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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

INDEX 




"-*TES O* 



^^fe^ 




VOLUME XXXIV: Numbers 862-887 



January 2— June 25, 1956 



r<oa 






Corrections in Volume XXXIV 

The Editor of the Bulletin wishes to call atten- 
tion to the following errors : 

January 30, page 180, "Extension of U.S.-Ecua- 
doran Trade Agreement" : The date in the second 
line should be July 17 rather than July 18. 

February 13, page 264, "Department Announce- 
ment" : The second sentence should begin : "M. M. 
Philip signed for the Government of India . . . ." 

March 19, page 452, left-hand column, fifth line 
from the top : "United Nations" should read "United 
States." 



INDEX 



Volume XXXIV, Numbers 862-887, January 2-June 25, 1956 



Achilles, Theodore C, 994 

Acid-grade fluorspar, escape-clause relief held unneces- 
sary, 569 
Adenauer, Konrad, 210, 583, 586, 1047, 1065, 1068 
Administrative Tribunal, U.N., General Assembly ap- 
proval of judicial review of judgments of, 99 
Advertising material and commerical samples, interna- 
tional convention to facilitate importation of, 181, 
226, 440, 1038 
AEC. See Atomic Energy Commission 
Aerial inspection and exchange of military blueprints. 

See under Disarmament 
Afghanistan : 
Civil aviation convention, international, protocol amend- 
ing, 1038 
Economic development, 878, 879 
Export-Import Bank loan, 795 
Genocide, convention on the prevention and punishment 

of the crime of (1948), 622 
U.S. aid, .599 

U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 658 
Africa (see also individual countries) : 
U.S. mutual security program : 
President's recommendations to Congress, 547, 548 
Statements : Allen, 875, 877 ; Hollister, 609 
U.S. policy in, address, article, and statement : Allen, 

716 ; Dulles, 449 ; Howard, 4.52, 593 
Visit of Assistant Secretary of State Allen, 803 
Agricultural Institute, Inter-American, functions and 

U.S. members of Technical Advisory Council, 28 
Agricultural Surplus Disposal, Interagency Committee on, 

excerpt from report by study group, 1019 
Agricultural surpluses, U.S., use in overseas programs : 
Address and statement : Benson, 53 ; Dulles, 541 
Agreements with — 

Argentina, 27, 74; Austria, 308, 398, 680; Burma, 308, 
317; Chile, 532, 533, 694, 1081; Colombia, 27, 74; 
Egypt, 356, 398; Finland, 270, 658, 865; Germany, 
Federal Republic of, 28 ; Greece, 533 ; Indonesia, 
469, 487, 541 ; Iran, 441 ; Israel, 317, 356; Italy, 181, 
622, 680 ; Japan, 488 ; Korea, 532, 5.33 ; Pakistan, 488, 
578 ; Paraguay, 804, 907 ; Peru, 847, 994 ; Portugal, 
1038 ; Spain, 317, 533, 622 ; Turkey, 534, 907 ; U. K., 
1081 ; Yugoslavia. 317 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act ; 
Address (Armstrong), 304 

President's 3d semiannual report to Congress (July 
1-Dec. 31, 19.55), 130 
Disposal problems, 301, 390, 394, 431, 1019 
Mutual security program, U.S. : 
President's recommendations to Congress, 549 
Statement (Hollister), 617 



Agricultural surpluses — Continued 
Sales to— 
Bolivia, 300; Brazil, 337; France, 839; Germany, 
Federal Republic of, 772; Latin America, 1009; 
Spain, 46, 47 : Yugoslavia, 348 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act. See 

under Agricultural surpluses 
Agriculture : 

Cooperative program agreement with Dominican Re- 
public, notice of intention to terminate, 441 
Farm legislation, approval of, statement (Eisenhower), 

982 
Plant protection convention, international, 311, 907, 

1080 
Radioisotopes, use in agriculture, 519 
World agriculture, problems in : 

FAO Conference, Sth, article (Butz), 434 
President's report to Congress, 258 
Aid to foreign countries. See Economic and technical 

aid and Military assistance 
Air Coordinating Committee, Executive order on func- 
tions of, 341 
Air navigation and transport. See Aviation 
Aircraft. See Aviation 
Albania : 

Forced labor in, use of, statement (Baker), 903 
Telecommunication convention, international, 1080 
Aldrich, Winthrop, 798 

Algeria, U.S. and French policies in, address and ar- 
ticle: Dillon, 553, 554, 555; Howard, 454 
Aliens : 
Admittance to U.S., proposed legislative changes con- 
cerning, 276 
Residence in U.S., protection under American laws, 
802 
Allen, George V., 460, 716, 803, 875 
Allison, Ellis K., 398 
Allyn, Stanley C, 592 
Ambassadorial talks, U.S.-Communist China. See Geneva 

ambassadorial talks 
America, The Message of, address (Eisenhower), 633 
American Business Abroad and the National Interest, ad- 
dress (Hoover), 1049 
American Institute of Architects, 15, 16 
American Red Cross, 469 
American Republics. See Latin America and individual 

countries 
American States, Organization of. See Organization of 

American States 
Amerika, proposed distribution In U.S.S.R., texts of 
notes, 18 



Index, January to June 7956 

431265 — 57 1 



1087 



Amerikahaus, Munich, 10th anniversary, address (Co- 

nant),327 
Amini, AH, 207 
Arab-Israeli dispute : 

Address and article: Bergus, 502; Dorsey, 793 
Arab refugee problem. See under Refugees and dis- 
placed persons 
Arms supply to Middle East. See Arms supply 
Egyptian-Israeli observance of armistice agreement, 

statement (Lodge), 722 
Israeli military actions against Syria, 103, 121, 182, 183, 

463 
U.N. actions : 

Security Council resolutions, 628, 1028 
Statements: Dulles, 711; Lodge, 627, 1025; Wads- 
worth, 1025 
U.S. position : 
Address, article, and statements: Allen, 876; Dulles, 
282, 283, 368, 711; Heath, 203; Howard, 458, 461, 
603, 604 
Exchange of correspondence (Dulles, Members of 
House of Representatives), 285, 286 
U.S.-British views on settlement of, joint statement 
(Eisenhower, Eden), 233 
Arab States : 

Arms supply policy. See Arms supply 
Policy of Spain toward, 45 

U.S. mutual security program (1957), statement (Hol- 
lister), 611 
Arbitral Commission on property rights and interests in 

Germany, charter of, 106 
Argentina : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 7 
Poliomyelitis epidemic, U.S. aid, 469, 527 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural surpluses, agreements with U.S., 27, 28, 74 
Extradition, convention on, 953 

Organization of American States, charter of the, 782 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
with final protocols, regulations of execution, and 
parcel post and money orders agi-eements, 398 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 805 
U.S. relations with, address (Nufer), 839 
Armaments (.see also Disarmament) : 

Advanced weapons systems. President's recommenda- 
tion to Congress for mutual security program, 547 
Near East. See Arms supply 
Reduction of: 

Address (Dulles), 740, 745 
General Assembly resolution, 63 

U.S.-Soviet positions, address and statements : Dul- 
les, 880, 881, 882, 883 ; Lodge, 58, 59, 62, 68 ; Wilcox, 
115 
Soviet armed strength, 332 

U.S. weapons, delivery to Federal Republic of Germany 
under mutual defense assistance agreement, 162 
Armed forces : 
Canadian forces in Germany, agreement between U.S. 
and Canada regarding application of forces and 
finance conventions and tax agreement, 356 
Germany, East, creation of "People's" Army, 245 

1088 



Armed forces — Continued 

Germany, Federal Republic of, training by U.S., 162 
Prisoners of war, Geneva convention relative to treat- 
ment of, 907 
Beiluctiun (if, proposed, Snviet-U.S. positions, address 
and statements; Dulles, 880, 881, 883, 885, 920; 
Lodge, 58, 59, 64, 68 ; Wilcox, 115 
Soviet increase In strength of, 546 
Spanish forces, training of, 46 
Armed forces, U.S. : 
American war graves, agreement with Netherlands 

extending 1947 agreement, 658 
Military missions, U.S., agreements with — 

Honduras, 994 ; Iran, 533 ; Peru, 578 
Personnel strength, excerpt from President's message to 

Congress, 149 
Question of removal from Iceland, statement (Dulles), 
639 
Armed Forces Day, statement (Dulles), 874 
Arms supply to the Middle East : 

Israel, question of arms shipments to, statements 

(Dulles), 285, 287, 369, 640, 641, 642, 643, 713 
Saudi Arabia, U.S. sale of tanks to, 326 
Suspension of U.S. export licenses, 325 
U.S. policy, statements and article : Dulles, 196, 197, 
604 ; Eisenhower, 604 ; Howard, 460, 003, 604 
Armstrong, Hamilton Fish, 953 
Armstrong, Willis C, 301 
Artibonite Valley project, Haiti, agreement with U.S. 

providing assistance for, 106 
Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia (see also individual 
countries) : 
Economic situation, statements (Jones, Kotschnig), 

388, 392, 394, 395 
Free Asia's importance, chart, 614 
Imiinrtance to U.S. national security, statement 

(Dulles), 787 
Report on, address (Dulles), 539 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. See Southeast 

Asia Treaty Organization 
U.N. technical assistance, statement (Bell), 486 
U.S. aid, 448, 792 
U.S. mutual security program ; 
Address and statements : Allen, 875, 878 ; Dulles, 541, 

787 ; Hollister, 609, 611, 612 ; Robertson, 723 
President's recommendations to Congress, 547, 548 
U. S. policy, article and statement: Dulles, 449; 

Howard, 452, 593 
Visit of Secretary Dulles, itinerary, 241 
Asian Nuclear Center, choice of site for, 544 
Aswan Dam, status of, article and statements : Dulles, 

11, 042, 920 ; Howard, 596 
Asylum, U.S. policy on right of, 939 

Atlantic Community (see also North Atlantic Council and 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization) : 
Development of: 

Address and statement (Dulles), letter (Eisen- 
hower), and NAC communique, 831 
Joint communique (Adenauer, Dulles), 1048 
Distinction between NATO and Atlantic Community, 
statement (Dulles), 1048 

Department of State Bulletin 



i 



Atomic energy, cooperation regarding atomic Information : 
Nortli Atlantic Treaty, agreement between parties for 

cooperation, 73, 106, 226, 622, 668 
U.S. and Britain, joint statement (Eisenhower, Eden), 
234 
Atomic energy, nuclear explosions : 
Pacific nuclear tests : 
Marshall Islands petition requesting cessation of, 689 
U.S. note to Japanese Government, 566 
U.S. views on, statement (Gerig) , 576 
Soviet bomb test, and U.S. position on proposed sus- 
pension of hydrogen bomb tests, statement 
(Dulles), 122 
Atomic energy, peaceful u.ses of : 
Addresses: Dillon, 51S; Wilcox, 114 
Agreements with — 
Austria, 1038, 1066, 1081; Costa Rica, 907; Domini- 
can Republic, 1071 ; Germany, Federal Republic of, 
92, 326, 356, 782; Greece, 594; Ireland, 564, 578 
Israel, 594 ; Japan, 106 ; Korea, 270, 317 ; Lebanon 
594; Netherlands, 106; New Zealand, 1071, 1081 
Pakistan, 594; Peru, 226; Sweden, 181; Thailand 
534, 590, 622; Turkey, 594; U.K., 1071, 1081 
Uruguay, 141, 142 
Asia, economic progress through use of the atom, 

statement (Jones), 390 
Asian Nuclear Center, choice of site for, 544 
Atomic energy libraries, presentation by U.S. to U.N. 

and other nations, 656 
Brookhaven National Laboratory, 544n 
Distribution of nuclear materials, foreign and 
domestic : 
Heavy water, sale by U.S., 592 
Isotopes, stable, and rare earths, 385 
Radioisotopes, revised regulations, 208 
Uranium 235, statements (Eisenhower, Strauss), 469, 
470 
ECOSOC study on economic development factors of 

atomic energy, 657, 816, 819 
Foreign atomic energy activity, AEO regulation con- 
cerning, 309 
German Federal Minister for Atomic Affairs, visit to 

U.S., 797 
International Atomic Energy Agency. See Atomic 

Energy Agency 
Nuclear-powered ship. President's request to Congress 

for funds for, 150 
U.K. assistance to Baghdad Pact countries in develop- 
ment of, 18 
U.S. aid to Spain, address (John Lodge) , 127 
U.S. atomic experts, visits to Japan, Thailand, Pak- 
istan, and Turkey, 509 
U.S. efforts for, excerpts from President's message to 
Congress, 147, 150 
Atomic energy, radiation effects on human health : 
General Assembly action, 98 

Report to U.N., transmission letter (Lodge), 1078 
U.N. Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic 
Radiation, 1st meeting, article (Warren) and U.S. 
delegates, 533, 860 
U.S. note to Japanese Government re nuclear tests in 
the Pacific, 567 

Index, January to June 1956 



Atomic Energy Agency, International : 
Draft statute : 
Appointment of U.S. representative to negotiations 

on, 210 
Working-level meeting on, 438 
12-uation talks, conclusion of, final communique and 

adopted text, 729 
Text and letter of transmittal (Wadsworth), 852 
Establishment of ; 

Progress report on negotiations, letters (Eisenhower, 

Patterson), 4 
U.N. action, 97 

U.S. views, statement (Dulles), 161 
Functions and U.S. position on, address (Wadsworth), 

898 
Relationship to U.N., 114,115 
Atomic Energ.v Commission, 309, 470, 471 
Atomic Energy Community, European : 

Discussions concerning, statement (Dulles), 282 
Importance of, address (Eleanor Dulles), 1075 
Atomic weapons, international control of. See under 

Disarmament 
Atoms-for-peace. See Atomic energy, peaceful uses of 
Australia : 
Heavy water, purchase from U.S., 592 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention to facilitate importation of, 
226, 440 
GATT, proces verbal, and amending protocols, 441, 

658, 953, 1081 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.S. Ambassador, resignation (Peaslee), 186; confirma- 
tion (Moffat), 398 
Austria : 
Claims for property seized during the German occupa- 
tion, deadline for filing extended, 49 
Director of Administration, American Embassy, 
Vienna, delegation of authority, public notice, 142 
Postwar development of, address (Eleanor Dulles), 

1073, 1074 
Social security benefits, coverage of U.S. residents, 886 
Tariff concessions to U.S., renegotiation of, 350 
Treaties, agreements, etc. ; 
Agricultural surpluses, agreement with U.S., 308, 

898, 680 
Atomic energy, agreement with U.S., 1038, 1066, 

1081 
Civil aviation convention. International, protocol 

amending, 1038 
GATT, 5th protocol of rectifications and modifica- 
tions to texts of schedules, 733 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 

1081 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 

Nitrogenous fertilizer, agreement with U.S. for fi- 
nancing delivery to Spain, 658 
Private road vehicles, customs convention on tem- 
porary importation of, 6.58 
Telecommunication convention, international, 994 
Touring, convention concerning customs facilities for, 

658 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 

1089 



Austria — Continued 

U.S. contributions to refugees located in, 1077, 1078 
U.S. visa applications for escapees residing in, 1024 
Auto travel, international. See Travel 
Aviation : 
Aerial inspection and exchange of military blueprints. 

See under Disarmament 
Air Force, German, training by U.S. under mutual de- 
fense as.sistance agreement, 1G3 
Aircraft industry, relationship to U.S. foreign trade 

policy, address (Kalijarvi), 1014 
Civil aviation, U.S.-U.K. discussions on 374, 528 
Civil Aviation Organization, International. See In- 
ternational Civil Aviation Organization 
Treatie.s, agreements, etc. : 

Air navigation equipment, agreement vs-ith the Fed- 
eral Repul)lic of Germany relating to lease of, 181 
Air services transit agreement, international, 823 

(status list), 864 
Air transport agreement, international, status list, 

823 
Air transport agreements with — 
Canada, 142; Germany, Federal Republic of, 733; 
India, 264, 317; Netherlands, negotiations, 378, 
6.50 
Aircraft, imported, agreement with Netherlands re- 
lating to certificates of airworthiness, 10.38 
Aircraft, rights in, convention on international rec- 
ognition of, 141 
Aircraft assembly or manufacture in Japan, agree- 
ment with Japan for program of, 782 
Civil aviation, agreement with Colombia for tech- 
nical cooperation activities in, 865 
Civil aviation, international, convention on, and 
amending protocol, 181, 782, 822 (status list), 864, 
865, 994, 1038 
Transportation by air, convention and protocol for 
unification of rules relating to, 73 
U.S. claims for destruction of aircraft. See under 
Claims 

Baghdad Pact: 

Development and functions, article (Howard), 510 
Importance to Middle East security, joint statement 

(Eisenhower, Eden), 233 
Paliistani membership, evaluation of, statement 

(Dulles), 282 
U.S. support of, address and statements: Aldrich, 800; 
Allen, 875 ; Dulles, 119, 121 
Baghdad Pact Council : 

1st meeting: text of communique, 16 
2d meeting: U.S. delegation, 637; statements (Hender- 
son, Seager) and text of final communique, 753, 
754 
Baker, John C, 657, 816, 903, 949 
Balas, Cornel, 247 
Ball, M. Margaret, 649 
Balloons, meteorological and propaganda, use of: 

Letter and statements: Dulles, 280, 281, 283, 284; Lodge, 

428 
U.S.-Soviet positions, texts of notes and Department 
of Defense announcement, 293, 426 

1090 



Baltic peoples, U.S. attitude toward plight of, statement 

(Dulles), 331 
Bandung conference, impact on 10th General Assembly, 

111, 112 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development. See Inter- 
national Bank 
Barco, James W., 732 
Barnes, Robert G., 488 
Barringer, J. Paul, 982 
Baughman, Ernest T., 1019 
Beach, Arthur E., 8."), 3.j6 
Beans, dry, distribution of surpluses for use in domestic 

and overseas programs, 53 
Beaulae, Willard L., 865 

Belgian Congo, extension of international telecommunica- 
tion convention to, 782 
Belgium : 

Imports from dollar area, removal of restrictions on, 

1048 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, proees verbal and amending protocols, 441, 

622, 953, 1081 
Ice patrol, North Atlantic, agreement regarding fi- 
nancial support, 5.33 
OTC, agreement on, 441 

Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreement with U.S. for exchange of, 
104, 577 
Telecommunication convention, international, noti- 
fication of extension to Belgian Congo and Ruanda- 
Urundi, 782 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
Bell, Elliott v., 96 
Bell, Laird, 98, 100, 117n, 486 
Belton, William, 270 

Benjamin Franklin Foundation (see also Franklin, Ben- 
jamin), membership and director, 15, 886 
Bennett, Henry Garland, 792 
Benson, Ezra Taft, 53, 435 
Bergus, Donald C, 502 

Bering Sea. Soviet attack on U.S. aircraft in, U.S. and 
Soviet notes concerning payment of damages, 94, 96, 
559 
Berlin : 
Addresses concerning : Conant, 669, 671, 673 ; Hoover, 

242 
Conference Hall, construction of, 15, 886 
Debts of City of Berlin and public utility enterprises, 

negotiations and agreement, 93, 651, 865 
4-power status, statements (Dulles), 8, 12 
Herbert Hoover School, remarks and message (Hoover) 

on dedication of, 243 
Mutual security program, U.S. : 

President's report to Congress, excerpt, 548 
Statements : Elbrick, 679 ; Hollister, 609 
Soviet sector, development of para-military activities, 

U.S. note of protest, 293 
U.S. assistance during Berlin blockade, address (Elea- 
nor Dulles), 1075 
U.S.-British views concerning, joint statement (Eisen- 
hower, Eden), 233 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Bills of lading, international convention (1924) for uni- 
fication of certain rules relating to, 694 
Bipartisanship in foreign policy, statement (Dulles), 199 
Bishop, Max W., 208, 226 
Bissonette, Father Georges, 19, 20 
Blaustein, Jacob, 99, 117n- 
Bolivia : 

Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 1038 
Economic aid to, 300 
Informational media guaranty program, agreement with 

U.S., 578 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements, 398 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
Bolton, Rep. Frances P., 651, 953 

Bombing range near Cuxhaven, Germany, agreement with 
the Federal Republic amending agreement relating 
to the use of, 142 
Boris, Archbishop, 19 
Boundary waters, U.S.-Canadian, joint study proposed, 

940 
Bowie, Robert R., 196, 356 
Bowman, Raymond T., 440 
Brady, Frederick J., 210 
Brazil : 
Export-Import Bank loans, 299, 1018 
Industrial progress and expansion, address (Nixon), 

336 
President-elect, visit to U.S., remarks and addresses 

(Dulles, Kubitschek), 86,87 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post agreement, 398 
Safety of life at sea, convention on (1948), 622 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 994 
U.S.-Brazilian friendship, address (Nixon), 335 
Vice President, visit to U.S., annoimcements and re- 
marks (Goulart, Hoover, Nixon), 681, 756, 803, 804 
Briggs, Ellis O., 994 
Brinkley, Homer L., 96 
Brokenburr, Robert L., 100, 117re 
Brookbaven National Laboratory, 544» 
Brucan, Silviu, 791 
Brucker, Wilber M., 981 
Brues, Austin Moore, 98 
Brussels Treaty, 881, 882 
Buchanan, Wiley T., Jr., 226 
Buddhism, anniversary of founding, statement (Dulles), 

926 
Budget, U.S. : 

Formulation of, statement (Dulles), 160 
President's message to Congress, excerpts, 147 
Building, Civil Engineering, and Public Works Committee 

(ILO) , 5th session, U.S. delegation, 864 
Bulganin, Nikolai, exchanges of correspondence with 
President Eisenhower : 
Disarmament and U.S.-Soviet relations, text and state- 
ment (DuUes), 515, 1068 



Bulganin, Nikolai — Continued 

Treaty of friendship between U.S.S.R. and U.S., pro- 
posed, text and statements (Dulles), 193, 279, 280 
Bulgaria, convention (1946) for partial revision of con- 
ventions adopted by the ILO General Conference, 622 
Bunker, Ellsworth, 651, 953 

Buraimi, U.S.-Saudi Arabian dispute concerning, 465 
Burma : 

Communist aggression In, 725 
International Bank loan, 889 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural surpluses, agreement with U.S., 308, 

317 
Cultural property, convention (1954) for protection 
in event of armed conflict, regulations of execution 
and protocol, 694 
Genocide, convention (1948) for prevention and 

punishment of crime of, 694 
Slavery convention (1926), protocol amending and 
annex, 658 
U.S. aid, proposed, 569 
Burns, Maj. Gen. E. L. M., 182n, 183, 282, 462, 463 
Butterworth, Walton W., 441 
Butz, Earl L., 434 

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (see also Soviet 
Union), international telecommunication convention 
(1952), 658 
Byroade, Henry A., 124 

Cabot, John Moors, 800 

Caffery, Jefferson, 565 

Calendar of international meetings, 29, 220, 386, 571, 

776, 942 
Calkins, Robert D., 651, 953 
Cambodia : 

Civil aviation, international, convention on, 181 

Economic progress in, 447 

Mekong River, request for ICA survey, 52 

Touring, convention concerning customs facilities for, 

73 
U.S. aid, 726 
U.S. policy, 727 
Cameroons, French, progress in, statement (Gerig), 730 
Canada : 
Boundary waters, U.S.-Canadian, joint study proposed, 

940 
Disarmament, 4-power (U.S., Canada, France, U.K.) 

declaration of principles relating to, 838 
Heads of Government meeting (U.S., Canada, Mexico). 

See Heads of Government meeting 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada : 
Functions, 940 

Lake Ontario, levels of, discussions and U.S. ap- 
proval of recommendations, 89, 91, 92 
St. Lawrence Seaway. See St. Lawrence Seaway 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air transport agreement with U.S. (1949), agree- 
ment amending schedule 2 relating to routes, 142 
Canadian forces in Germany, agreement with U.S. 
regarding application of forces and finance con- 
ventions and tax agreement, 356 



Index, January to June 7956 



1091 



Canada — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Family housing units at Pepperrell Air Force Base, 
agreement witli U.S. relating to construction of, 
865 
GATT, proems verbal and amending protocol, 953, 1081 
Great Lakes fisheries convention with U.S., imple- 
mentation of, statement (Looney), 890 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post agreement, 398 
Radar stations in Canada, agreements vrith U.S. 
providing for establishment and operation of, 74 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.S. Ambassador, resignation (Stuart), 1038; confirma- 
tion (Merchant), 86.5 
Canada, Royal Bank of, participation in loan to Haiti, 889 
Captive peoples, U.S. policy on liberation of, statements 

(Eisenhower, Hagerty), 84 
Captured files and archives of the former German For- 
eign Office at present in U.K. territory, agreement 
relating to return of. 865 
Caracas Declaration of 195^, 200, 712, 713, 839 
Caribbean Commission-FAO Technical Conference on Co- 
operatives, agenda of 2d conference and U.S. dele- 
gation, 224 
Carpenter, I. W., Jr.. 142, 226 
Cassady, John H., 16 

Cauca Valley region, agreement with Colombia for in- 
terchange of technical knowledge and skills for de- 
velopment, 106 
Cemeteries, military. See Military cemeteries 
Central Intelligence Agency, appointment of board of 
consultants for review of foreign intelligence activi- 
ties, announcement and letters (Eisenhower), 161 
Ceylon : 
Development assistance program, agreement with U.S. 

providing for, 821 
Economic development, problem of, statement (Allen), 

878, 879 
Private road vehicles, customs convention on tempo- 
rary importation of, 73 
Tariff concessions to U.S., GATT, renegotiation of, 

350, 351 
Touring, convention concerning customs facilities for, 
73 
Charlone, C^sar, 903 
Charter of the United Nations. See United Nations 

Charter 
Chile : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 295 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural surpluses, agreements with U.S., 532, 

533, 694, 1081 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 

1081 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 

Postal convention, universal, with final protocol, 
annex, regulations of execution, and provisions re- 
garding airmail and final protocol, 141 

1092 



Chile — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements, 398 
Rights in aircraft, international recognition of, con- 
vention, 141 
Uranium resources, agreement with U.S. for co- 
operative program of investigations of, 865 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 865 
China, Communist : 
Economic development, question of, statements (Jones), 

388, 393 
Forced labor, use of, statement (Baker), 904 
Geneva ambassadorial talks. See Geneva ambassador- 
ial talks 
Recognition by Egypt, statements (Dulles), 920, 923 
Student at University of Missouri, complaint concern- 
ing alleged prevention from leaving U.S., 52 
Subversive tactics in the free world, 789 
Trade with, statements (Dulles), 924, 1067 
U.N. Command protests of Korean armistice viola- 
tions, and withdrawal of NNSC from South Korea, 
statement and exchange of notes, 967, 970 
U.N. representation, question of, address (Wilcox), 
113 
China. Republic of: 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 1004 
Taiwan. See Taiwan 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 1038 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement with U.S. 

for disposition of equipment and materials, 994 
Passport visas and visa fees, agreement with U.S., 

694 
Slavery convention (1026), amending protocol and 
annex, 141 
United Nations, veto of membership of Outer Mongolia, 

97 
U.N. membership, address (Wilcox), 113 
U.S. visa applications for refugees of Chinese ethnic 
origin, cutoff date announced, 810 
Chowdbury, Hamidul Haq, 447, 451 
Churchill, Winston, S37, 884, 886 
CIA. See Central Intelligence Agency 
Ciudad Trujillo, resolution of, 895, 897 (text) 
Civil aviation. See Aviation 

Civil Aviation Organization, International. See Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
Civil defense. See National defense and security 
Civilian persons, Geneva convention relative to protec- 
tion In time of war, 907 
Civilians, U.S., detention and release by Communist 

China. See Geneva ambassadorial talks 
Claims : 
Austria, for property seized during German occupation, 

deadline for filing extended, 49 
U.S. claims against — 

Czechoslovakia and Soviet Union for destruction of 

aircaf t, action by ICJ, 513 
Soviet Union for destruction of aircraft over Bering 
Sea, texts of notes, 94, 96, 559 

Department of State Bulletin 



Clergymen, U.S.-Soviet exchange of notes on Issuance 

of visas to, 19 
Coal and Steel Community, European : 
Functions, 833, 1075 

U.S. Mission established in Luxembourg, 441 
U.S. support of, statement (Dulles) , 282 
Visit of High Authority President to U. S. : 
Announcement, 15 
Delegation, 241 

Results, announcement and text of communique, 
288, 289 
Coal Committee (ECE), meeting and U.S. delegation, 1079 
Coal Mines Committee (ILO), 6th .session, U.S. dele- 
gation, 821 
Coe, Robert D., 429, 46T 

"Cold war," definition of, statement (Dulles), 749 
Collective security (see also Mutual defense. Mutual se- 
curity and National defense) : 
Asia. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Development of, address, message, and statement: Dul- 
les, 450 ; Eisenhower, 79, 80 ; Wilcox, 842 
Europe. See European security and North Atlantic 

Treaty Organization 
Near and Middle East. See Baghdad Pact 
Principle of, addresses and statement : Eisenhower, 

1004; Gruenther, 334; Murphy, 646 
Treaties and agreements, address and statement: Dul- 
les, 908 ; Murphy, 169 
U.N. Charter, collective security under, address (Wil- 
cox), 845, 847 
U.S. and free world policy of, addresses and state- 
ment : Allen, 875 ; Eisenhower, 702 ; Hoover, 323 
Collisions at sea, regulations for preventing, 263, 1038 
Colombia : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreement with U.S., 27, 74 
Civil aviation, agreement with U.S. for technical co- 
operation activities in, 865 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 
Military assistance, agreement with U.S. providing for 

disposition of equipment and materials, 694 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements, 398 
Rawinsonde observation station, agreement with U.S. 
for establishment and operation on island of San 
Andres, 782 
Technical cooperation, agreement with U.S., 106, 142 
Colonialism (see also Self-determination and Trust 
territories) : 
Asian countries' rejection of, addresses : Dulles, 539, 

540 ; Sukarno, 935, 937 ; Wilcox, 111 
Communist colonialism, addresses (Murphy), 168, 559 
U.S. views on, address and statement : Allen, 717 ; 
Gerig, 575 
Color television, demonstrations for visitors to U.S., 428 
Commerce. See Trade 

Commercial relations, U.S. and other countries. See 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. ; Tariff policy, 
U.S. ; Tariffs and trade, general agreement on ; and 
Trade 
Commercial samples and advertising material, interna- 
tional convention to facilitate importation of, 181, 
226, 440, 1038 

Index, January to June 1956 



Commercial treaties. See Trade : Treaties and Trade 

agreements 
Communications. See Telecommunications 
Communism (see also China, Communist; Propaganda; 
and Soviet Uuion) : 
Communist Party, 20th Congress of, 556, 557, 558 
Forced labor, use in Communist countries, statement 

(Baker), 903 
International communism, problem of, addresses : Al- 
len Dulles, 758 ; Eisenhower, 915 ; Murphy, 168, 169, 
645, 648 ; Nuf er, 839 
National vs. international communism, statement (Dul- 
les), 752 
Soviet-Chinese policy of aggression, statements (Dulles), 

450, 789 
Subversive activities in — 
Africa, addre.ss (Allen), 716 

Asia, addresses and statement : Dulles, 540 ; Robert- 
son, 723, 972, 973, 974; SEATO communique, 447, 
448 
East Germany, addresses : Conant, 584, 585 ; Hoover, 

242, 290 
Latin America, address and statements : Dulles, 200, 

712, 713; Kubitschek, 88 
Middle East, address (Heath), 203 
Spain, address (John Lodge), 45, 48 
U.S. and free- world efforts to combat : 
Addresses and statements: Dulles, 872, 873, 1001, 
1002 ; Eden, 236, 238, 240 ; Murphy, 371, 556 ; Nixon, 
1043 ; Wilcox, 484, 842, 843 
Declaration of Washington, 231, 232 
State of the Union message, excerpts, SO, 81, 82 
Conant, James B., 48, 210, 293, 327, 583, 669 
Conference Hall. Berlin, construction of, 15, 886 
Conferences and organizations, international («ee also 
subject), calendar of meetings, 29, 220, 386, 571, 776, 
942 
Congress, Library of : 
Fitzpatrick letters, presentation by Irish Prime Min- 
ister, 562, 563 
Franklin Commemorative Medal, presentation, 249 
Congress, U. S. : 
Addresses by : President-elect of Brazil, 86 ; Prime Min- 
ister of Great Britain, 235, 237 ; President of Indo- 
nesia, 928; Prime Minister of Ireland, 561, 562; 
President of Italy, 419 
Legislation : 
Farm legislation, approval of, statement (Eisen- 
hower), 982 
Foreign policy, listed, 138, 252, 353, 370, 471, 570, 673, 

775, 983 
Sugar Act of 1948, amendment and extension, state- 
ment (Eisenhower), 1016 
Sugar legislation, U. S., objectives of, statement 
(McLain), 1017 
Legislation, proposed : 

Great Lakes fisheries convention with Canada, im- 
plementation of, 890 
Immigration and Nationality Act, revision of. Presi- 
dent's message to Congress and statement (Dulles), 
275, 773 

1093 



Congress, U. S. — Continued 

Legislation, proposed — Continued 

Sugar legislation, statement (Holland), 172 
U.S. mutual security program, statements : Dulles, 
871 ; HoUister, 605 
Middle East, U.S. policy in, correspondence with Sec- 
retary Dulles, 285, 286 
Presidential ine.ssages, reports, etc. See Eisenhower : 

Messages, letters, and reports to Congress 
State Department relations with Congress, statement 
(Dulles), 411 
Consular service, U.S. See Foreign Service 
Continental sheU and marine waters. See Territorial 

waters 
Control posts for mutual inspection {see also Disarma- 
ment), Soviet proposals and U.S. position, statements 
(Lodge), 59, GO, CI, 62, 69 
Cooper, John Sherman, 205, 265, 412 

Cooperatives, FAO-Caribbean Commission Technical 
Conference on, agenda of 2d conference and U. S. 
delegation, 224 
Copyright : 
American copyrights abroad, protection of, address 

(Thibodeaux), 24 
Universal copyright convention, 141, 26.3, 865, 10.36 
Copyright Committee, Intergovernmental, meeting and 

U. S. delegate, 1036 
Corn, distribution of surpluses for use in overseas and 

domestic programs, 53 
Corse, Carl D., 185 
Costa Rica : 

Atomic energy, agreement with U.S., 907 
Friendship agreements with Nicaragua, 339 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and par- 
cel post and money orders agreements, 398 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
Costello, John A., 290, 4G7, 560, 562 
Cotton : 

Farm legislation, sections applicable to cotton, 9S2 
Surplus disposal problem, address (Armstrong), 308 
U.S. export prospects, 1019, 1020, 1021, 1022 
Cotton Advisory Committee, International, 15th plenary 

meeting, U.S. delegation, 863 
Council of Ministers, SEATO. See under Southeast Asia 

Treaty Organization 
Creutz, Gustav Philip, 801 
Cribbett, Sir George, 528 

Crusade for Freedom, importance in combating Commu- 
nist propaganda, letter (Eisenhower), 636 
Cuba: 

Sugar legislation, U.S., effects of proposed revision of 
Sugar Act on Cuban economy, statement (Holland), 
172, 173, 174 
Tariff concessions to U.S., renegotiation of, 350, 351 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, amending protocols, 38, 1081 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 

Naval vessels, agreement with U.S., for furnishing 
supplies and services, 226 



Cuba — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and par- 
cel post and money orders agreements, 398 
U. S. preferential tariff treatment of certain Cuban 
products, 1057, 1059, 1062 
Culbertson, Nancy P., 521 

Cultural Council, Inter-American, 2d meeting, U.S. dele- 
gation, 820 
Cultural property, convention (1954) for protection in 

event of armed conflict, 440, 694, 952 
Cultural relations, Inter-American convention on, trans- 
mittal message (Eisenhower), report (Hoover), sum- 
mary of provisions, and text, 175, 219 
Cultural studies, UNESCO grants for, 342 
Customs : 
Consular oflBcers, agreement with Yugoslavia for re- 
ciprocal privileges, 994 
Customs tariffs, creation of international union for 
publication of, protocol modifying 1800 convention, 
270, 355, 487 
Private road vehicles, convention on temporary im- 
portation of, 73, 440, 658, 782, 864 
Touring, convention concerning facilities for, 73, 440, 

658, 782, 864 
U.S. efforts to simplify customs regulations, address 
(Coe) and President's report to Congress, 255, 430 
Cutler, Robert, 651, 953 

Cuxhaven, Germany, agreement with Federal Republic 
amending agreement relating to tise of practice bomb- 
ing range, 142 
Cyprus : 
NATO administration of, question of, statement (Dul- 
les), 713 
U.S. position, statements (White), 505 
Czechoslovakia : 

Arms arrangements with Egypt, 196, 197, 460 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Collisions at sea, regulations for preventing, 263 
Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention to facilitate importation, 181 
GATT, amending protocols, 1080, 1081 
Telecommunication convention, international (1952), 
994 
U.S. claim for destruction of aircraft, action by ICJ 
513 

Dairy products: 
Proclamation limiting imports of, question of amending, 

653 
U.S. export prospects, 1020, 1021, 1022 
Darden, Colgate Whitehead, Jr., 98, 117» 
Davis, Bainbridge C, 270 

Debts, German external, agreement on, 226, 733, 1038 
Debts of City of Berlin and public utility enterprises, 

negotiations and agreement, 93, 651, 865 
Declaration of Washington : 
Addresses and article : Eden, 236, 237, 239, 240 ; Howard, 

604 
Text, 231 



1094 



Deparfmenf of State Buffefin 



Defense, Department of, budget estimates for fiscal year 
1957, excerpts from President's message to Congress, 
1-18 
Defense support. See under Mutual security 
Denmark : 

Imports from dollar area, removal of restrictions on, 

1048 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 1038 
Educational exchange programs, agreement vrith U.S. 
extending and amending 1951 agreement, 467, 487 
GATT, 5th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 907 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 

1081 
Ice Patrol, North Atlantic, agreement regarding finan- 
cial support, 181 
Road traffic convention, with annexes, 355 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.S.-Danish trade relations, address (Coe),429 
U.S. mutual security aid, continuation of, 214 
Deportation of aliens, proposed legislative changes con- 
cerning, 275, 277, 278 
Dillon, C. Douglas, 518 
Dion, Father Louis, 19 
Diplomacy {see also Foreign Service), personal diplomacy, 

statement (Dulles), 909 
Diplomatic career of Benjamin Franklin, 51 
Diplomatic representatives, U.S., abroad. See under 

Foreign Service 
Diplomatic representatives in the U.S., presentation of 
credentials : Argentina, 7 ; Chile, 295 ; China, Repub- 
lic of, 1004 ; Haiti, 163 ; Iran, 207 ; Japan, 467 ; Liberia, 
637 ; Rumania, 791 
Disarmament (see also Armaments, Armed forces, and 
United Nations Disarmament Commission) : 
Aerial inspection and exchange of military blueprints : 
Excerpt from state of the Union message, 81 
Exchange of correspondence (Eisenhower, Bulganin), 

192, 514, 515 
Statement (Dulles), 882 
U.N. actions, 55, 63, 97, 115 
Atomic weapons, international control of : 
General Assembly resolution, 63 

Soviet proposals and U.S. position, 57, 58, 64, 67, 68 
Statements (Dulles), 198, 201 
U.S. note to Japanese Government, text, 566 
Control posts for mutual inspection, Soviet proposals 
and U.S. position, statements (Lodge), 59, 60, 61, 
62, 69 
4-power (U.S., Canada, France, U.K.) declaration of 

principles relating to, 838 
Soviet proposals and U.S. position, statements (Lodge), 

56, 57, 58, 59, 61 

U.S. policy, addresses and statements : Dulles, 415, 

542, 880 : Eisenhower, 702 ; Hoover, 324 ; Lodge, 222 

U.S.-British efforts for, joint declaration (Eisenhower, 

Eden), 232 

Disarmament Commission, U.N. See United Nations 

Disarmament Commission 
Discus-Thrower, presentation of statue to U.S. by Presi- 
dent of Italy, 418 

Index, January to June 1956 



Displaced persons. See Refugees and displaced persons 
Disputes, peaceful .settlement of (see also "Renunciation 
of force") : 
Addresses: Hoover, 324; Phleger, 664; Wilcox, 843, 

844, 847 
Joint declaration (Eisenhower, Eden), 232 
U.S. and Soviet views on, letters (Eisenhower, Bul- 
ganin) and draft of Soviet treaty with U.S., 191, 
193, 194, 195 
Domestic jurisdiction, problem facing the U.N., 845, 846 
Dominican Reiiublic : 

Tariff concessions to U.S., 687 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agriculture, cooperative program agreement with 

U.S., notice of intention to terminate, 441 
Atomic energy, agreement with U.S. for coopera- 
tion in research, 1071 
GATT, amending protocols, 356, 658, 1081 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements, 398 
Visas, nonimmigrant, agreement with U.S. concern- 
ing period of validity and fees, 270 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
Dorsey, Stephen P., 792 
Dowling, Walter C, 994 
Dreier, John C, 126 
Drugs, narcotic : 

Illicit traffic in, arrangements with Federal Republic 
Of Germany concerning exchange of information 
relating to, 578 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating the production, 

trade, and use of, 865 
Protocol amending certain international agreements 
concerning narcotic drugs, 181 
Dulles, Allen, 758 
Dulles, Eleanor L., 15, 1072 
Dulles, John Foster : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Armaments and armed forces, U.S. and Soviet, pro- 
posed reductions in 880, 881, 883, 885, 920 
Armed Forces Day, 874 
Asia, report on, 539 
Aswan Dam, 11, 920 

Atlantic Community, development of, 831 
Atomic energy, agreements with Austria and Thai- 
land, 590, 1066 
Atomic energy, testing of nuclear weapons, 122, 198, 

201 
Baghdad Pact, U.S. position regarding, 119, 121 
Balloons, meteorological and propaganda, 280, 283, 

284 
Baltic peoples, 331 
Berlin, 4-power status, 8, 12 
Bipartisanship in foreign policy, 199 
Bowie, Robert R., nomination as Assistant Secretary 

of State, 196 
Brazilian President-elect, visit to U.S., 86 
Brieker amendment, 638, 639 
British trade with Communist China, 924 
Buddhism, anniversary of founding, 926 
Budget, U.S., formulation of. 160 

1095 



Dulles, John Foster — Coutinued 
Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued 

Coal and Steel Community, European, U.S. support 

of, 282 
"Cold war," definition of, 749 
Communism, international, 712, 713, 752, 789 
Cyprus, question of NATO administration of, 713 
Disarmament, 415, 542, S82, 1068 
Egyptian recognition of Communist China, 920, 923 
Egyptian-U.S. relations, 923 
Foreign aid, proposed advLsory board on, 751 
Foreign aid program, long-range, 9, 14, 119, 159, 161, 

197, 410, 411, 414, 715, 923, 1067, 1068 
Foreign economic policy, 120 
Foreign Service, tasks and responsibilities, 588 
Franco-Tunisian agreement, 455 
Freedom's New Task, 363 
French Foreign Minister, visit to U.S., 638 
Geneva ambassadorial talks with Communist China, 

125, 195, 198, 279 
Geophysical year, 284 
George, Sen. Walter, special representative of the 

President, 881, 882 
German financial contributions to NATO forces in 

Germany, question of, 280 
German reunification, 714, 833, 885, 1065 
Goa, dispute between India and Portugal concern- 
ing, 465 
Heads of Government meeting (U.S., Canada, Mex- 
ico), 414 
Honor awards ceremony, 6th anmaal, 811 
ICA, functions, organizational structure, and relation- 
ship to State Department, 211 
Immigration and Nationality Act, proposed revision, 

773 
India, U.S. policy, 412, 413 
Indochina settlement, 123, 156, 157 
Indonesia, U.S. policy, 643 
Indonesian President, visit to U.S., 885 
International Atomic Energy Agency, proposals con- 
cerning, 161 
Japanese textile exports to U.S., 14, 638, 712, 921 
Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S., invitation to visit Soviet 

Union, 1066 
Kilgore. Sen. Harley M., death of, 409 
Latin America, multilateral defense against commu- 
nism, 200 
Mutual security programs, U.S., 9, 14, 541, 594, 603, 

787, 793, 871 
NATO, development of, 413, 706, 747, 925, 926, 1066, 

1069 
NATO, question of Soviet support of principles of, 

884, 886 
Near and Middle East : 
Arab-Israeli dispute, 12, 282, 283, 458, 462, 710, 749, 

922, 924 
Arms supply policy, 196, 197, 460, 604, 640, 641, 642, 

643, 713 
Economic development, 122 
Israel, U.N. responsibility toward, 639 
Israeli action against Syria, 121 
Relationship to Atlantic Community, 831 
U.S. aid, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 788 

1096 



Dulles, John Foster — Continued 

Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued 
Near and Middle East — Continued 

U.S. policy, 368, 412, 6.39, 641, 643, 714 
Neutrality, question of, 999, 1064 
North Atlantic Council meeting, 791 
OAS, development of, 835 
OTC, functions and U.S. membership, 472 
Pakistan, evaluation as member of SEATO and Bagh- 
dad Pact, 282 
Panama meeting of Presidents of American Republics, 

923, 925 
Peace, 84, 155, 542, 739, 999 

Peace talks between Japan and Soviet Union, 883 
Philippines, U.S. relations with, 7i50 
Prime Minister Eden, arrival in U.S., 234 
Public Committee on Personnel, report released, 248 
Quemoy and Matsu Islands, defense of, 155, 156 
Relations with Congress, 411 
Saar, elections in, 13 

Satellite nations, Soviet relations with, 751 
SEATO, development of, 413. 1067 
SEATO Council, 2d meeting, 408, 409, 449, 451 
Soviet Union : 

Economic aid programs, 8, 11, 714 
Friendship treaty with U.S., proposed, 279, 280 
Industrial development, 159, 161 
Khrushchev, Nikita, speeches by, 124, 1064, 1069 
"New look" poUcy, .363, 366, 409, 410, 411, 637, 641, 
642, 643, 707, 749, 790, 871, 873, 884, 886, 1003, 
1004, 1070 
Radio broadcasts to, 284 
Soviet-Japanese relations, 922 
Threat of aggression, 834 
U.S. policy, 751 
Spanish Foreign Minister, visit to U. S., 666 
State Department budget for fiscal year 1957, pro- 
posed, 907 
Taiwan, defense of, 1065 
Talks with Konrad Adenauer, proposed topics, 1065, 

1068 
Turkish press-control law, 1065 
Underdeveloped countries, 118, 122, 159 
U.N. membership, 12 
U.N. technical assistance program, 120 
U.S.-British talks, proposed subjects, 190, 201, 202 
U.S. forces in Iceland, question of removal of, 639 
U.S. foreign policy, 639 

Visa allotments under Refugee Relief Act, 1063 
Yugoslavia, status of U.S. military aid program, 199 
Administrative action, Deputy Under Secretary for 
Economic Affairs, delegation of authority with 
respect to duties and functions, public notice, 74 
Correspondence, messages, etc. : 
Berlin Conference Hall, 15 
Cambodia, U.S. policy, 727 
Cyprus question, 456 
Middle East, U.S. policy, 285 
Pakistan, Republic Day, 566 
Plant protection convention, international, report to 

the President, 311 
U.S.-French cooperation, 241 

Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



H 



Dulles, John Foster — Continued 

Discussions anrl meetings (.ice also subject) : 

German Federal Republic, Chancellor of the, joint 

communique, 1047 
Heads of Government meeting (U.S., Canada, Mex- 
ico), 500 
SEATO Council, 2d meeting, 84, 408, 449, 451 
News conferences, transcripts of, S, 118, 155, 195, 279, 

409, 638, 710, 747, 881, 920, 1063 
Visit to Asia, 241 
Visit to Spain, 48 
Dunn, James Clement, 335, 694 

Earthquake disaster in Lebanon, texts of messages (Eisen- 
hower, Hoover) , 565 
East-West contacts : 
Exchanges of correspondence (Eisenhower, Bulganin), 

192, 194, 517 
Need for increasing, address (Nixon), 1046 
East-West trade : 
Agricultural commodities, question of U.S. exports to 

Soviet-bloc countries, 1021 
Control problems : 
Addresses and statement : Hoover, 619, 1051 ; Weeks, 

769, 770, 771 
U.S. exports to Soviet-bloc countries, regulations, 
209, 766 
Industrial commodities, shipments by Denmark, Italy, 
and U.K. to Soviet-bloc countries, 214 
Eban, Abba, 459, 464» 

ECE. See Economic Commission for Europe 
Economic and Social Council, U.N. : 

Documents, lists of, 181. 225, 310, 440, 693 

Economic development factors of atomic energy, study 

of, 657, 816, 819 
Resolutions : 

Forced labor, 906 

Water resources, international development of, 951 
Statistical Commission, 9th session, U.S. representa- 
tive, 440 
Economic and technical aid to foreign countries (see also 
Agricultural surpluses, Export-Import Bank, Inter- 
national Bank, International Cooperation Administra- 
tion, Mutual security. Underdeveloped countries, and 
United Nations: Technical assistance program) : 
Addresses, articles, and statements : Dorsey, 792 : Dul- 
les, 9, 14, 119, 159, 161, 107, 365, 410, 411, 414, 715, 
923, 1001, 1067, 106S ; Eden, 237, 238, 240 ; Hoover, 
324, 1051 ; Howard, 593 ; Murphy, 169, 965 ; Nixon, 
338 ; Thibodeaux, 23 ; Wilcox, 115, 497 
Aid to : Argentina, 469 ; Asia, 52, 389, 393, 448, 541, 792 ; 
Austria, 1074; Berlin, 679; Bolivia, 300; Burma, 
proposed, 569 ; Ceylon, 821 ; Colombia, 106, 142 ; 
Denmark, 214 ; Europe, 367, 1073 ; Haiti, 106 ; Hun- 
gary, 680; India, 204, 205, 2S8, 349, 393, 598; In- 
donesia, 643, 933; Italy, 214; Korea, 887; Latin 
America, 1009, 1010 ; Liberia, 356 ; Libya, 680 ; Near 
and Middle East, 202, 203, 367 ; Nepal, 348 ; Pakis- 
tan, 53, 384, 569 ; Peru, 887 ; Philippines, 568, 750, 
772: Spain, 126, 127, 380, 381; Thailand, 381; 
Turkey, 681 ; U.K., 214 ; Uruguay, 694 ; Viet-Nam, 
208, 694 ; Yugoslavia, 317 
Soviet program of. See under Soviet Union 



Economic and technical aid to foreign countries — Con. 
U.S. policy, letters (Dulles, Members of Congress), 

286, 287 
U.S.-British policy, joint declaration (Eisenhower, 
Eden), 231 
Economic Commission for Europe, U.N. : 
Goal Committee, meeting and U. S. delegation, 1079 
U.S. representative to 11th session, confirmation, 592 
Economic opportunities for women, article (Hahn), 1033 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. («ee also individual 
countries) : 
Aid to foreign countries. See Agricultural surpluses. 
Economic and technical aid, Export-Import Bank, 
and Mutual security 
Domestic economy, statement (Jones), 391 
East-West trade. See East-West trade 
Foreign atomic energy activity, AEC regulation con- 
cerning, 309 
Foreign economic policy : 
American business abroad, addresses : Hoover, 1049 ; 

Thibodeaux, 22 
Implementation of, address (Williams), 978 
Relationship to State Department and ICA in pro- 
gram planning, 120 
Role of U.S. in international economic affairs, ex- 
cerpts from President's report to Congress, 253 
Views of U.S. delegation to 10th General Assembly, 
117, 118 
OTO. See Trade Cooperation, Organization for 
Tariff policy. See Tariff policy, U.S. 
Economic situation, U.S. and world, address (Prochnow) 
and excerpt from President's report to Congress, 257, 
529 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council, U.N. 
Ecuador ; 

IFC, articles of agreement, 73 
Peace treaty with Japan, 106 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements, 398 
Trade agreement with U.S. (1938), extension, 180, 181 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
Eden, Sir Anthony : 

Statements on Middle East problems, 460, 461, 462 
Visit to U.S. : 

Arrival remarks, 234 

Addresses before Congress and on radio-TV, 235, 237, 

239 
Texts of joint declaration and statement (Eisenhower, 
Eden), 231, 232 
Education (see also Educational exchange program) : 
Facilities for, address (Eisenhower), 919 
Free-world and Communist systems, comparison of, 

address (Murphy), 5.56 
French Togoland, need for education in, statement 

(Gerig), 575 
Herbert Hoover School, Berlin, dedication of, re- 
marks and message (Hoover) , 243 
NATO fellowship awarded, 649 

Soviet challenge, need for education to meet the, ad- 
dress (Wilcox), 498 
Teacher development workshop at University of Puerto 
Rico, article (Russell), 778 



Index, January fo June 1956 



1097 



Education- — Continued 
U.N. and specialized agencies, teaching about the, 

statement (Pedersen), 990 
U.S. service academies, designation of foreign students, 

Executive order delegating authority, 528 
UNESCO conference on education in Latin America, 

U.S. delegation, 781 
UNESCO grants to research specialists, 342 
Education, 2d Inter-American Meeting of Ministers of, 

U.S. delegation, 820 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, U. N. : 
Conference on education in Latin America, U.S. dele- 
gation, 7S1 
Establishment and functions, 481, 483 
Grants to research specialists, 342 
Spanish membership, 45 
Educational exchange program, International {see also 
Education) : 
Address (Nixon), 104.o, 1046 
Agreements with — 

Denmark, amending and extending 1951 agreement, 

467, 487 
Peru, 815, 865 
Budget request for fiscal year 1957, excerpt from Presi- 
dent's message to Congress and statement (Dulles), 
154, 910 
Inter-American cultural relations, convention on, trans- 
mittal message (Eisenhower), report (Hoover), 
summary of provisions, and text, 175, 219 
Teacher development workshop at University of Puerto 
Rico, article (Russell), 778 
Egypt : 
Arab-Israeli dispute. See Arab-Israeli dispute 
Arms supply policy. See Arms supply 
Aswan Dam, status of, article and statements : Dulles, 

11, 642, 920; Howard, 596 
Economic situation, address (Seager), 508 
International Bank loan, proposed, 795 
Recognition of Communist China, statements (Dulles), 

920, 923 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural surpluses, agreements with U.S. modi- 
fying 1955 agreement, 356, 398 
Transportation by air, convention and additional pro- 
tocol for unification of rules relating to, 73 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.S. aid, .595 

U.S. relations with, statements : Dulles, 923 ; Hollister, 
611 
Eisenbud, Merril, 98 
Eisenhower, Dwight D. : 
Addresses and statements: 

Atomic energy, U.S. distribution of U-235 for peace- 
ful uses, 469, 902 
Captive peoples, liberation of, 84 
Disarmament, aerial inspection plan, 55, 56, 58 
Economic aid to Europe, 367 
Farm legislation, approval of, 982 
Indonesian President, visit to U.S., 927 
International understanding, 915, 6.S3 
Italian President, visit to U.S., 417, 418 
Mutual security program, U.S., 603 
NATO, 378 



Eisenhower, Dwight D. — Continued 
Addresses and statements — Continued 

Near and Middle East, U.S. policy, 103, 461, C04 
Neutrality, views on, 1004, 1064 
Peace, 3, 373, 699 

Sugar Act of 1948, amendment and extension, 1016 
Correspondence and messages: 
Crusade for freedom, 636 
Earthquake disaster in Lebanon, 565 
Foreign intelligence activities, U.S., appointment of 

board of consultants for review of, 162 
George, Sen. Walter, appointment as personal rep- 
resentative and special ambassador, 836 
Heads of Government meeting (U.S., Canada, 

Mexico), 636 
Indonesian President, visit to U.S., 1005 
International Atomic Energy Agency negotiations, 

4, 5 
Mutual security operations, transfer to State De- 
partment, 211 
NATO, retirement and appointment of Supreme 

Allied Commander, 757, 758 
Pakistan, Republic Day, 565 
Sudan, U.S. recognition of independence, 85 
U.S.-Soviet relations, exchanges of correspondence 
with Premier Bulganin, statement (Dulles) and 
texts, 191, 279, 280, 514 
U.S. tariff concessions to Sweden, GATT, 289 
Executive orders. See Executive orders 
Meetings and discussions : 

European Coal and Steel Community, President of, 

announcement and text of communique, 288 
Heads of Government meeting (U.S., Canada, Mex- 
ico). See Heads of Government meeting 
Presidents of American Republics, Panama meeting 
of, invitation, 880 
Messages, letters, and reports to Congress : 
Acid-grade fluorspar, escape-clause relief held un- 
necessary, 570 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, 
3d semiannual report (July 1-Dec. 31, 1955), 130 
Budget message for fiscal year 1957, excerpts, 147 
Economic report to Congress, 253 
ICA, functions and responsibilities, excerpt, 211 
Immigration legislation, proposed changes, 275 
Inter-American cultural relations, convention on, 

transmittal to Senate, 175 
Lighter-flints, escape-clause case deferred, 353 
Mutual security program for 1957, 545, 1003 
Plant protection convention, international, 311 
St. Lawrence Seaway, status and progress of, 215 
State of the Union message, 79 
Tariff increases negotiated at Geneva, 1062 
Muenster Peace Medal, presentation, 880 
Proclamations. See Proclamations by the President 
Eisenhower, Milton S., 682 
Elbrick, C. Burke, 674 
Electric High-Tension Systems, International Conference 

on Large, U. S. delegation to 16th session, 1037 
El Salvador : 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and par- 
cel post and money orders agreements, 398 



1098 



Department of State Bulletin 



El Salvador — Continued 

U.S. Ambassador, conflrmation, 226 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
Escapee program, U.S., 650, 1024 
Espinosa Prieto, Eduardo, 102 
Essick, Bryant, 96 
Ethiopia, U.S. aid, 597 

EURATOM. See Atomic Energy Community, European 
Europe (.see also individual countries) : 
Collective security. See European security and North 

Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Eastern Europe: 
Balloon flights over, text of letter (Lodge), 428 
Satellite countries, U.S. position, address ("Wilcox), 

113 
Relationship to reunification of Germany, statement 
(Dulles), 885 
Impact of U.S. on, address (Eleanor Dulles), 1072 
Refugees. See Intergovernmental Committee for 
European Migration and Refugees and displaced 
persons 
U.S. economic aid, offer of, statements (Eisenhower, 

White), 367 
U.S. mutual security program : 
President's recommendations to Congress, 548 
Statements : Dulles, 788, 1001 ; Elbrick, 674 ; Hollister, 
608 
Unity, address (Eisenhower), 917 
Western Europe : 

Imports from dollar areas, increases in, 686 
Soviet efforts at subversion, 558 
U.S. dollar receipts, 1007 
European Atomic Energy Community : 

Discussions concerning, statement (Dulles), 282 
Importance of, address (Eleanor Dulles), 1075 
European Coal and Steel Community. See Coal and Steel 

Community 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for: 

European stability, OEEC contribution to, joint state- 
ment (Eisenhower, Eden), 232 
Functions, 232, 833, 1074 
European Migration, Intergovernmental Committee for. 
See Intergovernmental Committee for European Mi- 
gration 
European Payments Union, functions, 1074 
European security («ee also North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization) : 
Defense of Europe, address (Gruenther), 333 
Joint commuuique (Adenauer, Dulles), 1047 
Soviet views on, letter (Bulganin), 517 
"Treaty of assurance" proposed by U.S., U.K., and 
France at Geneva, Department's views on address 
by Winston Churchill, 837 
U.S. participation in European security arrangements, 
address (Eleanor Dulles), 1075 
Examination, Foreign Service, announced, 342 
Exchange of information. See Information, exchange of 
Exchange of persons. See East- West contacts and Educa- 
tional exchange 
Executive orders : 

Air Coordinating Committee, functions of, 341 
Escapee program, U.S., transfer of functions to State 
Department, 651 

Index, January to June 1956 



Executive orders — Continued 

President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelli- 
gence Activities, establishment and functions, 340 
U.S. service academies, designation of foreign students, 
delegation of authority, 528 
Export-Import Bank : 

Lending activities, excerpt from President's message to 

Congress, 152, 153 
Lending authority, need for extension, excerpt from 

President's report to Congress, 256 
Loans to : Afghanistan, 795 ; Brazil, 299, 336, 1018 ; Iran, 
795; Israel, 795; Japan, 88S ; Latin America, 685, 
1009; Near East and Africa, 600; Philippines, 568; 
Syria, 597k. 
Exports, U.S. (see also Tariffs and trade, general agree- 
ment on; and Trade) : 
Agricultural surpluses, foreign disposal of, 1019 
Aircraft, 1014, 1015, 1016 

Arms shipments to Near East, suspension of export li- 
censes, 325 
Atomic materials, regulations concerning, 208, 209, 385 
Cotton, export sales program, 982, 9S3» 
Free Asia, chart, 614 
Fruit, 848, 850 

Latin America, article (Culbertson, Lederer), 525, 527 
President's economic report to Congress, excerpts, 259, 

261 
Soviet-bloc countries, simplification of controls, 766 
Statements : Weeks, 477 ; Wilcox, 484 
External debts, German, agreement on, 226, 733, 1038 
External debts of City of Berlin and public utility enter- 
prises, negotiations and agreement, 93, 651, 865 
Extradition, convention on, 952 
Extraterritorial rights In Morocco, U.S. policy, 204 

Family housing units at Pepperrell Air Force Base, agree- 
ment with Canada relating to construction of, 865 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization 
Far East (see also individual countries) : 
Refugees indigenous to the, visa applications for, cut- 
off date announced, 568 
U.S. aid, address and statement (Dulles), 9, 11, 1000 
U.S.-British policies in, joint statement (Eisenhower, 

Eden), 234 
U.S. chiefs of mission, meeting, announcement and text 

of communique, 278, 543 
U.S.-Far Eastern relations, accessibility of materials 
relating to, article (Spielman), 343 
Farley, John L., 374 

Fats, oils, and oilseeds, U.S. export prospects, 1020, 1022 
Feeding program, emergency, agreement with Italy re- 
lating to, 865 
Ferguson, Homer, 733 
Ferris, Benjamin G., 527 
Figueres, Jose, 1030 
Finance Corporation, International. See International 

Finance Corporation 
Kngerprinting requirement under Immigration and Na- 
tionality Act, proposed revision, 277, 773, 775 
Finland : 
Agricultural surpluses, agreement with U.S., 270, 658, 
865 

1099 



Finland — Continued 
GATT, proc&s verl)al and amending protocols, 622, 

782, 1081 
Tariff concessions to U.S., GATT, 687 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 226 
Fish and fisheries : 

Fishing rights on the high seas. 894 
Great Lalces fl.sheries convention with Canada, imple- 
mentation of, state (Looney), 890 
Fisher, Arthur, 1036 

Fisheries Commission, International, appropriations re- 
quested for U.S. participation, 910 
Fishery Commission, Great Lakes, appointment of mem- 
bers of U.S. section, 374 
Fitzpatricli, Richard, presentation of letters to Library 

of Congress, 562, 563 
Flemming, Artliur S., 961, 962 
Flood relief, U.S. aid to Pakistan, 53 

Fluorspar, acid-grade, escape-clause relief held unneces- 
sary, 569 
Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. : 
Establishment and functions, 481, 483 
8th conference, article (Butz) , 434 

FAO-Caribbean Commis.sion Technical Conference on 
Cooperatives, agenda of 2d conference and U.S. 
delegation, 224 
Tunisia, membership, 437 
"Force, renunciation of," discussions at Geneva ambassa- 
dorial talks on principle of, 164, 165, 166, 167, 451, 1070 
Forced labor, problem of, statement (Baker) and text 

of ECOSOC resolution, 903, 906 
Foreign aid. Sec Agricultural surpluses, Economic and 
technical aid. Mutual security. Refugees and dis- 
placed persons. Underdeveloped countries, United 
Nations : Technical assistance program, and indi- 
vidual countries 
Foreign economic policy, U.S. See Economic policy and 

relations, U.S. 
Foreign Intelligence Activities, President's Board of Con- 
sultants on : 
Appointment of board, annoimcement and letters 

(Eisenhower), 161 
Establishment and functions. Executive order, 340 
Foreign Ministers, U.S.-Communist China, Communist 
proposal at Geneva ambassadorial talks for meeting 
of, announcement and draft proposal, 164, 165, 167 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 

Bipartisanship in, statement (Dulles), 199 
Coordination with British policy, address (Aldrich), 

798 
Development of, addresses and statement : Dulles, 639 ; 

Murphy, 168; Robertson, 805 
Legislation. See under Congress 
Middle East, historical development of U.S. policy in, 

address (Heath), 202 
Near East, South Asia, and Africa, development of U.S. 
policy during 1955, article (Howard), 452, 510, .593 
Objective of, address (Murphy), 721 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 19SS, Vol. V., The 

American RepuMics, published, 733 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1939, Vol. I, 

General, published, 441 
Foreign Relations volumes, publication process, 344, 346 

1100 



Foreign Service (see also State Department) : 

Ambassadors, career, 694 

Ambassadors and minister, confirmations and resigna- 
tions, 186, 226, 398, 441, 488, 658, 694, 733, 865, 994, 
1038 

Austria, Director of Administration, American Embassy, 
Vienna, delegation of authority, public notice, 142 

Budget for fiscal year 1957, proposed, statement (Dul- 
les), 908, 909 

Chiefs of missions in Far East, meeting, announcement 
and text of communique. 278, 543 

Consular otficers, agreement with Yugoslavia for re- 
ciprocal customs privileges, 994 

Diplomatic and consular establishments abroad, 
assistance to American business, address (Thi- 
bodeaux), 26 

European Coal and Steel Community, U.S. Mission 
established in Luxembourg, 441 

Examination announced, 342 

Foreign Service Institute, advisory committee to the, 
appointment and 1st meeting, 651, 953 

Germany, Federal Republic of. Executive Director, 
American Embassy, Bonn, delegation of authority, 
public notice, 142 

Honor awards ceremony, 6th annual, remarks (Dulles, 
Nixon), 811, 812 

Legation in Hungary, text of U.S. note protesting 
harassment of employees of, 246 

Public Committee on Personnel, report released, 248 

Staff Corps Review Panels, 7th, meeting and functions, 
488 

Sudan, Elevation of U.S. Liaison Office to status of 
Embassy, 356 

Tasks and responsibilities, remarks (Dulles), 588 
Foreign trade. See Trade 
Formosa. See Taiwan 
France : 

Algeria, U.S. and French policies, address and article: 
Dillon, 553, 554, 555 ; Howard, 454 

Cameroons, French, progress in, statements (Gerig), 730 

Disarmament, 4-power (U.S., Canada, France, U.K.) 
declaration of principles relating to, 838 

Foreign Minister, visit to U.S., statement (Dulles), 638 

French-Moroccan declaration (see also Morocco), U.S. 
messages, and Sultan's reply, 466, 467, 501 

French North Africa, U.S. support of French policy in, 
address (Dillon), 5.53 

French-Tunisian protocol (see also Tunisia), texts of 
messages on signing of, 552 

Heavy water, purchase from U.S., 592 

Middle East situation, tripartite (U.S., U.K., France) 
discussions on, 233, 286 

Quay d'Orsay records, access policy. 344 

Tariff concessions to U.S., GATT, 687 

Togoland, French. See Togoland 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreement with U.S. for pur- 
chase of, 838 
Aircraft carrier, loan of, agreement with U.S. ex- 
tending 1953 agreement, 356 
External debts of the City of Berlin and public utility 
enterprises, agreement with U.S., U.K., and Federal 
Republic of Germany, 93, 651, 865 

Department of State Bulletin 



France — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

6ATT, procds verbal and amending protocols, 38, 

1080, 1081 
Ice Patrol, North Atlantic, agreement regarding fi- 
nancial support, 181 
Leadline convention, international (1930), extension 

to Overseas France, 733 
Military cemeteries or war memorials, agreement 
vpith U.S. relating to grants of land located In 
France, 694 
Moroccan independence, joint declaration and protocol 

with Morocco, text, 466, 467 
Rawinsonde observation station, agreement with U.S. 
for establishment and operation on Guadeloupe, 733 
War criminals, penal administrative agreement, 658 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.S.-French cooperation, letters (Dulles, Pineau), 241 
Francis, Clarence, 1019 
Franco, Gen. Francisco, 128 

Franklin, Benjamin (.see also Benjamin Franklin Foun- 
dation), 51, 249, 800 
Franklin Commemorative Medal, 249, 800, 953 
Franks, Sir Oliver, 126 
Fraser, Mrs. Laura Gardin, 249, 251, 953 
Freedom, A Peaceful Crusade for, address (Nixon), 1043 
Freedom, Our Quest for Peace and, address (Eisenhower) , 

699 
Freedom of the press, Brazilian policy toward, address 

(Kubitschek), 87, 88 
Freedom's Xew Task, address (Dulles), 363 
Friendship, commerce and navigation treaties : 

Importance to American business abroad, address 

(Thibodeaux), 23 
Treaties with : Germany, Federal Republic of, 907 ; 
Netherlands, 621, 622; Nicaragua, 174, 181 
Friendship agreements between Costa Rica and Nicara- 
gua, signature, 339 
Fruit, U.S. exports, address (Thibodeaux), 848, 850 
Fulbright Act. See Educational exchange program 
Fur, hatters', continuation of U.S. duty on, 688 
Fur-felt hat bodies, U.S. tariff increase on imports, 1056, 
1057, 1062 

Galbreath, C. Edward, 171 

Gallman, Waldemar, 16n, 512 

Gamma globulin, U.S. gift to India to combat hepatitis 

epidemic, 288 
Gardner, Kelsey Beeler, 224 

GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 
General agreement on tariffs and trade (GATT). See 

Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 
General Assembly, U.N. {see also United Nations) : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International. See Atomic 

Energy Agency 
Documents, lists of, 71, 310, 693 
Growth during 1st decade of U.N., address (Wilcox), 

843, 844, 845 
Near East, Asia, and Africa, consideration of problems 
concerning, article (Howard), 453, 454, 455, 456, 
457 
Resolutions : 

Charter Review Conference, 98 

Index, January to June 1956 

431265—57 3 



General Assembly, U.N. — Continued 
Resolutions — Continued 
Disarmament, 63, 66, 222 
Palestine refugees, assistance to, 33 
Togoland, unification problem and future of Togo- 
land under British and French administrations, 102 
Underdeveloped countries, economic aid to, 99 
South Africa, Union of, withdrawal of delegation over 

racial question, 112 
10th session, accomplishments, 97 

11th session, question of opening date, texts of notes, 
819 
General Lanyfitt. tran.sportation of refugees to U.S., 468 
Geneva ambassadorial talks, U.S.-Communist China : 
Negotiations concerning detention and release of U.S. 
civilians, "renunciation of force" principle, and 
proposed meeting of Foreign Ministers, 164, 165, 
166, 167, 451, 1070 
Progress of negotiations, statements: Dulles, 125, 195, 
198, 279 ; Johnson, 165 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners of 
war, wounded and sick, and civilians, current 
actions, 907 
Geneva Heads of Government Conference, impact on 10th 

General Assembly, 111, 112 
Genocide, convention (1948) on the prevention and punish- 
ment of the crime of, 622, 694 
Geography and History, Pan American Institute of, U.S. 

delegate to 1st meeting of Directing Council, 994 
Geophysical Year, statement (Dulles), 284 
George, Sen. Walter, appointment as personal representa- 
tive and special ambassador of President to NATO, 
836, 879, 881, 882 
Gerety, Pierce J., 16, 468, 568, 810, 940, 1024 
Gerig, Benjamin, statements : 
Colonialism, U.S. views on, 575 
French Cameroons, progress in, 730 
French Togoland, progress in, 573 
Nuclear tests in trust territories, 576, 689 
Ruanda-Urundi, political and economic development in, 
438 
Germany : 
Berlin. See Berlin 
Documents on German Foreiyn Policy, 191S-1945, 9th 

volume, released by State Department, 954 
4-power status : 

U.S. position on Soviet obligations, statement and 

letters (Conaut, Pushkin), 48 
Western position, statements (Dulles), 8, 12 
MLxed Board, appointment of U.S. member, 210 
Postwar progress in, addresses : Conant, 583, 669 ; 

Hoover, 243, 244 
Reunification : 
Addresses, letter, and statements : Conant, 670, 672 ; 
Dulles, 714, 833, 837, 885, 1065; Eisenhower, 192; 
Hoover, 246, 290, 292 
Joint communique (Adenauer, Dulles), 1047 
Joint statement (Eisenhower, Eden), 232 
Soviet position, address, letter, and statement: Bul- 

ganin, 517 ; Hoover, 243, 244 ; Lodge, 65 
State Department's view's on address by Winston 
Churchill, 837 

noi 



Germany — Continued 

Visit of Under Secretary Hoover to Berlin and Bonn, 
210 
Germany, Kast : 
Admittance to Warsaw Pact, 334 

Soviet domination of, addresses: Conant, 583, 669, 672; 
Hoover, 242, 291 
Germany, Federal Kepublie of: 
Armed forces, training by U.S. under niutnal defense 

assistance agreement, 162 
Executive Director, American Embassy, Bonn, delega- 
tion of authority, public notice, 142 
Imports from dollar area, freed, 1048 
Minister for Atomic Energy Affairs, visit to U.S., 707 
NATO forces stationed in Germany, question of Ger- 
man financial contributions to, statement (Dulles), 
280 
Postwar progress in, addresses : Conant, 583, 669 ; 

Hoover, 243, 244, 291 
Talks between Chancellor Adenauer and Secretary 

Dulles, text of joint communique, 1047 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreements with U.S. for 

purchase, 28, 772 
Air navigation equipment, agreement with U.S. re- 
lating to lease of, 181 
Air services transit agreement, international, 865 
Air transport, agreement with U.S., 733 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement with U.S., 

92, 326, 356, 782 
Captured files and archives of the former German 
Foreign Office at present in the territory of the 
U.K., agreement relating to return of, 865 
Civil aviation, international convention, 864 
External debts, agreement on, 226, 733, 1038 
External debts of the City of Berlin and pul)Iic utility 

enterprises, agreement relating to, 93, 651, 865 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaty with 

U.S., 907 
GATT, amending protocols, 1080, 1081 
Motion picture films, agreement with U.S. regarding 

tariff concession, text, 814 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement with U.S., 73, 

74 
Narcotics, arrangement with U.S. concerning ex- 
change of information relating to Illicit traflSc in, 
578 
NATO, agreement on status of national representa- 
tives and international staff, 994 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purpo.ses, agreements with U.S. for exchange of, 
104, 142, 577 
Practice bombing range near Cuxhaven, agreement 
with U.S. amending agreement relating to use of, 
142 
Property, rights and interests in Germany, charter of 

Arbitral Commission on, 106 
Telecommunication convention, international (1952), 

extension to Land Berlin, 658 
War criminals, penal administrative agreement. 658 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.S. Information Center, Munich, 10th anniversary, ad- 
dress (Conant), 327 

1102 



Germany, Federal Republic of — Continued 

U.S. visa applications for escapees residing in, 1024 
Gimma, Joseph, 679 

Goa, U. S. position on Portuguese-Indian dispute concern- 
ing, statement ( Dulles) , 405 
Gold Coast, future status of : 

General Assembly resolution concerning, 102 
Statements : Bell, 100, 101 ; Gerig, 37 
Goodman, Clark, D., 509 
Goodykoontz, Bess, 782 
Goonetilleke, T. P., 903 
Goulart, Joao, 756, 803, 804 
Grant-aid. Sec Economic and technical aid 
Great Lakes Fishery Commission, appointment of mem- 
bers of U.S. section, 374 
Greece : 
Cyprus. See Cyprus 
Economic situation, address and statement: Allen, 876, 

877 ; Seager, 506 
Imports from dollar area, removal of restrictions on, 

1048 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreement with U.S. amending 

1955 agreement, 533 
Atomic energy, agreement with U.S., 594 
GATT, amending protocols, 356, 907, 953, 1080 
German external debts, agreement on, 1038 
Ice Patrol, North Atlantic, financial support of, 398 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 

Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organiza- 
tion, convention on, 733 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreement with U.S. for exchange of, 104, 
577 
Property, rights and interests in Germany, charter of 

Arbitral Commission on, 106 
Slavery convention (1926), protocol amending, and 

annex, 141 
Sugar agreement, international, 74 
Telecommunication convention, international (1952), 

and final protocol, 106 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.S. aid, 594 

U.S. visa applications for refugees in, cutoff date an- 
nounced, 16 
Greene, William A., 636 
Gronchi, Giovanni, 16, 331, 417 
Gruenther, Gen. Alfred M., 332, 756 
Gurney, Clian, 528 
Guryanov, Aleksandr, 765, 766 
Guatemala : 

IFC, articles of agieement, 73 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements, 398 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 

Hagerty, James C, 84, 668, 1066 
Hahn, Mrs. Lorena B., 1033 
Haiti : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials. 163 

International Bank loan for highway improvement pro- 
gram, 889 

Departmenf of Sfate Bulletin 



Haiti — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Artibonite Valley project, agreement witli U.S. pro- 
viding a.ssistance for, 106 
GATT, proems verbal and amending protocols, 38, 350, 

622, 953, 1081 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 
OTC, agreement on, 38 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements, 398 
Hamniarskjold, Dag: 

Mission to the Middle East : 

Statements and addresses : Dulles, 711, 832, 922, 1066 ; 
Lodge, 627, 629, 630, 632, 633, 1025; Wadsworth, 
1026, 1028 ; Wilcox, 846 
U.N. resolutions concerning, 628, 1028 
Note to U.N. members concerning opening date of 11th 

session of General Assembly, 819 
Statements, 453, 459, 465 
Hanlfah, Abu, 901 
Hansen, H. C, 468 

Harbor conference, inter-American port and, U.S. dele- 
gation, 688 
Harvey, R. J. P., 982 
Hasnic, S. A., 437 
Hat bodies, fur-felt, U.S. tariff increase on imports, 1050, 

1057, 1062 
Hathaway, Gail A., 1078 
Hays, Rep. Brooks, 99, 117?; 

Heads of Government meeting (U.S., Canada, Mexico) : 
Preliminary statement (Dulles), 414 
Delegations, 590 

Exchange of messages following meeting (Eisenhower, 
Ruiz Oortines, St. Laurent), 636, 637 
Health and sanitation, progress in French Togoland, 

statement (Gerig), 575 
Health Assembly, World {see also World Health Organi- 
zation), 9th meeting and U.S. delegation, 862 
Health Organization, World. See World Health Organ- 
ization 
Heath, Donald R., 202 

Henderson, Loy W., 129, 637, 094, 753, 754, 953 
Hepatitis epidemic, India, U.S. aid in combating, 288 
Herbert Hoover School, Berlin, dedication of, remarks 

and message (Hoover), 243 
Herter, Christian A., Jr., 658 
Hickerson, .John D., 226 
Hickok, Ray T., 732 

High seas, juridical regime of. See Territorial waters 
Highway, Inter-American, U.S. aid in completion of, ad- 
dress (Holland), 1010 
Highway improvement programs, International Bank 

loans to : Haiti, 889 ; Honduras, 54 
Hildreth, Horace A., 565 
Hill, Robert C, 488 
History and Geography, Pan American Institute of, U.S. 

delegate to 1st meeting of Directing Council, 994 
Holland, Henry F., 172, 335, 487, 894, 1006 
Holleran, Mary P., 820 
HoUister, John B., 335, 605, 6S6 

Index, January to June 7956 



Honduras : 

Army and Air Force Missions, agreement with U.S. for 

performance of duties by members of, 994 
Civil aviation convention, international, protocol amend- 
ing, 1038 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 

International Bank loan for highway construction, 54 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 

final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 

post and money orders agreements, .398 

Honor awards ceremony, 6th annual, remarks (Dulles, 

Nixon), 811, 812 
Hoover, Herbert, Jr. : 

Addresses and statements : 
American Business Abroad and the National Interest, 

1049 
Brazilian Vice President, visit to U.S., 804 
Communist Imperialism in East Germany, Record 

of, 242 
East-West trade, problem of control of, 019 
Germany, situation in, 290 

Herbert Hoover School, Berlin, dedication of, 243 
Petroleum imports, 959 
U.S. mutual security program, 5.50 
World Peace, Efforts Toward, .323 
Correspondence and message : 

Earthquake disaster in Lebanon, 565 
Inter-American cultural relations, convention on, re- 
port to President, 176, 219 
Lake Ontario, approval of recommendations for con- 
trolling levels of, 91, 92 
Visit to Germany, announcement, 210 
Hoover, Herbert, Sr., message on dedication of Herbert 

Hoover School, Berlin, 243 
Horn, Claud L., 28 
Hotel facilities in the Western Hemisphere, improvement 

of, 223, 1032 
Howard, Harry N., 452, 510, 593 
Howard. Mrs. Katherine G., 375 
Howe, Fisher, 488 
Hull, Cordell, 200 
Human rights, advisory services in the field of, article, 

report, and statement : Hahn, 1035 ; Lord, 99, 986 
Hiuuan Rights. U.N. Commission on, 12th session, report 
( Lord ) and resolutions on annual reports and studies 
on specific rights, 984, 989, 990 
Human Rights Covenants, U.S. position on self-determina- 
tion, drafts of article 1 and statement (Lord), 70 
Hungary : 

Emergency food aid, acceptance of U.S. offer, 680 
Narcotic drugs, protocol amending certain international 

agreements concerning, 181 
U.S. Legation employees and correspondents in Buda- 
pest, harassment of, text of U.S. note of protest, 246 
Hydroelectric power development in Norway, Inter- 
national Bank loan, 888 

Iberian defense pact, Spain-Portugal, 45 
ICA. See International Cooperation Administration 
ICAO. See International Civil Aviation Organization 
Ice Patrol, North Atlantic, agreement regarding financial 
support, 105, 106, 181, 317, 398, 533 

no3 



Iceland : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic iuformation, agntiuent between parties to 

NAT for cooperation, 22C 
Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 1038 
Customs tariffs, protocol modifying 1890 conven- 
tion creating international union for publication of, 
487 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 
Trade agreement with U.S., agreement amending 1943 

agreement, 578 
Visas, nonimmigrant, agreement with U.S. providing 
for reciprocal extension of validity period, 1081 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 226 
U.S. forces in, question of removal of, statement (Dul- 
les), 6.39 
ICEM. See Intergovernmental Committee for European 

Migration 
ICJ. See International Court of Justice 
IFC. See International Finance Corporation 
ILO. See Labor Organization, International 
Immigration and Nationality Act, proposed revision of, 
President's messages to Congress and statement 
(Dulles), 83, 275, 773 
Imports {see also Trade) : 
Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention to facilitate importation of. 
181, 226, 440, 1038 
Germany, Federal Republic of, removal of restrictions 

on imports from dollar area, 1048 
Import privileges for nondiplomatic personnel, re- 
ciprocal, agreement with Paraguay, 1081 
Private road vehicles, customs convention on temporary 

importation of, 864 
U.S. (see also Tariff policy, U.S.) : 
Agricultural commodities, 982, 983 
Asian, chart, 614 
Benefits from increased imports, address (Wilcox), 

980 
Brazilian, importance of, 337 
Dairy products, question of amending proclamation 

limiting, 653 
Import quotas, address (Coe), 432 
Japanese textiles, 14, 638, 712, 728, 921 
Latin American, increase in, 523 
Petroleum, address (Hoover), 959 
President's economic report to Congress, excerpts, 

259, 261 
Strategic materials, U.S. import certificate, 378 
Western Europe, increases from dollar area, 686, 1048 
India : 
Economic development, statements : Allen, 878 ; Dorsey, 

795 
Goa, dispute with Portugal concerning, statements 

(Dulles), 465 
Heavy water, purchase from U.S., 592 
International Bank loan, 795 

Tariff concessions, GATT, renegotiation with U.S., 26 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, agreement with U.S., announcement, 
text, statement (Cooper), and exchange of notes, 
264, 269, 317 

1104 



India — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

GATT, proc6s verbal and amending protocols, 38, 953 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 

International Court of Justice, statute of the, ter- 
mination of declaration recognizing compulsory 
jurisdiction deposited, 317 
OTC, agreement on, 38 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.S. aid, 204, 205, 288, 349, 393, 598, 612 
U.S. policy, statement (Dulles), 412 
Visit of Prime Minister to U.S., 565 
Indian Institute, luter-American, meeting and U.S. dele- 
gate, 802 
Indochina, U.S. position on Geneva settlement, .state- 
ments (Dulles), 123, 156, 157 
Indonesia : 
Communist aggression in, 725 
Treaties, agreement, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 469, 

487, 541 
Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 1038 
GATT, amending protocols, 356, 622 
U.S. policy, statement (Dulles), 643 
Visit of President to U.S. : 

Announcement and statement (Dulles), 803, 885 
Addresses, statements, remarks (Eisenhower, Nixon, 

Sukarno), and official party, 927, 928, 934, 939 
Departure letter (Sukarno), 1005 
West New Guinea, dispute with Netherlands concern- 
ing, address (Sukarno), 930 
Industrial property, convention (1934) for the protec- 
tion of, 440, 733 
Information, exchange of: 

International organizations, exchange of information 

by, statement (Wilcox), 483 
Turkish press-control law, statement (Dulles), 1065 
U.S.-Soviet publications, reciprocal distribution of, 18 
Views of Ben.iamin Franklin on, 250, 251, 252 
Information activities, U.S., budget estimates for fiscal 
year 1957, excerpts from President's message to Con- 
gress, 148, 152, 1.54 
Information activities of Hungarian Legation in U.S., 

suspension by U.S., 246 
Information Center, U.S., Munich, 10th anniversary of 

Amerikahaus, address (Conant) , 327 
Informational media guaranty program, agreements 
with— 
Bolivia, 578 ; Israel, 207 
Inspection proposals, mutual. See vnder Disarmament 
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American, func- 
tions and U.S. members of Technical Advisory Coun- 
cil, 28 
Intelligence Activities, President's Board of Consultants 
on Foreign : 
Appointment of board, announcement and letters (Eis- 
enhower), 161 
Establishment and functions. Executive order, 340 
Interagency Committee on Agricultural Sui-plus Disposal, 

excerpt from report by study group, 1019 
Interagency Technical Property Committee for Defense, 
577 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



Inter-American convention on granting of political rights 

to women, 865 
Inter-American Council of Jurists, 3d meeting on terri- 
torial waters and related matters, U.S. delegation 
and action taken, 224, 296 
Inter-American Cultural Council, 2d meeting, U.S. dele- 
gation, S20 
Inter-American cultural relations, convention on, trans- 
mittal message (Eisenhower), report (Hoover), 
summary of provisions, and text, 175, 219 
Inter-American Highway, U.S. aid in completion of, ad- 
dress (Holland), 1010 
Inter-American Indian Institute, meeting and U.S. dele- 
gate, 862 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, func- 
tions and U.S. members of Technical Advisory Coun- 
cil, 28 
luter-American Ministers of Education, 2d meeting of, 

U.S. delegation, S20 
Inter-American Oceanographic Institute, proposed estab- 
lishment of, 896 
Inter-American port and harbor conference, U.S. delega- 
tion, 688 
Inter-American problems. See Latin America 
Inter-American specialized conference on conservation of 
natural resources : the continental shelf and marine 
waters, U.S. delegation and action taken, 487, 894 
Inter-American Travel Congress, 6th meeting, U.S. dele- 
gation and article (Kelly), 657, 1029 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, 910 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration : 
Council and Executive Committee, 3d and 4th sessions, 

U.S. delegation and article (Warren), 355, 944 
Transportation of refugees to U.S., 468 
U.S. contribution, 1078 
Intergovernmental Copyright Committee, meeting and 

U.S. delegate, 1036 
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, 

convention on the, 733 
International Atomic Energy Agency. See Atomic 

Energy Agency 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
(see also International Finance Corporation) : 
Loans to — 

Burma, 889 ; Egypt, proposed, 795 ; Haiti, 889 ; Hon- 
duras, 54 ; India, Iraq, Lebanon, 795 ; Near East, 
South Asia, and Africa, 602 ; Norway, 888 ; Pakistan, 
795 
Reports on financial activities, 300, 941 
International Civil Aviation Organization : 
Establishment and functions, 481, 483 
Meeting of Assembly, U.S. delegation, 1079 
Protocol concerning meetings of Assembly, 1038 
International Conference on Large Electric Hlgh-Tension 

Systems, 16th session, U.S. delegation, 1037 
International Cooperation Administration (see also Eco- 
nomic and technical aid and Mutual security) : 
Escapee program, U.S., transfer of functions from ICA, 

announcement and Executive order, 650 
Functions and relationship to State Department, state- 
ments (Dulles), 120, 211 
General counsel, resignation, 658 

Index, January to June J 956 



International Cotton Advisory Committee, 15th plenary 

meeting, U.S. delegation, 863 
International Court of Justice : 
Record of opinions delivered In past 10 years, 742 
Statute of, declarations recognizing compulsory Juris- 
diction deposited, 317 
U.S. claims against Czechoslovakia and Soviet Union 
for destruction of aircraft, removal of applications, 
513 
International Finance Corporation (see also International 
Bank) : 
Articles of agreement, signatures, 73 
Establishment and functions, 92, 256 
Membership, 54, 98, 601 
International Fisheries Commission, appropriations re- 
quested for U.S. participation in fiscal year 1957, 910 
International Ice Patrol. See North Atlantic Ice Patrol 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada: 
Functions, 940 

Lake Ontario, levels of, discussions and U.S. approval 
of recommendations, 89, 91, 92 
International Labor Conference, 39th session, U.S. dele- 
gation, 1036 
International Labor Organization. See Labor Organiza- 
tion, International 
International Law Commission, 100 
International miUtary headquarters (NAT), protocol on 

status of, 73 
International Monetary Fund, establishment and func- 
tions, 481, 483 
International organizations, protocol concerning applica- 
tion of universal copyright convention to works of, 
263 
International Telecommunication Union (see also Tele- 
communications), establishment and functions, 481, 
483 
International Understanding, Working Together for, ad- 
dress (Eisenhower), 915 
International Union for the Publication of Customs Tar- 
iffs, protocol modifying 1890 convention relating to 
creation of, 270, 355, 487 
Investment of private capital abroad: 
Addresses : Hoover, 1053 ; Thibodeaux, 22, 23, 24 
Asia, statement (Jones), 391 
Brazilian policy, address (Kubitschek), 88 
Latin America, address and article : Culbertson, Lederer, 

522, 524, 526 ; Holland, 1006, 1007, 1008, 1012 
Need for, excerpt from President's economic report to 

Congress, 253, 255, 256, 257, 259, 262 
Spain, obstacles to U.S. investments in, address (John 
Lodge), 128 
Iran: 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 207 
Economic development program, address and statement : 

Allen, 876, 877 ; Seager, 507 
Export-Import Bank loan, 795 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 441 
Baghdad Pact. See Baghdad Pact 
Military missions, agreements with U.S., 533 
U.S. economic assistance, 595 

1105 



Iran — Continued 
U.S. mutual security program, statement (Hollister), 

611 
U.S. visa applications cut off for escapees residing in, 
1024, 1063 
Iraq: 
Economic situation, address (Seager), 507 
International Bank loan, 795 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agreement with U.K. under the Baghdad Pact, 17 
Baghdad Pact. See Baghdad Pact 
Geneva conventions (1949), 907 

Visas, nonimmigrant passport, agreement with U.S. 
for reciprocal issuance of, 1081 
U.S. aid, 596 
Ireland : 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreements with U.S., 564, 

57S 
Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 290, 467, 560 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
Irian Barat. See West New Guinea. 
Isarabhakdi, Vadhana, 406 
Ismay, Lord, 126, 375, 376, 377 
Israel : 
Arab-Israeli dispute. See Arab-Israeli dispute 
Arms supply policy. See Arms supply 
Economic situation, address (Seager), 508 
Export-Import Bank loan, 795 

Local currencies acquired by the U.S. in Israel, appoint- 
ment of special consultant on the use of, 207 
Military action against Syria. See under Near and 

Middle East 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural surpluses, agreement with U.S. amending 

1955 agreement, 317, 356 
Atomic energy, agreement with U.S., .594 
Universal postal convention, 398 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.N. responsibility toward, address and statement 

(Dulles), 639, 832 
U.S. aid, 597 
U.S. mutual security program, statement (Hollister), 

611 
U. S. policy, address and letter : Dulles, 285 ; Heath, 203 
Italy : 
Heavy water, purchase from U.S., 592 
Imports from dollar area, removal of restrictions on, 

1048 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreements with U.S., 181, 

622, 680 
Emergency feeding program, agreement with U.S., 865 
GATT, amending protocols, 622, 1081 
Ice Patrol, North Atlantic, agreement regarding finan- 
cial support, 533 
International military headquarters (NAT), protocol 

on status of, 73 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreement with U.S. for exchange of, 104, 
577 
Status of forces agreement (NAT), 73 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.S. mutual security aid, continuation of, 214 

1106 



Italy — Continued 

U.S. visa applications for refugees in, cutoff date an- 
nounced, 16 
Visit of President to U.S., 16, 331, 417 

Jacome, Alexander G., 862 
Jackson, William H., 248 
Japan : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 467 

Communist aggression in, anil U.S. efforts to combat, 

724, 726 
Export-Import Bank credit for thermal-power develop- 
ment, 888 
Nuclear explosions in the Pacific, text of U.S. note con- 
cerning, 566 
Soviet relations with Japan, statements (Dulles), 883, 

922 
Textile exports to U.S., question of protective restric- 
tions by U.S., statements (Dulles), 14, 638, 712, 921 ; 
texts of notes, 728 
Trade problems, address (Elsenhower), 704 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreements with U.S., 488 
Aircraft assembly or manufacture, agreement with 

U.S. for program of, 782 
Atomic eueray, civil uses, agreement with U.S. for 

cooperation, 106 
Contributions for U.S. services and supplies in Japan, 
agreement with U.S. relating to reduction of, 821 
Copyright convention, universal, and protocols 1, 2, 

and 3, 263 
GATT, protocol on terms of accession of Japan, 38, 

106, 270, 356, 782 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 

1081 
Mutual defense assistance, agreements with U.S. for 
Japanese contributions for U.S. administrative ex- 
penses, 356, 782 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreement with US. for exchange of, 577 
578 
Peace treaty, 106 

Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.N. membership, U.S. and Soviet positions on question 

of, 13, 97, 113, 354 
U.S. atomic expert, visit to Japan, 509 
Jerusalem, U.S. representations against mob violence in 

Jordan-occupied sector, 85 
Johnson, U. Alexis, 164, 165, 451 
Johnston, Eric, 121 
Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S., invitation to visit Soviet Union, 

statement (Dulles), 1066 
Jones, Howard P., 388, 392 
Jordan : 

Economic situation, address (Seager), 31, 507 
Palestine refugees, assistance to, 33, 34 
Telecommunication convention, international (1952), 

658 
U.S. aid, 596 

U.S. representations against mob violence in Amman and 
Jordan-occupied sector in Jerusalem, 85 
Jordan, Clarence L., 953 
Jordan, Len, 90, 91 

Department of State BuHet'm 



Jungschlaeger, Leon, 640 

Jurists, Inter-American Council of, 3d meeting on terri- 
torial waters and related matters, U.S. delegation 
and action talien, 224, 296 

Justice, International Court of. See International Court 
of Justice 

Kalijarvi, Tliorsten V., 1014 

Kapotsy, Bela, 247 

Katzen, Bernard, 207 

Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, 664 

Kelly, Henry H., 223«, 657, 1029 

Kelly, Isabel T., 862 

Kelly, Sir David, 126 

Khalidy, Awni, 512^1 

Khrushchev, Nikita, 84, 364, 365, 450, 496, 1064, 1069 

Kilgore, Sen. Harley Martin, 409 

Kluckhohn, Clyde K., 651, 953 

Kono, Ichiro, 922 

Korea : 

Communist aggression in, U.S. efforts to combat, 724, 

725, 787, 788 
U.N. Command protests of Chinese Communist violations 
of armistice agreement and withdrawal of NNSC 
teams from South Korea, texts of statement and 
exchange of notes, 967, 970 
Korea, Republic of : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreement with U.S., 532, 533 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S., 270, 

317 
Naval vessels, agreement with U.S. for loan, 226 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
World Meteorological Organization, convention of the, 
398 
U.N. membership, question of, U.S. position, 113 
U.S. aid, 887 

U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 994 
Kotschnig, Walter M., 394, 395 
Krishna Menon, V. K., 457 
Kubitschek de Oliveira, Juscelino, 86, 335, 338 
Kuznetsov, Vasily V., 57, 59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66 

Labor, forced, problem of, statement (Baker) and text 

of ECOSOC resolution, 903, 906 
Labor, migratory, agreement with Mexico extending 1951 

agreement, as amended, 142 
Labor Conference, International, 39th session, U.S. dele- 
gation, 1036 
Labor Organization, International ; 

Building, Civil Engineering, and Public Works Com- 
mittee, 5th session, U.S. delegation, 864 
Coal Mines Committee, 6th session, U.S. delegation, 821 
Convention (1946) for partial revision of conventions 

adopted by the General Conference, 622 
Establishment and functions, 481, 482, 483, 485 
Forced Labor Committee, statement (Baker) concern- 
ing report of the, 903 
Governing Body, 132d session, U.S. delegation, 949 
Labouisse, Henry R., 31, 32 
Lake Ontario, controlling levels of: 
Discussions by International Joint Commission, U.S.- 
Canada, 92 

Index, January 'o June 7956 



Lake Ontario, controlling levels of — Continued 

Recommendations, approval of, letters (Jordan, 
Hoover), 89,91 
Lange, Halvard, 835 
Longer, William L., 651, 953 
Laos : 
Communist aggression in, 724 
Economic progress in, 447 
SU'kong River, request for ICA survey, 52 
Telecommunication convention, international (1952), 

782 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 994 
Latin America (see alsu Inter-American a-nd individual 
countries) : 
Communist subversion in, efforts to overcome, address 
and statements: Dulles, 200, 712, 713; Nufer, 839 
Economic and trade relations with U.S., addresses, 
article, and statement : Culbertson and Lederer, 
521 ; Holland, 174, 1006 
Foreign Relations, volume on, published, 733 
Hotel development, problems of, 223 
Inter-American cooperation, address (Milton Eisen- 
hower), 682 
Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 19.56, 

proclamation, 544, 683 
Panama meeting of Presidents of American Republics, 

880, 923, 925 
Spanish policy toward, 45 

U.N. technical assistance, statement (Bell), 486 
UNESCO conference on education in Latin America, 

U.S. delegation, 781 
U.S. mutual security program, statement (Hollister) 
and President's recommendations to Congress, 548 
613 
Law, international, development of, addresses: Dulles, 

741, 743 ; Phleger, 663 ; Wilcox. 847 
Law Commission, International, 100 
Lawrence, Edward W., 225 
Lawrence, John, 509 
League of Nations, 740, 809 
Lebanon : 

Atomic energy, agreement with U.S., 594 

Earthquake disaster in, texts of messages (Eisenhower, 

Hoover), 565 
Economic situation, address (Seager), 508 
International Bank loan, 795 
U.S. aid, 596 

Wheat agreement, international, 907 
Lederer, Walther, 521 
Legislation. See tinder Congress 
Legislation, State, concerning Japanese textile imports 

to U.S., 712, 728 
Leninism, ProWems of, statements (Dulles), 642, 643 
Less developed countries. See Underdeveloped countries 
Libby, Willard F., 209 
Liberia : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 637 

Technical assistance and cooperation, agreement with 

U.S., 356 
Universal copyright convention and protocols 1 and 2, 

865 
U.S. aid, 597 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 

1107 



Library of Congress : 

Fitzpatrick letters, presentation by Irish Prime Min- 
ister, 562, 563 
Franklin Commemorative Medal, presentation, 249 
Libya : 

Customs tariffs, convention creating international un- 
ion for publication of, regulations of execution, 
final declarations, and protocol, 355 
Relief supplies and packages, agreement with U.S. pro- 
viding for duty-free entry and tax exemption, 142 
U.S. aid, !598, 680 

World Meteorological Organization, convention of the, 
141 
Lighter-flints escape-clause case, deferment, 353 
Lightner, E. Allan, Jr., 954 

Literary and artistic works, protection of. See Copyright 
Liu Yung-ming, 52 
Lloyd, Selwyn, 234, 235 
Lo Jui-ching, 904 

Loans, U.N. See International Bank 

Loans, U.S. («ee also Export-Import Bank), reduction dur- 
ing 1954, excerpt from President's economic report 
to Congress, 262 
Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr. : 
Correspondence : 

Atomic energy, radiation effects on human health, 

transmission of report to U.N., 1078 
Balloon flights over Eastern Europe, 428 
General Assembly, note concerning opening date of 

11th session, 819 
Palestine question, 627 
U.S. foreign economic policy, 117n 
Statements : 
Atomic energy as a factor in economic development, 

816 
Atomic energy library, presentation to U.N., 656 
Cyprus question, 457 
Disarmament, U.S. and U.N. positions, 55, 61, 66, 69, 

97, 222 
Israeli military action against Syria, U.S. position, 

103, 182 
Moroccan question, 454 
Palestine question, 627, 722, 1025 
United Nations, admission of new members, 97, 354 
Lodge, John, 43, 126, 379 
Looney, Warren F., 890 
Lord, Mrs. O.svvald B., 70, 99, 117ro, 984 
Luxembourg : 
"GATT, procfes verbal and amending protocols, 733, 1080, 

1081 
Imports from dollar area, removal of restrictions on, 

1048 
Trade Cooperation, Organization for, agreement on. 

1080 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 226 
U.S. Mission to the European Coal and Steel Com- 
munity, established in Luxembourg, 441 
Lynn, Albert L. 1079 
Lyon, Cecil B., 865 

Macpherson, Sir John, 691 

1108 



Malaya, Federation of : 

Communist aggression in, 724 
Independence, U.K. assurance of, 347 
Mann, Thomas C, 226 
Mansfield, Sen. Mike, 14 
Mao Tse-tung, 904 
JLnritime Consultative Organization, Intergovernmental, 

convention, 733 
Marler, George C, 981 

Marshall Islands, petition requesting cessation of nuclear 
tests in the Pacific, statement (Gerig), U.S. observa- 
tions, letter (Macpherson), and text of petition, 689, 
691, 692 
Martin Artajo, Alberto, 248, 633, 666 
Martino, Gaetano, 331, 835 
Marton, Andrew, 247 
Marton, Ilona, 247 

Matsu and Quenioy Lslands, defense of, statement (Dul- 
les), 1.55, 156 
Matthews, H. Freeman, 694 
Mayer, Ren6, 15, 241, 282, 288 
Mayo, Charles W., 210 
Mcintosh, Dempster, 658 
McLain, Marvin L., 947, 1017 
McLeod, Scott, 355 
Meany, George, 679 
Mekong River, ICA survey of, 52 
Melas, George V., 457 
Memorials, war, agreement with France relating to grants 

of land located in France, 694 
Menderes, Adnan, 456 
Merchant, Livingston T., 865 
Merrow, Rep. Chester E., 99, 117w, 138 
Message of America, address (Eisenhower), 633 
Meteorological Organization, World : 
Convention of the, 141, 398 
Establishment and functions, 481, 483 
Meteorology : 
Meteorological balloons. See Balloons 
Rawiusonde observation stations, agreements with — 
Colombia, 782 ; France, 733 
Mexico : 

Heads of Government meeting (U.S., Canada, Mexico). 

See Heads of Government meeting 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Civil aviation convention, International, protocol 

amending, 1038 
Cultural property, convention for protection in event 

of armed confiict, 952 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 
Migratory labor, agreement with U.S. extending 1941 

agreement, as amended, 142 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements, 398 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
White slave traflSe, agreement for repression of, 578 
Middle East. See Near and Middle East 
Migratory labor, agreement with Mexico extending 1951 
agreement, as amended, 142 

Department of State Bulletin 



Military assistance (see also Military missions, Mutual de- 
fense, and Mutual security) : 
Agreement with Spain providing for military equipment, 

address ( John Lodge ) , 45, 47 
Agreements regarding disposition of equipment, materi- 
als, and property, with — 
Colombia, 694; Philippines, 622; Uruguay, 994; Viet- 
Nam, 694 
Military bases : 

Spain, agreement with U.S., address (John Lodge), 45, 

46, 47, 48 
U.S. position, statement (Lodge), 59 
Military blueprints, President Eisenhower's proposals for 
exchange. See nnder Disarmament : Aerial Inspection 
Military cemeteries, agreements with — 
France, relating to grants of land located in France, 694 
Netherlands, extending 1947 agreement, 658 
Military dependents' housing and tobacco, agreement with 

U.K., lOSl 
Military headquarters, international (NAT), protocol on 

status of, 73 
Military information, exchange of. See Disarmament 
Military missions, U.S., agreements with — • 

Honduras, 994; Iran, 533 ; Peru, 578 
Military program, U.S. See Mutual defense. Mutual 

security, and National defense 
Mills, Sheldon T., 658 
Mixed Armistice Commission, Syrian-Israeli, functions, 

statement (Xxidge), 182 
Mixed Board dealing with prisoners involved in German 

war crimes, appointment of U.S. member, 210 
Moffat, Douglas Maxwell, 398 

Mohammed V, Sultan of Morocco, 454, 466, 467, 501, 667 
Molotov, Vyacheslav, 453 
Monaco ; 

Industrial property, convention (1934) for the protec- 
tion of, 733 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating the production, trade 
and use of, 865 
Monetary Fund, International, establishment and func- 
tions, 481, 483 
Monnet, Jean. 126 
Moore, John Bassett, 665 
Morales-Carrion, Arturo, 820 
Morocco ; 

Extraterritorial rights in, U.S. policy on, 204 
Independence of ; 

French-Moroccan declaration, 466 
Spanish-Moroccan declaration, 667 
U.S. and French policies, address (Dillon), 553, 554 
U.S. policy, article (Howard), 453 
World Health Organization, constitution, 1038 
Morton, Thruston B., 356 
Motion picture films, agreement with Federal Republic of 

Germany regarding tariff concession, text, 814 
Muccio, John J,, 226 
Mueller, Helmut, 880 

Muenster Peace Medal, presentation, 880 
Murphy, Robert : 

Addresses and statement: 
A Crucial Contest With the Communist World, 556 
For a Better World, 371 

Index, January to June J 956 



Murphy, Robert — Continued 

Addresses and statement — Continued 

Mutual Security, Maintaining the Strength of the 

Fi-ee World Through, 963 
NATO, The Foundations of, 644 
The New Soviet Diplomatic Offensive, 168 
Soviet Reappraisal of Stalin, 719 
Career ambassador, 694 
Mutual defense assistance agreements (see also Military 
missions), with — 
China, Republic of, disposition of equipment and mate- 
rials, 994 
Germany, Federal Republic of, 73, 74, 162 
Japan, agreements for Japanese financial contributions, 

356, 782 
Pakistan, construction agreement, 1038 
Philippines, military and economic assistance, amend- 
ing and supplementing 1955 agreement, 821 
Mutual defense treaties and agreements («ee also Baghdad 
Pact, Collective security. Mutual security. National 
defense, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization) ; 
Patent rights and technical information, exchange of, 
agreements with — 
Belgium, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, and 
U.K., 104, 577 ; Germany, Federal Republic of, 104, 
142, 577 ; Japan, 104, 577, 578 ; Turkey, 952, 953 
Radar stations, agreements with Canada providing for 
e.stabllshment and operation of, 74 
Mutual security and other assistance programs (see also 
Agricultural surpluses. Economic and technical aid. 
Military assistance, and Mutual defense) : 
Address, article, and statements : Dorsey, 793 ; Dulles, 
199, 211, 214, 871, 1000 ; Eisenhower, 1004 ; Hoover, 
550 ; Murphy, 963 
Asia, address and statement : Dulles, 540 ; Robertson, 723 
Defense support to — • 
Pakistan, 797 ; Spain, 45, 46, 47, 48, 678 ; Yugoslavia, 
348, 679 
Europe, statement (Elbrick), 674 

Near East, South Asia and Africa, article and state- 
ment ; Allen, 875 ; Howard, 510, 593 
Outline of 1957 mutual security program, statement 

(Hollister) and charts, 605 
Philippines, agreement with U.S. amending and supple- 
menting 1955 agreement relating to military as- 
sistance, 821 
President's messages and letter to Congress concerning ; 
Budget message, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152 
Economic report, 256 

Recommendations for 1957 program, 545, 1003 
State of the Union message, 82 
Relationship of national security to, statement (Dulles), 
787 

NAC. See North Atlantic Council 
Narcotic drugs. See Drugs, narcotic 
Nasser, Col. Gamal Abdel, 640, 642, 923 
NAT. See North Atlantic Treaty 
National Academy of Sciences, 1078 

National Archives, access policy regarding State Depart- 
ment records, 344 
National day of Poland, 803 

1109 



National defense and security {see also Collective security, 
Mutual defense, and Mutual security) : 
Civil defense, development under NATO, article 

(Howard), 377 
President's messages to Congress concerning, 82, 148 
Relationship to mutual security program, statement 

(Dulles), 787 
U.S. budget, national security considerations in the for- 
mulation of, statement (Dulles), 160 
National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, 469 
National origins method of admitting aliens to U.S., pro- 
posed legislative changes, 275 
Nationalism, address and statement concerning: Allen, 

717 ; Sulvarno, 929, 935, 936 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Natural resources: continental shelf and marine waters. 

See Territorial waters 
Natural wealth and resources, permanent sovereignty 

over, U.S. position, 70, 71 
Naval mission, agreement with Peru extending 1940 agree- 
ment, 578 
Navigation, friendship, and commerce treaties: 

Importance to American business abroad, address 

(Thibodeaux), 23 
Treaties with — 

Germany, Federal Republic of, 907; Netherlands, 621, 
622 ; Nicaragua, 174, 181 
Neal, Jack D., 954 

Near and Middle East (see also individual countries) : 
Arab-Israeli dispute. See Arab-Israeli dispute 
Arms shipments to. See Arms supply 
Baghdad Pact. See Baghdad Pact 
Communist threat of subversion, 203 
Economic situation, addresses : Dulles, 122 ; Seager, 

506 
Israeli military action against Syria : 

Article and statement : Dulles, 121 ; Howard, 463 
U.N. action, statements (Lodge) and Security Council 

resolution, 182, 183 
U.S. position, statement (Lodge), 103 
Relationship to Atlantic Community, address (Dulles), 

831 
Relaxing tensions in, efforts toward, address and state- 
ments : Dulles, 12, 368, 922, 924 ; Wilcox, 368 
Tripartite meeting (U.S., U.K., France) on situation in, 

233, 286 
U.S. aid, article and statements: Dorsey, 792, 794; 

Dulles, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14 ; White, 367 
U.S. mutual security program : 

President's recommendations to Congress, 547, 548 
Statements and address: Allen, 875, 876; DuUes, 788, 
1000 ; HoUister, 609, 611 
U.S. policy : 
Address, article, and statements : Dulles, 412, 639, 641, 
643, 710, 714, 749; Hagerty, 668; Heath, 202; 
Howard, 452, 510, 593 
Exchange of correspondence (Dulles, Members of 
House of Representatives), 285, 286 
U.S.-U.K. policy: 

Address (Aldrich), 799 
Joint statement (Eisenhower, Eden), 233 
Nehrn, Jawaharlal, 565 

nio 



Nepal : 
Economic development, statement (Allen), 878, 879 
U.S. aid, 348, 599 
Netherlands : 

Imports from dollar area, removal of restrictions on, 

1048 
Tariff concessions to U.S., GATT, renegotiation on be- 
half of Benelux countries, 350, 351 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, agreement with U.S., negotiations, 378, 

650 
Aircraft, imported, agreement with U.S. relating to 

certificates of airworthiness, 1038 
American war graves, agreement with U.S. extending 

1947 agreement, 658 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U. S. for 

cooperation, 106 
Atomic information, agreement between parties to 

NAT for cooperation, 106 
Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 1038 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaty with 

U.S., 621, 622 
GATT, amending protocols, 622, 953, 1081 
Ice Patrol, North Atlantic, agreement concerning 

financial support of, 398 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreement with U.S. for exchange of, 104, 
577 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
West New Guinea, dispute with Indonesia concerning, 
address (Sukarno), 930 
Netherlands Antilles, renegotiation with U.S. of GATT 

tariff concessions, 26 
Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (Korea), with- 
drawal of teams from South Korea, statement and 
exchange of notes, 967, 970 
Neutrality : 

Spanish policy during World War II, 45 
Views on, address and statements: Dulles, 999, 1064; 
Eisenhower, 1004 
New Guinea, convention to facilitate importation of com- 
mercial samples and advertising materials, extension 
to, 440 
New Zealand : 

Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S., 1071, 

1081 
GATT, amending protocols, 38, 622, 953 
Tariff concessions, GATT, renegotiation with U.S., 26, 27 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
Newman, John Henry Cardinal, 371 
Nicaragua : 
Tariff concessions, GATT, renegotiation with U.S., 26, 

27 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaty with 

U.S., 174, 181 
Friendship agreements with Costa Rica, 339 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 

Political rights to women, inter-American conven- 
tion on granting of, 865 

Department of State Bulletin 



Nicaragua — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements, 398 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
Nixon, Richard M., addresses and statements: 
Brazilian-U.S. friendship, 335 
Brazilian Vice President, visit to U.S., 803 
Freedom, A Peaceful Crusade for, 1043 
Indonesian Piesident, visit to U.S., 927 
Irish Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 560 
Italian President, visit to U.S., 417 
State Department honor awards ceremony, 6th annual, 
812 
NNSC. See Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission 
Nolan, Charles P., 689 
Non-self-governing territories. See Self-determination 

and Trust territories 
Norstad, Gen. Lauris, 757, 758 
North Africa {see also individual countries), U.S. and 

French policies in, address (Dillon), 553 
North Atlantic Council : 

Functions, article (Hovrard), 376 

Meeting of Foreign Ministers at Paris, announcement, 
address and statements (Dulles), letter (Eisen- 
hower), and text of communique, 791, 831, 835, 836 
Resolution, retirement and appointment of Supreme 
Allied Commander, Europe, 757 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement regarding financial 
support, current actions, 105, 106, 181, 317, 398, 533 
North Atlantic Treaty : 

Atomic information, agreement between parties for 

cooperation, current actions, 73, 106, 226, 622, 688 

International military headquarters, protocol on status 

of, 73 
National representatives and international staff, agree- 
ment on status, 994 
Status of forces agreement, 73 

U.S.-British views concerning, joint statement (Eisen- 
hower, Eden), 232 
North Atlantic Treaty Oganization : 
Addresses and statements: Dulles, 706, 747, 832, 1066, 
1069; Eden, 240; Gronchi, 420; Gruenther, 332; 
Murphy, 644 
Agreements and protocol, gee North Atlantic Treaty 
Appointment of Senator George as personal representa- 
tive and special ambassador of President to NATO, 
836, 879, 881, 882 
Cyprus, question of NATO administration of, 713 
Fellowship awarded, 649 

Forces stationed in Germany (NATO), question of Ger- 
man financial contributions to, statement (Dulles), 
280 
Importance of, joint communique (Adenauer, Dulles), 

1047 
Nonmilitary aspects, development of, addresses and 
statement: Eisenhower, 917; Dulles, 413, 925, 926 
Progress of, and Soviet efforts to destroy, statement 

(Elbrick), 674, 675, 676 
Seminar on international problems for representatives 
of NATO, announcement, 125 



North Atlantic Treaty Organization — Continued 

Soviet support of the principles of NATO, U.S. views on 

address by Winston Churchill, 837, 884, 886 
Spain, question of membership, 748 
Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, retirement and 
apijointment of, statement. NAC announcement and 
resolution, and letters (Eisenhower), 756 
U.S. mutual security program, address (Dulles) and 
President's messages to Congress, 151, 547, 1001 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries, U.S. visa 
applications cut off for escapees residing in, 1024, 1063 
"Northern tier" pact. See Baghdad Pact 
Norway : 

International Bank loan, 888 

Tariff concessions by U.S., GATT, announcement and 

memorandum to Secretary of the Treasury, 125 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 1038 
GATT, protocol on terms of accession of Japan, 106 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 

1081 
Ice Patrol, North Atlantic, agreement regarding fi- 
nancial support, 181 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreement with U.S. for exchange of, 104, 
577 
Plant protection convention, international, 907 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
Nuclear energy. See Atomic energy 
Nufer, Albert F., 839, 865 
Nutting, Sir Anthony, 456, 924 
Nyasaland. See Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of 

OAS. See Organization of American States 
O'Boyle, Archbishop Patrick A., 372 

Oceanographic Institute, Inter-American, proposed estab- 
lishment of, 896 
OEEC. See Organization for European Economic Cooper- 
ation 
Oils and oilseeds, U.S. export prospects, 1020, 1022 
"Open sky" proposals for aerial in.spection. See under 

Disarmament 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, and 

use of, 865 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation : 

European stability, OEEC contribution to, joint state- 
ment (Eisenhower, Eden), 232 
Functions, 232, 833, 1074 
Organization for Trade Cooperation. See Trade Coopera- 
tion, Organization for 
Organization of American States : 

Charter, ratification deposited by Argentina, 782 
Costa Rican-Nicaraguan dispute. Council's role in medi- 
ation, 339 
Development of, address (Dulles), 835 
Inter-American Council of Jurists, 3d meeting, 224, 296 
65th anniversary, 683 

OTC. See Trade Cooperation, Organization for 
Outer Mongolia, question of U.N. membership, 97, 113 
Pact of mutual cooperation. See Baghdad Pact 
Pact of Paris (1928), 740 
Padmore, George Arthur, 637 



Index, January fo June 7956 



1111 



Pakistan : 

Economic develoijment, article and statement: Allen, 

878, 879 ; Dorsey, 796 
International Bank loan, 795 
Republic day, texts of letter and messages (Eisenhower, 

Dulles), 565 
SEATO. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Tariff concessions, GATT, renegotiation with U.S., 26, 27 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 488, 

578 
Atomic energy, agreement with U.S., 594 
Baghdad Pact. See Baghdad Pact 
Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 1038 
Construction agreement with U.S., 1038 
GATT, procfes verbal and amending protocols, 38, 

1080, 1081 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 

Parcel post, agreement with U.S. concerning exchange 
of, and regulations for execution of the agreement, 
181 
Passport visas and visa fees, agreement with U.S. 

revising agreement relating to, 142 
Trade Cooperation, Organization for, agreement on, 
1080 
U.S. aid, 53, 569, 598 
U.S. mutual security program, 384, 612 
Visit of U.S. atomic expert, 509 
Palestine question. See Arab-Israeli dispute 
Pan American Day and Pan American "Week, 1956, proc- 
lamation, 544 
Pan American Institute of Geography and History, 
U.S. delegate to 1st meeting of Directing Council, 994 
Pan American Sanitary Bureau, 469 
Panama : 

Geneva Conventions (1949), 907 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements, 398 
Visas, nonimmigrant, agreement with U.S., 1038 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
Panama meeting of Presidents of American Republics, 

880, 923, 925 
Papagos, Alexander, 456 

Papua, international convention to facilitate importa- 
tion of commercial samples and advertising materials, 
extension to, 440 
Paraguay : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreement with U.S., 804, 907 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 

Import privileges for uoudiplomatic personnel, recip- 
rocal, agreement with U.S., 1081 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements, 398 
Parcel post agreements with — 

Pakistan, concerning exchange of parcel post, and regu- 
lations for execution, 181 
Spain, 658 

1112 



Parsons, J. Graham, 994 
Passports (.see also Visas) : 

Passport regulations, revisions in, 129 
Validation of passports for American citizens to travel 
to Hungary, 248 
Pastore, Sen. John O., 97, 117n 

Patent rights and technical information for defense pur- 
poses, agreements for exchange of, with — 
Belgium, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, and U.K., 
104, 577 ; Germany, Federal Republic of, 104, 142, 
577 ; Japan, 104, 577, 578 ; Turkey, 952, 953 
Patents, protection of American rights abroad, address 

(Thibodeaux), 24 
Patterson, Jefferson, 658 
Patterson, Morehead, 4, 210 
Pauley, Edwin W., 596n 
Peace : 
Addresses and remarks : Dulles, 739, 099 ; Eisenhower, 

3,699 
NATO efforts for, address and article : Gruenther, 332 ; 

Howard, 375 
SEATO efforts for, 447, 450 

U.S. and Soviet desires for, exchange of letters (Eisen- 
hower, Bulganin) and draft Soviet treaty with U.S., 
191, 193, 194, 195 
U.S. and world efforts for, addresses and statements : 
Dulles, 84, 368, 542; Eden, 235, 239, 240, 241; 
Eisenhower, SO, 81, 82, 373 ; Hoover, 323 ; Eobert-son, 
807, 808 ; Wilcox, 847 
Peace Medal of the city of Muenster, Germany, presenta- 
tion of, 880 
Peace treaty, Japan, 106 

Peaceful settlement of disputes. See Disputes iiiid "Re- 
nunciation of force" 
Pearson, Lester B., 835, 1066 
Peaslee, Amos J., 186 
Pedersen, Richard F., 990 
Pepper, gen. George Wharton, 664 
Perkins, George W., 376 

Personnel, Public Committee on, report released, 248 
Persons, exchange of. See East-West contacts and Edu- 
cational exchange 
Peru : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreements with U.S., 847, 994 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S. for 

cooperation, 226 
Debts, German external, agreement on, 226 
Educational exchange, agreement with U.S., 815, 865 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 

1081 
Geneva conventions (1949) , 907 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 
Naval mission, agreement with U.S. extending 1940 

agreement, 578 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements, 398 
Voluntary agency relief, agreement with U.S. amend- 
ing 1954 agreement, 821 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 

Department of State Bulletin 



Peru — Continued 
U.S. aid, 887 

U.S. Ambas-sador, confirmation, 994 
Petroleum imports, problem of, address (Hoover), 959 
Philippines : 

Asian Nuclear Center, site for, 544 
Treaties, agreement.?, etc. : 

Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 1038 
Copyright convention, universal, 263 
Military assistance, agreement with U.S., 622, 821 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.S. aid, 568, 726, 772, 788 

U.S. Ambassador, resignation (Ferguson), 733; con- 
firmation (Xufer),S65 
U.S. relations with, 750 
Phillips, Christopher H., 225, 948, 1077 
Phleger, Herman, 663 
Pinay, Antoine, 454 
Pineau, Christian, 241, 6.S8 
Pinkerton, Lowell C, 694 

Plant protection convention, international, 311, 907, 1080 
Plebiscite in British Togoland, U.N. action, statements 
(Bell, Gerig) and General Assembly resolution, 37, 
98, 100, 102 
Poland : 
National day, 803 

Repatriation activities in U.S., text of U.S. note of pro- 
test. 802 
U.S. visa applications for certain refugees, cutoff date 
announced, 940 
Poliomyelitis epidemic in Argentina, U.S. aid, 469, 527 
Political rights to women, inter-American convention on 

granting of, 865 
Pontecorvo, Bruno, 1046 

Port and harbor conference, inter-American, U.S. delega- 
tion, 6S8 
Portugal : 

Goa, dispute with India concerning, statements 

(Dulles), 465 
Imports from dollar area, removal of restrictions on, 

1048 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 1038 
Iberian defense pact with Spain, 45 
International Court of Justice, statute of, declaration 
recognizing compulsory jurisdiction deposited, 317 
Surplus agricultural commodities, agreement with 

U.S., 1038 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
Postal convention, universal, current actions, 73, 141, 398, 

994 
Postal Union, Universal, establishment and functions, 481, 

483 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention of 

the, agreements relative to parcel post, money orders, 

and provisions regarding airmail, current actions, 398 

Poultry, agreement with Federal Republic of Germany for 

sale, 28 
Power Conference, World, meeting and U.S. delegation, 
1078 



President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence 
Activities : 
Appointment of board, announcement and letters 

(Eisenhower) , 161 
Establishment and functions. Executive order, 340 
Presidents of American Republics, Panama meeting of, 

SSO, 923, 925 
Press, freedom of the : 
Brazilian policy, 87, 88 
Turkish press-control law, 1065 
Prisoners in German war crimes cases, appointment of 

U.S. members of Mixed Board, 210 
Prisoners of war, Geneva convention relative to treat- 
ment of, 907 
Private bills for relief of aliens, proposed legislative 

changes, 276 
Problems of Leninism, statement (Dulles), 642, 643 
Prochnow, Herbert V.. 184, 226, 529, 531 
Proclamations by the President : 

Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 1S56, 544 
Tariff negotiations (1956) at Geneva, 1057 
Trade agreement with Ecuador (1938), extension, 180 
Tuna canned in brine, increased duty on imports, 654 
Woodrow Wilson Centennial Tear, 806 
World trade week, 1956, 686 
Propaganda, Communist : 

Combating, by means of Radio Free Europe, letter 

(Eisenhower), 636 
Efforts to combat in U.N. and specialized agencies, 

statement (Wilcox), 485 
Soviet treatment of President's letter to Premier Bul- 
ganin, 279 
Propaganda balloons. See Balloons 

Property, cultural, convention and protocol for protection 
in event of armed conflict, and regulations of execu- 
tion, 440 
Property, industrial, convention for the protection of, 440 
Property in Austria, seized by Germans during World War 

II, claims for restitution, 49 
Property rights and interests in Germany, charter of 

Arbitral Commission on, 106 
Public Committee on Personnel, report released, 248 
Publications : 

Amerilca, proposed distribution in U.S.S.R., texts of 

notes, 18 
Congress, lists of current legislation of foreign policy, 

252, 471, 570, 775, 810, 851, 893, 983, 1024, 1053 
State Department: 
Documents cm. German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945 
(The War Years, March IS, 1940-June 22, 191,0), 
released, 954 
Far Eastern records, access and publication policies, 

343 
Foreign Relations of the United States, published: 
19.38, vol. V (The American Republics), 733 
1939, vol. I (General), 441 
Lists of recent releases, 74, 142, 318, 357, 442, 488, 534, 
578, 734, 825, 866, 954, 1081 
United Nations, lists of current documents, 71, 104, 181, 
225, 310, 440, 693, 859, 902, 1037 
Puerto Rico, teacher development workshop, article 

(Russell), 778 
Pushkin, Georgi, 48 



Index, January to June 1956 



1113 



Quemoy and Matsu Islands, defense of, statement 
(Dulles), 155, 156 

Radar stations in Canada, agreements with Canada pro- 
viding for establishment and operation of, 74 
Radiation, atomic, effects on human health. See under 

Atomic energy, radiation effects 
Radio broadcasting to Soviet Union, statement (Dulles), 

284 
Radio in the American Sector (RIAS), Berlin, 10th anni- 
versary, 242 
Railway system in India, U.S. aid in developing, 205, 206 
Randall, Clarence B., 171, 595 
Randall, Robert H., 994 

Rawinsonde observation stations, establishment and oper- 
ation of, agreements with — 
Colombia, on island of San Andres, 782 
France, on island of Guadeloupe, 733 
Reciprocity Information, Committee for, 263, 351, 352 
Reconstruction and Development, International Bank for. 

See International Bank 
Refugee Fund, United Nations : 

Executive Committee, U.S. delegates to 2d and 3d ses- 
sions, 225, 948 
U.S. contributions, 590, 1077 
Refugee Relief Act, 468. 775, 1063 
Refugees and displaced persons : 
Arab refugee problem : 
Address, article, letter, and statements : Bergus, 503, 
504 ; Dulles, 286, 287, 369 ; Howard, 458, 597 ; Wads- 
worth, 31, 32, 35 
General Assembly resolution, 33 
U.M. action, 98 
Copyright convention, protocol concerning application 
of convention to works of stateless persons and 
refugees, 263 
East Germany, refugees from, address (Hoover), 292 
Escapee program, U.S., 650, 1024 

ICEM. See Intergovernmental Committee for Euro- 
pean Migration 
Right of asylum : 

U.N. action and statement (Blaustein), 99 
U.S. policy, 939 
U.S. program for relief : 

President's recommendations to Congress, 548 
Public Advisory Group, appointments, 679 
Statement (Phillips), 1077 

Vlet-Nam, U.S. aid for refugee resettlement, 208 
U.S. visa applications, cutoff dates announced. See 
under Visas 
Relief, voluntary agency, agreement with Peru amending 

1954 agreement, 821 
Relief and rehabilitation. See Refugees and displaced 

persons. Economic aid, and individual countries 
Relief and Works Agency, U.N., aid to Palestine refugees, 

31, 33 
Relief supplies and packages, agreement with Libya pro- 
viding for duty-free entry and tax exemption, 142 
"Renunciation of force" principle, discussions at Geneva 
ambassadorial talks, 164, 165, 166, 167, 451, 1070 
Repatriation activities of Poland in U.S., text of U.S. note 
of protest, 802 



Representation allowances, budget request for fiscal year 

195T, 909 
Research reactor agreement with Germany, discussions on, 

joint announcement, 92 
Resolution of Ciudad Trujillo, 895, 897 (text) 
Reyes, Narciso, 406 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of : 

Commercial samples and advertising materials, inter- 
national convention to facilitate importation of, 
1038 
Deputy Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 552 
GATT, proems verbal and amending protocols, 622, 1081 
Tariff concessions to U.S., GATT, renegotiation of, 262 
RIAS. See Radio in the American Sector 
Rice: 
Distribution of surpluses for use in domestic and over- 
seas programs, 53 
Rice-for-technicians, proposed agreement with Burma, 

569 
U.S. export prospects, 1019, 1020, 1022 
U.S. shipments to Pakistan, 569 
Richards, Arthur L., 356 
Road traffic, convention on, with annexes and protocol, 

317, 355 
Robertson, Walter S., 279, 543, 723, 805, 972 
Rockefeller, Nelson A., 248 
Roddis, Louis, 509 
Rodriguez Altnmirano, Mario, 295 
Rollman, Tony, 241 
Root, Elihu, 739 
Ruanda-Urundi : 

Political and economic developments (Gerig), 438 
Telecommunication convention, international, extension 
to, 782 
Rubber, question of shipment to Communist China, state- 
ment (Dulles), 1067 
Rubottom, Roy R., Jr., 954 
Ruegger, Paul, 903 
Ruiz Cortines, Adolfo, 590, 637 
Rumania : 
Minister to U.S., credentials, 791 
Negotiations with U.S., proposed, 801 
Telecommunication convention, international (1952), 

782 
U.S. Minster, confirmation, 226 
Russell, Howard H., 778 
Ruttenberg, Stanley H., 96 
Ryerson, Knowles A., 732 

Saar, elections in, statement (Dulles), 13 

Safety at sea, regulations for preventing collisions at 

sea, 263, 1038 
Safety of life at sea, convention on (1948), 622 
St. Laurent, Louis S., 590, 636 
St. Lawrence Seaway : 
Discussions between Canada and U.S., 981 
Lake Ontario, controlling levels of, 89, 92 
Status and progress of, report to President and Presi- 
dent's report to Congress for fiscal year 1955, 215 
Saltzman, Charles E. 651, 953 

San Andres, agreement with Colombia for establishment 
and operation of rawinsonde observation station on, 
782 



( 



1114 



Department of State Bulletin 



San Marino, convention (1954) for protection of cultural 
property in event of armed conflict, with regulations 
of execution and protocol, 694 
Sanders, William, 224 
Sanitation : 
Improvement of, as a means of developing tourism, 1032 
Progress in French Togoland, statement (Gerig), 575 
Santos-Jundiai Railway, Brazil, Export-Import Bank 

loan, 299 
Sarper, Selim, 457, 511 
Satellite nations : 
Eastern Europe, U.S. position concerning, address (Wil- 
cox), 113 
Soviet relations with, statements : Dulles, 751 ; Hoover, 
245 
Satterthwaite, Livingston, 374, 528 
Saudi Arabia : 
Dispute with U.K. over Buraimi, 465 
Royalties from Arabian-American Oil Company, 597 
U.S. sale of tanks to, 326 
Sciences, National Academy of, 1078 
Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation, U.N., 

1st meeting, article (Warren), 860 
Seager, Cedrie H., 506, 754 
Seamen of Soviet tanker Tuapse, departure of former 

crew members from U.S., 765 
Sears, Mason, 43Sn 

SEATO. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Security, national. See National defense and security 
Security Council, U.N. : 
Arab-Israeli dispute, actions on. 462, 463, 464 
Documents, lists of, 73, 225, 310, 693, 1037 
Membership question, U.S. position and Soviet use of 
veto, addresses and statements : Dulles, 12 ; Lodge, 
97, 354 ; Wilcox, 111, 112, 113, 114 
Resolutions : 

Israeli action against Syria, condemnation of, 183 
Palestine question, 628, 1028 
U.S. deputy representative, confirmation. 732 
Security forces, U.S., in Japan, agreement with Japan 
providing for reduction of Japanese contribution for, 
821 
Self-determination : 
Human Rights Covenants, U.S. position on article 1 of 

drafts, and statement (Lord), 70 
U.N. Commission on Human Rights, actions by, report 
(Lord), 985 
Seminar on international problems for representatives of 

NATO, announcement, 125 
Service academies, U.S., designation of foreign students 

to. Executive order, 538 
Services and supplies, U.S., in Japan, agreement with 
Japan relating to reduction of Japanese contributions 
for, 821 
Sharett, Moshe, 461 
Shaw, Byron T., 28 
Ships and shipping: 

Collisions at sea, regulations for preventing, 263, 1038 
Ice Patrol, North Atlantic, agreement regarding finan- 
cial support, current actions, 105, 106, 181, 317, 398, 
533 
Inter-American port and harbor conference, U.S. dele- 
gation, 688 



Ships and shipping — Continued 

Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, 

convention on (1948), 733 
International loadline convention (1930), 733 
Naval vessels, U.S., agreements with — 

Cuba, for furnishing supplies and services, 226 
France, for extension of loan of Belleau Wood, 356 
Korea, for loan of vessels, 226 
Nuclear-powered ship, President's request to Congress 

for funds for, 150 
Safety of life at sea, convention on, 622 
St. Lawrence Seaway. See St. Lawrence Seaway 
Siefkin, Forest D., 171 
Siracusa, Ernest V., 270 
Slavery, multilateral agreement for repression of white 

slave traffic, 578 
Slavery convention (1926), protocol amending and annex, 

141, 263, 270, 533, 622, 65S 
Sobolev, Arkady A., 222, 765, 766 

Social security benefits, Austrian, coverage of U.S. resi- 
dents, 886 
Sonnabend, Abraham M., 886 
South Africa, Union of : 
Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 1038 
GATT, proems verbal and amending protocols, 38, 622, 

1081 
U.N. General Assembly, withdrawal of delegation over 

racial question, 112 
Visas, nonimmigrant, agreement with U.S. relating to 

reciprocal issuance, 782 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
South America. See Latin America 
South and Southeast A-sia. See Asia. 
South Carolina, legislation regarding Japanese textile im- 
ports, texts of notes, 712, 728 
South Pacific Conference, 3d session, U.S. delegation, 732 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization : 
Annual report of Council Representatives, 403 
Council of Ministers, 2d meeting : 

Announcement and U.S. delegation, 84, 408 
Preparations for, text of communique, 207 
Statements (Dulles), 408, 409, 449, 451, 539 
Text of communique on accomplishments, 447 
Development of, statements (Dulles), 413, 1067 
Pakistani membership, evaluation of, statement 

(Dulles), 282 
U.S.-British support of, joint statement (Eisenhower, 
Eden), 233 
Soviet-bloc countries : 
East-West trade. See East- West trade 
Refugees from, U.S. policy on right of asylum, 939 
Soviet Union (see also Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Re- 
public, Communism, Propaganda, and Ukrainian 
Soviet Socialist Republic) : 
Amerika, proposed distribution in U.S.S.R., texts of 

notes, 18 
Armaments and armed forces, proposed rediiction of, 

statements (Dulles), 880, 881, 882, 883, 885, 920 
Armed strength of, address and message: Eisenhower, 

546 ; Gruenther, 332 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, Soviet position 
on relationship to U.N., 115 



Index, January to June 1956 



1115 



Soviet Union — Continued 
Baghdad Pact, Soviet opposition to, article (Howard), 

511, 512 
Berlin, development of para-military activities in Soviet 

sector, U.S. note of protest, 293 
"Cold war," definition of, statement (Dulles), 749 
Disarmament. See Disarmament 
East Germany, Soviet domination of, address (Hoover), 

290, 292 
East-West contacts. See East-West contacts 
East-West trade. See East-West trade 
Economic aid to and penetration of other countries: 
Addresses, article, and statements : Allen, S76, 877, 
878, 879 ; Dulles, 8, 11, 363, 3G4, 366, 411, 475, 541, 
714; Eisenhower, 546; Hoover, 550; Howard, 452; 
Wilcox, 484, 485 
Soviet charges of U.S. efforts to hamper, and U.S. 

reply, statements (Jones, Kotschnig), 392, 394 
U.S. views on countering Soviet efforts, 118, 159 
Forced labor, use of, statement (Baker), 905 
Germany, 4-power status : 

Joint communique (Adenauer, Dulles), 1047 
U.S. position, statement and letters (Conant, Push- 
kin), 48 
Western position, statements (Dulles), 8, 12 
Germany, Soviet pcsitlon on reunification of, 192, 243, 

244, 670, 672, 885 
Industrial development and production goals, address 
and statements: Dulles, 1.59, 161; Gruenther, 3.32 
Japanese-Soviet relations, 883, 922 
Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S., invitation to visit Soviet 

Union, statement (Dulles), 1066 
Meteorological and propaganda balloons. See Balloons 
Middle East, assessment of Soviet statement on, 749 
NATO, Soviet support of principles of, U.S. views on 

address by Winston Churchill, 837, 884, 886 
"New look" policy, addresses and statements : Allen, 
876 ; Armstrong, 307 ; Dulles, 363, 366, 409, 410, 411, 
637, 641, 642, 643, 707, 789, 790, 871, 873, 884, 886, 
1003, 1004, 1070 ; Allen Dulles, 758 : Eisenhower, 701, 
704 ; Elbrick, 674 ; Hoover, 1049 ; Murphy, 168, 170, 
373, 556, 647; Nixon, 1043; Wilcox, 495, 844, 845 
Radio broadcasts to, statement (Dulles), 284 
Soviet-type dictatorships, statement ( Dulles ) , 1064 
Stalin, Josef. See Stalin 
Tanker Tuapse, departure of former crew members from 

U.S., 765 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Plant protection convention, international, lOSO 
Telecommunication convention, Intel-national (1952), 
356 
U.N. Commission on the Status of Women, Soviet repre- 
sentative, 1033 
U.N. membership, Soviet position, 97, 111, 112, 113 
U.N. refugee program, Soviet efforts for forced repatri- 
ation, 99 
U.N. technical assistance program, Soviet policy of 

inconvertibility, 397 
U.S. claims against. See under Claims 
U.S. relations with, exchange of correspondence (Eisen- 
hower, Bulganin) and statements (Dulles), 191, 
279, 280, 514, 751 

1116 



Soviet Union— Continued 
Visas, U.S.-Soviet exchange of notes regarding issuance 

to Archbishop Boris and Father Dion, 19 
World domination, efforts toward, 231, 232, 375, 452, 834 
Spaak, Fernand, 241 
Spain : 

Industrial progi-ess, address (John Lodge), 379 
NATO, question of Spanish membership, 748 
Spanish-Moroccan declaration, text, 6G7 
Trade with U.S., address (John Lodge), 126 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreements with U.S., 317, 

533, 622, 658 
Civil aviation convention. International, protocol 

amending, 1038 
Concordat with Vatican, 45, 46 
Iberian defense pact with Portugal, 45 
Industrial property, convention for the protection of, 

440 
Parcel post, agreement with U.S., 658 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements, 398 
U.N. specialized agencies, membership in, 46 
U.S. aid, 548 
U.S. mutual security program, statements : Elbrick, 

678 ; Hollister, 609 
U.S. relations with, address (John Lodge), 43 
Visit of Foreign Minister to U.S. : 
Announcement, 248 
Official party, 633 

Statements (Dulles, Martin Artajo) and text to joint 
communique, 666, 667 
Special United Nations Fund for Economic Development 
(SUNPED), General Assembly resolution and U.S. 
views on proposed establishment, 98, 436 
Specialized agencies, U.N. («ee aUo name of agency) : 
Coordination with U.N'., statement (Merrow), 140 
Importance of the U.N. specialized agencies to the U.N., 

statement (Wilcox), 480 
Soviet attitude toward, and U.S. participation in, 

address (Wilcox), 497, 498 
Spanish membership, 46 

Teaching about the U.N. and specialized agencies, state- 
ment (Pedersen), 990 
U.S. support of, address and message : Eisenhower, 548 ; 
Wilcox, 847 
Spielman, Herbert, 343 
Spiridonova, Mrs. Nina S., 1033 
Staff Corps Review Panels, 7th, meeting and functions, 

448 
Stalin, Josef: 
Soviet denunciation of, addresses and statements : 
Dulles, 637, 642, 707, 1064, 1069 ; Allen Dulles, 758 ; 
Murphy, 556, 557, 558, 648, 719 
Soviet production goals, statements by Stalin, 332 
Stassen, Harold E., 56, 486 
State Dejiartment (see also Foreign Service) : 
Budget requirement for fiscal year 1957, excerpt from 
President's message to Congress and statement 
(Dulles), 154,907 
Confirmations, 226, 356, 488 

Department of State Bulletin 



state Department — Continued 
Deputy Under Secretary for Economic Affairs, functions 
and delegation of autlaority, public notice and state- 
ment (Dulles), 74, 213 
Designations, 142, 270, 356, 398, 488, 954 
Director of Administration, American Embassy, Vienna, 

delegation of authority, public notice, 142 
Escapee program, U.S., functions transferred from ICA, 

announcement and Executive order, 650 
Executive Director, American Embassy, Bonn, delega- 
tion of authority, public notice, 142 
Far Eastern records, access and publication policies, 

343 
Foreign Service examination announced, 342 
Franklin Medal, presentation, 953 
Honor awards ceremony, 6th annual, remarks (Dulles, 

Nixon), 811, 812 
ICA, integration within State Department, statement 

(Dulles), 211 
Passport regulations, revisions in, 129 
Public Committee on Personnel, report released, 248 
Publications. See binder Publications 
Resignations, 356, 658 
State of the Union message, 79 

Stateless persons and refugees, protocol concerning appli- 
cation of universal copyright convention to works of, 
263 
Status lists of international agreements, 822 
Status of forces agreement (NAT), 73 
Stephanopoulos, Stephanos, 455, 457 
Strategic materials, U.S. import certificate form, 378 
Strauss, Franz Josef, 797 
Strauss, Lewis L., 208, 470, 885 
Streetcars, U.S. shipment to Korea, 887 
Streibert, Theodore C, 249 
Stuart, R. Douglas, 1038 
Stubbins, Hugh A., 15, 16 

Student-exchange program. See Educational exchange 
Sudan : 

Independence of, U.S. recognition, 85, 465 

U.N. membership, 354 

U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 694 

U.S. Liaison Office in Khartoum, elevation to Embassy 

status, 356 
World Health Organization, constitution, 1038 
Sugar : 
International sugar agreement, 74 
Liquid sugar, U.S. tarifC increase on imports, 1056, 1057, 

1062 
U.S. sugar legislation, statements (Eisenhower, Hol- 
land), 172, 1016 
World production and consumption, adjusting, state- 
ment (McLain), 1017 
Sugar Conference, U.N., U.S. delegation, 947 
Sukarno, visit to U.S. : 
Announcement, 803 
Addresses and statements : Dulles, 885 ; Eisenhower, 

927; Nixon, 927; Sukarno, 927, 928, 934 
Official party, 939 

Letter to President on departure, 1005 
SUNFED. See Special United Nations Fund for Eco- 
nomic Development 

Index, January to June 7956 



Surplus agricultural commodities. See Agricultural sur- 
pluses 
Sweden : 
Commemoration of first U.S. -Swedish treaty, state- 
ments (Cabot, Und6n), 800 
Imports from dollar area, removal of restrictions, 1048 
Tariff concessions by U.S., GATT, 289 
Tariff concessions to U.S., GATT, renegotiation of, 350, 

351 
Treatie.s, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreements with U.S., 181 
Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 1038 
GATT, amending protocols, 270, 733, 782, 1081 
Ice Patrol, North Atlantic, agreement regarding 

financial support, 181 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.S. visa applications cut off for escapees residing in, 
1024, 1063 
Switzerland : 
Heavy water, purchase from U.S., 592 
Imports from dollar area, removal of restrictions, 1048 
Treaties, agreements, etc : 

Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 1038 
Copyright convention, universal, 141, 263 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
Syria : 

Civil aviation convention, international, protocol amend- 
ing, 1038 
Export-Import Bank loan, 597w 
Israeli military action against Syria. See under Near 

and Middle East 
Universal postal convention, 994 

Taiwan (see also China, Republic of) : 

Defense of, address and statements : Dulles, 1000, 1065 ; 

Robertson, 724, 725 
Defense of Quemoy and Matsu Islands in event of attack 

on, statement (Dulles), 155, 156 
Importance to U.S. national security, statement 

(Dulles), 787 
"Renunciation of force" principle, application to Taiwan 
area, discussions at Geneva ambassadorial talks, 
164, 165, 166, 167, 451, 542, 1070 
Tani, Masayukl, 467 

Tariff policy, U.S. (see also Customs and Trade agree- 
ments) : 
Acid-grade fluorspar, escape-clause relief held unneces- 
sary, 569 
Address (Williams), 978 
Cuba, preferential treatment of certain Cuban products, 

1057, 1059, 1062 
GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 
Hat bodies, fur-felt, increased tariff on imports, 1056, 

1057, 1062 
Hatters' fur, continuation of duty on, 688 
Sugar imports. See under Sugar 
Tariff reductions, U.S. policy concerning: 
Addresses : Coe, 430 ; Thibodeaux, 25 
President's economic report to Congress, 253, 254 
Tuna, canned in brine, increase in duty, proclamation, 
654 

1117 



Tariff policy, U.S.— Continued 

Woolen and worsted fabrics, notice of hearing on tariff 
negotiations, 3.51 
Tariffs, customs. See Customs 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 
Addresses : Armstrong, 30.3 ; Prochnow, 531 ; Thibo- 

deaux, 25 ; Weeks, TfiS, 7fi9 

Declaration on continued application of schedules, 1080 

Germany, Federal Republic of, agreement with U.S. 

concerning tariff concessions on motion picture 

films, text, 814 

Germany, Federal Republic of, removal of restrictions 

on imports from dollar area, 1048 
Japan, protocol on terms of accession, 3S, 106, 270, 356, 

782 
Organizational amendments, protocol of, 38, 441, 658, 

1080 
OTC. See Trade Cooperation, Organization for 
Proems verbal of rectification concerning the protocol 
amending part I and articles XXIX and XXX, 
protocol amending preamble and Parts II and III, 
and protocol of organizational amendments, 953, 
1081 
Protocols amending, 38, 441, 658, 1080 
Rectification to French text, protocol of, 38, 356, 441, 782, 

1081 
Eectific.Ttions and modifications to annexes and texts of 

schedules, 4th protocol, 38, 356, 658, 1080 
Rectifications and modifications to texts of schedules, 

5th protocol, 622. 733, 907, 1081 
Renegotiation of tariff concessions between U.S. and — 
Austria, Ceylon, Cuba, the Netherlands, and Sweden, 

350 
India, Netherlands Antilles, New Zealand, Nicaragua, 
and Pakistan, 26 
Supplementary concessions, 6th protocol, 941, 1081 
Tariff negotiations at Geneva between contracting 
parties : 
Advisers to U.S. delegation and purpose of negotia- 
tions, 96 
Statement (Prochnow) concerning U.S. participation 

and U.S. delegation, 184 
Results of negotiations : 
Address (Kalijarvi), 1016 
Advisers report to the President, 813 
Announcement and text of proclamation, 1054, 1057 
President's message to Congress, 1062 
U.S. participation in : 

Address (Tliibodeaux), 849, 851 

President's economic report to Congress, excerpt, 254 
U.S. tariff concessions to — 

Norway, 125 ; Sweden, 289 
U.S. tariff negotiations with — 

Finland, France, and the Dominican Republic, 687 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of, 262 
Technical aid to foreign countries. See Economic and 

technical aid 
Technical assistance, U.N. See under United Nations 
Technical assistance in the field of human rights, promo- 
tion of the status of women, 1035 
Technical Committee on Travel Plant, 223 
Technical cooperation activities in civil aviation, agree- 
ment with Colombia, 865 

1118 



Technical Cooperation Administration (see also Interna- 
tional Cooperation Administration), organizational 
structure, 212 
Technical cooperation program, U.S. See Economic and 

technical aid 
Technical information and patent rights for defense pur- 
poses, agreements for exchange of, with — 
Belgium, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, and U.K., 
104, 577; Germany, Federal Republic of, 104, 142, 
577 ; Japan, 104, 577, 578 ; Turkey, 952, 953 
Technical Property Committee for Defense, Interagency, 

577 
Technical Property Committees, functions, 105, 577 
Telecommunications : 

Color television, demonstrations for visitors to U.S., 428 
Telecommunication convention, international (1952), 

current actions, 106, 355, 533, 658, 782, 994, 1080 
Telecommunication Union, International, establishment 

and functions, 481, 483 
Telegraph services, U.S.-U.K. discussions concerning, 
981 
Television, color, demonstrations for visitors to U.S., 428 
Territorial waters and related matters : 

Inter-American Council of Jurists, 3d meeting, texts of 
resolutions, and U.S. declaration and reservation, 
296, 298, 299 
Inter-American specialized conference on conservation 
of natural resources : continental shelf and ma- 
rine waters, U.S. delegation, text of resolution, and 
U.S. statement for final act. 487, 894, 897 
Textile exports, Japanese, question of protective restric- 
tions by U.S. : 
Statements (Dulles), 14, 638, 712, 921 
Texts of notes, 728 
Thailand : 

Communist aggression in, 724 

Mekong River, request for ICA survey, .52 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement with U.S., 534, 

590, 622 
Collisions at sea, regulations for preventing, 1038 
Tin concentrates, agreement with U.S. on sale and 
purchase of, 622 
U.S. aid, 381, 788 

U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 226 
Visit of U.S. atomic expert, 509 
Thayer, Robert H., 226 
Thermal-power development in Japan, Export-Import 

Bank loan, 888 
Thibodeaux, Ben H., 22, 848 

Three-power declaration of 1950, U.S. position on, state- 
ment (Dulles), 711 
Tin concentrates, agreement with Thailand for sale and 

purchase of, 622 
Tiselius, Arne, 801 

Tobacco, U.S. export prospects, 1019, 1020. 1022 
Tobacco and military dependents' housing, agreement with 

U.K., 1081 
Togoland, British and French, future status of: 
Statements : Bell, 100 ; Gerig, 36 
U.N. resolutions, 38, 98, 102 
Togoland, French, progress in the territory of, statement 
(Gerig), 573 

Department of State Bulletin 



Tong, Hollington K., 1004 
Toukan, Taysir A., 85 
Tourism. See Travel, international 

Trade (sec also Agricultural surpluses; East-West trade; 
Economic policy and relations, U.S'. ; Exports, U.S. ; 
Imports; Tariff policy, U.S.; Tariffs and trade, gen- 
eral agreement on ; Trade agreements ; and Trade 
Cooperation, Organization for) : 
Brazil, trade with, address (Nixon), 337 
International trade, stabilization of, address (Dulles), 

744 
Japan, U.S. trade mission to, 974 

Japanese textile exports to U.S., question of protective 
restrictions by U.S. : 
Statements (Dulles), 14, 638, 712, 921 
Texts of notes, 728 
Japanese trade problems, address (Eisenhower), 704 
Promoting international flow of goods and capital, 
excerpts from President's economic report to Con- 
gress, 253, 257 
Spain, expanding U.S. trade with, address (John 

Lodge), 126 
Trade controls in Far East, U.S.-British views on, joint 

statement (Eisenhower, Eden), 234 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Address (Thibodeaux), 23 

Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention to facilitate importation of, 440, 
1038 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaties with — 
Germany, Federal Republic of, 907; Netherlands, 
621, 622 ; Nicaragua, 174, 181 
U.K.-Communist China trade, statement (Dulles), 924 
U.S. foreign trade policy, addresses and statements: 
Armstrong, 302, 306, 307; Coe, 429; Eisenhower, 
705; Holland, 1006; Kalijarvi, 1014; McLain, 1017; 
Weeks, 767; Williams, 977 
World trade development, addresses : Hoover, 1051 ; 
Thibodeaux, 848 
Trade agreements, with — 

Ecuador, extension of 1938 agreement, proclamation, 

180, 181 
Iceland, agreement amending 1943 agreement, 578 
Trade Agreements Extension Acts, 96, 253, 353, 1056, 1057 
Trade Cooperation, Organization for : 
Agreement on, signatures, 38, 441, 533, 1080 
Functions, address and statements : Dulles, 472 ; Kali- 
jarvi, 1014 ; Prochnow, 531 ; Weeks, 476 
U.S. membership, question of; 

Addresses and statements : Armstrong, 303 ; Dulles, 

472 ; Thibodeaux, 851 ; Weeks, 476, 768 
President's messages to Congress, excerpts, 81, 154, 

254 
Report to the President by nongovernmental advisers 
to the U.S. delegation negotiating tariff agreements 
in Geneva, excerpt, 814 
Trade fairs and missions, U.S. participation in, address 

(Williams), 978, 979 
Trade-marks, protection of American rights abroad, ad- 
dress (Thibodeaux), 24 
Transport system in Burma, International Bank loan lor 
improvement of, 889 

Index, January to June 7956 



Travel, international (see also Passports and Visas) : 
Hotel development in Latin America, problems of, 223 
Hungary, U.S. restrictions on travel of American 

citizens in, 248 
Private road vehicles, customs convention on tempor- 
ary importation of, 73, 440, 658, 782, 864 
Road traffic, convention on, with annexes and protocol, 

317, 355 
Touring, convention concerning customs facilities for, 

73, 440, 658, 782, 864 
Western Hemisphere, travel development in the, 

article (Kelly), 1029 
Western Hemisphere, U.S. tourist expenditures in, ad- 
dress (Holland), 1009 
Travel Congress, Inter-American, 6th, meeting and U.S. 

delegation, article (Kelly), 657, 1029 
Treaties, agreements, etc., international {foi- specific 
treaty, see country or subject) : 
Agreements under the U.N. Charter, address (Wilcox), 

844, 845 
Agricultural surpluses agreements, address (Arm- 
strong), 304 
Atomic energy, bilateral agreements for cooperation 
in peaceful uses of, excerpt from report to Presi- 
dent, 7 
Bipartisan development of, address (Dulles), 999 
Commemoration of first U.S.-Swedish treaty, state- 
ments (Cabot, Und6n), 800 
Current actions on, listed, 38, 73, 106, 141, 181, 226, 263, 
317, 355, 398, 440, 487, 533, 578, 622, 658, 694, 733, 
782. 821, 864, 907, 952, 994, 1038, 1080 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaties of, im- 
portance to American business abroad, address 
(Thibodeaux), 23 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, provisions of agreements for exchange of, 
104, 105 
Requirements under Agricultural Trade Development 

and Assistance Act, 132 
Status lists, 822 
Treaty rights in Morocco, U.S. policy, 204 
Troops, U.S. See Armed forces 
Tropical Tuna Commission, Inter-American, 910 
Trust territories, U.N. : 
French Cameroons, progress in, statement (Gerig), 730 
Nuclear tests in trust territories of the Pacific ; 
Marshall Islands petition requesting cessation of, 689 
U.S. views, statement (Gerig), 576 
Ruanda-Urundi, political and economic development, 

statement (Gerig), 438 
Togoland. See Togoland 
Trusteeship Council, U.N. ; 

Documents, lists of, 104, 225, 440, 859, 902 
Resolution on the future status of Togoland, 38 
Tuapse, Soviet tanker, departure of former crew mem- 
bers from U.S., text of U.S. note, 765 
Tuna, canned in brine, increase in duty on imports of, 

proclamation, 654 
Tunisia : 

FAO membership, 437 

French policies in, address (Dillon) , 553, 554 
French-Tunisian protocol, texts of messages on signing 
of, 552 

1119 



Tunisia — (;!ontinued 

U.S. policy, address and article : Dillon, 553, 554 ; How- 
ard, 455 
World Health Organization, constitution, 1038 
Turkey : 

Cyprus. See Cyprus 

Economic development program, address and statement : 

Allen, 876, 877 ; Seager, 507 
Economic discussions with U.S., 171 
Press-control law, statement (Dulles), 1065 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreements with U.S., 5.34, 907 

Atomic energy, agreement with U.S., 594 

Atomic information, agreement between parties to 

NAT for cooperation, 622 
Baghdad Pact. See Baghdad Pact 
Bills of lading, international convention (1924) for 

unification of certain rules relating to, 694 
Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 1038 
GATT, Gth protocol of supplementary concessions, 

1081 
Passport visas and visa fees, agreement with U.S. 

relating to, 441 
Patent rights and technical information, agreement 
with U.S. for exchange for defense purposes, 952, 
953 
Postal convention, universal, 74 

Road traffic, convention on, with annexes and protocol, 
317 
U.S. aid, 594, .595, 681 

U.S. Ambassador, resignation (Avra Warren), 441 ; con- 
firmation ( Fletcher Warren) , 488 
U.S. mutual security program, statement (Hollister), 

611 
U.S. visa applications, cutoff date for escapees resid- 
ing in, 1024, 1063 
Visit of U.S. atomic expert, 509 
Turkin, Nikolai, 765, 766 

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (see also Soviet 
Union), international telecommunication convention, 
356 
Und^n, Osteu, 801 

Underdeveloped countries (see also Investment of private 
capital abroad) : 
Economic assistance to, multilateral approach, address 

(Wilcox), 115 
Economic assistance to, Soviet program of. See under 

Soviet Union 
Economic penetration by Communist countries, efforts 

to combat, addresses : Dulles, 1001 ; Nixon, 1044 
South Asia, economic improvement of, statement 

(Allen), 878 
U.N. technical assistance program. See under United 

Nations 
U.S. aid, address and statements : Dulles, 119, 365 ; 
Murphy, 965 
UNESCO. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural 

Organization, U.N. 
Union of South Africa. See South Africa, Union of 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. See Soviet Union 

1120 



United Kingdom : 
Anglo-American discussions concerning common prin- 
ciples and world problems : 
Agenda, proposed, statements (Dulles), 196, 201, 202 
Arrival of Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary, 

remarks (Dulles, Eden, Lloyd), 234, 235 
Declaration of Washington, 231 
Joint statement (Eisenhower, Eden), text, 232 
Texts of addresses by Prime Minister to Congress and 
transcript of radio-TV address, 235, 237, 239 
Atomic energy, U.K. assistance to Baghdad Pact coun- 
tries for peaceful development of, 18 
Atomic weapons, talks with U.S. regarding control of 

testing of, statement ( Dulles) , 198 
Civil aviation talks with U.S., 374, 528 
Cyprus. See Cyprus 
Disarmament, 4-po\ver (U.S., U.K., Canada, France) 

declaration of principles relating to, 838 
Dispute with Saudi Arabia over Buraimi, 465 
Foreign Office records, access policy, 344 
Foreign policy, coordination with U.S. policy, address 

(Aldrich), 798 
Heavy water, purchase from U.S., 592 
Imports from the dollar area, removal of restrictions 

on, 1048 
Imports of U.S. fruit, address (Thibodeaux), 850 
International arbitration and adjudication, U.K. record 

of, 665 
Korea, exchange of notes with Chinese Communists 
regarding withdrawal of foreign forces from and 
reunification of, 970 
Malaya, Federation of: 

Communist aggression in, 724 
Independence, U.K. assurance of, 347 
Middle East : 

Tripartite (U.S.. U.K., France) meeting on. 233, 286 
U.K. policy in, 459, 460, 461, 462, 799 
Telegraph services, discussions with U.S. concerning, 

981 
Togoland. See Togoland 
Trade with Communist China, statements (Dulles), 

924, 1067 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, agreements with U.S., 1071, lOSl 
Baghdad Pact (see also Baghdad Pact), agreement 

with Iraq under the, 17 
External debts of the City of Berlin and public utility 

enterprises, agreement relating to, 93, 651, 865 
GATT, proc&s verbal and amending protocols, 733, 

1081 
Ice Patrol, North Atlantic, financial support agree- 
ment, 317 
IFC, articles of agreement, 73 
OTC, agreement on, 533 

Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreement with U.S. for exchange of, 104, 
577 
Tobacco, sale of, and construction of military depend- 
ents' housing and community facilities for use of 
US.\F in U.K., agreement with U.S., 1081 
War criminals, penal administrative agreement, 658 
U.S. mutual security aid, continuation of, 214 
Visit of Prime Minister to U.S. See Anglo-American 
discussions, supra 

Department of State Bulletin 



United Nations : 

Addresses and statements : 

Importance of the U.N'. Specialized Agencies to tlie 

United Nations (Wilcox), 480 
The Soviet Challenge and the United Nations (Wil- 
cox), 495 
Teaching About the U.N. and Specialized Agencies 

(Pedersen), 990 
The United Nations in the Mainstream of History 

(Wilcox), 841 
The United Nations : Some New Perspectives After 10 
Tears (Wilcox), 111 
Atomic energy, actions concerning. See Atomic energy, 
radiation effects on liuman health ; and, Atomic 
Energy Agency 
Atomic energy library, presentation by U.S., 656 
Budget for 1956, analysis and U.S. views, statement 

(Merrow), 138 
Charter. See United Nations Charter 
Disarmament, efforts for. See under Disarmament 
ayid also United Nations Disarmament Commission 
General Assembly. See General Assembly 
League of Nations, replacement by U.N., 741 
Membership question : 

Japan and Sudan, U.S. views on, statements (Lodge), 

354 
U.S. position and Soviet use of veto, addresses and 
statements : Dulles, 12 ; Lodge, 97, 354 ; Wilcox, 111, 
112, 113 
Near and Middle East, U.N. role in settlement of dis- 
putes in. See Arab-Israeli dispute and Near and 
Middle East 
Publications. See vnder Publications 
SEATO Council, support of U.N". by member govern- 
ments of, 447 
Security CouncU. See Security Council 
Specialized agencies. See Specialized agencies and 

name of agency 
Technical assistance program : 

Address and statements : Bell, 486 ; Hays, 99 ; Wilcox, 

115, 116, 483 
U.S. contributions, 120, 310, 794 

U.S. support of, address, article, and statement : 
Howard, 593, 601 ; Kotschnig, 395 ; Wilcox, 846, 847 
Trust territories. See Trust territories and Trustee- 
ship Council 
U.S. support of, 81 
United Nations, U.S. Committee for the, chairman, 732 
United Nations Administrative Tribunal, judicial review 

of judgments. General Assembly approval, 99 
United Nations Charter: 

Development and enforcement of international law 

under the U.N., 741, 742 
Evolution of, and collective security under, address 

(Wilcox), 843, 845 
Review of. address (Wilcox) and U.N. action at 10th 

General Assembly, 98, 116 
U.S. and Soviet obligations under, letters (Eisenhower, 
Bulganin) and draft Soviet treaty with U.S., 191, 
194, 195 
United Nations Command (Korea), withdrawal of NNSC 
teams from South Korea, statement and exchange of 
notes, 967, 970 

Index, January to June 1956 



United Nations Commission on Human Rights, 12th ses- 
sion, report (Lord) and resolutions on annual reports 
and on studies of specific rights, 984, 989, 990 
United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, 10th 

session, article (Hahn), 10.33 
United Nations Disarmament Commission : 
50th meeting, statement (Lodge), 222 
Indian proposal for enlargement of, U.S. position, state- 
ment (Lodge), 68 
U.S. delegate to subcommittee meetings in London, 486 
United Nations Economic and Social Council. See Econ- 
omic and Social Council, U.N. 
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe : 
Coal Committee, meeting and U.S. delegation, 1079 
U.S. representative to 11th session, confirmation, 592 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization. See Educational, Scientific and Cul- 
tural Organization 
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. See 

Food and Agriculture Organization 
United Nations Fund for Economic Development, Special 
(SUN'FED), General Assembly resolution and U.S. 
views on proposed establishment of, 98, 436 
United Nations Refugee Fund : 

Executive Committee, U.S. delegates to 2d and 3d ses- 
sions. 225, 948 
U.S. contributions, 590, 1077 
United Nations Relief and Works Agency, aid to Palestine 

refugees, 31, 33 
United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic 
Radiation, 1st meeting, article (Warren) and U.S. 
delegation, 533, 860 
United Nations Sugar Conference, U.S. delegation, 947 
United Nations Trusteeship Council. See Trusteeship 

Council, U.N. 
United States citizens and nationals, protection of: 
Communist China, detention and release of U.S. civil- 
ians. See Geneva ambassadorial talks 
Jordan, U.S. representations against mob violence in 
Amman and the Jordan-occupied sector in Jeru- 
salem, 85 
United States Committee for the United Nations, chair- 
man, 732 
United States Escapee Program, 650, 1024 
United States Information Agency, 251, 252 
United States service academies, designation of foreign 

students to, Executive order, 528 
Universal copyright convention, 141, 263, 865, 1036 
Universal postal convention, 73, 141, 398, 994 
Universal Postal Union (UPU), establishment and func- 
tions, 481, 483 
Upton, Robert W., 210 
Uranium resources of Chile, agreement with Chile for 

cooperative program of investigations of, 865 
Uri, Pierre, 241 
Uruguay : 

Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement with U.S. for 

cooperation, 141, 142 
Collisions at sea, regulations for preventing, 622 
Military assistance, agreement with U.S. for disposi- 
tion of equipment and materials, 994 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements, 398 

1121 



Uruguay — Continued 

Technical cooperation, agreement with U.S., 694 

U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 658 
U.S.S.R. See Soviet Union 

Van Langenhove, Fernand, 64 

Vatican City State, international wheat agreement, 907 

Venezuela : 

Geneva conventions (1949), 907 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and parcel 
post and money orders agreements. .398 
Safety of life at sea, convention on, 622 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 658 
Ver Duin, Claude, 374 
Vessels. See Ships and shipping 
Veto power in Security Council. See Security Council: 

Membership question 
Vicchi, Adolfo A., 7 
Viet-Nam : 

Economic progress, 447 

Mekong River, request for ICA survey, 52 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Collisions at sea, regulations for preventing, 1038 
Customs facilities for touring, convention concerning, 

440 
Economic cooperation, agreement with U.S. provid- 
ing for direct forces support, 694 
Equipment and materials, agreement with U.S. pro- 
viding for disposition of, 694 
Private road vehicles, customs convention concerning 

temporary importation of, 440 
Telecommunication convention, international, and 
final and additional protocols, 533 
U.N. membership, U.S. position on question of, 113 
U.S. aid, 208, 725, 839 
U.S. policy, address (Robertson), 972 
Visas : 

Archbishop Boris and Father Louis Dion, U.S.-Soviet 

notes concerning issuance of visas to, 19 
Nonimmigrant visas, agreements relating to, with — 
Dominican Republic, 270 ; Iceland, Iraq, 1081 ; Pan- 
ama, 1038 ; South Africa, Union of, 782 
Passport visas and visa fees, agreements relating to, 
with — 
China, Republic of, 694 ; Pakistan, 142 ; Turkey, 441 
U.S., issuance under Refugees Relief Act, 468, 775, 1063 
U.S. visa applications, cutoff dates for refugees and dis- 
placed persons announced : 
Chinese ethnic refugees, 810 
Far East, refugees indigenous to, 568 
Greece and Italy, refugees in, 16 
NATO countries of continental Europe, Turkey, 

Sweden, and Iran, escapees residing in, 1024 
Polish refugees, 940 
Statement (Dulles), 1063 
Voight, Lester P., 374 

Volta Redonda, Brazil, industrial progress in, 336 
Von Brentano, Heinrich, 210 



Wadsworth, James J. : 

Address, letter, and statements: 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, 852, 898 
Atomic radiation, effects on human health, 98 
Economic aid, 117fi 

Palestine question and aid to Arab refugees, 31, 32, 
35, 98, 1026, 1028 
Designation as U.S. representative to International 
Atomic Energy Agency negotiations, 210 

Wan ^Yaithayakon, 590 

Wang Ping-nan, 52, 164, 165, 451, 1070 

War criminals, penal administrative agreement, 658 

War memorials, agreement with France relating to grants « 
of land located in France, 694 ' 

War victims, Geneva conventions (1949) relative to pro- 
tection and treatment of, 007 

Warren, Avra M., 441 

Warren, Fletcher, 488 

Warren, George L., 944 

Warren, Shields, 98, 533, 860 

Warsaw Pact, admittance of Eastern Germany, 334 

Washington, Declaration of : 

Addresses and article : Eden, 236, 237, 239, 240 ; Howard 

604 » 

Text, 231 

Water resources, international development of, state- 
ment (Baker) and text of ECOSOC resolution, 949, 
951 

Waters, territorial. See Territorial waters 

Waters, U.S.-Canadian boundary, joint study proposed, 
940 

Weather. See Meteorology 

Weeks, Sinclair, 476, 766, 767 

Welensky, Sir Roy, 552 

Wells, Oris V., 436 

West Africa. See individual countries 

West New Guinea, dispute between Netherlands and In- 
donesia concerning, address (Sukarno), 930 

Western Hemisphere, U.S. exports to, address (Thibo- 
deaux), 850 

Whaling convention, international, amendments to sched- 
ule, 865 

Wheat, distribution of U.S. surpluses for use in overseas 
and domestic programs, 53, 1019, 1020, 1021, 1022, 1023 

Wheat agreement, international, 907 

White, Lincoln, 367, 505 

White slave trafiic, multilateral agreement for repression 
of, 578 

White Sulphur Springs Meeting. See Heads of Govern- 
ment meeting (U.S., Canada, Mexico) 

Whittenberger, James, 527 

WHO. Sec World Health Organization 

Wilcox, Francis O., Ill, 480, 495, 841 

Wilkins, J. Ernest, 949, 1036 

Williams, Walter, 977 

Wilson, Thomas B., 1079 

Wilson, Woodrow : 

Centennial year, proclamation, 806 
Ideals of, address (Robertson), 805 

Witman, William II, 142 

WMO. See World Meteorological Organization 



1122 



Department of State Bulletin 



Women, economic opportunities for, article (Hahn), 1033 
Women, inter-American convention on granting of ijolitl- 

cal rights to, 865 
Women, U.N. Commission on the Status of, 10th session, 

article (Hahn), 1033 
Woolen fabrics, notice of hearing on tariff negotiations, 

351 
World Bank. See International Bank 
World Health Assembly. See under World Health 

Organization 
World Health Organization : 
Constitution of the, 1038 
Establishment and functions, 481, 482, 483 
Executive Board, appointment of U.S. representatives, 

210 
World Health Assembly, 9th, meeting and U.S. delega- 
tion, 862 
World Meteorological Organization : 
Convention of the, 141, 398 
Establishment and functions, 481, 483 
World Power Conference, meeting and U.S. delegation, 

1078 
World trade week, 1956, proclamation, 686 



Worsted fabrics, notice of hearing on tariff negotiations, 
351 

Wounded and sick, Geneva conventions (1949) on treat- 
ment in time of war, 907 

Wriston, Henry M., 248, 651, 953 

Wriston Committee. See Public Committee on Personnel 

Yemen Development Corporation, concession to, 597 
Yugoslavia : 

Arms supply to Egypt, question of, statements (Dulles), 

196, 197 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreement with U.S. amend- 
ing 1955 agreement, 317 
Cultural property, convention and protocol for protec- 
tion in event of armed conflict, and regulations of 
execution, 440 
Customs, agreement with U.S. for reciprocal privi- 
leges for consular officers, 994 
Economic assistance, agreement with U.S., 317 
German external debts, agreement on, 733 
Wheat agreement, international, 907 
U.S. military and economic aid, 199, 348, 548, 609, 679 

Zephirin, Mauclair, 163 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

PubUcation 6512 

Released September 1957 

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I9S7 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, tJ. S. Government Printing Office 
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 25 cents 



Index, January to June 1956 



1123 






<^/ie' z^e/i€i^f^!m^e^t/' y(^ fj^a/e' 




'ol. XXXIV, No. 862 



January 2, 1956 




BRIGHTER HOPES FOR PEACE • Remarks by President 

EisenhovDer 3 

PROGRESS REPORT ON ATOMS-FOR-PEACE PRO- 
GRAM • Correspondence Between the President and 
Morehead Patterson 4 

U.S. GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE TO AMERICAN 

BUSINESS ABROAD i by Ben H. Thibodeaux 22 

AIDING ARAB REFUGEES 

Statements by Ambassador James J. Wadsujorth ...... 31 

Text of U.N. Resolution 33 



For index see inside back covei 



Boston Public Library 

i;Uperin«f>-i'»»nt of nncjiments 

JAN 3 195o 




■*r,m o» 



^Ae z/^e/ici'i^tmeTtt c^ tjlctte 



bulletinl 



Vol. XXXIV, No. 862 • Publication 6225 
January 2, 1956 



For sale by the Superintendent o( Documents 

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Price: 

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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
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OF State Bulletin as the source will He 
appreciated^ 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
selected press releases on foreign pol- 
icy, issued by the W^hile House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
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Brighter Hopes for Peace 



Remarhs hy President Eisenhower ^ 



My fellow Americans at home and across the 
seas, my fellow men and women of every nation : 

For hundreds of millions of us, Christmas sym- 
bolizes our deepest aspirations for peace and for 
good will among men. 

For me, this particular Christmas has a very 
special meaning and has brought to me, really, 
new understandings of people. 

During the past 3 months my family and I have 
received literally thousands — tens of thousands — 
of messages. Each of these has borne a sentence 
of good wishes and good will for health and hap- 
piness to us both. It has been heart-warming 
evidence that human miderstanding and human 
sympathy can surmount every obstacle — even 
those obstacles that some governments sometimes 
seem to raise in the attempt to divide us. 

Now the free world is just coming to the close 
of a very significant year, one in which we have 
worked hard and sometimes effectively for peace. 
Now the facts of today, of course, do not measure 
up to the high hopes of the free world, the hopes 
by which we have lived and which we have long 
entertained. But this Christmas is, nevertheless, 
brighter in its background and its promise for 
the future than any we have known in recent 
years. I think it is even better than last year. 



' Broadcast by radio and television from Gettysburg 
on Dec. 18 on the occasion of the lighting of the National 
Community Christmas Tree at Washington, D.C. 



and you will remember that Christmas was the 
first one in many years that was not marred by 
the tragic incidents of war. 

Now peace is the right of every human being. 
It is hungered for by all of the peoples of the 
earth. So we can be sure that tonight in the full- 
ness of our hearts and in the spirit of the season, 
as we utter a simple prayer for peace, we will 
be joined by the multitudes of the earth. 

Those multitudes will include rulers as well 
as the hmnblest citizens of lands, the great and 
the meek, the proud and the poor, the successful 
and the failures, the dispirited and the hopeful. 

Now each of those prayers will of course differ 
according to the characteristics and the person- 
ality of the individual uttering it, but running 
through every single one of those prayers will be 
a thought something of this kind : 

May each of us strive to do our best to bring 
about better understanding in the world. And 
may the infinite peace from above live with us and 
be ours forever, and may we live in the confident 
hope that it will come. 

And so it is tonight in that hope, which must 
never die from the earth, which we must cling to 
and cherish and nurture and work for, that I light 
the National Community Christmas Tree at the 
Pageajit of Peace in Washington. 

To each of you — wherever you may be — from 
Mrs. Eisenhower and me : a very Merry Christmas ! 



January 2, 1956 



Progress Report on Atoms-for-Peace Program 



On November 30, Morehead Patterson, U.S. 
Representative for International Atomic Energy 
Agency Negotiations, sent to President Eisen- 
hower a letter of resignation to which he attached 
a report on his activities during the past year. 
Following are the texts of the letters exchanged 
hy the President and Mr. Patterson. 

White House (Gettysburg) press release dated December 6 

THE PRESIDENT TO MR. PATTERSON 

December 3, 1955 

Dear Mr. Patterson : I am deeply grateful to 
you for the services you have contributed to the 
government over the past year, acting as United 
States Representative "to implement the policy of 
the United States looking toward the establish- 
ment of an International Atomic Energy 
Agency." Knowing that you undertook this work 
at great personal sacrifice, I must accede to your 
wishes and herewith accept your resignation. 

The report you submitted to me of your activi- 
ties for the period, which accompanied your letter 
of November thirtieth, is immensely valuable, and 
will, I know, be most helpful to all working in 
this field. 

I shall hope to see you, together with the Secre- 
tary of State, soon after my return to Washington, 
to discuss with you means of implementing the 
■work you have so ably carried on, and to convey 
to you, in person, my appreciation of the im- 
portant contribution you have made in this vital 
field. 

With warm regard, 
Sincerely, 

DWIGHT D. ElSENHO^VER 

Mr. Morehead Patterson, 
American Machine and Foundry Company, 
511 Fifth Avenue, 

Neio York 22, New York. 



MR. PATTERSON TO THE PRESIDENT 

November 30, 1955 

Dear Mr. President : On November 4, 1954 you 
appointed me United States Eepresentative "to 
implement the policy of the United States looking 
toward the establislmient of an International 
Atomic Energy Agency." In your letter of ap- 
pointment you said that "this is a subject of vital 
and deep concern to the United States, and to the 
peace of the world." 

Today, after twelve months, I am happy to re- 
port that we have reached what I believe is an 
important landmark in this vital aspect of your 
"Atoms for Peace" program. 

The draft Statute of an International Agency, 
agreeable to the eight negotiating States, has been 
submitted to all eighty-four States eligible for 
initial membership in the Agency. The First 
Committee of the United Nations General Assem- 
bly has unanimously adopted a resolution noting 
with satisfaction the progress that has been made. 

Additional!}', the program for securing bilateral 
agreements for cooperation for research reactors 
is now well underway. Twenty-four agreements 
under this program were initialed in 1955 and 
nineteen have become eifective. 

I feel that the major contribution which I can 
make to your program under my assignment has 
been completed. Accordingly, I would appreci- 
ate being relieved of my duties at this time and I 
herewith submit my resignation. 

Attached to this letter is a brief report of my 
detailed activities during the past year. 

It has been a rare privilege to be associated with 
your administration in the accomplishment of this 
task and I wish to express my deep appreciation 
for the unfailing support and understanding 
which you and your staff, as well as the Atomic 
Energy Commission and the Department of State, 
have extended to me. To have had the opportu- 



Deparfment of S/o/e Bullefin 



nity of working under you in the interests of your 
challenging hopes and plans for world peace has 
been a most gratifying experience. 
Very respectfully, 

MoREHEAD Patterson 

[BncloBure] 

Summary of Progress Report 

During the past year the United States, in negotiations 
with seven other States (Australia, Belgium, Canada, 
France, Portugal, Union of South Africa, and the United 
Kingdom), has developed a draft Statute of an Interna- 
tional Atomic Energy Agency, acceptable to all eight 
negotiating States. 

The draft Statute was turned over to the Soviet Union 
on a confidential basis on July 29, 1955, and Its comments 
were requested. It was distributed by the United States 
on behalf of the negotiating States, also on a confidential 
basis, to all eighty-four States, Members of the United 
Nations or of the specialized agencies, on August 22, 1955. 
Comments on the Statute were requested from all States 
and many have been received. These comments indicate 
that differences in viewpoint as disclosed to date are 
mainly concentrated on a few points such as: a) com- 
position and manner of selection of the Board of Gov- 
ernors of the Agency; b) relationship of the Agency to 
the United Nations; c) procedures for approval of the 
budget and prorating among States of operating expenses. 

The United States and the other negotiating States 
have sought to give full consideration to the viewpoints 
expressed by all of the States. It would not, however, be 
feasible to include within the negotiating group all States 
which have made comments. A group of that size could 
not effectively work out the technical details of a Statute. 
Also a detailed discussion of the Statute in the General 
Assembly was undesirable at this stage. 

On October 21, the United States called for an Operating 
Level Meeting to consider further the draft Statute. The 
United States asked the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, 
India, and Brazil in addition to the original negotiating 
group to participate in this Meeting. Thus the phase of 
the negotiations which I have conducted has now been 
merged with the negotiations with the USSR, heretofore 
reserved for the attention of the Secretary of State. The 
new group will seek to reconcile differences of viewjwint 
and to produce a Statute which will be acceptable to as 
many States as possible. 

On many fundamental matters all States are thinking 
basically along the same lines. The differences of view- 
point, while substantial, seem capable of reconciliation. 
The unanimous approval by the Tenth General Assembly 
of the resolution dealing with the peaceful uses of the 
atom highlights the great progress that has already been 
made. 

Twenty-four Bilateral Agreements for Cooperation be- 
tween the United States and other States, as provided by 
Section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, were 
initialed by approximately June 15, 1955. Nineteen of 
these Agreements were initialed in time to become effective 
prior to the adjournment of the Congress. These Agree- 



ments permit the States entering into them to secure from 
the United States the fuel necessary for the operation of 
research reactors. 

Progress Report on International Atomic Energy 
Agency Negotiations 

On November 4, 1954 I received the following communi- 
cation from the President of the United States : 

Dear Me. Patterson : I am happy to appoint you United 
States Representative, with the personal rank of Ambassa- 
dor, to implement the policy of the United States looking 
toward the establishment of an International Atomic 
Energy Agency. 

As you know, this is a subject of vital and deep concern 
to the interests of the United States, and to the peace of 
the world. I join all Americans in wishing you Godspeed 
in this undertaking. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

The following is a progress report of my activities for 
the year during which I have served. 

I. Discussions Abroad 

In December 1954, at the suggestion of the Joint Atomic 
Energy Committee of the Congress, I joined certain of its 
members in visiting a number of European countries to 
determine the international response to our "Atoms for 
Peace" program. In Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portu- 
gal, France, and Switzerland, I consulted the individuals 
in government and in business chiefly concerned with 
atomic energy programs. It was apparent that the pro- 
spective demand for power in all these countries far ex- 
ceeded their conventional fuel resources and that all of 
them would seek as rapidly as possible to develop atomic 
power programs. It was clear that they wished to co- 
operate and exchange information immediately with the 
United States. They preferred not to wait for the crea- 
tion of an International Agency. 

II. Negotiations for an International Atomic Energy 
Agency 

The Secretary of State in his opening statement to the 
Ninth United Nations General Assembly on September 23, 
1954 ' stated that the U.S. efforts "have been and will be 
directed primarily toward the following ends: 1) The 
creation of an International Agency whose initial member- 
ship will include nations from all regions of the world. 
It is hoped that such an Agency will start its work as 
early as next year." The view of the United States that 
the Agency should come into being as soon as possible be- 
came the view of the United Nations when the General 
Assembly by a unanimous vote passed a resolution ex- 
pressing "the hope that the International Atomic Energy 
Agency will be established without delay." ° 

This raised a basic issue — how it would be possible to 
solve the many complicated problems and troublesome de- 
tails and at the same time establish an Agency at an early 
date. It was my conclusion that the draft Statute of the 
Agency should be a broad constitutional framework — a 



' Bulletin of Oct. 4, 1954, p. 471. 
' Ibid., Dec. 13, 1954, p. 919. 



January 2, 1956 



statement of general principles rather than a point-by- 
point revelation of details — which would leave the Agency 
free to develop primarily as an operating Agency after its 
creation. The Agency should be led and operated by ex- 
perts in the field and administrators qualified to meet 
and cope with the uncharted and evolving problems which 
will have to be solved. I proceeded on this basis, bearing 
constantly in mind the examples of the International Banli 
and the International Monetary Fund as organizations 
which have carried out great responsibilities in a busi- 
nesslilie and successful manner. 

Among the problems which could be dealt with after the 
establishment of the Agency were the location of its 
headquarters and the functions it would assume under 
its broad grant of authority. 

It was clear that the memliership as a whole could not 
deal witli the day-to-day technical problems which would 
confront the Agency. Therefore, we provided in the 
Statute for a Board of Governors with broad authority 
to make most of the necessary decisions for the Agency. 
The membership as a whole — described in the Statute as 
the General Conference — maintains its control over the 
Board of Governors through election of a number of its 
members and through complete control over the purse. 
The budget must be approved by a two-thirds vote of the 
General Conference. 

The provisions of the Statute dealing with composition 
and selection of the Board of Governors were designed to 
reflect the realities of the international situation. It is 
clear that for a number of years the Agency will secure 
its fissionable materials, its source materials and its tech- 
nical sliill from a very small number of States. It would 
be unrealistic to disregard this situation in developing a 
formula for composition and selection of tlie Board of 
Governors of the Agency. We studied a number of 
methods of meeting this situation. One possibility was 
to provide a system of weighted voting in the Board of 
Governors dependent upon the size of contributions. This 
was not feasible because of the technical difficulties of 
evaluating contributions. 

Another possible method of meeting this situation was 
to provide that certain countries with the most advanced 
atomic energy programs should be permanent members of 
tlie Board of Governors. This did not seem desirable for 
two reasons: Over a period of years quite a number of 
additional States are likely to develop important atomic 
energy programs. Furthermore the possibility exists that 
a State designated as a permanent member would fail to 
make a substantial contribution to tlie Agency. 

The formula which we developed, while it necessarily 
could not fully satisfy ever.vone, .seems to me a sound one. 
It places appropriate emphasis upon contributions of fis- 
sionable materials, of technical skills, and of source ma- 
terials. It contemplates extensive changes in the composi- 
tion of the Board as other States developed their resources 
of uranium and thorium and their atomic energy pro- 
grams. It provides substantial representation for coun- 
tries whicli would be in a position to contribute neither 
fissionable materials nor source materials nor technical 
skills. 

I have gone into some detail in connection with this 



provision of the Statute since it was far the most diflicult 
problem wliich faced the negotiating group. 

Generally as tlie negotiating group clarified the prob-. 
lems and visualized in detail how the Agency would oper- 
ate, st lutioiis of other problems suggested themselves. 

Procedurally the negiKiations developed somewhat as 
follows : The United States prepared a first draft of the 
Statute taking into consideration suggestions received 
from other negotiating Slates and also from the United 
Nations General Assembly debates. This draft was then 
submitted to the negotiating States on March 29, lO.l.j. 
During April and May the United States discussed this 
draft with all the negotiating States and also received 
further comments from interested agencies of the United 
States Government which had not participated in the 
original drafting. 

After a thorough discussion, it developed that there was 
sufficient unanimity among all negotiating States so that 
substantially all of the suggested changes could be recon- 
ciled and incorporated into a new draft of the Statute." 
This new draft was transmitted to the Soviet Union on 
a confidential basis on July 29, 19.55, and its comments 
were requested. It was distributed by the United States 
on behalf of the negotiating States also on a confidential 
basis to all eighty-four States Members of the United Na- 
tions or of the specialized agencies on August 22, 19.55. 
Comments on the Statute were requested from all States. 

Many comments have been received either through com- 
munications to the State Department or through state- 
ments made in the recent debate on this subject in the 
Tenth General Assembly. These comments indicate that 
differences in viewpoint as disclosed to date are mainly 
concentrated on a few points such as: a) composition and 
manner of selection of the Board of Governors of the 
Agency; b) relationship of the Agency to the United Na- 
tions; c) procedures for approval of the budget and pro- 
rating among States of operating expenses. 

The United States and the other negotiating States have 
sought to give full consideration to the viewpoints ex- 
pressed by all of the States. It would not, however, be 
feasible to include within the negotiating group all States 
which have made comments. A group of that size could 
not effectively work out the technical details of a Statute. 
Also a detailed discussion of the Statute in the General 
Assembly was undesirable at this stage. 

On October 21, the United States called for an Operat- 
ing Level Meeting to consider further the draft Statute.' 
The United States asked the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, 
India, and Brazil in addition to the original negotiating 
group to participate in this Meeting. The USSR on 
October 1 had suggested such a meeting with the USSR 
and Czechoslovakia added to the original eight negotiating 
States. Thus the phase of the negotiations which I have 
conducted has now been merged with the negotiations 
with the USSR, heretofore reserved for the attention of 
the Secretary of State. The new group will seek to 
reconcile differences of viewpoint and to produce a Statute 
which will be acceptable to as many States as possible. 



' For text, see ibid., Oct. 24, 1955, p. 606. 
' Ibid., Nov. 11, 1955, p. 798. 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



On many fundamental matters all States are thinking 
basically along the same lines. The differences of view- 
point, while substantial, seem capable of reconciliation. 
The unanimous approval by the Tenth General Assembly 
of the resolution dealing with the peaceful use.s of the 
atom ' highlights the great progress that has already been 
made. 

III. Bihitcnil Agreements for Cooperation 

The informal discussions among the eight States par- 
ticipating in the drafting of a Statute for an International 
Agency had by December 19.54 revealetl that the di'afting 
of a Statute of an International Agency satisfactory even 
to the eight States initially participating in the negotia- 
tions, would in itself be a considerable task. To secure 
the views of all other States would certainly take a year. 
Therefore immediate achievements in advancing the 
Atoms-for-Peace program were more likely to result from 
bilateral agreements for cooperation. 

Tlie United States Atomic Energy Commission had 
already embarked upon extensive programs to share the 
benefits of the atom particularly through distribution of 
radio-isotopes, through furnishing extensive libraries of 
imclassified information to countries in all areas of the 
world and through extensive programs for training foreign 
students in the United States. This cooperation involv- 
ing exchange of neither classified material nor fissionable 
materials was possible without formal agreements for 
cooperation. 

A further approach promising immediate results was 
a program for the installation of research reactors abroad. 
These research reactors would furnish training in the type 
of problems that would be encountered on a larger scale 
in the operation of power reactors. In addition, these 
research reactors would permit production abroad of a 
number of useful isotopes. 

In order for countries to receive from the United States 
the atomic fuel necessary for the operation of the research 
reactors, it is necessary for them to enter into Agreements 
for Cooperation as provided by Article 123 of the Atomic 
Energy Act of 1954. The discussions with several States 
which had already expressed an interest in such reactors 
disclosed that conditions and requirements in most coun- 
tries were sufficiently similar so that a standard form of 
agreement could be prepared. Accordingly, the Depart- 
ment of State and the Atomic Energy Commission de- 
veloped such an agreement which was first made available 
on March 22, 1955. 

It was necessary that the Agreements for Cooperation 
be negotiated and initialed by approximately June 15 
lest the adjournment of Congress in early August might 
make compliance with the thirty day waiting provision of 
Article 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 impossible 
until February of next year. The Missions in Washing- 
ton of thirty-four States were contacted and twenty-four 
such Bilateral Agreements were initialed. Nineteen of 
these Agreements were initialed in time to become effec- 
tive prior to the adjournment of Congress. (Annex I) 

IV. Geneva Technical Conference 

I attended the UN Technical Conference in Geneva 



from August 7 to August 20, accompanied by my Special 
Assistant. We discussed informally problems relating to 
the International Atomic Energy Agency with a large 
number of delegations. 



Annex I 
Missions Contacted 



1. Argentina 

2. Australia 
8. Austria 

4. Brazil 

5. Burma 

6. Chile 

7. China 

8. Colombia 

9. Denmark 

10. Egypt 

11. Finland 

12. France 

13. Greece 

14. India 

15. Indonesia 

16. Ireland 

17. Israel 



18. Italy 

19. Japan 

20. Korea 

21. Lebanon 

22. Mexico 

28. Netherlands 

24. New Zealand 

25. Pakistan 

26. Peru 

27. Philippines 

28. Portugal 

29. Spain 

30. Switzerland 

31. Thailand 

32. Turkey 

33. Union of South Africa 

34. Venezuela 



BUateral Agreements for Cooperation Initialed 
(Research Reactors) 



Date 








Initialed 




Country 


Signed 


5/3/55 


1. 


Turkey " 


6/10/55 


.5/31/55 


2. 


Brazil 


8/3/55 


5/31/55 


3. 


Colombia 


7/19/55 


6/2/55 


4. 


Lebanon 


7/18/55 


6/3/55 


5. 


Israel 


7/12/55 


6/7/55 


6. 


Argentina 


7/29/55 


6/7/55 


7. 


Spain 


7/19/55 


6/7/55 


8. 


Italy 


7/28/55 


6/10/55 


9. 


Denmark 


7/25/55 


6/10/55 


10. 


Switzerland 


7/18/55 


6/14/55 


11. 


Portugal 


7/21/55 


6/14/55 


12. 


China 


7/18/55 


6/14/55 


13. 


Netherlands 


7/18/55 


6/14/55 


14. 


Philippines 


7/27/55 


6/14/55 


15. 


Venezuela 


7/21/55 


6/15/55 


16. 


Pakistan 


8/11/55 


6/20/.55 


17. 


Chile 


8/8/55 


6/21/55 


18. 


Japan 


11/14/55 


6/22/55 


19. 


Greece 


8/4/55 


6/24/55 


20. 


Uruguay ' 




7/1/55 


21. 


Peru' 




7/1/55 


22. 


Korea ' 




7/1/55 


23. 


Sweden ' 




7/11/55 


24. 


Thailand ' 





Letters of Credence 

James C. Hagerty, press secretary ,to the Presi- 
dent, announced on December 13 that the President 
liad that day received the credentials of the newly 
appointed Ambassador of the Argentine Kepublic, 
Adolfo A. Vicchi. 



"lUd., p. 801 ; Dec. 19, 1955, p. 1030. 
Januory 2, J956 



" For text, see ibid., July 11, 1955, p. 55. 
' These agreements did not become effective prior to the 
adjournment of Congress. 



Transcript of Secretary Dulles' 
News Conference 

PreBB release 703 dated December 20 

Secretary Dulles: Before we plunge into things, 
I would like to say as we approach the end of the 
year that I greatly appreciate the meetings we 
have had together, the courtesy that you have 
shown me, and I wish you all a Merry Christmas 
and a Happy New Year. I will probably not be 
here the last Tuesday of the year because I expect 
to be in New York over the New Year period. I 
think our meetings have been good and have been 
productive. I have tried to make them so, and 
I appreciate your cooperation. 

Soviet Offers of Economic Aid 

I have a prepared statement here which I 
thought it might be useful to make, as indicating 
our point of view toward the reported offei"S by 
the Soviet Union of economic aid in different parts 
of the world. It reads as follows : ^ 

The United States seeks no monopoly in render- 
ing economic assistance. We welcome any grant 
of economic aid which invigorates less developed 
countries and makes them more free and more in- 
dependent. This has been United States policy 
for many years. Since World War II, we have 
given substantial economic aid to many free na- 
tions. Not one of them has, on that account, lost 
any particle of freedom or independence. 

If the Soviet Union were to follow our example, 
that would be gratifying. Imitation is the sin- 
cerest flattery. But there is likely to be a question 
as to whether the Soviet really seeks to promote 
the vigorous independence of free nations. That 
question arises because of the long Soviet record in 
absorbing other countries. Also, the Soviet 
Union is not, like the United States, a country 
which has economic surpluses. The Soviet Union 
is a deficit area. Most of the Russian people are 
without things which we regard as necessities of 
life. The captive peoples of Eastern Europe, who 
once enjoyed high standards of living, have been 
economically squeezed by the Soviet Union so that 
their present living standards are deplorable. 

It would aeem unnatural for the Soviet rulers 
to provide economic aid to other peoples when the 



peoples they already rule are themselves in dire 
need. 

We hope that Soviet economic aid is not offered 
as a Trojan horse to penetrate, and then take over, 
independent countries. 

The leaders of countries which are receiving So- 
viet offers are, of course, aware of this political 
danger. They are for the most part statesmen of 
experience. They have won political successes in 
making their own countries independent, and I be- 
lieve they can be counted upon to be alert to de- 
fend that independence. , 

Now, if you have questions. f 

Q. Can you tell ils, Mr. Secretary, what the 
King of Afghanistan said to the President and 
what the President said to the King in their ex- 
change of correspondence? 

A. No, I can't disclose the contents of the ex- 
change. There was an exchange of rather gen- 
eral character of mutual good wishes and regard 
on the part of the Heads of the two Governments. 
But I can't give you the contents of the messages 
because they have not been made public by either 
side. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the Lord Mayor of West Ber- 
lin has asked the West to give Moscow direct 
warning if it attempts to interfere loith the four- 
power status, and he asked that the West should 
get clarification at a higher level on the status. 
Could you comment on that, sir? 

A. Well, I think that the United States and the 
other two Western powers that are in Berlin have 
made their position quite clear, as has the Federal 
Republic of Germany. We possess rights in rela- 
tion to Berlin which derive from the wartime 
agreements. We do not believe that the Soviet 
Union can evade those obligations by setting up a 
jjuppet regime in East Germany and East Berlin 
and claim that it now has authority. We plan to 
hold the Soviet Union to its very formal and clear 
obligations with respect to Berlin and access to 
Berlin, and I think that this position has been 
made very clear. It was underlined at the last 
meeting of the Nato Council, which we had in 
Paris last week. You will recall that the commu- 
nique which was issued by the Nato Council dealt, 
among other things, with the situation in Berlin.' 



' The following five paragraphs were also released sep- 
arately as press release 701 dated Dec. 20. 



8 



= Bulletin of Dec. 26, 1955, p. 1047. For U.S. protests 
on the detention of four Americans in the Soviet sector 
of Berlin on Nov. 27, see ibid., Dec. 19, 1955, p. 1012. 

Department of Stafe BuHetin 



Level of Requests for U.S. Foreign Aid Funds 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in the economic aid field, the 
administration appears to he asldng an increase 
next year of close to $200,000,000, as well as a 
much larger increase, at least in ohligations, on 
the military side of foreign aid. Can you explain 
a little of the administration's thinking iehind 
these increases? 

A. I have tried to get some of the figures here 
and it might be useful if I would give you the 
figures, at least as approximations, because it is 
very easy to become confused between expendi- 
tures and appropriations and requests for appro- 
priations. When figures which don't correspond 
are actually contrasted, it is apt to create confu- 
sion. So I have put this down; is this being 
mimeographed or not ? 

Mr. White:^ Yes. 

A. Perhaps it is useful to have it mimeographed 
because figures are illusive, at least to me, if I only 
hear them.* 

At the last session, the administration asked the 
Congress for about $1,800,000,000 for the eco- 
nomic part of our mutual security program. The 
Congress granted about $1,700,000,000. For the 
military part of the program, the administration 
asked for $1,700,000,000 approximately, although 
it contemplated spending at a rate of about $2,500,- 
000,000. Congress granted about $1,000,000,000. 
The reason why both the administration's request 
and the congressional appropriation for military 
aid were below the current rate of spending was 
that there was a large backlog of past appropri- 
ations for military aid. 

This year it is expected that the administration 
will ask for about $1,900,000,000 for the economic 
part of our mutual security program. This is 
about $100,000,000 more than was asked for last 
year and about $200,000,000 more than Congress 
appropriated last year. We shall ask for the ap- 
propriations needed to maintain the military part 
of the program at approximately the present rate. 
I understand that the military backlog has now 
been reduced to a point where it will probably be 
necessary to request an appropriation of about 
$3,000,000,000 in order to sustain the military aid 
program at the current level of spending. 



' Lincoln White, Acting Cliief, News Division. 
' The following four paragraphs were also released 
separately as press release 702 dated Dec. 20. 



In other Avords, the mutual security requests of 
Congress will total about $4,900,000,000 for the 
next fiscal year. The current rate of spending, 
for both military and economic, for fiscal year 
1956 is about $4,200,000,000 and is estimated to be 
about $4,400,000,000 for fiscal year 1957. 

All of these figures are approximations designed 
to give the general picture. 

The precise figures will not be available vmtil the 
President's budget message is submitted, but they 
will be of the general order of those which I have 
used here. 

Q. Is it a fair concluMon that we foresee a more 
or less indefinite need for spending on the approxi- 
mate current level on both the economic and mili- 
tary side without any real change, plus or minus, 
in either case? 

A. Yes. I think it's a fair inference that we 
consider that both the economic aid and the mili- 
tary aid will need to go on for a considerable 
period of time at about the present level. Now, 
there may be changes. We are, as I indicated, 
asking for about $100,000,000 more for economic 
aid this year than we asked for last year and about 
$200,000,000 more than we got last year. That is 
primarily in order to create greater resources and 
flexibility with reference to the situation in the 
Middle and Far East. And there are constantly 
coming up new situations where the Soviet tactics 
are changed or where they are changing and we 
need flexibility and we don't feel that we are tied 
down to any arbitrary figure in any particular 
year. Each year we take a fresh look, and, as I 
say, this year for the economic side we are asking 
for about $200,000,000 more than we got last year. 
Of course you should realize, as you do no doubt, 
that the so-called economic aid is in considerable 
part in support of military programs and to that 
extent it is not a very flexible figure, so long as the 
military program goes on as it does. In areas such 
as Korea, Formosa, Viet-Nam, Turkey, where 
there is a military program which is in excess of 
what the economy of the country can support, 
there is economic support of the military program. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in what area would the eco- 
nom,ic and military aid he increased for this $200,- 
000,000 difference? 

A. Well, we expect to ask this year for the other 
$100,000,000 of the Far East flexible Presidential 
program. You may recall that last year there 



January 2, 7956 



was a request for $200,000,000 which was, as I re- 
call, authorized, but of which only $100,000,000 
was appropriated for the current fiscal year. We 
expect to ask for the other $100,000,000 of appro- 
priation for that fund. Then we expect to ask for 
about $100,000,000 as a flexible Presidential fund 
for use in the Near and Middle East. 

Q. Mr. Secretai'y^ can yon tell us why the con- 
gressional leaders seem, so surprised when the re- 
port came that the military planned to request $3 
hillion, especially after the White House briefing 
of last week?^ 

A. "Well, I think probably the explanation lies 
in the fact that, while it was pointed out that the 
rate of expenditure would be at approximately 
the present rate in so far as the military part of 
the program was concerned, we did not, I guess, 
at that briefing — I was there during only part of 
it but apparently we did not — get into the ac- 
counting aspects of the matter and the situation 
which resulted from the fact that in a sense last 
year we had lived to a considerable extent out of 
what was regarded as surplus in the pipeline. 
Now that surplus in the pipeline is pretty well 
used up, and the military people estimate that it 
will be necessary now to go back to a higher rate 
of appropriation than the Congress thought neces- 
sary last year. 

Q. Is it fair then to say that the cuts last year 
were too deep? 

A. No, I wouldn't say so. The question of 
whether they were too deep or not is a matter of 
opinion. But it's a question of judgment as to 
how much you really need to have in the pipeline. 
Now, last year, in any case, the administration's 
own request of Congress indicated that we thought 
that there was some fat, you might say, to live off 
of in terms of past appropriations. And we only 
asked, as I say here, for $1,700,000,000, although 
we contemplated spending at the rate of $2,.500,- 
000,000. In other words, our own request sug- 
gested that there was some $800,000,000 in the 
pipeline wliich did not need to be replenished. 
Congress thought there was even more than that. 
But that is a matter of judgment which I don't 
quarrel with. All I point out is that you can't 
go on indefinitely living off your pipeline if you 
expect your program to be one which would be 



projected ahead for a good many years. And 
because we do think that the program is probably 
one that will need to be projected ahead for a 
good many years, we think the time has come this 
year to replenish the pipeline and not to go on 
living off of it. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, I was just wondering hoxo the 
decision to seek increased appropriations for for- 
eign aid fits in with the puhli-c statements that you, 
and Mr. Hollister ^ have made on this subject 
over the past 2 months, which inost reporters and 
I think most Congressmen interpreted to mean 
that the request loas going to be about the same. 
I have specifically in mind what you said on No- 
vember 18 after the Geneva conference when you 
loere a»ked the question, '■''Will the United States 
noin have radically to revise its programs for 
defense and mutual security P'' and you answered, 
'■''The ansioer to this is ''noil " and skipping down 
a bit, you then said, '"''Hence the outcome of the 
Geneva conference does not require u.s to alter the 
general scope of our programs. Their general 
order of magnitude can remain as planned.'''' 

A. Well, on the economic side we are asking 
this year for $1,900,000,000, as against $1,800,- 
000,000 last year. I consider that as being of the 
same general order of magnitude. As far as the 
military spending is concerned, as I say, it is 
expected to continue at about the same rate, 
namely, the general order of about $2,500,000,000. 

Now, the question of what appropriations you 
need to sustain that is a question of pipeline, lead 
time, and a whole lot of complicated factors which 
I'm not very familiar with in detail but which 
have led to the conclusion that it is necessary, 
in order to maintain the pipeline in adequate 
flow, to replenish the pipeline tliis year rather 
than drawing it down as we did last year. But 
the actual si^ending is expected to be at about the 
same level, so that the program is virtually 
unchanged. 

Q. Well, then, you and Mr. Hollister both 
were talking about spending, sir, is that it? 

A. Yes. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, it is my recollection that on 
Sunday, when you retwrned to this counti'y, you 
were asked about these foreign aid figures and that 



' Bulletin of Dec. 26, 1955, p. 1049. 



".Tolin B. Hollister, Director, International Cooperation 
Admiuistratiou. 



10 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



you replied that yoiv were not familiar with them. 
I xoonder if those figures were available, whether 
you would know whether they had been decided 
upon before you went to Pai^s, and whether they 
were known to the Congress and to the White 
House? 

A. Yes, the figures in general were known to 
me wlien I left for Paris ; but in all of these mat- 
ters there are, even until the last moment, budg- 
etary refinements. The Bureau of the Budget 
goes over these things, and I was not aware when 
I got oil' the plane as to whether or not there 
might have been changes of that character that 
had taken place during my absence. I was sure 
there would be no change of any major signifi- 
cance taken without my knowing about it. As it 
turned out, there were no changes of great sig- 
nificance and the figures that I have given you 
today are approximately the same figures that 
I had in my mind when I went to Paris. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you said thut the program to 
be asked included provisioyi for a $100,000,000 
fund for the flexible fund at the President's dis- 
cretion for the Middh East. 

A. That is correct. 

Q. Is that military, or economic, or both? 

A. That is economic. 

Q. Is there a comparable fund for Asia, apart 
from the Middle East? 

A. Yes. That fund was sought last year when 
the President asked for a $200,000,000 fund for 
what was sometimes called the Arc of Asia Pro- 
gram, for economic aid in the Far East and South- 
east Asia. That was a request for $200,000,000, 
all of which, as I recall, was authorized by the 
Foreign Relations and Foreign Affairs Com- 
mittees ; but when the thing got to the Appropria- 
tions Connnittee, they felt that it would not be 
necessary to spend more than $100,000,000 a year. 
Therefore they appropriated $100,000,000, and we 
are going to ask for the appropriation of the other 
half for the fiscal year 1957. 

Q. Pd like to ask, sir, which one of those funds 
granted or proposed covers the area of India, 
Afghanistan, amd Pakistan? In other words, 
what I think you referred to as the neto '"'■cold 
war'' program? 

A. Well, you have perhaps a certain overlap- 
ping there, where you have a situation where 



Pakistan is both a member of the Southeast Asia 
security treaty and also a member of the Baghdad 
Pact with Turkey ; so there is perhaps a border- 
line there. But I would say in general the Far 
East program is designed to cover Pakistan and 
the Southeast Asia treaty countries and the gen- 
eral area of Formosa, Korea, Japan, and the 
countries of Indochina, and that the new fund 
sought is designed primarily to cover what is gen- 
erally known as the Near East. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, one of the projects — the first, 
I believe, to u^e that Asian development — was 
this so-called Asian Nuclear Center. You said 
last xoeek you expected to make a decision in a 
few days on its location. Have you made a de- 
cision? 

A. Well, I would say that the decision seems 
to be nearer than it was when I was here 2 weeks 
ago. But it hasn't been actually finalized yet. I 
said at that time, I think, that we would be largely 
influenced by the facilities that would be ac- 
corded by the recipient country. And that is a 
matter we are still checking up on. We have made 
considerable progress, but I'm not prepared as yet 
to announce what the final word will be. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is there some fear within the 
Department that some of these nations of the Mid- 
dle East and perhaps the Far East may try to play 
Russia against us when they see the success of 
Egypt getting a dam after the tentative offer from 
Russia? 

A. Well, there is always a risk. I think I said 
at a prior press conference here that we are not 
going to jDut ourselves in a position where the 
Soviets, by just making paper offers, can require 
us to make real offers to top them. That would 
mean that the Soviets would be spending nothing 
except a piece of paper but would require us to 
spend a great deal of money. Now, these proj- 
ects we are working on are not projects which 
have only come into being after the Soviet has 
made a proposal. This upper dam has been a 
very active matter for well over 2 yeai-s. I re- 
member it was very active when I was in Egypt 
in — I think it was May 1953. And the World 
Bank has been working on it for upward of 2 
years. This is a normal evolution which is not 
just a response to the Soviet intervention in that 
situation. And in general we expect to carry on 
in that way. 



ianvary 2, 1956 



n 



Q. A lot of countries will feel that this has- 
tened our decision, wonH they, and that the way 
they can get aid is to tell us about a Soviet offer? 

A. Well, they may feel that way, but I have al- 
ready had occasion to point out to several of them 
that the interest of the United States and of 
the World Bank in this dam is something which 
goes back 2 years and more and is not attributable 
at all to the Soviet proposal. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would the dam he firumced 
out of this Near Eastern flexible-type project fu/nd 
as part of the aid in grant? 

A. Yes. You see, the portion of the fund for 
the dam, that will be put up by the United States 
and to a lesser degx-ee by the United Kingdom, is 
on an annual basis, and the amount in any one 
year will not be very great. I mean, it may aver- 
age out in the order of 15 or 20 million dollars a 
year. So that it may be that an initial increment 
will come out of this fund. 

Position of Western Powers in Berlin 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in relation to Germany, who 
was responsible for putting Berlin inside the 
Soviet zone ai\d for the failure to make sure of 
access by the other three powers to Berlin? 

A. Well, I think perhaps the facts of geography 
put Berlin in the Soviet zone. You might say, 
putting it the other way around, ""Wliy was the 
Soviet zone so big as to include Berlin?" There 
had been agi-eed upon, as I recall, at the time of 
the Yalta conference, a general program for the 
giving of zones in Germany, and the Soviet forces 
had moved in and taken over that area. 

Now, the reason why the Western powers had 
a sector of Berlin was that it was decided still to 
regard Berlin as the capital of Germany, and we 
all felt entitled to a part of Berlin, or at least a 
standing there. Of course, at that time, as I un- 
derstand it — now I am talking only about history 
because I was not in on any of this business — the 
thought at that time was not that there should be 
the permanent partition of Germany which has 
resulted. As a matter of fact, the Potsdam agree- 
ments about Germany were quite explicit that 
there should not be a partition of Germany, and 
it was not intended that the military occupation 
of these different zones would divide Germany, 
as has been the case. You had a historical evo- 



lution in Germany which is different from the his- 
torical evolution in Austria. In Austria also you 
had the zones; but, nevertheless, Austria stayed 
a unit under a single central government. I think 
the difference in the evolution has been due to the 
fact that, whereas the four powers recognized 
from the beginning the continuance of a single 
government in Austria, in the case of Germany 
they took over the entire sovereignty of Germany. 
There was no such thing as a German Govern- 
ment at all, and, therefore, the sovereignty of Ger- 
many became divided really between four powers. 
And that is a reason why the evolution has been 
toward a partition of Germany, which was never 
contemplated really at the beginning. 

Q. Can you say who was responsible for the 
decision? 

A. I wouldn't want to say. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there has been a good deal 
of rather loose talk that we are more optimistic 
now, or home reason to be more optimistic, about 
peace in the Middle East. Can you discuss im. 
general the prospects for peace in that general 
area? 

A. Well, I think I would stand by the same 
position that I took 2 weeks ago here when I was 
asked about the so-called "optimism" about a set- 
tlement. I said then that I knew of no facts 
which justified any great optimism about the mat- 
ter. Now there is, I think, the fact that such a 
progi-am as that which I had described in my 
August 26 speech ' is continuously being studied. 
The fact that people are continuing to think along 
those lines is, perhaps, a reason for encourage- 
ment. On the other hand, there are episodes like 
this recent attack on Syria which seemed to set 
back our hopes. 

Voting on Membership in U.N. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, why did the United States 
abstain rather than taking a definite position on 
one side or the other in the voting on the five 
Communist-nation applications for Tnembership 
in the United Nations?^ And, in retrospect, 



' Ibid., Sept. 5, 1955, p. 378. 

'For statements by Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, 
Jr., during the debate In the United Nations on the mem- 
bership item, see ibid., Dec. 26, 1955, p. 1067. 



12 



Department of State Bulletin 



would you say that that was the best possible po- 
sition for us to have taken? 

A. The answer to the last question is "yes." 
The United States has from the very beginning 
taken the view that the veto power ought not 
to be used on questions of admission and that one 
nation ought not to be in a position to block a 
country which the overwhelming majority of the 
present members wanted to bring in. That point 
of view was reflected in the Vandenberg Resolu- 
tion, which was overwhelmingly adopted by the 
Senate in June 1948. We have never used the 
veto on the question of the admission of new mem- 
bers, never thought it should be used. And, while 
one can say that that meant laying down a possi- 
ble weapon that the Soviets have not laid down, 
I, nevertheless, thinlc that the sound position to 
take is that the veto power ought not to be used 
for these purposes. I do not think that the veto 
power was ever intended to be used for such a 
purpose. I think if one studies the records of 
the San Francisco conference, where I was a 
participant, it is made quite apparent that the 
veto power was intended to be used only in rather 
exceptional circumstances to protect what one of 
the permanent members might regard as his own 
vital interest. And there were indications of that 
sort given by the permanent members — that they 
would not abuse the veto power. We have stuck 
consistently to that position, and I think we have 
been right in doing so. 

Q. I am thinking not so much about the veto 
power but voting in favor. Do we oppose the so- 
called principle of universality? 

A. We are not in favor of universality unless 
and until the charter is amended to adopt the 
principle of universality. There was a long ar- 
gument at San Francisco as to whether or not 
the principle of universality should be adopted. 
I think the greater part of the United States 
delegation felt that perhaps it should be. But 
the final result was article 4 of the charter, which 
puts a qualification on the eligibility of members. 
And, so long as that is in the charter, we believe 
the charter should be lived up to and that nations 
should not be made members who are not, in the 
words of that article 4, peace-loving and able and 
willing to carry out their obligations under the 
charter. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, has your own personal phi- 



losophy changed on the principle of universality 
since you wrote your book? 

A. No. But in my book I advocated a series of 
amendments of the charter, one of which would 
be greater universality, another of which would 
be the principle of weighted voting, and a change 
of the voting procedures in both the Security 
Council and in the General Assembly. I still be- 
lieve that the general program which I outlined 
in my book in '49, 1 think it was, is a sound pro- 
gram; but I don't think that you can just take 
one part of the program and advocate that with- 
out taking into account the balancing features 
which are also in the book. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in this last instance it would 
hame been possible to have voted "no" without its 
applying as a veto, wouldn't it? Hasn't that been 
the case? 

A. In the Security Council a negative vote and 
an abstention are just the same unless you want 
your negative vote to count as a veto. In other 
words, you have to get seven affinnative votes, 
you see, and if you don't get seven affirmative 
votes, then the proposal fails. So if you abstain 
it is just as much a preventive of seven affinnative 
votes as though you voted "no," unless you want 
your negative vote to count as a veto overriding 
the seven affirmative votes. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, what do you think the pros- 
pects are that Japan will gain admission to the 
United Nations next year? 

A. Well, I don't like to do guessing on this 
matter. I can say that certainly Japan ought to 
be a member. I believe that it is a very bad viola- 
tion of the charter for one nation to exclude, by 
the veto power, membership to gain advantages 
in a trading matter, such as the negotiation of 
the Russo-Japanese peace treaty. It looks to me 
as though the Soviet was using its veto power in 
the Security Council to try to drive a harder bar- 
gain with the Japanese m terms of a peace treaty. 
That, of course, is wrong by every standard — 
legal and moral. Unfortunately, we have to live 
in a world with people who don't live up either 
to their legal or to their moral obligations. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, how do you interpret the 
result of Sunday^s election in the Soar? 

A. Well, it looks as though a majority of the 
inhabitants of the Saar favored some form of 
political unity with Germany; but, also, there is 



January 2, 1956 



13 



a substantial minority who do not favor that, and 
the so-called pro-German parties did not get the 
75 percent majority wliicli would have been 
needed to alter the present constitution of the 
Saar. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, since yaiir letter to Senator 
Margaret Smith about the Japanese textile situ- 
ation,^ has anything happened in the Government 
to change your position on that, in view of 
the pressures that are still keejnng up in the 
industries? 

A. Well, I don't recall precisely what I said; 
but the facts are that the Japanese Government 
is taking effective action to prevent excessive ex- 
ports of textile goods to the United States, either 
directly or indirectly, and I would hope and be- 
lieve that the situation can be taken care of in that 
way without tiie necessity of having quotas. 

Further Questions on Foreign Aid 

Q. Mr. Secretary, if I may return to foreign 
aid for just a moment to tie up one loose end here. 
Senator Mansfield, loho, apparently, is rather up- 
set about the size of the request, says that, in his 
vieie, the administration has broken faith with 
the legislators who were at the White House on 
Tuesday [Decemher 13] because he says they 
understood that the figure was going to be about 
2.7 [billion dollars]. 

Now is it your vieiv thai there was no breaking 
of faith, and that, if they had an impression there 
was to be anything above 2.7, it teas due to a mis- 
understanding ? 

A. As I have said, I was only present during a 
small part of the conference, but it is quite ob- 
vious to me that there was a genuine misunder- 
sta.nding, which I regret took place. I have the 
highest regard for Senator Mansfield. He has 
been an extremely valuable and cooperative mem- 
ber of the Foreign Relations Committee, and I am 
confident that he would have followed this matter 
closely, intelligently, and fairly. And if he feels 
that he didn't get the full story, I can only re- 
gret it. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, at the end of the summit 
meeting did you and the President think you 
ivould need more money, or less money, or about 
the same money to meet the Russian challenge 
around the world? 



'Il)UJ., Dec. 26, 1955, p. 1004. 



A. About the same. We never figured on drop- 
ping our guard in any way because of what took 
jjlace at the summit conference, and, as I pointed 
out after I got back from the second Geneva con- 
ference, on that account we did not have to revise 
our plans upward in any spectacular way. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, one other question on foreign 
aid: As I understand it, you are asking for $200,- 
000,000 more in economic aid than you got last 
year, or, rather, this year. But you are also say- 
ing that the rate of expenditure in this field will 
be about the same. Then is this 200 — 

A. No, excuse me. I didn't mean to say that. 
You see, in the economic field we run our expendi- 
tures very close to our appropriations. It is not 
like in the military field, where you have a "lead" 
time of often several years for making planes and 
the like. And I would expect that, if we get, as 

1 hope, the added appropriation for fiscal year 
'57, we will spend it in '57. In other words, our 
expenditures in '57 in the economic field will, I 
hope, be between $100,000,000 and $200,000,000 
more than during fiscal year '56. 

Q. There is a real distinction then between mili- 
tary aid, and the upping of the military aid re- 
quests, and the upping of the economic aid — in 
that you are going to spend more? 

A. Yes. You see, in the case of the economic 
aid we are seeking a total increase of about $'200 
million, which will be added right away in fiscal 
year '57 to our actual expenditures. In the case 
of the military aid, we do not expect that the ex- 
penditures will appreciably go up but that there 
will have to be an increased appropriation in or- 
der to keep the pipeline filled, so that we won't 
have a complete ending of the program abruptly 

2 or 3 years from now. 

Q. Mr. Senrtary, are these increases due di- 
rectly to this Russian offensive in this same field? 

A. You mean the increases in the economic? 

Q. Both in the economic and in the supply lime. 

A. Well, in the economic, the increase is due to 
our feeling that there is increased need in the 
Middle East primarily. That is where we are 
asking for the $100 million more than we asked 
for last year. In other words, we are asking for 
the same amount we asked for last year plus $100 
million in the economic field. In the military field 



14 



Department of State Bulletin 



•we do not expect to exijend, as I understand it — 
this is, perhaps, more in the Defense Department 
field thaji mine — but as I understand it, they don't 
expect to expend any more. But, because we an- 
ticipate that that expenditure, at about this pres- 
ent rate, -will have to go on for several years, we 
don't want to see the pipeline become empty, be- 
cause it takes 3 or 4 years to get stuff from the 
beginning to the end of the pipeline; and if you 
wait until the pipeline gets empty before you start 
to fill it again, you would have a gap of 3 years, 
let's say, where there would be nothing in the pipe- 
line, and you couldn't do anything about it. 



Coal and Steel Community Official 
Invited To Visit U.S. 

Press release 707 dated December 22 

The Secretary of State has invited Eene Mayer, 
President of the High Authority of the European 
Coal and Steel Community, to visit the United 
States in February 1956 to discuss current ques- 
tions of mutual interest to the United States and 
the Community. M. Mayer expects to an-ive at 
Washington on February 6 and will probably be 
accompanied by a member of the High Authority. 

This is the third official visit of a President of 
the High Authority to the United States. Jean 
Monnet, when he held that post, visited this coun- 
try once in May 1953 and once in April 1954. It 
will be M. Mayer's first visit to the United States 
as President of the High Authority, a post he 
assumed on June 10, 1955. He has been in this 
country on many previous occasions. 



Berlin Conference Hall 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 12 (press release 691) that seven leading 
Americans have been named to work with the gov- 
ernment of Free Berlin in the construction of an 
American-sponsored conference hall intended as 
"an expression in stone and mortar of the right of 
free speech."' 

To be completed for the Berlin Building Ex- 
hibition in 1957, the $4 million building and 
grounds program will fill an urgent need in the 
cultural and political life of the city. The build- 
ing was designed under the guidance of a special 
committee of the American Institute of Architects. 



The financing will be shared by the American 
Government, the Berlin Senate, and the Federal 
Republic of Germany. 

Because construction of the building will coin- 
cide with the celebration of the 250th anniversary 
of the birth of Benjamin Franklin, the building 
will contain a memorial to the eminent American 
and the sponsoring organization will be called the 
Benjamin Franklin Foundation. 

At the request of Secretary Dulles, Ralph 
Walker of New York, past president of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects, has accepted the posi- 
tion of chairman of the Board of the Foundation. 
Deputy chairman will be Howard S. Eichenbaum, 
architect, of Little Rock, Ark. Other American 
directors of the foundation will be William S. 
Culbertson, former Minister to Rumania and 
Ambassador to Chile; Moreland Griffith Smith, 
architect, Montgomery, Ala.; Kenneth Perry, 
attorney and business executive. Bound Brook, 
N. J. ; Albert Edelman, attorney, Bronxville, 
N. Y.; and Robert B. Wolf, attorney, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. The German members of the Board will 
be named in the near future by Mayor Otto Suhr 
of Berlin. 

In a letter to Ralph Walker, Secretary Dulles 
said : 

I am gratified to learn of your willingness to cooperate 
in a program to construct a conference hall in West Berlin. 
This program, which has been developed with the aid of 
the committee of the American Institute of Architects 
under your chairmanship, can, in my opinion, contribute 
substantially to the policy of this Government in support 
of the security and welfare of the city. We believe the 
plan to construct this building and assure its use as a 
contribution to the cultural, scientitic and political life of 
Berlin is the more significant because it is a cooperative 
undertaking in which German participation plays a 
substantial part. 

In acknowledging American efforts on behalf of 
the project. Mayor Suhr last month declared that 
it "is highly significant not only for the further 
development of Berlin, but also as a symbol of the 
free world vis-a-vis the East." 

Planning for the conference hall began when a 
committee appointed by the American Institute of 
Architects accompanied Mrs. Eleanor L. Dulles, 
Special Assistant in the Office of German Affairs, 
to Berlin in the spring of 1955 to study possible 
American participation in the Berlin Building 
Exhibition. Members of the committee were 
Messrs. Walker, Eichenbaum, Smith, and Hugh A. 
Stubbins, of Cambridge, Mass. The group de- 



January 2, 1956 



15 



cided unanimously that the most appropriate par- 
ticipation would be a conference hall to be avail- 
able for scientific, cultural, educational, and 
political meetings in the center of the city in the 
Tiergarten area, not far from the border of the 
Communist sector. 

Mr. Stubbins prepared the designs for the 
building at the request of the American Institute 
of Architects. The central auditorium of the 
building as planned will seat 1,200 people. The 
ground floor will also house the reception and ex- 
hibition areas, committee rooms, administrative 
offices, and library rooms necessary for large con- 
ferences. 

Also assisting with the planning of the project 
have been George Cummings of Binghamton, 
N. Y., president of the Aia, and Edmund Ean- 
dolph Purves, Washington, D. C, executive direc- 
tor, Aia. 



President of Italy To Visit 
United States 

James C. Hagerty, press secretary to the Presi- 
dent, annoimced on December 17 that the Presi- 
dent has extended an invitation to the President 
of Italy, Giovanni Gronchi, to visit the United 
States. 

President Gronchi has accepted the invitation 
and will arrive at Washington on February 28 for 
a 3-day state visit. 



Cutoff Date for Visa Applications 
for Italian Refugees 

Press release 709 dated December 23 

Because there are 47,413 applicants for the re- 
maining 22,775 visas under the Eefugee Belief 
Act provisions for Italy, the Department of State 
on December 23 instructed consulates in that coun- 
try to accept no more new cases after December 31, 
1955. 

The act authorized a total of 60,000 visas to 
Italians. As of December 16, 1955, 37,225 of these 
had actually been issued. 

The Department announced a similar cutoflF, 
effective November 28, 1955, for processing new 
cases under the Greek section of the act.^ 



In instructions to the consulates, Pierce J. 
Gerety, Deputy Administrator of the act made the 
following points : 

1. The cutoff will not apply to escapee and or- 
phan applicants who are processed under other 
sections of the Refugee Relief Act. 

2. Assurances received aft«r the cutoff dates for 
the two coimtries will be sent to the appropriate 
consular authorities to permit the applicant to es- 
tablish a priority registration date imder the 
normal annual quota of the Immigration and 
Nationality Act, since they cannot be processed 
under the Refugee Relief Act. 

3. As of December 16, 1955, the total worldwide 
issuance of visas under the Refugee Relief Pro- 
gram was 70,586. Although the success of the 
program in Greece and Italy is assured, sponsors 
continue to be urgently needed for refugees in 
Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands, as well as 
for refugees in Italy and Greece who have already 
been processed but are lacking sponsors. 



Baghdad Pact Council 
Concludes First Meeting 



TEXT OF COMIVIUNIQUE' 

The inaugural meeting of the Baghdad Pact 
Powers, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the 
United Kingdom, was held in Baghdad on Novem- 
ber 21 and 22 under the chairmanship of the Prime 
Minister of Iraq, Al Sayyed Nuri Al-Said. Iran 
was represented by the Prime Minister Hussein 
Ala ; Pakistan by the Prime Minister Choudhury 
Mohammed Ali; Turkey by the Prime Minister 
Adnan Menderes; and the United Kingdom by 
the Foreign Secretary, the Right Honorable Mr. 
Harold Macmillan. 

2. The U.S. Government, having accepted the 
invitation of the Baghdad Pact Powers to take 
part in their proceedings in the capacity of ob- 
servers, was represented on the Council by the 
U.S. Ambassador at Baghdad ^ and on the mili- 
tary committee by a United States Service Repre- 
sentative [Adm. John H. Cassady]. 



' Bulletin of Dec. 5, 1955, p. 917. 



" Issued at Baghdad on Nov. 22. 

" For text of a statement made at the meeting by Am- 
bassador Waldemar Gallman, see Bulletin of Dec. 5, 
1955, p. 926. 



16 



Department of State Bulletin 



The Council welcomed the intention expressed 
by the U.S. Government to establish permanent 
political and military liaison with tlie Council 
and to have an observer present at the organiza- 
tional meeting of the economic committee. 

3. The Government of Iraq emphasized that, 
as laid clown in the preamble and in paragraph 4 
of the Baghdad Pact, the responsibilities of Iraq 
under tlie pact and as a member of the Council are 
in full accord with her obligations under the 
treaty of joint defence and economic cooperation 
between the Arab League States. The other mem- 
ber powers were glad to note this. 

4. The Council decided that the Baghdad Pact, 
the special agreement concluded under the Pact 
between Iraq and the United Kingdom, and the 
instruments of accession of the Powers who have 
joined the Pact, should be registered by the Gov- 
ernment of Iraq with the United Nations. 

5. The 5 governments in council reaffirmed their 
intention as provided in the Pact and consistently 
with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter to 
work in full partnership with united purpose for 
peace and security in the Middle East, to defend 
their territories against aggression or subversion, 
and to promote the welfare and prosperity of the 
peoples in that region. 

6. The 5 governments in council reviewed the 
critical world situation particularly in the light 
of the Geneva Conference and resolved in conse- 
quence to maintain constant contact and even 
closer cooperation in the face of any threat to 
their common interests. 

7. The five govermnents set up a permanent 
Council as provided for in Article 6 of the Pact. 
The Council will be de«med to be in continuous 
session. Ministerial meetings will take place at 
least once a year. Iraq as host country will pro- 
vide the first chairmanship until the end of 1956, 
and the chairmanship will be held thereafter in 
alphabetical order of the other powers for a period 
of 1 year. If, however, additional meetings were 
to be held elsewhere than in the capital of the regu- 
lar chairman, the host country will be asked to 
l^rovide the chairman for that meeting. 

8. The permanent seat of the organization and 
its dependent bodies shall be in Baghdad. 

9. Each government will appoint a deputy rep- 
resentative to the Council with Ambassadorial 
rank. 

10. The Council, through their pex'manent 

January 2, 1956 

370369—56 3 



deputies in Baghdad, shall meet at any time to dis- 
cuss any matters of political, economic and mili- 
tary interest to the 5 governments. 

11. The Council agreed that a permanent secre- 
tariat for the Baghdad Pact organization should 
be established in Baghdad. 

12. The Council established a permanent mili- 
tary committee responsible and subordinate to the 
Council and charged with carrying out such direc- 
tive as may be entrusted to it. The representa- 
tives of the 5 governments on the military com- 
mittee will be their Chiefs of Staff or their 
deputies. 

13. The military committee at its first meetings 
laid the foundations of a military organization to 
ensure the security of the region. In this connec- 
tion the Council noted that the Governments of 
Iraq and of the United Kingdom have concluded 
a special agreement under the pact on the 4th of 
April, 1955. By this agreement Iraq assumed full 
responsibility for her own defence, and took over 
the command ancl the guarding of all defence in- 
stallations in Iraq. Withdrawal of United King- 
dom forces for the bases at Habbaniya and Shaiba 
is proceeding according to plan and as stipulated 
in the special agreement between Iraq and the 
United Kingdom. The Council further noted that 
the United Kingdom is affording Iraq help in 
building up her armed forces and maintaining 
them in a state of readiness for the defence of Iraq. 

14. The Council took note with appreciation of 
the generous and valuable help extended to each of 
them by the United States Government in the form 
of free aid in the provision of arms and other mili- 
tary equipment to enable them to strengthen their 
defence against aggression, and of the support 
and encouragement of the U.S. Government in 
their efforts to cooperate for peace. 

15. An economic committee was set up to de- 
velop and strengthen the economic and financial 
resources of the region. In particular the eco- 
nomic committee will consider ways and means of 
sharing experience in the field of development; 
and how a regional approach to some of the prob- 
lems involved would be a common benefit, includ- 
ing discussion on a legional basis with the World 
Bank, the World Health Organization, Unicef 
and other specialized agencies. 

16. In this connection the Council viewed with 
satisfaction the practical progress already made in 
this field. They noted, for example, that the 



17 



United Kingdom has decided to assist Iraq by 
making available gold to constitute a reserve of 
5 million ijounds during the next 2 years, and by 
other forms of financial cooperation. 

17. The Council noted the statement of the U.K. 
representative that his government is ready to use 
their experience in the field of atomic energy to 
assist other countries of the pact with their own 
atomic energy projects for the peaceful applica- 
tion of the science ; and particularly that they were 
ready to assist Baghdad I'act countries in the 
application of atomic techniques with special I'ef- 
erence to local and regional problems. The 
Council welcomed this offer and directed the eco- 
nomic committee to consider its practical appli- 
cation. 

18. The 5 governments expressed their gratifi- 
cation for the extensive economic assistance which 
has been freely accorded by the Government of the 
United States. 

19. The Council decided to meet again in special 
session in Tehran during the first half of April, 
1956. They directed the military committee and 
the economic committee to report progress at that 
session. 



Revival of Russian-Language 
Magazine "Ameriita" 

Press release 708 dated December 23 

The U.S. Embassy at Moscow, in a note to the 
Soviet Government dated September 9, 1955, pro- 
posed the distribution within the U.S.S.E. of an 
illustrated Russian-language magazine, issued 
monthly, devoted to an objective presentation of 
various aspects of American life. The Embassy 
indicated that, as a matter of reciprocity, the 
United States would be prepared to give favorable 
consideration to according the Soviet Union simi- 
lar distribution possibilities in the United States. 

At the Foreign Ministers conference at Geneva, 
October 27-November 16, 1955, the U.S. delega- 
tion referred to the American Embassy's note of 
September 9 and pointed out that a favorable 
response to the proposal made in this note would 
serve to promote better understanding between 
the peoples of the two countries.^ 

The Soviet Foreign Office, in a note delivered 
to the American Embassy at Moscow December 



16, 1955, stated that the Soviet Government ac- 
cepts the U.S. proposal concerning the distribu- 
tion in the U.S.S.E. of an American magazine in 
the Russian language. 

Plans for the publication of a Russian-language 
magazine, which will be entitled Amerika, are 
now in preparation with a view to early distribu- 
tion in the U.S.S.R. Amerika magazine will be 
produced monthly, and arrangements for its dis- 
tribution in the U.S.S.R. will be handled by the 
American Embassy at Moscow. 

The acceptance by the Soviet Union of the U.S. 
proposal of September 9 makes possible a revival 
of the Russian-language magazine Amerika, pub- 
lication of which was suspended in 1952.^ 

Following are texts of the U.S. note of Septem- 
ber 9 and of the Soviet note of December 16. 

U. S. Note of September 9 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Ministry of For- 
eign Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics and has the honor to refer to the views 
expressed by the President of the United States 
in addressing the Heads of Government of the 
USSR, France and the United Kingdom at Ge- 
neva, on July 22, on the topic of normalizing and 
increasing East-West contacts. President Eisen- 
hower said in part : ^ 

To help achieve the goal of peace based on justice and 
right and mutual understanding, there are certain con- 
crete steps that could be talien : (1) to lower the bar- 
riers which now impede the interchange of information 
and ideas between peoples . . . 

The Government of the United States believes 
that publication, by it, of a Russian language 
magazine for distribution within the Soviet 
Union, would constitute a concrete step further- 
ing a fuller interchange of information and ideas. 

Accordingly, the Government of the United 
States proposes the distribution within the USSR 
of an illustrated Russian language magazine, is- 
sued monthly, which would be cultural and non- 
political in character, devoted to an objective pres- 
entation of various aspects of American life. The 
Government of the United States further proposes 
that distribution of this magazine be effected as 



' Bulletin of Nov. 14, 1055, p. 176. 



' md., July 28, 1952, p. 127. For the Soviet reply to the 
susi)ension, see iVid., Aug. 18, 19.52, p. 263. 
'lUd., Aug. 1, 1955, p. 174. 



18 



Department of State Bulletin 



follows: 50,000 copies of each issue to be dis- 
tributed through Soviet distribution channels, 
with an option to increase this number, with the 
Government of the United States reserving the 
right to distribute 2,000 copies of each issue 
through the Embassy on a complimentary basis, 
with an option to increase the number. 

In view of the cultural and non-political charac- 
ter of the magazine proposed by the United States, 
it is assumed that the Soviet Government would 
not request pre-publication review or any other 
type of censorship, such as that previously im- 
posed on foreign publications as a war-time emer- 
gency measure. 

The Embassy awaits the favorable reply of the 
Ministry regarding this proposal and is prepared 
to discuss the details of its implementation with 
the appropriate Soviet authorities at an early 
date. 

Soviet Reply of December 16 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics presents its compli- 
ments to the Embassy of the United States of 
America and, referring to the Embassy's note 
handed to the IMinistry on September 10 of this 
year by Counselor of Embassy [Walter N.] 
Walmsley, and his statement made when handing 
over the above-mentioned note, has the honor to 
state the following : 

The Government of the Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics accepts the proposal of the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America concerning 
the distribution in the USSR of an American 
monthly illustrated magazine in the Russian lan- 
guage. Proceeding from the assurance contained 
in the Embassy note concerning the character of 
this magazine and understanding that the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America will itself 
take corresponding measures to this end, the 
Government of the USSR will not require a pre- 
liminary review of the magazine. In accordance 
with the desire expressed by the Embassy of the 
United States of America it is deemed acceptable 
that the magazine will be distributed in a quantity 
of 50,000 copies through normal Soviet channels 
and 2,000 copies of each issue of the magazine by 
the Embassy gratis. 

Note is also taken of the statement of the Em- 
bassy of the United States of America that there 



will be no objection on the basis of reciprocity to 
publication by the Embassy of the USSR in the 
United States of America of a Soviet monthly 
magazine in the English language. 



Entry and Residence Privileges 
of U. S. and Soviet Ecclesiastics 

Press release 690 dated December 12 

There follow the texts of a note delivered De- 
cember 10, 1955, iy the American Embassy at 
Moscow to the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
and of a note received by the Embassy from, the 
Soviet Ministry on December 2, 1955. These notes 
present the views of the United States and Soviet 
Governments, respectively, with regard to privi- 
leges of entry and residence for the American 
Catholic priest. Father Louis Dion, in the Soviet 
Union, and for Soviet Archbishop Boris in the 
United States. 



U. S. NOTE OF DECEMBER 10 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
l^resents its compliments to the Ministry of For- 
eign Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics and has the honor to refer to the Ministry's 
Note No. 118 of December 2, 1955. Essentially, 
the Ministry's note again supports the view of the 
Soviet Government that Soviet Archbishop Boris 
should be granted the privilege of unlimited enti-y 
to the United States to function as resident Exarch 
of the Russian Orthodox Church in America be- 
fore the American Catholic priest, Father Dion, 
will be permitted to enter the Soviet Union to 
assume the modest functions which his predeces- 
sors fulfilled under the terms of the November 16, 
1933 agreement which established diplomatic rela- 
tions between the USA and the USSR.^ It is 
regrettable that the Soviet Government has seen 
fit since its expulsion of Father Bissonnette in 
March 1955 ^ to link these dissimilar cases. 

Properly considering each of these matters in 
its own context, the United States Government 
holds to the position presented in the Embassy's 



' For an exchange of letters between President Roosevelt 
and Maxim Litvinov on religious liberty, dated Nov. 16, 
1933, see Bulletin of Mar. 14, 1955, p. 425. 

= lUd., p. 424. 



January 2, 1956 



19 



note of June 27, 1955 ^ that the right of American 
clergymen to tend the spiritual needs of American 
nationals in the Soviet Union rests on tlie terms of 
the November 16, 1933 agreement. Consequently, 
the Soviet Governmenfs expulsion of Father Bis- 
sonnette and its present negative attitude toward 
the admission of Father Dion constitute a clear 
violation of that agreement. 

Although the Ministry's Note of March 8, 1955 ^ 
erroneously claimed that the November 16, 1933 
agreement provided for reciprocity with regard to 
Soviet clergymen in the United States, the United 
States Government perceived no objection to the 
extension of reciprocity. Consequently, the Em- 
bassy advised the Ministry on June 27, 1955 and 
has subsequently reiterated that the United States 
Government is prepared to grant a Soviet clergy- 
man the same possibilities of tending to the re- 
ligious needs of Soviet nationals in the United 
States as those accorded to American clergymen 
to tend to the religious needs of American na- 
tionals in the Soviet Union. Despite the absence 
of a positive Soviet response to this voluntary offer 
of reciprocity, it remains in effect. 

As the Ministry is aware, a representative of the 
Assumptionist Order has been advised orally by 
the Soviet Embassy in Washington that Father 
Dion should not attempt to utilize his Soviet visa 
until such time as the question of the entry of 
Archbishop Boris into the United States is re- 
solved. The United States Government requests 
that this counsel be revoked and that no further 
obstacles be placed in the way of Father Dion's 
early departure for the Soviet Union. 

The Soviet Government's action in linking the 
entry of Archbishop Boris with that of Father 
Dion has tended to confuse the issues involved and 
to complicate a clear understanding of the United 
States Government's position with regard to the 
entry of Archbishop Boris. Divorced fi-om the 
irrelevant and extraneous considerations intro- 
duced by the Soviet Government in dealing with 
these two distinctly different problems simultane- 
ously, this position may be summarized as follows : 

The United States Government has not objected 
to temporary visits to the United States by Soviet 
ecclesiastics for the purpose of conducting legiti- 
mate church affairs. Archbishop Boris and his 



predecessor, Archbishop Germogen, were admitted 
temporarily for this purpose, and in both cases 
their visas were extended subsequently to permit a 
longer stay in the United States than that for 
which they were originally admitted. However, 
the Department continues to feel that it is neither 
appropriate nor desirable for Archbishop Boris, a 
Soviet national who is a high-ranking official of the 
Orthodox Church in the Soviet Union, to reside 
indefinitely in the United States as head of one of 
the Russian Orthodox Church groups in the 
United States. 

The Embassy's request of November 12, 1955 * 
that the passports of Archbishop Boris and his 
secretary be made available for the cancellation of 
their visas is reaffirmed. This cancellation can be 
effected by United States consular officials at any 
United States diplomatic mission or consular of- 
fice abroad. 

SOVIET NOTE OF DECEMBER 2 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Eepublics presents its compli- 
ments to the Embassy of the United States of 
America and in connection with the Embassy's 
Note No. 324 of November 12 of this year has the 
honor to communicate the following. 

As is known, in February of this year the De- 
partment of State of the USA, without explana- 
tion of its reasons, refused to prolong the stay in 
the United States of Exarch of the Russian Ortho- 
dox Church in America, Archbishop of the Aleu- 
tians and North America Boris and his secretary 
Shishkin. In this connection, the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs of the USSR recognized that the 
further stay in the Soviet Union of the American 
Father Bissonnette was impossible. 

Under the circumstances. Archbishop Boris and 
his secretary were forced to leave the USA and the 
American Father Bissonnette — the Soviet Union. 

After some time a request was received in the 
Embassy of the USSR in the USA, concerning the 
issuance of a visa to the American Father Dion, 
proceeding to the USSR as successor to Father 
Bissonnette. Inasmuch as the departures of 
Archbishop Boris, his secretary and the Anaerican 
Father Bissonnette took place not because of per- 
sonal character objections to them, the request con- 



' Ibid., Jul.v 18, 1955, p. 102. 
'Ibid., p. 103. 



^ Note uot printed ; for a Department statement of Nov. 
15, see ibid., Nov. 28, 1955, p. 888. 



20 



Department of State Bulletin 



cerning a visa for the successor to Father Bisson- 
nette was interpreted by the Soviet side as sign of 
the desire of the American side to reestablish the 
situation existing before then, vi'lien the American 
priest in tlie USSR and the Exarch of the Russian 
Orthodox Church in the USA were able to per- 
form the religious duties conferred upon them. 

On April 20, the Ministry notified the Embassy 
of the USA that it agreed to issue a visa for entry 
into the USSR of Father Dion, having in mind 
that American visas would be issued to Archbishop 
Boris and his secretary Shishkin for the same pe- 
riod of time. This stand of the jNIinistry of For- 
eign Affairs of the USSR presented the possibility 
of settling the question without delay. However, 
the matter was complicated by the fact that the 
American side put forth demands conditioning the 
entrance into the USA of Archbishop Boris. 

For example, it was stated that a Soviet clergy- 
man would be permitted into the U.S. only if his 
religious activities were analogous to the religious 
activities of the American priest in the Soviet 
Union. It is apparent to evei'yone that it was im- 
possible to agree to this demand inasmuch as the 
religious functions of an Exarch exercising ad- 
ministration of an Exarchate could not be placed 
on the same footing with the functions of an Amer- 
ican priest serving the religious needs of employees 
of the American Embassy in Moscow. 

The American side also stated that it does not 
object in principle to short-term trips to the U.S. 
of representatives of the Moscow Patriarchate. 
This statement does not create a basis for the sat- 
isfactory solution of the given question inasmuch 
as every time after a short-term stay in the U.S. of 
the Exarch a question would arise concerning his 
departure fi-om the USA which would also pre- 
suppose the departure of the American priest from 
the Soviet Union. It must be noted that in the 
past representatives of the Moscow Patriarchate 
made short-term trips to the U.S. for the settle- 
ment of ecclesiastical affairs in the Exarchate. 
Svich trips were made for example of Archbishop 
Aleksei in 1945, Metropolitan Grigori in 1947 and 
Archbishop Germogen in 1954. However, it is 
impossible to identify' the missions of such repre- 
sentatives of the Moscow Patriarchate with the 
mission of Archbishop Boris who, being Exarch, 
must constantly carry out the direction of the 
Exarchate on the spot. 

Proceeding from the fact that the religious mis- 
sions of the Exarch and the American priest bear 



a permanent character, the Ministry, as indicated 
in its Note of September 8,*' issued an instruction to 
the Embassy of the USSR in Washington to issue 
a visa to Father Dion without fixing the period of 
his stay in the Soviet Union. With this, the Min- 
istry expressed the hope that in issuing visas to 
Archbishop Boris and his secretary the American 
side also would not fix the period of their stay in 
the USA. 

On November 2, Father Dion received a Soviet 
entry visa on the advice of the Department of 
State.' On issuing the visa, it was stated by 
the Embassy of the USSR in the USA that the 
fact of his receiving a visa to enter the USSR was 
regarded by the Embassy as evidence of the readi- 
ness of the Government of the USA to issue visas 
to Archbishop Boris and his secretary for entry 
into the USA for the same period for which a visa 
was issued to him. Father Dion, inasmuch as the 
question was placed precisely thus in the Note of 
September 8 of this year from the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs of the USSR to the Embassy of 
the USA in Moscow. 

On November 4, the Embassy of the USA in 
Moscow issued visas to Archbishop Boris and his 
secretary. In forwarding their passports to the 
Ministry, the Embassy pointed out in a note that 
their acceptance of the visas would be regarded 
by the Government of the USA as agreement by 
the Soviet side that Archbishop Boris would per- 
form religious functions in the USA comparable 
to those which the American priest performs in 
the USSR. After the Ministry reminded the 
Embassy that Archbishop Boris performs the 
functions of the spiritual leadei's of the Russian 
Orthodox Church in America which his predeces- 
sors performed for a period of over 150 years and 
which he jjerformed until his departure from the 
USA, the Embassy in its note of November 12 
proposed the return of the passports of the Arch- 
bishop and his secretary for the annulment of the 
visas placed in them for entry into the USA. In 
addition, it was pointed out in the Note that "The 
Government of the United States can not permit 
Archbishop Boris to perform the function of 
Exarch of the Russian Orthodox Church in 
Amei'ica". 

Such a stand by the American side in no way 
corresponds to the statement contained in the Note 

"Not printed. 

' /6m/., Nov. 14, 1955, p. 784. 



January 2, 1956 



21 



of the Embassy of the USA of June 27 that the 
Government of the USA does not place any ob- 
stacles in the way of the appointment by the Mos- 
cow Patriarchy of officials of the Russian Ortho- 
dox Church in America. 

Commenting on the above-mentioned Note of 
the Embassy of the USA of November 12, a repre- 
sentative of the Department of State spoke in the 
sense that the American side could not permit 
Archbishop Boris to conduct services for members 
of the Russian Orthodox Church in America who 
are citizens of the USA. 

Considering this declaration by an official repre- 



sentative of the Department of State, the ^linistry 
would wish, before the annulment of the visas 
given to the Archbishop, his secretary and Father 
Dion, to clarify whether the Government of the 
USA is agreeable to permitting the entry of Arch- 
bishop Boris and his seci'ctary having in view that, 
during his stay in the USA, Archbishop Boris 
would limit himself to fulfilling his administra- 
tive functions as Exarch. In the case of agree- 
ment by the American side to this proposal, the 
necessity for annuling the visas of Archbishop 
Boris, his secretary and Father Dion naturally 
will no longer arise. 



United States Government Assistance to 
American Business Abroad 

hy Ben H. Thihodeaux 

Director, Oifice of International Trade and Resources ' 



We in Washington and in our missions abroad 
regard those who are engaged in American busi- 
ness abroad as part of our team. Or, to express 
it the other way, we are on your team as well. 
There is much that government and private busi- 
ness can do to help each other in the entrancing 
game of foreign economic affairs. 

You invited me here to tell you what the United 
States Government can do. But since I am talk- 
ing and thereby have you at my mercy for the 
time being, I should like to begin by suggesting 
some things that you might do. 

American ^irivate investments and operations 
abroad are an important part of our foreign rela- 
tions. They are, in effect, extensions of the system 
of free and competitive private enterprise that has 
given the United States its predominant strength. 
Those of you actually engaged in American busi- 
ness operations abroad are demonstrators of that 
economic system. The operations of responsible 
American firms abroad are a good antidote to the 
prejudices that exist against our system in some 
areas of the world. I hope that you also serve 
as salesmen for the foreign economic policies of 



'Address made before overseas representatives of the 
Ford Motor Company at Washington, D. C, on Nov. 28. 



the United States that we will discuss in part to- 
day and that you help us in their application 
abroad. Then too, and very importantly, you 
can — and I know you do — contribute to a better 
understanding among the people in the United 
States of the problems we encounter in our inter- 
national business affairs and of the policies needed 
to cope with them. By promoting a better under- 
standing here and abroad of our international 
business relations, you facilitate the task of the 
Department of State of strengthening the eco- 
nomic ties and hence the political ties of the free 
world. 

And American investments in themselves have 
done much to strengthen the free world. Ameri- 
can private investments abroad amount to approx- 
imately $27 billion and are spread over a wide 
range of economic activity in many countries. 
Some 7,500 branches and subsidiaries of American 
firms are located abroad. American business 
makes a direct contribution to the progress of the 
world and to closer relations between the United 
States and other countries. 

American business operations abroad are a 
means of spreading our technical know-how and 
of inducing ever widening economic development. 
The automobile does not come by itself. Many 



22 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



other things come with it. In this country, for 
example, increasing use of tlie automobile neces- 
sitated more and better highways, and these in 
turn made possible a vast array of economic de- 
velopment. From your own experience, you may 
be familiar with comparable developments in for- 
eign countries as a result of American business 
operations. 

Thus American private capital and technology 
contribute to increased prosperity in other free 
countries to their and our mutual advantage. 
This process is beneficial in itself. But it also 
demonstrates that a free economy can help our 
foreign friends and allies far more than can the 
system of communism. Particularly is this true 
today in the underdeveloped areas of the world, 
where so many things need to be done and where 
people are groping for ways to get them done. 
American capital and business can do much more 
in this direction. Truly, the surface has hardly 
been scratched. 

So much, then, for what you as American busi- 
ness representatives can do and are doing to 
further United States policy objectives abroad. 
This brings me now to the question given me for 
discussion today, and that is. How does the United 
States Government assist American business oper- 
ations abroad? 

An element in the answer that comes first to 
mind is the tremendous financial and teclmical 
assistance given by the United States Government 
to foreign countries since the end of World War 
II. Western Europe generally is now firmly on 
its economic feet, thanks in part to the Marshall 
plan and in part to the gi-eat efforts of the Euro- 
peans themselves. Economic and teclmical assist- 
ance from the United States Government con- 
tinues to aid other countries in their economic 
development, as do proceeds from the sale of sur- 
plus American agricultural commodities abroad. 
Our participation in the World Bank and the 
International Monetary Fmid have also helped 
strengthen the economies of other countries. 

These measures by the United States Govern- 
ment have helped make the free world a better 
place in which to live and to do business. By the 
same token, they have helped set the stage for 
American business operations abroad. 

Additionally, the United States Government 
uses direct incentives to expand the flow of private 
investment funds from the United States to other 



countries. For example, investment guaranties 
are available on convertibility and expropriation. 
As a further inducement, the administration now 
has a bill before Congress that would reduce by 14 
percentage points the Federal tax on earnings of 
corporate overseas investments.^ 

But United States incentives are not enough. 
Foreign countries must do their part if they want 
private capital from the United States. Our 
Government continually seeks, therefore, to in- 
duce other countries to create conditions favorable 
to American private investments and business. 

Our efforts take various forms. Among these, 
I should like to cite the Treaties of Friendship, 
Commerce and Navigation that we negotiate with 
foreign countries; the measures taken to protect 
American patents, copyrights, and trade-marks 
abroad ; and our efforts to lead other countries to 
eliminate restrictive business practices that not 
only discriminate against American business but 
hamper their own economic development. I 
should like to say a word on each of these three 
lines of action that are being pursued by the De- 
partment of State in cooperation with other agen- 
cies of the United States Government. 

Treaties of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation 

Treaties of Friendship, Commerce and Naviga- 
tion — usually called Fcn treaties — are in the na- 
ture of codes of fair treatment for our citizens who 
wish to trade, invest in, or run a business enter- 
prise in a foreign country. They are a means by 
which the United States Government carries out 
its responsibility of protecting and promoting the 
interests of Americans abroad. Among the prin- 
ciples in these treaties are freedom to establish a 
business enterprise and to control and manage it, 
freedom in the employment of essential personnel, 
equality of competitive opportunity with local 
business, and security for jirivate property. Alto- 
gether, we have 30 such treaties, in whole or in 
part pertaining to commerce and general economic 
relations between the United States and individual 
foreign countries. Additional treaties are now in 
process of negotiation with countries that share 
the United States interest in this type of reciprocal 
arrangement. I understand that this meeting in- 
cludes representatives from 14 different coimtries. 



''H. R. 7725. For background, see Bulletin of Sept. 
12, 1955, p. 432. 



January 2, 1956 



23 



We liave Fcn treaties in effect or close to comple- 
tion with 8 of those countries : Argentina, Bel- 
gium, Denmark, England, Finland, Germany, Ire- 
land, and the Netherlands. 

These treaties are lielpful in a number of ways, 
as I have already indicated. Certain countries, 
for example, have an irresistible temptation once 
in a while to tax foreign businessmen more heavily 
than tlieir own. When this happens, the foreign 
investor in such a country can have an unhappy 
time indeed. An Fcn treaty serves to avoid har- 
assments of this kind for the American business- 
man abroad. 

Protection of Patents and Trade-Marks 

In the lields of patents, copyrights, and trade- 
marks, the Department of State negotiates multi- 
lateral and bilateral arrangements with other 
countries to give maximum possible protection 
to American rights abroad. These arrangements 
give effective protection to American interests in 
practically every country and territory outside 
the Soviet bloc. "Wlien these agreements are not 
adhered to, the Department of State intervenes 
on behalf of the American interests affected. I 
am sure that this feature of our work as applied 
to patents and trade-marks is well known to the 
staff of the Ford Motor Company and does not 
need to be elaborated here. 

Restrictive Business Practices 

And now, a word on restrictive business prac- 
tices in cei-tain countries and what we try to do 
about them. As you know, the word "cartel" 
sounds different to different ears, depending upon 
the nationality of the ear. In one case that came 
to our attention, a United States-OM'ned firm was 
faced with the alternative of joining a cartel that 
would have impeded its freedom of action or of 
going out of business in the country involved. 
In another case, an American firm found that it 
would be impossible to perform on a defense con- 
tract on a competitive-bid basis but that it would 
get a slice of the business if it joined with foreign 
firms in submitting collusive bids. All of this is 
a far cry from the free, competitive, private enter- 
prise system described by Mr. Henry Ford II in 
an excellent speech he made last year at Cologne, 
Germany, on the operation of the American econ- 
omy and its relation to the gi'owth of the Ford 
Motor Company. 



24 



"Wlienever such discriminations occur against 
American firms, tlie Department of State endeav- 
ors to seek the removal of tliese conditions thi'ough 
consultation with the govermnent concerned. We 
are alwaj's glad to have American business bring 
to our attention cases in which it encounters dis- 
crimination in its foreign operations. We can- 
not always guarantee a solution, but I am happy 
to say that we have had successes. 

U.S. Trade Program 

Lastl}-, let me turn to what the President has 
termed the key element in our foreign economic 
policy — the trade program of the United States. 

The volume and course of our foreign trade are 
of crucial importance to American business opera- 
tions abroad. Earnings of American investments 
abroad usually are expected, sooner or later, to 
return here in the form of dollars. The eagle on 
the American dollar must be permitted to return 
home to roost; otherwise, its private owner will 
be imwilling to let it leave home. 

But foreign countries must be able to earn dol- 
lars in order to make dollar payments on American 
investments and to spend dollars for goods and 
services from us. And the only means they have 
of earning dollars is by selling goods and services 
to us. 

For a long time we have been selling more 
abroad than we have bought. Since the end of 
World War II, much of the difference has been 
made up by grants and loans from the United 
States Govermnent to other countries. Because 
of dollar shortages, many countries have blocked 
the earnings of American business enterprises and 
have restricted imports of American goods by 
quotas, embargoes, and exchange restrictions. I 
am sure you agree with me that these restrictions 
are unfortunate both for the countries concerned 
and for ourselves. 

How does our trade program lieli:) on this prob- 
lem? The answer is, "In a very direct way." The 
objective of our trade program is to expand the ' 
movement of goods both ways and to enable the 
rest of the world to earn the dollars it wants to 
spend with us. For us, this means continued 
efforts to expand international trade on a mutually 
profitable and equitable basis. That is the con- 
tinuing course best calculated to increase the eco- 
nomic strength of the United States and of the 
countries of the free world. It is the course that { 
enables the fullest and most efhcient use of our 

Department of State Bulletin 



resources and those of the othei- free countries. 
It is tlie course that enables other countries to earn 
more dollars to spend in our markets and to meet 
payments on American investments needed for 
their development. 

I am happy to report steady progress on that 
program. At the President's request, the Con- 
gress extended the Trade Agreements Act for an- 
other 3 years and gave additional authority to 
the President to make further tariff reductions 
on a reciprocal basis with other countries.^ Ac- 
cordingly, the United States and other countries 
that participate in the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade (Gatt) are meeting at Geneva, 
beginning in January, to negotiate another round 
of reciprocal tariff concessions. 

Importance of GATT 

The Gatt is the major instrument in tlie conduct 
of our foreign trade relations. The Gatt is a 
multilateral trade agreement in which the United 
States partici pates with 34 other countries. These 
35 countries together account for about 80 percent 
of total world trade. The purpose of the Gatt 
is to reduce tariffs and other barriers to trade and 
to insure fair play in international commerce. 
In the 8 yeai-s that it has been in existence, the 
Gatt has proved its value. Under it, tariffs have 
been reduced reciprocally and international trade 
has been conducted in a more orderly way than 
might otherwise have been the case. 

Also part of the President's trade program are 
two highly significant pieces of legislation that 
have been submitted to the Congress. One, H.R. 
5550, would authorize United States membership 
in the Organization for Trade Cooperation, an 
organization whose primary function would be to 
administer the Gatt. The other is the Simplified 
Customs Bill which, as its name implies, would 
facilitate the entry of imports tlu-ough our cus- 
toms.* It is expected that both bills will be 
considered at the coming session of the Congress. 
Also under consideration is legislation that would 
increase the duty-free allowance on foreign goods 
brought back by American tourists. 

The record of the United States in reducing its 
barriers to trade has been good. Our only im- 
port quotas are on a few agricultural products, and 



' P.L. 86, 84th Cong. 
' H.R. 6040. 



these are necessary to safeguard our domestic farm 
price supports. Our customs procedures are still 
overly complicated, true, but we are endeavoring 
to simplify them and have already made some 
headway. For the rest, our only import restric- 
tions are our tariffs. 

Tariff Reductions 

And here too, our record of tariff reductions is 
good. During the past 25 years, the proportion of 
our customs collections to the value of total im- 
ports has been reduced by nearly 75 percent. 
These tariff reductions have been made on a re- 
ciprocal basis with other countries. A few tariff 
adjustments have been made in especially critical 
situations to avoid serious injury to our economy, 
but these have served as safety valves that en- 
abled the trade machinery to continue to function. 
Although they created a large volume of publicity, 
these few adjustments do not represent a change 
in the trend of our trade policy. The record of 
our overall performance on trade policy is one to 
which we can refer with assurance when we dis- 
cuss trade problems with our neighbors in the free 
world. 

"VVliat, you might well ask, about the trade pol- 
icies of other countries ? What about the restric- 
tions of other countries against imports of Ameri- 
can goods and what is being done to correct these 
conditions? How do reciprocal reductions in 
tariff's help if they are offset by other trade-restric- 
tive devices such as imix)rt quotas? 

It is precisely on these points that our trade 
program and our cooperation with other coun- 
tries in trade and financial matters are paying 
off. As economic recovery and improvement oc- 
curred in the rest of the world, we have pressed 
other countries to relax their import quotas on 
dollar goods as fully as their foreign exchange re- 
serves allowed. We have exerted this pressure 
directly and through our participation in the 
Gatt, the International Monetary Fund, and the 
Organization for European Economic Co- 
operation. 

Wliat are the results so far? The answer is, 
"Good and getting better as economic conditions 
in the free world continue to improve." Canada 
led the way ; for some time now, Canada has had 
no limitation on its trade with the United States 
other than its tariff. As European recovery de- 
veloped, the other principal trading countries be- 



January 2, 7956 



25 



<ian to relax the systems of quotas and licenses 
that had been established to restrict dollar imports 
and dollar payments. Western Europe <i;enerally 
has now gone far in that direction, and our ex- 
ports to that region have surged upward. De- 
velopments in other regions are also increasingly 
favorable. Certainly there is need for continued 
improvement, and we still look forward to the 
great goal of full convertibility of the major cur- 
rencies and the disappearance of the dollar-short- 
age problem in conjunction with a high level of 
international trade. I am glad to say that progress 
is being made. And I believe we can say with 
justification that the commercial policy of the 
United States has been an important factor in 
that progress. 

Finally, you are aware, I am sure, of the im- 
portant role of our diplomatic and consular es- 
tablishments abroad. They are there, among other 
things, to help American business by giving advice 
and information and by helping to remove obsta- 
cles to trade and investment. Their analyses of 
local situations and problems are gi-eatly aided 
by exchanges of views with you. They, too, are 
important members of the team, ready to give or 
to receive assistance. 

And now, in closing, I should like to hope that 
I have given substance to the statement that I made 
at the beginning of my comments — that American 
business and its Government can and do work to- 
gether, in mutual cooperation and help, in foreign 
economic affairs. Both in Washington and in our 
missions abroad, the Department of State values 
and seeks your assistance on foreign economic 
problems. You have given it, generously. For 
that, we are grateful. 



Renegotiation of Tariff Concessions 
With Five Countries 

Press release 695 dated December 16 

Tariff negotiations held by India, the Nether- 
lands Antilles, New Zealand, Nicaragua, and Paki- 
stan with the United States have now been con- 
cluded, resulting in the modification of certain 
tariff" concessions previously made by these coun- 
tries under the General Agreement on Tariff's and 
Trade.' The United States agreed to the modifi- 
cation or withdrawal of some existing concessions 
in return for new concessions on trade items in 



which it has an interest. No changes in U.S. 
duties were involved in these renegotiations. 

By an action taken by the Contracting Parties to 
the general agreement earlier in the year, the firm 
life of the tariff concessions in the agreement — 
which was due to expire on July 1, 1955 — was re- 
newed to December 31, 1957. Before agreeing to 
this action, a number of countries undertook to 
renegotiate some of their tariff concessions in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of article XXVIII 
of the agreement and procedures established by the 
Contracting Parties. In these renegotiations, the 
country wishing to modify or withdraw conces- 
sions usually grants new concessions as compensa- 
tion to countries that were originally granted the 
concessions being modified or withdrawn and to 
countries determined to have a substantial trade 
interest in such concessions. The purpose of 
granting new concessions is to endeavor to main- 
tain the previous level of reciprocal and mutually 
advantageous concessions. 

India negotiated with the United States and 
other countries for the withdrawal of its conces- 
sion rates on certain coal-tar dyes. As compensa- 
tion for the withdrawals, India granted new con- 
cessions to the United States, reducing duties sub- 
stantially below the present legal rates on certain 
patent foods and on surgical and scientific instru- 
ments, apparatus, and appliances. The United 
States may also benefit indirectly from India's 
compensatory concession to Germany binding the 
present low rate of duty on dye intermediates. In 
fiscal year 1953-5i, U.S. exports of the items on 
which the concessions were withdrawn ai'e esti- 
mated to have been about $1,924,000. Trade sta- 
tistics are not available for all of the compensatory 
items, but India imported about $483,000 worth of 
surgical and scientific instruments and $73,000 
worth of dye intermediates from the United States 
in fiscal 1953-54, and U.S. trade in these items may 
be expected to increase substantially. 

The Netherlands Antilles negotiations were 



' For details of the negotiations, see Ocncral Agrco 
ment on Tariffs and Trade: Analysis of Renegotiation of 
Certain Tariff Concessions (India, Netherlands Antilles, 
New Zealand, Nicaragua, and Pakistan), Department of 
State publication 6201, for sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 
25, D.C., 15 cents. For an announcement concerning re- 
negotiations with Italy, Peru, Turkey, and South Africa 
see Bulletin of Oct. 10, 1955, p. 578 ; with Canada and 
Belgium, see ibid., June 27, 1955, p. 1051. 



26 



Department of State Bulletin 



more extensive, involving a i-evision of their en- 
tire tariff schedule and I'esulting in a generally 
moderate increase of their customs duties. These 
increases in rates are not expected to have 
a restrictive eifect on U.S. exports; hence, the 
Netherlands Antilles was not obligated to gi-ant 
as much compensation as would normally be ex- 
pected. Nevertheless, rates on a number of prod- 
ucts have been reduced or bound at the previous 
level and new concessions on a number of prod- 
ucts have been granted at reduced rates or rates 
considered moderate. Rates in the revised sched- 
ule are still generally quite low and are assessed 
on an f. o. b. factory basis. Imports from the 
United States of the i^roducts on which rates were 
increased were valued at about $10 million in 1953. 
U.S. trade in the compensatory items was about $5 
million in 1953. 

New Zealand withdrew a concession originally 
granted to the United States on mufflers, pistons, 
and cylinder sleeves for tractor and traction en- 
gines and also concessions with other countries on 
seven other items in which the United States had 
a trade interest. As compensation, New Zealand 
granted new concessions to the United States on 
vegetable turpentine, rosin, green or sun-dried fur 
skins, and electric motors up to 25 horsepower, and 
concessions to other countries on motors, confec- 
tionery, glass sheets, and musical instruments. 
Imports from the United States of products on 
which concessions were withdrawn amounted to 
slightly under $100,000 in 1952, the latest year for 
which complete trade figures are available, while 
imports from the United States of the products on 
which new concessions were granted were valued 
at approximately $336,000. 

Nicaragua, made small to moderate increases in 
duties on concessions granted to the United States 
on flavoring preparations, rayon hosiery and cer- 
tain rayon fabrics, small radio sets and parts, 
typewriters and parts, calculating machines and 
parts, and evaporated, condensed, and powdered 
milk, and cream. As compensation for these in- 
creases, Nicaragua reduced substantially the duties 
on certain medicinals and pharmaceuticals. X-ray 
equipment and film, and fountain pens and granted 
new concessions to the United States on trucks 
and jeejas. Nicaragua also modified upward a 
ninnber of concessions originally granted to other 
countries on items in which the United States has 
a varying degree of trade interest. These items 



include marble, glass, plywood, brandy, whisky, 
sparkling wines, and textiles. Nicaragua granted 
compensation for these increases by reducing 
duties on previous concessions or granting new 
concessions on textiles, newsprint, sewing ma- 
chines, bicycles and parts, motorcycles and parts, 
and tires and tubes of all types. U.S. trade in 
the items on which duties were increased was 
valued at approximately $1,100,000 in 1953, while 
the value of U.S. trade in tlie compensation items 
amomited to nearly $2,500,000 in 1953. 

Pakistan, withdrew concessions originally nego- 
tiated with the United States on camied vegetables, 
certain types of paint, razor blades, typewriter 
ribbons, and fountain pens valued at not more than 
$1.50 each. The United States received compensa- 
tion in the form of a concession binding the present 
duty-free rate on wheat and concessions binding 
rates substantially below present statutory levels 
on electric generating sets, thermoplastic and 
thermosetting moulding powders, and certain anti- 
malarial drugs. Pakistan also agreed that pref- 
erence rates, formerly applicable to tobacco of 
Burmese and British Colonial origin and now 
eliminated, will not be restored. The five items 
on which concessions were withdrawn had a trade 
value to the United States of about $12,000 in 
fiscal year 1953-54. The low level of U.S. exports 
reflects in part import restrictions on these items 
imposed by Pakistan for balance-of-payment 
reasons. Except for tobacco and wheat, in which 
U.S. trade with Pakistan was valued at $3,150,000, 
the trade coverage of the compensatory concessions 
gi'anted by Pakistan cannot be detennined from 
available statistical data. 



Surplus Commodity Agreements 
With Colombia and Argentina 

On December 21 the Department of State an- 
nounced the signing of surplus connnodity agree- 
ments with Colombia (press release 704) and Ar- 
gentina (press release 705) under authority and 
provisions of the Agricultural Trade Develop- 
ment and Assistance Act of 1954, as amended. 

The agreement with Colombia, signed at Bo- 
gota on December 20, authorizes the sale during 
the fiscal year 1956 to Colombia, tlirough private 
U.S. traders, of approximately 50,000 metric tons 
of wheat, approximately 32,400 bales of cotton, 
and approximately 4,300 metric tons of edible oil. 



January 2, 7956 



27 



The total export market value of this transaction 
is estimated at $11,600,000. 

The agreement provides that, of the $11,600,000 
in Colombian pesos accruing as a result of the 
sale, $7,000,000 in pesos will be earmarked for 
loans to stimulate Colombia's economic potential 
and will be repayable in dollars or pesos under 
terms of a supplementary loan agreement to be 
concluded at a later date. The balance, $4,600,000 
in pesos, will be used for various purposes by the 
United States, including the financing of an edu- 
cational exchange program and agricultural mar- 
ket developinent. 

The agreement with the Argentine Republic 
signed at Buenos Aires on December 21, author- 
izes the sale to Argentina, through private U.S. 
traders, of 80,000 metric tons of edible oils and/ 
or fat. Of the $25.3 million in pesos accruing as 
a result of the sale, 70 percent will be earmarked 
for loans to stimulate Argentina's economic po- 
tential and will be repayable in dollars or pesos 
mider terms of a supplementary loan agreement 
to be concluded at a later date. The balance will 
be used for various purposes by the United States, 
including the financing of an educational ex- 
change program 

This agreement, the first to be concluded with 
the provisional government of President Aram- 
buru, was negotiated at Washington through 
Ambassador Adolfo Vicchi. 

Agreement on Sale of Poultry 
to Federal Republic of Germany 

Press release 710 dated December 23 

The Department of State on December 23 an- 
nounced signature of an agreement between the 
United States and the Federal Eepublic of Ger- 
many for the sale of approximately $1,200,000 
worth of United States poultry (chickens and 
turkeys) to the Federal Republic for Deutsche- 
niarks under title I of the Agricultural Trade De- 
velopment and Assistance Act of 1954 (Public 
Law 480). 

Sales under this program will be made by pri- 
vate U.S. traders. Details of the purchase au- 
thorization to be issued will be announced later. 

The bulk of the Deutschemarks accruing from 
this sale will be used for development of markets 
for United States agricultural commodities in 
Germany. 



28 



Assistant Secretary of State Livingston T. Mer- 
chant signed the agreement for the United States 
and Albert F. Ernecke, Commercial Counselor of 
the German Embassy, signed for the Federal 
Republic. 



Advisory Council of inter- American 
Agricultural Institute 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 16 (press release 697) that Byron T. Shaw, 
Administrator, Agricultural Research Service, 
Department of Agriculture, has been designated 
U.S. member of the Technical Advisory Council 
of the Inter-American Institute of Agi'icultural 
Sciences. Claud L. Horn, Agricultural Attache, 
American Embassy, San Jose, Costa Rica, has 
been designated alternate U.S. member of the 
Council. 

The purpose of the Inter- American Institute of 
Agi'icultural Sciences is "to encourage and ad- 
vance the development of agricultural sciences in 
the American Republics through research, teach- 
ing and extension activities in the theory and 
practice of agi-iculture and related arts and 
sciences." The Institute undertakes to carry out 
in this specialized field the broad objective of the 
Organization of American States to promote, 
through cooperative action, the economic and 
social development of the American Republics. 
It carries on its program through ( 1 ) the demon- 
stration of modern agricultural techniques and 
equipment, (2) research and field projects carried 
on by resident and visiting scientists, (3) instruc- 
tion at the graduate level of students who are 
selected with a view to their returning to their 
own countries to occupy scientific and adminis- 
trative positions, and (4) inter- American tech- 
nical meetings. 

The Institute, which is a specialized organiza- 
tion of the Organization of American States, is . 
located at Turrialba, Costa Rica. It was estab- 
lished pursuant to a resolution of the Eighth 
American Scientific Congress, held at "Washing- 
ton, D. C, May 10-17, 1940, and a recommendation 
of the Governing Body of the Pan American 
Union. The convention establishing the Institute 
entered into force on November 30, 1944. 

Provision was made in the 1944 convention for J 
the establishment of a Technical Advisory Council 

Department of State Bulletin 



to assist the director of tlie Institute in dealing 
with agricultural matters of a technical nature. 
In view of the increasing scope of the Institute's 
activities, the Board of Directors on April 26, 



1955, asked member governments to appoint rep- 
resentatives on the Technical Advisory Council. 
It is expected that the Council will hold its first 
meeting in March 1956, at the Institute. 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ^ 



Adjourned During December 1955 

U. N. General Assembly: 10th Session 

GATT Contracting Parties: 10th Session 

International Exposition on "The Child in the World" 

Silver Jubilee Fair in Celebration of the 25th Anniversary of the 
Coronation of the Emperor. 

U. N. ECE Electric Power Committee and Working Parties . . . 

International Association of Social Security: 12th General As- 
sembly. 

2d International Fair and Exposition of Colombia 

International Sugar Council: 6th Session 

ILO Asian Technical Conference on Vocational Training for 
Industry. 

U. N. ECOSOC Commission on International Commodity Trade: 
Resumed 2d Se.ssion. 

1st European Civil Aviation Conference 

UNESCO Conference on Cultural Relations and International 
Cooperation. 

1st Central American Meeting on Agricultural Research (FAO/ 
lAIAS). 

FAO International Rice Commission: 5th Meeting of Working 
Party on Fertilizers and 6th Meeting of Working Party on 
Rice Breeding. 

Caribbean Commission: 21st Meeting 

U. N. Economic and Social CouncU: Resumed 20th Session . . . 

U. N. Seminar on Population Problems in Latin America .... 

U. N. ECE Steel Committee: 15th Session 

Inter- American Travel Congresses: 1st Meeting of Technical Com- 
mittee on Travel Plant and Facilities. 

NATO: Ministerial Meeting of the Council 



New York Sept. 20-Dec. 20 

Geneva Oct. 27-Dec. 2 

Rome Nov. 1-Dec. 15 

Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) . . . Nov. 6-Dec. 4 

Geneva Nov. 22-Dec. 3 

Mexico, D. F Nov. 23-Dec. 4 

Bogota Nov. 25-Dec. 11 

London Nov. 28-Dec. 1 

Rangoon Nov. 28-Dec. 10 

Geneva Nov. 28-Dec. 16 

Strasbourg Nov. 29-Dec. 16 

Paris Dec. 1-6 

Turrialba (Costa Rica) .... Dec. 5-10 

Penang (Malaya) Dec. 5-11 

Aruba (Netherlands Antilles) . Dec. 5-12 

New York Dec. 5-15 

Rio de Janeiro Dec. 5-16 

Geneva Dec. 8-9 

Washington Dec. 12-16 

Paris Dec. 15-16 



in Session as of December 31, 1955 

North Pacific Fur Seal Conference Washington 

International Peace and Progress Fair Ciudad Trujillo (Dominican 

Republic) . 



Nov. 28- 
Dec. 20- 



Scheduled January 1-March 31, 1956 

U. N. ECOSOC Human Rights Commission: 8th Session of Sub- 
commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection 
of Minorities. 

U. N. ECAFE Inland Transport Committee: 5th Session .... 



New York Jan. 3- 



Bangkok Jan. 9- 



' Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, Dec. 20, 19.55. Asterisk indicates tentative date. Following 
is a list of abbreviations: U. N., United Na,tions; GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; ECE, Economic 
Commission for Europe; ILO, International Labor Organization; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council; UNESCO, 
United Nations Educational. Scientific and Cultural Organization; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; lAIAS, 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences ; NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization ; ECAFE, Economic 
I Commission for Asia and the Far East; WHO, World Health Organization; ICAO, International Civil Aviation Or- 
ganization; ICEM, Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration; WMO, World Meteorological Organiza- 
tion; ITU, International Telecommunication Union; UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund. 



January 2, 1956 



29 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 

Scheduled January l-March 31, 1956 — Continued 

Royal Agricultural and Food Exhibition Colombo (Ceylon) Ian. 12- 

Miiiing, Geological and Metallurgical Institute of India: 50th Anni- New Delhi Jan. 15- 

versary Celebration. 

Inter-American Travel Congresses: 2d Meeting of Permanent Ex- Lima Jan. 16- 

ecutive Committee. 

WHO Executive Board: 17th Session Geneva Ian. 17- 

Inter-American Council of Juri.sts: 3d Meeting Mexico, D. F Ian. 17- 

General Agreement on Tariff.s and Trade: 1956 Tariff Negotiations . Geneva Ian. 18- 

U. N. Refugee Fund: 2d Meeting of Program Subcommittee . . . Geneva Ian. 18- 

U. N. Refugee Fund: 2d Session of Executive Committee .... Geneva Jan. 23- 

Pan American Highway Congresses: Technical Committee on Fi- Caracas Jan. 23- 

nancing. 

Caribbean Commission/FAO: Technical Conference on Coopera- Georgetown (British Guiana) . Jan. 24- 

tives. 

U. N. ECAFE Committee on Industry and Trade: 8th Session. . Bangalore (India) Jan. 24- 

U. N. Trusteeship Covmcil: Standing Committee on Administrative New York Jan. 31- 

Unions. 

International Atomic Energy Agency: Working Level Meeting on Washington January 

Draft Statute. 

U. N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: 12th Ses- Bangalore (India) Feb. 2- 

sion. 

Pan American Highway Congresses: Technical Committee on Ter- Buenos Aires Feb. 7- 

minology. 

U. N. Trusteeship Council: 17th Session New York Feb. 7- 

FAO Forestry and Forest Products Commission for Asia and Pacific: Bangkok Feb. 9- 

Subcommission on Teak. 

ILO Building, Civil Engineering and Public Works Committee: 5th Geneva Feb. 13- 

Session. 

ICAO Panel on Vertical Separation of Aircraft: 1st Meeting . . . Montreal Feb. 14- 

ICEM Executive Committee: 4th Session Geneva Feb. 14- 

WMO International Hurricane Seminar Ciudad Trujillo (Dominican Re- Feb. 16- 

puljlic) 

ICEM Council: 4th Session Geneva Feb. 20- 

U. N. International Wheat Conference: 2d Session Geneva Feb. 20- 

ILO Governing Board: 131st Meeting Geneva Feb. 27- 

U. N. ECOSOC Committee on Nongovernmental Organizations . New York Feb. 27- 

FAO Intergovernmental Consultation on Epizootics Paris February 

Inter-American Travel Congresses: Technical Committee on Travel Buenos Aires February 

Barriers. 

Inter-American Travel Congresses: Technical Committee on Travel Mfeico, D.F February 

Prom.otion. 

ITU International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR): Study New York Mar. 5- 

Grovip XI, Color Television Denionstrations. 

U. N. ECAFE Subcommittee on Electric Power India 

U. N. Human Rights Commission: 12th Session New York 

.UNICEF Executive Board and Program Committee New York 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization: Council and Economic Com- Karachi 

mittee. 

lAIAS Technical Advisory Council: 1st Meeting Turrialba (Costa Rica) . . . 

U. N. ECOSOC Commission on Status of Women: 10th Session . Geneva 

U. N. ECAFE Railway Subcommittee: 4th Session New Delhi 

8th International Congress of the Vine.vard and Wine Santiago 

U. N. ECAFE: 4th Regional Conference of Statisticians .... Bangkok 

ITU International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR): Study Paris 

Group XI, Color Television Demonstrations. 

American International Instit\ite for the Protection of Childhood: Montevideo March* 

Semiannual Meeting of Directing Council. 

Inter-American Specialized Conference on the Conservation of the Ciudad Trujillo (Dominican Re- March 

Resources of the Continental Shelf and Marine Waters. public) 

U.N. Scientific Committee on Radiation : 1st Meeting New York March 

UNESCO Conference on the Cultural Intefiration of Immigrants. . Caracas March 

WMO Regional Association VI (Europe) : 2a Session Dubrovuik (Yugoslavia) . . . March 



Mar. 


5- 


Mar. 


5- 


Mar. 


o- 


Mar. 


6- 


Mar. 


8- 


Mar. 


13- 


Mar. 


15- 


Mar. 


19- 


Mar. 


26- 


Mar. 


27- 



30 Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Aiding Arab Refugees 



Statements iy James J. Wadsworth 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ^ 



STATEMENT OF NOVEMBER 16 

U.S. delegation press release 2275 

For the second year we have had the privilege 
of listening to a statement by the Director of the 
United Xations Eelief and Works Agency for Pal- 
estine Refugees in the Near East. Mr. [Henry 
E.] Labouisse as usual has been fair and objective 
in the presentation of his statement. He has 
shown, as we know, that he is a man of courage 
and honesty. He has a determination to do his 
job and do it right. 

I intervene here in this committee today to tell 
it that the United States wants to help him in the 
Herculean job that he has before him. I am here 
to enlist the support of others because ilr. La- 
bouisse and the many faithful employees of the 
Agency cannot do the job alone. 

Mr. Labouisse has made clear his view that he 
cannot cari'v out his mandate completely unless 
there is a resolution of some of the important po- 
litical problems connected with the overall Pales- 
tine question. "We agree with him. There must 
be a solution to the problem of whether the Arab 
refugees shall be repatriated or shall be compen- 
sated. The sooner the better. There must be a 
solution of the other outstanding diffei'ences be- 
tween Israel and the Arab States. Again we 
say — the sooner the better. 

However, the inability to settle these problems 
must not stand in the way of what in our opinion 
is the most important matter before us — namely, 
the maintenance and improvement of the lot of 
the Arab refugee. This responsibility should 
elicit from us all — but particularly from the Arab 
States directly concerned, whose brothers these 



^ JIade in the Ad Hoc Political Committee. 



refugees are — all the courage and imagination that 
their leaders have at their command. It will take 
this courage and imagination just to make a start 
on beginning a new and better life for the refugees. 
We have no illusions that in proposing a start on 
progi-ams which will make refugees self-support- 
ing we have hit on the solution to the refugee 
problem. Not at all. But a start is necessary 
now. A start should have been made long ago. 
We are sure that in making that start our Arab 
friends understand that what will benefit the 
Arab refugees will benefit the Arab comitries 
themselves. 

Let me be specific. The plan for the develop- 
ment of the Jordan Valley, which has been the 
subject of intensive and fruitful negotiation be- 
tween Ambassador Eric Johnston and the inter- 
ested countries in the area, will bring 125,000 acres 
of new land into cultivation in the Kingdom of 
Jordan alone. It will provide the basis for sub- 
stantial hydroelectric power on the Yarmuk River 
for Syria and Jordan. Bringing this new land 
under cultivation will not only assist in provid- 
ing many, many thousands of Arab refugees and 
their other fellow Arabs with new and self-re- 
specting means of livelihood. It will also create 
new jobs, new facilities, new industries which, 
given a period of time, will increase the gross na- 
tional product of Jordan alone many times what 
it is today. We repeat: This project alone — just 
as the Sinai project alone — won't solve the refugee 
problem. But it is a very substantial start — a 
start that must be made, a start that the United 
States, for one, has already shown its earnest de- 
sire to help by its contributions to Unrwa. It is 
a start for a new and better Arab world. 

However, the United States alone, the contribu- 



ianuary 2, 1956 



31 



tors of funds to Unkwa alone, the Uiiited Nations 
itself can't bring this about unless the leaders in 
these Arab nations will let us help them help them- 
selves. We believe that they can, to the benefit 
of their countries, view the refugee as an impor- 
tant asset, not, as is too often implied here in de- 
bate, an unwanted liability. Upon these leaders' 
shoulders, we believe, rests the choice between 
progress to greatness and prosperity or the nar- 
row clinging to the statiis quo which benefits no 
one but those who profit from misery and chaos. 

As for the problem of continued relief for the 
refugees, we, of course, believe that we must to the 
best of our ability continue to support Unrwa in 
its program. We have already indicated to the 
Negotiating Committee for Extra-Budgetary 
Funds that we are prepared to assist during the 
coming year to the extent of some $16 million or 
its equivalent in goods. We earnestly hope that 
contributions will be forthcoming from many 
other countries who have not already pledged. 
This work must be continued, even under the re- 
strictions under which Mr. Labouisse and his 
Agency are able to operate. 

With regard to Mr. Labouisse's special report, 
called for in last year's resolution, we have noted 
with concern the plight of the Jordanian villag- 
ers and the other Arabs in the Gaza area and those 
Bedouin tribes who do not qualify under the def- 
inition of Palestine refugees. We sincerely be- 
lieve that the solution to their problem is to ap- 
peal to charitable organizations, with the mate- 
rial assistance of Unrwa, to try to cope with this 
problem. I can assure you that the United States 
is considering how it may further assist in this 
particular problem. 

We welcome the indication that concrete steps 
are being taken toward assuring that more chil- 
dren are being properly fed. The sooner those 
undeserving of assistance are removed from the 
roles, the sooner may more children be taken care 
of. 

I said at the outset that we recognized the neces- 
sity of settling the political problems connected 
with tlie Palestine question. It is the continuing 
duty of us all, especially Israel and the Arab 
States involved, to work toward this goal. Our 
record is perfectly clear on this point. We have 
striven and are still hard at work both in the 
United Nations and outside to bring about their 
early solution. I need only point to Secretary of 
State Dulles' August statement on steps toward 



the resolution of the Palestine dispute as proof of 
our concern over these problems.^ But what must 
be of paramount importance here, now, in this de- 
bate, is that these political problems which must 
be resolved — and which have taken and will take 
time to solve — shall not stand in the way of steps 
of progress toward a better life for the Arab 
refugee. 

In the light of the position of my Government 
which I have just set forth, the United States has 
joined with its British and Turkish colleagues in 
drafting a resolution ' which we hope we will be 
able to table within 24 hours. I reserve for my 
delegation the right to speak again after the res- 
olution is tabled. 



STATEMENT OF NOVEMBER 29 

U.S. delegation press release 2298 

It would seem that it has been a very desirable 
thing to have heard the intervention of the 
distinguished representative of Syria [Alimed 
Shukairy], and to the extent that my intervention 
today might not answer all the specific points 
which he has brought up, I would like to reserve 
for my delegation after consultation with the co- 
sponsors the right to pinpoint at a later time 
some of the matters which he has brought to our 
attention. 

Now, with the conclusion of the general debate, 
we have the obligation, as my delegation sees it, 
of charting a course for the Agency for this com- 
ing year. The differences of opinion expressed 
in the past 10 days have not, I trust, obscured the 
fact that there has been a large measure of agree- 
ment on the immediate and practical problem 
before us. 

The plight of the refugees is unchallenged. 
Their need and desire to live active and useful lives 
is beyond question, and their potential contribu- 
tion to the wealth and well-being of the Middle 
East has been attested to by many speakers here. 
The special problem posed by other claimants not 
refugees, but nonetheless the unhappy victims of 
events beyond their control, has stirred the com- 
passion of all those here. 

Perhaps even more striking than the essential 
agreement on the dimensions of refugee needs 



' BuixETiN of Sept. 5, 1955, p. 37S. 

» U.N. doc. A/AC.80/L.6 dated Nov. 28. 



32 



Department of State Bulletin 



Resolution on Palestine Refugee Item ' 

O.N. doc. A/Res/337 dated December 7 

The General Assembly, 

Recalling its resolutions 194 (III) of 11 Decem- 
ber 1948, 302 (IV) of 8 December 1949, 393 (V) of 
2 December 1950, 513 (VI) of 26 January 1952, 614 
(VII) of 6 November 1952, 720 (VIII) of 27 Novem- 
ber 1953 and 818 (IX) of 4 December 1954, 

Noting the annual report ' and the special report ^ 
of the Director of the United Nations Relief and 
Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near 
East and the report (A/3017) of the Advisory Com- 
mission of the Agency, 

Having revieioed the budgets for relief and re- 
habilitation prepared by the Director of the Agency, 

Noting that repatriation or compensation of the 
refugees, as provided for in paragraph 11 of reso- 
lution 194 (III), has not been effected, that no 
substantial progress has been made in the pro- 
gramme for reintegration of refugees endorsed in 
paragraph 2 of resolution 513 (VI) and that the 
situation of the refugees therefore continues to be a 
matter of grave concern, 

1. Directs the United Nations Relief and Works 
Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East 
to pursue its programmes for the relief and re- 
habilitation of refugees, bearing in mind the limi- 
tations imposed upon it by the extent of the con- 
tributions for the fiscal year ; 

2. Requests the Agency to continue its consulta- 
tion with the United Nations Conciliation Commis- 
sion for Palestine in the best interest of their re- 
spective tasks, with i^articular reference to 
paragraph 11 of resolution 194 (III) ; 

3. Requests the Governments of the area, with- 
out prejudice to paragraph 11 of resolution 194 
(III), to make a determined effort, in co-operation 



' Approved by the Ad Hoc Political Committee on 
Nov. 30 by a vote of 38-0-19 and by the Genera! 
Assembly on Dec. 3, 38-0-17. 

' U.N. doc. A/2978. 

' U.N. doc. A/2978/Add. 1. 



with the Director of the Agency, to seek and carry 
out projects capable of supporting substantial num- 
bers of refugees ; 

4. Notes with gratification that the Government 
of the Hashemite Kingdom of the Jordan and the 
"Agency have made substantial progress toward 
resolving the difficulties which impede the granting 
of rations to all qualified refugee children in 
Jordan ; 

5. Notes the serious need of the other claimants 
for relief as described in the special report pre- 
pared by the Director pursuant to paragraph 6 of 
resolution 818 (IX), namely, the frontier villagers 
in Jordan, the non-refugee population of the Gaza 
strip, a number of the refugees in Egypt, and cer- 
tain of the Bedouin ; 

6. Appeals to private organizations to give them 
increased assistance to the extent that local gov- 
ernments cannot do so ; 

7. Urges all Governments and individuals to sup- 
port these private organizations with food, goods 
and services ; 

8. Requests the Negotiating Committee for Extra- 
Budgetary Funds, after the receipt of the budgets 
from the Director of the Agency, to seek such funds 
as may be required by the Agency ; 

9. Appeals to the Governments of Member and 
non-member States to make voluntary contributions 
to the extent necessary to carry through to fulfil- 
ment the Agency's programmes, and thanks the 
numerous religious, charitable and humanitarian 
organizations for their valuable and continuing 
work in assisting the refugees ; 

10. Expresses its thanks to the Director and the 
staff of the Agency for their continued faithful 
efforts to carry out their mandate, and requests the 
Governments of the area to continue to facilitate 
the work of the Agency and to ensure the protection 
of its personnel and property ; 

11. Requests the Director of the Agency to con- 
tinue to submit the reports referred to in paragraph 
21 of resolution 302 (IV) as well as the annual 
budgets. 



and the role of the Agency is the impatience 
threaded through the statements of delegate after 
delegate, an impatience that we are not moving 
forward rapidly enough with the task of helping 
these people toward self-support. It is an im- 
patience that my Government shares. While we 
agree with those who say that the refugee prob- 
lem cannot be solved overnight, we believe it is 
reasonable to expect a beginning without further 
delay. Projects have been planned in great detail 
on which work could begin almost immediately, 



and it is time we get on with that part of the job. 
As in the past, the resolution tabled by Turkey, 
the United Kingdom, and the United States cen- 
ters on the teclmical and administrative needs 
of the Agency. It does not focus on complex 
political problems. On the contrary, a careful 
effort has been made to exclude issues of political 
significance. A solution must be found for these 
problems as quickly as possible. And I can as- 
sure the members of this committee that my Gov- 
ernment is actively seeking such a solution at all 



January 2, 1956 



33 



times. But we recognize that a resolution on the 
operation of the Agency, on the technical and 
administrative factors, is not the place to attempt 
the resolution of political i)roblems. 

As my colleagues will recognize, the preamble 
of the resolution follows the general pattern of 
past years in recalling the pertinent resolutions 
of the General Assembly and in taking cognizance 
of the report of the Director and the report of 
the Advisory Commission. May I say, Mr. 
Chairman, that if the preamble concludes by 
stating the discouraging circumstance tliat the 
proposals of the General Assembly for the ameli- 
oration of the lot of the refugees have not been put 
into etfect, and if it reiterates once again that the 
situation continues to be a matter of grave concern, 
it nevertheless reflects accurately the facts of the 
matter. 

Now, the first operative paragraph of the reso- 
lution is designed to express the will of the Assem- 
bly that the Agency should continue its progi-am 
for relief and rehabilitation. As a matter of 
normal prudence, the Agency is asked to main- 
tain its expenditures within the limits imposed by 
the extent of the contributions. It is not intended 
to ask the Agency to adjust its operations to the 
level of contributions prevailing at any one time 
in the course of the year, but to make its plans 
on the basis of anticipated contributions for the 
entire year. 

Now the second operative paragraph is pre- 
cisely the same as, and the third paragi-aph is very 
similar to, the corresponding paragraphs in the 
resolution last year.^ The second paragraph has 
been reintroduced to express the continued desir- 
ability of consultation between the Agency and 
the Palestine Conciliation Commission concern- 
ing their respective functions. The third para- 
graph once again calls on the governments of the 
Near East to cooperate with the Director in seek- 
ing and carrying out projects capable of support- 
ing substantial numbers of refugees. My Gov- 
ernment, Mr. Chairman, places great importance 
on this paragraph since it is through these pi'oj- 
ects, wherever they may be found, that large 
numbers of the refugees may be helped toward 
self-support. We can help them to help them- 
selves, but we cannot indefinitely maintain them 
in idleness when opportunities such as those pro- 



vided in the Jordan Valley plan, the Sinai project, 
and other projects which may be found offer 
them a better life. Now, this paragi-aph is de- 
signed to provide a general stimulus to all the 
governments of the area, without prejudice to any 
existing rights, in the search for new opi)ortuni- 
ties for the refugees and toward cooperation with 
the Agency in carrying out projects for refugee 
benefits. 

The next four paragraphs are new as contrasted 
to last year and are responsive to the Special Re- 
port of the Director concerning the other claim- 
ants for relief.'* In these paragraphs the distinc- 
tion in the Special Report between two broad 
categories of claimants has been maintained. On 
the one hand, there are those children in Jordan 
who are qualified for relief under the definition 
of eligibility sanctioned by the General Assembly 
but who are not receiving full relief services. On 
the other hand are the pei-sons who for the most 
part are not refugees under the definition but 
who have been cut off from their normal sources 
of livelihood as a consequence of the hostilities 
of 1948. 

Ccoperation of Jordan Government 

In the case of qualified children, my Govern- 
ment believes that the Agency with the coopei'a- 
tion of the Government of Jordan should under- 
take their support as rapidly as the removal of 
ineligibles from the rolls will permit. And I wish 
to repeat the welcome expressed in my statement 
of November 16 to the indications that immediate 
and practical steps are being taken in this direc- 
tion. This gratification has been noted in tlie 
resolution in evidence of the cooperation between 
the Government of Jordan and the Agency — this 
cooperation which we fervently hope and believe 
is bringing this difficult question nearer to solution. 

Now, so far as the other clainnmts are con- 
cerned, however, the unfortunate facts are that 
financial support for the Agency is clearly in- 
sufficient to warrant extensive additional respon- 
sibilities, despite the support of the United States 
and a number of other countries, all of which are 
well known to the members of this committee. 
We do not believe that there should be a redefini- 
tion of refugee eligibility which would at this 
time add new claimants to the Agency's relief 
rolls. Further, the history to date of the effort 



' Bulletin of Jan. 3, 1955, p. 27. 
34 



' U.N. doc. A/2978/Ad(i. 1. 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



to make tlie refugee self-sustaining warns us 
against placing heavy new burdens on the Agency. 
This is a matter of stark reality. We therefoi'e 
believe that the only course of action, if we are 
not to ignore this side of the problem completely, 
is to appeal to voluntary agencies for the as- 
sistance of these people. And my Government 
plans to help make such an appeal meaningful 
by making increased quantities of foodstuffs avail- 
able to the agencies coming to their help. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, the resolution last year 
made the necessary arrangements to extend the 
life of the Agency for 5 years. The paragraphs 
in previous resolutions respecting the mainte- 
nance of the rehabilitation fund and the continu- 
ation of the Agency's activities are therefore no 
longer required. It is felt desirable to indicate 
that the Assembly has reviewed the budgets sub- 
mitted to the Director, however, and to renew the 
request to the negotiating committee to seek the 
funds required by the Agency on receipt of new 
budgets, and this particularly, Mr. Chairman, 
since the new budgets are scheduled for submis- 
sion before the General Assembly meets again. 
The review of the budgetary submission has been 
included in the preamble along with the recog- 
nition given to the other reports submitted by the 
Agency, while the request to the negotiating com- 
mittee has been carried over intact from last year 
as operative paragraph No. 8. 

Appeal for Contributions 

The appeal in our paragi-aph 9 for contributions 
to carry through the Agency's j^i'ograms and the 
expression of thanks for the valuable support 
given by the numerous religious, charitable, and 
humanitarian organizations are both set forth in 
precisely the same language as that used last year, 
as is the request to the Director in our paragi'aph 
11 to continue his customary reports. 

Tlie only remaining change, therefore, in this 
resolution is the addition of the new paragraph 
10. This paragi'aph expresses thanks to the Di- 
rector and staff of the Agency and requests the 
governments of the area to continue to facilitate 
the Agency's work and to insure the jirotection 
of its personnel and property. The gratitude that 
we of the Assembly owe to the Director in his 
difficult task has been so warmly and so widely 
stated in this committee that its inclusion requires 
no further explanation. 



I would, however, like to conclude with a com- 
ment on this matter of facilitating the woi-k of the 
Agency and of insuring the protection of its per- 
sonnel and property. In annex G of his Annual 
Report, the Director points to the greater under- 
standing which the Agency has found this past 
year in its cori'espondence with governments of 
the area regarding and respecting its status as a 
public international organization. The recital of 
the operating difficulties which the Agency still 
is experiencing is, however, a long one, and it in- 
cludes descriptions of highly onerous restrictions 
on Agency activities. We feel that the govern- 
ments of the area have a particularly good oppor- 
tunity to give concrete expression to their appreci- 
ation for the efforts of the Director by helping in 
still greater measure to ease his difficult task. 
And with full recognition of the tremendous prob- 
lems of these troubled times in this area, we feel 
that it is essential to urge special care for the lives 
and well-being of the dedicated people who make 
up this Agency and for the property which is the 
material evidence of the world's interest in the 
tragic condition of the Palestine refugees. 



STATEMENT OF NOVEMBER 30 

U.S. delegation press release 2303 

After consultation with my colleagues from the 
United Kingdom and Turkey, I intervene again 
today to comment briefly on statements from sev- 
eral of the delegations with regard to the resolu- 
tion before us. 

The purpose of this resolution is to provide a 
directive for the operation of Unrwa in the next 
year, to express due commendation of that Agen- 
cy's work, and to appeal for its continued support. 
The resolution is therefore in much the same form 
and language as last year's resolution which was 
passed by a substantial majority, including the 
affirmative votes of most of the delegations of the 
Arab States. 

IVIuch of the comment on the resolution has cen- 
tered on operative paragraph 3, which requests the 
governments of the area to make a determined ef- 
fort in cooperation with the Director of the 
Agency to seek and carry out projects capable 
of supporting substantial numbers of refugees. 
Mr. Shukairy has asked my United Kingdom col- 
league to make clear which governments of the 
area are referred to. As Mr. [P. M.] Cros- 



January 2, 1956 



35 



thwaite has already said, the request is a general 
one. "Governments of the area" means what it 
says, and no particular government is excluded. 
The phrase "projects capable of supporting sub- 
stantial numbers of refugees" is also general. It 
is not confined to projects presently under con- 
sideration. We all hope that new projects will be 
found. Both these phrases are time-honored. 
They appear also in last year's resolution, and 
there is no need to read anything new or sinister 
in the language. By supporting such language 
no State commits itself to carry out any particular 
project. Certainly, the need for such projects has 
not diminished since last year. 

It has also been stated that the resolution, in 
paragraplis 6 and 7, has "shifted the responsi- 
bility on the charitable organizations" for the 
other claimants discussed in the Director's Special 
Report. I should like to make it clear to this 
committee that the Agency has never had respon- 
sibility for those other claimants, has not been 
engaged in providing for their relief, and that no 
question of shifting responsibility arises. The 
resolution recognizes that there are other needy 
people in the area besides those eligible for relief 
services from the Agency, and it makes a special 
appeal to private organizations to give them in- 
creased assistance to the extent that local govern- 
ments cannot do so. We are sympathetic to the 
tragic human problem which these other claim- 
ants represent, and my Government is attempting 
to assist them tlirough making increased food- 
stuffs available to voluntary agencies coming to 
their assistance. We do not believe, however, 
that they should be added to Unrwa's relief rolls, 
increasing still further the Agency's tremendous 
responsibilities. We are already concerned at the 
lack of financial support for Unrwa, which is 
making it difficult to meet even the present re- 
quirements. 

We are deeply concerned with the urgent need 
for a solution of the political issues which have 
been debated at length in this committee. My 
Government, the Government of the United King- 
dom, and other governments as well, are actively 
cooperating in a search for a solution. But let 
me repeat the earnest conviction that these prob- 
lems must not deflect the General Assembly from 
its immediate task of providing, through this 
Agency, not a plan of starvation but the best ob- 
tainable life for the Arab refugees. 



Future of Togoland Under 
British Administration 



STATEMENT BY BENJAMIN GERIG > 

The United States delegation has carefully ex- 
amined the special report of the Visiting Mission 
on the Togoland Unification Problem and the Fu- 
ture of Togoland under British Administration.^ 
It wishes first of all to pay tribute to the clear 
and painstaking way in which the mission dis- 
charged its duties. We consider that the resolu- 
tions of the Visiting Mission constitute a practical 
basis, both as to substance and procedure, on which 
the Trusteeship Council and the General Assem- 
bly can, within the scope of their respective func- 
tions, take the necessary decisions. In this con- 
nection, we think that in view of the rapidly 
approaching adjournment date of the General As- 
sembly, and without establishing a precedent, the 
Trusteeship Council might well couch its recom- 
mendations in general terms, leaving it to the 
General Assembly to provide further detailed rec- 
ommendations, if it so desires. The immediate 
problem is the future of the people of British To- 
goland, the solution of which will have profound 
effects for the Togolese people and their relations 
with their neighbors. 

As we have already heard from the statement of 
the distinguished representative of the United 
Kingdom [Henry Hopkinson], there are certain 
points on which his delegation would prefer to 
see amendments or changes. Let me say, first of 
all, that we have always considered that the full 
and wholehearted cooperation of the Administer- 
ing Authority is essential in carrying out any such 
plan affecting the future of this territory. We 
are encouraged to believe that there will be such 
cooperation in view of the earnestness with which 
the United Kingdom Government has sought to 
satisfy the United Nations in regard to this prob- 
lem of joint concern. The differences which re- 
main between the recommendations of the Visiting 
Mission and those of the Administering Author- 
ity are not, in our view, insurmountable. In par- 



^ Made in the U.N. Trusteeship Council on Nov. 22 
(U.S./U.N. press release 2283). Mr. Gerig, Director of 
the Ofl3ee of Dependent Area Affairs, Department of ) 
State, was acting U.S. representative in the Council. 

' U.N. doc. T/1206 and Add. 1. 



36 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



ticular, we are glad to note that the recommenda- 
tion of tlie mission as to the procedure for carrying 
out the plebiscite and regarding the duties of a 
plebiscite commissioner is in general regarded as 
practicable and seems to be acceptable to the Ad- 
ministering Authority. Here too, of course, there 
may be certain minor details which will need to 
be considered, but there is already a great gain if 
the procedure for carrying out the plebiscite can 
be generally agreed on. 

There remain then one or two other questions 
on wliich an arrangement will need to be worked 
out. One of these, as the distinguished represent- 
ative of the United Kingdom told us yesterday, is 
the nature of the question or questions to be put in 
the plebiscite. We agree that experience has 
shown that, in principle, plebiscite questions 
shoidd always be kept simple, should be easily 
understood, and that the number of questions 
should be kept to a minimmn. The principal ques- 
tion to be put to the people of British Togoland 
is whether they wish to see their future as a part 
of an independent Gold Coast. This is essentially 
the choice wlxich is offered by the Special Mission 
and, we believe, also the choice which the Admin- 
istering Authority would wish to place before 
them. Tlie essential difference between the form- 
ulation of the Visiting Mission and that preferred 
by the Administering Authority seems to be the 
express reference to continuing some kind of trus- 
teeship for any district that would not opt imme- 
diately for integration with the Gold Coast. After 
all, if a simple single question were to be put, as 
the United Kingdom representative proposes, and 
if a majority in any area were to vote in the nega- 
tive, the practical situation would be the same as if 
the question were asked in two parts, namely, some 
continuing administration would need to be pro- 
vided for. 

Although we appreciate the problems involved 
in the formulation of the question, as pointed out 
yesterday by Mr. Hopkinson, we find it difficult to 
believe that the Administering Authority would 
find it impossible to continue temporarily some 
kind of administrative responsibility in certain 
areas where there might be substantial majorities 
who are not quite ready to make up their own 
minds as to their future. We fully realize why 
the Administering Authority, which has expressed 
its view that the territory is ready for independ- 
ence as an integral part of the Gold Coast, would 
not wish to undertake to administer a part of the 



territory after the Gold Coast had become inde- 
pendent. We nevertheless would hope that, now 
that the development of the territory has so nearly 
reached a point of final determination, the Ad- 
ministering Authority might find it possible to ac- 
commodate themselves to such a temporary situa- 
tion. This situation of course may not arise and, 
in fact, my delegation trusts that we will not be 
confronted with such a contingency. But should 
such a contingency arise, we would hope that the 
Administering Authority in cooperation with the 
United Nations would find it possible to continue 
to assist in these final stages. 

We believe, therefore, that in practice the two 
proposed questions of the Visiting Mission and the 
simpler single one proposed by the Administering 
Authority really amount to about the same thing 
since they recognize the possible problem of the 
need for providing an administration for those 
who temporarily desire to continue under the 
present arrangement. 

The second point of difference between the rec- 
ommendation of the Visiting Mission and the Ad- 
ministering Authority is with respect to the way 
the plebiscite votes would be counted — whether in 
a single block or separately in several area imits. 
We have tried to see the advantages and disadvan- 
tages of both points of view. If differences within 
the population are not too wide, we would nor- 
mally prefer to see a decision taken on the basis of 
a majority of the country as a whole. Or if pre- 
vailing differences were evenly distributed 
throughout the country as a whole, we think the 
attitude of the majority should also prevail. How- 
ever, when the differences are quite pronounced as 
between geographic areas, a special situation arises 
which we feel at least merits some consideration. 
We would hope, however, that there would be no 
ultimate fragmentation which, we believe, the 
Visiting Mission itself sought to avoid. We at- 
tach importance to the advantages wliich accrue 
from establishing and maintaining an entity which 
is both politically and economically viable. And 
we believe that the inhabitants themselves share 
this opinion. 

After examining the advantages and disadvan- 
tages of the recommendations of the Visiting Mis- 
sion we are inclined to the view that their proposal 
of counting the plebiscite votes by districts not 
only is somewhat more sensitive to the feelings and 
attitudes of the people but we also believe that the 
plan is feasible and practicable, provided all the 



January 2, 1956 



37 



directly interested autliorities could agree to co- 
operate together in carrying out the proposal. In 
saying this we will be prepared to consider ad- 
justments or alternative arrangements which may 
be brought forward in the discussions here or in the 
General Assembly. Our minds are not absolutely 
fixed to any one course of procedure but we believe, 
as I said earlier, that the proposals of the Visiting 
Mission in this respect furnish a practicable and 
feasible means for ascertaining the wishes of the 
people. 

Mr. Chairman, nothing is more important than 
the building of a new nation made up of peoples 
with common interests. We believe that if this 
next step is carried out in a spirit of accommoda- 
tion and with sensitiveness to the wishes of the peo- 
ple involved, the future of the people of Togoland 
and of the Gold Coast can be, and we believe will 
be, happy, peaceful, and prosperous. It is our 
ardent hope to be able to contribute to this end, 
and all our votes and decisions, as far as my Gov- 
ernment is concerned, will be motivated by this 
objective. 

TEXT OF RESOLUTION' 

U.N. doc. A/304G, Annex 1 

The Trusteeship Council, 

Recalling General As.sembly resolution 860 (IX) of 14 
December 19.5-t by which it decided that, in view of the 
eventual revision or termination of the Tru.steeship Agree- 
ment for Togoland under British administration, steps 
should be taken, in the light of the particular circum- 
stances of the Trust Territory, to ascertain the wishes 
of the inhabitants as to their future, without prejudice 
to tlie eventual solution they might choose, requested the 
Trusteeship Council to consider what arrangements 
should be made in pursuance of the aliove decision and 
to report thereon to the General Assembly at its tenth ses- 
sion, and further requested the Trusteeship Council to 
dispatch a special mission to the Trust Territories of 
Togoland under British administration and Togoland 
under French administration to make a special study of 
these problems and to submit its report thereon in time 
for the Council to report to the General Assembly at its 
tenth .session, 

RccalHnp its resolution 1084 (XV) of 14 March 195.5 by 
which it decided, in conformity with Article 87 of the 
United Nations Charter, and in pursuance of the requests 
addressed to the Council in General Assembly resolution 
860 (IX), to dispatch a visiting mission to the Trust Terri- 
tories of Togoland under British administration and Togo- 
land under French administration and charged this Visit- 



° Sponsored l)y India and the U.S. ; adopted by the Trus- 
teeship Council on Nov. 23 by a vote of 9-0-3 (Belgium, 
Haiti, U.S.S.R.). 



38 



ing Mission to carry out the tasks prescribed in General 
Assembly resolution 860 (IX), 

RecuUiiKj further its resolution 12.52 (XVI) of 8 July 
195.J by which it requested this Visiting Mission to submit 
to the Council a special report on the subject not later 
than 1 Novemlier 1955, 

Having received the special report of the Visiting Mis- 
sion and the observations of the Administering Authorities 
concerned thereon, 

1. Ccmsiders that the views expressed in the special re- 
port of the Visiting Mi.ssion provide in general a useful 
basis for determining the arrangements to he made in 
pursuance of General Assembly resolution 860 (IX) ; 

2. Decides to transmit the special report of the Visiting 
Mission, together with the present resolution, to the Gen- 
eral Assembly for its consideration and action; 

3. Reconniiends that the General Assembly examine the 
special report with a view to action being taken to ascer- 
tain the wishes of the inhabitants as to their future. 



Current Treaty Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Trade and Commerce 

Fourth protocol of rectifications and modifications to 
annexes and texts of schedules to the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva March 7, 
1955.' 

Signature: Cuba, November 15, 1955. 
Agreement on Organization for Trade Coojjeration. 
Done at Geneva March 10, 19.55.' 

Signatures: India, November 10, 1955; Haiti, Novem- 
ber 15, 19.55. 
Protocol of organizational amendments to the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva 
March 10, 1955.' 

Signatures: India, November 10, 1955; Haiti and 
Union of South Africa, November 15, 19.55. 
Protocol amending iiart I and articles XXIX and XXX 
of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done 
at Geneva March 10, 1955.' 

Signature.<i: India, November 10, 1955; Cuba, France, 

Haiti, and Union of Soutli Africa, November 15. 19.55. 

Protocol amending preamble and parts II and HI of the 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at 

Geneva March 10, 1955.' 

Signatures: India (with a reservation), November 10, 
19.55 ; Cuba, France, Haiti, and Union of South Africa 
(with a reservation), November 15, 195.5. 
Protocol on terms of accession of .lapan to the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, with annex A (sched- 
ules of the Contracting Parties) and annex B (schedule 
of .Japan). Done at Geneva June 7, 1955. Entered into 
force September 10, 1955. 

Notification of intention to apply concessions received: 

Pakistan, November 7, 1955 (effective December 7, 

1955). 

Protocol of rectification to French text of the General 

Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva June 

15, 1955.' 

Signatures: India, November 10, 1955; New Zealand. 
November 12, 19.55; Cuba, Haiti, and Union of South 
Africa, November 15, 1955. 



'Not in force. 



Department of State Bulletin 



January 2, 1956 



Index 



Vol. XXXIV, No. 862 



Africa. Future of Togoland Under British Admiii- 

istratiou (Gerig) 36 

Agriculture. Advisory Council of Inter-American 

Agricultural Institute 28 

American Republics. Advisory Council of Inter- 
American Agricultural Institute 28 

Argentina 

Letters of Credence (Vicchi) 7 

Surplus Commodity Agreements With Colombia and 

Argentina 27 

Asia. Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Con- 
ference S 

Atomic Energy. Progress Report on Atoms-for- 
Peace Program (Eisenhower, Patterson, text of 
report) 4 

Colombia. Surplus Commodity Agreements With 

Colombia and Argentina 27 

Economic Affairs 

Agreement on Sale of Poultry to Federal Republic 

of Germany 28 

Renegotiation of TarlfC Concessions With Five 

Countries 26 

Surplus Commodity Agreements With Colombia and 

Argentina 27 

Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Conference. . 8 

United States Government Assistance to American 

Business Abroad (Thibodeaux) 22 

Europe. Coal and Steel Community Official Invited 

To Visit U.S 15 

Foreign Service. Cutoff Date for Vi.sa Applications 

for Italian Refugees 16 

Germany 

Agreement on Sale of Poultry to Federal Republic 

of Germany 28 

Berlin Conference Hall 15 

Transcript of Secretary Dulles' N'ews Conference. . 8 

Immigration and Naturalization. Cutoff Date for 

Visa Applications for Italian Refugees ... 16 

India. Renegotiation of TarifC Concessions With 

Five Countries 26 

International Information. Revival of Russian- 
Language Magazine "Amerika" 18 

International Organizations and Meetings. Calen- 
dar of Meetings 29 

Italy 

Cutoff Date for Visa Applications for Italian Refu- 
gees 1(5 

President of Italy To Visit United States .... 16 

Mutual Security 

I'lighdad Pact Council Concludes First Meeting 

(text of communique) 16 

Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Conference. . 8 

Near East 

Aiding Arab Refugees (Wadswortb, text of resolu- 
tion) 31 

Baghdad Pact Council Concludes First Meeting 

(text of communique) 16 

Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Conference. . 8 

Netherlands Antilles. Renegotiation of Tariff Con- 
cessions With Five Countries 26 

New Zealand. Renegotiation of TarifC Concessions 

With Five Countries 26 

Nicaragua. Renegotiation of Tariff Concessions 

With P'ive Countries 26 

Non-Self-Governing Territories. Future of Togo- 
land L'nder British Administration (Gerig) . . 36 

Pakistan. Renegotiation of Tariff Concessions 

With Five Countries 26 



Presidential Documents 

Brighter Hopes for Peace 3 

Progress ReiJort on Atoms-for-Peace Program (let- 
ter to Morehead Patterson) 4 

Refugees and Displaced Persons 

Aiding Arab Refugees (Wadsworth, text of resolu- 
tion) 31 

Cutoff Date for Visa Applications for Italian Refu- 
gees 16 

Treaty Information 

Agreement on Sale of Poultry to Federal Republic 

of Germany 28 

Current Actions 38 

Surplus Commodity Agreements With Colombia and 

Argentina 27 

U.S.S.R. 

Entry and Residence Privileges of U.S. and Soviet 

Ecclesiastics (exchange of notes) 19 

Revival of Russian-Language Magazine "Amerika" . 18 

United Kingdom. Future of Togoland Under Brit- 
ish Administration (Gerig) 36 

United Nations 

Aiding Arab Refugees (Wadsworth, text of resolu- 
tion) 31 

Future of Togoland Under British Administration 

(Gerig) 36 

Progress Report on Atoms-for-Peace Program 

(Eisenhower, Patterson, text of report) ... 4 

Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Conference. . 8 

Name Index 

Dulles, Secretary 8 

Eisenhower, President 3, 4 

Gerig, Benjamin 36 

Gronchi, Giovanni 16 

Mayer, Rene 1.5 

Patterson, Morehead 4 

Thibodeaux, Ben H 22 

Vicchi, Adolfo A . . 7 

Wad.sworth, James J 31 



No. 

701 



Date 

12/20 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: December 19-25 

Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 
Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Press releases issued prior to December 19 which 
appear in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 690 
and 691 of December 12 and 695 and 697 of De- 
cember 16. 

Subject 

Dulles: economic assistance (com- 
bined with No. 703). 

Dulles : mutual security appropriation 
(combined with No. 703). 

Dulle.s : transcript of news conference. 

Surplus commodity agreement with 
Colombia. 

Surplus commodity agreement with 
Argentina (combined with No. 704). 

Burrows given rank of Minister. 

President of Coal and Steel Commu- 
nity to visit U.S. 

Revival of Russian-language maga- 
zine Amerika. 

Cutoff on visas for Italian refugees. 

Agreement on poultry sale to Ger- 
many. 



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^ol. XXXIV, No. 863 



January 9, 1956 



^^AENT o^ 




BENJAMIN FRANKLIN THE DIPLOMAT 50 

CURRENT ASPECTS OF U.S. -SPANISH RELA- 
TIONS • by Ambassador John Lodge 43 

SELF-DETERMINATION ARTICLE IN HUMAN 

RIGHTS COVENANTS • Statement by Mrs. Oswald 
B.Lord ... 70 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY ACTION ON DISARMAMENT 

Statements by Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr, . . . • . 55 
Text of Resolution 63 



For index see inside back cover 



Boston Public Lil-rary 
Cuper!ntRn''.'>Tit of Documents 

FEB 2 7 1956 




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Me Q)e/vw»c&nen/^ c/ ^ta^e JOllllGtlll 



Vol. XXXIV, No. 863 • Publication 6236 
January 9, 1956 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

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Washington 25, D.C. 

Peice: 

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Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 19, 1965). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bdlletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and tlie Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other offi- 
cers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and tlie func- 
tions of the Department. Infornui- 
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and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
well as legislative material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



Current Aspects of U. S.-Spanish Relations 



hy John Lodge 
Ambassador to Spain ^ 



This is my first report to my fellow Americans 
on my mission in Spain. In my report to you 
I shall try to give you my impressions about 
Spain, the Sj^anish people, the value of our 
agreements with them, and the prospects for our 
relations in the future. 

Before taking up with you the current aspects 
of our relations with the Spanish Government, 
I should like to sketch roughly in a few broad 
strokes some observations on the political and 
economic situation in Spain as I see it. A great 
many of the world's governments with which we 
enjoy friendly and mutually beneficial relations 
are certainly not popular governments as we 
Americans understand that term. Indeed, I have 
always regarded the toleration and acceptance 
of differing or, if you will, dissident views as to 
government or religion as a basic tenet of inter- 
national relations. 

The distinguished writer Jose Maria Gironella 
in the preface to his book The Cypresses Believe 
in God says: 

Spain is an unknown country. Experience proves that 
it is hard to view my country impartially. Even writ- 
ers of high order succumb to the temptation to adulter- 
ate the truth, to treat our customs and our psychology 
as though everything about them were of a piece, of a 
single color. Legends and labels pile up; black Spain, 
inquisitorial Spain, beautiful Spain, tragic Spain, folk- 
loric Spain, unhappy Spain, a projection of Africa into 
the map of Europe. . . . 

I believe Spain has been misunderstood and 
misrepresented in our country many times over. 
Too often our impression of this intensely in- 
teresting and varied coimtry has been limited to 

" Address made before the Connecticut Editorial Associ- 
ation at Darien, Conn., on Dec. 10. 



stories of bullfighters, dark-eyed beauties in 
mantillas, gypsy dancers, and castanets. This is 
as inaccurate a picture of Spain as the impres- 
sion, widespread in Europe, that all Americans 
are millionaires and that Americans spend most 
of their time fighting gangsters and crowning 
bathing beauties. Fascinating as all of these 
secondary features of the Spanish scene may be 
to the foreigner, they obscure the more signifi- 
cant and enduring aspects of Spanish life and 
character. What are these aspects ? 

Spain is infinitely varied, racially and linguis- 
tically. Within a few hours you can pass from 
the green wooded valleys of Galicia and As- 
turias in the north to the arid, windswept table- 
land of Castile which occupies central Spain, or 
from the orange groves of the Valencian Coast 
through the endless silver-grey olive trees of 
Andalucia to the cork forests of Extremadura. 

The people vary like the landscape. It is hard 
to identify the sandy-haired factory worker of 
Barcelona or Bilbao, both of predominantly Cel- 
tic extraction, with the dark, Moorish profile of 
the Andalusian girl carrying a jug of water on 
her head from the village fountain. Spaniards 
differ also in the languages they speak. Al- 
though Castilian predominates and is readily 
understood throughout the peninsula, the Gali- 
cians and the Catalans both have languages of 
their own, the former very close to Portuguese 
and the latter — Catalan — derived from the old 
Provencal French. There is also the strange 
Basque tongue, whose precise origin is shrouded 
in the mists of history but which is still spoken 
in the northern Basque provinces, where it serves 
as the rallying point for this intensely regional- 
ist segment of the population. 



January 9, 1956 



43 



Characteristics of Spanish People 

But within this variety there are, I believe, 
certain common and constant traits which charac- 
terize the Spaniards as a people. One which 
particularly impresses the foreigner living in 
Spain is the dignified cordiality encountered 
everywhere. This cordiality is not of the "hail- 
fellow-well-met" type but tempered by a grave 
politeness hard to match anywhere else in the 
world. A Spaniard's friendship is not given 
lightly or superficially but only after the estab- 
lisliment of a relationship of mutual confidence 
and respect. This is part of the Spaniard's in- 
tense sense of personal honor and pride. Wlien 
a Spaniard's word has been formally given, he 
means it and sticks to it. 

Our talented fellow citizen, Temple Fielding 
of Stamford, who has spent a great deal of time 
in Spain, has this to say about Spaniards in his 
Trowel Guide to Europe: 

They've got something that has almost vanished from 
this complex, high-pressure civilization of ours, the time 
to reflect, the capacity to find joy in reflection, and the 
peace of mind that only mental tranquillity can bring. 

Enjoying comparatively few of the material 
benefits of the modern world, the Spaniard is in- 
clined to place less value on the practical, physical 
things in life. To him, the manner in which a 
gift is proffered or an act performed may be more 
important than the object itself. We must get 
to know tlie Spanish people better, and they us, 
in order to broaden and deepen the relationship 
which has been so auspiciously established. The 
achievement of this goal is as much a matter of 
successful psychological relations as it is of the 
continuation of ordinary diplomatic relations. 

In this task the members of this distinguished 
audience and their colleagues of the press else- 
where in the United States can play a particularly 
valuable role in creating the indispensable climate 
of reciprocal familiarity and understanding. 

During the months which I have spent in Spain 
I have found that often the humblest newspaper 
story, if accurately and sympathetically written, 
or the most modest lecture in the United States 
on contemporary Spain can weigh significantly 
in the balance of Spanish-American relations. 
This is a field in which you ladies and gentlemen 
of the press are especially competent. You can 
contribute in a most positive and constructive way 
to the accomplisliment of our foreign policy aims 
in Spain. 



A realization which I have found helpful in 
understanding Spain and its political traditions 
is that this very old land, located on the periphery 
of Europe and associated over several hmidred 
years with North African peoples, never went 
through, or was influenced only very slightly by, 
two of the philosophical experiences which are 
fundamental to the origin of our country and of 
our way of thinking. I am referring to the pro- 
found changes in thought which grew out of 18th 
century rationalism and the French Kevolution. 

Similarly the impact of the 19th century indus- 
trial revolution upon Spain's economic and social 
fabric was not nearly so far-reaching as in other 
countries of Western Europe, in Great Britain, 
or in the United States. But there were com- 
pelling physical and topographical reasons for 
this. The Iberian Peninsula is broken up geo- 
grapliically by a series of diagonal mountain 
ranges which separate one region from another 
and which have always made communications 
slow and difficult ; and wliile there are fertile river 
valleys, a great central portion of the country 
consists of the high, largely arid Castilian pla- 
teau. This "lofty, spacious, and barren" region 
will support only dry-farming crops, and these 
must be painstakingly wrested from a recalcitrant 
soil. 

Added to these natural handicaps is the even 
more debilitating one, for a predominantly agri- 
cultural country like Spain, of a generally poor 
and very unevenly distributed rainfall. Al- 
though narrow coastal belts in the north and to 
the east enjoy sufficient rain to support a variety 
of crops, in great reaches of the peninsula — close 
to two-thirds, in fact — the rainfall is equivalent 
to that of the American Southwest. 

One need only travel a few miles outside of 
Madrid into the Castilian countryside during the 
time of the wheat harvesting to believe oneself 
back in biblical times. In village after village the 
grain has been spread out on circular stone thresh- 
ir_g floors over which a kind of sled is drawn by a 
patient mule. Later, when the grain has been 
sufficiently separated, it is pitchforked into the air 
so that the wind will blow the straw and husks to 
one side. But for all the painstaking antiquity 
of this process you are sure to get a cheerful wave 
of greeting from the winnowers. The Spaniards 
may be poor, but they are as uniformly cheerful 
as any people I know. 

Given these physical factors and the historic 



44 



Department of State Bulletin 



tradition of Spain, there are many valid reasons 
why Spain has developed along economic, social, 
and political lines that are quite different from 
those we have followed in the United States. This 
does not mean, however, that we cannot work 
closely together in a fruitful alliance founded on 
mutual respect and on the larger concept of the 
defense of the Western World from the onslaught 
of Communist imperialism. 

From a strategic point of view, but also politi- 
cally and psychologically, Spain stands at the 
crossroads of some of the world's most vital areas 
and turbulent currents. The Iberian Peninsula 
faces Africa to the south and Europe to the north ; 
the Atlantic Ocean lies on its northwestern shores 
and the Mediterranean to the east; it has strong 
linguistic and religious ties with the Hispanic 
world overseas ; it is jjerhaps as well or better able 
to understand the Arab approach to life than any 
other European country; and, finally, Spain now 
has strong bonds of defensive alliance with the 
United States. 

U.S. Agreements With Spain 

A little over 2 years ago, in September 1953, fol- 
lowing a year and a half of exploratory study and 
negotiation which began after the trip of the late 
Admiral Forrest Sherman to Madrid in 1951, our 
Govermnent and the Government of Spain signed 
three agreements.^ The first of these concerned 
the establishment and construction in Spain, for 
the joint defensive use of our two countries, of 
five military bases — four air and one naval. The 
second agreement provided for American mili- 
tary equipment. Because of its civil war from 
1936 to 1939, and a virtual blockade during 5 years 
of World War II, Spain was not in a position to 
supply or produce the arms necessary to defend 
the bases. The third and last agreement governed 
a commensurate amount of what is called defense- 
support aid, that is, economic assistance for 
Spain in strengthening those sectors of her econ- 
omy — key industries, communications, transporta- 
tion system, agriculture — which are related to the 
effective functioning of the new complex of bases. 

Although the signing of these agreements may, 
on the surface, seem an obvious act of self-interest 
on the part of both countries, its achievement was 
a question of much greater complexity and more 



I 



" Bulletin of Oct. 5, 1953, p. 435. 
January 9, J 956 



lasting significance than any simple physical 
arrangement. 

The days when we affirmed our own neutrality 
are not so long past as to have erased the memory 
of the motives and reactions which led us to try 
to avoid what we then considered dangerous "for- 
eign entanglements." A similar desire to avoid 
foreign entanglement gripped the Spanish people 
and its Govermnent well through the end of 
World War II. Although under considerable 
pressure from Hitler throughout the Second 
World War to join the Axis, Spain adliered to a 
policy of neutrality. 

Aside from a defensive alliance made with her 
next-door neighbor, Portugal, in 1939, dictated 
by the obvious geogi'aphical necessity of defend- 
ing the Iberian Peninsula, the agreements of 1953 
with the United States are the first major foreign 
military alliance entered into by Spain in her 
modern history. The reason is that, despite her 
isolation, she understands the true nature of the 
Communist danger to world peace and the urgent 
need to be strong and ready to meet its challenge. 

Spain's postwar foreign relations have developed 
along four main lines, two of which we have al- 
ready noted: the Iberian defensive pact with 
Poi'tugal, which provides for joint military and 
political consultation, and action if necessary; 
and the base, military, and economic aid agree- 
ments with the United States. 

The other two principal directions in which 
Spain has sought to strengthen her international 
ties have been the "Hisj^anic" one, that is, toward 
Latin America, implemented through the foster- 
ing of her historical, cultural, and religious ties 
with the "sister republics" of Central and South 
America ; and toward the Arab world through an 
active policy of rapprochement with the Moslem 
countries, using as a bridge her favorable relation- 
ships with the Moroccan peoples of North Africa. 
Gradually certain other Westeni nations, as they 
too became convinced of the real danger of Com- 
munist imperialism, became more miderstanding 
and appreciative of Spain's value in the defense 
of the West. 

Accordingly, in 1950 the United Nations, by 
resolution, lifted the ostracism it had voted against 
Spain in 1946. In 1952 Spain was voted into 
UNESCO. From the status of almost an interna- 
tional pariah under U.N. condemnation at the 
close of World War II, Spain today has a de- 
fense agreement with the United States, has con- 

45 



eluded a concordat with the Vatican, is a member 
of all the important U.N. specialized agencies, and 
is overwhelmingly endorsed for admission to the 
organization itself.^ 

So much for the background to our present re- 
lations with Spain. How are our agreements 
working out? 

Success of Base and Training Programs 

In the base program Spanish cooperation is 
very good indeed. I have inspected the major 
projects now being constructed in Spain. The 
quality of the work by the Spanish subcontractors 
is very impressive and the rate of construction 
that has been established is most satisfactory. The 
job is being done with the care needed to insure 
the worth and durability of the bases and at a 
sjieed that is consistent both with economy and 
the need for strengthening our defenses. The 
Spanish Government also has gone out of its way 
to fulfill its commitments, some of which — such 
as the requisition of large areas of fertile land — 
are onerous indeed. 

With regard to military aid for the Spanish 
armed services, U.S. military officials report most 
favorably on the progress made by those services 
in handling and caring for the new U.S. equip- 
ment. 

In training, the Spaniards are showing up well. 
Eighty percent of the Spanish students sent to 
technical Air Force training courses in the United 
States have graduated in the top 10 percent of 
their classes — an outstanding record. 

Wliile the Minister of the Army, General Agus- 
tin Muiioz Grandes, was touring installations in 
this country, he was told by a senior officer at the 
Army school at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, that the two 
Spanish officers enrolled in the communications 
course stood near the top of their class. Similar 
favorable comments come to us from U.S. military 
technical schools in West Germany. 

I can assure you that the bases are coming 
along well and that the Spanish armed forces are 
justifying our high expectations. 

Defense-Support Economic Aid 

Now I should like to report on the problem in- 
volved in the third agreement with Spain, namely, 
defense-support economic aid. When we began 

^ Spain was one of the group of 16 new members ad- 
mitted to the U.N. on Dec. 14. 



a base construction program in Spain and under- 
took to provide the Spaniards with arms to help 
defend these bases, we assumed problems in the 
economic field which had to be solved in order to 
achieve these objectives. First, it was necessai-y 
to insure that the base construction progi'am would 
not upset the marginal Spanish economy. Spain's 
per capita gross national product is $260 per year, 
or somewhat less than half the average of other 
European countries and about one-seventh of ours. 

Although Spain has made great strides in de- 
veloping her industries — and the country has 
appreciable mineral resources — nevertheless, dur- 
ing the past 50 years, and more so in the last 20, 
lier badly needed foreign exchange earnings have 
been derived principally from agricultural ex- 
ports, foremost among them olives, olive oil, and 
citrus fruit. It is well recognized that an econ- 
omy which depends mainly on agriculture is 
highly vulnerable. Two years of poor rainfall, 
such as Spain experienced in 1951 and 1952, or an 
abnormally cold winter like that of 1953-54, 
when freezing weather in southern Spain de- 
stroyed great portions of the olive and orange 
crops, result inexorably in well-nigh disastrous 
shoi-tages. It is a striking illustration of this 
situation to note that the losses in badly needed 
foreign exchange resulting from the freeze a year 
ago equaled the total economic aid we granted 
Spain that year. 

A large construction program in Spain without 
defense-support assistance might well produce 
greatly increased inflationary pressures which, 
among other bad results, would raise the cost of 
building the bases. This has been avoided. 

In addition, however, if a mutual defense pact 
witli Sjiain was to be worth while over any length 
of time, it would have to help Spain build up its 
domestic economy. Spain would need economic 
aid both to maintain the added military strength 
resulting from our delivery of weapons to the 
Spanish armed forces and to combat inflationary 
tendencies brought on by base construction ex- 
penditures. Concern only for the immediate in- 
flationary effects of the base construction program 
without providing for longer-range economic sta- 
bility also would be shortsighted and would have 
jeopardized for the future the heavy military 
investment we are now making. 

Defense-support assistance, therefore, has been 
used in two ways: one, to provide raw materials 
and agricultural commodities to offset the infla- 



46 



Department of State Bulletin 



tionary impact of base construction and, two, 
to provide capital equipment for sectors of tlie 
economy in which Spain is the weakest. For- 
tunately, the harsh necessities of the Spanish 
economy have coincided with the needs of the air 
and naval bases being constructed by the United 
States. Economic aid in Spain, which is being 
devoted in considerable part to transportation and 
electric power, is quite properly termed defense- 
support aid since its purpose is to strengthen our 
mutual defense effort. Without improvement, the 
railroads, for instance, could not provide adequate 
communications from port areas to the military 
bases. Sixain's highways, though in relatively 
better condition than its railway system, fall far 
short of the requirements both of the civilian 
economy and of the military program. Road- 
building equipment is being furnished in the aid 
program, and it is being used on those roads and 
highways which are of importance to the joint 
Spanish-American military line of communica- 
tions. 

Economic Aid a Good Investment 

Two concrete examples are illustrative of the 
extent to which tlie military and the economic are 
closely interrelated in our Spanish program. A 
modern fuel pipeline, reaching from Cadiz to 
Zaragoza across two-thirds of the country, from 
the southern coast to within a few miles of the 
northeastern border, is in process of construction. 
Similarly, work has begun on the creation of an 
ultramodern telecommunications network to link 
the bases and thus greatly amplify and improve 
the existing Spanish communications system. 
Fuel pipeline and communications systems can 
also serve important civilian peacetime needs. 

It is, I think, particularly gratifying that, in 
these days of necessarily vast and uneconomic in- 
vestment in military establishments and equip- 
ment, at least a part of this terrible cost can also 
serve peaceful civilian ends. 

There is another reason why I think our eco- 
nomic assistance to Spain is a good investment. 
One of the terms of the 1953 economic aid agree- 
ment was that the U.S. would receive for its own 
uses, primarily to pay the peseta costs of base con- 
struction, the local currency equivalent or coun- 
terpart of 70 percent of the dollar aid advanced. 
If these pesetas were not available, the U.S. would 
have to spend on base construction an additional 
amount of dollars equivalent to the value of these 



pesetas. In other words, every dollar of economic 
assistance costs the U.S. taxpayer only about 30 
cents. 

Though not directly related to the military-base 
and defense-support programs, there is still 
another way in which the Spanish program, in its 
economic aspects, is helping the U.S. Spain is 
becoming a good customer for our surplus agri- 
cultural commodities. Under the administration's 
program to expand markets for American farm 
products, the U.S. can sell abroad surplus agri- 
cultural commodities for currencies of other coun- 
tries, if such sales do not "unduly interfere" with 
the traditional markets of other friendly coun- 
tries. In the past Spain has not had enough 
foreign exchange to purchase all the agricultural 
commodities she actually needed. Our sales, there- 
fore, can be expanded at a rapid rate without in- 
terfering with the noi-mal marketings of other 
friendly countries. 

Under this program Spain so far has made pur- 
chases amounting to $31.5 million, and substantial 
additional sales are anticipated. To date, we have 
kept 50 percent of the peseta proceeds to meet U.S. 
expenses in Spain for economic development. 
Surplus agricultural commodities in storage cost 
the taxpayer money; selling them now for 50 
percent cash and 50 percent long-term credit, thus 
eliminating carrying charges, is good business for 
us, and it helps Spain to fill some of her greatest 
needs. In addition, these sales are paving the 
way for the future when, with our help, the Span- 
ish economy is strong enough to permit her to buy 
needed American products in the normal way. 

Prospects for the Future 

I come now to a part of my report to you that is, 
I think, of particular interest — the prospects for 
the future of U.S.-Spanish relations. Increas- 
ingly important as the material ties between our 
two countries have become — the base construction 
program, the economic, military, and technical 
aid — these things are only part of integral friend- 
ship. There ai-e stronger and deeper bonds of 
understanding and culture which link us together. 

Vast areas of our hemisphere, notably in South 
and Central America and in the great Southwest 
of our own land, were discovered, explored, colon- 
ized, and settled by people from Spain. In the 
Americas, next to the English language the Span- 
ish tongue is the most widespread. Spanish 
customs and traditions have had a marked effect 



January 9, J 956 



47 



upon our own culture. Both our cultures, com- 
mitted as they are to enduring spiritual values, 
have produced a joint determination to resist 
Soviet aggression. 

The agreements of 1953 are being carried out in 
a spirit of loyalty and mutual respect on both sides. 
I can say to you with pride that Americans today 
in Spain are popular and well received. 

Only recently the visit to Spain of our dis- 
tinguished Secretary of State, John Foster 
Dulles,* and the marked cordiality with which 
he was welcomed, demonstrated to the world the 
growing closeness of our relations with this proud 
and ancient land. Our great President, Dwight 
D. Eisenhower, is not only admired but loved 
by the people of Spain. 

I believe that our partnership with Spain now 
has a sound foundation and that the prospects 
for the future are very good indeed. 

On our part I believe that of course we should 
carry through with our commitments concerning 
the bases, and I am convinced that at the same 
time we should provide the defense-support eco- 
nomic aid required in connection with this 
program. 

On the part of S^iain, I believe that we shall 
continue to find the excellent cooperation and 
soldierly qualities desirable in partners in a joint 
undertaking in which the security of hmidreds 
of millions of people is involved. 

The bases themselves will be of the greatest 
strategic importance. The other nations of West- 
ern Europe will, in my opinion, come to appre- 
ciate and welcome this vital contribution to the 
defense of the West from sudden aggression. It 
is a formidable bulwark which we are building, 
and the criticism leveled against us by the Com- 
munists points up its value. I am confident that 
you will support this important undertaking. 

I am honored that our President has entrusted 
to me the task of Ambassador to Spain. It is a 
splendid opportunity for public service. 

Spain, toughened by ordeal in the fiery cruci- 
ble of a bitter civil war, will continue by our 
side — a dependable anti-Communist ally. I think 
it is encouraging and entirely right that, as we 
Americans attempt to discharge the massive re- 
sponsibilities of leadership of the anti-Communist 
world, we should have at our side tliis loyal friend 
and gallant ally — Spain. 

' Secretary Dulles made an official visit to Madrid on 
Nov. 1. 



U.S. Restates Views en 
Soviet Obligations in Germany 

Following are the texts of a statement issued hy 
the U.S. Embassy at Bonn on Deceraber 16 and a 
letter from Ambassador James B. Conant de- 
livered on the saTue date to Georgi Pushkin, senior 
Soviet diplom/itic representative in the Soviet 
Zone of Germany, together with a letter dated De- 
cember H from Ambassador Pushkin to the U.S., 
French, and British Ambassadors to the Federal 
Republic. The French and British Embassies on 
December 16 replied to the Soviet representative's 
communication with similar statements and letters. 

U.S. Embassy Statement of December 16 

The letter from Mr. Pushkin of December 14 
merely restates the Soviet position as set out in the 
exchange of letters between Mr. Zorin and Herr 
Bolz on September 20. At that time the three 
Western Powers made clear to the Soviet Govern- 
ment in their notes of October 3 ^ that they con- 
tinued to liold the Soviet Government responsible 
for the obligations assumed by it in the quadripar- 
tite agreements regarding Germany, including 
Berlin. This remains the position of the United 
States Government. 

Mr. Conant's Letter of December 16 

Dear Mr. Pushkik: I acknowledge receipt of 
your letter of December 14. The position of my 
Government has already been made clear in its 
note to the Soviet Government of October 3, 1955, 
namely that it continues to hold the Soviet Gov- 
ernment responsible for the obligations assumed 
by it under quadripartite agreements on the sub- 
ject of Germany, including Berlin. 

The attitude of my Government remains un- 
changed. 

Sincerely yours, 

James B. Conant 

Mr. Pushkin's Letter of December 14 

[Unofflcial translation] 

Dear Me. Ambassador : I acknowledge the receipt of 
your letter of December 1 of tliis year." This letter defends 
the action of a group of American citizens who used an 
automobile equipped with an unregistered radio trans- 



' Bdlletin of Oct. 17, 1955, p. 616. 
'Ihid., Dec. 19, 1955, p. 1013. 



48 



Department of State Bulletin 



mitter on the territory of East Berlin under violation of 
tlie laws which are valid in the German Democratic 
Republic. 

I know that the commandant of the American garrison 
of West Berlin, Major General Dasher, has been given an 
appropriate explanation, in which it was stated that the 
matter falls fully and completely under the competence 
of the presidium of the People's Police of East Berlin. 

Concerning the other questions mentioned in your letter, 
I deem it necessary to tell you that under the treaty con- 
cluded September 20 between the German Democratic 
Republic and the Soviet Union, the German Democratic 
Republic exercises full and complete jurisdiction on its 
whole territory and regulates all questions arising from 
its relations with the German Federal Republic as well 
as with other states. 

From the above-mentioned treaty and the documents 
relating to it — whose texts have been brought to the 
attention of the Governments of the United States, Britain 
and France — it can be seen that the German Democratic 
Republic exercises the guarding and control on the borders 
of the German Democratic Republic, the line of demarca- 
tion between the German Democratic Republic and the 
German Federal Republic, on the outer ring of Greater 
Berlin, in Berlin, as well as on the lines of communica- 
tion between the German Federal Republic and West 
Berlin. 

In this connection it is well known that agreements 
exist between the Governments of the Soviet Union and 
the German Democratic Republic that the control of 
traffic of armed forces personnel and freight of the gar- 
risons of the United States, Britain and France stationed 
in West Berlin between the German Federal Republic 
and West Berlin will be exercised temporarily until con- 
clusion of an appropriate agreement by the command of 
the group of Soviet forces in Germany. 
Sincerely yours, 

G. Pushkin 



Deadline Extended for Filing 
Property Claims in Austria 

Press release 713 dated December 28 

Information has been received by the Depart- 
ment of State that the deadline has been extended 
for filing claims in Austria under certain laws re- 
lating to restitution of property seized during the 
period of German occupation. The extension 
provides that such claims may be filed up to July 
31, 1956, whereas the deadline had previously been 
December 31, 1955.^ The extension of time for fil- 
ing is applicable only in regard to the following 
types of claims : 

(1) Claims to property of which foundations 
and funds were deprived if such foundation or 



' Bulletin of Nov. 7, 1955, p. 761. 



fund was dissolved during the German occupa- 
tion of Austria and if its status as a juridical per- 
son was not restored as of December 1, 1953. 

(2) Claims to property which was under pub- 
lic administration on June 30, 1952, or thereafter. 

(3) Claims which could not be enforced by rea- 
son of a fact existing outside of Austrian laws. 

Claims of the above types should be filed prior 
to July 31, 1956. Proceedings are formal and are 
commenced by the filing of a petition or complaint 
with the Finanzlandesdirektion (State Finance 
Office) where the property is located, or with the 
Rueckstellungskommission (Restitution Commis- 
sion) for the district in which the present owner of 
the property resides. It is suggested that claim- 
ants who wish to file claims under the Austrian 
Restitution Laws should consider obtaining Aus- 
trian legal advice to insure that their claims are 
correctly filed and processed with the appropriate 
restitution authority. 

Claims of Former Persecutees under Austrian 
State Treaty 

Persons wishing to file claims for property con- 
fiscated in Austria on account of the racial origin 
or religion of the owner are reminded that article 
26 of the State Treaty provides for restoration of 
property to former persecutees where such prop- 
erty was taken after March 13, 1938. Such claims 
should be filed prior to July 31, 1956, directly with 
the 

Austrian Federal Ministry of Finance, 

Himmelpfortgasse 8, 

Vienna I. 

Special Austrian Fund To Aid Former Persecutees 

Information has also been received that the Aus- 
trian Government has recommended to its Parlia- 
ment legislation to establish a special fund to pro- 
vide limited payments to former Austrian citizens 
or residents who were victims of Nazi persecution 
in Austria. Such payments will be made to per- 
sons residing presently outside Austria as a meas- 
ure to alleviate hardships arising from financial 
need, age, iU health, or other similar circum- 
stances. Persons wishing to obtain information 
regarding this fund and the procedure for filing 
claims may communicate with the 

Committee for Jewish Claims on Austria 

Suite 800, 270 Madison Avenue 

New York 16, N. Y. 



January 9, 1956 



49 




i,nurti'S.v of the -Neiv York Public Library 



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 

1706 - 1790 



50 



Deporfmenf of State Bulletin 



Benjamin Franklin the Diplomat 



C 7^ wo hundred and fifty years ago, on 
I I January 17, 1706, a notable and ver- 
^^y satile American was born: Benjamin 
Franklin, printer, writer, business- 
man, philanthropist, inventor, scientist, 
public official, statesman, and diplomat. 
Sometimes referred to as the first profes- 
sional Foreign Service officer of the United 
States, Franklin was as eminently successful 
in international relations as he was in the 
various other fields of enterprise to which 
at one time or another he devoted his 
endeavors. 

To an extent that was unique among 
Americans of the time, Franklin acquired 
diplomatic experience during the colonial 
period. For more than 15 years before the 
outbreak of the Revolution, he lived in Eng- 
land as the representative of the political 
and economic interests of certain of the 
American Colonies. From 1757 to 1762 
and from 1764 to 1775 he represented 
Pennsylvania in this manner; and he like- 
wise represented Georgia from 1768, New 
Jersey from 1769, and Massachusetts from 
1770. Under these appointments, and with 
his outstanding personality and reputation, 
he was in effect an ambassador extraordi- 
nary from the Colonies to Great Britain. 

Franklin was on the high seas homeward 
bound, after his mission as agent of the 
Colonies, when blood was shed at Lexington 
and Concord. On May 6, 1775, the day 
after his arrival at Philadelphia, he was 
chosen a member of the Continental Con- 
gress. On November 29, 1775, the Con- 
gress appointed him one of a committee of 
five "for the sole purpose of corresponding 
with our friends in Great Britain, Ireland, 
and other parts of the world." This com- 
mittee is usually regarded as the first stage 
in the development of what is now the De- 
partment of State. 

Soon after the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, which he had helped to draft, Franklin 
began his service as a diplomatic representa- 
tive of the new Nation. On September 28, 
1776, he was commissioned by the Congress 



one of three Joint Commissioners to the 
Court of France, with full powers to nego- 
tiate treaties. He arrived in France the fol- 
lowing December, and he remained abroad 
under this and subsequent diplomatic ap- 
pointments until July 12, 1785. Although 
named additionally Commissioner to the 
Court of Spain on January 2, 1777, he never 
entered upon this assignment. Together 
with his two fellow Commissioners to 
France, he signed on February 6, 1778, with 
the Plenipotentiary of Louis XVI, the first 
three treaties entered into by the United 
States. One of these was the alliance that 
brought France into the Revolutionary War. 

On September 14, 1778, the Congress 
elected Franklin its sole representative to 
the Court of France, with the rank and title 
of Minister Plenipotentiary. This was the 
first appointment of a minister plenipoten- 
tiary in the American diplomatic service. 

In the years that followed the Congress 
gave him additional assignments. On June 
15, 1781, he was commissioned one of five 
Joint Commissioners to negotiate a treaty 
of peace with Great Britain, and in this ca- 
pacity he signed preliminary articles of 
peace on November 30, 1782, and the defin- 
itive treaty of peace on September 3, 1783. 
On September 28, 1782, he was commis- 
sioned Minister Plenipotentiary to negotiate 
a treaty of amity and commerce with 
Sweden; on April 3, 1783, he signed such 
a treaty. On May 12, 1784, he was com- 
missioned one of three Joint Ministers Plen- 
ipotentiary to negotiate treaties of amity and 
commerce with European countries and with 
the Barbary states; and under this commis- 
sion he signed a treaty with Prussia on July 
9, 1785. Three days later he brought his 
mission to a close and left Paris on his last 
trip home. 

The portrait on the opposite page is by 
Joseph-Sifrede Duplessis, who also made a 
number of other portraits of Franklin. 
This one was painted in France in 1783, 
when Franklin, at the age of 77, was at the 
culmination of his diplomatic career. 



January 9, 1956 



51 



Chinese Communist Complaint 
Concerning Student 

Press release 714 dated December 30 

Tlie Department of State is investigating a 
Chinese Communist complaint that a student for- 
merly attending the University of Missouri has 
been prevented from leaving the United States by 
being confined to a mental institution. The com- 
plaint was received at the American Consulate 
General in Geneva from the Communist represent- 
ative, Wang Ping-nan, on December 28 and by the 
American Ked Cross in Washington, D. C, in a 
telegram from the Chinese Communist Red Cross 
on December 29.^ 

The former student is Liu Yung-ming, who is 
presently a patient in the Missouri State Hospital 
No. 4 at Farmington, Mo. Preliminary investi- 
gation has disclosed that Liu was a student at the 
University of Missouri in May 1949, when he was 
committed to the State Hospital through court 
procedure instituted by the foreign student ad- 
viser of the University of Missouri. Hospital 
physicians diagnosed his case as chronic schizo- 
phrenia. 

The U. S. Immigration Service obtained a de- 
portation order against Liu on January 29, 1951, 
but deportation could not be carried out due to 
the impossibility of obtaining travel dociunenta- 
tion which would assure his acceptance elsewhere. 

Hospital officials state that the only correspond- 
ence received concerning him was from his father, 
Y. W. Liu of Hong Kong, who asked that the hos- 
pital continue to care for him. Expense of caring 
for Liu has been borne by the State Hospital, al- 
though the hospital authorities recently wrote to 
Liu's father to ask whether he could contribute 
a part of this cost. Hospital authorities were un- 
able to recall any correspondence from Liu's wife 
to the hospital. 

At the time that Liu was committed to the State 
Hospital there were no restrictions of any kind 
on the departure of Chinese. Following the out- 
break of the Korean war, preventive departure 
orders were issued with respect to a small number 
of Chinese with technical training, but no such 
order was ever issued against Liu. 

The Department is consulting with the Ameri- 
can Eed Cross as to appropriate disposition of 
Liu's case. 



' Text of note not printed. 
52 



Survey of Mekong River 

The International Cooperation Administration 
annoimced on November 26 that, at the request of 
the Governments of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, 
and Viet-Nam, it will help finance a reconnaissance 
survey to explore the potentialities of the Mekong 
River for immediate and long-range development. 
The Bureau of Reclamation, U. S. Department 
of the Interior, will make the survey. Ica will 
pay the dollar costs, estimated at $50,000, and the 
Governments of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and 
Viet-Nam will pay local currency costs and pro- 
vide other assistance for the survey. 

The Mekong is believed to hold considerable pos- 
sibilities for improvement and development in the 
fields of navigation, irrigation, power, and domes- 
tic water supplies. It is one of the world's longest 
waterways, comparable to the Mississippi River 
in length and volume. 

To make the survey, the Bureau of Reclamation 
under an agreement with Ica will send six Amer- 
ican river-development experts to Southeast Asia. 
They will present a report next spring with recom- 
mendations for improvements and projects which 
could be undertaken along the 1,620 miles of the 
Mekong from the Communist China border to its 
mouth on the South Cliina Sea. (Another 1,000 
miles of the river is in Communist China.) 

The Mekong survey project is an outstanding 
example of cooperation among governments of 
Southeast Asia for mutual betterment in the eco- 
nomic sphere. Any regional developmental proj- 
ects which cut across political boundaries can only 
be imdertaken through cooperative action among 
the several governments involved. Such coopera- 
tive projects often offer far greater benefits than 
can be realized by the various governments work- 
ing independently. 

The Mekong River flows for 2,600 miles from its 
source in the snow-covered mountain ranges of the 
great plateau of Tibet through China to Burma, 
Laos, and Thailand, forming parts of the borders 
of these countries. It continues througli tropical 
Cambodia and Viet-Nam to the South China Sea. 

The primary objective of the reconnaissance 
survey is to bring together all basic information 
and all previous plans for development of the 
potentials of the river, to forecast potential devel- 
opments apparently worthy of investigation, and 
to establish guidelines for further specialized en- . 
gineering surveys. | 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



The reconnaissance will point out any initial 
simple, low-cost projects that can be undertaken at 
an early date to enhance the economic well-being 
of the people in the Mekong watershed, such as 
minor improvements of sections of the river for 
navigation, improvements for flood protection for 
inhabitants of the lower river areas, extension of 
flood irrigation in the lower areas, simple pilot 
irrigation schemes on a demonstration basis, and 
provision of adequate transport craft and river 
port and portage facilities to increase navigation 
along the river and reduce transportation costs. 

Long-range possibilities which will be consid- 
ered in the reconnaissance include potentials for 
hydroelectric power either on the main stream or 
its tributaries; development of irrigation in the 
northeast Thailand plateau from the waters of 
the Mae Nam Mun River, a tributary ; and major 
increases in irrigation in the lower reaches of the 
river. Recommendations will be made regarding 
long-term engineering and economic studies that 
are necessary before major developmental projects 
can be properly undertaken. 

Flood control may be found necessary to reduce 
losses of life and property which result from the 
river's extraordinary overflowing on an average 
of once every 9 years. Rainfall in the area is 
heavy, ranging from 40 to 100 inches. 

No assistance is currently scheduled for devel- 
opment projects on the Mekong, but Ica said that a 
reconnaissance survey such as is being undertaken 
would be necessary before any national or inter- 
national projects could be wisely plaimed to put 
the river to use for the benefit of the people of the 
four countries. 



U.S. Helps Combat Flood Suffering 
In Pakistan 

The International Cooperation Administration 
announced on December 11 that the U.S. Gov- 
ernment was rushing emergency medical supplies, 
blankets, and warm clothing to Pakistan by air 
and sea to combat sickness and cold- weather suf- 
fering m the wake of recent disastrous floods in 
West Pakistan. The supplies, gifts of the Amer- 
ican people, are being sent to assist the hundreds 
of thousands of people affected by the flooding of 
the Ravi and Sutlej rivers. 

The first of 12 American commercial aircraft 
carrying initial supplies had already arrived in 



Pakistan, and others were to follow within a few 
days. The air cargo will be followed by sea ship- 
ments of additional supplies. 

Emergency supplies to combat cold-weather 
suffering include 70,000 wool blankets, 100,000 
wind-resistant jackets, 100,000 wool overcoats, 
100,000 pairs of trousers, and 30,000 sweaters. 
The medical supplies include 50,000 vials of peni- 
cillin ; 5 million vitamin tablets ; 100 tons of DDT 
to be used in malaria control ; 18,300,000 paludrine 
tablets, an antimalaria drug; 25,000 cakes of 
carbolic soap ; and 200,000 meparcine tablets. 

The Ica has also turned over more than 14 tons 
of sulphanilimide and sulfadiazine, 1 million 
yards of bandage, 36 tons of warm clothing, and 
2,000 blankets to the American Red Cross for 
shipment to the Pakistan Red Cross. 



Distributing Agricultural Surpluses 

Secretary of Agriculture Ezra Taft Benson an- 
nounced on December 14 that wheat, corn, rice, and 
di-y beans will be made available immediately to 
U.S. charitable agencies for foreign relief purposes 
and also to eligible domestic outlets. Secretary 
Benson said : 

This Is a further important step in our program to 
benefit farmers and others in this country, as well as to 
help our friends overseas. Increasing the distribution 
of these products will serve to provide needed food to the 
hungry throughout the world from our U.S. surpluses. 
I am happy that we have been able to complete the lengthy 
arrangements leading to this announcement during this 
appropriate period between Thanksgiving and Christmas. 
We know from personal meetings and from our mail that 
our United States farmers are proud and delighted to be 
able to share their abundance with the less fortimate 
both at home and abroad. 

These donations will continue to be made in a manner to 
be of maximum assistance to the hungry people of the 
world, to persons who need them and would not otherwise 
get them or get enough of them. The distribution will 
continue to be made through the U.S. welfare agencies, 18 
of which are currently distributing food in 67 countries 
abroad. The foods will continue to be distributed over- 
seas with full recognition of their American origin, iden- 
tified as "gifts of the people of the United States." 

The action adds wheat and corn to the commod- 
ities being made available to nonprofit school lunch 
programs and other eligible outlets in this country ; 
rice and dry beans are already being distributed to 
such outlets. It also makes all four products avail- 
able to U.S. private welfare agencies for foreign 
relief distribution. 



January 9, 1956 



53 



U.S. Completes Action Required 
for Membersliip in IFC 

The International Bank for Eeconstruction and 
Development (AVorld Bank) on December 5 an- 
nounced that the United States on that date com- 
pleted the action i-equired for membership in the 
International Finance Corporation, the proposed 
new affiliate of the World Bank.^ George M. 
Humphrey, Secretary of the Treasury, signed the 
Articles of Agi'eement of the International Fi- 
nance Corporation and deposited with the bank 
an Instrument of Acceptance signed by President 
Eisenhower on behalf of the U.S. Government. 

The United States was the third country to 
complete this process, the first two being Canada 
and Iceland. The bank announced on December 
16 that Egypt and Ecuador had completed action, 
and on January 10 that Australia, Costa Kica, 
Mexico, and the United Kingdom had completed 
action. 

The charter of the International Finance Cor- 
poration requires a minimum membership of 30 
countries, together subscribing at least $75 million, 
before the corporation can begin operations. The 
capital subscriptions of the nine countries which 
have now completed action amount to $56,761,000. 

The governments of 38 other member countries 
of the bank have indicated their intention of 
joining the Ifc. In almost all cases legislation is 
required to enable these governments to adhere 
to the new corporation, and the following coun- 
tries have already passed the domestic legislation 
required to authorize membership: Haiti, India, 
Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, and Peru. The 
prospective capital subscriptions of these six coun- 
tries total $5,212,000. Bills authorizing member- 
ship are in an advanced stage of the legislative 
process in a number of other countries. 



World Bank Loan to Honduras 
for Highway System 

The World Bank on December 22 announced 
that it made a loan of $4.2 million to Honduras 
on that date to enable a highway maintenance or- 
ganization to be set up and to begin operations. 



' For the President's message to Congress recommend- 
ing U.S. participation and a summary of tlie principal 
features of the Ifc, see Bulletin of May 23, 1055, p. 844. 



The loan will akso finance preliminary engineering 
studies for the improvement and new construction 
of various sections of two important trunk roads, 
the Northern and Western Highways. 

The lack of an adequate transport system 
seriously hampers the economic development of 
Honduras. Several areas have important possi- 
bilities, especially in agriculture, livestock, and 
timber, but in the absence of transport and of 
sufficient population these areas are practically 
undeveloped at present. 

Of the 1,600 miles of roads in Honduras only 
20 miles are paved. The basic network consists 
of five trunk highways, all in need of improve- 
ment, and in some cases relocation, to make pos- 
sible their conversion into first-class paved high- 
ways. The two trunk roads recognized as having 
priority are the Northern Highway, which runs 
230 miles from Tegucigalpa, capital of Honduras, 
northward to San Pedro Sula and Puerto Cortes 
on the Caribbean; and the Western Highway, 
which runs 106 miles from San Pedro Sula west- 
ward toward El Salvador. The latter road re- 
quires an extension of 100 kms. (62 miles) to reach 
the border between the two countries. 

The remainder of the road system consists of 
secondary roads and trails, many passable only 
in dry weather. In spite of this and of the re- 
sulting high costs of transport, the number of 
motor vehicles in Honduras has doubled since 
1950, and in 1955 there were 7,000 in operation. 

The construction and maintenance of the road 
system of Honduras are the responsibility of the 
Highway Department, which was established 5 
years ago as a part of the Ministry of Development. 

Little road construction or maintenance equip- 
ment is at present available to the Department, 
and such as exists is in poor condition. The 
Highway Department also lacks adequate offices, 
warehouses, and workshop facilities. 

The Government of Honduras has decided to 
embark on a comprehensive program to improve 
the country's highways. The first need is to re- 
organize the Highway Department. Its tech- 
nical and administrative staff for design, engi- 
neering, and field work must be strengthened to 
enable it to carry out its various tasks. A new 
maintenance division is to be set up within the 
Department and equipped with the necessary 
road maintenance equipment and spare parts, 
workshop construction materials, and tools. 



54 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



General Assembly Action on Disarmament 

Statements by Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. 
U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ' 



REVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 

U.S. delegation press release 2304 dated December 5 

At Geneva, in the afternoon of July 21, 1955, 
the President of the United States, meeting witli 
the leaders of France, Great Britain, and the 
Soviet Union, looked across the conference table 
directly at the Soviet delegation and spoke the 
following words : 

... I have been searching my heart and nilnd [he de- 
clared] for something that I could say here that could 
convince everyone of the great sincerity of the United 
States in approaching this problem of disarmament. I 
should address myself for a moment principally to the 
delegates from the Soviet Union, because our two great 
countries admittedly possess new and terrible weapons 
in quantities which do give rise in other parts of the 
world, or reciprocally, to the fears and dangers of surprise 
attack. 

I propose, therefore, that we take a practical step, that 
we begin an arrangement, very quickly, as between our- 
selves — immediately. These steps would include : 

To give to each other a complete blueprint of our mili- 
tary establishments, from beginning to end, from one end 
of our coimtries to the other ; lay out the establishments 
and provide the blueprints to each other. 

Xext, to provide within our countries facilities for 
aerial photography to the other country — we to provide 
you the facilities within our country, ample facilities for 
aerial reconnaissance, where you can make all the pictures 
you choose and take them to your own country to study; 
you to provide exactly the same facilities for us and we 
to malre these examinations — and by this step to convince 
the world that we are providing as between ourselves 
against the possibility of great surprise attack, thus 
lessening danger and relaxing tension. Likewise we will 
make more easily attainable a comprehensive and effective 



"Made in Committee I (Political and Security) on Dec. 
5, 9, and 12 and in plenary on Dec. 16. 



system of inspection and disarmament, because what I 
propose, 1 assure you, would be but a beginning. 

The people of the world, who have the greatest 
stake in avoiding an atomic holocaust, saw in the 
President's proposal something which could at one 
stroke lift the disarmament debate from the 
morass into which it had sunk and pro\'ide a safe- 
guard against that great surprise attack which 
might herald the doom of mankind. 

Let me explain how the President's plan would 
operate: The information which would be ex- 
changed would include, first, the identification, 
strength, command structure, and disposition of 
personnel, units, and equipment of all major land, 
sea, and air forces ; second, a complete list of mili- 
tary plants, facilities, and installations, with their 
locations. Comparable information would be fur- 
nished simultaneously by each participating 
country. Freedom of communications for in- 
specting personnel would be assured. 

The heart of the plan is unrestricted — ^but mon- 
itored — reciprocal, aerial inspection, by visual, 
photographic, and electronic means. Personnel 
of the country being inspected may be aboard the 
aircraft. 

Modern aerial reconnaissance has phenomenal 
capabilities. Two standard jet photo-planes can 
photograph a band of terrain 490 miles wide and 
2,700 long, the distance from New York to Los 
Angeles, in only two hours. 

A country the size of the United States or the 
Soviet Union can have its picture taken, mile by 
mile, field and factory, in considerably less than 
6 months. The information can be kept current 
week by week. Extremely accurate results are 



January 9, T956 



55 



possible at night and under adverse weather 
conditions. 

The costs of the operation are slight for the boon 
it would confer. For a whole year, the expenses 
could be compared to the cost of only 2 or 3 days 
of World War II. And if we include in the ac- 
count the unspeakable suffering, the blight on the 
future, the deaths, and the broken lives in another 
war, no cost would be too great. 

The United States has offered to extend this 
plan to other countries and to bases abroad if 
acceptable to the nations involved. We have 
agreed to add to it Mr. Bulganin's plan for ground 
observers. 

The United States regi-ets that the Soviet Union 
has still not approved President Eisenhower's 
plan. But we continue to hope that further dis- 
cussions will lead it to recognize the value of the 
proposal. 

Here is the background against which it was 
made. 

Central Issues of Inspection and Control 

Inspection is the crux of the problem of dis- 
armament by international agreement — inspection 
to see that what is promised is actually performed. 
Wlien disarmament is undertaken without ade- 
quate inspection, as it was in Germany and Japan 
between the two World Wars, the result is a war- 
breeding fiasco. 

President Eisenhower at Geneva declared that — 

No sound and reliable agreement can be made unless it 
is completely covered by an Inspection and reporting sys- 
tem adequate to support every portion of the agreement. 
The lessons of history teach us that disarmament agree- 
ments without adequate reciprocal inspection increase the 
dangers of war and do not brighten the prospects of peace. 

The other Heads of State at Geneva and leaders 
in other countries have said very much the same 
thing. 

Marshal Bulganin put it in a nutshell when he 
told the Supreme Soviet on iVugust 14, 1955, that 
"each disarmament plan boils down to the ques- 
tion of control and inspection." 

But the Soviet Union does not mean the same 
tiling by control and inspection that we do. It 
will not allow the kind of forehanded, permanent, 
and thorough inspection which the other coun- 
tries on the United Nations Subcoimnittee ^ would 



accept, which is necessary to ease the anns burden 
and to permit the full flowering of atomic energy 
for peace. 

This is the issue wliich has divided the Soviet 
Union from the overwhelming majority in the 
United Nations ever since 1946. Meanwhile, the 
problem has become steadily more difficult and 
more urgent. 

The production of nuclear material has been 
under way for a decade under no international 
control whatsoever. During all of this time it 
has been possible to hide atomic weapons. The 
telltale radioactivity of nuclear materials can be 
shielded by containers, beyond the range of any 
presently known detection device. 

As the stockpile grows, the danger mounts. Be- 
cause of the margin of error in accounting, with 
each year that passes, the amount of material 
available for hidden weapons has increased. With 
the passage of time we were bound to reach a 
crucial point at which this margin of error repre- 
sented a dangerous potential in nuclear weapons. 
That point has now been reached. 

This is the scientific background of the Eisen- 
hower project. 

It means that the older plans for inspection of 
nuclear material based on total accounting for 
production are unrealistic. 

The situation thus created required two things: 
an intensive review of the inspection problem, 
and some new and radical conception which 
would offer the world time, security, and confi- 
dence while it tackled its problem. 

The President moved to meet the first by mobi- 
lizing a number of our most eminent physicists, 
military men, industrialists, and scholars to work 
on all aspects of the problem under the direction 
of Mr. Harold E. Stassen.^ The United States 
considers that such studies should be the subject 
of appropriate consultation between governments. 

To meet the second vital requirement for in- 
creased international security, and as a demon- 
stration of American sincerity, the President put 
forward his proposals. 

The plan of aerial inspection for peace is de- 
signed primarily to provide against great sur- 
prise attack. Since we can no longer keep track 
of all nuclear munitions, it focuses more sharply 
on controlling the means for delivering them in 
war. 



-The Subcommittee of Five (Canada, France, U.S.S.R., 
U.K., and U.S.) of the U.N. Disarmament Commission. 



56 



■ BuLLErnN of Oct. 31, 1955, p. 708. 

Department of State Bulletin 



I 



If we succeed in shackling surpiise attack, we 
may set a seal against war itself. 

The Soviet Union in its May 10 proposals * also 
recognized very clearly the danger of mounting 
stockpiles in the changed technological picture. 
It also claims to see the increased necessity of 
guarding against surprise attack. 

The Soviet May 10 proposals contain tliese 
words : 

There are possibilities beyond the reach of iuternational 
control for evading this control and for recognizins the 
clandestine manufacture of atomic and hydrogen weapons, 
even if there is a formal agreement on international con- 
trol. In such a situation, the security of states signa- 
tories to the international convention cannot be guaran- 
teed, since the possibility would be open to a potential 
aggressor to accumulate stocks of atomic and hydrogen 
weajxins for a surprise atomic attack on peace-loving 
states. 

But the Soviet Union prescribes no new remedy 
to fit this clear diagnosis. Moreover, it continues 
to call for measures of disarmament which could 
not be backed up by the only kind of inspection 
which it would permit. 

In spite of rej^eated inquiries put by the mem- 
bers of the Subcoimnittee, the Soviet Union would 
give no assurance that inspectors would be in the 
field and ready to operate before disarmament 
began. It will not specify in any detail those 
things which the inspectors would be allowed to 
inspect. It would allow inspection from the air 
only at the very end of a disarmament pi-ogram. 

These Soviet proposals are quite inadequate to 
guard against surprise attack. Nor are they suf- 
ficient to support a comprehensive program of 
arms limitation. 

This is what the Soviet position on inspection 
boils down to after we examine the confused and 
contradictory record of the past year — a year 
marked by alternating hope and disappointment 
for the rest of us. 

The Soviet Government knows as well as any- 
one how illusory the prospect for total prohibition 
of nuclear weapons material is under present con- 
ditions. Yet it would pledge every country to a 
program vitally affecting its national security 
without providing the means to insure that the 
provisions of an agreement are carried out equally 
by all. 

To continue to call for elimination of nuclear 
weapons as an immediate objective in the light of 



inescapable scientific facts is to ignore the cardinal 
principle that any disarmament program must 
be fully supported by effective control. We can- 
not lend ourselves to this hypocrisy and obscurant- 
ism. A new solution must be found which will 
fit the facts. 

Mr. Chairman, I am sure that most of you re- 
call a story about Marshal Potemkin, the Viceroy 
of Catherine the Great of Russia. When the 
Czarina went out to tour her domain, the Marshal, 
in order to ci-eate the illusion of prosperity under 
his regime, built false villages along her route. 
The Czarina's party was hurried through without 
time for a closer look behind the false facades. 

Mr. Chairman, we will not accept illusions. We 
want no Potemkin village of disarmament. 

Recent Evolution of Soviet and U. S. Policy 

Mr. Kuznetsov = is apparently disturbed because 
the United States position evolves and is not 
static. He would have you believe that the 
United States is less eager for disarmament be- 
cause it has so7ne i-eserves about soine of the ideas 
we have contributed to these discussions in the 
past. 

It is true that we are appraising past theories 
in the light of changing political and scientific 
conditions. It is true that we believe that what- 
ever may be eventually agreed with respect to 
levels of armed forces or the reductions of conven- 
tional weapons will have to be calculated in rela- 
tion to what can be done about nuclear weapons. 

In a field so complex, dynamic, and dangerous, 
we cannot afford to be doctrinaire. Each coun- 
try has a positive obligation to test and revise 
its policies constantly. We believe that this is 
an honest and logical course of action. 

But if the test of policy be lack of change, let 
us see how that applies to the Soviet position. 

From 1946 to 195-4 the Soviet Union in effect 
called for prohibition and elimination of atomic 
weapons, by mere declaration, with inspection 
second. Theirs was a platform of "ban the bomb, 
trust the Russians." But disarmament cannot 
be built on a platform of trust alone. It must 
be supervised by rigorous, unremitting, recipro- 
cal inspection under rigid, agreed standards. 

In October 1954 the late Mr. Vyshinsky sur- 
prised tlie General Assembly with an apparent 



' Ihid., May 30, 1955, p. 900. 
January 9, 7956 

370757—56 3 



' Vasily V. Kuznetsov. Soviet representative in Com- 
mittee I. 



57 



change in the Soviet position. He said his coun- 
try would accept as a "basis for discussion" tlie 
Anglo-French proposals of June 11, 1954" which 
stipulated real inspection from the outset and 
throughout each stage of a progressive program 
of arms reduction. But the Soviet Union still 
could not say whether inspection would be inter- 
mittent or continuous, permanent or periodic, or 
whether it could operate from the beginning. 

The London talks [of the Disarmament Com- 
mission Subcommittee] in 1955 occurred during 
a mysterious period of change in the Soviet Gov- 
ernment. The Soviet disarmament position was 
obviously in a state of flux. Mr. Gromyko 
opened in February with a remarkable proposal 
for immediate '"destruction" of all nuclear weap- 
ons, without inspection and with no provision 
for stopping nuclear weai)ons production.' This 
scheme bore no relation to Mr. Vyshinsky's idea. 
It was not disarmament. It was really a pro- 
posal for a built-in nuclear arras race, rigged to 
let the Soviet Union start even. 

For weeks the other members of the Subcom- 
mittee wondered what this really involved. Then, 
in mid-March, the Soviet Union just as suddenly 
switched back to the Vyshinslcy position ; ^ but it 
neither abandoned nor affirmed the Gromyko 
proposition. Instead we were told that it had 
something called "independent significance." For 
all we know, it still does; but just what it signi- 
fies for our present discussions, or for real dis- 
armament, we do not know. 

Then, overnight, on May 10, the Soviet Union 
took up what we are told is its present position. 
It ostensibly accepted some Western sugges- 
tions — which it was still violently attacking only 
2 or 3 days earlier — but on tlie key issue of in- 
spection it still did not and does not state in any 
useful detail what it would allow to be inspected, 
or what the rights, duties, and immimities of 
the inspectors would be, or when they could 
begin their task. It has not specified whether 
the control teams would be mobile or stationary. 
It has not explained how inspectors could mount 
an effective guard against surprise attack if they 
were tied down to fixed control posts. 

Thus, Mr. Chairman, in spite of a confused 
shifting back and forth in Soviet ideas, there has 



been very little evolution where it is most 
needed — in the vital matter of inspection and 
control. 

The United States stands firm on the need for 
genuine inspection. But it is always ready to 
study new methods to fit the facts. My Swedish 
colleague, Mr. Sandler, the other day expressed 
the hope that what he called our "reserved atti- 
tude" was "a question of preliminary measures 
proposed so as to facilitate genuine disarmament 
in due course." I am glad to assure him that 
that is exactly the case. 

Toward a Reduction of Armaments 

Even where effective controls can be devised, 
international distrust may block their applica- 
tion. The other states represented in the Sub- 
committee also recognize this condition. In its 
proposals of May 10 the Soviet Union says : 

The necessary conditions for the institution of a control 
system which would enjoy the trust of all states and 
would fully meet the requirements of international se- 
curity do not at present exist. 

The solution to the problem is not to jettison 
all attempts to establish effective control. The 
answer is to attack the problem at its heart, to 
try to reach agreement on measures to dispel 
distrust, and to create conditions for more fruit- 
ful discussion of disarmament. 

President Eisenhower declared at Geneva 

that — 

The United States is ready to proceed in the study 
and testing of a reliable system of inspection and re- 
porting and, when that system is proved, then to reduce 
armaments with all others to the extent that the system 
will provide assured results. 

The President's plan was not intended to be a 
substitute for an overall program for the limita- 
tion and reduction of armaments and armed 
forces. Rather, it was intended to make one 
possible. 

The resolution which we have sponsored with 
our colleagues of the United Kingdom, France, 
and Canada " demonstrates clearly the impor- 
tance and priority we assign to this objective. 

The President's plan would provide practical 
experience in many of the control measures re- 
quired to supervise a disarmament agreement. 
More important, it would promote that interna- 



' Ibid., Aug. 2, 1954, p. 182. 
' Ihid., May ,30, 195.5, p. 892. 
'lUd., p. 895. 



• U.N. doc. A/C.l/L. 150, Introduced hy Anthony Nut- 
ting (United Kingdom) on Dec. 2. 



58 



Deporfmenf of Sfofe Bullefin 



tional confidence which is indispensable to such 
an agreement. 

The United States is pledged to work for, 
earnestly desires, and energetically seeks a com- 
prehensive, 2:)rogressive, enforceable agreement 
for the reduction of military expenditures, arms, 
armaments, and armed forces under effective in- 
ternational inspection and control. 

It believes that these reductions should be of 
such character and the machinery for inspection 
and enforcement so effective that no one nation 
anywhere in the world would be in a position to 
launch sudden, successful aggression against any 
other nation anywhere in the world. At the 
same time, every nation must have the strength 
to assure its internal security, to meet its inter- 
national obligations, and to discourage predatorj' 
designs. 

The Eisenhower plan would lead promptly 
and directly to the achievement of all these 
objectives. 

The United States further believes that, if 
agreement can be reached to eliminate or limit 
nuclear weapons within the framework of an ef- 
fective system of disarmament and under proper 
safeguards, there should be corresponding re- 
strictions on the testing of such weapons. 

The United States intends that a general dis- 
armament agreement should affect broad ele- 
ments of armed strength, including military 
bases. This applies to those bases which, by the 
desire and at the request of other countries, have 
been placed at the disposition of the United 
States abroad. It should apply as well to the 
bases of the Soviet Union at home and abroad, 
even though the Soviet Union, proclaiming that 
it no longer has any foreign bases, apparently 
persists in regarding its military installations 
in other comitries as domestic establishments. 

You will find in the record concrete evidence 
of the readiness of the United States to reduce 
its armaments while not merely maintaining but 
actually increasing the prosperity not only of its 
own citizens but of its friends elsewhere in the 
world. The record contains the figures for 
United States strength year bj' year since the 
end of the war. From a military force of 121/4 
million in the last year of World "War II we 
came down to a million and a half men before 
the Korean War. 

You will not find in the record any comparable 
figures for the Soviet armed forces. You will not 



be able to fix any base line for Soviet strength 
against which to measure the arms cuts recently 
reported by the Soviet Union. 

"Wliether the United States reduces its forces 
further or alters their composition in any way, 
wliether agreement on disarmament comes late or 
soon, the world may be sure of this : The United 
States will not use atomic weapons or any other 
weapons — be they guns, tanks, airplanes, rifles, 
or anything else — in any way except in accord- 
ance with the charter of the United Nations and 
in defense against aggression. 

Soviet Objections 

The Eisenhower conception is as simple as it is 
bold. The United States readily understands that 
any government would want to weigh its effect 
most carefully. But we must all be aware that 
the longer a start on this problem is delayed, the 
more difficult it will become. 

The Soviet Union has expressed what must be 
its considered objections to the plan through Mr. 
Molotov at Geneva, through Mr. Sobolev in the 
Disarmament Commission, and through Mr. 
Kuznetsov. 

What are these objections? 

First, the Soviet Union says that the Presi- 
dent's plan has nothing to do with disarmament. 
The fact is that the proposal was made as a pre- 
lude to reduction in armament, after 9 years of 
discussion of other methods had failed to produce 
a solution. The resolution introduced on Decem- 
ber 2 by the United Kingdom, France, Canada, 
and the United States declares our resolve to seek 
early agreement on both the President's proposals 
and on such adequately safeguarded measures of 
a disarmament plan as are now feasible. We shall 
continue to strive for a comprehensive agreement. 

Second., the Soviet delegation at Geneva objected 
that the plan was limited to the territory of the 
United States and the Soviet Union. That is, in 
fact, the logical place to begin. These two coun- 
tries hold the preponderance of nuclear weapons 
which the world fears may be loosed in war. They 
also maintain the greatest portion of their armed 
strength within their own borders. 

The President spoke only for his own country 
when he made his proposal to the Soviet Union. 
But we are ready to negotiate both with other 
sovereign states involved and with the Soviet 
Union for the extension of the Eisenhower plan 
and the Bulganin plan for ground control posts 



January 9, 1956 



59 



to overseas bases and the forces of other countries. 
They are sovereign states; it is up to them. My 
guess is that they will authorize it. 

Third, the Soviet Union says that the plan 
might involve "enormous expenditures." I have 
already dealt with that point, and it is perfectly 
true that some expense would be involved. We 
can afford it and we believe that the Soviet Union 
could afford it. It is a trifling premium to pay 
for an insurance policy against war. 

Fourth, the Soviet Union to our surprise still 
claimed at Geneva that the plan did not provide 
for ground observers at key points. The fact is 
that President Eisenhower told Mr. Bulganin in 
his letter of October 11 " that, 

I have not forgotten your propo.sal having to do with 
stationing inspection teams at key points In our coun- 
tries, and if you feel this would help to create the better 
spirit I refer to. we could accept that too. 

Finally, Mr. Molotov at Geneva and Mr. 
Khrushchev in India have argued that the Eisen- 
hower plan would increase the risk of war be- 
cause it would give each country access to military 
information about the other which it might put 
to use in launching a surprise attack. The fact is, 
as Secretary Dulles pointed out at Geneva, that 
lack of information is not what inhibits hostili- 
ties. What is lacking is the detei-rent to attack 
which would result if this plan is put into effect, 
depriving the aggressor of the benefit of surprise. 

These are the sum of the Soviet arguments 
against the Eisenhower proposals. In all candor, 
they do not appear impressive — or insuperable. 
This is lucky, because the outlook would be bleak 
indeed if we were constrained to accept them as 
the Soviet last word. 

The outlook would be far brighter if the Soviet 
Union would answer these four questions : 

1. When will the Soviet Union join us in a pol- 
icy of openness which would reassure the world 
and advance the cause of disarmament? 

2. Why does the Soviet Union continue to ad- 
vocate elimination of atomic weapons as an im- 
mediate objective, when it has told the world so 
clearly that this is impossible ? 

3. Why would the Soviet Union commit states 
to a whole series of actions vitally affecting their 
national security without providing the means of 
inspection and control to see that they are carried 
out equally by all? 



' Bdu-etin of Oct. 24, 1955, p. 643. 



■i. Why, if the Soviet Union is sincere in its 
concern about the possibility of attack from the 
West, is it not willing to join in an immediate 
practical program to proscribe surprise attack by 
either side ? 

If it is the Soviet aim to lull the defenses of the 
free world with a smile and to promote the dissolu- 
tion of free-world alliances which have been cre- 
ated in response to the Soviet Union's postwar 
policy and action, then a specious disarmament 
program unsupported by inspection would serve 
that end. But we' are loath to think that this is 
the answer to our questions. Gentlemen, let us 
have clear answers; the world deserves them. 

What Should Be Done? 

In spite of recent discouraging developments, 
the United States is not ready to accept melan- 
choly conclusions about Soviet policy. 

We still hope that with further reflection and 
discussion the Soviet Union will see that the 
Eisenhower plan is in the world's interest and in 
its own. 

We are glad to note that understanding has been 
reached on at least some points. All of us agree 
that nuclear material can now be concealed in sig- 
nificant quantities. All agree that there must be 
new emphasis on preventing surprise attack. 

We note that the Soviet Union, after rejecting 
aerial inspection for 10 years, now seems to say 
it would accept it, at least "at the concluding 
stage" of a disarmament program. We hope that 
it will agree that such inspection as proposed by 
President Eisenhower should occur as a ieginning 
step, when it would do most to lessen tension and 
open the path to further measures of inspection 
and control of armaments. 

This would not be the first time that the Soviet 
Union has reacted negatively to new proposals, 
only to adjust its thinking as time went on. We 
remember the welcome evolution of its views con- 
cerning the atoms-for-peace plan. 

The United States hopes the Soviet delegate 
will choose the platform of this General Assembly 
to announce an advance in Soviet thinking on this 
problem. We believe the General Assembly will 
want to go on record for the principles of the 
Eisenhower proposals as well as for the construc- 
tive suggestions made by the British, French, and 
Soviet Governments. 

Mr. Chairman, I conclude : 



I 



60 



Department of Stafe Bulletin 



On November 26 last, Mr. Khrushchev spoke to 
an Indian audience. "Just imagine," he is re- 
ported to have said, "Soviet planes flying over the 
United States and United States planes flying 
over the Soviet Union." 

Mr. Khrushchev seemed to find this picture fan- 
tastic. 

We Americans do not. "We believe that many, 
many others do not. 

We believe that this vision of "sentinels of 
peace" crossing each other in the "open skies" is 
something which millions of everyday people in 
every countiy can see plainly. 

It will be as reassuring as the sight of the police- 
man on his beat. We hope that there will be the 
vision and the statesmanship to enable the Soviet 
leaders also to see it. 

We hope, finally, that this Assembly of the 
United Nations will endorse this plan for aerial 
inspection and that this endorsement will lead to 
its being put into effect soon. The day that these 
"sentinels of peace" start their flights will indeed 
be the most brilliant day in the history of the 
United Nations. 



VIEWS ON SOVIET POSITION 

U.S. delegation press release 2314 dated December 9 

We now approach the end of .this general 
debate. In a short while the conclusions reached 
by this body will be incorporated in a resolution 
for presentation to the General Assembly of the 
United Nations. This resolution must reflect the 
widest possible consensus of the views expressed 
in this debate. Our present draft was intended to 
do just that. The delegations of the United King- 
dom, France, Canada, and the United States have 
also been examining with gi-eat care the various 
amendments submitted by the Soviet Union " and 
India.'^ We hope to incorporate as many as pos- 
sible of these suggestions in our draft, and we 
shall shortly submit a revised resolution for the 
committee's consideration. 

I shall deal today with some points in Mr. 
Kuznetsov's speech of day before yesterday, which 
furnished the background to the Soviet amend- 
ments. 

As this debate ends, the principal issue which 
divides us is still that of the kind and extent 



" U.N. doc. A/C.1/L.152. 
"-"U.N. doc. A/C.1/L.153. 



of inspection needed to support a disarmament 
agreement. Mr. Kuznetsov claims that we have 
misrepresented and undervalued Soviet ideas on 
control. Yet, in all truth, they are inadequate. 
We have in the last year asked the Soviet Union 
many questions in an honest desire to find out what 
that nation would be prepared to accept in the way 
of international inspection. Practically none of 
these questions have been answered. 

Following the submission of the May 10 pro- 
posals, we hoped for a time that some advance 
had been made, mainly because of the Soviet 
Union's recognition of the problems created by the 
accumulation of nuclear stockpiles, and partly 
because the Soviet Union agreed to accept inter- 
national control at certain points, such as large 
ports, railway junctions, airdromes, and highways. 
However, these proposals were still vague on other 
vital requirements of control. The importance of 
precision about these matters becomes all the more 
apparent when we recognize that increasing quan- 
tities of nuclear material can be hidden away 
beyond the scope of detection by known scientific 
means. 

The Soviet Union in the May 10 proposals 
vaguely indicated that inspection should be ap- 
plied to certain other items which it vaguely called 
"the objects of control." All of the Western dele- 
gations in our meetings in the Subcommittee in 
London and later in New York " have tried in 
vain to wring fi-om the Soviet Union the slightest 
indication of what these "objects of control" 
would include — and what they might not include. 
Mr. Nutting, for the British delegation, submitted 
a projected list of things which the United King- 
dom thought ought to be controlled. The Soviet 
Union did not agree to this list, made no sugges- 
tions of its own, and indeed has offered no 
comment of any kind. 

Before and after the May 10 proposals re- 
peatedly we asked the Soviets some simple ques- 
tions. I repeat some of them now: Would the 
Soviet Union permit inspection teams and an 
international control authority to be established 
and operating in Soviet territory with full com- 
munication facilities before any operation of dis- 
armament actually began ? If not, what assurance 

^ For U.S. statements at the New York meeting, 
Aug. 29-Oct. 7, see Bulultin of Sept. 12, 1955, p. 438, 
and Oct. 31, 1955, p. 703 ; for statements at subsequent 
meetings of the Disarmament Commission, see ibid., 
Nov. 7, 1955, p. 765, and Dec. 19, 1955, p. 1032. 



January 9, 7956 



61 



could the Soviet Union, or any nation, give that 
clandestine stockpiling of arms had not taken 
place or clandestine troop dispositions had not 
been made beforehand, in order to evade inspec- 
tion? How would one know at what level the 
freeze of armaments and armed forces would 
begin ? 

The Soviet Union asserts that the international 
control authority would have adequate responsi- 
bilities and immunities, but it insists that upon 
the completion of one stage of disarmament the 
next would begin automatically in accordance 
with fixed time limitations, independent of the 
findings and recommendations of the international 
control organ. The Soviet Union has been un- 
willing to concede to the control authority that 
autonomy, under the provisions of the interna- 
tional agreement, which the other powers would 
accept and which they consider to be absolutely 
necessary. The Western powers at Ijondon on 
April 21, 1955, spelled out very completely the 
extent of the rights, powers, and duties of the con- 
trol authority." The Soviet Union has not sub- 
mitted anything comparable to this proposal. 

Safeguards Against Surprise Attack 

With the Eisenhower plan for aerial inspection, 
the United States sought to raise the problem 
of disarmament above all these tangled issues. 
We are convinced that, supplemented as it would 
be by the Bulganin control posts, it would provide 
a real safeguard against great surprise attack, 
which we all recognize as the foremost danger in 
this atomic age. 

Mr. Kuznetsov sought to prove that the United 
States plan could not really guard against sur- 
prise attack but that the Soviet control-post pro- 
posal would do so. We do not entirely under- 
stand this, since the United States would accept 
both plans. But let us, nevertheless, examine the 
Soviet contention. Control posts at major ports, 
railway junctions, main highways, and air- 
dromes would certainly have some value. But if 
they were tied down to fixed locations their utility 
would be strictly limited in these days of mobile, 
multidimensional warfare. The Soviet Union 
has not answered our questions as to whether these 
observer teams would be fixed or mobile. More- 
over, even under the best of circumstances, a rea- 
sonable surety against surprise attack could not 



be furnished by these old-fashioned means with- 
out aerial reconnaissance. 

Tlie Soviet theory seems to be that surprise 
attack inevitably requires the massing of large 
concentrations of troops and planes at very con- 
veniently specified junctions, railroads, and air- 
ports. No potential aggressor would be so naive. 
Moreover, an atomic attack with presently avail- 
able weapons, to say nothing of weapons of the 
future, could be launched with devastating eflfect 
without such massive concentrations. 

The United States, therefore, does not under- 
stand why the Soviet Union would be content with 
ground inspection without aerial reconnaissance. 
And we are increasingly convinced of the efficacy 
and necessity of the latter. We cannot help won- 
dering whether the Soviet Union is making a full 
disclosure of its real reasons. 

Reduction of Armaments 

I turn now to Mr. Kuznetsov's familiar charge 
that the United States blocks progress on the re- 
duction of armaments. But first I should like my 
colleagues to indulge in an exercise of the 
imagination. 

If today the Eisenhower plan were in eifect, 
would you not agree that a new era in interna- 
tional relations would be at hand? Would not 
the world breathe much easier? In such a world, 
would not every government feel that it could 
with safety begin to lift the military harness from 
the backs of its citizens and to devote more of its 
resources to productive enterprises? 

But the Soviet Union objects that we cannot 
carry out this plan unless it is tied from the be- 
ginning to concrete reductions in armed forces. 
Despite every assurance we have been able to give, 
it persists in doubting our intentions in this re- 
spect. It refuses to believe that the President's 
plan and other confidence-building measures are 
"integrally connected with the fulfillment of the 
task of stopping the armaments race." 

Mr. Chairman, let me assure the Soviet repre- 
sentative ajid this committee that the United 
States intends tliat the Eisenhower plan should be 
part of the task of stopping the arms race and re- 
ducing armaments. To that end we have in this 
session cosponsored a resolution which, as ]Mr. 
Moch ^^ pointed out to Mr. Kuznetsov, couples 
the Eisenhower plan with earliest possible agree- 



I 



" ma.. May 30, 1955, p. 898. 



"Jules Moch (France). 



62 



Department of State Bulletin 



Text of Resolution on Disarmament ^ 

U.N. doc. A/Res/383 

The General Assembly, 

Recalling its I'esolution 808 (IX) of 4 November 
1954, which established the conclusion that a further 
effort should be made to reach agreement on compre- 
hensive and co-ordinated proposals to he embodied 
in a draft international disarmament convention 
providing for : 

(a) The regulation, limitation and major reduc- 
tion of all armed forces and all conventional 
armaments, 

(b) The total prohibition of the use and manu- 
facture of nuclear weapons and weapons of 
mass destruction of every type, together with 
the conversion of existing stocks of nuclear 
weapons for peaceful purposes, 

(c) The establishment of effective international 
control, through a control organ with rights, 
powers and functions adequate to guarantee 
the effective observance of the agreed reduc- 
tions of all armaments and armed forces and 
the prohibition of nuclear and other weapons 
of mass destruction, and to ensure the use 
of atomic energy for peaceful purposes only, 

The whole programme to be such that no State 
would have cause to fear that its security was 
endangered. 

Expressing the hope that efforts to relax inter- 
national tensions, to promote mutual confidence and 
to develop co-operation among States, such as the 
Geneva Conference of the Heads of Governments of 
the four Powers, the Bandung Conference of Asian 
and African countries and the United Nations tenth 
anniversary commemorative meeting at San Fran- 
cisco, will prove effective in promoting world peace. 

Desirous of contributing to the lowering of inter- 
national tensions, the strengthening of confidence 
between States, the removal of the threat of war and 
the reduction of the burden of armaments, 

Convinced therefore of the need to continue to seek 
agreement on a comprehensive programme for dis- 
armament which will promote international peace 
and security with the least diversion for armaments 
of the world's human and economic resources. 

Welcoming the progress which has been made to- 
wards agreement on objectives during the meetings in 
1055 of the Sub-Committee of the Disarmament Com- 
mission, 

Noting that agreement has not yet been reached 
on the rights, powers and functions of a control 
system, which is the keystone of any disarmament 
agreement, nor on other essential matters set out in 
General Assembly re.solution 808 (IX), 

Xotinp also that special technical difliculties have 
arisen in regard to the detection and control of 
nuclear weapons material, 



'Adopted in Committee I on Dec. 12 by a vote of 
53-5 (Soviet bloc), with no abstentions, and in 
plenary on Dec. 16 by a vote of 56-7 (original Soviet 
bloc, plus Hungary and Rumania )-0. 



Recognizing further that insi>ection and control of 
disarmament can best be achieved in an atmosphere 
which is free of fear and suspicion, 

1. Urges that the States concerned and particu- 
larly those on the Sub-Committee of the Disarmament 
Commission : 

(a) Should continue their endeavours to reach 
agreement on a comprehensive disarmament plan in 
accordance with the goals set out in General Assembly 
resolution 80S (IX) ; 

(b) Should, as initial steps, give priority to early 
agreement on and implementation of: 

(i) Such confidence-building measures as the 
plan of Mr. Eisenhower, President of the 
United States of America, for exchanging 
military blueprints and mutual aerial in- 
spection, and the plan of Mr. Bulganin, Prime 
Minister of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics, for establishing control posts at 
strategic centres; 

(il) All such measures of adequately safe- 
guarded disarmament as are now feasible; 

2. Suggests that account should also be taken of 
the proposals of the Prime Minister of France for 
exchanging and publishing information regarding 
military expenditures and budgets, of the Prime 
Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland for seeking practical experi- 
ence in the problems of inspection and control, and of 
the Government of India regarding the suspension 
of experimental explosions of nuclear weapons and 
an "armaments truce" ; 

3. Calls upon the States concerned, and especially 
those on the Sub-Committee of the Disarmament Com- 
mission, to study the proposal of the Prime Minister 
of France for the allocation of funds resulting from 
disarmament for improving the standards of living 
throughout the world and, in particular, in the less- 
developed countries ; 

4. Recommends further that scientific- search should 
be continued by each State, with appropriate con- 
sultation between Governments, for methods that 
would make possible thoroughly effective inspection 
and control of nuclear weapons material, having as 
its aim to facilitate the solution of the problem 
of comprehensive disarmament ; 

5. Suggests that the Disarmament Commission 
reconvene its Sub-Committee and that both pursue 
their efforts to attain the above objectives; 

6. Decides to transmit to the Disarmament Com- 
mission, for its Information, the records of the 
meetings of the First Committee at which the dis- 
armament problem was discussed during the tenth 
ses.sion of the General Assembly, and i-equests the 
Disarmament Commission and the Sub-Committee 
to give careful and early consideration to the views 
expressed in those documents. 



January 9, 1956 



63 



ment upon every kind of disarmament which can 
presently be supervised and guaranteed by ade- 
quate inspection. We believe that this under- 
taking for immediate practical steps promises to 
be much more fruitful for disarmament than the 
elaborately qualified and inadequately controlled 
plan which the Soviet Union proposes. We do 
not believe, however, that the Eisenhower plan 
with its safeguard against war need necessarily 
wait upon agreement and execution of arms 
reductions. 

What we should like to see would be both 
together. 

The Soviet Union claims to believe that the 
United States is not sincere about reductions in 
armed forces because it does not now specify fig- 
ures for the size of military forces permitted 
under an eventual agreement. In my opening re- 
marks in this session I described the criteria which 
the United States would use in negotiating these 
force levels. They would certainly assure real 
reductions. But as to the figures of a, million 
and a half for the Soviet Union, the United States, 
and China, and the other figures which have been 
cited in the Soviet remarks, let me say this: The 
United States itself mentioned some of these fig- 
ures in 1952 with the indication that they were 
for purposes of illustration. That was almost 4 
years ago. Since then, the geographic, political, 
and technological bases of these calculations have 
been in constant evolution. The new factor of an 
untold but possibly decisive quantity of hidden 
nuclear bombs has intervened. 

The TTnited States believes that levels for con- 
ventional forces will, of course, ultimately be ex- 
pressed by international agreement in specific 
numbers. Wliatever these figures may be, they 
will certainly have to be calculated with reference 
to what it may then be possible to do with respect 
to the control of nuclear materials. Above all, 
they must take account of the capabilities of in- 
spection and control. 

The United States does not believe that the reso- 
lution we adopt in this committee should refer to 
specific force-level figures which may prove 
unrealistic. 

Prohibition of Atomic Weapons 

The United States has repeatedly said that it 
would never use any weapons, be they rifles or H- 
bombs, except in defense against aggression and 



in conformity with the charter of the United 
Nations. 

Mr. Khrushchev is not satisfied with that 
pledge. Mr. Bulganin calls on all states to com- 
mit themselves not to be the first to use the nu- 
clear weapons in war, and in any case to use them 
only if approved by the Security Coimcil. This 
has a fine self-denying ring about it. Let us see 
what it really means. 

The Soviet Union's own proposal of May 10, 
wliich has so often been quoted here, shows why 
atomic weapons cannot be totally eliminated in 
the near future. 

If an international agreement makes it im- 
possible for a law-abiding power to use them first, 
even in dire extremity of self-defense against a 
massive aggression, then that power which is 
strongest in conventional means of warfare would 
be immediately established as the strongest mili- 
tary power on earth. And it would still have a 
reserve of its own nuclear weapons sufficient to 
strike devastating blows. 

The true democracies of the world, by their 
very way of life, have traditionally been forced 
to accept the first blows in war. Thus they gen- 
erally concede a great strategic initiative. Should 
they also agree not to use their most powerful 
weapons in their own defense after taking that 
first blow, they would be committing suicide. 

But this is not all. The Soviet Union has 
dredged up the idea of subjecting the use of these 
weapons, even in self-defense, to protracted Se- 
curity Council approval — another way of saying 
"veto." 

The pledge against the use of atomic weapons 
except in defense against aggi-ession as provided 
in the charter is actually wider reaching than the 
fallacious proposal put forward by the Soviet 
Union. What then would be the value of addi- 
tional pledges? My Belgian colleague [Fernand 
van Langenhove] answered this question in con- 
clusive terms in this powerful statement the other 
day: 

Such undertakings would have the effect, if there were 
some potential aggressor in the world, of reassuring such 
an aggressor as to the consequences of the act which he 
is contemplating, and consequently of encouraging the 
aggressor to commit an aggression. How can we rely 
on the undertaking that this aggressor would have as- 
sumed not to use the atomic weapons If that same ag- 
gressor was capable of violating the fundamental under- 
taking of the United Nations Charter not to resort to 
aggression by any weapon whatsoever? 



64 



Department of State Bulletin 



I fully subscribe to tliis analysis. The United 
States would, therefore, oppose any amendment 
to the draft resolution which would substitute a 
so-called prohibition against first use for the gen- 
eral undertaking not to use atomic weapons ex- 
cept in defense against aggi'ession. 

Mr. Kuznetsov tries to reinforce his proposed 
ban on atomic weapons by citing the supposed 
effectiveness of international conventions pro- 
hibiting the use of chemical and bacteriological 
weapons. It is true that these weapons were not 
used in World War II. But this was certainly 
not only because of such international agreements. 
These undertakings were observed because of the 
controlling force of strategic and political con- 
siderations. 

If chemical warfare could have been employed 
with the versatility of the atomic weapons on any 
battlefield in a manner so decisive as to prevent 
retaliation on the aggressor, does anyone believe 
that the Nazi war machine would not have used 
it in World War II? 

Soviet Responsibility for Tension 

Let me conclude with some comments on inter- 
national confidence and cooperation. 

The Soviet Union has submitted a draft reso- 
lution on "Measures for the further relaxation of 
international tension and development of inter- 
national cooperation." ^^ This is, to use the lan- 
guage of automobile manufacturers, the 1956 
model of the annual Soviet omnibus proposal. It 
contains a number of sentiments with which, of 
course, we can all agree. The Soviet Union also 
proposes that we begin our resolution by express- 
ing satisfaction with the improvement in inter- 
national relations supposedly achieved in the past 
year. It speaks of certain efforts made "of late" 
by states to relax tensions and to promote confi- 
dence. 

Any such efforts by the Soviet Union deserve 
the support of us all ; but, as men who are opti- 
mistic but realistic, we must recognize that most 
of the principal sources of tension still exist and 
that it lies in the power of the Soviets to relieve 
them instantly. 

We must also take account with gi-eat regret 
of certain Soviet decisions "of late" which have 
an effect quite contrary to the relaxation of ten- 
sions. 



"U.N. doc A/C. 1/L.151. The committee did not vote 
on the Soviet draft. 



The most prominent example of unrelieved ten- 
sion is probably the divided state of Germany. 
To our disajapointment, the Soviet delegation "of 
late" at Geneva still blocked unification on just 
and reasonable terms. 

Also at Geneva, the Soviet Union showed that 
our liopes for a dissolution of the Iron Curtain 
must be still further deferred. It was unwilling 
to consider the progressive elimination of bar- 
riers to free communications, to the free move- 
ment of persons, or the free conununication of 
ideas and information. It was willing to con- 
sider only such measures of relaxation of con- 
trols of such strategic materials in international 
trade as might improve its position. 

There is another example of a source of tension 
maintained by the Soviet Union which is quite 
germane to our discussions. It is quite true that 
Soviet and Western troops have both withdrawn 
from Austria. But in contravention of its treaty 
obligations, the Soviet Union still maintains 
troops and bases in Hungary and Rumania. 

"Of late" the Soviet Union has taken certain 
positive measures which certainly do not relieve 
tension. It has helped create an arms race, where 
one did not exist, in the Middle East. 

The Soviet Union continues to claim credit for 
the Communist states for the cessation of hostili- 
ties in Korea and Indochina. It is impossible for 
us to understand the process of reasoning whereby 
anyone claims credit for no longer doing some- 
thing that he should never have done in the first 
place. I do not understand this attitude that you 
ought to get praise when you stop doing some- 
thing wrong. 

Here in the United Nations, Mr. Kuznetsov and 
Mr. Malik have resurrected the charge that the 
Korean War started with aggression fomented 
from "overseas"— that is the word. It is regret- 
table that a charge so alien to our debate, so con- 
clusively refuted by the evidence gathered by 
United Nations observers, has been brought into 
these discussions. It flies in the face of world 
opinion as that world opinion is represented in 
this Assembly, and it certainly cannot be accepted 
by the thousands of families who have lost sons 
in the battle for freedom which was waged by 
the United Nations in Korea. 

In other parts of the world, responsible Soviet 
leaders are using language about their Geneva as- 
sociates—and you all have read this— that is far 
different from what they used at Geneva, and it 



January 9, J 956 



65 



is presumably very different from what they will 
use wlien they return to the Western World. 

Against that background of Soviet actions and 
Soviet arguments in this debate, we must conclude 
regretfully that our hopes for renewed mutual 
confidence and our hopes for a better climate for 
disarmament have had a check. We hope this 
check will prove only temporary. On the other 
hand, this committee would mislead world opinion 
if it prefaced its recommendations with optimism 
so excessive that it was contrary to the plain facts. 

The present Soviet attitude on the Eisenhower 
plan is not the least disquieting of these develop- 
ments. Mr. Khrushchev and Mr. Kuznetsov have 
advanced the rather startling theory that this 
"open slcy" plan would actually create and not al- 
lay distrust, and the reason they give is that the 
Soviet Union and the United States could, under 
that plan, each see what the other was doing be- 
hind its frontiers. 

For people like me who have been brought up in 
a democratic society, this is abnost totally incom- 
prehensible. Our Belgian colleague says this 
idea leaves him "speechless," and I do not wonder. 

The statement that the Eisenhower plan would 
increase distrust is either some kind of smoke- 
screen, in wliich case we should ask why anyone 
thinks it is worth while to do such a thing, or else 
it is a sign of confused reasoning. Of course, it 
could be a mixture of both. 

Mr. Kuznetsov quoted Air Marshal [Sir Basil] 
Embry and General [Maxwell] Taylor on the 
utility of aerial reconnaissance for military op- 
erations. Of course Air Marshal Embry and 
General Taylor think aerial reconnaissance is very 
useful for military operations. From this he then 
deduced that we should not endorse the President's 
plan. You do not have to quote Air Marshal 
Embry or General Taylor to convince us that 
aerial reconnaissance has military value. It must 
be obvious to the merest layman that the fact that 
air power has great value for war is what pre- 
sents us with our most dramatic problem here at 
the United Nations. 

The advantage of President Eisenhower's plan 
is that it takes air power and uses it for peace — 
that is the point. Of course, air power can be 
used for war, but this plan takes it and uses it for 
peace; it puts it at the service of peace, just as the 
plan which President Eisenhower presented here 
2 years ago yesterday took atomic power, with its 
dread potential for death and destiniction, and 



used it for peace. Surely that point cannot really 
have escaped Mr. Kuznetsov. I repeat that Mr. 
Kuznetsov has not fully disclosed why he op- 
poses the President's plan. 

Let me say in conclusion that we shall continue 
to seek progress. We wish to allay any legitimate 
misgivings the Soviet Union may have. We wish 
to meet other views halfway. We shall strive to 
resolve all the issues we can and to draw the others 
clearly so that the world may judge, so that opin- 
ion may be enlightened, so that we can make prog- 
ress. 

The draft resolution we have submitted, and 
the revisions which we shall shortly present, will 
make clear our purpose to promote world peace 
and security and to do it constructively and hon- 
estly. 



COMMENTS ON AMENDMENTS 

U.S. press release 2320 dated December 12 

I dislike speaking so often, but it is the custom — 
and I think a wise custom — for those who are 
sponsors to explain their positions on these various 
amendments. 

I would like to say that our intention from the 
beginning of the debate has been to meet the 
consensus of views expressed here, insofar as we 
could possibly do so, within the framework of our 
joint resolution. Accordingly, we were very 
pleased to be able to accept in whole or in substance 
no less than five Soviet and seven Indian sug- 
gestions in the revised text which appears in 
document L.150/Eev.l. We also welcome the 
amendment of Pakistan, Costa Eica, and Mexico 
in document L.154r/Ilev.l. I shall not review 
these additions to our text since they were fully 
explained last Friday by the representative of the 
United Kingdom. 

The United States supports his motion for pri- 
ority for our resolution imder Rule 132." 

Since our new text was submitted, we have had 
time to study the revised amendments introduced 
by India in document L.153/Rev.l. Because of 
our desire to see the widest possible measure of 
agreement on a subject so vital to us all, we are 



'" "If two or more proposals relate to the same question, 
a committee shall, unless it decides otherwise, vote on 
the proposals in the order in which they have been sub- 
mitted. A committee may, after each vote on a proposal, 
decide whether to vote on the next proposal." 



66 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



now prepared to revise our text further to include 
as many as possible of these new amendments. 

We accept the Indian amendment No. 2, sub- 
paragraph (1). Accordingly, subparagraph (a) 
of our first operative paragraph will now read as 
follows : "Should continue their endeavors to reach 
agreement on a comprehensive disarmament plan 
in accordance with the goals set out in resolution 
808(IX)." 

We are also prepared to insert the words "as 
initial steps" in subparagraph (b) of our first 
operative paragraph so that it will now read a? 
follows : " (b) Should, as initial steps, give priority 
to early agreement on and implementation of," 
etc. This is part of the Indian amendment No. 2, 
subparagraph (2). 

We accept most of the Indian amendment No. 
2, subparagraph (3). Our new paragi'aph 1(b) 
(ii) will therefore read as follows : "All such meas- 

' ures of adequately safeguarded disarmament as 
are now feasible." Having inserted the words "as 
initial steps" above, we think it would be re- 
dundant to repeat them here as suggested in this 
Indian amendment. 

We and our cosponsors have also given careful 
study to the firet Indian amendment. We have 
decided that, if it is considered desirable by 
others, we can actually quote the language from 
last year's resolution ^^ which is being recalled in 
our first preambular paragraph. It seems un- 
necessary to us to add all this language to an 
already lengthy text ; but in a spirit of accommo- 
dation, here too, we will accept the first version of 
this Indian amendment as it appeared in docu- 

, ment L.153. Our first preambular paragraph 
would then begin as follows : "Recalling its reso- 
lution 808 (IX) of 4 November 1954, which estab- 
lished the conclusion 'that a further effort should 
be made,' " etc. 

I I come now to those amendments submitted by 
the Indian and Soviet delegations to which the 
sponsors object and which have not been incor- 
porated in this revised resolution. 

First, let me take up the amencbnents proposed 
in document A/C.l/L.153/Eev.l, submitted by 
India on December 9, which we have not accepted. 
As I have stated, the United States has accepted 
the earlier version of the first Indian amendment, 
which repeats the language of the General As- 
sembly resolution of 1954. The United States 



voted for that resolution and subscribes to its 
principles. But the revised version of the amend- 
ment, as contained in document L.153/Rev.l, re- 
affirms in blanket fashion without discrimination 
and without reference to changing circumstances 
all of the operative provisions of last year's reso- 
lution. This includes the provisions for elimina- 
tion of all nuclear weapons. 

Difficulties of Controlling Nuclear Arms 

Mr. Chairman, I believe practically every dele- 
gate who has spoken in this debate has recognized 
the impossibility of totally accounting for nuclear 
weapons material by any scientific means known 
at this time. This makes total elimination of 
these weapons scientifically impossible at present. 
Mr. Moch of France has, for the past several years, 
warned us of these facts. In the light of these 
facts we do not see how we can proceed now to 
draw up a disarmament convention, as last year's 
resolution recommends, incorporating a provision 
which we know cannot be enforced. It is incon- 
sistent with paragraph ( c) of last year's resolution, 
which calls for effective control. It is inconsistent 
with preambular paragraphs 7 and 8 of our pres- 
ent draft resolution, which recognize the difficul- 
ties of such control. It is inconsistent with the 
debate which has taken place in this committee 
and with the facts as we know them today. 

Until success rewards the scientific search rec- 
ommended in paragraph 3 ^^ of the four-power 
resolution and until fully adequate inspection and 
control is agi-eed, in place, and operating, nuclear 
weapons cannot be totally eliminated. Paragraph 
1(a) of our resolution directs us to continue to 
seek agreement on a comprehensive plan which 
will accord with the goals of last year's resolution. 
This means all those goals which can be effectively 
controlled. "Wlien elimination of nuclear weap- 
ons can be effectively controlled, this can be pro- 
vided for in a comprehensive plan, but not before. 
Also, I must point out that the question is not 
merely one of making a further effort to reach 
agreement ; it is a matter of technical fact, which 
only new teclmical developments can alter. 

I come now to that part of Indian amendment 
No. 2 which we have not accepted. We have not 
incorporated the word "equal" in part (2) of this 
amendment. Both of the sections of paragraph 
1(b) of our resolution are on the same general 



" Bulletin of Nov. 1, 1954, p. 664. 
January 9, 1956 



' Paragraph 4 of final draft. 



67 



plane of priority — in that sense they are equal. 
However, -we do not believe that agreement on, or 
the carrying out of, one should of necessity await 
agreement on and carrying out of the other. We 
hope that they can be done together ; but we do not 
want this to be a requirement. 

Tlie next Indian amendment which we have not 
been able to accept is No. 3, which deals with the 
enlargement of the Disarmament Commission and 
the Subcommittee. The United States cannot sup- 
port this enlargement at this time. We believe 
that the problem of enlarging this Commission 
must be considered when we review the size and 
composition of other major organs in the light of 
any decision reached on the admission of new 
members. 

We all know that such a review will be neces- 
sary and that it must be undertaken as soon as 
possible. But it would be a mistake to attempt 
now to alter the composition of this important 
Commission in the absence of new members who, 
once admitted to the United Nations, should have 
a voice in such a decision. 

Views on Proposed Convention 

Next, there is the Indian amendment No. 5, 
wliich would insert a new jiaragraph as follows: 
'■'■Decides that the Disarmament Commission 
should undertake without delay the drafting of 
an international disarmament convention and cir- 
culate it to all States for their comments and re- 
port to the General Assembly." 

The United States, of course, believes that agree- 
ment on disarmament should eventually be em- 
bodied in such a convention. But while lack of 
agreement on so many vital points still exists, it is 
exceedingly difficult to draft up any kind of legal 
instrument which is reasonably complete or which 
makes much sense at all. 

The product of such an operation, as I think 
those who have tried it will agree, looks like a 
series of blanks connected with legal verbiage. 
It might be compared to a fish net — a lot of holes 
connected with string. I know that Mr. Menon's 
suggestion was put forward with the purpose, with 
which of course I entirely agree, of putting on a 
little more pressure for tangible results. But I 
am afraid that it could have results opposite to 
what he intends and to what I desire. The time 
spent in trying to draw up a convention would be 
better spent in coming to grips with the actual 
issue. 



I turn now to the amendments submitted by the 
Soviet Union in document A/C.1/L/.152 of De- 
cember 6, 1955, which we have not been able to 
incorporate in our joint resolution. Let me be- 
gin with the first paragraph in amendment No. 3. 

This Soviet language would be substituted for 
those paragraphs in our resolution which recog- 
nize that agreement has not been reached on the 
nature of controls and inspection, that special tech- 
nical difficulties exist, and that inspection and 
control and reduction of armaments can best be 
achieved in an atmosphere of confidence. These 
paragraphs are matters of deep conviction for us. 
They state the truth of the present situation. We 
could not omit them. 

The suggested Soviet language conveys a mis- 
leading idea of the extent of agreement reached 
in the Subcommittee and in the Commission. Our 
text acknowledges some "progress towards" agree- 
ment, which gives the world an accurate picture 
of what has taken place. 

To take up the second paragraph of Soviet 
amendment No. 3, here again, in our view, the 
Soviet Union overstates the extent of agreement 
on force levels, on prohibition, and on timing. As 
I have said before, we are against proposing total 
and immediate prohibition until we can be assured 
that tliis prohibition would be effective. With 
reference to force levels, the United States believes 
the ultimate figures must be established in the 
light of what can be done about nuclear weapons 
and effective inspection and control. There has 
not been substantial agreement on the order to be 
followed in a comprehensive disarmament pro- 
gram. The Soviet Union won't say when control 
can be installed; moreover, it wants to pass auto- 
matically from one stage of disarmament to an- 
other rather than in accordance with the findings 
and judgment of the International Control Au- 
thority. Furthermore, it calls for total prohibi- 
tion and elimination of atomic weapons to take 
place somewhere in this sequence even though they 
know total prohibition is impossible to check. i 
Above all, there is a vast difference of opinion on 
what constitutes effective control. 

Next we come to Soviet amendment No. 6. This 
paragraph would completely transform the sense 
of our resolution. It gives the Soviet May 10 and 
July 21, 1955, proposals '^ first priority. The for- 
mer brings in a host of political issues which are 
not in the competence of the Disarmament Com- I 
mission, such as the settlement of Far Eastern 



68 



Department of State Bulletin 



questions, dismantling of all bases abroad, and the 
removal of foreign troops from Germany. 

It cuts the heart out of the forward-looking ap- 
proach adopted in our present resolution. That 
approach is that we do all that can he dons now, 
even while we continue to work toward compre- 
hensive disarmament in accordance with the 
ultimate goals expressed in last year's resolution 
and while we tackle the scientific barriers and the 
barriers of international distrust which block 
solution of the problem of comprehensive 
disarmament. 

Mr. Chairman, a second revision of our resolu- 
tion incorporating the additional language which 
I have just mentioned will be circulated very soon. 
We believe that this revised text points out the 
most promising path of progress for the Disarma- 
ment Commission and its Subcommittee. It has 
the virtue of being both forward looking and real- 
istic. It faces squarely the fact that new technical 
difficulties have arisen in regard to the control of 
nuclear weapons material. And it recognizes that 
international suspicions must be cleared away if 
we are to make progress toward comprehensive 
disarmament. 

But, Mr. Chairman, we have not stopped there. 
Knowing the world's great yearning for at least 
a start — a first installment — on disarmament, we 
have included a directive to the governments con- 
cerned to take every action which is now feasible. 
And that is a significant step, Mr. Chairman. 
This resolution directs the states to make such ini- 
tial reductions as can be adequately controlled — 
at the earliest opportunity — without waiting for 
agreement on a comprehensive plan, although we 
continue to work for such a plan. 

We have also requested the governments con- 
cerned to start now to carry out the Eisenhower 
and Bulganin plans. As I stressed earlier, the 
United States wants both the Eisenhower plan and 
a beginning on disarmament — together if possi- 
ble — to go into effect as soon as possible. 

We do not believe, however, that the Eisen- 
hower-Bulganin plan need be postponed while we 
try to get agreement even on the initial measures 
of disarmament which are currently feasible and 



^" For text of the July proposals, see The Geneva Con- 
fereru'e of Heads of Government, July 18-23, 1955, De- 
partment of State publication 6046, p. 55. Texts of both 
the May and July proposals were circulated in U.N. doc. 
A/2979 dated Sept. 22. 



controllable. We do not believe the peoples of 
the world should be deprived any longer of its 
shield against war, while we debate interminably 
on details. We are convinced — and we are glad 
that others agree with us — that the early execution 
of the Eisenhower plan will speed progress on far- 
reaching disarmament. 

Let me repeat : We share the earnest desire of 
most governments represented here that there be 
a firm statement in this resolution directing the 
states concerned to achieve early reductions in 
armaments. With the adoption of this resolution, 
we shall lay to rest once and for all the charge that 
we seek inspection without disarmament. 

It is in our power to lift the disarmament dis- 
cussion out of the morass into which it has sunk. 
With the adoption of this resolution, wliich repre- 
sents a good-faith attempt on the part of the 
sponsors to meet the desires that have been ex- 
pressed here in this room by the representatives 
of all countries, we may hope that deliberation on 
disarmament will finally lead to some action, some 
immediate action for which the world has waited 
so anxiously for so many years. 

EXPLANATION OF VOTE IN PLENARY 

U.S. delegation press release 2330 dated December 16 

This hall is full of distinguished men — men 
with records of accomplishment behind them ; men 
who are doing important work today; men who 
will do big things in the future. With all tliis in 
mind, I say this: Nothing anyone here has ever 
done, or may do, is likely to work so powerfully 
for peace as what we have just done here today in 
giving worldwide endorsement to President 
Eisenhower's "open sky" plan, which is linked with 
Marshal Bulganin's plan for ground control posts. 

Wlien this plan was proposed at Geneva last 
summer, the world welcomed it because it was 
fresh and new and bold. Over the years the world 
had become disillusioned and confused — and, if 
the truth be told, dangerously bored and cynical — 
by the endless disarmament talks. Undoubtedly 
many persons suspected that we here in the United 
Nations had succumbed to ritual ; that we had be- 
come so proficient in the old arguments and so 
dominated by traditional concepts that we had 
lost touch with the bewildering speed of scientific 
development. 

By our action today, we have shown that the 



January 9, 1956 



69 



United Nations can move ahead with the times. 
We have stepped out of the squirrel's cage. 

Our endorsement of the "open sky" plan by 
such an overwhelming majority will now mobilize 
the irrestible force of world opinion. No govern- 
ment can long stand out against that great force. 
Our action today will make the "open slcy" plan 
a household word in every land — and eventually 
behind the Iron Curtain. The people of the 
world will demand that this plan be put into oper- 
ation, and I am confident that the Soviet Union 
will join it, as they joined the atoms-for-peace 
progi-am. 

Thus the plan will go into effect, and the "senti- 
nels of peace" will ily over the United States. 
They will fly over the Soviet Union and over other 
lands which eventually take part in this plan. 
This in turn will make major surprise attack im- 
possible because of the impossibility of concealing 
preparations for it. This will remove the menace 
of World War III. In its turn this will make 
possible comprehensive disarmament and all the 
other blessings of peace and prosperity. 

This resolution directs that we start now toward 
that goal. It also calls on the nations, at the earli- 
est moment, to take those steps toward the reduc- 
tion of armaments which can be surely and safely 
safeguarded under an efficient system of interna- 
tional inspection. It is the most significant dis- 
armament resolution which the General Assembly 
has yet passed. 

There is an old proverb uttered by one of the 
earliest American statesmen and diplomats, Ben- 
jamin Franklin. It goes something as follows: 
"For want of a nail, the shoe was lost; for want 
of a shoe, the horse was lost; and for want of a 
horse, the rider was lost." Thus the rider did not 
arrive and the battle was lost. 

We today in the air-atomic age are putting the 
reverse of this old proverb into effect. Instead of 
losing a battle because of a nail, we are on our way 
to winning the peace by using air power for peace, 
now tliat modern science has made this possible. 
The United Nations thus becomes the place where 
both air power and atomic power are directed to 
man's life rather than to man's death. 

What we have done here today can cliange the 
lives of babies now in their cradles. In and of 
itself, it alone justifies our existence and that of 
the United Nations. 



70 



SelKDetermination Article ! 

in Human Riglits Covenants 

Folloioing is a statement by Mrs. Oswald B. 
Lord on Noveinher 29 in Committee III {Social, ' 
Hum,anitanan and Cultural) in explanation of 
the negative U.S. vote on a revised draft of article 
1 of the tivo draft Covenants on Human Rights, 
together with drafts of the article as it read at the 
beginning of the committee debate and as it read 
after it was revised by a working party. ^ 



STATEMENT BY MRS. LORD 

U.S. delegation press release 2301 dated November 29 

The United States delegation voted against 
paragraph 2 of article 1 and, because of the inclu- 
sion of tliis paragraph, voted agai-nst the article as 
a whole. We did tliis in spite of the improvements 
in the paragraph made by the working party be- 
cause the paragraph is still subject to misinterpre- 
tation and possible abuse. The language was not 
sufficiently clear and forthright in specifying the 
intention of the committee that the paragraph was 
not intended to impair legal rights of individuals 
or authorize expropriation without adequate, 
prompt, and effective compensation. 

This paragraph is intended for acceptance by 
the contracting parties as a legally binding obliga- 
tion. In a legally binding text, should this be- 
come one, the rights and obligations assumed 
should be stated as clearly and unambiguously as 
possible. This has not been achieved in tliis text. 
We could not, therefore, approve it, even with the 
advance knowledge that because of our decision 
not to sign the covenants it would not be binding 
on us in any case. 

The United States delegation notes, however, 
that a large majority of those delegations who ex- 
pressed themselves on the paragraph stated it to be 
their desire to avoid any interjiretation which 



* For a statement by Mrs. Lord in Committee III on 
Oct. 27, see Bulletin of Nov. 14, 1955, p. SOS. 

On Nov. 29 a Danish motion to postpone the final de- 
cision until the next session of the Assembly was defeated 
by a vote of 25 in favor, 28 against, with 5 abstentions. 
The committee then adopted article 1, after a long series 
of votes on individual parts, by 33 in favor, 12 against 
(U.S.), with 13 abstentions. The text of article 1 will 
not be voted on in plenary until the draft covenants are 
completed. 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



would justify expropriation, actions contrary to 
international law or agreements, measures impair- 
ing international economic cooperation, or impair- 
ment of legal rights. Criticism of the original 
text on this basis and/or support for amendment 
of the original text to achieve this objective was ex- 
pressed along these general lines by the representa- 
tives of El Salvador, Uruguay, Argentina, 
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Panama, Cuba, 
Costa Rica, Lebanon, Colombia, Australia, United 
Kingdom, Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, Chile, and 
Pakistan, whose statements may be found in the 
pertinent summary records. Likewise, support for 
the revised version has been expressed by a number 
of representatives on behalf of their governments 
because of their understanding that the present 
version is intended to encompass these protections. 
We note that a number of representatives have 
spoken along these lines. Several representatives 
have specifically indicated that international law 
is intended to include international agreements, 
and also that there is no intent to authorize impair- 
ment of legal and property rights. Others indi- 
cated a willingness to go even further in making 
these points clearer in the text, which would un- 
doubtedly have been accomplished had it been pos- 
sible to devote more time to consideration of the 
terminology. 

I bring these factors out in explanation of the 
United States vote because the confusion of the 
text requires the clearest possible explanation of 
the intent of the text in order that it may not be 
cited as justification for actions and procedures 
which its framers have stated they did not intend. 

The United States recognizes the right of a state 
to control its natural wealth and resources, pro- 
vided that the obligation to make prompt payment 
of just compensation for the taking of property or 
the extinguishment of legal rights is also recog- 
nized. Any such compensation should be in an 
effectively realizable form and should represent 
the full equivalent of the property taken or the 
legal rights extinguished. We felt that the para- 
graph should have been more specific in reflecting 
these principles, which seem to be generally 
accejatable. 



FIRST DRAFT OF ARTICLE 

1. All peoples and all nations shall have the 
right of self-determination, namely, the right 



freely to determine their political, economic, social 
and cultural status. 

2. All States, including those having responsi- 
bility for the administration of Non- Self -Govern- 
ing and Trust Territories and those controlling in 
whatsoever manner the exercise of that right by 
another people, shall promote the realization of 
that right in all their territories, and shall respect 
the maintenance of that right in other States, in 
conformity with the provisions of the United 
Nations Charter. 

3. The right of peoples to self-determination 
shall also include permanent sovereignty over 
their natural wealth and resources. In no case 
may a people be deprived of its own means of 
subsistence on the grounds of any rights that may 
be claimed by other States. 



REVISED DRAFT' 

1. All peoples have the right to self-determina- 
tion. By virtue of this right they freely determine 
their political status and freely pursue their eco- 
nomic, social and cultural development. 

2. The peoples may, for their own ends, freely 
dispose of their natural wealth and resources 
without prejudice to any obligations arising out 
of international economic cooperation based upon 
the principle of mutual benefit and international 
law. In no case may a people be deprived of its 
own means of subsistence. 

3. All the States parties to the Covenant, includ- 
ing those having responsibility for the adminis- 
tration of non-self-governing and trust territories, 
shall promote the realization of the right of self- 
determination, and shall respect that right, in con- 
formity with the provisions of the United Nations 
Charter. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 



General Assembly 

Repatriation of Greeli Children. Communication dated 
12 September 1955 from the International Committee 
of the Red Cross and the League of Red Cross Societies. 
A/2993, October 13, 1955. 5 pp. mlmeo. 



' In the revised draft, paragraph 3 became paragraph 2. 
It was improved by the working party but still was not 
acceptable to the U.S. delegation. 



January 9, 1956 



71 



Draft International Covenants on Human Rights. Ob- 
servations by the Government of the People's Republic 
of Hungary. A/2910/Ad(1.6, October 13, 1955. G pp. 
mimeo. 

Question of South West Africa. Second supplement to 
the report of the Committee on South West Africa to the 
General Assembly. A/2913/Add.2, October 13, 1955. 
12 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the Special Committee on Review of Admin- 
istrative Tribunal Judgments. Note by the Secretary- 
General transmitting views of the Staff Council. 
A/C.5/634, October 14, 1955. 7 pp. mimeo. 

Draft Final Act of the Sixth United Nations Technical 
Assistance Conference [presented by the Secretary- 
General]. A/Conf.ll/L.l, October 20, 1955. 2 pp. 
mimeo. 

Budget estimates for the financial year 1956. Statement 
of 1955 budget expenditure to 30 September 1955 and 
of anticipated total requirements for 1955. (Report 
of the Secretary-General.) A/C.5/629, October 21, 1955. 
19 pp. mimeo. 

Treatment of people of Indian origin in the Union of 
South Africa. Report of the Secretary-General. 
A/3001, October 25. 1955. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Application of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan for 
membership in the United Nations. Note by the Sec- 
retary-General. A/3002, October 26, 1955. 3 pp. 
mimeo. 

Question of the continuation of the United Nations 
Tribunal in Libya. Conmiunication dated 25 October 
1955 from the Libyan Ambassador to the United States 
of America addressed to the Secretary-General. 
A/C.6/L.354, October 26, 1955. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Economic development of under-developed countries. 
Special United Nations fund for economic development. 
Statement by Mr. Raymond Scheyven. A/C.2/187, 
October 28, 1955. 23 pp. mimeo. 

Economic development of under-developed countries. 
Question of the establishment of an International 
Finance Corporation : Report of the Economic and So- 
cial Council. Draft report of the Second Committee. 
A/C.2/L.270, October 31, 1955. 4 pp. mimeo. 

Registration and publication of treaties and international 
agreements. Tenth report of the Advisory Committee 
on Administrative and Budgetary Questions to the 
tenth session of the General Assembly. A/3010, No- 
vember 1, 1955. 9 pp. mimeo. 

Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, (a) The International 
Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy : 
Report of the Secretary-General, (b) Progress in de- 
veloping international co-operation for the peaceful uses 
of atomic energy : Reports of Governments. A/3008, 
November 2, 19.55. 13 pp. mimeo. 

4rf Hoc Commission on Prisoners of War. Progress re- 
port to the Secretary-General. A/AC.46/1S, November 
2, 1955. 7 pp. mimeo. 

The Korean Question. Text of identical cablegrams 
dated 31 October 1955 from the Minister for Foreign 
Affairs of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea 
addressed to the President of the General Assembly 
and the Secretary-General. A/C.1/769, November 3, 
1955. 1 p. mimeo. 

United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency : Financial 
report and accounts for the year ended 30 June 1955 
and report of the Board of Auditors. Eleventh report 
of the Advisory Committee on Administrative and 
Budgetary Questions to the tenth session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. A/3012, November 3, 1955. 3 pp. 
mimeo. 

Information from non-self-governing territories. Report 
of the Fourth Committee. A/3013, November 4, 1955. 
23 pp. mimeo. 

Question of the Continuation of the United Nations 
Tribunal in Libya. Communication dated 31 October 
1955 from the Libyan Ambassador to the United States 
of America addressed to the Secretary-General. 
A/C.6/L..362, November 4, 1955. 7 pp. mimeo. 

72 



Report of the Special Committee on Review of Admin- 
istrative Tribunal Judgements. Report of the Fifth 
Committee. A/3016, November 5, 19.5.5. 21 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the Negotiating Committee for Extra-Budgetary 
Funds. Report of the Fifth Committee. A/3014, No- 
vember 5, 1955. 6 pp. mimeo. 

Special Report of the Advisory Commission of the United 
Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Ref- 
ugees in the Near East. A/3017, November 7, 1955. 
15 pp. mimeo. 

Effects of Atomic Radiation, (a) Co-ordination of In- 
formation Relating to the Effects of Atomic Radiation 
upon Human Health and Safety, (b) Dissemination 
of Information on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and 
on the Effects of Experimental Explosions of Thermo- 
Nuclear Bombs. Report of the First Committee. 
A/3022. November 10, 19.55. 10 pp. mimeo. 

Budjret Estimates for the Financial Tear 1956. Special 
Internes. Report of the Secretary -General. A/C.5/641, 
November 11, 19.55. 4 pp. mimeo. 

Administrative and Budgetary Co-ordination Between 
the United Nations and the Specialized Agencies. Ad- 
ministrative budgets for 1956. Fourteenth report of 
the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budget- 
ary Questions to the tenth session of the General 
Assembly. A/3023, November 11, 19.55. .32 pp. mimeo. 

Use of Income Derived from the Staff Assessment Plan. 
Report of the Secretary-General. A/C.5/643, Novem- 
ber 12, 1955. 9 pp. mimeo. 

Treatment of People of Indian Origin in the Union of 
South Africa. Note by the Secretary-General. 
A/3001/Add.l, November 14, 1955. 22 pp. mimeo. 

Budget Estimates for the Financial Year 19.56. Reim- 
bursement rates for services rendered to the specialized 
agencies. Fifteenth report of the Advisory Committee 
on Administrative and Budgetary Questions to the 
tenth session of the General Assembly. A/3024, No- 
vember 14, 1955. 5 pp. mimeo. 

BudKct Estimates for the Financial Tear 1956. Perma- 
nent headquarters of the International Telecommunica- 
tion Union and the World Meteorological Organization 
at Geneva. Sixteenth report of the Advisory Committee 
on Administrative and Budgetary Questions to the 
tenth session of the General Assembly. A/3025, No- 
vember 14, 1955. 5 pp. mimeo. 

The Korean Question. Note by the Secretary-General. 
A/C.1/771, November 16, 1955. 5 pp. mimeo. 

The Question of Race Conflict in South Africa Resultiug 
from the Policies of .\partheid of the Government of 
the Union of South Africa : Report of the United Na- 
lion.s Commission on the Racial Situation in the Union 
of South Africa. Report of the Ad Hoc Political Com- 
mittee. A/3026, November 16, 1955. 7 pp. mimeo. 

Organization of the Secretariat. Report of the Secretary- 
General. A/3041, November 23, 1955. 25 pp. mimeo. 

UNREF Progress Report for 1955. Submitted by the 
High Commissioner. A/AC.79/23, November 28, 1955. 
18 pp. mimeo. 

Organization of the Secretariat. Budget Estimates for 
the Financial Year 1956. Twenty-fourth report of the 
Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary 
Questions to the tenth session of the General Assembly. 
A/3049, November 28, 1955. 15 pp. mimeo. 

Registration and Publication of Treaties and Interna- 
tional Agreements. Report of the Fifth Committee. 
A/3058, December 2, 19.55. 7 pp. mimeo. 

Draft Convention on the Nationality of Jlarried Women. 
Report of the Third Committee. A/3059, December 2, 
1955. 9 pp. mimeo. 

Draft International Covenants on Human Rights. Report 
of the Third Committee. A/3077, December 8, 1955. 
35 pp. mimeo. 

United Nations Administrative Tribunal. Annual note 
by the Administrative Tribunal to the President of the 
General Assembly as to the Functioning of the Ad- 
ministrative Tribunal. A/INV/68, December 8, 1955. 
5 pp. mimeo. 

Depaiimenf of State Bulletin 



Budget Estimates for the Financial Tear 1956. Organi- 
zation of the Secretariat. Report of the Fifth Com- 
mittee. A/3103, December 14, 1955. 98 pp. mlmeo. 



Security Council 

Letter dated 23 September 1955 from the Minister for 
Foreign Affairs of Spain addressed to the Secretary- 
General concerning the application of Spain for admis- 
sion to membership in the United Nations and declara- 
tion accepting obligations under the Charter. S/3441/ 
Rev. 1, September 27, 1955. 2 pp. mimeo. 

IJetter dated 27 September 1955 from the Permanent Rep- 
resentative of Israel addressed to the President of the 
Security Council. S/3442, September 28, 1955. 2 pp. 
mimeo. 

Note dated 28 September 1955 from the Representative 
of tie United States addressed to the Secretary-General 
concerning the effective date of the change in command 
of the military forces made available to the Unified 
Command pursuant to the Security Council resolution 
of 7 July 1950 (S/1588). S/3402/Add. 1, October 5, 
1955. 1 p. mimeo. 

Letter dated 22 October 1955 from the Representative of 
Israel addressed to the President of the Secretary Coun- 
cil. S/3448, October 24, 1955. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Letter dated 28 October 1955 from the Permanent Repre- 
sentative of Saudi Arabia addressed to the President of 
the Security Council. S/3450, October 28, 1955. 2 pp. 
mimeo. 

Letter dated 28 October 1955 from the Permanent Repre- 
sentative of Syria to the I'resident of the Security 
Council. S/3451, October 28, 1955. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Letter dated 29 October 1955 from the Representative of 
the United Kingdom addressed to tlie President of the 
Security Council. S/3452, October 31, 1955. 3 pp. 
mimeo. 

Letter dated 1 November 1955 from the Representative of 
Israel addressed to the President of the Security Coun- 
cil. S/3-t54, November 1, 1955. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Letter dated 3 November 1955 addressed to the President 
of the Security Council by the Representative of Syria. 
S/3455, November 3, 1955. 1 p. mimeo. 

Letter dated 3 Novemi)er 1955 from the Representative of 
Egypt addressed to the President of the Security Coun- 
cil. S/3456, November 3, 1955. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Letter dated 22 November 1955 from the Representative 
of Israel addressed to the President of the Security 
Council. S/3462, November 25, 1955. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Letter dated 25 November 1955 from the Chairman of 
the Disarmament Commission addressed to the Secre- 
tary-General. S/3463, November 25, 1955. 1 p. mimeo. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Defense Agreement With Germany 
Becomes Effective 

Press release 711 dated December 27 

The German Charge d'Affaires ad interim, 
Albrecht von Kessel, on December 27, deposited 



the instrument of ratification of the Mutual De- 
fense Assistance Agreement between the United 
States and tlie Federal Republic of Germany. 
With this deposit, the agreement, which was 
signed on June 30 of this year, becomes effective.^ 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Automotive Traffic 

Convention concerning customs facilities for touring. 

Done at New York June 5, 1954.° 

Ratification deposited: Ceylon, November 28, 1955; 
Cambodia, November 29, 1955. 
Customs convention on temporary importation of private 

road vehicles. Done at New York June 4, 1954.^ 

Ratification deposited: Ceylon, November 28, 1955. 

Aviation 

Convention for unification of certain rules relating to 
international transportation by air, and additional 
protocol. Concluded at Warsaw October 12, 1929. 
Entered into force February 13, 1933. 49 Stat. 3000. 
Adherence deposited: Egypt, September 6, 1955. 

Finance 

Articles of agreement of the International Finance Cor- 
poration. Signed at Washington May 25, 1955, and 
open for signature until the close of business December 
31, 1956. Enters into force when signed and accepted 
by not less than 30 governments whose subscriptions 
comprise not less than 75 percent of the subscriptions 
set forth in schedule A. 

Signatures: Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Domini- 
can Republic, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, 
Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, May 
25, 1955 ; Ecuador, June 1, 1955 ; Pakistan, July 21, 
1955; Iceland, August 18, 1955; India, October 19, 
1955 ; Canada, United Kingdom, October 25, 1955 ; 
Austria, December 2, 1955 ; United States, December 
5, 1955. 

North Atlantic Treaty 

Agreement between the parties to the North Atlantic 

Treaty regarding the status of their forces. Signed at 

London June 19, 1951. Entered into force August 23, 

1953. TIAS 2846. 

Ratification deposited: Italy, December 22, 1955. 
Protocol on status of international military headquarters. 

Signed at Paris August 28, 1952. Entered into force 

April 10, 1954. TIAS 2978. 

Ratification deposited: Italy, December 22, 1955. 
Agreement between the parties to tlie North Atlantic 

Treaty for cooperation regarding atomic information. 

Signed at Paris June 22, 1955.^ 

Notification of tjeiny bound by terms of the agreement: 
United States, December 28, 1955. 

Postal Matters 

Universal postal convention, with final protocol, annex, 
regulations of execution, and provisions regarding air- 
mail and final protocol thereto. Signed at Brussels 



' For text, see Bulletin of July 25, 1955, p. 142. 
■ Not in force. 



January 9, 1956 



73 



Julv 11, 1952. Entered into force July 1, 1953. TIAS 

2800. 

Ratification deposited: Turkey, November 12, 1955. 

Sugar 

International sugar agreement. Done at London under 
date of October 1, 1053. Entered into force May 5, 
1954. TIAS 3177. 

Ratification deposited (ivith a declaration) : Greece, 
September 14, 1955. 



BILATERAL 

Argentina 

Surplus commodity agreement pursuant to tbe Agricul- 
tural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, 
as amended (68 Stat. 454; 69 Stat. 44, 721). Signed at 
Buenos Aires December 21, 1955. Entered into force 
December 21, 1955. 

Canada 

Agreement providing for the establishment and operation 
of certain radar stations in the Newfoundland-Labrador 
area. Effected by exchange of notes at Ottawa June 
13, 1955. Entered into force June 13, 1055. 

Agreement providing for the construction and operation 
of certain radar stations in British Columbia, Ontario, 
and Nova Scotia. Effected by exchange of notes at 
Ottawa June 15, 1955. Entered into force June 15, 
1955. 

Colombia 

Surplus commodity agreement pursuant to the Agricul- 
tural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, 
as amended (68 Stat. 454; 69 Stat. 44, 721). Signed at 
Bogotd December 20, 1055. Entered into force Decem- 
ber 20, 1955. 

Federal Republic of Germany 

Mutual defense assistance agreement. Signed at Bonn 
June 30, 1955. 

Entered into force: Dec-ember 27, 1955 (date of deposit 
of instrument of ratification by the Federal Re- 
public). 
Arrangement for the return of equipment pursuant to the 
mutual defense assistance agreement. Effected by ex- 
change of notes at Bonn June 30, 1955. 
Entered into force: December 27, 1955 (upon entry into 
force of the mutual defense assistance agreement). 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Delegation of Authority' 

Deputy Undek Secretakt foe Economic Affairs 

delegation of authority with respect to duties and 
functions 

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 4 
of the Act of May 26, 1949 (63 Stat. Ill ; 5 U. S. C. 151c), 
I hereby delegate to the Deputy Under Secretary for 
Economic Affairs of the Department of State, or in bis 
absence to the officer designated to act for him, tbe per- 



formance of all the functions which the Secretary of 
State is authorized to perform pursuant to and under 
the authority of Section 25 (b) of the Federal Reserve 
Act, as amended (Act of December 23, 1913, ch. 6, section 
25 (b), as added June 16, 1933, ch. 89, section 15, 48 Stat. 
184, and amended April 7, 1941, ch. 43, section 2, 55 Stat. 
131; 12 U. S. C. 632). 

Delegation of Authority No. 69 dated August 12, 1953 
(18 F. R. 4930, August 19, 1953), is hereby rescinded. 

Dated : December 13, 1955. 

[Seal] John Foster Dulles, 

Secretary of State. 



PUBLICATIONS 



' Public Notice 145 ; 20 Fed. Reg. 9873. 
74 



Recent Releases 

For ■■tiih' hij the Superintendent of Documents, V.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington 2.5, D. C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, 
except in the case of free publications, which may be 
obtained from the Department of State. 

Double Taxation— Taxes on Income. TIAS 3176. Pub. 
5858. 53 pp. 20((. 

Convention between the United States and Japan — Signed 
at Washington April 16, 1954. And exchange of notes — ■ 
Signed at Washington April 16, 1954. 

Atomic Energy — Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 3301. 
Pub. 5997. 20 pp. 15<-. 

Agreement between the United States and Belgium — 
Signed at Washington June 15, 19.55. 

Atomic Energy— Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 3303. 
Pub. 6021. 11 pp. 10^. 

Agreement between the United States and Brazil — Signed 
at Rio de Janeiro August 3, 1955. 

Atomic Energy— Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 3306. 
Pull. G014. 6 pp. tSt 

Agreement between the United States and Chile — Signed 
at Washington August 8, 1955. 

Atomic Energy — Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 3321. 
Pub. 6052. 11 pp. lO^*. 

Agreement between the United States and the United 
Kiniidom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland — Signed 
at Washington June 15, 1955. 

Great Lakes Fisheries. 

lOc 

Convention between the United States and Canada — 
Signed at Washington September 10, 1954. 

Entry Rights— Traders and Investors. TIAS 3349. Pub. 
6094. 7 pp. 10(J. 

Agreement between the United States and the Republic 
of the Philippines. Exchange of notes — Signed at Wash- 
ington September 6, 1955. 



TIAS 3326. Pub. 6058. 7 pp. 



Department of State Bulletin 



January 9, 1956 Index 

Agriculture. Distributing Agricultural Surpluses . 53 

Asia. Surve.v of Jlekong River 52 

Austria. Deadline Extended for Filing Property 

Claims in Austria 49 

China, Communist. Ctiinese Communist Complaint 

Concerning Student 52 

Claims and Property. Deadline Extended for Fil- 
ing Property Claims in Austria 49 

Disarmament. General Assembly Action on Dis- 
armament (Lodge, text of resolution) ... 55 

Economic Affairs 

U.S. Completes Action Required for Membership 

in IFC 54 

World Bank Loan to Honduras for Highway 

System 54 

Foreign Service. Benjamin Franklin the Diplo- 
mat 50 

Germany 

Defease Agreement With Germany Becomes Ef- 
fective 73 

U.S. Restates Views on Soviet Obligations In 

G^ermany (Conant, Pushkin) 48 

Honduras. World Bank Loan to Honduras for 

Highway System 54 

Mutual Security 

Current Aspects of U.S.-Spanish Relations (Lodge) . 43 

Defense Agreement With Germany Becomes Ef- 
fective 73 

Survey of Jlekong River 52 

Pakistan. U.S. Helps Combat Flood Suffering in 

Pakistan 53 

Publications. Recent Releases 74 

Spain. Current Aspects of U.S.-Spanish Rela- 
tions (Lodge) 43 

State, Department of. Delegation of Authority 

(Dulles) 74 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 73 



Vol. XXXIV, No. 863 



Defense Agreement With Germany Becomes Ef- 
fective 

U.S.S.R. U.S. Restates Views on Soviet Obliga- 
tions in Germany (Conant, Pushkin) . . . 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 

General Assembly Action on Disarmament (Lodge, 
text of resolution) 

Self -Determination Article in Human Rights (Lord, 
texts of drafts) 

Name Index 

Benson, Ezra T 

Conant, James B 

Dulles, Secretary 

Liu Yung-ming 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr 

Lodge, John 

Lord, Mrs. Oswald B 

Pushkin, Georgi 



73 

48 
71 
55 
70 



53 

48 
74 
52 
55 
43 
70 
48 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: December 26-January 1 

Releases may be obtained from the News Divi- 
sion, Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 

No. Date Subject 

711 12/27 German ratification of MDA agree- 
ment. 

*712 12/27 Delegation to Liberian presidential 
Inauguration. 

713 12/28 Deadline for filing Austrian property 
claims. 

714 12/30 Complaint concerning Chinese student. 



Not printed. 



0. t. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1956 




Department 
of 




United States 
Government Printing Office 

DIVISION OF PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

Washington 25, D. C. 



PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE TO AVOID 

PAYMENT OF POSTAGE. (300 

(GPO) 



OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



THE AMERICAN CONSUL 

Publication 5893 



10 ceats 



Many American tourists have but vague ideas of what they 
should expect from their consuls in the way of services while 
they are traveling abroad. The average United States citizen 
has some idea of the functions of his diplomatic representa- 
tives but seems to be quite confused about the duties of the 
American consul. 

The American Consul, a 14-page pamphlet, tells what a 
consul is and what he does. The leaflet offers a concise account 
of the history and development of the consular services. These 
are some of the subjects treated : 

Some Early History 

Ships and Seamen 

Visas 

Passports 

Citizenship 

Protective Services 

Custody of Estates 

Insuring Just Treatment 

Missing Persons 

Consular Courts 

Political, Economic, and Trade Repoiis 

Copies of The American Consul may be purchased for 10 
cents from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. 



Order Form 

Please send me copies of The American Consul. 

To: Supt. of Documents 

Govt. Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Name: 

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ORY 



^ne' ^efl€l/)^^€/rv(/ ^ t/uote/ 




Vol. XXXIV, No. 864 



January 16, 1956 




THE STATE OF THE UNION • Excerpts From President 

Eisenhower's Message to the Congress 79 

VISIT OF PRESIDENT-ELECT KUBITSCHEK OF 

BRAZIL 86 

APPROVAL OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CON- 
TROLLING LEVELS OF LAKE ONTARIO 89 

FUTURE STATUS OF TOGOLAND 

Statement by Laird Bell 100 

Text of Resolution 102 

SUMMARY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF TENTH 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY 97 



For index see inside back cover 



Boston Public Li'irary 
'u7)er'n*f-''i-^"* 'if Documents 

FEB 27 1955 




<tJne zj^e^vwy/^ment €^ t/iale 



bulletin 



Vol. XXXrV, No. 864 . Publication 6241 
January 16, 1956 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Goverament Printing Oflice 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

62 Issues, domestic $7.60, foreign $10.26 
Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has 
been approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 19, 1955). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
ov State Bulletin as the source will he 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the Presiden t and by 
the Secretary of State and other offi- 
cers of the Department, as uell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of tile Department, as 
well as legislatiiw material in the field 
of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



The State of the Union 



MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS (EXCERPTS) 



To THE Congress of the United States : 

The opening of this new year must arouse in us 
all grateful thanks to a kind Providence whose 
jn-otection has been ever present and whose bounty 
has been manifold and abundant. The state of 
the Union today demonstrates what can be accom- 
plished under God by a free people; by their vi- 
sion, their understanding of national problems, 
their initiative, their self-reliance, their capacity 
for work — and by their willingness to sacrifice 
whenever sacrifice is needed. 

In the past 3 years, responding to what our 
people want their Government to do, the Congress 
and the Executive have done much in building a 
stronger, better America. There has been broad 
progress in fostering the energies of our people, 
in pi-oviding greater opportunity for the satisfac- 
tion of their needs, and in fulfilling their demands 
for the strength and security of the Kepnblic. 

Our country is at peace. Our security posture 
commands res})ect. A spiritual vigor marks our 
national life. Our economy, approaching the 400- 
billion-dollar mark, is at an unparalleled level of 
prosperity. The national income is more widely 
and fairly distributed than ever before. The num- 
ber of Americans at work has reached an all-time 
high. As a people we are achieving ever higher 
standards of living — earning more, producing 
more, consuming more, building more, and invest- 
ing more than ever before. 

Virtually all sectors of our society are sharing 
in these good times. Our farm families, if we act 
wisely, imaginatively, and promptly to strengthen 
our present farm programs, can also look forward 
to sharing equitably in the prosperity they have 
helped to create. 

' Read to tbe Senate and the House of Representatives 
nn Jan. 5 ( H, doc. 241, 84th Cong., 2d sess.). 

January 76, J956 



War in Korea ended 2% years ago. The col- 
lective security system has been powerfully, 
strengthened. Our defenses have been reinforc^,4, 
at sharply reduced costs. Programs to expau^ 
world trade and to harness the atom for the bett^r-^ 
ment of mankind have been carried forwarii. 
Our economy has been freed from governmen^tal 
wage and price controls. Inflation has be^p, 
halted, the cost of living stabilized. j ^^j 

Government spending has been cut by W9i'9[ 
than $10 billion. Nearly 300,000 positions ha,ve. 
been eliminated from the Federal payroll. Taxe.S| 
have been substantially reduced. A bala^ip^d, 
budget is in prospect. Social security has been, 
extended to 10 million more Americans and uu;- 
employment insurance to 4 million more, Jfjn- 
precedented advances in civil rights have Jbeen, 
made. The long-standing and deep-seated pfO,b-i 
lems of agriculture have been forthrig' " 
attacked 

This record of progress has been acco: 
with a self-imposed caution against unnecess^rjj 
and unwise interference in the private uft'airs of 
our people, of their communities, and of the sev-, 
eral States! ^f"'^'^'^' "'^ ''^ 

It we 01 the executive and legislative Drancnes, 
keeping this caution ever in mind',' address our- 
selves to the business of the year before us — and 
to the unfinished business of last j^ftif^^f^liTe^'^ 
lutioii, the outlook is bright w,ith Rrotjise. ■ ; O 

Many measures of great nattfiQ^l/.jajj.pprtanG^ 
recommended last year to the Congress still de- 
mand immediate attention^l^iglfif^iji^Cjir ischpol 
and highway construction.j^jlij^^|t^j |^p^, jimji^i^gra-, 
tion legislation; water resQUi;c,es,iegjslaf|iou; legis- 
lation to complete the implementation of ,our for- 
. .. hiu ■xr\,'-u<iiv ().r , .■.', :r:'i'ni 

eign economic policy ; such labor, legislation as 

amendments ot the ijabor-jI:\nagement Relations 



^1 

\Uu\>. I .)i 



?? ■' 



Act, exteiLsion of the Fair l!/al)6r St'aiidards Act to 



additional groups not now covered, and occupa- 
tional safety legislation ; and legislation for con- 
struction of an atomic-powered exhibit vessel. 

Many new items of business likewise require our 
attention — measures that will further promote the 
release of the energies of our people; that will 
broaden opportunity for all of them; that will 
advance the Republic in its leadership toward a 
just peace — measures, in short, that are essential 
to the building of an ever-stronger, ever-better 
America. 

Every political and economic guide supports a 
valid confidence that wise effort will be rewarded 
by an even more plentiful harvest of human bene- 
fit than we now enjoy. Our resources are too 
many, our principles too dynamic, our purposes 
too worthy, and the issues at stake too immense 
for us to entertain doubt or fear. But our respon- 
sibilities require that we approach this year's busi- 
ness with a sober humility. 

A heedless pride in our present strength and 
position would blind us to the facts of the past, 
to the pitfalls of the future. We must walk ever 
in the knowledge that we are enriched by a herit- 
age earned in the labor and sacrifice of our fore- 
bears; that, for our children's children, we are 
trustees of a great Eepublic and a time-tested 
political system ; that we prosper as a cooperating 
member of the family of nations. 

In this light, the administration has con- 
tinued work on its program for the Republic, 
begun 3 years ago. Because the vast spread of 
national and human interests is involved within 
it, I shall not in this message attempt its detailed 
delineation. Instead, from time to time during 
this session there will be submitted to the Congress 
specific recommendations within specific fields. 
In the comprehensive survey required for their 
preparation, the administration is guided by en- 
during objectives. The first is: 

The Discharge of Our World Responsibility 

Our world policy and our actions are dedicated 
to the achievement of peace with justice for all 
nations. 

With this purpose we move in a wide variety 
of ways and through many agencies to remove the 
pall of fear ; to strengthen the ties with our part- 
ners and to improve the cooperative cohesion of 
the free world; to reduce the burden of arma- 
ments; and to stimulate and inspire action among 



all nations for a world of justice and prosperity 
and peace. These national objectives are fully 
supported by both our political parties. 

In the past year our search for a more stable and 
just peace has taken varied forms. Among the 
most important were the two conferences at 
Geneva, in July and in the fall of last year. We 
explored the possibilities of agreement on critical 
issues that jeopardize the peace. 

The July meeting of Heads of Government 
held out promise to the world of moderation in 
the bitterness, of word and action, which tends to 
generate conflict and war. All were in agreement 
that a nuclear war would be an intolerable dis- 
aster which must not be permitted to occur. But 
in October, when the Foreign Ministere met again, 
the results demonstrated conclusively that the 
Soviet leaders are not yet willing to create the 
indispensable conditions for a secure and lasting 
peace. 

Nevertheless, it is clear that the conflict between 
international communism and freedom has taken 
on a new complexion. 

We know the Communist leaders have often 
practiced the tactics of retreat and zigzag. We 
know that Soviet and Chinese communism still 
poses a serious threat to the free world. And in 
the Middle East recent Soviet moves are hardly 
compatible with the reduction of international 
tension. 

Yet Communist tactics against the free nations 
have shifted in emphasis from reliance on vio- 
lence and the threat of violence to reliance on 
division, enticement, and duplicity. We must be 
well prepared to meet the current tactics, which 
pose a dangerous though less obvious threat. At 
the same time our policy must be dynamic as 
well as flexible, designed primarily to forward 
the achievement of our own objectives rather than 
to meet each shift and change on the Communist 
front. We must act in the firm assurance that the 
fruits of freedom are more attractive and desir- 
able to mankind in the pursuit of happiness than 
the record of co:mnunism. 

In the face of Communist military power, we 
must, of course, continue to maintain an effective 
system of collective security. This involves two 
things — a system which gives clear warning that 
armed aggression will be met by joint action of 
the free nations and deterrent military power to 
make that warning effective. Moreover, the awe- ^ 
some power of the atom must be made to serve 



80 



Department of State Bulletin 



as a guardian of the free community and of the 
peace. 

In the last year the free world has seen major 
gains for the system of collective security: the 
accession to the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion and Western European Union of the sover- 
eign Federal German Republic; the developing 
cooperation under the Southeast Asia Collective 
Defense Treaty ; and the formation in the Middle 
East of the Baghdad Pact among Turkey, Iraq, 
Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom. In 
our own hemisphere the inter- American system 
has continued to show its vitality in maintaining 
peace and a common approach to world problems. 
We now have security pacts with more than 40 
other nations. 

In the pursuit of our national purposes, we have 
been steadfast in our support of the United Na- 
tions, now entering its second decade with a wider 
membership and ever-increasing influence and 
usefulness. In the release of our 15 fliers from 
Communist China, an essential prelude was the 
world opinion mobilized by the General Assembly 
which condemned their imprisonment and de- 
manded their liberation. The successful atomic 
energy conference held in Geneva under United 
Nations auspices and our atoms-for-peace pro- 
gram have been practical steps toward the world- 
wide use of this new energy source. Our sponsor- 
ship of such use has benefited our relations with 
other countries. Active negotiations are now in 
progress to create an international agency to fos- 
ter peaceful uses of atomic energy. 

During the past year the crucial problem of 
disarmament has moved to the forefront of prac- 
tical political endeavor. At Geneva I declared 
the readiness of the United States to exchange 
blueprints of the military establislmients of our 
nation and the U.S.S.R., to be confirmed by 
reciprocal aerial reconnaissance. By this means 
I felt mutual suspicions could be allayed and an 
atmosphere developed in which negotiations look- 
ing toward limitation of arms would have im- 
proved chances of success. 

In the United Nations Subcommittee on Dis- 
armament last fall, this proposal was explored 
and the United States also declared itself willing 
to include reciprocal ground inspection of key 
points. By the overwhelming vote of 56 to 7, the 
United Nations on December 16 endorsed these 
proposals and gave them a top priority.^ Thereby, 

' BtTLLETiN of Jan. 9, 1956, p. 63. 



the issue is placed squarely before the bar of world 
opinion. We shall persevere in seeking a gen- 
eral reduction of armaments under effective in- 
spection and control, which are essential safe- 
guards to insure reciprocity and protect the se- 
curity of all. 

In the coming year much remains to be done. 

Wliile maintaining our military deterrent, we 
must intensify our efforts to achieve a just peace. 
In Asia we shall continue to give help to nations 
struggling to maintain their freedom against the 
threat of Communist coercion or subversion. In 
Europe we shall endeavor to increase not only 
the military strength of the North Atlantic alli- 
ance but also its political cohesion and unity of 
purpose. We shall give such assistance as is fea- 
sible to the recently renewed effort of Western 
Euroj^ean nations to achieve a greater measure 
of integration, such as in the field of peaceful uses 
of atomic energy. 

In the Near East we shall spare no effort in 
seeking to promote a fair solution of the tragic 
dispute between the Arab States and Israel, all 
of whom we want as our friends. The United 
States is ready to do its part to assure enduring 
peace in that area. We hope that both sides 
will make the contributions necessary to achieve 
that purpose. In Latin America we shall con- 
tinue to cooperate vigorously in trade and other 
measures designed to assist economic progress in 
the area. 

Strong economic ties are an essential element 
in our free-world partnership. Increasing trade 
and investment help all of us prosper together. 
Gratifying progress has been made in this direc- 
tion, most recently by the 3-year extension of our 
trade-agreements legislation. 

I most earnestly request that the Congress ap- 
prove our membership in the Organization for 
Trade Cooperation,^ which would assist the carry- 
ing out of the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade, to which we have been a party since 1948. 
Our membership in the Otc will provide the 
most effective and expeditious means for remov- 
ing discriminations and restrictions against Amer- 
ican exports and in making our trade agreements 
truly reciprocal. United States membership in 
the Organization will evidence our continuing 
desire to cooperate in promoting an expanded 



' For a Presidential message on Otc, see Hid., Apr. 25, 
1955, p. 678 ; for text of Otc agreement, see ibid., Apr. 4, 
1955, p. 579. 



January 76, 1956 



81 



trade among the free nations. Thus the Organi- 
zation, as proposed, is admirably suited to our own 
interests and to those of like-minded nations in 
working for steady expansion of trade and closer 
economic cooperation. Being strictly an admin- 
istrative entity, the Organization for Trade Coop- 
eration cannot, of course, alter the control by 
Congi-ess of the tariff, import, and customs policies 
of the United States. 

We need to encourage investment overseas by 
avoiding unfair tax duplications, and to foster 
foreign trade by further simplification and im- 
provement of our customs legislation. 

We must sustain and fortify our Mutual Secu- 
rity Program. Because the conditions of poverty 
and unrest in less developed areas make their 
people a special tai'get of international commu- 
nism, there is a need to help them achieve the 
economic growth and stability necessary to pre- 
serve their independence against Communist 
threats and enticements. 

In order that our friends may better achieve 
the greater strength that is our common goal, they 
need assurance of continuity in economic assist- 
ance for development pi'ojects and programs 
which we approve and which require a period of 
years for planning and completion. Accordingly, 
I ask Congress to grant limited authority to make 
longer-term commitments for assistance to such 
projects, to be fulfilled from appropriations to be 
made in future fiscal years. 

Tliese various steps will powerfully strengthen 
the economic foundation of our foreign policy. 
Together with constructive action abroad, they 
will maintain the present momentum toward gen- 
eral economic progress and vitality of the free 
world. 

In all things, change is tlie inexorable law of 
life. In much of the world the ferment of change 
is working strongly ; but grave injustices are still 
uncorrected. We must not, by any sanction of 
ours, help to perpetuate these wrongs. I have 
particularly in mind the oppressive division of the 
German people, the bondage of millions elsewhere, 
and the exclusion of Japan from United Nations 
membership. 

We shall keep these injustices in the forefront 
of human consciousness and seek to maintain the 
pressure of world ojnnion to riglit these vast 
wrongs in the interest both of justice and secure 
peace. 

Injustice thrives on ignorance. Because an un- 



derstanding of the truth al)out America is one of 
our most powerful forces, I am recommending a 
substantial increase in budgetary support of the 
United States Information Agency. 

The sum of our international effort should be 
this : the waging of peace, with as nuich resource- 
fulness, M-ith as great a sense of dedication and 
urgency as we have ever mustered in defense of 
our country in time of war. In this effort our 
weapon is not force. Our weapons are the prin- 
ciples and ideas embodied in our historic tradi- 
tions, applied with the same vigor that in the past 
made America a living promise of freedom for 
all mankind. 

To accomplish these vital tasks, all of us should 
be concerned with the strength, effectiveness, and 
morale of our State Department and our Foreign 
Service. 

Another guide in the preparation of the ad- 
ministration's program is: 

The Constant Improvement of Our National Security 

Because peace is the keystone of our national 
policy, our defense program emphasizes an effec- 
tive flexible type of power calculated to deter or 
repulse any aggression and to preserve the peace. 
Short of war we have never had military strength 
better adapted to our needs with improved readi- 
ness for emergency use. The maintenance of this 
strong military capability for the indefinite future 
will continue to call for a large share of our na- 
tional budget. Our military pi-ograms must meet 
the needs of today. To build less would exixise 
the Nation to aggression. To build excessively, 
under the influence of fear, could defeat our pur- 
poses and impair or destroy the very freedom and 
economic system our military defeases are de- 
signed to protect. 

We have imi)roved the effectiveness and combat 
readiness of our forces by developing and making 
operational new weapons and by integrating the 
latest scientific developments, including new 
atomic weapons, into our military plans. We con- 
tinue to push the production of the most modern 
military aircraft. The development of long- 
range missiles has been on an accelerated basis for 
some time. We are moving as rapidly as prac- 
ticable toward nuclear-powered aircraft and ships. 
Combat capability, especially in terms of fire- , 
power, has been substantially increased. We have 
made the adjustments in personnel permitted by 



82 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



the cessation of the Korean war, the buikUip of 
our allies, and the introduction of new weapons. 
The services are all planning realistically on a 
long-term basis. 

To strengthen our continental defenses, the 
United States and Canada, in the closest coopera- 
tion, have substantially augmented early-warning 
networks. Great progress is being made in ex- 
tending surveillance of the Arctic, the Atlantic, 
and the Pacific approaches to North America. 

In the last analysis our real strength lies in the 
caliber of the men and women in our Armed 
Forces, active and reserve. Much has been done 
to attract and hold capable military personnel, 
but more needs to be done. This year I renew my 
request of last year for legislation to provide 
proper medical care for military dependents and 
a more equitable survivors' beneht program. The 
administration will pi'epare additional recom- 
mendations designed to achieve the same objec- 
tives, including career incentives for medical and 
dental officers and nurses, and increases in the 
proportion of regular officers. 

Closely related to the mission of the Defense 
Department is the task of the Federal Civil De- 
fense Administration. A particular point of re- 
lationship arises from the fact that the Icey to civil 
defense is the expanded continental defense pro- 
gram, including the distant-early-warning system. 
Our Federal civil defense authorities have made 
progress in their program, and now comprehen- 
sive studies are being conducted jointly by the 
Federal Civil Defense Administration, the States, 
and critical target cities to determine the best 
procedures that can be adopted in case of an 
atomic attack. We must strengthen Federal 
assistance to the States and cities in devising the 
most effective common defense. 

We have a broad and diversified mobilization 
base. We have the facilities, materials, skills, and 
knowledge rapidly to expand the production of 
things we need for our defense whenever they are 
required. Rut mobilization base requirements 
change with changing technology and strategy. 
We must maintain flexibility to meet new require- 
ments. I am requesting, therefore, that the Con- 
gress once again extend the Defense Production 
Act. 

Of great importance to onr Nation's security 
is a continuing alertness to internal subversive 
activity within or without our Government. This 
administration will not relax its efforts to deal 



forthrightly and vigorously in protection of this 
Government and its citizens against subversion, at 
the same time fully protecting the constitutional 
rights of all citizens. 



Immigration Policy 

In keeping with our responsibility of world 
leadership and in our own self-interest, I again 
point out to the Congress the urgent need for re- 
vision of the immigration and nationality laws. 
Our Nation has always welcomed innuigrants to 
our shores. The wisdom of such a policy is clearly 
shown by the fact that America has been built by 
immigrants and the descendants of immigrants. 
That policy must be continued realistically with 
present-day conditions in mind. 

I recommend that the number of persons ad- 
mitted to this country annually be based not on 
the 1920 census but on the latest, the 1950 census. 
Provision should be made to allow for greater 
flexibility in the use of quotas so, if one country 
does not use its share, the vacancies may be made 
available for the use of qualified individuals from 
other countries. 

The law should be amended to permit the Secre- 
tary of State and the Attorney General to waive 
the requirements of fingerprinting on a reciprocal 
basis for persons coming to this country for tem- 
porary visits. This and other changes in the law 
are long overdue and should be taken care of 
promptly. Detailed recommendations for re- 
vision of the immigration laws will be submitted 
to the Congress. 

I am happy to report substantial progress in 
the flow of immigrants under the Refugee Relief 
Act of 1953; however, I again request this Con- 
gress to approve without further delay the ur- 
gently needed amendments to that act which I 
submitted in the last session. Because of the high 
prosperity in Germany and Austria, the number 
of emigrants from those countries will be re- 
duced. This will make available thousands of 
unfilled openings which I recommend be dis- 
tributed to Greece and Italy and to escapees from 
behind the Iron Curtain. 



To conclude : The vista before us is bright. The 
march of science, the expanding economy, the ad- 
vance in collective security toward a just peace — 
in this threefold movement our people are creating 



January 16, 1956 



83 



new standards by which the future of the Republic 
may be judged. 

Progress, however, will be realized only as it 
is more than matched by a continuing growth in 
the spiritual strength of the Nation. Our dedica- 
tion to moral values must be complete in our 
dealings abroad and in our relationships among 
ourselves. "VVe have single-minded devotion to the 
common good of America. Never must we forget 
that this means the well-being, the prosperity, the 
security of all Americans in every walk of life. 

To the attainment of these objectives I pledge 
full energies of the administration as, in the ses- 
sion ahead, it works on a program for submission 
to you, the Congress of the United States. 

DwiGiiT D. Eisenhower 

The White House, 
January 5, 1956 

Outlook for Free World in 1956 

Statement hy Secretary Dulles ^ 

The year 1955 has done much for peace. At the 
summit conference President Eisenhower showed 
the whole world the sincerity of our peaceful pur- 
pose. Germany entered into Nato, and the 
Seato and Baghdad Pacts are now functioning 
in Asia. Thus the free world has done much to 
consolidate its position and to deter open war. 

Now the Soviet Communist rulers turn to other 
devices. We can be confident that these, too, will 
fail and that 1956 will further extend the influ- 
ence of freedom in the world. 



Southeast Asia Pact Council 
To Meet at Karachi 

Press release 12 dated January 6 

The Foreign Ministers of the governments 
signatory to the Southeast Asia Collective Defense 
Treaty have agreed to meet at Karachi from 
March 6 to 8. This will be the second meeting 
of the Seato Council, the first having been held 
at Bangkok in February 1955.- The Secretary of 
State will attend the Karachi meeting and plans 
to leave Washington about March 2. 



United States Position on Liberation 
of Captive Peoples 

Statement hy James G. Hagerty 
Press Secretary to the President 

White House press release dated December 30 

Mr. Khrushchev is reported to have said that 
the Christmas messages of President Eisenhower 
and Secretary of State Dulles to the peoples of 
Eastern Europe "in no way accord with the spirit 
of Geneva." ^ 

It was made abundantly clear at Geneva to the 
Soviet rulers that the "spirit of Geneva" could 
not and did not involve any relaxing of the peace- 
ful purpose of the United States to achieve liberty 
and justice for the oppressed peoples of the world. 

In his opening statement at Geneva, President 
Eisenhower said : 

. . . there is the problem of respecting the right of 
peoples to choose the form of government under which 
they will live ; and of restoring sovereign rights and self- 
government to those who have been deprived of them. 
The American people feel strongly that certain peoples 
of Eastern Europe, many with a long and proud record 
of national existence, have not yet been given the 
benefit of this pledge of our United Nations wartime 
declaration, reinforced by other wartime agreements. 

In his radio-television report to the American 
people immediately following the Geneva confer- 
ence. President Eisenhower said : 

. . . the Secretary of State and I specifically brought 
up, more than once, American convictions and American 
beliefs and American concern about such questions as 
the satellites of Eastern Europe and the activities of 
international communism. We made crystal clear what 
were American beliefs about such matters as these. 

The peaceful liberation of the captive peoples 
has been, is, and, imtil success is achieved, will con- 



' Released at New York, N.Y., on Dec. 31. 
' Bulletin of Mar. 7, lO.W, p. 371. 



' The President's message, broadcast over Radio Free 
Europe, was as follows : 

"During the Christmas season, I want you to know that 
the American people recognize the trials under which you 
are suffering; join you in your concern for the restora- 
tion of individual freedoms and political liberty ; and 
share your faith that right in the end will prevail to 
bring you once again among the free nations of the 
world." 

Secretary Dulles' message read as follows : 

"On this first of all Christian holidays I join with the 
millions of Americans whose thoughts are with you. 
We .share your firm faith in God. We look to the future 
with hope and resolution, confident that freedom and 
justice shall at last prevail." 



84 



Deporfmenf of Sfofe Bulletin 



tinue to be a major goal of United States foreign 
policy. 

U.S. Recognition of Independence 
of tlie Sudan 

Greeting From President Eiseniiower 

Press release 1 dated January 2 

President Eisenhower has sent the following 
greeting on the occasion of the recognition hy the 
United States of the independence of the Sudani 

It gives me great pleasure to extend, on behalf 
of the American people, warmest greetings on the 
attainment of Sudanese independence. The Gov- 
ernment of the United States looks forward to 
friendly relations with the Government of the 
Sudan and wishes you and your fellow country- 
men every success in establishing a stable, pros- 
perous and happy nation. 

Department Announcement 

Pr«ss release 2 dated January 2 

The United States has extended recognition to 
the Sudan as an independent sovereign state. 
This action followed termination of the Anglo- 
Egyptian condominium in the Sudan and recog- 
nition of the Sudan's independence by Egypt and 
the United Kingdom. The U.S. Liaison Officer in 
Khartoum, Arthur E. Beach, presented the letter 
of recognition quoted below to the President of 
the Supreme Conunission, which will exercise the 
powers of the Head of State: 

"I have been requested by my Goverimnent to 
inform you that it has noted the declaration on 



' Delivered on Jan. 2 by the U.S. Liaison OflBcer in Khar- 
toum, Arthur E. Beach, to the President of the Supreme 
Commission. 



December 19, 1955 by the Parliament of the Sudan 
proclaiming the Sudan as an independent sov- 
ereign state and is pleased to extend its official 
recognition. The Government of the United 
States contemplates the establishment of appro- 
priate means for the conduct of formal diplomatic 
relations at an early date. The United States of 
America congratulates the people of the Sudan 
on their assumption of the powers, duties and 
responsibilities of independence and expresses the 
hope that in the adoption and maintenance of an 
independent form of government the rights, liber- 
ties and happiness of the Sudanese people will be 
secure and the progress of the coimtry insured." 



Mob Violence in Amman 
and Jerusalem 

Press release 13 dated January 8 

At the request of the Secretary of State, the 
Charge d'Affaires of Jordan (Taysir A. Toukan) 
called upon the Secretary on January 8. Secre- 
tary Dulles expressed his deep concern at reports 
of mob violence occurring on January 7 in Am- 
man and in the Jordan-occupied sector of 
Jerusalem. American property had been dam- 
aged and American lives had been endangered. 
It was obvious that the measures taken by the 
Jordan Govermnent to prevent mob action had 
been inadequate to the situation. 

The Secretary requested the Jordan representa- 
tive to communicate urgently to his Government 
the importance of the Jordan Government's taking 
all necessary measures to protect American lives 
and property in Jordan. 

Instructions to make similar representations 
have been sent to the American Ambassador at 
Annnan (Ambassador Lester DeWitt Mallory) 
and the American Consul General in Jerusalem 
(Consul General William E. Cole, Jr.). 



January ?6, 1956 



85 



Visit of President-Elect Kubitscliek of Brazil 



Following are texts of statements made at TF«-sA- 
ington National Airport on the arrival of Jvx- 
celino Kuhitschek de Oliveira, President-elect of 
Brazil, on January 5; an address ichich he de- 
livered before the U.S. Senate on the same date; 
and an excerpt from his address to the National 
Press Club at Washington on January 6. 



WELCOME AT AIRPORT 

Press release 9 dated January 5 

Remarks of Secretary Dulles 

Mr. President-elect of Brazil, you have al- 
ready been welcomed to the United States by Pres- 
ident Eisenhower. That leaves little for me to 
do. President Eisenhower talked to me on the 
telephone after he liad breakfast with you [at Key 
West] and told me of the great pleasure which 
he had in talking with you and making an 
acquaintance wliich we feel sure will help 
to strengtlien the solidarity between our two 
countries. 

There has long been a very close association 
between our countries. It goes back for many 
years when the United States, I think, was the 
first to recognize the newborn Republic of Brazil. 
We have fought together in World War I and 
in World War II. And your great country with 
its vast domain, its natural resources, and its 
growing population, drawn as ours is from many 
parts of the world, creates a basis for an ever- 
continuing and ever-closer association. AVe know 
that that will be promoted by your visit here and 
that you will find, Mr. President, a welcome by 
the American people, which is an indication of 
the very high regard which we feel for you and 
your country. 

Response by Mr. Kubitschek 

Mr. iJulIes, it is with gratified emotion tliat 
I greet the American people. I took great pleas- 
ure in calling on President Eisenhower at Key 



West and I was very glad to hear from him words 
that sliow liow deeply he appreciates the need for 
continued cooperation between our two countries. 

Since the days they were born, Brazil and the 
United States have come a long way together on 
the I'oad of friendship and mutual understanding. 
We are neighbors by geography, brothers by soul, 
friends by tradition. We share the same ideals 
of democratic freedom and a common interest in 
defending our way of life from the inroads of 
doctrines opposed to our Christian beliefs. 

I wish to bring you the assurance that the 
Brazilian people are firmly decided to fight for 
freedom and progress with the same determination 
that brought about the greatness of your country. 



ADDRESS OF JANUARY 5> 

Mr. Vice President and Members of the Senate, 
it is with deep emotion that as President-elect of 
the United States of Brazil I am addressing this 
august assembly. My emotion is justifiable, for, 
on behalf of my countr}', I am speaking from one 
of the gi'eatest of free platforms in the world to 
the stalwart, generous Xation to whom oin* civili- 
zation is indebted for timel}- support in some of 
the most perilous and perplexing hours of need 
that have ever befallen mankind. 

Great as is your progress and that unequaled 
wealth and power which has vouchsafed you the 
highest form of social justice existing on earth, 
justice founded in the prosperity and dignity of 
the individual ; great as is your industrial network, 
the fertility of your well-tilled fields, your very 
riches; nobler far is the heroic use you made of 
them in the near past, endangering them, twice 
in half a century, when opjiression laid siege to 
what is for you, and for us too, the basic frame- 
work of civilization, and that is the freedom of 



' Delivered in Portuguese and interpreted l\v A. Jos6 
de Seabra of the Department of State : reprinted from 
Cong. Rcc. of Jan. 5, 19.56, p. 109. 



86 



Deparfmeni of Stafe Bulletin 



man, the respect for man, unassailable in his con- 
science and in his rights, and the independence of 
his way of living. 

Yet you did not sway the world merely by force 
of arms, but rather by faith in your ideals, by the 
unselfish exercise of power that you have proved 
morally fit to possess. 

In the course of the last two wars in which you 
intervened, overcoming resistance from many a 
quarter and discarding multiple reasons that 
urged you to stay at home, you found my country 
at your side, unable to cooperate on the same scale 
as yours, but rimning the same risk. 

Together we took part in the two conflagrations, 
not only from motives of continental solidarity, 
though this concept be firmly anchored in the 
Brazilian mentality, but also because we share the 
same ideals, the same sentiments, the same respect 
for the paramomit dignity of man, that led you 
to take up arms and fight with unflinching valor. 

I cannot fail to take this opportunity of paying 
honuige to the young of your Nation who died 
for this great cause and express my gratitude for 
the services they have rendered to our comitries 
and for all they have done so that we may live as 
we want to live: free and abiding by the Chris- 
tian beliefs and principles of our upbringing, to 
which we aspire to remain faithful. 

Nor should we forget the obligations we have 
assumed toward those whose devotion has gone as 
far as the sacrifice of life itself: these obligations 
consist mainly in the defense of democracy and 
the independence of peoples. It would be to be- 
tray what is most sacred to the nations, the dead 
fallen in righteous combat for an ideal — and here 
I call to mind the military cemeteries in Europe, 
and among them the Campo Santo of Pistoia, 
where the Brazilian soldiers are laid in eternal 
rest— it would be to forget the fateful hours not 
to defend the freedom of man, not to defend 
democratic government whenever it is threatened. 

The Brazilian Nation rejects all forms of tyr- 
anny as you, too, reject them; tyranny and op- 
pression, whether from right or left, are equally 
repulsive to us. We Brazilians are steadfast and 
determined to safeguard the fruits of our liberty 
that we strove so hard to win. 

The Brazilian Nation holds the freedom of her 
sons as dear as does the American Nation; the 
Brazilian Nation cherishes and stands guard over 
her moral and spiritiuU heritage and needs none 
to give her lessons in self-respect — herein again 



we are alike. We are, however, well aware that 
successful opposition to extremist ideologies that 
infringe on the prerogatives of man lies not so 
much in ruthless repression as in finding a solu- 
tion to the grave problems of development and 
prosperity. We know that ideas of oppression 
must be routed by constructive action and that 
there is no more efficient remedy for curing the 
antidemocratic sicloiess than the contentment and 
satisfaction of the patient. To combat extremist 
ideas in my country — ideas now defended by but 
a small minority — it is chiefly necessary to bring 
Brazil into line with her destiny, to work con- 
stantly toward a higher standard of living as you 
have done in this country. Brazilians do not be- 
lieve that the social problem can be efficiently 
coped with except by way of development, expan- 
sion, progress, an improvement in the living con- 
ditions of the population, and naturally by the 
spread of culture along humanistic lines and by 
deepening the notion of moral law. 

I feel that I have now said enough, gentlemen 
of this high chamber which is the Senate of the 
United States of America, for you to recognize 
the intentions and desires of cooperation and un- 
derstanding, the design for social progress, and 
the political line of thought which characterize 
the future Government of Brazil with regard to 
your country. I have already outlined the con- 
structive and pioneering zeal which will be the 
mainspring of my government. In a few parting 
words, I should like to convey once again the 
depth of my sentiments and to stress that your 
material greatness would not be really great, had 
it not been made available for the furtherance of 
great and noble causes, notably the defense of 
man, his freedom, and his well-being on this com- 
plex planet of ours on which God has seen fit to 
place us. 



EXCERPT FROM JANUARY 6 ADDRESS 



With you I intend to discuss frankly three 
points which are important for a proper under- 
standing of my policy, the policy of the coming 
administration of Brazil. These three subjects 
are also of constant interest to Brazilian 
journalists. 

First, freedom of the press: secondly, my at- 
titude toward extremisms, whether from the right 



January 16, 1956 



87 



or from the left; and thirdly, my point of view 
with regard to foreign capital in Brazil. 

I am in a good position to come out squarely in 
favor of absolute freedom of the press. I have 
been the target of unfair campaigns, but I have 
learned a great deal from them. I know from 
my own experience that defamation cannot stand 
up against the truth, just as I know that nothing 
is more useful to a government than the criticism 
that is leveled at it, whatever form such criticism 
may take. He who would wield political power 
must be on his guard against many hidden dan- 
gers, but the greatest of them all is the formation 
of a sort of cloud of unreality that surrounds 
the executive and obscures his judgment. The 
press and other forms of free expression of opinion 
have the power to awaken perceptions and focus 
attention, and, when a campaign is unjust, this 
in itself has the merit of arousing in those who 
hold the power the instinct of self-defense, which 
is also indispensable to the health of a democratic 
regime. 

Freedom of the press is, however, no longer a 
problem in my country. It would not enter into 
anyone's head — save in times of upheaval and 
peril — to argue about whether the press should 
be free or not. In Brazil we are all convinced 
that a press that is not free is quite unworthy of 
the name. Any debate on this question is purely 
academic. 

I am well aware that the problem of com- 
munism is one of your most constant sources of 
worry. For communism to get the upper hand 
in Brazil, it would be necessary for there to be a 
complete change of heart, a transformation in 
the fundamental character of the Brazilian peo- 
ple, or for the problems of the people to be al- 
lowed to drag on without any attempt being made 
to solve them. Brazil is a nation in which Chris- 
tian faith and upbringing is predominant. My 
country was called Vera Cruz (the True Cross) 
and Santa Cruz (the Holy Cross), before it re- 
ceived its present name. Succeeding generations 
grew up in the shadow of the Cross and gradually 
the national character took definitive shape. It 
would be extremely difficult to remold our country 
into a stronghold of materialism. 



We want no extremist ideology to dominate our 
land. But we realize that police repression is 
no way of changing a man's opinions, nor does it 
make for enlightenment of the people. The way 
to defeat the ideas of leftist totalitarianism is to 
pay heed to the appeals of the underprivileged, 
to strive to raise the standard of living of the 
working classes, and to combat poverty wherever 
it may be encountered. This calls for determina- 
tion, persistence, and good techniques. 

I shall be doing my duty as a Christian and a 
statesman in endeavoring to meet the revindica- 
tions of the Brazilian people and pursuing a pro- 
gressive, humanitarian policy, not of sheer vio- 
lence but of constructive action to offset the 
subversive activities of those who seek to warp 
Brazil from her traditions, her way of living, her 
religion, and her concept of family ties. 

There is no denying that the best way to erad- 
icate communism is to promote prosperity. The 
remedy is not applicable merely to old and illus- 
trious nations. It will work with any people. We 
are reluctant to resort to violence in any form 
in the conflict of ideas, but we like to be firm. 

As to foreign capital, my Government will wel- 
come it gladly, as it deserves. The contribution 
of foreign capital, as well as technical kiiow-how, 
will prove to be a decisive factor in speeding up 
our development. Whoever considers the assist- 
ance of foreign capital indispensable and is anx- 
ious to attract it must start by creating an atmos- 
phere of calm and security and provide suitable 
guaranties if investments are to materialize. This 
is what my Government will try to do, and we 
shall make a point of it, not merely because therein 
lie our interests but for ethical reasons. To ap- 
peal to foreign capital for strengthening and de- 
veloping the country, and afterward to persecute 
such capital, is a procedure which only can be 
qualified as entrapment. 

A careful analysis shows that Brazil has gen- 
erously rewarded the capital invested in her de- 
velopment. We need the cooperation of foreign 
capital and we value its aid. Investment will be 
welcomed, then, but let it come as true investment, 
not as sheer speculation. 



88 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Approval of Recommendations for Controlling Levels of Lake Ontario 



Press release 686 dated December 9 

The following exchange of correspondence has 
taken place between the Department of State and 
the U.S. Section of the International Joint Com- 
mission, U.S.-Canada, with reference to the con- 
trol of the levels of Lake Ontario in connection 
with the St. Lawrence Seaway and power projects.' 
In these letters the chairman of the U.S. Section 
of the Commission has recommended that a specific 
range of elevations be established for the lake, 
that certain criteria be adopted as a basis for its 
regulation, and that a specific plan of regulation 
which was developed within this range of eleva- 
tions and according to these criteria be approved 
by the Government of the United States. 

The Department of State, as the coordinating 
authority for the Government, has accepted the 
Commission's recommendations with regard to the 
range of elevations and criteria. It also has ap- 
proved the plan of regulation as a basis for chan- 
nel excavations in connection with the St. Law- 
rence projects, at the same time urging the 
Commission to continue its studies in order "to 
perfect the plan of regulation so as best to meet 
the requirements of all interests both upstream 
and downstream," within the appi'oved range of 
elevations and criteria. 



LETTER FROM INTERNATIONAL JOINT COM- 
MISSION TO DEPARTMENT OF STATE, MARCH 

17, 1955 

The Honorable 
John Foster Dulles, 
Secretary of State, 
Departmen,t of State, 
Washington, D. G. 

Dear Mr. Secretary: In accordance with the 



intention expressed in the letters which it ad- 
dressed on 23 February 1955 to the Secretary of 
State of the United States and to the Secretary of 
State for External Affairs of Canada respec- 
tively,^ the International Joint Commission met 
in Montreal on 14, 15 and 16 March 1955.' The 
meeting was held to enable the Commission to 
reach tentative conclusions as to the range of stage 
of Lake Ontario which, on technical considera- 
tions, would be most appropriate in accordance 
with the purposes of the Lake Ontario Reference 
dated 25 June 1952 * submitted to the Commission 
by both Governments under the provisions of 
Article IX of the Boundary Waters Treaty of 
January 11, 1909.= 

At the meeting in Montreal, the Commission 
received technical information and advice from 
the International Lake Ontario Board of Engi- 
neers. It also had the benefit of the advice and 
views of the International St. Lawrence River 
Board of Control, the St. Lawrence River Joint 
Board of Engineers and Counsel for the Govern- 
ments of the United States and Canada. 

Written representations were received from 
lakeshore property owners and municipalities and 
from the St. Lawrence power and seaway agencies 
of both countries. 

As a result of its deliberations, the Commission 
is satisfied that measures can be taken, having 
due regard to the interests of all concerned, to 
regulate the level of Lake Ontario for the benefit 
of property owners on the shores of the lake in 
both countries, so as to reduce the extremes of 
stage which have been experienced in the past. 

It is the Commission's tentative conclusion that 
the works for the development of power in the 



' Similar letters were exchanged on the same dates by 
the Canadian Department of External Affairs and the 
Canadian Section of the International Joint Commission. 



' Not printed. 

'For text of joint statement issued on Mar. 16, see 
Bulletin of Apr. 4, 1955, p. 563. 

' Department of State press release 489 dated June 24, 
1952. 

' 36 Stat. 2448 ; for text, see S. Doc. 165, 83d Cong., 2d 
sess., p. 104. 



ianuaty 16, 7956 



89 



International Rapids Section of tlie St. Lawrence 
Eiver, which were approved by the Commission in 
its Order of Approval dated 29 October 1952," 
siiould be ojierated in accordance with the criteria 
set forth below. These criteria are consistent 
with the basic, go\erninji; requirements of para- 
gi-aphs (b), (c) and (d) of that Order of Ap- 
proval. The elevations indicated in the criteria 
are referred to the Oswego gage and are based on 
tlie principal gages on Lake Ontario, adjusted to 
the Oswego gage. United States Lake Survey 1935 
datum. As soon as a method of regulation, based 
on these criteria, has been worked out in detail and 
approved, the Commission proposes to substitute 
it for Method of Regulation No. 5 mentioned in 
paragrapli (i) and in paragraph (a) of Appendix 
A of that Order of Approval. 

Proposed Criteria for a Method of RetiuJntion of Outflows 
and Levels of Lake Ontario Applicable to the Works 
in the International Rapids Section of the Saint 
Lawrence River 

(a) The regulated outflow from Lake Ontario from 1 
April to 15 December shall be such as not to reduce the 
minimum level of Montreal Harbor below that which 
would have occurred in the past with the supplies to Lake 
Ontario since 1S60 adjusted to a condition assuming a 
continuous diversion out of the Great Lakes Basin of 
3,100 cubic feet per second at Chicago and a continuous 
diversion into the Great Lakes Basin of 5.000 e. f. s. from 
the Albany River Basin (hereinafter called the "supplies 
of the past as adjusted" ) .' 

(b) The regulated winter outflows from Lake Ontario 
from l.j December to 31 March shall be as large as feasible 
and shall be maintained so that the ditflculties of winter 
power operation are minimized. 

(c) The regulated outflow from Lake Ontario during 
the annual spring break-up in Montreal Harbor and in the 
river downstream shall not be greater than would have 
occurred assuming supplies of the past as adjusted. 

(d) The regulated outflow from Lake Ontario during 
the annual flood discharge from the Ottawa River shall 
not be greater than would have occurred assuming sup- 
plies of the past as adjusted. 

(e) Consistent with other requirements, the minimum 
regulated monthly outflow from Lake Ontario shall be 
such as to secure the maximum dependable flow for 
power. 

(f ) Consistent with other requirements, the maximum 
regulated outflow from Lake Ontario shall be main- 
tained as low as possible to reduce channel excavations 
to a minimum. 



"Bulletin of Dec. 29, l!).-)2, p. 1019. 

' For an exchange of notes between the United States 
and Canada on the diversion of waters Into the Great 
Lakes system, see ibid., Xov. 16, 1940, p. 430. 



(g) Consistent with other requirements, the levels of 
Lake Ontario .shall be regulated for the beneflt of prop- 
erty owners on the shores of Lake Ontario in the United 
States and Canada so as to reduce the extremes of stage 
which have been experienced. 

(h) The regulated monthly mean level of Lake On- 
tario shall not exceed elevation 248.0 with the supplies of 
the past as adjusted. 

(i) Under regulation, the frequencies of occurrences of 
monthly mean elevations of approximately 247.0 and 
higher on Lake Ontario shall be less than would have 
occurred in the past with the supplies of the past as ad- 
justed and with present channel conditions in the Galops 
Rapids Section of the Saint Lawrence River. 

(j) The regulated level of Lake Ontario on 1 April 
shall not be lower than elevation 244.0. The regiUated 
monthly mean level of the lake from 1 April to .30 No- 
vember shall be maintained at or above elevation 244.0, 

(k) In the event of supplies in excess of the supplies 
of the past as adjusted, the works in the Interaational 
Rapids Section shall he operated to provide all possible 
relief to the riparian owners upstream and downstream. 
In the event of supplies less than the supplies of the past 
as adjusted, the works in the International Rapids Sec- 
tion shall be operated to provide all possible relief to nav- 
igation and power interests. 

The Commission will hold public hearings at 
Rochestei', New York, and Toronto, Ontario, on 
12 and 14 April 1955 respectively, at which all in- 
terested parties, including the property owners on 
the shores of Lake Ontario and the Saint Lawrence 
River, both upstream and downstream from the 
works in the International Rapids Section, will be 
given full opportunity to present their views upon 
the range of stage and the other criteria tentatively 
proposed. 

After consideration of the views of all con- 
cerned, and as soon as possible after these public 
hearings, the Commission will present an interim 
report recommending, for the approval of the two 
Governments, a range of lake levels and criteria 
for acceptable duration of high stages of Lake 
Ontario. 

If the two Governments approve the recommen- 
dations which will be contained in the interim re- 
port, the Commission will put the recommenda- 
tions into effect by issuing an appropriate supple- 
ment to its Order of Approval, dated 29 October 
1952. The Commission hopes to be able to issue 
this .supplement on or about 1 May 1955. 

Yours sincerely, 

Len Jordan , 

Chairman I 

United States Section 



90 



Departmenf of Slate BuHefin 



LETTER FROM ENTERNATIONAL JOINT COM- 
MISSION TO DEPARTMENT OF STATE, MAY 9, 

1955 

The Honorable 
John Foster Dulles, 
Secretary of State, 
Department of State, 
Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Secretary : In my letter of March 17, 
1955, I transmitted to you on behalf of the Com- 
mission, criteria for a plan of regulation of Lake 
Ontario in connection with the St. Lawi-ence 
Power Project, having regard to all interests af- 
fected. In that letter, I also informed you that 
after public hearings and a consideration of the 
views of all concerned, the Commission would pre- 
sent an interim report recommending, for the ap- 
proval of the two Governments, a range of lake 
levels and criteria for acceptable duration of high 
stages of Lake Ontario. 

Public hearings were held at Rochester, New 
York, and at Toronto, Ontario, on April 12 and 
14. The Commission considered this matter fully 
at an executive session in Buffalo, New York, on 
May 5, 1955. 

As a result of these deliberations the Commis- 
sion has reached agreement on a range of eleva- 
tions, 244 (navigation season) to 248.0 feet as 
nearly as may be. Further, a plan of regulation 
(No. 12-A-9) has been developed within this 
range and three copies of it are enclosed.* This 
plan, subject to minor adjustments that may re- 
sult from further detailed study and evaluation, 
seems to offer the best possibility of achieving the 
optinuun objective set foi-th in the Reference. 

The Commission accordingly recommends to 
the Governments the adoption of the criteria, 
range of elevations and plan of regulation men- 
tioned above. If the Governments concur in this 
recommendation the St. Lawrence Seaway and 
Power entities should be advised that they may 
proceed with the determination of the critical pro- 
fileK and the final design of channel excavations 
based on this range and plan of regulations 12- A- 
9, with the assurance that any adjustments re- 
quired will be of a minor nature. 

Taking into account the downstream interests 
and on the basis of the past 95 years' experience, 
the reconunended method of regulation will lower 



' Not priiiteil. 



all stages in Lake Ontario above elevation 246 and 
thus provide substantial benefits to the lakeshore 
owners. 

Sincerely yours, 

Len Jordan 

Chairman 

United States Section 



LETTER FROM DEPARTMENT OF STATE TO 
INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, DE- 
CEMBER 3, 1955 

The Honorable 

Len Jordan, 

Chainnan, United States Section, 
Intermational Joint Commission. 

Dear Mr. Jordan : I have for reply your letter 
of May 9, 1955, on the subject of Lake Ontario 
levels. I note that the International Joint Com- 
mission has reached agreement and has recom- 
mended a range of elevations for Lake Ontario, 
namely, 244 feet (navigation season) to 248 feet, as 
nearly as may be. I am pleased to inform you that 
this range of mean monthly elevations is approved 
by the Government of the United States. 

In your letter of May 9, you also stated that the 
Commission recommended approval of the criteria 
for the operation of the regulatory works being 
built in the International Rapids Section of the 
St. Lawrence River, set out in your letter of March 
17, 1955. I am pleased to inform you that the 
Government of the United States approves these 
criteria as recommended in j'our letter of May 9. 

Copies of Plan of Regulation No. 12-A-9, which 
had been developed within this range of elevations 
and according to these criteria, were enclosed with 
your letter of May 9. It is appai'ent that 
the Plan of Regulation will be modified in minor 
details from time to time, both during the con- 
struction stage and afterwards as the several works 
are completed and come into operation. Accord- 
ingly, it is important to preserve the flexibility for 
adjustments and progressive improvements which, 
subject to specified requirements and procedure, 
is prescribed in paragraph (i) of the Commission's 
order of approval of October 29, 1952. It is im- 
portant that the St. Lawrence River Joint Board 
of Engineers and the Power and Seaway entities be 
provided with a Plan of Regulation in substitution 
for Plan of Regulation No. 5 referred to in the 
order of approval, as the basis on which they may 



Jonuary 76, ?956 



91 



proceed with the determination of the critical pro- 
files and the design for channel excavations, if 
the whole St. Lawrence project is not to be delayed 
seriously. Tlierefore, the Government of the 
United States approves Plan of Regulation No. 
12-A-9 for the purpose of calculating critical pro- 
files and the design of channel excavations. 

The Government urges the Commission to con- 
tinue its studies with a view to perfecting the Plan 
of Regulation so as best to meet the requirements 
of all interests both upstream and downstream, 
within the range of elevations and criteria herein 
ajDproved. 

Sincerely yours, 

Herbert Hoover, Jr. 
Under Secretary 



U.S.-Canadian Commission Discusses 
Levels of Laite Ontario 

IJC press release dated December 21 

In the course of a special meeting held on 19 
and 20 December in New York City, the Inter- 
national Joint Commission considered the terms 
of the supplement to its Order of Approval of 
29 October 1952,' which it is planning to issue 
with respect to the regulatory works in the In- 
ternational Rapids Section of the St. Lawrence 
River. 

As the Commission has received letters of 3 
December 1955,^ approving the recommendations 
regarding the levels of Lake Ontario, discussions 
were held with the technical advisers regarding 
the terms of such an order. 

The proposed supplement to the Order of Ap- 
proval will put into effect the approval of the 
Governments of the United States and Canada 
of the Commission's recommendations regarding 
the range of stage and criteria for operation of 
the works. 

The Commission has reexamined the provi- 
sions for protection and indemnity which are 
provided by the St. Lawrence Order of Ap- 
proval. In the order of the 29th of October 
1952, the Commission stated that as a condition 
of its approval it had required that: "All inter- 
ests on either side of the International Bound- 
ary which are injured by reason of the construc- 



" Bulletin of Dec. 29, 19.'>2, p. 1019. 
' See above. 



tion, maintenance and operation of the works 
shall be given suitable and adequate protection 
and indemnity in accordance with the laws in 
Canada or the Constitution and laws in the 
United States respectively, and in accordance 
with the requirements of Article VIII of the 
Treaty" (the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909). 
The Commission provided that under such order 
it retain jurisdiction over the subject matter and 
may "after giving such notice and opportunity 
to all interested parties to make representations 
as the Commission deems appropriate, make such 
further Order or Orders relating thereto as may 
be necessary in the judgment of tlie Commission." 
Attention was invited to tlie fact that during 
the construction of the works and after the proj- 
ect is in operation, persons who may feel ag- 
grieved because of anything that is done may 
bring their problems or complaints to the enti- 
ties (The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario or the Power Authority of the State of 
New York), the Provincial, State, or Federal 
Governments, or the Commission for whatever 
remedial measures maj' be appropriate in the 
circumstances. 



United States and Germany Discuss 
Research Reactor Agreement 

Press release 10 dated January 6 

Joint Announcement 

Discussions were initiated today by the Ger- 
man Embassy and representatives of the Depart- 
ment of State and the Atomic Energy Commission 
with respect to an agreement for cooperation in 
the field of research in the peaceful uses of 
atomic energy. The United States has negoti- 
ated 24 of these agreements, which provide the 
basis for cooperation in the training of personnel 
in the peaceful uses of atomic energy, look to the 
installation of research reactors, and provide the 
legal framework necessary for the lease or sale 
of a limited amount of fissionable material. 
They also provide for the exchange of unclassified 
information in the research reactor field, related 
liealth and safety problems, and on the use of 
radioactive isotopes in physical and biological 
research, medical therapy, agriculture, and in- 
dustry. It is expected that a research reactor 



92 



Department of State Bulletin 



agreement with the German Federal Republic will 
assist the Federal Republic in meeting the prob- 
lem of training personnel in the various fields of 
nuclear science. 



Negotiations Concerning Debts 
of City of Berlin 

Press release 8 dated January 5 

Agreement has now been reached that negotia- 
tions are considered to be practicable for the set- 
tlement of debts owed by the city of Berlin and 
by public utility enterprises owned or controlled 
by Berlin. This agreement is in accordance with 
article 5 (5) of the Agreement on German Ex- 
ternal Debts of February 27, 1953.' 

The agreement was concluded by similar ex- 
changes of notes between the United States, Brit- 
ish, and French Embassies at Bonn, Germany, 
and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Fed- 
eral Republic of Germany. The texts of the notes 
exchanged between the U.S. Embassy and the 
Foreign Ministry follow. 

The dollar bonds, the settlement of which was 
deferred under article 5 (5) of the Agreement on 
German External Debts, are as follows: 

City of Berlin 6 percent of 1928 due June 15, 1958 
City of Berlin 6V2 percent of 1925 due April 1, 1950 
Berlin City Electric Company 6 percent of 1930 due April 

1, 1955 
Berlin City Electric Company 6% percent of 1926 due 

December 1, 1951 
Berlin City Electric Company 6V4 percent of 1929 due 

February 1, 1959 
Berlin Electric Elevated and Underground Railways dVi 

percent due October 1, 1956 

Holders of bonds of the above issues that have 
not been validated should register them with the 
Validation Board for German Dollar Bonds, 30 
Broad Street, New York 4, New York, before Feb- 
ruary 29, 1956, in order that they may be eligible 
for settlement under the terms of any settlement 
offer that may be announced as a result of the 
foithcoming negotiations. 

Inquiries regarding the settlement of the bonds 
of the city of Berlin should be directed to the 
Foreign Bondholders Protective Council, Incor- 
porated, 90 Broad Street, New York 4, New York. 
Inquiries regarding the other issues should be di- 
rected to the U.S. Committee for German Corpo- 



' S. Exec. D, 83d Cong., 1st sess. 



rate Dollar Bonds, 910 l7th Street, Northwest, 
AVashington 6, D.C. 

The provisions of article 5 (5) of the Agree- 
ment on German External Debts are as follows: 

The settlement of debts owed by the City of Berlin and 
by public utility enterprises owned or controlled by Berlin, 
and situated in Berlin, shall be deferred until such time 
as negotiations on the settlement of these debts are con- 
sidered by the Governments of the French Republic, the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 
and the United States of America and by the Govern- 
ment of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Senat 
of Berlin to be practicable. 

Note From German Foreign Ministry 

The German Foreign Office has the honor to 
communicate the following to the Embassy of the 
United States of America concerning the settle- 
ment of the debts of the City of Berlin and of the 
Berlin public utility enterprises mentioned in 
para 5 of Article 5 of the Agreement on German 
External Debts of February 27, 1953 : 

The Government of the Federal Republic of 
Gei-many and the Senat of Berlin consider that 
the time has arrived to enter into negotiations on 
the settlement of the above-mentioned debts. 

The German Foreign Office would, therefore, 
appreciate being notified by the Government of the 
United States of America whether it likewise con- 
siders such negotiations to be practicable at the 
present time. 

Notes Verbals of the same tenor have been ad- 
dressed to the Royal British Embassy and the 
French Embassy. 

The German Foreign Office avails itself of this 
opportunity to assure the Embassy of the United 
States of America of its highest consideration. 

Text of U.S. Reply 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Federal Ministry 
for Foreign Affairs and has the honor to refer to 
its note number 507-519-74&-71284/55 of the 
13th of August, 1955, on the subject of the settle- 
ment of the debts of the City of Berlin and of the 
Berlin public utility enterprises. 

In accordance with Article 5 (5) of the Agree- 
ment on German External Debts of February 27, 
1953, the Federal Ministry for Foreign Affairs 
states that the Government of the Federal Re- 
public and the Senat of Berlin consider that the 
moment has come to engage in negotiations for 
the settlement of these debts. 



January 16, 7956 



93 



Tlie Government of tlie United States of 
America also considers tliat ne<i;otiations for the 
settlement of these debts are now practicable. 

The P^mbassy of the United States of America 
assumes that the Senat of Berlin will send sep- 
arately to the Allied Kommandatura a formal 
statement that it shares the same view. 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
sujTgrests that, upon receipt by the Allied Kom- 
mandatura of the note of the Berlin Senat, cer- 
tified true copies of the notes originated by the 
Federal Ministry for Foreign Aliairs, the British 
Embassy, the French Embassy, the Embassy of 
the I'nited States of America should be deposited 
in the archives of the Government of the United 
Kingdom and Northern Ireland for transmission 
to governments which are signatories of or which 
accede to the Agreement on German p]xternal 
Debts. 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
avails itself of this opportunity to renew to the 
Federal JNIinistry for Foreign Affairs the assur- 
ance of its highest consideration. 



U.S. Asks Payment of Damages for 
Destruction of Navy Plane 

Press release 11 dated January 6 

DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Department of State on January 6 deliv- 
ered to the Soviet Embassy at Washington a note 
requesting the payment of $724,947.68 as damages 
for the destruction of a Navy Neptune and injuries 
to the crew members resulting from an attack 
by Soviet fighter aiixraft over the Bering Sea 
near St. Lawrence Island. As the note states, 
tlie total damages suffered were $1,449,895.36. 
The United States Government, however, agreed 
on July 7, 1955, to accept a Soviet offer to pay 
50 percent of the amount of the damages inflicted.^ 

The note makes clear that the Soviet attack 
upon tlie Neptune was unprovoked and that it 
took place while the Neptune was Hying lawfully 
in the international air space over the Bering 
Sea. It reiterates that the United States' accept- 
ance of 50 percent of the damages caused by the 
wrongful act of the Soviet military aircraft is 
not to be construed as in any way condoning 



' Bulletin of July IS, 1!).j5, i>. lUO. 



the illegality of the Soviet conduct but that it is 
motivated, as was stated in the note of July 7, 
1955, by the Soviet Government's expression of 
regret and its statement that orders have been 
issued to military authorities to refrain from any 
future action of this character. 



TEXT OF U.S. NOTE OF JANUARY 6 

The Secretary of State px-esents his compli- 
ments to His Excellency the Ambassador of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and has the 
honor to refer again to the incident of June 22, 
1955, in which Soviet military jet-propelled air- 
craft shot down and destroyed a United States 
naval Neptune aircraft lawfully flying near St. 
Lawrence Island over the Bering Sea, and caused 
serious injuries to the crew of the naval aircraft. 
In a memorandum delivered by the Foreign 
Minister of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, Vj'acheslav M. Molotov, to the Secretaiy 
of State of the United States at San Francisco 
on June 25, 1955, the Soviet Government expressed 
its regret in regard to the incident and offered to 
bear fifty percent of the amount of the damages 
infiicted." On July 7, 1955, the United States 
Government in a note to the Soviet Government 
stated, among other things, that it was prepared 
to regard the Soviet memorandum of June 25, 
1955, on this subject, as providing an acceptable 
basis for the disposal of this particular incident. 

In acknowledging the note of July 7, 1955, the 
Soviet Government, in a note of July 18, 1955, 
delivered to the Department of State by the 
Charge d'Affaires ad interim of the Soviet Em- 
bassy in Washington, stated that "investigation 
has confirmed the facts communicated June 25, 
1955 . . . concerning the violation of the Soviet 
state frontier by a military airplane of the 'Nep- 
tune' type. . . ." 

The United States Government, in the interest 
of preventing the reoccurrence of similar incidents 
in the future, which the Soviet Government states 
it also desires to prevent, finds it necessary to 
take this opportunity to point out with regret that 
the Soviet Government's latest note suggests the 
implication that the Soviet Government adheres 
to a version of the facts directly opposite to those 
found by the United States with respect to this 
incident. In i)articular, while it does not state j 
precisely where the Soviet state frontier is claimed 



94 



Department of Sfofe BuUelin 



by the Soviet Government to lie in tliis area, or 
precisely where in g'eographical coordinates tlie 
violation of a Soviet state frontier by the Neptune 
aircraft on June 22, 1955 (June 23 Moscow Time) 
is claimed to have taken place, it reiterates that 
such a violation in fact took place. This reitera- 
tion is a cause of concern. 

For its part the United States Government has 
made a careful investigation of the entire incident 
as well as of the damages inflicted upon the United 
States and upon United States nationals involved 
in consequence of the attack by the Soviet air- 
craft under reference. This has disclosed that 
the Neptune aircraft was attacked without warn- 
ing by Soviet tighter aircraft, believed to be of the 
MIG-jet type, at approximately 2213 hours 
Greenwich Mean Time, in the neighborhood of 
St. Lawrence Island, at a position not closer than 
twenty-four nautical miles to the nearest Soviet 
land mass and probably as far as fifty-three nauti- 
cal miles from such a land mass. Furthermore, at 
no time in the course of its flight in this area 
had the Neptune aircraft approached any closer 
to any Soviet-held land mass. The attack by the 
Soviet aircraft caused crew members inside the 
Neptune to be hit by shell fragments and projec- 
tiles; the aircraft suifered a fire in the port wing 
and multiple hits in the fuselage and starboard 
wing and was forced to crash on the beach of St. 
Lawrence Island, eight miles south of Gambell. 
During the crash landing, as a result of the in- 
juries caused by the attack, an explosion took 
place on board the aircraft. The lire and the ex- 
plosion caused additional serious injuries to mem- 
bers of the crew. All crew members suffered 
shock. The aircraft and its contents became a 
total wreck. 

The Soviet Government has not controverted 
the United States Government's factual state- 
ments as to the geographical position of attack 

j by the Soviet fighters. The United States Gov- 
ernment is therefore at a loss to understand the 
basis of fact upon which the Soviet Government 

' proceeds in its averment that the Neptune violated 
a Soviet state frontier. It does not understand 
the Soviet Government to challenge, by implica- 

I tion or otherwise, that the positions described by 
the United States Government in this area as 
those of the flight of the Neptune and of the at- 
tack upon it by Soviet fighters were beyond ques- 
tion in the universally accepted and long-estab- 

January 76, J 956 



lished international air space of the Bering Sea 
area. 

The United States Government is therefore re- 
inforced in its conclusions with respect to this 
incident. First, the attack in this ca.se by Soviet 
aircraft was entirely unprovoked. Secondly, the 
attack took place while the Neptune was flying 
lawfully in the international air space of the Ber- 
ing Sea area between St. Lawrence Island and the 
coast of Siberia. 

In agreeing to accept from the Soviet Govern- 
ment only one-half of the damages caused by the 
wrongful act of the Soviet military aircraft in- 
volved in this incident, the United States Govern- 
ment desii-es to make it clear that it is not con- 
doning the illegality of the Soviet conduct, or 
impugning the legality and innocence of the acts 
of the Neptune and its crew, but acting because 
of the special cii'cumstances surrounding the inci- 
dent to which reference is made in the note of 
July 7, 1955. 

The United States Government has found after 
careful investigation that the damages inflicted 
upon the United States and its nationals in conse- 
quence of the incident total $1,449,895.36. A de- 
tailed breakdown of this figure is set forth in the 
annex to the i:)resent note. 

The United States Government requests the 
Soviet Government, in pursuance of the terms of 
the agreement represented by the exchange of the 
memorandum of June 25, 1955, the note of July 7, 
1955 and the note of July 18, 1955, to make pay- 
ment of fifty percent of the above total damages, 
namely, $724,947.68. The United States Govern- 
ment requests that payment be made in United 
States dollar exchange in the form of a dollar 
check to the order of the Secretary of State of the 
United States. 

Department of State, 

"Washington, January 6, 195G 

[Enclosure] 

ANNEX 

The figm-e of $1,449,895.36 constituting the 
damages suffered by the LTnited States Govern- 
ment on account of the incident of June 22, 1955 
is calculated as follows: 

A. Injuries suffered by the United States Gov- 
ernment directly : 

1. Loss of the United States Navy P2V-5 air- 
craft, Icnown as Neptune type, bearing num- 
ber 131515, valued at $924,700.00 



95 



2. Equipment within the aircraft, property of 
the United States Government, valued at 
$95,645.00 

3. Cost of search and rescue operations, 
$3,000.00 

4. Expenditures and loss in consequence of in- 
juries to the crew members and their dis- 
ablement, $335,674.71. 

B. Injuries suii'ered by the crew members, all 
nationals of the United States, not otherwise 
compensated : 

1. Personal injuries, $90,000.00 

2. Personal property on board the aircraft and 
lost in consequence of the incident, $875.65. 



SOVIET NOTE OF JULY 18 

[Translation] 

In connection with the note of the Government of the 
United States of America dated July 7, 1955, the Soviet 
Government considers it necessary to communicate that 
a further investigation has confirmed the facts communi- 
cated June 25 in V. M. Molotov's statement to Mr. Dulles, 
Secretary of State of the United States of America, con- 
cerning the violation of the Soviet state frontier by a 
military airplane of the "Neptune" type with the identi- 
fication marks of the United States Air Force. 

The Soviet Government takes note of the statement of 
the Government of the United States to the effect that it 
is prepared to consider the statement of the Soviet side 
of June 25 as giving an acceptable basis for the settlement 
of the incident with the aforementioned American 
airplane. 

The Soviet Government expresses its confidence that, 
just as is being done by the Soviet side, measures will 
be taken en the part of the Government of the United 
States directed toward the prevention of such actions as 
could lead to incidents similar to the incident of June 23. 

The Soviet Government notes with satisfaction the 
statement contained in the note of the Government of the 
United States of America to the effect that the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America wishes an improve- 
ment in relations between the United States of America 
and the U. S. S. R., which corresponds fully to the desires 
of the Soviet Government. 

Embassy of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
Washington July 18, 1955 



Advisers to U.S. Delegation 
to Tariff Negotiations 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 4 (press release G) that four prominent citi- 
zens have accepted the invitation of Secretary 

96 



Dulles to serve as advisers to the U.S. delegation 
in tlie multilateral tariff negotiations which will 
begin at Geneva, Switzerland, on Januaiy 18.' 
The four advisers will be : 

Elliott V. Bell, editor and publisher of Business Week 
and chairman of the Executive Committee of the McGraw- 
Hill Publishing Co., Inc. 

Homer L. Brinkley, executive vice president of the 
National Council of Farmer Cooperatives 

Bryant Essick, president of the Essick Manufacturing 
Company, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Stanley H. Ruttenberg, director of the Department of 
Research, American Federation of Labor-Congress of 
Industrial Organizations (Afi^-Cio) 

They began their service on January 4 by con- 
ferring with Secretary Dulles and with Herbert 
V. Prochnow, Deputy Under Secretary of State 
for Economic Affairs. Later they were to be 
thoroughly briefed on the tariff negotiations by 
officials of the Wliite House and various executive 
agencies participating in the trade agreements 
program. They will then go to Geneva to observe 
the bargaining sessions at first hand and to take 
part in the United States delegation's de- 
liberations. 

The United States will negotiate with 24 other 
countries with a view toward reciprocal tariff 
concessions. These countries, like the United 
States, are contracting parties to the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Gatt). 

The United States will participate under the 
authority in Public Law 86, the Trade Agreement 
Extension Act of 1955 (known as H.R. 1 before 
its enactment last June 21) . In this act Congress 
authorized the President to reduce tariff rates 
by not over 15 percent or, if a rate now is above 50 
percent, to lower it to that level. In either case 
the reduction will take place gradually over a 
3-year period. 

The U.S. delegation may offer concessions only 
on products drawn from a selected list which has 
been publicly announced and made the subject 
of public hearings. 

The delegation will consist of officials from the 
Departments of State, Commerce, Agriculture, 
Defense, Treasury, Interior, and Labor; the 
Tariff Commission; and the International Co- 
operation Administration. The list of delegates 
will be published shortly. 



' For earlier announcements, see Bulletin of Aug. 22, 
1955, p. 305, and Sept. 26, 1955, p. 507. 

Deparfmenf of State Bvlletin 



Summary of Accomplishments 
off Tenth General Assembly 

U.S. delegation press release 2332-A dated December 16 



Disarmament 

By an historic vote of 56-7 the General As- 
sembly endorsed President Eisenhower's "open 
sky" proposal.^ The Assembly thus recognized 
the soundness of the United States approach to 
the disarmament question. 

Speaking to the plenary session of the General 
Assembly on December 16, Henry Cabot Lodge, 
Jr., said : 

. . . Nothing anyone here has ever done, or may do, is 
likely to work so powerfully for i)eace as what we have 
just done here today In giving worldwide endorsement 
to President Eisenhower's "open sky" plan, which is linked 
with Marshal Bulganin's plan for ground control 
posts .... 

By our action today, we have shown that the United 
Nations can move ahead with the times .... 

... In and of itself, it alone justifies our existence and 
that of the United Nations. 



Membership 

On December 13, 15 Soviet vetoes in the Se- 
curity Council — cast in reprisal for the Chinese 
veto of Outer Mongolia — prevented admission of 
any of the 13 free-world applicants which the 
Soviet Union had insisted on tying to its 5 Com- 
munist candidates in a "package deal." ^ Follow- 
ing this action, Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., United 
States Representative, said in the Security 
Council : 

It was perfectly clear that we today could have had 17 
nations admitted to the United Nations if it had not been 
for the Soviet Union .... But the Soviet representa- 
tive insisted on having all or nothing. 

... if there is never to be any spirit of compromise, 
any spirit of accommodation, any give and take, you can- 
not operate the United Nations .... 

The next day, December 14, 12 free nations be- 



' For text of resolution and statements by Ambassador 
Lodge, see Bulletin of .Jan. 9, 1956, pp. 63 and 55. 

' For statements and resolutions, see ibid., Dec. 26, igs.'j, 
p. 1067. 



came members of the United Nations when the 
Soviet Union retreated from its "18 or nothing" 
stand. The Soviet representative then vetoed a 
U.S. resolution calling for Japan's admission in 
1956 — which received 10 votes in favor from the 
other Council members. 

Thus the United Nations received the added vi- 
tality of 12 long-excluded fi-ee countries. The 
Soviet retreat showed that even an apparently in- 
flexible Soviet stand will be scrapped in the face 
of adverse circumstances and the pressure of world 
opinion. 

Atoms-for-Peace 

The atoms- for-peace program, launched by 
President Eisenhower in his United Nations ad- 
dress of December 1953, received new impetus. 
By a vote of 58 to 0, the Assembly on December 3 
approved a method for establishing the Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Agency and called for a 
second scientific conference on the peaceful uses 
of atomic energy within 3 years.^ 

In a speech to the plenary session of the General 
Assembly on December 3, Senator John O. Pas- 
tore, speaking for the United States, said: 

Two years ago President Eisenhower presented before 
this Assembly his memorable proposal for an international 
agency devoted to the peaceful uses of atomic energy. 
The adoption of this resolution [marks] another mile- 
stone in our advance toward the establishment of this 
agency. 

By stimukitiug the free exchange of basic scientific 
knowledge on atomic energy, the international conference 
provided for in . . . this resolution will lay a firmer foun- 
dation for international cooperation in this field. 

Radiation 

On December 3, the Assembly approved unani- 
mously a United States proposal to organize 
studies of the effects of atomic radiation on man 
and his environment * — thus taking a big step to 
dispel the ignorance and fears which are wide- 
spread in the world on this subject. 



' Ibid., Oct. 24, 1955, p. 660 ; Nov. 14, 1955, p. SOI ; Dec. 
19, 1955, p. 1030. 
'Ibid., Nov. 21, 1955, p. 851; Dec. 19, 1955, p. 1031. 



January 16, 1956 



97 



Aiubus^siidor .Junies J. Wiulsworth, spe:ikin<jr in 
the plenary session of the General Assembly on 
December 8, commented : 

The X'niietl States attaches the greatest importance 
to this i>rol)lem and will of course lend its full supiiort 
to the Scientific Committee established li.v this reso- 
lution. . . . 

We hope that the conunittee will convene as early as 
possible next year and will begin quickly to organize 
its plan of work. 

On December 0, 1955, Ambassador I^dge in- 
formed the Secretary-General of the appointment 
of Dr. Shields Warren as U.S. representative on 
the scientific committee established by this reso- 
lution and of the appointment of Dr. Austin Moore 
Brues and Merril Eisenbud as alternate U.S. 
representatives. 



Charter Review 

The Assenibl}' on November 21 approved a reso- 
lution deciding in principle to hold a Charter Re- 
view Conference and setting up a mechanism to 
decide by 1957 where and when that conference 
should be held as well as its organization and 
procedures.'* 

Speaking to the plenary session of the General 
Assembly on November 17, Laird Bell said : 

Article 109 directs our attention to revicir rather than 
to revision, of the charter. A review of the charter could 
usefully determine whether or not improvements in the 
United Nations machinery are desiralile and feasible .... 
We need, it seems to us, to take time out from the urgen- 
cies of specific problems ... to study, reflect, and con- 
sult on the United Nations system as a whole. . . . 

... It is our belief that a conference to review the 
charter could greatly strengthen . . . public umlerstaud- 
ing. We believe, as well, that the weight of informed 
public opinion based ui«3n such a conference might prove 
to be a constructive influence in the achievement of 
agreement to recommended improvements. 



Togoland 

By a vote of 42-7-10, the Assembly gave its ap- 
proval to the holding of a plebiscite next spring 
in British Togoland which could mark British 
Togoland as the first of the trust territories under 
United Nations supervision to emerge from that 
status.'' The x\ssembly's decision, giving the peo- 
ple of British Togoland the right to vote for union 
with an independent Gold Coast or for remain- 



ing temporarily under trusteeship pending similar 
developments in French Togoland, marks a sig- 
nificant step toward the development of free po- 
litical institutions among the non-self-governing 
people of West Africa. 

Speaking of this development in the General 
Assembly's Fourth Conunittee, Laird Bell said : 

One must give credit to the foundations laid by the 
administering authorities, to the increasingly effective 
political actiim of the inhabitants themselves, and. in 
some measure, to the focusing of world public opinion 
on these areas through the United Nations. 

Palestine Refugees 

The General Assembly on December 3 voted 38 
to with 17 abstentions to continue the Arab refu- 
gee aid program in spite of the political tensions 
surrounding this situation.' 

Speaking to the Ad Hoc Committee on Novem- 
ber 16, Ambassador James J. AVadsworth said: 

[The United States] recognizefs] the necessity of set- 
tling the political problems connected with the Palestine 
question. . . . But what must be of paramount importance 
here, now, in this debate, is that these ixilitical problems 
which nnist be resolved — and which have taken and will 
take time to solve — shall not stand in the way of steps of 
progress toward a better life for the Arab refugee. 

International Finance Corporation 

The General Assembly expressed again ap- 
proval of the creation of the International Finance 
Corporation, a one-hundred-million-dollar cor- 
poration, to stimulate private investment in un- 
derdeveloped countries. 

Speaking in Committee II on October 26, Col- 
gate '\Aniitehead Darden, Jr., said : * 

The idea of the International Finance Coriwration 
... is one of the results of our continuing search in the 
United Nations for ways to encourage private capital 
to play an increasing role in economic development around 
the world. . . . 

... I am happy to say that my Government has now 
completed all the necessary legislative steps required for 
our membershii) in the corporation. The.se include au- 
thority to contribute over .fo.j million to its capital stock. 

SUNFED 

In a resolution dealing with the Special United 
Nations Fund for Economic Development, the 
General Assembly on December 9 unanimously 
recognized the need for continued and increased 



"Ihid., Dec. .'5. 19.55, p. 948. 
' See p. 100. 



' BuiXETiN of Jan. 2, 195G, p. 31. 
' Ihid., Nov. 21, 1955, p. 858. 



98 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



economic aid to underdeveloped countries. The 
resolution recognized that new United Nations 
efforts in the field of economic development must 
await the time when governments are able to de- 
vote additional funds to this purpose as a result 
of reductions in arms expenditures resulting from 
an agreed disarmament plan. 

Speaking in Committee II on November 2.5, 
Congressman Brooks Hays said : ^ 

... it is tlie view of my Goyernraeut that nuder exist- 
ing circumstances it would be premature to try now to 
define pi-ecisely what should be the organization and 
operation of the proposed international fund. . . . 

. . . the ad hoc connuittee which is to be constituted 
under this resolution is to carry on an orderly exploration 
... of the various ideas and suggestions which govern- 
ments may have relating to the proposed .special fund 
which may be useful when the fund becomes a jiractical 
possibility. 



Technical Assistance 

Every country either equaled or exceeded its 
contribution last year to the United Nations Tech- 
nical Assistance Program, putting the program at 
its highest level thus far. 

Speaking in Committee II on October 12, Con- 
gressman Brooks Hays announced : ^'' 

... it gives me great pleasure to be able to announce 
that my Government will pledge to the United Nations 
Technical Assistance Program for 10,56 the sum of 
$1.5,.")0O.0OO. The only limitation on this contribution is 
that it shall not exceed 50 percent of all contributions. 



Refugees 

The Assembly reaiRrmed by a vote of 43 to 
with 15 abstentions on October 25 the humani- 
tarian character of the refugee program in spite 
of the Soviet effort to turn it into a machine for 
forced repatriation of Iron Curtain refugees.^^ 

Jacob Blaustein in the plenary session of the 
General Assembly on October 25 said : 

The High Commissioner for Refugees . . . has al- 
ways followed the principle that the refugee should be 
left entirely free to choose the solution to his problem, 
whether it be return to the country of origin, resettlement 
in another country, or integration in the receiving 
country. . . . 



'U.S. delegation press release 2284 (not printed here). 
"U.S. delegation press release 2226 (not printed here). 
" Bulletin of Oct. 17, 19.55, p. 628, and Nov. 14, 1955, 
p. 811. 



The draft resolution of the U.S.S.R. . . . was signifi- 
cantly different in approach .... The resolution would 
have required the High Commissioner to "urge" the ref- 
ugees to return. Indeed, in its original form it contained 
no mention whatever of resettlement or integration, and 
... its revised form included these only as subsequent 
steps if "encouraged" repatriation failed. This bore 
strongly in the direction of "forcible" repatriation .... 



Human Rights 

Committee III, on November 21, unanimously 
endorsed a United Nations action program in the 
field of human rights, in line with President 
Eisenhower's proposals.^- 

In a statement on November 16, Mrs. Oswald B. 
Lord said : 

The United Nations demonstrated today its sincere in- 
terest in achieving greater freedom in all areas of life, 
for men and women everywhere, by the overwhelming 
vote in favor of the new program of advisory services in 
the field of human rights. 

. . . The General Assembly has expressed the hope that 
international and national nongovernmental organiza- 
tions, universities, and other private groups will supple- 
ment this United Nations program in further research 
and the exchange of information concerning human 
rights. Consequently the United Nations program will 
serve as a catalyst for practical action in many fields — 
for example, in promoting women's rights, eradicating 
discrimination against minorities, and encouraging the 
free flow of information. 



Administrative Tribunal 

By a vote of 33 to 17 with 9 abstentions, the 
United States proposal to establish judicial review 
of decisions of the United Nations Administra- 
tive Tribunal was approved by the Assembly on 
November 8." This was the culmination of sev- 
eral years of United States efforts to provide for 
review of the judgements of the Administrative 
Tribunals. 

United States eft'orts in this direction arose from 
judgments of the Tribunal in 1952 and 1953 
making awards to 11 American employees of 
the United Nations who were dismissed by the 
Secretary-General after invoking the Fifth 
Amencbnent before the Senate Internal Security 
Subcommittee. 

In a speech on November 8, 1955, before the 
General Assembly's plenary session. Congressman 
Chester E. Merrow said : 



^nid., Dec. 19, 19.55, p. 1034. 
"Ibid., Dec. 5, 1955, p. 938. 



January 16, 1956 



99 



. . . the primary objective of tlie procedure adopted . . . 
lias been to provide a way in wliich the possible concern 
of member states with respect to future Administrative 
Tribunal judgments could be dealt with by judicial 
process. 

International Law Commission 

Recommendations of the International Law 
Commission for facilitating its work and increas- 
ing its effectiveness were approved by the Assem- 
bly which increased the terms of office for its mem- 
bers and authorized it to hold its meetings in 
Geneva. 

Speaking to the Assembly's Legal Committee 
on October 10, 1955," Robert L. Brokenburr 
pointed out that the United States has "been im- 
pressed by the range of problems dealt with by 
the [International Law] Commission, and by the 
valuable contribution of the Commission's work to 
the growth of law in the life of the United 
Nations." 



Future Status of Togoland 

STATEMENT BY LAIRD BELL> 

The accelerating political advancement of 
West Africa is one of the striking and gratify- 
ing developments of recent years. New African 
nations are emerging toward independence with 
much greater speed than would have been antici- 
pated a few years ago. While this development 
is not without its element of struggle, it is tak- 
ing place almost entirely in the field of political 
action and not through force of arms. Many 
elements have contributed to this essentially 
peaceful historic process. One must give credit 
to the foundations laid by the administering au- 
thorities, to the increasingly effective political 
action of the inhabitants themselves, and, in 
some measure, to the focusing of world public 
opinion on these areas through the United 
Nations. 

In West Africa, as elsewhere, the solution of 
old problems brings other problems to the fore. 
Thus, the welcome advent of Gold Coast inde- 
pendence has focused urgent attention on the 



"U.S. delegation press release 2223 (not printed here). 

'Made in Committee IV (Trusteeship) of the General 

Assembly on Dec. S (U.S. delegation press release 2315). 



Togoland problem. Moreover, it has thrown the 
spotlight particularly on British-administered 
Togoland. That territory, though different in 
legal status from the Gold Coast, has under the 
provisions of the mandate and the trusteeship 
agreement fully shared its political, economic, 
and social development. One of the questions 
now before this committee is whether British 
Togoland shall be given an opportunity to take 
the final step over the threshold of independence 
at the same time as the Gold Coast, becoming an 
integral part of that new state. By the same 
token, the peoples of British Togoland should 
have the opportunity of not taking that step, 
thereby leaving themselves free to decide later 
on their future status. 

We have been told by the United Kingdom 
delegation that Gold Coast independence should 
be a fact before the end of 1956. Under these 
circumstances, it is clear that, if the peoples of 
British Togoland are to be given an opportunity 
to go ahead with the Gold Coast, a plebiscite 
must be held in British Togoland next spring. 

It has often been emphasized that in the co- 
lonial field a sense of timing is particularly im- 
portant. The administering members are not 
infrequently advised to be more sensitive to the 
changing tempo of tlie times. They must seize 
the psychological moment to take decisive steps 
forward. In the Fourth Committee, we are now 
faced with a problem of timing. In the view 
of my delegation the psychological moment has 
now arrived in British Togoland. There has 
just been a special Visiting Mission to the ter- 
ritory to make recommendations concerning the 
means of ascertaining the people's wishes. Gold 
Coast independence is just aroimd the corner. 
The people of the trust territory believe that 
they are at last to have an opportunity to decide 
on their future. They are ready and eager to 
do so. To keep them in suspense, to allow this 
matter to drag on would, in our view, be a dis- 
service to them. It would not contribute to the 
orderly march of progress in the area, nor would 
it redound to the credit of the United Nations 
among these people. 

Thus, Mr. Chairman, my delegation believes that 
the time is ripe for decision in British Togoland. 
Consequently, we oppose the establishment of sep- 
arate institutions for British Togoland before 
holding a plebiscite. We are convinced that such 
a step is unnecessary, impractical, and would, with- 



100 



Oeparfmenf of S/afe Bulletin 



out adequate justification, unduly delay decision 
where decision can and should be taken. 

We recognize that one of the reasons for advo- 
cating the preliminary establishment of separate 
institutions for British Togoland is the desire to 
assui'e an absolutely free choice for the people of 
that territory. No one quarrels with that desire. 
In our view, however, an effort to establish sep- 
arate institutions would not achieve the desired 
result. We have heard very clear statements from 
representatives of the large majority in northern 
British Togoland that they would not participate 
in any such separate institutions. We feel that 
institutions in which a very large proportion of 
the people would not be represented would be 
meaningless as a means of formulating the wishes 
of the people. Consequently, we must seek other 
means of assuring that freedom of choice is exer- 
cised in British Togoland. 

For our part we have full confidence in the 
administering authority to conduct a fair plebi- 
scite. We are sustained in this confidence by the 
iforthright and frank manner in which it has 
placed this matter before the General Assembly. 
At the same time, as the administering authority 
is an interested party, it was the first to recog- 
nize that there should be disinterested supervision 
and observation of every phase of the plebiscite 
by the United Nations. My delegation is con- 
vinced that the arrangements for such supervi- 
sion and observation recommended by the Visit- 
ing Mission would provide the assurance of full 
freedom of choice that we all desire. We attach 
particular importance to the selection of a United 
Nations plebiscite commissioner of outstanding 
personal qualities and reputation who will com- 
mand the respect of all concerned. Moreover, he 
should be assisted by a sufficient number of U.N. 
observers and other staff to enable him to super- 
vise the plebiscite effectively at all stages and in 
all areas. Under such conditions, surely no one 
would be able to question the fairness of the plebi- 
scite. W^e do not feel, however, that it would be 
wise or practical to establish a commission for 
this purpose. 

Mr. Chairman, in this debate there has been no 
disagreement on the fundamental proposition that 
the future status of British and French Togoland 
should be determined according to the wishes of 
the inhabitants of those territories. Differences 
have arisen as to matters of tuning, the phrasing 



of the questions to be asked, and the arrangements 
for consulting the people. These differences de- 
rive in large measure from the desire of members 
of the committee to seek ideal solutions. My dele- 
gation is concerned, however, lest our preoccupa- 
tion with such considerations obscure the actual 
situation in the Togolands and the practical pos- 
sibilities that are open to us. We are not suggest- 
ing the compromise of basic principles. In fact, 
we believe there is agreement on basic principles. 
We do hope, however, that the desire of some to 
obtain more comprehensive solutions will not pre- 
vent the taking of the constnactive step we are in 
a position to take. We hope, too, that members 
will consider the consequences of not taking it. 

The Indian draft resolution,^ we feel, covei-s 
the essential points of the issue before us. It pro- 
vides for ascertaining the wishes of the inhabi- 
tants of Togoland under British administration 
now. It also envisages a similar procedure for as- 
certaining the wishes of the inhabitants of Togo- 
land under French administration as soon as pro- 
posed programs of political reform for that 
territory have been carried out. Thus, it provides 
for the implementation of the fundamental rec- 
ommendations contained in the Visiting Mission's 
report.' Moreover, it does not, in our opinion, 
prejudice the opportunity of the inhabitants of 
both territories to assure that their future status 
conforms to their own wishes. 

It is true that the Indian di-aft implies that only 
a single question would be asked in the plebiscite 
to be held in Togoland under British administra- 
tion. In our view this question gives to the inhab- 
itants a clear choice on the immediate issue before 
them. If a majority of them vote against integra- 
tion with the Gold Coast, the effect would be the 
same as if the two questions proposed by the Visit- 
ing Mission were placed before them. Conse- 
quently, we do not feel obliged to press for the in- 
clusion of the second question suggested by the 
Mission. 

We would, however, strongly oppose proposals 
for the inclusion in the plebiscite of several alter- 
native questions. A plebiscite conducted on such 
a basis would not only be unrealistic and confus- 
ing to the people but might well lead to no defini- 
tive conclusions. 



= U.N. doc. A/C.4/L.428. 

' U.N. doc. T/1206 and Add. 1. 



January 16, 1956 



101 



Tlie distinguished representative of India [V. 
K. Krishna Menon] has argued cogently for con- 
sidering the trust territory as a single unit for 
pleljiscite purposes, whereas the Visiting Mission 
suggested the division of the territory into four 
l)!ebiscite units. As the United States representa- 
tive in the Trusteeship Council has said/ 

We have tried to see the advantages and disadvantages 
of both points of view. If differences within the popula- 
tion are not too wide, we would normally prefer to see 
a decision taken on the basis of a majority of the country 
as a whole. Or if prevailiup differences were evenly dis- 
triliuted throughout tlie country as a wliole, we think the 
attitude of the ma.jority should also prevail. However, 
when the differences are quite pronounced as between geo- 
graphie areas, a special situation arises which we feel at 
least merits some consideration. 

We do not believe, however, that this proposal 
is vital to the conduct of a satisfactory plebiscite. 
The fir.st step is to learn the wishes of the people. 
Certainly when they are known the Assembly and 
the administering authority will be in a position to 
take the necessary decisions regarding the future 
of the territor}'. Thus, we do not feel it essential 
to press for the adoption of tlie A^isiting Mission's 
recommendation on this matter either. 

Tlierefore, while we believe that there are some 
elements in the Indian draft resolution which 
miglit be fornuilated more satisfactorily, we could 
support its main features. We also sliare the 
analyses and conclusions of the Indian representa- 
tive in regard to the amendments proposed by the 
representative of liberia [Angle Brooks]. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION ON TOGOLAND » 

U.N. doc. A/Kes/360 

The Togolakd U.nification Problem and the Futube 
OF THE Trust Territory of Toooi.and Under British 
Adxiinistr.\tion 



THE FUTURE OF TOGOLAND UNDER BRITISH ADMINISTRATION 

The General Assembly, 

Recalling its resolution 8fi0 (IX), adopted on 14 De- 
cember 19.54, by which the Trusteeship Covmcil was re- 



' Bulletin of Jan. 2, 1956, p. 36. 

' Submitted by India ; adopted, as amended, in Com- 
mittee IV on Dec. 12 by a vote of 40-.5 (Soviet bloc) -8; 
adopted in plenary on Dec. 15, 42-7-10. 



102 



quested to consider the arrangements to be made to ascer- 
tain the wishes of the inhabitants of the Trust Territory 
of Togoland under British Administration as to their 
future, without prejudice to the eventual solution which 
they might choose, whether it be indeiiendence, unifica- 
tion of an independent Togoland under British Ailmin- 
istration with an independent Togoland under French 
Administrati(m, unification with an independent Gold 
Coast, or .some other self-governing or indeiiendent status. 

Having received the report (A/3046) of the Trustee- 
ship Council transmitting the special report (T/1206 and 
Add. 1) of the United Nations Visiting Mission to the 
Trust Territories of Togoland under British Administra- 
tion and Togoland under French Administration, 195.5, 
the observations (T/1214) of the repre.sentative of the 
United Kingdom, aiul the official records of the relevant 
meetings of the Council, 

Noting the opinion of the Trusteeship Council that the 
views expressed in the special report of the Visiting Mis- 
sion provide in general a useful basis for deteruuning 
the arrangements to be made in pursuance of General 
Assembly resolution 860 (IX), 

Taking note also of the views expressed orally by the 
various local political groups before the Fourth Com- 
mittee during the hearings, 

Noting further the statement of the Government of the 
United Kingdom that the Gold Coast will attain inde- 
Ijendence in the near future and that, in consequence, it 
will be impossible thereafter for Togoland under British 
Administration to be administered as at present, 

1. Aceepts the recommendation of the Visiting Mission 
contained in its special reiwrt that the wishes of the 
inhabitants of Togoland under British Administration as 
to their future should be ascertaine<l by plebiscite : 

2. Becommenits that the Administering Authority of 
Togoland under British Administration, in pursuance of 
Article 76 b of the Charter of the United Nations, take 
steps, in consultation with a United Nations Plebi-scite 
Commissioner, to organize and conduct without delay, 
under the supervision of the United Nations, a plebi- 
scite in respect of the Trust Territory in order to ascer- 
tain the wishes of the majority of its inhabitants in 
regard to (a) the union of their Territory with an iude- 
l>endent Gold Coast ; or (b) separation of Togoland wider 
British Administration from the Gold Coast and its con- 
tinuance under trusteeship pending the ultimate deter- 
mination of its political future ; 

3. Decides to appoint a United Nations Plebiscite Com- 
missioner ° who shall exercise on behalf of the General 
Assembly the powers and functions of suijervision defined ( 
by the Visiting Mission in its special report, and wlui 
shall be assisted by observers and staff to be appointed 

by the Secretary-General in consultation with him ; 

4. Recommends further that the plebiscite be organized 
and conducted on the basis of the arrangements proposed 
in chapter IV of the special report of the Visiting Mission, 
subject to such modifications of detail as are agreed uiion 



"The (ieneral Assembly on Dec. 1.5 confirmed the ap- 
pointment of Eduardo Espinosa Prieto of Mexico as Plebi- 
scite Commissioner. 



Departmeni of State Bulletin 



between the Administerins Authority aiul the Unitetl Na- 
tions Plebiscite Commissioner, and such additional meas- 
ures as may lie proposed by the Commissioner in order to 
secure a free and neutral atmosphere for the plebiscite ; 

5. Rcr/iipsts the I'nited Nations Plebiscite Commissioner 
to submit a report on the organization, conduct and results 
of the plebiscite to the Trusteeship Council for its consid- 
eration, and for transmission to the General Assembly at 
its eleventh session in order that the latter may, in con- 
sultation with the Administering Authority, assess the 
results and determine the further action to be taken on 
the attainment of independence by the Gold Coast in 
the light of all the circumstances and in accordance with 
the Charter of the United Nations and the Trusteeship 
Agreement ; 

6. Requests the Trusteeship Council, in virtue of the 
provisions of the Trusteeship Agreement and the Charter, 
to continue to exercise its functions either at its regular 
or sijecial sessions as may be necessary and to take into 
consideration any matter that may arise, or be referred 
to it, in respect of the Trust Territory. 

II 

THE FUTURE OF TOGOLAXD UNDER FRENCH ADMINISTRATION 

The General Assemhiij. 

Nothiff, with regard to Togoland under French Admin- 
istration, the statements made by the Administering Au- 
thority, as recorded by the Visiting Mission in Its sijecial 
report (T/1206 and Add. 1), to the effect that that Au- 
thority it.self, taking into account the views of the Terri- 
torial Assembly, contemplates holding in due course 
consultations with the Inhabitants of the Territory to 
ascertain their wishes in respect of the future of the 
Territory, 

Notiii;/ also the statements by the representative of 
France iu both the Fourth Committee and the Trusteeship 
Council to the effect that his Government supports in 
principle the proposals made by the Visiting Mission, 

Xotiiif/ also the view expressed by the Visiting Mission 
that, following the political reforms at present contem- 
plated by the Administering Authority, steps will be taken 
to ascertain the wishes of the inhabitants of the Terri- 
tory as to their future, 

1. Endorses the conclusion of the Visiting Mission in 
respect of Togoland under French Administration that 
the implementation of the contemplated political reforms 
will play a helpful role in enabling the wishes of the 
inhabitants of the Territory as to their future to be 
ascertained at an early date by direct and democratic 
methods ; 

2. Recommends that this consultation of the popula- 
tion be conducted, as in the case of Togoland under 
British Administration, under the supervision of the 
United Nations : 

3. Requests the Trusteeship Council at its forthcom- 
ing regular session to undertake a special study of this 
matter in consultation with the Administering Authority 
and to report thereon to the General Assembly, if pos- 
sible, at its eleventh session. 



Israeli Action Against Syria 

Statement hy Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. 
U.S. Representative to the U.N.^ 

Mr. President, I speak early at this meeting to 
express the shock of the United States Govern- 
ment at the military action last Sunday evening 
[December 11] which the Government of Israel 
has announced it undertook on Syrian soil against 
Syrian forces on the northeastern shores of the 
Sea of Galilee. 

We have not yet received official reports from 
General Burns ^ nor from the Syrian-Israeli 
]Mixed Armistice Commission. "We therefore can- 
not now decide what must be the exact position 
of the Council on this attack. 

The United States Govermnent, however, feels 
compelled to state that, as we have said so many 
times in the past, we oppose such acts of military 
violence. "We realize that there may be provoca- 
tions for such action, and for any provocations, 
if such there be, there is no excuse. 

But regardless of whether or not there are prov- 
ocations, members of the United Nations have 
undertaken not to resort to the use of force in the 
settlement of their disputes. Israel has specifi- 
cally undertaken not to resort to force. It is 
greatly to be regretted that Buteiha should now 
be added to the list of military actions which 
Israel initiated at Gaza, at Qibya, and at El 
Hamma. 

It seems fitting to recall here the words of tlie 
President of the United States as set forth in a 
statement he issued on November 9 as follows : 

All Americans have been following with deep concern 
the latest developments In the Near East. The recent 
outbreak of hostilities has led to a sharp increase In 
tensions. These events Inevitably retard our search for 
world peace. Insecurity in one region is bound to affect 
the world as a whole. . . . 

I stated last year that our goal in the Near East as 
elsewhere is a just peace. Nothing has taken place since 
which invalidates our fundamental iwlicies, policies based 
on friendship for all of the peoples of the area. 

We believe that true security must be based upon a 
just and reasonable settlement. . . . 

Recent developments have made it all the more impera- 
tive that a settlement be found. . . . 



'Made in the Security Council on Dec. 16 (U.S./U.N. 
press release 2831 ) . 

= Maj. Gen. E. L. M. Burns, Chief of Staff of the U.N. 
Truce Supervision Organization. 



ianuary 16, 1956 



103 



The peace and future welfare of tlie Near East 
rests in largest measure on the shoulders of the 
leaders of the countries in that part of the world. 
There must be restraint, regardless of whatever 
the provocations to fight may be. Should fight- 
ing break out again, the only victors will be those 
who live and rule by misery and chaos. The 
United States Government is convinced that the 
responsible leaders in the Near East know this to 
be true. This Council should encourage as best 
it can this continued sense of responsibility. 

In conclusion let me repeat here what the 
United States has already said to the Government 
of Syria : that we extend our sincerest sympathy 
for this tragic loss of life. 

I hope tliat the President of the Council will 
see fit to request an urgent report from General 
Burns detailing all elements of the military ac- 
tion, together with a text of the Mixed Armistice 
Commission's decision, and setting forth the pres- 
ent situation with regard to the control and polic- 
ing of the demilitarized zones. We suggest that 
General Burns be requested to make specific rec- 
ommendations which may serve as a basis for the 
further deliberations of the Council when next we 
meet on this question. I reserve the right to speak 
again at a later date after we have received the 
report of the Truce Supervision Organization.^ 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 

Trusteeship Council 

United Nations Visiting Mission to Trust Territories in 
East Africa, 1954. Keport on Ruanda-Urundi tOKether 
with related documents. T/1168, March 1954. 64 pp. 
printed. 

Committee on Rural Economic Development of the Trust 
Territories. The Legislation on Land Tenure, Forests 
and Mines in the French Trust Territories. T/Ac.36/ 
L.59, October 12, 1955. 8 pp. mimeo. 

United Nations Visiting Mission to the Trust Territories 
of Togoland under British Administration and Togo- 
land under French Administration, 1055. Special Re- 
port on the Togoland Unification Problem and on the 
P'uture of the Trust Territory of Togoland under British 
Administration. T/1206, October 18, 1955. 92 pp. 
mimeo. 

United Nations Visiting Mission to the Trust Territories 
of Togoland under British Administration and Togo- 
land under French Administration, 1955. Addendum 
to the Special Report on the Togoland Unification Prob- 
lem and the Future of Togoland under British Ad- 
ministration. T/1206/Add. 1, October 21, 1955. 59 pp. 
mimeo. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



' General Burns' report was circulated on Dec. 20 as 
U.N. doc. S/3516. 



Agreement With Germany on 
Defense Use of Technology 

Press release 5 dated January 4 

The Department of State annoimced on Janu- 
ary 4 the signing of an agreement with the Federal 
Republic of Germany to facilitate the exchange 
of patent rights and technical information for 
defense purposes. The agreement was signed at 
Bonn on that date by Heinrich von Brentano, 
German Foreign Minister, and U.S. Ambassador 
James B. Conant. 

The agreement is expected to foster the ex- 
change of technology for defense purposes between 
the two Governments and between the private 
industries of the respective contracting countries. 
Thus it should prove of reciprocal benefit in pro- 
viding for national defense and in contributing 
to the mutual defense of the North Atlantic Treaty 
area. 

The agreement with the Federal Republic of 
Germany is the latest to be signed to date of a 
series being negotiated with the Nato countries 
and with Japan. Other agreements of this na- 
ture have been signed with Italy, the United King- 
dom, Belgium, Norway, the Netherlands, and 
Greece. 

The agreements recognize that privately owned I 
technology should, to the gi-eatest extent prac- 
ticable, be exchanged through commercial agree- 
ments between owners and users. Tliey also 
stipulate that rights of private ownere of patents 
and technical information should be fully recog- 
nized and protected in accordance with laws 
applicable to such rights. Other provisions are 
intended to assure fair treatment of private 
owners when they deal directly with a foreign 
government and in cases in which private informa- 
tion communicated through government channels 
might be used or disclosed without authorization. 
The agreements also provide for the establish- 
ment of arrangements by which owners of patent- 
able inventions placed under secrecy by one gov- < 
eminent may obtain comparable protection in the 
other country. 



104 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



The agreements also provide as a general rule 
that government-owned inventions shall be inter- 
changed for defense purposes on a royalty-free 
basis. 

Each of the agreements provides for the estab- 
lishment of a Technical Property Committee to 
be composed of a representative of each govern- 
ment. These committees are charged with gen- 
eral responsibility for considering and making 
recommendations on any matters relating to the 
agreements brought before them by either gov- 
ernment, either on their own belialf or on behalf 
of their nationals. One of the specific functions 
of the committee is to make I'ecommendations to 
tlie governments, either in particular cases or in 
general, concerning disparities in their laws affect- 
ing the compensation of owners of patents and 
teclmical information. 

The U.S. representative to the Technical Prop- 
erty Committees in Europe is assigned to the 
staff of the Defense Adviser, United States Mis- 
sion to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
and European Regional Organizations (UsRo), 
2 Rue St. Florentin, Paris. 

Policy guidance for the U.S. representatives 
on the Teclmical Property Committees is pro- 
vided by the Interagency Teclmical Property 
Committee for Defense, which is chaired by the 
Department of Defense and includes representa- 
tives of the Departments of State, Justice, and 
Commerce, the International Cooperation Admin- 
istration, and the Government Patents Board. 
This committee is assisted by an industry advisory 
group representing major sectors of American 
industry concerned with defense production. 

New International Agreement on 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol 

Press release 7 dated January 4 

On January 4 Herbert V. Prochnow, Deputy 
Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, 
signed for the U.S. Government a new agree- 
ment concerning the contributions of the 11 coun- 
tries supporting the International Ice Patrol. 
The new agreement will not affect the operation 
of the Ice Patrol itself but will bring about a 
distribution of its cost ($461,566 for 1955) among 
participating countries based on the current fig- 
ures of the tonnage of their merchant shipping 
benefiting from the services of the patrol. The 



present shares are based on out-of-date tonnage 
figures. Under the new agreement the shares will 
be adjusted annually to conform to changes in 
tonnage. 

In addition to the United States, which is the 
managing government, proportional contribu- 
tions are made by the Governments of Belgium, 
Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Greece, 
Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden. 
The new agreement will replace the present agree- 
ment whenever all of the governments concerned 
have signed. 

Of all the peacetime hazards of the sea, none 
is more fearsome, unyielding, and treacherous than 
icebergs. The presence of these bergs in the 
heavily traveled shipping lanes of the North At- 
lantic, in an area of the heaviest fogs in the world, 
creates an extremely dangerous condition. 

Prior to 1912, however, nothing was done toward 
establishing a system to warn ships of the loca- 
tion of icebergs, but on April 14 of that year the 
compelling necessity for the patrol was tragically 
brought home. Some 1,500 lives were lost on that 
date when the express passenger liner Titanic, on 
its maiden voyage, crashed into an iceberg and 
sank. 

The U.S. Navy detailed two cruisers in that 
year to form the first ice patrol. The Interna- 
tional Ice Observation and Ice Patrol Service in 
the North Atlantic was then created, and the 
United States was invited to operate the patrol 
with the expense to be borne by the 14 partici- 
pating nations. The U.S. Coast Guard was des- 
ignated as the responsible U.S. agency and since 
1913 (with the exception of war years) has oper- 
ated the Ice Patrol. Not a single vessel nor life 
has been lost because of collision with an iceberg 
during the years when the patrol has been 
operating. 

At first the patrol consisted of a fleet of cutters 
that remained at sea during the danger season, 
screening the area and at times standing by par- 
ticularly dangerous bergs to warn passing vessels. 
But the advent of long-range aircraft changed the 
structure of the patrol. Except in fog and bad 
weather an airplane has a great advantage over 
surface craft in sweeping the area and quickly 
determining from day to day the positions of the 
many bergs. It is estimated that 7,500 sizable 
bergs break off from the west Greenland glaciers 
each year, an average of 428 of which drift south 
of latitude 48 degrees (Newfoundland) and ap- 



ianuaty 76, 1956 



105 



proxiiualely 35 of which reach soulli of latitiidi' 
43 degrees (approximate hititiule of Ports- 
nioutli, \.H.). 

The use of cutters cannot be disi)ense(l with en- 
tirely, however, because fog may obscure the sur- 
face of tlie most critical regions to airplanes for 
weeks at a time and strong currents may send 
bergs hundreds of miles from their originally 
sighted ])ositions. Thus, when the weather is un- 
suitable for planes, tlie cutters replace them. 

Headquarters at Argentia, Newfoundland, is 
the nerve center of the patrol. Its radios are in 
constant touch with the patrol units and merchant 
vessels crossing the area. Reports of ice sightings 
are received from many sources all over the north- 
western Atlantic and are carefully analyzed to de- 
termine their actual and potential danger. Rou- 
tine broadcasts of all ice conditions hazardous to 
shi]iping are made several times daily. Many 
more specific messages are sent to individual ships 
requesting detailed information. At headquar- 
ters the positions and courses of merchant ships 
traveling through the dangerous zone are charted, 
together with the positions of all dangerous bergs. 
The patrol commander thus has at hand a com- 
plete picture of the situation. 

An idea that frequently occurs to the public is 
that icebergs can be destix)yed by gunfire and min- 
ing, but this is without foundation. Gunfire has 
little or no efl'ect, and the bergs are far too dan- 
gerous to board and blast. Neither can they be 
towed or pushed, and they cannot be rammed ex- 
cept in their last stages when they are rotten with 
slush. In the final analysis, these giants from 
the north can be eliminated only by nature, when 
they meet the warmer waters from the Gulf 
Stream. The Ice Patrol can only seek them out, 
watch them carefully and patiently, and make the 
best scientific prediction as to their future 
movements. 



Current Actions 

MULTILATERAL 

Federal Republic of Germany 

Charter of the Arbitral Ciiiniiiissiiin on property rights and 
interests in Germany (annex to convention on the settle- 
ment of matters arising out of the war and the occupa- 
tion sitrned at Bonn May 26, 1!).")2, as amended by the 
protocol on the termination of the occupation regime 
signed at Paris October 23, 1054). Entered into force 
May 5, 195.5. 
Accession depnxitcil : Greece, November 4, 1955. 



Japan 

Treaty of peace with .Japan. Signed at San Francisco 
September 8, 1951. Entered into force April 28, 1952. 
TIAS 24!K). 

Riitififdlion deposited ixnlh dcrldratioun) : Ecuador, 
Iii'ccmlier 27. lU",. 

North Atlantic Ice Patrol 

Agreement regarding linancial .support of the North At- 
lantic ice patrol. Opened for signature at Washington 
January 4, 19.">G. Enters into force on the date on 
which it shall have been signed by all the 11 Govern- 
ments named in the preamble. 
Sif/iKitiirc: United States, January 4, 19.56. 

North Atlantic Treaty 

-Agreement lietween the parties to the North Atlantic 
Trf-aty for cooperation regarding atomic information. 
Signed at I'aris June 22, 19.55.' 

Xotificatioi} of hcinii hound by terms of the aijreem^ni: 
Netherlands. .lannary 4, 1956. 

Telecommunications 

International telecommunication convention. Signed at 
Buenos Aires December 22, 19.52. Entered into force 
January 1, 1954. TIAS 3266. 
Riititication deposited: Greece, December 13, 1955. 

Final protocol to the international telecommunication con- 
vention. Signed at Buenos Aires December 22, 1952. 
Entered into force .January 1, 1954. TIAS 3266. 
Rdiifietitio-n deposited: Greece, December 13, 1955. 

Trade and Commerce 

Protocol on terms of accession of Japan to the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, with annex A (.sched- 
ules of the Contracting Parties) and annex B (schedule 
of Japan). Done at Geneva June 7, 1955. Entered 
into force Septemlier 10. 1955. 

Notilieation of intention to apply enneessions received: 
Norway (elTective January 16, 1956). 

BILATERAL 

Colombia 

Agreement for interchange of technical knowledge and 
skills for development of Cauca Valley region, pursuant 
to the general agreement for technical cooperation of 
JIarch 5 and 9, 1951 (TIAS 2231). Effected by ex- 
change of notes at Bogota July 29, November 15 and 28, 
1955. Entered into force November 28, 1955. 

Haiti 

Agreement providing a.ssi.stance for Artibonite Valley 
project in Haiti. Effected by exchange of notes at 
Washington December 27 and 2S, 19.55. Entered into 
force December 28, 1955. 

Japan 

Agreement for cooperation concerning civil u.ses of atomic 

energy. Signed at Washington November 14, 1955. 

Entered into force: December 27, 19.55 (upon exchange 

of notes establishing that all procedures of the two 

governments necessary to give legal effect to the 

agreement have been completed). 

Netherlands 

Agreement for cooperation concerning civil uses of atomic 
energy. Signed at Wa.shington July 18, 19.55. 
Entered into force: December 30. 1955 (the day after 
receipt liy the United States of notification that con- 
stitutional approval has lieen obtained by the 
Netherlands). 



Not in force. 



106 



Depar/menf of Sfofe Bulletin 



January 16, 1956 



Index 



Vol. XXXIV, No. 864 



Africa. Future Status of Togoland (Bell, text of 
resolution) 

Asia. Southeast .\.sia Piu-t Couuc-il To Meet at 
Karachi 

Atomic Energy. I'nited States anil Germany Dis- 
cuss Research Reactor Agreement 



Brazil. Visit of President-Elect Kubltschek of 
Brazil (Dulles, Kubitsehek) 

Canada 

.■Viiproval of Recommendations for Controlling 
Levels of Lake Ontario (.Tordan. Hoover) . . 

r.S. -Canadian Commission Discusses Levels of 
Lake Ontario 



Page 
100 

84 

92 

S6 

89 
92 



Protection of Nationals and Property. 

lence in Amman and Jerusalem . . . 



Mob Vio- 



Claims and Property. U.S. Asks Payment of Dam- 
ages for Destruction of Navy Plane ( text of 
note) 94 

Congress, The. The State of the Union (Eisen- 
hower) 79 

Economic Affairs 

Advisers to C.S. Delegation to Tariff Negotiations . 96 
Approval of Recommendations for Controlling 

Levels of Lake Ontario (Jordan, Hoover) . . 89 
Negotiations Concerning Debts of City of Berlin . 93 
New International Agreement on North Atlantic 

Ice Patrol 10.5 

U.S.-Canadian Commission Discusses Levels of 

Lake Ontario 92 

Europe. United States Position on Liberation of 

(-'aptive Peoples (Hagerty) 8-1 

France. Future Status of Togoland (Bell, test of 

resolution) 100 

Germany 

Agreement With Germany on Defense Use of 

Technology 104 

Negotiations Concerning Debts of City of Berlin . 93 
United States and Germany Discuss Research Re- 
actor .\greement 92 

International Information. United States Position 

on Liberation of Captive Peoples (Hagerty) . 84 

Israel. Israeli Action Against Syria (Lodge) . . 103 

Military Affairs. U.S. Asks Payment of Damages 

for Destruction of Navy Plane (text of note) . 94 

Mutual Security 

Outlook fi.r Free World in 1956 (Dulles) ... 84 
Southeast Asia Pact Council To Meet at Karachi . 84 

I Near East. Mob Violence in Amman and Jeru- 
salem ; . . 85 

Non-Self-Governing Territories. Future Status of 
j Togoland (Bell, text of resolution) .... 100 

Presidential Documents 

Tlie State of the Union 79 

United States Position on Liberation of Captive 

I Peoples ( Hagerty ) 84 

U.S. Recognitum of Independence of the Sudan . . 85 



Sudan. U.S. Recognition of Independence of the 
Sudan 

Syria. Israeli Action Against Syria (Lodge) . . 

Treaty Information 

Agreement With Germany on Defense Use of Tech- 
nology 

Current Actions 

New International Agreement on North Atlantic 
lee Patrol 

U.S.S.R. U.S. Asks Payment of Damages for De- 
struction of Navy Plane (text of note) . . . 

United Kingdom. Future Status of Togoland 
(Bell, text of resolution) 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 

Future Status of Togoland (Bell, text of resolu- 
tion) 

Israeli Action Against Syria (Lodge) 

Summary of Accomplishments of Tenth General 
Assembly 

Ntinie Index 

Bell, Laird 

Dulles, Secretary 

Eisenhower, President 79, 

Hagerty, James C 

Hoover, Herbert, Jr 

Jordan. Len 

Kubitsehek de Ollveira, Juscelino 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr 



Page 

85 

85 
103 



104 
106 

105 

94 

100 

104 

100 
103 

97 

100 

84,86 

84, 85 

84 

91 

89, 91 

86 

lo:- 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: January 2-8 

Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 
Dejiartmeut of State, Washington 25, D. C. 

Press relea.se issued prior to January 2 which 
appears in this issue of the Bulletin is No. 686 of 
December 9. 

No. Date Subject 

1 1/2 Eisenhower greeting to Sudan Commis- 

sion. 

2 1/2 Recognition of Sudan's independence. 
*3 1/3 Dulles: death of Edward Wither. 

*4 1/3 Program for Kuliitschek vi.sit. 

5 1/4 U.S.-German agreement on technology. 

6 1/4 Advisers to GATT delegation. 

7 1/4 Agreement on North Atlantic Ice Patrol. 

8 1/5 Negotiations on Berlin's external debts. 

9 1/5 Arrival of President-elect Kubitsehek. 

10 1/6 U.S.-German negotiations on atomic 

agreement. 

11 1/6 Note to U.S.S.R. on damages for plane. 

12 1/6 Second meeting of SEATO Council. 

13 1/8 Mob violence in Amman and Jerusalem. 



*Not printed. 



U, S GOVERNMENT PftlNTlNS OFFICE: 1956 




the 

Department 

of 

State 



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Vol Supt. of Documents 
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"ol. XXXIV, No. 865 
January 23, 1956 




THE UNITED NATIONS: SOME NEW PERSPECTIVES 

AFTER TEN YEARS • by Assistant Secretary Wilcox ... Ill 

ANALYSIS OF U.N. BUDGET FOR 1956 • Statement by 

Representative Chester E, Merrow 138 

PROSPECTS FOR EXPANDING SPANISH-AMERICAN 

TRADE • by Ambassador John Lodge 126 

THIRD PROGRESS REPORT ON THE AGRICUL- 
TURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSIST- 
ANCE ACT 130 



For index see inside back cover 



Cu7ierinfo-"^''nt nf Dncumcnts 

FEB 2 7 1956 




^yne z/)e/va'ii^me'nt c^ C/tale 



bulletin 



VoL.XXXIV.No.865 • Publication 6256 



January 23, 1956 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

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Prick; 

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Single copy, 20 cents 

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approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 19, 1955). 

Note: Contents of tliis publication are not 
copyrighted and lleras contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of Slate BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other offi- 
cers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
inlvrnational affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department, Infornui- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United Slates is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
welt as legislative material in the field 
of international reUitions, are listed 
currently. 



The United Nations: Some New Perspectives After Ten Years 



hy Francis 0. Wilcox 

Assistant Secretary for International Organization Affairs ^ 



Just a few weeks ago the General Assembly 
concluded its tenth, and perhaps its most momen- 
tous, session. High on the list of accomplishments 
was its action in enlarging the membership of the 
United Nations from 60 to 76 countries.^ This 
expansion of the organization's membership 
brings new vitality and new voices to the task 
of creating and maintaining peace with justice 
among nations. 

The United States must now assess the impli- 
cations for its foreign policy of a United Nations 
in wliich European representation has been in- 
creased, the voice of Asia and the Middle East has 
become strengthened, the number of so-called un- 
committed countries has been enlarged, and the 
proportionate numerical strength of the Latin 
American group reduced. 

This means new problems, but it also means 
a new challenge to our diplomacy — a new oppor- 
tunity to develop policies that will advance our 
own interests and those of the international 
community. 

Tlie President in his state of the Union mes- 
sage ^ stated the cardinal aim of our foreign policy : 
"the waging of peace, with as much resource- 
fulness, with as great a sense of dedication and 
urgency as we have ever mustered in defense of 
our country in time of war." 

In charting our course in a newly revitalized 
United Nations we must search out and under- 
stand tlie new forces at work. 



' Address made before the National Press Club, Wash- 
ington, D. C, on Jan. 13 (press release 17). 
"Bulletin of Dec. 26, 1955, p. 1067. 
'Ihid.. Jan. 16, 1956, p. 79. 



Impact of Bandung and the Geneva Summit Meeting 

Two important developments in 1955 made 
themselves felt in the Tenth General Assembly. 
The first was the convening of the Bandung con- 
ference. The second was the summit meeting in 
Geneva. Together they loosened the rather rigid 
cold war alinements which have thus far prevailed 
in the United Nations. 

The Bandung conference reflected an upsurge 
of confidence among the Asian-African countries. 
Representatives of the conference, it should be 
noted, rejected Communist colonialism as well 
as the discarded colonialism of former times. 

Within the United Nations the "spirit of 
Bandung" gave rise to increased expressions of 
solidarity of interest among members of the group 
and continued cohesiveness on issues of special 
mutual concern such as colonial questions, 
questions of race, the needs and desires of under- 
developed countries, and the question of mem- 
bership. This current of Asian-African self-ex- 
pression cut sharply across prevailing Communist- 
free-world alinements and brought the Tenth 
General Assembly face to face with changing 
political and economic realities. 

Despite the "spirit of Bandung," however, the 
General Assembly, after voting to include the 
Algerian item on the agenda, subsequently de- 
cided not to consider the question further, and 
on the Cyprus item the Bandung powers were 
divided. 

At the Assembly there was felt not only a new 
sense of urgency arising from anticolonial pres- 
sures and a heightened appreciation of the value 
of the United Nations as a world forum for dis- 



Jonuory 23, J 956 



m 



ciission of pressing problems, but also a sense of 
the limitations of U.N. action at certain times in 
dealing with certain problems. As Anibassador 
Lodge has said, "Public debate is curative in many 
cases, but it cannot cure all problems any more 
than a certain medicine will cure all diseases." 

On the ground of interference in domestic 
affairs, South Africa withdrew its delegation from 
the General Assembly. The issue, of course, was 
oA'er South Africa's racial policies. Here again, 
the Assembly recognized the United Nations limi- 
tations. AVliile reafRrming the hope that South 
Africa would live up to its charter obligations, the 
Assembly did not again apjjoint the commission 
which had been set up to study race problems in 
that country and with which South Africa had 
refused to cooperate. 

The Asian and African coimtries, however they 
may differ in their foreign policies, share a com- 
pelling desire for rapid advancement along the 
road of industrial, economic, and social progress. 
Many of these peoples are newly free of colonial 
rule. They find the climate of independence no 
less invigorating now than it was for us in 1776. 
Nor did the United States, after winning its inde- 
pendence, emerge into a static world assured of a 
secure and prosperous place among the nations. 
True, it did not, as do the newly independent 
lands today, have recourse to a United Nations. 
But one may well imagine soma of the issues we 
would have hotly pursued in such a forum. 

The simimit meeting held in Geneva last July 
also left its imprint on the Tenth Assembly. This 
histoi-ic meeting raised the hopes of peoples that 
the danger of war had further receded. It aj)- 
peared that the U.S.S.E. joined us in realizing 
that neither side can survive a global hydrogen 
war. It seemed possible that some of the out- 
.standing political differences could now be dealt 
with in good faith. 

The General Assembly began its work in this 
warm afterglow of the Geneva sununit meeting. 
Many delegates invoked the "spirit of Geneva" 
in their speeches. The Soviets came wearing the 
smile of conciliation. The Great Powers for the 
time being at least were not glaring at each other 
across conference tables, fighting out problems 
born of the Second World War. 

In the freer atmosphere, pressures of a changing 
world were felt with new force. The smaller na- 
tions, the less-developed countries, the former co- 
lonial peoples of Asia and Africa spoke up with 



a new vigor. They spoke not only of their par- 
ticular problems ; they addressed themselves to the 
Great Powei-s about the kind of world they ^vant 
to live in. 

'\A^iile the Bandung conference and the Geneva 
summit meeting did not confront us with an en- 
tirely new situation, we can agree that there was 
a shift of emphasis which resulted in blurring 
traditional issues and alinements. At least until 
the close of the second Geneva conference in 
November, Soviet tactics in the Assembly ap- 
peared more flexible than in the past. Prior to 
that time the Soviets used the gloved rather than 
the mailed fist. 

Our impression from this past Assembly is that 
Soviet leaders would like to maintain the appear- 
ance of cooperative relations, even though they 
are not willing to create the indispensable condi- 
tions for a secure peace. The cold war, in the 
sense of peaceful competition between conflicting 
ideologies, was in fact conducted with much vigor. 

We must therefore reckon coldly with the true 
aims of the new flexibility of Soviet tactics in 
the United Nations. These are to divide the non- 
Communist world and to gain acceptance as the 
champion of all peoples seeking a better life. 

The Soviet challenge was met resourcefully and 
to good effect. Let us consider four of the impor- 
tant issues before the Assembly : the admission of 
new members, the peaceful development of the 
atom, disarmament, and economic assistance for 
underdeveloped areas. These are issues of major 
import for the future of the United Nations and 
for United States policy. 

Admission of New Members 

In its first decade the United Nations has grown 
from an original membership of 51 to a more 
broadly representative organization of 76. As a 
result, it should be better equipped to serve the 
needs of mankind during its second decade. 

There are six points that I wish to stress regard- 
ing the United States attitude on the admission 
of new members. I shall then try to assess the 
implications for our foreign policy of the increase 
in size of the United Nations. 

First, we have followed a consistent policy 
based squarely on the principles of the charter. 
In the words of Ambassador Lodge, the United 
States was guided by three basic principles: 



112 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



1. To briug into membership all qualified states which 
apply ; 

2. To follow the provisions of the charter as to judging 
the qualifications of the applicants ; 

3. To avoid thwarting the will of a qualified majority 
by use in the Security Council of the veto. 

The admission of qualified states had been pre- 
vented solely by the Soviet veto. These would 
long ago have been members of the United Nations 
had not the Soviet Union used the veto 45 times 
on the membership question in the past 10 years. 

Second, consistent with these principles the 
United States took the initiative early during the 
Assembly session. We actively sought the agree- 
ment of the five permanent members of the Se- 
curity Council not to use the veto on the admission 
of new members. 

The United States has long favored such an 
agreement. We stressed this point in varying 
ways with each of the permanent members. In 
the present case we ourselves said publicly that 
we would not use the veto and that we would 
abstain in the voting on the applications of the 
Soviet satellites even though in our view their 
present governments are not independent and 
their conduct has been reprehensible. This voting 
position accorded fully with the spirit and intent 
of the Vandenberg resolution, adopted by the 
Senate in 19i8 by a 64 to -i vote, which expressed 
the view that there should be agreement among 
the permanent members not to use the veto to pre- 
vent the admission of new members. 

Third, we believed that the admission of quali- 
fied applicants would enrich and strengthen the 
United Nations morally and materially. Their 
participation in the organization would outweigh 
any disadvantages which might follow from the 
admission of the four satellites. 

Fourth, it is evident that the pressure of world 
opinion does exert influence on the Soviet Union. 
Its original position was that the United Nations 
must admit all the Soviet satellites, including 
Outer Mongolia, or the Soviet Union would veto 
all qualified candidates. We made no comparable 
insistence. We did not condition the admission 
of one state upon another under threat of veto. 
But evidently, among other motives, the Soviets 
did not wish to bear the onus for having vetoed 
the long list of free-world applicants. 

We should frankly recognize that Soviet will- 
ingness to see 16 nations admitted was a come- 
down from its rigid 18-or-nothing position. But 



we must nevertheless hold them accountable for 
frustrating the admission of Japan. Contrary to 
the advisory opinion of the International Court 
of Justice, the Soviet Union conditioned Japan's 
admission on that of the fictional entity of Outer 
Mongolia. It withheld United Nations member- 
ship as a new instrument of pressure on the Jap- 
anese in their peace treaty negotiations. We 
deeply regret the continued exclusion of Japan, 
whose candidacy was backed by every member 
of the Security Council except the Soviet Union. 
We also deplore the exclusion of the Eepublic of 
Korea and the Republic of Viet-Nam, both of 
whom we regard as fully qualified. 

Fifth, the abstention of the United States in 
the voting on the satellites does not mean that 
we accept as permanent the present situation in 
Eastern Europe. We will continue to hold the 
four new Eastern European members responsible 
for past agreements. We will continue to charge 
the Soviet Union with its undeniable responsibili- 
ties in this regard. As Secretary Dulles said 
recently, the United States "will accept no com- 
promise with the Soviet Union" that would seem 
to be acquiescence in the present status in Eastern 
Europe. 

Meanwhile, we hope that United Nations mem- 
bership will have a salutary effect on the inter- 
national behavior of these governments and will 
encourage freer contacts between their peoples and 
the outside world. We trust that they will be 
brought to feel with new force the need to respect 
the human rights and basic freedoms which they 
now deny their people. They have now bound 
themselves to observe the terms of the charter. 
The world will note how they carry out this pledge. 

Sixth, our abstention on the satellite applica- 
tions does not mean any change in United States 
policy on the question of Chinese representation 
in the United Nations. We continue to support 
the Government of the Eepublic of China. We 
continue to oppose vigorously the seating of the 
Chinese Communists. 

Implications for the Future 

Wliat are the implications of the admission of 
16 new members? On the organizational side it 
is clear that the number of members on the Se- 
curity Council, the Economic and Social Council, 
and perhaps on other bodies should be increased. 

Let us look, for example, at the Security Coun- 



January 23, 1956 



113 



cil. Asia has never been adequately represented 
on the Council. With the admission of six addi- 
tional Asian members, this imbalance must be re- 
dressed. The increase of 10 European countries 
also requires a review of the number of Coiuicil 
seats allocated to the European region. While we 
have made no decision on this matter, it may be 
that only two seats need to be added, although 
perhaps three or four more will be required. I 
believe the concept of the semipermanent mem- 
bership as it evolved in the League of Nations is 
also worthy of study. 

Any increase in members of the Security Coun- 
cil would, of course, in turn affect the number of 
votes required for decisions. Moreover, this ques- 
tion of the size of the Council involves an amend- 
ment of the charter, which requires the concur- 
rence of two-thirds of the members of the United 
Nations, including the five permanent members of 
the Security Council. This complex question will 
obviously require extensive diplomatic negotia- 
tions. The United States hopes to begin such 
negotiations within the next month or two. 

We can also expect that new and important 
political problems will be brought to the General 
Assembly for solution as a result of its new mem- 
bership. 

The enlarged United Nations will speak with 
wider authority. It will more accurately mirror 
underlying conditions as they are in the world 
and confront all of us in a more decisive manner 
with the crucial problems of the atomic age. A 
greater sense of responsibility will be required of 
all the members if the organization is to develop 
in a sound and practical way and if problems are 
to be solved and not aggi-avated. 

There are, of course, those who are already 
predicting that the United States will lose voting 
support in the General Assembly. I have this 
comment regarding such dim predictions: 

Up to the present time the United States has 
been able to retain a position of leadership 
through the justice of its cause and the logic of its 
arguments. Almost invariably on important is- 
sues oiu- policies have been overwhelmingly sup- 
ported by the members of the free world. 

If the time should ever come when we found our- 
selves consistently outvoted on important issues 
in the United Nations, that would surely be a sign 
that we ought to reexamine in a hardheaded way 
our basic policies. 



Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy 

We face another major challenge in promoting 
the peaceful uses of atomic energy. President 
Eisenhower originally announced his atoms-for- 
peace plan at the United Nations. lie proposed 
that an agency be established under its aegis. 
This reflected his estimate of the value of the 
United Nations as a mechanism for promoting 
international cooperation. That is why he also 
proposed that, once established, the agency should 
be brought into an appropriate relationship with 
the United Nations. 

The traditional way would have been to con- 
tinue with our bilateral programs. The need to 
safeguard our security interests and the diiHculty 
of working out an international mechanism for 
parceling out and controlling the use of fissionable 
materials would have justified a unilateral ap- 
proach. But President Eisenhower rejected the 
pattern of the past in recognition of the needs of 
the present. 

He rejected it in the knowledge that the acqui- 
sition of nuclear teclmology and material brings 
with it the capacity to manufacture nuclear weap- 
ons. Atomic power reactors can be utilized to 
produce nuclear materials for weapons even as they 
generate electricity. Unless effective preventive 
measures are taken soon, the wider utilization of 
atomic energy — which will occur whether or not 
an international agency is created — will inevi- 
tably hasten the day when many nations will be 
in a position to manufacture atomic weapons. 

Think of what this means in terms of existing 
international tensions, current power relation- 
ships, and international plans generally. This is 
what gives the President's call for international 
cooperation in this field its great sense of urgency. 
In the long run it may well be that the gi-eatest 
contribution of the International Agency will be 
to assure that atomic energy is used exclusively 
for peaceful purposes. 

At the Tenth Assembly the majority of )nember 
nations sought a gi-eater voice in shaping the 
agency's statute, in conducting its operations, and 
in establishing an appropriate form of relation- 
ship with the United Nations. 

In keeping with the President's original con- 
ception, the United States met those desires by 
proposing to convene a conference on the final text 
of the agency's statute and by agreeing to tiuthor- 
ize the Secretary-General to make a study of the 



114 



Department of State Bulletin 



agency's relationship with the TJnited Nations. 
The United States also announced that the origi- 
nal group of states which had been engaged in 
drafting the statute of the agency would be ex- 
panded by the addition of the Soviet Union, 
Czechoslovakia, India, and Brazil. 

The expanded negotiating group will soon meet. 
It will seek agreement on a draft statute and will 
consider the suggestions of other governments. 
One of the main problems in these negotiations 
will be to seek agreement with respect to the 
powers and authority of the agency to guard 
against the diversion of fissionable materials. 

The Soviet Union, whose original hostility to 
the President's proposal was abandoned in the 
face of strong world public opinion, will probably 
continue to press for a relationship with the 
United Nations which would subject the agency's 
power to guard against tlie diversion of fission- 
able materials to a veto in the Security Council. 
But the General Assembly has twice rejected this 
concept, and it remains to be seen whether the 
Soviet Union will once again adjust its policy to 
world opinion. 

Disarmament 

Disarmament is a third important challenge. 
This past Assembly urged that the states con- 
cerned should continue to seek agreement on a 
comprehensive disarmament plan.* It also urged 
that in the meantime priority should be given to 
the following "initial steps" : 

(i) Such confidence-building measures as the plan of 
Mr. Eisenhower, President of the United States of 
America, for exchanging military blueprints and mutual 
aerial inspection, and tlie plan of Mr. Bulganin, Prime 
Minister of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, for 
establishing control posts at strategic centres ; 

(ii) All such measures of adequately safeguarded dis- 
armament as are now feasible. 

With this resolution, which was the product of 
United States and United Kingdom initiative, the 
Assembly has revitalized 10 years of fruitless de- 
bate. It has adjusted its sights to a new and 
feasible disarmament goal. 

This fresh approach to the disarmament prob- 
lem will have its first test early this year when the 
Subcommittee of the United Nations Disarma- 
ment Commission resumes its work. If the Soviet 
Union will now agree to the early implementation 



'Hid., Jan. 0, 1956, p. 63. 



of the President's "open sky" plan, the United 
Nations will finally have the possibility of pro- 
gressing to a more comprehensive plan of dis- 
armament. Regrettably, Mr. Khrushchev's recent 
attack on the President's plan is far from en- 
couraging. 

Meanwliile this Government is making an in- 
tensive review of concrete measures which might 
be taken now to reduce or limit armaments and 
armed forces with adequate safeguards as to in- 
spection and control. Our ultimate goal remains 
unchanged. We are searching intensively for new 
scientific techniques to guarantee effective inspec- 
tion and control of a more comprehensive plan 
which would include nuclear weapons. Success 
in this search will make possible comprehensive 
disarmament, including the elimination of nuclear 
weapons. We will persevere in this search with 
all the skill and resources at our command. 

Economic Assistance to Underdeveloped Countries 

The shifting emphasis of the cold war has made 
the solution of economic problems even more vital. 
The current Soviet effort to exploit the economic 
needs of some of the underdeveloped countries- 
highlighted by the Klirushchev- Bulganin Asian 
tour — is a matter for serious concern to all those 
who are genuinely interested in the freedom as 
well as the progress of the economically under- 
developed countries. 

I am convinced that from a dollars-and-cents 
point of view economic aid through multilateral 
organizations is less costly to us in many instances 
since it spreads the burden over a larger number 
of contributors. Moreover, the multilateral ap- 
proach may often be found more acceptable by 
some of the underdeveloped countries. 

The crux of the matter is that we must remain 
flexible regarding the maimer in which economic 
aid is made available to our free-world partners. 
When the job can best be done bilaterally we 
should use this approach. This is equally true 
of the multilateral approach. 

In the face of the new challenge it has now be- 
come even more important to increase the effec- 
tiveness of our economic and technical assistance 
programs. Thus it is essential that we continue 
and strengthen our support of the Expanded 
Program of Technical Assistance of the United 
Nations, which is generally recognized as a long- 
range program for the economic betterment of 
underdeveloped countries. 



January 23, 1956 



115 



We hope thiit in the future more of our tech- 
nical experts will be able to share their experiences 
with the people of Asia, the Middle East, Africa, 
and the less developed parts of Latin America. 

We believe that the program could be further 
strengthened by increasing, through fellowships 
and study tours, the number of those from the 
underdeveloped countries who are enabled to visit 
our schools and farms and factories. 

Another area which deserves imaginative ex- 
ploration is the problem of international financ- 
ing. There is no one answer to that problem. 
Much is already being done, and perhaps more 
could be done, through such bodies as the Inter- 
national Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment, on the multilateral side, and our own Ex- 
port-Import Bank. 

Further headway is likely to be made through 
the early establishment of the International 
Finance Corporation, which the General As- 
sembly endorsed unanimously at its last session. 
It will help to bring together opportunities in 
underdeveloped countries and potential investors 
in capital-exporting countries and will, we trust, 
encourage the flow of private capital. The Con- 
gress has already approved this undertaking, and 
the United States has formally adhered to the new 
organization. 

It is an open question whether all these meas- 
ures will be adequate to meet those basic needs for 
capital in the world which cannot be satisfied by 
the underdeveloped countries from their own do- 
mestic resources. "Wliile there can be no doubt 
that domestic savings must in the long run pro- 
vide the bulk of the necessary funds. President 
Eisenhower has recognized that additional funds 
may be necessary. As you know, over the past 
several years there has been mounting pressure 
from the underdeveloped areas for a special 
United Nations fund for economic development. 
President Eisenhower has made it clear that, as 
some success in disarmament is achieved, this 
Government will ask our people to join in devot- 
ing a portion of the savings thus achieved to an 
international fund for economic development 
within the framework of the United Nations. 
Such a fund would help in the development of 
roads and other means of transportation, the mul- 
tiple use of water, and other basic services which, 
in turn, will create better conditions for private 
investment. 

The fornuila for a special United Nations fund 



for economic development as developed to date 
may not be adequate, but I hope that ways and 
means will be found for the United States to 
participate constructively in such a fund. 

Reviewing tlie Charter 

Since the General Assembly approved the idea 
of charter review in principle, we must examine 
carefully in the months ahead the ways and means 
by which the United Nations can be improved. 

In some respects the United Nations has never 
had a fair chance to function. "Wlien the organi- 
zation was born in 1945, those who drafted the 
charter did not know about the atomic bomb. 
Moreover, they assumed that the peace treaties 
ending the war would soon be concluded and the 
U.N. would be able to function in a relatively 
peaceful world. They also assumed that the five 
Great Powers would work together to win the 
peace as they had coopex-ated to win the war. 

All these basic assumptions proved erroneous. 
The signatures on the charter were hardly dry 
when the atomic bomb was dropped over Hiro- 
shima and we all realized the world had entered 
a new and dangerous era. Shortly afterward the 
Great Powers, instead of working together, fell 
to quarreling among themselves. The peace 
treaties were scrapped, and the United Nations, 
together with its members, became enmeshed in 
the cold war. 

What we have, therefore, is a preatomic charter 
which is compelled to function in a nuclear age. 
Some United Nations critics point out that we 
are, in fact, sending a Cub Scout to do a man- 
sized job. 

I do not agree, but in any event we ought to 
examine pretty carefully such fundamental ques- 
tions as the following: 

1. Should the United Nations be given sufficient 
power to cope adequately with the mortal threat 
which atomic and hydrogen weapons pose for us 
all? 

2. Are there any effective steps that can be 
taken to revitalize the enforcement machinery of 
the U.N. which has remained dormant since the 
charter was drafted? 

3. Can we find ways and means of curbing the 
excessive use of the veto without discarding our 
right to protect our vital interests in important 
issues before the Security Council? 

4. Is there any better way of determining just 



116 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



what kinds of problems are essentially within the 
domestic jurisdiction of states and therefore not 
properly subject to action by the United Nations? 

5. Should we support some system of weighted 
voting which would remove voting inequalities in 
the General Assembly and give to the big nations 
voting strength more commensurate with their 
power and responsibility in the world ? 

6. How can the United Nations be made a more 
effective instrument of peaceful change without 
undermining the principles of stability and order 
in the world ? 

Faced with fundamental questions like these, 
some people argue that it would be far more logi- 
cal to draft a new charter based on a brandnew 
set of assumptions. This, it seems to me, is an un- 
realistic approach. It would open a Pandora's 
box and probably result in leaving the world with 
a weaker charter. 

Chief Justice Marshall once said of the Consti- 
tution that "it was intended to endure for ages to 
come, and, consequently, to be adapted to the vari- 
ous crises of liimian affairs." The Constitution 
has, in fact, proven a living document and has 
kept pace with the gi'owth of our Nation. 

In a somewhat comparable way the chailer has 
proven flexible enough to be adapted to a good 
many new situations without the need for formal 
amendment. In the first decade of U.N. existence, 
for example, not one formal amendment has been 
put to the vote in the General Assembly. Even 
so, many important changes have taken place 
within the United Nations system. Some provi- 
sions of the charter have already fallen into dis- 
use. Others have been applied in a way the 
framers of the charter did not contemplate. 

It is important to remember that we are not 
examining the charter drafted in San Francisco 
in 1945. We are examining the charter of 1956 
as it has been amplified by custom and usage, reso- 
lutions of tlie various U.N. organs, and treaties 
like the Atlantic Pact and the Southeast Asia Col- 
lective Defense Treaty. If we were to proceed 
now to consider amencbnents to the old charter 
rather than the new, it would be very much like 
a surgeon planning an operation on the basis of 
a diagnosis made 10 years ago. 

What I am saying is that even though we have 
a preatomic charter, we do not have a static 
charter. 

We ought to keep this fact in mind, for any 



amendment we propose can be rejected b}' the 
Soviet Union. But even if this obstacle proves 
insurmountable, a decade of experience has taught 
us that a great deal of progi-ess can still be made 
within the framework of the present charter with- 
out resorting to formal charter amendments. 

Let me leave you with one concluding thought. 
It is good that we have a flexible and not a static 
charter because the next decade of the atomic era 
is likely to place new strains on the organization. 
Perhaps its most severe test will be in bringing 
about peaceful change in our dynamic society in 
which the atom can bring either unimagined bene- 
fits or awesome destruction. 

If the next decade brings, as I believe it will, a 
greater striving for harmonization for relations 
among nations, the United States must be in the 
forefront in helping to create favorable condi- 
tions conducive to peace, security, and well-being. 
In our relations with the United Nations we 
should be completely aware of its shortcomings, 
enthusiastic over its potentialities, and dedicated 
to its principles. 

As a Nation we have never been defeated in war. 
We cannot afford defeat in waging peace. If we 
can rival the soldiers in our dedication and re- 
sourcefulness, we can build a peace which will 
earn us the thanks of future generations. 



General Assembly Delegation's Views 
on Economic Aid 

Press release 14 dated January 11 

Secretary Dulles at his news conference on Jan- 
uary 11 read the following statement sent to him 
on December 9, 1965, hy the rtiembers of the U.S. 
delegation to the Tenth Session of the United 
Nations General Assembly concerning U.S. for- 
eig7i economic policy.^ 

Impelled by a unanimous feeling that economic 
and social questions are assuming increasing im- 
portance on the international scene, the United 



' The members of the delegation signing the statement 
were: Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., Permanent 
Representative to the United Nations, Chairman of the 
Delegation; Brooks Hays and Chester E. Merrow, U.S. 
House of Representatives; John O. Pastore, U.S. Senate; 
Colgate Whitehead Darden, Jr. ; Robert L. Brokenburr ; 
Laird Bell ; Jacob Blaustein ; Ambassador James J. Wads- 
worth, Deputy Representative to the United Nations ; and 
Mrs. Oswald B. Lord. 



Janoory 23, J 956 



117 



States delegation to the Tenth General Assembly 
has joined in framing this statement. 

The present period in histoi-y may one day be 
recognized as a major turning point in the strug- 
gle between Communism and freedom. It ap- 
pears to be clearly a shift in the cold war, in which 
economic and social problems have moved to the 
forefront. 

Members of the United States Delegation dur- 
ing this General Assembly session have observed 
the effectiveness of Soviet tactics under these new 
conditions. This can be seen both in the way the 
Soviet bloc delegates work in various United 
Nations meetings, and also in the voting that 
occurs in many committees. As we observed man- 
euvers, we were conscious that the Soviet Union, 
elsewhere in the world, was using economic and 
social collaboration as a means for jumping mili- 
tary as well as political barriers. Examples of 
this can be found in India, Egypt, and Burma. 

We believe that the United States must counter 
these Soviet efforts. We can succeed, not by 
outbidding Communism in sheer amounts of eco- 
nomic aid, but by making newly independent and 
newly articulate peoples feel that they can best 
satisfy their wants by becoming and remaining 
part of the community of free nations. 

We welcome more emphasis on economic and 
educational endeavors, for we have a proven ex- 
perience in these fields. 

We are in a contest in the field of economic de- 
velopment of underdeveloped countries which is 
bitterly competitive. Defeat in this contest could 
be as disastrous as defeat in an armaments race. 

We could lose this economic contest unless the 
country as a whole wakes up to all its implications. 



Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News 
Conference 

Press release 15 dated January 11 

Secretary Dulles: The U.S. delegation to the 
U.N. General Assembly, when it was recessing last 
month, made a statement which they sent down to 
me and which I went over with the President. 
We both thought it was sufficiently important to 
make public. So I will read it to you on this 
occasion.^ 



Q. Mr. Secretary, do you and the President 
agree with that statement? 

A. Generally speaking we do, yes, and it is for 
that reason that the President suggested I join in i 
making this statement public at this time. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, can you tell us what the sig- 
nifxiance of the timing of the statement note is — 
of its release now? 

A. You mean why the statement was made? 

Q. Why is it being released now? 

A. This is the first press conference which I 
have had since I received the statement and had 
a chance to discuss it with the President. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, to whom ivas this statement 
addressed? 

A. It was addressed to me. It is entitled "A 
statement to the Secretary of State by the U.S. 
Delegation to the Tenth Session of the United 
Nations General Assembly." 

Q. Mr. Secretary, when did you discuss it with 
the President? 

A. I think I discussed it with him approxi- 
mately the day before Christmas — I think it was 
about the 24th of December. I would not be abso- 
lutely decisive as to the date, but it was when he 
came up from Gettysburg for the Christmas 
holidays. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you view this as a recom- 
mendation to step up aid? 

A. I take it as a statement which reinforces 
very strongly what the views of the administra- 
tion are with respect to aid which will be em- 
bodied in various proposals which we will make. 
They were in part discussed in the President's 
stat« of the Union message,- and they will be 
further developed in subsequent messages and 
communications to the Congress. 



Long-Term Aid Commitments 

Q. Mr. Secretary, on this — the exact text — I 
think it said something to the effect the country 
as a whole needed to wake up to this need. Do 
you and the President feel the country needs to 



' See above. 
118 



' Bulletin of Jan. 16, 1956, p. 79. 

Department of State Bulletin 



wake wp to the need, and, if so, is part of the tim- 
ing to call the country'' s attention particularly 
noxo to the Presidents long-range foreign aid 
program? 

A. I think that one could say that. There is 
an aspect of the Pi'esident's proposals to Congress 
embodied in the state of the Union message which 
I don't think has been adequately appreciated yet, 
and that is the suggestion he makes that we be 
authorized to make long-term commitments sub- 
ject to annual appropriations. Now that theme 
will be developed more fully, and I am not in a 
position at the moment to give any precise figures 
because that has not yet been finally dealt with 
by the Bureau of the Budget. But the impor- 
tance of that is very great because it will enable 
us, I hope, to have not only greater flexibility but 
the opportunity of doing things which have a 
more permanent value in developing the economy 
of these less well-developed countries. 

The granting of economic aid, if it assumes a 
form which is primarily budgetary aid for a 
given year, does not have the permanent impact 
upon the community that long-range projects do. 
In some of the bigger jDrojects we have been in- 
hibited somewhat from going into them because 
of the fact that these long-range projects take 
quite a long while. It may be a 5-year project or 
a 10-year project and the institution, such as the 
World Bank, or the governments of the countries 
concerned, or private enterprise in the countries 
concerned, hesitate to embark upon these long- 
range projects if all they can count on from the 
United States is a contribution for the first year. 
I think we can greatly improve the quality of our 
economic assistance in building up these less de- 
veloped countries if we can have the opportunity 
to assume, subject to annual appropriations, com- 
mitments for future years. I believe that that 
can be extremely important, and that is a very im- 
portant new aspect of the program which we are 
presenting to Congress this year. 

Q. As a corollary to this question, if I may, sir, 
does this mean that Senator George will have to 
he awakened? He came out firmly against eco- 
nomic aid. 

A. Well, this program will not substantially 
increase the amount of economic aid in any given 
year. It does presuppose a continuance of at 
least a percentage of our present economic aid 



over a period of years, which might be 5 or 10 
years. But as far as the actual amounts are con- 
cerned, this is not so much a question of amount or 
totals as it is a question of continuity. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you hope or are you seek- 
ing for bipartisan support of this idea? Is it 
rather a new idea as put forward in the Presidents 
message? Was there consultation beforehand 
with congressional leaders on this? 

A. Yes, this was brought up at the meeting we 
had with the bipartisan gi'oup, although I would 
not necessarily say, in the light of all the matters 
we had to discuss, that it was presented as ade- 
quately as would be desirable. That will be done 
as these matters come up in concrete form before 
the Congress. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, I think it was about ii^ years 
ago that Governor Stassen said the FOA [Foreign 
Operations AdTninistration'] suggested a similar 
long-range program but that it was overruled by 
the State Department on the aid program,. I 
wonder if this means the State Department has 
changed its position since then. 

A. No. I don't know what the episode is you 
refer to. The State Department has been in 
favor of something of this sort for some time, and 
I don't know what it was you referred to as having 
been overruled. It may have been some particular 
project that was overruled on teclinical grounds. 
But the concept of finding a way to make this 
economic assistance both more flexible and to get 
a greater continuity is one which I have favored 
for some time. We have thought about various 
ways of doing it. I remember I had considerable 
discussion, I think it was last year, about the possi- 
bility of creating a new finance institution with 
sufficient capital so it could draw on it year by 
year, somewhat as the Ex^Dort-Import Bank does. 
That particular project did not win favor that 
year. This is another way of arriving at that 
same objective, which has been an objective I 
have had in mind for some time. 



U.S. Position on Bagfidad Pact 

Q. Mr. Secretary, I would like to ask on another 
subject xohat the attitude of the United States is 
totoard the development of the Baghdad Pact. 

A. Well, the United States has been, as you 
know, sympathetic toward the formation of the 



ianxtaty 23, 1956 



119 



Baghdad Pact; indeed, it comes out of an idea 
I developed when I was in that part of the world 
the first year I was in office, in May 1953. Then 
I talked about the "northern tier" concept,^ and 
that idea took hold and it resulted in the present 
Baghdad Pact, including the northern tier 
countries; namely, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, and 
Turkey. On the question of its further develop- 
ment, the United States has no particular views. 
We have not urged any other countries to join the 
pact. 

Responsibilities in Foreign Aid Field 

Q. Mr. Secretary., going hack to the question of 
foreign aid, as you see it, cohere does your respon- 
sibility lie in this field in relation to Mr. Hollis- 
ter? 

A. I have the policy responsibility in this field. 
Now the policy responsibility is primarily exer- 
cised at the time when the program is made up 
for submission to the Congress. At that time we 
go over, with the International Cooperation Ad- 
ministration, the various world situations and our 
policies and our programs; and at that point the 
State Department makes a basic policy decision 
as to how much money we think we need for such 
and such an area and, bi'oadly speaking, for what 
purposes, and we consider such matters as this pro- 
posal I just talked about of trying to get a pos- 
sibility of forward commitments. We talk about 
the possibility of a discretionary fund for the Near 
and Middle East ; the possibility of a discretionary 
fimd, which we have already in principle, of $100 
million for the Far East. It is at that point pri- 
marily that the policy decisions are made, and 
it is at that point the State Department, drawing 
upon the advice of our Ambassadors and our As- 
sistant Secretaries and Ica, takes a predominant 
role. Then, of course, we appear before the con- 
gressional committees and give the primary justi- 
fication for the general program and discretionary 
funds and committed funds. Once the money is 
Voted by the Congress the policy decisions have 
basically been made and under normal circum- 
stances, from that point on, the administration 
of the money is a responsibility of what is now 
known as the Ica. 

Now, that is not wholly the case because at vari- 
ous times new situations arise, emergencies de- 



velop — certain needs seem not to be as important 
as they did seem and there are variations which 
call for current policy decisions. But I would say 
in the main that 90 percent of the policy direc- 
tion is given during the period when the program 
is prepared for submission to Congress, and that 
from then on most of the work of administering 
the fund is done by the Ica in accordance with 
the policy decisions which are reflected in the re- 
quest to Congress and in the response made by 
Congress in actually appropriating money. 

Q.Are you taking responsibility then for the 
programing of that? 

A. "Wlien you say "I," the State Department in 
the main takes responsibility for deciding the 
areas and the countries where we need money and 
where we think it should be spent. Now when 
it comes to the question of working out what are 
the precise programs within the countries which 
should be supported, that is primarily a matter 
for the Ica because it has the technicians and the 
field people, and normally I would not get into 
that unless it involves some major problems, such 
as the Aswan Dam project,* for example. If we 
get the authority which we hope for in terms of 
forward commitments, that would probably lead 
to the consideration of more large-scale programs 
which would have sufficient political implications 
so that I would want to express a political view 
with respect to those particular projects. In the 
past I would say that the expenditures, once they 
are agreed upon as to amount and as to place, do 
not involve any particular detailed consideration 
by me unless some special circmnstances bring it 
to my attention. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, xoouJd American contribu- 
tio7is to the U.N. technical assistance program be 
included in this new policy? 

A. No, I don't think there would be any desire 
to make forward commitments to that particular 
project. I think that can be handled on a j'ear- 
to-year basis. 

Arab-Israel Problems 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the Israeli Government has 
expressed anxiety that there will be competition 
between the West and the Russians to outbid each 
other to toin Arab favor by being tough on the \ 



'Ibid., June 15, 195.3, p. 835. 
120 



'Ibid, Dee. 26, 1935, p. 1050. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Israeli Govei'mnent. I wonder if you have any 
comment on that. 

A. I don't think that there need be any fear 
of competition in that respect. I think it is quite 
possible tliat the Soviet Government may itself 
try to win Arab favor by, for example, proposing 
a tough resolution before the Security Council 
when this Syrian question comes up, perhaps to- 
morrow. But I can assure you the United States 
will not itself be drawn into competition of that 
kind. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you consider the Soviet 
resolution now before the Security Council a tough 
resolution? 

A. I don't know that there is any now before 
the Security Council. I haven't seen it. I have 
heard about it in general terms — about a resolu- 
tion which they may sponsor. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is there any decision yet on 
the arms for Israel? 

A. No. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, how soon is that to reaching 
a decision? They say they have been waiting 6 
inonths for that. 

A. Waiting 6 months? 

Q. 6 weeks. 

A. Oh, 6 weeks. That is about right. I suppose 
we will give the matter a fresh look after the 
Security Council acts on this Syrian question." 
We will not do it before that, surely. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could you tell us what coun- 
tries you loould like to visit on your tinp to the 
SEATO Council meeting in Karachi? 

A. Now, if you were only asking me countries 
which as a tourist I would like to visit that would 
be a long list. I hope to visit on my way back 
some of the countries of South Asia and Southeast 
Asia which I have not yet visited and some which 
I would like to revisit because of the importance 
of our relations with those countries. But it 
would not be practical for me at the present time 
to name those countries because I do not visit coun- 
tries unless I am invited by the government of 



the counti-y in question. I don't want to embar- 
rass them. 

Q. I vmnted to know if you had been invited to 
visit India because of the problem of Nehru. 

A. I understand that there has been an indica- 
tion on my side that I would hope to have the op- 
IDortunity to visit India in connection with this 
trip and an indication of the Govermnent of India, 
on its side, that they would be happy if I could do 
it 
dates. 



But there have been no arrangements about 



° For text of a U.S. statement made in the Security 
Council on Dec. 16, see ibiV/., Jan. 16, 1956, p. 103. 



Q. Mr. Secretary, could you tell us umder what 
conditio7is the United States would be likely to 
join the Baghdad Pact? 

A. Well, I think we would consider joining the 
Baghdad Pact if and when it seemed in doing so 
it would be a contribution to the general stability 
of the area. We do not consider it as an isolated 
act. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, did you discuss the subject of 
the pact with Marshal Tito when you were there? ° 
Did you go into the whole matter of neutralism 
with Tito at thai time? 

A. I am trying to recall. I do not think that 
we covered any matters — certainly not in any sig- 
nificant way — which I did not report at my press 
interview that immediately followed that confer- 
ence. I made a very full report there, in which 
Marshal Tito joined, and I am afraid I would have 
to ask you to refresh your recollection and mine 
in seeing just what we said. I don't think that 
your point came up in any significant way. 

Q. As regards that pact, there have been sug- 
gestions that the Secretary of the Baghdad Pact 
be the channel for the sending of aid on a regional 
basis into the Middle East and that Arab nations 
who are unwilling to subscribe to the military fea- 
tures of that pact nevertheless could come in for 
economic aid under the pact. Did that come to 
your attention, and if so what is our attitude to- 
ward that? 

A. No. 

Q. Can you tell us something of your meeting 
this morning with Ambassador Eric Johnston and 

' Secretary Dulles visited Yugoslavia on Nov. 6 ; for a 
summary of the subjects he discussed with Marshal Tito, 
see Bulletin of Nov. 21, 1955, p. 833. 



January 23, 1956 



121 



of the present status of the economic development 
out in the Middle East? 

A. Well, he came at my suggestion because I 
wanted to check with him as to his impressions of 
the effect of the present condition in the Near East 
upon his program. I wanted to get his estimate 
as to where his program stood in the light of events 
which have taken place since I last talked with 
him, which was perhaps about 6 weeks ago or more. 

Q. Is Mr. Johnston going to go hack to the 
area? 

A. He has no present trip scheduled. 1 would 
hope that developments would be such as to make 
it worth his while to go back, because the project 
is very well advanced on a technical level and I 
would hope that political conditions would make 
it practical for the project to go ahead. 

Hydrogen Bomb Tests 

Q. Mr. Secretary, several weeks ago you said 
that the Government had reached no positive con- 
clusions on various proposals for stopping the 
hydrogen bomb test.'' I wonder, can you tell us 
now, since the proposal has been made, have you 
any more recent suggestions along that line? 

A. We have not yet found any basis which 
would seem to warrant us in suspending hydrogen 
bomb tests. We feel it imperative to keep to the 
forefront of scientific knowledge in that field, un- 
less and until some dependable basis can be found 
to assure a disarmament, a controlled and in- 
spected disarmament, which would make it safe 
for us to cease our experimental and testmg 
efforts, which in part are designed to find ways to 
protect ourselves against the use of the atomic 
weapons by others. So the situation is about 
where it was. As you know, the general efforts in 
this field are being conducted under the leader- 
ship of Governor Stassen, and we are hopeful that 
a way may be found to relieve the burden of ex- 
pense in this effort and also the very great danger 
which it implies for much of the world. Those 
efforts are continuing and no doubt will be re- 
sumed at the United Nations Subcommittee on 
Disarmament when it reconvenes, I think some- 
time this February. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, when you say that we xoani 
to keep in the forefront of this scientific field, do 
you mean that we are ahead now? 



A. I believe that we are, yes, although inevi- 
tably that is partly a matter of speculation. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, when you mentioned a few 
weeks ago the technical difficulties in regard to a 
prohibition of atomic loeapons, did you mean that 
the United States does not know now if the Com- 
munists, the Russians, have set off a bomb? 

A. We announced the large explosion which 
they made on — whatever it was, some 6 weeks ago, 
I think approximately that time.* Yes, we knew 
about that. 

Q. I mean, is it not possible for the Americans to 
know every time when the Russians do set off a 
bomb? 

A. We know, generally speaking. Of course it 
is very difficult to say that we know about a bomb 
that we don't know about. But we know about 
the ones we do know about. We think we know 
about most of them. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, regarding your opening 
statement, you didn't mention any particular area 
of the world in which Soviet efforts had- been 
countered. May we assuvie that you are refen^ng 
to the Middle East and Asia in particular? 

A. Yes. South Asia and the Middle East, I 
would think, are the areas where they have exerted 
themselves most. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there are reports from Lon- 
don that the British are going to propose a joint 
Middle East aid agency or a Middle East aid pro- 
gram for the Western Powers. Would you give 
us some of your thinking on such an idea? 

A. Well, I have no reason to believe that the 
British do have such a plan. Perhaps they do. I 
have no knowledge of it. And if they had, we 
would of course consider anything that tliey wish 
to bring up. But I would say I doubt very much 
if they do have any program of that sort; cer- 
tainly we know nothing of it. 

Magazine Interview 

Q. Mr. Secretary, a national magazine [Life] is 
carrying tomorrow xohat purports to be an ex- 
clusive interview with you, sir, in which a number 
of interesting statements are made that donH 
always jibe with the information we have been 
getting in this Department, and in the embassies 



' lUd., Dec. 12, 1955, p. 964. 



122 



' Ibid., Dec. 5, 1955, p. 916. 

Department of State Bulletin 



of the interested coimtries, about a number of 
major historical events in the fast 2 or 3 years. In 
fairness to you, sir, I would like to clear up some of 
these points here if you would agree to entertain 
questions on that article. 

A. Well, I will have to tell you thfit I have not 
read the article; so perhaps we had better wait 
until I have read it. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you know what you said at 
the time of the interview. 

A. I have no precise recollection of that. I 
would hardly say that it was an exclusive inter- 
view. I have talked to a great many of you in 
one way or another at one time or another and, 
as I say, what is rej^orted in this article I have 
not yet seen. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, one of the points that is made 
here, and the one that interests me, is a claim that 
the Indochina settlement reached at Geneva was 
a victory for our policy of deterrence. Vd like 
to know, sir, in what respect did we put the Chi- 
nese Communists on notice or warning that, unless 
they accepted this settlement, which I recall we 
dldn''t like very well at that time, we would do all 
kinds of drastic things to them? 

A. Well, I think the answer to that is a matter 
of pretty general public knowledge. There was 
the program for "united action" in that area, and 
you will recall that I went first to London and then 
to Paris and reached what I thought was an agree- 
ment on united action." We had also had the 
agreement of the Philippines and Thailand to 
miited action at that time, which was a matter 
of public knowledge. We had hoped to get the 
united action into force promptly and before the 
Geneva conference was held. However, later on 
it developed that the British and the French pre- 
ferred to wait and see what came out of the Geneva 
armistice talks before agreeing to the "united ac- 
tion" proposal. Therefore, it was a matter of com- 
mon knowledge, all the world laiew, that if there 
should be a breakdown of the Geneva talks then 
the British and the French were prepared to go 
ahead with us on the program of "miited action" 
I which we had announced in advance. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, did that program in any way 
imply the possible use of atomic bombardment of 



'Ibid., Apr. 26, 19.54, p. 622. 
January 23, 1956 



South China in the event they moved into Indo- 
china with their troops? 

A. It involved, if necessary, a common military 
effort there with whatever weapons would be ap- 
propriate. 

Q. Sir, this article is embargoed until 6 o'clock. 
Are your answers likewise embargoed? 

A. I am sorry someone didn't tell me that first. 
I would think not. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in the same article — 

A. Just a minute. I have just learned that the 
article is embargoed until 6 o'clock ; so I think I 
had better not answer any more questions about 
it, particularly as I have not read it yet. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, Senator George said Monday 
[JanuMvy 9] in a radio interview that President 
Eisenhower^s illness has contributed greatly to the 
lack of success in our foreign policy in the last 4 
months. Do you agree with that? 

A. Well, if you were quoting what I read, he 
did not say that. 

Q. Well, I was there and heard him. 

A. I see. Well, I suggest you check what you 
have just said against what Senator George was 
rejjorted in the press as having said. He made no 
reference that I can recall at all to the lack of 
success of our foreign policy. 

Q. He called it a lack of positive attitude and 
an unhappy situation. 

A. Well, now, you are using different words. 

Q. Well, he said all three things. 

A. According to what I read, and I read the full 
transcript of the newscast, he did not say all 
three things. 

Q. Mr. Secretar'y, is it true that a decision had 
been made to bomb Manchuria and to use atomic 
bombs in Koi^ea if the Korean truce negotiations 
had broken down? 

A. I assume, when you are going into back his- 
tory of this kind, it is because it has been revived 
by this article perhaps. If so, I prefer not to 
answer it. 

Q. I didn't inention the article. 

A. It's this sudden interest in what took place 



123 



2 or 3 years ago that makes me a little questioning 
of the background of your question. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is there any reason why the 
answers to the questio7is should not be embargoed 
until 6 o^ clock, when the article is for release? 

A. Did you ask me why the answers should not 
be embargoed until the article comes out? 

Q. I think the point, sir, here is that here is an 
article that quotes you as stating positions hy this 
Government on histori.cal developments of great 
importance, and all we are trying to do is find 
out whether those statements are right, not to 
get ahead of the article. The questions could be 
embargoed until the article came out. 

A. Well, I will have to leave the verdict on that 
to people who know the technical etiquette in these 
matters better than I do. I don't know whether 
it's inappropriate to answer these questions. As 
I say, I answered them in innocence, not knowing 
that the article was embargoed. 

Q. Well, would you m-ake an embargoed answer 
to my question, sir? 

A. No. I'm not going to talk any more about 
the article until I have read it. 

Soviet Criticism of President 

Q. Mr. Secretary, how would you interpret the 
fact that Khrushchev in his speech to the Supreme 
Soviet attacked President Eisenhower personally 
for the first time in a long time? 

A. Well, I interpret it as a recognition by the 
Soviet rulers that they cannot carry out the policy 
which tliey themselves have adopted in the Near 
East and South Asia and at the same time try to 
maintain the good relations to which they pre- 
tended at the Geneva "summit" conference; and 
that since those two things are irreconcilable, they 
prefer to get what may be the internal benefits 
of a criticism of President Eisenhower, perhaps 
particularly because of what President Eisen- 
hower has said at that conference — but more par- 
ticularly since that conference — with reference 
to the situation of the Eastern European countries 
which are under Soviet rule. That appears to be 
a point about which they are particularly sensi- 
tive. I think that the President's speech in Phila- 

124 



delphia on August 25 [24]'° aroused a consider- 
able feeling on tlie Soviet side because of its 
interpretation of the Geneva confeience as reflect- 
ing a desire to have a dynamic peace which would 
pursue justice, and which mentioned the freedom 
of the Eastern European countries as part of that 
program. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, before we break up, I'm sure 
there will be some confusion about just cohere we 
stand on this embargoing business — could you give 
the ruling now? Is what you said for the record 
as of now? 

A. It seems to me, while perhaps it was re- 
grettable that I answered these questions, in view 
of the fact that the article is embargoed, which I 
did not know, that after all it's perhaps best to let 
the thing stand as it is and not treat anything I 
have said today as embargoed. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could you take some steps to 
let us know in the near future whether or not 
you did in fact say the statements attributed to 
you in this article? 

A. Well, I expose myself to you as nearly as I 
can every week. 

Q. Rather than wait a whole week to determine 
whether or not you believe that was attributed to 
you in this article. 

A. Well, if I spent all of my time reporting on 
the accuracy of everything that is said in the 
press about me, I woukl be very fully occupied. 
If there are any particular statements here that 
would seem to me to be of such momentous signifi- 
cance they ought to be confirmed or corrected, I 
would do so. 



Discussions on Middle East 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there is a lot of interest in 
Cairo as to whether Ambassador Byroade has 
come back here to give you what the Egyptians 
regard as neio ideas on what our policy in the 
Middle East should be. Can you throw any light 
on that interest? 



A. Well, Ambassador Byroade came back here 
to give us a more understanding report than can 
be done by cable with reference to our relations 



"Ihid., Sept. 5, 1955, p. 375. 

Department of Sfafe Bullefin 



with Egypt, our problems there, some of which I'e- 
hite to the Aswan Dam proposals, some of which 
relate to the Egyptian attitude toward the Bagh- 
dad Pact, and things of that order. We like to 
have personal reports wherever we can because 
it is possible to make them much more imder- 
standing and fuller than even a very carefully 
drawn dispatch. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., do you get the impression that 
Red China is tiying to break off the Johnson-WanQ 
talks at Geneva? 

A. I do not have that impression, although 
there has been a disappointing failure to do some 
of the things which would make the talks useful, 
notably to give the Americans in China the right 
expeditiously to return. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in order to round out this 
Middle Eastern- picture, cotdd you tell us whether 
you propose discussing any formula for the settle- 
ment of the Arab-Israeli dispute icith the British 
delegation when they come here at the end of the 
month? 

A. I have no doubt that that topic will be one 
of the topics, one of the principal topics, of dis- 
cussion at that time. Whether they have a for- 
mula or not, I don't know. Our own views re- 
main very much as set forth in my speech of 
Ausust 26." 



Tariff Concessions to Norway 

Press release 18 dated January 13 

In accordance with the provisions of the Proto- 
col for the Accession of Japan to the General 

Agreement on Tariffs and Trade,^ U.S. concessions 
to countries other than Japan in connection with 
the negotiations for Japan's accession will be 
made eflfective 30 days after such countries notify 
the Executive Seci-etaiy of the general agreement 
that their concessions to Japan are being placed in 
effect. 

On December 17, 1955, the Norwegian Govern- 
ment gave notification of intention to apply the 
concessions contained in its schedule to the Proto- 
col. Accordingly the United States will on 



^ Ibid., p. 378. 

'■ Bulletin of June 27, 195.5, p. 1053. 

January 23, J956 

o71~70 — 56 3 



January 16, 1956, apply the concessions initially 
negotiated with Norway. The items affected 
are: 

Item designation Description 

301 [ Identified only Iron In pigs and iron kentlege. 
as to the matter related 
to the rate of 56%^ per 
ton]. 

717 (c) , Fish, dried and unsalted, 

other than cod, haddock, 
hake, pollock, and ciLSk (ex- 
cept shark fins). 

702 (a) (2) , Herring, whole or beheaded, 

but not further advanced, if 
hard dry-smoked. 

The President has notified the Secretary of the 
Treasury of the effective date for the concessions 
to Norway. 



Memorandum for the Secretary of the Treasury 

Reference is made to my proclamation of July 
22, 1955 carrying out the Protocol of Terms of 
Accession by Japan to the General Agreement on 
Tariff's and Trade. 

On December 17 Norway gave to the Executive 
Secretary to the Contracting Parties to the Gen- 
eral Agreement the notification referred to in 
paragraph 3 of the Protocol for the accession of 
Japan, of intention to apply on January 16, 1956 
concessions which it had negotiated initially with 
Japan. Accordingly, pursuant to the procedure 
described in Part I (b) (1) of the above-men- 
tioned proclamation, I hereby notify you that 
items 301 [identified only as to the matter related 
to the rate of 561/4^ per ton], 717 (c), and 720 (a) 
(2) in Part I of Schedule XX to the said Protocol 
shall not be withheld pursuant to paragi-aph 4 of 
the said Protocol on or after January 16, 1956. 



Seminar on International Problems 
for Representatives of NATO 

In support of the Nato Cultural Relations Pro- 
gram, Oxford University is organizing a special 
summer Seminar on Problems of International 
Organization with special reference to Nato, 
which will be held in England next July at St. 
Anthony's College, Oxford. The 2-week seminar 
is designed to help persons from each of the mem- 
ber states of Nato to understand the work of vari- 



125 



ous international bodies and the problems and 
issues — political, economic, administrative, legal, 
and cultural — which arise in their work. 

Among those who already have accepted invi- 
tations to lecture at the seminar are Ambassador 
John C. Dreier. U.S. Representative to the Coun- 
cil of the Organization of American States; Sir 
Oliver Franks, former British Ambassador to the 
United States; Lord Ismay, Secretary General of 
Nato ; .Jean Monnet, former Director of the Euro- 
pean Coal and Steel Community; and Sir David 



Kelly, former British Ambassador to the U.S.S.E. 
Membership of the seminar will be restricted 
to approximately 50 persons, representing all the 
member states. To assure appropriate pai'ticipa- 
tion by the United States in this seminar, the 
Depai'tment of State has secured the cooperation 
of the Conference Board of Associated Research 
Councils, which will obtain nominations. Panels 
of nominees will be forwarded in February 1956 
to the Xato Sponsoring Committee for final 
selection. 



Prospects for Expanding Spanish-American Trade 



by John Lodge 
Ambassador to Spain ^ 



This evening I would like to discuss certain as- 
pects of the Spanish economic situation, in partic- 
ular, the prospects for expansion of trade between 
our two countries. In the past few years visible 
trade between Spain and the United States has, 
as you are aware, been rather limited, usually 
averaging in the neighborhood of $50 million 
worth of imports from Spain and $70-80 million 
worth of exports to Spain, with the difference 
being offset to a large extent by the spending of 
American tourists. Spain would like to import 
much more American goods but has for a number 
of years been faced with an extreme shortage of 
foreign exchange, and the levels of imports from 
the United States have been limited by the avail- 
ability of dollars. The basic reason for this sit- 
uation is that Spain is a poor countiy whose eco- 
nomic development has been retarded by the scars 
of her 3-year civil war, by the effects of the Second 
World War, and by the shortage of foreign ex- 
change which made it impossible for her to import 
necessary machinery and materials which would 
permit her to make the economic advances she 
desires. 

The situation, however, has improved markedly 

' Address made before the Spanish-American Board of 
Trade, New York, N. Y., on Jan. 5. 



in the course of the past 5 years. This is partly 
due to two good crop years in 1950 and 1951, but 
of particular importance recently has been U.S. 
economic assistance, both in the form of Export- 
Import Bank loans and direct economic assistance 
furnished as a result of the military and economic 
agreements which were signed in September of 
1953.- Spain has also been an important market 
for our surplus agricultural commodities. Sales 
of these commodities to Spain have been part of 
our economic program in that country and have 
contributed imjjortantly to the Spanish effort to 
overcome crises caused by crop failures. Our 
economic program is giving the Spanish economy 
a lift and is helping to put it in a position, for the 
first time in 25 years, where it is not living on a 
strictly hand-to-mouth basis and can make some 
plans as to the best use of its not inconsiderable 
resources. 

In assessing the progress which has been made 
in Spain and the role of our help, we must fully 
realize the importance of the efforts which Spain 
has made in the past and is now making to help 
herself. The Spaniards are a hard-working 
people, and they have made advances in the past 
10 years which I consider truly impressive. Even 

' Bulletin of Oct. .''), 1953, p. 4.35. 



126 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



more important, perhaps, is the fact that the 
Spaniards have develoj)ed concrete programs to 
improve key deficient sectors of their economy and 
are moving as fast as they possibly can to achieve 
these objectives. Through their own efforts and 
with our assistance, Spain has developed her in- 
dustry and agriculture to the point where, in a 
very few years, she should have overcome the 
worst effects of her dependence on a dry climate 
which, in years of drought, not only retards eco- 
nomic development but sets it back to a significant 
degree. 

I think I should mention here one aspect of our 
cooperative efforts in the industrial area which has 
an interesting potential. For the past century 
Spain's industrial progress has lagged behind 
that of other European countries. An impor- 
tant cause of this is the inadequacy of power and 
power-generating resources, such as coal, water, 
and petroleum. The keenness now being mani- 
fested in official Spanish circles in the possible 
utilization of atomic energy for generation of 
electric power is sharpened by their desire to try 
to make up through atomic energj' some of the 
ground lost. On our part, we have been doing 
all we can to help the Spaniards move ahead in 
this field. Our two Governments signed an 
agreement last summer under which the United 
States will assist Sjiain in designing and fueling 
an experimental nuclear reactor.^ One element 
of tliis assistance provides training for Spanish 
technicians in the U.S. in operating a reactor; 
some of them are here now. The most recent de- 
velopment in our cooperative effort in this field 
took place just prior to my departure from 
Madrid when I had the privilege of presenting an 
extensive atomic-energy technical library to the 
Spanish Nuclear Energy Board on behalf of the 
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Our coopera- 
tion on atomic-energy matters with the Spaniards 
is much appreciated by them, and I look forward 
to future progress in this area in Spain. 

These advances in the Spanish economy are 
important to American business because I be- 
lieve that the outlook for expanding trade be- 
tween Spain and the United States is good, 
particularly if certain obstacles can be removed. 
In reaching this conclusion, I have had in mind 
several important positive factors. 



"Ihid.. .Tunc 20, ]!l."). p. 1018. 
January 23, J 956 



Significance for American Business 

First, the Spaniards have been cooperating 
closely with us for the past 2 years in working 
out the military and economic programs agreed 
upon in the 1953 accords. Contacts between 
Americans and Spaniards are increasing rapidly, 
and they welcome us in their country. In addi- 
tion to the more than a quarter of a million 
American tourists who visited Spain in the past 
year, other Americans are there working on the 
base construction program, and more American 
businessmen than ever are now in Spain. 

Second, with only limited U.S. assistance, 
Spain's economy should continue to expand and 
strengthen in the next few years, and this in 
itself provides a climate for a greater exchange 
of goods. 

Third, under our technical excliangc progi"am, 
American experts are working with Spanish tech- 
nicians to stimulate increased production in a 
jiumber of key sectors of the Spanish economj', 
such as industry, agriculture, transportation, and 
mining. The essence of this program is to make 
available to Spain new developments in produc- 
tion and marketing — not only teclinical processes 
but concepts of organization and management 
relations. Such concepts when put into practice 
can promote the better use of present facilities as 
well as the maximum output from new invest- 
ments. One of the principal means which we are 
using to make these new methods available to 
)nore people is the arrangement of visits to the 
United States of technicians from other countries, 
and visits to cooperating countries by American 
experts. There is strong interest in technical 
exchange in Spain, and the program is, I think, 
being successfully carried out. Spanish business 
leaders and executives in a number of industries 
have visited the United States to observe our pro- 
duction and managerial methods, and many more 
will be coming in the course of the next few years. 
These officials have shown a receptivity to Amer- 
ican ideas and will welcome American goods. 



Problems Which Must Be Solved 

Wliile my optimism remains untempered, there 
are some real problems which must be solved if the 
full possibilities of expanding Spanish- American 
trade are to be realized. Spain needs more capi- 
tal goods and a greater flexibility in her foreign 
exchange reserve situation. These cannot be pro- 



127 



vided entirely from U.S. economic aid because of 
our own budgetary and fiscal problems. A mu- 
tually beneficial way by means of which some of 
Spain's requirements could be met is through 
jVmerican private investment. Good business op- 
portunities exi.st in Spain, and several ^Vmerican 
companies have during the past year established 
themselves there, usually in partnership with 
Spanish interests. At the same time, there are 
other American businessmen who are hesitant to 
invest in Spain because of certain obstacles which 
they have encountered, including difficulties in 
the transfer of earnings. 

This problem is further complicated by a back- 
log of accumulated blocked peseta earnings. We 
must remember that the Spanish Government has 
had a severe shortage of foreign exchange and 
that it felt that priority had to be given to abso- 
lutely essential imports before allowing the 
blocked peseta accounts to be converted to dol- 
lars. There is, however, reason to expect that this 
situation will improve. One of the provisions of 
the 1953 Spanish- American economic aid pact in- 
cluded Spain's agreement to work out with us the 
liquidation of previous earnings which were 
blocked and the establishment of a regular system 
for the transfer of future earnings. Certainly 
there is ample evidence of the steady improvement 
in the Spanish economic situation during the past 
year, including its holdings of foreign exchange, 
and this helps put Spain in a financial situation 
where she is able to meet the blocked peseta prob- 
lem without seriously endangering her economic 
stability. 

Another barrier which makes American poten- 
tial investors reluctant to invest in Spain is the 
limitations which are now placed by Spanish legis- 
lation on the degree of foreign ownership of new 
manufacturing enterprises. WHiile I can report 
no specific progress on this question, Spanish offi- 
cials are certainly aware that American invest- 
ments would be increased if these restrictions were 
loosened, and I am hopeful that this can be ac- 
complished in the not too distant future. Ex- 
panding American investments in Spain would 
strengthen the tie between the economies of our 
two countries and would therefore stimulate the 
expansion of Spanish- American trade. The im- 
portance and desirability of increasing trade be- 
tween Spain and the United States is recognized 
at the highest levels of the Spanish Government. 
Last spring, General Franco sent a special mes- 



128 



sage in this sense to American businessmen in 
the course of an interview which was published in 
f'.S. NewK and World Report. The Chief of 
State said : 

We want to increase tlie purchasing power of the 
Spaniards so as to multiply and intensify all trade. In 
this sense we believe that at this moment financiers and 
promoters of enterprise from the United States have a 
very vast field for collaboration with us. 

The Human Factor 

In conclusion, I would like to mention a human 
factor. Americans who are now in Spain are 
coming in close contact with the Spanish people 
at all levels, from high Government officials to 
the most modest worker. There is a real enthu- 
siasm in Spain for things iVmerican, and this is 
the fundamental basis for my feeling that we can 
look forward to a period of closer imderstanding 
and expanding trade between the United States 
and Spain. Another important factor is the gen- 
eral attitude of Spanish Government officials and 
their businesslike approach to commercial and 
economic problems. I was particularly impressed 
by a speech made by Minister of Commerce 
Arbunia last month, in which he noted the im- 
provement of the economy and stated that it was 
necessary that the "ways of commerce be brought 
back into their traditional channels, to those classic 
formulas which base commercial prosperity on 
the rise in volume of sales at reasonable margins 
in place of restrictive sales at excessively high 
profits." 

As for the contribution which can be made by 
you gentlemen, members of the Spanish- American 
Board of Trade, I want to say again how impor- 
tant I think is the work of this organization. You 
are already playing an important role in improv- 
ing overall relations between Spain and the United 
States, as well as stimulating greater trade be- 
tween the two countries, and I am sure you will 
find greater tangible rewards in the future. 

In this connection, it is my opinion that too 
many of our citizens feel that foreign policy is 
something removed from them and limited to offi- 
cials in Washington and our diplomatic represent- 
atives abroad. In this day of rapid transport and 
communications, and with an unstable interna- 
tional situation to consider, this is a grave over- 
sight. More than ever before in history, foreign 
relations have become joined with domestic rela- 
tions and are, therefore, the concern of each and 
every one. 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



The continuance of good Spanish-American re- 
lations is a task to which Americans and Spaniards 
alike should set themselves. An indication of the 
state of our relations with Spain may be seen in 
the fact that the Spanish people have contributed 
recently 1,33.5,000 pesetas to American flood relief. 
I am proud and deeply touched by this entirely 
spontaneous display of friendship and sympathy 
for our people. 

As you kno^^', I have spent the past month here 
in consultation with officials of the Department of 
State and other Government agencies, and I re- 
turn to my post in Madrid within a few days. I 
look forward with enthusiasm to resuming my 
duties as Ambassador because I feel that it is not 
only a unique opportunity for public service but 
that the alliance we are building with Spain is on 
firm ground. Prospects for the future are most 
encouraging for both Spaniards and Americans. 

Spain today is playing a more active role in 
international affairs. The Spanish Government 
is a dependable ally. It is heartening to see our 
relationships developing so closely. In my day- 
to-day association with Spaniards themselves, I 
have been impressed by the forward-looking en- 
thusiasm with which they welcome military and 
economic cooperation with us. 

Although not a wealthy country, Spain today is 
a vigorous nation on the march which is making 
a determined effort to raise the living standards of 
lier people. Any assistance that we can give to 
bolster her economic potential — and I Imow of no 
better one than the encouragement of trade — is a 
contribution not only to Spain but to our own na- 
tional safety and that of the anti-Communist 
nations whose leadership we have assumed. 

We can be thankful, gentlemen, that in the 
present divided and troubled world we have on 
our side a friend and ally which shares our re- 
sistance to Soviet communism and which supports 
the cause of international peace. 



Revisions in Passport Regulations 

Press release 16 dated January 12 

The Department of State on January 12 made 

public certain revisions in regulations pertaining 

! to the issuance of United States passports. The 

amendments to the regulations are designed to pro- 



vide formalized hearing procedures for all per- 
sons who may be denied passport facilities. Ex- 
cept for refusals due to lack of citizensMp or 
general area restrictions, anyone whose applica- 
tion for a passport is denied is entitled to receive 
a statement of reasons and may appeal to the 
Board of Passport Appeals. 

The Department noted that these revisions are 
of an interim nature, pending an overall study 
of the Department's policy and procedures in this 
field and the outcome of certain cases in the courts. 



Amendments to Code of Federal Regulations 

Title 22 — Foreign Relations ^ 

Chapter I — Department of State 

Part 51 — Passports 

Miscellaneous Amendments 

Pursuant to the authority vested In me by Paragraph 
126 of Executive Order No. 7856, issued on March 31, 
1938 (3 F.R. 687. 22 C.F.R. 51.77), under authority of 
section 1 of the Act of Congress approved July 3, 1926 
(44 Stat. 887, 22 U.S.C. 211a), the regulations issued on 
August 28, 1952 (Departmental Regulation 108.162, 17 
F.R. 8013, 22 C.F.R. 51.135 through 51.143) are hereby 
amended by revision of sections 51.136 and 51.143, as 
follows : 

§ 51.136 Limitations on issuance of passports to cer- 
tain other persons. In order to promote and safeguard 
the interests of the United States, passport facilities, ex- 
cept for direct and immediate return to the United States, 
will be refused to a person when it appears to the satis- 
faction of the Secretary of State that the person's activi- 
ties abroad would: (1) violate the laws of the United 
States; (2) be prejudicial to the orderly conduct of for- 
eign relations; or (3) otherwise be prejudicial to the 
interests of the United States. 

§51.143 Applicability of Sections 51.131-51.11,2. Ex- 
cept for action taken by reason of noncitizenship or geo- 
graphical limitations of general applicability necessitated 
by foreign policy considerations, the provisions of 
§§51.137-51.142 shall apply in any case where the per- 
son affected takes issue with the action of the Secre- 
tary in granting, refusing, restricting, withdrawing, can- 
celing, revoking, extending, renewing or in any other 
fashion or degree affecting the ability of such person to 
receive or use a passport. 

Dated : January 10, 1956. 
For the Secretary of State: 
Lot W. Henderson 

Deputy Under Secretary for Administration 



' 21 Fed. Reg. 336. 



^January 23, 1956 



129 



Third Progress Report on the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 



MESSAGE FROM PRESIDENT EISENHOWER TO THE CONGRESS' 



To the Coitgress of tlie United States: 

I transmit herewith the third semi-annual re- 
port on activities under Public Law 480, 83d Con- 
gress, as amended, showing operations under the 
Act during the period July 1. 1955, to Decem- 
ber 31, 1955. 

The administrative arrangements governing 
the responsibilities of the various agencies of the 
Executive Branch of the Government established 
by Executive Order 10560 of September 9, 1954,2 
continue to function satisfactorily. I believe they 
have proved effective in accomplishing the pur- 
poses of this law. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

The White House, 
Jamwry 12, 1956. 



Introduction 

The first and second progress reports^ on the 
disposal of United States surplus agricultural 
commodities under the Agricultural Trade De- 
velopment and Assistance Act of 1954 (Public 
Law 480, 83rd Congress) covered the fiscal year 
1955. This report deals with activities under the 
several Public Law 480 programs during the 
first six months of fiscal year 1956. During the 
period covered by this report the Act was amended 
by Public Law 387, 84th Congress, 1st Session to 
change the authorized amount under Title I from 
$700 million to $1,500 million.' 



^ H. Doc. 294, 84th Cong., 2d ses.s. ; transmitted on Jan. 12. 
'Bulletin of Oct. 4, 1954, p. 501. 
'Ihid., Jan. 31, 1955, p. 200, and Aug. 1, 1955, p. 197. 
* For tbe President's statement on signing P. I,. 387, 
see ihid., Aug. 29, 1955, p. 362. 



Summary 

During the period July-December 1955, pro- 
gramming under the three Titles of the Act 
totaled $491 million, bringing to $1,692 million 
the total amount of progi-ams since the beginning 
of operations under this Act. 

Agreements for the sale of agricultural com- 
modities for foreigit currency under Title I total 
$679 million at Ccc [Commodity Credit Corpora- 
tion] cost,= of which $211 million represents agree- 
ments signed during the period covered by this 
report. Shipments made or authorized for famine 
relief and other assistance abroad under Title II 
of the Act total $141 million at Ccc cost of which 
$32 million was authorized during this period. 
Donations for domestic distribution and for 
foreign relief through non-profit voluntary 
agencies and intergovernmental organizations 
under Title III of the Act amount to $539 million 
at Ccc cost of which $197 million were donated 
during this period. Barter contracts under Title 
III total $333 million at exjjort market value, of 
which $51 million represents contracts entered 
into during this period. 

Although the figures cited for the difl'erent 
programs are not comparable the amounts shown 
above give an indication of the value of com- 
modities being moved or committed under these 
programs. 

(Continued on page 1S2) 

°As used in this report Ccc cost represents the cost of 
commodities to Commodity Credit Corporation, includ- 
ing investment, proces^in,'^, handling and other costs. Ex- 
port market value reflects the price at which these com- 
modities are sold to foreign buyers under the program. 
The export market value figures are less than the Ccc 
cost for those commodities for which special export pro- 
grams have been developed for dollar as well as foreign 
currency sales to meet competition in international 
trade. [Footnote in the original.] 



130 



DeparfmenI of State Bulletin 



TABLK I 
Agreements Signed July-Decembek 1955 Under Title I, Public Law 480 



Country 


Date signed 


Conimodity composition 


Market 
value 


CCC CO;>t 




( Thousands 


! of dollars) 




Dec. 21, 1955 
Nov. 16, 1955 

Dec. 20, 1955 
Oct. 7, 1955 

Dec. 14, 1955 
Aug. 11, 1955 
Dec. 23, 1955 
Nov. 10, 1955 

Sept. 20, 1955 
Oct. 20, 1955 


Edible oils _ 


24, 700 
600 


24, 700 




Ocean transportation 


600 




Total --- -- 






25, 300 


25 300 




Wheat and wheat flour - 




Brazil 


32, 100 

3,010 

250 

1,790 

4,070 


60 600 




Feed grains 

Tobacco 


5, 100 
250 




Fats and oils __ __ _- _ 


1, 790 




Ocean transportation - 


4,070 




Total- ..--... .. - 






41, 220 


71,810 




Wheat - -.-_.... .- _ _ 




Colombia - 


3,400 

6,000 

1,500 

700 


5,800 




Cotton - - -- 


6,000 




Edible oils 


1,500 






700 




Total - - -- - 






11,600 


14, 000 




Wheat 




Kcuador 


1, 100 
925 
210 

1,515 
270 


1, 859 




Cotton - _- _ - 


925 




Tobacco _- - -_ 


210 




Fats and oils 


1, 515 




Ocean transportation 

Total -. - - - --- -- 


270 




4,020 


4,779 




Wheat 




Egypt 


4,800 
800 


9,900 






800 




Total - - 






5,600 


10, 700 




Tobacco __ - - 




France 


650 


650 










Total 








650 


650 




Poultry -. -_ _-- 




Germany -. 


1, 128 
72 


1, 128 




Ocean transportation. - . 


72 




Total ..- 






1,200 


1,200 




Wheat- .- - - -- - -- -- 




Israel . 


5,900 
3,200 
1,500 

200 
2,200 
1,460 

280 
2,300 


12, 035 




Feed grains. . . -- - -- -- 


5, 221 




Cotton . -- 


1, .500 




Tobacco - - .. 


200 




Fats and oils -- -- 


2.200 




Dairy products - - 


2, 346 




Dry edible beans.. .... . ----- 


320 




Ocean transportation 


2,300 


Peru 


Total 

Fats and oils 




17, 040 


26, 122 


3,000 
320 


3,000 


3paln . . 


Ocean transportation -- . 


320 


Total .- --- - 




3,320 


3,320 






10, 000 
622 


10, 000 






622 


Total .... . -- -- -- 




10, 622 


10, 622 







January 23, 7956 



131 



TABLE I— Continued 
Agbeements Signed July-December 1955 Under Title I, Public Law 480 — Continued 



Country 


Date signed 


Commodity composition 


Market 
value 


Ccc cost 




( Thousands of dollars) 




Oct. 1, 1955 


Wlieat 


17,900 
4,260 


37, 908 




Ocean transportation .. -_ 


4,260 




Total. - - 






22, 160 


42, 168 




Total, agreements signed July-December 1955 






142, 732 


210, 671 



{Continued from page ISO) 
Title I — Foreign Currency Sales 

AGREEMENTS SIGNED 

A total of 11 agreements, involving a Ccc cost 
of approximately $211 million, were signed during 
the period July-December 1955. The countries 
with which these agreements were signed, the 
dates of signing, commodity composition, market 
value and Ccc cost are shown in Table I. The 
commodity composition, market value, and Ccc 
cost of all agreements signed during the 18- 
month period ending December 31, 1955 ai-e shown 
in Table II. 



RELATIONSHIPS TO USUAL MARKETINGS 

In accordance with the provision of Title I 
requiring reasonable safeguards that sales of agri- 
cultural commodities for foreign currencies shall 
not displace our usual marketings or be unduly 
disruptive of world market prices, appropriate 
assurances have been obtained from governments 
with which agreements have been negotiated. 
Also, sales for foreign currencies under Title I 
have been made at the price level at which these 
commodities have been available for export sales 
for dollars. 

CURRENCY USES 

Under agreements signed thus far in fiscal year 
1956 the dollar values of planned foreign currency 
uses for the eight purposes specified in section 104 
of the Act are shown in Table III. 

Major currency use activities initiated through 
December 31, 1955 (related primarily to fiscal 
year 1955 progi-ams) are discussed below. 

132 



AgricuHural Market Development — Special em- 
phasis is being given to establishing productive 
uses of currencies for development of markets for 
agricultural commodities (Section 104 (a) ) . For- 
eign currencies equivalent to about 13 million 
dollars are eannarked for this activity in agree- 
ments signed as of December 31, 1955. Projects 

TABLE II 

Commodity Composition of All Agreements Signed 
During the 18-Month Period Ending December 31, 
1955 



Commodity 


Approximate 

quantity 


Market 
value 


Ccc 

cost 


{Millions of 
dollars) 


Wheat and wheat 

flour. 
Feed grains 

Rice 


87 million bushels *_ 

811 thousand met- 
ric tons**. 

2 million hundred- 
weights. 

697 thousand bales. 
59 million pounds.. 
58 million pounds.. 
462 million pounds _ 

3 million pounds. __ 
22 thousand hun- 
dredweights. 


149.7 

45.3 

14. 5 

133.5 

39. 1 

8.0 

67.0 

1. 1 

0.3 


279.8 
69.9 
21.2 


Cotton - 


133.5 


Tobacco 


39. 1 


Dairy products 

Edible oils 

Poultry - - - 


12.8 

75.8 

1. 1 


Dry edible beans, _. 


0.3 


Total commod- 


458. 5 
45.2 


633.5 


ities. 

Ocean transporta- 
tion. 




45.2 






Total, including 
ocean trans- 
portation. 


503.7 


678.7 







*Wheat equivalent. 
♦♦Includes 110 thousand 
grains and/or wheat. 



M. T. programed for feed 



Deporfmenf of State Bulletin 



now under way or being planned include com- 
modity promotion; promoting better nutrition; 
two-way visits of foreign buyers and sjaecialists to 
increase familiarity with our products and the 
advantages of U.S. marketing and grading sys- 
tems; promotion of agricultural exhibits at for- 
eign trade fairs; education and demonstration 
campaigns aimed at more effective handling and 

TABLE III 

Planned Uses of Foreign Currency Under Agree- 
ments Signed During July-December 1955 



Agricultural market development 
(Sec. 104 (a)) 

Purchase of strategic material (Sec. 
104 (b)) 

Common Defense (Sec. 104 (c)) 

Purchase of goods for other countries 
(Sec. 104 (d)) 

Grants for multilateral trade and eco- 
nomic development (Sec. 104 (e)) 

Payment of United States obligations 
(Sec. 104 (f)) 

Loans for multilateral trade and eco- 
nomic development (Sec. 104 (g)) 

International educational exchange 
(Sec. 104 (h)) 



Total signed agreements- 



Million 
dollars 
equiva- 
lent 



4. 52 

1.00 
19. 94 

2.06 



30.72 

82. 40 

2.09 



142. 73 



Percent 

of 

total 



3.2 

0.7 
14.0 

1.4 



21. 5 

57.7 
1. 5 



100.0 



use of U.S. commodities; market analyses; and 
the establishment of trade centers. 

A cotton promotion project involving education 
and demonstration, advertising, and exhibits is 
now under way in Italy. Agi'icultural commod- 
ity and demonstration exhibits were put on at the 
Bogota, Colombia, trade fair, and participation in 
other fairs at Osaka and London is being consid- 
ered. Arrangements are being made for tobacco 
buyers from Thailand to visit tobacco centers here. 

These market development projects are carried 
on in close cooperation with the United States 
private trade. Wherever practicable, agreements 
are entered into with trade groups to develop and 
carry out the projects. 

Defense Housing — In negotiating Title I agree- 
ments a major effort has been made to progi-am 
local currency proceeds for family housing for 
U.S. military personnel stationed iii foreigii coun- 
tries. Such currency use was authorized by Pub- 
lic Law 161. 8ith Congress. 



Under agreements negotiated to date a total of 
$50.2 million in foreign currencies has been pro- 
grammed for this purpose. Of this amount the 
equivalent of $15 million is being used in the 
United Kingdom for family housing. Construc- 
tion of this liousing is expected to begin shortly. 
The balance of the $50.2 million which is expected 
to be committed during the next few months is 
distributed as follows : Japan, $17 million ; Spain, 
$8 million; Finland, $4.8 million; Italy, $3.5 mil- 
lion ; Austria, $1.9 million. 

Loaris — The Act provides that loans of local 
currency proceeds accruing from sales of surplus 
agricultural commodities under P.L. 480 shall be 
made through established banking facilities of the 
foreign countries or in any other appropriate man- 
ner to promote multilateral trade and economic 
development. Strategic materials, services, for- 
eign currencies or dollars may be accepted in pay- 
ment of the loans. 

Negotiations to conclude loan agreements are 
conducted by U.S. representatives with foreign 
governments. The agreements specify terms and 
conditions of repayment, etc., which have been 
developed in consultation with the National Ad- 
visory Council on International Monetary and 
Fiscal Problems. The Export-Import Bank acts 
as agent of the U.S. Govermnent in executing the 
agreements and servicing the loans. 

Up ta December 31, 1955, loan agreements with 
four countries had been signed providing for local 
currency loans of the equivalent of $80.03 million. 
These include Israel, 7.4 million dollar equivalent ; 
Japan 59.5; Peru 2.63; Spain 10.5. Negotiations 
are under way to carry out the loan provisions of 
other surplus commodity sales agreements. 

Programs for the utilization of loan funds are 
usually developed jointly by the foreign govern- 
ment concerned and the United States. The most 
important emphasis in the expansion of economic 
development programs through loans of local cur- 
rency generated by P.L. 480 sales continues to be 
placed upon proje-cts designed to increase pur- 
chasing power and standards of living abroad. 

Programs for use of $69.3 million equivalent 
of local currency loans have been approved for 
three countries. About 85 percent of the $59.5 
million of yen loaned to Japan will be used to 
finance the local currency cost of additional power 
facilities. About $8.3 million of yen will be uti- 
lized for irrigation and reclamation work in 



January 23, 7956 



133 



TITLE I, PUBUC LAW 480 

OUA/m/£S OF COMMOPmS EXPORTBP 

Through December 31, 1955 
THOUS. METRIC TONS 



300 



200 



100 



JAN.- JUNE 839 

JULY-DEC. ■ »,S02 

TOTAL 2,441 




FAS-NEG 748 



Northern Honshu and Hokkaido. $2.3 million 
equivalent of Peruvian soles have been released 
to helj) finance a project in Northern Peru to irri- 
gate land primarily for production of tropical 
crops. About $4.7 million equivalent of Israeli 
pounds will be used to finance iiTigation and de- 
velopment of power facilities in that country. 
Discussions are under way with other countries 
on appropriate projects for which loan fluids may 
be used. 

International Educational Exchange — Sub- 
stantially all the agreements negotiated in the pe- 
riod covered by this report have provided for 
the use of some of the local currency proceeds in 
international educational exchange programs un- 
der Section 104 (h) of the Act. Funds were also 
provided for this purpose in the agreements nego- 
tiated in the fiscal year 1955. Arrangements are 
being made with the Govermnents of Chile, Peru 
and Turkey for three-year programs utilizing 
such proceeds. Programs are also in active prep- 
aration for Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, 
Egypt, Spain and Thailand. 



COMMODITY SHIPMENTS 

The fii-st shipments under this program were 
made in January 1955. Since that time shipments 
have totalled about 2i/^ million tons. Approxi- 
mately 71 percent (by value) of the commodities 
authorized under all Title I agreements had been 
exported as of December 31, 1955, and about 80 
percent of the total value excluding cotton had 
been exported by that date. Cotton has moved 
slowly because of price difficulties, so that only 
about 53 percent of the cotton programmed has 
been exported to date. Substantially all ship- 
ments of commodities other than cotton covered 
by agreements signed in the firet year of the pro- 
gram have been completed. 

The monthly tonnage of all commodities 
shipped through December 31, 1955, under Title I 
agreements is shown in tlie accompanying chart. 

Title II — Famine Relief and Other Assistance 

Title II of tlie Act provides that up to $300 
million worth of surplus agricultural commodities 
held by the Commodity Credit Corporation may 



134 



[iepai\men\ of Stale Bulletin 



be used over a three year period to provide as- 
sistance to friendly peoples in meeting famine or 
other urgent relief requirements. 

During the six months covered by this report, 
transfers of about $32 million (Ccc cost) of sur- 
plus commodities were authorized to eight coun- 
tries. Programs include expansion of a school 
lunch program in Italy, and transfers of commodi- 
ties to meet relief requirements in the Near and 
Far East and Latin America. Commodities in- 
clude about $11 million of nonfat dry milk, $5 
million rice, $11 million of wheat and corn, $3 
million fats and oils and about $1 million each of 
dry beans and raw cotton. The eight countries 
and the Ccc cost of the commodities, in millions 
of dollars, are: Italy, $17.4; Libya, $0.8; India, 
$3.5 ; Pakistan, $6.6 ; Cambodia, $2.5 ; Guatemala, 
$0.5; Costa Rica, $0.2; British Honduras, $0.3. 

Programs authorized since the beginning of the 
program under Title II total $141.2 million (Ccc 
cost). Conmiodities included are $97 million 
gi-ain, $18 million fats and oils, $15 million milk 
and milk products, $7 million raw cotton, and over 
$3 million dry beans. 



Title III 

Title III of the Act covers donations for do- 
mestic use and for distribution abroad by non- 
profit voluntary agencies and intergovernmental 
organizations, as well as Ccc barter activities. 

Section 302, Domestic Donations — The volume 
of surplus foods donated to school lunch programs 
and needy persons in this country during July- 
December 1955 was 20 percent larger than the 
volume distributed in the corresponding period in 
1954. Manufactured dairy products, dry beans 
and rice were available during the entire six- 
month period under the Section 302 authority. 
In December, wheat and corn were added under 
this authority for distribution to schools and other 
eligible domestic outlets. 

Section 302, Foreign Donations — Table V shows 
the quantity and value of commodities approved 
for foreign donation through nonprofit voluntary 
agencies and intergovernmental organizations 
during July-December 1955 under this author- 
ity. This is an increase of over 90 percent as 
compared with the same period of fiscal year 1955. 

On December 12, wheat, corn, dry beans and 
rice were added to the list of surplus commodities 



TABLE IV 

Commodities Donated to Domestic Recipients Under 
Public Law 480 July-December 1955 ' 



Commodity 


School 
lunches 


Chari- 
table 

institu- 
tions 


Needy 
per- 
sons 


Total 


Ccc 

cost 




28 
17 
15 
6 
10 


{Million 
pounds) 


{Million 
dollars) 


Butter 


15 
7 
7 
2 
5 


16 
20 
22 
7 
10 


59 
44 
44 
15 
25 


40. 


Cheese 


19. 


Nonfat dry nailk. 

Dry beans 

Rice - 


8.0 
1. 4 
3.0 






Total ... . 


71.4 















' Based on distribution pattern through October. 

available for foreign donations under this au- 
thority. This action is one of a series of steps 
taken to increase further the utilization of surplus 
foods in this country and abroad. 

TABLE V 

Commodities Donated for Foreign Relief Through 
Non-Propit Voluntary Agencies and Inter-Gov- 
ernmental Organizations July-December 1955 



Commodity 


MiUion 
pounds 


Million 

dollars 

Ccc cost 


Nonfat dry milk 

Butter 


206.3 
45.0 
60. 1 
38.4 


39.2 

28.8 


Cheese - 


24.6 


Butter oil - - 


33. 4 






Total 




126.0 









Section 303, Barter — This section strengthens 
and reemphasizes prior barter legislation con- 
tained in the Commodity Credit Corporation 
Charter Act of 1948, as amended, and in the Agri- 
cultural Act of 1949. It directs the Secretary of 
Agriculture to use every practicable means to ex- 
pedite the exchange of Ccc-owned agricultural 
commodities for less-costly-to-store strategic ma- 
terials and other materials, goods, and equipment 
needed by U.S. Government Agencies. Agencies 
of the United States Government procuring such 
materials, goods, or equipment are directed to 
cooperate with the Secretary of Agriculture. 

In operation, barter is effected through con- 
tracts between Ccc and private U.S. business firms 



January 23, 7956 



135 



TABLE VI 
Comparison op Barter Contracts Entered Into in Specified Periods ' 



Materials 


1949-50 through 
1953-54 


1954-55 


July-Dec. 1955 ^ 




Mil. dol. 


Percent 


Mil. dol. 


Percent 


Mil. dol. 


Percent 


Strategic: 

Minimum stockpile. 


71.8 


67 


5.7 
152.8 
100.9 


2 

54 
36 


0.4 
15. 9 
32.8 


1 


Long term stockpile 


31 


Supplemental stockpile type'. 






64 










Total strategic ._ . .. 


71.8 

28.4 
7.4 


67 

26 
7 


259.4 
22.4 


92 
8 


49. 1 
2.3 


96 


Supply: * 

Ica . - . 


4 
















Total supply .. 


35.8 


33 


22.4 


8 


2.3 


4 






Total 


107.6 


100 


281.8 


100 


51.4 


100 







' Years beginning July 1. 

2 Incomplete for December. 

3 Acquired and held as assets by Ccc using as a guide the 0dm supplemental stockpile list for kinds, quantities and 
specifications. 

* Nonstrategic materials, goods, and equipment. 



which use commercial trade channels in fulfilling 
these contracts. Tlie contracts call for the de- 
livery of specified materials with payment to be 
received in Ccc-owned agricultural commodities 
which must subsequently be exported by the con- 
tractor. The origin of materials and the destina- 
tion of agricultural commodities are limited to 
friendly countries but are not required to be iden- 



tical. Materials are valued at not to exceed cur- 
I'ent market prices when tlie offer is accepted and 
agricultural commodities are valued at prevailing 
Ccc export prices applicable to export sales when 
commodities are taken by the contractor. Con- 
tracts generally run for a period of up to two 
years. 
Barter contracts entei'ed into during July-De- 



TABLE VII 
Agricultural Commodities Exported Through Barter in Specified Periods ' 





Unit 


1949-50 
through 
1953-54 


1954-55 


July-December 1955 ^ 


Commodities 


Under all 
contracts 


1954-55 
contracts 


1955-56 
contracts 




Quantities in 1,000 units 


Wheat _. .. .. . 


bu. 


33, 445 

9,388 

990 


46, 261 
4,381 
4,725 
5,244 

19, 687 
54 


28, 100 
42, 561 
1.5, 821 
25, 213 
14, 434 
194 


26, 945 
29, 648 
12, 906 
21, 230 
14, 434 
162 


1, 155 


Corn 


bu 


12,913 


Grain sorghums 


cwt 


2,915 


Barley 


bu .- 


3,983 


Cottonseed oil . 


lb 


4,630 
33 




Others' 


M. T 


32 






Total value (mil. dollars) 


107.6 


124.6 


167.4 


138.5 


28.9 









' Year beginning July 1. 
" December partly estimated. 

' Includes oats, flaxseed, rye, cotton, dried skim milk, rice, linseed oil, cottonseed meal, soybeans, tobacco, and 
peanuts. 



136 



Department of State BuUetin 



TABLE VIII 

Value of Agrictjltdral Commodity Exports by 
Destination, 1954-55 Against 1954-55 Barter 
Contracts ' 



Country 



Austria 

Belgium 

Colombia 

Denmark 

Egypt 

France 

West Germany 

Greece 

India 

Ireland (Eire) 

Israel 

Japan 

Korea 

Mexico 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Peru 

Portugal 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Taiwan (Formosa) . 

Turkey 

United Kingdom... 

Venezuela 

Yugoslavia 

Others^ 



Total. 



Value 

{thousand 

dollars) 



937 

8,764 

643 

412 

222 

482 

15, 501 

10, 983 

617 

2, 177 

6,848 

23, 096 

1,301 

91 

17, 234 

6,585 

916 

187 

789 

432 

212 

4,612 

5,815 

9,433 

24 

1,408 

4,883 



124, 604 



' Year beginning July 1. 

2 Also includes shipments for which documents listing 
countries of destination have not been processed. 



cember 1955 total $51 million. During the same 
period agricultural commodities exported by con- 
tractors, largely against prior contracts, totaled 
$167 million and materials delivered to Ccc totaled 
$46 million. The difference in rates of delivery, 
between materials and agricultural commodities, 
is covered by cash deposits or irrevocable letters 
of credit in favor of Ccc. 

Barter contracts entered into in the current pe- 
riod were at a lower rate than during the July 
1954-June 1955 period but above that for the 
first five years of the barter program. Table VI 
compares barter contracts negotiated since the in- 
ception of the barter program for these three 
periods. 

Agricultural commodity exports by contractors 
in fulfillment of barter contracts with Ccc totaled 
$167 million for the period covered by this report, 
which represents an all-time high for agricultural 
exports under barter. However, as may be noted 
from Table VII, this high export rate resulted 
primarily from old contracts entered into during 
the i^receding year and cannot be maintained in 
view of the sharp decrease in new contracts re- 
ported above. 

A total of 26 different countries received agri- 
cultural commodities exported under barter ar- 
rangements in the year 1954-55, as shown in Table 
VIII. 
The rate of material deliveries to Ccc by con- 



TABLE IX 
Value op Materials Delivered by Barter Contractors in Specified Periods ' 



Materials 



Strategic: 

Minimum stockpile 

Long-term stockpile 

Supplemental stockpile: Type '_ 
Total strategic 

Supply: * 
Ica. 



Defense 

Total supply. 



1949-50 
through 
1953-54 



71.8 



Total. 



71.8 

28. 4 

7.4 

35.8 



107. 6 



1954-55 



July-December 1955 ' 



Under all 
contracts 



1954-55 
contracts 



1955-56 
contracts 



Values in million dollars 



4.8 
54. 6 

3. 1 
61. 5 

20.7 

0.3 

21. 



82. 6 



0.9 
29. 4 
14. 7 
45. 

I. 1 



1. 1 



46. 1 



0.9 
29.4 
13. 1 
43.4 

1. 1 



1. 1 



44. 5 



1.6 
1. 6 



1.6 



' Y^ears beginning July 1. 2 incomplete for December. 

3 Acquired and held as assets by Ccc using as a guide the 0dm supplemental stockpile list for kinds, quantities and 
specifications. « Nonstrategic materials, goods, and equipment. 



January 23, 7956 



137 



tractors against barter agreements in the report 
period increased somewhat over the rate for hist 
yeai'. Materials delivered by contractors, except 
for supplemental type strategic materials, either 
have been transferred or are scheduled for trans- 
fer to other agencies with full reimbursement to 
Ccc. Under administration policy, supplemen- 
tal type strategic materials are retained in the 
Corporation's inventories thereby holding all 
strategic materials procured through barter off 
the market. Further, the acquisition of supple- 
mental type strategic materials has been limited 
to materials within the Office of Defense Mobiliza- 
tion supplemental stockpile list and of a durable 
nature for which carrying costs are insignificant 
as compai-ed with the carrying costs for the agri- 
cultural commodities exchanged. Materials de- 
livered in the report period compared with 
deliveries in the preceding year and the first five 
years of the barter program are indicated in 
Table IX. 

Current Legislation on Foreign Policy: 
84th Congress, 1st Session 

Importation of Canadian Bonded Labor. Hearings be- 
fore the Subcommittee on Labor of the Senate Commit- 
tee on Labor and Public Welfare on S. Res. 98. July 
21, 22, and 25, 1955. 181 pp. 

Human Rights, Domestic Jurisdiction, and the United 
Nations Charter. Staff Study No. 11 of the Subcom- 
mittee on the United Nations Charter of the Senate 
Committee on Foreign Relations. Committee Print. 
October 24, 1955. 28 pp. 

The Status and Role of the Secretariat of the United 
Nations. Staff Study No. 12 of the Subcommittee on the 
United Nations Charter of the Senate Committee on 
Foreign Relations. Committee Print. November 1, 
1955. 23 pp. 

Foreign Economic Policy. Hearings before the Subcom- 
mittee on Foreign Economic Policy of the Joint Com- 
mittee on the Economic Report pursuant to Sec. 5 (a) 
of Public Law 304, 79th Congress. November 9-17, 
1955. 020 pp. 

Summary of Reports of American Citizens Abroad on 
Technical Assistance Programs. Staff Study No. 4 of 
the Subcommittee on Technical Assistance Programs of 
the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Com- 
mittee Print. December 22, 1955. 23 pp. 



84th Congress, 2d Session 

Message from the President of the United States Trans- 
mitting a Report on the State of the Union. H. Doc. 
241, January 5, 1956. 16 pp. 



Foreign Economic Policy. Report of the Joint Commit- 
tee on the Economic Report. S. Rept. 1312, January 
5, 1956. 33 pp. 

Commemorating the 250th Anniversary of the Birth of 
Benjamin Franklin. Report to accompany H. Con. | 
Res. 199. S. Rept. 1365, January 9, 1956. 2 pp. 



Analysis of U.N. Budget for 1956 

Statement hy Chester E. Merrow 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ^ 

My delegation will support in this plenary ses- 
sion the total appropriation for 1956 voted by the 
Fifth Committee, but it does so with some reserva- 
tions. 

With the forewarning which we had received as 
to the necessity for a large supplemental appro- 
priation for 1955 to cover such items as the Geneva 
Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic 
Energy, it was the expressed hope of my delega- 
tion at the outset of the debate in the Fifth Com- 
mittee that we could keep the 1956 budget to the 
level recommended by the Advisory Committee, 
namely, $46,016,000. Instead, the budget ap- 
proved by the Fifth Committee has reached 
$48,566,350 — an increase of approximately 
$1,600,000 over the budget which this Assembly 
approved last year for 1955. 

These increases fall largely into four categories 
of expenditures, i. e., activities related to peaceful 
uses of atomic energy, technical assistance in the 
social-welfare and human-rights field, operation 
of field offices and special missions, and salary ad- 
justments. My delegation in the Budgetary Com- 
mittee supported important program expansion 
and some increased expenditures in all of these 
items except the one relating to salary adjust- 
ments. We opposed some of the appropriations 
voted for progi-am expansion, and we opposed the 
increase in headquarters cost-of-living allowance. 
We recognized that changing economic conditions i 
and particularly the increase in United States 
Federal Government salaries necessitated a re- 
appraisal of the adequacy of the total level of 
United Nations remuneration. We were op- 
posed to the Secretary-General's proposal for a 



138 



' Made in plenary session on Dec. 16 ( U.S. di^legation , 
press release 2325). For a statement by Representative ^ 
Merrow in Committee V on Oct. 11, see Bulletin of Oct. 
31, 1955, p. 715. 

Deparfmenf o^ Sfo/e Bulletin 



cost-of-living adjustment at this time because, on 
the basis of prevailing standards in the United 
Nations and the specialized agencies, there is no 
present justification for this kind of salary 
increase. 

However, we believe that the establishment of 
a committee composed of governmental experts 
to review the salary, allowance, and benefit system 
in 1956 is a welcome development. Such a review 
should make it possible to achieve two objectives, 
namely: (1) to adjust the common remuneration 
system of the United Nations and the specialized 
agencies to present-day requirements for attract- 
ing and holding a highly qualified multina- 
tional staff in positions in all parts of the world 
and (2) to make these adjustments in a manner 
which takes adequate account of the responsibili- 
ties and financial resources of international or- 
ganizations and the standards of remuneration in 
national public services. 

In this connection, Mr. President, may I state 
that the United States Government is not satisfied 
with the present level of participation by United 
States nationals in the various international sec- 
retariats and technical assistance programs. We 
trust the recommendations of the committee will 
be such as to encourage an increased number of 
United States nationals to seek international em- 
ployment not only at the United Nations head- 
quarters but also at other international agency 
centers as well. 

Wliile a number of the proposals for additional 
budgetary increases were resisted by the commit- 
tee, my delegation was disappointed that the pi'O- 
posals for increased expenditures were not offset 
to a larger extent by compensating economies. 
We had hoped, for example, to make some savings 
by altering the regulations for publication of 
treaties. Likewise, we had hoped to defer less 
essential items, such as expenditures for improve- 
ment of facilities for conferences and meetings in 
Geneva. 

The net result of all of the financial decisions 
taken by the Fifth Committee is that the expendi- 
tures to be assessed in respect of the 1955 supple- 
mental appropriation and the 1956 budget will 
total $51,830,550, the largest in United Nations 
history. (I might add parenthetically that we 
hope that this Tenth General Assembly will se- 
I curely hold this dubious distinction unchallenged 
for many years to come.) The amount of these 
appropriations is due not only to the increase of 



$1,600,000 in the 1956 budget to which I have 
already i-ef erred, but also to the coincidental occur- 
rence of unusually high supplemental expendi- 
tures in respect of 1955, without the offsetting 
savings that were available last year. The sup- 
plemental items for 1955 include $1,400,000 of the 
total cost of $2,361,000 for the International Sci- 
entific Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic 
Energy; $1,630,000 representing the last appro- 
priation for reimbursement of national taxes to 
staff members; and other unforeseen costs relating 
to such matters as the disarmament meeting in 
London and the Secretary-General's successful 
trip in accordance with the General Assembly's 
directive to obtain the release of 11 United States 
prisoners and other personnel of the United Na- 
tions Command captured in the Korean war. 

Basis for United States Support 

Despite its concern over the upturn of United 
Nations expenditures just at the point when we 
had anticipated stabilization, the United States 
will support the appropriation recommended by 
the Fifth Committee for 1956. We do so in rec- 
ognition of two facts: (1) that the Secretary- 
General and the General Assembly have, over the 
past 2 years, made a real effoi't and considerable 
progress in reducing the regular budget and (2) 
that a sizable amount of the increased assessments 
being voted for 1956 is of a nonrecurring char- 
acter. My delegation strongly urges, however, 
that the upward trend of expenditures reflected in 
the 1956 budgets of not only the United Nations 
but also the specialized agencies not be considered 
as establishing a precedent for future years. 

In an earlier statement before the Fifth Com- 
mittee,^ I expressed the belief that the support of 
all member governments for the causes served by 
the programs of the United Nations agencies 
should be sustained and indeed increased. This 
should not be interpreted, however, as urging in- 
creases in the regular budgets. The avenues by 
which these causes can be served are many. As I 
indicated in the Fifth Committee, the form of such 
support, i. e., whether through the regular budgets 
of international organizations, through interna- 
tional voluntary programs, or through such other 
forms of intergovernmental cooperation as bi- 
lateral programs, will require a continuing assess- 
ment of the following factors, among others : 



' Hid., p. 717. 



January 23, 1956 



139 



(a) whether an international agency can be demon- 
strated to be the best instrument for meeting the needs 
which are justifiably the concern of the international 
community ; 

(b) the degree to which the members of such an 
agency are willing to bear an equitable share of the 
financial burdens entailed in assuming such international 
responsibilities. It is an inescapable fact that, if the 
brunt of the costs falls upon a few member states, the 
undertaking is not truly international and misunder- 
standings will surely result; 

(c) and lastly, whether international assistance will 
be adequately supported and supplemented by national 
endeavor. 

One further fact that must be continuously 
borne in mind by member states as well as the 
Secretariat was pointed out to us by the Secretary- 
General last year in his annual report. He stated 
that— 

. . . the very nature of the responsibilities that must 
be assumetl by the Secretary-General and his senior staff 
imposes a limit on the volume of the tasks that can be 
handled effectively, irrespective of the additional funds, 
personnel, and facilities that might be placed at their 
disposal. 

All of these factors dictate caution in the ex- 
pansion by the General Assembly of the perma- 
nent establishments and the regular budgets of 
international organizations. This does not mean 
that pressing world problems will be neglected by 
the community of nations represented here and in 
the specialized agencies; far from it. 

Although the sum total of the regular budgets 
of the United Nations and currently existing spe- 
cialized agencies for the period 1946 to 1955 in- 
clusive approximates $686 million, an additional 
amount of more than $1 billion has been con- 
tributed to international progi-ams especially de- 
signed to provide relief and rehabilitation for 
refugees, to give technical assistance for economic 
and social development, and to promote maternal 
and child welfare. In addition, very material as- 
sistance in promoting economic development is 
provided through the facilities of the Interna- 
tional Bank and Monetary Fund. And augment- 
ing all of these efforts are large national programs 
of assistance such as the United States teclmical 
cooperation plan and regional programs such as 
the Colombo Plan. The value and results which 
derive from such a flexible, many-pronged ap- 
proach to these problems cannot be overestimated 
and should not be jeopardized by premature or 
unrealistic expansion of the regular budgets and 
staffs of international organizations. 



Improved Budget Procedure 

In expressing our hopes regarding the budget 
to be presented next year, I should also like to 
mention our interest in seeing the Advisory Com- 
mittee and the Assembly develop a more simplified 
form of the budget that will enable the financial 
control exercised by the Assembly' and the Secre- 
tary-General to be more effective and will, at the 
same time, reduce administrative red tape. 

We welcome, too, the initiative taken by the 
distinguished delegate of Denmark [Finn T. B. 
Friis] in the Fifth Committee in calling our atten- 
tion to the need for improving the organization 
and scheduling of the Fifth Committee's work. 
This led to a fruitful discussion on ways and 
means of eliminating delays and of facilitating, in 
particular, the review of the budget and decisions 
relating thereto. 

The Assembly will note in the report of the 
Fifth Committee that the United States suggested 
that the agenda of the 11th session of the General 
Assembly might include an item entitled "General 
Assembly Procedures for Consideration and 
Adoption of the Budget." We are pleased that 
the Secretary-General will give this matter his 
attention during this next year. 

While experience, particularly this year, has 
shown the need for procedural improvements, I 
should like to testify to the skill of the chairman 
of the Fifth Committee. With the difficulties we 
faced, only the direction of a superb chairman 
could save us. My delegation believes that we, 
therefore, owe a special debt of gratitude to Am- 
bassador [Hans] Engen of Norway. 

Coordination of U.N. and Agencies 

In matters of coordination with the specialized 
agencies, the decision of the Fifth Committee to 
support the Secretary-General's request for in- 
creases in salaries and in the education allowance 
was, in our judgment, without sufficient notice 
to the specialized agencies. This seems a regret- 
table departure from the repeated emphasis given 
by the Assembly to the desirability of coordinat- 
ing administrative policies and practices among 
the United Nations and the agencies. 

On the other hand, the Fifth Committee did 
recommend that the United Nations offer its 
assistance to the International Telecommunica- 
tion Union and World Meteorological Organiza- 
tion in constructing a headquarters that would 






140 



Department of State BuUetin 



permit them to share the facilities of the Palais 
des Nations with the United Nations and the 
World Health Organization. We hope that this 
will eventuate in closer relationships among these 
organizations and that it will be ultimately pos- 
sible for them and us to benefit from the greater 
use of common services that would result from 
living under the same roof. 

Another step that should be conducive to im- 
proved coordination of the United Nations and 
the specialized agencies in the administrative field 
is the decision of the Advisory Committee to 
undertake a more intensive review of problems 
in this area. This will be possible by consulta- 
tions at the headquarters of several specialized 
agencies during the coming year. We commend 
the agencies, the Advisory Committee, and its dis- 
tinguished chairman. Ambassador [Thanassis] 
Aghnides [of Greece], on this constructive 
approach. 

To summarize, Mr. President, my delegation 
will support the reconmiended appropriation, in 
spite of its reservations. We believe that, through 
the exercise of restraint and the constructive ap- 
plication of our joint eti'orts, the members of the 
United Nations should be able to regulate better 
any further budgetary expansion. We are con- 
fident that, by following sound fiscal policies and 
by inaugurating improved methods of budgetary 
management and control, the United Nations will 
be gi-eatly strengthened. The budget is, of course, 
the reflection of the development of the activities 
of the organization. The appropriations place 

t in practical effect the provisions of the budget. 
My delegation firmly believes that, by continued 

I pm-suance of sound financial principles, the 

I United Nations during its second decade will in- 
crease in influence and effectiveness as the greatest 
force for helping man to realize his hopes for 

I bringing about a peaceful world. 

Atoms-for-Peace Agreement 
With Uruguay Comes Into Force 

On January 13 the Atomic Energy Commission 
and the Department of State (press release 19) 
lissued a joint announcement that the cooperative 
agreement between the United States and 
iUruguay covering research in the jjeaceful uses 
;of atomic energy was signed on that day at the 

January 23, 1956 



Department of State. Ambassador Jose A. Mora 
signed the agreement for Uruguay. The Assist- 
ant Secretary of State for Inter- American Affairs, 
Henry F. Holland, and the Chairman of the 
Atomic Energy Commission, Lewis Strauss, 
signed for the United States. 

This agreement was initialed by representatives 
of the two Governments on June 24, 1955.^ Under 
terms of the U.S. Atomic Energy Act, certain 
procedural steps must be taken by executive and 
legislative branches of the United States Govern- 
ment before agreements of this type may come into 
force. These steps have now been taken; with 
the signing, the agreement becomes effective for 
both countries. 



Current Treaty Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Aviation 

Couvention on the international recognition of rights in 
aircraft. Opened for signature at Geneva June 19, 
1948. Entered into force September 17, 1953. TIAS 
2847. 
Ratification deposited: Chile, December 19, 1955.^^ 

Copyright 

Universal copjright convention. Done at Geneva Septem- 
ber 6, 1952. Entered into force September 16, 1955. 
TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Switzerland, December 30, 1955. 

Postal Matters 

Universal postal convention, with final protocol, annex, 
regulations of execution, and provisions regarding air- 
mail and final protocol thereto. Signed at Brussels 
July 11, 1952. Entered Into force July 1, 1953. TIAS 
2800. 
Ratification deposited: Chile, December 13, 1955. 

Slave Trade 

Protocol amending slavery convention signed at Geneva 
September 25, 1926 (46 Stat. 2183), and annex. Done 
at New York December 7, 1953. Protocol entered into 
force December 7, 1953 ; ' annex entered into force 
July 7, 1955." 

Acceptances deposited: Greece, December 12, 1955 ; 
China, December 14, 1955. 

Weather 

Convention of the World Meteorological Organization. 
Done at Washington October 11, 1947. Entered into 
force March 23, 1950. TIAS 2052. 
Accession deposited: Libya, December 29, 1955. 



' See Bulletin of July 11, 1955, p. 55, footnote 1. 

'Ratification deposited by Chile Nov. 20, 1951, with a 
reservation which the United States was unable to accept, 
has been withdrawn. Present ratification deposited with- 
out a reservation. 

'' Not in force for the United States. 



141 



BILATERAL 

Canada 

Agreement amending schedule 2 relating to routes an- 
nexed to air transport agreement of June 4, 1949 (TIAS 
1934). Effected by exchange of notes at Ottawa No- 
vember 22 and December 20, 1955. Entered into force 
December 20, 1955. 

Colombia 

Agreement extending agreement for a technical coopera- 
tion housing project of June 24 and 30, 1954 (TIAS 
3090). Effected by exchange of notes at BogotA De- 
cember 1 and 21, 1955. Entered into force December 

21, 1955. 

Germany 

Agreement amending agreement relating to use of the 
practice bombing range near Cuxhaven (Sandbank), 
Germany, of August 6 and 28, 19.54 (TIAS 3063). Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at Bonn/Bad Godesberg 
November 7, 14, and 29, 1955. Entered into force 
November 29, 1955. 

Agreement to facilitate interchange of patent rights and 
technical information for defense purposes, and ex- 
change of notes. Signed at Bonn January 4, 1956. En- 
tered into force January 4, 1956. 

Libya 

Agreement providing for duty-free entry into Libya and 
exemption from internal taxation of relief supplies and 
packages. Effected by exchange of notes at Tripoli 
December 6 and 22, 1955. Entered into force December 

22, 1955. 

Mexico 

Agreement extending the migratory labor agreement of 
August 11, 1951 (TIAS 2331), as amended. Effected 
by exchange of notes at Mexico December 23, 1955. 
Entered into force December 23, 1955. 

Paicistan 

Agreement further revising the agreement relating to 
passport visas and visa fees. Effected by exchanges of 
notes at Karachi August 4, October 20, November 25 
and 29, 1955. Entered into force December 1, 1955. 

Uruguay 

Agreement for cooperation concerning civil uses of atomic 
energy. Signed at Washington January 13, 1956. En- 
tered into force January 13, 1956. 



THE DEPARTMENT 



Delegation of Authority ^ 

Executive Director, Bonn, and Dikectok of Administra- 
tion, Vienna 

delegation of authority 

By virtue of the authority vested in the Secretary of 
State by the act of May 26, 1949 (63 Stat. Ill; 5 U. S. C. 
151cand22U. S. C. 811a), 

And by virtue of the authority vested in me by Delega- 



tion of Authority No. 78-B, dated October 29, 1955,' there 
is hereby delegated to the Executive Director of the 
American Embassy, Bonn, Germany, and to the Director 
of Administration for the American Embassy, Vienna, 
Austria, the authority contained in the annual appropria- 
tion "Government in Occupied Areas, Department of 
State", to approve and settle tort claims in Germany and 
Austria in the manner authorized in the first paragraph 
of section 2672, as amended, of Title 28 of United States 
Code. 

Dated : December 23, 1955. 

I. W. Carpenter, Jr., 
Assistant Secretary-Controller. 



Designations 

William Witman II as Deputy Director of the Office of 
South Asian Affairs, effective December 3. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale hy the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free puMications, which may be obtained 
from the Department of State. 

Objectives of U. S. Foreign Policy in Latin America. Pub. 
6131. Inter-American Series 51. 51 pp. 25(!. 

A pamphlet composed of five speeches by Henry F. 
Holland, Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American 
Affairs. 

The Geneva Meeting of Foreign Ministers— October 27- 
November 16, 1955. Pub. 0156. Internationa! Organiza- 
tion and Conference Series I, 30. 307 pp. $1. 

A report of the Foreign Ministers Meeting containing 
proposals of the four delegations, principal statements 
of Secretary I>ulles, and those statements of the other 
Foreign Ministers issued as conference papers. 

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade — Negotia- 
tions Under the Trade Agreement Act of 1934 as Amended 
and Extended. Pub. 61S3. Commercial Policy Series 
153. 14 pp. 15(J. 

A pamphlet containing the supplemental notice of U.S. 
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of Renegotiation of Certain Tariff Concessions. Pub. 
6201. Commercial Policy Series 154. 36 pp. 15^. 

A pamphlet containing an analysis of the renegotiation 
of certain tariff concessions with India, Netherlands 
Antilles, New Zealand, Nicaragua, and Pakistan. 



' Public Notice 146, 20 Fed. Reg. 10168. 



Bulletin of Nov. 28, 1955, p. 909. 



142 



Department of State Bulletin 



January 23, 1956 



Ind 



ex 



Vol. XXXIV, No. 865 



Pagd 
Agriculture. Third Progress Report on the Agri- 
cultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 

(Eisenhower, text of report) 130 

Atomic Energy 

Atoms-for-Peace Agreement With Uruguay Comes 

Into Force 141 

Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Conference . 118 
Austria. Delegation of Authority (Carpenter) . . 142 
Congress, The 

Current Legislation 138 

Third Progress Report on the Agricultural Trade 
Development and Assistance Act (Eisenhower, 

text of report ) 130 

Economic Affairs 

Prospects for Expanding Spanish-American Trade 

(Lodge) 126 

Tariff Concessions to Norway 125 

Educational Exchange. Seminar on International 

Problems for Representatives of Nato .... 125 

Foreign Service. Delegation of Authority (Car- 
penter) 142 

Germany. Delegation of Authority (Carpenter) . 142 

Mutual Security 

General Assembly Delegation's Views on Economic 

Aid 117 

Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Conference . 118 
Near East. Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News 

Conference 118 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Seminar on 
International Problems for Representatives of 

NATO 125 

Norway. Tariff Concessions to Norway .... 125 
Presidential Documents. Third Progress Report 
on the Agricultural Trade Development and 

Assistance Act 130 

Publications. Recent Releases 142 

Spain. Prospects for Expanding Spanish-American 

Trade (Lodge) 126 

State, Department of 

Delegation of authority (Carpenter) 142 

Designations (Witman) 142 

Revisions in Passport Regulations 129 



Treaty Information ^''*' 
Atoms-for-Peace Agreement With Uruguay Comes 

Into Force j^^j^ 

Current Actions 141 

U.S.S.R. Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News 

Conference jjg 

United Nations 

.\nalysis of U.N. Budget for 1956 (Merrow) . . 138 

General Assembly Delegation's Views on Economic 

Aid 117 

The United Nations : Some New Perspectives After 

Ten Years (Wilcox) m 

Uruguay. Atoms-for-Peace Agreement With Uru- 
guay Comes Into Force 141 

Name Index 

Carpenter, I. W., Jr 142 

Dulles, Secretary ng 

Eisenhower, President 130 

Lodge, John 129 

Merrow, Chester E 133 

Wilcox, Francis O m 

Witman, William, II 142 



Check List of Department of^ State 
Press Releases: January 9-15 

Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 
Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 

No. Date Subject 

14 1/11 Statement by General Assembly dele- 

gation. 

15 1/11 Dulles : news conference transcript. 

16 1/12 Revisions in passport regulations. 

17 1/13 Wilcox: "The United Nations: Some 

New Perspectives After Ten Tears." 

18 1/13 Tariff concessions to Norway. 

19 1/13 Atomic agreement with Uruguay. 
*20 1/14 Dulles: death of William Pearson. 
*22 1/14 Award to Raymond Stegmaier. 



* Not printed. 



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OFFICIAL BUSINESS 

Recent releases in the popular Background series . . . 

The Union of Burma 

This 16-page illustrated pamphlet describes the land and the 
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the new Burma. Concerning the position of Burma in world 
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have long preferred to be left alone to develop their own re- 
sources. Today Burma's leaders realize the impossibility of 
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Publication 5913 10 cents 

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The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in Western Asia is one 
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West of the Jordan River, the Kingdom encompasses a signifi- 
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centuries provided an important link in the trade between the 
East and the West. 



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Southeast Asia: Critical Area in a Divided World 

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from east to west and more than 2,000 from north to south, 
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H. XXXIV, No. 866 



January 30, 1956 




STRENGTHENING THE DEFENSE OF THE UNITED 
STATES A]>fD ITS ALLIES • Excerpts From President 
Eisenhotcer's Budget Message 147 

THE NEW SOVIET DIPLOMATIC OFFENSIVE • by 

Deputy Under Secretary Murphy 168 

UNITED STATES PARTICIPATION IN GATl' NEGO- 
TIATIONS AT GENEVA • Statement by Deputy Under 
Secretary Prochnou) ••••.•............... 184 

DEPARTMENT'S RECOMMENDATIONS ON SUGAR 

LEGISLATION • Statement by Assistant Secretary 
Holland 172 

CONVENTION ON INTER-AMERICAN CULTURAL 
RELATIONS TRANSMITTED TO SENATE 

President's Message of Transmittal 175 

Report of Acting Secretary Hoover ............. 175 

Text of Convention 176 

AMBASSADORIAL TALKS AT GENEVA WITH CHI- 
NESE COMMUNISTS 164 

SECURITY COUNCIL CONDEMNS ISRAEL FOR 
ACTION AGAINST SYRIA • Statement by Ambassador 
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr 182 



For index see inside back cover 



Boston Public L-:,T 



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L»»<T ©^ 



v>uper,ntnn^Vn, of Documents/ 

FEB 2 7 1956 V?^^/ 




J. ^w^»,^*. bulletin 



Vol. XXXrV.No. 866 • Publication 6273 
January 30, 1956 



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Bureau of the Budget (January 19, 1955). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contahied herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a iceekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy , 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other offi- 
cers of the Department, as icell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, as 
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of international relations, are listed 
currently. 



strengthening the Defense of the United States and Its Allies 



EXCERPTS FROM PRESIDENT EISENHOWER'S BUDGET MESSAGE > 



To the Congress of the United States: 

I send you today the Budget of the United 
States Government for the fiscal year 1957 which 
begins July 1, 1956. This budget also includes 
the fiscal results of all Govenunent operations for 
the year ended June 30, 1955, and revised estimates 
for the current fiscal year ending June 30, 1956. 

BUDGET TOTALS 
[Fiscal years. In billions] 





1955 
actual 


1956 
esti- 
mated 


1957 
esti- 
mated 


Budget receipts 

Budget expenditures 


$60.4 
64.6 


$64.5 
64.3 


$66.3 
65. 9 


Budget surplus ( + ) or 
deficit (-)_ 


-4. 2 


+ .2 


+ .4 







The budget I am proposing for 1957 is a bal- 
anced budget. It is my expectation that the budget 
will also be in balance for the fiscal year 1956. 

Although balanced, the margin of estimated 
surplus in each of these budgets is slim. This 
calls for the utmost cooperation between the Ex- 
ecutive and legislative branches to prevent in- 
creases in expenditures or reductions in receipts 
that would create a deficit. 



Budget Policies 

We seek, above all, the attainment of a just and 
durable peace. Thus, the resources of the world 
can be directed to building a better life for all 



' H. Doc. 256, 84tli Cong., 2d sess., transmitted on Jan. 
16 ; reprinted from Cong. Rec. of Jan. 16, pp. 469 ff. The 
message, together with summary budget statements, is 
for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. ; price $1.50. 

January 30, 7956 



people. The people of the Soviet Union and of 
the coimtries under its domination are imdoubt- 
edly as anxious as the people of other nations to 
achieve this objective. I regret that the Soviet 
leaders have not as yet given any tangible evidence 
of an intention to agree on a plan of disarmament 
that can be verified by adequate inspection. In 
the absence of such tangible evidence, we must 
follow the course reflected in this budget of stead- 
ily strengthening the defense of the United States 
and its allies, so that the free world will remain 
strong enough to deter possible aggressors or to 
retaliate immediately and effectively if attacked. 
At the same time, the Government of the United 
States will steadfastly seek all possible ways of 
further progi-ess toward our goal of peace. We 
will speed the development of the civilian uses of 
atomic energy and make the resulting benefits 
available, under appropriate controls, to other na- 
tions for the well-being of mankind. We will 
propose logical methods for advancing disarma- 
ment. We will promote international trade and 
investment. We will not falter in our cooperative 
efforts to build the economic, as well as defensive, 
strength of the free world through the Mutual 
Security Program. 



Budget Expenditures 

Expenditures hy purpose. — When we look at the 
budget in terms of a few broad purposes, we find 
that the greatest portion, 64 percent, of the ex- 
penditures in the fiscal year 1957 will be for de- 
terring possible aggression and for strengthening 
the international alliances to which we belong. 
The next largest part, 21 percent, will be devoted 
to civil benefits of various kinds. Interest, largely 
on the public debt, will amount to nearly 11 per- 
cent. Expenditures for civil operations and ad- 

147 



ministration are estimated at 4 percent of the 
total. . . . 

BUDGET EXPENDITURES BY PURPOSE 
[Fiscal years. In billions] 





1955 
actual 


1956 
esti- 
mated 


1957 
esti- 
mated 


Protection, including collec- 
tive security . 


$42. 7 

13.7 

6.4 

1.7 


$41.4 

13.8 

6.9 

2. 1 
. 1 


$42. 4 


Civil benefits 


13. 9 


Interest . . 


7. 1 


Civil operations and admin- 
istration 


2. 2 


Reserve for contingencies 


.2 








Total 


64.6 


64.3 


65.9 







Protection, including collective security. — In 
this summary classification of broad purposes, ex- 
penditures for protection include more than the 
four major national security programs. They em- 
brace the military functions of the Department of 
Defense, including construction and pi'ocurement ; 
the Mutual Security Program ; the Atomic Energy 
Commission; and other programs such as stock- 
piling, expansion of defense production, civil 
defense, and our foreign information activities. 

EXPENDITURES FOR PROTECTION, INCLUDING 
COLLECTIVE SECURITY 

[Fiscal years. In billions] 





1955 
actual 


1956 
esti- 
mated 


1957 
esti- 
mated 


Major national security pro- 
grams: 

Department of Defense- 
Military functions 

Mutual Security Pro- 
gram — Military 

Atomic Energy Com- 
mission _ _ 


$35.5 

2.3 

1.9 

.9 


$34.6 
2.5 
1.7 

.7 


$35.5 
2.5 
1. 9 


Stockpiling and defense 
production expansion. 


.4 


Subtotal 


40.6 
2. 1 


39.5 
1. 9 


40. 4 


Related programs 


2.0 






Total 


42.7 


41.4 


42. 4 







In planning such great security programs, it is 
clear that we must never permit ourselves to be 
panicked by temporary crises or beguiled by a cam- 
paign of smiles without deeds. We continue to 
maintain and to strengthen our national security 
forces. 



This budget provides for increased expenditures 
for the military functions of the Department of 
Defense, emphasizing air-atomic power, guided 
missiles, research and development, continental 
defense, and the re-equipping of our forces with r 
new types of weapons. Outlays for conventional 
weapons and for stockpiling will be decreased. 
Under the Mutual Security Progi'am, budget ex- 
penditures in 1957 for military assistance and for 
economic and technical assistance are estimated at 
about the same level as in the fiscal years 1955 and 
1956. Expenditures for atomic energy, including 
peaceful applications, will rise in 1957 to a some- 
what liigher total than for any previous year. I 
am also recommending an expansion of oui- foreign 
information activities so that we can more success- 
fully advance understanding abroad of our poli- 
cies and their peaceful intent. 



Major National Security 

Budget expenditures for major national security 
programs in the fiscal year 1957 are estimated at 
40.4 billion dollars, 903 million dollars more than 
estimated for the fiscal year 1956. 

To build our military strength effectively and 
efficiently, peaks and valleys in security spending 
and in defense production must be avoided. I 
want to emphasize again the importance of a 
somid, long-range program which does not arbi- 
trarily assume a fixed date of maximum danger. 
Military planning must combine present defense 
with the probable needs of a long period of im- 
certain peace. 

Department of Defense. — During the past 3 
years our defense program has been successfully 
reoriented to reflect the changing nature of the 
threat to our security, the revised requirements 
brought about by the end of the Korean conflict, 
and the increasing availability of new weapons of 
unprecedented strategic and tactical importance. 

This reorientation has been accomplished by 
developing our defense program on the basis of 
the following policies and concepts: 

1. Gearing our defense preparations to a long 
period of imcertainty instead of to a succession of 
arbitrarily assumed dates of maximum danger. 

2. Maintaining the capability to deter a poten- 
tial aggressor from attack and to blunt that attack 
if it comes — by a combination of immediate re- 



148 



Department of State Butletin 



MAJOR NATIONAL SECURITY 
[Fiscal years. In millions] 



Item 



New obligational authority 



1955 
actual 



1956 esti- 
mated 



1957 esti- 
mated 



Expenditures 



1955 
actual 



1956 esti- 
mated 



1957 esti- 
mated 



Gross budget expenditures: 

Department of Defense — Military Functions: 

Direction and coordination of defense 

Air Force defense 

Army defense 

Navy defense 

Other central defense activities 

Proposed legislation 

Transfer from Department of Defense revolving 
funds to general accounts (proposed legisla- 
tion) 



$13 

12, 137 

7,764 

10, 221 

653 



$13 

15, 490 

7,351 

9,640 

654 



$15 

15, 430 

7,731 

10, 006 

607 

1,902 



-785 



$13 

16, 407 

8,899 

9,733 

481 



$13 

15, 960 

8,510 

9,435 

657 



$14 

16, 535 

8,582 

9,565 

651 

200 



Total, Department of Defense 

Development and control of atomic energy: 

Present programs 

Proposed legislation 

Stockpiling and defense production expansion: 

Present programs 

Proposed legislation 

Mutual security program — military: 

Present programs 

Proposed legislation 



30, 787 
1,285 



33, 147 
1, 179 



34, 907 

1,692 
144 



35, 533 
1,857 



34, 575 
1,715 



380 
1,204 



521 
1,022 



3,000 



1,442 
2,292 



983 
2,464 



35, 547 

1,905 
40 

678 
4 

2, 100 
400 



Total - 

Deduct applicable receipts: 
Defense production expansion. 
Other 



33, 656 



35, 870 



39, 743 



41, 124 

497 
(') 



39, 737 

270 

(') 



40, 674 

304 

C) 



Net budget expenditures. 



40, 626 



39, 467 



40, 370 



' Less than one-half million dollars. 

taliatory power and a continental defense system 
of steadily increasing effectiveness. 

3. Developing military forces which minimize 
numbers of men by making maximum use of 
science and technology. 

4. Relating the number and degree of readiness 
of major units in the active forces to the practical 
limitations on the rapid deployment of major mili- 
tary forces from the United States immediately 
upon the outbreak of aggression, and relying, for 
the remainder, on ready reserve forces. 

5. Utilizing military persomiel on active duty 
with maximum effectiveness so as to hold to a mini- 
mum the number of men withdrawn from work in 
the civilian economy. 

6. Concentrating our efforts on those forces 
which best complement the forces our allies are 
most capable of raising and supporting. 

7. Maintaining a strong and expanding peace- 
time industrial structure, readily convertible to the 
tasks of defense and war. 

The readjustment of our military forces in line 



with these principles is providing this Nation with 
the greatest military power in its peacetime his- 
tory. My recommendations for the fiscal year 1957 
continue the same basic policies and concepts. 

This budget provides funds for an average of 
2,815,700 military personnel on active duty during 
the fiscal year 1957. Total military personnel on 
active duty will increase to 2,838,400 at the end of 
fiscal year 1957 from the number of 2,814,100 esti- 
mated to be on active duty at the end of the cur- 
rent fiscal year. In order to permit flexibility in 
planning and operations, a military personnel, 
ceiling has been authorized for the fiscal year 1957, 
totaling 2,906,000, excluding Army cadets. Navy 
aviation cadets, and midshipmen. However, no 
increase will be made above the military persoimel 
levels provided for in this budget except upon de- 
tailed justification to, and approval by the Secre- 
tary of Defense. 

During the fiscal year 1957 there will be signifi- 
cant increases in certain combat elements, particu- 
larly units employing new weapons and units as- 



January 30, T956 



149 



signed to continental defense. These increases, 
together with the continued modernization of the 
weapons and equipment, will furtlier enhance the 
combat power and effectiveness of our forces. 



Development and control of atomic energy. — 
We have long sought and we continue to seek, 
jointly with other nations, means to banish the 
threat of nuclear warfare which still confronts the 
world. Pending a trustworthy agreement, how- 
ever, we must continue to increase our nuclear 
weapons stockpile which, together with the means 
of delivery, is the principal deterrent to armed 
aggression in the world. At the same time, we 
shall speed the development of the peaceful uses 
of atomic energy and make the resulting benefits, 
under appropriate controls, available to other 
nations for the well-being of all mankind. To 
this end we continue to hope that an international 
atomic energy agency will be established at an 
early date. 

The United Nations Conference on the Peaceful 
Uses of Atomic Energy at Geneva last summer, 
which grew out of a proposal by the United States, 
not only facilitated the exchange of technical 
information but served to emphasize the great 
promise of atomic energy for peace. 

So that we may further demonstrate this great 
promise, I recommend again that the Congress 
take early action to authorize the construction of 
a nuclear-powered ship, using an atomic propul- 
sion plant already developed, which will carry the 
message of "Atoms for Peace" to the ports of the 
world. The Atomic Energy Commission has suffi- 
cient funds available for construction and installa- 
tion of the propulsion plant and machinery, and 
I shall request additional funds for the fiscal year 
1956 for the Department of Commerce for con- 
struction of a suitable hull. 

Total expenditures for atomic energy in 1957 
are estimated at 1.9 billion dollars, 230 million 
dollars more than in 1956. 

Operating expenditures will increase from 1.4 
billion dollars in the fiscal year 1956 to 1.6 billion 
dollars in 1957. Greater quantities of uraniimi 
ores and concentrates will be purchased. Produc- 
tion from the Commission's plants will increase 
but at reduced unit costs as the expanded facilities, 
soon to be completed, come into full operation. 
Research and development work in numerous 
areas, both civilian and military, will be expanded. 



Capital expenditures in the fiscal year 1957 are 
expected to decline somewhat from 1956 levels. I 
shall propose to the Congress legislation to au- 
thorize new construction in 1957, principally for 
improvements to increase the efficiency, capacity, 
and safety of production plants and for research 
and development facilities. 

The civilian applications of nuclear energy will 
receive even greater attention, not only in terms 
of Government expenditures, but also through the 
Commission's efforts to stimulate more participa- 
tion and investment by private and public groups, 
particularly in the development of atomic power. 
As such participation increases, the share of power 
development costs financed by the Government 
should decrease. As part of its encouragement of 
the development of atomic power, the Commission 
plans in 1957 to continue specialized training of 
nuclear engineers and to expand its support of the 
training of nuclear engineers through fellowships 
and through provision of specialized training 
equipment to a number of universities. Tlie Com- 
mission will also construct a special reactor for 
use by the Department of Defense in developing 
methods for preserving food through irradiation. 

Great emphasis is being placed on the develop- 
ment of a larger variety of nuclear propulsion 
plants. To this end, funds are included under 
proposed legislation for additional developmental 
facilities at the National Reactor Testing Station 
in Idaho. 

The Atomic Energy Commission will also step 
up research on controlled thermonuclear reactions 
as new discoveries may justify. This program, 
while long range, gives promise of yet greater di- 
mensions to the potential peaceful uses of nuclear 
energy. 

Continuing progress in basic research is funda- 
mental to further advances in nuclear energy. 
The Commission will increase in the fiscal year 
1957 its sujiport of basic research in the jjliysical 
and life sciences, including development and de- 
sign studies of high-energy particle accelerators. 
The 1957 construction program will include new 
buildings at three of the Commission's labora- 
tories. 



Mutual Security Program... — Through the Mu- 
tual Security Program we shall continue to work 
jointly with our friends and allies in building and 
maintaining the defensive and economic strength 



150 



Department of State Bulletin 



of the free world. This long-range program, 
which includes military, economic, and technical 
assistance, is essential to our national security. 
Our assistance supplements the major efforts of 
other fi-ee nations, who themselves are bearing a 
large proportion of the total cost of our joint 
efforts. I shall subsequently transmit to the Con- 
gress my specific requests for authorization of 
appropriations for the fiscal year 1957 Mutual 
Security Program. These requests will cover my 
recommendations for military assistance and 
direct forces support, discussed in this section of 
the message, as well as for economic, technical, and 
other programs which are discussed in the inter- 
national affairs and finance section. 

Expenditures for the total Mutual Security 
Program in the fiscal year 1957 are estimated at 
4.3 billion dollars, about 100 million dollars more 
than in 1956. Recommended new authority to 
incur obligations is 4.9 billion dollars, an increase 
of 2.2 billion dollars over the 2.7 billion dollars 
enacted for 1956. Requested new obligational 
authority for 1957 exceeds estimated expenditures 
for 1957 by approximately 600 million dollars 
reflecting the amount for additional funding of 
long lead-time items for delivery in ftiture years. 

Whenever possible, foreign currency proceeds 
from the sale of surplus agricultural products 
abroad under the Agi-iculture Trade and Develop- 
ment Act will be used to meet mutual security 
objectives. 

Mutual Security Program^ military. — The pro- 
gi'am of military assistance for the fiscal year 1957 
is planned primarily to continue equipping and 
training forces which we have helped develop and 
strengthen over the past years. Total expendi- 
tures for military assistance and direct forces sup- 
port in the fiscal year 1957 are estimated at 
approximately the current rate of 2.5 billion dol- 
lars annually. To carry forward these programs, 
I am recommending new obligational authority of 
3 billion dollars. Within this amomit, 445 million 
dollars is requested for direct forces support in 
the fiscal year 1957 to supply items such as pe- 
troleum, rations, uniforms, and military construc- 
tion services directly to the military forces of our 
allies. 

In the fiscal years 1955 and 1956, the backlog 
of unexpended balances made it possible to main- 
tain an adequate level of expenditures and de- 
liveries while the amount of new authority to incur 
obligations was reduced. The backlog of miex- 

January 30, 7956 



MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM 
[Fiscal years. In millions] 





Net budget expendi- 
tures 


Recom- 
mended 
new 




1955 
actual 


1956 
esti- 
mated 


1957 
esti- 
mated 


obliga- 
tional 

author- 
ity for 
1957 


Military, including di- 
rect forces sup- 
port: 

Present programs 

Proposed legislation 


$2, 292 


$2, 464 


$2, 100 
400 

1,202 
590 


"$3,'o56 


Economic, teclinical, 
and other:' 
Present programs — 
Proposed legislation. 


1,927 


1,726 


'""i,"866 








Total 


4,219 


4, 190 


4,292 


2 4, 860 







' Discussed in the international affairs and finance sec- 
tion of this message. 

2 Compares with new obligational authority of 2,781 
million dollars in 1955 and 2,70.3 million dollars in 1956. 
Excludes an estimated 1.30 million dollars of authoriza- 
tions to use existing balances. 

pended balances for military assistance (includ- 
ing reservations for common-item orders) is being 
reduced from a total of 7.7 billion dollars at the 
beginning of the fiscal year 1955 to an estimated 
4.5 billion dollars at the end of the current fiscal 
year. If deliveries of military equipment are to 
be maintained at the current rate, as I believe 
they must be, this level of unexpended balances 
should not now be further i-educed. 

Our planning for the future includes helping 
to provide modern weapons that the forces which 
we help support can effectively use. In view of 
the long lead-time required, fimds must be made 
available in advance so that the necessary negotia- 
tions and planning may be imdertaken and pro- 
curement initiated for complex items such as jet 
aircraft, missiles, and electronics systems. Hence, 
for the fiscal year 1957, I am requesting new au- 
thority to incur obligations somewhat above the 
projected level of expenditm-es. Deliveries of 
equipinent and the expenditure of funds will nec- 
essarily be spread over a number of years as de- 
fense plans involving modern weapons are com- 
pleted and as our allies demonstrate their readi- 
ness to support a modern defense system 
adequately. 

My recommendations will enable us to provide 
our Nato partners with the modern defense weap- 
ons and equipment which we are furnishing m 

151 



increasing numbers to our own Nato forces in 
Europe. Although many European countries are 
now in a position to finance a greater share of the 
cost of maintaining their existing forces, they will 
require continuing help if our common defense 
effort is to be strengthened by modern weapons 
and techniques. 

About one-half of the fiscal year 1957 program 
will be concentrated in Korea, Pakistan, Taiwan, 
and Turkey. The program will provide for neces- 
sary replacements and effective maintenance of 
materiel furnished in past years, and will also 
permit the further training of existing forces. In 
addition, we will continue to supply basic military 
equipment where necessary to strengthen further 
defensive capabilities in the Far and Middle East. 
Likewise, we will continue to provide moderate 
amounts of equipment to help maintain certain 
military units of our friends in Latin America 
who are cooperating in the development of 
hemispheric defenses. 

International Affairs and Finance 

The international programs which I am recom- 
mending for the fiscal year 1957 will vigorously 
carry forward our fundamental national policy to 
maintain peace and help build a strong, prosper- 
ous, and unified community of free nations. 

During this past year, the United States has 
made positive new proposals aimed at relaxing 
international tensions. But it remains clear that 
the search for lasting peace will require patience, 
strength, and continued vigilance. 

We will persist in exploring every possible 
means of solving the difficult problems which con- 
tinue to divide the world. Meanwhile, we must 
further strengthen and improve the system of col- 
lective security. Moreover, it is of the utmost 
importance that, in cooperation with other free 
nations, we proceed steadily with long-range, 
positive programs to sustain and improve the con- 
ditions of human well-being which are necessary if 
peace with freedom is to endure. 

To accomplish these objectives, I am proposing 
expenditures of 2.1 billion dollars in the fiscal year 
1957 for our international programs. 

Mutual Security Program,^ economic. — ^My rec- 
ommendations for continuing military assistance 
under the Mutual Security Program were dis- 
cussed previously, and the amounts involved were 
included as part of our major national security 



activities. Some of the countries to which we pro- 
vide military assistance, however, do not havej 
the economic capacity to support effective defen- 
sive forces which are necessary to our mutual I 
security. We must continue to provide assistance 
to such countries to enable them to support the 



goal. It is particularly important 


that we con- 


INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS 


AND 


FINANCE . 


[Fiscal years 


In millions] 




Expenditures 


Recom- 










mended 










new 


Program or agency 


1955 


1956 


1957 


obliga- 
tional 




ac- 


esti- 


esti- 


author- 




tual 


mated 


mated 


ity for 
1957 


Gross budget expenditures : 










Economic and technical 










development: 










Mutual Security Pro- 










gram (defense 










support, develop- 










ment assistance, 










technical cooper- 










ation, and other): 










Present programs 


$1, 928 


$1, 725 


$1, 200 




Proposed legislation- 






590 


>$i,'860 


Investment guar- 










anty program 


3 


4 


6 




Export-Import Bank._ 


229 


276 


291 




International Finance 










Corporation 




35 






Refugee relief 


8 


13 


ii 


- 


Civil assistance (De- 










partment of Defense) 


32 


3 


2 


2i| 


Emergency commod- 










ity assistance (De- 










partment of Agri- 










culture) 


91 


186 


192 


89 


Other 


3 


13 


33 


2 


Foreign information and 




exchange activities: 










United States Infor- 










mation Agency 


84 


86 


104 


135 


Department of State.. 


14 


18 


18 


20 


Emergency fund for 










international affairs. 


2 


6 


2 




Conduct of foreign af- 










fairs (Department of 










State and others) 


121 


131 


143 


215 


Total 


2,614 


2,497 


2,591 


2 2, 332 


Deduct applicable receipts : 










Export-Import Bank 


330 


361 


391 




Investment guaranty 










program 


4 


4 


4 




Department of Agricul- 










ture 




79 


89 










Net budget expenditures.. 


2, 181 


2,053 


2, 108 





b. > Excludes 45 million dollars of authorizations to use 
existing balances. 

2 Compares with new obligational authority of 2,304 
million dollars in 1955 and 2,118 million dollars in 1956. 



152 



UGy>ax\msn\ of Sfafe Bulletin 



tinue to help those nations which require assist- 
ance in order to participate effectively in regional 
collective security arrangements, notably those in 
Asia. This budget, therefore, includes funds for 
carrying on the defense support program in criti- 
cal areas in southern Europe, the Middle East, 
South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Far East. 

The development of military strength as a de- 
terrent to aggression, however, meets only a part 
of the challenge which faces the free world. Be- 
cause the conditions of poverty and unrest in less 
developed areas make their people a special target 
of international commimism, there is a need to 
help them achieve the economic growth and sta- 
bility necessary to preserve their independence 
against Communist threats and enticements. 

For our assistance to be as effective as possible, 
it must be based upon a realistic appraisal of po- 
tentialities for economic development and a care- 
ful determination of priorities among the many 
pressing needs in the less developed areas. My 
recommendations for the Mutual Security Pro- 
gram include funds for continuing selective 
loans and grants to certain less developed coun- 
tries following experience gained in past years. 

I am also recommending continuation of the 
worldwide technical cooperation program at a 
slightly increased level. Technical cooperation is 
an indispensable element in the successful attack 
which is being made on the basic problems of 
hunger, disease, and illiteracy. Through the ef- 
forts of American experts working in cooperating 
countries and by the training of foreign techni- 
cians in the United States, the knowledge and 
experience of our people are being shared in a 
cooperative effort to solve fundamental problems 
in health, education, public administration, agri- 
culture, and industry which confront less de- 
veloped countries. By these means we are helping 
to provide the skills which are required for eco- 
nomic development. In addition to continuing 
our own tecluiical cooperation program, my rec- 
ommendations provide for our annual contribu- 
tion to the expanded technical assistance program 
of the United Nations and to the similar work 
of the Organization of American States. 

We shall also continue and expand in the fiscal 
year 1957 our international program to provide 
training in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. 
Funds for this purpose are included in this budget 
as part of the Mutual Security Program. 

Provision should be made for further contribu- 

lanuary 30, 7956 



tions for the relief and rehabilitation of refugees 
from Palestine. In view of the current unrest 
in the Near East, our continued support is essen- 
tial both for humanitarian reasons and to assist 
in achieving peace and stability in the area. 

The budget also includes amounts for the es- 
capee program and for contributions to the Inter- 
governmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion and the United Nations Eefugee Fund, which 
aid in the relief and resettlement of refugees from 
behind the Iron Curtain and in emigration from 
Europe. 

I shall recommend effective flexibility in the use 
of funds under the Mutual Security Program to 
enable us to respond to new situations which may 
arise. I also consider it essential that the Mutual 
Security Act be amended to assure greater con- 
tinuity in providing economic assistance for de- 
velopment projects and programs which we ap- 
prove and which require a period of years for 
planning and completion. Accordingly, I shall 
ask for limited authority to make longer term com- 
mitments for assistance for such projects, to be ful- 
filled from appropriations made in future yeare. 

In furtherance of our basic foreign economic 
policy objective of stimulating international trade 
and investment, I am requesting a review of exist- 
ing legislation to determine whether changes will 
be necessary to permit an expansion of the invest- 
ment guaranty program. Under this program, 
private United States investors may be guaranteed 
against loss of their foreign investments or earn- 
ings through expropriation or inconvertibility of 
foreign currencies. The number of private in- 
vestors and foreign governments participating in 
this program has steadily increased. We also need 
to encourage investment overseas by avoiding un- 
fair tax duplications, and to foster foreign trade 
by further simplification and improvement of our 
customs legislation. 

Export-Import Bank. — The Export-Import 
Bank is assisting in the expansion of international 
trade and investment through direct loans and 
guaranties of private loans. Its loan and guar- 
anty commitments are estimated at 960 million 
dollars in the fiscal year 1957, an increase of 255 
million dollars over the previous year. Because 
of greater participation in loans by commercial 
banks and other sources of private capital, direct 
Federal disbursements in the fiscal year 1957 are 
estimated at less than one-third of the total new 
commitments. Repayments on loans made in prior 

153 



years are expected to exceed disbursements from 
Export-Import Bank funds, thus providing esti- 
mated net receipts of 100 million dollare. Sales of 
portions of the existing loan portfolio to private 
financial institutions may increase this return. 

Foreign information and exchange activities. — 
The present international situation has made the 
work of the United States Information Agency 
increasingly vital to our national interest. I con- 
sider it of paramount importance that we expand 
our effort to bring the truth before the people of 
the world, explain our peaceful objectives, and 
show in its true light the Communist attempt to 
divide and destroy free world unity. 

To this end, I strongly recommend that appro- 
priations for our information program be increased 
by 48 million dollars from the level in the current 
fiscal year. This increase will provide for ex- 
panded use of overseas exhibits and other tech- 
niques to emphasize such subjects as our Atoms 
for Peace program, our proposals for mutual 
aerial inspection as a first step toward disarma- 
ment, and the many scientific and cvdtural achieve- 
ments by which progi'essive capitalism under free, 
representative government is contributing to a 
peaceful, prosperous world. Overseas libraries 
will be expanded, and increased emphasis will be 
given to supplying books to foreign readers at low 
prices. Wliere appropriate, the program will cap- 
italize on the effectiveness of television. 

I am recommending a modest increase in appro- 
priations for the educational exchange programs 
of the Department of State which constitute a 
basic element of our long-term effort to attain a 
better mutual understanding with other peoples 
of the world. These programs bring to this 
country leaders of public opinion and facilitate the 
mutual exchange of students, teachers, and re- 
search scholars. In addition to appropriated 
funds, part of the foreign currencies received 
from the sale of surplus agricultui'al commodities 
abroad will be used to meet certain overseas costs 
of educational exchange. 

With the financial support of the President's 
Emergency Fund for International Affairs, we 
have sponsored, in cooperation with private in- 
dustry, agricultural and industrial exhibits at in- 
ternational trade fairs which have effectively 
demonstrated the achievements of private enter- 
prise in a free economy. Similarly, our cultural 
achievements have been presented throughout the 



154 



world by American actors, dancers, and musicians 
during the past year. These trade fair and cul- 
tural presentations have been enthusiastically re- 
ceived abroad and have contributed significantly 
to a better understanding of our values and objec- 
tives as a nation. In view of the effectiveness 
of these activities, legislation will be recom- 
mended to authorize them on a continuing basis. 

Conduct of foreign affairs. — The Department of 
State is not now adequately equipped with either 
the staff or facilities which are required if it is to 
provide the timely, informed, and coordinated 
policy guidance which is vital to the success of our 
total international effort. I strongly reconmiend, 
therefore, that the Congress enact the requested 
increase of 89 million dollars in the appropria- 
tions for the Department of State for the fiscal 
year 1957. 

A substantial part of this increase is for con- 
struction of an extension to the present Depart- 
ment of State building. This extension will per- 
mit all the Washington staff of the Department, 
including the International Cooperation Admin- 
istration, to be accommodated in a single building 
rather than scattered, as at present, among 30 
separate buildings. In addition, my recommenda- 
tions include funds to cover costs in the first year 
of a long-range program to provide adequate 
physical facilities, including housing, for our 
diplomatic and consular establishments abroad. 

Steps are already underway to strengthen the 
staff of the Department. This budget provides 
for further improvements, as well as for carrying 
forward the recruitment, training, employee 
benefit, and other programs initiated during the 
past 2 years. Increases are also proposed to per- 
mit the prompt and efficient discharge of our ex- 
panding consular responsibilities and to provide 
for the collection of more comprehensive commer- 
cial and economic data needed by American busi- 
nessmen and Government agencies. 

To provide for closer international economic 
cooperation and continued expansion of United 
States trade abroad, it is particularly important 
that our membership in the Oi"ganization for 
Trade Cooperation be approved. "\^lnle this will 
not alter congressional control of our tariff, im- 
j)ort, and customs policies, it will help us to remove 
discriminations against American exports and fur- 
ther strengthen our ties with other nations of the 
free world. 



Department of State Bulletin 



I 



Transcript of Secretary Dulles' 
News Conference 

Press release 26 dated January 17 

Secretary Dulles: I have a brief statement to 
make about a matter which I judge to be of 
current interest.^ 

An article in Life magazine has attracted much 
comment. Let me say this: I did not write the 
article, I did not review or censor the article, or 
know of its title. I did not know in advance of 
its publication date, and, in fact, I did not read 
the article until after it was released for publica- 
tion. Having read it, I authorized our press of- 
ficer to say that the statements specifically at- 
tributed to me did not require correction from the 
standpoint of their substance. 

Most of the statements specifically attributed to 
me are quotations or close paraphrases of what 
I had already said elsewhere. One is somewhat 
ambiguously jDhrased, but the ambiguity can 
easily be resolved if read in context and with ref- 
erence to the many public statements which I have 
made. 

I believe that the United States should adopt 
every honorable course to avoid engagement in 
war. Indeed, I have devoted my whole life to the 
pursuit of a just and durable peace. I believe, 
however, that there are basic moral values and 
vital interests for which we stand, and that the 
surest way to avoid war is to let it be known in 
advance that we are prepared to defend these 
principles, if need be by life itself. 

This policy of seeking to prevent war by pre- 
venting miscalculation by a potential aggressor is 
not a personal policy ; it is not a partisan policy ; 
it is a national policy. It is expressed in mutual 
security treaties which we now have with 42 na- 
tions and which the United States Senate has over- 
whelmingly approved. It is expressed in Public 
Law 4, whereby the Congi-ess, by an almost 
unanimous bipartisan vote, authorized the Pres- 
ident to use the armed forces of the LTnited States 
in the Formosa area, if he deemed it necessary for 
the protection of Formosa and the Penghus.^ 

This policy of making clear our position in ad- 
vance, of course, involves risks. As Senator Van- 
clenberg said about the North Atlantic Treaty, 



' The following six paragraphs were also released sep- 
irately as press release 25 dated Jan. 17. 
* For text, see Bulletin of Feb. 7, 1955, p. 213. 

lanuary 30, 7956 



it is a calculated risk for peace. But as we have 
learned by hard experience, failure to make our 
position Imown in advance makes war more likely 
because then an aggressor may miscalculate. The 
policy of deterrence is only one aspect of the task 
of maintaining a just and durable peace. It is 
necessary to be patient; it is necessary to be con- 
ciliatory; it is necessary to make our peace a 
vital force for justice and human welfare so that 
all men will aspire to share that kind of peace. 

My views with respect to peace have been made 
known on many, many occasions, and there is no 
reason to think that they have altered because 
articles dealing with complex subjects of foreign 
policy inevitably tend to oversimplification and 
special emphasis. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the article, however, said that 
it was based on information hitherto v/ndisclosed. 
I was wo7ulering if you could tell us what the oc- 
casion was that — it did say that new information 
that it was presenting had been submitted by you 
and the State Department. 

A. There is no substantative information in 
there which I know of which has not been gener- 
ally a matter of public knowledge and found in 
the press. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you believe that President 
Eise7ihower would regard an attach on Quemoy 
and Matsu as an attack on Formosa? 

A. That question stands today where it has 
stood ever since Public Law 4 was adopted and 
since our treaty of security was made with the 
Republic of China. As you recall, the treaty area 
is defined, but the President is authorized to use 
the armed forces of the United States in relation 
to related areas if he believes that is important 
for the defense of the treaty area. 

Q. 'Well, in fact, Mr. Secretary, this article says 
that you never had a doubt that the President 
would regard an attack on Quemoy and Matsu as 
an attack an Formosa. Is that correct? 

A. As I said before, I did not read the article 
in advance and I will not here discuss the views 
of the author. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you said that there is no in- 
formation here which has not already been made 
public. Where can one find the statement that the 
President agreed on your recommendation and 
on the second occasion decided again when you tel- 



155 



ephoned him, during the night that, if there was 
no trtice in Korea, the United States would bomb 
across the Yahi into Manchuria? 

A. Well, I have seen that oftentimes in the pub- 
lic press. You will recall that there had already 
been drawn up at that time the statement by the 
16 nations who were in the war there, that if the 
war should be resumed it would probably not be 
possible to confine it to Korea.' I think it is a fair 
inference that the same thing would have been 
true if the war would have gone on. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in the same connection, the 
article states that President Eisenhower concurred 
in your recommendation that the Com/mimist 
forces in Indochina be opposed on the ground, and 
that, if the Chinese forces intervened openly, stag- 
ing bases in South China would be destroyed by 
U.S. air power. Did the President concur in a 
recom-mendation by you? 

A. I am not going to discuss the views of the 
author. Views of that sort have been expressed 
and counterviews have been expressed. That is a 
source of public discussion, I would say. 

Q. But did you make mch a reconwnendation, 
sir? 

A. I am not going to discuss the contents of the 
article because that would make it into a sort of 
state paper. Wlien I have state pronouncements 
to make, I make my own speeches. 

Q. A year and a half ago, both you and the 
President told press conferences that you hoped 
to put out a white paper on the Indochina affair. 
Nothing yet has appeared until this article. When 
are we going to get the facts? 

A. There have appeared many articles that I 
am aware of — some written by you. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you have just said that our 
views should be made clear lest the enemy mis- 
calculate and get into war. Why do we not make 
our position clear on Matsu and Quemoy? 

A. I think it is clear. 

Q. It is not clear to me, sir. 

A. It is not clear to you because you, like me, 
cannot read the minds of the Chinese Communists. 
But to them I think it is quite clear. 

'/6td., Aug. 24, 1953, p. 247. 



156 



Q. What do you think they think we mean 
to do? 

A. I think that they think that, if an attack 
is started there which comprehends a claim to 
take by force Formosa and the Penghus, we will 
fight. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you have said, I thinJc, in the 
beginning that most of the article which didnH — ■ 
where you were not quoted correctly — were para- 
phrases or were close statements of what you have 
said; but you have also just said that you were 
not going to discuss any aspects of the article 
which may be the views of the author. I am 
simply asking you, sir, is there no way to clarify 
what you do and what you do not accept in the 
article? Well, let me put it this way: Are there 
things in the article that you do not accept as 
statements of fact attributed to you? 

A. I said — perhaps I didn't make it as clear as 
I should — that most of the statements specifically 
attributed to me are quotations or close para- 
phrases of what I have already said publicly. 
That should be made clear. 

Q. You said, except for one ambiguous state- 
ment. What was that ambiguous statement? 

A. That was a phrase — I don't have the text 
here with me — which went on to say that, which 
implied that the getting to the brink of war might 
be our choice rather than a choice that was forced 
upon us. The whole paragraph I think is per- 
fectly clear. But one phrase taken out of context 
could be ambiguous. 

Q. Could you state now what is the proper con- 
cept that you were trying to get across there? 

A. Yes. We have faced a situation where in 
many parts of the world, in Europe and more 
recently in the Far East, there has been a threat of 
armed attack against what I referred to here as 
basic moral values and vital interests. Now, we 
had the choice of retreating in the face of those 
threats or making it clear that, if they were pur- 
sued, it would involve a war. We believed that 
the best way to avoid a war was to make that 
clear. That meant that we stood firm at a point 
where there was a threat. But I have believed 
very strongly, as a result of my study of history, 
particularly the history of this century, that the 
greatest risk of war comes from not making it 

Departmenf of Stale Bulletin 



clear that you are prepared to defend the moral 
values and vital interests of the United States. 
We have had a history of wars which we got into 
despite the fact that we were always very eager 
for peace. I believe that it is not enough to want 
peace — which surely we all do — but that to get 
peace requires taking what Senator Vandenberg 
referred to as a calculated risk and making clear 
that certain things cannot be attacked with im- 
punity. 

! Q. Mr. Secretary, is this the sentence that you 
considered amiiguous : '•'•The ability to get to the 
verge without getting into the war is the necessary 
art"? 

A. Will you read the preceding sentence, I 
think. 

Q. The preceding sentence is — it is two sen- 
tences: ^'■You have to take chances for peace, just 
as you must take chances in war. Some say that 
we were brought to the verge of war. Of course 
we were brought to the verge of war. The ability 
to get to the verge without getting into the war is 
the necessary art.'''' 

A. Yes, that second sentence if read out of con- 
text does, I think, give an incorrect impression. 
The important thing is that we were "brought" to 
the verge of war by threats which were uttered 
in relation to Korea, in relation to Indochina, and 
in relation to Formosa. 

Position on Indochina Armistice 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in order to help some of us 
I judge whether your past views on the Indochina 
' armistice remain what they were, could you tell 
us whether you regard the armistice as it was nego- 
tiated as a major save for the free world, in that 
it kept some of the country from going Com- 
munist, or whether we jv^t took no view and in 
effect refused to sanction it by not signing it? 

A. Well, we did not, as you know, sign the armi- 
stice agreement because we were not a party to 
the war nor did we want to countenance some of 
the provisions of that armistice which we believed 
were very injurious, particularly with relation to 
the dislocation of the himdreds of thousands of 
Catholics in the northern area who had to be dis- 
placed under very rigorous conditions. We be- 
lieve, however, that the event has proved that the 
losses which were taken by that armistice can be 
limited and do not necessarily involve what was 



one time feared, that is, the loss of the whole Indo- 
china peninsula. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could you tell us what for- 
eign-policy considerations have guided you to col- 
laborate with the writing of this article, why you 
agreed to it at this time, and whether these con- 
clusions included the fact that Sir Anthony Eden 
would shortly come to this country? 

A. It had no relationship to that whatsoever. 
My so-called collaboration involved nothing more 
than what I have done with a good many people 
here in this room, that is, from time to time have 
informal chats with certain of you. This par- 
ticular one took place, I think, about the first of 
December. I had no knowledge at that time as to 
when an article would be issued, if indeed it would 
be issued at all. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the Herald Tribune says in 
a front-page editorial today that this Life mag- 
azine article was submitted to the State Depart- 
ment before publication, and that one major 
change was requested, and that the magazine 
found it was too late to do that. And the second 
point is that the article contains at least one error 
of fact, namely, that a British change of heart 
prevented the proposed meeting in Washington 
during the Indochina crisis. I would like to ask 
whether you or any of your aides suggested the 
change im, the article which could not be made and 
whether or not you believe the British change of 
heart did prevent the Indochina meeting? 

A. Well, I am not going to go into the last ques- 
tion because that relates to past history where 
there obviously have been differences of opinion, 
and it is not desirable, I believe, to revive possible 
differences and misunderstandings which may 
have occurred at that time. 

As far as the other question is involved, that is 
something I have no personal knowledge of and 
was undoubtedly handled by the public relations 
division of the Department. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, was any verbatim record kept 
of this conversation in whole or in part? 

A. I believe that notes were made of the 
conversation. 

Q. No, I mean in terms of either a recording 
or a stenographic account. 

A. I believe that there was, yes, but I did not 



ianuoTY 30, 1956 



157 



see it ; and it was undei-stood that that was merely 
for the purpose of refreshing the recollections of 
the author and not for the purpose of supplying 
any material that could be quoted. 

Q. Can that be vwde available to the press, Mr. 
Secretary? 

A. No. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, how did you determine — how 
did the tcriter determine — what things you said 
that were to he quoted directly? Did you guide 
hvm on that? 

A. I was not conscious at the time that anything 
that I said would be quoted directly. 

Q. Then, are you saying, sir, that the quota- 
tions attributed to you were made on the writer''s 
own authority and responsibility? 

A. I said on that, I think, that the quotations 
in the main were actual reproductions of what 
I had previously said publicly and that otherwise 
I had no reason to question them from the stand- 
point of their broad substance. 

Q. Well, you understand the difficulty that 
everyone is in, sir, because, as you remember your- 
self, tvhen some questiois have been put to you, 
it has been impossible for you to discuss those 
questions because this is the author''s point of vieio. 

A. Right. 

Q. On the other hand, you have said that the 
substance of what he said represents your point 
of vi.eto. At what point are we to determine 
that the author is speaking, and at what point are 
we to determine that you are speaking? How are 
we to hnow? 

A. Well, I suppose that you would know be- 
cause of the fact that the only portion of the 
article on which I have commented was where 
certain statements were attributed to me in quo- 
tation marks; and I have felt, as I said, I think, in 
my last press conference, that in view of that 
attribution to me in quotation marks of certain 
statements, I felt that if there was anything that 
was seriously wrong with them I had a duty to 
call attention to that lest harm be done. I there- 
fore read the article and came to the conclusion 
that broadly speaking the substance of what had 
been attributed to me was substantially accurate 



and in line with what I previously had said. 
Therefore, I saw no reason to issue a repudiation 
or a correction. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in regard to this passage 
which C071 tains the sentence used here before — I 
will read it again: '■'■The ability to get to the verge 
without getting into the war is the necessary arf'' — 
that passage is set in quotes as though it toere a 
direct quote from yoU: Can you tell us ivhether 
that passage is taken from a public statement of 
yours or loas quoted from you in the course of 
that conversation? 

A. I have said the substance of that, I think, on 
a good many occasions: that I believe that peace 
is not won by seeming to retreat when an aggres- 
sor threatened; that it was important to make 
clear the fact that we were going to stand firm 
even though that might involve war. That is a 
sentiment which I have expressed a good many 
times over a great many years, and I think that 
tliis particular statement attributed to me, when 
read in the light of its context, is a fair reflection 
of my views. 

Q. It is a reflection then, but not a direct quote 
as it stands? 

A. I would never myself have expressed myself 
in quite that way for publication. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, what is your reaction to con- 
gressional reaction to this article? 

A. Well, the article, I'm sorry to say, gives me 
a great deal more credit than is my due. The 
title of it gives me too much credit; the article, 
as a whole, gives me too much credit; and, as 
such, it was bound to attract criticism in some 
quarters. 

I regret the fact that some people have given me 
too much credit, although I do not regret the fact 
that there are some people who seem to approve 
of what I have done. 

Q. Sir, in regard to these three episodes dis- 
cussed in the article, whether we might have gone 
to war and did not, were there, in each case, other 
factors leading to nonwar which were overlooked 
in the article? 

A. I have said that articles such as this dealing 
with a complex subject inevitably oversimplify 
and, in that process, tend to overemphasize. I 
think, undoubtedly, there were a good many fac- 



158 



Depattment of State Bulletin 



tors in the equation ; not all of them are mentioned 
in this article. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in those same three instances 
are you satisfied that our allies had a clear hnpres- 
sion of ivhat we had planned to do in the event 
that the talks broke down, or that the war in Korea 
was renewed? Had we made clear to them the 
drastic steps that we proposed to take in that 
event? 

A. I think our policy was made clear to our 
allies, yes. 

Q. Are you satisfied, sir, that it teas made clear 
to the responsible committees of the Congress? 

A. Well, it was made clear to the congressional 
leaders. Now, I think we have discussed this 
pai'ticular subject enough. It has been half an 
hour, and I would like to get on — if you have any 
questions about any other matters. 

Long-Range Foreign Aid 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you and the President re- 
cently, particularly, have both emphasized the 
need for an expanded foreign aid on a longer- 
range basis. There has been some congressional 
opposition, notably that of Senator George and 
Senator Knowland. Over the weekend there was 
speculation printed that the administration was 
prepared to pull back. My question is, sir: How 
hard, how vigorously, is the administration pre- 
pared to fight for this principle that you and the 
President have enunciated? 

A. Well, I don't think it is a principle that we 
will have to "fight for," as you put it, although 
it is a principle which we believe in and wliich we 
believe that Congi-ess will concur in once the full 
picture has been given to them. Under Secretary 
Hoover is, I think, this morning giving some of 
the story to the Foreign Kelations Committee. I 
would like to, if I could, just take a moment off 
of just answering questions to say a few words 
about our philosophy on this whole subject. 

The Soviet Union as a result of its policies of 
the last 30 years, particularly the last 10 years, 
has made considerable strides in developing itself 
into an industrial state which has considerable 
heavy industry, and it is among those which have 
developed atomic energy, both for peacetime and 
wartime purposes. Now that evolution of the 
Soviet Union has made a considerable impression 
upon the neighboring countries of Asia. That 



development has occurred through very cruel and 
inhumane processes. The needs of the people have 
been largely ignored. There has been a very large 
amount of compulsory and slave labor. The meth- 
ods by which industrialization has been achieved 
cannot be approved by any right-thinking person 
who believes in the dignity of man. Nevertheless, 
there is a result there, and it is a result which has 
an appeal to the less developed countries who feel 
that their own independence will not be complete 
imless they can have a measure of not merely po- 
litical independence but also a measure of eco- 
nomic independence. And when the Soviet Union 
sends its emissaries to them, and says, "Now see 
what we have done; and we will help you do the 
same thing," that has a certain appeal to countries 
which are primarily producers of raw materials 
and which are dependent upon other coimtries, 
heretofore the Western countries, for industrial 
goods. 

Now that kind of Russian competition I do not 
think can be met merely by the kind of economic 
aid which helps to meet emergencies — famine, 
floods, and the like — or helps to balance current 
budgets. It is necessary to help these countries 
to move forward along the path to which they 
aspire and along which one neighboring country 
has largely gone, that is, the Soviet Union. 

Now, I believe that these offers of the Soviet 
Union are coupled with political purposes and 
that their acceptance would involve untoward po- 
litical results. Nevertheless, a temptation is 
there; the need is there; and, even if it were not 
for the Soviet example, I believe that the United 
States ought to try to help in ways which will not 
merely relieve on a year-to-year basis but help 
to transform these economies into better-inte- 
grated economies of the kind that the people 
aspire to. 

Furthermore, if our Goverranent can engage in 
some of these long-term projects, they not only 
will have great value in catching the imagination 
of the people and meeting their aspirations, but 
also it may make it possible to get from those 
countries themselves, or from other countries, or 
from organizations like the World Bank, a con- 
siderable amount of money. So our own money 
will go farther — through some kind of a match- 
ing process. 

I believe that, when the nature of the problem 
is understood, there will be a realization that the 
enlightened self-interest of the United States 



January 30, 1956 



159 



requires that we should go forward to meet this 
situation in terms of projects on the assmnp- 
tion that we would continue to give them some 
support over a period of years. 

Q. Mr. Secretary^ do you consider that the 
passage of the enactment of the authority, which 
the President has requested, is of vital importance 
at this session? 

A. I think it is vitally important at this time 
that we and indeed the whole world understand 
that what we really are engaged upon here is not 
just a single-shot operation but that it is some- 
thing which is apt to be continuing. Now I 
realize full well that it is a difficult problem in 
that one Congress cannot bind a second Congress, 
and that each Congress is free to make its own 
appropriations, free of any commitments made 
by a prior Congress. 

The Marshall plan, as I recall, was carried 
through with year-by-year appropriations, but 
there was a recognition by the Congress of the 
importance of carrying through a 4-to-5-year pro- 
gram there. But it is always difficult to work this 
thing out. 

I recall I was in the Senate at the time the first 
Mdap bill — the military assistance bill — was 
passed. And I recall that there we worked on a 
basis of an appropriation I think for the first fiscal 
year, with contract authority for the next year. 
The working out of these things is difficult and 
complicated under congressional procedure ; but I 
have no doubt that it will find a result which will, 
on the one hand, take account of the problem of the 
Congress and, on the other hand, take account of 
the national importance of proceeding here on a 
long-range basis. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, Senator Knowland proposed 
that a neutralist he required to join collective se- 
curity agreements against conmminism in return 
for such long-term aid from the United States. 
Would you concur with that view, Mr. Secretary? 

A. We believe that each case of aid needs to be 
considered on its own individual merits; and 
while, broadly speaking, there is a closer bond 
of sympathy between the United States and coun- 
tries who have stood up to be counted with us, 
nevertheless, I would not want to exclude the 
possibility of giving some economic assistance to 
other countries. 



Q. Mr. Secretary, how did Congress recognize 
the importance of continuing or carrying out the 
Marshall plan? How did it express that recog- 
nition? 

A. My recollection is that it was expressed pri- 
marily in the report of the Foreign Relations 
Committee and, possibly, the Appropriations 
Committees, in which they recommended the first 
installment. I must admit that my memory is 
somewhat vague on that point. 

National Security and tlie Budget 

Q. Mr. Secretai'y, in another national magoMne 
today, already printed and on the market, General 
Ridgway says that budgetary and domestic politi- 
cal considerations overrode purely military con- 
siderations in the formation of, or the writing of, 
the Army budget. Would you care to comment 
on that? 

A. I would make only this comment — not hav- 
ing seen the article. The budget-making process 
is a very complicated process, and each depart- 
ment of the Government asks for the amount of 
money that it thinks it needs, looking at the situa- 
tion merely from its own standpoint. And that 
goes for the different services. Finally, these are 
all put together, and then the request from one 
source has to be balanced against requests from 
another source, and then the whole has to be con- 
sidered in terms of the national economy and the 
values to be derived from a balanced budget, from 
a stable dollar, and the impact upon our domestic 
economy. The people who act only for one branch 
or department or agency of Government are un- 
able alone to take into account all of these con- 
siderations. The man who finally makes the de- 
cision about the budget — and that is, in the end, 
the Presidential decision — the President makes 
the decision, in consultation with the Cabinet, 
with the National Security Council. He evaluates 
many, many elements of the problem, among other 
things the fact that national security depends not 
merely upon military power but upon a whole 
complex of factors, including the vitality of your 
economy. 

As you all know, the Communists for many, 
many years counted as a principal weapon, a 
principal opportunity, the likelihood of the col- 
lapse of the capitalistic system and some sort of 
boom-bust event. They figured that they would 



160 



Depatiment of Sfate Bulletin 



make more progress, perhaps, that way than they 
would, perhaps, by force of arms. So that when 
you are considering the national security you have 
to take into account many more factors than the 
point of view of any particular department. And 
that total decision is one which is generally ac- 
cepted by everyone because it is recognized that 
there is only one person in the country who can 
adequately take account of all of the factors and 
that's the President of the United States. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., do you believe that Latin 
America shottJd ie included among the areas to 
he considered for long-range planning? 

A. Latin America is very much considered, par- 
ticularly in the policies and activities of the 
Export-Import Bank. 



Q. Mr. Secretary., have you had time, in your 
freoccupation with the events of our recent his- 
tory, to form an impression of the new Soviet 
5-year plan, especially in relation to the struggle, 
the competitive struggle, of which you spoke last 
week? 

A. The impression I have is that it dedicates 
the Soviet Union to continue to put its primary 
emphasis upon lieavy industry and that the trend 
toward more consumers' goods which was fore- 
cast 2 years ago when Malenkov was temporarily 
Premier there — that that tendency continues to be 
submerged, with the primary emphasis upon 
lieavy industry, which does not necessarily mean 
exclusively war industry but, imdoubtedly, is, in 
very large part, war industry. 

Q. Mr . Secretary, has the administration made 
XI p its mdnd on the exact natfwre of what it would 
like the International Atomic Energy Agency to 
he; that is, an actual operating agency, or merely 
a broker between bilateral agreements? 

A. "Well, it isn't just a question of making up 
our mind, our views, as to the optimum result. 
Our views were set forth pretty fully in the speech 
that President Eisenhower made to the General 
Assembly of the United Nations in December. 
What was it, '53? 

Q. '53. 

A. That, as you know, contemplated having a 
world bank into which contributions of fissionable 

ianuaty 30, 1956 

372643— &6 3 



material would be made and out of which material 
for industrial purposes would be drawn. Now, 
for the first year and a half, the Soviet Union 
refused to go along with that program, and, there- 
fore, it tended to develop along other lines. Be- 
latedly, last July as a matter of fact, the Soviet 
Union indicated that it would be prepared to put 
up some fissionable material. Now the question 
as to how it will work out is a matter for inter- 
national discussion at the present time. I believe 
that a further conference will be held soon, I 
think in February, and I will not be able to know 
until that time just what line will be developed. 
A good deal depends upon the views of other 
countries and not just of our own. From our own 
standpoint we would still think it preferable if 
the original concept could be carried out. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, have events caused you to 
change your mind about taking to the stump this 
year — the political stump, that is? 

A. No, I think I will stand on what I said be- 
fore on that subject. 



Board of Consultants To Review 
Foreign Intelligence Activities 

White House press release dated January 13 

The President on January 13 appointed an 
eight-man board of consultants to review periodi- 
cally the foreign intelligence activities of the Gov- 
ernment. The President's action is in line with 
recommendations of the Commission on Organiza- 
tion of the Executive Branch of the Government 
and after consultation with the Director of Central 
Intelligence. 

The members of the board, in whose qualifica- 
tion and discretion the President has the fullest 
confidence, are as follows : 

James R. Killian, Jr., Chairman, President, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Tecliiiology, Cambridge, Mass. 

Adm. Richard L. Conolly, President, Long Island Univer- 
sity, Brooklyn, N. T. 

Lt. Gen. James H. Doolittle, New York, N. Y. 

Benjamin F. Fairless, Director and Member of the Finance 
Committee, U. S. Steel Corporation, New York, N. Y. 

Gen. John E. Hull, President, Manufacturing Chemists' 
Association, Inc., Washington, D. C. 

Joseph P. Kennedy, Palm Beach, Fla. 

Robert A. Lovett, New York, N. Y. 

Edward L. Ryerson, Chairmaii, Executive Committee, In- 
land Steel Corporation, Chicago, 111. 



161 



President's Letter to Director of Central Intelligence 

De.\r Mr. Dulles : In the Hoover Commission 
Report submitted to Congress on June 29, 1955, 
relating to the intelligence activities of the Gov- 
ernment, there is a recommendation that I appoint 
a "committee of experienced private citizens who 
shall have the responsibility to examine and re- 
port" on the work of the Government's foreign 
intelligence activities. I have noted your 
concurrence. 

In accordance with this recommendation, I am 
constituting a Board of Consultants to review 
periodically the foreign intelligence activities of 
this Government, and to report their findings to 
me. While the review would concern itself with 
the sum total of these activities, it would be ex- 
pected that major attention would be concentrated 
upon the work of the Central Intelligence Agency. 
A copy of the letter whicli I am sending to the 
prospective membei-s of the Board is enclosed. 

The work of this Board together with the reg- 
ular reviews conducted by the appropriate Com- 
mittees of the Congress will help to provide a 
method for assuring the Congress, the public, and 
the Executive Branch that this highly important 
and sensitive work is being efficiently conducted. 

I know that you will afford the Board of Con- 
sultants the fullest cooperation in its work. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

President's Letter to Members of Board 

I am establishing a Board of Consultants on 
foreign intelligence activities of this Government 
for the purpose of providing me periodically with 
independent evaluations of the work of the organi- 
zations involved. This Board will consist of 
eight outstanding citizens in whose high qualifica- 
tions and discretion I have the fullest confidence. 
I would like to have you serve as one of the mem- 
bers of this Board. 

It is my desire that this Board should meet not 
less often than once every six months to analyze 
carefully the work of the Government's foreign 
intelligence activities. These sessions might in- 
volve meetings over a period of several days. 
While the review by your group would be con- 
cerned with all Government foreign intelligence 
activities, I would expect particular detailed at- 
tention to be concentrated on the work of the Cen- 
tral Intelligence Agency and of those intelligence 



elements of key importance in other departments 
and agencies. I am particularly anxious to obtain 
your views as to the over-all progress that is being 
made, the quality of training and personnel, se- 
curity, progress in research, effectiveness of spe- 
cific projects and of the handling of funds, and 
general competence in carrying out assigned intel- 
ligence tasks. 

It is my sincere conviction that prompt and 
accurate intelligence is essential to the policy mak- 
ing branches of the Government in the field of 
national security and foreign relations. By serv- 
ing on the Board you can make a real contribution 
to the task of Government. 

It is my hope that you and the others whom I 
am inviting to serve will be able to meet with Mr. 
xVllen W. Dulles, Director of Central Intelligence, 
and me in the near future to determine the scope of 
your review of the work in the foreign intelligence 
field and to draw up terms of reference to permit 
you effectively to carry out your assigned task. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



U.S. Begins Training and Equipment 
of German Armed Forces 

U.S. Embassy (Bonn) press release dated January 4 

Training by the United States of Federal Re- 
public forces personnel in accordance with Ger- 
man requests under the Mutual Defense Assist- 
ance Agreement ' will commence in Germany and 
the United States in January. Under the same 
agreement, deliveries of U.S. weapons to the Fed- 
eral Republic will be initiated. 

The training and equipment programs, which 
are closely linked, are being inaugurated under 
the U.S.-Federal Republic agreement for the pur- 
pose of establishing an integrated defense of the 
North Atlantic area in accordance with defense 
plans formulated by the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization. 

The first equipment deliveries to the Federal 



'■ For an announcement of the deposit of the instru- 
ment of ratification at Washington on Dec. 27, see Buixe- 
TiN of Jan. 9, 1956, p. 73. For text of agreement, see 
ibid., July 2.5, 1955, p. 142. 

The Department of Defense announced at Washington 
on December 28 the appointment of Maj. Gen. Joseph S. 
Bradley as Chief of the Military Assistance Advisory 
Group ( MAAG ) attached to the U.S. Embassy at Bonn. 



162 



Deparimenf of State Bulletin 



Republic will be made this month and will consist 
only of light weapons and equipment foi' basic 
training purposes. Heavy equipment such as 
tanks, aircraft, training vessels, and heavy 
ai-mament items will be moved into the hands of 
Federal Rei^ublic forces as mutually agreed and 
in step with the progress of German training. 
The equipment delivered to the Federal Republic 
will be similar to that which is currently being 
used by the armed forces of other Nato countries. 

Army Training Program 

Certain specific training related to U.S. equip- 
ment will be provided by American instructors 
at German and U.S. bases in Germany and at 
training centers and service schools in the United 
States. Most of the U.S. Army training assist- 
ance to German forces will be conducted by 
UsAEEUK [U.S. Army Europe] personnel at Ger- 
man installations. This program will be initiated 
with the transfer of 29 U.S. Army instructors — 
ready to begin training courses — to Andernach in 
mid- January. In addition, individuals from Fed- 
eral Republic forces will be students in Usareur 
schools. 

Peak of the training period, as presently 
planned, should be in mid-1956. Except for stu- 
dents from Federal Republic forces at U.S. 
schools, it is expected that most of the U.S. Army 
training assistance will be concluded by the end 
of the first year of the German Army buildup. 

American training groups working on Federal 
Rejjublic bases will live in German caserns unless 
facilities are limited, in which event they will live 
in U.S. installations in the vicinity. 

The size of the U.S. Army training group has 
not been definitely established but will fluctuate in 
accordance with the training assistance requested 
by the Federal Republic. 

Air Force Training 

Early in January, a number of officers and air- 
men of the new German Air Force will commence 
arriving at the Usafe [U.S. Air Force Europe] 
training bases of Fuerstenfeldbruck, Landsberg, 
and Kaufbeuren. They will undergo indoctrina- 
tion and orientation training by German officials 
prior to entry into pilot and technical training 



courses available to them as a Nato member na- 
tion. The pilots will start their flight training at 
Landsberg in Harvard MK^'s. Upon comple- 
tion of their training they will move to Fuersten- 
feldbruck for training in the T-33 jet trainer. 

Personnel scheduled for technical training will 
receive all of their training at Kaufbeuren, where 
courses in aircraft maintenance, communications, 
and electronics will be available. Some of the 
officers who will receive pilot training at Lands- 
berg and Fuerstenfeldbruck will be utilized as 
instructors for subsequent pilot trainees. Simi- 
larly, many of the airmen and officers going to 
Kaufbeuren for technical training will be utilized 
as instructors after they complete their training. 
This will provide a nucleus of instructors for the 
German Air Force. 

Federal Republic personnel taking training at 
U.S. air bases in Germany will be accorded the 
same logistical support as students of other Nato 
countries until the German Air Force is ready 
to assume its own support. Operational control 
of personnel in training at U.S. bases in Germany 
will be the responsibility of Usafe. 

Navy Training Support 

The U.S. Navy will give training support by 
instructing German naval student selectees in a 
variety of subjects necessary for their later em- 
ployment at German recruit training bases. These 
selectees are former German naval personnel who 
have been employed by the U.S. Navy units at 
Bi'emerhaven and Schierstein. 

Included in the program will be small-arms 
indoctrination including the 3.5-inch rocket 
launcher, study of American training methods 
and retraining in procedures for training recruits, 
and a study of modern methods in amphibious 
operations. 

Letters of Credence 

James C. Hagerty, press secretary to the Presi- 
dent, announced on January 17 that the President 
had that day accepted the credentials of the newly 
appointed Ambassador of the Republic of Haiti, 
Mauclair Zephirin. 



'I January 30, J 956 



163 



Ambassadorial Talks at Geneva With Chinese Communists 



Press release 37 dated January 21 
DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Chinese Communists issued a misleading 
statement on January 18 regarding the Geneva 
discussions wliich have been taking place between 
U.S. Ambassador [U. Alexis] Johnson and Chi- 
nese Communist Ambassador Wang [Ping-nan]. 
It is thus necessaiy that the record be set straight. 

These conferences were started last August to 
discuss the repatriation of civilians and other 
"practical matters at issue." ^ 

Agreement to Repatriation of Civilians 

On September 10, 1955, the representatives of 
both sides, by agreement, issued statements that 
civilians were entitled to return to their own coun- 
tries.^ 

The Communist declaration stated: 

The People's Republic of China recognizes that Ameri- 
cans in the I'eople's Republic of China who desire to 
return to the United States are entitled to do so, and 
declares that it has adopted and will further adopt ap- 
propriate measures so that they can expeditiously exercise 
their right to return. 

As of today, 4 months after this declaration was 
made, only 6 out of the 19 for whom representa- 
tions were being made on September 10 have been 
released. Thirteen Americans are still in Com- 
munist prisons.^ 

As for the United States, any Chinese is free to 
leave the United States for any destination of his 
choosing, and not a single one has been refused 
exit. The Indian Embassy, which was designated 
to assist any Chinese who wished to leave, has not 
brought to the attention of this Government any 
case of a Chinese who claims he is being prevented 
from leaving, nor has it stated that it is impeded 
in any way in carrying out its functions under 
the terms of the September 10 agreed annoimce- 
ment. 



Discussion of Renunciation of Force 

After this agreed annoimcement was made, the 
two sides proceeded to discuss "other practical 
matters at issue between tiiem." 

The Communists suggested the topics of the 
termination of the trade embargo against Com- 
munist China and the holding of a meeting by the 
Foreign Ministers of both sides. 

Ambassador Johnson at the October 8, 1955, 
meeting pointed out that progress in further dis- 
cussions could not be expected in the face of con- 
tinuing Commimist threats to take Taiwan by 
military force and suggested that both sides agree 
to announce that they renounced the use of force 
generally and particularly in the Taiwan area and 
agree to settle their differences by peaceful means. 
The U.S. representatives made clear that this re- 
nunciation of the use of force was not designed 
to commit the Communists to renounce pursuit 
of their policies by peaceful means with respect 
to Taiwan. These proposals were in the terms 
shown as annex B. 

Three weeks after the U.S. proposal to renounce 
the use of force, the Communists on October 27 
proposed a draft, a copy of which is shown in 
annex C. In this proposal, the Communists 



' For a joint communique, a Dei>artment announcement, 
and a statement by Secretary Dulles at the time the talks 
began, see Bulletin of Aug. 8, 1955, p. 219. 

' Ibid., Sept. 19, 1955, p. 456. 

° Of the 19 Americans for whom representations have 
been made under the agreed announcement, the following 
6 have been released : Dr. and Mrs. Homer V. Bradshaw, 
the Rev. Justin Harvey, Harriet Mills, the Rev. Armand 
Proulx, and the Rev. Marcellus White. The remaining 
13 are: the Rev. John William Clifford, John Thomas 
Downey, Richard Fecteau, the Rev. Fulgeuce Gross, the 
Rev. John Alexander Houle, Paul Mackinsen, Robert Mc- 
Cann, the Rev. Charles Joseph McCarthy, the Rev. Joseph 
Patrick McCorniack, the Rev. Thomas Leonard Phillips, 
Bishop Ambrose H. Pinger, H. F. Redmond, and the Rev. 
John Paul Wagner. 



i 



164 



Department of State Bulletin 



pointedly omitted any reference to the Taiwan 
area or to the recognition of the right of self- 
defense, and inserted a provision for an immediate 
meeting of Foreign Ministers. 

This proposal was unacceptable because it would 
have made it possible for the Communists to claim 
that the proposal did not apply to the Taiwan area, 
which is the very place against which the Commu- 
nist threats are directed, and to claim further 
that the United States had renounced the right 
to use force in self-defense. Ambassador Johnson 
further pointed out that consideration of higher 
level meetings was neither appropriate nor accept- 
able under existing circumstances. 

On November 10, 1955, Ambassador Johnson, 
in an attempt to reach an acceptable form of dec- 
laration, submitted a new draft declaration (an- 
nex D). This made clear that the renunciation 
of the use of force was without prejudice to the 
peaceful pursuit of its policies by either side ; that 
it had general application but applied particularly 
to the Taiwan area; and that it did not deprive 
either side of the right of self-defense. 

The U.S. proposal was rejected by the Com- 
munists, who, on December 1, 1955, made a coun- 
terproposal (annex E). This represented an ad- 
vance over their previous proposal in that it 
dropped the provision for talks on the Foreign 
Minister level in favor of the continuance of am- 
bassadorial talks but still pointedly omitted any 
reference to the Taiwan area and to recognition of 
the right of self-defense. 

In a further effort to reach agreement, Ambas- 
sador Johnson, at the January 12 meeting, sug- 
gested two simple amendments to the Communist 
counterproposal. These were the insertion of the 
words "without prejudice to the inherent right 
of individual and collective self-defense" and of 
the words "in the Taiwan area or elsewhere." This 
U.S. revision of the Chinese counterproposal is 
shown in annex F. 

The Communist Public Statement 

This was the status of the discussions when the 
Communists released their public statement of 
January 18. 

The Communist statement apparently rejects 
the U.S. proposal. It states, "Taiwan is Chinese 
territory: there can be no question of defense, as 
far as the United States is concerned. . . . Yet 
the United States has demanded the right of de- 



Statement by Ambassador Johnson 

Press release 30 dated January 18 

The follovHng is a statement hy Ambassador 
V. Alexis Johnson issued at Geneva on January 18 
in reply to a 2,500-vord statement issued by the 
Chinese Communist Foreign Office at Peiping on 
the same day. 

I am disappointed that the Chinese Communists 
have again chosen to resort to propaganda regard- 
ing the talks between Ambassador Wang and my- 
self. At the beginning of our talks we agreed that 
progress could best be achieved by promptly an- 
nouncing our agreements and refraining from pub- 
lic airing of our disagreements. 

The statement to some extent reflects the progress 
that it has thus far been possible to make in seek- 
ing a commitment by the Chinese Communists to 
renounce force to achieve their objectives. How- 
ever the partial quotation and misinterpretation 
in the statement distorts and perverts the facts 
with regard to our discussions concerning the exact 
wording of such a commitment. 

The statement also attempts to gloss over the 
stark failure of the Chinese Communists fully to 
carry out their commitments of September 10 
expeditiously to release all Americans on Mainland 
China desiring to return. 



fense of the Taiwan area. Is this not precisely 
a demand that China accept continued occupation 
of Taiwan and that the tension in the Taiwan area 
be maintained forever?" And further, it states: 
"The American side continues to demand that our 
side accept that the United States has 'the inher- 
ent right of individual and collective self-defense' 
in China's Taiwan area. This is what our side 
absolutely cannot accept." 

The United States Position 

Two points must be made clear. First, the 
United States is not occupying Taiwan and Tai- 
wan has never been a part of Communist China. 
The claims of Communist China and the conten- 
tions of the United States with respect to this area 
are well known and constitute a major dispute 
between them. It is specifically with respect to 
this dispute that the United States has proposed 
the principle of renunciation of force and the 
settlement of differences by peaceful means. This 
is the principle which the Communists say they 
have accepted. 

In this connection the United States has made 
completely clear that in renouncing the use of 



January 30, J 956 



165 



force neither side is relinquishing its objectives 
and policies but onh' the use of force to attain 
them. 

Secondly, the United States has rights and re- 
sponsibilities in the Taiwan area; also it has a 
mutual defense treaty. Accordingly it is present 
in the Taiwan area. The Communist refusal to 
state that the renunciation of force is without 
prejudice to the right of self-defense against 
armed attack can only be interpreted as an at- 
tempt to induce the United States to agree that if 
attacked it will forgo the right to defend its law- 
ful presence in this area. 

The right of individual and collective self-de- 
fense against armed attack is inherent; it is rec- 
ognized in international law; it is specifically 
affirmed in the charter of the United Nations. No 
country can be expected to forgo this right. In- 
deed, the Communists should be as anxious to pre- 
serve this right as is the United States. 

Conclusion 

The present exchange makes clear that : 

1. Four months after tlie Communists an- 
nounced that they would adopt measures to per- 
mit Americans in China to return to the United 
States, 13 Americans are still held in Communist 
prisons. 

2. The United States proposed that the parties 
renounce the use of force without prejudice to 
the right of individual and collective self-defense 
against armed attack, in order that the discussions 
might take place free from the threat of war. 

3. The United States made clear that this re- 
nunciation would not prejudice either side in the 
pursuit of its objectives and policies by peaceful 
means. 

4. The Coimnunists, while stating that they ac- 
cept the principle of the renunciation of force, 
have deprived such acceptance of its value by re- 
fusing to agi-ee that it is without prejudice to the 
right of individual and collective self-defense 
against armed attack and that it is applicable to 
the Taiwan ai-ea. 

In short, the Communists so far seem willing 
to renounce force only if they are first conceded 
the goals for whicli they would use force. 

The United States, for its part, intends to per- 
sist in the way of peace. We seek the now overdue 
fulfillment by the Chinese Communists of their 



undertaking that the Americans now in China 
should be allowed expeditiously to return. We 
seek this not only for humanitarian reasons but 
because respect for international undertakings lies 
at the foundation of a stable international order. 
We shall also seek with perseverance a meaningful 
renunciation of force, particularly in the Taiwan 
area. 



ANNEXES 

Annex A: Agreed Announcement of the Ambassa- 
dors of the United States of America and the People's 
Republic of China 

[For text, see Bulletin of Sept. 19, 195.5, p. 456.] 



Annex B: United States Statement and Proposal on 
Renunciation of Force, October 8, 1955 

One of the practical matters for discu-ssion between 
us is that each of us should renounce the use of force 
to achieve our policies when they conflict. The United 
States and the Pro [People's Republic of China] confront 
each other with policies which are in certain respects 
incompatible. This fact need not, however, mean armed 
conflict, and the most imiwrtant single thing we can 
do is first of all to be sure that it will not lead to armed 
conflict. 

Then and only then can other matters causing ten- 
sion between the parties in the Taiwan area and the 
Far East be hopefully discussed. 

It is not suggested that either of us should renounce 
any policy objectives which we consider we are legit- 
imately entitled to achieve, but only that we renounce 
the use of force to implement these policies. 

Neither of us wants to negotiate under the threat of 
force. The free discussion of differences, and their fair 
and equitable solution, become impossible under the over- 
hanging threat that force may be resorted to when one 
party does not agree with the other. 

The United States as a member of the United Nations 
has agreed to refrain in its international relations from 
the threat or use of force. This has been its policy for 
many years and is its guiding principle of conduct in 
the Far East, as throughout the world. 

The use of force to achieve national ob.iectives does 
not accord with accepted standards of conduct under 
international law. 

The Covenant of the League of Nations, the Kellogg- 
Briand Treaties, and the Charter of the United Nations 
reflect the universal view of the civilized community of 
nations that the use of force as an instrument of national 
policy violates international law, constitutes a threat to 
international peace, and prejudices the interests of the 
entire world community. 

There are in the world today many situations which 
tempt those who have force to use it to achieve what 
they believe to be legitimate policy objectives. Many 



166 



Department of State Bulletin 



countries are abnormally divided or contain what some 
consider to be abnormal intrusions. Nevertheless, the 
responsible governments of the world have in each of 
these cases renounced the use of force to achieve what 
they believe to be legitimate and even urgent goals. 

It is an essential foundation and preliminary to the 
success of the discussions under Item 2 that it first be 
made clear that the parties to these discussions renounce 
the use of force to make the policies of either prevail over 
those of the other. That particularly applies to the 
Taiwan area. 

The acceptance of this principle does not involve third 
parties, or the justice or injustice of conflicting claims. 
It only involves recognizing and agreeing to abide by ac- 
cepted standards of international conduct. 

We ask, therefore, as a first matter for discussion under 
Item 2, a declaration that your side will not resort to the 
use of force in the Taiwan area except defensively. The 
United States would be preiiared to make a corresponding 
declaration. These declarations will make it appropriate 
for as to pass on to the discussion of other matters with a 
better hope of coming to constructive conclusions. 

Annex C: Chinese Communist Draft Declaration on 
Renunciation of Force, October 27, 1955 

1. Ambassador Wang Ping-nan on behalf of the Gov- 
ernment of the People's Republic of China and Ambassa- 
dor U. Alexis Johnson on behalf of the Government of the 
United States of America jointly declare that, 

2. In accordance with Article 2, Paragraph 3, of the 
Charter of the Unitefl Nations, "All members shall settle 
their international disputes by peaceful means in such a 
manner that international peace and security, and justice, 
are not endangered" ; and 

3. In accordance with Article 2, Paragraph 4 of the 
Charter of the United Nations, "All members shall refrain 
in their international relations from the threat or use of 
force against the territorial integrity or irolitical inde- 
pendence of any state, or in any other manner incon- 
sistent with the purposes of the United Nations" ; 

4. The People's Republic of China and the United 
States of America agree that they should settle disputes 
between their two countries by peaceful means without 
resorting to the threat or use of force. 

5. In order to realize their common desire, the People's 
Republic of China and the United States of America 
decide to hold a conference of Foreign Ministers to settle 
through negotiations the question of relaxing and elimi- 
nating the tension in Taiwan area. 

Annex D: United States Draft Declaration on 
S'l Renunciation of Force, November 10, 1955 

1. The Ambassador of the United States of America 
and the Ambassador of the People's Republic of China 
during the course of the discussions of practical matters 
at issue have expressed the determination that the dif- 



ferences between the two sides shall not lead to armed 
conflict. 

2. They recognize that the use of force to achieve na- 
tional objectives does not accord with the principles and 
purposes of the United Nations Charter or with generally 
accepted standards of international conduct. 

3. They furthermore recognize that the renunciation of 
the threat or use of force is essential to the just settle- 
ment of disputes or situations which might lead to a 
breach of the peace. 

4. Therefore, without prejudice to the pursuit by each 
side of its policies by peaceful means they have agreed 
to announce the following declarations : 

0. Ambassador Wang Ping-nan informed Ambassador 
U. Alexis Johnson that: 

6. In general, and with particular reference to the 
Taiwan area, the People's Republic of China renounces 
the use of force, except in individual and collective self- 
defense. 

7. Ambassador U. Alexis Johnson informed Ambassador 
Wang Ping-nan that : 

8. In general, and with particular reference to the 
Taiwan area, the United States renounces the use of 
force, except in individual and collective self-defense. 

Annex E: Chinese Communist Draft Counterpro- 
posal for an Agreed Announcement, December 1, 
1955 

1. Ambassador Wang Ping-nan, on behalf of the Gov- 
ernment of the People's Republic of China, and Ambassa- 
dor U. Alexis Johnson on behalf of the Government of the 
United States of America, agree to announce: 

2. The People's Republic of China and the United States 
of America are determined that they should settle dis- 
putes between their two countries through peaceful nego- 
tiations without resorting to the threat or use of force ; 

3. The two Ambassadors should continue their talks 
to seek practical and feasible means for the realization 
of this common desire. 



Annex F: United States Revision of Chinese Commu- 
nist December 1 Counterproposal, January 12, 1956 

1. Ambassador Wang Ping-nan, on behalf of the Gov- 
ernment of the People's Republic of China, and Ambas- 
sador U. Alexis Johnson, on behalf of the Government 
of the United States of America, agree to announce : 

2. The People's Republic of China and the United States 
of America are determined that they will settle disputes 
between them through peaceful means and that, without 
prejudice to the inherent right of individual and collective 
self-defense, they will not resort to the threat or use of 
force in the Taiwan area or elsewhere. 

3. The two Ambassadors should continue their talks 
to seek practical and feasible means for the realization 
of this common desire. 



January 30, 1956 



167 



The New Soviet Diplomatic Offensive 



hy Deputy Under Secretary Murfhy ' 



Under our Constitution, our President is charged 
with the execution of our foreign policy and our 
Secretary of State acts by virtue of authority 
delegated to him by the President. The objective 
of that policy is a simple one. It is the security 
and the welfare of the American people. All our 
efforts whether they succeed or fail are bent 
to that end. I say "succeed or fail" because no 
government perhaps has ever enjoyed a perfect 
batting average in the field of foreign affairs and 
ours is no exception. Looking back, I think that 
the American percentage of success is far better 
than the average. Fortunately our foreign poli- 
cies today are in the hands of men to whom the 
international field is no mystery and who have not 
lost intimate touch with the basic aspirations and 
needs of our own people. Our Nation has played 
and is playing a role which I believe history will 
judge as honorable because our Government con- 
sistently has put moral considerations above ma- 
terial considerations. 

One of the obvious major roadblocks in the way 
of our basic policy objective, that is, the security 
and welfare of the American people, is the fact 
that the postwar years have been overshadowed 
by a world conspiracy which seeks to dominate 
all world areas in the name of international com- 
munism. Frequently this is only a banner for a 
movement which may be characterized as old- 
fashioned Russian expansionism or, to use a dis- 
credited word, colonialism. This tenacious and 
aggi'essive program is as elastic and ingenious as it 
is pereistent and determined. Controlled by a 
highly centralized apparatus, it is able to shift and 
change with a bland rapidity which often leaves 
its stanchest adherents bewildered. It is backed 



' Address made before the Pennsylv;mia Bar Association 
at Harrisbnrg, Pa., on Jan. 20 (press release 35). 



by the gigantic material resources of a vast area 
which now controls in the neighborhood of 900 
million people. 

Many wise commentators on our modern world 
have noted that we are living in a period when the 
forces of histoiy have been greatly accelerated. 
Ours is a contracting world. When I received my 
scholastic education, we were taught in terms of 
maps that used Mercator's projection. The maps 
we studied showed our great North Atnerican Con- 
tinent isolated from the rest of the world by the 
expanse of great oceans. Today the maps of Mer- 
cator's projection with vast reaches of ocean and 
desert and mountain range need reappraisal. We 
are living in a day in which guided missiles now in 
process of development will travel thousands of 
miles in a matter of minutes. 

Oceans and roads and ancient caravan tracks 
marked out on the Mercator projection maps of 
our childhood are no longer primary routes of com- 
munication. We today must use polar maps to 
help us understand the lines of communication 
that modern airplanes and guided missiles will 
follow. 

In this contracting world where space and time 
have been foreshortened, obviously tremendous 
demands have been placed upon the people who 
inhabit it — demands that change traditional ways 
of thinking, demands that change even our in- 
herited physical reflexes. If we think of what 
is demanded of us when we drive a car, we become 
conscious that every day we take it for granted 
that our bodies make untold thousands of reflex 
actions, signs of warning and danger that would 
be absolutely incomprehensible to our great- 
gi-andfathers and all who preceded them. 

These changes in om* world have been accom- 
panied, however, by an acceleration in otlier 



168 



Department of State Bulletin 



forces. It is imperative that we remain aware and 
alert to this acceleration. When George Wash- 
ington made his Farewell Address, he spoke of 
•'our detached and distant situation." His words 
were wise and valid for much of our history. To- 
day, however, we no longer live in a world where 
we enjoy yesterday's security of a "detached and 
distant situation." We must not only be aware 
of the competitive social, economic, and political 
forces which surround us, to say nothing of the 
weapons designed and fabricated to cripple any 
city of the world in a single blow; we must also 
be aware of the rapidity with which the forces 

I of history change. 

j Since our childhood the political map of the 
world has changed almost as tremendously as 
tlie physical map — in some cases beyond recogni- 
tion. Empires, kingdoms, and even the names 
of countries have disappeared from the map, and 
the significance of their disappearance demands 
constant reappraisal because along with these 
changes on the political map go great changes in 
the way in which men live. Traditional patterns 
of commerce and communication between people 
disappear. The social structure of vast societies 
changes and with it tremendous new fermenting 
forces come into being. Vast populations in Asia 
and Africa, who had through the centuries of 
recorded history accepted poverty, starvation, dis- 
ease, and ignorance as inevitable, are unwilling to 
do so today. They are aware that modern society 
has at its disposal the means and tecluiiques by 
which they can improve their lives and those of 
their children, so that they may have hope for a 
future where they may live in dignity free from 
the ancient specters of pestilence and famine. 



Postwar Aid Programs 

The American people and their Government 
have been alert to these changes and their implica- 
tions. We have sympathized with and aided the 
aspirations of the people of many areas. We have 
cherished since the birth of our Nation "our de- 
tached and distant situation," but twice when the 
values of freedom and independence for all men 
were threatened, we have gone to war to protect 
them. When, after the Second World War, our 
people became aware that a new threat existed, 
when they became aware that international com- 
mmiism was extinguishing freedom and independ- 
ence wherever it could, they reacted rapidly. 



Starting with the Greek-Turkish aid program in 
1947, we undertook two major and related inter- 
national efforts. 

The first was to aid in the rebuilding of the 
countries that had suffered great destruction dur- 
ing the war and to assist them in developing their 
economic and social security. The second was to 
help in building up the military security of the 
free nations. Military and economic security had 
to be built simultaneously. Without social and 
economic well-being and a sense of spiritual prog- 
ress, a solid security is not possible. Without 
military security free nations were threatened by 
domination. Two conspicuous examples of this 
were Greece and Korea. 

We were, of course, not alone in our recognition 
of the danger. The free nations reacted rapidly 
and energetically. Out of our common realiza- 
tion of the danger has come united action to build 
defense and strength. Throughout the free world 
a system of collective security has been created for 
mutual defense. In the North Atlantic the United 
States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Iceland 
are joined with 11 European countries from Nor- 
way in the north to Greece and Turkey in the 
south, partners in the great North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization. In the Near East the United King- 
dom has associated itself with Turkey, Iran, Iraq, 
and Pakistan in the Baghdad Pact. On this con- 
tinent the United States and the 20 republics of 
our Latin American friends have strengthened the 
Organization of American States. And in the 
Pacific the United States, the United Kingdom, 
France, Australia, and New Zealand have joined 
with the Philippines, Pakistan, and Thailand to 
create the Seato Pact. In addition the United 
States has made security treaties with the Philip- 
pines, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the Re- 
public of China on Taiwan. The United States 
today is fortified by security arrangements with 
more than 40 countries.^ 

These treaties are made pursuant to what the 
United Nations Charter calls the inherent right 
of collective self-defense. Together they con- 
stitute a worldwide political warning system. We 
have developed with our allies a collective system 
of great power which can be flexibly used on what- 
ever scale may be requisite to make aggression 
costly. 



elji I January 30, 7956 



' For a map illustrating these arrangements, aee 
Bulletin of Mar. 21, 1955, p. 478. 



169 



I 



Soviet Policy Reversals 

A major development in the past year has been 
the assmuj^tion by the Soviet Union of a new form 
of diplomatic offensive. This offensive grew out 
of the fact that the Western powers had achieved 
the admission to the North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization and to the Western European Union 
of tlie German Federal Republic and the decision 
to permit the German Federal Republic to joro- 
vide for the defense of Western Germany. The 
Soviet reaction to these developments was imme- 
diate. We witnessed a quick series of reversals 
of Soviet policy to adjust itself to the Western 
accomplishment. These were announced, in fact, 
by Mr. Molotov at the time of his visit to San 
Francisco last June. Soviet leaders embarked on 
an ambitious campaign which embraced the con- 
clusion of a treaty with Austria, a visit of con- 
ciliation to the Tito government in Yugoslavia, an 
invitation to Chancellor Adenauer to visit Mos- 
cow, a series of proposals on disarmament, and 
what might be called high-pressure salesmansliip 
in several areas in Asia. 

Our Secretary of State recently released a state- 
ment that had been addressed to him by the U.S. 
delegation to the United Nations General Assem- 
bly.^ This statement said: 

The present period in history may one day be recog- 
nized as a major turning point in the struggle between 
Communism and freedom. It appears to be clearly a 
shift in the cold war, in which economic and social prob- 
lems have moved to the forefront. 

. . . we [have been] conscious that the Soviet Union . . . 
was using economic and social collaboration as a means 
for jumping military as well as political barriers. 

This statement by the U.S. delegation to the 
United Nations is, I think, of importance to the 
people of the United States. We are entering an- 
other stage of our postwar history, and proper 
understanding of its meaning by us is vital to the 
security of our country. 

In this new stage, as this report says, there 
"appears to be clearly a shift in the cold war, in 
which economic and social problems have moved to 
the forefront." You are aware, I am sure, of this 
pattern as it has been developing. There have 
been many examples of it — the Soviet offer of a 
steel plant to India, arms that are being sold to 
Egypt, Chinese cotton goods being imported in 
Indonesia, Soviet offers of assistance to Egypt in 
building the Aswan High Dam, Hungarian rail- 



' Ibid., Jan. 23, 1956, p. 117. 



170 



way equipment for Egypt, cement works and a 
sugar refinery to be built by Czechoslovakia for 
Syria, Polish capital equipment to be made avail- 
able for various countries in the Middle East. 

A clear pattern emerges when the individual 
facts are brought together and analyzed. The 
U.S.S.R., its satellites in Europe, and China are 
working together to the extent of their ability to 
expand their economic influence in the countries 
of the Near East, Africa, and Asia. Signs of this 
activity can be seen in Egypt, the Sudan, Afghan- 
istan, India, Burma, and Indonesia. 

The pattern of this penetration takes various 
forms: offers of help, long-range development 
projects such as the Aswan Dam, the sending of 
trade missions, the offer to help in disposing of 
surplus products, offers to furnish complete fac- 
tories and provide the technicians to train local 
employees. 

Reasons for Policy Shift 

'\^^lat are some of the factors that have led to 
this change in Soviet policy? Because certainly 
it is a change. Heretofore the U.S.S.E. has done 
everything in its power to hinder the economic 
development of the countries that are not in its 
bloc or are not its satellites. Since the war it has 
shown a face of bluster and fulmination to all 
countries that have not been completely subser- 
vient to it. There are two principal reasons, I 
suggest, for the preserft change. Unquestionably 
the first has been the defensive strength that the 
free world has built up. Secondly, the U.S.S.E. 
policies of bluster and fulmination have not been 
successful. Stalinist policies were not paying 
dividends. 

The new Soviet policy of economic penetration 
and of military assistance is designed to overcome 
the collective security alliances facing them. It 
is in imitation of our own program of economic 
and military assistance, and perhaps the only sur- 
prising feature in it is that the Russians have been 
so slow in adopting it. This Soviet diplomatic 
offensive presents our American foreign policy 
and diplomacy an acute and difficult situation. 

After the war we recognized tliat Europe rep- 
resented an immediate problem of economic and 
military assistance. Our policies and programs 
there have succeeded. But we should recall that 
there we were working with countries that share 
our basic assumptions about the composition of 

Department of State Bulletin 



It 



society, about its economic structure and about 
the common threat of communism. However, in 
the area from Gibraltar to Djakarta, where the 
Soviet Union is, for the present at least, making 
its major effort, we are faced with a variety of 
situations. This is an area where new nations 
are struggling for their existence. They have not 
always been aware of the danger of possible So- 
viet or Communist control. To some of them 
the dangers of poverty and want today and to- 
morrow seem more imperative. These so-called 
uncommitted areas wish to stand on their own 
feet economically and socially and to become mod- 
ern nations. They are willing to risk possible fu- 
ture sacrifices to get immediate material gain. 

We are not alone in our diagnosis of these prob- 
lems. The U.S.S.R. is well aware of them. A 
recent copy of a Communist publication clearly 
outlines future Soviet policy toward the West as 
''prolonged co-existence, and economic competi- 
tion between the two systems. . . . The future 
development of society is determined in the last 
analysis not by means of war but through peace- 
ful economic competition. Only in such competi- 
tion can the historic superiority of one or other 
social system be proved in practice." 

These are some of the dangers and difficulties 
that we face. However, let us look at the present 
and future from our point of view. The U.S.S.R. 
now is recognizing that it cannot rely on threat 
and intimidation. They are now engaged in com- 
petition with us and cynically have chosen our 
own methods. Economic and technical assistance, 
trade missions, aid in long-range economic devel- 
opment are the means that we had traditionally 
used to build a viable economic and social world 
among the free nations. 

Imitation is a sign of flattery. This challenge 
we should not fear. Our social and economic sys- 
tem has long been able to tolerate diversity. It 
is not dependent on monolithic conformity. The 
area of competition in which the U.S.S.R. has 



now chosen to enter is one where the results are 
pragmatic. We believe that our system has more 
to offer; that it has better tools and techniques 
at its disposal ; that it has gi-eater resources. More 
important, we know that it is a system of free- 
dom and not of domination. We know that its 
objective is the dignity of man rather than the 
power of the state. There will be problems, surely, 
insofar as the threat of war diminishes. To 
replace the cement of fear, our alliances will find 
new strength in the common aspirations for free- 
dom and independence which link the free peoples 
of the world. I am sure that the members of your 
great Bar Association will agi-ee with me that the 
American people will respond to this challenge 
with the vitality and energy and faith with which 
they have responded in the past to the challenge 
of war. 



Mr. Randall To Conduct Economic 
Discussions Witli Turltey 

Press release 24 dated January 17 

The Governments of the United States and the 
Republic of Turkey announce that upon their joint 
request Air. Clarence B. Randall has agreed to 
proceed to Turkey late this month to discuss eco- 
nomic problems of interest to both countries. 

Mr. Randall is an eminent industrialist in the 
United States and Special Consultant to President 
Eisenhower on foreign economic policy. It is ex- 
pected that Mr. Randall's visit will greatly con- 
tribute to the further development of economic 
relations between the two nations and the advance- 
ment of mutual understanding in the field. 

Mr. Randall, who will be guest of the Turkish 
Government, will take with him to Turkey his 
associates, Mr. Forest D. Siefkin of Chicago and 
Dr. C. Edward Galbreath of Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Randall and his associates will serve without 
compensation. 



January 30, 1956 



171 



Department's Recommendations on Sugar Legislation 



Statement by Henry F. Ilolland 

Assistant Secretary for Inter- American Affairs ^ 



Sugar is of such great importance in United 
States relations witli a number of foreign countries, 
particularly the Latin American countries, that 
the State Department is especially appreciative of 
the opportunity to comment on the legislation 
which you are now considering. 

The Department's general position on sugar 
legislation is contained in its report on S. 1635, 
which was filed with the chairman of the commit- 
tee on June 22, 1955.- As certain sections of that 
report are no longer applicable, I shall not take 
the time of the committee by reading it into the 
record. I do request, however, that it be made a 
jjart of the record, and I hope that the members 
of the committee may be able to find time to read it. 

As the committee is aware, the pi'esent Sugar 
Act provides fixed quotas for domestic sugar-pro- 
ducing areas and the Philippines. These total 
5,424,000 tons. The diiference between this total 
and the total amount of sugar which we consume 
in the United States is supplied by foreign coun- 
tries other than the Philippines. These countries 
might be called the residual suppliers. Among the 
residual suppliers, Cuba's share is 96 percent; that 
of the others, 4 percent. The present act is now 
scheduled to expire January 1, 1957. 

When sugar legislation was under consideration 
by the House Conmiittee on Agriculture, the execu- 
tive branch made the following i-ecommendations 
with regard to quotas : 



' Made before the Senate Finance Committee on Jan. 16 
(press release 21) regarding H.R. "030 as approved by tlie 
House of Representatives. 

' For a statement by Assistant Secretary Holland on 
June 22 before the House Committee on Agriculture, see 
BuLun-iN of July 18, 1955, p. 120. 



1. That the provisions of the present act apply 
up to the level of 8,350,000 tons. 

2. That beginning January 1, 1956, increases in 
consumption above tlie level of 8,350,000 tons be 
divided 55 percent to domestic producers and 45 
percent to Cuba and other foreign countries, ex- 
cepting the Philippines, whose fixed quota was 
established under the Philippine Trade Act. 
These foreign countries other than Cuba and the 
Philippines are commonly referred to as the full- 
duty countries, inasmuch as the full tariff duty is 
paid on all sugar imported from them. 

3. The executive branch recommended fitrther 
that beginning January 1, 1957, the expiration 
date of the present act, the Cuban share in that 
portion of increased U.S. consumption allocated 
to foreign suppliers be reduced from 96 percent 
to 60 percent, and that the share of the full-duty 
countries be increased from 4 percent to 40 
percent. 

4. Finally, the executive branch reconunended 
that the relative share of the major full-duty 
countries be determined on the basis of their par- 
ticipation in our imports of sugar from such coun- 
tries during the period 1951-54. 

The bill approved by the House of Representa- 
tives differs in several important respects from 
the recommendations of the executive branch. I 
should like to comment briefly on these. 

1. Dividing increases in consumptian hefiveen 
domestic froducers and foreign producers. The 
bill approved by the House would divide increases 
in consimiption 50-50 between domestic and for- 
eign producei-s. The State Department supports 



172 



Department of State Bulletin 



the recommendation which the executive branch 
made to the House Agriculture Committee, and 
is making to this committee, tliat domestic pro- 
ducers should share to the extent of 55 percent in 
increases in consumption above the level of 
8,350,000 tons. 

I should like to emphasize one very obvious 
point in this connection, however, and to point 
out two of its implications. The 55-45 division 
between domestic and foreign producers allows 
foreign countries to supply less sugar than would 
the 50-50 division approved by the House. This 
means that it is especially desirable, from the 
foreign-policy viewpoint, (1) that the Senate ac- 
cord as favorable treatment to foreign producers 
in other respects as was accorded by the House 
and (2) that it is even more necessary than it 
was in the House that the division of the foreign 
share of increases in consumption among foreign 
producers be made on the basis of an equitable 
standard which can be applied as uniformly as 
possible among the interested countries. The 
problem of allocating quotas among foreign coun- 
tries is, at best, a very complex one and involves 
choices as to base periods and standards that are 
subject to differences of viewpoint. The simpler 
and more understandable the standards, the more 
likely it is that these differences will not become 
serious. 

2. Dividing the foreign share of increases in 
consumption between Cuba and the full-duty 
countries. As was indicated earlier, the executive 
branch recommended that 60 percent of such in- 
creases be allocated to Cuba and 40 percent to 
the full-duty countries. The bill approved by 
the House would give the full-duty countries a 
statutory quota of 175,000 tons for 1957 and would 
allocate to them an additional 45,000 tons out of 
increases in consumption each year thereafter. 
The difference, if any, between the foreign share 
of increases in consumption and the annual incre- 
ment of 45,000 tons going to the full-duty coun- 
tries would go to Cuba. This would, on the aver- 
age, probably be about one-third the amount 
received by the full-duty countries. Cuba's share 
in some years might prove to be notliing, and the 
Department of State firmly believes that Cuba 
should not be placed last in line for a share which 
may or may not materialize. 

It is the view of the Department that it would be 
unwise to allocate to the full-duty countries more 
than 40 percent of the foreign share of increases 



in consumption during the period of the bill. The 
Department is opposed to any larger increase, es- 
pecially in view of our normal dependence on Cuba 
for emergency supplies of sugar and the current 
depressed economic situation of the Cuban sugar 
industry, and also the fact that Cuba is the country 
which is most directly affected by the increase in 
the domestic share. 

I should like to call your special attention to the 
fact that to adopt legislation less favorable to 
Cuba than that recommended by the executive 
branch would mean a further worsening of eco- 
nomic conditions in Cuba. Cuba's sugar produc- 
tion has already been reduced from 8 million tons 
in 1952 to 5 million tons in 1955. Cuba, a small 
country with a population of about 6 million, is 
financing a surplus of sugar well in excess of one 
million tons in addition to necessary carryover. 
The Cuban Government estimates that, because of 
the cutback already made in its sugar production, 
salaries in the industry have had to be reduced by 
approximately 13 percent. The take-home pay of 
workers has been reduced by a further 27 percent 
cut during the "dead season," which is, of course, 
now of longer duration because of the cutback in 
production. Care is obviously required to avoid 
action which would materially worsen Cuba's 
present economic position, particularly since Cuba 
has always been our largest source of sugar as well 
as our most readily expansible source of additional 
sugar in event of emergency. 

It is the policy of our Government to seek by 
every effective and proper means to assist our part- 
ners in the hemisphere in strengthening their 
economies. We feel that the full-duty countries 
are entitled to the economic benefits of increased 
participation in the United States market. The 
executive branch has reconmiended that their par- 
ticipation in the foreign sliare of increased con- 
sumption over 8,350,000 tons be increased from the 
4 percent allowed by the law now in effect to 40 
percent. We must be careful, however, that in 
seeking to benefit the full-duty countries, we do 
not cripple the economy of Cuba, who is likewise 
an important partner in the hemisphere. 

3. Dividing the share of the major full-duty 
countries among such covmtries. As was indicated 
earlier, the executive branch recommended that 
the relative shares of the major full-duty coun- 
tries be determined on the basis of their partici- 
pation in our imports of sugar from these countries 
during the period 1951-54. So far as is known, 



January 30, 1956 



173 



the bill approved by the House follows no uniform 
standard in allocating the quotas among this gi'oup 
of countries. The allocation appears to have been 
based initially on their relative participation in 
exports of sugar to the world, including the United 
States, rather than on exports of sugar to the 
United States. Adjustments appear to have been 
made from this base, however, which substantially 
increase the quotas of some countries and reduce 
the quotas of other countries. The basis for these 
adjustments is not known to the Department. 

I should like to urge this committee to support 
the following recommendations of the executive 
branch, which we understand have been incorpo- 
rated in a committee print: (1) that beginning 
January 1, 1956, domestic producers should benefit 
to the extent of 55 percent and foreign producers 
to the extent of 45 percent from increases in con- 
sumption above 8,350,000 tons rather than on a 50- 
50 basis, as is provided in the House bill; (2) 
that beginning January 1, 1957, Cuba should re- 
ceive 60 percent of the foreign share of increases 
in consumption. The House bill gives to Cuba 
whatever excess in the foreign share may remain 
after giving to the full-duty countries 175,000 
tons in 1957 and an additional 45,000 tons each 
year thereafter; and (3) that the relative shares 
of the major full-duty countries be determined on 
the basis of their relative participation in our 
importation of sugar from such countries during 
the most recent 4-year period, 1951-54, rather 
than on the undefined basis provided for in the 
House bill. As I have suggested earlier, these 
recommendations would provide for a smaller 
participation by foreign countries, and a larger 
participation by domestic areas, in increases in 
consumption than are provided for in the House 
bill. They would, however, in the opinion of the 
State Department, provide for a more reasonable 
and a more defensible distribution of the foreign 
quota among foreign countries. 

I believe that the recommendations of the ex- 
ecutive branch regarding sugar legislation reflect 
one of the finest bipartisan aspects of United 
States policy in this hemisphere, that is, our desire 
by every practical means to expand and strengthen 
inter-American trade. As you know, the major 
part of our sugar imports comes from Latin Amer- 
ica. The enormous trade now being carried on 
between the nations of tliis hemisphere is one of 
the principal factors which account for the amaz- 



ing economic progTess that is going on in Latin 
America. It is also an important factor in our 
own prosperity. Twenty-seven percent of all our 
exports are sold in Latin America, more than in 
any other comparable area of the world. Thirty- 
four percent of all our imports come from the 
Latin American Republics. About 37 percent of 
all United States direct investment abroad is in 
this area. The benefits to all of us of protecting 
and increasing this great volume of trade are 
obvious. 

Wherever it is possible, consistent with our na- 
tional interest, we must resolutely resist all at- 
tempts to I'educe inter- American trade or, speak- 
ing more broadly, international trade, whether 
by inci'eased tariffs, reduced quotas, or other re- 
strictive devices. But, in our own interest, we 
must do more than merely protect existing levels 
of inter- American trade. We must undertake to 
expand and strengthen it. This means that we 
must find ways to increase our imports of Latin 
America's products. This is true because the 
level of our imports is the limiting factor in our 
inter-American trade. The dollars that Latin 
America earns by selling its products in our mar- 
ket are the same dollars that she uses to pay for 
our exports. Therefore, as we import more, there 
is a balancing increase in our exports. 

The proposal of the executive branch protects 
the existing access of every Latin American sugar- 
producing country to our market and provides 
that their sales in this market shall gi-ow in the 
future right along with those of our own domestic 
producers. 

May I, in closing, again thank you for the op- 
portunity to appear before you to express the 
views of the State Department on the very im- 
jiortant legislation which you are now considering. 

Treaty of Friendship 
With Nicaragua 

Press release 36 dated January 20 

A treaty of friendship, commerce, and naviga- 
tion between the United States and the Republic 
of Nicaragua was signed at Managua on January 
21. Ambassador Tiiumas E. Whelan signed the 
treaty for the United States and Oscar Sevilla- 
Sacasa, Minister of Foreign Affairs, for Nica- 
ragua. 

The treaty is designed to provide a comprehen- 
sive, integrated legal framework within which 



174 



Department of State Bulletin 



general economic relationships between the two 
countries may develop along mutually beneficial 
lines. 

The treaty contains 25 articles and a protocol 
which cover in some detail a wide range of subject 
matter. In brief, each of the two countries: 

(1) agrees to accord within its territories to 
citizens and corporations of the other, treatment 
no less favorable than it accords to its own citizens 
and corporations with respect to engaging in com- 
mercial and industrial activities ; 

(2) formally endorses standards regarding the 
protection of persons and their property and in- 
terests that reflect the most enlightened legal and 
constitutional principles; and 

(3) reasserts its adherence to the principles of 
nondiscriminatory treatment of trade and ship- 
ping. 

From the standpoint of aiding the economic 



interests of Nicaragua, the treaty represents an- 
other step in the development of that country's 
plans for promoting economic development and 
improving the welfare of its people by various 
means, including the encouragement of foreign 
jjrivate investment. 

The U.S. program for the negotiation of treaties 
of this type is an integral part of this country's 
policy for the furtherance of liberal principles of 
trade and economic relations in general and par- 
ticularly for creating throughout the world con- 
ditions favorable to economic development. This 
treaty follows the same general pattern as the 
others of the type that have been negotiated since 
World War II. 

The treaty will shortly be transmitted to the 
U.S. Senate for advice and consent to ratification 
and, when the ratification processes of both coim- 
tries have been completed, will enter into foixe 
one month after the exchange of ratifications. 



Convention on Inter-American Cultural Relations 
Transmitted to Senate 



S. Exec. C, 84th Cong., 2d sess. 

PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE OF TRANSMITTAL 

The White House, January 12, 1956. 
To the Senate of the United States : 

With a view to receiving the advice and con- 
sent of the Senate to ratification, I transmit here- 
with a certified copy of the Convention for the 
Promotion of Inter- American Cultural Relations, 
signed at Caracas on March 28, 1954. 

The purjDoses of the convention are explained in 
the report of the Acting Secretary of State, which 
is transmitted herewith for the information of the 
Senate. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower. 

REPORT OF THE ACTING SECRETARY 

Departmekt of State, 
Washington, October 29, 1955. 

The President, 

The White Hoiise : 
I have the honor to transmit to you a certified 
copy of the Convention for the Promotion of 
Inter-American Cultural Relations, signed at 



Caracas on March 28, 1954, with the recommenda- 
tion that it be submitted to the Senate for its 
advice and consent to ratification. 

The convention, which is concerned with the 
exchange of students and professors, was form- 
ulated and adopted at the 10th Inter-American 
Conference held in Caracas, Venezuela, from 
March 1 to 28, 1954.^ It is a revision of the 1936 
Convention for the Promotion of Inter- American 
Cultural Relations, originally sponsored by the 
United States and adopted at the Inter- American 
Conference for the Maintenance of Peace, Buenos 
Aires, 1936. This latter convention is at present 
in force between the United States and 16 other 
American Republics (51 Stat. 178). 

Experience with the application of the 1936 
convention had demonstrated that many of its de- 
tailed provisions for the selection and support of 
exchanges were unduly rigid and cumbersome. 
In light of these experiences, the United States 
was especially interested in revising the conven- 
tion in order to introduce greater flexibility in 
the awarding of fellowships and grants and in the 



' For a report on the conference, see Buixetin of Apr. 
26, 1954, p. 634. 



January 30, J 956 



175 



financing thereof. The amendments proposed by 
the United States, together with those submitted 
by the Pan American Union and Brazil, served as 
the basis for the deliberations at the Conference 
with respect to the formulation of the revised 
convention. The majority of the amendments 
proposed by the United States were accepted by 
the Conference and are reflected in the revised 
convention. 

The principal modifications incorporated in the 
new convention are: 

1. Obligations on the part of the contracting 
states have been reduced and made more flexible 
in frank recognition of the geographic, economic, 
and other differences between them. The annual 
quota of fellowships to be awarded by each coun- 
try has been reduced from "two" to "one or more 
fellowships, insofar as it may be able to do so," 
and the interchange of professors has been made 
entirely optional. The significance of exchange 
projects in fitting the needs of the respective gov- 
ernments is recognized, and governments are left 
free to conduct such programs with other con- 
tracting governments through bilateral agree- 
ments or otherwise. The principles of coopera- 
tion between contracting states in the conduct 
of such projects is not only embodied in the pro- 
visions for the award of fellowships and grants 
to visiting professors and specialists, but is ex- 
plicitly set forth in the convention as the funda- 
mental principle which should govern its 
implementation. 

2. The procedures provided for have been sim- 
plified and strengthened. Specific dates and other 
such details have been eliminated. The financial 
responsibilities of the participating governments 
are specified more precisely and, as regards pro- 
fessors and specialists, are distributed more realis- 
tically. At the same time, flexibility in the 
conduct of programs is assured by provisions for 
alternative procedures. For example, the gov- 
ernments concerned may develop projects for vis- 
iting professors and specialists, and the financial 
arrangements therefor, directly between one an- 
other, or they may, in their discretion, utilize the 
services of the Pan American Union to assist them 
in undertaking such projects. 

3. The Pan American Union is charged with the 
responsibility for the annual compilation and cir- 
culation among the governments of reports of the 
contracting states on the nature and extent of the 
participation of each in the exchange program, in- 



cluding data as to what private, nongovernmental 
organizations are doing in this field. The impor- 
tance of such nonofficial projects and the role of 
governments in encouraging and facilitating them 
is also recognized. 

There is transmitted herewith a summary deal- 
ing with the revised convention which does not 
purport to discuss and analyze the text in detail, 
but in which an attempt is made to indicate and 
identity the significant revisions therein in rela- 
tion to the earlier convention. 

It is provided in the 1954 convention that it will 
come into force between the states that ratify it 
in the order in which they deposit their respective 
instruments of ratification. Up to the present 
time Haiti and Venezuela have deposited ratifica- 
tions. 

The exchange of persons is one of the most effec- 
tive means for promoting mutual understanding 
among the peoples of America and maintaining a 
climate of public opinion conducive to effective 
inter-American cooperation. It is believed that 
the revised convention will achieve such exchange 
on a much more satisfactory basis than was accom- 
plished under the previous convention and there- 
fore represents a significant step forward in the 
field of inter-American cultural relations. The 
United States played an active and prominent role 
in furthering the efforts to revise the convention. 
It is hoped that this revision will be given favor- 
able consideration by the Senate. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Hekbekt Hoover, Jr., 
Acting Secretary of State. 



Summary of the Convention for the Promotion of 
Inter-American Cultural Relations 

ARTICLE 1 

Corresponds to article I of the 1936 convention. The 
essential changes are — 

1. Reduction of the annual quota of study fellowships 
each state is obliged to award from "two" to "one or 
more, insofar as it may be able to do so." 

2. Clarification (in the non-English texts) of the term 
"graduate student." 

3. Broadening of the categories of persons eligible for 
fellowships. Not only graduate students and teachers 
but also "other persons with equivalent qualifications" are 
now formally eligible for fellowships. 

4. Clear understanding that contracting governments 
may award scholarships under other terms also, and that 
they are not bound in all inter-American scholarship pro- 
grams to follow the procedures or comply with the specific 



176 



Department of State Bulletin 



terms set forth in the convention but may develop their 
own foreign fellowship programs as they see fit by formal 
or informal understandings with other states or unilater- 
ally and on their own initiative. 

These revisions are a general attempt to adjust quotas 
realistically to the differing abilities and resources of the 
contracting states. Minimum financial obligations are de- 
creased ; they are also made flexible. Administrative pro- 
cedures will be more efficient as a result of the broadening 
of the categories of candidates, the clarification of the 
term "graduate student," and the explicit recognition of 
the right of every participating state to administer fellow- 
ship programs without regard to the financial or pro- 
cedural specifications set forth in the convention. 

ARTICLE 2 

Corresponds to certain provisions of article I of the 
1936 convention. The essential changes are — 

1. The financial responsibilities of the host governments 
have been made clearer and more specific. The phrase 
"tuition, subsidiary expenses and maintenance" has been 
changed to read "tuition, textbooks, work materials and, 
in addition, a monthly allowance to cover lodging, main- 
tenance and other additional necessary expenses." The 
phrase providing for a sharing of maintenance costs with 
the recipient of a fellowship has been eliminated, thus 
placing the responsibility for such expenses more clearly 
on the host governments. 

2. The obligation of a contracting state to provide travel 
grants to its nationals who receive the fellowships pro- 
vided for in article 1 is reduced in proportion to the re- 
duction in the number of fellowships to be offered by the 
other contracting states. The provision for the payment 
of incidental travel expenses during the period of travel 
has been clarified and made more precise. 

ARTICLE 3 

The substance of this article is new. Its effect is to 
place a certain emphasis on fields of study in relation to 
the needs of the countries involved, a factor which was 
lacking in the previous convention. It provides admin- 
istratively for advance notice regarding fellowship offer- 
ings in specific fields. The provision reflects the value 
placed on these fellowships by underdeveloped countries 
where there is a need for specialized personnel who must 
be trained abroad. 

ARTICLE 4 

The provisions for specific deadline dates set forth in 
article II of the 1936 convention have been eliminated as 
have also the provisions for a specified number of names 
on the panels of candidates. A deadline of 3 months has 
been set for the announcement of awards. A fellowship 
may be extended for a second year and in exceptional 
cases for a third year. 

ARTICLE 5 

This article is identical in substance with article III 
of the 1936 convention. It provides that if for any reason 
it becomes necessary to repatriate the recipient of a fel- 
lowship, the government awarding the fellowship may 



effect the repatriation at the exi)ense of the nominating 
government. 

ARTICLE 6 

Corresponds to article IV of the 1936 convention. The 
essential changes are : 

1. The obligation to send or receive visiting professors 
every other year is eliminated ; direct, strictly reciprocal 
interchange is no longer required. The category of "spe- 
cialists" was added to that of professors to conform to the 
broader needs for academic or research personnel on the 
part of some governments. For the same reason, provi- 
sion for preference for teaching rather than research 
work was dropped and a general provision regarding as- 
signments substituted for it, the purpose of which is to 
clarify and emphasize the nature of the activity for which 
grants are awarded. 

2. The procedures for the awarding of grants have been 
radically altered and greatly simplified. Elaborate, im- 
possible procedures have been eliminated completely. 
Now, under the revised convention, a program for the 
recruitment or selection of professors can be developed 
directly between the sending and receiving governments. 
Governments may, Lf they wish, utilize the services of the 
Pan American Union in obtaining such professors, but 
they are not required to do so. 

3. In the event that two governments agree on a project 
for a visiting professor, they may work out between 
themselves such financial terms as may be mutually 
agreeable. However, to demonstrate how such terms may 
be worked out cooperatively, a specific formula is set 
forth in the convention to the effect that a receiving gov- 
ernment could be responsible for salaries at the current, 
domestic rate, and the sending governments for travel 
and for any unfavorable difference between the domestic 
salary scales in the home and host countries. 

4. The expressions "full professors" and "outstanding 
universities" have been eliminated as misleading and im- 
practical. 

These changes eliminate impracticable, excessively 
detailed procedures and impossible financial provisions, 
and substitute general provisions permitting direct, ad 
hoc understandings between interested governments with 
whatever financial arrangements may be mutually ac- 
ceptable. 

ARTICLE 7 

This provision for the general encouragement of the 
interchange of persons in other ways than those specifi- 
cally set forth in the convention is a change from the 
provision in article I of the previous convention in that 
it is not restricted to vacation travel and it covers not 
only students and teachers but other persons engaged in 
the professions. 

ARTICLE 8 

The article is similar to article V of the 1936 conven- 
tion. It provides that each government shall designate 
or create an appropriate organ, or appoint a special officer, 
to have responsibility for carrying out the obligations as- 
sumed under the convention. 



January 30, J 956 



177 



ARTICLE 9 

The article is the same In substance as article VII of 
the 1936 convention. Each contracting state is to send 
authenticated copies of the regulations it issues in con- 
nection with the convention to the other contracting par- 
ties and to the Pan American Union. 

ARTICLE 10 

The article is entirely new. It provides for an annual 
report to the Pan American Union by each contracting 
State on the extent to which it has awarded grants or 
otherwise participated in the exchange program under 
the convention during the past year. It provides also for 
the furnl-shing of information on the total number of 
students, teachers, and specialists from other contracting 
states who have visited or resided in the country, so far 
as it may be possible for the contracting state to do so. 
Such information is to be made available to all the con- 
tracting states by the Pan American Union. 

It is felt that this article wiU help further the efforts 
to publicize the programs throughout the Americas and 
particularly will increa.se the publicity for the United 
States programs. 

ARTICLE 11 

Under this article, which is new, the contracting states 
declare that while the convention is motivated by the 
highest principles of cooperation, the extent of the in- 
terchange will depend upon the circumstances peculiar to 
each country. It was prompted by the following con- 
siderations : 

1. The concern of many states — especially the smaller 
and less prosperous ones — with their own inability to 
furnish funds, accommodations, and cultural resources 
sutficient to attract exchanges from other states. 

2. The desire of such states to adjust their obligations 
under the convention to their financial and other resources. 

3. The concern of these states that failure to recipro- 
cate strictly on a basis of numerical equality would result 
in their nationals receiving no fellowships from the larger 
countries. 

ARTICLE 12 

The article provides that the convention shall not affect 
similar understandings which have been entered into pre- 
viously by the contracting parties, nor shall it exclude 
the possibility of their entering into other such under- 
standings in the future. This is a change from article 
VIII of the 1936 convention, which referred only to inter- 
national agreements. It is now made clear that informal 
and ad hoc arrangements are included as well as formal 
agreements. 

ARTICLES 13-16 

These are the formal provisions relating to signature, 
authentic languages, ratification, entry into force, and 
duration. They are similar to the formal provisions em- 
bodied in the 1936 convention. 

DELETED ARTICLE 

Article VI of the 1936 convention provided that nothing 
in that convention should be interpreted as obliging a 
signatory state to interfere with the independence of its 



institutions of learning or with the freedom of academic 
teaching and administration therein. This provision was 
eliminated from the revised convention as being unnec- 
essary. 



CONVENTION FOR THE PROMOTION OF INTER- 
AMERICAN CULTURAL RELATIONS 

The governments represented at the Tenth Inter- 
American Conference, 

Considering : 

That greater knowledge and understanding of the 
peoples and the institutions of the countries members 
of the Organization of American States will contribute 
to the realization of the purposes for which the Confer- 
ence was convened ; and 

That, among the suitable means for attaining this end, 
are the exchange of professors, teachers, and students 
among the American countries and the encouragement 
of closer relationships among the unofBcial agencies that 
exert an influence on the formation of public opinion. 

Resolve: 

To revise the text and strengthen the spirit of the Con- 
vention for the Promotion of Inter-American Cultural 
Relations, concluded at Buenos Aires in 1936, and to that 
end agree on the following articles : 

ARTICLE 1 

Every year each government shall award one or more 
fellowships, insofar as it may be able to do so, for the 
ensuing scholastic year, which may be granted to gi'adu- 
ate students or to teachers or to other persons with 
equivalent qualifications from each of the other Member 
States. The recipients shall be chosen in accordance 
with the procedure established In Article 4 of this Con- 
vention. Notwithstanding the foregoing, each govern- 
ment may award a greater number of fellowships for 
study if this has been provided In other international 
agreement or otherwise. 

ARTICLE 2 

Each fellowship shall include, through such agency as 
may be deemed appropriate, tuition in an institution of 
higher learning designated by the country awarding the 
fellowship, as well as text books, working materials, 
and, in addition, a monthly allowance to cover lodging, 
subsistence, and other necessary additional exi)enses. 
The expenses of traveling to the designated Institution 
and those of returning to the country of origin and, in 
addition, an amount for incidental travel expenses during 
the journey shall be borne by the recipient or by the 
nominating government. 

ARTICLE 3 

Each government shall notify the others of the fields of 
study in which it is prepared to award fellowships at 
least one month before the period referred to in the fol- 
lowing article for the transmission of the panels of 
candidates. 



178 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



ARTICLE 4 

The fellowships referred to in Article 1 shall be awarded 
after the goveriiinents concerned exchange panels of 
names in the following manner : 

Each government shall send to each of the other gov- 
ernments, at least 6 months before the opening of the 
scholastic year in the host country, unless otherwise 
agreed upon by the interested governments, a panel con- 
taining the names of candidates of the categories re- 
ferred to in Article 1, together with the information re- 
garding each that the government awarding the fellow- 
ships deems necessary. The panel shall contain a sulB- 
cient number of names to permit the country awarding 
the fellowships to choose from among the candidates. 
The latter country shall announce the award of the fellow- 
ships and the names of the successful candidates to the 
nominating government at least 3 months before the 
opening of the scholastic year. 

A candidate's name shall not appear on the panels more 
than twice. The fellowships shall be awarded for one 
year, but may be extended for a second year and, in 
exceptional cases, for a third. No government shall be 
obliged to consider the panel of names of candidates 
proposed by an.v other government if it has not been pre- 
sented in accordance with the schedule indicated. 

ARTICLE 5 

If for any reason it becomes necessary to repatriate the 
recipient of a fellowship, the government awarding the 
fellowship may effect the repatriation at the expense of 
the nominating government. 

ARTICLE 6 

Any of the High Contracting Parties whicli may be 
interested in obtaining the services of professors or spe- 
cialists from other countries and which has not chosen 
specific individuals may do so through the services of the 
Pan American Union. The Pan American Union will for- 
ward the request to the other countries and will send 
their replies to the interested country within three months, 
the latter country then choosing from among the candi- 
dates suggested. 

Visiting professors or specialists shall devote them- 
selves to the duties for which they have been specifically 
engaged. 

The government that is sending the professors or spe- 
cialists shall provide the expenses of travel of each to 
the .seat of the institution to which he has been appointed, 
and of return to the country of origin. 

Each government shall take the necessary measures 
for visiting professors or specialists to receive a salary 
commensurate with the duties which are assigned to them. 
The government of the country from which the profes.sor 
or specialist comes shall compensate him for any unfa- 
vorable difference between the salary which he is to receive 
In the host country and that which he has been receiving 
in the country from which he comes. However, in specific 
cases, the governments concerned may make other 
arrangements. 

ARTICLE 7 

The High Contracting Parties will encourage, in other 
ways, especially during vacation periods, the exchange, 



for cultural purposes, of teachers, artists, students, and 
other persons engaged in the professions, between their 
resi^ective countries. 

ARTICLE 8 

Each government shall designate or create an appro- 
priate organ, or appoint a si)ecial officer, to have responsi- 
bilit.v for carrying out the obligations assumed by virtue 
of this Convention. 

ARTICLE 9 

Authenticated copies of the regulations issued by each 
of the High Contracting Parties to facilitate compliance 
with this Convention shall be sent to the other High Con- 
tracting Parties and to the Pan American Union. 

ARTICLE 10 

The High Contracting Parties shall transmit annually 
to the Pan American Union a report enumerating the 
persons to whom fellowships have been awarded by 
the governments in accordance with the terms of this Con- 
vention. The report shall indicate the nationality of the 
recipients and the amount of money and the type of as- 
sistance which they have received. 

This report should likewise include information with 
regard to persons who have come from other American 
States and are pursuing univer.sity or similar studies in 
accordance with other exchange-of-persons programs or 
at their own expense. 

The reports referred to above should also include in- 
formation regarding professors and specialists. 

The Pan American Union shall compile the reports 
received under this Article for the information of the 
High Contracting Parties. 

ARTICLE 11 

The High Contracting Parties declare that this Con- 
vention is motivated by the highest principles of coopera- 
tion, the extent of the interchange depending upon the 
circumstances peculiar to each country. 

ARTICLE 12 

This Convention does not affect similar understandings 
which have been entered into previously by the High 
Contracting Parties, nor does it exclude the possibility 
of their entering into other such understandings in the 
future. 

ARTICLE 13 

This Convention shall remain open for signature by the 
States Members of the Organization of American States 
and shaU be ratified by the signatory States in accordance 
with their respective constitutional procedures. 

ARTICLE 14 

The original instrument, the English, French, Portu- 
guese, and Spanish texts of which are equally authentic, 
shall be deposited with the Pan American Union, which 
shall transmit certified copies thereof to the governments 
for purposes of ratification. The instruments of ratifica- 
tion shall be deposited with the Pan American Union, 
which shall notify the signatory States of such deposit. 



! January 30, 1956 



179 



ARTICLE 15 

This Convention shall enter into force between the 
States that ratify it in the order In which they deposit 
their respective instruments of ratification. 

ARTICLE 16 

This Convention shall remain in force indefinitely, but 
may be denounced by any of the signatory States upon 
one year's notice, at the end of which it shall cease to be 
in force with respect to the denouncing State, remaining 
In force for the other signatory States. The denunciation 
shall be communicated to the Pan American Union, which 
shall notify the other signatory States of it. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, 
whose full powers have been presented and found to be in 
good and due form, sign this Convention, on behalf of 
their respective Governments, at the city of Caracas, on 
March twenty-eight, nineteen hundred and flfty-four. 

( Signed on March 28, 1954 on behalf of all of the Amer- 
ican Republics except Costa Rica which signed subse- 
quently on June 16, 1954.) 



Extension of U.S.-Ecuadoran 
Trade Agreement 

Press release 28 dated January 18 

The President on January 17 signed a procla- 
mation which will continue in force until July P, 
1956, the bilateral trade agreement entered into by 
the United States and the Kepublic of Ecuador on 
August 6, 1938. 

The agreement was to have expired on July 18, 
1955, but was extended 6 months to January 18, 
1956.1 

At the end of 1947 the United States had bilat- 
eral trade agreements with some 27 countries, ne- 
gotiated under the Trade Agreements Act of 1934. 
A number of these agreements have been termi- 
nated by mutual consent or as the countries be- 
came associated with the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade. Bilateral trade agreements 
now exist with Argentina, Ecuador, El Salvador, 
Honduras, Iceland, Iran, Paraguay, and Vene- 
zuela. 



PROCLAMATION 3122' 

Fixing a Later Date for Termination of Ecua- 
doran Trade Agreement Proclamation 
Whereas, under the authority vested in him by sec- 

' Bulletin of Sept. 26, 1955, p. 511. 
'21 Fed. Reg. 511. 



180 



tion 350 (a) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended by the 
act of June 12, 1934, entitled "An Act to amend the Tariff 
Act of 1930" (48 Stat 943), the time within which the 
President was authorized to enter into trade agreements 
pursuant to such amending act having been extended for 
three years from June 12, 1937, by the joint resolution 
of Congress approved March 1, 1937 (50 Stat. 24), the 
President of the United States entered into a trade agree- 
ment with the Supreme Chief of the Republic of Ecuador 
on August 6, 1938 (53 Stat. 1952), and proclaimed such 
trade agreement by proclamation of September 23, 1938 
(53 Stat. 1951) ; and 

Whereas Article XEX of the said trade agreement pro- 
vides tliat the agreement shall remain in force and effect 
until six months from the day on which either Govern- 
ment shall give notice of its intention to terminate it; 
and 

Whereas, pursuant to the said Article XIX the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America gave notice on 
July 18, 1955, of its intention to terminate the said agree- 
ment, which notice was withdrawn by the Government 
of the United States of America on January 17, 1956, and 
on the same day replaced by a new notice of intention to 
terminate pursuant to the said Article XIX ; and 

Whereas the said section 350 (a) of the Tariff Act of 
1930, as amended, authorizes the President to terminate, 
in whole or in part, any proclamation carrying out a trade 
agreement entered into under such section ; and 

Whereas by Proclamation No. 3111 of August 27, 1955 
(20 F. R. 6485) the President proclaimed that the said 
proclamation dated September 23, 1938 should be termi- 
nated as of the close of January 17, 1956, six months from 
the day on which notice of termination of the said trade 
agreement had been given by the Government of the 
United States of America : 

Now, therefore, I, DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, 
President of the United States of America, acting under 
and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Con- 
stitution and the statutes, including the said section 350 
(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, do proclaim 
that the said proclamation of August 27, 1955 shall be 
amended (1) by deleting "July 18, 1955" as the date on 
which notice of intention to terminate w-as given and by 
inserting "January 17, 1956" in place thereof, and (2) by 
deleting "January 17, 1956" as the date as of the close 
of which termination will talje place and by inserting 
"July 16, 1956" in place thereof. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this seventeenth day 

of January in the year of our Lord nineteen hun- 

[Seal] dred and fifty-six and of the Independence of 

the United States of America the one hundred 

and eightieth. 

By the President : 

John Foster Dulles 
Secretary of State 



Department of State Bulletin 



Atoms-for-Peace Agreement With 
Sweden Comes Into Force 

On January 18 the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion and the Department of State (press release 
29) issued a joint announcement that the coopera- 
tive agreement between the United States and 
Sweden covering research in the peaceful uses of 
atomic energy was signed on that day. The 
agreement was signed for Sweden by Ambassador 
Erik Boheman. C. Burke Elbrick, Deputy Assist- 
ant Secretary for European Affairs, and Lewis 
Strauss, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission, signed for the United States. 

This agreement was initialed by representatives 
of the two Governments on July 1, 1955.'^ Under 
the terms of the U.S. Atomic Energy Act, certain 
procedural steps must be taken by executive and 
legislative branches of the U.S. Government be- 
fore agreements of this type may come into force. 
These steps have now been taken, and with the ex- 
ecution of the agreement it becomes effective for 
both countries. 



Current Treaty Actions 



MULTILATERAL 



BILATERAL 

Ecuador 

Reciprocal trade agreement. Signed at Quito August 6, 
1938. Modified by exchange of notes at Quito March 2, 
1942. 53 Stat. 1951 and 56 Stat. 1472. 
United States notice of intention to terminate' with- 
draion and new notice given: January 17, 1956. (In 
accordance with article XIX, the agreement will ter- 
minate July 17, 1956.) 

Germany 

Agreement relating to the lease of air navigation equip- 
ment. Signed at Bonn August 2, 1955. Entered into 
force August 2, 1955. 

Italy 

Agreement amending the surplus agricultural commodi- 
ties agreement of May 23, 1955 (TIAS 3249) by specify- 
ing that funds may also be used for purchase of soy 
bean oil and cotton seed oil. Effected by exchange of 
notes at Rome December 13 and 16, 1955. Entered into 
force December 16, 1955. 

Nicaragua 

Treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation. Signed 
at Managua January 21, 1956. Will enter into force 
one month after the exchange of ratifications. 

Pakistan 

Agreement concerning the exchange of parcel post, and 
detailed regulations for the execution of the agreement. 
Signed at Karachi July 20 and at Washington October 
7, 1955. Ratified and approved by the President October 
26, 1955. Entered into force January 1, 1956. 

Sweden 

Agreement for cooperation concerning civil uses of atomic 
energy. Signed at Washington January 18, 1956. En- 
tered into force January 18, 1956. 



ti\ 



Aviation 

Convention on international civil aviation. Formulated 
at Chicago December 7, 1944. Entered into force April 
4, 1947. TIAS 1591. 
Adherence deposited: Cambodia, January 16, 1956. 

Narcotics 

Protocol amending the agreements, conventions, and pro- 
tocols on narcotic drugs concluded at The Hague Janu- 
ary 23, 1912. at Geneva February 11 and 19, 1925, and 
July 13, 1931, at Bangkok November 27, 1931, and at 
Geneva June 26, 1936. Signed at Lake Success Decem- 
ber 11, 1946. Entered into force December 11, 1946. 
TIAS 1671. 
Acceptance deposited: Hungary, December 16, 1955. 

Nortli Atlantic Ice Patrol 

Agreement regarding financial support of the North At- 
lantic ice patrol. Opened for signature at Washington 
January 4, 1956.' 

Signatures: France, January 6; Norway, January 10; 
Sweden, January 18 ; and Denmark, January 19, 1956. 

Trade and Commerce 

International convention to facilitate the importation of 
commercial samples and advertising material. Dated 
at Geneva November 7, 1952. Entered into force No- 
vember 20, 1955.' 
Accessi07i deposited: Czechoslovakia, January 12, 1956. 



' See Bulletin of July 11, 1955, p. 55, footnote 1. 

'Not in force. 

* Not in force for the United States. 



Current U. N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 

Economic and Social Council 

A Study of Inter-Latin-American Trade. E/Cn.12/369, 
July 29, 1955. 306 pp. mimeo. 

Analyses and Projections of Economic Development. Eco- 
nomic Development of Brazil. E/Cn.12/364, July 30, 
1955. 207 pp. mimeo. 

The Selective Expansion of Agricultural Production in 
Latin America and Its Relationship to Economic Devel- 
opment. E/Cn.12/378, July 31, 1955. 151 pp. muneo. 

Report of the Commission on the Status of Women. Re- 
port of the Social Committee. E/2786, August 2, 1955. 
12 pp. mimeo. 

Analyses and Projections of Economic Development. Eco- 
nomic Development of Colombia. Chapter VII: Agri- 
culture. E/Cn.l2/365/Add.l, August 6, 1955. 370 pp. 
mimeo. 

Analyses and Projections of Economic Development. The 
Economic Development of Colombia. E/Cn.12/365, 
August 10, 1955. 417 pp. mimeo. 

Resolutions of the Economic and Social Council Relating 
to Trade. Note by the Executive Secretary. E/Cn. 
12/385, August 11, 1955. 7 pp. mimeo. 

Technical Assistance Activities in the ECLA Region as of 
30 June 1955. E/Cn.l2/372/Add.l, August 17, 1955. 
18 pp. mimeo. 

* Given July 18, 1955 ; would have been efCective January 
18, 1956. 



jllelin January 30, 7956 



181 



Security Council Condemns Israel 
for Action Against Syria 

Statement hy Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ^ 

Mr. President, the United States has joined 
in sponsoring the three-power draft resohition 
which is now before the Council on the Syrian 
comphiint against Israel. In doing so we em- 
phasize the serious purpose and grave concern 
that motivates the United States Government. 
We do not advocate the cause of one side or the 
other. Our sole desire is to prevent the recur- 
rence of the kind of action undertaken by the 
Government of Israel on December 11, 1955, and 
to secure for the peoples of the Palestine area and 
the Near East a peaceful settlement. We believe 
that the three-power draft resolution can con- 
tribute to such a result. But whether or not this 
is true, we cannot stand aside and fail to condemn 
the action of the Government of Israel in that in- 
cident of December 11. 

We have repeatedly said in the past that no gov- 
ernment has the right to take the law into its own 
hands. It is always deplorable for any govern- 
ment deliberatelj' and willfully to plan and carry 
out an attack against its neighbor in violation of 
its solemn international commitments. What 
makes these particular deliberations more serious 
is the fact that a member of the United Nations — 
indeed, a member created by the United Nations — 
should now be before this Council for the fourth 
offense of this kind in 2 years. 

We have therefore had to consider well how best 
to impress upon that Government not only the fact 
that its actions ought to be condemned but that the 
Council will be faced with having to consider 
other steps which should be taken if unfortmiately 
another such offense is committed. 

We are also concerned because Israel and her 
Arab neighbors continue to avoid their obliga- 
tions under their armistice agreements and mider 
the charter to strive for the restoration of peace 
in the area. 

We are fully aware of the reasons which Israel 
has put forward for this, its latest offense. But 



'Made in the Security Council on Jan. 12 (U.S./U.N. 
press release 2341). For a statement of Dec. 16 by 
Ambassador Lodge regarding the Israeli military action 
of Dec. 11 against Syria, see Bulletin of Jan. 16, 1956, 
p. 103. 



deeds such as that committed by Israel on the 
shoi'es of the Sea of Galilee and on Syrian terri- 
tory on December 11 inflame and intensify the 
hostility which already exists. No amount of pro- 
testations of desire for negotiation and peace can 
overcome the gi'ound lost by such action. Israel's 
deed is so out of proportion with the provocation 
that it cannot be accurately described as a retalia- 
tory raid. Even assuming that it could be called a 
retaliatory raid we would condemn it. The Se- 
curity Council must do more than condemn. It 
must warn the Government of Israel that another 
transgression will compel it to consider what fur- 
ther measures under the charter are required to 
maintain or restore the peace. 

Question of Compensation 

The United States Government, in conjunction 
with the other sponsors, has given most careful 
thought to the wisdom of calling upon Israel to 
pay compensation. We considered this require- 
ment in the light of the fact that there should be 
reparation for such a deed. But we were ourselves 
unable, because of all the complications involved, 
to formulate a procedure which would be equitable 
for assessing compensation for this act which we 
condemn or for any act in the future which this 
Council might unfortunately have to condemn. 

To propose something without there being in 
existence any established means for carrying it 
out would, by raising false hopes, add to the 
troubles of those who have been hurt. Nor would 
such a course, to say the least, contribute to a les- 
sening of tension. This does not mean that we 
disagree with the principle of compensation, nor 
does it mean that we are not prejjared to establish 
machinery for the future. On the contrary, we 
frankly feel that it would be desirable in a sep- 
arate resolution, should other members of the 
Council concur, to request the Secretary-General 
to study ways and means of equitable assessment 
and payment of compensation for such offenses. 

Of utmost importance, however, as regards the 
future is that the parties live up to their armistice 
agreement, that they respect the armistice de- 
marcation lines and the demilitarized zones, and 
that they cooperate fully with the Chief of Staff.' 
Tlie Syrian-Israeli Mixed Armistice Commission! 



"Maj. Gen. E. L. M. Burns, Chief of Staff of the U.N.| 
Truce Supervision Organization. 



182 



DepaTiment of State Bu//e/intl||, 



Resolution on Syrian Complaint ^ 

The Security Council, 

Recalling its resolutions of 15 July 1948, 11 Aug- 
ust 1949, 18 May 1951, 24 November 1953, and 29 
March 1955 ; 

Taking into consideration the statements of the 
representatives of Syria and Israel and the reports 
of the Chief of Staff of the Truce Supervision 
Organization on the Syrian complaint that an at- 
tack was committed by Israeli regular army forces 
against Syrian regular army forces on Syrian terri- 
tory on 11 December 1955; 

Noting the report of the Chief of Staff that this 
Israeli action was a deliberate violation of the pro- 
visions of the General Armistice Agreement, in- 
cluding those relating to the Demilitarized Zone, 
which was crossed by the Israeli forces which 
entered Syria ; 

Noting also without prejudice to the ultimate 
rights, claims and positions of the parties that 
according to the reports of the Chief of Staff there 
has been interference by the Syrian authorities 
with Israeli activities on Lake Tiberias, in contra- 
vention of the terms of the General Armistice 
Agreement between Israel and Syria ; 

1. Holds that this interference in no way justifies 
the Israeli action ; 

2. Reminds the Government of Israel that the Coun- 
cil has already condemned military action in breach 
of the General Armistice Agreements, whether or 



' U.N. doc. S/3538 ; sponsored by France, U.K., 
and U.S.; adopted unanimously by the Security 
Council on Jan. 19. 



not undertaken by way of retaliation, and has 
called upon Israel to take effective measures to 
prevent such actions ; 

3. Condemns the attack of 11 December as a fla- 
grant violation of the cease-fire provisions of its 
resolution of 15 July 1948, of the terms of the 
General Armistice Agreement between Israel and 
Syria, and of Israel's obligations under the Charter ; 

4. Expresses its grave concern at the failure of the 
Government of Israel to comply with its obligations ; 

5. Calls upon the Government of Israel to do so in 
the future, in default of which the Council will 
have to consider what further measures under the 
Charter are required to maintain or restore the 
peace ; 

6. Calls upon the parties to comply with their obli- 
gations under Article 5 of the General Armistice 
Agreement to respect the Armistice Demarcation 
Line and the Demilitarized Zone ; 

7. Requests the Chief of Staff to pursue his sug- 
gestions for improving the situation in the area 
of Lake Tiberias without prejudice to the rights, 
claims and positions of the parties and to report 
to the Council as appropriate on the success of his 
efforts ; 

8. Calls upon the parties to arrange with the Chief 
of Staff for an immediate exchange of all military 
prisoners ; 

9. Calls upon both parties to co-operate with the 
Chief of Staff in this and all other respects, to 
carry out the provisions of the General Armistice 
Agreement in good faith, and in particular to make 
full use of the Mixed Armistice Commission's ma- 
chinery in the interpretation and application of 
its provisions. 



machinery does not. function. The responsibility 
for this rests squarely on both parties. The Com- 
mission was established by both parties for the 
specific purpose of resolving differences between 
them. There are hundreds of cases on the Com- 
mission's agenda. Yet the parties will not meet 
to resolve them. They should do so. The parties 
must make full use of their Mixed Armistice Com- 
mission machinery. Under normal circimistances, 
the Council should have awaited a finding of the 
ilixed Armistice Commission. This action of the 
Council in this case here today should not serve 
as a precedent for other complaints which have 
not been processed through the Mixed Armistice 
Commission. Only the shocking aspect of the at- 
tack of December 11 justified the Council's taking 
up the matter without prior consideration in the 
established armistice machinery. 



Confidence in General Burns 

Let me state, Mr. President, that the United 
States is impressed by the Chief of Staff's sugges- 
tions set forth in his report for improving the 
situation in the Lake Tiberias area.^ The Council, 
may I say, is lucky to have such a capable Chief 
of Staff as General Burns. He has the full back- 
ing of the United States Government, and we are 
confident that he has the full backing of this Coun- 
cil. We hope that we may soon have a report from 
him that he has been successful in carrying out his 
own suggestions and that we may once again look 
forward to an era of greater stability and peace 
in the Near East. We earnestly hope that the 
Council will approve unanimously the draft res- 
olution, of which we are a cosponsor, as a necessary 
step in this direction. We also hope that the par- 

' U.N. doc. S/3516 and Add. 1 and Corr. 1. 



fanuary 30, J 956 



183 



ties will be impressed with the concern of the 
members of the Council over the present state of 
tension and insecurity in this part of the world. 
They must realize surely that they will not benefit 
by its continuance. The United States stands 
ready to assist them in any way it can toward a 
better and safer future for the Near East. 

In conclusion, Mr. President, let me recall the 
statement which I made as United States Repre- 
sentative to the Security Council on March 29, 
1955, concerning the Gaza incident.* 

At that time I stated the belief of the United 
States that the Gaza incident had interrupted 
significant progress toward a peaceful settlement 
of the Palestine problem and that, had it not 
been for the Gaza incident, the time would have 
been not too distant when the intermittent fighting 
which characterized the situation on the borders 
of Israel and the Arab States would have become 
a thing of the past. I stated also at that time that 
one conclusion only could be drawn from the re- 
port of the Chief of Staff and the statements of 
the parties, and that was : 

. . . that armed attack, planned and directed as it has 
been in this case, is no answer to the problems which 
rightly concern and distress the people of Israel. It is no 
service to them to increase internal tension, to bring 
the area to the brink of war, and to discourage and frus- 
trate honest and sincere efforts to build a constructive 
peace. 

Now, Mr. President, this same thought has been 
expressed editorially in the press throughout the 
world. And I would like to quote one typical 
illustration : 

Surely there has been ample proof by now that this 
policy (of retaliation) . . . has not been successful and 
the situation has never been more tense or dangerous 
than it is today. A policy that is self-defeating is a bad 
policy. What everybody wants — Israelis included — is 
peace, and this sort of thing will not bring peace or a 
settlement. 

The conclusions to be drawn are obvious. Each 
of the incidents from Qibya in 1953, through Nah- 
halin, Gaza, and now in the Tiberias area, has re- 
sulted in a deterioration in the situation in Pales- 
tine. This is something that the Seciu'ity Coimcil 
cannot ignore, nor can the goverimients which we 
all represent here. The United States Govern- 
ment has made the most serious representations 
to the Government of Israel, pointing out the im- 
prudence from Israel's own standpoint of the ac- 



tions which Israel has taken. Neither as a 
government nor as a member of the Security 
Council can we effectively help to bring about the 
settlement Israel states it desires if all our efforts 
are to be frustrated by those we seek to help. We 
stand ready to help both sides attain a just and 
lasting settlement. But the parties themselves 
must also help. It is in this spirit that we have 
joined in sporsoring the draft resolution which 
stands in the name of France, the United King- 
dom, and the United States. 



United States Participation in 
GATT Negotiations at Geneva 

statement by Herbert V. Prochnow 

Deputy Under Secretary for Economic Affairs' 

President Eisenhower, in his state of the Union 
message to the Congress of the United States on 
January 5,^ re-emphasized the fact that strong 
economic ties are an essential element in the part- 
nership of the United States with the other na- 
tions of the free world. He pointed out that in- 
creasing trade and investment help all of us to 
prosper together, and he mentioned the progress 
in this direction, most recently through the 3-year 
extension of our trade agreements legislation. 
Then the President stressed the importance of the 
activities under the General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade and requested congressional approval 
of United States membership in the Organiza- 
tion for Trade Cooperation as the means for ef- 
fectively administering the general agreement. 

I should like to add my personal satisfaction 
over having tliis opportunity to take part in one 
of the activities of the Contracting Parties to the 
general agreement. As a businessman, I have 
been concerned for many years with international 
trade and the practical problems in international 
relations that affect the movement of commerce. 
The development of a method and tradition for 
settling international economic problems through 
consultation and cooperation is, I consider, one of 



at 
k 



* Bulletin of Apr. 18, 1955, p. 659. 
184 



' Made at Geneva, Switzerland, on Jan. 19 (press re- 1 
lease 31) at the multilateral tariff negotiations which 
were convened on Jan. 18 by the Contracting Parties to 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Mr. Proch- 
now is chairman of the U.S. delegation to the negotiations. 

• BuiiETiN of Jan. 16, 1956, p. 79. 

Department of State Bulletinl 



the significant developments in international 
economic relations in the postwar years. 

Today 35 countries meet in international forum 
as a matter of course to settle their trade problems. 
These countries include the leading trading na- 
tions of the world. They carry on more than 80 
percent of the trade of the entire world. 

The meetings held by these nations have con- 
sistently emphasized action. Every annual ses- 
sion has resulted in concrete steps to settle com- 
mercial problems between nations or to remove 
trade barriers. These actions prove the true in- 
terest of these nations in freeing international 
trade from artificial restrictions. 

We are all well aware that the nations of the 
fi-ee world cannot afford to relax the effort to 
strengthen their economic collaboration. In this 
effort the method of solving differences and re- 
moving barriers to world trade that has been 
worked out under the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade can make an important con- 
tribution. But in our concentration on the sta- 
tistical aspects of these negotiations, we must 
never forget that actions to remove barriers to 
trade are not merely steps toward stronger and 
more prosperous economies. They are steps to- 
ward world peace. 

One of the most important uses that has been 
made of the method of multilateral negotiations 
has been in conferences to reduce tariffs. The 
several negotiating conferences that have been 
held since 1947, including the recent negotiations 
held at Geneva leading to the accession of Japan 
to the general agreement,' have demonstrated the 
effectiveness of multilateral action in this field. 
The cumulative result of these conferences has 
been concessions by the various countries appli- 
cable to about 60,000 individual tariff rates. All 
participating nations have made worthwhile con- 
cessions. Approximately two-thirds of the im- 
port trade of the Contracting Parties and one- 
half of the trade of the world is now affected by 
these agreements. 

The United States has participated actively in 
each conference. Through the negotiations con- 
ducted during these conferences, United States 
duties have been reduced significantly. Since 1934 
the rates on over three-fourths of the dutiable im- 
ports of the United States have been reduced by 
50 percent or more. And on almost one-fifth of 



these imports the reductions have been 75 percent 
or more. 

The United States believes firmly that this con- 
ference can result in an important extension of 
the work already accomplished. Our delegation 
is eager to do all in its power to make the confer- 
ence a success. 

We are prepared to begin negotiations imme- 
diately. It is vital that the conference proceed 
as rapidly as possible and that we meet the dead- 
line of the first week of May set by the Contract- 
ing Parties. With the traditional spirit of good 
will and cooperation which has existed under the 
general agreement, I am sure that this conference 
will be brought to a successful conclusion. 

Members of U. S. Delegation 

The Department of State announced on January 
17 (press release 27) that Herbert V. Prochnow, 
Deputy Under Secretary of State for Economic 
Affairs, has been designated by the President as 
chairman of the U.S. delegation to the multi- 
lateral tariff negotiations beginning January 18 at 
Geneva, Switzerland. 

Carl D. Corse, Chief of the Trade Agreements 
and Treaties Division, Department of State, was 
designated by the President as vice chairman of 
the delegation. 

Under the authority in the Trade Agreements 
Extension Act of 1955, the United States expects 
to negotiate reciprocal tariff concessions with 
about 20 other countries, all of which are contract- 
ing parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade. These other countries will also be ne- 
gotiating among themselves, with the United 
States receiving the benefit of the concessions they 
grant to one another. 

As announced on January 4,^ the U.S. delega- 
tion will be assisted by four nongovernmental 
advisers. Governmental members of the delega- 
tion, in addition to the chairman and vice chair- 
man, are as follows : 

Forest E. Abbuhl, Trade Agreements and Treaties Divi- 
sion, Department of State 

Cliarles W. Adair, Jr., American Embassy, Brussels 

J. Mark Albertson, Office of Technical Services, U.S. Tariff 
Commission 

Deane M. Black, Office of Economic Affairs, Department 
of Commerce 

Gray Bream, American Consulate General, Amsterdam 



" Ibid., June 27, 1955, p. 1051. 
January 30, 1956 



' Ihid., Jan. 16, 1956, p. 96. 



185 



Edgar B. Brossard, Chairman, U.S. Tariff Commission 

Walter Buclidahl, Office of Economic Affairs, Department 
of Commerce 

S. Bertha Burnett, Economic Defense Division, Depart- 
ment of State 

Frank P. Butler, American Embassy, Vienna 

Bernard J. Cahill, Chemical Division, Department of 
Commerce 

Edward G. Cale, Office of Regional American Affairs, De- 
partment of State 

Joseph A. Camelio, Office of Economic Affairs, Department 
of Commerce 

Rollin H. Cragg, Chemical Division, U.S. Tariff Com- 
mission 

John Czyzak, Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for 
Economic Affairs, Department of State 

Prentice N. Dean, Office of Foreign Military Affairs, De- 
partment of Defense 

Edgar I. Eaton, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department 
of Labor 

George T. Elliman, Business and Defense Services Ad- 
ministration, Department of Commerce 

David Fellman, Office of Economic Affairs, Department 
of Commerce 

Morris J. Fields, Office of International Finance, Depart- 
ment of the Treasury 

William A. Fowler, American Embassy, Stockholm 

A. Eugene Frank, Business and Defense Services Admin- 
istration, Department of Commerce 

Edward P. Furlow, U.S. Tariff Commission 

James W. Gantenbein, American Embassy, Copenhagen 

Allen H. Garland, Office of Economic Affairs, Department 
of Commerce 

Philip W. Gates, U.S. Tariff Commission 

William F. Gray, American Consulate General, Diisseldorf 

Joseph Greenwald, Trade Agreements and Treaties Divi- 
sion, Department of State 

Robert Hamersclilag, Office of Economic Affairs, Depart- 
ment of Commerce 

William T. Hart, U.S. Tariff Commission 

Amelia Hood, Office of Middle American Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State 

Borrie I. Hyman, Foreign Service Officer, Department of 
State 

Katherine Jacobson, Trade Investment and Monetary Af- 
fairs, International Cooperation Administration 

Willard W. Kane, Textiles Division, U.S. Tariff Com- 
mission 

Paul Kaplowitz, U.S. Tariff Commission 

Lowell B. Kilgore, Business and Defense Services Ad- 
ministration, Department of Commerce 

James H. Lewis, American Embassy, London 

Francis F. Lincoln, Office of Greek, Turkish and Iranian 
Affairs, Department of State 

Joe McBrian, U.S. Tariff Commission 



Harold P. Macgowan, Bureau of Foreign Commerce, De- 
partment of Commerce 

Edward I. MuUins, Office of Foreign Military Affairs, 
Department of Defense 

Charles P. O'Donnell, American Embassy, Belgrade 

Albert E. Pappano, Trade Agreements and Treaties Divi- 
sion, Department of State 

Weber H. Peterson, Foreign Agricultural Service, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture 

Vernon L. Phelps, American Embassy, Bonn 

Loubert O. Sanderhoff, American Embassy, Bonn 

M. Louise Schaffner, American Embassy, Ottawa 

Robert B. Sarich, Office of Economic Affairs, Department 
of Commerce 

Enoch W. Skartvedt, Office of Economic Affairs, Depart- 
ment of Commerce 

Howard F. Shepston, Office of Economic Affairs, Depart- 
ment of Commerce 

Ernest S. Shipley, Textiles Division, U.S. Tariff Com- 
mission 

William O. Shofner, Commodity Stabilization Service, 
Department of Agriculture 

Harry Shooshan, Technical Review Staff, Department of 
the Interior 

Kenneth B. Smith, U.S. Tariff Commission 

Constant Southworth, Office of British Commonwealth and 
Northern European Affairs, Department of State 

Sidney Weintraub, Office of Northeast Asian Affairs, De- 
partment of State 

Jeau Mary Wilkowski, American Embassy, Paris 

William E. Wright, U.S. Tariff Commission 

Boris S. Yane, Division of Foreign Labor, Department of 
Labor 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Resignation of Ambassador Peasiee 

The White House announced on January 13 that on 
that date President Eisenhower had accepted the resig- 
nation of Amos J. Peasiee as Ambassador to Australia 
and appointed him Deputy Special Assistant to the 
President. In the latter capacity, Mr. Peasiee will serve 
as assistant to Harold E. Stassen, Special Assistant for 
disarmament planning. 



186 



Department of State Bulletin 



January 30, 1956 



Index 



Vol. XXXIV, No. 866 



American Republics 

Convention on Inter-Americau Cultural Relations 

Transmitted to Senate 175 

Department's Recommendations on Sugar Legisla- 
tion (Holland) 172 

Asia. Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Con- 
ference 155 

Atomic Energy 

Atoms-for-Peace Agreement With Sweden Comes 

Into Force 181 

Strengthening tie Defense of the United States and 

Its Allies (excerpts from budget message) . 147 

China, Communist. Ambassadorial Talks at Ge- 
neva With Chinese Communists 164 

Congress, The 

Convention on Inter-American Cultural Relations 

Transmitted to Senate 175 

Department's Recommendations on Sugar Legisla- 
tion (Holland) 172 

Strengthening the Defense of the United States and 

Its Allies (excerpts from budget message) . 147 

Cuba. Department's Recommendations on Sugar 

Legislation (Holland) 172 

Economic Affairs 

Department's Recommendations on Sugar Legisla- 
tion (Holland) 172 

Extension of U.S.-Eeuadoran Trade Agreement . 180 
Mr. Randall To Conduct Economic Discussions 

With Turkey 171 

The New Soviet Diplomatic Offensive (Murphy) . 168 
Strengthening the Defense of the United States and 

Its Allies (excerpts from budget message) . 147 
United States Participation in GATT Negotiations 

at Geneva (Proehnow) 184 

Ecuador. Extension of U.S.-Ecuadoran Trade 

Agreement 180 

Educational Exchange. Convention on Inter- 
American Cultural Relations Transmitted 
to Senate 175 

Foreign Service. Resignation of Ambassador 

Peaslee 186 

Germany. U.S. Begins Training and Equipment 

of German Armed Forces 162 

Haiti. Letters of Credence (Zephirin) .... 163 

International Organizations and Meetings 

Delegation to GATT Negotiations 185 

United States Participation in GATT Negotiations 

at Geneva (Proehnow) 184 

Israel. Security Council Condemns Israel for 
Action Against Syria (Lodge, text of resolu- 
tion) 182 

Military Affairs 

Strengthening the Defense of the United States and 

Its Allies (excerpts from budget message) . 147 

U.S. Begins Training and Equipment of German 

Armed Forces 162 

Mutual Security 

The New Soviet Diplomatic Offensive (Murphy) . 168 
Strengthening the Defense of the United States and 

Its Allies (excerpts from budget message) . 147 
Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Conference . 155 

Nicaragua. Treaty of Friendship With Nica- 
ragua 174 

Presidential Documents 

Board of Consultants To Review Foreign Intelli- 
gence Activities 161 

Extension of U.S.-Ecuadoran Trade Agreement . 180 
Strengthening the Defense of the United States and 

Its Allies (excerpts from budget message) . 147 



State, Department of. Strengthening the Defense 
of the United States and Its Allies (excerpts 
from budget message) 147 

Sweden. Atoms-for-Peace Agreement With Swe- 
den Comes Into Force 181 

Syria. Security Council Condemns Israel for Ac- 
tion Against Syria (Lodge, text of resolution) . 182 

Treaty Information 

Atoms-for-Peace Agreement With Sweden Comes 

Into Force igl 

Convention on Inter-American Cultural Relations 

Transmitted to Senate 175 

Current Actions igi 

Extension of U.S.-Ecuadoran Trade Agreement . 180 

Treaty of Friendship With Nicaragua 174 

Turkey. Jlr. Randall To Conduct Economic Dis- 
cussions With Turkey 171 

U.S.S.R. The New Soviet Diplomatic Offensive 

(Murphy) I68 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 181 

Security Council Condemns Israel for Action 

Against Syria (Lodge, text of resolution) . 182 

Name Index 

Dulles, Secretary 155 

Eisenhower, President 147, 162, 175, 180 

Holland, Henry F 172 

Hoover, Herbert, Jr 175 

Johnson, U. Alexis 165 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr 182 

Murphy, Robert 168 

Peaslee, Auios J 186 

Proehnow, Herbert V 184 

Randall, Clarence B 171 

Zephirin, Mauclair 163 



Check List of Department of State 


Press Releases: January 16-22 


Releases 


may be obtained from the News Division, 


Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. | 


No 


Date 


Subject 


21 


1/16 


Holland : testimony on sugar legislation. 


t23 


1/16 


Delegation to Inter-American Council of 
Jurists (rewrite). 


24 


1/17 


Randall trip to Turkey. 


*25 


1/17 


Dulles : news conference statement. 


26 


1/17 


Dulles : news conference transcript. 


27 


1/17 


Gatt delegation (rewrite). 


28 


1/18 


Extension of trade agreement with 
Ecuador. 


29 


l/lS 


Atomic agreement with Sweden. 


30 


1/18 


Reply to Chinese Communist allegations. 


31 


1/19 


Proehnow : statement at Gatt. 


*32 


1/1!) 


Educational exchange. 


*33 


1/19 


Educational exchange. 


t34 


1/19 


Delegation to FAO-Caribbean Commis- 
sion (rewrite). 


35 


1/20 


Murphy : "The New Soviet Diplomatic 
Offensive." 


36 


1/20 


Treaty of friend.ship with Nicaragua. 


37 


1/21 


Ambassadorial talks at Geneva. 


t38 


1/21 


U.N. Refugee Fund Executive Commit- 
tee. 

nted. 


*Not pri 


tHeld for a later issue of the Bulmtin. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE^ 1956 




Department 




der Form 



United States 
Government Printing Office 

DIVISION OF PUBUC DOCUMENTS 

Washington 25, D. C. 



PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE TO AVOID 

PAYMENT OF POSTAGE. »300 

IGPCl 



OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Gatt) came 
into existence on January 1, 1948, as an undertaking by eight 
of the most important world trading countries, including the 
United States. This agreement sets out general rules for the 
conduct of international trade and establishes standards for 
international cooperation through joint negotiation of the re- 
duction of tariffs and the elimination of other barriers to free 
world trade. Today 34 countries participate in this unique 
international cooperative assocation. Together, they account 
for about 80 percent of world trade. 

As a result of changes in world economic conditions since 
1948, representatives of the countries participating in the Gen- 
eral Agreement recently made an intensive review of its pro- 
visions. They proposed amendments which are designed to 
strengthen the agreement and to provide a permanent organiza- 
tion (Organization for Trade Cooperation) to administer the 
world trade rules. The amendments agreed upon will come 
into operation after approval by the contracting parties. 

Two recent Department of State publications explain this 
important agreement and the proposed amendments : 



General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
Present Rules and Proposed Revisions 

(A comparative study.) 



45 cents 



The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade . . . 
An Explanation of Its Provisions and the Proposed Amendments 
Publication No. 5813 20 cents 

(An explanation in layman's language.) 

These publications may be purchased from the Superin- 
tendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D.C. 



To: Supt. of Documents Please send me copies of 

Govt. Printing Office „ General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 

Washington 25, D.C. ^ Present Rules and Proposed Revisions 

Please send me copies of 

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade . . . 
Enelosed nnd: M An Explanation of Its Provisions and the Proposed Amendments 

I M Name: 

(eaah,c'heek,or ^ Street Address : 

money order). 

City, Zone, and State: 



^tPOSlTORY 



^ 



^/i0 ^efta/i^f^mvt/ ^£ tna£e' 




XXXIV, No. 867 
'(bruary 6, 1956 




EXCHANGE OF CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN 
PRESIDENT EISENHOWER AND SOVIET PRE- 
MIER BULGANIN 191 

INTEGRATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COOPER- 
ATION ADMINISTRATION WITHIN THE DE- 
PARTMENT OF STATE • Statement by Secretary 
Dulles ••......,.,.... 211 

U.S.-INDIAN COOPERATION FOR ECONOMIC DE- 
VELOPMENT • by Ambassador John Sherman Cooper . 205 

A HISTORICAL VIEW OF AMERICAN FOREIGN 

POLICY IN THE MIDDLE EAST • by Ambassador 
Donald R. Heath 202 

THE SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY: REPORT TO THE 
PRESIDENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED 
JUNE 30, 1955 215 



For index see inside back cover 



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FEB 2 7 1953 







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February 6, 1956 



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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a tceekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Dii'ision, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the Jf hite House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other offi- 
cers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
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and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
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currently. 



Exchange of Correspondence Between President Eisenhower 
and Soviet Premier Bulganin 



White House press release dated January 28 

THE PRESIDENT TO PREMIER BULGANIN i 

January 28, 1956 

Dear ]VIk. Chairman : I wish to thank you f or 
your letter of January twenty-third, delivered to 
me by Ambassador Zaroubin. I have given it 
careful thought. 

Let me say at the outset that I do indeed believe 
that the present international situation requires 
all states, particularly the great powers, to seek 
to lessen international tension and strengthen in- 
ternational confidence and cooperation. 

As the power of destruction grows, it becomes 
imperative not merely to strive to control and 
limit that power, but also to do away with an- 
tagonisms which could tempt men to use that 
power. That view, I can assure you, is held by 
the people of the United States and by their polit- 
ical leaders without any exception whatsoever. 

I am confident that that view is also shared by 
all the peoples of the world, and that those who 
have been entrusted with political authority have 
a high duty to respond to the universal longing 
of the peoples for peace. 

As you are good enough to recall, I have more 
than once alluded to the immensely valuable asset 
we have in the historic friendship between our 
peoples. I profoundly believe that upon that 
foundation better political relations could be 
established. I can assure you, Mr. Chairman, 
that there is in the whole world no people more 
sincei'ely dedicated to building a structure of 
peace than the American people. Our whole na- 
tion longs for a cessation of the strains and dangers 
now present in the international situation. There 
is indeed no honorable thing that we would not 
do if we were convinced that it would promote a 
just peace in the world. 



' President Eisenhower's letter was delivered by Am- 
bassador Bohlen at Moscow on Jan. 28. 



It is from this viewpoint that I have examined 
your present suggestion that the cause of peace 
would now be served by the conclusion between our 
countries of a treaty of friendship and coopera- 
tion of twenty years duration. 

I first observe that our countries are already 
bound to each other by a solemn treaty — the 
Charter of the United Nations. The treaty which 
you now propose would consist of three substan- 
tive articles. I observe also that each one of these 
is already covered by the explicit provisions in this 
United Nations treaty between us. 

The first article of your draft would bind oiu* 
two countries to develop friendly relations between 
our peoples on the basis of equal rights, mutual 
respect and non-interference in internal affairs. 
As members of the United Nations we are already 
bound through that organization "to develop 
friendly relations among nations based on respect 
for the principle of equal rights and self-determi- 
nation of peoples". 

The second article of your proposed treaty 
would bind us to settle our international disputes 
by peaceful means alone. This is an undertaking 
to which our two countries are already bound by 
the provisions of Article 2 (3) of the Charter of 
the United Nations which specifies that "all mem- 
bers shall settle their international disputes by 
peaceful means". 

The third article would bind us to the strength- 
ening of economic, cultural and scientific coopera- 
tion. Chapter IX of the Charter of the United 
Nations dealing with "International Economic 
and Social Cooperation" pledges us to work for 
"solutions of international economic, social, health 
and related problems", and to "international cul- 
tural and educational cooperation". 

The Charter of the United Nations constitutes a 
solemn treaty not only between your country and 
our own — it is a treaty among many countries, 
all of whom are bound to us and to each other, and 
all of whom are concerned with world peace. The 



febtuary 6, 7956 



191 



American people sincerely desire to help make 
reality of these charter goals. 

But the present state of international tension 
was not prevented by the words of the Charter. 
How can we hope that the present situation would 
be cured merely by repeating those words in a 
bilateral form? 

I wonder whether again going through a treaty- 
making procedure, and this time on a bilateral 
basis only, might indeed work against the cause 
of peace by creating the illusion that a stroke of a 
pen had achieved a result which in fact can be 
obtained only by a change of spirit. 

Friendly collaboration between states depends 
not solely upon treaty promises but upon the 
spirit that animates the governments of the states 
concerned and upon actual performance. 

It was in the hope of promoting such a spirit 
and such performance that I went to Geneva last 
July, a course which had no peacetime precedent 
in American history. Despite the doubts of many 
that the mission would, in fact, serve any usefvd 
purpose, I felt that the existing situation was so 
serious that no chance for impi'ovement, how- 
ever slight, ought to be neglected. In Geneva 
you expressed similar views and aspirations. 

I had earnestly hoped that out of that meeting 
with you and with the Heads of Government of 
France and the United Kingdom would come a 
bettering of international relations, especially as 
between the four nations there represented and in 
relation to particular problems for which our four 
nations had a particular responsibility. 

Unhappily, the American people have had sadly 
to conclude that the events following our meet- 
ing have not given substance to their hope. 

Permit me to recall to your mind a short record 
of recent events. 

At Geneva we directed our Foreign Ministers 
to propose effective means for the solution of three 
specific problems. 

The first of these problems was that of Euro- 
pean security and Germany. TVe explicitly 
agreed that the settlement of the German question 
and the reunification of Germany by means of 
free elections should be carried out in conformity 
with the national interests of the German people 
and the interests of European security. However, 
despite constructive proposals put forward by the 
three Western powers for German reunification 
and European security, your Government felt that 
it could not at this time entertain any proposal 



dealing with the reunification of Germany by 
means of free elections. 

The second problem was that of disarmament. 
In our Geneva discussion of that problem I made 
my "open skies" proj^osal in the hope that we 
might actually do something to convince the world 
that we had no aggressive purposes against each 
other. But this proposal your Government re- 
jected at the Foreign Ministers meeting. 

The third problem was the development of con- 
tacts between East and West. The Western Min- 
isters proposed many concrete measures to bring 
about closer relations and better understanding, 
none of which was accepted by your Government. 
Despite that fact there has, as you point out, 
recently been some improvement in contacts be- 
tween the Soviet Union and the United States of 
America. 

A further deterioration has taken place because 
to us it has seemed that your Government had, 
in various areas of the world, embarked upon a 
course which increases tensions by intensifying 
hatreds and animosities implicit in historic inter- 
national disputes. I share your conviction that 
an improvement in Soviet-American relations is 
urgently needed. But frankly, our people find it 
difficult to reconcile what appears to us to be the 
purjjoses of your Government in these areas with 
your present words — words which so rightly em- 
phasize the special i-esponsibility of our Govern- 
ments to lessen international tension and 
strengthen confidence and cooperation between 
states. 

I deal with the history of this past year solely 
for the purpose of enabling us with better prospect 
of success to chart our future. This nation holds 
out the hand of friendship to all who would grasp 
it in sincerity. I have often said, and I now re- 
peat, that there is nothing I would not do to pro- 
mote peace with justice for the world. But we 
know that it is deeds and not words alone which 
count. 

Consider, Mr. Chairman, what a vast change 
would be effected not only in our relations but 
throughout the entire world if there were prompt 
measures to reunify Germany in freedom within 
the framework of security ; if there were carried 
out our wartime pledge to respect the right of 
peoples to choose the form of govermnent under 
which they will live; if there were arranged such 
mutual opening of our countries to inspection that 
the possibilities of surprise attack would vanish 



192 



Department of State Bulletin 



and if reductions of armament were made prac- 
tical, with the release of productive power for the 
betterment of mankind. Consider, also, the moun- 
tain of distrust and misunderstanding that would 
disappear if our peoples freely exchanged news, 
information, visits and ideas. 

These are all matters which you and I have 
discussed together at Geneva. They are results 
to which my nation remains dedicated and toward 
which we are prepared at any moment to move 
in a spirit of conciliation. May I hope, from your 
letter, that you too are dedicated to these great 
ends? 

I shall look forward to receiving a further ex- 
pression of your views. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



PREMIER BULGANIN TO THE PRESIDENT 

The Kremlin, Moscow 

January 23, 195G 

Dear Mr. Tresident : In the firm conviction that you 
share my concern over the present state of the relations 
between our countries, I should like to impart to you my 
ideas regarding possible means of improving those 
relations. 

You, I am sure, agree with me that the present inter- 
national situation requires all States, particularly the 
Great Power.s, which bear special responsibility for as- 
suring world-wide peace and the security of nations, to 
take measures that may help further to lessen interna- 
tional tension and strengthen confidence and cooperation 
between States. This would satisfy the heartfelt longing 
of peoples to live in peace and tranquillity and to devote 
their material resources and energy to creative and con- 
structive work, cultural advancement, and prosperity. 

At the Meeting of the Heads of Government of the Four 
Powers at Geneva, we all expressed our readiness to strive 
for a lessening of international tension and an improve- 
ment in relations between States in accordance with the 
principles of peaceful coexistence and economic co- 
operation. 

There is no doubt that for any future lessening of in- 
ternational tension the question of relations between the 
Soviet Union and the United States has special signi- 
ficance. 

This raises the problem of the necessity for taking steps 
to improve substantially the relations between the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of 
America. Such improvement of Soviet-American relations 
would be a genuine contribution toward ameliorating the 
entire international situation and maintaining and con- 
solidating world peace. 

The history of the relations between our countries is 
convincing proof of the fact that their friendly coopera- 
tion, based on a striving for mutual understanding, mutual 



respect for sovereignty, and which was later based on the 
common struggle against the forces of aggression, satisfies 
the highest interests of the peoples of both countries. 

It is certainly not by accident that, with the exception 
of the period of foreign intervention against the young 
Soviet Republic, the peoples of our States have never 
fought each other; that between them there have never 
been and are not now any irreconcilable differences, nor 
any frontiers or territories that might become an object of 
dispute or conflict. 

This is why the Soviet people received with complete 
understanding your statement at the Conference of the 
Heads of Government of the Four Powers at Geneva, in 
which you remarked : "The American people would like 
to be friends of the Soviet people. There are no disputes 
between the American and Soviet peoples, there are no 
conflicts between them, there is no commercial hostility. 
Historically our peoples have always lived in peace." 

Life itself has proven that cooperation between the 
U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. has been based, not on accidental 
and short-lived motives but on fundamental and enduring 
interests. This found a significant manifestation, first of 
all, in the fact that our countries were allies during both 
World Wars. 

You, as one of the outstanding military leaders of the 
anti-Hitler coalition, are especially aware of the fact that 
the military cooperation between the Soviet Union and 
the United States during the years of the Second World 
War played a most important part in crushing the com- 
mon foe — the Fascist aggressors. Bound by the ties of 
blood shed by the best sons of the people of both coun- 
tries, their military alliance, which was also shared by 
Great Britain, France, China, Poland, Yugoslavia, Czecho- 
slovakia, Norway, Greece, and other countries of the co- 
alition of freedom-loving peoples, endured with honor all 
trials of the war, which was thrust upon our peoples by 
the forces of aggression in the West and in the East. 

It is highly regrettable that in the postwar period the 
relations of friendship and cooperation between the 
U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. should have worsened. The 
impairment of relations between the Soviet Union and 
the United States of America, whatever the reasons may 
be, is contrary to the interests of both the Soviet and the 
American peoples and adversely affects the entire inter- 
national situation. 

I am sure that you, like myself, are convinced that the 
differences between the social structures of the U.S.A. 
and the U.S.S.R. should not prevent our countries from 
maintaining the iwlitical, economic, and cultural relations 
in which our peoples are interested. In the years pre- 
ceding the Second World War, Soviet-American relations 
progressed considerably, especially in the economic field. 
During the war the relations between our countries 
reached new heights, which was due to the wide support 
of the peoples of our countries and which strengthened 
their mutual sympathies. This helped shorten the war 
and lessen the sacrifices of nations. 

It is of course impossible not to take account of the fact 
that during the period of the "cold war" between the 
U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. serious disagreements have 
arisen with regard to various international problems con- 
nected with disarmament, the assurance of security in 



February 6, J 956 



193 



Europe, the German question, together with certain prob- 
lems of the Far East, and tlie importance of the above- 
mentioned problems is recognized. At the last meeting 
of the Foreign Ministers of the Four Powers at Geneva, 
even with the narrowing of the gap between the positions 
of both sides with regard to individual matters under 
discussion, substantial divergences became manifest and 
further efforts will in time be needed to reach the neces- 
sary agreement on a solution of the above problems. 

Nevertheless, a continuation of the existing state of 
Soviet-American relations cannot further the settlement 
of unsolved international problems. At the same time an 
improvement in Soviet-American relations that would 
satisfy our peoples' longings for the furthering of friendly 
relations between our countries might create a new inter- 
national atmosphere favorable to the settlement of con- 
troversial questions by means of negotiations on a mu- 
tually acceptable basis. 

It is impossible not to see that a practical solution of 
the problem of a further lessening of international tension 
and strengthening of confidence between States, including 
the improvement of Soviet-American relations, is in the 
interest of both the Soviet and the American peoples as 
well as of all other nations. 

I believe that you, Mr. President, will agree that under 
existing conditions international tension is fraught with 
the possibility of breaking the peace, with nations reaping 
all the dangerous consequences thereof. 

Moreover, it is well known to everyone that the newest 
implements of war, such as atomic and hydrogen weapons, 
various instruments of present-day jet and rocket tech- 
niques, as well as other kinds of weapons of mass destruc- 
tion, place the peoples of all countries in an equally dan- 
gerous situation in the event that international peace is 
disturl)ed, threatening to subject their territories and, 
above all, densely populated districts of highly developed 
countries to the devastating effects of atomic war. 

At the present time more than ever, it is the duty of 
each State to be concerned with the maintenance and 
strengthening of peace, the settlement of international 
disputes by peaceful means alone, in harmony with the 
aims and principles of the United Nations. 

There can be no doubt that the peoples of the Soviet 
Union and the United States of America are equally in- 
terested in putting an end to the armaments race, which 
forces them to waste their strength and resources for 
unproductive purposes. The existing annaments race not 
only saddles nations with a heavy burden of military ex- 
penditures and thereby creates obstacles to the promo- 
tion of their material welfare, but also greatly intensifies 
the danger of a new war. 

The improvement of Soviet-American relations would 
lighten the task of putting an end to the armaments race 
and would contribute to a fuller utilization of the eco- 
nomic resources of States in the interest of peace. In 
this case the resources now going into unproductive mili- 
tary expenditures could be used for purposes of improving 
the material well-being of nations, lowering taxes, raising 
real wages, housing and public construction, aiding imder- 
developed countries in the interest of peace, and of 
strengthening international cooperation. 

All of this would contribute considerably toward the 



194 



expansion of the domestic market as well as the further- 
ance of international trade and would moreover ensure 
a corresponding increase in production and in employ- 
ment of the population on the basis of an expansion of 
the peace economy. 

The fact should be recognized that events have recently 
taken place the positive significance of which could not 
fail to be reflected in the over-all international situation. 
The past year was one in which no war was being 
waged in any part of the world. Recently certain com- 
plicated international problems that had remained un- 
solved after the end of the Second World War have been 
settled. 

For the first time since the last war, a meeting of the 
Heads of Government of the Four Powers was held in 
Geneva, and the results achieved by us at that meeting 
were genuinely and fervently welcomed by the peoples of 
the entire world as corresponding to their aspirations and 
hopes. 

Recently an improvement has been noted in contacts 
between countries of the East and West, particularly be- 
tween the Soviet Union and the United States of America, 
although it is still far from possible to consider such 
contacts as broad and adequate. As for the U.S.S.R. and 
the U.S.A., these expanded contacts have shown how 
great are the longings of the peoples of our two countries 
for the further development of such contacts and of 
friendly cooperation. 

In all these Important international events, in which 
the Soviet Union has been advocating a stronger peace 
and friendship among nations, the results achieved have 
to a considerable extent been due to the cooperation that 
has taken place between our countries. 

I am genuinely convinced that an improvement in 
Soviet-American relations is urgently needed. 

In my opinion this purpose could be served by the 
conclusion of a treaty of friendship and cooperation be- 
tween our countries. 

Such a treaty could make provision for the parties, in 
a spirit of genuine cooperation and mutual understand- 
ing, to develop and strengthen the friendly relations be- 
tween the people of the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. on the 
basis of the principle of equal rights, mutual respect 
for State sovereignty, and noninterference in internal af- 
fairs, and to settle all their international disputes, in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of the U.N. Charter, by 
peaceful means alone. 

The treaty might also provide for the agreement of the 
parties to cooperate in developing and strengthening eco- 
nomic, cultural, and scientific cooperation between the 
U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A., based on the principle of mutual 
advantage and equality of rights. 

My colleagues and I feel that the conclusion of such a 
treaty between the Soviet Union and the United States 
of America would be an important contribution to the 
development of Soviet-American relations and at the 
same time an act of great international significance. 

I firmly believe that the proposal concerning the con- 
clusion of a treaty of friendship and cooperation between 
the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. for the improvement of ', 
Soviet-American relations in the interest of strengthening I 
IJeace and for the further lessening of international tension 

Department of State Bulletin 



I 



will be favorably received by you and will evoke a positive 
response from the Soviet and American peoples, as well 
as from those of other countries. 

It is my opinion that the spirit of the treaty which I 
propose is embodied in the draft enclosed herewith. 

I trust that I may soon receive an expression of Your 
Excellency's thoughts on this subject. 
Respectfully, 

N. BULGANIN 

His Excellency 

DWIGHT D. EI8ENHOWEB 

President of the United States of America 
Washington, D.C. 

Soviet Draft Treaty 

A Tkeatt of Fkiekdship and Coopebation 

Between the 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 

and the 

United States of America 

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics and the President of the United 
States of America, 

Inspired by a desire for a further lessening of interna- 
tional tension and for the establishment of trust between 
States and acting in the interest of maintaining world- 
wide peace and security, 

Being desirous of strengthening the friendship between 
the peoples of the Soviet Union and the United States 
of America, 

Being convinced that a strengthening of friendship and 
cooperation between the Soviet Union and the United 
States of America on the basis of the principles of equal 
rights, mutual respect for State sovereignty, and noninter- 
ference in each other's internal affairs, conforms to the 
vital interests of both countries, 

As.serting their faith in the aims and principles of the 
Charter of the United Nations and their desire to cooper- 
ate and live in peace with all peoples and with all govern- 
ments. 

Have resolved to conclude the present Treaty of Friend- 
ship and Cooperation and have designated as their pleni- 
potentiary representatives: 

For the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics 

For the President of the United States of America 
, who having communi- 
cated to each other their full powers, which have been 
found to be in good and due form, have agreed as follows : 

Abticle I 
The Contracting Parties will develop and strengthen, 
in the spirit of sincere cooperation and mutual under- 
standing, friendly relations between the peoples of the 
Soviet Union and of the United States of America on the 
basis of equal rights, mutual respect for State sovereignty, 
and noninterference in internal affairs. 

Abticle II 
The Contracting Parties have agreed. In conformity 
with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, 
to settle aU their international disputes by peaceful means. 



Abticle III 

The Contracting Parties will contribute to the develop- 
ment and strengthening of economic, cultural and scien- 
tific cooperation between the two States, on the basis of 
the principle of mutual benefit and equal rights. 

To implement the present Article, appropriate agree- 
ments may be concluded between the Contracting Parties. 

Abticle IV 

The present Treaty shall be subject to ratification. 
It shall become effective on the date of exchange of instru- 
ments of ratification which is to take place in the City 
of in the shortest possible time. 

The Treaty shall be valid for 20 years from the date of 
its coming into force. Upon the expiration of the afore- 
said period each of the Contracting Parties shall have 
the right to denounce it. Such denunciation shall become 
effective one year from the date on which notice thereof 
is given. 

In witness whereof, the Plenipotentiaries have signed 
this Treaty and have affixed their seals thereto. 

Done at on 1956, 

in two copies in the Russian and English languages, 
both texts being equally authentic. 

By authority of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 
of the U.S.S.R. 

By authority of the President of the United States of 
America 



Transcript of Secretary Dulles' 
News Conference 

Press release 41 dated January 24 

/Secretary Dulles : I have no prepared statement 
to make today, so if there are any questions I 
would be glad to receive them. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the State Department state- 
ment on the Geneva talks on Saturday ^ said that 
the United States had proposed that both sides 
renounce the use of force in order to remove the 
threat of war from those negotiations. In a state- 
ment just released hy the Chinese Communist 
Foreign Ministry., they say that the failure to reach 
agreement does not mean there is a tear threat, and 
they also charge the United States as being guilty 
of deliberate procrastination and obstruction at 
the talks. What is your reaction to these latest 
charges? 

A. The statement which we gave out on Satur- 
day gives a pretty full narrative of events and 
contains all of the relevant documents, and I think 

' Bulletin of Jan. 30, 1956, p. 164. 



febtuaty 6, 7956 



195 



it pretty much speaks for itself. I do not think 
it indicates any obstructing or procrastinating 
tactics- — on the part of the United States at least. 
One can wonder sometimes at the Chinese Com- 
munist estimate of time. They said, at first, 
that the Americans detained in China would be 
"expeditiously"' released. Well, most of them have 
still not been released, after several months. So 
that is, perliaps, some sidelight as to their own 
ideas as to what is "expeditious." 

I think the record, as made public, indicates 
a very sincere desire on our part to get as rapidly 
as possible to a meaningful understanding with 
reference to the renunciation of force. As indi- 
cated there, some progress has been made. Nego- 
tiations with the Chinese Communists are usually 
slow and prolonged, as we know from past ex- 
perience. But we are planning to go ahead. The 
talks are still going on. There is another one 
scheduled for tomorrow, and we continue to be 
patient and persistent in our effort to obtain a 
greater assurance of peac«, and renunciation of 
force, in that area. 

U.S.-Britlsh Talks 

Q. Mr. Secretary^ could you specify for lis, hi 
hroad general terms, the subjects which you ex- 
pect will he discussed with the Briti.^h delegation 
in the conference next week? 

A. Well, I could not give any detailed specifica- 
tion. The talks are designed to be of a general 
character. There are no specific agreements that 
are on the agenda to be reached, and I imagine 
that our talks will cover the different parts of the 
world where our two countries have interests in 
common and where they can appropriately be 
discussed without any impropriety as regards 
other countries who may also be involved. But 
there are quite a few of those matters, and I 
imagine most of them will be discussed. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, titer e is a report that Marshal 
Tito has agreed, to let the Czech arms purchased 
hy Egypt pass through Yugosla/via. Do you think 
this is a contribution to peace in the Middle East? 

A. Well, you raise a kind of double-headed ques- 
tion — first, whether the shipment of arms to Egypt 
is in the interests of peace. We have always felt 
that it would not be in the interests of peace to 
have an arms race in that part of the world. That 
position was made clear as far back as the declara- 



196 



t ion of jNIay 1950 - — ^I tliink it was — when the posi- 
tion of the United States and the United King- 
dom and France was made clear on that point. We 
still adhere basically to the principles of that 1950 
declaration, which, I think, made quite clear that 
we think that the uncontrolled and large-scale 
shipment of arms into that area to one side or the 
other is not a contribution to peace. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in relation to the tripartite 
agreement that you mentioned, there have been 
some reports — in the preliminary discussions for 
the Eden visit — or suggestions of some new agree- 
ment to implement that in case war broke out in 
the Middle East. Is that a likely possibility for 
this meeting — either between the United States 
and the United Kingdom, or later on a tripartite 
basis? 

A. WeU, that declaration, you recall, indicated 
that if there were aggression by either side the 
three countries who were parties to that declara- 
tion would take appropriate action within or with- 
out the United Nations. And it would be quite 
possible, I would think, even probable, that that 
general topic would be discussed, although, of 
course, France is also a party to that declaration, 
and anything that we discussed there would also 
have to be discussed with the French. 

Q. Well, is our first reliance the United Nations 
in such a case? Is that the general position of 
the United States? 

A. Yes. I would think that, if it is at all prac- 
ticable, we would seek action tlirough the United 
Nations, or at least explore and try to exhaust the 
possibilities of action in the United Nations, be- 
fore we took individual or independent action. 
Whether or not United Nations action would be 
feasible is, of course, a somewhat difficult question 
in view of the present attitude of the Soviet Union, 
which is on the Security Council and which has 
veto power there. But certainly we would in the 
first instance consider, I believe, the possibility of 
action through the United Nations. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, both Senator's Knowland and 
Bridges have indicated that they will oppose the 
nomination of Mr. Bowie as Assistant Secretary 
of State. Is there any plan to withdraw that 
nomination? 



^For text, see ihid., June 15, 1953, p. 834 (footnote). 
Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



A. There is no plan to withdraw the nomina- 
tion. The nomination is pending now before the 
Senate, and it has been referred to the Foreign 
Relations Committee. 

Q. They say that they had an agi'eement that 
appointments in advance would ie cleared with 
them hefore they were publicly announced. Is 
that ttnte? 

A. Well, I tliink the usual, normal procedures 
were followed in this case. You may recall that 
Mr. Bowie is now Assistant Secretary of State. 
He was appointed by the President, as an interim 
appointment, last August,^ I think, after the new 
assistant secretaryship positions were created, and 
it was made clear to the Congress at that time that 
one of tliose positions was being created for Mr. 
Bowie. That appears explicitly in the report 
of the Foreign Affairs Committee.* 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could you say what action 
the three powers could take if the Security Coun- 
cil took no action on the matter of the Middle 
East? 

A. No. I don't think I could properly go into 
that. 

Middle East Arms Situation 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in connection with that, have 
you any information, sir, that Tito during his 
recent visit to Egypt agreed to supply Egypt with 
amis? 

A. No, I have had no intimation to that effect. 
You recall that the United States has supplied a 
certain amoimt of arms to Yugoslavia, but in ac- 
cordance with our standard procedure in those 
matters, and, indeed, in accordance with the law, 
it is stipulated there that the arms could not be 
retransferred to a third party without our consent. 

Q. Why I asked that question, sir, is that I 
had heard yesterday over at the Pentagon that 
there is information to the effect that Tito did 
agree to supply certain arms to Egypt. 

A. Well, all I can say is that I have no such 
indication. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you have any information 
as to whether we know if Tito hMS agreed to allow 
the transshipment of arms through his country? 

' Ibid., Sept. 12, 1955, p. 442 ; see also White House press 
release dated Aug. 11. 
' H. Rept. 1260, 84th Cong., 1st sess., p. 3. 



A. No, I have no official knowledge of that. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, can you give us some infor- 
mation on the status of Israelis application for 
arms to balance the shipment of Corrvmunist arms 
to Egypt? 

A. The application is still pending here with the 
State Department. I shall probably be seeing 
the Israeli Ambassador during the course of the 
next few days to talk further about the matter. 

Long-Term Foreign Aid 

Q. Mr. Secretary, after your talks with con- 
gressional leaders are you optimistic on your 
chances for a long-term foreign aid program? 

A. I believe that we will get from the Congress 
the authority to do the necessary — what we deem 
to be the necessary tilings in relation to foreign 
aid, including an ability to undertake some long- 
range projects. I do not think that I would want 
to forecast the precise form which that would 
take. There are, of course, many possible forms 
which it could take, and from the legislative stand- 
point there are a number of choices to be made, 
and I do not now want to indicate any particular 
choice. 

You may recall that last year, for example, we 
had this request for a $200 million fund particu- 
larly for what was called the "arc of Asia." There 
the Congress authorized the full $200 million, ap- 
propriated for that year $100 million, and we ex- 
pect to get the second appropriation to fill out the 
authorization this year. That is one illustration 
of the way in which these things can be done. 
There are other ways. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, does the administration in- 
tend to submit specific proposals on how it believes 
this problem should be met — the long-term aid 
program? 

A. You mean specific suggestions as to projects? 

Q. No, specific suggestions as to the legislation 
it wants, including the number of years it thinks 
should be the maximumi for such projects and, per- 
haps, the amount of money involved per year. 

A. Yes, I expect that we shall do that. It is 
probable, although not certain, that that will be 
expressed in a Presidential message which, in due 
course, will go up on this subject of the mutual 
security program. 

It has been customary in the past to have a 



february 6, 1956 



197 



Presidential message on that subject, which would 
elaborate somewhat the broad outlines that are 
contained in the President's state of the Union 
message. I imagine that that practice may be fol- 
lowed this year, and, if so, that could elaborate 
the program along the lines you suggested. 

Q. WouldnH that put it in a precise form^ which 
you said you wovldvUt now indicate? 

A. I was asked whether I thought we would get 
the authority that we needed to carry forward a 
limited number of specific projects on a somewhat 
long-range basis. I said that I thought we would 
get that authority in some form or another. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., there is an idea in what you 
say. I wonder whether you would say if this is 
correct: that between now and the time the mes- 
sage goes up you hope to work out with congres- 
sional leaders scnrie understanding as to the form 
and content which would he acceptable there. 

A. That is very true. We are having talks of 
that sort. The whole topic has been discussed 
already twice before the Foreign Affairs and For- 
eign Relations Committees : first, in a rather gen- 
eral way by myself ; subsequently, by IMr. Hoover. 
In addition, I have had talks with Senator George 
and Congressman Richards, each of whom had 
lunch with me. We are exploring the differeiit 
points of view and have good expectation that they 
will be brought together in some form, although, 
as I say, I would not want to predict today either 
the form in which we would ask for the authority 
or the form in which I think the authority may 
be given. 

Tests of Nuclear Weapons 

Q. Mr. Secretary., going back to the question of 
the Eden visit., the British have been talking about 
seeking a world agreement under which there 
would be control, as distinct from banning, of 
future tests of hydrogen or atomic weapons. Have 
they discussed that with tis, or are we in any way 
willing to enter into any control system in the 
field of testing of these weapons? 

A. We have had talks on that general subject 
with the United Kingdom over a considerable pe- 
riod of time. I had the first talks I think some- 
where around 2 yeare ago with Sir Anthony Eden 
when he was Foreign Minister, and we have been 
in frequent consultation with each other on that 
particular subject. I would say that the obstacles 



in the path are what we both recognize to be tech- 
nical difficulties relating to control, and as to 
where you draw the line between what is a new 
and bigger explosion and what has now become 
almost a conventional weapon. There are a great 
many technical difficulties in the way of formulat- 
ing a proposal which might be put to the Soviet, 
in a form which would really be protective of the 
interests of both sides. 

Now we have been discussing that thing with 
the British off and on for a couple of years. I 
wouldn't be surprised if it would come up again 
when Sir Anthony is here this time. 

Q. There is no specific proposal before you, 
however? 

A. No, there is not. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, are these technical difficulties 
of the kind you think might be overcome so that 
a specific proposal might be advanced by us and 
the British? 

A. This is out of my field. It is primarily up 
to the scientists and the experts and the Atomic 
Energy Commission to judge that. I would say 
that as far as my observation goes I do not myself 
see on the horizon any formula which it seems to 
me would be likely to work, but, as I say, this is 
at this stage very largely a matter for the 
scientists. 

Talks With Chinese Communists 

Q. Mr. Secretary, referring again to the current 
exchange of statements between this Capital and 
Peking, would you say that this cownter battery- 
fire has put an end to the negotiations at Geneva, 
or do you expect them to continue and to continue 
fruitfully? 

A. Well, I expect them to continue. As I said, 
there is a meeting set for tomorrow, and I hope 
and believe that the talks will continue to go on. 
How fruitful they will be is something on which 
it is very difficult to form an opinion. Obviously, 
we would not be continuing the talks unless we 
had some hopes and expectations of positive re- 
sults coming out of them. 

Q. Would you give us your estimate or guess 
as to lohy the Chinese chose to break secrecy in 
this matter? 

A. Well, it has been rather traditional in these 
matters that when they think they have what they 



198 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



consider a good propaganda position then they 
break the general understanding about secrecy. 
I would not want to say that this was bad faith 
on their part, because they gave us notice in ad- 
vance that they did intend to make these tilings 
public. We had agreed that the talks would be 
more apt to make good progress if we did not turn 
them into a propaganda struggle. But we did 
not have any absolute hard and fast rule that 
nothing could under any circumstances be given 
out, and they did give us advance notice of their 
intention to do this. Therefore I do not accuse 
them in that particular respect of having tech- 
nically been guilty of bad faith. I tliink it was a 
step which, because it was designed as a propa- 
ganda move, is not in the best interests of getting 
good results. 

You ask why they did it. As I say, I can only 
assiune that they did it because they thought their 
statement would have a propaganda value for 
them. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, to get 'bach to Yugoslavia, 
has there ieen any slachening of U.S. military aid 
shipments to Yugoslavia? 

A. I doubt whether I can answer that question 
except in a very general way, which is that I 
believe that the bulk of the program has already 
been carried out and that what is now going for- 
ward is normally on a reduced basis, as against 
what formerly was the case. If there is anything 
more than that, I don't know. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, a report hy a study com- 
mission of the House Foreign Affairs Committee 
puhlished on Friday suggested that, since the 
Czech-Egyptian deal was a proof of Soviet in- 
sincerity, the Geneva, conference should have been 
postponed. Would you care to coimnent on that? 

A. Well, I think that the facts perhaps speak 
for themselves; namely, we did hold the Geneva 
conference — I assume you are referring now to the 
October-November conference ? 

Q. That is right. 

A. Well, if we had thought that it should be 
I postponed, we wouldn't have held it. 

Foreign Policy and Political Partisanship 

Q. Mr. Secretary, after your talk with Senator 
George, what do you think the prospects are that 



foreign policy will he kept out of the political 
arena during the forthcoming campaign? 

A. Did you say "will be" kept out? 

Q. Yes. 

(Laughter) 

Q. '■'■Might he," if you wish. 

(Laughter) 

A. I think perhaps the laughter you have heard 
is more eloquent than any statement of mine. 

Q. Sir, in connection with that last statement 
may I ask you, on the 13th of January, 1953, you 
were C07nmenting to the Senate Foreign Rela- 
tions Committee on this m,atter of politics and 
what is proper to say in a campaign year. 

A. Excuse me, I missed the date. 

Q. The date was January 13, 1953, and in your 
statement of that date you said that it is a part 
of our normal political system and a proper part, 
of which you approved, for people to take sides 
in statement of cases, and you said that in a cam- 
paign one does use extravagant terms which would 
not he used in a more judicious context. Now, do 
you still suhscrihe to that theory that it h proper 
in a campaign year to put aside a more judicial 
attitude for public affairs? 

A. I don't recall my precise words. If I was 
describing the fact that in a political year there 
is a less judicial attitude, that is, I am afraid, a 
fact for which much evidence could be adduced. 
As far as the propriety of discussion, I think I 
said here a couple of mouths or so ago, on that 
topic, that I believe that it is entirely proper and 
appropriate that there should be what I think I 
called a constructive discussion of foreign policy. 

I would say this, that there is a danger point 
which I think all patriotic citizens should observe, 
and that is to not shake confidence abroad in the 
solidity of the U.S. position on these basic mat- 
ters. We do have a basically bipartisan position 
which has evolved over the last 10 years, which 
involves the committal of the U.S. prestige and 
honor to various other countries and various places 
in the world. If there sliould grow up any doubt 
about our determination to stand on those com- 
mitments, it would be a very sad day for the United 
States and in my opinion would greatly increase 
the risk of war. 

I tliink that most people who are active in this 



February 6, 1956 



199< 



campaign are fully conscious of that fact and, I 
hope and believe, will take it into account in what 
they say. 

Q. Have you made any efforts, sir, to get matters 
in this area which you have defined taken out of 
partisan discussion this year hy agreement or 
common understanding? Is this the sort of thing 
which you talked to Senator George about, for 
exam.ple? 

A. No. "We have discussed the possibility of 
taking one or two matters out of partisanship. 
It is very difficult to catalog those things. I recall 
that my first experience in these matters was back 
in 1944, when I came down here on behalf of Gov- 
ernor Dewey, the Republican candidate, to confer 
with Secretary Hull on behalf of President Roose- 
velt, and we had quite a discussion here. We 
agreed to try to keep one topic out of the discus- 
sion, and that was the broad committal of the 
United States to join in a world organization for 
peace, which became the United Nations. We 
tried to get a broader agreement, and Secretary 
Hull and I discussed it during the greater part of 
3 days. Secretary Hull was very anxious to have 
a broader agreement, but we did not arrive at any 
formula. Secretary Hull said at the time, the 
value of those talks would depend upon the out- 
come. I think he also indicated, when he wrote 
his memoirs, that the outcome had been satisfac- 
tory. But it was because of what I would consider 
a broad patriotic attitude on both sides rather than 
by having arrived at a particular formula which 
cataloged matters. We did, as I say, take the one 
matter out, and that was the United Nations, but 
we could not agree on anything else. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, what are the one or ttvo mat- 
ters which you believe should now be kept out of 
partisanship? 

A. Well, I think I would prefer not to define 
those at the present time, because what we are try- 
ing to do would require an understanding on both 
sides, and until there is, or unless there is such 
an imderstanding, I wouldn't want to talk about 
them. 

Q. Well, are you going to continue discussions 
loith the Democratic leaders with a view to keep- 
ing some specific subjects out of partisanship? 

A. Well, I will continue, of course, to have 
talks primarily with the two Democrats who 



are the chairmen of the Foreign Relations and the 
Foreign Affairs Committees. Most of our prob- 
lems, as far as Congress is concerned, focus up to 
those two men. Now, when you get outside of 
Congress, the problem is much more difficult to 
deal with, because one does not know yet who the 
Democratic candidate for the Presidency is going 
to be. There are several open or unavowed candi- 
dates. And the problem of reaching any agree- 
ment becomes pretty difficult when you get outside 
of the congressional area. 

Caracas Doctrine 

Q. Mr. Secretary, when the fact of the Com- 
munist arms deal with Egypt became generally 
known, some officials of the Government, of our 
Government, privately at least expressed a good 
deal of concern about the danger of Soviet at- 
tempts to penetrate Latin America in a similar 
xoay or economically. The other day there was a 
statement, I think it was attributed to Bulganin, 
that indeed they xcere inviting new ties, diplo- 
matic, political, and economic, with Latin Amer- 
ica. I may have overlooked it, but I havenH seen 
any particular reaction officially from us on this. 
Does this mean that we think that things in Latin 
America are in extremely good shape and that 
there isn't any particular threat at this time? 

A. Well, we never take things for granted, be- 
cause I feel that if you ever become complacent 
about any situation that in itself makes an area 
of danger. The interview that you refer to, the 
statement that you refer to, was issued as a pros- 
pective interview, I think, with the representative 
of a paper which is widely published or circulated 
in South America. It is my impression that 
the paper did not publish the interview, at that 
time at least, because they feared that it was pri- 
marily a propaganda move which they did not 
care to lend themselves to. So it was published 
on a imilateral basis by Chairman Bulganin. 

Now, I thinlt that there is, of course, a potential 
danger in Latin America, just as there is in most 
of the countries of the world. I think that the 
danger is more under control in that area than 
in most. This is largely due to the acceptance 
by the American Republics of what I call the 
Caracas Doctrine. We agreed at Caracas at the 
conference of the American States that, if inter- 
national communism got control of the political 
institutions of any American state, that would 



200 



Department of State Bulletin 



be a danger to the peace of the entire hemisphere, 
including tlie other states, and become a matter of 
general concern. ° Now, it was largely that doc- 
trine which I think led to the overthrow of the 
Communist regime in Guatemala. It creates a 
very serious hazard to, and somewhat, I believe, 
slows down, the efforts of the Communists in 
this hemisphere. So, while we don't take it for 
granted by any means that there is no danger, 
we think we are fairly well organized to cope 
with the danger. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, on that same subject, what 
is your own thought as to whether or not subver- 
sion short of taking over a goveminent would in- 
voke the Monroe Doctrine? 

A. Well, I would not think one would go beyond 
the principles that were accepted in the Caracas 
resolution which deal with the situation which 
would exist if in fact international communism got 
control of the political institution of an American 
state. Now, there was also in that resolution a 
provision which is to some degree being helpfully 
implemented at the present time — that is, that 
there would be an exchange of information as be- 
tween the American States so that each would 
know the activities of international communism 
insofar as relevant for its own purposes. If, for 
example, state "A" knew that there was a cell 
within its state which was contemplating ac- 
tivities as against a second state, the second state 
would be informed. That kind of thing pro- 
vides for a multilateral defense against subver- 
sion, although the full impact of the Caracas 
resolution only applies to the eradication of inter- 
national communism by international effort when 
it gets control of the political institutions of some 
American state. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you still consider that the 
vital interests of this country and of the Western 
World are involved in the defense of Quemoy and 
Matsu? I would like to know whether you con- 
sider whether it is a matter of unilateral Ameri- 
I can action or whether you plan to discuss the 
matter with the British next week or some other 
time. 

A. I gave an answer to a Quemoy-Matsu ques- 
tion last week « and I don't care to add to it tliis 
week. 



' Bulletin of Apr. 26, 1954, p. 638. 
* Ihid., Jan. 30, 19.56, p. 155. 



Q. Mr. Secretary, with respect to a question that 
came up earlier with regard to limitation of or 
control of atomic or hydrogen tests, does the U.S. 
Government have a fixed policy or an official atti- 
tude toward this, so that it would like to see such 
control established? Has there ever been any 
contact with the Soviet Government on this point? 

A. No. 

Q. 'Wo" to both parts, to both qu^stiom? 

A. Oh, excuse me. There has been no contact 
with the Soviet Union on tliis subject and there 
has been no policy, you might say, arrived at pend- 
ing tecluiical advice which indicates the premises 
upon which policy could be based. 

Q. May I ask just one more question on this? 
As I understand it, the problem is whether some 
formula could be found before the number of tests, 
the size of tests, and other limits could be fixed. 
Is that it? 

A. I would not like to be understood as giving 
a technically, scientifically accurate description of 
the problem, because it is in fact much too com- 
plex for me to understand. I am not a scientist 
or engineer, I have never studied in that field, and 
the whole thing is very much a mystery to me. 
All I can say is that my impression of what I have 
been told on this subject is that there are very 
great technical difficulties in arriving, let us say, 
at a definition of just where you draw the line, 
for example, between tests that are permissible 
and tests that are impermissible, or whether it is 
possible to draw and police a line. And, well, 
that is only giving you a vague idea. There are 
many other aspects of the problem which I am 
not competent really to go into. But that is the 
type of problem which we have been studying. 

Q. Could I turn it around? What tvas the 
purpose — what would be the purpose of the con- 
versation when this matter comes up here urith Mr. 
Eden and Mr. Lloyd? 

A. Well, let me say if it comes up — I don't know 
that it will, but it was touched on, I think, in the 
speech that Sir Anthony made last week, Saturday 
perhaps, and it is only from that I surmise that it 
may come up here for discussion. If you will read 
that speech, you will know as much as I do about 
what is likely to come up. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, will your discussions with 



February 6, 7956 



201 



Sir Anthony or the Presidenfs discussions with 
Sir Anthony Eden contain any reference to the 
problems of German reunification? 

A. Well, that is an international problem which 
is discussed, I think, whenever two or more people 



get together who are interested in international 
justice and in the problems that we have before 
us. We are all committed to that goal, to do every- 
thing that we can to pursue it, and I would be 
surprised if it did not come up