United States, its economic 
system, its standard of living, its technical development 
and productive capacity, when carefully treated to avoid 
self-praise, are appropriate subjects of information pro- 
grams as showing the capability both to resist aggression 
and to give powerful assistance in the creation of a 
peaceful world order. Of fundamental importance, how- 
ever, the program should speak in terms of the deeper 
spiritual values uniting this nation with the rest of the 
world. 

The overseas information functions of the In- 
ternational Information Administration, Mutual 
Security Agency, and the Technical Cooperation 
Administralion should be consolidated into one 
service and basic information themes determined. 
Lack of coordination and planning in the past has 
resulted in the haphazard projection of too many 
and too diflFuse information themes. No single 
set of ideas has been registered abroad through 
effective repetition. 

More effective technical control of the informa- 
tion program is needed at the country level. This 
can best be accomplished by the chief of mission, 
with the aid and advice of a "country team" com- 
posed of senior representatives of agencies con- 
ducting information programs. 

Principal guidance for U.S. broadcasts into 
foreign countries should be provided in each case 
by the "country team." 

Information guidance emanating from Wash- 
ington should normally be confined to global or 
regional themes. Wlien U.S. policy has been ex- 
plained to the field, information officers abroad 
should be permitted discretion in adapting it to 
their local situations. 

The Government information service certainly 
must not aid in the distribution of subversive 
books or Communist propaganda. On the other 
hand, pursuant to the direction of Congress "to 
promote a better understanding of the United 
States in other countries," it should not hesitate 
to distribute books and publications just because 
they contain criticism of American life, in- 
stitutions, and officials. In fact, if it does not re- 
flect this criticism, it is not presenting a true pic- 
ture of America. 

In the conduct of information activities origi- 
nating overseas, the maximum practicable use 
should be made of indigenous media and personnel. 

Any substantial cuts in the information service 
budget should be avoided until the new methods 
and approach have been tested. If it is to be ef- 



126 



f ective, our foreign information service must have 
a far greater degree of organizational stability, 
with consistent budgets and unchanging mission. 

More Information for U.S. Public 

Also necessary to a successful program is under- 
standing on the part of the American public. To 
this end the International Information Adminis- 
tration should be authorized to release domesti- 
cally, without request, information concerning its 
programs. The Smith-Mundt Act (Public Law 
402, 80th Cong., 2d sess.) currently enjoins the In- 
ternational Information Administration from in- 
forming the American people of its activities. 

In the Committee's view, the American people 
do not yet grasp the import of the President's re- 
cent words that we live in an age, not an instant, 
of peril.^ A greater effort is needed to inform our 
citizens of the dangers that confront them, the 
power of the enemy, the difficulty of reducing that 
power, and the probable duration of the conflict. 
Tliis should include information concerning the 
growth of the Soviet atomic capability, as well as 
data on the steady development of the Soviet econ- 
omy. Authoritative discussion of these trends 
would help to make clear the magnitude of the ef- 
fort required on the part of the United States and 
its allies. 

The Committee recommended that security reg- 
ulations not be allowed to restrict the flow of in- 
formation to the public except in those cases where 
the need for security is clearly demonstrable. It 
suggested continued study of this problem at the 
highest level of Government. 

Members of the Committee who served with Mr 
Jackson were Robert Cutler, Gordon Gray, Barklif 
McKee Henry, John C. Hughes, C. D. Jackson 
Roger M. Keyes, and Sigurd Larmon. 

The Committee held its first meeting on Janu- 
ai-y 30, 1953, and the Committee and its staff inter- 
viewed over 250 witnesses including many repre- 
sentatives of Government departments and agen 
cies. It also benefited from consultation witt 
Members of Congress, particularly the Senate 
Subcommittee for Overseas Information Pro- 
grams of the United States (Hickenlooper com- 
mittee). The staff studies and report of th( 
Hickenlooper committee make a most importanl 
contribution on the subject of foreign inforniatior 
activities. 

The Committee's staff was drawn from the fol- 
lowing agencies: Department of State, Depart- 
ment of Defense, Central Intelligence Agency 
Mutual Security Agency, and Office of Defense 
Mobilization. Abbott Washburn served as Execu- 
tive Secretary of the Committee. 



' Ibid., June 22, 1953. p. 863. 



Department of State Bulletin 



July 27, 1953 



Index 



Vol. XXIX, No. 735 



Agriculture 

U.S. ratifies revised International Wheat Agree- 
ment 115 

Asia 
KOREA: 

Joint report on the world political situation (Dulles. 

Robertson) 99 

Return of Walter S. Robertson from mission to 

Korea 103 

LAOS; First minister presents credentials .... 114 

Communism 

U.S. foreign policy and the Soviet Union (Stevens) 109 

Congress 

Current legislation on foreign policy 103 

Europe 

Ctoal and Steel Community thanks U.S. for support . 107 
Migration from Western Europe under the Intergov- 
ernmental Committee tor European Migration 

(Gibson) 117 

U.S. foreign policy and the Soviet Union (Stevens) . . 109 
U.S., U.K., and France discuss major International 

problems 104 

U.S£.R. : Asked to participate In foreign ministers' 

conference (text of U.S. note) 107 

Immigration and Naturalization 

Migration from Western Europe under the Intergov- 
ernmental Committee for European Migration 
(Gibson) 117 

International Meetings 

U.S.S.R. asked to participate in foreign ministers' con- 
ference (text of U.S. note) 107 

UJS., UK, and France discuss major International 

problems 104 

International Information 

Policy on selection of books for Iia libraries .... 121 
President's Committee reports on International infor- 
mation activities 124 

Support tor programs of Iia 123 

Mutual Aid and Defense 

Coal and Steel Community thanks U.S. for support . . 107 
VS., U.K., and France discuss major International 

problems 104 

Refugees and Displaced Persons 

Migration from Western Europe under the Intergov- 
ernmental Committee tor European Migration 
(Gibson) 117 

State, Department of 

Policy on selection of books for Iia libraries .... 121 
President's Committee reports on International infor- 
mation activities 124 

Return of Walter S. Robertson from mission to Korea . 103 

Support for programs of Iia 123 



Treaty Information 

U.S. ratifies revised International Wheat Agreement . 115 

United Nations 

Joint report on the world political situation (Dulles, 

Robertson) 89 

Name Index 

Bldault, Georges 104 

Dulles, Secretary 99, 103, 104, 107 

Eisenhower, President 114 

Gibson, Hugh 117 

Johnson, Robert 121 

Monnet. Jean 107 

Ourot Souvannavong 114 

Robertson, Walter S 99, 103 

Salisbury. Lord 104 

Stevens, Francis B 109 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: July 13-17, 1953 

Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 
Department of State, Wastiington 2.'3, D. C. 

Press releases issued prior to July 13 which ap- 
pear in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 357 of 
July 8 and 359 of July 9. *For contents of press 
release 376 of July 11, see Bulletin of July 20, 
p. 68 

Sabject 
Waugh : Friendship treaties 
Waugh : Friendship treaty with Ger- 
many 
Johnson : Friendship treaty with Japan 
Laos : Letter of credence 
Coal and Steel Community 
Dulles : Perry Stamp Ceremony 
Conclusion of Ministers' Meeting 
Communique on Ministers' Jleeting 
Renewal of wheat agreement 
Closing of Gibraltar Consulate 
Robertson's Return from Korea 
U.S. note on 4-power meeting 
Waugh : Support of S. 2249 
Status of wheat agreement 
Waugh : Foreign economic policy 
Dulles, Robertson : Report to the 
Nation 

ted. 

a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


*371 


7/13 


t372 


7/13 


t373 


7/13 


374 


7/13 


375 


7/13 


t377 


7/14 


378 


7/14 


379 


7/14 


380 


7/15 


t3Sl 


7/15 


3S2 


7/15 


383 


T/15 


t3S4 


7/16 


385 


7/16 


t3S6 


7/17 


387 


7/17 


♦Not prin 


tHeld for 



U. 5 SOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I9B3 



Another new release in the unique documentary series Foreign 
Relations of the United States 




the 
Department 

of 
State 



1935, Volume IV 



The American Republics 

Documents included record : 

The end of hostilities in the Chaco War between Bolivia and 
Paraguay. (One of the difficulties was to secure a proper ar- 
rangement for the exchange of prisoners of war.) 

The end of the dispute between Colombia and Peru over 
Leticia. 

The reestablishment of diplomatic relations between Costa 
Rica and Guatemala. 

The conclusion of reciprocal trade agreements by the United 
States with Brazil, Colombia, Haiti, and Honduras; and pre- 
liminary work toward similar agreements with eight other 
countries. 

Agrarian and oil interests of American citizens in Mexico. 

Continued political unrest in Nicaragua. 

The Brazilian Government's receipt of a message from its 
Ambassador in Tokyo : "A rather alarming picture of Japanese 
preparation for eventual hostilities with the United States"; 
and its assurance to the United States of "whole-heai-ted Bra- 
zilian support and cooperation" in case of an emergency. 

This volume (Ixxxix, 988 pp.) was compiled in the Division of 
Historical Policy Research, Department of State. It may be 
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., for $4 a copy. 



Order Form 

To: Supt. of Documents Please send me copies of Foreign Relations of the United States, 

Govt. Printing Office mS.Volume IV, The American Republics. 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Name 

Enclosed find: 

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$ 

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money order). § . ^ity, Zone, and State 



tJrie/ ^e/ia/yl77%enl/ aw t/tate^ 




Vol. XXIX, No. 736 
August 3, 1953 




ARMISTICE IN KOREA: 

President's Message to the Nation 131 

Statement by Secretary Dulles 131 

Text of Armistice Agreement and Supplementary 
Agreement on Prisoners of War 132 

AMERICA'S STAKE IN A HEALTHY FREE-WORLD 

ECONOMY • by Assistant Secretary Waugh .... 142 

ADMINISTERING THE PACIFIC TRUST TERRI- 
TORY • Statement by Frank E. Midkiff 150 



For index see inside back cover 



Boston Public Library 
Superintcn<1ent of Documents 

AUG 1 9 1953 



%J/ie 



■^"S.°*.. 




QJefia/yi^e^t a)^ CHai^ V3 H 1 i \J L 1 i 1 



Vol. XXIX, No. 736 • Publicatiod 5143 
August 3, 1953 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Qovernment Printing ODBce 

Washington 25, D.O. 

Price: 

62 Issues, domestic $7.50, foreign $10.25 
Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 22, 1052). 

Note: Contents of this piibllcition arc not 
Copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bulletin as the source will bo 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly piibiication issued by the 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of the 
Government u;ith information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the tiork of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
selected press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House 
and the Department, and statements 
and addresses made by the President 
and by the Secretary of Stale and other 
officers of the Department, as uell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
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tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
tohich the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



ARMISTICE IN KOREA 



THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE TO THE NATION' 

Wblte House press release dated July 26 

My fellow citizens: Tonight we greet, with 
prayers of thanksgiving, the official news that an 
armistice was signed almost an hour ago in Korea. 
It will quickly bring to an end the fighting be- 
tween the U.N. forces and the Connnunist armies. 
For tliis Nation the cost of repelling aggression 
has been high. In thousands of homes it has been 
incalculable. It has been paid in terms of 
tragedy. 

With special feelings of sorrow — and of solemn 
gratitude — we think of those who were called 
upon to lay down their lives in that far-off land 
to prove once again that only courage and sacrifice 
can keep freedom alive upon the earth. To the 
widows and orphans of this war, and to those 
veterans who bear disabling wounds, America re- 
news tonight her pledge of lasting devotion and 
care. 

Our thoughts turn also to those other Ameri- 
cans wearied by many months of imprisonment 
behind the enemy lines. The swift return of all 
of tliem will bring joy to thousands of families. 
It will be evidence of good faith on the part of 
those with whom we have signed this armistice. 

Soldiers, sailors, and airmen of 16 different 
countries have stood as partners beside us through- 
out these long and bitter months. America's 
thanks go to each. In this struggle we have seen 
the United Nations meet the challenge of aggres- 
sion — not with pathetic words of protest, but with 
deeds of decisive purpose. It is proper that we 
salute particularly the valorous armies of the Re- 
public of Korea, for they have done even more 
than prove their right to freedom. Inspired by 
President Syngman Khee, they have given an ex- 
ample of courage and patriotism which again 
demonstrates that men of the West and men of the 
East can fight and work and live together side 
by side in pursuit of a just and noble cause. 

And so at long last the carnage of war is to 
cease and the negotiation of the conference table 



' Delivered over radio and television at 10 p. m., e. d. t. 
Jnly 2fi, immediately after the signing of the Korean 
armistice at Panmunjom. 

August 3, 7953 



is to begin. On this Sabbath evening each of us 
devoutly prays that all nations may come to see 
the wisdom of composing differences in this 
fashion before, rather than after, there is resort 
to brutal and futile battle. 

No\y as we strive to bring about that wisdom, 
there is, in this moment of sober satisfaction, one 
thought that must discipline our emotions and 
steady our resolution. It is this : We have won 
an armistice on a single battleground — not peace 
in the world. We may not now relax our guard 
nor cease our quest. 

Throughout the coming months, during the pe- 
riod of prisoner screening and exchange, and dur- 
ing the jjossibly longer period of the political con- 
ference which looks toward the unification of 
Korea, we and our U.N. Allies must be vigilant 
against the possibility of untoward developments. 

And as we do so, we shall fervently strive to 
insure that this armistice will, in fact, bring free 
peoples one step nearer to their goal of a world 
at peace. 

My friends, almost 90 years ago, Abraham 
Lincoln at the end of a war delivered his second 
inaugural address. At the end of that speech he 
spoke some words that I think more nearly ex- 
press the true feelings of America tonight than 
would any other words ever spoken or written. 
You will recall them : 

With malice toward none; with charity for all; with 
firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, 
let us strive on to finish the work we are in . . . to do all 
which may achieve and cherish a just and a lasting peace 
among ourselves and with all nations. 

This is our resolve and our dedication. 



STATEMENT BY SECRETARY DULLES' 

We welcome the Korean armistice. 

The commander of the U.N. forces, with whom 
are joined the troops of the Republic of Korea, 
has signed for his command. The Communist 
commanders have signed for their commands. 
We hope that they have acted and will proceed 
in good faith. However, until that is demon- 

■ Delivered to the Nation over radio and television 
on July 26 (press release 397). 



131 



strated, the present armistice is by no means the 
equivalent of assured peace. So, we shall not 
relax our vigilance nor shall we reduce our 
strength in Korea until future events show that 
this is prudent. 

This is a solemn hour. 

In this hour, it is fitting that as God-fearing 
people we should give thanks to the Almighty 
that the killing and maiming of man by man will 
stop and that evil passions will be allayed. That 
is a precious gain for all who believe in human 
dignity and in the moral law. 

In this hour, we rejoice that the shadow of ap- 
prehension which, for over 3 years, has darkened 
many a home is now lifted. Tomorrow, no new 
names will be added to the long list of American 
casualties. Also, our thoughts go out eagerly to 
those of our sons, for long months captives of 
the enemy, who are now to be returned. But our 
mood is also one of sorrow as we think of the 
many who never will return, or who return bear- 
ing grievous hurts. 

In this hour, let us also think of the cause for 
which so great a sacrifice was made. For the first 
time in history an international organization has 
stood against an aggressor and has marshaled 
force to meet force. The aggressor, at first vic- 
torious, has been repulsed. The armistice leaves 
him in control of less territory than when his 
aggression began, and that territory is largely 
wasted. 

The North Korean Army is virtually extinct, 
the Chinese and Korean Communist armies have 
sustained about 2 million casualties, and of the 
10 million people of North Korea, one out of 
every three nas died from the war ravages and 
the inhuman neglects which their rulers have im- 
posed. These tragic results will surely be pon- 
dered by other potential nominees for aggression- 
by-satellite. All free nations, large and small, 
are safer today because the ideal of collective 
security has been implemented and because 
awful punishment has been visited upon the 
transgressors. 

In this hour, we welcome also the triumph of 
the principle of political asylum. Many of the 
North Korean and Chinese prisoners of war want 
hereafter to live in freedom. The Communists 
stubbornly insisted that these prisoners must be 
forcibly returned. Now that demand is aban- 
doned. No prisoners will be returned against 
their will. They may choose freedom. The con- 
sequences of this decision run far beyond Korea. 
The Communist rulers now know that if they 
wage another war of aggression, those who un- 
willingly serve in their Red armies can escape to 
freedom, confident that they will never be handed 
back. Thus the Red armies become less depend- 
able as instruments of aggression and the chance 
of aggression is correspondingly reduced. 

In this hour, when we think of the jrains which 



this armistice records, we must think also of the 
cost. We owe much, indeed all humanity owes 
much, to the gallant troops who fought under the 
U.N. Command. The young Americans of our 
armed forces wrote, often with their blood, an 
epic chapter of heroic response to duty. The brave 
people of the Republic of Korea, under the in- 
spiring leadership of President Rhee, sustained 
their will to fight in the face of frightful suflFer- 
ing. Also, 15 members of the United Nations, in 
addition to the United States, contributed valiant 
fighting men to the U.N. Command. All of this 
cost must be held in grateful remembrance. 

In this hour, as we recognize our debt, let us 
also recognize that gratitude is not enough. We 
face new tasks. An immediate task is the bind- 
ing up of the wounds that war has inflicted. We 
shall do so in South Korea, and indeed in all 
Korea, if unification can be achieved. We are no 
less determined than before to achieve this unifica- 
tion. Since World War II, it has been our firm 
conviction that the unification of the peninsula 
must come about through political means rather 
than by force. Nothing has happened to alter 
that conviction. Now we shall press forward, in 
political conference, to end an unnatural division 
which, so long as it persists, will be a potential 
cause of strife. 

Finally, in this hour, let us recognize that the 
need for effort and for sacrifice has not passed. In 
war, men make vast sacrifices for peace. Then, 
when peace is won, they fail to make the lesser 
sacrifices needed to keep the peace. Let us, this 
time, not relax, but mobilize for peace the re- 
sources, spiritual and material, which we too often 
reserve for war. Now more than ever we ai'e 
bound irrevocably to press forward toward the 
goals of universal peace and justice. 



TEXT OF ARMISTICE AGREEMENT 

Agreement between the Commander-in-Chief, United 
Nations Command, on the one hand, and the Supreme 
Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Com- 
mander of the Chinese People's Volunteers, on the other 
hand, concerning a military armistice in Korea. 

Preamble 

The undersigned, the Commander-in-Chief, United Na- 
tions Command, on the one hand, and the Supreme Com- 
mander ot the Korean People's Army and the Commander 
of the Chinese People's Volunteers, on the other hand, in 
the interest of stopping the Korean conflict, with its great 
toll of suffering and bloodshed nn both sides, and with the 
objective of establishing an armistice which will insure 
a complete cessation of hostilities and of all acts of armed 
force in Korea until a linal peaceful settlement is achieved, 
do individually, collectively, and mutually agree to ac- 
cept and to be bound and governed by the conditions and 
terms of armistice set forth in the following articles and 
paragraphs, which said conditions and terms are intended 
to be purely military in character and to pertain solely to 
the belligerents in Korea. 



132 



Department of State Bulletin 



Article I 

MILITARY DEMARCATION LINE AND 
DEMILITARIZED ZONE 

1. A military demarcation line shall be fixed and both 
Sides sluill withdraw two (2) kilometers from this line so 
as to establish a demilitarized zone between the opposing 
forces. A demilitarized zone shall be established as a 
buffer zone to prevent the occurrence of incidents which 
might lead to a resumption of hostilities. 

2. The military demarcation line is located as indicated 
on the attached map (Map 1)." 

3. This demilitarized zone is defined by a northern and 
a southern boundary as indicated on the attached map 
(Map 1). 

4. The military demarcation line shall be plainly marked 
as directed by the Military Armistice Commission herein- 
after established. The Commanders of the opposing sides 
shall have suitable markers erected along the Iwundary 
between the demilitarized zone and their respective areas. 
The Military Armistice Commission shall supervise the 
erection of all markers placed along the military demarca- 
tion line and along the boundaries of the demilitarized 
zone. 

5. The waters of the Han River Estuary shall be open 
to civil shipping of both sides wherever one bank is 
controlled by one side and the other bank is controlled by 
the other side. The Military Armistice Commission shall 
prescribe rules for the shipping in that part of the Han 
River Estuary indicated on the attached map (Map 2). 
Civil shipping of each side shall have unrestricted access 
to the land under the military control of that side. 

6. Neither side shall execute any hostile act within, 
from, or against the demilitarized zone. 

7. No person, military or civilian, shall be permitted 
to cross the military demarcation line unless specifically 
authorized to do so by the Military Armistice Commission. 

8. No person, military or civilian, in the demilitarized 
zone shall be permitted to enter the territory under the 
military control of either side unless specifically author- 
ized to do so by the Commander into whose territory entry 
Is sought. 

9. No person, military or civilian, shall be permitted 
to enter the demilitarized zone except persons concerned 
■with the conduct of civil administration and relief and 
persons specifically authorized to enter by the Military 
Armistice Commission. 

10. Civil administration and relief in that part of the 
demilitarized zone which is south of the military demar- 
cation line shall be the responsibility of the Commander- 
in-Chief, United Nations Command; and civil adminis- 
tration and relief in that part of the demilitarized zone 
which is north of the military demarcation line shall be 
the joint responsibility of the Supreme Commander of 
the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the 
Chinese People's Volunteers. The number of persons, 
military or civilian, from each side who are permitted to 
enter the demilitarized zone for the conduct of civil 
administration and relief shall be as determined by the 
respective Commanders, but in no case shall the total 
number authorized by either side exceed one thousand 
(1,000) persons at any one time. The number of civil 
police and the arms to be carried by them shall be as 
prescribed by the Military Armistice Commission. Other 
personnel shall not carry arms unless speciflcally author- 
ized to do so by the Military Armistice Commission. 

11. Nothing contained in this article shall be construed 
to prevent the complete freedom of movement to, from, and 
within the demilitarized zone by the Military Armistice 
Commission, its assistants, its Joint Observer Teams with 
their assistants, the Neutral Nations Supervisory Com- 
mission hereinafter established, its assistants, its Neutral 



' The .J maps are not printed here. 
August 3, ?953 



Nations Inspection Teams with their assistants, and of 
any other persons, materials, and equipment specifically 
authorized to enter the demilitarized zone by the Military 
Armistice Commission. Convenience of movement shall 
be permitted througJi the territory under the military con- 
trol of either side over any route necessary to move be- 
tween points within the demilitarized zone whore such 
points are not connected by rnads lying completely within 
the demilitarized zone. 

Article II 

CONCRETE ARRANGEMENTS FOR CEASE-FIRE AND 
ARMISTICE 

A. General 

12. The Commanders of the opposing sides shall order 
and enforce a complete cessation of all hostilities in Korea 
by all armed forces under their control, including all 
units and personnel of the ground, naval, and air forces, 
effective twelve (12) hours after this armistice agree- 
ment is signed. (See paragraph 03 hereof for effective 
date and hour of the remaining provisions of this armistice 
agreement). 

13. In order to insure the stability of the military 
armistice so as to facilitate the attainment of a peaceful 
settlement through the holding by both sides of a politi- 
cal conference of a higher level, the Commanders of 
the opposing sides shall : 

(a) Within seventy-two (72) hours after this armistice 
agreement becomes effective, withdraw all of their mili- 
tary forces, supplies, and equipment from the demilitarized 
zone except as otherwise provided herein. All demolitions, 
minefields, wire entanglements, and other hazards to the 
safe movement of personnel of the Military Armistice 
Commission or its joint observer teams, known to exist 
within the demilitarized zone after the withdrawal of 
military forces therefrom, together with lanes known to 
be free of all such hazards, shall be reported to the Mac 
by the Commander of the side whose forces emplaced 
siich hazards. Subsequently, additional safe lanes shall 
be cleared; and eventually, vyithin forty-five (45) days 
after the termination of the seventy-two (72) hour period, 
all such hazards shall be removed from the demilitarized 
zone as directed by and under the supervision of the Mac. 
At the termination of the seventy-two (72) hour period, 
except for unarmed troops authorized a forty-five (45) 
day period to complete salvage operations under Mac 
supervision, such units of a police nature as may be spe- 
cifically requested by the Mac and agreed to by the Com- 
manders of the opposing sides, and personnel authorized 
under paragraphs 10 and 11 hereof, no personnel of either 
side shall be permitted to enter the demilitarized zone. 

(b) Within ten (10) days after this armistice agree- 
ment becomes effective, withdraw all of tlieir military 
forces, supplies, and equipment from the rear and the 
coastal islands and waters of Korea of the other side. 
If such military forces are not withdrawn within the 
stated time limit, and there is no mutually agreed and 
valid reason for the delay, the other side shall have 
the right to take any action which it deems necessary 
for the maintenance of security and order. The term 
"coastal islands", as used above, refers to those islands 
which, though occupied by one side at the time when 
this armistice agreement becomes effective, were con- 
trolled by the other side on 24 June 1950; provided, 
however, that all the islands lying to the north and 
west of the provincial boundary line between HWAN- 
GHAE-DO and KYONGGI-DO shall be under the military 
control of the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's 
Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volun- 
teers, except the island groups of PAENGYONG-DO 
(37''58' N., 124''40' E.). TAECHONG-DO (37°50' N., 
124°42' E.), SOCHONG-DO (37°46' N., 124°46' E.), 
YONPYONG-DO (37°38' N., 125°40' E.), and U-DO 
(37°36' N., 125°58' E.) and which shall remain under the 
military control of the Commander-in-Chief, United Na- 



133 



tlons Command. AH the islands (m the west coast of 
Korea lying south of the above-mentioned boundary line 
shall remain under the military control of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, United Nations Command. (See Map 3.) 

(c) Cease the introduction into Korea of reinforcing 
military personnel ; provided, however, that the rotation 
of units and personnel, the arrival in Korea of personnel 
on a temporary duty basis, and the return to Korea of 
personnel after short periods of leave or temporary duty 
outside of Korea shall be permitted within the scope 
prescribed below : 

"Itotation" is defined as the replacement of units or 
personnel by other units or personnel who are commenc- 
ing a tour of duty in Korea. Rotation personnel shall 
be introduced into and evacuated from Korea only through 
the ports of entry enumerated in paragraph 43 hereof. 
Rotation shall be conducted on a man-for-man basis ; 
provided, however, that no more than thirty-five thousand 
(35,000) persons in the military service shall be admitted 
into Korea by either side in any calendar month under the 
rotation policy. No military personnel of either side .shall 
be introduced into Korea if the introduction of such per- 
sonnel will cause the aggregate of the military personnel 
of that side admitted into Korea since the effective date of 
this armistice agreement to exceed the cumulative total 
of the military personnel of that side who have departed 
from Korea since that date. Reports concerning ar- 
rivals in and departures from Korea of military person- 
nel shall be made daily to the Mac and the Nnsc ; such 
reports shall include places of arrival and departure and 
the number of persons arriving at or departing from 
each such place. The Nnsc, through its Neutral Nations 
Inspection Teams, shall conduct supervision and inspec- 
tion of the rotation of units and personnel authorized 
above, at the ports of entry enumerated in paragraph 43 
hereof. 

(d) Cease the introduction into Korea of reinforcing 
coml)at aircraft, armored vehicles, weapons, and am- 
munition ; provided, however, that combat aircraft, ar- 
mored vehicles, weapons, and ammunition which are des- 
troyed, damaged, worn out, or used up during the period 
of the armistice may be replaced on the basis of piece- 
for-piece of the same effectivness and the same type. 
Such combat aircraft, armored vehicles, weapons, and 
ammunition shall be introduced into Korea only through 
the ports of entry enumerated in paragraph 43 hereof. 
In order to justify the requirements for combat aircraft, 
armored veliicles, weapons, and ammunition to be in- 
troduced into Korea for replacement purposes, reports 
concerning every incoming sliipment of these items sliall 
be made to the Mac and the Nnsc ; such reports sliall 
include statements regarding the disposition of the items 
being replaced. Items to be replaced which are removed 
from Korea shall be removed only through the ports of 
entry enumerated in paragraph 43 hereof. The Nnsc, 
through its Neutral Nations Inspection Teams, shall 
conduct supervision and inspection of the replacement 
of combat aircraft, armored vehicles, weapons, and am- 
munition authorized above, at the ports of entry enu- 
merated in iiaragraph 43 hereof. 

(e) Insure that personnel of their respective com- 
mands who violate any of the provisions of this armistice 
agreement are adequately punished. 

(f) In those cases where places of burial are a matter 
of record and graves are actually found to exist, permit 
graves registration personnel of the other side to enter, 
within a definite time limit after this armistice agreement 
becomes effective, the territory of Korea under tiieir mili- 
tary control, for the purpose of proceeding to such graves 
to recover and evacuate the bodies of the deceased military 
personnel of that side, including deceased prisoners of 
war. The specific procedures and the time limit for the 
performance of the above task shall be ileterniined by the 
Military Armistice Commission. The Connnanders of the 
opposing sides shall furnish to the other side all available 
information pertaining to the places of burial of the de- 
ceased military personnel of the other side. 



(g) Afford full protection and all possible assistance 
and cooperation to the Military Armistice Commission, its 
Joint Observer Teams, the Neutral Nations Supervisory 
Commission, and its Neutral Nations Inspection Teams, 
in the carrying out of their functions and responsibilities 
hereinafter assigned ; and accord to the Neutral Nations 
Supervisory Commission, and to its Neutral Nations In- 
spection Teams, full convenience of movement between the 
headquarters of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commis- 
sion and the ports of entry enumerated in paragraph 43 
hereof over main lines of communication agreed upon by 
both sides (See Map 4), and between the headquarters of 
the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission and the 
places where violations of this armistice agreement have 
been reported to have occurred. In order to prevent un- 
necessary delays, the use of alternate routes and means of 
transportation will be permitted whenever the main lines 
of communication are closed or impassable. 

(h) Provide such logistic support, including communi- 
cations and transportation facilities, as may be required 
by the Military Armistice Commission and the Neutral 
Nations Supervisory Commission and their Teams. 

(i) Each construct, operate, and maintain a suitable 
airfield in their respective parts of the demilitarized zone 
In the vicinity of the headquarters of the Military Armi- 
stice Commission, for such uses as the Commission may 
determine. 

(j) Insure that all members and other personnel of the 
Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission and of the Neu- 
tral Nations Repatriation Commission hereinafter estab- 
lished shall enjoy the freedom and facilities necessary for 
the proper exercise of their functions, including privileges, 
treatment, and immunities equivalent to those ordinarily 
enjoyed by accredited diplomatic personnel under inter- 
national usage. 

14. This armistice agreement shall apply to all op- 
posing ground forces under the military control of either 
side, which ground forces shall respect the demilitarized 
zone and the area of Korea under the military control of 
the opposing side. 

15. This armistice agreement shall apply to all oppos- 
ing naval forces, which naval forces shall respect the 
waters contiguous to the demilitarized zone and to the 
land area of Korea under the military control of the op- 
posing side, and shall not engage in blockade of any kind 
of Korea. 

16. This armistice agreement shall apply to all opposing 
air forces, which air forces shall respect the air space 
over the demilitarized zone and over the area of Korea 
under the military control of the opposing side, and over 
the waters contiguous to both. 

17. Responsibility for compliance with and enforcement 
of the terms and provisions of this armistice agreement 
is that of the signatories hereto and their successors in 
command. The Commanders of the opposing sides shall 
establish within their respective commands all measures 
and procedures necess;iry to insure complete compliance 
with all of the provisions hereof by all elements of their 
commands. They shall actively cooperate with one an- 
other and with the Military Armistice Commission and 
the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission in requiring 
observance of both the letter and the spirit of all of the 
provisions of this armistice agreement. 

IS. The costs of the operations of the Military Armistice 
Commission and of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Com- 
mission and of their Teams shall be shared equally by the 
two opposing sides. 

B. Militarii Armistice Commission. 
1. Composition 

19. A Military Armistice Commission Is hereby estab- 
lished. 

20. The Military Armistice Commission shall be com- 
posed of ten (10) senior officers, five (.'">) of whom shall 
be appointed by the Connnander-in-Chief, United Nations 
Command, and five i^i) of whom shall be appointed Jointly 



134 



Department of State Bulletin 



|jy the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army 
and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers. 
Of the ten members, three (3) from each side shall be of 
general or flag rank. The two (2) remaining members on 
each side may be major generals, brigadier generals, 
colonels, or their equivalent. 

21. Members of the Military Armistice Commission shall 
be permitted to u.se staff assistants as required. 

22. The Military Armistice Commission shall be pro- 
vided with the necessary administrative personnel to es- 
tablish a Secretariat charged with assistint; the Commis- 
sion l)y performing record-lieeping, secretarial, interpret- 
ing, and such other functions as the Commission may 
assign to it. Each side shall appoint to the Secretariat 
a Secretary and an Assistant Secretary and such clerical 
and specialized personnel as required by the Secretariat. 
Records shall be kept in English, Korean, and Chinese, 
all of which shall be equally authentic. 

23. (a) The Jlilitary Armistice Commission shall be 
Initially provided with and assisted by ten (10) Joint 
Observer Teams, which number may be reduced by agree- 
ment of the senior members of both sides on the ijilitary 
Armistice Commission. 

(b) Each Joint Observer Team shall be composed of 
not less than four (4) nor more than six (G) officers of 
field iirade, half of whom shall be appointed liy the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, and half of 
whom shall be appointed jointly by the Supreme Com- 
mander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander 
of the Chinese People's Volunteers. Additional person- 
nel such as drivers, clerks, and interpreters shall be fur- 
nished by each side as required for the functioning of the 
Joint Observer Teams. 

2. Functions and Authority 

24. The general mission of the Military Armistice Com- 
mission shall be to supervise the implementation of this 
armistice agreement and to settle through negotiations 
any violations of this armistice agreement. 

25. The Military Armistice Commission shall : 

(a) Locate Its headquarters in the vicinity of PAN- 
MUX.IO.M (.■{7°.")7'2y" N. 120°4U'00" E). The Military 
Armistice Commission may relocate its headquarters at 
another point within the demilitarized zone by agreement 
of the senior members of both sides on the Commission. 

(b) Operate as a joint organization without a chair- 
man. 

(c) Adopt such rules of procedure as it may, from time 
to time, deem necessary. 

(d) Supervise the carrying out of the provisions of this 
armistice agreement pertaining to the demilitarized zone 
and to the Han River Estuary. 

(e) Direct the operations of the Joint Observer Teams. 

(f) Settle through negotiations any violations of this 
armistice agreement. 

(g) Transmit immediately to the Commanders of the 
opposing sides all reports of investigations of violations 
of this armistice agreement and all other reports and rec- 
ords of proceedings received from the Neutral Nations 
Supervisory Commission. 

(h) Give general supervision and direction to the activ- 
ities of the Committee for Repatriation of Prisoners of 
War and the Committee for Assisting the Return of Dis- 
placed Civilians, hereinafter established. 

(i) Act as an intermediary in transmitting communica- 
tions between the Commanders of the opposing sides ; 
provided, however, that the foregoing shall not be con- 
strued to preclude the Commanders of both sides from 
communicating with each other by any other means which 
they may desire to employ. 

(j) Provide credentials and distinctive insignia for its 
staff and its Joint Observer Teams, and a distinctive 
marking for all vehicles, aircraft, and vessels, used in 
the performance of its mission. 

26. The mission of the Joint Observer Teams shall be 



to assist the Military Armistice Commission in super- 
vising the carrying out of the provisions of this armistice 
agreement pertaining to the demilitarized zone and to 
the Han River Estuary. 

27. The Military Armistice Commission, or the senloy 
member of either side thereof, is authorized to dispatch 
Joint Observer Teams to investigate violations of this 
armistice agreement reported to have occurred in the de- 
militarized zone or in the Han River Estuary; provided, 
however, that not more than one half of the Joint Ob- 
server Team which have not been dispatched by the 
Military .Vrniistice Commission may be dispatched at any 
one time by the senior member of either side on the 
Commission. 

28. The Military Armistice Commission, or the senior 
member of either side thereof, is authorized to request 
the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission to conduct 
special observations and inspections at places outside the 
demilitarized zone where violations of this armistice 
agreement have been reported to have occurred. 

29. When the Military Armistice Commission deter- 
mines that a violation of this armistice agreement has 
occurred, it .shall immediately report such violation to 
the Commanders of the opposing sides. 

30. When the Military Armistice Commission deter- 
mines that a violation of this armistice agreement has 
been corrected to its satisfaction, it shall so report to 
the Commanders of the opposing sides. 

3. Oeneral 

31. The Military Armistice Commission shall meet 
daily. Recesses of not to exceed seven (7) days may be 
agreed upon by the senior members of both sides ; pro- 
vided, that such recesses may be terminated on twenty- 
four (24) hour notice by the senior member of either 
side. 

32. Copies of the record of the proceedings of all meet- 
ings of the Military Armistice Commission shall be for- 
warded to the Commanders of the opposing sides as soon 
as possible after each meeting. 

33. The Joint Observer Teams shall make periodic re- 
pnrts to the Military Armistice Commissicm as required by 
the Commission and, in addition, shall make such special 
reports as may l)e deemed nerossary liy them, or as may 
be required by the Commission. 

34. The Military Armistice Commission shall maintain 
duplicate files of the reports and records of proceedings 
required by this armistice agreement. The Commission 
is authorized to maintain duplicate files of such other 
reports, records, etc., as may be necessary in the conduct 
of its business. Upon eventual dissolution of the Com- 
mission, one set of the above files shall be turned over to 
each side. 

35. The Military Armistice Commission may make 
recommendations to the Commanders of the opposing sides 
with respect to amendments or additions to this armistice 
agreement. Such recommended changes should generally 
be those designed to insure a more effective armistice. 

C. Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission 
1. Composition 

36. A Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission is hereby 
established. 

37. The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission shall 
be composed of four (4) senior officers, two (2) of whom 
shall be appointed by neutral nations nominated by the 
Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, namely, 
SWEDEN and SWITZERLAND, and two (2) of whom 
shall be appointed by neutral nations nominated jointly 
by the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army 
and the (Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers, 
namely, POLAND and CZECHOSLOVAKIA. The term 
"neutral nations'' as herein used is defined as those na- 
tions whose combatant forces have not participated in 
the hostilities in Korea. Members appointed to the Com- 
mission may be from the armed forces of the appointing 



Augosf 3, 1953 



135 



cations. Each member shall designate an alternate mem- 
ber to attend tliose meetings which for any reason the 
principal member is unable to attend. Such alternate 
members shall be of the same nationality as their princi- 
pals. The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission may 
take action whenever the number of members present from 
the neutral nations nominated by one side is equal to the 
number of members present from the neutral nations 
nominated by the other side. 

38. Members of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Com- 
mission shall be permitted to use staff assistants fur- 
nished by the neutral nations as required. Tliese staff 
assistants may be appointed as alternate members of 
the Commission. 

39. The neutral nations shall be requested to furnish the 
Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission with the neces- 
sary administrative personnel to establish a Secretariat 
charged with assisting the Commission by performing 
necessary record-keeping, .secretarial, interpreting, and 
such other functions as the Commission may assign to it. 

40. (a) The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission 
shall be initially provided with, and assisted by, twenty 
(20) Neutral Nations Inspection Teams, which number 
may be reduced by asreement of the senior members of 
both sides on the Military Armistice Commission. The 
Neutral Nations Inspection Teams shall be responsible 
to, shall report to, and shall be subject to the direction 
of, the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission only. 

(b) Each Neutral Nations Inspection Team shall be 
composed of not less than four (4) oflScers, preferably 
of field grade, half of whom shall be from the neutral 
nations nominated by the Commander-in-Chief, United 
Nations Command, and half of whom shall be from the 
neutral nations nominated jointly by the Supreme Com- 
mander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander 
of the Chinese People's Volunteers. Members appointed 
to the Neutral Nations Inspection Teams may be from 
the armed forces of the appointing nations. In order 
to facilitate the functioning of the Teams, sub-teams 
composed of not less than two (2) members, one of whom 
shall be from a neutral nation nominated by the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, and one of 
whom shall be from a neutral nation nominated jointly 
by the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army 
and the Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers, 
may be formed as circumstances require. Additional 
personnel such as drivers, clerks, interpreters, and com- 
munications personnel, and such equipment as may be 
required by the Teams to perform their missions, shall 
be furnished by the Commander of each side, as required, 
in the demilitarized zone and in the territory under his 
military control. The Neutral Nations Supervisory Com- 
mission may provide itself and the Neutral Nations In- 
spection Teams with such of the above personnel and 
equipment of its own as it may desire ; provided, how- 
ever, that such personnel shall be personnel of the same 
neutral nations of which the Neutral Nations Supervisory 
Commission is composed. 

2. Functions and Authority 

41. The mission of the Neutral Nations Supervisory 
Commission shall be to carry out the functions of super- 
vision, observation, inspection, and investigation, as 
stipulated in sub-paragraphs 13 (c) and 13 (d) and 
paragraph 28 hereof, and to report the results of such 
supervision, observation, inspection, and investigation 
to the Military Armistice Commission. 

42. The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission 
shall : 

(a) Locate its headquarters in proximity to the head- 
quarters of the Military .\rmistice Commission. 

(b) Adopt such rules of procedure as it may, from 
time to time, deem necessary. 

(c) Conduct, through its members and its Neutral 
Nations In.spcction Teams, tlie supervision and inspection 
provided for in sub-paragraphs 13 (c) and 13 (d) of this 

136 



armistice agreement at the ports of entry enumerated in 
paragraph 43 hereof, and the special observations and 
inspections provided for in paragraph 28 hereof at those 
places where violations of this armistice agreement have 
been reported to have occurred. The inspection of combat 
aircraft, armored vehicles, weapons, and ammunition by 
the Neutral Nations Inspection Teams shall be such as 
to enable them to proiierly insure that reinforcing combat 
aircraft, armored vehicles, weapons, and ammunition are 
not being introduced into Korea ; but this sihall not be 
construed as authorizing inspections or examinations 
of any secret designs or characteristics of any combat 
aircraft, armored vehicle, weapon, or ammunition. 

(d) Direct and supervise the operations of the Neutral 
Nations Inspection 'Teams. 

(e) Station five (5) Neutral Nations Inspection Teams 
at the ports of entry enumerated in paragraph 43 hereof 
located in the territory under the military control of 
the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command; and 
five (5) Neutral Nations Inspection Teams at the ports 
of entry enumerated in paragraph 43 hereof located in 
the territory under the military control of the Supreme 
Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Com- 
mander of the Chinese People's Volunteers ; and establish 
initially ten (10) mobile Neutral Nations Inspection 
Teams in reserve, stationed in the general vicinity of the 
headquarters of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Com- 
mission, which number may be reduced by agreement of 
the senior members of both sides on the Military Armis- 
tice Commission. Not more than half of the mobile 
Neutral Nations Inspection Teams shall be dispatched at 
any one time in accordance with requests of the senior 
member of either side on the Military Armistice Com- 
mission. 

(f) Subject to the provisions of the preceding sub- 
paragraphs, conduct without delay investigations of re- 
ported violations of this armistice agreement, including 
such investigations of reported violations of this armis- 
tice agreement as may be requested l:)y the Military 
Armistice Commission or by the senior member of either 
side of the Commission. 

(g) Provide credentials and distinctive Insignia for 
its staff and its Neutral Nations Inspection Teams, and 
a distinctive marking for all vehicles, aircraft, and ves- 
sels, used in the performance of its mission. 

43. Neutral Nations Inspection Teams shall be stationed 
at the following ports of entry : 

Territory under the military control of the United Na- 
tions Command 

INCHON (37°28' N, 126-38' E) 

TAEGU (35°o2' N, 12S°36' E) 

PUSAN (35°06' N, 129°02' E) 

KANGNUNG (37°4.1' N, 12S°54' E) 

KUNSAN (35"'59' N, 126°43' E) 

Territory under the military control of the Korean 
People's Army and the Chinese People's Volunteers 

SINUIJU (40''06' N, 124°24' E) 

CHONGJIM (41''46' N, 129°49' E) 

HUNGNAM (39''50' N, 12T°37' E) 

MANPO (41''09' N, 12tri8' E) 

SINANJU (39°36' N, 125''36' E) 

These Neutral Nations Inspection Teams shall be ac- 
corded full convenience of movement within the areas and 
over the routes of communication set forth on the attached 
map (Map 5). 

3. General 

44. The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission shall 
meet daily. Recesses of not to exceed seven (7) days 
may be agreed upon by the members of the Neutral Na- 
tions Sui)ervisory Commission ; provided, that such re- 
cesses may be terminated on twenty-four (24) hour notice 
by any member. 

45. Copies of the record of the proceedings of all meet- 

Deparfment of State Bulletin i 



Ings of the Neiitrnl Nations Supervisory Commission shall 
be forwardi'd to the Military Armistice Commission as 
soon as possible after each meeting. Uecords shall be 
kept in Enf-'lish, Korean, and Chinese. 

46. The Neutral Nations Inspection Teams shall make 
periodic reports concerning the results of their super- 
vision, observations, inspecticms, and invosti;;ati(ins to 
the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission as required 
by the Commission and, in addition, shall make such spe- 
cial reports as may be deemed necessary by them, or as 
may be required by the Commission. Reports shall be 
submitted by a Team as a whole, but may also be sub- 
mitted by one or more individual members thereof ; pro- 
vided, that the reports submitted liy one or more indi- 
vidual meiiiliers thereof shall be considered as informa- 
tional only. 

47. Copies of the reports made liy the Neutral Nations 
Inspection Teams shall be forwarded to the Military 
Armistice Commission by the Neutral Nations Super- 
visory Commission without delay and in the lansuage in 
which received. They shall not be delayed by the process 
of translation or evaluation. The Neutral Nations Super- 
visory Commission shall evaluate such reports at the 
earliest practicable time and shall forward their findings 
to the Military Armistice Commission as a matter of 
priority. The ililitary Armistice Commission shall not 
take final action with regard to any such reiwrt until the 
evaluation thereof has been received from the Neutral 
Nations Supervisor.v Commission. Members of the Neutral 
Nations Supervisory Commission and of its Teams shall be 
subject to appearance before the Military Armistice Com- 
missi(m, at the request of the senior member of either side 
on the Military Armistice Commission, for clarification of 
any report submitted. 

48. The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission shall 
maintain duplicate files of the reports and records of 
proceedings required by this armistice agreement. The 
Commission is authorized to maintain duplicate files of 
such other reports, records, etc., as ma.v be necessary in 
the conduct of its business. Upon eventual dissolution 
of the Commission, one set of the above files shall be 
turned over to each side. 

49. The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission may 
make recommendations to the Military Armistice Commis- 
sion with respect to amendments or additions to this 
armistice agreement. Such recommended changes should 
generally be those designed to insure a more effective 
armistice. 

50. The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, or 
any member thereof, shall be authorized to communicate 
with any member of the Military Armistice Commission. 

ARTICI.E III 

ARRANGEMENTS RELATING TO PRISONERS 
OF WAR 

51. The release and repatriation of all prisoners of 
war held in the custody of each side at the time this 
armistice agreement becomes effective shall be effected 
in conformity with the following provisions agreed upon 
by both sides prior to the signing of this armistice 
agreement. 

(a) Within sixty (60) days after this ai-mistiee agree- 
ment becomes effective each side shall, without offering 
any hindrance, directly repatriate and hand over in groups 
all those prisoners of war in its custody who insist on 
repatriation to the side to which they belonged at the 
time of capture. Repatriation shall be accomplished in 
accordance with the related provisions of this article. 
In order to expedite the repatriation process of such per- 
sonnel, each side shall, prior to the signing of the armis- 
tice agreement, exchange the total numbers, by national- 
ities, of personnel to be directly repatriated. Each group 
of prisoners of war delivered to the other side shall be 
accompanied by rosters, prepared by nationality, to in- 

Augosf 3, 1953 



dude name, rank (if any) and internment or military 
serial number. 

(b) Each side shall release all those remaining pris- 
oners of war, who are not directly repatriated, from its 
military control and from its custody and band them over 
to the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission for dis- 
position in accordance with the provisions in the annex 
hereto : "Terms of Reference for Neutral Nations Repatri- 
ation Commission." 

(c) So that there may be no misunderstanding owing 
to the equal use of three languages, the act of delivery of 
a prisoner of war by one side to the other side shall, for 
the purposes of this armistice agreement, be called "re- 
patriation" in English, "Song Hwan" ( ) in Korean, 
and "(li'ien Fan" ( ) in Chinese, notwithstanding 
the nationality or place of residence of such prisoner of 
war. 

52. Each side insures that it will not employ in acts of 
war in the Korean conflict any prisoner of war released 
and repatriated incident to the coming into effect of this 
armistice agreement. 

53. All the sick and injured prisoners of war who in- 
sist upon repatriation shall be repatriated with priority. 
Insofar as possible, there shall lie captured medical per- 
sonnel repatriated concurrently with the sick and injured 
prisoners of war, so as to provide medical care and at- 
tendance enroute. 

.54. The repatriation of all of the prisoners of war re- 
quired by sulD-paragraph 51 (a) hereof shall be completed 
within a time limit of sixty (GO) days after this armistice 
agreement becomes effective. Within this time limit each 
side undertakes to complete the repatriation of the above- 
mentioned prisoners of war in its custody at the earliest 
practicable time. 

55. PAXMUXJOM is designated as the place where pris- 
oners of war will be delivered and received by both sides. 
Additional place (s) of delivery and reception of prisoners 
of war in the demilitarized zone may be designated, if 
necessary, by the Committee for Repatriation of Pris- 
oners of War. 

56. (a) A committee for repatriation of prisoners of 
war is hereby established. It shall be composed of six (6) 
oflScers of field grade, three (3) of whom shall be appointed 
by the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, 
and three (3) of whom shall be appointed jointly by the 
Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the 
Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers. This 
committee shall, under the general supervision and direc- 
tion of the Military Armistice Commission, be responsible 
for coordinating the specific plans of both sides for the 
repatriation of prisoners of war and for supervising the 
execution by both sides of all of the provisions of this 
armistice agreement relating to the repatriation of pris- 
oners of war. It shall be the duty of this committee to co- 
ordinate the timing of the arrival of prisoners of war at 
the places of delivery and reception of prisoners of war 
from the prisoner of war camps of both sides ; to make, 
when necessary, such special arrangements as may be re- 
quired with regard to the transportation and welfare of 
sick and Injured prisoners of war ; to coordinate the work 
of the Joint Red Cross teams, established in paragrapli 
.57 hereof, in assisting in the repatriation of prisoners of 
war ; to supervise the implementation of the arrange- 
ments for the actual repatriation of prisoners of war stipu- 
lated in paragraphs 53 and 54 hereof ; to select, when 
necessary, additional places of delivery and reception of 
prisoners of war ; to arrange for security at the places of 
delivery and reception of prisoners of war ; and to carry 
out such other related functions as are required for the 
repatriation of prisoners of war. 

(b) When unable to reach agreement on any matter 
relating to its responsibilities, the Committee for Repatri- 
ation of Prisoners of War shall immediately refer such 
matter to the Military Armistice Commission for decision. 
The Committee for Repatriation of Prisoners of War 

137 



shall maintain its headquarters in proximity to the head- 
quarters of the Military Armistice Commission. 

(c) The Committee for Repatriation of Prisoners of 
War shall be dissolved by the Military Armistice Com- 
mission upon completion of the program of repatriation 
of prisoners of war. 

57. (a) Immediately after this armistice asreement 
becomes effective, .Joint Red Cross teams composed of 
representatives of the National Red Cross Societies of the 
countries contributing forces to the United Nations Com- 
mand on the one hand, and representatives of the Red 
Cross Society of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea 
and I'epresenta fives of the Red Cross Society of the 
People's Republic of China on the other hand, shall be 
established. The joint Red Cinss teams sliall assisi in 
the execution by both sides of those provisions of this 
armistice asroeraent relating: to the repatriation of all 
the prisoners of war specified in sub-parasraph .51 (a), 
hereof, who insist upon repatriation, by the performance 
of such humanitarian services as are necessary and de- 
sirable for the welfare of the prisoners of war. To ac- 
complish this task, the Joint Red Cross teams shall 
provide assistance in the delivering and receiving of pris- 
oners of war by both sides at the place(s) of delivery and 
reception of prisoners of war, and shall visit the prisoner- 
of-war camps of both sides to comfort the prisoners of 
war and to bring in and distribute gift articles for the 
comfort and welfare of the prisoners of war. The Joint 
Red Cross teams ma.y provide services to prisoners of 
war while en route from prisoner-of-war camos to the 
places of delivery and reception of prisoners of war. 

(b) The Joint Red Cross teams shall be organized as 
set forth below : 

(1) One team shall be composed of twenty (20) mem- 
bers, namely, ten (10) representatives from the national 
Red Cross societies of each side, to assist in the delivering 
and receiving of prisoners of war by both sides at the 
place (s) of delivery and reception of prisoners of war. 
The chairmanship of this team shall alternate daily be- 
tween representatives from the Red Cross societies of the 
two sides. The work and services of this team shall be 
coordinated by the Committee for Repatriation of Pris- 
oners of War. 

(2) One team shall be composed of sixty (60) members, 
namely, thirty (30) representatives from the national 
Red Cross societies of each side, to visit the prisoner-of- 
war camps under the administration of the Korean 
People's Army and the Chinese People's Volunteers. This 
team may provide services to prisoners of war while en 
route from the prisoner-of-war camps to the place(s) of 
delivery and reception of prisoners of war. A repre- 
sentative of the Red Cross society of the Democratic 
People's Republic of Korea or of the Red Cross Society of 
the People's Republic of China shall serve as chairman 
of this team. 

(3) One team shall be composed of sixty (00) mem- 
bers, namely, thirty (30) representatives from the na- 
tional Red Ooss societies of each side, to visit the pris- 
oner-of-war camps under the administration of the United 
Nations Command. This team may provide services to 
prisoners of war while en ronto from llie prisoiicr-iif-war 
camps to the place (s) of delivery and reception of pris- 
oners of war. A representative of a Red Cross society of 
a nation contributing forces to the United Nations Com- 
mand shall serve as chairman of this team. 

(4) In order to facilitate the functioning of each joint 
Red Cross team, sub-teams composed of not less than two 
(2) meuibers from the team, with an equal number of 
representatives from each side, may be formed as cir- 
cumstances re(|uire. 

(.'>) Additional personnel such as drivers, clerks, and 
Interpreters, and such equipment as may be required by 
the joint Red Cross teams to perform their missions, 
shall be furnished by the Conunander of each side to the 
team operating in the territory under his military control. 

(C) Whenever jointly agreed upon by the representa- 

138 



fives of both sides on any joint Red Cross team, the size 
of such team may be increased or decreased, subject to 
confirmalion by the Committee for Repatriation of Prison- 
ers of War. 

(c) Tlie Commander of each side shall cooperate fully 
with the joint Red Cross teams in the performance of their 
functions, and undertakes to insure the security of the 
personnel of the joint Red Cross team in the area under 
his military control. The Commander of each side shall 
provide such logistic, administrative, and communica- 
tions facilities as may lie required by the team operating 
in the territory under his military control. 

(d) The Joint Red Cross teams shall be dissolved upon 
completion of tlie program of repatriation of all the prison- 
ers of w:ir specified in sub-paragraph 51 (a) hereof, who 
insist upon repatriation. 

58. (a) The Comiuander of each side shall furnish to 
the Commander of the other side as soon as practicable, 
but not later than ten (10) days after this Armistice 
Agreement becomes effective, the following information 
concerning prisoners of war : 

(1) Complete data pertaining to the prisoners of war 
who escaped since the effective date of the data last 
exchanged. 

(2) Insofar as practicable, information regarding 
name, nationality, rank, and other indeiitiflcation data, 
date and cause of deatli, and place of burial, of those 
l)risoners of war who died while in his custody. 

(b) If any prisoners of war escape or die after the ef- 
fective date of the supplementary information specified 
above, the detaining side shall furnish to the other side, 
through ihe Committee for Repatriation of Prisoners of 
War, th-^ data pertaining thereto in accordance with the 
provisions of snli-paragraph 5S (a) hereof. Such data 
shall be furnished at 10-day intervals until the comple- 
tion of the program of delivery and reception of prisoners 
of war. 

(c) Any escaped prisoner of war who returns to the 
custody of the detaining side after the completion of the 
program of delivery and reception of prisoners of war shall 
be delivi-red to the Military Armistice Commission for 
disposition. 

59. (a) All civilians who, at the time this armistice 
agreement becomes effective, are in territory under the 
military control of the Commander in Chief, United 
Nations Command, and who, on 24 June IO.jO, resided 
north of the military demarcation line establishe<l in this 
armistice agreement shall, if they desire to return home, 
be pernntted and assisted by the Commander-in-Chief, 
United Nations Command, to return to the area north 
of the military demarcation line: and all civilians who, 
at the time this armistice agreement becomes effective, 
are in territory under the military control of tlie Supreme 
Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Com- 
mander of the Chinese People's Volunteers, and who, 
on 24 June 1950, resided south of the military demar- 
cation line estahlisbed in this armistice agreement shall, if 
they desire to return home, be permitted and assisted 
b.v the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army 
and the (jommander of the Chinese People's Volunteers 
to return to the area south of the military demarcation 
line. The commander of each side shall be responsible 
for publicizing widel.v throughout territor.v under his 
military control the contents of the provisions of this 
subparagraph, and for calling upon the appropriate 
civil authorities to give necessary guidance and assist- 
ance to all such civilians who desire to return home. 

(b) All civilians of foreign nationality who, at the time 
this arnnstice agreement becomes effective, are in terri- 
tory vuider the military control of the Supreme Com- 
mander of the Korean People's Army and the Conunander 
of the Chinese People's \"olunteers shall, if lliey desire 
to proceed to territory under the military control of the 
Conmuinder-in-Chief, United Nations Command, be per- 
mitted and assisted to do so; all civilians of foreign 
nalionalily who, at the time this armistice agreement he- 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



comes effective, are in territory under the military con- 
trol of tlie Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Com- 
mand, shall, if they desire to proceed to territory under 
the military control of the Supreme Commander of the 
Korean People's Army and the Conininnder of the Chinese 
People's Volunteers, he permitted and assisted to do so. 
The Connnander of each side shall lie resjionsible for 
publicizing: widely throughout the territory under his mili- 
tary contiol the contents of the provisions of this sub- 
paragraph, and for calling upon the appropriate civil 
aulliorities to give necessary guidance and assistance to 
all such civilians of foreign nationality who desire to 
proceed to territory under the military control of the 
commander of the other side. 

(c) Measures to assist in the return of civilians pro- 
vided for in sub-paragraph 59 (a) hereof and the move- 
ment of civilians provided for in sub-paragraph ~>0 (b) 
hereof shall he couimenced by both sides as soon as pos- 
sible after this armistice agreement becomes effective. 

(d) (1) A committee for assisting the return of dis- 
placed civilians is hereby established. It shall be 
c(miposed of four (4) officers of field grade, two (2) 
of whom sh;ill he appointed by the Commander-in-Chief, 
United Nations C(uiimand, and two (2) of whom shall 
be appointed jointly by the Supreme Commander of 
the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the 
Chine.se People's Volunteers. This committee shall, 
under the general supervision and direction of the Mili- 
tary Armistice Commission, be responsible for co- 
ordinating the specific plans of both sides for assistance 
to the return of the above-mentioned civilians, and for 
supervising the execution by both sides of all the 
provisions of this armistice agreement relating to the 
retnrn of the above-mentioned civilians. It shall Iie 
the duty of this committee to make necessary arrange- 
ments, including those of transportation, for expediting 
and coordinating the movement of the above-mentioned 
civilians : to .select the crossing points through which 
the above-mentioned civilians will cross the military 
demarcation line ; to arrange for security at the crossing 
points; and to carry out such other functions as are 
required to accomplish the return of the above-men- 
tioned civilians. 

(2) When unable to reach agreement on any matter 
relating to its responsibilities, the Committee for Assist- 
in'JT the Return of Displaced Civilians shall immediately 
refer such matter to the Military Armistice Commission 
for decision. The Committee for Assisting the Return 
of Displaced Civilians shall maintain its headquarters 
in proximity to the headquarters of the Military 
Armistice Commission. 

(3) The Committee for Assisting the Return of Dis- 
placed Civilians shall be dissolved by the Military 
Armistice Commission upon fulfillment of its mission. 

Article I'V 

RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE GOVERNMENTS 
CONCERNED ON BOTH SIDES 

60. In order to insure the peaceful settlement of the 
Korean question, the military commanders of both sides 
hereby recommend to the governments of the countries 
concerned on both sides that, within three (3) months 
after the armistice agreement is signed and becomes effec- 
tive, a political conference of a higher level of both sides 
be held by representatives appointed respectively to settle 
through negotiation the questions of the withdrawal of all 
foreign forces from Korea, the peaceful settlement of the 
Korean question, etc. 

Article V 

MISCELLANEOUS 

61. Amendments and additions to this armistice agree- 
ment must be mutually agreed to by the Commanders of 
the opposing sides. 



62. The articles and paragraphs of this armistice agree- 
ment shall remain in effect until expressly superseded 
either by mutually acceptable amendments and additions 
or by provision in an appropriate agreement for a peaceful 
settlement at a political level between both sides. 

(W. All of the provisidus (if (his armistice agreement, 
other than paragraph 12, shall become effective at 2200 
hours on July 27. Itl'i.S. 

Done at I'ANMl'NJOM, Korea, at 1000 hours on the 
27th day of July lU.").'!, in English, Korean, and Chinese, 
all texts being equally authentic* 

Na.m Ii. 

Oriicral, Korean People's Army, Senior Delegate, Delega- 
tion of the Korean People's Army and the Chinese People's 
Volunteers 

AVri.MAM K. Harrison, Jr. 

Lieutenant General, United States Army, Senior Delegate, 
United Nations Command Delegation 

Editor's Note. The official text of the agreement 
reached Washington as this issue was going to press. A 
comparison with the unofficial text, as distributed by the 
Department on July 26, disclosed a number of minor dif- 
ferences, chiefly of a stylistic nature. All substantive 
changes have been made in the text as printed here; in 
order not to delay publication, changes in style, such as 
the capitalization of "armistice agreement," "demili- 
tarized zone," and "military demarcation line," have not 
been made. 



SUPPLEMENTARY AGREEMENT ON PRISONERS 
OF WARS 

In order to meet the requirements of the disposition 
of the prisoners of war not for direct repatriation in 
accordance with the provisions of the terms of reference 
for Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, the Su- 
preme Conmiander of the Korean People's Army and the 
Commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers, on the 
one hand, and the Commander in Chief, United Nations 
Command, on the other hand, in pursuance of the provi- 
sions in paragraph 61, article 5 of the agreement concern- 
ing a military armistice in Korea, agree to conclude the 
following temporary agreement supplementary to the 
armistice agreement : 

1. Under the provisions of paragraphs 4 and .5, article 
II of the terms of reference for Neutral Nations Repatria- 
tion Commission, the United Nations Command has the 
right to designate the area between the military demarca- 
tion line and the eastern and southern boundaries of the 
demilitarized zone between the Imjin River on the south 
and the road leading south from Okum-Ni on the north- 
east (the main road leading southeast from Panmunjom 
not included), as the area within which the United Na- 
tions Command will turn over the prisoners of war, who 
are not directly repatriated and whom the United Nations 
Command has the responsibility for keeping under its 
custody, to the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commis- 
sion and the armed forces of India for custody. The 
United Nations Command shall, prior to the signing of 
the armistice agreement, inform the side of the Korean 
People's Army and the Chinese People's Volunteers of 
the approximate figures by nationality of such prisoners 
of war held in its custody. 

2. If there are prisoners of war under tlieir custody 



* The agreement was subsequently signed by Gen. Mark 
W. Clark, Commander-in-Chief, U. N. Command; Marshal 
Kim II Sung, Supreme Commander, Korean People's 
Army ; and Peng Teh-Huai, Commander of the Chinese 
People's Volunteers. 

° For text of the Agreement on Prisoners of War 
signed on June 8, see Bulletin of June 22, 1953, p. 866. 



August 3, J953 



139 



who request not to be directly repatriated, the Korean 
People's Army and the Chinese People's Volunteers have 
the right to designate the area in the vicinity of I'anniun- 
jom hetween the military demarcation line and the west- 
ern and northern boundaries of the demilitarized zone, as 
the area within which such prisoners of war will be 
turned over to the Neutral Nations Repatriation Com- 
mission and the armed forces of India for custody. After 
knowing that there are prisoners of war under their cus- 
tody wlio request not to be directly repatriated, the 
Korean People's Army and the Chinese People's Volunteers 
shall inform the United Nations Command side of the 
approximate figures by nationality of such prisoners of 
war. 

3. In accordance with paragraphs 8, 9, and 10, article I 
of the armistice agreement, the following paragraphs are 
hereby provided : 

a. After the cease-fire comes into effect, unarmed per- 
sonnel of each side shall be specifically authorized by the 
Military Armistice Commission to enter the above- 
mentioned area designated by their own side to perform 
necessary construction operations. None of such per- 
sonnel shall remain in the above-mentioned areas upon 
the completion of the construction operations. 

b. A definite number of prisoners of war as decided 
upon by both sides, who are in the respective custody of 
both sides and who are not directly repatriated, shall be 
specifically authorized by the Military Armistice Commis- 
sion to he escorted respectively by a certain number of 
armed forces of the detaining sides to the above-mentioned 
areas of custody designated respectively by both sides 
to be turned over to the Neutral Nations Repatriation 
Commission and the armed forces of India for custody. 
After the prisoners of war have been taken over, the 
armed forces of the detaining sides shall be withdrawn 
Immediately from the areas of custody to the area under 
the control of their own side. 

c. The personnel of the Neutral Nations Repatriation 
Commission and its subordinate bodies, the armed forces 
of India, the Red Cross Society of India, the explaining 
representatives and observation representatives of both 
sides, as well as the required material and equipment, for 
exercising the function provided for in the terms of refer- 
ence for Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission shall 
be specifically authorized by the Military Armistice Cora- 
mission to have the complete freedom of movement to, 
from, and within the above-mentioned areas designated 
respectively by both sides for the custody of prisoners of 
■war. 

4. The provisions of sub-paragraph 3C of this agree- 
ment shall not be construed as derogating from the privi- 
leges enjoyed by those personnel mentioned above under 
paragraph 11, article I of the armistice agreement. 

5. This agreement shall be abrogated upon the com- 
pletion of the mission provided for in the terms of refer- 
ence for Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission. 

Done at Panmunjom, Korea, at 1000 hours on the 27th 
day of July 1953, in Korean, Chinese, and English, all 
texts being equally authentic. 



Korean Armistice Problems 

Press Conference Remarks by Secretary Dulles 

Press release 389 dated July 21 

I am sure that the topic which is on the minds 
of most of us, as it is on my mind, is the question 
of Korea and whether or not tlieie will be an 
armistice in Korea. I know that you would like 
me to tell you what the answer to that question is. 
I am sorry that I shall have to disappoint you in 
that respect and not make any prophecies. 



The prospects for an armistice in Korea have 
gone up and down and up and down so many times 
that I think it is important for all of us to keep a 
steady view, not to become elated, enthusiastic, 
before the event or to become depressed before 
the event. We are, of course, hopeful that there 
will be an armistice, but to go beyond that would 
be inaccurate. There are still matters that need 
to be ironed out, and one can never be confident of 
the Communist intentions until they are fully re- 
flected in their actual deeds. We do not have that 
yet at the present time. 

There are a number of details in relation to the 
armistice — the question of remapping the line; 
the question of the physical arrangements for 
handling prisoners of war of various categories — 
problems, I believe, of translation. These are 
matters which ought not to be an insoluble diffi- 
culty if there is a real will to conclude the armis- 
tice, but whether or not there is that will is the 
factor which is uncertain and will remain uncer- 
tain until the last moment. 

There are no qualifications that I am aware of 
to the assurance, which I referred to in my radio 
talk the other night with Mr. Robertson,^ that 
President Rhee will not take any measures to 
impede the carrying out of the armistice. There 
are, of course, a very large number of matters 
which are for discussion between our two Govern- 
ments. Those were revealed in the letter of June 
6 which President Eisenhower wrote to President 
Rhee.^ They relate to questions of economic aid, 
a mutual security pact, and consultation in con- 
nection with the political conference which will 
follow an armistice. 

All of these matters were fully discussed by 
Assistant Secretary Robertson when he was in 
Korea with President Rhee. He has brought back 
further ideas of President Rhee on those matters. 
Secretary Robertson has in turn discussed them 
with the President, with myself, and with congres- 
sional leaders. He appeared before both the Sen- 
ate Foreign Relations Committee and the House 
Foreign Affairs Committee, and the further views 
of our Government with respect to those matters 
are being communicated to President Rhee. But 
I do not think that those matters need be or, in 
fact, can be finally resolved before an armistice. 
That was made perfectly clear to President Rhee. 
For example, a security treaty would have to go 
before the Senate for ratification, and probablj' it 
will not be practical to do that at this session of 
Congress. That was explored while Assistant 
Secretary Robertson was in Korea, and we were 
advised by Senator Knowland that it would not 
be {practical, probably, to deal with matters of 

tlnit sort at this session of Congress. 

***** 



' Bulletin of July 27, 1053, p. 09. 
' Ibid.. Juno 15, 1953, p. 835. 



140 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



We have a firm idea that at least two nations 
slioiihl be there [at tlie political conference to fol- 
low an armistice]. One is the Republic of Korea, 
and the other is the United States. Undoubtedly 
the U.N. Assembly will meet and will desij^nate a 
delegation. I suppose, which will take part in the 
political conference. But we have not given any 
]iarticular lliought to tlie comiiosition of sueli a 
delegation, which would be determined by the 
(leneral Assembly after it meets. I assume that 
on tlie other side there will be representatives of 
tlie so-called Peoples Government of North Korea, 
presumably the Chinese Connnunist regime, and 
possibly the Soviet Union, but that latter is specu- 
lation because the decision on their side about 
participation will be made by them and not by us. 

Now as to agenda, I think what I said at an 
earlier news conference ^ as best as I recall, is that 
we would not necessarily exclude the possibility 
of some other questions coming up, and I particu- 
larly referred to the point which had been made 
several times by President Eisenhower, by myself, 
and was referred to in the three Foreign Minis- 
ters' communique^ to the effect that we would not 
expect a truce in Korea to release forces for ag- 
gression elsewhere. Now, you can say that is a 
Korean problem, or you can say it's a problem 
which relates and extends beyond Korea, but we 
would not certainly exclude discussion on that 
point. 



has agreed to negotiate promptly a security treaty 
along the lines of the United States-Philippine 
Mutual Security Treaty, with certain modifica- 
tions drawn from the United States-Japan Se- 
curity Treaty which President Rhee has indicated 
he thought would be desirable. 

It has been agreed that, upon the conclusion of 
an armistice, I would be prepared promptly to 
meet with President Rhee at a time and place to be 
mutually determined, with a view to concerting 
our policies at the political conference which will 
follow an armistice, thus assuring the maximum 
chance that the conference will achieve a unifica- 
tion of Korea. 

We have agreed, in concert with our principal 
allies, that in the event the Communists should 
renew their aggression in Korea after an anni- 
stice, we shall vigorously act to restore peace and 
security. 

The present is a time when rumors are rife and 
when it is necessary to be steady in our purpose 
and in our trust in our friends. 

We assume that President Rhee, despite his mis- 
givings, will abide by his assurances to the Presi- 
dent, the Secretary of State, and Assistant Secre- 
tary Robertson. President Rhee, in turn, can be 
confident that the United States will loyally sup- 
port the Republic of Korea in the rebuilding of its 
land and in the attainment of its honorable objec- 
tives. 



Statement by the Secretary 

Press release 393 dated July 22 

Tlie question of an armistice is up to the Com- 
munists. We retain confidence that President 
Rhee will honor the assurances he has given. He 
personally wrote President Eisenhower under date 
of July 11, 1953, that, in deference to the Presi- 
dent's request, he would not obstruct in any 
manner the implementation of the armistice terms. 
On the same date he wrote to me that, while he 
questions the wisdom of a truce, he has yielded his 
convictions to U.S. policies. A truce, he wrote to 
me, will now be signed and the Republic of Korea 
will abide by its agreement to give the United 
Nations another chance to try to unify Korea by 
political negotiation. 

President Rhee has sought various assurances 
from the United States and has reserved his Gov- 
ernment's position in the event of a collapse of the 
political talks which would follow an armistice. 
This we believe he is entitled to do. With refer- 
ence to the assurances sought, the U.S. Govern- 
ment has responded to the best of its ability. 

The President has agreed to initiate, immedi- 
ately upon the conclusion of an armistice, a pro- 
gram of rehabilitation which will cover a 4 to 5 
year period and involve heavy expenditures. He 



' Ibid., June 29, 1953, p. 908. 
* Ibid., July 27, 1953, p. 104. 



Netherlands Approves European 
Defense Community Treaty 

/Statement by Secretary Dulles 

Press release 395 dated July 23 

The Second Chamber of the Netherlands Par- 
liament today voted approval of the treaty which 
will establish the European Defense Community. 
The action of the Netherlands Parliament shows 
clearly that the movement toward European unity, 
despite inevitable obstacles and delays, is steadily 
going forward. I believe unity offers our Euro- 
pean friends their strongest assurance of freedom 
and security, their best hope of lasting peace, and 
their greatest opportunity for economic and social 
advancement. 

The American people, I know, will welcome 
this constructive step, not only because of their 
deep and demonstrated interest in European unity, 
but because of our conviction that the need for 
unity transcends the problems and tensions of the 
present and has implications that extend far into 
the future. 

The statesmen and people of the Netherlands 
can take pride in the fact that they have been at 
the forefront of this movement. 



August 3, 1953 



141 



America's Stake in a Healthy Free-World Economy 



hy Samuel C. Waugh 

Assistant Secretary for Economic Ajfairs ^ 



It occurred to me that, rather than attempt an 
erudite discourse, you might at the outset be in- 
terested in several of the particuhxrly sliarp im- 
pressions I have gained during the last 60 days. 

First, there is the question of the State Depart- 
ment as an institution. I am deeply impressed by 
the necessity for the United States, and indeed 
for the free world, that there be an effective and 
responsible Department of State. Our interna- 
tional responsibilities today are so great and we 
are all to such a great extent dependent upon the 
skill with which our international relations are 
conducted that none of us can be content with any- 
thing less than the most effective agency for han- 
dling our international affairs. 

It is clearly the responsibility of the Secretary 
of State and his principal assistants to do their 
utmost in creating such an institution. At the 
same time it is the responsibility of all of us as 
citizens to see that criticism of the Department is 
constructive and not destructive. 

In vievp of the limited time I have been in the 
Department, I feel competent only to comment on 
the professional and technical staff immediately 
under my jurisdiction. And with respect to these 
career people, I can unequivocally state that they 
ai-e, by and largo, a highly qualified, hard-working 
group of people. Indeed, before accepting my 
present position, I was reliably informed that the 
staff in the economic offices under my jurisdiction 
was competent. My experience in the last 2 
months has confirmed these statements. 

A second, and as you will note an unrelated, 
point that I should like to make is how one gets 
along \\\{\\ other countries. It is common today, 
and thoroughly understandable, for a gi'eat many 

' Address made before the University of Illinois Insti- 
tute on Internationn) Trade at Monticello, 111., on Jul.v 
18 (press release ;J8G dated July 17). 



Americans to be impatient with our allies in the 
free world, to wonder at their actions and inac- 
tion, and to allow this impatience to take the form 
of criticism of Washington and the State Depart- 
ment and its alleged failure to get our friends 
abroad to do the things which we believe they 
should do. This criticism is put in various forms. 
Some say that as long as we are giving and have 
given so much money to these people, they cer- 
tainly should be willing to do the many things 
we believe they ought. Othei's insist that the 
United States is invariably out-negotiated. It is 
said that we are the only ones that nnike 
concessions. 

Now against these criticisms, one of the things 
that I have come to realize is the enormous problem 
of dealing on a cooperative and nondictatorial 
basis with a large number of cotnitries with diverse 
interests, with varying traditions, and a multitude 
of governmental systems. It is useful to realize 
that we are dealing with sovereign countries, proud 
of their independence, all of which are responsive 
in one way or another to their own people, and 
whose governments will stand or fall on the basis 
of this consent. This is in sharp contrast to the 
police-state techniques of the Comnninist world, 
which maintains an iron control backed by mili- 
tary power and a controlled government. 

In short, it is essential to put this coalition we 
have in the free world in its proper perspective 
and appreciate the elementary fact that coalition 
calls for continual give and take, with no one coun- 
try calling all the shots and with other countries 
making all the concessions. 

The third impression which has been so sharjily 
l)ronght home to me is the great and unpredictable 
effects very small actions taken by the United 
States can have on our fricnils and allies abroad. 
And I am talking here not about those actions 
which are necessarily aimed at the international 



142 



Deparfment of Stafe Bulletin 



situation but more of those things we do which 
iiave a quite coincidental effect on international 
a (lairs. 

Let me say here that one of tlie most interesting 
experiences ahout Washington is the fact that, once 
I took over my office, there has been a constant 
stream of ambassadors and ministers who have 
come in to see me to pay what are called courtesy 
calls. This is their manner of welcoming me to 
Washington, and I have been provided a remark- 
able opportunity to meet a distinguished group of 
representatives from a wide number of countries. 

It is in the nature of these courtesy visits not to 
make any request or to attempt to transact any 
serious business. However, in each case there has 
been a constant thread of deep concern expressed 
by all these people as to where the United States 
was going in its foi('ii,rn economic policy. These 
ambassadors and ministers pointed out again and 
again the deep effects various American actions 
have had upon their own economies, in each case 
far beyond what I would have imagined. The 
Dutch, the Danes, and the Italians have all been 
adversely affected by our restrictions over the im- 
ports of dairy products. The gallant Finns, strug- 
gling to survive, have had their meager exports 
of doors affected by boycotts in this country. The 
Commonwealth iVnibassadors from New Zealand, 
Australia, and South Africa are vitally concernecl 
with what we shall do about the imports of wool. 

What I have come to realize, in a way I never 
understood before, are the implications of Amer- 
ican dominance in the world today. One of the 
major tasks before America and one of the tasks 
of groups such as this is to impress upon the Amer- 
ican public the implications of our actions. Only 
as we realize the significance of these actions can 
we consider and in time reach sound decisions on 
the kinds of policies we should decide upon in the 
future. 

The presence of all of you during this past week 
at this conference is a clear demonstration of the 
mounting appreciation of problems confronting 
this country in the foreign economic field. 

In the remaining time, 1 should like to give some 
indication of why this economic aspect of our inter- 
national relations, and indeed the economic situ- 
ation of the free world, is of such critical impor- 
tance to us and to our allies. Then I believe it 
may be useful to indicate two or three of the areas 
of economic activity which pose difficult problems 
that need to be analyzed on an urgent basis and for 
which .solutions must be found. 

Economic strength and the rate of economic 
growth are of critical importance to the free world. 
The present strength and the rate of growth to- 
day are inadequate for the minimum security of 
the free world, and in turn the United States. 
Massive foreign assistance has gone out to our 
allies abroad in the postwar period, and such aid 

August 3, 1953 



has been given not for altruistic purposes but to 
serve our own immediate security objectives. 

This aid is a clear demonstration of economic 
weakness. Our friends feel that the strength of 
the free world is inatlcquate so long as they are 
incapable on their own resources of maintaining, 
ill cooperation with >is, a defense force and internal 
political and economic stability adequate to meet 
the great tliieat posed for us by the Soviet Union 
and its satellites. 

To test adequately where we stand regarding 
free world economic strength requires some bench- 
marks. It is insufficient to say that we need more 
strength or that our rate of growth must be ac- 
celerated. One of the important benchmarks is 
the rival economic strength and growth of the 
Soviet Union, 



Soviet Economic Progress 

The Soviet Union has made remarkable and dis- 
heartening economic progress since the end of the 
war. While we do not have the firm statistical 
basis for evaluating the growth of the Soviet 
Union that we do for the free countries of the 
world, we do have intelligent estimates, and they 
are not reassuring. Let us take the four elements 
on which a strong civilian or military economy 
must be based : coal, steel, oil, and electricity. 

Since 1940 the Soviet Union has doubled its pro- 
duction of coal. AVhile Soviet production of coal 
is still only 52 percent of ours, the rate of increase 
of production is the key element to consider. Steel 
production was also practically doubled in this 
period and is now 29 percent of U.S. production, 
but is three-fifths of Western European capacity. 
Production of petroleum which was at 31 million 
tons in 1940 is today at 47 million tons, and well on 
its way to surpassing production in AVestern Eu- 
rope. Electric power within the Soviet Union is 
only 23 percent of that in the United States but 
the increase from 1940 to the present time is 69 
billion kilowatt hours. This is very rapid prog- 
ress indeed. " 

Any comparison with the industrial potential 
of the Soviet Union should be made with Western 
Europe rather than with the United States, and 
it is here that the comparative figures are startling. 
If the rate of increase continues, it is highly prob- 
able that sometime in the 1960's the economic 
strength of the Soviet Union will intersect and 
pass that of Western Europe. This is not a reas- 
suring situation but a factor which we must always 
bear in mind. 

The picture which is posed to the United States 
is one of rapidly mounting Soviet Union strength, 
arising out of a land mass rich in natural resources, 
with the prospect of a rapidly increasing popula- 
tion. In the preceding analysis, no account has 
been taken of the potential contribution of eco- 
nomic strength which may be expected to come 



143 



from the satellite countries or from Communist 
China. When we assume aggressive Soviet inten- 
tions—which we must in the absence of concrete 
indications of contrary objectives — the United 
States is confronted by a growing potential of 
economic power, much of which can be devoted, as 
Soviet rulers wish, to aggressive adventures. 

Now, against this picture, we hear it proposed 
from time to time that our allies are unworthy of 
us ; that they do too little for themselves ; that in 
fact we cannot afford our allies. The people sug- 
gesting this view insist that they are not isola- 
tionists; they present themselves as realists. I 
submit that the only realist, in the face of the 
international situation with which we are con- 
fronted today and into the future, is the man who 
sees clearly the necessity of constantly closer re- 
lationships among the free nations of the world. 
This association is indispensable to our mutual 
security and certainly vital to America's security. 

Wliile this requirement of cooperation within 
the free world is generally recognized in its polit- 
ical and its military forms, it appears to be less 
evident when one considers the economic area. 

If we look at the Soviet system again for a 
moment, we see a police state devoting its ener- 
gies to the construction of the basic economic 
elements essential to a rapidly expanding indus- 
trial state, with its implied military strength. 
Certainly the free world has an equal responsi- 
bility to see that its energies are at least equally 
devoted to the same purposes. 

Our common military forces in the free world 
and indispensable political stability rest upon an 
economic foundation. One of the major problems 
in the field of foreign affairs confronting the 
United States is to design an economic program for 
the free world which will be an appropriate ad- 
junct to the progress which has been made in the 
military and political spheres. 

It was with this problem in mind and with the 
clear recognition of the responsibility for leader- 
ship which rests on the United States that the 
President has asked the Congress to establish a 
commission to reassess American foreign economic 
policy and to recommend the next steps to be taken 
domestically and internationally.^ This study, 
which is expected to get under way within the 
next few weeks, must be completed early next year 
in time for consideration and action by the Con- 
gress early in 1954. 

This administration is determined to examine 
the patchwork of laws and regulations which now 
exist in our own approach to international eco- 
nomic affairs and, on the basis of this analysis, to 
develop a coordinated and comprehensive pro- 
gram which we hope will find some answers to the 
economic questions and economic ills which con- 
front us and our allies. 



' Bulletin of May 25, 1953, p. 747. 
144 



We are the leaders in this world of ours, whether 
we like it or not, and this country must take the 
domestic measures necessary to maintain and in- 
crease its own economic health and to support and 
participate in coordinated actions with other 
countries, to help solve our economic and political 
problems. 

Without attempting to suggest what the solu- 
tions are, it may be useful to outline three main 
categories of problems, the finding of solutions to 
which is vital to us and to our allies. 

The first problem is that of food and raw ma- 
terials. The second is that of investment capital. 
The third — and one with which you are all famil- 
iar — is the acute weakness, or what might even 
be called the breakdown, of the trading system of 
the free world. 

The Problem of Food Surpluses 

With respect to food and raw materials, the 
free world is confronted by a bitter paradox. The 
United States, without question the most efficient 
producer of a large range of agricultural products, 
is bewildered by mounting surpluses of various 
products and naturally turns to the international 
market. It needs to be stated here, of course, that 
many of the surpluses that are in the headlines 
today arise out of certain rigidities of the present 
agricultural program, as Secretary Benson has 
indicated. 

Nonetheless, if we take a long view of the posi- 
tion of the United States in the food producing 
and consuming world, it is vital to the economic 
well-being of a very important segment of our 
economy — and not just farmers but all those peo- 
ple whose income to some extent depends upon the 
handling and processing of food — that there be a 
large and stable market for American farm prod- 
ucts abroad. It would be foolhardy to suggest 
that in its present condition the free world offers 
such assurances. 

Now, the other part of this paradox is the fact 
that, while production of foodstuffs has tended 
to increase in various parts of the world, in no 
area outside the United States and Canada has 
the increase in the supply of food kept pace with 
the increase of population. War, internal unrest, 
transfer of resources to industrial activity — all 
of these have contributed to the inadequacy of 
food production measured against the require- 
ments of the free world. In short, food is a prob- 
lem in the Middle East and the Far East and to 
some extent in Latin America. 

Present or prospective inadequacy of food sup- 
ply holds the threat of hunger and internal unrest. 
In other countries, especially Western Europe, it 
has meant increased reliance on the United States 
and Canadian sujiplies, with a conseqiu'iit major 
new requirement for dollars. Indeed, it has been 
argued tluit the necessity of buying, from the 
United States and Canada, food previously pro- 

Departmenf of Sfafe Bulietin 



tliic-ed I'loiii indigenous sources or from third mar- 
kets calls today for about $2 billion worth of ex- 
penditures over and above expenditures made in 
previous periods. This $2 billion comes quite 
close to approximating the dollar gap. 

■\Vluit must be found then is a solution for the 
free world which will see an adequate movement 
of food to the countries in the free world and one 
which gives assurances to this country that tliere 
will be adequate and stable markets abroad for 
the products of its eflicient agricultural industry. 

There is another aspect of the food and raw 
material problem which must be given careful 
consideration, and that might be called the re- 
quirements of the United States in the first in- 
stance, but of the free world as a whole, for con- 
-tuntly increasing supplies of strategic materials. 
It is well to bear in mind that the United States 
is now self-sufficient in only 9 out of 38 minerals 
vital to U.S. industry. The report of the Mate- 
rials Policy Commission ^ prepared under the 
chairmansliip of William Paley forecasts even 
greater dependency on outside sources in coming 
years. Along with our growing need and the need 
of our allies for raw materials for the industrial 
plant of the free world, there has been inadequate 
new discovery, exploitation, and development of 
raw materials. 

Most of the needed materials come from sections 
of Latin America, the Middle East, Asia, and Af- 
rica, which in the past decade have been disrupted 
by tides of nationalism, political unrest, and eco- 
nomic instability. To the underdeveloped areas, 
exploitation of natural resources frequently is 
viewed as only another variety of imperialism. 

Along with the problem of greater need is the 
corollary problem of surpluses in world demand. 
You and I are familiar with the difficulties en- 
countered during the depression days with one- 
crop farms. Extend that to one-crop countries 
and you can readily understand the economic 
chaos resulting from sharp fluctuations in world 
market prices of primary raw materials. The in- 
stability of prices has resulted not only in political 
unrest but in inability of countries to plan their 
economic development. 

In recent years we are receiving more and more 
suggestions from the raw material producing 
countries for some sort of international system to 
stabilize commodity prices. While we believe 
that competition in the long run is the only force 
that can make fair decisions in the field of trade, 
we cannot lightly brush aside the need of the un- 
derdeveloped areas for assurances on the market- 
ability of their products. Confronted with a sim- 
ilar situation in the United States in regard to 
wheat, we became one of the principal proponents 
of the International Wheat Agreement. We can- 
not but take seriously this drive on the part of the 



• Ibid., July 14, 1952, p. 54. 
August 3, 7953 

264593 — 53 3 



underdeveloped areas for some assurance on the 
stability of the price structure for some of their 
basic exports. 

Encouragement to Private Investment Abroad 

The second major problem is that of capital in- 
vestment. The new administration has made 
clear that it will do all it can to encourage a high 
level of investment abroad by American private 
enterprise. Not only the capital, but the mana- 
gerial skills, technical competence, and engineer- 
ing ability of American firms can have an impor- 
tant impact upon foreign productivity and eco- 
nomic development. The question naturally 
arises as to what lengths the U.S. Government can 
appropriately go in encouraging or oftering incen- 
tives for investment overseas by American firms. 
I recently attended a meeting in Washington 
called by the Secretaries of Commerce and Treas- 
ury to discuss just this problem. That meeting 
was attended by many of the outstanding indus- 
trialists and financiers of this country. As a re- 
sult of the discussion that night a committee was 
formed to evaluate the problem and to see what 
positive steps can be taken by this Government to 
encourage such investment. 

No matter how successful we may be in en- 
couraging American private investment to go 
abroad, this investment will be only a small por- 
tion of the amounts of capital the free world 
requires. 

Total direct U.S. private investment abroad is 
estimated today as being something in the area 
of $11 billion. The vast bulk of this investment 
is in Canada, the Western Hemisphere, and in 
Middle East petroleum. We can anticipate that 
American investment will go into industrial ex- 
pansion in minerals exploration, development, and 
processing. But there remain those basic seg- 
ments of the free world economy to which it is 
most unlikely that the private investor will be 
attracted — transportation, port development, irri- 
gation, water supply. The major sources of capi- 
tal for these endeavors must be indigenous. The 
primary responsibility for attracting such capital 
rests, of course, with the government of the coun- 
try in which such potential capital resides. 

There will remain an important field for inter- 
national institutions such as the International 
Bank and also for the public lending activities of 
the Export-Import Bank. 

But I do not wish to prejudge this question for, 
as I stated earlier, it is not my intention here to 
outline solutions. It is vital, however, for all of 
us to recognize the gravity of this problem of capi- 
tal investment and to appreciate that today there 
appear to be no immediately discernible solutions 
which assure us that the capital necessary for mini- 
mum economic development in the free world is 
available. 

Lastly, we come to the most crucial issue facing 

145 



the United States in its foreign economic policy, 
namely, the principal and basic weaknesses of the 
free world trading system. 

As you know from your analysis in the last 
few days, the efficient exchange of goods and serv- 
ices is one of the most important elements of an 
economic system. Whatever may be the weak- 
nesses of the Soviet machine, artificial barriers re- 
stricting the exchange of goods and services is not 
one of them. The Marxist machine determines 
what it wishes to produce, decides where it will 
be produced, and presumably attempts to achieve 
this production with the most efficient use of basic 
resources. We would all agi-ee that any totali- 
tarian machine, where decisions of this sort are 
made by bureaucrats, has built into it grave in- 
efficiencies which a competitive private enterprise 
system does not. Nonetheless, their system is not 
weakened by artificial barriers to the movement of 
goods produced by such devices as inconvertibility 
of currencies, multilateral exchange rates, quotas, 
discrimination, and protectionism. In short, 
there is no question but that the free world is not 
making adequate use of its manufacturing ca- 
pacity, its raw material resources, its ingenuity, 
its investment — of all of its gi'eat economic 
resources. 

An argument one frequently hears is that the 
rest of the free world is, unfortunately, devoted to 
discriminating against American goods; that cur- 
rency restrictions are designed to frustrate the 
American exporter; that our allies are unwilling 
to permit the import of American goods and that 
this attitude is all the more deplorable "in view of 
all we have done for them." 

I would submit that there is something much 
more fundamental involved in this situation than 
any idle protectionism on the part of our friends 
against American goods. On the other hand I 
would not say that many of these restrictions do 
not have some indication of protectionism con- 
tained within them. But, if we are to find solu- 
tions, we have got to have an accurate assessment 
of the problem. 

The Dollar-Gap Problem 

The basic problem is simple. Our friends just 
do not have enough dollars to buy the things they 
would like to get from this market, or, more im- 
portantly, that we would like to sell them. They 
can get these dollars in only a few ways. They 
can get them from private U.S. investors, from 
public institutions such as the Export-Import 
Bank or the International Bank. But investment 
to be attractive must have the promise of profits, 
interest, and dollars. It must, furthermore, have 
the promise of eventual repatriation of capital. 

Dollars can be made available through grant 
assistance, as has been the case of tlie $40-odd 



billion we have made available to the free world 
since the end of World War II. We are all agreed 
that this is an unsatisfactory and undesirable 
means of providing dollars to our allies. 

And finally we come down to trade — imports of 
goods and services. In the final analysis, it is our 
purchase of goods and use of the services of our 
friends, and, of course, of such collateral activities 
as tourist expenditures, that these precious dollars 
will be made available. 

President Eisenhower has stated that the very 
security of our country is involved in trade. In 
the President's own words : 

We must trade with others or we cannot exist, and that 
is the material foundation of our whole foreign policy. 

Expanding trade and lessened restrictions are vital 
elements in our common defense of freedom and our com- 
mon struggle for world peace. 

Earlier I indicated the stake the agricultural 
community had in the export market. The Ameri- 
can economy as a whole has a vital interest in this 
market. 

In 1952 our exports amounted to over $16 billion. 
This includes nearly half of our wheat produc- 
tion, % of our cotton and rice production, and ^4 
of our production of tobacco. We also export 
more than Vs of our output of tractors. On the 
other hand we are importing at a rate of less than 
$11 billion a year. With the reduction of military 
and economic assistance programs, we will either 
have to decrease our exports or increase our 
imports to bridge the gap. 

This is not to say that the United States can 
solve the dollar-gap problem merely by a U.S. re- 
duction in tariffs, simplification of customs pro- 
cedures, and so forth. Our allies must also take 
constructive action. They must eliminate their 
own trade barriers, revamp their financial, ex- 
change, and credit policies ; efficient tax ]:)rograms 
must be instituted in those countries. Underde- 
veloped countries in need of capital must take 
action to improve the climate for domestic and 
foreign investment. However, the major respon- 
sibility for leadership in this field is on the United 
States. As the President has stated : 

Our leadership in the free world imposes upon us a 
special responsibility to encouiage tlie commerce that 
can assist so greatly in bringing economic health to all 
people. 

Before I conclude, I would like to say one word 
about the responsibility of American industry to 
support the programs proposed by our President 
in this field. All of our activities are aimed pri- 
marily at our own self-benefit. This places upon 
men like yourselves a responsibility to inform the 
people of this country what is at stake for Ameri- 
can industry, American labor, and American 
agriculture. 



146 



Department of State Bulletin 



Food for East Germany 

White House press release dated July 20 

FoUowing are the texts of lettei's exchanged by 
President Eisenhower and Chancellor Konrad 
Adenauer of the Federal Republic of Germany: 



Chancellor Adenauer to the President, July 13 

Your letter of July 10th ' has been conveyed to 
me through Ambassador Conant. Your generous 
offer to relieve the want of the population of the 
Soviet Zone through immediate and extensive de- 
liveries of foodstuffs has touched me deeply. This 
spontaneous demonstration of humane readiness 
to help, which is in the best traditions of the 
American people, has caused great joy in all of 
Germany and especially has given new hope and 
new courage to the people in the Soviet-occupied 
zone of Germany. I should, therefore, like to 
express to you, in the name not only of the Federal 
Govermnent but also in the name of the entire 
German people, my heartiest thanks. 

It is with regret that I have learned that the 
Soviet Government has refused its cooperation 
in the relief action which you had planned. I 
would like to request that the delivery of food- 
stuffs should not as a result be withheld. On the 
contrary, I wish to express the hope that the food- 
stuffs may be placed at the disposal of the Federal 
Government, which for its part will do everything 
to make the food available in the most effective 
way possible for relief of the suffering of the popu- 
lation who have fallen into need as a result of the 
situation in the Soviet Zone. 



The President to Chancellor Adenauer, July 20 

I share the regret expressed in your letter of 
July 13, 1953, at the refusal of the Soviet Govern- 
ment to admit the food which the United States 
Government offered the East German population 
in resj^onse to your appeal of July 4.- 

Immediately after the receipt of M.v. Molotov's 
rejection of my offer,^ I made it clear that the offer 
continues to stand and that the food continues to 
be available. Since it is our joint purpose to aid 
the people of Eastern Germany in spite of the 
obstacles which the occupation authorities of that 
area have created, I have directed the Secretary of 
State and the Director for Mutual Security to 
place quantities of these foodstuffs at your dis- 
posal for use in relieving the suffering of the 



people of Eastern Germany in the best available 
manner.* 

At the same time, we shall continue to make 
clear to the Soviet Government that the offer 
which was made on July 10, 1953, was motivated 
solely by humanitarian impulses and that the food 
is available if that Government wishes to permit 
its entrance into the Soviet Zone of occupation. 



U.S. Views on German Unity 

The White House on July 25 released the follow- 
ing letter from the President to Chancellor Konrad 
Adenauer of the Federal Republic of Germany : 

JuLT 23, 1953 

My dear Mr. Chancellor : During the develop- 
ment of the conversations between the U.S. Secre- 
tary of State and the Foreign Ministers of Great 
Britain and France, it occurred to me that it 
might be helpful if I were to write you a letter in 
amplification of the thoughts so tightly com- 
pressed in the final communique.^ 

It seems to me that certain definite patterns are 
emerging from the situation in East Germany 
and the Eastern European satellite countries — 
patterns which will unquestionably have a pro- 
found effect upon the future, including the pro- 
posed meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the 
Four Powers. 

I think, therefore, that it will be useful for me 
to share my thoughts with you in some detail 
at this time. 

Great historical developments, such as the 
recent Berlin and East German anti-Communist 
demonstrations, rarely have single roots. Never- 
theless, I am quite certain that future historians, 
in their analysis of the causes which will have 
brought about the disintegration of the Com- 
munist empire, will single out those brave East 
Germans who dared to rise against the cannons of 
tyranny with nothing but their bare hands and 
their stout hearts, as a root cause. I think also 
that those same historians will record your own 
extraordinary steadfastness in the cause of 
European peace and freedom over many, many 
years. 

In analyzing these recent developments, there 
appear to be five points of greatest significance. 

First, this eruption against Communist oppres- 



' Bulletin of July 20, p. 67. 
' lUd. 

'For texts of the U.S.-U.S.S.R. exchange of notes, see 
ibid, p. 68. 



' The Mutual Security Agency on July 16 announced that 
4,500 tons of food would be shipped from New York City 
to Hiimburs, (Jermany, lietwcfn July 17 and .July -3. and 
that the entire $15 million program would provide up to 
50,000 tons of food. The announcement stated : "Distrihu- 
tion plans are being worked out by the U.S. High Commis- 
sioner in Germany in consultation with the German Fed- 

" P.ILI.ETIN (if .July 27, 11)53, p. 104. 
eral Republic." 



August 3, 1953 



147 



sion was spontaneous. I know that I need not 
go into any elaborate denial with you of the fan- 
tastic explanation put out by Moscow that the up- 
rising was caused by American provocateurs. No 
provocateur of any nationality can persuade 
human beings to stand up in front of rumbling 
tanlcs with sticks and stones. Such action comes 
from the heart and not from any foreign purse. 

Second, this uprising was not just a momentary 
flash of desperation. The continuing news of 
disorders in Eastern Germany indicates a funda- 
mental and lasting determination to be fully and 
finally free, despite long years of stern Soviet- 
ization. 

Third, nowhere were the rioters "bourgeois re- 
actionaries" or "capitalist warmongers." They 
were workers. Therefore, the martyrs who fell 
before Russian Communist guns were the very 
same workers in whose name the Kremlin has 
falsely and cynically built their empire of oppres- 
sion, their farflung ""workers' paradise." 

Fourth, the fact of the uprising, the conduct of 
the German Communist leaders during the event 
and their actions since the event, all indicate 
the complete political bankruptcy of the Sed 
{Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands]. 

Fifth, and to me of utmost significance, when 
the riots developed in the Russian sector of Berlin. 
the workers' chant was, "We want free elections." 
In this phrase, the people clearly and simply 
summed up their yearning for the alleviation of 
their gi-ievances and sufferings. 

The combination of these five facts actually 
forms the background for that portion of the 
July 15 Foreign Ministers' communique dealing 
with German luiification and free elections. And 
the communique itself, as you know, is actually the 
diplomatic confirmation of your own earlier state- 
ments, of my June 26 cable to you," and most im- 
portant, of the resolution of the German Bundes- 
tag of June 10. 

For the past many months there have been end- 
less arguments and debates on both sides of the 
Atlantic over the respective priorities of such 
words and phrases as "unification," "peace treaty," 
"free elections," "withdrawal of occupation 
troops," etc. 

It has always seemed to me — and these recent 
events, to me at least, clearly confirm the thought^ — 
that there can be no solution without free elections 
and the formation of a free all-German Govern- 
ment, leading to unification. From that point on 
can flow a logical, orderly sequence of events, 
culminating in an honorable peace treaty and the 
re-emergence of a new united German Republic, 
dedicated to the welfare of its own people, as a 
friendly and j)eaceful member of the European 
family of nations. 

'Ihid., .luly 6, 1953, p. 10. Tho cablo, dntcd .Time 25, 
was released to the pres.s on Juno 2(i. 



To this first step of free elections, the Govern- 
ment of the United States will continue to lend 
the full force of its political, diplomatic, and 
moral support. 

There are sincere people in Germany, in the 
nations of Western Europe, and even in my own 
country, who have come to believe that free elec- 
tions, and therefore the unification of Germany, 
contradict and possibly exclude the concept of the 
European Defense Community whicli lias been 
ratified by both your Houses of Parliament and is 
now before your Constitutional Court. I do not 
and have never accejited this theory that the Edc 
and unification of Germany are mutually exclu- 
sive. Quite the contrary. 

As the three Foreign Ministers stated at the 
conclusion of their recent meeting in Washington, 
since the European community corresponds to the 
lasting needs of its members and their people for 
peace, security, and welfare, it is looked upon as 
necessary in itself and not linked up with existing 
international tensions. 

It has long been my conviction that the strength- 
ening of the Federal Republic, through adoption 
of the Edc, the contractual agreements and further 
progress in the integration of Western Europe, 
can only enhance the prospects for the peaceful 
unification of Germany, by increasing the attrac- 
tive power of this prosperous Western Germany 
vis-a-vis the Soviet Zone, an attractive power 
which has already been demonstrated by the 
steady stream of refugees in recent months, as well 
as the demonstrations which began on June IT. 
This increasing contrast between Western and 
Eastern Germany, the latter with its bankrupt 
regime and impoverished economy, will in the long 
run produce conditions which should make pos- 
sible the liquidation of the present Communist 
dictatorship and of the Soviet occupation. 

Wliile a future all-German Government must 
obviously be free to choose the degree to which it 
wishes to enter into defensive and other arrange- 
ments compatible with the principles of the United 
Nations, I can hardly imagine that it would seek 
the path of complete and premature disarmament 
in the presence of other nations still heavily 
armed. I believe this is a matter worthy of seri- 
ous attention. Those who in Germany believe 
they can suggest an easy, safe solution through 
defen.seless neutralization should carefully ponder 
the true wisdom and safety of such a course. 

Speaking for America, and I believe the rest of 
the free world shares this view, I can say that there 
has been enough bloodshed and enough misery and 
enough destruction in the past 50 years to deter 
any people or any Government of the West from 
any ideas of military aggression. But the peace 
we all so dearly seek cannot be maintained through 
weakness. Edc will be the simplest, most une([uiv- 
ocal, and most self-evident demonstration of 
strength for peace. 

No one can foretell what the unfolding months 



148 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



will bring, but it can certainly be said that the 
workers of Berlin's Soviet Sector and the workers 
of East Germany, with the workers of Czecho- 
slovakia, have started something that will have 
an important place on the pages of history. May 
the concluding chapter of that history recoi'd the 
reeuiergence of freedom, of peace, and of happi- 
ness. 
With kindest personal regard. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



Current Legislation on Foreign Policy 

Reorganization Plans Nos. 7 and 8 of 1953. (Foreign 
Operations .Vdministration) ; (United States Infor- 
mation Agency ). Hearings before the Committee on 
Government Operations, House of Representatives, 
Eijrht.v-Tliird Congress, First Session on H. J. Res. 
261 and H. J. Res. 262. June 22, 23, and 24, 1953. 
219 pp. 

International Wheat Agreement. Hearing before a Sub- 
committee of the Committee on Foreign Relations, 
United States Senate, Eighty-Third Congress, First 
Session on Ex. H, S3d Cong., 1st sess. The Agree- 
ment Revising and Renewing the International Wheat 
Agreement. June 26, 1953. 59 pp. 

An Act To provide for the transfer of price-support 
wheat to Pakistan. Public Law 77-S3d Congress, 
Chapter 150-lst Session, S. 2112. 2 pp. 

Elxpressing the Friendship and Sympathy of the Ameri- 
can People for the People of East Germany. Report 
(To accompany S. Con. Res. 36). S. Rept. 499, 83d 
Cong., 1st Sess. 2 pp. 

Agreement Regarding Status of Forces of Parties of the 
North Atlantic Treaty. Supplementary Hearing be- 
fore the Committee on Foreign Relations, United 
States Senate, Eighty-Third Congress, First Session 
on Status of Forces of the North Atlantic Treaty. 
June 24, 1953. 89 pp. 

Agreements With the Federal Republic of (Germany. 
Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Relations, 
United States Senate, Eighty-Third Congress, First 
Session on Executives D, E, F, and G (83d Congress, 
1st Session). June 17 and 18, 1953. 169 pp. 

Double Taxation Conventions With Belgium and Aus- 
tralia. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, 
Eighty-Third Congress, First Session on Hxecutive 
I (81st Cong., 1st Sess.), A (83d Cong., 1st Sess.), I 
(S3d Cong., 1st Sess.), J (83d Cong., 1st Sess.), and 
K (83d Cong., 1st Se.ss.), Double Taxation Treaties 
With Belgium and Australia. June 29, 1953. 59 
pp.; Report (To accompany Executive I, Eighty-first 
Congress, first session ; Executive A, Eighty-third 
Congress, first session ; Executive I, Eighty-third 
Congress, first session ; Executive J, Eighty-third 
Congress, first session ; and Executive K, Eighty- 
tliird Congress, first session). S. Exec. Rept. 2, 
83d Cong., 1st Sess. 7 pp. 

Kequiring "United States of America" on Shipments 
Abroad. Hearing before the Committee on Inter- 
state and Foreign Commerce, United States Senate, 
Eighty-Third Congress, First Session on S. 1962 A 
Bill To Require the Marliing of the Containers of 



Correction 

Bulletin of July 6, 1953, page 12, second column, 
29th line, the figure should read : "3.45 billion 
deutschmarks." 



American Goods Exported With the Words "United 
States of America," and For Other Purposes. June 
12, 1953. 33 pp. 

Foreign Trade in Agricultural Products. Hearings be- 
fore the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, 
United States Senate, Eighty-Third Congress, First 
Session on Agricultiu-al Exports and Imports and 
Their Effect on Farm Price I'rograms. Part 4, Dairy 
Products. May 4, 5, and 6, 1953. 122 pp. 

Supplemental Apjiropriation Bill, 1954. Report (To ac- 
company H. R. 62(X)). H. Rept. 762, 83d Cong., 1st 
Sess. 47 pp. 

Expressing the Sense of the Congress That the Chinese 
Communists Are Not Entitled To and Should Not Be 
Recognized To Represent China in the United Na- 
tions. Report (To accompany H. Con, Res. 129). H. 
Rept. 768, 83d Cong., 1st Sess. 4 pp. 

Mutual Security Act of 10!53. Conference Report (To ac- 
company H. R. 5710). H. Rept. 770, 83d Cong., 1st 
Sess. 21 pp. 

Customs Simplification Act of 1953. Report (To accom- 
pany H. R. 5877). H. Rept. 760, 83d Cong., 1st Sess. 
48 pp. 

Supplemental' Hearings on Departments of State, Justice, 
and Commerce Appropriations for 1954. Hearings 
Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appro- 
priations, United States Senate, Eighty-Third Con- 
gress, First Session on H. R. 4974 Making Supplemen- 
tal Appropriations for the Departments of State, Jus- 
tice, and Commerce for the Fiscal Year Ending June 
30, 1954. 42 pp. 

Wheat for Pakistan. Hearing Before the Committee on 
Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 
Eighty-Third Congress, First Session on S. 2112 A Bill 
To Provide For the Transfer of Price-Support Wheat 
to Pakistan. June 12, 1953. 64 pp. 

Foreign Trade in Agricultural Products. Hearings Before 
the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United 
States Senate, Eighty-Third Congress, First Session 
on Agricultural Exports and Imports and Their Effect 
on Farm Price Programs. Part I, General. April 9, 
10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, and 27, 1953. 284 pp. ; 
Part 2, Grains. April 23 and May 8, 1953. 80 pp. ; 
Part 3, Cotton, Livestock, Wool, and Poultry. April 
24, 30, May 1, 6, and 8, 1953. 179 pp. 

Overseas Information Programs of the United States. Re- 
port of the Committee on Foreign Relations Pursuant 
to the Provisions of S. Res. 74, 82d Congress, 2d Ses- 
sion, and S. Res. 44, 83d Congress, 1st Session, Accom- 
panied by an Appendix Containing Staff Studies Pre- 
pared For the Committee. S. Rept. 406, 83d Cong.. 
1st Sess. 208 pp. 

Yugoslav Emergency Relief Assistance Program. Letter 
From the Secretary of State Transmitting the Ninth 
Report to the Congress of the United States on the 
Administration of the Yugoslav Emergency Relief 
Assistance Program, From December 16, 1952, 
Through March 15, 1953, Pursuant to Section 6 of 
Public Law 897, Eighty-First Congress. H. Doc. 193, 
83d Cong., 1st Sess. 2 pp. 

Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1953. Reiwrt (To 
accompany H. R. 5495). S. Rept. 472, 83d Cong., 1st 
Sess. 7 pp. ; Hearings Before the Committee on Ways 
and Means, House of Representatives, Eighty-Third 
Congress, First Session on H. R. 4294 A Bill To Ex- 
tend the Authority of the President To Enter Into 
Trade Agreements Under Section 350 of the Tariff 
Act of 1930, As Amended, and For Other Purposes. 
April 27, 28, 29, 30, Mav 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13. 14, 15, 
18, and 19, 1953. 2028 pp. 

Authority To Utilize Agricultural Commodities. Message 
From the President of the United States Transmitting 
Recommendations for Legislation Which Would Give 
Authority To Utilize Agricultural Commodities Held 
by This Government To Meet Needs Arising From 
Famine Or Other Urgent Relief Requirements. H. 
Doc. 202, 83d Cong., 1st Sess. 2 pp. 



August 3, 1953 



149 



Administering tlie Pacific Trust Territory 



Statement by Frank E. Midkiff 

Special U.S. Representative to the U.N. Trusteeship Counuil ' 



I should indeed be gauche were I to begin my 
remarks except by acknowledging the benefits I 
have received from this conference on the adminis- 
tration of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Is- 
lands. I have been sincerely impressed with the 
broad knowledge of members of the Council in 
trusteeship administration generally. One also is 
much impressed by the accurate acquaintance re- 
vealed by all members in the detailed and exces- 
sively factual Administering Authority's report 
covering our past year's work.^ As I indicated in 
my introductory statement and as it has been 
borne out fully in the discussions, of prime value 
to us has been the firsthand observations of the 
United Nations very competent Visiting Mission. 

The Council has provided a full discussion of 
the mission's findings. The penetrating cjuestions 
of the Council have aided in pointing up aspects 
of administration that the members — so many 
themselves with distinguished records in admin- 
istering dependent areas — have found to be im- 
portant and worthy of special attention. I there- 
fore acknowledge with gratitude my indebtedness 
to the Trusteeship Council for its constructive 
handling of the report of the Administering Au- 
thority and for the many sound suggestions made 
for improving administration and further bene- 
fiting the people of Micronesia. It is evident that 
the service being rendered by the United Nations 
through the enunent members of this Trusteeship 
Council is of great value to the many areas under 
the Council's cognizance. 

I should like to comment on some of the points 
that have been made by members of the Council. 
My opening statement was directed specifically to 
many of these points and I request that without 
its repetition in this speech, my statement be 



' Made in the Trusteeship Council on July 2 and re- 
leased to the press on the same date by the U.S. Mission 
to the U.N. For Mr. MidkifE's opening statement to the 
Council on this subject, see BniJJiTiN of July 6, 19D3, p. 
22. 

'U.N. doc. T/1047. 



drawn upon where appropriate by the drafting 
committee and used in the committee's task of for- 
mulating the Council's report on conditions in the 
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. It may be 
useful for me, however, at this time to expand on 
that statement in certain items and to add to it 
where new points have been raised. 

I have been gratified that in the field of political 
development the members of the Council in gen- 
eral have expressed agreement with the line of 
approach being used by the Administering Au- 
thority in the territory and which the Visiting 
Mission so comi^etently analyzed and reported 
upon. 

In looking at the situation in the territory, I 
suggest that two dilTering ways of approaching 
political change amongst the people of the trust 
territory might be possible. First, we might urge 
haste and strive for a violent or cataclysmic and 
dramatic coup in which the old ways of governing 
by the system of "the extended family" would be 
overthrown and a new Western-type, democratic- 
political system imposed in place thereof. It is 
pertinent to note, however, that this course often 
is fraught with unhappiness for the people them- 
selves. It is a course responsible men adopt only 
when conditions under old customs and regula- 
tions have become unduly oppressive and restric- 
tive. Such oppressive conditions do not obtain in 
Micronesia; actually there long has been a family 
form of control and self-government, with a 
healthy and happy people living under it. 

The second way of political advance is funda- 
mentally different from the way described above. 
It involves study and observance of the situation, 
the needs, and the factors underlying the existing 
system as worked out by the people themselves 
over untold aiul long generations to meet the con- 
ditions imposed by their environment. And we 
may observe that such a system in Micronesia has a 
clearly reliable feature; namely, it works. Thus 
while it is not the iiolicy or objective of the admin- 
istration to foster and more solidly entrench the 



150 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Micronesian Representative Addresses 
Trusteeship Council 

Mr. Midkiff, High Commissioner of the Trust Ter- 

ritorii of the Paei/ie Jslamls, oji June 23 introduced 
to the Trmstceship Council Mis. Dorothy Kahua of 
.Mujuro, Mnrshnll Liltinda, /ir.st indiyciiou.s iiiliutiitant 
(if the territory erer to attend a Council scs-iion. 
spcahinii in Mdrshallcsc, tcith her son Aniata inter- 
lireting, Mrs. Knbua made the following statement: 

We bring you greetings, over a distance of about 
7,000 miles, from our people of tbe Marshall Islands 
in tlie 'I'rust Territory of the I'acitio Islands. We 
wish also to express our gratitude for the oppor- 
tunity to be present with the U.S. delegation at this 
great assembly of nations. It is a unique experience 
in our lives and it is, we feel, a landmark in the 
history of the Micronesian people. 

It is only in the last hundred years that our people 
in the 'Irust Territory have been aware of any world 
other than their own islands. Being here today In 
this great city and meeting here in this living symbol 
of the brotherhood of nations will increase to the 
full our awareness of the world around us and will 
help us to see our place in that world. 

'l"he Micronesians are a happy island people who 
seek, even as you do, life, liberty, and the pursuit 
of happiness. Because our life is simple, perhaps 
we enjoy a greater measure of happiness than you 
do. However, as in the present world no group of 
peoiile can remain isolated and unaffected by the 
rest of the world, we are working hard to establish 
ourselves alongside the rest of mankind. To this 
end our elforts toward economic self-sufficiency are 
uppermost in importance in our minds so that we 
might be a burden to no man and so that we might 
feed and clothe ourselves through our own talents 
and elforts. 

The U.S. Trusteeship Administration is helping 
us toward that end, and we are grateful for all 
that they are doing for us and for aiding us in 
establishing ourselves firmly in the brotherhood of 
free nations. 

Of equal importance are our efforts toward 
greater self-government which, with the guidance 
and assistance of the U.S. trusteeship administra- 
tors who are doing their utmost to encourage us 
toward this goal, promises to be a reality iu the 
not-too-distant future. 

May we say again that we thank you for the 
privilege of being here with you, and that we are 
proud to stand with you as a very small but equally 
peace- and freedom-loving people. 



"extended family" type of controls and govern- 
ance, neither is it the intention to destroy these 
controls that keep the communities happily and 
soundly functioning until we are quite sure they 
are being effectively replaced by something just 
as good or better. 

We may say, under the second approach, that 
while changes may be made to advantage, these 
changes should be made only in an evolutionary 
imanner and over a period of j'ears in response to 
the felt needs of the responsible people themselves, 
including their competent leaders, and after the 
proposed new ways have been tested properly, in 
connection with and over against estab