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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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INDEX 



VOLUME XXXV: Numbers 888-914 



July 2— December 31, 1956 



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Vol. ^^ 

Boston Public Library 
Superin*pn'i"nf of Oocuments 

MAR 1 1958 



Corrections for Volume XXXV 

The Editor of the But.t.etin wishes to call atten- 
■ tion to the following errors in volume XXXV : 

October 29, page 664, "President's Determination 
Concerning Aid to Yugoslavia" : The date in the 
press release line and in the first line should be Oc- 
tober 15 rather than October 16. 

November 19, page 798, right-hand column, fourth 
line from the top : "noble" should read "humble." 

December 3, page 871, "Proposal of Ceylon, India, 
and Indonesia" : The document number should be 
A/Iies/408. 



INDEX 

Volume XXXV, Numbers 888-914, July 2-December 31, 195G 



Adams, Ware, 566 

Aden, extension by U. K. of German external debts agree- 
ment (1953) to, 901 
Adenauer, Konrad, 488 

Advisory Committee, Foreign Service Institute, 420 
Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid, 873 
AEC. See Atomic Energy Commission 
Aerial inspection and exebange of military information. 

See under Disarmament 
Aerial photograpby, Italian demonstration, message 

(Eisenhower), 715 
Afghanistan : 
Habibia College, U.S. aid in rebuilding, 886 
Helmand Valley project, U.S. aid to survey potentiali- 
ties for development, 222 
International Bank, membership, 323 
Moslem pilgrims to Mecca, U.S. aircraft to transport, 25 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Development assistance, agreement with U.S. provid- 
ing for, 213 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 

862 
World Meteorological Organization, convention, 497 
U.S. aid, 493, 494 
Africa. See individual countries 
African affairs. See under State Department 
Ageton, Arthur A., 847 
Aggression : 
The Question of Defining, statement (Sanders), 731 
U.N. Special Committee on the Question of Defining, 

U.S. representative, 634 
U.S. position on aiding victims of, 658, 660 
Agricultural surpluses, U.S., use in overseas programs: 
Addresses : Bowie, 141 ; Thibodeaux, 812 
Agreements with — 
Brazil, 168; Burma, 328; Chile, 782; China, Repub- 
lic of, 352, 782 ; Ecuador, 650 ; Finland, 782 ; France, 
901 ; Greece, 497 ; India, 454, 565 ; Israel, 497 ; Italy, 
168, 510, 901; Japan, 325, 970, 1006; Korea, 39S, 
782; Netherlands, 398; Pakistan, 366, 52S, 1006; 
Peru, 565 ; Spain, 565, 605, 782 ; Turkey, 844, 937 ; 
Yugoslavia, 902 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, 
1954: 
Amendment, announcement, and Executive order con- 
cerning, 780 
President's 4th semiannual report to Congress ( Jan.- 
June 1956), 230 
Emergency relief aid to — 
^X'^Eolivia, 319 ; Europe, 320 ; Guatemala, 319 ; Iran, 263 ; 
Ryukyu Islands, 993 ; Tunisia, 557 

\ 
Index, July to December 1956 



Agricultural surpluses — Continued 

Export-Import Bank announcement of loans to overseas 

buyers, 522 
Ocean freight charges on, Executive order and an- 
nouncement concerning, 780 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act. See 

under Agricultural surpluses 
Agriculture : 

Asia, agricultural development in, 344 
Costa Rica, development program, 559 
Foreign agricultural technical assistance program, U.S., 

objectives, 811 / 

Imports of agricultural commodities, U.S. restrictions 

on, report to 11th session of GATT, 898 
Interagency Committee on Food and Agriculture Or- 
ganization, functions and membership, 443 
Plant protection convention (1951), international, 212, 

430, 650, 689 
Wheat agreement (1956), international. See Wheat 
agreement 
Aid to foreign countries. See Economic and technical aid 

and Military assistance 
Aigner, Martin, 509 
Air Coordinating Committee, ftinctions and membership, 

443 
Air navigation and transport. See Aviation 
Aircraft. See Aviation 

Airport charges, international conference on, U.S. dele- 
gation, 768 
Albania, International Atomic Energy Agency, statute, 

738 
Algeria : 

Proposed inscription of Algerian question on Security 
Council agenda, U.S. position, statement (Lodge), 
125 
U.S.-Prench joint communique concerning policy 
toward, 9 
Allen, George V., 225, 250 
Allin, Durrin, 728 
Allison, John M., 60 
AUyn, Stanley C, 226, 394, 828 
Alphand, Hervg, 475 
Alvarado Garaicoa, Teodoro, 180 
Ambassadorial talks, U.S.-Communist China. See Geneva 

ambassadorial talks 
American Assembly, establishment and meeting, 418, 421 
American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Serv- 
ice, 873 
Ajnerican Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 907 

1011 



American Policy and the Shifting Scene, address (EI- 

brick), 108 
American Red Cross, aid to Hungarian refugees, 872, 873 
American Republics. See Latin America and individual 

countries 
American States, Organization of. See Organization of 

American States 
American studies in British schools and universities, arti- 
cle (Sutherland), 989 
Amity, economic relations, and consular rights, treaty 

with Iran, 168, 605 
Andersen. Hans G., 308 
Anls, Ibrahim, 405 

Antarctic research, IGY program, article (Atwood), 881 
ANZUS Council, meeting and list of representatives, 839 
Arab-Israeli dispute (see also Suez Canal problem) : 
Aiding victims of aggression, statements : Dulles, 6.j8 ; 

White House, 749 
Israeli hostilities with Egypt. See Israeli hostilities 
Israeli-Jordan border incidents, statements (Dulles), 
549, 660 
Arbitral Tribunal, appointment of U.S. member, 509 
Arbitration Tribunal and Arbitral Commission on prop- 
erty, rights and interests in Germany : 
Administrative agi-eement, 294, 398 
Charter of Arbitral Commission, 213 
U.S. member of Arbitral Commission, appointment, 676 
Waiver of immunity from legal process of members, 
agreement relating to, 497, 605 
Arctic ice, reciprocal aerial observation of, U.S. proposal 
for agreement and Soviet reply, announcements, 
article (Atwood), and notes, 508, 883, 953 
Argentina : 

C<5rdoba, tribute to, address (Beaulac), 375 

Economic recovery program, Export-Import Bank 

credit, 515 
Panamd meeting of Presidents of the American Re- 
publics, declaration, 220 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air Force mission, agreement with U.S., 604, 605 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Civil aviation convention (1944), international, pro- 
tocol amending, 650 
Collisions at sea, regulations for preventing (1948), 

936 
Educational exchange program, agreement with U.S., 

830, 861 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, (589 
Genocide, convention (1948) on the prevention and 

punishment of the crime of, 213 
International Bank, articles of agreement, 528; mem- 
bership, 854 
International Monetary Fund, articles of agreement, 

528 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 366 
Wheat agreement (1956), International, 213, 565 
U.S. policy and relations, statements (Dulles), 544, 575 
Armaments (see also Atomic energy: Nuclear weapons 
and Disarmament) : 
Arms and technical data, international control of traflBc 
In, address (Pomeroy), 919 



Armaments — Continued 

Bahamas long-range proving ground for guided missiles, 
agreements with U.K. for extension of range to 
Ascension Islands and St. Lucia, 84, 85 

International control and reduction of : 

Exchange of correspondence (Eisenhower, Bulganin) 

and Soviet statement, 299, 300, 301 
Statement (Lodge), 197 

Japan and Federal Republic of Germany, question of 
rearmament, statement (Dulles), 148 

Long-range vveaijons, effect on defense of U.S., state- 
ment (Dulles), 183, 184 

NATO armaments, status of, 112 

Soviet supply of arms to Egypt, address (Lodge), 355 

Syrian Military equipment, reported movement into 
Jordan, 659, 6C0 

World reaction to U.S. budget increase for, statement 
(Dulles), 50 
Armed forces : 

Foreign forces, U.S. citizens serving in, legislation con- 
cerning, 799 

Foreign forces in Egypt. See Israeli hostilities and 
Suez Canal 

Germany, Federal Republic of, necessity for self- 
defense, 487, 488 

Iraqi troops in Jordan, question of, statement (Dulles), 
658 

NATO: 

Force goals, question of reduction in, statements 

(Dulles), 182, 183 
In Iceland, importance of and question of with- 
drawal, statements (Dulles), 49, 51 
Status of, address (Elbrick), 112 

U.S. commitments, statements (Dulles, Radford), 181, 
263 

Reduction of, proposed, Soviet-U.S. positions, addresses, 
correspondence, and statements: Bulganin, 300; 
Dulles, 181, 182, 184 ; Eisenhower, 299 ; Lodge, 197, 
198, 208 ; Wilcox, 103, 105 

Soviet forces in Hungary. See Hungarian question 

Soviet reduction in, address and statement : Dulles, 186 ; 
Phillips, 177 
Armed forces, U.S. : 

Air Force musicians, presentation of scrolls by King 
and Queen of Cambodia, 194 

Fliers captured by Communist China, release of, ad- 
dress (Lodge), 353, 356 

In Iceland, question of withdrawal, NAC recommenda- 
tions and letter (Andersen), 306, 308 

Military housing, loan agreement with Japan concern- 
ing, 325 

Military missions, U.S., abroad. See Military missions 

Military strength, maintenance of, address (Dulles), 
695 

Personnel detained in Soviet Union, efforts for release, 
note and statement (Murphy), 189, 190 

Reductions in, address and statement: Dulles, 186; 
Phillips, 177 

Status of U.S. forces in Greece, agreement with Greece 
concerning, 565 
Armour, Norman, 727 



1012 



Department of State Bulletin 



Ascension Islands, agreement with U.K. for extension of 

the Bahamas long-range proving ground for guided 

missiles to include, 84, 85 

Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia (see also individual 

countries) : 

ANZUS Council, meeting and list of representatives, 

839 
Atomic energy center for research and training, prog- 
ress report on U.S. proposal for, address (Robert- 
son), 959 
Collective security. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organi- 
zation 
Economic development (see also Colombo Plan), state- 
ments : Baker, 200 ; Young, 344, 340 
U.S. aid, 493, 558 

U.S. policy in, addresses : Nixon, 94 ; Young, 340 
Asian Regional Nuclear Center, progress report on U.S. 

proposal for, address (Robertson), 959 
Asvean High Dam, 188, 260, 407 
Atlantic, North, Planning Board for Ocean Shipping, U.S. 

delegation to Sth meeting, 588 
Atlantic, Northwest, international fisheries convention 

(1949), protocol amending, 128, 168, 936 
Atlantic Community (see also North Atlantic Council and 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization), address (El- 
brick), 583 
Atomic energy, nuclear weapons : 

Control and limitation, international : 

Hydrogen bombs, control and limitation on, U.S. posi- 
tion, statement (Dulles), 657 
Relationship to reductions in armed forces, state- 
ment (Dulles), 182 
Relationship to testing, statement (Wadsworth), 205 
U.S. and Soviet positions, address, correspondence, 
and statements : Bulganin, 300, 301 ; Eisenhower, 
299 ; Lodge, 197, 209, 210 ; Wilcox, 103 
Testing of : 

Control and limitation, U.S. and Soviet positions, cor- 
respondence and statements : Dulles, 184, 657 ; 
Eisenhower, Bulganin, 662 ; Lodge, 210 
Marshall Islands tests, U.S. views on, statement 

(Sears), 164 
Resumption of Soviet tests, U.S. and Soviet state- 
ments regarding, 424, 425 
U.S. policies and actions concerning, statement 
(Eisenhower) and memorandum, 704 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses of : 
Addresses : Libby, 445 ; Lodge, 353, 356 
Agreements with — 

Australia, 85; Austria, 213; Belgium, 166, 168; Can- 
ada, 84, 85 ; Cuba, 85 ; Denmark, 84, 85 ; Dominican 
Republic, 42 ; France, 9, 42, 901 ; Germany, Federal 
Republic of, 84, 128 ; Guatemala, 366, 398 ; Nether- 
lands, 85; New Zealand, 460; Sweden, 293, 294; 
Switzerland, 42 ; U.K., 250 
Asian Regional Nuclear Center, progress report on U.S. 

proposal for, 9.59 
Inter-American Symposium on Nuclear Energy, U.S. 

proposal, 513 
International Atomic Energy Agency. See Atomic En- 
ergy Agency 
Japanese atomic experts, visit to U.S., 451 



Atomic energy, peaceful uses of — Continued 
Latin America, U.S. programs of assistance for de- 
velopment of, 511, 846 
Nuclear power for economic development, U.S. program, 

589, 593, 926, 927, 928 
Nuclear-powered merchant ship, proposed construction 
of, statement (Eisenhower) and letter (Weeks, 
Strauss), 666, 667 
Research reactor projects, U.S. program of grants for, 

information and procedures for obtaining, 598 
U.N. actions, 177, 383, 385, 774 
U.S. program, memorandum reviewing, 709 
U.S.-Soviet Union exchange of correspondence, texts, 620 
Atomic energy, radiation effects on human health : 

U.N. action during 1955, report to Congress (Eisen- 
hower), 385 
U.N. Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic 
Radiation, establishment and function, 687 ; report, 
931 
U.S. efforts and proposals for safeguarding against, 41, 

103, 205, 707 
U.S. reports on, transmission to U.N., 326, 687 
Atomic Energy Agency, International : 
Establishment : 

Working-Level Meeting negotiating group, report, 163 
Conference on the statute. See Atomic Energy 
Agency, International, conference on the statute 
Preparatory Commission : 

Appointment of U.S. representative, 815 
Statement on work of (Wadsworth), 540 
U.N. actions for, report to Congress (Eisenhower), 

383, 385 
U.S.-Soviet Union exchange of correspondence con- 
cerning establishment of, texts, 620 
Document, 930 

Functions of, address (Strauss), 536 
Relationship to U.N., proposal for draft agreement re- 
garding, address (Hoover), 837 
Statute of the : 
Current actions, 738, 936, 1005 
Negotiations and provisions, address (Wadsworth), 

923, 924 
Text, 820 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, conference on the 
statute of the : 
Appointment of U.S. representative and U.S. delega- 
tion, 292, 459 
Closing session, letter and statement: Eisenhower, 813; 

Wadsworth, 819 
Invitations to, 162, 163 
Negotiations on and provisions of the draft statute, 

statements (Wadsworth), 537, 539, 815 
Welcoming address (Strauss), 535 
Atomic Energy Commission, 445, 512, 598, 687 
Atomic energy inventions, agreement between U.S.-Cana- 

da-U.K. regarding disposition of rights in, 540, 565 
Atoms-for-peace. See Atomic energy, peaceful uses of 
Atwood, Wallace W., Jr., 880 
Australia : 
ANZUS Council, meeting and list of representatives, 

839 
International Bank loan, 1004 



Index, July to December J 956 



1013 



Australia — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 862 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions and 

annexed schedules, 42 
Nuclear power, agreement with U.S. for production, 

85 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245m 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 901 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 168, 937 
U.S. Consulate at Melbourne, redesignation as Con- 
sulate General, 689 
Austria : 

Hungarian refugees in, U.S. aid to, 764, 871, 872, 979, 

980 
Imports from the dollar area, relaxation of controls on, 

633 
International Bank loans, 854 
Military housing, U.S., procurement in, 235 
Persecutees residing abroad, former, Austrian aid to, 

66 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S. 213 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention (1952) to facilitate importa- 
tion, 85 
Dollar bonds, agreement with U.S. regarding valida- 
tion, 901 
Double taxation, convention with U.S. for avoidance 

on income, 736, 738 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 689 
GATT, declaration on continued application of sched- 
ules, 42 
GATT, proems verbal and protocols amending, 782 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245n 
State treaty, 482, 528 
Trade Cooperation, Organization for, agreement on, 

969 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 168 
Auto travel, international. See Travel 
Automobiles and trucljs, compensatory tariff concessions 

granted U.S. by Greece on Imports of, 117 
Aviation : 
Aerial inspection and exchange of military information. 

See under Disarmament 
Aerial observation of Arctic ice, reciprocal, U.S. pro- 
posal for agreement and Soviet reply, announce- 
ments, article (Atwood), and notes, 508, 883, 953 
Aerial photography, Italian demonstration, message 

(Eisenhower), 715 
Air Coordinating Committee, functions and membership, 
443 



Aviation — Continued i 

Air navigation conference (ICAO), 3d, U.S. delegation, . 

527 
Air transport negotiations resumed with the Nether- 
lands, 935 
Aircraft : 

Chinese Communist attack on U.S. Navy plane, state- 
ments, 410, 411, 412 ; text of correspondence be- 
tween British and Chinese Communists, 413, 414, 
483 
U.S., alleged violations of Soviet territory by, U.S. 

and Soviet notes, 191 
U.S., transportation of Afghan Moslems to Mecca, 25 
U.S. claims for destruction of. Sec under Claims 
Airport charges, international conference on, U.S. dele- 
gation, 768 
Civil aviation, discussions on problems of international 

relations in, 601, 845 
Civil aviation facilities in Afghanistan, U.S. aid in de- 
velopment of, 494 
Civil Aviation Organization, International. See Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
Civil Aviation Organization Matters, Subcommittee on 

General International, membership, 443 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air Force mission agreements with — 

Argentina, 604 ; Bolivia, 213 ; Nicaragua, 460 
Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Faroe Islands, agreements on joint financing, 429, 
969 
Air service agreement with U.K. amending annex to 

1946 agreement, 830 
Air transport, agreement with Colombia, 738, 857 
Air transport, discussions with Republic of Korea on 

proposed agreement, 722 
Carriage by air, international, protocol and 1929 con- 
vention for unification of certain rules relating to, 
128, 212, 862 
Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 167, 
862 

Babiniski, Czeslaw, 840 

Bacq, Zdnon, 931 

Baghdad Pact, U. S. policy concerning, announcement and 

statement (Dulles), 148, 918 
Bahamas long-range proving ground, agreements with 
U.K. for additional sites in the Ascension Islands and 
St. Lucia, 84, 85 
Baker, George P., 846 
Baker, John C. : 
Appointment as U.S. representative to 22d session of 

ECOSOC, 165 
Letter and statements : 

Citizenship education for women, U.S. proposal for 

seminar on, 360, 361 
Economic development of underdeveloped countries, 

393 
Report of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, 

244 
World economic and social situation, U.N. Secretary- 
General's report on, 286 
Ball, Margaret, 309 



1014 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Bane, Jack, 21 

Bank for Reconstruction and Development. See Inter- 
national Bank 
Banyai, Ladislau, 728 
Baruch Plan for atomic disarmament, 100 
Bases, U.S., overseas : 
Effect of long-range weapons on U.S. occupancy, state- 
ment (Dulles), 1S3 
Iceland, U.S. base in. See under Iceland : Defense 

agreement with U.S. 
Okinawa, U.S. position on, statements (Dulles), 183, 

408 
Philippines, joint statement (Magsaysay, Nixon) re- 
garding need to strengthen, 95 
Beaulac, Willard L., 375 
Behaim, Martin, 767 
Belgium : 

Imports, restrictions on agricultural products, Belgian 

report to 11th session of GATT, 898 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreements with U.S., 166, 

168 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 128 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 528 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement regarding finan- 
cial support, 127 
Property, rights and interests in Germany, charter of 

Arbitral Commission on, 213 
Refugees, convention ( 1951 ) on the status of, 245n 
Tangier, protocols and final declaration concerning, 

328, 830, 842 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 168, 970 
Ben Aboud, El Mehdi Ben Mohamed, 444 
Ben-Gurion, David, 798 
Berkner, Lloyd V., 880n 
Berlin : 

Conference Hall, cornerstone laying ceremony, address 
(Murphy), 668; messages (Eisenhower, Dulles, 
Conant), 670, 671 ; U.S. delegation, 550 
Free University, ceremony honoring Ernst Renter, ad- 
dress (Murphy), 671 
Postal convention (1952), universal, extension to Land 

Berlin, 430 
Soviet attempt at domination of, address (Eleanor 
Dulles), 64 
Berry, James Lampton, 498 

Bills of lading, international convention (1924) for uni- 
fication of certain rules relating to, and protocol of 
signature, 605, 829 
Bloomfield, Lincoln P., 435, 554 
Bolivia : 
Inauguration of President-elect, message (Dulles), 305; 

U.S. delegation, 187, 263 
Panam4 meeting of Presidents of the American Repub- 
lics, declaration, 220 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air Force mission, agreement with U.S., 213 
Army mission, agreement with U.S., 213 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 



Bolivia — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 937 
U.S. aid, 319 
Bonds, dollar, agreement with Austria regarding valida- 
tion of, 901 
Book exchange program, U.S., 323 
Boteler, William P., 21 
Bow, Rep. Frank T., 263 
Bowie, Robert R., 135 
Brady, Leslie J., 452 
Brandt, Willy, 108 
Brazil : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 180 
Book exchange program with U.S., 323 
Panamd meeting of Presidents of the American Repub- 
lics, declaration, 220 
Tariffs, GATT, modifications of, 685, 893, 896, 898 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreement with U.S. amend- 
ing 1955 agreement, 168 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 128 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion, constitution, 213 
Military mission, agreement with U.S. extending 1948 

agreement, 689 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 970 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213 
U.S. Consular Agency at Rio Grande, closing, 214 
Bridges, Sen. Styles, 726 

British Guiana, reestablishment of U.S. Consulate, 460 
Brookhaven National Laboratory, report on the Asian 
Regional Nuclear Center, excerpt, address (Robert- 
son), 959 
Brussels Universal and International Exhibition, 1958, 

582, 951 
Buchanan, James, 316 
Bulganln, Nikolai A., 300, 486, 662, 795 
Bulgaria : 

Petkov, Nikola, anniversary of death, 509 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Cultural property, convention (1954) for protection In 

event of armed conflict, 565 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948), 528 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 

366 
U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organiza- 
tion, constitution, 294 
Bunker, Ellsworth, 212, 937 
Burden, William A. M., 846 
Burdett, William C, 606 
Burke, Miss 'Gene, 565 
Burma : 
Communist economic penetration of, address (Jones), 
275 



Index, July /o December J 956 



1015 



Burma — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 

agreement with U.S., 328 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 100.5 
GATT, proc&s verbal and amending protocols, 970 
Informational media guaranty program, agreement 

with U.S., 937 
Technical services and the purchase of rice, agree- 
ment with U.S. providing for, 249 
Trade Cooperation, Organization for, agreement on, 
969 
Business world, international understanding in the, re- 
marks (Eisenhower), '<d1 
Butter oil and butter substitutes, imports, investigation 

of effect on domestic price-support program, 886 
Buttons of textile material, proclamation correcting lan- 
guage of a reduction in duty, 74 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic {see also Soviet 
Union) : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Slave trade and slavery, convention (1926) to sup- 
press, 650 
Byroade, Henry A., 250 

Cacela, Sir Harold Anthony, 797 

Caicos and Turk.s Islands, oceanographic research station 
on Grand Turk, agreement between U.S. and U.K. for 
establishment, 922, 937 
Calendar of international meetings, 33, 242, 380, 523, 729, 

891 
Calkins, G. Nathan, Jr., S4G 
Cambodia : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 

459 
U.S. aid, 271, 272 
U.S. Air Force musicians, presentation of scrolls by 

King and Queen, 194 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, C50 
Canada : 

Fisheries, negotiations with U.S. on problems, address 

(Murphy), 717 
Great Lakes Basin compact, legislation proposing, 

statement of Department's views (Cowles), 421 
International Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada) : 

Investigation of hydroelectric power possibilities of 

the Passamaquoddy Tidal Power Project, 322 
Supplementary order of approval regulating waters of 
St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario, text, 227 
Lake Michigan water diversion, proposed legislation, 
memorandum of disapproval (Eisenhower) and 
text of Canadian note, 357 
Radio frequency adjustment, discussions with U.S., 18 
St. Lawrence Seaway, proposal for dredging in Corn- 
wall Island area, U.S. and Canadian notes regard- 
ing, 992 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, civil uses, agreements with U.S., 84, 

85 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 



Canada — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Atomic energy inventions, agreeemnt with U.S. and 
U.K. regarding disposition of rights in, 540, 565 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for the unification of certain rules 
relating to, 862 
Double taxation on income, avoidance of, supplemen- 
tary convention with U.S., 328, 364 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions and 

annexed schedules, 42 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement regarding finan- 
cial support of, 127, 128 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending inter- 
national convention (1949) regarding, 128 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
(1955), final protocol, and regulations of execution, 
168 
Roosevelt Bridge, agreement with U.S. for relocation 

of part of, 782 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 970 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 565 
U.S. policy toward, address (Merchant), 56 
Cannon, Cavendish W., 213, 633, 841 

Captive nations {see also Soviet-bloc countries), U.S. pol- 
icy, address (Dulles), 697 
Caribbean, ICAO special, regional air navigation meeting, 

U. S. delegation, 829 
Caribbean Commission, appointment of U.S. commis- 
sioner and delegation to 23d meeting, 285, 1002 
Casey, Richard G., 839 
Cassa per il Mezzogiorno, 682 
Central American free-trade area, proposed formation of, 

893, 897 
Central Intelligence Agency, functions, address (Allen 

Dulles), 874 
Ceylon : 

Import restrictions against dollar goods, removal, 895 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 7.38 
Development projects, cooperative agreement with 

U.S., 117 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
GATT, amending protocols, 970 

Military equipment, materials and services, agree- 
ment with U.S. relating to purchase of, 937 
Parcel post, agreement and detailed regulations with 
U.S., 782 
U.S. aid. 117, 493, 494 
Chagas, Carlos, 931 
Chapman, Sydney, 282 
Chappell, Joseph J., 214 

Child-feeding programs, agreement with Italy, 510 
Children, employment at sea, convention (1936) fixing 

minimum age, 969 
Children's Fund, U.N., U.S. contribution, 457 



1016 



Department of Stale BuUetin 



Chile : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreement ameuding agreement 

with U.S. for purchase, 782 
Army mission, agreement with U.S., 937 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Automobile imports, complaint against restrictions on, 

898 
Panama meeting of Presidents of the American Repub- 
lics, declaration, 220 
Visit of U.S. atoms-for-peace team, 846 
China, Communist : 
Adoption of Stalinist policies, statement (Dulles), 5 
Aggressive activities in Asia, addresses : Dulles, 696 ; 

Hill, 311 ; Robertson, 266 
Attack on U.S. Navy plane, U.S. statements, 410, 411, 
412; text of correspondence between British and 
Chinese Communists, 413, 414, 483 
Promotion of international tension and discord, 

address (Lodge), 355 
Travel to, U.S. restrictions : 
Address (Murphy), 718 
Department announcement, 313, 314 
President's views on, 376 
U.N. Command report on obstructions to work of 
NNSC and violations of Korean armistice agree- 
ment, 390 
U.N. representation, question of: 
Addresses and statements : Hill, 310 ; Hoover, 838 ; 
Lodge, 353, 855; Robertson, 268; Sanders, 731m; 
Wilcox, 773, 774 ; Young 352 
Congressional resolution, 311 
U.S. civilians in, release of. See Geneva ambassadorial 

talks 
U.S. policy of nonrecognition, address (Merchant), 58, 

59 
U.S. prisoners of war. See Prisoners of war 
U.S. trade restrictions, question of relaxation of, 553 
China, Republic of : 
Application of renunciation of force principle to («ee 
also Geneva ambassadorial talks). Communist re- 
fusal, address (Lodge), 355 
Communist threat to, addresses : Jones, 277 ; Lodge, 353 
Foreign Relations, volume on, published, 937 
Relief aid to Ryukyu Islands, 993 
Rural reconstruction, joint commission on, address 

(Young), 344 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 352, 

782 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Economic aid, loan agreement with U.S., 553 
Naval craft, small, agreement amending annex to 
1954 agreement with U.S. relating to loan of, 782 
U.N. membership, question of, address and statement : 

Lodge, 855 ; Wilcox, 773, 774 
U.S. aid, 271 

U.S. support, addresses and letter : Eisenhower, 151 ; 
Hill, 310, 313 ; Jones, 278 
Chou En-lai, 264, 266 
Chrysler, Mr. and Mrs. Bernard, 701w 
CIA. See Central Intelligence Agency 



Citizenship, U.S., possible loss by service in foreign armed 

forces, legislation concerning, 799 
Citizenship education for women, U.S. proposal for semi- 
nar on, statement and letter (Baker), 360 
Citrus fruit juices, proclamation modifying tariff con- 
cessions on imports, 74 
Civil aviation. See Aviation 

Civil Aviation Organization, International. See Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Organization 
Civil rights for women, report of 11th Assembly of Inter- 
American Commission of Women, 562 
Civilian persons, Geneva convention (1949) relative to 
treatment in time of war, current actions, 213, 430, 
689 
Civilians, U.S., detention and release by Communist 

China. See Geneva ambassadorial talks 
Claims : 
Austrian persecutees residing abroad, Austrian aid to, 

66 
Icelandic insurance companies, agreement with U.S. 

for settlement of claims, 937 
Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of, progress in settle- 
ment of claims against U.S., 37 
Poland, agreement with U.S. regarding settlement of 

claims against U.S., 85, 113 
U.S. claims against : 

Communist China, for destruction of aircraft near 

Chushan Islands, 413, 483 
Poland, agreement with U.S. for settlement of lend- 
lease and other claims, 85, 113, 114 
Rumania, proposed talks with, 444 
Soviet Union, for damages resulting from destruction 
of Navy plane over Sea of Japan, text of U.S. 
note, 677 
Coal Committee (ECE), meeting and U.S. delegate, 1002 
Coleman, James, 21 
Coll Benegas, Carlos A., 515 

Collective security {see also Mutual defense and Mutual 

security) : 

Asia (see also Southeast Asia Treaty Organization), 

U.S. policy in, addresses: Merchant, 57; Young, 

351 

Europe. See European security and North Atlantic 

Treaty Organization 
Expenditures of local currencies for purchase of stra- 
tegic materials and military equipment, 234 
Interdependence with economic welfare, address 

(Bowie), 135, 136 
Near and Middle East : 
Baghdad Pact, U.S. policy concerning, 148, 918 
Defense expenditures for, 643 
U.N. provision for, statement (Dulles), 147 
U.S. and free-world policy of, addresses : Ageton, 847 ; 
Dulles, 6, 696 ; Murphy, 672, 716, 90S ; Nixon, 92, 946 
U.S. expenditures in France for, agreement with France 
amending 1952 agreement relating to relief from 
taxation on, 970 
Collisions at sea, regulations for preventing, 936 
Colombia : 
Dairy market survey in, 233 
International Bank loan, 67 



Index, July to December 7956 



1017 



Colombia — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, agreement with U.S., 738, 857 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Cooperative health program, agreement with U.S. ex- 
tending 1950 agreement, 85 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion, constitution, 213 
Weather stations, agreements with U.S. for establish- 
ment and operation, 128, 249 
Visit of Secretary Dulles, 187 
Visit of U.S. atoms-for-peace team, 846 
Colombo Plan : 

Consultative Committee, U.S. delegation to 8th meeting, 

856 
Ministerial meeting, address (Robertson), 957 
Colonialism (see also Self-determination and Trust terri- 
tories) : 
Effects on Asia, address (Young), 341, 349, 350 
U.S. position, statement (Dulles), 577 
Commemorative Meeting of Presidents of the American 

Republics. See Panami meeting 
Commerce. See Trade 
Commerce, Department of, publication of World Trade 

Review as of July 1956, 378 
Commercial relations, U.S. and other countries. See 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. ; Tariff policy, 
U.S. ; Tariffs and trade, general agreement on ; and 
Trade 
Commercial samples and advertising material, interna- 
tional convention (1952) to facilitate importation, 85, 
782 
Commercial treaties. See Trade : Treaties 
Committee for Reciprocity Information, notice of hearings 

regarding tariff negotiations with Cuba, 648 
Communications. See Radio and Telecommunications 
Communism (see also China, Communist; and Soviet 
Union) : 
"Cold war" offensive, address (Lodge), 354 
Comparison with free- world system, address (Dulles), 

3 
Contradictions in Communist system, address (Mur- 
phy), 675 
Dictatorship, weakness of, address (Allen Dulles), 874 
Imperialism in satellite countries, results of, remarks 

(Eisenhower), 702 
International affairs, Communist conduct of, address 

(Nixon), 944 
International communism : 

Current aspects of the struggle with, address 

(Lodge), 353 
Dissatisfaction with Soviet leadership, statement 

(Dulles), 49 
Free-world unity stops spread of, statement (Dulles), 

47 
"New look" policy, addresses: Murphy, 718; Robert- 
son, 264 
Present state of, statement (Dulles), 109 
Reaction to Soviet statement regarding abuses of 
Stalinism, statement (Dulles), 145 



Communism — Continued 
International conmiunism — Continued 

Soviet relationship to, statements (Dulles), 50, 52 
Political influence in Norway, lack of, address (Strong), 

23 
Subversive activities in Asia, addresses: Jones, 640; 
Murphy, 717, 718 ; Robertson, 266 ; Young, 344, 346, 
347, 349, 350 
20th Congress of Soviet Communist Party, unpublished 

documents distributed among delegates to, 153 
U.S. efforts to combat, addresses: Ageton, 853; Jones, 
274 ; Nixon, 92, 93, 947, 948 
Community-development process, statement (Baker), 287 
Conant, James B., 107, 671, 766 
"Conduct and example" policy, statements (Dulles), 148, 

149 
Conferences and organizations, international (see also 
subject), calendar of meetings, 33, 242, 380, 523, 729, 
891 
Congress, U.S. : 
Delegation to inauguration of Bolivian President-elect, 

263 
Documents relating to foreign policy, lists of, 75, 161, 

195, 241, 279, 315, 359, 376, 484, 510, 676, 854, 982 
Joint resolution opposing membership of Communist 

China in the U.N., 268, 311 
Legislation : 

Appropriation for UNREF, statement (Knowland), 

966 
Customs Simplification Act of 1956, statement (Eisen- 
hower), 273 
International organizations, list of legislation au- 
thorizing U.S. participation in, 442, 554 
Mutual security program, 53 

Reduction of U.S. contribution to U.N. technical as- 
sistance program, statements (Dulles), 186, 187 
Legislation proposed : 

Great Lakes Basin compact, statement of Depart- 
ment's views (Cowles), 421 
Immigration, proposed revisions, letters (Eisenhower, 

Watkins), 194 
Lake Michigan water diversion bill, memorandum of 
disapproval (Eisenhower) and text of Canadian 
note, 357 
Meeting of congressional leaders with President Eisen- 
hower on Suez Canal problem, 314 
Presidential messages, reports, etc. See Eisenhower: 

Messages, reports, and letters to Congress 
Studies of foreign aid program, 726 
Travel by members overseas, accounting for funds 

used, statement (Dulles), 657 
Treatymaking powers, development of, 12 
Constantinople Convention of 1888. See under Suez Canal 
Consular agents, convention (1928) defining duties, rights, 

prerogatives, and immunities of, 650 
Consular rights, amity, and economic relations, treaty 

with Iran, 168, 605 
Consular service, U.S. See Foreign Service 
Consultative Committee for Economic Development in 
South and Southeast Asia. See Colombo Plan 



1018 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Cook Islands, application of the protocol (1953) regulat- 
ing the production, trade, and use of opium to, 969 
Coombs, Walter, 666 
Cooper, John Sherman, 366 
Cooperative health program, agreement with Colombia 

extending 1950 agreement, 85 
Copyright convention (1952), universal, current actions, 

605, 650, 782, 936 
Corbett, Jack C, 856 
Corea, Sir Claude, 894 
Costa Rica : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 405 
Central American free-trade area proposal, participa- 
tion, 897 
International Bank loan, 559 

Panamd meeting of Presidents of the American Repub- 
lics, declaration, 220 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Radio, 3d party amateur, agreement with U.S., 738 
Wheat agreement (19-56), international, 213, 970 
Visit of U.S. atoms-for-peace team, 846 
U.S. aid to Inter-American Institute of Agricultural 
Sciences at Turrialba, 512, 513 
Cotton : 
Competition between U.S. and Egyptian cotton, state- 
ment (Dulles), 576 
Exports to U.S., Japanese controls on, texts of notes, 

554 
Long-staple, announcement and proclamation modify- 
ing U.S. import and quota restrictions, 114 
Cowles, Willard B., 421 
Cray, Robert, 194 
Cuba : 

Panamtl meeting of Presidents of the American Repub- 
lics, declaration, 220 
Tariff negotiations with U.S., proposed, 646 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S., 85 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions and 

annexed schedules, 42 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 430 
Cude, William Clinton. 211 
Culbertson, Mrs. Nancy F., 983 
Cullman, Howard S., 582 

Cultural and scientific aid, U.S., proposed program with 
Israel, statement (Dulles) and announcement, 222, 
223 
Cultural property, convention (1954) and protocol for pro- 
tection in event of armed conflict, 167, 168, 565, 969 
Cultural relations, U.S. with — 

Germany, Federal Republic of, 766; Paraguay, 852 
Curasao, agreement with the Netherlands for establish- 
ment and operation of weather station in, 430, 605 
Curtis, Jack A., 483 
Customs : 

Administration, GATT action on proposals for simplifi- 
cation and standardization of, 898 



Customs — Continued 

Consular officers, agreement with Yugoslavia for recip- 
rocal privileges, 398 
Customs tariffs, protocol modifying 1890 convention for 
creation of international union for publication of, 
212, 605 
Procedures, approval of act simplying, statement 

(Eisenhower), 273 
Road vehicles, private, convention (1954) on tempo- 
rary importation of, 167, 294 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning facilities for, 
167, 294 
Customs Simplification Act of 1956, 273, 684 
Customs unions : 

European, negotiations for formation and relationship 

to GATT, 893, 896 
French-Tunisian, creation and relationship to GATT, 
893, 897 
Cyprus, terrorist bombing of U.S. citizens on, announce- 
ment, 21 
Cyr, Leo G., 497 
Czechoslovakia : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 128 
GATT, proofs verbal and amending protocol, 970 
Government statement regarding Nagy government in 

Hungary, statement (Lodge), 801 
U.S. invitation to observe elections, 550, 665 

Dace, James, 21 

Dairy Congress, 14th International, U.S. delegation, 525 

Dairy Federation, International, functions, 526 

Dates, imports of, request for investigation of effects on 

domestic industry, letter (Eisenhower), 681 
Davis, W. Kenneth, 593 
Debts, German external (see also Arbitral Tribunal), 

agreement on (1953), 901 
Defense, Department of, joint statement with State De- 
partment on Chinese Communist attack on Navy pa- 
trol plane, 412 
Defense agreement with Iceland. See Iceland : Treaties 
Defense support. See under Mutual security 
Deming, Olcott H., 830 
Denmark : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Faroe Islands, negotiations and agreements on joint 
financing, 429, 969 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement amending 1955 

agreement with U.S., 84, 85 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
GATT, 3d protocol of supplementary concessions, 328, 

460 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement regarding finan- 
cial support, 127 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, international conven- 
tion (1949) regarding, 168, 936 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245n 



Index, July fo December 1956 



1019 



Denmark — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 937 
Wheat agreement (1950), international, 168, 39S 
U.S. subsidy on exports of poultry to Germany, Dan- 
ish complaint against, 898 
Visit by journalists to U.S. to observe elections, 666 
De Seynes, Philippe, 9&i 
Dictatorship, Communist, weaknesses of, address (Allen 

Dulles), 874 
Diem, Ngo Dinh, 346 
Diplomatic representatives, U.S., abroad. See under 

Foreign Service 
Diplomatic representatives in the U.S., presentation of 
credentials : 
Brazil, 180; Costa Rica, 405; Ecuador, 180; France, 
475 ; Hungary, 180 ; Morocco, 444 ; South Africa, 
Union of, 444 ; Sudan, 405 ; Tunisia, 444 ; U.K., 797 ; 
Uruguay, 542 
Disarmament (sec also Armaments, Armed forces, and 
United Nations Disarmament Commission) : 
Aerial in.spection and exchange of military information, 
U.S. and Soviet positions : 
Address and statements: Lodge, 196, 197, 199, 200, 

201, 202, 211 ; Wilcox, 98, 101, 104 
Letter (Eisenhower), 299 
Soviet statement, 304 
International negotiations, memorandum, 709 

Nuclear weapons, international control and testing of. 

See Atomic energy, nuclear weapons 
Position of the Federal Republic of Germany on, 488 
Relationship to economic development, statement 

(Baker), 397 
Statements : Dulles, 181 ; Eisenhower, 704 ; Soviet, 301 ; 

Wilcox, 204 
U.N. consideration of the problem of : 
Addresses and statements : 

Hoover, 837; Lodge, 196, 202, 203, 207, 354; Phil- 
lips, 177; Wadsworth, 205; Wilcox, 97, 774 
President's report to Congress, excerpts, 383, 385 
U.S. memorandum, 709 
U.S.-French joint communique regarding, 8 
Disarmament, President's special committee on, functions 

and membership, 443 
Disarmament Commission, U.N. See United Nations Dis- 
armament Commission 
Displaced persons. See Refugees and displaced persons 
Do Amaral Peixoto, Ernani, 180 

Documents on German Foreign Policy, 10 18-19 ',5 (The 
Last Months of Peace, March-August 1939), series D, 
vol. VI, published, 169 
Dodge, .Joseph M., 143« 

Dollar bonds, agreement with Austria regarding valida- 
tion of, 901 
Dominican Republic : 

Panama meeting of Presidents of the American Re- 
publics, declaration, 220 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S., 42 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 



Dominican Republic — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Naval mission, agreement with U.S., 1006 
Weather station at Sabana de la Mar, agreement 
with U.S. for establishment and operation, 460, 970 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 862 
Donaldson, AUyn C, 602 
Double taxation on estates and inheritances, convention 

with Italy for avoidance of, 737, 738, 862 
Double taxation on income, conventions for avoidance of, 
with— 
Austria, 736, 738 ; Canada, 328, 364 ; France, 9, 85, 213 ; 
Honduras, 68, 85, 213 ; Italy, 737, 738, 862 ; Pakistan, 
60 
Drugs, narcotic : 

Interdepartmental Committee on Narcotics, functions 

and membership, 443 
Manufacture and regulating the distribution of, con- 
vention (1931) limiting, SG2, 1005 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating the production, trade, 

and use of, 42, 128, 969 
Protocol bringing under international control drugs out- 
side scope of 1331 convention, as amended, 1005 
Dulles, Allen W., 874 
Dulles, Eleanor Lansing, 61, 550, 671 
Dulles, John Foster : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Aggression, U.S. aid to victims of, 658, 660 

American Republics, principle of noninterference in 

internal affairs of, 579 
Argentina, U.S. policy toward, .544, 575 
Armaments, U.S., world reaction to budget Increase 

for, 50 
Armed forces, question of reduction, 181, 182, 183, 184, 

186 
Aswan Dam, question of financing, 260, 407, 548 
Atomic weapons, 182, 184 
Austria, U.S. efforts for a free and independent, 482, 

736 
Baghdad Pact, U.S. policy concerning, 148 
Brush wars, method of combating, 184 
Colonialism, U.S. position, .577 
Communism, international, 48, 49, 50, 52, 109 
Congressional travel overseas, accounting for funds 

used, 657 
Defense of U.S., effect of neutralism and long-range 

weapons on, 183, 184 
Disarmament, need for, 181 
East- West contacts, proposal to increase, 50, 52 
European unity, .576, 580 
Foreign aid, 53, 149 

Freedom and desiiotism, contest between, 3 
German reunification, 4, 47, 52, 148, 482 
Germany, Federal Republic of, commitment of armed 

forces to NATO, 182 
Germany, Federal Republic of, question of rearma- 
ment, 148 
Hungarian question, 697, 700, 756 
Hydrogen bombs, control and limitation on use of, 657 



1020 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Dulles, John Foster — Continued 

Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued 
Iceland, U.S. base and NATO forces in, 49, 51, 579 
Indian-U.S. relations, status, 150 
Iraqi troops, reported movement into Jordan, 658 
Israeli liostilities with Egypt, 751, 754, 755 
Israeli-Jordan border incidents, 549, 660 
Japan, question of rearmament, 148 
Japanese membership in the U.N., U.S. support, 660 
Japanese peace treaty, 5th anniversary of signing, 95 
Japanese-Soviet peace treaty negotiations, 406, 480, 

578 
Marshal Tito's trip to Soviet Union, purpose of, 51, 

574, 577 
Middle East problems, 48, 838, 911 
Mutual security program, 53, 149 
Neutralism, immoral, definition of, 147 
North Atlantic Council, 18th ministerial meeting, 950, 

981 
NATO, effect of neutralism on, 184 
NATO, ground forces reductions, 183 
Okinawa, U.S. position, 408 
OAS, President's proposal at Panama conference for 

development of, 408 
Panama, U.S. relations with, 578 
Panama Canal, 408, 411, 574 

Panama meeting of Presidents of the American Re- 
publics, 150, 221 
Peace, 313, 482, 571, 695 

Republican National Convention, formulation of for- 
eign policy plank, 185 
Satellite countries, independence of, 145, 149, 758 
SEATO headquarters, opening, 10 
Soviet Union : 

Armed forces reduction proposal, 184 

Economic aid policy, 146 

Foreign Minister's visit to Cairo, 52 

"New look" policy, 145, 146 

Nuclear explosions, proposal for suspension, 184 

U.S. policy toward, 148 
Subversive activities. Communist charge of, 150 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
Swiss policy of neutrality, 147 
Syrian military equipment, reported movement into 

Jordan, 659, 660 
U.N. Technical Assistance Program, reduction of U.S. 

contribution, 186, 187 
U.S. bases overseas, effect of long-range weapons on 

U.S. withdrawal from, 183 
U.S. Navy plane, destruction by Chinese Communists, 

410, 411 
Yugoslavia, problem of U.S. aid, 574, 578 
Correspondence, messages, etc. : 
Berlin Congress Hall, cornerstone laying ceremony, 

670 
Bolivian President, inauguration of, 305 
United Nations, review of 10th year, letter to Presi- 
dent transmitting report, 384 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, report to 

President with summary of principal provisions, 26 
Illness, wishes for a speedy and full recovery from, 

statement (Eisenhower), 767 



Dulles, John Foster — Continued 
Meetings (see also subject) : 

Meeting with President to review U.S. foreign policy 

and world situation, 912 
NATO ministerial meeting, 18th, 950 
News conferences, transcripts of, 47, 145, 406, 476, 543, 

574, 655 
Visit to Latin American countries, 187 
Dunn, James C, 727 
Du Plessis, Wentzel Christoffel, 444 

East- West contacts (see also Exchange of persons) : 
State Department organization and designations for, 

294, 366, 460 
Statements (Dulles), 50, 52 
East-West trade, shipments of industrial commodities by 
France, Italy, and U.K. to Soviet-bloc countries, 988 
Eban, Abba, 225 

ECE. See Economic Commission for Europe 
Economic and Social Council, U.N. : 

Documents, lists of, 127, 165, 379, 564, 688, 728, 780, 930, 

1003 
Human rights, advisory services in the field of, pro- 
posal for seminars to develop, 363 
Membership on, increase needed, address (Hoover), 838 
Report on the World Social Situation, 286 
Resolutions : 

Social programs and social a.spects of economic devel- 
opment in underdeveloped countries, 289>i 
Van Heuven Goedhart, G. J., tribute to the work of, 
246 
U.S. delegation to 22d session, 165 
Economic and technical aid to foreign countries (see also 
Agricultural surpluses, Export-Import Bank, Inter- 
national Bank, International Cooperation Admin- 
istration, Mutual security. Underdeveloped coimtries, 
and United Nations: Technical assistance program) : 
Aid to : Afghanistan, 213, 222, 493, 494, 886 ; Asia, 269, 
348, 493, 645, 957, 958 ; Burma, 249 ; Cambodia, 271, 
272 ; Ceylon, 117, 493, 494 ; China, Republic of, 271, 
553; Eastern Europe, 744; Eritrea, 168; Ethiopia, 
250 ; Europe, 645 ; Far East, 635 ; India, 493, 494 ; 
Indonesia, 273, 638; Iran, 378; Japan, 272, 325; 
Korea, 270 ; Laos, 271, 272 ; Latin America, 317, 645 ; 
Lebanon, 67; Libya, 213; Near and Middle East, 
645; Nepal, 493, 495; Norway, 23; Pakistan, 493, 
495 ; Paraguay, 850 ; Philippines, 273, 636 ; Thai- 
land, 272 ; Viet-Nam, 271, 637 
Foreign aid, effect of cut in funds by Congress, 149 
Grants, loans, etc., under agricultural surpluses pro- 
gram, 234, 236, 237, 238 
Soviet program of. See Soviet Union : Economic policy 
U.S. policy, address (Thibodeaux), 808 
Economic Commission for Europe, U.N. : 
Appointment of U.S. delegate to 14th session, 687 
Coal Committee, meeting and U.S. delegate, 1002 
Housing Committee, U.S. delegation to 13th session, 899 
Economic Commission for Latin America, U.N., U.S. dele- 
gation to 1st meeting of Trade Committee, 857 
Economic Committee (interdepartmental), U.N., func- 
tion and membership, 444 



Index, July to December 1956 



1021 



Economic development : 
International cooperation for, remarks (Eisenhower), 

551 
South and Southeast Asia. See Colombo Plan 
Underdeveloped countries, financing in, statement 

(Baker), 393 
U.S. and world, review of, address (Prochnow), 69 
Economic Development, Special U.N. Fund for, 354, 397 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. {see also individual 
countries) : 
Aid to foreign countries. See Agricultural surpluses. 
Economic and technical aid, Export-Import Bank, 
and Mutual security 
Domestic economy, address and statement : Baker, 290 ; 

Bowie, 137 
Far East, address (Jones), 635 
Foreign economic policy : 
Address (Thibodeaus), 808 
Appointment of special assistant to President on, 

letter (Eisenhower), 143 
National policies and objectives, relation to, address 

(Bowie), 135 
Objectives, address (Murphy), 721 
OTC. See Trade Cooperation, Organization for 
Tariff policy. See Tariff policy, U.S. 
Economic relations, amity, and consular rights, treaty 

with Iran, 168, 605 
Economic situation, world, statement (Baker), 289 
ECOSOC. -See Economic and Social Council, U.N. 
Ecuador : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 180 
Panamd meeting of Presidents of the American Repub- 
lics, declaration, 220 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S. 

amending 1955 agreement, 650 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Cultural property, convention (1954) for protection 
in event of armed conflict and regulations of execu- 
tion, 069 
Educational exchange program, agreement with U.S., 

830, 862« 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Plant protection convention (1952), international, 212 
Reciprocal trade agreement (1938) with U.S., ter- 
mination, 168 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245m 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 937 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 213 
Visit of Secretary Dulles, 187 
Visit of U.S. atoms-for-peace team, 846 
Eddy, C. E., 931 
Edelman, Albert I., 676 

Education (see also Educational exchange program) : 
AEO program of nuclear energy education, address 

(Libby),445 
Foreign Service Institute: A Year in Review, article 

(Hoskins), 415 
German education, development of, address (Murphy), 
668 



Education — Continued t 

Interdepartmental Committee on Education Activities 
in International Organizations, function and mem- 
bership, 443 
NATO fellow.ship and scholarship program, 309 
Public education, U.S. delegation to 19th international 

conference on, 126 
Soviet system, dilemma regarding, 878 
Women, U.S. proposal for seminar on citizenship edu- 
cation for, statement and letter (Baker), 360 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, U.N. : 
Constitution, 294, 528, 936 

Interference in internal affairs of members, accusa- 
tion of, address (Wilcox), 777 
9th General Conference, U.S. delegation to, 226, 828 
U.S. National Commission pamphlet on UNESCO, pub- 
lished, 518 
U.S. support of, address (Wilcox), 516 
Educational exchange program, international (see also 
Education) : 
Accomplishments, 10th anniversary publication review- 
ing, 329 
Agreements with — 

Argentina, 830, 861 ; Ecuador, 830, 862« ; Israel, 224, 
294 
American studies in British schools and universities, 

article (Sutherland), 989 
Deputy Speaker of National Assembly of Pakistan, visit 

to U.S., 25 
Financing of, through sales of agricultural surpluses, 

237 
French parliamentary group, visit to U.S., 451 
Korean art, selection for U.S. loan exhibition, 515 
Seattle reception center, establishment, 460 
Educational Foundation in Israel, U.S., establishment, 

225 
Egypt : 

Cotton, exchange for Soviet arms, 355 
Cotton, U.S. and Egyptian, competition between, state- 
ment (Dulles), 576 
Dispute with Israel. See Israeli hostilities 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
Travel to, U.S. restrictions on, 756 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 128, 212 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 970 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 366 
U.S. citizens and other nationals, evacuation from, 756, 

798 
U.S.-Egyptian relations, U.S. protest of statement made 

by President Nasser concerning U.S., 222 
A^isit of Soviet Foreign Minister, statement (Dulles), 
52 
Eisenbud, Merril, 326 



1022 



Department of State BuUetin 



Eisenhower, Dwight D. : 
Addresses and statements : 

Adopted foreign-born orphans, provisions to facilitate 

immigration into U.S., 768 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, proposed, 535 
China, Communist, views on travel to, 376 
Communist imperialism in the satellite world, 702 
Customs Simplification Act (1956), approval, 273 
Disarmament, 424, 814, 815 

Eastern Europe and the Middle East, recent develop- 
ments in, 743 
Geophysical Year, International, approval of U.S. par- 
ticipation in, 282 
Human Rights Day (1956), U.N., 949 
Hungarian question, 700, 743, 760, 949, 976 
Hungarian refugees, 807, 913 

Inter-American conference, 1st, commemorating, 219 
Israeli mobilization, reported, U.S. concern, 699 
Mutual security program, U.S., importance of restor- 
ing funds cut by Congress, 144 
Nicaraguan President, assassination of, 573 
Nuclear power, development abroad, 926 
Nuclear-powered merchant ship, proposed construc- 
tion of, 666 
Nuclear weapons, development and testing of, 424, 704 
Peace, 946 

Poland, reported unrest in, 664 
Polish trial of Poznan rioters, U.S. views, 552 
Secretary Dulles' illness, 767 
Suez Canal problem, 259, 261, 405, 744, 911 
United Nations, best hope for peace, 835 
U.S. aid to Hungary, allocation of funds for, 764 
World economy, international cooperation in develop- 
ing, 551 
Correspondence and messages : 
Approval of escape-clause provision regarding dried 

fig imports, 681 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, conference on 

statute of the, 813 
Berlin Congress Hall, cornerstone laying ceremony, 

670 
China, Republic of, U.S. support, 151 
Disarmament, reply to Premier Bulganin's letter, 299 
German reunification, 106, 299 
Heads of State meeting, proposed, telegram in reply 

to Swiss invitation, 839 
Hungarian question, 796, 803 
Indian Prime Minister, postponement of visit to U.S., 

53 
Israeli forces in Egypt, withdrawal of, letter to Prime 

Minister Ben-Gurion, 797 
Italy, aerial photography demonstration, 715 
Oil tankers, large, proposed construction of, 619 
OTC, position on U.S. membership in, 987 
Philippines, 10th anniversary of independence, 93 
Private investment abroad, proposed tax concessions 

to encourage, 397 
Refugees and escapees, views on aid to, 552 
Requests for investigations of effects on domestic in- 
dustries of imports of: butter oil and butter sub- 
stitutes, 887 ; dates, 681 ; figs, 681 



Eisenhower, Dwight D. — Continued 

Correspondence and messages — Continued 

Soviet proposal on prohibition of testing atomic weap- 
ons, reply to Premier Bulganin, 662 
Viet-Nam, 1st anniversary of the Republic, 765 
Viet-Nam, 2d anniversary of Diem government, 150 
Executive orders. See Executive orders 
Meetings : 

Congressional leaders on Suez Canal problem, 314 
Panamd meeting of Presidents of American Re- 
publics, 219 
Secretary Dulles, review of world situation, 912 
Messages, letters, and reports to Congress: 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, 

3d semiannual report (Jan.-June 1956), 230 
Foreign economic policy, appointment of special as- 
sistant on, 143 
Immigration legislation, proposed revision of, 194 
Lake Michigan water diversion bill, memorandum of 

disapproval, 357 
Lend-lease operations, transmittal of report to Con- 
gress, 194 
Lighter flints, decision against recommended increase 

in tariff on, 889 
Mutual security program, 10th semiannual report 

(Jan. 1-June 30, 1956), excerpts, 642 
Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), tariff increase held 

unnecessary, 321 
Taxes paid U.K. on royalties, disapproval of legisla- 
tion permitting U.S. tax credits, 321 
United Nations, annual report (1955), 382, 384 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, transmittal 

to Senate, 26 
Yugoslavia, decision to continue U.S. aid to, 664 
Proclamations. See Proclamations by the President 
Special assistant for national security affairs (Jack- 
son), resignation, 879 
Eisenhower, Milton S., 221n, 356, 357, 511, 544 
Ekimov, Konstantin P., 765 
El Salvador: 

Central American free-trade area proposal, participa- 
tion, 897 
Panama meeting of Presidents of the American Re- 
publics, declaration, 220 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules 
relating to, 128, 862 
Consular agents, convention (1928) defining duties, 

rights, prerogatives, and immunities of, 650 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 738 
Elbrick, C. Burke, 108, 583, 840 
Elections, U.S., observation of: 

Eastern European countries, acceptances and rejections 
of U.S. invitations to send observers, 550, 582, 665, 
728 
NATO countries journalists, 666 
Emerson, Rupert, 345 



fndex, July to December 1956 



1023 



Employment at sea, convention (1936) fixing minimum 

age for children, 650 
Employment service program, cooperative, agreement sup- 
plementing 1954 agreement with Peru, 862 
Eritrea : 

Book exchange program with U.S., 323 
U.S.-Ethiopian technical cooperation agreements, ex- 
tension to, 168 
Estate tax, convention with Italy for the avoidance of 

double taxation, 737, 738, 862 
Ethiopia : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Technical cooperation, agreement extending agreements 

with the U.S. relating to extension to Eritrea, 168 
Water resources, cooperative program, agreement with 
U.S. amending and extending 1952 agreement for 
study, 250 
Ethridge, Mark, 666 

Eucalyptus conference, world, U.S. delegation, 686 
Europe (see also individual countries) : 

Collective security. See European security and North 

Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Common market, proposed, relationship to GATT, 685, 

893, 896 
Eastern Europe : 
Exchange program, reciprocal, approval by the 

President, 54 
U.S. policy toward and recent developments in, address 
(Eisenhower), 743 
Refugees. See Hungarian question: Refugees, Inter- 
governmental Committee for European Migration, 
and Refugees and displaced persons 
Trade barriers, removal of, address (Bowie), 139 
U.N. Economic Commission for. See U.N. Economic 

Commission for Europe 
Unity : 
Addresses and statements : Dulles, 576, 580 ; Elbrick, 

583, 586 
French views, U.S.-French joint communique, 8 
Western European Union, participation of Federal 
Republic of Germany, 487, 488, 489 
U.S. aid, 237, 320, 558 

U.S. policy, addresses : Elbrick, 585 ; Merchant, 56 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for, 8th 
annual review, U.S. delegation to discussions on 
economic policies, 496 
Euroi)ean Migration, Intergovernmental Committee for, 

constitution, 213 
European security : 

Addresses (Elbrick) 110,584 
Relationship to German reunification, 489, 490 
U.S.-European contributions, 643 
Examination, Foreign Service, announced, 528 
Exchange of persons (See also East- West contacts and 
Educational exchange) : 
Eastern Europe, Presidential approval of program 

with, 54 
International trade relations, improvement by exchange 
of persons, 233 

1024 



Exchange of x)ersons — Continued I 

.Japanese atomic experts, visit to U.S., 451 
Observation of U.S. elections: 
Eastern European countries observer.?, 550, 582, 665, 

728 
NATO countries journalists, 666 
Polish housing experts, visit to U.S., 840 
Seattle reception center, establishment, 460 
Exchange of scientific information during IGY, 884 
Executive orders : 

Agricultural commodities, U.S. surplus, payment of 

ocean freight charges on, 780 
Finance Corporation, International, designation as 

public International organization, 634 
World Meteorological Organization, designation as 
public international organization, 457 
Export-Import Bank : 

Functions, address (Bowie), 141 

Lending activities, report (July 1, 195.5-June 30, 1956), 

558 
Loans to — 
Afghanistan, 222, 494 ; Argentina, 515, 575, 576 ; Iran, 
378 ; Mexico, 846 ; Overseas buyers of U.S. agricul- 
tural surpluses, 522 ; Paraguay, 850 
Exports, U.S. (see also Trade) : 

Arms and technical data, U.S. controls on, article 

(Pomeroy), 919 
Asia, 348 

Latin America, increase in, 985, 986 
Polio vaccine, export quotas, 3.58 

Surplus agricultural commodities, Export-Import Bank 
loans to overseas buyers of, 522 
External debts, German : 
Agreement, 901 

Appointment of U.S. member to Arbitral Tribunal and 
Mixed Commission on, 509 

Facilities assistance program, agreement with Spain 

supplementing 1954 agreement, 565 
Facio, Gonzalo, J., 405 
Fairless, Benjamin, 551, 725, 989 
Falkland Islands, extension by U.K. of German external 

debts agreement to, 901 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization 
Far East (see also individual countries) : 

Citizenship education for women, U.S. proposal for 

seminar on, statement and letter (Baker), 360 
Communist subversion in, addresses : Jones, 274 ; 

Murphy. 717, 718; Robertson. 264, 260 
Forcifin Relations, volume on, published, 250 
U.S. aid, 269, 635, 643, 645 

U.S. policy, addresses: Jones, 278, 279; Merchant, 57; 
Robertson, 268 
Faroe Islands and Greenland, agreement on joint financ- 
ing of certain air navigation services in, 429, 969 
Feldmann, Markus, 839 

Fig imports, request for investigation of effects on domes- 
tic industry and approval of escape-clause action 
with respect to, announcement and letter (Eisen- 
hower), 681 
Finance Corporation, International. See International 
Finance Corporation 

Department of State Bulletin 



Finland : 

Military housing, U.S., procurement in, 235 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement supplementing 

1955 agreement with U.S., 782 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Seafarers, convention (1946) concerning medical 

examination of, 213 
U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organiza- 
tion, constitution, 936 
Fisheries : 

Japan-Soviet Union negotiations regarding, 719 
North Pacific, negotiations on problems concerning, 
address (Murphy), 717 
Fisheries Commission, International North Pacific, meet- 
ing, 717 
Fisheries Commission. International Northwest Atlantic, 
protocol amending the international convention 
(1949) concerning, 128, 168, 936 
Fisheries Council, Indo-Pacific, revision of agreement at 

6th session, 830 
Flanders, Sen. Ralph E., 52 
Flood relief assistance, emergency, agreement with India 

providing for, 738 
Food and Agriculture Organization, Interagency Commit- 
tee on, functions and membership, 443 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 

U.S. delegation to 25th session of the Council, 459 
"Force, renunciation of," U.S. efforts for and Communist 
China refusal to apply to Formosa, 267, 277, 312, 355 
Ford, Rear Adm. Walter C, 58S 

Foreign aid. See Agricultural surpluses. Economic and 
technical aid. Mutual security. Refugees and dis- 
placed persons. Underdeveloped countries. United 
Nations : Technical assistant program, and individual 
countries 
Foreign Aid, Voluntary, Advisory Committee on, 873 
Foreign Aid Program, Special Committee to Study, func- 
tions and membership, 726 
Foreign economic policy, U.S. See Economic policy and 

relations, U.S. 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 

Congressional documents relating to. See under Con- 
gress 
Development and conduct of, through international or- 
ganizations, article (Bloomfield), 435, 554 
Economic cooperation and technical assistance, role 

in, address (Thibodeaux), 808 
Foreign policy plank of Republican National Conven- 
tion, formulation of, statement (Dulles), 185 
Fundamentals and objectives of, addresses: Lodge, 19; 
Merchant, 56 ; Murphy, 674 ; Nixon, 943 ; Wilcox, 99 
Legislation. See under Congress 
Policy of "conduct and example," statements (Dulles), 

148, 149 
Problems and understanding of, address (Eleanor 

Dulles), 61 
Review of, address and statements : Dulles, Hagerty, 

912 ; Murphy, 716 
U.N. role in, excerpts from address (Wilcox), 403 



Foreign Relations of the United States, 1941, Vol. IV, 

The Far East, published, 250 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1942, China, 

published, 937 
Foreign Service (see also State Department) : 
Ambassadors and minister, appointments and confir- 
mations, 213, 250, 294, 366, 650, 902, 937, 970 
American consul, functions of the, address (Donald- 
son), 602 
Articles and pamphlets on, list, 419 
Boteler, William P., death of, 21 

Confirmation of director. Office of Economic Affairs, 
U.S. Mission to NATO and European Regional 
Organizations, 168 
Consular agency at Rio Grande, Brazil, closing, 214 
Consular agents, convention (1928) defining duties, 

rights, prerogatives, and immunities of, 650 
Consular jurisdiction in Morocco, relinquishment, 844 
Consular officers, agreement with Yugoslavia concern- 
ing reciprocal customs privileges for. 398 
Consulate at Georgetown, British Guiana, reestablish- 

ment, 460 
Consulate general at Tunis, Tunisia, elevated to embassy 

status, 214 
Consulates elevated to consulate general status : 
Melbourne, Australia, 689 ; Rotterdam, the Nether- 
lands, 5.30 
Examination announced, 528 
Foreign Service Institute : A Year in Review, article 

( Iloskins ) , 415 
Foreign Service Institute Advisory Committee, 3d meet- 
ing and member.s, 606 
Legation at Budapest, Hungary, U.S. note protesting 

interruption of communications with, 980 
Resignations, .366, 902 

Selection Boards, 10th, meeting and membership, 529 
Foreign trade. Sec Trade 
Formosa. See China, Republic of 
Forthomme, P. A., 894 
Poster, William Z., 721 
France : 
Algeria. See Algeria 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 475 
Customs union with Tunisia, 897 
Heads of State meeting, Swiss proposal for, text of 

invitation, 839 
Hungarian question, request for inscription on Security 

Council agenda, 757 
Imports, complaints against restrictions on, 898 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement and minute of 

understanding with U.S., 901 
Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 

Faroe Islands, agreements on joint financing, 969 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses of, agreements with 

U.S., 9, 901 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules 
relating to, 128 



Index, Juiy to December 7956 

450627—58 3 



1025 



France — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Double taxation on income, convention supplement- 
ing 1939 and 1946 conventions with U.S. for avoid- 
ance, 9, 85, 213 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending in- 
ternational convention (1949) regarding, 168 
GATT, proces verbal of rectification, 782 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 

168 
German trade-marks in Italy, memorandum of under- 
standing regarding, 168 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion, constitution, 213 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement regarding fi- 
nancial support, 127 
Nuclear power, agreement with U.S. concerning pro- 
duction of, 42 
Property, rights and interests in Germany, agree- 
ments relating to the Arbitration Tribunal and 
Arbitral Commission on, 398, 497, 605 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245n 
Tangier, protocols and final declaration concerning, 

328, 830, 842 
Taxation of U.S. exijenditures in France for com- 
mon defense, agreement with U.S. amending 1952 
agreement relating to relief from, 970 
Weather station on Guadeloupe Island, agreement 

with U.S. for establishment and operation, 605 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 970 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 970 
U.S. aid. 320, 988 
Visits to U.S. : 

Foreign Minister, welcoming statement (Murphy) 

and joint communique, 7, 8 
Journalists to observe U.S. elections, 666 
Parliamentary group, 451 
Franklin, Benjamin, 669, 671, 723 
Free Poland, use of ship's flag, texts of Polish note of 

protest and U.S. reply, 376 
Freedom, In the Cause of Peace and, address (Nixon), 

943 
Freedom and Despotism, The Contest Between, address 

(Dulles), 3 
Freers, Edward, 566 

Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaties with — 
Germany, Federal Republic of, 42, 85, 167; Korea, Re- 
public of, 935, 937 ; Netherlands, 168, 605 ; Nicaragua, 
168, 605 
Pulbright, Sen. J. W., 226, 720 
Fulbright Act (sec also Educational exchange program), 

publication marking 10th anniversary, 329 
Fur seals. North Pacific conference on, negotiations, ad- 
dress (Murphy), 717 

Garner, Robert L., 248, 4.56 

GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 
General agreement on tariffs and trade. See Tariffs and 
trade, general agreement on 



General Assembly, U.N. (see also United Nations) : 
Aggression, Special Committee on the Question of De- 
fining, meeting and U.S. representative, 634, 731 
Documents, lists of, 126, 327, 564, 688, 900, 930, 1003 
11th session : 

Agenda, provisional, 777 ; supplementary items, 780 
Chinese representation in U.N., ijostponement of con- 
sideration, 855 
Problems confronting, addresses : Hoover, 835 ; Wil- 
cox, 773 
U.S. delegation, confirmation, 212 
Hungarian question. See under Hungarian question 
Palestine question. See under Israeli hostilities 
Resolutions : 

Human rights, advisory services in the field of, 

establishing, 362 
Hungarian question, 803, 806, 807, 870, 871, 960, 963, 

067, 979 
Palestine question, 793, 794, 795 
Refugees, assistance to, 967 
Suez Canal problem, 754, 793, 794, 795, 917, 918 
U.N. refugee program, 967 

UNKRA, progress of work in the Republic of Korea, 
969 
Suez Canal problem. Sec under Suez Canal 
Geneva ambassadorial talks, U.S. -Communist China : 
Negotiations concerning detention and release of 
U.S. civilians, "renunciation of force" principle, 
and question of relaxation of U.S. trade restric- 
tions, 267, 277, 312, 553 
Progress of negotiations, addresses : Jones, 277 ; Lodge, 
355 ; Murphy, 718 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners of 

war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 213, 430, 689 
Genocide, convention (1948) on the prevention and pun- 
ishment of the crime of, 213, 528 
Geological Congress, International, U.S. delegation to 20th 

session, 429 
Geophysical Year, International. See International Geo- 
physical Tear 
George, Sen. Walter F., 412, 696, 726, 912 
Germany: 

Berlin. See Berlin 

Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-19^5 {The 
Last Months of Peace, Mareh-Aiigust 1939), series 
D, vol. VI, published, 169 
Foreign armed forces in, reduction of, relationship to 

reunification, 299, 301, 305 
Reunification : 

Federal Republic appeal for, texts of note to U.S. 

and memorandum to Soviet Union, 485 
Free elections, Soviet promise and U.S. support for, 

4, 632 
Senator Flanders' proposal regarding, statement 

(Dulles), 52 
Statements (Dulles) , 47, 148, 482 
U.S. position, letter (Eisenhower) and address 

(Conant), 106, 107 
U.S.-French joint communique regarding, 8 
Trade-marks in Italy, German, memorandum of under- 
standing regarding, 168 
U.S. policy toward, address (Eleanor Dulles), 64 



1026 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Germany, East : 
U.N. Expanded Program of Technical Assistance, ques- 
tion of participation in, statement (Hoffman), 997 
Uprising of June 17, 3d anniversary, letter (Eisen- 
liower) and address (Conant), 106, 107 
Germany, Federal Republic of : 
Amerikahaus at Niirnberg, remarks (Conant) on open- 
ing, 766 
Arbitration Tribunal and Arbitral Commission on prop- 
erty, rights and interests in Germany. See Arbitra- 
tion Tribunal and Arbitral Commission 
Armed forces, commitment to NATO, statement 

(Dulles), 182 
Germany, reunification of: See under Germany 
Mixed Board, appointment of U.S. member, 60 
Mixed Commission, appointment of U.S. member, 60 
Property, rights and interests in Germany, Arbitra- 
tion Tribunal and Arbitral Commission on. See 
Arbitration Tribunal and Arbitral Commission 
Rearmament, question of, statement (Dulles), 148 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 84, 128 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air. International, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 128 
External debts, German, agreement on, 901 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaty VFith 

U.S., 42, 85, 167 
GATT, procC-s verbal and amending protocols, 328, 

460 
Military equipment, materials, and services, agree- 
ment with U.S. for sale of, 633, 650 
Postal convention (1952), universal, extension to 

Land Berlin, 430 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245w 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 970 
Visit of Deputy Under Secretary Murphy, announce- 
ment, 550 
Visit of journalists to U.S. to observe elections, 666 
Gibbon, Cecil E., 25 
Gibraltar, extension by U.K. of German external debts 

agreement to, 901 
Goedhart, G. J. van Heuven, 244, 246, 454, 965 
Gold Coast: 
Election in, significance of, statement (Sears), 247 
World Health Organization, membership, 430 
Good-partnership policy in Latin America, address (Age- 
ton ), 847, 8.53 
Grand Turk oceanographic research station, agreement 

between U.S. and U.K. for establishment, 922, i)37 
Grant-aid. See Economic and technical aid 
Gray, Gordon, 840 

Great Lakes Basin compact, legislation proposing, state- 
ment of Department's views (Cowles), 421 
Greece : 

Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 840 

Tariff concessions granted U.S. on imports of auto- 
mobiles and trucks, GATT, 117 



Greece — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 497 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 128 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 213 
NAT, agreement (1951) on status, national repre- 
sentatives and international staff, 1006 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement regarding finan- 
cial support, 127 
Status of U.S. forces in Greece, agreement with U.S. 

regarding, 565 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 937 
U.S. aid, 234, 320 

U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 2.50 
Visit of journalists to U.S. to observe elections, 666 
Green, Sen. Theodore Francis, 726 
Greenbaum, Edward S., 212 

Greenland, Faroe Islands, and Iceland, agreement on 
joint financing of air navigation services in, 429, 969 
Gruber, Karl, 736 

Guadeloupe, agreement between U.S. and France for es- 
tablishment and operation of weather station on, 605 
Guatemala : 
Central American free-trade area proposal, participa- 
tion, 897 
Communist subversion in, address (Lodge), 3!53 
Panamil meeting of Presidents of the American Re- 
publics, declaration, 220 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, civil uses, research reactor agreement 

with U.S., 306, 398 
Atomic Energy Agency, Intcirnational, statute, 738 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, 

and use of, 128 
Visas, gratis nonimmigrant, agreement with U.S. pro- 
viding for, 42 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 168, 862 
U.S. aid, 319 
Guiana, British, reestablishment of U.S. consulate, 460 
Gundersen, Oscar, 962 

Habibia College, Kabul, Afghanistan, U.S. aid in rebuild- 
ing, 886 

Hadsel, Fred L., 497 

Hagen, John P., 282 

Hagerty, James C, 749, 879, 912 

Haiti : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 528 
Panamd meeting of Presidents of the American Re- 
publics, declaration, 220 
U.S. aid, 320 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 937 

Hamady, Daniel F., 899 



Index, July fo December J 956 



1027 



Hammarskjold, Dag: 

Contribution to world peace, address (Hoover), 838 
Message, reports, and statement : 
Dedication of plaque at U.N. headquarters honoring 

Korean war dead, 119 
Presentation of Nansen Medal to Mrs. Dorothy D. 

Houghton, 434 
Report to General Assembly regarding the withdrawal 
of British and French forces from Egypt and in- 
struction to U.N. Emergency Force, 952 
Suez Canal, arrangements for clearing, 915 
U.N. Emergency Force, basic points for presence and 
functioning in Egypt, 915 
Han, Pyo Wook, 722 
Hannah, John A., 727 
Hare, Raymond A., 366, 756 
Harley, John H., 326 
Harriman, E. Roland, 764 
Haskins, William F., 483» 

Health and sanitation, agreement with Colombia extend- 
ing 1950 agreement for cooperative program, 85 
Health Organization, World : 
Associate members admitted, 430 

Diseases and causes of death, additional regulations 
amending nomenclature regulations, 430 
Hearst, William Randolph, Jr., 727 
Heffelfinger, Mrs. Elizabeth E., 226 
Helfert, Howard W., 444 

Helmand Valley, Afghanistan, U.S. aid to survey poten- 
tialities for development of, 222 
Hendrickson, Robert C, 902 
Hgirtaaf, Mrs. Diana, 701n. 
Highway maintenance, Export-Import Bank loan to Iran 

for, 378 
Hill, Robert C, 310 
Hodgson, Ralph E., 525 
HofCman, Paul G., 212, 994 
Holland, Henry F., 498 
Holmes, Julius, 214, 412 
Holy See. See Vatican City 
Honduras : 

Central American free-trade area proposal, participa- 
tion, 897 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Double taxation on income, convention with U.S. for 

avoidance of, 68, 85, 213 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
and agreements on money orders and parcel post, 
689 
Wheat agreement ( 1956) , international, 970 
U.S. recognition of new government, 703 
Hoover, Herbert, Jr. : 
Address and statements : 

Civil aviation policies, international, 845 
Travel to Communist China, President's view on, 376 
U.N. General Assembly, 11th session, tasks confront- 
ing, 835 
Appointment as U.S. representative to ANZUS Council 
meeting, 839 



Hoover, Herbert, Jr. — Continued 
Resignation, 970 

U.S. offer of food to relieve shortages in Poland, letters, 
55, 151 
Hopkins, John A., 460 
Hord, Warner H., 768 
Hoskins, Harold B., 415 
Hosmer, Orville, 811 
Houghton, Mrs. Dorothy D., 453 
Housing, U.S., Polish experts visit to study, 840 
Housing Committee (ECB), U.S. delegation to 13th ses- 
sion, 899 
Howard, George S., 194 

Human rights, advisory services in the field of : 
U.N. actions, 362, 363, 388, 772 
U.S. support of program, 361 

Women, U.S. proposal for seminar on citizenship edu- 
cation for, statement and letter (Baker), 360 
Human Rights, Interdepartmental Committee on Foreign 
Policy Relating to, functions and membership, 443 
Human Rights Day (1956), U.N., statement (Eisen- 
hower) and iiroclamation, 949, 950 
Humphrey, Sen. Hubert H., 212, 967 
Humphreys, Sen. Robert, 263 
Hungarian question : 

Address and statements: Dulles, Allen, 877; Dulles, 
John Foster, 697, 700, 756; Eisenhower, 700, 743, 
760, 949; Hoover, 835; Lodge, 757ji, 758, 759, 761, 
800, 804, 805, 856, 867, 961, 964, 975, 977 ; Murphy, 
907, 908; Nixon, 945, 947; Wadsworth, 869, 923; 
White, 701, 949 ; White House, 795, 796 
Armed forces, Soviet, Intervention in Hungary : 
Soviet position : 

Addresses : Allen Dulles, 877 ; Murphy, 908, 909 
Text of Soviet statement, 746 
U.S. concern, addresses and statements : Dulles, 697, 

700, 756 ; Eisenhower, 700, 743 ; Lodge, 757?t; White, 

701, 949 

General Assembly, actions and deliberations of the 
emergency session : 

Relief aid to Hungary, statements. Lodge, 804, 805; 
Wadsworth, 806 ; text of resolution, 807 

Soviet activities in Hungary, statements (Lodge), 800, 
804 

Withdrawal of Soviet troops from Hungary and U.S. 
proposal for investigation of situation by U.N., 
statements (Lodge), 802, 805; texts of resolutions, 
803, 806 
General Assembly, actions and deliberations of the 11th 
session : 

Agenda, U.S. support for inscription of Hungarian 
question on, statement (Lodge), 856 

Development of events and proposals for admission 
of U.N. observers, statements (Lodge), 867, 961, 
975, 976; texts of resolutions, 871, 960, 963 

Refugees and relief aid to Hungary, statements 
(Knowland), 870, 966 ; texts of resolutions, 871, 967 

Resolutions, 870, 871, 960, 963, 967, 979 

Secretary-General's offer to visit Hungary, state- 
ments (Lodge), 961, 964, 976, 978; text of resolu- 
tion, 979 



1028 



Department of State Bulletin 



Hungarian question — Continued 
General Assembly — Continued 

Soviet deportations from Hungary, statements, 
Lodge, 868; Wadsworth, 869; texts of resolutions, 
870, 871, 960 
Soviet refusal to comply with U.N. resolutions, 

address and statement : Hoover, 835 ; Lodge, 961 
Soviet violation of U.N. charter, condemnation of, 
and reiteration of request for withdrawal of Soviet 
forces, statements (Lodge), 975, 977; text of reso- 
lution, 979 
Human rights, Soviet denial of, statement (Eisen- 
hower), 949 
NAC ministerial meeting, communique supporting U.N. 

efforts, 982 
Refugees and relief aid (see also under General As- 
sembly supra) : 
President's Committee for Hungarian Refugee Relief, 

functions and members, 980 
U.S. aid, 764, 807, 871, 872 
U.S. coordinator for, 948 

U.S. offer of asylum and welcome to U.S., announce- 
ment and remarks (Eisenhower), 913 
U.S. relief agencies aiding, listed, 873, 874 
Vice President Nixon's trip to Austria to study prob- 
lems of, 979 
Security Council deliberations : 

Agenda, U.S.-U.K.-French request concerning, letter, 

757 
Hungarian negotiations with Soviets for withdrawal 

of forces, statement (Lodge), 761 
Hungarian request regarding its neutrality, state- 
ment (Lodge) and letter, 760, 761n 
Review of situation, statements (Lodge), 759, 761 
U.S. and Soviet positions, statements (Lodge), 758, 

759 
U.S. draft resolution, statement (Lodge) and text, 
763 
U.S. efforts and policy, address, statement, and cor- 
respondence : Eisenhower, 796, 803 ; Nixon, 945, 
947 ; White House, 795 
U.S. Legation at Budapest : 

Legation message regarding U.S. personnel, 701n 
Soviet military action before, U.S. protest, 949 
Telegraphic communication with, US. protest of in- 
terruption of, 701, 980 
Hungary : 

Invitation to observe U.S. elections, 550, 665 

Minister to U.S., credentials, 180 

Refugees and displaced persons. See under Hungarian 

question 
Soviet intervention in. See Hungarian question 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 128 
Cultural property, convention (1954) and protocol for 

protection in event of armed conflict, 168, 565 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 650 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 
213 



Hungary — Continued 

U.S. aid, 320, 763 

U.S. Minister, confirmation, 250 
Hunt, Herold C, 226 
Hyde, H. Van Zile, 496 

Hydroelectric power development in Uruguay, Interna- 
tional Bank Loan, 781 

IAEA, gee Atomic Energy Agency, International 
ICA. See International Cooperation Administration 
ICAO. See International Civil Aviation Organization 
lee Patrol, North Atlantic, agreement regarding financial 

support of, 127, 128, 168 
Iceland : 

Foreign Minister, invitation to visit Washington, 542 
NATO forces and base in, importance of, and question 
of withdrawal from Iceland, statements (Dulles), 
49, 51 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Faroe Islands, negotiations and agreements on joint 
financing, 429, 969 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Claims of Icelandic insurance companies, agreement 

with U.S. regarding settlement, 937 
Copyright convention (1952), universal, 605 
Defense agreement (1951) with U.S., question of con- 
tinuation : 
Correspondence and statements on proposed nego- 
tiations, 49, 51, 193, 579 
Discussions and joint communique, 580 
Icelandic delegation recommendation, 308 
NAC recommendation for continuance, 306 
Employment at s«a, convention (1936) fixing mini- 
mum age for, 650 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending in- 
ternational convention (1949) regarding, 168, 936 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245» 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 937 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 937 
ICEM. See Intergovernmental Committee for European 

Migration 
ICJ. See International Court of Justice 
IFC. See International Finance Corporation 
IGY. See International Geophysical Year 
IJC. See International Joint Commission (U.S.- 
Canada) 
Illinois waterway, legislation proposing diversion of Lake 
Michigan waters into, memorandum of disapproval 
(Eisenhower) and text of Canadian note, 357 
ILO. See International Labor Organization 
Immigration : 

Adopted foreign-born orphans, statement (Eisenhower), 

768 
Legislation, proposed revisions, letters (Eisenhower, 

Watkins), 194 
Proclamations establishing quotas for : Sudan, 152 ; 
Tunisia, 557 



fndex, July fo December 7956 



1029 



Immunities Act, International Organizations, provisions, 

457 
Imports (see also Tariff policy, U.S.; and Trade) : 

Commercial samples and advertising material, interna- 
tional convention (19.52) to facilitate the importa- 
tion of, 782 
Dollar imports into Austria, relaxation of controls, 633 
Increase in U.S. imports from Latin America, 984 ; 

chart, 9SG 
Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on 
temporary imijortation, 294 
Income tax, conventions for avoidance of double taxa- 
tion. See Double taxation 
India : 

Book exchange program with U.S., 323 

Heads of State meeting, Swiss proposal for, text of 

invitation, 839 
Prime Minister, visit to U.S. : 
Postponement, 53 

Renewed invitation, acceptance of, 879 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S. for 

purchase, 454, 565 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of 

agreement, 249 
Flood relief assistance, emergency, agreement with 

U.S. providing, 738 
GATT, 5th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 970 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 249 
UNESCO, 9th General Conference, importance to India, 

address (AVilcox), 520 
U.S. aid, 493, 494 

U.S. Ambassador, appointment (Bunkei), 937; resigna- 
tion (Cooper), 366 
U.S.-Indian relations, statement (Dulles), 150 
Indonesia : 

Book exchange program with U.S., 323 
Communist subversion in, address (Jones), 276 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
GATT. protocol of terms of accession of Japan, 85 
Postal convention (1952), universal, 213 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 970 
U.S. aid, 273, 638 

U.S. policy, address (Jones), 275, 279 
Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council, revision of agreement at 

6th session, 830 
Industrial development center, Philippines, functions, ad- 
dress (Jones), 637 
Information, scientific, exchange during IGY, 884 
Informational media guaranty program, U.S. : 
Burma, agreement with, 937 
Israel, proposed program for, 223 
Inspection proposals, mutual. See ntulcr Disarmament 
Instituto de Intercambio Cultural Argentino-Norteameri- 

cano, 375 
Intelligence Agency, Central, functions, address (Allen 

Dulles), 874 
Interagency Committee on Food and Agriculture Organ- 
ization, functions and membership, 443 



Inter-American Commission of Women, report on 11th 

assembly (Lee), 562 
Inter-American Committee of Presidential Representa- 
tives, 1st meeting, statement (Milton Eisenhower) 
and text of final communique, 511, 513 
Inter-American Conference, 1st, meeting commemorat- 
ing. See Panamd meeting 
I ntei--American convention (1948) on granting of political 

rights to women, 528 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Turri- 

alba, Costa Rica, U.S. aid, 512 
Inter-American problems. See Latin America 
Inter-American radio communications convention (1937), 

862 
Inter-American Symposium on Nuclear Energy, U.S. pro- 
posal, 513 
Inter-American Travel Congresses, announcement of essay 

contest on international travel, 604 
Interdepartmental Committee on Education Activities in 
International Organizations, functions and member- 
ship, 443 
Interdepartmental Committee on Foreign Policy Relat- 
ing to Human Rights, functions and membership, 443 
Interdepartmental Committee on International Labor 

Policy, functions and membership, 443 
Interdepartmental Committee on International Social 

Welfare Policy, functions and membership, 443 
Interdepartmental Committee on Narcotics, functions and 

membership, 443 
Interdepartmental Committee on Non-Self-Governlng 

Territories, functions and membership, 443 
Interdepartmental Committee on Trade Agreements, 

notice regarding tariff negotiations with Cuba, 646 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration, 

constitution, 213 
International Atomic Energy Agency. See Atomic Energy 

Agency, International 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
(see also International Finance Corporation) : 
Aid to less developed countries, address (Bowie), 140 
Articles of agreement, 528 
Boards of Governors meeting, remarks (Eisenhower), 

551 
Loans to — 
Australia, 1004 ; Colombia, 67 ; Costa Rica, 559 ; Italy, 
682 ; Nicaragua, 890 : Uruguay, 781 
Rei)orts on financial activities, 323, 854 
International Civil Aviation Organization : 
Air navigation conference, 3d, U.S. delegation, 527 
Airport charges, international conference on, U.S. dele- 
gation, 768 
Joint financing conference to revise the Danish and Ice- 
landic agreements for air-navigation services, 429 
Protocol concerning meetings of the Assembly, 650 
Special Caribbean regional air navigation meeting, U.S. 

delegation, 829 
U.S. alternate representative, appointment, 444 
International Commission. Northwest Atlantic fisheries, 
protocol amending 1949 convention regarding, 128, 
168, 936 
International conference on public education, 19th, U.S. 
delegation, 126 



1030 



DepartmenI of State Bulletin 



International Congress and Exposition of Photogram- 

metry. 8th, U.S. delegation, 211 
International Cooperation Administration (sec also Eco- 
nomic and technical aid and Mutual security) : 
Book exchange program, 323, 324 
Deputy director for management (Scott), confirmation, 

213 
Designation as agency for transfer of funds required 
for ocean freight costs of certain shipments of sur- 
plus agricultural commodities, 780 
Obligations in fiscal year 1956, chart, 645 
Seattle reception center, establishment, 460 
International Court of Justice, statute of, declaration 

recognizing compulsory jurisdiction, 430, 936 
International Dairy Congress, 14th, U.S. delegation, 525 
International Dairy Federation, functions, 526 
International Federation of University Women, functions, 

175 
International Finance Corporation (see also Interna- 
tional Banls) : 
Articles of agreement, 248, 249, 366, 689, 1005 
Boolvlet on operating policies and procedures, published, 

456 
Designation as public international organization, text 

of Executive order, 634 
Establishment, progress toward, 387 
Functions and importance, statement (Baker), 396 
International Geological Congress, U.S. delegation to 

20th session, 429 
International Geophysical Year, 1957-58 : 
Arctic ice, reciprocal aerial observation of, U.S. pro- 
posal for agreement and Soviet reply, announce- 
ments, article (Atwood), and texts of notes, 508, 
883, 953 
Satellite program, address (Odishaw), 280 
A 20th-century Achievement in International Coop- 
eration, article (Atwood), 880 
International Ice Patrol, agreement regarding financial 

support, 127, 128, 168 
InternationalJoint Commission (U.S.-Canada) : 

Passamaquoddy Tidal Power Project, investigation of 

hydroelectric power jwssibilities, 322 
St. Lawrence and Lake Ontario, supplementary order 
of approval regulating waters of, text, 227 
International Labor Office, Governing Body, U.S. delega- 
tion to 133d session, 829 
International Labor Organization : 
American States members, U.S. delegation to 6th re- 
gional conference, 458 
Constitution, 069 

Preparatory technical maritime conference, U.S. dele- 
gation, 526 
International Monetary Fund, articles of agreement, 528 
International organizations, protocol concerning applica- 
tion of universal copyright convention (1952) to works 
of, 782, 936 
International Organizations Immunities Act, provisions 
extended to : 
International Finance Corporation, 634 
World Meteorological Organization, 457 
International Physiological Congress, 20th, 248 



International Radio Consultative Committee (ITU), U.S. 

delegation to 8th plenary assembly, 327 
International Society of Photogrammetry, functions, 212 
International Telecommunication Union, U.S. delegation 
to 8th plenary assembly of the International Radio 
Consultative Committee, 327 
International Union of Physiological Sciences, U.S. dele- 
gation to 1st general assembly, 247 
Investment of private capital abroad : 
Address (Bowie), 136, 139 
Asia, problems of foreign investors in, address (Jones), 

639 
Establishment of IFC to stimulate, 248 
Investment guaranties, agreement with Jordan, 689 
Latin America, increase in, 318, 986, 987 
Paraguay, incentives for U.S. capital, address ( Ageton), 

851 
Underdeveloped countries, statement (Baker), 393 
U.S. efforts to expand, address (Thibodeaux), 810 
Iran : 
Amity, economic relations, and consular rights, treaty 

with U.S., 168, 605 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Genocide, convention (1948) on the prevention and 

punishment of the crime of, 528 
Peace treaty with Japan, 430 
U.S. aid, 263, 378 
Iraqi troops in Jordan, question of, statement (Dulles), 

658 
Ireland : 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 128 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 605 
Ismay, Lord, 982 
Israel : 
Arab-Israeli dispute. See Arab-Israeli dispute and 

Israeli hostilities 
Cultural, scientific, and humanitarian projects in, U.S. 
proposals, statement (Dulles) and announcement, 
222, 223 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
Travel to, U.S. restrictions on, 756 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 497 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 128 
Customs tariffs, protocol modifying 1890 convention 
for creation of international union for publication 
of, 212 
Educational exchange program, agreement with U.S. 

224, 294 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 689 
German external debts, agreement on, 901 
International Court of Justice, statute, 936 
Plant protection convention ( 1951 ) , international, 650 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245m. 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 830 



Index, July to December 1956 



1031 



Israel — Continued 

U.S. citizens, evacuation from, 798 
U.S. policy, address (Eisenhower), 744 
Israeli hostilities with Egypt : 
Addresses and statements : Dulles, 751, 754, 755 ; Eisen- 
hower, 699, 744; Hagerty, 749; Hoover, 835, 836; 
Lodge, 748, 749, 751, 787, 789, 790, 791, 792, 914; 
Murphy, 719, 910, 911 ; Phillips, 176 ; White House, 
749, 795 
General Assembly actions and deliberations: 
Advisory Committee to the U.N. Emergency Force, 
statement (Lodge), 791, 792; text of resolution 794 
Cease-fire proposal, statement (Lodge), 790; test of 

resolution, 793 
Resolutions, 754, 793, 794, 795, 917 
U.N. Command, proposed establishment, statement 

(Lodge) , 790 ; text of resolution, 793 
U.N. Emergency Force, proposed establishment, state- 
ments : Dulles, 755 ; Lodge, 789, 790, 791 ; text of 
resolution, 793 
U.S. draft resolution and review of situation, state- 
ments (Dulles) , 751, 753, 7.54, 755 
U.S. offer to transport U.N. force to Egypt, statement 

(Lodge), 792 
U.S. proposal for permanent solution, statement 

(Lodge), 788 
U.S. proposal referring Middle East question to 11th 
General Assembly, statements (Lodge), 792; text 
of resolution, 795 
Withdrawal of forces from Egypt, statements : Dulles, 
755 ; Lodge, 789, 790, 791, 792, 914 ; texts of resolu- 
tions, 794, 917 
Israeli mobilization, reported, U.S. concern, statement 

(Eisenhower), 699 
NAO ministerial meeting, communique urging perma- 
nent solution, 982 
Security Council deliberations : 
Agenda, adoption of, statement (Lodge), 748 
Soviet proposal for intervention of U.S. and Soviet 
forces in Egypt, letters (Eisenhower, Bulganin) 
and statements, 791, 795, 796 
U.S. proposal for cease-fire and withdrawal of Israeli 
forces, statements (Lodge), 749, 751 ; text of resolu- 
tion, 750 
U.S. request for special meeting, letter (Lodge), 747 
U.N. actions for settlement (see also General Assembly 

and Security Council supra), 176, 383, 835, 836 
U.S. citizens and property in the Middle East, protection 

of, 700, 756, 798, 799 
U.S. efforts for solution, addresses, messages, and state- 
ment : Ei-senhower, 744, 797 ; Murphy, 719, 910, 911 ; 
White House, 749 
Italy : 

Aerial photography demonstration, congratulatory mes- 
sage (Eisenhower), 715 
International Bank loan, 682 
Military housing in, U.S., financing, 235 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 168, 

901 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 936 



Italy — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 128 
Child-feeding programs, agreement with U.S., 510 
Copyright convention (1952), universal, and related 

protocols, 782 
Double taxation on estates, income, and inheritances, 
conventions with U.S. for avoidance of, 737, 738, 
862 
German trade-marks in Italy, memorandum of under- 
standing regarding, 1()8 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement regarding finan- 
cial support, 127 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending inter- 
national convention (1949) regarding, 128 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245n. 
Tangier, protocols and final declaration concerning, 

328, 830, 842 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 565 
U.S. aid, 320 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment (Zellerbach), 902; 

resignation (Luce), 902 
U.S. mutual security aid, continuation of, 988 
Visit of journalists to U.S. to observe elections, 666 
ITU. See International Telecommunication Union 

Jackson, William H., 879 
Japan : 

Atomic energy experts, visit to U.S., 451 

Cotton exports to U.S., question of restrictions on. 

address (Phleger) and texts of notes, 14, 554 
Economic relationship to South Asia, address (Young), 

347 
Export-Import Bank loan, 558 
International North Pacific Fisheries Commission, 

meeting, 717 
North Pacific fur seal conference, negotiations, address 

(Murphy), 717 
Nutrition education program in, 233 
Okinawa, U.S. position regarding, statements : Allison, 

60 ; Dulles, 183, 408 
Rearmament, question of, statement (Dulles), 148 
Belief aid to Ryukyu Islands, 993 
Textile exports to U.S., question of U.S. restrictions 

on, address (Phleger), 14 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, surplus, agreement suj)- 
plementing the understandings to the 1956 agree- 
ment with U.S., 970, 1006 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Civil aviation convention (1954), international, pro- 
tocol amending, 650 
Economic development and military housing, loan 

agreement with U.S., 325 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of 

agreement, 249 
GATT, 5th protocol of rectifications and modifica- 
tions to texts of schedules, 970 
GATT, protocol of rectification to French text of, 830 
GATT, protocol on terms of accession of Japan, 565 



1032 



Department of State Bulletin 



Japan — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Peace treaty (1951), 96, 249, 430 

Peace treaty negotiations with Soviet Union, address 
and statements: (Dulles, Murphy), 406, 480, 578, 
718 ; text of U.S. aide memoire, 484 
Publications, official, agreement with U.S. relating to 

exchange of, 497 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 937 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 937 
U.N. membership, U.S. support, address and state- 
ments : Dulles, 660 ; Hoover, 837 ; Wadsworth, 244, 
326 
U.S. aid, 272 

U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 970 
U.S. military housing in, financing, 235 
U.S. policy toward, statement (Allison), 60 
Jews, Soviet policy toward, address (Murphy), 909 
Johnson, Lt. Gen. Leon, 263n 
Johnston, Clement D., 727 
Jones, G. Lewis, 294 
Jones, Howard P., 274, 635, 856 
Jones, Lewis Webster, 727 
Jones, Richard Lee, 212, 997 
Jonsson, Emil, 542, 580 
Jordan : 

Evacuation of U.S. citizens from, 798 

Iraqi troops in, question of, statement (Dulles), 658 

Israeli-Jordan border incidents, statements (Dulles), 

549, 660 
Reported movement of Syrian military equipment into, 

659, 660 
Travel to, U.S. restrictions on, 756 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S., 689 
Narcotic drugs, convention (1931) limiting manu- 
facture and distribution, 862 
Juliana of the Netherlands, 453, 454 
Justice, International Court of, statute, 430, 936 

Kadar, Janos, 802 

Kalijarvi, Thorsten V., 521, 667, 723 

Kaplan, Joseph, 281 

Karamanlis, Constantine, 840 

Katzen, Bernard, 222, 223 

Keating, Rep. Kenneth B., 550, 552 

Kellogg, Frank B., 14 

Kepner, Fred, 194 

Khrushchev, Nikita, 4, 48, 49, 265 

Klimov, Grlgori P., 274 

Knowland, Sen. William F., 212, 726, 870, 965 

Korea : 

Armistice agreement : 

Communist violations of, addresses : Jones, 277 ; 

Lodge, 355 
Unified Command report concerning Communist 

violations and suspension of NNSC inspection 

activities, 390 

Index, July 'o December 1956 



Korea — Continued 

Communist aggression in : 

Addresses : Merchant, 58, 59 ; Robertson, 267 
U.N. action to resist, address (Phillips), 176 
U.S. and Communist policies in, address (Murphy), 718 
Korea, Republic of : 
Art collection, selection for U.S. loan exhibition, 515 
Communist threat to, U.S. aid as deterrent, address 

(Jones), 278 
International Bank membership, 323 
Reconstruction by UNKRA, progress of, statement 
( Humphrey ) and General Assembly resolution, 967, 
969 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 398, 782 
Air transport agreement with U.S., proposed dis- 
cussions concerning, 722 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaty with 

U.S., 935, 937 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement with U.S. for 

disposition of equipment and materials, 329 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 168 
U.N. membership, U.S. support, address and state- 
ments : Hoover, 837 ; Wadsworth, 244, 326 
U.S. aid, 270 
Korean Reconstruction Agency, U.N., progress of work 
in the Republic of Korea, statement (Humphrey) 
and General Assembly resolution, 967, 969 
Korean war dead, dedication of plaque at U.N. head- 
quarters honoring, statements ( Hammarskjold, 
Lodge, Walker), 119, 120 
Kos, Peter, 180 
Kotschnig, Walter, 561 
Kreisler, Mr. and Mrs. Bernard, 701n. 
Krieg, William L., 735 
Kudryavtsev, V. L., 665 

Labor, Communist use of forced and slave, U.N. efforts 
to combat, address (Phillips), 176 

Labor, migrant, agreement with Mexico amending 1951 
agreement, as amended and extended, 213 

Labor Office, International, U.S. delegation to 133d ses- 
sion of Governing Body, 829 

Labor Organization, International. See International 
Labor Organization 

Labor policy, international, functions and membership of 
interdepartmental committee on, 443 

Lacarte Muro, Julio A., 542 

Lacy, William S. B., 366 

Lake Michigan, legislation proposing diversion of waters 
from, memorandum of disapproval (Eisenhower) and 
text of Canadian note, 357 

Lake Ontario, IJC supplementary order of approval regu- 
lating waters of, text, 227 

Lall, Arthur S., 962 

Laos: 

Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relat- 
ing to, 128, 212 

1033 



Laos — Continued 
Civil aviation convention (1954), international, proto- 
col amending, G50 
U.S. aid, 271, 272 
Latin America {see also Inter-American and individual 
countries) : 
Caribbean, ICAO special, regional air navigation meet- 
ing, U.S. delegation, 829 
Caribbean Commis.sion, apiiointment of U.S. Commis- 
sioner and delegation to 23d meeting, 285, 1002 
Central American free-trade area, proposed formation, 

893, 897 
Economic and trade relations with U.S., article (Cul- 

bertson, Lederer), US3 
Economic development in, statement (Baker), 290 
Export-Import Bank loans, 558 
Labor problems, Cth regional conference of American 

States members of the ILO on, 4.58 
Noninterference in internal affairs of others, principle 

of, statement (Dulles), 579 
Organization of American States. See Organization of 

American States 
Panamd meeting of Presidents of American Republics. 

See Panamd meeting 
U.N. Economic Commission for Latin America, U.S. 
delegation to 1st meeting of Trade Committee, 857 
U.S. aid, 317, 643, 645 

U.S. investments in, statement (Baker), 395 
U.S. policy in, address (Ageton), 847 
Visit of U.S. atoms-for-peace team, 846 
Law of the sea, U.N. actions concerning, address (Wil- 
cox), 775 
Lebanon : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
U.S. aid to improve transportation system, 67 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213 
Lederer, Walther, 983 
Lee, Mrs. Frances M., 5G2 
Lee, Muna, 562 

Legislation. See under Congress 
Lend-lease and certain claims, agreement with Poland 

for settlement of, 85, 113, 114 
Lend-lease operations, transmittal of President's report 

to Congress on, 195 
Less developed countries. See Underdeveloped countries 
Leuthold, Walter M., 687 
Leverieh, Henry P., 738 
Libby, Willard F., 445 
Liberia : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 970 
Libraries, participation in world book exchange pro- 
gram, 323 
Libya : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Development a.ssistance, agreement with U.S. providing 

for, 213 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 
of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 213 
Liechtenstein, protocol amending 1929 convention for uni- 
fication of certain rules relating to international car- 
riage by air, 128 



Lighter flints, decision against recommendation to in- 
crease tariff on, letter (Eisenhower), 888 
Lightner, B. Allan, Jr., 329 

Linen toweling, announcement and proclamation increas- 
ing tariff on imports, 115 
Lisle, Raymond E., 530 
Liu Shao-chi, 266 
Lleras, Alberto, 962 

Loans, International Bank. See International Bank 
Loans, U.S. (see also Export-Import Bank), to Latin 

American countries, 318 
Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr. : 
Addresses and statements : 

Algerian question, proposal to inscribe on Security 

Council agenda, U.S. position, 125 
Chinese representation in U.N., 855 
Communism, current aspects of the struggle with, 

3.53 
Disarmament, U.S. and Soviet positions, 196, 202, 

203, 207 
Hungarian question. See Hungarian question 
Korean war dead, dedication of plaque at U.N. head- 
quarters honoring, 120 
Palestine question. See Israeli hostilities 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
U.N. expenses, scale of assessments for apportioning, 

1001 
U.S. position in today's world, 19 
Confirmation as U.S. Representative to 11th session of 

the General Assembly, 212 
Letters and message : 

Palestine question, U.S. request for Security Council 

meeting to consider, 747 
Radioactive fallout, U.S. offer of aid in measuring, 

41 
U.N. achievements, U.N. Day message, 771 
London conferences on the Suez Canal problem. See 

under Suez Canal 
Lord. Mrs. O.swald B., 212 

Los Angeles passjMrt agency, establishment, 565 
Luce, Mrs. Clare Boothe, 902 
Luxembourg : 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 128 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 689 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 528 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245« 

MacArthur, Douglas, II, 970 

Macdonald, Thomas L., 839 

Macovescu, Gheorghe, 728 

Magsaysay, Ramon, 10, 95 

Maleter, Pal, 801 

Malta, extension by U.K. of German external debts agree- 
ment to, 901 

Mao Tse-tung, 266 

Maritime conference, ILO preparatory technical, U.S. 
delegation, 526 



1034 



Department of State Bulletin 



Marshall Islands. See Trust territories 

Martino, Gaetano, 981 

Mathys, Mr. and Mrs., departure from Hungary, 701n 

McCarran-Walter Immigration Act, proposed legislation 

revising, letters (Eisenhower, Watkins), 194 
McClintock, Robert, 226 
McFarlane, Hugh H., 829 
McGregor, Robert G., 830 
Mecca, transportation of Afghan Moslem pilgrims by U.S. 

aircraft to, 25 
Memminger, Robert B., 214 
Mendoza, Esteban, 703 
Menzies, Robert G., 460(i, 468, 472 
Merchant, Livingston T., 56 
Merrill, Frederick T., 294, 460 
Metcalf, Woodbridge, 686 
Meteorological Organization, World : 
Convention, 497, 970 

Designation as a public international organization and 
functions, 457 
Meteorological stations. See Weather stations 
Mexico : 
Export-Import Bank credit for railway rehabilitation, 

846 
Panamii meeting of Presidents of the American Re- 

pul)lics, declaration, 220 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 1005 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules 
relating to, 128 
Cultural property, protocol (1954) for protection in 

event of armed conflict, 168 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of 

agreement, 249 
Migrant labor, agreement with U.S. amending 1951 

agreement, 213 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 937 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 168, 970 
Micronesia. See Trust territories 
Middle East. See Near and Middle East 
Middle East Emergency Committee, formation and func- 
tions, 374 
Migrant labor, agreement with Mexico amending 1951 

agreement, 213 
Military assistance (see also Military missions. Mutual 
defense, anil Mutual security) : 
Agreements providing military equipment, materials, 
and services, with — 
Ceylon, 937; Federal Republic of Germany, G33, 650 
Assistance to military units of Paraguay, address 

(Ageton), 851 
Effect of manpower cut on U.S. aid to NATO, statement 

(Dulles), 183 
Restriction on shipment of military equipment to the 
Middle East, statement (White), 754 
Military bases, U.S. : 

Iceland, negotiations regarding. See under Iceland : 
Treaties 



Military bases, U. S. — Continued 

Okinawa, U.S. jjosition regarding, statements: Allison, 

60 ; Dulles, 183, 408 
Philippines, joint statement regarding need to 
strengthen (Magsaysay, Nixon), 95 
Military information, exchange of. See under Disarma- 
ment 
Military missions, U.S. : 

Air Force mission agreements with — 

Argentina, 604, 605 ; Bolivia, 213 ; Nicaragua, 460 
Army mission agreements with — 

Bolivia, 213 ; Chile, 937 ; Peru, 528 
Military advisory mission, agreement with Brazil 

extending 1948 agreement, 689 
Naval mission, agreement with Dominican Republic, 
1006 
Military program, U.S. See Mutual defense aiid Mutual 

security 
Mindszenty, Cardinal, 801 
Minotto, James, 727 
Mixed Board dealing with prisoners in German war 

crimes cases, appointment of U.S. member, 60 
Mixed Commission dealing with German external debts, 

appointment of U.S. member, 509 
Molotov, Vyacheslav M., 491 
Monaco, statute of the International Atomic Energy 

Agency, 738 
Monetary and Financial Problems, International, Na- 
tional Advisory Council on, functions and member- 
ship, 443 
Monetary Fund, International, articles of agreement, 528 
Money orders, international, agreement with the Vatican 

for exchange of, 970 
Money orders, postal, convention with the Ryukyu 

Islands for unilateral exchange of, 497 
Morocco : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 444 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 862 

Drugs, protocol bringing under international control 

drugs outside scope of 1931 convention, as amended, 

1006 

Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 430 
Narcotic drugs, convention (1931) limiting the manu- 
facture and regulating the distribution of, 1005 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245n. 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 

1005 
Tangier. See Tangier 
U.N. membership, address and statement: Wadsworth, 

244 ; Wilcox, 773 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 213 
U.S. consular jurisdiction, relinquishment of, text of 
U.S. note, 844 
Morse, Clarence G., 588 
Mulliken, Otis E., 566 

Munitions and technical data, control of international 
traffic in, address (Pomeroy), 919 



Index. July to December 7956 



1035 



Murphy, Robert : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Berlin, Symbol of Free-AVorld Determination, 668 
Conversation with 1st Secretary of Hungarian Le- 
gation, 701 
Conversation with Prime Minister of Greece, 480 
French Foreign Minister's visit to U.S., 7 
Hungary and the Middle East, U.S. views on prob- 
lems of, 907 
U.S. efforts for release of citizens detained in Soviet 

Union, 190 
U.S. foreign policy, 671, 716 
Visit to Germany, announcement, 550 
Mutual defense. Sec Baghdad Pact, Collective security. 
Military bases. Mutual defense assistance. Mutual 
security. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Mutual defense assistance agreements (see also Military 
missions), with — 
Korea, agreement for disposition of equipment and 

materials, 329 
Germany, Federal Republic of, agreement for sale of 
military equipment, materials, and services, 633, 
650 
Norway, agreement further amending annex C of 1950 

agreement, 565 
Pakistan, agreement for disposition of equipment and 
materials, 329 
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951 (Battle 
Act), Presidential determinations to continue aid un- 
der, 988 
Mutual security and other assistance programs (see also 
Agricultural surpluses. Economic and technical aid, 
and Mutual defense assistance) : 
Authorization and appropriation for. Congressional 
action, statements : Dulles, 53, 149 ; Eisenhower, 
144 
Congressional studies of, 72G, 727 
Defense support to — 
Asia, 270; Cambodia, 271, 272; China, Republic of, 
271; Korea, Republic of, 270; Laos, 271, 272; 
Philippines, 273; Spain, 68; Thailand, 272; Viet- 
Nam, 271 
Presidential study of, 551, 725, 726, 988 
President's 10th semiannual report to Congress (Jan. 

1-June 30, 1956), excerpts, 642 
Reexamination, evaluation, and principles of, address 

(Kalijarvi), 723 
Southeast Asia, ANZUS Council meeting and list of 

representatives, 839 
Yugoslavia, U.S. mutual security aid, 574>!, 664 
Mutual Security Program, President's Citizen Advisers 
on: 
Functions and membership, 551, 725, 726 
Overseas trip to study foriegn aid program, itinerary 
and members, 988 

NAC. See North Atlantic Council 
Nagy, Imre, 760, 761, 762, 800, 801 
Nailler, Charles R., 1002 
Narcotic drugs. See Drugs, narcotic 



Narcotics, Interdepartmental Committee on, functions 

and membership, 443 
Nash, Frank C, 212 

Nasser, Col. Gamel Abdel, 260, 336, 407, 472 
National Advisory Council on International Monetary and 
Financial Problems, functions and membership, 443 
National Olympic Day, 1956, 768 

National security, U.S. (see also Collective security and 
Mutual security), disarmament as a safeguard of, 
address (Wilcox), 98 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Nausen, Fridtjof, 453, 454 

Naval mission, agreement with Dominican Republic pro- 
viding for, 1006 
Naval vessels. See Ships 

Navigation, friendship, and commerce treaties, with — 
Germany, Federal Republic of, 42, 85, 167 ; Korea, Re- 
public of, 935, 937 ; Netherlands, 168, 605 ; Nicaragua, 
168, 605 
Near and Middle East (see also individual countries) : 
Aiding victims of aggresion in, statements : Dulles, 658 ; 

White House, 749 
Collective security (see also Baghdad Pact), defense 

exijcnditures for, 643 
Economic development in, statement (Baker), 290 
Evacuation of U.S. citizens from, 700, 756, 798 
Palestine question. See Arab-Israeli dispute and Israeli 

hostilities 
Soviet influence in, address and statement; Dulles, 48; 

LcKlge, 355 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
Travel by U.S. citizens in, restrictions on, 756, 799 
U.N. influence in, statement (Dulles), 838 
U.S. policy, addresses: Eisenhower, 744, 745; Murphy, 

907 
U.S. -French policy, joint communique regarding, 9 
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 53, 879 
Nepal : 

U.S. aid, 493, 495 

U.S. Ambassador, appointment{ Bunker), 937; resigna- 
tion (Cooper), 366 
Nerren, William G., 5(>5 
Netherlands : 

Air transport, negotiations with U.S. resumed, 935 
Lend-lease silver, return to U.S., 195 
Tariff restrictions on imiwrts of U.S. wheat, 898 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, surplus, agreement with 

U.S., 398 
Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Faroe Islands, agreements on joint financing, 969 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Bills of lading, international convention (1924) for 
unification of certain rules relating to, and protocol 
of signature, 605, 829 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 128 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaty with 

U.S., 168, 605 
GATT, 0th protocol of supplementary concessions, 528 



1036 



Department of State Bulletin 



Netherlands — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

International Court of Justice, statute, declaration 

recognizing compulsory jurisdiction, 430 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement regarding fi- 
nancial support, 127 
Nuclear power, production of, agreement with U.S., 85 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245)t 
Tangier, protocols and final declaration cimcerning, 

328, 830, 842 
Weather stations at Curagao and St. Martin, agree- 
ment with U.S. for establishment and operation, 430, 
605 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 970 
Wheat agreement ( 1956) , international, 213 
U.S. Consulate at Rotterdam, elevation to consulate 

general, 530 
Visit by journalists to U.S. to observe elections, 666 
Netherlands Antilles, extension of agreement regarding 
financial supiwrt of the North Atlantic Ice Patrol to, 
168 
Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (Korea), Uni- 
fied Command report to U.N. on suspension of inspec- 
tion activities and Communist obstruction to work 
of, 390 
Neutralism : 

Asian policy, address (Young), 351 

Effect on defense of U.S., statement (Dulles), 183, 184 

Effect on NATO, statement (Dulles), 184 

Hungarian neutralism, Soviet violation of, address 

(Murphy), 909 
Immoral neutralism, definition, statement ( Dulles), 147 
Importance of neutral nations, address (Nixon), 948 
Relationship to collective security, statement (Dulles), 

147 
Soviet policy regarding, address (Murphy), 720 
Swiss policy of, 147 

U.S. attitude toward, address (Nixon), 93 
New Zealand : 

ANZUS Council, meeting and list of representatives, 839 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S., 460 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Civil aviation convention (1954), international, proto- 
col amending, 650 
Opium, protocol (1953), regulating the production, 

trade, and use of, 969 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 970 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 782 
U.S. Ambassador, resignation, 902 
Nicaragua : 
Assassination of President, statement (Eisenhower), 

573 
Canal construction through Nicaragua, question of, 

statement (Dulles), 574 
International Bank loan for electric power develop- 
ment, 890 
Panama meeting of Presidents of the American Re- 
publics, declaration, 220 



Nicaragua — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air Force mission, agreement with U.S. extending 

1952 agreement, 460 
Amateur radio, 3d party, agreement with U.S., 937 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
FriendshiiJ, commerce and navigation, treaty with 

U.S., 168, 605 
GATT, proces verbal, amending protocols, and dec- 
laration on continued application of schedules, 970 
GATT, 3d protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 1006 
Parcel post service and insurance of parcels, agree- 
ment with U.S., 42 
Plant protection convention (1952), international, 

430 
Rama Road, agreement with U.S. amending agree- 
ment for survey and construction, 366 
Trade Cooperation, Organization for, agreement on, 

969 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 937 
Women, inter-American convention (1948) on grant- 
ing of political rights to, 528 
Nigeria, Federation of, membership in World Health Or- 
ganization, 430 
Nixon, Richard M. : 

Addresses and statements : 

In the Cause of Peace and Freedom, 943 
Our Partnership in Creating a World of Peace, 91 
U.S. military bases in Philippines, joint statement re- 
garding need to strengthen, 95 
U.S. relations with Pakistan, 193 
U.S. policy in the Far East, 352 
Visits to — 
Austria, 979 ; Pakistan, 193 ; Philippines, 10 
Nkrumah, Kwame, 247 

NNSC. See Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission 
Non-Self-Governing Territories, Interdepartmental Com- 
mittee on, functions and membership, 443 
Non-self-governing territories {see also Self-determination 
and Trust territories), U.N. action during 1955, report 
to Congress (Eisenhower), 388 
North Atlantic Council : 
ISth ministerial meeting: 
Delegation, U.S., 951 
Statements (Dulles), 912, 950, 981 
Text of communique, 981 
NAC recommendations regarding U.S.-Icelandie defense 
agreement, letter (Andersen) and text, 306, 308 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement regarding financial 

support, 127, 128, 168 
North Atlantic Planning Board for Ocean Shipping, U.S. 

delegation to 8th meeting, 588 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization : 
Armed forces, commitments by Federal Republic of 

Germany, 182, 487, 4SS, 489 
Contributions to, 643 

Effect of neutralism on NATO, statement (Dulles), 184 
Fellowship and scholarship program, 309 



Index, July fo December 7956 



1037 



North Atlantic Treaty Organization — Continued 

Force goals, U.S. commitments, statements: Dulles, 181, 

182, 183 ; Radford, 263 
Forces and base in Iceland. See Iceland, Treaties: 

Defense agreement with U.S. 
Ground forces cut, statement (Dulles), 183 
Importance of, addresses : Elbrick, 110 ; Murphy, 675 
Member countries' journalists, visit to U.S., 666 
National representatives and international staff, agree- 
ment on status, 1006 
Nonmilitary aspects, development of, addresses and 

statement : Dulles, 696, 912 ; Elbrick, 111 
Norway's contribution and support, address (Strong), 

24 
Paris meeting (September 1956), U.S. delegation, 412 
Soviet efforts to destroy, address (Merchant), 57 
U.S. Mission to NATO and European Regional Organi- 
zations, confirmation of director, OfBce of Economic 
Aftairs, 168 
U.S. polic.v, address and statements : Dulles, 912 ; El- 
brick, 583; Hagerty, 912 
U.S.-French joint communique regarding, 8 
North Pacific Fisheries Commission, International, meet- 
ing, address (Murphy), 717 
North Pacific fur seal conference, negotiations, address 

(Murphy), 717 
"Northern tier" pact. See Baghdad Pact 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending interna- 
tional convention (1949), regarding annual meetings 
of the International Commission, 128, 168, 936 
Norway : 

Postwar development, address (Strong), 22 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Faroe Islands, agreements on joint financing, 969 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 128 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
GATT, procfes verbal and amending protocols, 328, 

430, 460, 782 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement regarding fi- 
nancial support, 127 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending in- 
ternational convention regarding, 1'28 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement with U.S. 

amending annex C of 1950 agreement, 565 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245ra 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 970 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 937 
Visit by journalists to U.S. to observe elections, 666 
Nucker, Delmas H., 35, 121, 363, 840 
Nuclear energy. See Atomic energy 
NUrnberg, Germany, remarks (Conant) on opening of 

Amerikahaus, 766 
Nyasaland, Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 
GATT approval of tariff policy, 897 



OAS. See Organization of American States 

Oceanographic research stations, agreements with U.K. 
for establishment on Barbados, 782 ; Grand Turk, 922, 
937 

O'Connor, Roderic L., 285, 1002 

Odishaw, Hugh, 280 

OEEC. See Organization for European Economic Co- 
operation 

Oil supply problem. See under Suez Canal 

Okinawa, U.S. policy regarding, statements: Allison, 60; 
Dulles, 183, 408 

Olympic Day, 1946, National, 768 

"Open sky" proposal of President Eisenhower. See Dis- 
armament : Aerial inspection 

Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, and 
use of, 42, 128, 969 

Organization for European Economic Cooperation, 8th 
annual review, U.S. delegation to discussions on eco- 
nomic policies, 496 

Organization for Trade Cooperation. See Trade Coopera- 
tion, Organization for 

Organization of American States : 
Functions of, address (Dulles), 696 
Proposals to increase effectiveness. See Panamd 

meeting 
U.S. alternate representative, appointment, 735 

Orphans, adopted foreign-born, provisions to facilitate im- 
migration into U.S., 768 j 

OTC. See Trade Cooperation, Organization for 

Pacific, North, fur seal conference, negotiations, address 

( Murphy ) , 717 
Pacific, North, International Fisheries Commission, meet- 
ing, address (Murphy), 717 
Pacific Lslands, Trust Territory of. See Trust territories 
Pact of mutual cooperation. See Baghdad Pact 
Paine, Robert Treat, Jr., 515 
Pakistan : 

Book exchange program with U.S., 323 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, surplus, agreement with 

U.S., 366, 528, 1006 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Double taxation on income, convention with U.S. for 

avoidance of, proposed, 60 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement with U.S. for 

disposition of equipment and materials, 329 
Naval vessels, agreement with U.S. concerning finan- 
cial arrangements for furnishing supplies and 
services, 528 
U.S. aid, 493, 495 

U.S. relations with, statement (Nixon), 193 
Visit to U.S. of Deputy Speaker of National Assembly, 
25 
Palestine Conciliation Commission, 788 
Palestine question. See Arab-Israeli dispute and Israeli 

hostilities 
Palmer, Joseph, II, 497 

Pan American Sanitary Organization, 9th meeting of the 
Directing Council, U.S. delegation, 496 



1038 



Department of State Bulletin 



Panama : 
Panamii meeting of Presidents of American Republics, 

declaration, 220 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Radio communications between amateur stations on 

behalf of 3d parties, agreement with U.S., 329 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 937 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213 
U.S. relations with, statement (Dulles), 578 
Visit of U.S. atoms-for-peace team, 846 
Panama Canal : 

Internationalization, question of, statement (Dulles), 

408 
Question of building a second canal, statement (Dulles), 

574 
U.S. treaty rights regarding, statement (Dulles), 411 
U.S.-Panamanian problems concerning, statement 
(Dulles), 578 
Panamd Meeting of Presidents of the American Re- 
publics : 
Address and statements : Dulles, 150, 408 ; Eisenhower, 

219 
Declaration by Presidents, text, 220 
Presidential Representatives, Inter-American Commit- 
tee of, l.st meeting, statement (Milton Eisenhower) 
and final communique, 511, 513 
U.S. proposals concerning special committee to study 
improvement of OAS, text of note, 356 
Para-aminosalicylic acid, tariff increase held unnecessary, 

letter (Eisenhower), 321 
Paraguay : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 366 
Panama meeting of Presidents of American Republics, 

declaration, 220 
U.S. relations with, address (Ageton), 847 
Paraschivescu-Balaceanu, Constantin, 728 
Parcel post agreements with — 

Ceylon, 782 ; Nicaragua, 42 
Parliamentary group, French, visit to U.S., 451 
Parsons, Howard L., 606, 722 
Passamaquoddy Tidal Power Project, investigation of 

hydroelectric power possibilities, 322 
Passports (see also Visas) : 
Agency at Los Angeles, establishment, 565 
Policy for travel to Communist China, 313, 314 
Restrictions and invalidation for travel in certain Mid- 
dle East countries, 756, 799 
Patent rights, atomic energy, tripartite agreement (U.S.- 
U.K.-Canada) for disposition, announcement and 
text, 540, 565 
Patterson, Richard S., 9.54 
Payne, Predericli Blake, 168 
Paz, Gainza, 575, 576 
Peace : 
Addresses and statements : Adenauer, 488 ; Dulles, 313, 
482, 571, 695 ; Eisenhower, 946 ; Nixon, 91, 943 



Peace — Continued 

Efforts of Woodrow Wilson for, 956 
U.N. framework for, address (Phillips), 175 
Peace treaties : 
Austrian state treaty, 482, 528 
Japanese treaties. See utider Japan : Treaties 
Peanuts, shelled, proclamation on modification of restric- 

trictions on imports, 455 
Perkins, George W., 412 

Persons, exchange of. See East-West contacts. Educa- 
tional exchange, and Exchange of persons 
Peru: 

Inauguration of President-elect, U.S. delegation, 187, 

221 
Panama meeting of Presidents of American Republics, 

declaration, 220 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, surplus, agreement with 

U.S., 565 
Army mission, agreements with U.S., 528 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Employment service program, cooperative, agreement 

supplementing 1954 agreement with U.S., 862 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of 

agreement, 249 
GATT, protocols amending, 85, 168, 430 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
and agreements on money orders and parcel post, 
689 
Radio communications convention (1937), inter- 
American, notice of denunciation, 862 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 

366 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 497 
Women, inter- American convention (1948) on grant- 
ing of political rights to, 528 
Visit of U.S. atoms-for-peace team, 846 
Petkov, Nikola, 509 

Petroleum. See Suez Canal problem : Oil supply 
Petrov, Viktor Ivanovich, 377 
Phenix, Spencer, 60 
Philippines : 
Communist threat to, U.S. aid in overcoming, address 

(Jones), 279 
Independence celebration, 10th anniversary: 
Address (Nixon), 91 
Invitation to Vice President Nixon, announcement 

and letter, 10 
Letter (Eisenhower), 93 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules 
relating to, 128 
Peace treaty with Japan, 249 
Postal convention (1952), universal, 430 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 901 
U.S. aid, 273, 636 

U.S. military bases in, joint statement (Magsaysay, 
Nixon) , regarding need to strengthen, 95 
Phillips, Christopher H., 175 
Phleger, Herman, 11 



Index, July to December 1956 



1039 



Photogrammetry, 8th International Congress and Ex- 
position of, U.S. delegation, 211 
Photogrammetry, International Society of, functions, 212 
Photography, aerial, Italian demonstration, message 

(Eisenhower), 715 
Physiological Congress, 20th International, 248 
Physiological Sciences, International Union of, U.S. dele- 
gation to 1st general assembly, 247 
Pineau, Christian, 7 

Plant protection convention (1952), international, cur- 
rent actions, 212, 430, 650, 689 
Plaut, James S., 951 
Poland : 

Communist imperialism in, remarks (Eisenhower), 702 
Free Poland, use of ship's flag, texts of Polish note of 

Polish note of protest and U.S. reply, 376 
Housing experts, visit to U.S., 840 

New government, efforts to install, address (Eisen- 
hower), 743 
Poznan demonstrations : 

U.S. concern and views, address and statements : 

Eisenhower, 552 ; Phillips, 176, 177 ; White, 55 
U.S. offer of food to relieve shortages, letters 
(Hoover, Starr) and Polish Red Cross telegram 
declining offer, 55, 151, 152 
Reported unrest in, U.S. concern, statement (Eisen- 
hower), 664 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Austrian state treaty, 528 

Carriage by air. International, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules 
relating to, 128, 212 
Cultural property, convention (1954) and protocol for 

protection in event of armed conflict, 565 
Lend-lease and certain claims, negotiations and agree- 
ment with U.S. for settlement, 85, 113, 194 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 
and final and additional protocols, 249 
Tribuna Ludu statement regarding Nagy government 

in Hungary, statement (Lodge), 801 
U.S. invitation to observe elections, 550, 665 
Polio vaccine, export quota established, 35S 
Political rights for women, 528, 562 

Pollution of Seas by Oil, U.S. National Committee for 
Prevention of, 1st meeting and list of members, 521 
Pomeroy, Leonard H., 915 
Portugal : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules 
relating to, 128 
Commercial samples and advertising material, in- 
ternational convention (1952) to facilitate impor- 
tation, 782 
Copyright convention (1952), universal, and related 

protocols, 650, 936 
Naval ves.sels, U.S., agreement with U.S. for loan of, 

937 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending in- 
ternational convention (1949) regarding, 128 



Portugal — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Postal convention (1952), universal, 213, 430 
Tangier, protocols and final declaration concerning, 

328, 830, 842 
Telecommimication convention (1952), international, 

and protocols, 459, 460, 565 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 901 
U.S. aid, 320 
Portuguese overseas territories, 430, 565 
Postal convention (19.52), universal, current actions, 213, 

366, 430 
Postal money orders, convention with the Ryukyu 

Islands for unilateral exchange of, 497 
Postal money orders, international, agreement with the 

Vatican for exchange of, 970 
Postal service for parcels and insurance of parcels, 

agreement with Nicaragua, 42 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention and 
agreements relative to money orders and parcel post, 
current actions, 168, 689, 738 
Poznan demonstrations. See under Poland 
Prado Ugarteche, Manuel, 187 

President's Citizen Advisers on the Mutual Security Pro- 
gram, 551, 725, 726, 988 
President's Committee for Hungarian Refugee Relief, 

functions and members, 980 
Presidents of the American Republics, Panamfi, meeting of. 

See Panamd meeting 
President's Special Committee on Disarmament, func- 
tions and membership, 443 
Press conference transcripts, statement (Dulles), 655 
Priest, Alan, 515 
Prisoners in German war-crimes cases, U.S. appointment 

to Mixed Board dealing with, 60 
Prisoners of war, Geneva conventions (1949) on treat- 
ment of, 213, 430, 689 
Prisoners of war, U.S., U.N. action for release of fliers 
held in Communist China : 
Addresses : Lodge, 353, 355, 356 ; Phillips, 176 
President's report to Congress, 384, 385 
Prochnow, Herbert V., 69, 566, 683, 686 
Proclamations by the President : 

Cotton, long-staple, modification of import and quota 

restrictions, 114 
General Pulaski's Memorial Day, 553 
Hiunan Rights Day (1956), U.N., 950 
Linen toweling, increased tariff on imports and 

withdrawal of concession, 116 
National Olympic Day (1956), 768 

Peanuts, shelled, modification of restrictions on im- 
ports, 455 
Sudan, establishment of immigration quota, 152 
Tariff concessions negotiated at Geneva, proclamation 

modifying proclamation of June 13, 1956, 74 
Tunisia, establishment of immigration quota for, 557 
United Nations Day (19.56), 54 
Wool fabrics, increased duty on imports, 555, 556 
World trade fair, U.S., 890 
Property, cultural, convention (1954) for protection in 
event of armed conflict and regulations of execution, 
167, 168, 565, 969 



1040 



Department of State Bulletin 



Property, rights and Interests in Germany. See Arbitra- 
tion Tribunal 
Public Committee on Personnel, study of U.S. Foreign 

Service, article (Hoskins), 418 
Publications : 

Atomic radiation data reports, transmission by AEC to 

the U.N., 689 
Commerce Department, World Trade Review as of July 

1956, published, 378 
Congressional documents relating to foreign policy, 
lists of, 75, 161, 195, 241, 279, 315, 359, 376, 484, 510, 
676, 8.54, 982 
Exchange of offleial publications, agreement with Japan 

relating to, 497 
International Finance Corporation, booklet outlining 
operating policies and procedures, published, 456 
Soviet Union affairs in 1922-23, texts of unpublished 

documents on, 153 
State Department : 
Documents on Oerman Foreign Policy, 191S-1945 
(The Last Months of peace, March-August 1939), 
series D, vol. VI, published, 169 
Foreign Relations of the United States, published : 

1941, vol. IV (Far East), 2.50 

1942, China, 937 

Foreign Service, list of reference material, 419 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Schedule 
XX, published, 75 

Lists of recent releases, 42, 86, 128, 169, 214, 250, 330, 
461, 498, 530, 566, 650, 689, 738, 830, 902, 938, 1006 

Suez Canal Problem, July 26-Septem,her 22, 1956, 
published, 659 

Swords into Plowshares — A New Yentiire in Inter- 
national Understanding, published, 329 

Treaties in Force: A List of Treaties and Other In- 
ternational Agreements of the United States, pub- 
lished, 127 
U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation 

. . . An American View, published, 518 
United Nations, lists of current documents, 126, 165, 
327, 379, 527, 564, 688, 728, 780, 899, 930, 1003 
Puerto Rico, U.S. aid to University of Puerto Rico for 

training and research programs in peaceful uses of 

atomic energy, 512 
Pulaski, Casimir, .5.53 

Radford, Adm. Arthur W., 263 

Radiation, atomic, effects on human health. See Atomic 
energy, radiation effects 

Radio, 3d party amateur, agreements vpith — 
Costa Rica, 738 ; Nicaragua, 937 ; Panama, 329 

Radio communications convention (1937) , Inter-American, 
862 

Radio Consultative Committee, International (ITU), 
U.S. delegation to 8th plenary assembly, 327 

Radio frequency adjustment, discussions between U.S.- 
Canada, 18 

Radioactive fallout. See Attmiic energy, radiation effects 

Railway rehabilitation in Mexico, Export-Import Bank 
loan, 846 

Rama Road, agreement with Nicaragua amending agree- 
ment for survey and construction of, S&G 



Randall, Clarence B., 143 

Randall, Harold M., 857 

Ravndal, Christian M., 213 

Rawinsonde observation stations. See Weather stations 

Reap, Joseph W., 376 

Reciprocity Information, Committee for, 648, 888 

Reconstruction and Development, International Bank for. 

See International Bank 
Red Cross, American National, aid to Hungarian refugees, 

764, 872, 873 
Red Cross, Polish, refusal of U.S. offer of aid, 55, 151 
Red Cross Societies, aid to Hungarian refugees, 7(54, 872 
Refugee Fund, U.N., 245, 966 
Refugee Relief, President's Committee for Hungarian, 

functions and members, 980 
Refugee Relief Act, proposed amendments, letter (Eisen- 
hower, Watkins), 194 
Refugees and displaced persons : 

The challenge of refugee relief, remarks (Houghton) 
on acceptance of Nausen Medal and message (Ham- 
marskjold), 453 
Hungarian refugees. See under Hungarian question 
Progress in meeting the needs of, statement (Know- 
land) and General Assembly resolution, 965, 967 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Copyright convention (1952), universal, protocol 1, 
application of convention to works of stateless per- 
sons and refugees, 936 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion, constitution, 213 
Refugees, convention (1951) on status of, 245 
U.N. action during 19.55, report to Congress (Elsen- 
hower), 388 
U.N. efforts to find permanent solutions to refugee 
problem, statement (Baker) and ECOSOC resolu- 
tion, 244 
U.S. aid to. President's views, letter, 552 
Reinstein, Jacques J., 460 

Relief and rehabilitation. See Refugees and displaced 
persons, Economic aid, Hungarian question : Refugees, 
and individual countries 
"Renunciation of force" principle, discussions at Geneva 

ambassadorial talks, 267, 277, 312, 5.53 
Republican National (Convention, formulation of foreign 

policy plank, statement (Dulles), 185 
Research reactor projects, U.S. program of grants for, 

information and procedures for obtaining, 598 
Renter, Ernst, 671 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of, GATT approval 

of tariff policy, 897 
Rice, agreement with Burma iirovldlng for technical 

services and purchase of, 249 
Bice, U.S. relief shipments to Ryukyu Islands, 993 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 782, 

1005 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 167 
Roberts, Ralph S., 459 
Robertson, Walter S., 264, 278, 856, 957 
Romanow, Tanya, 765 
Roosevelt, Mrs. Eleanor, 453, 454 



Index, July to December 1956 



1041 



Roosevelt Bridge, agreement with Canada regarding re- 
location, 782 
Root, Elihu, 14 

Rountree, William M., 250, 498, 840 
Rowell, Edward J., 830 

Royalty taxes paid U.K., memorandum (Eisenhower) dis- 
approving U.S. tax credits, 321 
Rubinshtein, M. I., 665 
Rumania : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 128 
Election observers, visit to U.S., 550, 665, 728 
UNESCO constitution, 528 

U.S.-Rumanian problems, proposed talks on, 444 
Russell, Mrs. Helen C, 226 
Russell, Sen. Richard B., 726 
Ryukyu Islands : 

Convention with U.S. for unilateral exchange of postal 

money orders, 497 
U.S. aid, 993 
U.S. policy, statement (Allison), 60 

Sabana de la Mar, agreement with Dominican Republic 
for establishment and operation of weather station, 
460, 970 

Safety at sea, regulations for preventing collisions at sea, 
936 

Safety of life at sea, convention on, current actions, 366, 
528, 650, 936 

St. Lawrence River, IJC supplementary order of approval 
regulating waters of, text, 227 

St. Lawrence Seaway, Canadian proposal for dredging in 
Cornwall Island area, U.S. and Canadian notes re- 
garding, 992 

St. Lucia, agreement with U.K. for extension of the Ba- 
hamas long-range proving ground to, 84, 85 

St. Martin, agreement with the Netherlands for estab- 
lishment and operation of weather station in, 430, 605 

Salk vaccine, 4th-quarter export quota increased, 605 

Samoa, Western, Trust Territory of, application of the 
protocol (1953) regulating the production, trade, and 
use of opium to, 969 

Samples convention, 684 

San Andres Island, agreements with Colombia regarding 
establishment and operation of weather station on, 249 

Sanders, William, 634, 731 

Sanitary Organization, Pan American, U.S. delegation to 
9th meeting of Directing Council, 496 

Satellite nations. See Soviet-bloc countries 

Satellite programs for International Geophysical Tear, 
address (Odishaw) and article (Atwood), 280, 881, 
882 

Satterthwaite, Livingston, 566, 846 

Saudi Arabia, wheat agreement (1956), international, 605 

Saulnier, Raymond J., 496 

Scammon, Richard M., 665 

Scientific and cultural aid, U.S., proposed program for 
Israel, statement (Dulles) and announcement, 222, 
223 

1042 



Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, 

U.N., 1st yearly i)rogress report, 931 
Scott, Walter K., 213 
Sea, law of the, problems confronting the U.N., address 

(Wilcox), 775 
Seager, Cedric H., 840 
Seamen (see also Ships and shipping) : 
Employment at sea, convention (1936) fixing minimum 

age for, 650, 969 
ILO Preparatory Maritime Conference, U.S. delegation, 

526 
Medical examination of seafarers, convention (1946) 
concerning, 213 
Sears, Mason, 164, 247 

SEATO. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Seattle reception center for special visitors, establishment, 

460 
Security Council, U.N. : 
Documents, lists of, 328, 527, 688, 899, 1003 
Hungarian question. See under Hungarian question 
Membership on, increase needed, addresses : Hoover, 

838 ; Wilcox, 775 
Palestine question. See under Israeli hostilities 
Resolution on Suez Canal problem, 616 
Suez Canal problem. See under Suez Canal 
Selection Boards, Foreign Service, 10th, meeting and 

membership, 529 
Self-determination : 
Captive nations, U.S. policy concerning, address 

(Dulles), 697 
U.N. role in obtaining, address (Phillips) , 177 
U.S. position, address and statement : Lodge, 801 ; 
Nixon, 93 
Shim, Myung Won, 722 
Shinn, Yong Wook, 722 

Shipping Liaison Committee, formation and functions, 667 
Ships and shipping (see also Panama Canal, Seamen, and 
Suez Canal) : 
Collisions at sea, 1948 regulations for preventing, 936 
Free Poland, use of ship's flag, texts of Polish note of 

protest and U.S. reply, 376 
Lend-lease naval vessels, return to U.S. by Soviet 

Union, 195 
Naval vessels, U.S. agreements with — 

China, Republic of, relating to loan of vessels, 782 
Pakistan, for furnishing supplies and services to, 528 
Portugal, for loan of vessels, 937 
North Atlantic Planning Board for Ocean Shipping, 

U.S. delegation to 8th meeting, 588 
Nuclear-powered merchant ship, proposed construction 
of, statement (Eisenhower) and letter (Weeks, 
Strauss), 666, 667 
Oceanographic research stations, agreement with U.K. 
for establishment on Barbados, 782 ; Grand Turk, 
922, 937 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 366, 528, 
650, 936 
Sierra Leone, membership in World Health Organization, 

430 
Silea Zuazo, Hernin, 188, 263, 305 
Simmons, John F., 316 J 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



Slave trade and slavery, convention (1926) to suppress, 

528, 650 
Slavery convention, proposed, statement (Kotschnig) on 

U.S. position, 561 
Slim, Mongi, 444 
Smith, Sen. H. Alexander, 726 
Sobolev, Arkady A., 758, 762 
Social situation, vporld, ECOSOC survey, statement 

(Baker), 286 
Social Welfare Policy, Interdepartmental Committee on 

International, functions and membership, 443 
Solovev, L. N., 665 
Somoza, Anastasio, 573 
South Africa, Union of : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 444 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Plant protection convention (1951), international, 689 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 970 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 168, 213 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 250 
South America. See Latin America 
South and Southeast Asia. See Asia 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization : 

Deterrent to Communist aggression in Southeast Asia, 

address (Murphy), 719 
Headquarters, opening at Bangkok, statement (Dulles), 

10 
Importance of , address (Jones), 279 
Soviet-bloc countries : 
Communist imperialism in, results of, remarks (Eisen- 
hower), 702 
East-West contacts, statements (Dulles), 50, 52 
East-West trade, shipments of industrial commodities 

from France, Italy, and U.K., 988 
Economic activities in Asia, address (Xoung), 347 
Local Communist parties, Soviet control and relation- 
ship, statement (Dulles), 52 
U.S. and Soviet policies : 
Addresses and statement : Dulles, 145, 149, 758 ; Eisen- 

hower, 743 ; Lodge, 760 
Soviet declaration, text, 745 
Soviet Union (see also Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Re- 
public, Communism, East-West contacts, Soviet-bloc 
countries, and Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) : 
Arctic ice, reciprocal aerial observation of, U.S. pro- 
posal for agreement and Soviet reply, announce- 
ments, article (Atwood), and texts of notes, 508, 
883, 953 
Armed forces, reductions in, addresses, correspondence, 
and statements: Bulganin, 300; Dulles, 182, 184, 
186 ; Eisenhower, 299 ; Lodge, 197, 198, 208 ; Phillips, 
177 ; Wilcox, 103, 105 
Armed forces in Hungary. See Hungarian question 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses, exchange of correspond- 
ence with U.S. relating to, 620 
Austrian peace treaty, Soviet position, statement 

(Dulles), 482 
Berlin, Communist tyranny in, address (Eleanor 

Dulles), 64 
Dictatorship government, weaknesses of, address 
(Allen Dulles), 874 



Soviet Union — Continued 

Disarmament. See under Disarmament and Atomic 
energy, nuclear weapons 

Documents, unpublished, dealing with Soviet affairs 
in 1922-23, texts, 153 

East Germany, Soviet oppression in, address (Conant), 
107 

Economic policy, addresses and statement : Bowie, 142 ; 
Dulles, 146 ; Elbrick, 587 ; Jones, 640 ; Murphy, 721 ; 
Thibodeaux, 809 

Election observers, visit to U.S., 550, 582, 665, 728 

Engineering graduates, 1954, statistics on, address 
(Libby), 446 

Fisheries Commission, International North Pacific, in- 
vitation to send observers to meeting, 717 

Foreign Minister's visit to Cairo, statement (Dulles), 52 

Free-world and Soviet systems, comparison of, address 
(Dulles), 3 

German reunification : 

Federal Republic appeal for, texts of U.S. and Fed- 
eral Republic notes and memorandum to Soviet 
Union, 485, 486, 632 
Free elections, Soviet promise of, statement (Dulles), 

4 
Soviet position, addresses, letter, and statements: 
Conant, 107; Dulles, 482; Eisenhower, 106, 299; 
Soviet statement, 304 

Heads of State meeting, Swiss proposal for, text of in- 
vitation, 839 

Hungarian question. See Hungarian question 

Imperialism, weakness of, address (Dulles), 697 

Japanese-Soviet peace treaty negotiations : 

Address and statements: Dulles, 406, 480, 578; 

Murphy, 718 
U.S. aide memoire, text, 484 

Jews, policy toward, address (Murphy), 909 

Naval vessels, lend-lease, return to U.S., 195 

Near and Middle East policy, addresses and statement : 
Dulles, 48, 839 ; Lodge, 355 ; Murphy, 911 

"New look" policy, addresses, statements, and report 
Allen Dulles, 877; John Foster Dulles, 145, 146 
Eisenhower, 644; Elbrick, 109, 584; Jones, 274 
Lodge, 354 ; Murphy, 673, 719, 720, 908 ; Nixon, 945 

North Pacific fur seal conference, negotiations, address 
(Murphy), 717 

Nuclear weapons tests. See Atomic energy, nuclear 
weapons 

Suez Canal problem (see also Suez Canal), Soviet posi- 
tion, 337, 407, 409, 411, 545, 614, 617, 659, 791, 795, 796 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 128 
Employment at sea, convention (1936) fixing mini- 
mum age for, 650 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 
amending, 970 

United Nations : 

Dismissal of Soviet employee, 377 

Request for recall of Soviet delegate, text of U.S. 
note, 765 



Index, July to December 7956 



1043 



Soviet Union — Continued 
United Nations — Continued 

Soviet position on admission of new members, ad- 
dresses and statements : Lodge, 356, 855 ; Murphy, 
718 ; Wadsworth, 320 
U.N. specialized agencies, Soviet participation in, ad- 
dresses (Wilcox), 404, 518, 519, 520 
U.S. bombers' alleged violations of Soviet territory, 

U.S. and Soviet notes, 191 
U.S. citizens leaving Hungary, U.S. protest of Soviet 

action to prevent, statement (Lodge), 762 
U.S. claim for damages for destruction of Navy plane 

over Sea of Japan ( 1954) , test of note, 677 
U.S. military personnel detained in, U.S. note requesting 

information and statement (Murphy), 189, 190 
U.S. policy toward, address and statement (Dulles), 

148, 697 
Visit of Marshal Tito, importance and purpose of, state- 
ments ( Dulles ) , 51, 574, 577 
Spaak, Paul-Henri, 982 
Spain : 
Military housing in, U.S., financing, 235 
Suez Canal, proposal regarding, letter (Menzies), 472 
Tobacco market survey in, 233 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, surplus, agreements with 

U.S., 565, 605, 782 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Facilities assistance program, agreement with U.S. 

supplementing 1954 agreement, 565 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion, constitution, 213 
Labor Organization, International, constitution, 969 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending in- 
ternational convention (1949) regarding, 128 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, 

and use of, 42 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
and agreements regarding money orders and parcel 
post, 689, 738 
Tangier, protocols and final declaration concerning, 

328, 830, 842 
"Wheat agreement (1956), international, 937 
U.S. aid, 68, 320 
Spaulding, Asa T., 226 
Special Caribbean regional air navigation meeting 

(ICAO), U.S. delegation, 829 
Special U.N. Fund for Economic Development, 354, 397 
Specialized agencies, U.N. (see also name of agency) : 
Actions during 1955, excerpt from report to Congress 

(Eisenhower), 387 
Aid to underdeveloped countries, address (Bowie), 141 
Functions, address (Philliijs), 178 
Importance of, address (Wilcox) , 516, 517, 518 
Invitation to attend U.N. conference on draft statute 

of IAEA, text, 163 
Relationship to U.N. expanded program of technical 

assistance, statement (Wilcox), 81 
U.S. participation in, and legislation authorizing, ar- 
ticle (Bloomfleld), 436, 439, 442 
U.S. support and Soviet membership, address (Wilcox), 
404 



Spilhaus, Athelstan F., 226 
Standley, Adm. William H., 853 
Starr, Harold, 151, 152 

State Department (see also Foreign Service) : 
African Affairs: 
Deputy Assistant Secretary for, establishment and 

designation (Palmer), 497 
Establishment of OfBces of Northern and Southern 
African Affairs, 497 
Appointments and designations, 214, 250, 294, 329, 366, 

460, 497, 498, 530, 566, 606, 689, 738, 830, 862, 970 
Assistant Secretary for Near Eastern, South Asian and 
African Affairs, designation and confirmation 
(Rountree), 250, 498 
Foreign Service examination, announced, 528 
Foreign Service Institute Advisory Committee, 3d meet- 
ing and members, 606 
Functioning of Department during Secretary Dulles' 

illness, 838 
International Conferences, Office of, functions and re- 
sponsibilities, 441 
International Organization Affairs : 

Assistant Secretary for, functions and responsibil- 
ities, 437, 440, 442 
Bureau of, functions and responsibilities, 437, 440, 

441, 442 
Deputy Assistant Secretary for, designation (Walms- 
ley), 689 
Munitions Control, Office of, functions, 920 
Passport agency at Los Angeles, establishment, 565 
Publications. See under Publications 
Resignations, 498, 566, 606, 970 

Seattle reception center for special visitors, establish- 
ment, 460 
Shipping Liaison Committee, formation and functions, 

667 
Special Assistant for East-West Contacts, establish- 
ment, responsibilities, and designation (Merrill), 
294 
Special Assistant to the Secretary for East-West Ex- 
changes, designation (Lacy), 366 
Under Secretary of State, resignation (Hoover), 970 
Stateless jjersons and refugees, protocol concerning ap- 
plication of universal copyright convention (1952) to 
works of, 936 
Status of U.S. forces in Greece, agreement with Greece 

concerning, 565 ^ 

Stephens, Bart N., 767 . 1 

Stewart, C. Allan, 862 
Strategic materials procurement, agricultural surpluses 

program provisions for, 234, 238 
Strauss, Lewis L., 424, 535, 589, 667, 927 
Striganov, Sergei R., 949 
Strom, Carl W., 650 
Strong, L. Corrin, 22 
Stubbins, Hugh, 668, 671 

Student-exchange program. See Educational exchange 
Stufflebeam, Robert E., 530 
Sudan : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 405 
Immigration quota, proclamation establishing, 152 



1044 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Sudan — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Civil aviation convention (1944), International, 167 
Meteorological Organization, World, convention, 970 
Postal convention (1952), universal, 366 
U.N. membership, recommended, 326m, 773 
Suez Canal problem (see also Israeli hostilities) : 

Addresses and statements (Dulles) : 3-Power London 
Conference, 261, 262; report to the Nation, 259; 
1st London Conference, 335, 339, 371, 372, 373 ; 2d 
London Conference, 503, 505, 506, 507 ; Security 
Council, 611, 615, 615re, 617, 617ii; General Assem- 
bly, 751, 755 ; miscellaneous, 221, 469, 572, 698 ; news 
conferences, 406, 408, 409, 410, 411, 476, 479, 480, 
481, 482, 543, 545, 574, 575, 576, 577, 579, 655, 658, 
660 
Address and statements : Eisenhovyer, 259, 261, 405, 
744; Hagerty, 479; Hoover, 836; Lodge, 560, 748, 
787, 789, 790, 791, 792, 793, 914 ; Murphy, 719, 910 ; 
Nixon, 944, 946, 947 ; Wadsworth, 923 ; White, 480rt; 
White House, 314, 749, 795 ; Wilcox, 404, 770 
Aswan Dam, withdrawal of U.S. aid, 188, 260, 407, 548 
Attack by Israel on Egypt, French-U.K. ultimatum, and 
occupation of the canal, address and statements : 
Eisenhower, 744 ; Hagerty, 749 
Cairo discussions with President Nasser on 18-nation 
proposals : 
Committee, listed, 406n. 
Decision of President Nasser to receive committee, 

statement (Dulles), 407 
Joint communique, text, 467 
Presentation of proposals, aide memoire and letter 

(Menzies), 467, 472 
Rejection of proposals, letters (Menzies, Nasser) and 
statement (Dulles), 468,469, 472 
Constantinople Convention of 1888 : 

International character of the canal, statements 

(Dulles), 408, 411,612 
Legal rights of users, statements (Dulles), 336, 545, 

612 
Text. 617 
Documents, published, 659 
Economic implications of, statements (Dulles), 335, 337, 

478, 483, 504, 548, 549, 576, 613 

General Assembly, actions and deliberations of the 

emergency session : 

Advisory Committee to the U.N. Emergency Force, 

statement (Lodge), 791, 792 ; text of resolution, 794 

Cease-fire proposal, statement (Lodge), 790; text of 

resolution, 793 
Resolutions, 754, 793, 794, 795 
U.N. Command, isroposed establishment, statement 

(Lodge), 790 ; text of resolution, 793 
U.N. Emergency Force, proposed establishment, state- 
ments : Dulles, 755 ; Lodge, 789, 790, 791 ; text of 
resolution, 793 
U.S. offer to transport U.N. Force to Egypt, state- 
ments (Lodge), 792 
U.S. proposal for permanent solution, statement 
(Lodge), 788 



Suez Canal problem — Continued 
General Assembly — Continued 

U.S. proposal referring Middle Bast question to 11th 
General Assembly, statements (Lodge), 792; text 
of resolution, 795 

U.S. proposals on Middle East and review of situa- 
tion, statements (Dulles), 751, 755; text of resolu- 
tion, 754 

Withdrawal of forces from Egypt, statements : Dulles, 
755 ; Lodge, 789, 790, 791, 792 ; text of resolution, 794 
General Assembly, actions and deliberations of the 11th 
session : 

Reports by Secretary-General on withdrawal of 
forces, U.N. Force in Egypt, and clearing of canal, 
915, 952 

Resolutions, 917, 918 

Statement (Lodge) of U.S. position, 914 
Insulating the operation of the canal from politics, let- 
ters and statements : Dulles, 338, 409, 613, 615, 661 ; 
Menzies, Nasser, 468, 470, 471, 474, 475 
London Conference, 3-Power (U.S., U.K., France) : 

Report to the Nation on, address (Dulles), 259 

Statement on return (Dulles) , 261 

Tripartite statement and annex, text, 262 
London Conference, 1st (22-Power) : 

Action of 3-Power Conference proposing, 262, 263 

Congressional leaders, meeting with President Eisen- 
hower, 314 

Proposals : 

Significance of, statement (Eisenhower), 405 
Text, 373 

Soviet propaganda campaign against, statements 
(Dulles), 407, 411 

Statements (Dulles) , 335, 339, 371, 372, 373 

U.S. delegation, listed, 339 
London Conference, 2d : 

Conference statement, 507 

Declaration providing for establishment of Suez Ca- 
nal Users Association, text, 508 

Statements (Dulles) of U.S. position, 503, 505, 506 
NAC ministerial meeting, communique regarding clear- 
ing of the canal, 982 
Nationalization of the Universal Suez Canal Company, 
purported, announcement and statements (Dulles, 
Eisenhower) concerning, 221, 259, 260, 407, 650 
Oil supply problem, U.S. efforts in solving : 

Construction of large oil tankers proposed, memo- 
randum (Eisenhower), 619, 620 

Coordination of private industry effort, U.S. authori- 
zation, 953 

Middle East Emergency Committee, formation and 
functions, 374 

Shipping Liaison Committee, formation and func- 
tions, 667 

Statements (Dulles), 478, 481 
Security Council deliberations : 

Agenda, inscription of Suez items on, statements: 
Dulles, 544 ; Lodge, 560, 748 

Israeli participation, U.S. views, statement (Dulles), 
579 

Participation of Secretary Dulles, question of, 544, 
576 



Index, July to December 1956 



1045 



Suez Canal problem — Continued 

Security Council deliberations — Continued 

Review of events and fundamental principles for 
settlement, statement (Dulles), 611 

Soviet proposal for intervention of U.S.-Soviet forces, 
letters and statements : Eisenhovcer, Bulganin, 796 ; 
Lodge, 791 ; White House, 795 

U.K.-French proposal, statements (Dulles), 543, 615, 
615»i, 616, 617, 655, 660 ; text, 616 

U.K.-French-Egyptlan negotiations, statements (Dul- 
les), 617, 61 7n 
Shipping in the canal : 

Canal tolls, question of payment, statements (Dulles), 
545, 546, 617, 658, 659 

Israeli right of passage, statements (Dulles), 408, 
549, 659 

Question of Users Association guaranteeing Israeli 
passage, statement (Dulles) , 481 

U.S. Shipping Liaison Committee, formation and 
functions, 667 
Soviet position, 337, 407, 409, 411, 545, 614, 617, 659, 

695, 696, 791 
Suez Canal Board, proposed, 373, 374, 474, 613, 661 
Suez Canal Users Association : 

Declaration providing for establishment, 508 

Egyptian views, statements (Dulles), 477, 661 

Establishment and organization of, address and state- 
ments: Dulles, 476, 479, 480, 482, 504, 658, 660; 
White, 480>i 

Israeli participation, U.S. views, statement (Dulles), 
549 

Operating procedure, questions on, statements (Dul- 
les ), 479, 544, 547 

Resolutions concerning, texts, 580 

U.S. participation and support, statements (Dulles), 

476, 479, 480, 480», 507, 575, 577 

U.S. citizens and property in the Middle Bast, protec- 
tion of, 700, 756, 798, 799 

U.S. policy, addresses, announcement, and statements: 
Department, 951 ; Dulles, 482, 543, 698 ; Eisenhower, 
744 ; Murphy, 719, 910 ; Nixon, 944, 946, 947 ; White 
House, 749 

Use of force to use canal, question of, statements 
(Dulles), 477, 478, 479, 481, 482, 483, 546, 577 

Use of the canal, alternatives to : 

Cape of Good Hope route, use of, statements (Dulles), 

477, 506, 544, 547 

Construction of 2d Suez Canal, question of, state- 
ments (Dulles), 574, 575 
Pipeline construction, reported, statement (Dulles), 
545 
SUNFED. gee Special United Nations Fund for Economic 

Development 
Surplus agricultural commodities. See Agricultural 

surpluses 
Sutherland, Robert L., 989 
Sweden : 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement amending agree- 
ment with U.S., 293, 294 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 



Sweden — Continued 

Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 128 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
GATT, 5th protocol of supplementary concessions, 328, 

460 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement regarding finan- 
cial support, 127 
Refugees, convention (1941) on the status of, 245n 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 937 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 168, 937 | 

Switzerland : 
Heads of State meeting, Swiss proposal, texts of invi- 
tation and reply (Eisenhower), 839 
Loan to International Bank, 854 
Neutrality, policy of, statement (Dulles), 147 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Faroe Islands, agreements on joint financing, 969 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 128 a 
GATT, provisional accession to, 685, 893, 895 
Nuclear power, agreement with U.S. concerning pro- 
duction of, 42 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245» 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 167 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs fa- 
cilities for, 167 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 213, 830 
Swords into Plowshares — A New Venture in Interna- 

tional Under St anting, published, 329 I 

Syria : I 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 ■ 
Evacuation of U.S. citizens from, 798 
Military equipment, reported movement into Jordan, 

659, 660 
Travel to, U.S. restrictions on, 756 
Szabo, Janos, 762, 804 

Taiwan. See China, Republic of 
Tangier : 
International conference on the status of : 
Final declaration and annexed protocol, current ac- 
tions and texts, 830, 842 
Remarks (Cannon), 841 
U.S. delegation, listed, 633 
International Zone of, protocol establishing transitional 
regime for, current actions, 328 
Tariff policy, U.S. (see also Customs and Tariffs and 
trade, general agreement on) : 
Agricultural commodities, U.S. restrictions on imports, 

report to 11th session of GATT, 898 
Butter oil and butter substitutes, imports, investigation 

of effect on domestic price-support program, 886 
Buttons of textile material, proclamation correcting 
language of a reduction in duty, 74 



1046 



Department of State Bulletin 



Tariff policy, U. S. — Continued 

Citrus fruit juices, proclamation modifying concessions 
on, 74 

Cotton, long-staple, announcement and proclamation 
modifying import and quota restrictions, 114 

Cotton textiles, Japanese, question of restrictions 
against Imports, 14, 554 

Dates, request for investigation of effect of Imports on 
domestic industry, 681 

Figs, request for investigation of effect of imports on 
domestic Industry and approval of report on 
escape-clause provision regarding, 681 

Lighter flints, decision against recommendation to in- 
crease duty on, 888 

Linen toweling, announcement and proclamation In- 
creasing tariff on Imports, 115 

Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), tariff Increase on held 
unnecessary, letter (Eisenhower), 321 

Peanuts, shelled, proclamation modifying restrictions 
on imports, 455 

Watches, decision not to reopen escape-clause action 
on, 649 

Woolen and worsted fabrics, tariff Increase and ques- 
tion of allocation of tariff quota, announcement 
and texts of proclamation and notice, 555, 556, 887 
Tariffs, customs. See Customs 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 

Basis of U.S. trade policy, address (Bowie), 138 

Contracting Parties to GATT, 11th session : 
Problems facing, statement (Prochnow), 683 
Review of, 893 
U.S. delegation, listed, 686 

Declaration on continued application of schedules, 42, 
970 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Schedule XX, 
published, 75 

Geneva wool-fabric reservation, proclamation Invoking, 
555, 556 

Japan, protocol on terms of accession of, 85, 565 

OTC. 8ce Trade Cooperation, Organization for 

Proems verbal of rectification concerning the protocols 
amending part I and articles XXIX and XXX, the 
preamble and parts II and III, and the protocol of 
organizational amendments, 328, 782, 970 

Protocols amending, 782, 970 

Rectification to French text, protocol of, 782, 830, 970 

Rectifications and modifications to texts of schedules, 
protocols of, 85, 328, 430, 970, 1006 

Supplementary concessions, protocols of, 42, 128, 168, 
328, 4G0, 528 

Switzerland, application for and provisional accession 
to, 685, 893, 895 

Tariff concessions to U.S. by Greece on Imports of auto- 
mobiles and trucks, 117 

U.tS. tariff negotiations with Cuba, proposed, 646 
Taxation : 

Double taxation, avoidance of. See Double taxation 

Foreign Investment income, U.S. tax credits on, state- 
ment (Baker), 397 

Royalty taxes paid U.K., memorandum (Eisenhower) 
disapproving credits, 321 



Taxation — Continued 

U.S. expenditures in France for common defense, agree- 
ment with France amending 1952 agreement relat- 
ing to relief from taxation of, 970 
Technical aid to foreign countries. See Economic and 

technical aid 
Technical assistance, U.N. See under United Nations 
Technical data and arms, controlling international traflBc 

In, address (Pomeroy), 919 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, cur- 
rent actions, 213, 249, 366, 459, 565, 862 
Telecommunication Union, International, U.S. delegation 
to 8th plenary assembly of the International Radio 
Consultative Committee, 327 
Telecommunications Coordinating Committee, functions 

and membership, 443 
Textiles : 
Japanese, question of restrictions on Imports to U.S., 

address (Phleger) and texts of notes, 14, 554 
Linen toweling, announcement and proclamation In- 
creasing tariff on U.S. imports, 115 
Woolen and worsted fabrics : 
xVUocation of tariff quota, request for views on, 

announcement and text of notice, 887, 888 
Geneva wool-fabric reservation, GATT, announce- 
ment and proclamation Invoking, 555, 556 
Thailand : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Civil aviation convention (1954), international, protocol 

amending, (550 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 1005 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 

565 
U.S. aid, 272 
Thayer, Robert H., 444 
Thibodeaux, Ben H., 808 
Timber Committee, (ECE), U.S. delegate to 14th session, 

687 
Tito, Marshal, 51, 574, 577, 801 
Tobacco, tariff concession on, notice of limited trade 

agreement negotiations with Cuba, 646 
Togoland, significance of election In, statement (Sears), 

247 
Tokelau Island, application of the protocol (1953) regu- 
lating the production, trade, and use of opium to, 969 
Topper, Jane, 562 

Tourism. See Travel, international 
Toynbee, Arnold, 289 

Trade (see also Agricultural surpluses; East-West trade; 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. ; Exports, U.S. ; 
Imports; Tariff policy, U.S.; Tariffs and trade, gen- 
eral agreement on ; and Trade Cooperation, Organi- 
zation for) : 
Consular functions In relation to, address (Donaldson), 

602 
Far East, Communist-bloc trade policy in, 640 
Foreign trade policy, U.S., addresses and statement: 
Bowie, 137, 138 ; Elbrlck, 585 ; Prochnow, 684 



Index, July fo December 7956 



1047 



Trade — Continued 

Latin America, Trade Committee of the U.N. Economic 
Commission for, U.S. delegation to 1st meeting, 857 
Latin America, U.S. trade witli, 317 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bills of lading, international convention (1924) for 
unification of rules relating to, and protocol of sig- 
nature, 60.5, 829 
Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention (19.52) to facilitate importa- 
tion, 85 
Commercial treaties, recij^rocal benefits, address 

(Phleger), 16, 17 

Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaties with — 

Germany, Federal Republic of, 42, 85, 167 : Korea, 

Republic of, 935, 937; Netherlands, 168, 605; 

Nicaragua, 168, 605 

Limited trade agreement negotiations with Cuba, 

U.S. notice of intention to participate, 646 
Trade agreement (1938) with Ecuador, termination, 
168 
U.S. and worldwide economic growth, effect on trade, 

address (Proehnow), 69 
U.S. trade restrictions against Communist China, ques- 
tion of relaxation, 553 
World trade, dependency on Suez Canal. See Suez 

Canal problem 
World Trade Review as of July 1956, Department of 
Commerce publication, 379 
Trade Agreements, Interdepartmental Committee on, no- 
tice regarding tariff negotiations with Cuba, 646 
Trade Cooperation, Organization for : 
Agreement on, signatures, 969 
Need for, address (Bowie), 138 

U.S. membership, question of, exchange of correspond- 
ence (Eisenhower, Watson), 987 
Trade fairs : 

Brussels Universal and International Exhibition, 1938, 

582, 951 
International trade fairs, U.S. participation to develop 

agricultural market, 233 
U.S. world trade fair, proclamation, 890 
Trade-marks, German, in Italy, memorandum of under- 
standing regarding, 168 
Travel, international {see also Passports and Visas) : 
China, Communist, U.S. restrictions on travel to, 313, 

314, 376, 718 
Congressional travel, accounting for funds used, state- 
ment (Dulles), 657 
Essay contest under auspices of the Inter-American 

Travel Congresses, announced, 604 
Latin America, tourism in, 318 

Middle East, U.S. restriction on travel to, 756, 799 
Road traflSc, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 782, 

1005 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 167 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 167, 294 
U.N. actions during 1955, 388 



i 



Treaties, agreements, etc., international (for specific i 
treaty, see country or subject) : 
Current actions on, listed, 42, 85, 128, 167, 212, 249, 294, ] 
328, 366, 398, 430, 459, 497, .528, 565, 605, 650, 689, 
738, 782, 829, 862, 901, 936, 969, 1005 
International organizations, list of treaties authorizing 

U.S. participation in, 442, 554 
Treaties in Force: A List of Treaties and Other Inter- 
national Agreements of the United States, pub- 
lished, 127 
U.S. treaties, development and importance of, address 
(Phleger), 11 
Troops, U.S. See Armed forces 
Trucks and automobiles, compensatory GATT concessions 

granted the U.S. by Greece on imports of, 117 
Trust territories, U.N. : 
Pacific Islands : 

Appointment of U.S. High Commissioner, 840 
Nuclear tests in, U.S. position, statement (Sears), 164 
Report on U.S. administration, statements (Nucker), 
35, 121, 363 
Togoland and Gold Coast, significance of elections in, 

statement (Sears), 247 
U.N. action during 19.55, report to Congress (Eisen- 
hower), 389 
Western Somoa, application of the protocol (19.53) regu- 
lating the production, trade, and use of opium 
to, 969 
Trusteeship Council, U.N., documents, lists of, 379, 564 
Truth, A Tribute to, address (Beaulac) , 375 
Tunisia : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 444 

Customs union with France, discussions at 11th session 

of GATT regarding, 897 
U.N. membership, U.S. support, address and statement: 

Wadsworth, 325 ; Wilcox, 773 
U.S. aid, 5.57 

U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 294 
U.S. Consulate General at Tunis, elevation to embassy 

•status, 214 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation establishing, 557 
Turkey : 

Agricultural commodities, surplus, agreement with U.S. 

for purchase, 844, 937 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
GATT, 5th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 328 
GATT, protocol, with annexes, on terms of accession of 

Japan, 565 
GATT, protocols of supplementary concessions, 128, 328 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 936 
U.S. aid, 320 
Turks and Caicos Islands, agreement between U.S. and 
U.K. for establishment of oceanographic research 
station in Grand Turk, 922, 937 

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (see also Soviet. 
Union) : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 ■ 
Employment at sea, convention (1930) fixing minimum 
age for, 969 



i 



1048 



Department of State Bulletin 



V.N. EdiicatioiMl, Scientific and Cultural Organization 

. . . Ah American View, imblished, 518 
Underdeveloped countries (see also Investment of private 
capital abroad) : 
Communist penetration of, addresses : Jones, 640 ; 

Murphy, 720 ; Thibodeaux, 809 ; Young, 347 
Economic development of, addresses and statement : 
Baker, 393 ; Bowie, 137, 140, 141, 142 ; Young, 347 
ECOSOC proposal to study conditions in, statement 

(Balier), 288 
Private enterprise in, establislimeut of IFC to promote, 

248 
Soviet economic assistance. See under Soviet Union : 

Economic policy 
U.X. technical assistance program. See under United 
Nations 
UNESCO. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization, U.N. 
Union of South Africa. See South Africa, Union of 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. See Soviet Union 
United Kingdom : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 797 
American studies program in schools of the U.K., re- 
view, article (Sutherland), 989 
Engineering graduates, 1954 statistics on, address 

(Libby),44G 
Georgetown, British Guiana, reestablishment of U.S. 

Consulate, 460 
Gold Coast, significance of election in, statement 

(Sears), 247 
Heads of State meeting, Swiss proposal for, text of in- 
vitation, 839 
Hungarian question, request for inscription on Security 

Council agenda, 757 
Military housing in, U. S., financing, 235 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
Taxes paid U.K. on royalties, memorandum (Eisen- 
hower) disapproving U.S. tax credits on, 321 
Togoland, significance of election in, statement (Sears), 

247 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Faroe Islands, agreements on joint financing, 969 
Air service, agreement with U.S. amending annex to 

1946 agreement, 830 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S. 

amending 1955 agreement, 250 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Atomic energy inventions, agreement with U.S. and 
Canada regarding disposition of rights in, 540, 505 
Bahamas long-range proving ground, agreements with 

U.S. for additional sites, 84, 85 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 128 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 249 
Fisheries Commission, International Northwest At- 
lantic, protocol amending 1949 convention concern- 
ing, 128 
German external debts, agreement on, extension to 
territories, 901 



United Kingdom — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

German ti-ade-maiks in Italy, memorandum of under- 
standing regarding, 168 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement regarding finan- 
cial support, 127 
Oceanographic research stations, agreements with 

U.S. for establishment, 782, 922, 937 
Property, rights and interests in Germany, agree- 
ments concerning the Arbitration Tribunal and 
Arbitral Commission on, 398, 497, 005 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245m 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temjjorary importation of, 167 
Tangier, protocols and final declaration concerning, 

328, 830, 842 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs fa- 
cilities for, 167 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 
amending, 937 
U.S. aircraft, texts of correspondence with Chinese 

Communists regarding attack on, 413, 483 
U.S. mutual security aid, continuation of, 988 
United Nations : 
Addresses : 

Framework for Peace (Phillips), 175 
Need for Strengthening (Dulles), 696 
The U.N. and American Foreign Policy (Wilcox), 403 
The U.N. in an Interdependent World (Wilcox), 769 
Admission of new members : 

Japan, U.S. and Soviet support, address and state- 
ments : Dulles, 660 ; Murphy, 718 ; Wadsworth, 244, 
326 
Morocco, U.S. support, statements (Wadsworth), 244 
Need for, address (Wilcox), 773, 775 
Security Council recommendations for, 244, 326w 
Soviet position, address (Lodge), 356 
U.S. position : 

Address and statements : Hoover, 837, 838 ; Wads- 
worth, 244, 325, 326 
Report to Congress (Eisenhower), 384, 385, 386 
Atomic energy, actions concerning. See Atomic energy 
China, question of representation : 
Addresses and statements : Hill, 310 ; Hoover, 838 ; 
Lodge, 353, 8.55; Robertson, 268; Sanders, 731»i; 
Wilcox, 773, 774 ; Young, 352 
Congressional resolution, 311 
Disarmament, efforts for. See under Disarmament 
and also United Nations Disarmament Commission 
Expenses, scale of assessments for apportioning, state- 
ments (Jones, Lodge), 997, 1001; text of U.S. pro- 
posal, 1002 
Functions and organizations of U.S. Government for 

participation in, article (Bloomfield), 435, 554 
General Assembly. See General Assembly 
Hungarian question. See under Hungarian question 
Korean war dead, dedication of plaque at U.N. head- 
quarters honoring, statements (Hammarskjold, 
Lodge, Walker), 119, 120 
Neutralism in, statement (Dulles), 147 
Palestine question. See under Israeli hostilities 
Publications. See under Publications 



Index, July to December J 956 



1049 



United Nations — Continued 

Security Council. See Security Council 
Soviet delegate, recall requested, text of U.S. note, 765 
Soviet emplo.yee, dismis.sal of, announcement, 377 
Specialized agencies. See Specialized agencies and 

name of agency 
Suez Canal problem. See under Suez Canal 
Technical assistance program : 

Accomplishments during 1955, excerpt from Presi- 
dent's report to Congress, 387 
Aid to underdeveloped countries, address (Bovrie), 

141 
Evaluation of and U.S. support, statement (Hoff- 
man), 994 
History and functions of, statement (Wilcox), 76 
Importance of, address (Phillips), 178 
Technical Assistance Committee, question of increas- 
ing membership, 996 
U.S. contributions, 186, 187, 457, 496 
Trust territories. See Trust territories and Trustee- 
ship Council 
U.S. actions in U.N. to thwart international com- 
munism, address (Lodge), 353 
U.S. Mission to, functions and responsibilities and leg- 
islation authorizing participation, 437, 438, 443 
U.S. participation during 1955, letters (Eisenhower, 
Dulles) and excerpts from annual report to Con- 
gress, 382 
United Nations Children's Fund, U.S. contribution, 457 
United Nations Command (Korea), report concerning 
Communist violations of armistice agreement and 
suspension of NNSC inspection activities, 390 
United Nations Commission on Status of Women, pro- 
posal for seminars to promote the rights of women, 
362 
United Nations Day, 1956 : 

Address and message: Lodge, 771; Murphy, 722 
Text of proclamation, 54 
United Nations Disarmament Commission : 

Actions and proposals for disarmament, 710, 711, 714 
Documents, lists of, 328, 564 

Resolution on 3d report of the Subcommittee, text, 209 
Subcommitte : 
Actions and proposals for disarmament, 711, 712, 713, 

715 
Progress of negotiations at London meeting, address 

(Wilcox), 104, 105 
U.S. and Soviet views on work of, correspondence 
(Eisenhower, Bulganin), 299, 300, 303, 304 
United Nations Economic and Social Council. See 

Economic and Social Council, U.N. 
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. See 

Economic Commission for Europe, U.N. 
United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America, 
U.S. delegation to 1st meeting of the Trade Commit- 
tee, 857 
United Nations Economic Committee (interdepartmental), 

functions and membership, 444 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization. See Educational, Scientific and Cultu- 
ral Organization, U.N. 

1050 



United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, U.S. . 

delegation to 25th session of the Council, 459 
United Nations Fund for Economic Development, Special ' 
(SUNFED), 354, 397 ' 

United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency (UNKRA), 
progress of work in the Republic of Korea, statement 
(Humphrey) and text of General Assembly resolu- 
tion, 967, 969 
United Nations Refugee Fund (UNREF), 245, 966 
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of 
Atomic Radiation : 
Establishment and functions, 687 
1st yearly progress report, 931 
United Nations Special Committee on the Question of 

Defining Aggression, U.S. representative, 634 
United Nations Trusteeship Council. See Trusteeship 

Council, U.N. 
United States Book Exchange, Inc., 324 

United States citizens and nationals : j| 

Citizenship, possible loss by service in foreign armed 

forces, legislation concerning, 799 
Claims. See Claims: U.S. 
Protection of: 
Abroad, function of U.S. Consul, address (Donald- 
son), 602, 603 
Commercial treaties, reciprocal benefits of, address 

(Phleger), 16, 17 
Communist China, detention and release of U.S. 

civilians. See Geneva ambassadorial talks. 
Hungary, concern for nationals in, 701n, 762 
Middle East, evacuations from and restrictions on 

travel to, 700, 756, 798, 799 
Prisoners of war. See Prisoners of war 
Riunania, proposed talks with, 444 
Soviet Union, detention of U.S. personnel, 189, 190 
U.N. employment, clearance for, address (Lodge), 354 
United States Educational Foundation in Israel, estab- 
lishment, 225 
United States elections. See Elections 
United States National Committee for Prevention of Pol- 
lution of Seas by Oil, 1st meeting and list of mem- 
bers, 521 
United States world trade fair, proclamation, 890 
Universal and International Exhibition (1958), Brussels, 

582, 951 
Universal copyright convention (1952), current actions, 

605, 650, 782, 936 
Universal postal convention (1952), current actions, 213, 

366, 430 
Universal Suez Canal Company : 
Functions and operation of, 259, 260 
Nationalization of, purported, 221, 259, 260, 407, 659 
UNKRA. See United Nations Korean Reconstruction 

Agency 
Urbanization, problems of, statement (Baker), 288 
Uruguay : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 542 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 

International Bank loan, 781 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



Uruguay — Continued 

Panamd meeting of Presidents of the American Repub- 
lics, declaration, 220 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 
3G6 
U.S.S.R. See Soviet Union 

Vandenberg, Arthur, 724 

Van Heuven Goedhart, G. J., 244, 246, 454, 965 

Vargas Gomez, Andres, 894 

Vatican City : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Money orders, international, agreement with U.S. for 

exchange of, 970 
Refugees, convention (1951) on the status of, 245» 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 168 
Venezuela : 

Panama meeting of Presidents of the American Re- 
publics, declaration, 220 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 128 
Civil aviation convention (1954), international, pro- 
tocol amending, 650 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion, constitution, 213 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
and agreements on money orders and parcel post, 689 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 

and final and additional protocols, 565 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 970 
Vessels. See Ships and shipping 
Viet-Nam : 

Anniversary of independence, 2d, letter (Eisenhower), 

150 
Anniversary of the Republic, 1st, letter (Eisenhower), 

765 
Communist subversion in, addresses : Jones, 277, 278 ; 

Merchant, 58 ; Robertson, 267 
International Bank, membership, 854 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment, articles of agreement, 528 
Monetary Fund, International, articles of agreement, 

528 
Slave trade and slavery, convention (1926) to sup- 
press, 528 
U.N. membership, U.S. support of, address and state- 
ments : Hoover, 837 ; Wadsworth, 244, 326 
U.S. aid, 271, 637, 811, 812 

U.S. policy toward, addresses : Murphy, 718 ; Young, 346 
Visas (see also Passports), gratis nonimmigrant, agree- 
ment with Guatemala providing for, 42 
Vogel, Clark C, 846 

Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, American Coun- 
cil of, 873 
Voluntary Foreign Aid, Advisory Committee on, 873 
Voorhees, Tracy S., 948, 980 



Wadsworth, James J. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Hungarian question, 869 
Hungarian refugees, U.S. aid to, 806 
International Atomic Energy Agency, 537, 815, 819, 

923 
Morocco, U.N. membership for, U.S. support, 244 
Nuclear weapons, international control, 205 
Tunisia, U.N. membership for, U.S. support, 325 
Appointment as U.S. representative to the Conference 

on the Statute of the IAEA, 293 
Appointment to the Preparatory Commission of the 

IAEA, 815 
Confirmation as alternate U.S. representative to the 11th 
General Assembly, 212 
Wailes, Edward T., 250 
Walker, E. Ronald, 119 
Walker, Ralph, 670, 671 
Walmsley, Walter N., 689 

War dead, Korean, dedication of plaque at U.N. headquar- 
ters honoring, statements (Hammarskjold, Lodge, 
Walker), 119, 120 
War victims, protection of. See Geneva conventions 
Warner, Gerald, 689 
Warsaw Treaty, 746, 760 
Watches, decision not to reopen escape-clause action on 

tariff on imports, 649 
Water resources, cooperative program for study of, agree- 
ment with Ethiopia amending 1952 agreement, 250 
Watkins, Sen. Arthur V., 194 
Watson, Thomas J., Jr., 988 
Waugh, Samuel C, 515 

Weather stations, establishment and operation, agree- 
ments with — 
Colombia, on island of San Andres, 249 
Dominican Republic, at Sabana de la Mar, 460, 970 
France, on island of Guadeloupe, 605 
Netherlands, in Curagao and St. Martin, 430, 605 
Weeks, Sinclair, 358, 667 

Western European Union (see also Europe: Unity), par- 
ticipation of the Federal Republic of Germany, 487, 
488, 489 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 901, 937, 970 
Wheat, U.S. shipments to Iran and Tunisia, 263, 557 
Wheat agreement (1956), international: 
Current actions, 168, 213, 249, 398, 430, 497, 565, 605, 

738, 782, 830, 862, 901, 937, 970 
Transmittal to Senate, letter (Eisenhower), report 
(Dulles), and summary of principal provisions, 26 
White, Lincoln, statements : 

Death of William P. Boteler, 21n 

Discovery of U.S. seaman's body by Chinese Commu- 
nists, 483n. 
Hungarian question, 701 
Poznan demonstrations, U.S. position on, 55 
Shipment of military goods to Middle East, U.S. re- 
strictions, 754 
Soviet military action before U.S. Legation in Buda- 
pest, U.S. protest, 949 



Index, July to December 1956 



1051 



White, Lincoln, statements — Continued 

Suez Canal Users Association, U.S. position, 4S0» 
WHO. See World Health Organization 
Wilcox, Francis O., addresses and statements : 
Disarmament, 97, 204 

U.N. expanded program of technical assistance, 76 
The U.N. in an Interdependent World, 769 
U.N. Role in American Foreign Policy, 403 
UNESCO, U.S. support of, 516 
Wilgress, L. D., 309, 894 
Wilkins, J. Ernest, 458, 829 
Wilson, Woodrow, 954 

WMO. See World Meteorological Organization 
Wolf, Mr., departure from Hungary, 701» 
Women, Inter-American Commission of, report on 11th 

assembly, 562 
Women, inter-American convention (1948) on granting of 

political rights to, 528 
Women, U.N. Commission on the Status of, proposal for 

seminars to promote the rights of women, 362 
Women, University, International Federation of, 175 
Women, U.S. proposal for seminar on citizenship educa- 
tion for, statement and letter (Balser), 360 
Woolen and worsted fabrics, tariff increase and question 
of allocation of tariff quota, announcement and texts 
of proclamation and notice, 555, 556, 887 
World Bank. See International Bank 
World eucalyptus conference, U.S. delegation, 686 
World Health Organization : 
Associate members admitted, 430 

Diseases and causes of death, additional regulations 
amending nomenclature regulations, 430 
World Meteorological Organization : 
Convention, 497, 970 



World Meteorological Organization — Continued 

Designation as public international organization and 
functions of, 457 
World trade fairs. See Trade fairs 
World Trade Review as of July 1956, published, 378 
Wormser, Felix Edgar, 429 
Wounded and sick, Geneva convention on treatment in 

time of war, 213, 430, 689 
Wriston Committee. See Public Committee on Personnel 

Tardley, Edward, 888 
Young, Kenneth T., Jr., 340 
Yugoslavia : 

Marshal Tito's statement regarding Nagy government 

in Hungary, 801 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 902 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 738 
Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention (1952) to facilitate importa- 
tion, 85 
Customs privileges for consular officers, reciprocal, 

agreement with U.S., 398 

Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 782 

Wheat agreement (1956), international, 168, 937 

U.S. aid, 320, 574, 578, 664, 722 

Visit of Marshal Tito to Soviet Union, statements 

(Dulles),51, 574, 577 

Zador, Tibor, 701 

Zanzibar, extension by U.K. of German external debts 

agreement to, 901 
Zeckendorf, William, Jr., 899 
Zellerbach, James David, 902 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

Publication 6579 

Released February 1958 

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1958 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office 
Wasliington 25, D. C. - Price 30 cents 



CKW3IIUKT 



J/vc' ^eha/y^f?m^€myt /O^ t/twt^ 




^oL XXXV, No. 888 



July 2, 1956 




THE CONTEST BETWEEN FREEDOM AND 

DESPOTISM • Address by Secretary Dulles 3 

VISIT OF FOREIGN MINISTER PINEAU OF FRANCE . 7 
UNITED STATES TREATIES: RECENT DEVELOP- 

iVIENTS • by Herman Phleger, Legal Adviser 11 

THE POSITION OF THE UNITED STATES IN 

TODAY'S WORLD • by Ambassador Henry Cabot 
Lodge, Jr 19 

NORWAY IN THE POSTWAR ERA • 6y Embassador L. 

Corrin Strong 22 

A YEAR OF PROGRESS IN THE TRUST TERRITORY 

OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS • Statement by Delmas 

H. Nucker 35 

INTERNATIONAL WHEAT AGREEMENT TRANS- 
MITTED TO SENATE 

President's Message of Transmittal 26 

Report of the Secretary of State 26 



For index see inside back cover 



Boston Taolic L;brary 
Superin*.." ' •„ of Documents 

JUL 2 6 1956 



^ne z/)€ha/y^l^€'n^ cl t^iccie 




''tl-BB «* 



bulletin 



Vol. XXXV, No. 888 • Publication 6365 



July 2, 1956 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
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OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



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a weekly publication issued by the 
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the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
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Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
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Department, and statements and ad- 
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The Contest Between Freedom and Despotism 



Address hy Secretary Dulles * 



Your organization has as its purpose to develop 
internationally "intelligent, aggressive and serv- 
iceable citizenship." Therefore, you must, I 
know, be deeply interested in the contest now going 
on between freedom and despotism. 

It is, of course, nothing new that despotism and 
freedom should be combating each other. That 
has been going on since the dawn of history. 
But today that contest has the magnitude and in- 
tensity which are characteristic of our time. 

The forces of despotism are more highly organ- 
ized that ever before. Already they control one- 
third of the entire human race, and they openly 
proclaim their ambition to extend their system 
throughout the world. 

So far, their gains have come through the use 
of violence, or the threat of violence. During the 
Stalin era, 15 nations, in whole or in large part, 
were forcibly subjected to Soviet Communist do- 
minion. But the free nations became aroused to 
the danger. They built up their deterrent power 
and joined in measures of collective defense. It 
was no longer possible for Soviet communism to 
pick up nations one by one. 

So the Soviet rulers now say that they will re- 
nounce the use of violence. But they say that 
they still expect their system to win its way in the 
world because, they say, it is so good that all will 
want it. 

We welcome and shall encourage these develop- 
ments. But it would be foolhardy to assume that 
danger is past and that we can abandon the 
mutual-security policies which have frustrated the 
old Soviet tactics. The Soviet rulers retain 
capabilities which enable them quickly to revert 

' Jlade before the 41st annual convention of Kiwanis 
International at San Francisco, Calif., on June 21 (press 
release 34.5 dated June 20). 



to their old policies of violence and attempted 
coercion, and they would surely be tempted to do 
so if ever the free nations abandoned their policy 
of standing together. For violence is the classic 
and natural tactic of Soviet communism as taught 
not merely by Stalin but by Lenin. 

Soviet industries are working at top speed to 
develop ever more potent atomic and nuclear 
weapons. Their nuclear experiments are being 
multiplied. They work unceasingly to increase 
the means for the delivery of new weapons by 
means of bombers, intercontinental rockets, and 
submarines. 

They are also developing new techniques of in- 
direct aggression. They are, for example, striv- 
ing to mtroduce their agents into other countries — 
persons who are technicians but also part of the 
political apparatus of international communism. 
And they try to ensnare needy countries with eco- 
nomic lures. Thus they prepare the possibility 
of subverting other governments, irrespective of 
the will, or even knowledge, of the peoples con- 
cerned. 

It is therefore vital that the free nations should 
maintain their guard and their peace insurance 
policies, including in our case the mutual security 
program now pending in Congress. 

At the same time we confidently take up the 
challenge of the Soviet Communists to compare 
our systems. 

Communism Not Accepted Voluntarily 

First of all we ask: If communism is so good 
that, as its leaders say, others will freely accept it 
on its merits, why not give the first chance to those 
who know it best ? The Russian people have now 
had 39 years within which to appraise the merits 
of the Soviet Communist system. The peoples of 



Jo/y 2, 1956 



Eastern Europe have had a decade or more to ap- 
praise that system. If communism can win on its 
merits, under conditions of genuine freedom of 
choice, why do not its proponents demonstrate that 
where communism now prevails ? 

The Soviet rulers last July at the "summit" 
pledged themselves to let the German people have 
free elections. Seventeen million of those Ger- 
mans know communism at firsthand, and most of 
the others have had eyewitness reports. Wliy 
does the Soviet Government now say, as it said at 
Geneva last November and still repeats, that it 
will not permit the promised free elections because 
it fears the German people would turn away from 
the so-called "social gains" that the Communist 
regime has imposed on East Germany ? 

Are not the free peoples entitled to presume 
that there is something basically wrong about a 
system that has never been accepted voluntarily 
bj' any people and that the Soviet rulers are un- 
willing to submit to the verdict of the peoples who 
know it best? 

Short-Range Advantages of Dictatorship 

Let us, however, not reason solely on the basis 
of this presumption, however reasonable. Let us 
look more closely at the Soviet system. 

Of course, dictatorship seems to offer some short- 
range advantages. It permits of opportunism. 
It makes possible a flexibility of action which is 
denied to democratically based governments. 
Despots can go in one direction one day and then 
in another direction the next day without need 
to explain or to justify their zigs and zags. They 
are not bound by parliamentary directives or 
budgets. They can channel the education of their 
people in accordance with the dictates of expedi- 
ency, and they can compel persons of their choice 
to perform governmental tasks at home and 
abroad. Also, Communist dictatorships, being 
atheistic and materialistic, can and do treat hu- 
man labor as a commodity to be used for the 
glorification of the state. 

Through such powers dictators can do some 
things that cannot be done by governments which 
derive their powers from the consent of the 
governed. 

Many of the despotic societies of the past have 
created notable monuments — pyramids, coliseums, 
palaces, and temples — built by slave labor to 
glorify kings and potentates who personified the 



state. The Soviet State has comparable achieve- 
ments to its credit. By the ruthless use of forced 
labor, the dictators have created modern monu- 
ments in the form of industrial plants, power de- 
velopments, and the like. They have subjected 
their economy to a forced and unbalanced growth 
and, with the help of natural resources and a tem- 
perate climate, attained a rapid rate of industrial- 
ization and a rapid increase of technical training. 

All of this is featured in the Soviet Communist m 
propaganda. 1 

However, there is another side of the picture. 

Recent Khrushchev Speech 

I shall not attempt here to catalog all of the 
many evils of Soviet Communist despotism. I 
do wish, however, to call attention to the revela- 
tions recently made by Mr. Khrushchev, the pres- 
ent head of the Soviet Communist Party, in his 
initially secret speech before the 20th Party Con- 
gress of the Soviet Communist Party .^ It is the 
most damning indictment of despotism ever made 
by a despot. It should of itself be sufficient to 
make all free peoples shun that type of despotism 
as they would shun a plague. 

Khrushchev, understandably, tried to keep his 
speech secret. He said : "We cannot let this mat- 
ter get out of the Party, especially not to the press. 
. . . We should not give ammunition to the 
enemy ; we should not wash our dirty linen before 
their eyes." 

Mr. Khrushchev's address has now become 
known. It should be read and studied throughout 
the world. 

"\A1iat did Mr. Khrushchev say? He said that 
the man who for many years headed the Soviet 
Communist Party and Soviet State, who was por- 
trayed as a demigod and whose writings were 
treated as authoritative by international com- 
munism the world over, was, as regards doctrine, 
a "deviationist" ; was, as head of state, so blind 
to the dangers to his nation as to be almost a 
traitor ; and was, as a human being, so brutal and 
sadistic in character as to rival one of the most 
evil of the Eoman Emperors, Caligula. Further- 
more — and this is the main point — Mr. Khrush- 
chev exposes the inability of the Soviet Commu- 
nist system to liquidate its own evil leadership. 



■ For excerpts from Khrushchev speech, see Cong. Reo. 
of June 4, 1956, p. 8465. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Ijecause it was tlie evil leader ^Yllo had the supreme 
power to liquidate others. 

Let me give you a few of the highlights of 
Khrushchev's long speech. 

Mr. Khrushchev, after recalling some of Stalin's 
writings, says, "This is, of course, a clear deviation 
from Marxism-Leninism, a clear debasing and be- 
littling of the role of the Party." 

Mr. Khrushchev says that prior to Hitler's at- 
tack on Eussia Stalin was amply warned but that, 
"Despite these particularly grave warnings the 
necessary steps were not taken to prepare the coun- 
try properly for defense and to prevent it from 
being caught unawares." 

IMr. Khrushchev says that the fear of Stalin was 
such that those who had the business of gathering 
and assessing information did so with trepidation 
lest what they reported would anger Stalin and 
jeopardize their own lives. He says: "Because 
the leadership was conditioned against such in- 
formation, such data was dispatched with fear 
and assessed with reservation." 

He alleges that Stalin, to satisfy his sadistic 
lusts, constantly invoked torture to procure false 
confessions, which were then made the basis of 
judicial murder. He directed "long tortures" and 
habitually himself "called the investigative judge, 
gave him instructions, advised him on which in- 
vestigative methods should be used ; these methods 
were simple — beat, beat and, once again, beat." 
Mr. Khrushchev recites incident after incident of 
the application of these tortures. 

No Safeguards Against Abuse 

Mr. Khrushchev's speech portrays a loathsome 
scene. The speech cannot be read without horror 
and revulsion. But we must not stop at that in- 
stinctive emotional reaction. We must go on to 
ask the basic question : A^liy was not this situation 
unmasked during Stalin's life, or indeed not until 
3 years after Stalin died ? 

Mr. Khrushchev attempts to give the reason. 
He points to Beria as Stalin's principal agent for 
torture and murder and says : 

"The question arises why Beria, who had liqui- 
dated tens of thousands of Party and Soviet work- 
ers, was not unmasked during Stalin's life. He 
was not unmasked earlier because he had utilized 
very skillfully Stalin's weaknesses; feeding him 
with suspicions, he assisted Stalin in everything 
and acted with his support." 



In short, the Soviet Communist system provides 
no safeguards against even such extreme abuses 
as those that Mr. Khrushchev recounts. There 
are no checks and balances. The system is, as 
even Lenin said, one of "unlimited power, based 
on force and not on law." It operates in the dark. 
It provides no dependable method of changing 
the ruler. When there is misrule, only death or 
violence can assure the end of that misrule, and 
even that is no assurance, for Beria, whom Mr. 
Khrushchev calls even worse than Stalin, would 
probably have succeeded Stalin had not Beria been 
violently liquidated in the post-Stalin contest for 
power. 

The principal political figures in Russia today 
were all intimates of Stalin. They knew full well 
what was going on. Khrushchev and Bulganin 
were Stalin's close collaborators and indeed the 
beneficiaries of his purges within the party. And 
today tliey must admit that, once their system is 
fastened upon a country, there are no means to 
prevent the grossest abuses. 

Also, it is to be observed that, while the Soviet 
Communist leaders now privately discuss Stalin's 
crimes and seek publicly to disassociate themselves 
from Stalin and while they show some signs of 
hoping to avoid a repetition of his misrule, not 
even this much gain is registered by the Chinese 
Communist Party, which seeks to extend its sys- 
tem in Asia. Its leaders have been the most dedi- 
cated imitators of Stalin. Mao Tse-tung, writing 
of Stalin after his death, said : "We rallied around 
him, ceaselessly asked his advice, and constantly 
drew ideological strength from his works." The 
Chinese Communist representative to the 20th 
Party Congress in ]\Ioscow, where Mr. Khrush- 
chev's address was made, applauded "the firmness 
and invincibility of the Soviet Communist Party 
created by Lenin and reared by Stalin." 

The Chinese Communists have, indeed, sought 
to outdo Stalin in brutality. And while the 
Soviet successors to Stalin at least profess to have 
renounced the use of force in international affairs, 
the Chinese Communists still refuse this. We 
have been, and are, patiently tiying to get them to 
make a meaningful renunciation of force, particu- 
larly in the Taiwan (Foi'mosa) area, but so far 
without success. 

Thus we see revealed the system which Messrs. 
Bulganin and Khrushchev say they hope the free 
peoples of the world will voluntarily accept. It 



July 2, 1956 



is a system which again proves Lord Acton's dic- 
tum that "Power tends to corrupt ; absolute power 
corrupts absolutely." It is a system of inevitable 
abuses which provides no dependable means for 
the correction of those abuses. 

Peaceful Evolution in Free Society 

As against that system stands the system of the 
free societies, where government rests on the 
knowledge and consent of the governed and is 
changed when the governed so desire. The 
Soviet Communists' principal indictment of these 
societies is that they are reactionary, status quo 
societies. But what is the record? 

It is the good custom of the free societies to in- 
dulge in self-criticism and to expose their deficien- 
cies. But occasionally it is profitable to pause 
and take stock of the immense changes for good 
that are accomplished by representative govern- 
ments. This is the more necessary because peace- 
ful change rarely attracts as much attention as 
change that is wrought by violence. 

So, let us look at the peaceful evolution which 
has occuiTed Avithin our American society since 
1917 when the "revolutionary" Bolsheviks took 
over in Russia. 

Our free society derives its principal momentum 
from its religious character. Our American peo- 
ple believe in the spiritual nature of man and in 
the human dignity which results from the fact 
that man has his origin and destiny in God. 

Such beliefs provide a constant and powerful 
compulsion toward peaceful change toward a 
better world. 

Within the period of years of which I speak, 
the specific changes have been immense. 

Women have been relieved of the many disa- 
bilities that were for centuries their lot and have 
now gained a political, economic, and social status 
totally different from that of 40 years ago. 

Eace discrimination, while not yet wholly elim- 
inated, is rapidly diminishing. The present bears 
no resemblance to the conditions of 40 years ago. 

There has been growing protection of health. 
Infant mortality has been reduced by 75 percent. 
Many dread diseases are being eradicated. 

Science is performing miracles. It was free- 
world scientists who first cracked the atom and 
opened up vast new possibilities of advancement 
in economic and medical fields. These possibili- 
ties are being spread throughout the world by in- 



ternational agreements, and we look forward to 
the early formation of an international atomic 
enei'gy agency, pursuant to President Eisenhow- 
er's atoms-for-peace proposal to the United 
Nations. 

National productivity has about tripled in 40 
years. 

Working men and women are living a good life. 
They have higher wages, shorter hours, greater 
job security and retirement plans. Wages are up 
and hours of labor down. In 1916 the average 
factory wage, in 1955 dollars, was about $32 for a 
49-hour week. Today the $32 has gone up to $76— 
and the 49 working hours have gone down to 41. 
The spread between the average wage of factory 
workers and of executives is less in the United 
States than in the Soviet Union. 

Not only have living standards risen sharply 
during the last 40 years, but the lower income 
groups have gained relatively the most. 

During recent yeai-s the income, before taxes, of 
the upper fifth of our families increased by 33 per- 
cent, while the income of the lowest fifth increased 
by 125 percent. Furthermore, income taxes and 
inheritance taxes, almost negligible 40 years ago, 
now take largely from the upper income groups 
for the general welfare. This further increases 
the relatively greater share of the lower income 
groups. 

Property ownership, limited in 1917, is today 
widely diffused. Over 8 million individuals own 
shares of American business companies. Over 22 
million families now own their homes, compared 
to 7 million 40 years ago. 

Educational facilities are greatly expanded even 
in terms of higher education. Today 37 percent 
of young people between the ages of 18 and 21 are 
enrolled in educational institutions, as against 8 
percent in 1920. 

All these, and many more advances, have come 
about under our free society. 

In the international field, a vast change also has 
come about. Much progress has been made toward 
develoi^ing conditions of collective security. This 
is the enlightened way. Mature societies fight 
crime with a collective police system, fight fire 
with a collective fire department, and fight disease 
with public health services. This same principle 
of collective effort is now emerging internation- 
ally. The free nations have been its sponsors, both 
in terms of the United Nations an^ in terms of 



I 



Department of State Bulletin 



collective security treaties. The United States 
now has such treaties with 42 other nations. 
These developments apply the great moral prin- 
ciple that we are "every one members one of 
another." 

Similarly, the principle of human dignity has 
been applied to the colonial problem. During a 
period when international communism was forci- 
bly extending its dominion over more than 650 mil- 
lion alien people, and destroying or truncating the 
independence of some 15 nations, free nations were 
according independence to 17 new nations with 
aggregate popidations of around 650 million. 
Thus we have the most dramatic contrast between 
the dynamic liberalism of free societies and the 
brutal reactionism of those who glorify physical 
power. 

So, whether we look at the domestic scene or at 
the international scene, we see the immense and 
benign changes wrought by the processes of free- 
dom. 

Demonstrating the Liberalizing Influence of Freedom 

But we dare not be complacent and feel that our 
past automatically assures our future. It is es- 
sential that the dynamic and liberalizing influence 
of freedom should constantly be made apparent, 
both by word and by deed. 

In any contest with despotism, the free societies 
are under certain seeming disadvantages. They 
expose their deficiencies, whereas despotisms ha- 
bitually hide their deficiencies. Thus free societies 
often appear worse than they are and despotic 
societies for a time may appear better than they 
are. 

It is not often that despotism can be publicly 
unmasked, as by the publication of Mr. Khrush- 
chev's speech. To overcome this ability of despot- 
ism to mask itself, the free societies must make 
clear, so that none can doubt, their own constant 
dedication to liberal principles of peaceful change. 

It is not enough to prove that despotism is bad. 
It is equally necessary to go on and on proving 
that freedom is good. 

Unless the free peoples do that, despotism will 
gain, if only because peoples in need, such as those 
of the newly developing countries, can readily be 
tempted by what seems a prospect of rapid eco- 
nomic change, which is the specialty of the Soviet 
rulers. 



That is the great mission to which the free 
nations are dedicated. If we can continue to show 
freedom as a dynamic liberalizing force, then we 
need not fear the results of the peaceful competi- 
tion which the Soviet rulers profess to offer. 
More than that, we can hope that the forces now 
at work within the Soviet Union and within the 
captive countries will require that those who rule 
shall increasingly conform to principles of free- 
dom. This means that they shall increasingly 
recognize the dignity of the hiunan individual, 
shall increasingly satisfy the aspirations of the 
people, and shall increasingly be themselves sub- 
ject to peaceful change by the will of the governed. 
Thus wiU come about the beginning of a world- 
wide era of true liberalism. 

That possibility is now clearly visible for the 
first time in many years. That possibility should 
spur us on to increased effort. For now we can 
be confident that it may be possible for our genera- 
tion to share in building the kind of a world which 
we will be proud to bequeath to our children. 



Visit of Foreign Minister^Pineau 
of France 

Following is the text of a joint U.S.-FrencJi 
communique issued on June W at the conclusion of 
the visit to Washington of Christian Pineau, 
Foreign Minister of France, together with re- 
marks hy Deputy Under Secretary Rohert Mwr- 
phy on the occasion of M. Pineau's arrival Jums 16. 



WELCOME BY MR. MURPHY 

Press release 330 dated June 16 

On behalf of the Secretary of State, it gives me 
gx-eat pleasure to welcome you and your party to 
Washington. The United States Government is 
honored by this visit. The Secretary as well as 
other high officials of our Govermnent are looking 
forward to the discussions they will have with 
you. 

It is certain that your visit will further advance 
the mutual understanding, cooperation, and 
friendly relations already existing to such a high 
degree between France and the United States. 
Tlie bonds which link together our two coimtries 
are historic and indivisible. French-American 



Ju/y 2, 7956 



friendship has been based on respect for individ- 
ual freedom and the dignity of man. Tlais tra- 
ditional friendship, as you recently said so well, 
cannot be, under any pretext, brought into ques- 
tion, whatever may be the evolution of the world 
political situation. Our partnership today within 
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization is in a 
sense a symbol of these bonds and of those funda- 
mental freedoms to which the Western alliance 
is so firmly dedicated. 

Altliough this is not your first trip to the United 
States, it is nonetheless your first visit since assum- 
ing high ofHce as Foreign Minister of France. 
We are gratified that you come to our Capital in 
this important role. We greet you as an old 
friend and hojae your visit will bring to you the 
same satisfaction and pleasure that we feel in hav- 
ing you as our guest. I am confident that it will 
provide an opportunity for you to observe the 
high esteem in which Americans hold your 
country. 

The Secretary has asked me to convey to you his 
personal greetings and to express to you his regret 
that it is not possible for him to welcome you today 
to Washington in person. 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE 

Press release 342 dated June 20 

The Foreign Minister of France, M. Christian 
Pineau, has today concluded his official visit to 
Washington as the guest of the United States 
Government. 

The visit provided a welcome opportunity for 
the Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, and 
other high officials of the United States Govern- 
ment to exchange views with Foreign Minister 
Pineau on various aspects of the international 
situation and to discuss specific matters of common 
interest. It also served to emphasize once more 
the profound and historic friendship between the 
American and French peoples and the cordial 
relations between the two Goverimients and to 
recall the common sacrifices of France and the 
United States in the cause of liberty. 

The French Foreign Minister reviewed with 
the Secretai-y of State his recent visit to Moscow 
with Premier Mollet. The Secretary of State 
noted with interest the exposition by the Foreign 
Minister of the significance of the developments 



which are taking place in Eastern Europe.' 
M. Pineau mentioned certain aspects of the prob- i 
lem of commercial relations between East and ' 
West. 

They exchanged views regarding the letters 
recently addressed to their respective Govern- 
ments by Chairman Bulganin transmitting the 
Soviet Government's statement of May 14 regard- 
ing its armed forces and they welcomed the con- 
sultations on this subject now taking place in the 
North Atlantic Council. 

The Secretary and Foreign Minister stressed the 
necessity of reaching, within the framework of 
the United Nations, agreement on a plan on dis- 
armament providing for the security of all par- 
ticipating states through an effective system of 
control. Wliile recognizing the possible value of 
a reduction in conventional forces and armaments, 
the Secretary and Foreign Minister agreed that 
in light of modern military teclmology only a 
program which dealt with the atomic threat, by 
safeguarding the world against surprise attack, 
would serve to give to the peoples of the world real 
security. They agreed moreover that the carry- 
ing out of any extensive reduction in armed forces 
requires the concurrent solution of major prob- 
lems such as the reunification of Germany. 

The Foreign Minister and the Secretary re- 
affirmed the necessity of strengthening further the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which re- 
mains the bulwark of Western security. They 
agreed upon the imjaortance of extending the 
process of political consultation so as to harmonize 
the policies of the member nations with respect to 
the major objectives of the Treaty, and of improv- 
ing Nato cooperation in non-military fields. These 
matters are now under active examination by a 
committee of three Nato Foreign Ministers, who 
have the fullest support of the French and United 
States Governments. 

The Foreign Minister informed the Secretary 
of State of recent developments with regard to 
the problems of European integration. M. Pineau 
expressed the view that the decisions taken at the 
Conference of Venice to proceed with the drafting 
of treaties establishing Euratom and the Coimuon 
Market, as well as the agreement at Luxembourg 
between France and Germany on the principles 
of the settlement of the Saar question, pave the 
way for European unification which is one of the 
main goals of French policy. 



8 



Department of State Bulletin 



M. Pineau outlined the current situation in 
Algeria and the desire of the French Government 
to reach a liberal and just solution which should 
enable the Euroi^ean and Moslem populations to 
live and work together in peace and harmony. 
Secretary Dulles expressed the hope of the United 
States Government for the achievement of such 
a solution. 

The Secretary and the Foreign Minister ex- 
changed views on the Middle East and reaiErmed 
their intention to continue to search within the 
framework of the United Nations for a peaceful 
solution of existing problems in that area and in 
particular to support the efforts of the Secretary 
General in connection with the Palestine question. 

Finally, they reaiBrmed the strong interest of 
the United States and France in contributing to 
welfare and economic development in the newly- 
developing areas of the world. In this connection 
M. Pineau elaborated on the proposals which he 
made on this subject to the North Atlantic Council 
in May, and which are now under continuing study 
and examination. 



United States and France Sign 
Atoms-for-Peace Agreement 

On June 20 the U.S. Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion and the Department of State (press release 
341 ) announced that representatives of the United 
States and France had signed an agreement for 
cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy, 
covering an exchange of information on research 
and power reactors. Tlie agreement also provides 
for the supply of fuel by the U.S. Atomic Energy 
Commission to its French counterpart. 

The agreement was signed on June 19 for the 
United States by Acting Chairman Willard P. 
Libby on behalf of the U.S. Atomic Energy Com- 
mission and Acting Assistant Secretary C. Burke 
Elbrick for the Department of State, and for 
France by Ambassador Maurice Couve de 
Murville. 

The agreement will facilitate cooperation be- 
tween the two countries in the development of 
their respective national programs and represents 
a further step in President Eisenhower's atoms- 
for-peace program. The terms of the agreement 
permit the exchange of unclassified information 
on the development, design, construction, opera- 
tion, and use of various types of research, experi- 



mental-power, and power reactors. Further data 
will also be transmitted on health and safety prob- 
lems and the use of isotopes in industry, agricul- 
ture, medicine, and biological research. Subject 
to agreement by the two countries, specialized re- 
search facilities and reactor-materials testing 
facilities within France and the United States will 
be made available for mutual use. Provision is 
also made for collaboration between private 
organizations of the two countries. 

The United States has undertaken to provide 
France, subject to the conditions of the agreement, 
40 kilograms of contained U-235 in uranium en- 
riched up to a maximum of 20 percent U-235. 
Further, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission may 
sell a portion of this enriched up to 90 percent for 
use in a materials testing reactor. Finally, the 
French Atomic Energy Commissariat may obtain 
gram quantities of plutonium and U-233 for ex- 
perimental projects. The agreement specified 
certain safeguards and controls necessary for 
possession and use of this fissionable material. 

The agreement looks forward to establishment 
of an international atomic energy agency and en- 
visages integration of the safeguards system into 
the control responsibilities of such an agency, 
should it come into being. Provision is also made 
for the event that an atomic energy community is 
created in Europe. 

Under the provisions of the U.S. Atomic Energy 
Act of 1954, there must be a 30-day period during 
which the agreement lies before the Congress be- 
fore the agreement signed becomes effective. 



Supplementary Tax Convention 
With France 

Press release 348 dated June 22 

On June 22, 1956, Secretary Dulles and Maurice 
Couve de Murville, French Ambassador in Wash- 
ington, signed a convention between the United 
States and France supplementing the conventions 
of July 25, 1939,^ and October 18, 1946, relating to 
the avoidance of double taxation, as modified and 
supplemented by the protocol of May 17, 1948.^ 

The supplementary convention modifies in cer- 
tain respects the conventions and protocols now in 
force between the two countries in order that the 



'Treaty Series 988. 

' Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1982. 



Jo/y 2, 7956 



treaty provisions may deal more effectively with 
current problems involving double taxation. It 
adds a new article relating to reductions in tax 
rates on interest and dividends. It amends the 
existing treaty provisions relating to short-term 
movement of business and professional men from 
one country to another. It adds a new article re- 
lating to stamp or similar taxes on the transfer of 
securities and stock exchange transactions. It re- 
vises the existing provisions under which France 
undertakes to eliminate double taxation. It 
makes various changes in terminology to reflect 
changes made in the French income tax structure. 
It revises the existing territorial-extension provi- 
sions so as to make more flexible the procedure by 
which the operation of the treaty provisions may 
be extended to territories over which either Gov- 
ernment exercises jurisdiction with respect to in- 
ternational relations. 

Effective dates specified in the supplementary 
convention vary according to the character of the 
substantive provisions. The convention itself 
would be brought into force by the exchange of 
instruments of ratification. It will be necessary 
to transmit the convention to the Senate for advice 
and consent to ratification. A nmnber of docu- 
ments furnished by the Department of the Treas- 
ury and containing comprehensive information re- 
garding the purpose and effects of the convention 
will be sent to the Senate with the convention and 
will be available in printed form upon publication 
of the Senate Executive document. 



Opening of SEATO Headquarters 
at Bangkok 

Following is the text of a statement issued hy 
Secretary Dulles on June 23 (press release 34-7 
dated June £2) on the occasion of the formal 
opening of the Southeast Asia Treaty Orga/nisa- 
tion headquarters at Bangkok on Ju/ne 24- 

The formal opening of the Seato headquarters 
in Bangkok today marks another forward step in 
the development of the Organization. The action 
of the Government of Thailand in making avail- 
able facilities for this headquarters is particularly 
appreciated. 

The establishment of the Executive Secretariat 
and civilian international staff in Bangkok will 



greatly assist the work of the Council representa- | 
tives, the Permanent Working Group, and other , 
Seato bodies in all fields of cooperation under \ 
the treaty. In particular it will aid in strengthen- 
ing the security of the member states against armed 
aggression or subversion. Greater attention to 
economic and social progress is thus made possible. 

At the second amiual meeting of the Seato 
Council of Foreign Ministers at Karachi last 
March, it was noted that Se.\to had made a great 
contribution to the maintenance of peace in the 
area and had already brought increased stability 
not only to member countries but to the entire 
Southeast Asia and Southwest Pacific areas. 

The strengthened organization which now will 
serve the Seato Council representatives will en- 
able the governments to increase the effectiveness 
of their cooperation under the treaty and to carry 
out the individual national steps which are the 
basis of collective progress in Seato. 

Tlie United States looks forward to this broad- 
ening and strengthening of Seato and believes 
that these heartening developments will give a new 
impetus to the efforts of Seato members to safe- 
guard the peace and well-being of the area. 



Vice President Nixon 
To Visit Manila 

The Wliite House announced on June 22 that 
Vice President Nixon, accompanied by Mrs. Nixon, 
would visit Manila in order to participate in cere- 
monies commemorating the 10th anniversary of 
Philippine independence on July 4. 

Mr. Nixon will attend not only as Vice Presi- 
dent but also as personal representative of the 
President. 

In making the announcement, James C. Hagerty, 
press secretary to the President, read to cor- 
respondents the following letter from President 
Magsaysay to the Vice President : | 

July 4, 1956 will mark the tenth anniversary of Philip- 
pine independence. In keeping with the historic sig- 
nificance of that occasion, and in grateful recollection of 
the role that America played in the event that it com- 
memorates, I take great pleasure in cordially Inviting 
you and Mrs. Nixon to the anniversary ceremonies in 
Manila. 

I earnestly hope that you will find it possible to honor 
the occasion with your presence and join the Filipino 
people in a fitting observance of it. 



10 



Deporfmenf of State Bulletin 



United States Treaties: Recent Developments 



hy Herman Phleger 
Legal Adviser^ 



In the conduct of international affairs there is 
no more important or valuable instrument than 
the treaty. 

Wliat the ordinary contract supplies in the field 
of domestic law as a basis for cooperation and as 
a source of mutual advantage is afforded in the 
international field by treaties between sovereign 
states. 

It is important to bear in mind that a treaty is a 
contract. As Alexander Hamilton pointed out in 
The Federalist^ the power of making treaties 

relates neither to the execution of the subsisting laws, 
nor to the enaction of new ones ; and still less to the 
exertion of the common strength. Its objects are con- 
tracts with foreign nations, which have the force of law, 
but derive it from the obligations of good faith. They 
are not rules prescribed by the sovereign to the subject, 
but agreements between sovereign and sovereign. 

The device of international contract by which 
nations reciprocally promise to exercise their 
sovereign powers in a particular way, or not to 
exercise tliem, affords such advantages and pos- 
sibilities for progress in international affairs that 
it has been availed of increasingly during the last 
50 years. Following the First World War, and in 
an even greater degree since World War II, multi- 
lateral treaties have been resorted to by nations 
as a means of agreeing on rules of conduct for 
their common observance. 



'■ Address made before the New York State Bar Associa- 
tion at Saranac, N. Y., on June 23 (press release 339 dated 
June 20). 

■ The Federalist No. 75, at 557 (J. C. Hamilton ed., 
1864) ; see also Foster v. Nielson, 2 Pet. 253, 313 (U. S. 
1829). 



The Geneva Red Cross Convention of 1864,^ 
the Postal Convention of 1874,^ the Conventions 
of the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907,= the 
Covenant of the League of Nations in 1920," and 
the Charter of the U.N. in 1945 ' illustrate how, 
progressively, the world community of nations has 
become more closely knit, more interdependent, 
and more given to the promotion of common in- 
terests by means of great international treaties. 

The Binding Effect of Treaties 

Of course, it is argued that the effect of bilateral 
or multilateral treaties as law among the nations 
is greatly overemphasized. It is pointed out that 
the absence of sanctions makes these agreements 
notliing more than the expression of intentions as 
to future conduct, the breach of which can bring 
upon the defaulter nothing beyond the moral con- 
demnation of the world for having broken its 
pledged word. 

But the sanction provided by world opinion is 
not to be lightly regarded and is indeed a power- 
ful force. In addition, the Statute of the Inter- 
national Court of Justice, and the acceptance of 
its jurisdiction for various types of cases, do pro- 
vide facilities for the adjudication of disputes 



' 22 Stat. 940, T. S. No. 377. 

' 19 Stat. 577. 

■^32 Stat. 1779, 1803, 1827, and 36 Stat. 2199, 2241, 2259, 
2277, 2310, 2332, 2351, 2371, 2396, 2415, 2439, T. S. Nos. 
392, 396, 403, 536-546. 

« 3 Malloy, Treaties, Conventions, etc., 3336. 

' 59 Stat. 1031, T. S. No. 993. 



July 2, 7956 



11 



under treaties and for appropriate redress of 
grievances. 

But the real sanction is the fact that no nation 
wishes to be regarded by the rest of the world 
community as not faithful to its agreements. 
Such a reputation would mean that other nations 
would not enter into treaty relations with it, thus 
depriving it of one of tlie principal means of pro- 
moting its national objectives in the sphere of 
international action. No nation wants to be re- 
garded as a treaty breaker. 

Indeed, a moral obligation sometimes proves 
to be a more comiielling influence than is legal 
compulsion. The desire to win and hold the good 
opinion of mankind by living up to liigh ideals 
and principles is a very powerful motive. Which 
reminds me of a story about the great Edmund 
Burke. 

Burke was notorious both for being an inveter- 
ate and unlucky gambler and for not paying his 
bills. Probably the latter was the result of the 
former. 

One day, Burke's tailor met him on the street 
and, displaying Burke's unpaid notes, pressed him 
for payment. lie charged that everyone knew 
Burke paid his gambling debts, but why didn't he 
pay his notes to his tailor? "All," said Burke, 
"a gambling debt is a debt of honor, and I am 
an honorable man." Whereupon the tailor took 
Burke's notes and, tearing them up and throwing 
the pieces away, said, "Now your debt to me is a 
debt of honor." And it is reported that Burke 
paid his tailor. 

Early Treaty Experience of the United States 

What has been the experience of the United 
States in the treaty field ? Wliat are its powers, 
its limitations, and its practice? 

The first treaties made by the United States 
were concluded with France on February 6, 1778, 
during the Revolutionary War. One was a treaty 
of alliance,* in which each of the parties agreed 
to "make all the efforts in its power against their 
common enemy," Great Britain, and not to con- 
clude a peace without the formal consent of the 
other and "not to lay down their arms until the 
independence of the United States shall have been 
. . . assured." 



The other treaty, concluded on the same day 
with France, was a treaty of amity and com- 
merce.** It is remarkably like similar treaties to- 
day. It contains, for example, a most-favored- 
nation clause with respect to commerce and 
navigation. 

These treaties were ratified by the Continental 
Congress even before the Articles of Confedera- 
tion became operative on July 9, 1778. 

The War of Independence closed with the sign- 
ing of the Treaty of Peace with Great Britain on 
September 3, 1783.^° Articles IV and VI of this 
treaty contained stipulations in favor, respec- 
tively, of British creditors of American citizens, 
and of the former Loyalists. 

Although the Articles of Confederation en- 
trusted the ti"eaty-making power to Congress,^' 
and this peace treaty had been ratified by Con- 
gress, fulfillment of the treaty promises were de- ■ 
pendent upon the legislative action of the several I 
States. ' 

The States paid little attention to the treaty pro- 
visions. Eeal and personal property and debts 
owing the British had been confiscated, and the 
courts had refused to enforce these provisions. ■ 
Great Britain made repeated and increasingly 
sharp protests at this failure of the United States , 
to live up to its treaty obligations. M 

As a result, John Jay, then Secretary of State 
for Foreign Affairs, induced Congress on April 
13, 1787, to adopt a resolution requesting the State 
legislatures to repeal all laws conflicting with the ■ 
Treaty of Peace and to empower their courts to 
determine all suits arising from the treaty in ac- 
cordance with its provisions, "anything in the 
said acts ... to the contrary notwithstanding." ^' 
Only seven legislatures acted in accordance with 
this request of Congress.^^ 

Note that this was in April of 1787. The Con- 
stitutional Convention was then in session. On 
the following September 17, the Constitution was 
signed. 

One of the reasons the Articles of Confedera- 
tion liad 13 roved inadequate, and one of the reasons 
the Constitutional Convention liad been convened, 



' 8 Stat. 6, T. S. No. 82. 



' 8 Stat. 12, T. S. No. S3. 
'°8 Stat. SO, T. S. No. 104. 

"1 U. S. C. XXIX (1952), articles VI and IX. 
12 Corwin, Annotated Constitution of the United States 
(1953) 415. 
'"Ibid. 



12 



Department of State Bulletin 



was the inadequacy of the Articles of Confedera- 
tion with respect to treaties. Congress could make 
treaties, but they had to be carried into effect by 
action of the several States. "Wlien a treaty was 
approved, Congress lacked authority to see that its 
provisions were complied with. Naturally, under 
these conditions foreign nations questioned the 
value of a treaty with the United States. 

Such was the background of treaty experience 
when the Constitutional Convention drafted the 
provisions regarding treaties. The provisions 
agreed upon reflect the intention of the f ramers to 
overcome the difficulties experienced under the 
Articles of Confederation. 

First, in article I, section 10, it was provided 
that "No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alli- 
ance or Confederation" and "No State shall, with- 
out the Consent of Congress . . . enter into any 
Agreement or Compact . . . with a foreign 
Power," thus assuring against interference by the 
States in the treaty process. 

Then, it was provided in article II, section 2, 
that the President "shall have Power, by and with 
the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make 
Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators 
present concur." This definitely placed the au- 
thority and responsibility for making treaties in 
the Chief Executive, with the concurrence of the 
Senate. 

Finally, article VI was drafted to provide : 

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States 
which shall be made in Pursuance thereof ; and all 
Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Au- 
thority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of 
the Land ; and the Judges in every State shall be bound 
thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any 
State to the Contrary notwithstanding. 

Thus it was made clear that the provisions of a 
treaty, including treaties made before the adoption 
of the Constitution, were to be law of the land and 
to be controlling in the courts of the several States, 
even though their constitutions and laws might be 
to the contrary. 

This is the supremacy clause, and it was drafted 
for the specific purpose of changing the situation 
existing under the Articles of Confederation, 
where a State and its citizens were not bound to 
observe a treaty executed by the United States, 
unless they saw fit to do so. 

These were the means the drafters of the Consti- 
tution devised to make the treaties of the United 
States respected and sought abroad, by making 



them binding and effective at home; to make it 
possible for the United States to make good on its 
international promises, promises given to secure 
reciprocal promises from other nations. 

Ware v. Hylton 

It was not long before these provisions were put 
to the test. Virginia had provided by statute that 
debts due a British subject would be discharged by 
payment into the Virginia Treasury. A British 
subject sued to recover on a debt, citing the 1783 
treaty with Great Britain as the basis of his claim. 
The defendant pleaded that the laws of Virginia 
had discharged the debt. The Supreme Court 
held in Ware v. Hylton " that the provision in the 
treaty overcame the law of Virginia and the 
British creditor was entitled to collect. 

So as early as 1796, nine years after the Con- 
stitution was signed, the Supreme Court held that 
treaties overcame State laws to the contrary and 
that this was so even in fields which under the 
Constitution were ordinarily reserved for State 
action and where power had not been delegated to 
the Federal Government apart from the treaty 
power. 

Thus, we see, the subjects of the treaty power 
are not confined to those over which Congress has 
been delegated a power of legislation, and in its 
foreign relations the United States is a unit. 

This principle has been repeatedly recognized 
over the years by decisions in State and Federal 
courts, including the United States Supreme 
Court. 

Yet, periodically, the question of State legisla- 
tion conflicting with treaties has continued to 
arise, and incidents and instances have occurred 
which would indicate that there is either an in- 
sufficient public understanding of the binding 
effect of treaties or a conscious intention of evad- 
ing or avoiding compliance with them. 

The San Francisco School Ordinance 

One such instance was in 1906, when the city of 
San Francisco, pursuant to the California State 
constitution, adopted an ordinance which pro- 
vided that Japanese children must be sent to the 
Oriental Public Scliool and could not attend the 
regular public schools. 

Thereupon the Government of Japan made rep- 



'3 U. S. (3 Dall.) 199 (1796). 



iM\y 2, 1956 



13 



resentations to the United States Government that 
this violated its treaty of 1894 with the United 
States," which provided that the citizens of each 
party should enjoy in the territories of the other 
the same privileges and rights as the citizens of the 
most- favored nation. 

Elihu Root, then Secretary of State, made this 
matter the subject of his annual address as presi- 
dent of the American Society of International 
Law in 1907.^'^ This you will find rewarding read- 
ing. It contains a brilliant and comprehensive 
discussion of the treaty power and practice of the 
United States. In it, he concluded that, since the 
rights to be accorded aliens in the United States 
were a proper subject of treaty negotiation and 
since such rights may be given by treaty without 
regard to the laws of any State, it followed that 
no State could set up its laws as against the grant 
of a right to an alien by treaty. He concluded that 
the San Francisco ordinance must therefore give 
way before the treaty with Japan. 

Secretary Root pointed out that fortunately the 
validity of this reasoning had been recognized in 
California and the offending discrimination dis- 
continued. 

All this occurred almost 50 years before the 
present discussion over the treaty power arose. 
Those who are under the impression that this con- 
stitutional issue arose with the decision in Missouri 
V. Holland " should realize that it was raised and 
decided more than a himdred years earlier in Ware 
V. Hylton. 

Secretary Kellogg's Observations 

At the amiual meeting of the American Bar 
Association in 1913, its then president, and later 
Secretary of State of the United States, Frank B. 
Kellogg, devoted his amiual address to the subject 
of the binding effect of treaties and the tendency 
of States to fail to observe them.^^ 

The particular occasion of the Kellogg remarks 
was the alien land laws which had recently been 
enacted by California and Arizona, and particu- 
larly a declaration by the legislature of California 
that its alien land law was intended to apply "not- 



•° 29 Stat. 848, T.S. No. 192. 

" 1 Proceeding.? of the American Society of International 
Law 43 (1907). 
"252 U.S. 416 (1920). 
"38 ABA Annual Reports 331 (1913). 



withstanding any treaty provisions with the Fed- 
eral Government." 

Mr. Kellogg pointed out that the treaty provi- ' 
sions of the Constitution were adopted "in the 
light of history and with the full knowledge of 
the condition of the treaty-making power, and of 
the violation of treaties by the states" and after 
"the widest discussion and deliberate consid- 
eration." 

He further pointed out that 

while protecting tlie person and property of the citizen 
against the abuses of government, it gave to the central 
government the power to make treaties with foreign na- 
tions necessary to the preservation of the Union, to the 
extension of its commerce, to the protection of its citizens 
in foreign lands, and the right reciprocally to confer upon 
foreign citizens those privileges consistent with the laws 
and usages of nations ; and lastly it established a Tri- 
bunal — the Federal judiciary — which was to preserve the 
constitutional guarantees of liberty, maintain the su- 
premacy of the Union, and enforce its laws and treaties. 

Mr. Kellogg observed that, while the power of 
the Federal Govermnent to protect the citizens of 
foreign countries in our midst is plenary, "we 
have been shamefully negligent in many instances 
in giving this protection" and that as a result "the 
only recourse foreign nations have had, has been 
to demand indemnity . . . which this government 
has always recognized and paid." 

He concluded: 

It is of the highest importance that our country . . . 
should be ever scrupulous in keeping its treaty obligations. 
They are as sacred as the private obligations which arise 
between man and man in the manifold duties and relations 
of life in organized society. They are of higher impor- 
tance . . . because they lie at the. very foundation of 
peace and good order. 

Current Challenges to Treaties 

The truth of the axiom that history repeats it- 
self appears to be proved by the fact that today 
we are facing another challenge to the treaty 
power of the Federal Government. 

On March 8 of this year the Governor of South 
Carolina approved a bill making it a crime for 
any person operating an establishment selling 
Japanese textile goods to fail to display on the 
doors of the establislmient in letters at least 4 
inches high a sign reading "Japanese Textiles 
Sold Here." 

A similar statute has now been enacted in Ala- 
bama, and one is pending before the legislature 
of Louisiana. 



14 



Department of State Bulletin 



The purpose of these statutes is obvious. Those 
interested in textile manufacture in the United 
States, who are feeling the effect of competition 
with the Japanese product, have conceived this as 
a method of reducing or eliminating the purchase 
of competing Japanese goods. 

In 1953, less than 3 years ago, we made a Treaty 
of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation with 
Japan,^^ which provides (art. XVI, par. 1) : 

Products of either party shall be accorded within the 
territories of the other Party, national treatment and 
most-favored-nation treatment in all matters affecting 
internal taxation, sale, distribution, storage, and use. 

The Japanese Government made a formal pro- 
test to the United States Government with respect 
to the South Carolina statute, pointing out that it 
violated this provision of its treaty with the United 
States.-" There can be no doubt that its position 
in this regard is well founded. This protest has 
been and is being communicated to the appropriate 
State officials, but there is no reason to assume that 
those urging this legislation are unaware of our 
treaty commitments. 

If these State actions assume the proportions of 
a tendency, the pledged word of the United States 
solenmly made in treaties, to which the Senate 
has given consent to ratification, will become 
gravely suspect. The enactment of discrimina- 
tory statutes by the States, even though they be 
later declared invalid, will damage not only the 
trade of other nations but the good name of the 
United States as well. Other countries will hesi- 
tate to enter into treaty commitments with us, or 
will be less likely to grant truly reciprocal ad- 
vantages, if they feel that their products will be 
discriminated against notwitlistanding a treaty 
commitment to the contrary. 

Of course, we should not confuse faithful per- 
formance of our treaty obligations with the ques- 
tion of free trade in the goods of foreign countries. 
The United States has a perfect right to impose 
tariffs and other burdens on the importation of 
foreign products, or not, depending upon its own 
national decision as to what is in its best interest. 
This will take into accoimt the protection of do- 
mestic production on the one hand and the neces- 
sity to offer a market in order to secure a market 



"4 U.S. Treaties and Other International Agreements 
2063, TIAS 2863. 

'° For texts of Japanese note and U.S. reply, see Btjl- 
LBriN of Apr. 30, 1956, p. 728. 



for our own exports on the other hand. But when 
it pledges its solemn word by a treaty that it will 
not engage in discriminatory practices, good faith 
as well as expediency requires us to make good on 
our promise. 

International Relations Are Reciprocal 

Many do not seem to realize that international 
relations are a two-way street. What we do to 
foreigners and foreign products in the United 
States they are at perfect liberty to do to us and 
our products in their country. Discrimination 
can be met by discrimination, reprisal with re- 
l^risal ; and privileges gained can only be obtained 
by privileges granted and faithfully respected. 

"Wliile these principles are embodied in our 
friendship, commerce, and navigation treaties, 
such as the one with Japan which I have just men- 
tioned, the same principle applies to international 
trade and intercourse where no treaty is involved. 
Fair treatment and nondiscrimination beget the 
same. 

Recently there have been attempts to secure 
State legislation prohibiting the manufacture 
and the importation into a State of beer prodviced 
by corporations the majority of whose stock is 
owned or controlled by foreigners. The particu- 
lar object of this legislation is a large Canadian 
corporation which manufactures a well-known; 
beer and ale. Legislation of this character was 
introduced in Mai-yland, New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, Rhode Island, and Arizona. In Maryland 
the bill which prohibited manufacture was passed 
by the legislature but was vetoed by the Governor. 

While the United States does not have a com- 
mercial treaty with Canada, American business 
investments in that coimtry exceed in amount 
American investments in any other country and 
enjoy there national treatment on a nondiscrimi- 
natory basis. 

If the United States, whether through the Fed- 
eral Government or through State action, were to 
discriminate against enterprises on the ground of 
their Canadian ownership, it can be anticipated 
that this would provoke sentiment in Canada to 
similar action or retaliation against American in- 
vestments and business. 

It was for these reasons that the Department of 
State addressed a letter to the Governor of Mary- 
land at the time the beer bill was before him, call- 



Jo Jy 2, J 956 



15 



ing his attention to these important aspects of tlie 
relations of the United States with Canada. 

Commercial Treaties 

Our commerce and industiy are engaging in 
greatly expanded operations overseas. This is 
important to the maintenance and increase of 
American markets and foreign commerce. But 
it also contributes to the development of foreign 
countries and, in this period of contest with Soviet 
communism, demonstrates the benefits of free 
enterprise. 

Such overseas operations are greatly facilitated 
by the protection afforded by our treaties of 
friendship, commerce, and navigation. Since 
World War II, 15 sucli treaties have been nego- 
tiated, of which 8 are already in force,^^ 4 are 
awaiting Senate approval, and 3 are awaiting final 
action by the foreign government. 

Among the rights secured to Americans by these 
treaties, in consideration of like rights granted in 
this country, are the right to do business, protec- 
tion against expropriation, and jDrotection against 
discriminatory treatment. 

Right To Do Business. Under these treaties, 
American citizens and companies are assured na- 
tional treatment in the transaction of business; 
that is to say, treatment as good as that accorded 
by the foreign government to its own citizens. 

Specifically, American citizens and companies 
are permitted to establish and maintain offices, 
factories, and other establishments, to organize 
companies under the general company laws of the 
foreign government, to acquire majority interests 
in companies, and to control and manage such 
enterprises. 

It is noteworthy that these rights would not 
accrue to American citizens and corporations in 
the absence of a treaty, since countries are free, 
under international law, to control the entry into 
the country of individuals, corporations, and 
capital. 

Of course, many countries permit such entry, 
but they would be free to change their policies and 

'^With China, 63 Stat. 1299, TIAS 1871; Ethiopia, 
4 U.S. Treaties and Other International Agreements 2134, 
TIAS 2864; Germany, S. Exec. E., 84th Cong., 1st sess., 
effective June 14, 1956 ; Greece, 5 U.S.T. 1829, TIAS 3057 ; 
Ireland, 1 U.S.T. 785, TIAS 2155; Israel, 5 U.S.T. 550, 
TIAS 2948; Italy, 63 Stat. 2255, TIAS 1965; and Japan, 
4 U.S.T. 2063, TIAS 2863. 



their laws at any time in the absence of such a | 
treaty commitment. While the United States and 
its partners in these commercial treaties reserve 
the right to limit the participation by aliens in 
public utilities, shipbuilding, air and water trans- 
port, certain types of banking, and the exploita- 
tion of natural resources, a wide area is left to 
wliich the treaty right to do business is fully 
applicable. 

Protection Against Expropriation. These com- 
mercial treaties also provide that property of 
Americans shall not be taken within the territory 
of the foreign government except for a public 
purpose nor shall it be taken without the prompt 
payment of just compensation. Furthermore, 
such compensation must be in an effectively realiz- 
able form and must reja resent the equivalent of the 
property taken. Moreover, adequate provision 
must have been made at or prior to the time of 
the taking for the determination and payment of 
such compensation. 

Finally, if the foreign government maintains 
exchange restrictions governing the remittance of 
capital from its territory, it must make reasonable 
provision, witliin the framework of its exchange 
regulation system, for the withdrawal in dollars 
of the compensation which it must pay for the 
expropriated property. In this connection it 
should be noted that the foreign country may only 
impose exchange restrictions to the extent neces- 
sary to keep its monetary reserves above a rela- 
tively low minimum. Thus the commercial treaty 
recognizes exchange control as an emergency 
measure and not a normally permissible condition. 

While, under international law, a country is 
obliged to make prompt, adequate, and effective 
compensation for expropriated property, somei 
countries have questioned this principle, and many 
countries have maintained that the valuation of 
the property may be made solely in terms of do- 
mestic law. Moreover, there appears to be no 
case or general principle of international law hold- 
ing that any other than local currency is required 
for compensation, regardless of its utility to the 
expropriated owner. 

Consequently, the property protection provi- 
sions of our commercial treaties represent not 
merely a reaffirmation of international law prin- 
ciples but an advance with respect to the require- 
ment that compensation be made in an effectively 
realizable form. Furthermore, these treaties pro- 



16 



Department of State Bulletin 



vide that any dispute as to the interpretation or 
application of the treaty shall be submitted to the 
International Court of Justice unless the parties 
agree to settlement by some other method. 

Protection Against Discriminatory Treatment. 
I have already adverted to the fact that in these 
treaties the foreign country is required to accord 
national treatment to American enterprises en- 
gaged in a wide variety of commercial, industrial, 
and financial activities. In addition, the foreign 
country is required to accord most- favored-nation 
treatment with respect to such matters. 

Moreover, the foreign country obligates itself 
not to take unreasonable or discriminatory meas- 
ures that would impair the legally acquired rights 
or interests within its territories of American 
citizens and corporations in the enterprise which 
they have established. 

While these "unreasonable or discriminatory 
measures" are not otherwise defined, this provi- 
sion does afford the United States an opportimity 
to consider whether such measures, although not 
expropriatory in form, may so adversely affect 
American enterprises as to be inconsistent with 
the objects of the treaty, or constitute measures 
not taken against other similarly situated enter- 
prises, or bear no reasonable relation to normal 
regulation of commerce and industry. If so, we 
have a basis for making representations to the 
foreign government. 

Recent Examples of Commercial Treaties 

There are presently pending before the Senate 
Foreign Relations Committee four new treaties, 
with the Netherlands," Nicaragua,^^ Haiti," and 
Iran.^^ The treaty with Iran, while containing 
the standard property-protection provisions and 
protection against discriminatory treatment of 
enterprises once established in Iran, does not con- 
tain the usual provision in respect of the right of 
entry of American citizens or corporations for the 
purpose of doing business. 

In that respect, the treaty with Iran resembles 
the treaty between the United States and Ethiopia 
of 1951.^^ Underdeveloped countries often have 

'^ S. Exec. H, 84th Cong., 2d sess. 
" S. Exec. G, 84th Cong., 2d sess. 
" S. Exec. H, 84th Cong., 1st sess. 
" S. Exec. E, 84th Cong., 2d sess. 
'°4 D. S. T. 2134, TIAS 2864. 



a system, from which they are unwilling to depart, 
of "screening" particular investments from the 
point of view of wliether they will be sufficiently 
productive in terms of the counti-y's economy. 
However, once American capital has entered, it 
enjoys the same protection accorded in the more 
developed countries with which we have commer- 
cial treaties. 

The treaties made between 1923 and 1953 as 
originally drafted contained a provision whereby 
the parties obligated themselves to disregard the 
foreign citizenship of an individual in licensing 
to practice the professions such as law, medicine, 
and accounting. As a result of objections to such 
a provision in several treaties before the Senate 
for approval in 1953, a revision leaving this ques- 
tion to be determined by the local laws and con- 
stitutions was inserted in a number of such 
treaties at that time. Since then, the United 
States has not included the practice-of -professions 
clause in commercial treaties. 

Importance of Treaties Today 

The treaty power is important to the United 
States not only in fostering the economic well- 
being of the country and protecting the interests 
of its citizens but in promoting our security and 
peace in the world. 

The United Nations Organization, which has 
made notable contributions to international law 
and order, was created by a treaty. The United 
States was probably the chief moving power in 
the framing of this charter and has consistently 
been a most active member of the organization, 
placing gi-eat reliance on its successful operation 
to preserve the peace of the world. 

Also by treaty, the United States has contracted 
in various contexts for the adjudication of inter- 
national legal disputes by an impartial tribunal, 
usually the International Court of Justice at The 
Hague. Unfortunately, many nations which pro- 
claim the supremacy of the law seem reluctant to 
submit their controversies to impartial adjudi- 
cation, so that there remains much to be hoped 
for in this direction. 

As we strive for a more peaceful and ordered 
world, it is clear that national armaments and 
military capabilities must be brought under con- 
trol so that no nation may menace others. 
Through the United Nations, efforts are being 
continued to reach agreement on disarmament. 



July 2, 1956 



17 



If the negotiations are one clay crowned with 
success, a treaty setting forth the substantive ob- 
ligations and the modes of enforcement will be 
required. This, to be effective, must contain effec- 
tive provisions for inspection and control, not only 
on the territory of foreign states but also on our 
own. 

Already the United States and other nations 
are embarked on a cooperative venture in the field 
of nuclear materials — the setting up of an Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Agency to press forward 
with President Eisenhower's proposal for an in- 
ternational program of peaceful uses. It is 
planned that the statute of this agency ^' will be 
submitted to the Senate as a treaty next year. 



The treaties of the United States under the present 
Constitution, are liable to the infractions of thirteen 
legislatures, and as many different courts of final juris- 
diction, acting under the authority of those legislatures. 
The faith, the reputation, and the peace of the whole 
Union, are thus continually at the mercy of the prejudices, 
the passions and the interests of every member of which 
it is composed. Is it possible that foreign nations can 
either respect or confide in such a government? 

It would indeed be a cruel paradox if, having 
framed the treaty power in the Constitution to 
insure that effective treaties could be made and 
enforced, we were now to impair their value. I 
know you agree that we may have confidence that 
this will not be permitted to occur. 



Importance for the Future 

The treaty power of the United States delegated 
by the Constitution to the President and the Sen- 
ate has proved its necessity and worth over the 
170 years since the Federal Convention at Phila- 
delphia. 

Wliatever its importance in the past, the treaty 
power seems destined to be even more important 
for the future in the field of international com- 
merce, intercourse, disarmament, and peace. But 
we must constantly bear in mind that it is not 
enough that we possess the power to make treaties 
and that we wisely exercise that power. It is 
equally important that, when we make a treaty 
and thereby pledge the honor and integrity of 
the United States, we shall fulfill our obligations 
imder it in good faith and to the full. For, if we 
do not do this, other nations will not make treaties 
with us and the possession of the power will avail 
us naught. 

We must never permit our country to fall into 
the condition described by Hamilton in the 22d 
number of The Federalist wlien he said of the 
Confederation : -* 



^ For text of draft statute, see Bulletin of May 21, 
19.56, p. 8.52. 

^r/ie Federalist No. 22, at 192 (J. C. Hamilton ed., 
1864). 



U.S., Canada Discuss Problems 
of Radio Frequency Adjustment 

Press release 336 dated June 19 

Another of the continuing series of informal 
discussions between representatives of Canada and 
the United States with respect to mutual radio 
frequency management problems was held in 
Washington this past week. The principal items 
of discussion were certain specific frequency ad- 
justments which have been made by the two coim- 
tries as a part of the carrying out of the worldwide 
program of frequency adjustment contained in 
the Extraordinary Administrative Radio Confer- 
ence Agreement. Some of these adjustments have 
created certain temporary problems which it was 
considered desirable to discuss informally. Mu- 
tually satisfactory arrangements with respect to 
all of these matters were arrived at during the 
course of the discussions. As a further outcome 
of the meeting, representatives of both countries 
recognized the necessity for continued close collab- 
oration in the establishment and maintenance of 
the joint sharing patterns in the congested high 
frequency and regional frequency bands. Addi- 
tionally, informal exchanges of information on 
other matters of mutual interest pertaining to 
radio services took place. 



18 



Department of State Bulletin 



The Position of the United States In Today's World 



hy Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. 

UjS. Representative to the United Nations ^ 



This occasion has great meaning for me. To be 
given the degi-ee of Doctor of Laws by this great 
University and to be henceforth an undeserving 
but enthusiastic alumnus is an unforgettable 
honor. 

In a larger sense, this occasion has great meaning 
for the country. This is the 200th commence- 
ment of one of our great universities. That is 
truly an awe-inspiring age. It is a magnitude fit 
for nations, and mere individuals can scarcely con- 
template it without some feeling of wonder. From 
our ancient and humane institutions we have that 
priceless gift, the chance to study the meaning of 
our lives in the light of the past. Thereby we 
transcend in some degree the generation in which 
we were born, and we realize that we are in a hu- 
man family which includes the best men of all 
history. 

This feeling should be especially vivid here to- 
day. This University had as its most eminent 
founder one of the wonderful figures of the 18th 
century, that extraordinary philosopher and 
statesman, Benjamin Franklin. Your predeces- 
sors here in Philadelphia saw the members of the 
Continental Congress come together and give to 
the world a state paper of unexcelled effectiveness 
and power — the Declaration of Independence. 

Thus this great institution was alive at the seed- 
time of our Republic, when decisions were being 
made which shaped the life of America and of 
the whole human race. And it has lived and 
grown with the Republic, until today it is not only 



' Address made at the 200th commencement of the Unl- 
Tersity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., on June 13 
(U.S./D.N. press release dated June 12). 



a national treasure but an institution of worldwide 
renown. 

In representing the United States at the United 
Nations, I am constantly concerned with the part 
which America plays on the world stage. That 
is, in truth, every American's concern. Especially 
it is yours as members of this University with all 
its learning and leadership. It therefore seems 
both useful and appropriate today for me to speak 
briefly on the position of our country in the world. 

Perhaps the first thing to say is that- — thank 
God ! — we are at peace. It is not the old-fashioned 
kind of peace, to be sure, which was free from 
"alarms and excursions." At the United Nations, 
where we seek a cure for war as doctors in a hos- 
pital seek a cure for disease, we see the dangers 
in the world. We are making progress toward 
finding a cure, and one thing which we have 
learned is that we can move away from war — pro- 
mding we make up our minds to wage peace with 
the same intensity with which in times past we 
have waged war. 

Elements of National Strength 

Waging peace depends on being strong. When 
I use the word "strong," I use it in a very big sense. 
It is a big word which must not be shrunk by limit- 
ing it to just one type of strength. 

It should not, for example, be made to mean 
that we must have constant superiority at all times 
in every single category of the vast arsenal of 
weapons. A country which did that would not be 
strong — it would be musclebound. One dollar 
spent to build up the economy of a potential ally 
can do more in certain situations for our national 



iu\y 2, 1956 



19 



strength than three dollars spent on a bomber. It 
is a dangerous oversimplification to think that na- 
tional strength and survival depend exclusively 
on military means. National strength in the 
world struggle means more than having military 
strength, vitally necessary though that is. 

We must, for example, be strong in the economic 
life of our country. 

We must be strong in the skill with which our 
diplomacy and foreign policy are conducted. 

We must be strong in our devotion to the cause 
of freedom and justice which we serve and in our 
certain faith that, with God's help, that cause will 
triumph in the end. 

We must be strong in the number of our allies 
and in their own effectiveness and strength, be- 
cause, although the United States has 40 percent 
of the natural resources of the world, we have only 
6 percent of the world's population, and this means 
that we must never stand alone. 

Then let us think about those countries which 
are not allies of ours but are not satellites of the 
Soviet Union either. They cover at least half of 
the human race. In spite of promising prospects 
for the future, they are, for the most part, poor 
today and under the constant menace of famine 
and disease. They must be helped to the point 
where they are able and eager to stand on their 
own feet. Not only does common humanity urge 
us to extend such help ; it also has the practical 
advantage of meaning that in case of emergency 
they will thus be able to fight for themselves. We 
must not view these countries with petulance or 
impatience; the so-called neutral who irritates you 
occasionally is certainly preferable to the enemy 
who aims to overcome you. 

Views of Uncommitted Peoples 

Let us try to see what people in these countries 
think about us. 

When, for example, they think of the war of 
the American Revolution, they are not interested 
in the caliber of the muskets which were used, or 
of George Washington's generalship at Valley 
Forge, but in the ideals of the Declaration of In- 
dependence which made the bearers of these mus- 
kets lay down their lives. 

When people in those underdeveloped countries 
think of our Civil War, they do not think of the 
mechanisms of the various pieces of artillery on 
each side of the line at Gettysburg but of the aboli- 



tion of slavery and the ideals which prompted the 
self-sacrifice of the men who fell there. They 
think of Abraham Lincoln and the reverence he 
felt for the Declaration of Independence — which 
once led him to remark here in Philadelphia that 
there was something in that declaration "which 
gave liberty not alone to the people of this coun- 
try, but hope to all the world, for all future time." 

World War II does not stand in their minds be- | 
cause of the equipment and the money which were 
poured into it but because, by dint of great sacri- 
fice, it successfully repelled brutal aggression and 
established the pattern for the world in which we 
now live. 

Last year, at Bandung, Indonesia, when the na- 
tions of Asia and Africa held their first conference 
in history, President Sukarno in his welcoming 
speech made a single reference to the United 
States. That reference was to the ride of Paul 
Revere, 180 years before, calling out in the dark- 
ness for men who would fight for liberty — as Long- 
fellow wrote, "a word that shall echo for ever- 
more." How wonderful that America calls forth 
such a memory in such a distant land ! 

We must, to be sure, think hard and long here at 
home and among ourselves about the military and 
the economic implications of foreign policy. But 
it is not our preoccupation with bombers and with 
dollars which we should exhibit abroad. We must 
not make gifts in such a way as to destroy the 
value of the gift. 

Example Set by President 

President Eisenhower has shown himself to be 
a master at presenting a shining image of America 
to the world. His proposal of April 1953 for an 
international fund for economic development ; his 
proposal of December of that year for a United 
Nations stockpile of fissionable material so that 
the atom could be used for man's life rather than 
for his death ; his work at the summit conference 
at Geneva which, in a few short days, undid all 
of the harm which had been done to the United 
States from so many different quarters by portray- 
ing it as warlike and unstable — these are all ac- 
tions which should set the tone for everyone, both 
in and out of government, who speaks and acts 
for the United States in its relations with other 
countries. 

A heartfelt display of friendliness and brother- 
hood, a sincere appeal to the feeling in every hu- 



20 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



man breast that there is an element of gloi-y for 
every man in this world — these intangibles can do 
everything in situations where bombers or dollars 
can do nothing. 

Fear and greed are by no means the only human 
instincts which have power to move the minds of 
men. We must aim higlier, as the President has 
successfully done. We must appeal to such power- 
ful emotions in the world as hopefulness and faith 
and the optimism which comes from having in our 
minds the image of tlie world which we can create 
by working together — a world such as Abraham 
Lincoln wanted, which most of the world fervently 
wants today and the thought of which moves every 
human heart. 

The United States wants no satellites. We wel- 
come friends and partners who value their own 
freedom as much as we value ours. 

Need for Skilled Negotiators 

National strength is therefore a fabric which 
is made up of many different strands. I have 
spoken of the military, economic, political, and 
diplomatic. Implicit in these is a talent which a 
university education should go far to promote. I 
refer to the talent for negotiation. The ability to 
find the common meeting ground and to work out 
the compromise to which all can sincerely adhere 
is a useful talent in all public affairs. In our in- 
ternational relations it is vital. In its highest 
development it is one of the greatest human tal- 
ents — rarer even than the talent which can create 
beautiful works of art. From my present vantage 
point as Eepresentative of the United States in 
the United Nations, I am keenly aware of how 
much the world needs men endowed with a genius 
for negotiation — and for thus moving all humanity 
ahead on a broad front. In all truth it is the very 
talent which will find a road away from war and 
toward a just and lasting peace. 

Running through all our activities must be that 
belief in the value of the individual human be- 
ing — that conviction which was first expressed in 
the Declaration of Independence that all men are 
created equal. This alone can give vitality to ma- 
terial things. On it alone can the willingness to 
sacrifice be based. Without it no struggle can be 
won and no nation can long endure. 

In essence the United States of America owes 
its existence to men who believed deeply in the 



ideals of the Declaration of Independence and 
who, therefore, were willing to make sacrifices — 
including the supreme sacrifice. We Americans, 
who know and love America, are sure in our hearts 
and minds that the sacrifice that they made was 
worth making. Indeed the love of liberty is a 
prime characteristic of a great university like the 
University of Pennsylvania. We who are a part 
of this University have helped toward keeping 
this love ardent and strong. Let us continue to do 
so. Let us particularly resolve to keep America 
always the kind of country which men will love — 
for which men will make the great sacrifice, for 
which they will become heroes. 



Death of William P. Boteler 

Press release 332 dated June 18 

The Department of State learned with sorrow 
of the death of Vice Consul William Pierce 
Boteler in Nicosia, Cyprus, on June 16, 1956, as 
the result of womids suffered in a terrorist bomb- 
ing. Injured at the same time were three other 
U.S. Government employees: Jack Bane of the 
District of Columbia, James Dace of Los Angeles, 
Calif., and James Coleman of Scranton, Pa. Mr. 
Coleman is reported to have been released from 
the hospital. Mr. Bane and Mr. Dace are reported 
to be in excellent condition following surgical 
treatment of wounds received in the bombing.^ 

Mr. Boteler was born in Washington, D. C, on 
May 2, 1930. He entered Government service in 
1951, following his graduation from Haverford 
College in Haverford, Pa. Prior to that time he 
attended Landon Preparatory School and Wood- 
row Wilson High School in the District of Colum- 
bia. He came to the Department of State in 
February 1956 and was assigned to the American 



' In a statement to correspondents on June 18, Lincoln 
White, Acting Chief of the News Division, said: "The 
death of William Boteler and the injuries sustained by 
the three other Americans in this incident are a tragic 
reminder that violence is a blind and senseless course in 
the settlement of international problems. Mr. Boteler's 
death does not bring the Cyprus problem one step closer to 
solution. It only adds to the already considerable cost In 
human life which has been exacted by violence on the 
Island of Cyprus." 



July 2, J 956 



21 



Consulate at Nicosia in May of this year. Mr. 
Boteler's father, Charles M. Boteler, lives at 2480 
Sixteenth Street NW. 

In a letter of condolence to Mr. Boteler's father, 
Secretary Dulles expressed the profound regret 
of the State Department at William Boteler's 



tragic death. The Secretary paid tribute to Mr. 
Boteler's service, saying "he died in the line of 
duty, courageously advancing the high interests 
of the United States. In the short time he served 
with the Department of State he earned the friend- 
ship and admiration of all his colleagues." 



Norway in the Postwar Era 



hy L. Corrin Strong 
Ambassador to Nortcay ' 



I am delighted to have the opportmiity of being 
with you this evening and of bringing from Nor- 
way greetings to so many of her splendid sons and 
daughters in America. The country of your an- 
cestors has welcomed us with a warmth and friend- 
liness for which I shall always be gratefiil, and 
in turn I am glad to have the privilege of sharing 
with you some of my observations of the Norway 
of today. 

Those of you who have not been back since be- 
fore the war would hardly recogiaize Norway ex- 
cept for two fundamentals: the wonderful 
s c e n e r y — mountains, fjords, lakes — and the 
people — surely one of the finest people in the 
world. And the people have not forgotten over 
the years how to make use of their beautiful coun- 
try. In the winter on skis and in the summer on 
foot they are out on the trails. Sailing for the 
Norwegians is about as usual as playing golf is 
to an American. And it seems that nearly every 
Oslo family has its hytte in the hills or along the 
fjords to which it slips away at evei-y opportunity. 

But in many ways the dark years of occupation 
marked a great change in the country. Norway's 
material loss in the war is reckoned to be of a 
magnitude of 21 billion kroner. A loss equal to 
more than $3 billion, plus the intangibles result- 
ing from the various hardships of the occupation 
and of concentration camps, was a truly stu- 
pendous one for any small country and particu- 
larly for one such as Norway, not blessed with an 
abundance of natural resources. 



' Address made before the Sons of Norway at New York, 
N. Y., on June 16 (press release 319 dated June 14). 



The "Unity Program" 

But rather than overcoming or breaking the 
spirit of the Norwegian people, this disaster served 
as a challenge. The Norwegians immediately 
started to rebuild and have been at it ever since. 
The plans for rebuilding and rehabilitating the 
country have essentially been based upon the 
"Unity Program," agreed upon by all of Norway's 
political parties while they were still imder- 
ground. The spirit of unity largely prevailed 
throughout the entire period of the reconstruction 
of the country. 

I have recently returned from a 3-week of- 
ficial tour of North Norway, where this process 
can be seen perhaps in its most dramatic form. 
The entire province of Finnmark, which is larger 
than all of Denmark, was put to the torch by the 
Nazis, as you know. Hardly a village was spared. 
By now, new modern commimities have risen from 
the ashes — new schools, new churches, new hospi- 
tals, homes, and new factories. I found a spirit 
of enterprise and determination among the people 
of the North which I have seldom seen elsewhere. 

And in rebuilding, the North has made its econ- 
omy sounder. For instance, rather than sending 
the entire fish catch in the traditional way to 
Bergen for processing and export, fishing villages 
over the area now have their own small freezing 
plants. I myself, in the Lofotens, have seen fish 
complete the freezing process within 2 hours of 
being caught. New mining enterprises are being 
started. And an effort is being made to diversify 
the industry of the area. 

Life remains hard in the North for reasons of 



22 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



climate and difficult communications. Many, in 
fact most, communities still depend on water trans- 
portation. The standard of living, while rising 
and now higher than it has ever been, is some- 
what below the level of the rest of the country. 
The population is gi-owing. The central Govern- 
ment — through the North Norway Development 
Fund, and otherwise — is paying more attention 
to the area than formerly. I am personally "bull- 
ish" on the future of the North. 

I have cited the North in some detail as it is 
fresh in my mind and some of you may be less 
familiar with it than Southern Norway. But 
the process of reconstruction has been country- 
wide. The merchant marine, so important as a 
needed foreign-exchange earner, which suffered 
grievous wartime attrition, has been rebuilt, and 
its tonnage is now 59 percent above that of 1939. 
And in rebuilding, a decision was taken to move 
in the direction of industrializing the country 
and thus be less dependent on fishing and forest 
products. This has meant the development of 
great hydroelectric projects and of industries re- 
quiring cheap power. These include aluminum 
and nickel refining and electrochemical industries. 
These have had a double benefit as they are for- 
eign-exchange earners. Even with the recent con- 
struction, less than one-fourth of Norway's hydro- 
electric power has been developed. 

I am happy to say that in this postwar develop- 
ment U.S. Marshall Plan money played an im- 
portant role. One example stands out in my mind 
as constituting foreign aid at its best. The United 
States assisted in the construction of one of the 
new aluminum plants through a loan repayable 
in aluminum. Repayment in the form of alumi- 
num is now taking place at a time when the United 
States needs all the aluminum it can get. Thus, 
the operation directly aids both Norway and the 
United States. 

Norway is a country where the economic aid 
given by the U.S. was put to good use. And it was 
and is appreciated. Our aid, of course, merely 
supplemented what the Norwegians did for them- 
selves. In the earlier jjostwar years, in order to 
make the reconstruction possible, they tightened 
their belts and submitted to an austerity program 
probably as severe as that in England. I am 
happy to say that our two Governments mutually 
decided in 1953 that Norway did not require fur- 
ther economic aid, and our special mission to Nor- 



way handling this work has now been terminated. 

I do not want to leave the impression that Nor- 
way is without economic problems. She has her 
full share. Because of its geography, the open- 
ing up of the country through the building of 
roads and railways is fantastically expensive by 
our standards. Power development requires huge 
outlays of capital, and Norway has little. She 
is plagued by recurring foreign -exchange deficits 
which in recent years have been met by foreign 
borrowings. But these borrowings have not been 
frivolous. The proceeds have gone mainly into 
capital investment: new ships, hydroelectric proj- 
ects, aluminum plants, and the like, which in time 
should strengthen Norway's foreign-exchange po- 
sition. Her credit is good. Several loans, for in- 
stance, have been obtained from the International 
Bank, in one of which New York banks have par- 
ticipated. Norway has also borrowed on the open 
money market in Switzerland. She is now en- 
gaged in a battle against inflation. The labor 
supply for further development is limited. 

But in my judgment economic progress is be- 
ing made steadily. Given a few more years of 
good ocean-freight earnings and continued favor- 
able terms of trade, I am hopeful that Norway's 
great economic reconstruction effort will prove 
successful in the sense of providing a healthy 
economy sufficiently strong to withstand normal 
vicissitudes of economic fortune. 

Political Situation 

Those of you returning for the first time since 
before the war will find a certain sameness about 
the political situation, with the Labor Party in 
power as it has been since 1935 except for the war 
years. Coirununism exercises only a negligible 
influence in Norwegian political life. The voting 
strength of the party is down from its peak 12 
percent of total vote cast in 1945 to about 5 per- 
cent. Communists are active in the trade miions 
and have scored some minor successes in the past 
year. The price of avoiding infiltration and 
domination in this field in Norway, as elsewhere, 
is constant vigilance. I believe the responsible 
Norwegian labor leaders are vigilant and that 
they will be able to control the situation. While 
you will find marked differences between the 
parties on domestic questions, you will find few if 
any differences among the non-Communist parties 
on foreign policy. 



July 2, J 956 



23 



But you will find a vastly different foreign 
policy than prewar. As a result of her terrible 
wartime experience, Norway understandably felt 
a need for security over and above what she could 
provide for herself. At first she hoped to find this 
in the United Nations. Wlien it became clear 
that this was not the complete answer, under the 
wise leadership of my good friend. Foreign Min- 
ister Halvard Lange, Norway decided to join 
Nato. 

Incidentally, Dr. Lange is regarded by my Gov- 
ernment, and many others, as one of the outstand- 
ing statesmen of contemporary Europe. It is 
gratifying to see him given recognition by being 
appointed to the Ministerial Committee of Three 
charged with finding a formula to make Nato 
more than a military alliance. Dr. Lange, along 
with Lester Pearson of Canada, has pioneered this 
concept. He is particularly interested in develop- 
ing the international political potential of Nato 
by means of wider and closer consultation on 
foreign-policy questions of common interest. This 
concept of broadening Nato is strongly supported 
in Norway, but at the same time editorial opinion 
has taken the healthy view that the military side 
of the treaty remains important and must not be 
subordinated. 

Norway's decision to join Nato had an effect 
beyond Norway, as it undoubtedly influenced simi- 
lar decisions by Denmark and Iceland. Norway 
herself, because of her geographic location, has a 
"no foreign bases in peacetime" policy. I believe 
I am violating no confidences, however, in saying 
to you that all thinking Norwegians with whom I 
have talked are seriously concerned over the im- 
plications of the action of the Althing in Iceland 
which casts some doubt on the future of the air- 
base the U.S. maintains there for defensive Nato 
purposes. They are concerned by the implications 
for Nato as a whole and also because of the threat 
to the security of Norway which a loss of the 
base would entail. 

Norway has been a solid member of Nato. 
While her defense effort is not large quantitatively 
and in comparison with other members is on the 
low side, she is honoring her commitments. With 
help from the U.S. — we have extended $600 mil- 
lion of military aid — which, as in the case of eco- 
nomic aid, has been a good investment, she has 
built up from scratch small but effective forces. 
When you consider this against the deep-seated 



and longstanding pacifist sentiments in the coun- 1 1 
try, I submit that this is a real accomplishment. ;1 
I think the proof of all I am saying is reflected by i 
the fact that the Soviet Union recognizes the sig- " 
nificant position of Norway. The Soviets are go- 
ing "all out" to attempt to wean Norway away 
from Nato. No doubt they are impressing some 
people. It is difficult to measure that type of 
thing. I am firmly convinced, however, that Nor- 
way will remain a loyal and steadfast member 
of Nato. 

I base that conviction on many considerations, 
of which I will mention only a few. One is the 
zealousness with which Norwegians protect the "^ 
rights of the individual under the democratic sys- 
tem as it is practiced in the West. I know of no 
truer democracy. The two main criticisms of the 
U.S. since I have been in Norway — over McCarthy- 
ism and on the race question — stem from this deep- 
seated love of the Norwegian people for 
democracy. 

Westward Outlook 

The second consideration I will mention is Nor- 
way's traditional and continuing westward out- 
look. There are modern Vikings. Look at the 
Norwegian merchant marine — third largest in the 
world. I like to think of the beautiful new Ber- 
gensfjord, on which I came over, as symbolic of 
this. Look also at the contribution Norway, 
through its participation in SAS [Scandinavian 
Airlines System], has made in pioneering interna- 
tional aviation, for instance the polar route from 
Scandinavia to Los Angeles. While it is no longer 
easier for a Bergenser to go to Scotland or Eng- 
land than to Oslo, the traditional ties remain. In 
fact, as a result of the wartime experience of so 
many Norwegian youths fighting in British serv- 
ices, I believe these ties are now closer. This tie 
reflects itself in many ways. Although usually 
Norway and the United States agree on foreign 
policy questions, there are occasional exceptions. 
Perhaps one of these would be certain aspects of 
our Far Eastern policy as regards the recognition 
of Communist China. There is an increasing 
amount of cooperation among the Nordic countries 
through the activity of the Nordic Council and 
other groups. The common Scandinavian market 
about which there has been much talk is, however, 
in my opinion some distance away. There is 
strong opposition to it in Norway. 



24 



Department of State Bulletin 



In addition to the strong British relationship, in 
, recent years many other Western ties have 
'), developed. 

Not the least of these is the presence of so many 
of her sons and sons of her sons in the United 
States as reflected by the existence of your organi- 
zation. I sometimes wonder why Norwegians 
emigrate — why they want to leave such a beautiful 
country. I suppose a generation or so ago life was 
harder in Norway. I choose to believe, however, 
that it is fundamentally a reflection of the enter- 
prising or, if you will, pioneering spirit, which has 
been inherent in tlie race since the days of the Vi- 
kings. It is the spirit which Bjornson, in describ- 
ing Norwegian character, so aptly called venturing 
over de h0ye fjelle [over the high hills] . 

In any event this has greatly enriched the 
United States and other countries. It has also 
brought in its train close family and sentimental 
ties between our countries which will not be easily 
broken. I believe, furthermore, we are constantly 
growing closer together culturally. We have a 
substantial going Fulbright program providing 
for the two-way exchange of persons. Tourism 
is on the increase with the potential extent limited 
only by the facilities available, which are expen- 
sive to build. The Norwegian actress, my friend 
Tore Segelcke, has been making a hit here. The 
Norwegian National Tlieatre's production of "Peer 
Gynt" with the Grieg musical score is coming to 
New York this fall. "Porgy and Bess" has just 
had a phenomenally successful run in Oslo. The 
Boston Symphony will be there in September. 
Many of you may know that about 200 students 
from the United States now attend the American 
Summer School each year at the University of 
Oslo. All of this cannot fail to breed closer and 
better imderstanding. 

Mrs. Strong and I are both thoroughly enjoying 
our tour of duty in Norway and are deeply grate- 
ful for the experience of living for a time among 
the Norwegian people in their beautiful country. 
We believe the country has a great future ahead 
of it. And we are firmly convinced that Norway 
and the United States will remain stanch friends. 



Visit to U.S. of Deputy Speaker 
of Pai^istan National Assembly 

The Department of State announced on June 18 
(press release 331) that Cecil E. Gibbon, Deputy 
Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan, 
was to have two visits with Department officials 
that day, one with Assistant Secretary George V. 
Allen and one with Deputy Under Secretary 
Robert Murphy. 

Mr. Gibbon arrived at Washington on June 17 
as a leader grantee under the International Edu- 
cational Exchange Program. He plans to spend 
about 2 months in the United States studying 
parliamentary practices and procedures of Con- 
gi-ess and State legislatures, the Supreme Court, 
the working of local self-governing institutions, 
and political party organizations. A combined 
air-train study tour will take him to most of the 
States. 



U.S. Will Help Transport 
Afghan Pilgrims to Mecca 

The U.S. Government will help to transport 
more than 1,000 Afghan Moslems to Mecca for the 
annual "great feast" ceremonies, the International 
Cooperation Administration announced on June 
18. IcA, acting upon the request of the Afghan- 
istan Government, has contracted with Pan Ameri- 
can World Airways of New York to send a four- 
engine airplane to Kandahar in South Central 
Afghanistan for 60 days, during which it will 
make 15 to 20 round trips to Jidda, the port of 
Mecca, on the Red Sea. The aircraft will be used 
to supplement the capacity of the Afghan airline, 
Aryana, to transport the pilgrims. 

Pan American is the only U.S. airline certified 
by the Civil Aeronautics Board as an international 
flight carrier in and through Afghanistan. 

The "Hadj," or great pilgrimage to Mecca, is 
one of the most important events in a Moslem's 
life. Every Moslem is required to make this pil- 
grimage to the birthplace of Mohammed at least 
once during his lifetime, if he is able. 



inly 2, 1956 



25 



International Wheat Agreement Transmitted to Senate^ 



PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE OF TRANSMITTAL 

The White House, Jiune 12, 1956. 

To the Senate of the United States: 

With a view to receiving the advice and consent 
of the Senate to ratification, if the Senate approve 
thereof, I transmit herewith a certified copy of the 
International Wlieat Agreement, 1956, in the 
English, French, and Spanish languages, which 
was formulated at the United Nations Wlieat Con- 
ference which concluded on April 25, 1956, and 
open for signature in Washington until and in- 
cluding May 18, 1956. It was signed on behalf 
of the Government of the United States of 
America and the governments of 39 other 
countries. 

The purposes and provisions of the agreement 
are set forth in gi'eater detail in the enclosed report 
of the Secretary of State and in the summary en- 
closed therewith. 

Attention is invited particularly to the final 
paragraph of the report of the Secretary of State. 
It is my hope that the Senate will find it possible 
to give early consideration to the agreement so 
that, if the agreement be approved, ratification by 
the United States can be eifected and an instru- 
ment of acceptance deposited by July 16. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

Department of State, 
Washington, Jime 7, 1956. 

The President, 

The White House : 

The undersigned, the Secretary of State, has 
the honor to submit to the President, with a view 
to its transmission to the Senate to receive the 



advice and consent of that body to ratification, if 
the President approve thereof, a certified copy of 
the International Wheat Agreement, 1956, in the 
English, French, and Spanish languages. 

The agreement, which was formulated at the 
United Nations Wlieat Conference which con- 
cluded on April 25, 1956, remained open for sig- 
nature in Washington until and including May 18. 
It was signed during that period by the plenipo- 
tentiaries of 40 governments, including the United 
States of America and 5 other exporting countries 
and 34 importing countries.- 

The agreement is intended to continue for a 
period of 3 years, to the end of July 1959, with 
certain modifications, the arrangements with re- 
spect to international purchases and sales of wheat 
first established by the International Wheat 
Agreement of 1949 and renewed with modifica- 
tions in 1953. The United States was a party to 
the 1949 agreement and is a iiarty to the 1953 
agreement. The Senate gave its advice and con- 
sent to ratification of the 1953 agreement on July 
13, 1953, and the United States instrument of ac- 
ceptance, executed by the President, was deposited 
on July 14, 1953. The agreement (S. Ex. H, 83d 
Cong., 1st sess. ; Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series 2799), brought into force in 1953 for 
a period of 3 years, will expire on July 31, 1956. 

The 1956 agreement submitted herewith follows 
closely the pattern of the 1949 and 1953 agi'ee- 
ments. The 1949 agreement had been the result 
of efforts by governments since the early 1930's 
to find a way to create more stable conditions in 
world wheat markets. The stated objective of 
that agreement and its successors in 1953 and 
1956 is to "assure supplies of wheat to importing 
countries and markets for wheat to exporting 
countries at equitable and stable prices." After 
hearings on the 1953 agreement the Committee on 



'Reprinted from S. Exec. I, 84th Cong., 2d sess. The 
Senate document also includes the text of the International 
Wheat Agreement. 



' For list of signatories, see Bulletin of May 28, 1956, 
p. 907. 



26 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Foreign Relations of the Senate, in recommending 
that the Senate advise and consent to ratification, 
stated (S. Ex. Eept. No. 4, 83d Cong., 1st sess.) : 

The International Wheat Agreement is not designed 
to benefit one country or group of countries alone but 
exists because it provides a more stable and orderly 
world market condition than would be the case without 
the contract. The obligations and rights of the im- 
porting countries are balanced by the obligations and 
rights of the exporting countries. 

Importing countries parties to the 1953 agree- 
ment, now in force, nmnber 44 and exporting coun- 
tries 4 (Australia, Canada, France, and the United 
States). The agreement contains a provision di- 
recting its administrative body, the International 
Wlieat Council, to communicate to member coun- 
tries "its recommendations regarding renewal or 
replacement of this agreement." The decision was 
made by the Council in 1955 to take steps to call 
an international conference to explore the pos- 
sibility of negotiating a successor agreement. The 
Secretary-General of the United Nations was re- 
quested to arrange a conference mider the auspices 
of that body. A first session took place in Geneva 
October 26 to November 16, inclusive, 1955, and 
a second session held in Geneva February 20 to 
March 28, inclusive, 1956, was resimied in London, 
where negotiation of the new agreement was com- 
pleted April 16 to 25, inclusive, 1956. 

The new agreement was signed on behalf of 
the United States by Mr. True D. Morse, Under 
Secretary of Agriculture, under plenipotentiary 
authority issued to him by the President. The 
Secretary of Agriculture has informed the Sec- 
retary of State that the Department of Agi-icul- 
ture concurs in the recommendation that the agree- 
ment be transmitted to the Senate for advice and 
consent to ratification. 

As in the case of the 1953 agreement, the purpose 
of the new agreement is to provide an assured 
market to wheat-exporting countries at the speci- 
fied minimum price and assured supplies for 
wheat-importing countries at a specified maximum 
price. The guaranteed quantities specified in the 
agreement for importing countries represent the 
quantities which they may be required by the 
Council to buy at the minimum price from the ex- 
porting countries as a group and within the guar- 
anteed quantity of each. The guaranteed quan- 
tities of the exporting countries represent the 
quantities wliich they may be required by the 



Council to sell at the maximum price to the im- 
porting countries as a group within the guaranteed 
quantity of each. The obligation of exporters to 
sell at the maximum price is thus matched by a 
right to sell the same quantity at the minimum. 

Action of the Council to prescribe sales and pur- 
chases is reserved in the case of an importing 
country when it is under necessity to safeguard its 
balance of payments or monetary reserves and in 
the case of an exporting country when it is unable, 
because of short crop, to provide the wheat. 

It is provided that exporting and importing 
countries shall be free to fulfill their guaranteed 
quantities through private trade channels and that 
nothing in the agreement shall be construed to 
exempt any private trader from any laws or reg- 
ulations to which he is subject. 

The agreement does not prescribe means or 
methods to be adopted to insure fulfillment of 
agreement obligations, nor does it require any 
interference with trade in wheat outside the agree- 
ment so long as agreement obligations are met. 

No level of production is prescribed for an ex- 
porting country and the agreement goes no further 
in the matter of stocks than to provide that "each 
exporting country shall endeavor to maintain" 
carryover stocks at a level adequate to fulfill its 
guaranteed sales. 

The prices in the new agreement are minimum 
$1.50 and maximum $2. These are only 5 cents 
below the minimum and maximum set in the 1953 
agreement, despite the large stocks wluch have 
been built up in the meantime. Guaranteed sales 
and guaranteed purchases written into the new 
agreement are balanced, accounting for a total of 
approximately 303 million bushels as compared 
with 395 million (after adjustments) in the 1953 
agreement. 

The share of the 303 million bushels entered for 
the United States is approximately 132 million 
bushels as compared with approximately 196.5 
million bushels (after adjustments) under the 1953 
agi-eement. That of Canada is approximately 103 
million bushels as compared with approximately 
153 million under the 1953 agreement. Australia 
has 30.2 million bushels as compared with 45 mil- 
lion under the 1953 agreement. France, which 
formerly had only a token quantity, has 16.5 mil- 
lion bushels. Argentina and Sweden, which now 
propose to participate for the first time, have 
approximately 14.7 and 6.4 millions, respectively. 



July 2, 1956 



27 



The new agreement was signed on behalf of the 
six exporting countries specified in annex B to 
article III (representing 100 percent of the guar- 
anteed sales) and on behalf of 34 of the 44 im- 
porting countries specified in annex A to article 
III (representing approximately 87 percent of the 
guaranteed purchases). 

Representatives of 10 of the importing countries 
did not receive authorizations from their govern- 
ments in time to permit them to sign the agreement 
within the period prescribed in the document (un- 
til and including May 18). Those governments, 
therefore, will not be able to deposit instruments 
of acceptance for the purpose of helping to bring 
the agreement into force in accordance with article 
XX. In accordance with article XXI, however, 
they will be able to deposit instrmnents of acces- 
sion after the agreement enters into force and 
thereby participate to the same extent as though 
they had been signatories. They account for 39.5 
million bushels (approximately 13 percent) of the 
303 million bushels entered as guaranteed pur- 
chases under the agreement. 

To the extent that any of the importing coun- 
tries listed in the agreement fail to become parties 
to the agreement, by the deposit of either an instru- 
ment of acceptance or an instrument of accession, 
the total reduction of guaranteed purchases will 
be matched in accordance with provisions of the 
agreement by a commensurate reduction in the 
total guaranteed sales. The reduction would be 
distributed among the exporting countries in pro- 
portion to their quantities as originally listed in 
the agreement unless the Council decides other- 
wise by a two-thirds vote. It is anticipated, how- 
ever, that all or most of the countries which failed 
to become signatories will become parties to the 
agreement by accession. 

As in the case of the 1953 agreement, the most 
important importing country, the United King- 
dom, has elected not to participate. This circum- 
stance, combined with the impracticability of in- 
cluding wheat covered by bilateral agreements 
with Argentina, the expectation on the part of 
some countries of receiving wlieat in disposal pro- 
grams not recordable under the agreement, and 
other factors contributed to limit the quantities 
importing countries were prepared to venture 
under the agreement. 

On the other hand, 6 exporting countries are 
included in the new agreement as compared with 



4 previously, Argentina and Sweden being now ' 
associated with Australia, Canada, France, and 
the United States. The agreement contains pro- 
visions permitting accessions of governments not 
signatory and also increases in quantity by par- 
ticipating countries. Argentina, which is seeking 
to change from bilateral to multilateral arrange- 
ments in its wheat trade, holds forth the prospect 
of later important additions to the total quantity. 

Since the 6 exporting countries taken together 
account for 90 percent of world trade in wheat in 
recent years, the agreement, in spite of the rela- 
tively modest quantities obligated by the importing 
countries, may be expected to perform an im- 
portant function in stabilizing prices on the world 
market. 1 

There has been added to the new agreement a 
provision (par. 7 of art. XIII) authorizing the 
Council to study any aspect of the world wheat 
situation and to sponsor exchanges of information 
and intergovernmental consultations with respect 
thereto. The Council may also make arrange- 
ments with the Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion and other intergovernmental organizations, 
as well as with governments not parties to the 
agreement but having a substantial interest in 
wheat trade, for cooperation in these activities. 
Associated with these provisions is a clause ex- 
pressly reserving to member countries "complete 
liberty of action in the determination and ad- 
ministration of their internal agricultural and 
price policies." 

This new provision affords a means for member 
countries acting through the Council to become 
fully informed about the wheat situation on a 
world basis. The provision is permissive, leaving 
it to the Council to determine whether and to what 
extent it would wish to pursue such activities. It 
would be at the option of individual member 
countries whether to participate, and participa- 
tion by all members having an important stake in 
the agreement would clearly be considered neces- 
sary for such activities to have significance. It is 
the intention of the executive branch not to par- 
ticipate in discussions of the internal wheat poli- 
cies of importing and exporting countries. The 
emphasis is on study of the world wheat situation 
and there is an express reservation in subparagraph 
(b) by member countries of liberty of action with 
regard to internal policies, which would have 
the effect of precluding undue preoccupation of 



28 



Department of Sfate Bulletin 



the Council with the national policies of individ- 
ual countries. 

The specific reference to possible arrangements 
with the Food and Agriculture Organization con- 
stitutes recognition of the work already carried 
on by tliat body, and insures that this work is not 
duplicated by the Wheat Council. Permission for 
possible cooperation with nonmember govern- 
ments is included primarily in response to the de- 
clared wish of the British Government to par- 
ticipate in any study and consultation functions 
relating to the world wheat situation which the 
Council might undertake. 

It is provided in the agreement (art. XX) that 
instruments of acceptance shall be deposited with 
the Government of the United States not later 
than July 16, 1956, provided that a notification 
by any signatory government by that date of an 
intention to accept the agreement, followed by 
the deposit of an instrument not later than De- 
cember 1, 1956, shall be deemed to constitute ac- 
ceptance on July 16. The agreement will come 
into force on July 16 as to the administrative pro- 
visions (pts. 1, 3, 4, and 5) and on August 1 as to 
the provisions relating to rights and obligations 
(pt. 2) , provided that governments responsible for 
not less than two-thirds of the guaranteed pur- 
chases and those responsible for not less than 
two-thirds of the guaranteed sales have accepted 
the agreement by July 16. In the event the con- 
ditions laid down for entry into force are not met, 
govermnents which have accepted the agreement 
are authorized to decide by mutual consent that 
the agreement shall enter into force between them 
or take such other action as they consider the situ- 
ation requires. 

The agreement also provides that if any export- 
ing country considers its interests to be seriously 
prejudiced by nonparticipation or withdrawal of 
an importing country responsible for more than 5 
percent of the total in the agreement such export- 
ing country may withdraw before August 1. An 
importing country is accorded this same privilege 
upon nonparticipation or withdrawal of an ex- 
porting country. 

On the side of the exporting countries, failure 
of the United States to accept the agreement by 
July 16 would mean the agreement could not auto- 
matically come into force, since the guaranteed 
quantity of the United States accounts for almost 
44 percent of the total in the agreement. It would 

July 2, J 956 



seem also most unlikely that the countries which 
had accepted would, in the absence of assurance 
of participation by the most important exporter, 
decide by mutual consent to bring the agreement 
into force among themselves. 

On the part of the importing countries, accept- 
ance by the 12 having the largest quantities speci- 
fied in the agreement would be necessary to fulfill 
the requirement for automatic entry into force. 

There is attached herewith a sunamary of the 
provisions of the new agreement with changes 
from the 1953 agreement indicated by use of italics. 

The length of time required to complete negotia- 
tions caused the period for signing the agreement 
to be considerably later in the year than for the 
former two agreements. In consequence, despite 
all efforts to expedite preparation of the docu- 
ments, the time available for obtaining the advice 
and consent of the Senate previous to the time 
when the new agreement must come into force 
in order to succeed immediately to the present 
agreement is severely limited. It is hoped that, in 
spite of this unfortunate circumstance, the Senate 
may find it possible to give timely consideration 
to the new agreement in order that an instrument 
of acceptance may be executed and deposited on 
behalf of the United States before July 16, 1956. 

Respectfully submitted. 

John Foster Dtjlles. 

Summary of Principal Provisions, International 
Wheat Agreement, 1956 

[PorHons of text italicized indicate most important clianges from 
or additions to tlie 1953 agreement] 

Part 1. General 
article i. objectives 

The objectives of the agreement are to assure supplies 
of wheat to importing countries and markets for vfheat 
to exporting countries at equitable and stable prices. 

ARTICLE II. DEFINITIONS 

Various terms used in fche text of the agreement are 
here defined. 



ARTICLE m. 



GUARANTEED PURCHASES AND GUARANTEED 
SALES 



Article III relates to guaranteed purchases at the mini- 
mum price and guaranteed sales at the maximum price 
and includes in annexes A and B listings of the guar- 
anteed quantities of importing and exporting countries, 
respectively. 

This article brings out that specific obligations of im- 
porting countries to buy or of exporting countries to sell 



29 



exist only when such countries are required by the Council 
upon application of a member country to do so at prices 
consistent with the minimum and maximum prices, re- 
spectively, which are specified in the agreement. 

The amount of wheat flour to be supplied and accepted 
against the guaranteed quantities is to be determined 
by agreement between the buyer and seller in each trans- 
action, subject to referral of the matter to the Coimcil 
for decision in case of disagreement between an exporting 
country and an importing country. 

Exporting and importing countries are to he free to 
fulfill their guaranteed quantities through private trade 
channels or otherwise. 

The Council may at its discretion limit purchases and 
sales to 90 percent of guaranteed quantities before Febru- 
ary 2S of a crop year (this provision is intended to enable 
the Council under art. X to make adjustments in case 
of reduced availability to the agreement resulting from a 
short crop in an exporting country). 

ARTICLE IV. KECORDING OF TRANSACTIONS AGAINST 
GUARANTEED QUANTITIES 

Article IV provides for the procedure to be followed 
for entering as to each crop year in the records of the 
Council information about transactions in wheat and 
wheat flour which come within the price limits specified 
in the agreement and are intended to count against guar- 
anteed quantities. 

Recordings under tlie agreement may be challenged by 
the importing or exporting countries concerned and the 
matter reviewed by the Council. Recorded quantities may 
also be reduced if the full quantity cannot be delivered 
within the crop year. A recording against the guaranteed 
quantity of an importing country may be shifted to apply 
to that of a second importing country to which the wheat 
is resold. 

ARTICLE V. ENFORCEMENT OF BIGHTS 

Article V, relating to enforcement of rights, establishes 
the procedure to be followed when any contracting coun- 
try finds difBculty in purchasing its unfulfilled guaranteed 
quantity for any crop year at the maximum or selling it at 
the minimum price, respectively. Enforcement is through 
the Council which decides the quantities (and, if re- 
quested, also the quality and grade or the proportion to 
he in the form of flour), which individual exporting coun- 
tries shall sell to an importing country or the importing 
countries shall buy from an exporting country. 

The Council in making its decisions under this article 
is directed to take into accoimt any circumstances which 
the member countries may submit including the normal 
traditional volume and ratio of a country's imports of 
wheat flour and wheat grain, the quality and grade thereof 
imported and the proportion of its guaranteed quantity 
already fulfilled by the country requested to sell at the 
maximum or to buy at the minimum price. 

ARTICLE VI. PRICES 

Basic minimum and maximum prices are fixed at $1.50 
and $2 on No. 1 Manitoba Northern wheat in store at Fort 
William/Port Arthur. These prices are made exclusive 



of such carrying charges and marketing costs as may be i 
agreed between the buyer and seller. 

Formulas are indicated in this article for determining, 
with reference to the basic grade and the basing point 
mentioned above, equivalent maximum and minimum 
prices for wheat at points in Canada (in store Vancouver 
and f. o. b. Churchill), Argentina (in store ocean ports), 
Au.stralia (in store ocean ports), France (f. o. b. French 
seaports or at French border), Siceden if. o. 6. Swedish 
ports between Stockholm and Gothenburg) . 

For the period of closed navigation between Fort Wil- 
liam/Port Arthur and the Canadian Atlantic ports equiva- 
lent maximum and minimum prices are to be determined 
by reference only to the lake and rail movement from 
Fart William/Port Arthur to Canadian winter ports. 

It is further provided that the determination of price 
equivalents for any other description, type, class or grade 
of wheat than those mentioned attove, determination of 
minimum and maximum price equivalents for wheat at 
other points than those specified above, adjustments in 
already established price equivalents, and settlement of 
disputes concerning appropriate premiums or discounts 
may be effected by the Executive Committee in consulta- 
tion with the Advisory Committee on Price Equivalents. 

In establishing equivalent prices no allowance is to be 
made for difference in quality which would result in fimng 
eqtiivalent prices for any description, type, class or grade 
higher than the specified basic minimum or maximum 
price. 

The old final paragraph of this article concerning free 
movement of the price between the maximum and mini- 
mum is now omitted, the clause concerning reservation by 
member countries of liberty of action in internal agricul- 
tural and price policies being transferred to article XIII. 

ABTICLE vn. STOCKS 

Article VII provides that each exporting country shall 
endeavor to maintain stocks of old crop wheat at the end 
of its crop year adequate to insure fulfillment of its 
guaranteed sales in the subsequent crop year and that 
importing coimtries shall endeavor to maintain adequate 
stocks at all times to avoid disproportionate purchases at 
the beginning and end of a crop year which might preju- 
dice the stabilization of wheat prices and make the fulfill- 
ment of obligations of all exporting and importing coim- 
tries diflScult. 

ABTICT.E VIII. INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED TO THE COUNCIL 

Article VIII makes it obligatory for countries party to 
the agreement to report to the Council information which 
it may request in connection with the administration of 
the agreement. 

Part 3. Adjustment of Guaranteed Quantities 

ARTICLE IX. adjustments IN CASE OF NONPARTICIPATION OR 
withdrawal OF COUNTRIES 

Article IX provides, in the cases of failure of some 
country or countries to sign the agreement, failure to 
deposit an instrument accepting the agreement, with- 
drawal, expulsion, or default, for adjustment of the re- 



30 



Department of State Bulletin 



maining guaranteed quantities in order that the total 
of guaranteed exports and the total of the guaranteed im- 
ports (as given in annexes A and B of art. Ill) may be 
equal. 

AKTICLE X. ADJUSTMENT IN CASE OF SHORT CROP OR NECESSITY 
TO SArEQUARD BAI^NCE OP PAYMENTS OR MONETARY 
RESERVES 

Article X provides for the procedure to be followed In 
effecting adjustments in guaranteed quantities if a short 
crop in an exporting country or necessity to safeguard 
balance of payments or monetary reserves in an import- 
ing country threatens to prevent the fulfillment of obli- 
gation.s under the agreement in a particular crop year. 
The article provides that, in the case of relief from ob- 
ligations sought by importing countries because of balance 
of payments difficulties, the opinion of the International 
Monetary Fund be sought. 

Provision is made for exploring the possibility of ad- 
justment by increase in the guaranteed quantities of other 
countries before the Council has recourse to the expedient 
of reducing any guaranteed quantities in order to restore 
a balance between guaranteed exports and guaranteed 
imports. 

ARTICLE XI. ADJUSTMENTS OF GUARANTEED QUANTITIES BY 
CONSENT 

Provision is here made for simultaneous increases by 
exporting and importing countries for the remaining pe- 
riod of the agreement. 

Transfers may also be made of parts of their guaran- 
teed quantities between exporting or between importing 
countries for one or more crop years subject to approval 
by a majority of the votes cast by the importing and a 
majority of votes cast by the exporting countries. 

Accessions of new member countries may be accom- 
modated by reductions in the quantities of importing 
countries or increases in the quantities of exporting 
countries. 

ARTICLE XII. ADDITIONAL PURCHASES IN CASE OF CRITICAL 
NB3a) 

Article XII enables the Council by two-thirds of the 
votes cast by the exporting countries and two-thirds of 
the votes cast by the importing countries to come to the 
assistance of an importing country in critical need of 
supplies of wheat in addition to its guaranteed purchases 
by reducing pro rata the guaranteed quantities of the 
other importing countries. 

Part 4. Administration 
article xiii. the council 

This article outlines the powers and functions of the 
Council and indicates the circumstances under which the 
exercise of such powers and functions may be delegated 
and revolted. 

The 1956 ayreement has added to the function of the 
Council in operating the multilateral contract authoriza- 
Hon to study any aspect of the world -wheat situation and 
to sponsor exchanges of information and intergoverrv- 



niental consultations related thereto. The Council may 
make arrangements with the Food and Agriculture Organi- 
zation of the United Nations and other intergovernmental 
organizations as well as irith governments not party to 
the agreement for cooperation in such activities. The 
caveat is added that member countries reserve to them- 
selves complete libertg of action in the determination and 
administration of their internal agricultural and price 
policies. 

Decisions are reached by weighted voting in the Council, 
exporting countries as a group and importing countries as 
a group having each 1,000 votes and the number of votes 
of each country being proportionate to its guaranteed 
quantity. Voting by proxy is possible. 

The votes may also be adjusted at any session of the 
Council, when all member countries are not officially 
represented or have not arranged for a proxy, to place the 
importing countries and the exporting countries on an 
equal footing. 

Each exporting and importing country undertakes to 
accept as binding all decisions of the Council under the 
provisions of the agreement. 

ARTICLE XIV. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Article XIV requires the Council to elect annually an 
Executive Committee to be responsible to and to worli 
under the general direction of the Council. Members 
thereof shall be not more than i exporting countries elected 
by the exporting countries, and not more than 8 import- 
ing countries elected by the importing countries. The 
Executive Committee is responsible to and works under 
the direction of the Council, its powers and functions 
being either directly assigned under the agreement or 
delegated to it by the Council. Exporting countries repre- 
sented on the Executive Committee have together the same 
total number of votes as do importing countries and in 
each of these groups no one country can have more than 
40 percent of the votes. 

ARTICLE XV. ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON PRICE EQUIVALENTS 

Article XV requires that the Council establish an Ad- 
visory Committee on Price Equivalents consisting of repre- 
sentatives of not more than 3 exporting and not more than 
3 importing countries to advise the Council and the Ex- 
ecutive Committee regarding the establishment or revision 
of price equivalents and other matters pertaining to 
factors involved in the calculation of prices under the 
agreement. 

ABTICLB XVI. THE SECRETARIAT 

Article XVI provides that the Council shall have a 
Secretariat with a Secretary appointed by the Council. 

ARTICLE XVII. FINANCE 

Article XVII specifies that the expense of delegations 
to the Council, of representatives on the Executive Com- 
mittee, and of representatives on the Advisory Committee 
on Price Equivalents shall be met by their respective 
governments, but that other expenses necessary for the 
administration of the agreement be met by annual con- 
tributions from the exporting and importing countries. 



July 2, 1956 



31 



The contiiliutions of each such country for each crop year 
shall be in the proportion which its guaranteed quantity 
bears to the total guaranteed sales or purchases at the 
beginning of that crop year. 

Default in paying contributions shall result in forfei- 
ture of voting rights until the contribution is paid, 
although not in loss of other rights or in release from 
obligations under the agreement. 

ARTICLE Xvni. COOPERATION WITH OTHER INTEKGOVEBN- 
MENTAL ORGANIZATIONS 

Article XVIII enables the Council to make arrange- 
ments for consultation and cooperation with appropriate 
organs of the United Nations and its specialized agencies 
and with other intergovernmental organizations. It also 
directs the Council, in case any terms of the agreement 
are materially inconsistent with requirements which may 
be laid down by the United Nations or appropriate organs 
and agencies thereof regarding commodity agreements, 
to consider amendment of the agreement. 

ARTICLE XIS. DISPUTES AND COMPLAINTS 

Article XIX provides for decision by the Council of 
disputes involving the interpretation or application of 
the agreement. However, a majority of countries or 
countries holding not less than one-third of the total 
2,000 votes may require the Council, after full discussion, 
to seek the opinion of an advisory panel composed, unless 
unanimously agreed otherwise by the Council, of 5 quali- 
fied persons acting in their personal capacities and with- 
out instructions from any government. The Council is to 
decide the dispute after receiving the opinion of the panel 
and considering all relevant information. 

The Council also must consider any complaint that a 
country has failed to fulfill its obligations. A finding for 
breach of agreement requires a majority of the votes 
held by importing and a majority held by exporting coun- 
tries. The Council may, by a like vote, deprive a country 
found to be in breach of the agreement of its voting rights 
until it fulfills its obligations or expel it from the 
agreement. 

Pakt 5. Final Provisions 

ARTICLE XX. signature, ACCEPTANCE, AND ENTRY INTO FORCE 

Article XX prescribes a period for signing up to and 
including Maj/ 18, 1956, and a period thereafter for the 
deposit of instruments of acceptance with the Government 
of the United States by signatory Governments up to 
July 16, 1956. Notification to the United States Govern- 
ment by Jul-j/ 16 of intention to accept the agreement, 
followed by deposit of an instrument by December 1, shall 
be deemed to constitute acceptance on July 16, 1956. 

If governments of signatory exporting countries respon- 
sible for not less than two-thirds of the total of guaranteed 
sales in the agreement and governments of importing 
countries responsible for not less than two-thirds of the 
total of guaranteed purchases have accepted the agree- 
ment by July 16, parts 1, 3, 4, and 5 of the agreement shall 
enter into force on that date and part 2 on August 1, 
for governments who have accepted the agreement. 



32 



In the event those requirements for entry into force I 
have not been fulfilled by July 16, {/overnmcnts of coun- 1 
tries which by that date have accepted the agreement may 
decide by mutual consent to bring it into force between 
them or take such other action as they consider the situa- 
tion requires. ' 

Signatory governments which have not accepted the 
agreement by July 16 may be granted an extension of time 
thereafter by the Council for depositing an instrument of 
acceptance. 

ARTICLE XXI. ACCESSION 

Article XXI provides that the Council may by two- 
thirds of the votes cast by the exporting countries and a 
like vote by the importing countries approve accession 
to the agreement on the part of any Government not al- 
ready a party and prescribe conditions for accession. 

ARTICLE XXII. DUBATION, AMENDMENT, WITHDRAWAL, AND 
TERMINATION 

Article XXII fixes the terminus of the agreement at 
July 31, 1959, and stipulates that the Council at such time 
as it considers appropriate shall communicate to the 
contracting governments its recommendations regarding 
the renewal of the agreement. The Council is also an- 
thorized to invite any nonmember government having a 
substantial interest in international trade in wheat to 
participate in its discussion in connection with renewal or 
replacement. 

The Council may by a majority of the votes held by 
the exporting countries and a majority of the votes held 
by the importing countries recommend to the participating 
countries an amendment to the agreement. It would be- 
come effective if accepted by countries holding two-thirds 
of the votes held by the exporting countries and a like vote 
by the importing countries. 

Any exporting country which considers its interests to 
be prejudiced by nonparticipation in or withdrawal from 
the agreement of any importing country listed in annex A 
of article III responsible for more than 5 percent of the 
guaranteed quantities in the annex may withdraw from 
the agreement by giving written notice of withdrawal to 
the Government of the United States before August 1, 
1956. A like privilege is accorded to an importing coun- 
try in the event of nonparticipation of an exporting coun- 
tr.v listed in annex B. 

Any country which considers its national security to be 
endangered by the outbreak of hostilities may withdraw 
from the agreement by giving 30 days' written notice. 

ARTICLE XXm. TERRITORIAL APPLICATION 

Article XXIII provides that any government may de- 
clare that its rights and obligations under the agreement 
do not apply in respect of all or any of the overseas terri- 
tories for the foreign relations of which it Is responsible. 
In the absence of such a declaration its rights and obliga- 
tions under the agreement apply in respect of all ita 
territories. 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings' 

Adjourned During June 1956 

U.N. International Law Commission: 8th Session Geneva Apr. 23-June 30 

U.N. Committee of Experts To Review the Salaries, Allowances, New York. May 10-June 30* 

and Benefits System. 

, U.N. International Sugar Conference New York May 21-June 20 

WMO: 2d World Comparison of Radiosondes Payerne (Switzerland) .... May 23-June 20 

Caribbean Commission: 22d Meeting Cayenne (French Guiana). . . May 24-June 2 

FAO Joint Subcommission on Mediterranean Forestry Problems . Nice May 27- June 3 

ILO Governing Body: 132d Session Geneva May 28-June 2 

UNREF Executive Committee: 3d Session Geneva May 28-June 2 

WHO Executive Board: 18th Session Geneva May 28-June 2 

PAIGH Directing Council: 1st Meeting Mexico, D. F May 28-June 4 

U.N. Conference of Plenipotentiaries on Maintenance Obliga- New York May 29-June 20 

tions. 

16th International Conference on Large Electric High-Tension Paris May 30-June 9 

Systems (CIGRE). 

Inter-American Commission of Women: 11th General Assembly . Ciudad Trujillo June 1-21 

International Seed Testing Association: nth Congress (Executive Paris June 4-9 

Committee Meetings June 1 and 10). 

Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses: Brussels June 6 (one day) 

Annual Meeting of the Permanent International Commis- 
sion. 

PASO Executive Committee: 28th Meeting Washington June 5-13 

U.N. EC AFE Working Party of Senior Geologists on the Prepara- Tokyo June 5-10 

tion of a Regional Geological Map for Asia and the Far East: 

2d Meeting. 

International Meeting of Tonnage Measurement Experts .... Copenhagen June 5-17 

International Labor Conference (ILO) : 39th Session Geneva June 6-28 

International Commission for Criminal Police: 25th General Vienna June 7-13 

Meeting. 

International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries: Halifax June 11-15 

6th Annual Meeting. 

UNESCO Intergovernmental Copyright Committee Paris June 11-16 

U.N. ECAFE Subcommittee on Minerals Resources Develop- Tokyo June 12-17 

ment: 2d Meeting. 

ICAO Meeting of CONSOL Technical Advisory Panel .... Paris June 13-23 

International Rubber Study Group: Management Committee . . Paris June 14-15 

5th World Power Conference Vienna June 17-23 

FAO Council: 24th Session Rome June 18-19 

FAO Committee on Commodity Problems: 27th Session. . . . Rome June 18-29 

FAO Committee on Relations with International Organizations . Rome June 21 (one day) 

FAO Meeting of Fish Processing Technologists Rotterdam June 25-29 

U.N. ECE Coal Trade Subcommittee Geneva June 25-30 

U.N. ECE Coal Classification Working Party Geneva June 26-28 

U.N. ECE Coal Utilization Working Party Geneva June 29-30 

In Session as of June 30, 1956 

North Pacific Fur Seal Conference Washington Nov. 28 (1955)- 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: Standing Committee on Administra- New York June 7- 

tive Unions. 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 18th Session New York June 7- 

ICAO Assembly: 10th Session Caracas June 19- 

International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering: Lisbon June 25- 

5th Congress, 



' Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, June 22, 1956. Asterisks indicate tentative dates. Following 
is a list of abbreviations: U.N., United Nations; WMO, World Meteorological Organization; FAO, Food and Agriculture 
Organization; ILO, International Labor Organization; UNREF, United Nations Refugee Fund; WHO, World Health 
Organization; PAIGH, Pan American Institute of Geography and History; CIGRE, Conf&ence Internationale des 
reseaux 61ectriques; PASO, Pan American Sanitary Organization; ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far 
East; UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; ICAO, International Civil Aviation 
Organization; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council; I BE, International 
Bureau of Education; ITU, International Telecommunication Union; CCIR, Comity consultatif international des radio- 
communications; SEATO, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization; UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund; ICEM, 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration. 

July 2, 7956 33 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 

Scheduled July 1-September 30, 1956 

U.N. ECE Coal Statistics Working Party Geneva July 2- 

U.N. ECE Committee on Agricultural Problems Geneva July 2- 

FAO Technical Advisory Committee on Desert Locust Control: Tehran July 3- 

6th Session. 

U.N. ECOSOC Technical Assistance Committee Geneva July 4- 

FAO Desert Locust Control Committee: 3d Session Tehran July 8- 

U. N. Economic and Social Council: 22d ISession Geneva July 9- 

19th International Conference on Public Education (Joint IBE/ Geneva July 9- 

UNESCO). 

UNESCO Executive Board: 44th Session Paris July 11- 

FAO Technical Panel on Forestry Education: 1st Ad Hoc Meet- Oxford (England) July 13- 

ing. 

WMO Panel on Water Resources Development Geneva July 16- 

International Whaling Commission: 8th Meeting London July 16- 

International Wheat Council: 19th Session London July 17- 

International Congress on Housing and Town Planning .... Vienna July 22- 

FAO Meeting on Control of Tick-Borne Diseases of Livestock . . Rome July 23- 

International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology: Helsinki July 27- 

13th Congress. 

20th International Physiological Congress Brussels July 30- 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Housing and Building Ma- Bangkok July 30- 

terials: 4th Meeting. 

PAIGH Commission on Geography: Meeting of National Mem- Rio de Janeiro July 30- 

bers. 

41st International Esperanto Congress Copenhagen August 4- 

8th International Conference of Social Work Munich August 5- 

U.N. European Regional Consultative Group on the Prevention Geneva August 6- 

of Crime and Treatment of Offenders: 3d Session. 

18th International Geographical Congress Rio de Janeiro August 9- 

International Geographical Union: 9th General Assembly . . . Rio de Janeiro August 9- 

ITU International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) : Warsaw August 9- 

8th Plenary Session. 

U.N. Conference of Plenipotentiaries on a Supplementary Con- Geneva August 13- 

vention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade and 

Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery. 

U.N. ECAFE/UNESCO Seminar on Urbanization Bangkok August 13- 

17th International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art . . . . Venice August 16- 

10th International Congress of Entomology Montreal August 17- 

Edinburgh Film Festival Edinburgh August 19- 

American International Institute for the Protection of Childhood: Montevideo August 27- 

Directing Council. 

6th International Congress of Soil Science Paris August 29- 

5th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Philadelphia Sept. 1- 

Science. 

FAO Council : 25th Session Rome Sept. 3- 

Educational Authorities of the North Atlantic Treaty Countries . Paris Sept. 3- 

8th International Congress for the History of Science and 4th Florence and Milan Sept. 3- 

General Assembly of the International Union for the History 

of Science. 

6th ILO Regional Conference of American States Members . . . Habana Sept. 3- 

SEATO Committee of Economic Experts Bangkok Sept. 3- 

U.N. ECE Inland Transport Committee: Experts' Meeting To Geneva Sept. 3- 

Study Certain Technical Railway Questions. 

International Geological Congress: 20th Session Mexico, D. F Sept. 4- 

UNICEF Executive Board and Program Committee New York Sept. 4- 

U.N. ECAFE Railway Subcommittee: Working Party on Rail- Bangkok Sept. 5- 

way Track Sleepers. 

ICAO joint Financing Conference To Revise the Danish and (Undetermined) Sept. 6- 

Icelandic Agreements. 

FAO Conference: Special Session Rome Sept. 10- 

PASO Executive Committee: 29th Meeting Antigua (Guatemala) Sept. 11- 

9th Meeting of PASO Directing Council and 8th Meeting of Antigua (Guatemala) Sept. 16- 

Regional Committee of WHO for the Americas. 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Economic Development and Bangkok Sept. 17- 

Planning: 2d Meeting. 

3d ICAO Air Navigation Conference Montreal Sept. 18- 

ILO Tripartite Preparatory Technical Maritime Conference . . London Sept. 19- 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and Washington Sept. 24- 

International Monetary Fund: 11th Annual Meeting of 

Boards of Governors. 

14th International Dairy Congress Rome and Milan Sept. 24- 

ICEM Executive Committee: 5th Session Geneva Sept. 24- 



34 Department of State Bulletin 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 



Scheduled July 1-September 30, 1956-Conitnuec2 

3d International Congress on Archives Florence Sept. 25- 

FAO/WHO Nutrition Committee for South and East Asia: 4th Tokyo Sept. 25- 

Meeting. 

15th International Congress of Military Medicine and Pharmacy. Belgrade Sept. 29- 

P.\SO Executive Committee: 30th Meeting Antigua (Guatemala) Sept. 29- 

International Almond Convention Bari (Italy) September 

International Atomic Energy Agency: General Conference on New York September 

the Draft Statute. 
I( "AO Legal Committee: Subcommittee on Legal Status of Air- 
craft. 
\\'IIO Regional Committee for Western Pacific: 7th Session . . 
U.N. Advisory Committee on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy . 
UNESCO International Advisory Committee on Curriculum . . 



Europe September 



Manila September 

New York. September 

Paris September 



A Year of Progress in the Trust Territory of tlie Pacific Islands 



Statement hy Delmas H. Nucker 

U.S. Special Representative in the Trusteeship Cov/ncU ^ 



For the second time I have the honor as Special 
Rej^resentative for the Administering Authority 
of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to 
serve as reporter before this body. I have the 
privilege tlius of not only reviewing the activities 
of our administration since July 1, 1955, but of be- 
ing able to amplify those events I reported on last 
year and in which I feel significant and note- 
worthy progress has been made. 

This year's review has an added feature, for 
along with tlie report of the Administering Au- 
thority will be examined the report of the 1956 
United Nations Visiting Mission.^ 

To date three Visiting Missions have toured the 
Trust Territory of the Pacific. This was the first 
time, in my role as Acting High Commissioner, 
that I have had the privilege and honor of re- 
ceiving such a Mission. The Mission's visit was 
without question one of the highlights of the year. 



' Made in the U.N. Trusteeship Council on June 19 
(U.S./U.N. press release 2421). Mr. Nucker is Acting 
High Commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific 
Islands. For a review of the previous year by Mr. Nucker, 
see Bttlletin of July 25, 195.5, p. 153. 

^ U.N. doc. T/1255 dated June 19. 



The unflagging interest, the patience, and im- 
failing courtesy with which the Mission went 
about the task of meeting with the Micronesians — 
all were true tributes to the principles and pre- 
cepts of the Trusteeship Comicil. The Mission 
gave the Micronesian a better realization of his 
relationship to the United Nations and the Trus- 
teeship Council. 

The Mission was able to experience at firsthand 
some of the problems posed by our tremendous 
logistic situation as well as observing the vast dif- 
ferences in cultural background between districts. 
I am certain the members were impressed with the 
combination of unique difficulties which faces the 
Administering Authority, paramount of which 
are the vast expanses of sea area in which our small 
scattered islands lie, the limited natural resources 
of the area, the differences in languages and cus- 
toms, and the general simplicity of life that is still 
the mode once away from the district center. 

Administration 

With the centralization of headquarters on 
Guam, the High Commissioner's staff has been able 
to work closely with the districts. The contact 



Ju/y 2, 7956 



35 



has been of a two-way nature, for it is possible now 
for headquarters personnel to get out into the dis- 
tricts easily to observe at firsthand district needs 
and problems and for district administrators and 
other district persomiel to quickly contact head- 
quarters either by radio or by coming by air to 
Guam. A much more efficient administration 
operation has been the result. Our present cen- 
tralization has allowed me, for example, to make 
seven inspection trips throughout the area during 
the i^ast year. 

A major event affecting the American personnel 
was the institution in the territory last April of 
the competitive Civil Service. Such a move, it 
is hoped, will enable us to build up a permanent 
career service administration staff, which will 
insure more continuity of service as well as at- 
tracting better trained personnel. 

A slight increase over last year in our American 
personnel staff has come about through the exj)an- 
sion of our agricultural program and our intensive 
construction program. Our permanent Microne- 
sian personnel increased slightly, from 1,375 to 
1,437; but unlike the increase of our American 
staff, much of which was temporary in nature, the 
increase of our Micronesian staff reflected the 
growing emphasis on the gradual use of qualified 
Micronesians whenever possible, as well as ex- 
pansion in such needed services as public health 
and agriculture. Another 450 additional Micro- 
nesians are employed by the administration; but 
these are mainly in our special construction pro- 
gram, and their employment must be considered 
in a somewhat temporary light, since in the fore- 
seeable future of the next 5 years our construction 
program will begin to slack off. 

Economic Development 

Our present economic policy centers around the 
principle of encouraging the Micronesians to ex- 
pand and develop their own economy to the great- 
est extent their natural resources and their own 
capabilities will allow. The administration has 
continued to render substantial assistance to local 
trading and commercial firms to promote their 
early self-sufficiency. Since July 1, 1955, over 
$378,000 has been loaned to the major Micronesian- 
owned limited stock trading companies in five dis- 
tricts. These loans have better enabled the local 
trading companies to purchase and collect copra 
in the field, to build up and maintain adequate 



stocks, to construct improved and permanent facil- 
ities, and to allow them to purchase or lease ships 
for intradistrict trade. 

Copra remains the main source of income for 
most Micronesians of the territory. Copra pro- 
duction rose to 12,372 tons during the 1955 fiscal 
year, with a total revenue of approximately $1,- 
334,400. This year an estimated tonnage of 
approximately 13,160 short tons is expected to 
produce a revenue of roughly $1,378,000. Other 
major income of this year is expected as follows: 
trochus $200,000; handicraft $40,000; fresh pro- 
duce $70,000 ; and scrap $100,000. i 

Phosphate mining at Angaur was completed on | 
April 30, 1955, and by June 30 all backfilling and 
processing as required by the contract had been 
complied with, and all Japanese contract person- 
nel departed from Angaur on July 2, 1955. Ee- 
cropping of the filled area, which was begun 
several years ago, is continuing satisfactorily. 

Agriculture 

Since agriculture is the main industry of the 
Trust Territory and the chief economic activity 
of its people, continued emphasis has been placed 
on the overall strengthening of our agricultural 
program. Less than 18 months ago the agriculture 
department consisted of the staff agriculturist, the 
staff entomologist, and eight district agricultur- 
ists. It now consists of 14 district agriculturists, 
the staff entomologist, the staff fisheries biologist, 
the staff copra adviser, and the director of agri- 
culture and fisheries, making a total staff of IB 
professionally trained agricultural experts. It is 
hoped to increase this to 19 within the next few 
months by the recruitment of a plant pathologist. 
Also 19 additional Micronesians were employed in 
agriculture during 1956. 

It is our desire to improve subsistence agricul- 
ture while not forgetting the importance of the 
cash crop, such as copra and cacao. Some experi- 
mentation with new subsistence plants and cash 
crops is being carried on. To implement this pro- 
gram we have established an agricultural center 
in each district and have, as well, extension agents 
working with our Micronesians to develop better 
agricultural processes. 

The expansion of the agricultural program has 
included our special agricultural projects, such as 
the cacao plantation in Palau, the coconut planta- 
tion in Ponape, and the experimental atoll agri- 



36 



Department of State Bulletin 



cultural research station in Jaluit in the Marshalls. 
The activities of these specialized projects, by 
supplying valuable plant materials, breeding 
stock, and information, complement the work done 
by the district agriculturists. 

The employment of a copra expert as the staff 
copra adviser will, we hope, enable us to measur- 
ably improve our copra production. With copra 
as the major agricultural export crop of the Trust 
Territory, as well as the most important food crop, 
the proper cultivation of coconuts, the replacing 
of aging and nonproductive trees, and the better 
processing of copra are among the most important 
aims of our agricultural program. 

The staff fisheries biologist is concentrating for 
the present on the supervising of the trochus har- 
vesting program. His work eventually will ex- 
pand into an overall fisheries program for the 
territory. 

The new plant pathologist will concentrate first 
on the investigation of plant disease problems in 
the Marshalls and the Palaus and will gradually 
expand his work into the other needs of the area. 

We are continuing work in the elimination of 
the rhinoceros beetle ; progress is slow but is now 
effective. Based on experimental results of agi- 
guan in the Marianas, where the introduced car- 
nivorous snail effectively brought about control of 
the giant African snail pest, we have scattered over 
5,000 of these carnivorous snails throughout the 
islands of the territory. Ultimate control of the 
pest snail now appears to be within sight. 

Thus the past year has seen the granting of 
increased funds for strengthening the agriculture 
program, the doubling of the professionally 
trained staff, the expansion of our broad program 
of extension and experimental work, and con- 
tinued efforts to maintain control of pests. 

Land Resettlement 

A basic policy of the Administering Authority 
is to return to Micronesian hands as soon as pos- 
sible land that falls in the category of public do- 
main. As one method of accomplishment our 
homesteading program has pushed steadily for- 
ward. In Ponape approximately 1,000 acres in 
the Metalanim plantation area have been home- 
steaded by about 145 families from the overpopu- 
lated islands of Pingelap and Kapingamarangi 
of Ponape District and Losap Island of Truk 
District. 



The Ponape Land Advisory Board presently is 
in the process of selecting additional areas suitable 
for homesteading so that this well-accepted pro- 
gram may continue. 

The Marshall Islands District poses special prob- 
lems because of the widely scattered location of 
the atolls and the limited acreage of public land, 
for only 1,500 acres are available for development 
of homesteads. Homesteading of this public land 
nonetheless is under way, and two fairly large 
islands will be homesteaded this present year. 

In Palau the return of public land to Micro- 
nesians continues in a twofold manner. One is 
the return of land to municipalities by grants for 
municipal use. Two such large-scale grants have 
been made to date, a grant of approximately 200 
acres to the municipality of Peleliu on Ngesebus 
Islands for coconut planting, and another of ap- 
proximately 400 acres on Ngemelis Island for the 
same purpose to Koror municipality. Individual 
homesteading is also under way with the opening 
up of a sizeable homestead area of 100 acres on 
the island of Babelthuap. 

Truk District proportionally has less so-called 
goveriunent land than other districts, only some 
6 percent of the total land area falling in this 
category. The homesteading of this small area 
is now in the planning stage, and the local land 
advisory board is working on the establishment 
of public-land homesteading policies and patterns. 

Surveying presently is under way in Rota pre- 
paratory to the inauguration of a homestead pro- 
gi'am there. 

In Yap, there is practically no problem with 
respect to return of land. 

In all districts the administrative retention areas 
have been determined and land not needed is being 
returned to the Micronesians. 

Claim Settlement 

Noteworthy progress has been achieved in the 
settlement of claims by the Micronesians against 
the Administering Authority. 

Settlement of claims for private land which the 
United States and certain of its agencies finds it 
necessary to use has moved at last from the realm 
of planning into the stage of actual implementa- 
tion. In Saipan all pending land claims of this 
nature have been settled. In the Marshalls, where 
Bikini and Eniwetok claims have particularly 



July 2, J 956 



37 



bten brought to the attention of the Council/ we 
have settled the administrative problems involved 
in obtaining the necessary funds. Promptly upon 
my return from this session of the Council, I plan 
to send personnel from my staff to Kill and Uje- 
lang to negotiate with the former residents of 
Bikini and Eniwetok a settlement of their claims 
for those two areas. I assure the Council that this 
type of land claim will now be pressed to as rapid 
a conclusion as .possible, not only in the Marshalls 
but in all other districts as well. 

In the Truk District the principal phase of the 
land pi-ogram has been completed with the settle- 
ment of all claims for the use of private land by 
the Trust Territory Government. Within the past 
month approximately 350 Trukese landholders 
shared in the initial payment of over $45,000. 
Negotiations are under way at present for the 
settlement of similar land claims in the Marshalls. 
It is hoped that implementation of these will be 
under way before the close of the present calendar 
year. A point worthy of mention is that in both 
areas the Administering Authority is not purchas- 
ing the land in perpetuity but rather is paying for 
its use with the residual rights of ownership re- 
maining in the name of the original Micronesian 
owner. 

In all of our districts it is now reported that yen 
redemption claims have been settled. All such 
claims appear to have been satisfactorily met. We 
are now completing arrangements for the payment 
to Trust Territoi-y residents of the so-called con- 
tractual claims, such as bonds and postal savings. 
These we hope to settle before the end of this 
calendar year. 

Education 

Our educational aim is to provide education 
which will be of permanent value and use by 
Micronesians in their society. To accomplish this, 
Micronesians in ever-increasing numbers are tak- 
ing over important positions in the Education 
Department. One of our district directors of 
education is a Micronesian. All but one of our 
superintendents of education and all our school 
principals are Micronesian. 

The concern and interest of the Micronesians 
in elementary education which they themselves 
completely support is seen in the increase in the 



' BuiXETiN of Apr. 23, 1956, p. 689. 
38 



number of local boards of education, in the mini- 
mum qualifications for elementary schools that 
are being set up, and in the construction of school 
buildings on the part of the local municipalities. 

At the end of World War II, few of the cliildren 
of Micronesia had ever been to school for any very 
extended period of time. Today 155 public 
schools have been established throughout the area 
with combined enrollments of over 8,601 students. 
An additional 2,228 students are enrolled in the 
26 private mission schools, making a total of 10,829 
elementary and intermediate students studying 
within the territory. Two hundred and fourteen 
students were studying during the past year in 
higher-education institutions outside the territory, 
of which 150 were in high school or junior college 
in Guam. 

Plans are now being implemented for placing 
increased emphasis on education beyond the in- 
termediate-school level within the territory. Our 
Pacific Islands Central School is being strength- 
ened as a plant and as to its curriculum. Thisi' 
year we are adding a third year of instruction to 
P.I.C.S., and within the next few months we hope 
to begin work on a permanent site for P.I.C.S. in 
Ponape. Wlien this building program is com- 
pleted, we will have a physical plant which will 
permit a greater emphasizing of Micronesian 
needs in health, education, agriculture, adminis- 
tration, economics, and industry. 

While the major emphasis in this expanded 
P.I.C.S. will be to turn out better trained students 
with specialized backgrounds for work within 
their communities, in our new third year stress 
also will be placed on grooming selected candidates 
who can be sent to seats of higher learning out- 
side the territory to give them additional skills 
and training. 

An important educational achievement of the 
year was the pioneer work done by the teacher 
trainers working in the out islands in developing 
community-orientated schools. 

Continuing stress is placed on the development 
of educational materials adapted to the local cul- 
tures. These are prepared in English and then 
translated into local vernaculars. Two districts 
now have printing presses in operation for tliis 
service, while the rest continue to issue such teach- 
ing aids in mimeographed form. 

Our programs of adult education, school agri- 
culture, and vocational education continue to be' 
pushed vigorously. 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Public Health 

The keystone of our public health program re- 
mains the improvement of the health and sanitary 
conditions of the Micronesians. 

Tuberculosis remains the major health problem. 
Those who are found to have contracted tlie disease 
are being given treatment with the best medicine 
available. Our next step in further control will 
be a BCG vaccination program. In sum, there 
is less tuberculosis than last year. 

Through modern drugs and improved sanita- 
tion practices the parasitic diseases of the gastro- 
intestinal tract are being diminished. New 
leprosarium wards which were completed in Truk, 
Yap, and Ponape during the year now permit 
us to take care of all leprous patients in their 
home districts. The therapeutic benefit of their 
home community environment, plus the applica- 
tion of new curative techniques, has shortened the 
treatment time of the disease. Extra precautions 
against smallpox and tetanus have been instituted. 

The core of our health progi'am remains the six 
district hospitals, which are manned by qualified 
; American and Micronesian medical staffs. New 
hospital construction is under way at Koror, Truk, 
and Yap so that in all but the Marshalls District 
new hospital facilities are now or will soon be 
available. 

Training programs for Micronesian public- 
health personnel were expanded during the year, 
resulting in the placing of greater responsibility 
upon Micronesians in all public-health branches. 
In the Marshalls, the district director of public 
health is Micronesian, as well as is the entire staff 
of the public-health department, except for one 
American hospital administrator. In the field 
of dental services only the interdistrict director 
now is American ; in all districts the dental clinics 
are completely manned by Micronesian staffs. 

Four Trust Territory students were enrolled 
at the Suva Medical School, with three new stu- 
dents applying for admission during the year. In 
addition, two medical practitioners and two nurses 
were sent io Honolulu for advanced training, mak- 
ing a total of four doctors and three nurses now 
in postgraduate study there. 

The Trust Territory School for Nursing was 
moved from Ponape to Koror in the Palau Dis- 
trict, providing for improved and permanent fa- 
cilities and permitting the establishment of a basic 
training program of 20 months. 



A 3-month sanitation program for health work- 
ers has been instituted. Training of health 
workers on a local level continued. 

A general improvement in health conditions 
throughout the territory can be reported. 

Construction 

Our construction and rehabilitation program 
has continued without interruption and at a sig- 
nificantly accelerated pace. Over $1,600,000 has 
been spent in the past 2 years on our construction 
program ; and it is anticipated that the expendi- 
ture will continue at this rate for the next 4 to 5 
years, at which time it is felt that an adequate 
physical plant will have been achieved. 

It is planned this year to continue the construc- 
tion of needed facilities such as power plants, 
warehouses, reefers, roads, harbor and dock in- 
stallations, administration housing, as well as be- 
ginning the construction of a permanent physical 
plant for the Pacific Islands Central School. 

This greatly expanded construction program 
remains closely geared to the local economy. 
Local Micronesians under the direction of our 
public works personnel are carrying out all the 
construction work. Not only is the local economy 
being strengthened by this procedure, but it en- 
ables our Micronesian employees to acquire or im- 
prove their skills through such employment. To 
implement this program a vocational trades in- 
structor has been added to our staff and will di- 
rect a full-scale on-the-job training program 
within the Public Works Division. 

Logistics and Supply 

The improvement of our supply and logistic 
operations continues to be one of our major 
concerns. 

In one district, that of the Marshalls, the goal 
of turning over intradistrict shipping to the Mi- 
cronesians already has been achieved. Here the 
Marshall Islands Import-Export Company has 
two intradistrict trading ships in operation and, in 
addition, operates for the Administering Author- 
ity under contract its medical survey ship. The 
extension of service made possible by these locally 
operated vessels has brought about increased copra 
production and has materially raised the standard 
of living of the Marshallese in the outer atolls. 
As suitable ships are made available, it is hoped 
that the local trading companies in the other dis- 



Ju/y 2, J 956 



39 



tricts, likewise, will take over all intradistrict 
shipping. 

Goal niiinber (wo, tliiit of drawing established 
shipping lines directly into the Trust Territory 
orbit, is well on the way to accomplishment with 
the development of Majuro as a world port of 
call. Since October 12, 1954, when the first com- 
mercial ship made her maiden call at Majuro, 
vessels have called at ]\Iajuro 11 times to pick up 
copra and deliver cargo. We hope to be able to 
schedule regular service at the rate of one ship 
every 2 months this present year. 

Our air transportation service continues to be 
provided under special contract by a fleet of am- 
phibious SA-lt)A planes which have demonstrated 
their worth to us in their larger passenger accom- 
modation, cruising speed, and safety features over 
our former air service. I might mention that one 
of our SA-16A planes was chartered by the United 
Nations Visiting Mission and provided its air 
transportation during its tour of our territorj'. 

The past year has seen a strengthening of our 
radio communication system. Major stations are 
maintained at each of the 6 district centers. A 
signilicant feature of our present communication 
program is the construction of secondary stations 
on the outer islands. In 1953 oidy 5 such outer- 
island radio stations were in existence; now there 
are 18 in operation. 

Political and Social Advancement 

"We are highly conscious of our responsibilities 
in the political advancement of the INIicronesian 
people. AVe recognize that these people are men 
and women of stature with ways of livmg which 
have been satisfactory to them in the past, and we 
are permitting changes and developments to take 
place gradually as the people are ready for them, 
rather than bringing sudden departures from tra- 
dition which could afl'ect their total sense of secu- 
rity and stability. In consonance with the fore- 
going it is thought that an organic act, which 
will reflect the needs of the Micronesians, will 
come into being by 19G0. 

Significant progress has been made toward a 
goal of self-government. In the sphere of local 
government, steady progress can be reported in 
the etliciency of municipal governments and the 
' operation of the advisory councils and congresses. 
An increasing number of municipal officers now 
are selected by popular ballot. As an example 



of the trend toward democratic processes, out of 
the 102 municipalities in the Trust Territory, 95i 
now elect their magistrates. We are certain that 
this trend will continue and believe that within 
2 or 3 years we will be able to report that all magis- 
trates throughout the territory will be selected 
by the elective process. 

The Palauan Congress, since the granting of a 
formal charter last j'ear, has taken great strides 
towaid political maturity. In 1955 the Palau 
Congress during its two annual sessions voted 
hills setting up collection of taxes and fees, estab- 
lished a district budget, legislated a law setting 
uji minimum qualifications of elementary school 
teachers, and a law providing for financial assist- 
ance to needy municipalities to aid them in meet- 
ing these minimum standards of elementary school 
teachers. All of the laws, I am happy to report, 
were approved without change by me in my role 
as Acting High Commissioner. 

In Trnk, the annual magistrates conference, 
fourth of its kind since its inception in 1952, met 
in January 1956 and for the first time in Trtdc Dis- 
trict's history approved a district-wide budget for 
the calendar year. Currently we are discussing 
the next step in the political growth of Truk. 
This will be developing of a district-wide con- 
gress, which should be accomplished by 1960. 

In the Marshalls, the Marshallese Congi-ess, 
through its Hold-Over Committee, continued ac- 
tivity. In Yap, our most conservative district, 
the Magistrate's Council this year drew up a for- 
mal set of rules and regulations governing their 
activities, an event of significant importance 
in their advancement toward a goal of self- 
government. 

In Ponape, the first chartered town in Micro- 
nesia came into being in April 1956. The formal 
chartering of municipalities and towns in IMicro- 
nesia is now in the planning stage. We expect to 
make decided progress in this program and hope 
that by 1960 most of the municipalities will be 
operating under formal charters. 

In the Northern JIarianas, the Saipan Congi-ess 
continued to meet during the year. In Tinian, 
the chartering of a similar congx'ess was the po- 
litical highlight of the year. 

Interdistrict political consciousness gradually 
is beginning to emerge; political leaders are be- 
ginning regularly to attend sessions of congresses 
as observers in districts other than their own, 



40 



Department of State Bulletin 



1 1 is jDreseiit summer a conference of I'epresenta- 
ive leaders from all districts will be held, a major 
heme of this meeting being discussion of perti- 
iiMit governmental problems of territory-wide 
nt crest. 

As an aid to our Micronesians in planning for 
111 lire taxation as well as for administration use, 
, tax expert was hired recently under special 
oiitract to make a survey of the tax pattern 
)f' tlie Trust Territory. His report and recom- 
ncndations currently are under study. 

Conclusion 

I have not attempted in this brief summary to 
;lo otlier tlian liighlight what I believe to be the 
3hief accomplishments of the past year. During 
the question period, their details will be presented 
t(i tlie extent that specific inquiries request. 

In closing, I wish to reiterate the basic prin- 
ciples which underlie our administration's policies 
and actions. Our aim is to show the Micronesians 
liow to live better in Micronesia as Micronesians. 
The customs and practices of the Micronesians are 
caiefully considered and honored to the fullest 
extent feasible. We recognize also tliat, while the 
old way of life is changing, the change must be a 
gradual evolutionary process so that the new Mi- 
cronesia which emerges is brought about without 
too severe a disruption and modification of Micro- 
nesian ways of thoughts and customs. 

"We envision our task as a joint one where only 
a meeting of minds by Micronesian leaders and 
our administration can arrive at a satisfactory 
long-range solution of mutual problems. Our 
policy hence is to aid them within their limits to 
achieve a position of self-sufficiency in the eco- 
nomic and political spheres, always with the 
thought that we are aiding, not directing, pointing 
the way, not compelling, and always allowing them 
the choice of accepting or rejecting innovations 
which seem proper for us but may be unacceptable 
to them. 

We do not claim changes have taken place which 
overnight have caused tremendous benefits to 
accrue to the Micronesians. We do take great 
pride in the steady progress being made in the 
bettering of our programs which have the support 
of the Micronesians. Their cooperation as well 
as their sympathetic understanding of mutual 
problems makes our progress one of joint accom- 
plishment. 



U.S. Offers Aid in Measuring 
Radioactive Fallout 

U.S. /U.N. press release 2417 dated June 6 

Ambassador Henry Oabot Lodge, Jr., Repre- 
sentative of the United States to the United Na- 
tions, on June 6 sent the following letter to 
Secretary-General Dag Hammarshjold} 

I have the honor to refer to the proposals made 
by the United States establishing uniform pro- 
cedures for the collection and measurement of 
fallout samples which were adopted by the United 
Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of 
Atomic Radiation in the course of its initial 
meetings in March. In order to assist other na- 
tions in obtaining their own information as soon 
as possible on levels of radioactivity, Dr. Shields 
Warren, the United States representative, offered 
technical assistance in the establishment of col- 
lection stations, training in methods of analysis, 
and upon request, the processing of samples in the 
United States Atomic Energy Commission lab- 
oratories on behalf of other countries.^ 

Specifically, the United States Government at 
the present time is prepared to take the following 
steps : 

1. To assist in the establishment of fallout col- 
lection stations by furnishing upon request to 
States Members of the United Nations or of the 
Specialized Agencies a six months' supply of 
paper and the necessary stands. 

2. To process the fallout samples collected and 
to furnish analyses of data in order that the find- 
ings may be reported to the United Nations 
Scientific Committee. 

3. To undertake routine radiochemical analyses 
of Sr-90, Cs-137 and certain other nuclides (as 
may be approved by the United States), as re- 
quested by Member States who wish to collect 
samples but do not at the present time have the 
specialized facilities necessary for analyses. 

4. To exchange duplicate standard samples for 
the purpose of comparing analytical tecliniques. 

Member States desiring assistance under any 
part of the above program should send a commimi- 
cation to the Committee Secretary for transmis- 
sion to the United States Mission to the United 
Nations. 



'Circulated on June 1.S (U.N. doc. A/AC. S2/INP. 2). 
"For an article on the conference by Dr. Warren, see 
BuxLETlN of May 21, 1956, p. 860. 



inly 2, 1956 



41 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Narcotic Drugs 

Protocol for limiting and regulating the cultivation of the 
poppy plant, the production of. International and whole- 
sale trade In, and use of opium. Done at New Tork 
June 23. 1953.' 
Ratification deposited: Spain, June 15, 1956. 

Trade and Commerce 

Declaration on continued application of schedules to the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at 
Geneva March 10, 1955. Entered Into force March 10, 
1955. TIAS 3437. 
Signature: Austria, January 27, 1956. 

Sixth protocol of supplementary concessions to the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and annexed 
schedules. Done at Geneva May 23, 1956. 
Schedtdes of concessions entered into force: Australia, 
June 14, 1956 ; Canada, Cuba, United States, June 30, 
1956. 



BILATERAL 

Dominican Republic 

Agreement for cooperation concerning civil uses of atomic 
energy. Signed at Washington June 15, 1956. Enters 
into force on the day on which each Government receives 
from the other written notification that it has complied 
with statutory and constitutional requirements. 

France 

Agreement for cooperation concerning production of 
nuclear power. Signed at Washington June 19, 1956. 
Enters into force on the day on which each Government 
receives from the other written notification that it has 
complied with statutory and constitutional requirements. 

Germany 

Treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation, with pro- 
tocol and exchanges of notes. Signed at Washington 
October 29, 1954. 

Ratifications exchanged: June 14, 1956. 
Enters into force: July 14, 1956 (one month after the 
exchange of instruments of ratification). 

Guatemala 

Agreement providing reciprocally for gratis nonimmigrant 
visas valid for multiple entries. Effected by exchange 
of notes at Guatemala May 30, 1956. Effective June 29, 
1956 (30 days from date of exchange of notes). 

Nicaragua 

Agreement for parcel post service and for Insurance of 
parcels. Signed at Managua March 19 and at Washing- 
ton April 4, 1956. Approved and ratified by the Presi- 
dent April 18, 1956. Entered into force July 1, 1956 
(date "mutually settled between the [Postal] Admln- 
> istrations of the two countries"). 



Switzerland 

I 
Agreement for cooperation concerning production of 
nuclear power. Signed at Washington June 21, 1956.! 
Enters into force on the day on which each Government 
receives from the other written notification that It has 
complied with statutory and constitutional requirements. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Oov- 
ernmcnt Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may be ob- 
tained from the Department of \State. 

Mutual Understanding and Cooperation. TIAS 3297. 
Pub. 6045. 95 pp. 6 maps. $1.25. 

Treaty, with memorandum of understandings reached, be- 
tween the United States and Panama — Signed at Panama 
January 25, 1955. Entered into force August 23, 1955. 



Status of United States Forces in Turkey. 

Pub. 6109. 2 pp. 5*. 



TIAS 3337. 



Defense — Offshore Procurement Program. 

Pub. 6147. 22 pp. 15(?. 



TIAS 3372. 



Agreement between the United States and Turkey — 
Amending minute of understanding of June 23, 1954. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Ankara April 22 and July 21, 
1955. Entered into force July 21, 1955. 



" Not In force. 



Agreement between the United States and Turkey. Ex- 
changes of notes — Signed at Ankara June 29, 1955. En- 
tered into forc-e June 29, 1955. 

Germany — Boundary Between United States Sector of 
Berlin and Soviet Zone of Occupation. TIAS 3378. Pub. 
6158. 2 pp. 2 maps. 20^. 

Agreement between the United States and the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics — Signed at Berlin June 25, 
1955. Entered into force June 25, 1955. 

Bahamas Long Range Proving Ground — Use of Certain 
Facilities by Civil Aircraft. TIAS 3379. Pub. 6159. 4 

pp. Tj<i\ 

Agreement between the United States and the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Washington July 11 and 22, 
1955. Entered into force July 22, 1955. 

Mutual Defense Assistance. TIAS 3386. Pub. 6167. 19 
pp. 15^. 

Agreement between the United States and Haiti — Signed 
at Washington January 28, 1955. Entered into force 
September 12, 1955. 

Defense — Offshore Procurement Program. TIAS 3415. 
Pub. <i204. IS) pp. 15«!. 

Agreement between the United States and Luxembourg — 
Signed at Luxembourg April 17, 1954. Entered into force 
September 30, 1955. 



42 



Department of State Bulletin 



July 2, 1956 



Index 



Vol. XXXV, No.1888 



Afghanistan. U.S. Will Help Transport Afghan 

I'ilgriius to Mecca 25 

American Principles 

The Contest Between Freedom and Despotism 

(Dulles) 3 

The Position of the United States in Today's 

World (Lodge) 19 

Asia. Opening of SEATO Headquarters at Bang- 

I kok (Dulles) 10 

Atomic Energy 

United States and France Sign Atoms-for-Peace 

Agreement 9 

U.S. Offers Aid in Measuring Radioactive Fallout 

(Lodge) 41 

Canada. U.S., Canada Discuss Problems of Radio 

Frequency Ad.iustment 18 

Communism. The Contest Between Freedom and 

Despotism (Dulles) 3 

Congress, The. International Wheat Agreement 

Transmitted to Senate (text of President's letter, 
Secretary's report) 26 

Cyprus. Death of William P. Boteler 21 

Department of State and Foreign Service. Death 

of William P. Boteler 21 

Economic Affairs 

International Wheat Agreement Transmitted to 
Senate (text of President's letter, Secretary's 

report) 26 

Supplementary Tax Convention With France . . 9 

U.S., Canada Discuss Problems of Radio Frequency 
Adjustment 18 

Educational Exchange. Visit to U.S. of Deputy 

Si)eaker of Pakistan National Assembly .... 25 

France 

Supplementary Tax Convention With France . . 9 

United States and Prance Sign Atoms-for-Peace 

Agreement 9 

Visit of Foreign Minister Pineau of France (Murphy, 

text of joint communique) 7 

International Law. United States Treaties : Recent 

Developments (Phleger) 11 

International Organizations and Meetings. Calen- 
dar of Meetings 33 

Non-Self-Governing Territories. A Tear of Prog- 
ress in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 
(Nucker) 35 

Norway. Norway in the Postwar Era (Strong) . 22 

Pakistan. Visit to U.S. of Deputy Speaker of Paki- 
stan National Assembly 25 

Philippines. Vice President Nixon To Visit Manila . 10 

Presidential Documents. International Wheat 

Agreement Transmitted to Senate 26 

Publications. Recent Releases 42 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. Opening of 

SEATO Headquarters at Bangkok (Dulles) . . 10 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 42 

International Wheat Agreement Transmitted to 
Senate (text of President's letter, Secretary's 

report) 26 

Supplementary Tax Convention With France . . 9 



United States and France Sign Atoms-for-Peace 

Agreement 9 

United States Treaties: Recent Developments 

(Phleger) 11 

U.S.S.R. The Contest Between Freedom and Des- 
potism (Dulles) 3 

United Nations 

U.S. Offers Aid in Measuring Radioactive Fallout 

(Lodge) 41 

A Tear of Progress in the Trust Territory of the 

Pacific Islands (Nucker) 35 

Name Index 

Boteler, William P 21 

Dulles, Secretary 3,10,26 

Eisenhower, President 26 

Gibbon, Cecil E 25 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr 19, 41 

Murphy, Robert 7 

Nixon, Richard M 10 

Nucker. Delmas H 35 

Phleger, Herman 11 

Pineau, Christian 7 

Strong, L. Corrin 22 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 18-24 

Releases may be obtained from the News Divi- 
sion, Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 

Press releases issued prior to June 18 which ap- 
pear in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 319 of 
June 14 and 330 of June 16. 

Subject 

Visit of Cecil Gibbon (rewrite). 

Death of William Boteler. 

Educational exchange. 

Educational exchange. 

Educational exchange. 

Radio-frequency discussions with 
Canada. 

Deputy chief of Bonn mission. 

Talks with Pakistan on tax convention. 

Phleger : "U.S. Treaties : Recent 
Developments." 

Prochnow : "The Economic World To 
Come." 

Atomic agreement with France. 

Communique on Pineau visit. 

Educational exchange. 

Atomic agreement with Australia. 

Dulles : "The Contest Between Free- 
dom and Despotism." 

Atomic agreement with Switzerland. 

Dulles: opening of SEATO head- 
quarters. 

Tax convention signed with France. 

Publication of GATT schedule. 

Educational exchange. 

Atomic agreement with the Nether- 
lands. 

Eleanor Dulles : "The Meaning of For- 
eign Affairs to the Average 
American." 

Educational exchange. 



No. 


Date 


331 

332 

*333 

*334 

*335 

336 


6/18 
6/18 
6/19 
6/19 
6/19 
6/19 


*337 

t33S 

339 


6/19 
6/20 
6/20 


t340 


6/20 


341 

342 

*343 

*344 

345 


6/20 
6/20 
6/20 
6/20 
6/20 


*346 
347 


6/21 
6/22 


348 
t349 
*350 
*351 


6/22 
6/22 
6/22 
6/22 



t352 6/22 



*.'?53 6/22 



*Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bctlletin. 



U. S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1956 








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U.S. Policy in the Near East, 
South Asia, and Africa— 1955 



the 

Department 

of 

State 



The year 1955 witnessed no lessening of American interest in the 
countries and peoples of the Near East, South Asia, and Africa, 
and it brought no end to the difficult and complicated problems 
which have come to the United States from this vital part of the 
world. On the contrary, the old, basic issues, involving the re- 
surgent and often strident nationalism of the peoples of the area, 
the problem of self-determination or "colonialism," and questions 
of the economic development of underdeveloped countries still 
persisted 10 years after the end of the Second World War. In 
addition, important individual problems such as the Arab-Israel 
controversy, Cyprus, and French North Africa have also remained 
as matters of American concern, whether directly or otherwise, 
because of the position of the United States as one of the leaders 
of the free world. 

This 63-page booklet surveys significant political issues, prob- 
lems of regional security, mutual security programs and U.S. tech- 
nical and economic assistance, and the outlook in U.S. policy. 

Copies of U.S. Policy in the Near East, South Asia, and Africa — 
1955 are available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
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^d. XXXV, No. 889 



July 9, 1956 




TRANSCRIPT OF SECRETARY DULLES' NEWS CON- 
FERENCE OF JUNE 27 47 

THE ECONOMIC WORLD TO COME • by Deputy Under 

6Q 
Secretary Prochnow "' 

THE UNITED NATIONS EXPANDED PROGRAM OF 

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE • Statement by Assistant 
Secretary Wilcox 

FUNDAMENTALS OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY • by 

Ambassador Livingston T. Merchant 5" 

THE MEANING OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS TO THE 

AVERAGE AMERICAN • by Eleanor Dulles 61 



For index see inside back cover 




ijne ZMeha'i^l^me'nl^ «/^ t^icile 



bulletin 



Vol. XXXV, No. 889 • Publication 6368 
July 9, 1956 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a iceekly publication issued by the 
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the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
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Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
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Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Conference 



Press release 360 dated June 27 

Secretary DuUes: I have a statement which I 
woukl like to make.^ Then there will be questions. 

Maintenance of Unity and Vigor in Free World 

This is a moment when it is of particular im- 
portance that the free world should maintain its 
unity and its vigor. Much of the responsibility 
for this rests upon the United States. 

International communism is in a state of per- 
plexity and at internal odds because certain basic 
truths have caught up with it. One such truth 
is that communism has great difficulty in being 
an effective instrument of cold war without such 
iron discipline and brutal terrorism as Stalin em- 
ployed. The other truth is that such rule will 
not be indefinitely tolerated by those subject 
thereto unless at least it produces a succession of 
victories. 

There have been no recent victories, largely due 
to tlie unity and vigor of the free nations and such 
policies as are embodied in our mutual security 
progi'am now before the Congress. 

I recall that on January 1, 1950, Izvestia, the 
official organ of the Soviet Government, hailed the 
New Yeai' saying that it had come "as a welcome 
and dear guest" which would bring new triumphs. 
It went on to say the Soviet camp was "multiply- 
ing day by day." It listed Poland, Czechoslo- 
vakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, Albania, 
North Korea, Mongolia, China, and East Germany 
as successive additions and it concluded, "Commu- 
nism is conquering, communism will triumph!" 

But ever since then, there have been lean years, 
so far as Comnumist conquest is concerned. The 
unity and combined strength of the free world 
made it impossible for international connnunism, 
witli the Soviet Communist Party as its so-called 

' The following seven paragraphs were also released 
separately as press release 358 dated June 27. 



"general staff," to go on year after year picking 
up countries one by one. With the lack of vic- 
tories, there is revolt against the harsh discipline 
exemplified by Stalin. As a result the Communist 
Parties are in a state of discomfiture. 

This is above all a time for the free nations 
to remain strong in their unity. If the free world 
countries should themselves lose the strength of 
unity, due to complacency, or because we are just 
plain tired of helping each other, then interna- 
tional communism would gain hope of new vic- 
tories which would help it to surmount its present 
trouble. 

The essential thing now is to maintain, support 
vigorously, and resourcefully adapt to new condi- 
tions the basic policies of unity which are now be- 
ginning to pay off. Then we can face the future 
with fresh confidence. 

Mimeographed copies of that will be available 
when you go out. Now, if you have any questions. 

Q. ]\fr. Secretanf. could you tell u-'t if yov aud 
Chancellor Adetiauer agreed on any specific plan 
of action with regard to Germma unification or are 
loe just waiting for the Russians to agree to a day 
on which to resume the talks on the m-atter? 

A. Well, we agreed vipon much more than a 
purely passive policy. I think that was made clear 
in the communique which we issued at the close of 
our conference.- We said, in effect, as I recall, that 
the attitude of the Soviet Union toward German 
unification should be made a touchstone, so to 
speak, of all the other relationships which we have 
with the Soviet Union. In that way we expect and 
hope to create the kind of pressure upon the Soviet 
Union which resulted in the Austrian State 
Treaty. It took a long while to get the Austrian 
State Treaty. I remember I worked on it for the 
first time when I was in Moscow in 1047 with Sec- 
retary Marshall. At that time we thought it was 

" Bulletin of June 25, 1956, p. 1047. 



iuly 9, J 956 



47 



just around the corner. It took from 1947 to 1955 
to Ijring it about. It came about primarily through 
the kind of moral pressures which we expect and 
intend to evoke as indicated by the communique 
which was issued by Chancellor Adenauer and my- 
self. That communique does not go into details, 
but it does outline, I think, a basic position which 
we hope and believe will promote the unification of 
Germany. 

Reaction to Khrushchev Speech 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in your statement you .said 
i/nternational commmiism is in a state of perplexity 
and internal odds. Go%dd you elaborate on the 
'''■internal odds'''' — ju^t precisely what you had in 
mind? 

A. Well, I had in mind the situation which was 
revealed by the Khrushchev speech which was in 
turn revealed to the world through the Depart- 
ment of State a few weeks ago.^ It is quite obvious 
in that speech that even within the Soviet Com- 
munist Party itself there was gi-ave discontent and 
dissatisfaction with the type of rule which Stalin 
exemplified. That in turn has been reflected in 
the statements which have come out from the vari- 
ous Communist Parties in difl'erent parts of the 
world as a result of their having obtained the 
Khrushchev speech. The Communist Parties in 
the United States, France, Italy, and the United 
Kingdom have all made statements which indicate 
their dissatisfaction and their belief that some- 
thing must be done to make the Communist Party, 
or international connnunism, more broadly based 
to prevent such concentration of power and pro- 
vision for terrorism as existed during the Stalin 
era. 

There is no agreement yet as to what shall be 
done, but there are demands arising from all quar- 
ters that something has got to be done about it. 

As I say, that confronts international com- 
munism with an almost impossible dilemma be- 
cause that type of despotism cannot in the long 
run work except through the iron discipline that 
Stalin unposed, and that in turn is only tolerable 
if they gain victories. It is a repetition of the 
same kind of thing we have seen throughout his- 
tory. We saw it in Hitlerism and it has been 
frequent in history. That kind of despotism has 
to be ruthless, and, on the other hand, it only suc- 
ceeds and maintains its power and subjects people 

" For text, see Cong. Rec. of June 4, 1956, p. 8465. 



to that ruthlessness if it gains successes. Once it 
ceases to gain successes it gets into internal trouble. 

Q. Have you received, either directly or in- 
directly from the Soviet Government any reaction 
at all to the release of that Khrushchev speech hy 
the State Department? 

A. There have been reactions I might say at an 
informal and low level ; nothing at a high level. 

Q. Can you tell us what they were, sir? 

xl. Well, they did not disavow the speech in any 
way and implied they accepted its validity and 
perhaps suggested it was not quite playing cricket 
to have made it public. 

Q. Air. Secretary, how m-uch do you estimate 
was left out of the speech as actually delivered in 
the copy that was released iy the Department? 

A. Well, I suspect, and there is some evidence 
to support the view, that there was originally con- 
siderably more in the speech than what was re- 
leased. This is, apparently, an official version that 
was prepared afterward, and which is completely 
authentic as f ai' as it goes. But we cannot guaran- 
tee that there may not have been more in the origi- 
nal speech than apj^ears in the prepared speech. 
I would guess there was more. I do not think it is 
a verbatim reproduction of all of the original 
speech. 

Q. There have been a number of reports from 
Italy and other countries that sections on foreign 
policy as to the origin of the Korean War and 
relatione with China, the Berlin blockade, etc. 
Have we any information that any of those reports 
are authentic? 

A. Well, we have some information about pos- 
sible additional statements, but we have not felt 
sufficiently sure of their authenticity to feel justi- 
fied in attributing them to Khrushchev. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you mentioned in your state- 
ment that there were no recent Soviet victories in 
foreign policy. Does that imply you don't con- 
sider the results of Soviet efforts in the Middle 
East a success? 

A. It is certainly not a success in terms of having 
brought any country into the Soviet Communist 
camp. It does not assimilate any cowntry to the 
condition which was listed in the Isrestia editorial 
of 1950 when it listed Poland, (Czechoslovakia, 



48 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Hungary, etc., and said the Soviet camp was nuilti- 
I plying day by day. Tliei'e has been nothing of 
i that sort at all in relation to the Near East. 

Xow in terms of economic influence, that may 
have grown somewhat. But in terms of a politi- 
cal domination there has not been the victory of 
the type wliich was forecast in 1950 or any other 
types that might make it necessary to make the 
pai-ty people and others who were subject to that 
kind of rule accept it. And proof of that is that 
they don't accept it. In other words, the success 
or lack of success of the past few years has in fact 
brouglit about this situation of revolt against that 
rule. This, as I pointed out, was almost inevitable. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., is there a degree of dissatis- 
faction., to use the term as you used it earlier, on 
the part of Communist leaders in other countries 
with tlie present Soviet admimstration, or is this 
dissatisfaction all directed against the former 
Stalin administration? 

A. I think the statements issued by the various 
Communist Parties show a very high state of dis- 
satisfaction with the present leadership of the 
Communist Party as exemplified by the Soviet 
Communist Party. There is a good deal of criti- 
cism in fact of the Khrushchev speech and a feel- 
ing it does not properly evaluate the situation and 
tliat the trouble with communism is much deeper 
than is indicated if you merely attribute it to the 
so-called aberrations of one man. It is my per- 
sonal view that the kind of thing which Khrush- 
chev talks about in relation to Stalin is not wholly 
due merely to the fact that Stalin may personally 
have been a sadist and gotten certain satisfaction 
out of torturing people. I believe the reason is 
far more fundamental, which is that Stalin real- 
ized only by having a reign of terror, so to speak, 
could he maintain what he called the iron dis- 
cipline which is essential for the victory of the 
Communist Party. 

Situation in Iceland 

Q. Mr. Secretary, xoould you consider the situa- 
tion, in Iceland a Communist victory and the 
spread of neutralism all over the world? 

A. There is no doubt that there is not today the 
same degree of fear as existed in 1950 and 1951. 
I don't call that a Soviet victory that the danger 
of war seems to be less. As you recall, at that 
time, 1950 and 1951 and 1952, when the Korean 
War was on and we couldn't be sure but what that 



war would enlarge, there was a very great fear 
which led people to be pleased to do things which 
they would not want to do under normal condi- 
tions. Now, the allaying of that fear is not a 
Communist victory. That is a thing we have been 
working for for the past few years — to put away 
the danger of war. 

Now in the case of Iceland, when it originally 
joined the North Atlantic Treaty it did so on the 
understanding that there would not be foreign 
troops that were to be stationed in Iceland. That 
was the mood of the people of Iceland, as I re- 
call, in 1949. Then came the danger, which was 
exemplified by the Korean War — the danger that 
those war tactics would be employed in Europe — 
and the transformation of the North Atlantic 
Treaty from what was originally contemplated, 
which was primarily an engagement on the part 
of the parties to come to each other's help if there 
should be an armed attack ; the change from that 
into the actual creating of some sort of joint mili- 
tary establishment. We oui'selves changed at that 
time our whole attitude. I recall when I was in 
the Senate debating on the ratification of the 
North Atlantic Treaty, both Senator Vandenberg 
and I, who took a leading part in that, took the 
position that there was no gi-eat need to create 
important forces in being ; that the primary power 
of the North Atlantic Treaty lay in the deterrent 
of the assertion that if there was an attack we 
would each come to help the other. 

Now then there was a change as a result of the 
Korean War and the conclusions that were drawn 
from that as to possible Soviet policies of violence. 
That had its effect upon all of the members in the 
North Atlantic Treaty, including Iceland. Now 
there is a tendency in Iceland to go back to what 
I think was the original concept that the Ice- 
landic i^eople had. That comes about, not as a re- 
sult of a Communist victory, but because, I be- 
lieve, the policies we have had in the meantime 
have allayed the fears wliich were born in 1950. 
Now what the result will be I do not know nor 
would I want to prophesy. 

You recall that the United States has bases in 
Iceland, not in its own right but acting as an 
agent for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 
And if there is a change in that situation, it is a 
change which Iceland would take up in the first 
instance with the North Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
zation, and whether it will do so, and, if so, what 
the result will be, I wouldn't want to prophesy. 



Ju/y 9, 7956 



49 



But, certainly, I would say it does not indicate 
any great victory for communism. 

Q. Mr. Secretary^ does your interj)retatio7i of 
the perplexities of the Kremlin mean that you 
suspect that it has given up internutional com- 
munismf 

A. No. I wouldn't say that. Of course, it has 
jnirported several times to have dissolved interna- 
tional communism in the form of the Comintern 
and the Cominform. But always it has kept 
underground ties with Communist Parties in 
other countries and has largely laid down the 
policy line. 

I have quoted already what Stalin said about 
the Soviet Communist Party being the '"general 
staff" of what he called the "world proletariat," 
and all of the Connnunist Parties in the world 
have, in the main, taken their guidance from Mos- 
cow. And I don't think there is any desire on 
the part of Moscow to lose that kind of relation- 
ship. But there is no doubt but what the ties 
that have in the past bound these local Communist 
Parties to the Kremlin have been very much 
shaken and loosened by recent events. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you reject the idea that 
these statements hy the Italian and French Com- 
munists and other Communists on this side of the 
Iron Curtain are a part of a preconceived plan 
which fits with the neio party line as annownced 
at the Party Congress in Fehruary? 

A. Yes, I reject that theory. To my mind the 
evidence is so strong the other way that, to me, 
it is quite conclusive that this is coming about as 
a result of real differences and that there is not 
a prearranged pattern in this matter at all. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in view of this new attitude 
which you concede exists throughout the world-, 
and the loss of fear, what do you think the foreign 
reaction will be to the news that the United States 
Senate has added a hillion dollars to armaments, 
principally to iuy long-range homhers? 

A. Well, I think that there will be no critical 
reaction to it abroad. I think that much of the 
world accepts the view that the balance of power 
in the world is primarily determined by the nu- 
clear situation, particularly the relative nuclear 
power of the Soviet Union and the United States. 
Now the question as to how much money it takes 
to implement that policy is a matter as to which I 



don't suppose they will have any particular opin- 
ion. But I imagine they would be happier to see 
the amount increased than to have seen any radical 
reduction there. In other words, they will think 
our heart is in the right place witliout passing 
judgment upon whether technically the decision 
was right or wrong. 

East-West Contacts 

Q. Mr. Secretary, Foreign Minister Pineau said 
last week that this crisis of the Comnhunht world 
also offers the ^Yest an opportumty to exploit it, 
and proposed specifically greater contacts, in a 
can}j>aign to penetrate the Iron Curtain and to 
advance the cause of freedom and democracy and 
that stuff. Do you agree with this program or 
what is your interpretation? 

A. Well, I agree entirely with the principle 
which M. Pineau expressed. I believe that there 
is a growing tide within the Soviet bloc in favor 
of greater liberalization, greater human rights, 
greater freedom of speech, gi-eater enjoyment of 
the fruits of labor, an opportunity to speak and 
think more freely. I believe that that comes about 
through a good many causes, perhaps one of the 
most important of which is the increasing educa- 
tion of the Russian people which has come about 
as a necessary component of their increase of in- 
dustrialization. And I believe that the more the 
Russian people come to realize what are the free- 
doms, what are the opportunities that are enjoyed 
in other countries, the more they will be disposed 
to ask for and expect the same things for them- 
selves. So the principle is one which I entirely 
accept. 

Now the application of that principle always 
makes difficulties — that's usually the case. There 
is seldom sharp disagreement about broad princi- 
ples ; the differences come when you come to apply 
these principles. And I think that each case has 
got to be considered on its own merits as to whether 
or not it will give an opportunity to bring the 
knowledge and information to the Russian people 
which we would like to see them get. 

As you know, we tried to reach an agreement on 
that subject at the Geneva Conference of Foreign 
Ministers in October-November of last year, and 
at that time the Soviet Union rejected the proposal 
that we made."" There has been since then some 



' For text of 17-poiut U.S.-U.K.-French iiroposal, see 
BuLUTi'iN of Nov. 14, 19."i5. p. 778. 



SO 



Department of State Bulletin 



indication that they might pick up some of those 
proposals, at least, on a bilateral basis. As I say, 
tliere was no difficulty whatever in M. Pineau and 
ine agreeing on the broad principle involved. We 
did not get into the question of its detailed appli- 
cation, and, possibly, there might have been dif- 
ferences between us in that respect, as, indeed, we 
find differences within our own Government as to 
liow the principle should be applied. 

Marshal Tito's Visit to Russia 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would you give us your as- 
sessment of Marshal Tito^s visit to Moscow and 
whether you- believe he in any significant way 
changed his position vis-a-vis the Soviet and the 
West? 

A. The question that you put is one which is 
receiving very close study by this Government. 
We have not yet come to any final assessment of 
what was the significance of Marshal Tito's visit 
to Russia. He is not yet back in Belgrade, nor 
have we had the opportunity to have a quiet study, 
with full information, as to just what took place 
there. I would say this, we do not believe that 
anything that has happened conclusively shows 
that Tito has gone back to any role of subserviency 
to the Soviet Union. There is no evidence at all 
of that, and to my mind it would be almost in- 
credible that he would have assumed that relation- 
ship because, after all, he risked a great deal — 
including j^erhaps the most precious thing that a 
man has in many respects, his own life — to main- 
tain independence for himself and his country. 
Why, mider present conditions, he should have 
given it up I can't see ; nor do I find in what has 
been said any evidence that he did give it up. 

Very strenuous efforts were made by the Soviet 
hosts to trap him into statements, to interpret 
Tito's own statements, in a sense that would give 
that implication. But we do not feel that there 
is any evidence which satisfies us so far that he 
has given up his independent role. And I would 
think it would be a very grave mistake indeed, so 
long as the matter at least is subject to reasonable 
doubt, if action were taken which would make it 
impossible for us to proceed on the assumption 
that he was still independent or to help him to 
maintain his independence. In other words, the 
verdict is not yet in. And until we have a much 
clearer view of the situation I would hope very 



much that there would be no congressional action 
which would foreclose the issue. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you ielieve these Commvu,- 
nist perplexities in any way threaten the position 
of leadei'ship of Mr. Khrushchev within the Soviet 
Union ? 

A. Well, I suppose that is one of these questions 
which relates to the internal affairs of another 
government that I ought not to comment on. I 
am very much tempted to comment on it, but I 
think I had better restrain myself. 

Q,. Mr. Secretary, on the foreign aid hill now 
pending in the Senate, does the administration 
have enough votes to defeat a mandatory import 
amendment which is being developed up there 
now? 

A. I wouldn't want to forecast the vote. These 
things are always pretty fluid until the last 
minute. We are hopeful that there will not be 
the votes to carry that, but I would not want to 
attempt to get into the business of predicting 
votes. As far as I know we had no head count on 
that matter at all. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, does it follow from yo^ir com- 
ments on Iceland that you luould not be displeased 
if we had to close down our base there, or if we 
had to reduce substantially the number of forces 
that we have on Iceland? 

A. No, that would not be a correct inference 
from what I said. The base has, we believe, con- 
tinuing importance from the standpoint of the se- 
curity of the West and of the North Atlantic Com- 
munity. I said that the danger had been thought 
to be less by the people of Iceland. I think we 
are inclined to think that there is a greater danger 
than they think. You see, one of the problems of 
dealing with a despotism such as the Soviet Union 
has is that it can reverse its field almost instan- 
taneously, and it has made surprising zigs and 
zags, particularly during the last few years. So 
long as the Soviet Union possesses the capability 
of powerful and sudden military action I think it 
is dangerous to assume, on the basis of their pro- 
fessed statements, that we are all free from that 
danger. Therefore, I believe that so long as these 
capabilities exist and so long as the Soviet rulers 
have not committed themselves to another course 
of action to such a degree that it would be im- 



Jo/y 9, 7956 



51 



practical for them quickly to reverse their posi- 
tion, until that time comes we must keep our 
guard up. I would regard the Iceland base as an 
important element in that, although, as I say, we 
are there as an agent and representative of the 
North Atlantic Council and the final verdict on 
that matter must be its and not ours. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is the ijnplication of some of 
your earlier dismission on the ConiTminist dilemma 
a matter of an opinion that the Communist inter- 
national control from Moscow is disintegrating? 
Is that the significance of what you are saying? 

A. I believe that the control of the Soviet Com- 
munist Party over local Communist Parties has 
been very greatly weakened and that there does 
not now exist the same degi'ee of power as existed 
during the Stalin era to rule them with an iron 
hand and to compel obedience through terrorism. 
There has been a revolt against that. I do not 
mean to suggest that there will not continue to 
persist a degree of af&nity between the local Com- 
munist Parties and Moscow. But I think that 
the kind of authority which the Soviet Communist 
Party possessed during the era of Stalin, when he 
had a very high degree of arbitrary authority over 
these parties, I think that that relationship has 
been gravely impaired, and I greatly doubt that 
it can be reinstated unless, as I say, perhaps we 
ourselves should so fall apart as to give great en- 
couragement to the rebirth of that kind of a 
Stalinist system. 

Q. May I ash one other question along this line? 
Would this kind of weakening between local 
Communist Parties and Moscow control tend to 
create a situation in which the Co7ninunists ccndd 
realize Tnore of their aim of united fronts with 
other parties in Western countries? 

A. It might make that possible. One faces a 
certain dilemma on our side, which is that the 
more the Communist Parties abandon the prac- 
tices which led to their being in effect ostracized, 
the less ostracized they are going to be. Now do 
you want to have them be evil just so they will be 
entirely ostracized ? Or do you want some of the 
evil to disappear, accepting as a consequence that 
they will be less ostracized? That is inevitable. 
From my own part, I would prefer to see them 
shed some of their evil qualities even though rec- 
ognizing that the consequence of that will be that 
there will be a less degree of ostracism. That 



assumes, of course, that the shedding is a real ( 
thing and not just a subterfuge. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in your comment on M. Pi- 
neau did you imply that the administration has 
noio reached a firm policy on the subject of East- 
West exchanges? 

A. I would not say that there has been yet a 
final decision. I believe that a paper on that sub- 
ject is coming up within the next few days, per- 
haps, for final decision through the National 
Security Council and the President which will 
help us form our position.^ Of course, I don't 
anticipate that any paper will be so comprehen- 
sive that it will provide an automatic guide to the 
decision in each individual case. We are never 
going to get away, I think, from a case-to-case 
basis, but certain fairly clear principles and 
guidelines will, I hope, be laid down within the 
next few days. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, aside from the fact that for- 
eign ministers travel more these days, can you tell 
us your thinking on the visit of Mr. Shepilov to 
Cairo? 

A. Well, we are not as yet, at least, in the pos- 
session of any information as to any firm results 
whicli have been achieved as a result of that visit. 
There may be such results. But so far they have 
not come within the scope of our knowledge. I 
have a little bit the impression that perhaps Mr. 
Shepilov's visit did not produce quite all of the 
results which he hoped for. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, Seiudor Flanders said in a 
speech yesterday that our effort to obtain German 
rearmament seems to have stood in the way of oh- 
taining German reunifi/iation. He suggested that 
Chancellor Adenauer be encouraged to negotiate 
directly with the Soviet Union on reimification. 
Do you have any comment? 

A. I have not read Senator Flanders' speech. 
He is a Senator of great idealism that I have a 
very high regard for. I would say as a general 
matter I think probably Chancellor Adenauer, 
who has the responsibility and who certainly is as 
deeply dedicated as any man can be to the reimi- 
fication of Germany, is in a position to judge the 
possibilities and the best way to proceed. And 
so far I do not think that Chancellor Adenauer 



' See p. 54. 



52 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



tliinks tliat the reunification of Germany would 
1)8 promoted by such courses as you indicate Sen- 
ator Flanders has suggested. As you, I think, all 
know, the Soviet rulers in some of tlieir recent ex- 
changes with Western leaders, particularly in 
London, later on with M. Mollet and Pineau when 
they M'ent to Moscow, indicated very clearly that 
tliey were not at all interested in the reimification 
(if Germany on any terms. That is a matter that 
we all of us are giving a good deal of thought to, 
and probably Chancellor Adenauer is giving the 
most tliought to it. I think it is entirely specu- 
lative to assume that even such a program as you 
indicate Senator Flanders has suggested would, 
in fact, promote the reunification of Germany at 
the present time. 



Senate Action Authorizing 
Mutual Security Program 

Statement hy Secretary Dulles 

Press release 369 dated June 30 

I greatly welcome the action of the Senate to 
authorize the carrying forward of our mutual 
security program.^ If this authorization is con- 
curred in by the House and implemented by cor- 
responding appropriations, the program can be 
carried forward for the benefit of the free world. 

This program, as I have repeatedly said, is not 
a give-away program. Every item is designed to 
promote the peace and safety of the United States 
and the environment of freedom which is essential 
to our own freedom. 

It is particularly important at this juncture that 
the free nations should not falter in their positive 
efforts to maintain their unity and vigor as against 
external assaults. 

It is obvious that the Soviet rulers are con- 
fronted with grave problems as a result of the 
solid front of the free peoples and the mounting 
demands of the subject peoples. 

This is above all a time for the free peoples to 
hold fast those policies which have proved good. 



' The Senate passed late in the evening of June 29, 1956, 
a bill authorizing the appropriation of $4,330,075,000 for 
the mutual security program for the tiscal year 1957. 
This compared with the authorization request of the Presi- 
dent of $4,G72,475,000 (and appropriation request of 
$4,859,975,000) and the action of the House on June 11, 
1956, in approving an authorization bill for $3,567,475,000. 



Prime Minister of India 
Postpones Visit to U.S. 

T}ie White House on June 25 made jmblic an 
excJiange of correspondence between President 
Eisenhower and Prime Minister Jaavaharlal 
A^ehru of India and on June 26 released an addi- 
tional message from Mr. Nehru to Mr. Eisen- 
hower. Following are the texts of the three 
7nessages. 

Prime Minister Nehru to President Eisenhower 

June 23, 1956 

I have been much gratified to learn of the con- 
tinuing progress of your recovery from your re- 
cent illness, but feel that the programme of our 
personal talks should not impose an additional 
strain on you during your convalescence. I am 
most anxious that this should be avoided, and sug- 
gest therefore for your consideration that my visit 
to the United States might be postponed. I had 
been looking forward greatly to the opportunity 
of personal talks with you, but I think it still more 
important that no undue strain should be placed 
upon you in the coming weeks which might in any 
way retard your progress to full recovery. I send 
my warm personal regards and best wishes for 
your speedy and complete restoration to normal 
health. 

Jawaharlal Nehrtt 

President Eisenhower to Prime Minister Nehru 

June 24, 1956 

Mr DEAR Mr. Prime Minister : I have just re- 
ceived and read your gracious message. I have 
been eagerly looking forward to a visit from you 
and the opportunity it would give of personal talks 
between us. While my convalescence proceeds ac- 
cording to schedule and I may take a brief trip 
to Panama toward the end of July, I cannot be 
entirely free of doubt as to whether my recupera- 
tion will be far enough advanced by July 7th to 
have the kind of talks which we both had in mind. 
I know that you would not want to come here 
merely for a round of official ceremonies. For 
your visit to be worth your while there should be 
assurance that we could have frank and perhaps 
even somewhat protracted talks, such as we have 
promised ourselves. That might well be possible 



Jo/y 9, ?956 



53 



for me by July 7th, but I cannot now be certain of 
this, and I know that you yourself cannot let the 
decision wait until the last moment. 

Under all the circumstances, I am inclined, with 
truly deep regret, to adopt your considerate sug- 
gestion that your visit to the United States be 
postponed until there can be complete assurance 
that it would have the character which we both had 
in mind. I hope that the delay will not be for long 
and that you will, at your convenience, suggest 
another date. This I assure you is meant as an 
urgent invitation. 

Again thanking you for your good wishes and 
for your kindly consideration, I am, with high 
personal esteem, 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

Prime Minister Nehru to President Eisenliower 

JuiiTE 25, 1956 

My dear Mr. President : I am most grateful to 
you for your prompt and generous message. It 
has given me the liveliest pleasure and satisfaction 
to learn that your convalescence is proceeding 
according to schedule, but I have no doubt that the 
decision to postpone the talk we had planned, 
which would inevitably have entailed an excessive 
degree of strain, is a wise one. That a personal 
meeting with you has had to be postponed has 
naturally caused me deep disappointment, but I 
share your hope that a further opportunity may 
present itself in the future for such a meeting. 
What is of immediate importance is that you 
should be fully restored to health as soon as possi- 
ble, and it is my earnest hope that you will not al- 
low the heavy burdens of your office to come in the 
way of your rapid and complete recovery. 

May I ex2:)ress to you once again, Mr. President, 
my high esteem and personal regard. 
Very sincerely, 

Jawaharlal Nehrxj 



Whereas the United States has consistently supported 
the United Nations, the Charter of which is the outgrowth 
of a common desire among peoples of all nations for per- 
manent peace ; and 

Whereas in the ten years of Its existence the United 
Nations has developed into a living, functioning organiza- 
tion capable of influencing world opinion on the side of 
peace, freedom, and justice ; and 

Whereas recent additions to the membership of the 
United Nations have increased its vitality and its capa- 
bility of achieving the aims and Ideals of its Charter and 
fulfilling man's ancient longing for a better and a strife- 
free world ; and 

Whereas the General Assembly of the United Nations 
has resolved that October 24, the anniversary of the com- 
ing Into force of the United Nations Charter, should be 
dedicated each year to making known the purposes, prin- 
ciples, and accomplishments of the United Nations: 

Now, THEREFORE, I, DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, Presi- 
dent of the United States of America, do hereby urge the 
citizens of this Nation to observe Wednesday, October 24, 
1956, as United Nations Day by means of community pro- 
grams that will demonstrate their faith in, and support of, 
the United Nations and will contribute to a better under- 
standing of its aims, problems, and accomplishments. 

I call also upon the officials of the Federal, State, and 
local Governments, the United States Committee for the 
United Nations, representatives of civic, educational, and 
religious organizations, and agencies of the press, radio, 
television, and motion pictures, as well as all citizens, to 
cooperate in appropriate observance of United Nations 
Day throughout our country. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this 21st day of June 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and 

[seal] fifty -six, and of the Independence of the United 
States of America the one hundred and 
eightieth. 



/^ C-"-*-^- <^-*Z->^C<-<C-i— A^to^N,. 



By the President : 
Herbert Hoover, Jr., 
Acting Secretary of State 



United Nations Day, 1956 

A PROCLAMATION' 

Whereas the United States of America joined in found- 
ing the United Nations for the purpose of maintaining 
International peace and security ; and 



' No. 3142 ; 21 Fed. Reg. 4425. 



President Approves Exchange Program 
With Eastern Europe 

White House press release dated June 29 

The President on June 29 approved the recom- 
mendation of the National Security Council that 
the United States should seek exchanges between 
the United States and the countries of Eastern 



54 



Department of State Bulletin 



Europe, including the U.S.S.R., alono- the lines of 
the l7-point program put forward by the Western 
Foreign Ministers at Geneva in October 1955.' 
Although this program was unacceptable to the 
Soviet Government at that time, the President 
believes that such a program, if carried out in good 
faith and with true reciprocity, may now contrib- 
ute to the better understanding of the peoples of 
tlie world that must be the foundation of peace. 



U.S. Concern for Welfare 
of Polish People 



LETTER FROM ACTING SECRETARY HOOVER TO 
AMERICAN RED CROSS 

Press release 370 dated June 30 

June 30, 1956 
Dear Mr. Starr: The reports of serious dis- 
order in Poznan, Poland, seem to be marked by 
demands by the population for bread, and we are 
informed of serious food shortages in Poland. 
The people of the United States, many of whom 
are of Polish descent, have a sympathetic concern 
for the welfare of the Polish people. As you 
know, there is a long history of cooperation be- 
tween our peoples, especially after World War I 
and as long as we were permitted after World 
War II. 

The United States Government, on behalf of 
the American j)eople, is ready to make available 
to tlie League of Red Cross Societies (Interna- 
tional Red Cross), for free distribution through 
Red Cross channels to the people in Poland and 
particularly to relieve the critical situation in the 
Poznan area, appropriate quantities of wheat, 
flour and other foods. 

The United States Government would make 
the food available to the League of Red Cross 
Societies, without cost, at an appropriate port of 
entry in Poland. In keeping with our usual re- 
quirement that the consumers of American relief 
gi-ants be informed of the source of the supplies, 
the food so provided would be labeled for dis- 
tribution as a gift from the American people. 



I should be grateful if the American Red Cross 
would seek immediately to ascertain if the food 
offered as a gift by the United States to relieve 
the reported hunger and distress of the Polish 
people is accepted. 

Sincerely yours, 

Herbert Hoover, Jr. 

Acting Secretary 

Mr. Harold Starr, 
General Counsel, 

American Red Cron-s, 
Washington, D. C. 



STATEMENT BY LINCOLN WHITE' 

The United States Government is profoundly 
shocked to learn of the shooting at Poznan which 
killed and wounded so many persons. Our sym- 
pathy goes out to the families of these people, who 
were merely expressing their profound grievances. 
They apparently feel that their Government pri- 
marily serves the interests of the Soviet Union. 

This episode dramatically underlines what 
President Eisenhower said to the Soviet rulers at 
Geneva ; - namely, that the peoples of Eastern 
Europe, many with a long and proud record of na- 
tional existence, should be given the benefit of our 
wartime pledge that they should have the right 
to choose the form of government imder which 
they will live and that sovereign rights and self- 
government should be restored to them. 

We believe that all free peoples will be watch- 
ing the situation closely to see whether or not the 
Polish people will be allowed a government which 
will remedy the grievances which have brought 
them to a breaking point.^ 



'For text of 17-point TJ.S.-U.K.-French proposal, see 
Btn.LETiN of Nov. 14, 1955, p. 778. 



' Made to correspondents on June 29. Mr. White is act- 
ing cliief of the News Division. 

'Bulletin of Aug. 1. 1955, p. 172. 

' In a further comment to correspondents on July 2, Mr. 
White stated : "Communist charges that the Poznan dem- 
onstrations were instigated and financed by the United 
States Government are wholly false. The demonstra- 
tions, in fact, seemed to have been produced by a surge 
of pent-up bitterness on the part of an oppressed and 
exploited people. Hundreds of Polish citizens are now 
being arrested in reprisal and further ruthlessness is 
threatened in the Stalin tradition. The whole world is 
watching closely the conduct of the Conuuunist authori- 
ties in their treatment of the people of Poznan, who appar- 
ently took the only course they felt open to them to ex- 
press their desire for freedom." 



Ju/y 9, 1956 



55 



Fundamentals of U. S. Foreign Policy 



hy Livingston T. Merchant 
Ambassador to Canada ^ 



A foreign policy of any country, it seems to 
me, in the broader sense is something more than a 
treaty, or a pronouncement by a statesman, or 
even a Cabinet decision reinforced by legislative 
action. It is the expressed will of a people, and it 
can only endure if it becomes part of the habit 
of thought of a people. It must rest, of course, 
on the hard facts of international life, on an ap- 
praisal of one's national security and one's national 
self-interest. It must for us have, beyond that, a 
moral foundation. That may not be true in all 
countries, but I know it is in yours and mine. 

Now let me speak for a moment of our two 
comitries. In the year of our Lord 1956 we have 
many more things in common than just living on 
the same continent. In fact, I believe that we 
hold in common all things that matter. Certainly 
among these we can count our belief in man, the 
individual, with God-given rights. We believe 
in government resting on the consent of the gov- 
erned and designed to serve, not dispose of, the 
individual. We believe in freedom of religion 
and freedom of expression. We believe in peace 
as a condition in which we can all individually 
pursue and exercise our creative talents, but we 
have proved on thi-ee occasions in the last 40- 
odd years that when need be we will fight rather 
than surrender when an evil force threatens every 
good thing that we cherish. 

Canada and the United States have together 
inlierited in recent years previously midreamt of 
responsibilities. Together we ai'e a part of what 
Sir Winston Churchill called the "new world." 
We are the primary arsenal of the free world. 

^ Address made before the Canadian Club of Ottawa on 
June 21. 



We are together, I am personally convinced, the 
primary target of any future aggression. 

Canada and the United States have something 
else in common. This is that our shores are 
washed by both the Pacific and the Atlantic 
Oceans. We look eastward to Europe, whence the 
forbears of both of us came. We look also west- 
ward toward Asia. 

Today in the United States it is to me no acci- 
dent that the Vice President, the Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Court, and the administration's 
leader in the Senate all come from California. 
Each year the center of the population in the 
United States moves a mile or two miles westward 
to the Pacific Coast. I have no doubt that this 
is equally a demogi'aphic fact in Canada. 

Your interest and our interest in the Pacific 
goes back many years. More than a hundred 
years ago my forebears from New England were 
in the China trade. I had a great-great-uncle 
who was the first United States consul in Shanghai 
in the 18-iO's. 

I myself saw in China a few years ago the last- 
ing mark that Canadian missionaries have made 
there. On Formosa, where I spent some months 
in 1949, the largest and best hospital was one 
built and operated by Canadian missionaries. 

The United States and Europe 

But, looking now across the Atlantic, United 
States foreign policy with respect to Europe is, 
I believe, well understood. Its cornei-stone is our 
membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
zation. We believe in collective security as the 
modern method whereby countries which think 
alike and consider themselves threatened can best 



56 



Department of State Bulletin 



assure their own security. Such defensive ar- 
I'ungements were specifically contemplated under 
tlie United Nations Charter. They are equivalent 
to the establishment of a police force by a com- 
munity in place of individual reliance on one's 
<i\vn shotgun, and they assui'e a more effective de- 
fense at less cost to the community than if each 
member alone attempted to provide its own de- 
fonse. Nato, moreover, has another and unique 
quality. This is that it is incapable of manipula- 
tion for aggressive purposes. Nato can never be- 
come the tool for aggressive national use by any of 
its members. This is not only because of the safe- 
guards which a free public opinion and parlia- 
mentary institutions provide. It is also because 
of the practical military arrangements under 
which all forces are under international com- 
mand with a multinational staff'. Supply lines 
are common. National units supplement and sup- 
port each other. There is under Nato no possi- 
bility for an individual national adventure. 

I honestly believe that some day the Soviets will 
understand and accept this fact. So far they 
have refused to, and they continue to direct their 
efforts to destroy Nato and divide its members one 
from the other. These efforts ai-e more subtle 
than they once were. There is, however, no evi- 
dence that their long-term purpose and objective 
of world domination has been abandoned. The 
shifting tactics of international communism, 
however, require that we members of the North 
Atlantic alliance consider in what ways we can 
develop further our alliance in the interest of 
expanding cooperation in areas other than the 
military. The latter has rightly held the j^riority 
since the treaty was signed. Behind the defensive 
military shield which has been erected there are 
now the opportunity and the need to strengthen 
the relationship under the treaty in other direc- 
tions. At the Ministerial Council meeting in 
Paris last month it was agreed that a committee 
of three Foreign Ministers should advise "on ways 
and means to improve and extend Nato co- 
operation in non-military fields and to develop 
greater unity within the Atlantic Community." ^ 
Fittingly, your distinguished Secretary of State 
for External Affairs, Mr. Pearson, was one of the 
three Foreign Ministers selected by the Council 
for this task. 

Just as the United States believes that its se- 



" Bulletin of May 21, 1956, p. 836. 
July 9, 1956 



curity can best be assured by collective security 
arrangements, so also do we believe that no op- 
portunity should be overlooked for peaceful nego- 
tiations to seek just settlements of the great issues 
which divide the Communist and the free worlds. 
In the past 3 or 4 years I have myself participated 
in literally months of negotiations with the So- 
viets, in company with the British and the 
French — at Berlin in 1954, at Geneva in the spring 
and summer of the same year, at Vienna in May 
1955, at San Francisco a year ago, again at Geneva 
at the summit confei'ence last July, and once more 
at Geneva last fall. 

Our fundamental policy is clear and simple — to 
join with our friends in measures to assure our 
common defenses in the face of a threat and yet to 
avoid no opportunity to seek peaceful solutions 
through negotiation. 

U.S. Policy in the Far East 

In the Far East the foreign policy of the United 
States sometimes seems to me less well understood. 
It is my purpose and intention today to try to 
explain it without, of course, presuming to give 
advice to any of the friends of the United States 
around the world as to what their policy should be. 

"While the United States is a Pacific power as 
well as an Atlantic power, the foundation of our 
policy in the Far East is identical with what it is 
in Europe. We believe in collective security. In 
the past 5 or 6 years we have concluded mutual 
defense treaties with Australia and New Zealand, 
with the Philipf)ines, with Japan, with the Re- 
public of Korea, with the Republic of China, and 
more recently with the seven other members of the 
Manila Pact, better known as Seato [Southeast 
Asia Treaty Organization]. We believe aggres- 
sion, as in the invasion of the Republic of Korea 
in 1950, must be met with resolution and force. 
We believe in being loyal to our friends. We 
believe that the less well-developed countries of the 
world are entitled to teclmical and economic as- 
sistance from more highly developed countries. 
We applaud the Colombo Plan, in which Canada 
plays so prominent a part. Our own technical- 
assistance aid progi-ams demonstrate that we have 
not required a joining with us in defense arrange- 
ments as a precondition to granting of such aid. 
Finally, we believe in the process of peaceful ne- 
gotiation for the settlement of disputes. 

Canada, too, is deeply and increasingly involved 



57 



in the Far East. Canada was one of the first to 
support the United Nations in the successful 
resistance to aggression in Korea. Less tlian 2 
weeks ago in Calgary I had the honor of present- 
ing to the Second Battalion of the Princess 
Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry a Presidential 
Unit Citation for extraordinary heroism in action 
at Kapyong in Korea during April of 1951. 
Canada played a most constructive part in the con- 
ference at Geneva in 1954, from which resulted 
the armistice in Indochina; and today you are 
discharging at very considerable sacrifice your 
heavy responsibilities as one of the three members 
of the International Control Commission in Viet- 
Nam, Laos, and Cambodia. 

The Chinese Communist Regime 

We cannot escape the fact that in the Far East 
the as yet unrenounced aggressive ambitions of 
Communist China create a situation not of genuine 
peace but of uneasy truce. In Korea there is an 
armistice but no peace. In Viet-Nam there is an 
armistice but no peace. On the mainland opposite 
Formosa the Chinese Communists are building a 
network of airfields capable of supporting jet air- 
craft. They are building military roads and rail- 
roads. They are almost daily harassing the Na- 
tionalist-held islands with artillery fire. 

To me the central fact and threat in the Far 
East resides in the Communist regime of China, 
which by its past actions and its continued out- 
pourings of threats has testified to its unwilling- 
ness to govern its external relations by the princi- 
ples of the United Nations Charter. 

Yet here as elsewhere in the world we have 
shown our willingness to seek peaceful solutions 
by negotiation. Our nonrecognition of Com- 
munist China has not inhibited us from sitting 
down across the table with its representatives when 
it is a direct party to the dispute at issue. In 
Korea the United States, on behalf of the United 
Command of the United Nations, engaged in the 
long difficult months of negotiation with the 
Chinese Communists which culminated nearly 3 
years ago in the armistice in Korea. Again at 
Geneva in 1954 we negotiated in the effort to re- 
unify Korea— with no success. Since August 1, 
1955, we have been continuously negotiating with 
the Chinese Communists in Geneva to secure the 
release of American civilians imprisoned in China 
and to attempt to obtain from the Peking regime 



a simple agreement that it would not resort to 
force in the settlement of international disputes, 
with particular reference to the area of Formosa. 
The lack of understanding and in some quarters 
of the world the lack of sympathy for the United 
States Far Eastern policy relates mostly, I think, 
to our policy with respect to Communist China. 
In Europe I have often heard it criticized as 
"rigid" and "shortsighted." We are frequently 
lectured by some European and Asian friends for 
our refusal to accord diplomatic recognition to 
Peking and for our resolute opposition to Com- 
munist China's admission to the United Nations. 
We are told tliat the Communist regime in fact 
controls mainland China and that we should recog- 
nize a fact when we see one. We are told that 
social ostracism encourages antisocial behavior, as 
though the hardheaded rulers of five or six hun- 
dred million people act like wayward, small boys. 

Question of Recognition of Chinese Communists 

Let me tell you the reasons why we have refused 
to recognize Communist China and why we have 
opposed its admission into the United Nations. 
They are the same reasons, I imagine, which have 
been responsible for your Government's policy of 
noni-ecognition and nonadmission to the United 
Nations. 

First of all, Communist China has been formally 
condemned by the United Nations as an aggressor 
in Korea. Its armies in Korea killed and wounded 
tens and tens of thousands of the United Nations 
forces who were thei'e resisting a flagrant aggres- 
sion on the call of the United Nations itself. 

True, there has been a truce for nearly 3 years 
in Korea. But Chinese armies remain in Korea, 
the Chinese Communists daily violate the armi- 
stice Ly introducing new weapons and munitions 
in defiance of its terms, and they have made a 
mockery of the armistice j)rovisions for inspection 
by neutral observers behind the lines. We cannot 
see how or why an unrepentant, unpurged aggres- 
sor, formally declared by the United Nations to be 
such, could be admitted to the United Nations. 
This is not the right sort of test of a willingness 
to abide by tlie principles of the charter. 

In Viet-Nam, a counti-y like Korea tragically 
divided, we have an armistice but no peace. The 
Viet Minh, during the fighting, were openly sup- 
plied and supported by the Chinese. And now 
that there is a truce we find violations of its terms. 



58 



Department of State Bulletin 



Since the Geneva Armistice Agreement of 1954, 
the effective strength of the Viet Minh fighting 
forces has approximately doubled; and the artil- 
lery firepower is reported to have increased some 
sixfold. It is the Chinese Communists who are 
furnishing the equipment and the training. 

As I said a few minutes ago, the Chinese Com- 
munists maintain formidable forces opposite For- 
mosa and are steadily building up their capability 
for an attack on Formosa, where, by treaty, the 
United States has solemnly recognized that an at- 
tack would be dangerous to its own peace and 
security. As I also said, the Communist Chinese 
have refused to agi-ee to a declaration that they 
will not resort to the use of force in the area of 
Formosa except defensively. The United States 
has repeatedly stated its willingness to make a 
corresponding declaration even though this is re- 
dundant in light of our acceptance of the obliga- 
tions of the United Nations Charter. 

Lastly, if it were possible to overlook the Chi- 
nese Communist aggression in Korea, and its 
flagrant actions in Indochina, and its repeated 
threats to take Formosa by force — all of which it 
is impossible, of course, to overlook — we in the 
United States would still remember the treatment 
meted out to our people by the Communists in 
China as long ago as 1949, the violation of our 
treaties, the imprisonment of our consular officials, 
our businessmen, and our missionaries. 

This in our eyes is not a record of behavior 
which entitles a regime to honorable admission to 
the United Nations. 

I have sometimes heard the argument that rec- 
ognition has nothing to do with moral judgment 
but merely should recognize facts. I do not find 
myself in complete agreement with this view. 
Some element of moral judgment seems to be in- 
escapably involved. 

Then let us look for a moment at the conse- 
quences on Formosa and elsewhere in the Far East 
which could be expected to result from general 
diplomatic recognition of Peking and its admis- 
sion to the United Nations. A faithful ally 
through the long years of the war with Japan and 
since, the National Government of China, would 
be abandoned and discredited. The hope for ulti- 
mate freedom which its standard on Formosa holds 
out to millions of Chinese on the mainland would 
be gone. In the overseas communities of nearly 
20 million Chinese in Malaya, Thailand, Burma, 



Indonesia, and the Philippines, those who tradi- 
tionally have maintained their homeland ties 
would have no alternative to allegiance to Peking, 
and the local consequences of such a shift in al- 
legiance could prove serious indeed. Finally, 
many peoples in the Far East who fear Communist 
domination, who drew confidence from United 
Nations resistance in Korea, and who believed that 
firmness by the free world would deter another 
aggi-ession, would find their faith sadly shaken 
and their will weakened. 

I have heard it argued that some of these reasons 
are idealistic and by implication impractical and 
that from a realistic point of view it would be 
better to have Communist China in the United 
Nations where it could be dealt with face to face 
and exposed to the influence of world opinion. 
The further question is raised as to where the 
policy of nonrecognition will lead ; what practical 
goal can it hope to achieve ? In my opinion there 
is far more hope of Communist China's reassess- 
ing its foreign policies and abandoning its aggres- 
sive attitudes if subjected to the inflexible pressure 
of the united opinion of the free nations of the 
world than there would be if China were to be 
admitted to the United Nations without any con- 
crete evidence of a change in heart or a renuncia- 
tion of its present aggressive policies. 

For all of these reasons, the United States re- 
fuses to recognize the Chinese Communist regime 
and opposes its admission to the United Nations. 
It is, of course, for every country to determine its 
own policies, but for us the case is conclusive. 

As Disraeli said, "The secret of success is con- 
stancy of purpose." We believe that in Europe 
the strength and unity achieved by our common 
efforts in Nato in large part account for the 
change in Soviet tactics and for the easing of 
tensions we are now experiencing. In the Far 
East, likewise, we believe that the will and resolu- 
tion shown by the United Nations in Korea and 
the development of collective security arrange- 
ments largely account for the replacement of 
shooting wars by armistices, uneasy though they 
be. There would seem, therefore, no reason 
in common sense for abandoning the basic policies 
which have produced these benefits. 

Canada and the United States are joined not 
only by geography and as friendly neighbors. 
We are partners in great enterprises. We are 
discharging as best we can the enlarged responsi- 



Ju/y 9, 1956 



59 



bilities which we never sought but to which we 
have fallen heir. In the United Nations, in 
Nato, in Korea, and in many other places we are 
working together to achieve a common ideal. 
That ideal President Eisenhower described 3 
years ago as "the lifting, from the backs and from 
the hearts of men, of their burden of arms and of 
fears, so that they may find before them a golden 
age of freedom and of peace." By our work to- 
gether we can help make that great hope a reality. 



U.S. Policy Toward Japan 
and Okinawa 

Statement hyJohn M. Allison 
Ambassador to Japan ^ 

I have noted that as a result of recent press 
statements, particularly about the Price Subcom- 
mittee report,^ there have arisen misapprehensions 
concerning American intentions in Okinawa and 
Japan. I want to say emphatically that there has 
been no change in our basic policy either toward 
Okinawa or Japan. With regard to the Ryukyu 
Islands we have recognized Japan's residual sover- 
eignty and have no intention of seeking to acquire 
permanent possession of the islands. When we re- 
turned the Amami-Oshima Islands to Japan in 
1953, the Secretary of State said that the United 
States would "continue to exercise its present pow- 
ers and rights in the remaining Ryukyu Islands 
... so long as conditions of threat and tension exist 
in the Far East." No one can predict exactly how 
long these conditions will obtain, but it remains our 
considered estimate that they necessarily may last 
for some time. In the meantime, I am sure our 
friends everywhere realize that our presence on 
Okinawa is part of our contribution to that joint 
strength essential to the defense of freedom. 

With regard to the security treaty with Japan, 
it is important to remember the spirit in which it 
was drafted, wliich it expresses, and which con- 
tinues to animate the collaboration of our two 
countries. That treaty demonstrates the interest 
of both nations in the maintenance of international 
peace and security in the Far East. It also unites 



^Released to the press by the U.S. Embassy at Tokyo 
on .Tune 27. 

^ Report of a Special Subcommittee of the Aiined Serv- 
ices Committee, House of Representatives, FolJowi'ng an 
Inspection Tour, October H to 'November 23, 1955. 



them in maintaining the security of Japan itself, i 
toward which specific end Japan and America are 
partners and neither acts alone without consulting 
and considering the best interests of the other. 



U.S.-Pai<istan Discussions 

on Double Taxation Convention 

Prpss release 338 riatert June 20 

Technical discussions are scheduled to open at 
Washington on June 21 between officials of the 
Governments of Pakistan and the United States 
looking toward the conclusion of a convention 
between the two countries for the avoidance of 
double taxation with respect to taxes on income. 
If bases for agreement are found, drafts of the 
proposed agreement will be prepared and sub- 
mitted to the respective governments for con- 
sideration with a view to signing. It is antici- 
pated that the duration of the meetings will be 1 
week to 10 days. 

The delegation of Pakistan will be headed by 
Mahtabuddin Ahmed, Joint Secretary of the Pak- 
istan Finance Ministry and Member of the Paki- 
stan Central Board of Revenue. He will be 
supported by Zahiruddin Ahmed, Financial and 
Economic Counselor of the Embassy of Pakistan 
in Washington, and by Abdul Latif, Deputy Sec- 
retary of the Pakistan Finance Ministry and First 
Secretary of the Central Board of Revenue. 

The U.S. Government participants in the 
discussions will be under the direction of Dan 
Throop Smith, Special Assistant to the Secretary 
of the Treasury in charge of tax policy. 

These discussions provide one more indication 
of the community of interest between Pakistan 
and the United States, and both Governments 
hope that such a convention will encourage an 
increase of industrial and commercial relation- 
sliips between the two countries. 



Spencer Phenix Appointed 
to Mixed Board at Bonn 

The Department of State announced on June 27 
(press release 359) that Spencer Phenix is being 
appointed as the American member of the Mixed 
Board sitting at Bonn which deals with matters of 
clemency and parole for prisoners in German war- 
crimes cases. He will succeed former U.S. Senator 



60 



Department of State Bulletin 



Robert W. Upton of New Hampshire, who is re- 
signing as of June 30, 1956, for personal reasons. 
Senator Upton has returned to Washington to re- 
I)ort on the work of the Board during his incum- 
bency. 

During the last war Mr. Phenix undertook a 
number of special missions to Europe and the Near 
East for the U.S. Govermnent. After the war 
he served with the Office of Military Government 
in Germany in 1947-1948 and as a consultant to the 
Economic Cooperation Administration in 1948- 



1949. During this period he was also chief of the 
financial section of the Eca Special Mission at 
Athens, Greece. From 1950 to 1954 Mr. Phenix 
was financial vice president of the Free Europe 
Committee. 

The Mixed Board, which was established by in- 
ternational agreement, is composed of American, 
British, French, and German citizens. It is an 
independent body exercising a quasi- judicial func- 
tion, and its members are not subject to govern- 
mental instructions. 



The Meaning of Foreign Affairs to the Average American 



hy Eleanor Dulles 

Special Assistant to the Director, Office of German Affairs ■ 



Foreign relations have changed their character 
basically in recent years. In the matters that 
concern us most, national bomidaries have ceased 
to be important. We are engaged in a race with 
time in our dealings with two global forces. 

The nuclear developments are of such magni- 
tude that they tlireaten us all, irrespective of loca- 
tion or form of government. The changed nature 
of national aspiration has presented us with the 
problems of every area that is underdeveloped. 
These two developments are forces that increase 
the urgency of understanding and action to a 
degree that demands an enormous new effort. 

The Western centers of civilization have for 
centuries dominated most of the world by ideas. 
Now the very effectiveness of this leadership has 
produced conditions which threaten destruction if 
we cannot move forward with new vigor and 
wisdom. 

The nature of atomic potential and danger so 
obviously transcends the protections and the con- 
trols of any one country that the problem is evi- 
dent. Thus, we must focus our attention on the 
progi-ams for international cooperation in this 
field. No one can seriously question their im- 
portance. Time is moving rapidly. 

' Address made before the 33d convention of Zonta In- 
ternational at Sun Valley, Idaho, on June 28 (press re- 
lease 352 dated June 22). 

July 9, 1956 

390693 — 56 3 



There is new realization in many nations as to 
what are called newly developed areas, that they 
are finally free of the fear of mass starvation, and 
that infant mortality and many of the diseases 
of the past are under control. They must look 
to countries with high living standards who earlier 
gained this freedom for new rights and privileges 
which seem within their gi-asp. They will con- 
tinue to press for a larger material basis of living 
and for national independence where it is lack- 
ing — both tendencies which increase the necessity 
for a genuine international cooperation. 

We and the countries represented here are chal- 
lenged by the shortness of time and the speed of 
recent developments. We have one generally rec- 
ognized, dominating motive. We are determined 
to create a world in which nations can live with- 
out the threat of a war of extinction and in mate- 
rial and spiritual decency. The ideas which led 
to this acceleration of pace and brought us to- 
gether must again serve us in this tremendous 
task. 

The countries from which we come have had 
enormous talents of invention and administration. 
They have, through the expansion of constitu- 
tional government, the manifold developments of 
the industrial revolution, by amazing financial de- 
vices to permit the growth of commerce, brought 
this foreshortening of time and space. Their cul- 



61 



tural ideas have enriched the communications be- 
tween nations. 

Now with these same ideas — in which we must 
all share — we must press on at a new tempo and 
with a new willingness to accept the burdens and 
responsibilities of working together. 

In the last years, since these two forces have 
become increasingly evident, great things have 
been accomplished. Financial, cultural, military 
agreements, working arrangements, and organiza- 
tions have been developed. They have been un- 
precedented and successful. More is now de- 
manded of us, however. We must have a wider 
understanding and a greater tolerance. We must 
develop new tools for our mutual salvation. We 
must be ready to work and pay and continue the 
task which has been forced upon us. 

Elements of Strength 

The immediate question before us is to discern 
the elements of strength and try to increase them. 

The first of these lessons we have learned in re- 
cent years, as I see it, is that no nation can stand 
alone. Many have seen the handwriting on the 
wall and have shaped their national policy along 
lines of cooperation and mutual support. The 
North Atlantic Treaty countries are obvious 
illustrations. 

The second lesson in how to increase our strength 
is to realize that what we do locally in our own 
work and in our education and cultural activities 
makes a difference. This is a point of view that 
requires thought as to how our daily tasks conform 
to our accepted principles as a nation, whether we 
personally are in line with the policy of our nation 
among nations. This takes us into the matters 
of foreign economic and financial relations. It 
requires an extension of our professional and busi- 
ness activities beyond the local scene and calls for 
seeing our own lives in a world setting. 

It is hard for us to realize that what is done in 
our local communities affects our international 
position. 

Recently this connection has been made very 
close. Impressions regarding our civic standard, 
the maintenance of order, the pursuit of justice, 
and the development of education in its broadest 
sense are of incalculable importance. In all these 
things we play a daily part. Our lives mirrored 
by press and movies, reported by visitors, and find- 
ing expression as we deal with persons from other 



lands shape foreign policy. It is the essence of 
our democracy that this should be so. We cannot 
escape these facts. We have shaped our govern- 
ment and chosen our systems or national life along 
these lines. We as individuals are representatives 
of our nations. By our actions will the meaning of 
our national policy be judged. 

A third main lesson is that we must have an 
appreciation of the traditions and values of others 
that are not our own, in order to work with other 
nations. This task is long and hard but is one 
which can be carried out as we receive students 
and leaders from other countries, as we try to 
make wider contacts at home and in our travels, as 
we read and as we listen, as we discuss the prob- 
lems of the day. Such an appreciation of the 
problems of other nations will help determine the 
success or failure of our policy. 

The purpose of a meeting of the kind which you 
have assembled here, and of this particular session, 
is, I take it, to see whether, by examining some of 
tlie problems of foreign relations and discussing 
some of the issues in the cooperative economic 
and political efforts, we can increase our under- 
standing of the issues and extend the horizons 
of our thought. The very fact that we have come 
together here means that we have acknowledged 
a concern and a responsibility for such an under- 
standing. It also evidences the fact that the , 
elements which I have noted under these three I 
headings often perplex us and frequently appear 
to exceed our ability to make the decisions that 
affect us personally. 

Complexity of Foreign Affairs 

In the period when issues were fewer and the 
nature of the problems confined mainly to those 
affecting persons involved in foreign trade, for- 
eign finance, or foreign enterprise of one kind 
or another, we could limit our attention to sum- 
mary statements of broad national policies and 
exj>ect to be able to pursue our usual, normal ac- 
tivities witli little interruption. This situation 
may have prevailed some 50 years ago. 

The average person who reads one of the well- 
staffed dailies is confronted each day with ex- 
pressions of this fact. He has little personal 
knowledge or direct experience which help him 
meet the problem. He has an uneasy feeling that 
he may not be doing enough to protect himself, 
his children, and his nation. The variety of is- 



62 



Department of State Bulletin 



sues is so great tliat there is danger at times of a 
cynical conclusion that he must ignore the general 
field of activity because of its complexity. I be- 
lieve there is a middle ground between com- 
plete discouragement with regard to concern of 
the individual in foreign affairs, and a preoccupa- 
tion with details which most of us, even if pro- 
fessionally concerned, cannot fully master. 

As we review the press, we see that such matters 
as EtJEATOM, the agency to control atomic develop- 
ments, the General Agi-eement on Tariffs and 
Trade, the Nato buildup, oi^en-skies inspection, 
and the growing restlessness of colonial peoples 
are discussed in terms which make them of vital 
interest to us. With a little familiarity with 
these matters, it is likely that when some of the 
particular issues suddenly reach critical impor- 
tance we will be prepared to understand the crisis. 
Each of us has a sense of great urgency with re- 
spect to the necessity of protecting basic national 
interests and yet frequently a sense of bewilder- 
ment as to the kind of course which should be 
taken by the Government and its representatives. 

In times of war, the imminence of personal dan- 
ger and the importance of survival make obvious, 
without the explanation of an expert, that supreme 
efforts are required. Even such technical matters 
as the availability of strategic metals, matters of 
production and transport, as well as close coopera- 
tion in military action come to have a clear mean- 
ing. In times of peace, we must, for the most 
part, rely to a considerable extent on the political 
or economic leaders and on the press to help us 
form our judgments. 

It is essentially true, however, that many as- 
pects of foreign relations are by their very nature 
obscure. They are, perhaps, to be compared to 
the iceberg which is visible only as a small portion 
appears above the surface of the water. However 
visible and clear this mass appears, the part which 
is not seen is many times as large. 

The factors which make possible international 
understanding are to a considerable extent little 
known acts of friendship, the slow building of 
cooperative arrangements, and the thousands of 
unheralded consultations and preparations that 
lie behind our international organizations. 

Many of the details of this work may quite 
properly remain in the province of the specialist. 
This fact becomes the more striking when one notes 
that in the last 10 years 1,984 treaties and agree- 
ments have been concluded by this country with 



other countries. The amount of work behind these 
treaties in the countries affected is incalculable. 
Moreover, in the case of Germany alone, which 
attained its sovereignty on May 5, 1955, 10 agree- 
ments have already been signed. A picture of a 
long series of meetings could be given with respect 
to the Nato agreements, the Western European 
Union, the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade, and a host of others. 

To appreciate and value a motion picture, it is 
not necessary to be an expert on sound tracks. To 
make intelligent use of knowledge of municipal 
affairs, it is not necessary to be an expert on high- 
way maintenance, city powerplants, or municipal 
budgets. To mention the details that are in the 
province of the specialist is not to limit the area 
of our understanding. 

The impact of most of the treaties and other 
foreign problems on the individual becomes in- 
creasingly evident with time. It may come 
through the changes of price level, changes in 
national income, through specific requirements 
placed on the citizen with respect to national 
security, in a myriad of other ways. If one looks 
beyond these immediate relationships to the grave 
question of survival, one has to consider the entire 
complex of our defensive potential, the capacity 
of all friendly nations, and the extent of the dan- 
ger to our very national life. 

It is not always easy to appreciate the point of 
view of other nations. The difficulty is rarely one 
of language. I have rarely known of an instance 
when an important obstacle in international nego- 
tiations was created by a misunderstanding of 
words. The difference lies deep in the concepts of 
working and living. One illustration of the wide 
chasms of difference is found in a chapter in the 
Soviet encyclopedia of diplomatic training which 
is devoted to methods of deception. It is openly 
explained that the way to gain the advantage in a 
struggle for position is to instill false ideas in the 
minds of the representatives of another country. 
Such an approach is obviously based on a phil- 
osophy of power for the sake of dominating. This 
is an extreme case of an approach we in this coun- 
try find completely alien. 

The differences in concept are of the same nature 
as those which affect our daily lives, our family 
relationships, our types of education, sports, art, 
and religion. 

These differences stem from the time when our 
relations with the past were closer than our rela- 



Jo/y 9, 1956 



63 



tions with our neighbors isolated from us in space, 
which prevented free and full exchanges. Then 
the ideas and habits of our grandfathers were 
better known to us than those of men in other 
lands. The traditions that were handed down to 
us were not challenged by those of persons a thou- 
sand miles away. 

There was ample cause for misunderstanding 
what was distant and unfamiliar in a world such 
as I describe. Thus, when a few tourists went 
abroad, they were to experience shocking surprises. 
The dress, manners, and amusements of the trav- 
eler, though tolerated for the sake of the money 
they brought to the economy, aggravated the sense 
of difference and led frequently to hostility rather 
than friendship. 

The problem will continue to exist in modified 
form but is perhaps becoming less as our experi- 
ence prepares us for what we as travelers en- 
counter, and as a wider knowledge of America on 
the part of foreign visitors here helps to give a 
more generous interpretation of our ways and 
manners. 

Since we must cling to our own principles and 
traditions, we must consider carefully the extent 
to which these principles can be nourished and en- 
riched by the knowledge of wider concepts. It is 
in the light of these aspects of our policy that we 
can begin to approach other jieople with sympathy 
and understanding. Then a true warmth of ap- 
proach helps to combat the misunderstandings 
which are at times bound to occur. 

Situation in Germany 

Germany is a case which can be usefully ex- 
amined in connection with the three points made 
earlier. It is clear neither Germany nor the 
United States can live alone, but have a mutual de- 
pendence in this modern world. It is recognized 
that, through our soldiers in Germany and pris- 
oners of war here, local ways and customs have 
affected our relations. One can, I think, demon- 
strate that our ability to understand the German 
problem and the German people has been the basis 
for the success of our policy so far. Thus, the 
major reason why our relations with Germany 
have yielded such striking results has been be- 
cause we understood the nature of the need and 
what we had to work with. Anyone who has had 
even the remotest connection with war is aware 
of the im^Jortance of basic changes in Germany's 



relations with other countries to secure the peace, 'j 
There must be, history has shown, a strong, de- 
pendable linking of the interests and destinies of 
European countries if Europe and the rest of the 
world are to live in peace. The fact that the help 
of non-European countries has been required to 
accomplish the far-reaching reconstruction of po- 
litical and economic life was by 1945 fully evident. 
Without this reshaping of institutions and sys- 
tems, it would have been impossible for France 
and Germany to work together in the Coal and 
Steel Community, to assist each other in tlie Or- 
ganization for European Economic Cooperation 
and the European Payments Union. No agree- 
ment on the Saar could have been achieved. 

We can all recognize the new relations between 
France and Germany as one of the greatest single 
new elements in Western European strength. We 
have played an important part in bringing this 
about. We have done it because we have been 
convinced of its importance. There are other less 
obvious ways in which what has happened in Ger- 
many has reflected our desperate need for peace. 
Here it has become evident that the principles of 
democracy cannot be abandoned and that the free 
world must stand against further encroaclunent. 
The result has been a striking economic and po- 
litical revival. 

The situation in Germany has also provided con- 
vincing arguments for our stand in the struggle 
against communism. The flight of the refugees 
from the East and the story of Berlin have helped 
us to understand the day-to-day issues. Here the 
barriers raised by despots and the attempt of mil- 
lions to fly from the tyranny of communism have 
taken on a clear meaning for all of us. These 
people seeking escape from political slavery here 
proved by their acts the unacceptability of dicta- 
torship in a manner comprehensible to all of us and 
effectively influencing our cooperative efforts. 

There are thousands of refugees each week 
streaming into Berlin. They come quietly by day 
and by night. They come ostensibly to visit or to 
do business. They do not return to the East. You 
may ask what this means to us. It has been, and 
will probably continue to be, the sign of the spiri- 
tual difference between political freedom and the 
police state. 

These refugees, then, show us how right we have 
been to reach out with sympathy to those who 
have the spirit of resistance, to honor those who 



64 



Department of State Bulletin 



will not submit, to endeavor, where we can, to help 
them. They bring to us as individuals a warning 
of the sacrifice which is required to stand for 
human dignity. We can learn from them of the 
world they leave, in which families are set at odds, 
religion persecuted, education mechanized, and the 
social ways and habits reduced to a level of bare 
necessities. We recognize what it is to suffer not 
from physical but from spiritual starvation in a 
world of unrestrained materialism. In Germany, 
and particularly in Berlin, we all know of the 
East- West contrast; we can hear the personal 
stories of the meaning of their efforts to withstand 
the opjjression of the police state. 

Berlin, too, has brought a clear message. It is a 
place where our patience in support of the free 
world is being tested. It is also a place wliere the 
intentions of the Communists are revealed. In 
19J:8 their desire to force the Allies to the West 
and to bring the Iron Curtain down in the heart 
of Germany, in spite of Four Power agreements, 
was made evident by the blockade. They en- 
deavored to lure the Berliners with promises of 
food and fuel. The Soviets offered a kind of 
partnership. They evidently expected to find a 
gi'eater weakness than was in fact Berlin. ^^Hien, 
however, they were countered by the airlift, when 
the United States, the United Kingdom, and 
France showed no intention of withdrawing, they 
had to modify their plans. "When the Berliners 
showed their faith in the Allies by refusing to 
accept Soviet terms, the Soviets changed their 
tactics. Tliey ended the blockade. 

Here, as in Korea, with peril which was boldly 
met, we demonstrated that we could stand fast. 
The Communist world showed it could retreat. 

Berlin is an outpost and a watchtower. It is a 
demonstration of what the cooperation of nations 
can do in the face of unusual and insoluble prob- 
lems. The rapid economic recovery of Berlin is 
probably one of the most bewildering events for 
the Communist leaders. They have geography 
and armies on their side. The West, in this little 
island — less than 40 miles across and more than 
100 miles behind the Iron Curtain — ignores their 
strength and builds more firmly the democracy 
of free men. Berlin thus gives us not only inspira- 
tion but guidance as to how to hold and what are 
the values that can bind people of different tradi- 
tions and origins together in a solid working rela- 
tionship. 



Germany has been an area in which our knowl- 
edge of conditions has made possible the success- 
ful extension of various techniques of international 
cooperation thei'e and between many nations. In 
relief and reconstruction the work was jointly 
carried out. In the currency reform and the first 
rehabilitation of industry and trade, the three 
Western occupying powers developed the plans 
and accomplished the tasks together. 

I have used Germany and Berlin to illustrate 
the way in which need and familiarity have helped 
direct our energies and resources in a productive 
manner. Many of the German problems are fa- 
miliar to you and some of you have perhaps a 
working knowledge of them. The rise of Hitler, 
in the years between the wars, evidences to us the 
dangers of failure to understand and act on inter- 
national realities. It has been the most widely 
recognized illustration of the fact that destructive 
forces can quickly gain command if there is the 
widespread belief among the people that economic 
opportunity is shut off . 

We have seen that Germany was anxious for 
the accomplishment of European integration. 
Germany wished to liberalize trade and to work 
jointly with other nations for financial stability. 
Germany has shown a desire to plan for its share 
in the burdens of defending the peace. Germany 
has demonstrated its determination to withstand 
the fallacious offers of unreal freedom that may 
be proposed as the price for the return of the 
eastern provinces. Germany has, along with 
hard-pressed Berlin, withstood Communist pres- 
sures and has achieved a remarkable economic 
recovery. 

Aids to Understanding 

Wliat, then, are the general conclusions which 
we derive from a consideration of these illustra- 
tions and phases of foreign policy problems? 
Clearly they cannot be ignored. It is equally 
clear that few of us can be specialists in this field. 
We cannot have access to enough information or 
devote enough time to the information available 
to us to have a satisfactory understanding of the 
critical issues. If we compare our situation, how- 
ever, with that of persons like us some decades 
ago, we can recognize that we do scan a wider 
horizon. 

Of books, press, radio, and television coverage 
of international affairs we have both quantity and 



July 9, 7956 



65 



quality. The problem for each of us is how we 
use them. 

In our own approach to foreign affairs, there 
may be some useful devices which we can adopt. 
These can be a measure of selectivity in our read- 
ing, relating our main interest to the relations be- 
tween countries from which our families came, 
where we have traveled, where soldiers in our 
families have fought or been stationed. If, then, 
we have a clear view of a few problems, we can 
test out the validity of press and radio against 
this background. We can better judge the rea- 
sonableness of political direction. We can under- 
stand how much mutual support is possible in 
some one set of relations. We can become aware 
of the sensitivity of others in a situation for which 
we have developed a feeling. 

Basically, however, there is a continuum of 
problems. The questions of representation, of 
taxation, of standards of living and racial tol- 
erance are matters with which we are all concerned 
daily. Moreover, tJiese are matters which have 
affected the legal and constitutional foundations 
of each country. If we understand these main 
issues close to us, if we agree that these same ques- 
tions and fields of decision affect men everywhere, 
we have a solid ground on which to build further 
knowledge. It is this recognition of the urgency 
of the common problems between peoples and na- 
tions which drives us on to gi-eater effort. 

There is not now, and in fact there never has 
been, a secure place in which to hide from hate, 
aggression, and tyranny. There used to be myths 
about retiring to the hills, seeking peace in the 
South Sea Islands. Poets and novelists occasion- 
ally fed an anxious people with these illusions. 

Now, in a world of wide horizons and many lost 
causes, there is no mistaking the alternatives that 
face the civilized world. It is necessary that we 
work together or we will not be able to survive. 
We must hang together or very surely we will 
hang separately. It is this knowledge and this im- 
derstanding that is behind the unremitting efforts 
of those in all countries who are trying to support 
those basic aims and legitimate aspirations of 
free men in all countries. It is the urgency de- 
riving from this realization that has led to the 
increase of the exchanges of ideas, the new insti- 
tutional forms of cooperation, the new demands 
on your support as citizens, as voters, as profes- 
sional persons. 



It would be very restful if we could take a vaca- i 
tion from the problems which now confront us j 
daily. We have no respite, however. Our stand ' 
on local issues, our contributions through our work 
and our taxes, our education, our art and way of 
living are always known and always important 
to those in other lands who are looking to see where 
they can find friends with whom they can work 
for their own peace for the betterment of 
mankind. 

Although the way is long and the dangers are 
enormous, perhaps the essence of the problem is 
not, after all, so difficult to understand. In the 
human aspirations to which our countries are 
dedicated are the hopes and aims of mankind 
everywhere. We believe this, we work for this, 
we can thus feel a pride and responsibility in the 
part we can each play in this great enterprise. 



Austria Announces Aid 
to Former Persecutees 

Press release 361 dated June 28 

The board of trustees of the Austrian fund for 
aid to former persecutees, which was established 
by the Austrian Federal Law of January 18, 1956, 
has announced the procedure for filing applica- 
tions by former persecutees residing abroad. All 
persons who were persecuted in Austria during the 
period March 1933 to May 8, 1945, for political 
reasons, including racial origin, religion, or na- 
tionality but excluding National Socialist activi- 
ties, are eligible to file applications if : 

(1) they were Austrian citizens on March 13, 
1938, or had uninterrupted, permanent residence 
for at least 10 years in Austria prior to March 13, 
1938 ; 

(2) they have subsequently emigrated from 
Austria and are now living abroad ; and 

(3) they have not received payment under the 
Austrian Victims' Compensation Law, except for 
compensation for imprisonment. 

Application forms will be available at all Aus- 
trian consulates in the near future, and applicants 
are advised, in their own interest, to use these 
forms. Completed forms should be sent to HUfs- 
fonds (Aid Fund), Vienna 49, Post Office Box 
{Postfach) 138, and should reach the fund no 



66 



Department of State Bulletin 



later than June 10, 1957, as applications which are 
received after that date will not be considered. 

Additional information concerning the aid 
fund and the procedure for filing applications, as 
well as a list of Austrian consulates, may be ob- 
tained from the Department of State. 



Lebanon To Receive U.S. Aid 
To Improve Transportation 

The International Cooperation Administration 
on June 23 amioimced it will make available $3.67 
million to help Lebanon improve its public road 
and transportation system. This brings to over 
$7.76 million the total of U.S. mutual security aid 
for Lebanon during fiscal year 1956. 

Of the new funds, $3 million will be used to 
help the Lebanese Government finance the con- 
struction of a section of highway which runs from 
Beirut, Lebanon's capital, to Damascus, the capi- 
tal of Syria. The U.S. funds — matched by an 
equal contribution from the Lebanese Govern- 
ment to meet local currency costs — will help in 
constructing the new road through some of the 
roughest and most mountainous terrain in 
Lebanon. 

In addition to the $3 million in development as- 
sistance funds, $200,000 in teclmical cooperation 
funds will be used to finance a contract with an 
American firm to send technicians to Lebanon to 
advise on engineering and construction. The re- 
maining $470,000 will be used to help rehabilitate 
and improve safety conditions at Beirut Interna- 
tional Airport, largest in tlie area. Runways at 
the airport will be lengthened, permitting com- 
mercial jet-type aircraft to land. 

The U.S. funds will help to accelerate a major 
program of public roads construction undertaken 
by the Lebanese Government as part of a 5-year 
economic development plan. 

According to a report of Lebanon's Ministry of 
Public Works, "There is no doubt whatever that 
implementation of the program of roads . . . 
would give greater impetus to the economic de- 
velopment of the area and, by setting an example, 
provide the beginning of an improved regional 
network. The provision of the United States aid 
would give a further illustration of the form of 
free international cooperation to which our two 
democratic countries are devoted." 



World Bank Loan to Colombia 
for Highway improvement 

The World Bank on June 6 announced that it 
had on that day made a loan of $16.5 million to 
Colombia to complete a program to rehabilitate 
the principal highways. First begun in 1951, the 
program has since been considerably revised and 
expanded to keep pace with the extremely rapid 
growth of traffic on Colombian roads. It is the 
third such loan made by the bank to Colombia 
and brings the total of lending for Colombian 
highway improvements to $47.3 million. 

The benefits to Colombia of improvements in 
the highways are already becoming apparent. 
Prolonged traffic interruptions, due to torrents and 
landslides, have been virtually eliminated. Bet- 
ter alinement, more gradual gradients, increased 
width, and the paving of road surfaces have re- 
duced the time taken by road transport, in many 
cases from days to a few hours, and have lowered 
transportation costs. 

The original program to rehabilitate about 1,900 
miles of Colombia's principal highways was under- 
taken in 1951 to provide good road transport be- 
tween the larger cities and the principal ocean 
and river ports. Because the existing highways 
were in serious disrepair and improved roads were 
of pressing importance to the economy, work was 
concentrated at first on providing passable gravel 
roads, paved only on the more heavily traveled 
sections; the development of first-class highways 
was to be undertaken gradually over a longer 
period. 

The immediate rise in traffic accompanying the 
road improvements, however, soon made it appar- 
ent that gravel road could not meet even current 
needs. In 1953, therefore, at the time of the bank's 
second highway loan to Colombia, it was decided 
to increase the proportion of paved roads to 85 
percent, to acquire more earth-moving equipment, 
needed particularly to modify mountain gradients 
and curves, and to establish a comprehensive and 
continuing road-maintenance program. 

The increase in traffic continued to be unex- 
pectedly high. Between 1952 and 1955, for ex- 
ample, the volume of traffic has doubled on most 
of the roads and more than tripled near large 
cities. On the main highway crossing the central 
mountain range, daily trafiic has multiplied ten- 
fold, from 220 vehicles to more than 2,200. The 
registration of motor vehicles rose from 65,000 to 



July 9, J 956 



67 



140,000, with trucks and buses accounting for the 
greater part of the increase. As a result, further 
revisions became necessary in the standards to 
which the principal roads were being constructed. 
The new loan will finance the additional foreign- 
exchange costs of the equipment, materials, and 
services needed for the increased construction work 
required by the new standards. In addition, bank- 
financed equipment will be used to build a new 
40-mile road between Cienaga and Barranquilla 
on the Caribbean coast. 



Signing of Tax Convention 
With Honduras 

Press release 354 dated June 25 

Secretary Dulles and Carlos Izaguirre, Hon- 
duran Ambassador in Washington, signed a con- 
vention on June 25 between the United States and 
Honduras for the avoidance of double taxation 
and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect 
to taxes on income. 

The convention follows, in general, the pattern 
of income-tax conventions now in force between 
the United States and a number of other countries 
but is the first such convention to be concluded 
with any of the American Republics. It applies, 
so far as U.S. taxes are concerned, only to the 
Federal income taxes, including surtaxes. It does 
not apply to the imposition or collection of taxes 
by the several States, the District of Columbia, or 
the territories or possessions of the United States, 
although it contains a broad national-treatment 
provision similar to a provision customarily found 
in treaties of friendship, commerce and naviga- 
tion. 

It is provided in the convention that it shall 
become effective as of January 1 of the year in 
which the exchange of instruments of ratification 
takes place. It will be necessary to transmit the 
convention to the Senate for advice and consent to 
ratification. The text of the convention, with ac- 
companying commentaries regarding its provi- 
sions, will be available in printed form upon 
publication of the Senate Executive document. 



Defense Support for Spain 
Increased to $60 IVIiilion 

Tlie International Cooperation Administration 
on June 1 announced approval of a $10 million 
increase in defense support for Spain under the 
mutual security program for the current fiscal 
year. This increase brings the total of defense 
support for Spain to $60 million for the year 
ending June 30. 

The additional allotment is being made after 
appraisal by the American Embassy and the U.S. 
Operations Mission in Madrid of the damage 
caused to the Spanish economy by last Febru- 
ary's freezing weather. The loss of considerable 
citrus fruit and other crops which are normally 
exported meant foreign-exchange losses for Spain 
this year which were not anticipated. Because 
these foreign-exchange losses would have reduced 
Spain's ability to finance normal imports and 
thus interfered with the nation's industrial prog- 
ress, the new $10 million allotment will be used 
to finance the purchase of industrial raw mate- 
rials and capital equipment. 

Earlier this year the United States also made 
available to Sjiain some 40,000 tons of foodstuffs 
to relieve the immediate distress caused by the 
freezes. 

The mutual security program for Spain began 
in the fall of 1953, following the signing of three 
agreements under which the United States is de- 
veloping joint air and naval bases in Spain and 
is providing military and economic aid. The mili- 
tary facilities are of strategic importance to the 
defense of Western Europe and thus to the se- 
curity of the United States. In many cases, the 
United States is taking over substantial installa- 
tions developed by the Spanish Government. 

Assistance under the economic aid agreement 
has now totaled $230 million, including the new 
allotment. The program is intended to strengthen 
the economic basis for Spanish cooperation in the 
mutual defense programs. Major emphasis has 
been directed to railway rehabilitation and elec- 
tric-power generation and distribution. A large 
portion of the aid has been furnished in the form 
of U.S. agricultural commodities. 



68 



Department of State Bulletin 



The Economic World To Come 



iy Heriert V. Prochnow 

Deputy Under Secretary for Economic Affairs ^ 



All of us are interested in the shape of economic 
things to come. What tomorrow has in store for 
us is often a much more fascinating subject than 
yesterday's happenings. For obvious reasons, the 
businessman and the economist cannot escape this 
preoccupation with the economic shape of things 
to come. ^Vlien a businessman plans his future 
purchases of raw materials, his inventoi-y of 
finislied goods, or his anticipated sales, he projects 
his thinking ahead. Wlien he makes plans to con- 
struct new buildings and plant, or to modernize 
his present production facilities, he anticipates 
the probable course of his business for years to 
come. 

In the national economy there are projections 
ahead covering Federal revenues and expendi- 
tures. There are estimates also of such items as 
gross national product, construction, employment, 
growth of the labor force, and investment. 
Among some of the underdeveloped nations, espe- 
cially, there are projections of the anticipated 
economic trends for several years in advance. It 
is reasonable to assume that it would likewise be 
desirable to try to obtain some idea of the future 
world economy by projections ahead witTi the best 
statistical tools available. 

A book has recently been published in which the 
author states that the history of economic thought 
constitutes "a gigantic blind alley, against the 
end of which economists have been bashing 
their heads for decades." The author's apparent 
belief is that economists cannot predict. How- 
ever, notwithstanding all the risks involved, look- 
ing ahead is a necessity in business, industry, and 
in almost every segment of our economic life. 

^ Address made at tbe University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 
Nebr., on June 25 (press release 340 dated June 20). 

Ju/y 9, 7956 



In the Department of State, with the well-being 
of our people so closely related to that of the people 
of other countries, it is necessary not only to make 
short-run decisions but also at the same time to 
project economic policies for the longer range. 
In spite of the difficulties and uncertainties of 
economic forecasting, we must with all earnestness 
do our best to anticipate possible economic de- 
velopments over the world. The projections ad- 
mittedly will be faulty, but they may outline at 
least in bold relief the general magnitude of 
future problems and economic trends. 

So far as the United States is concerned, there 
has been a great amount of this kind of economic 
analysis here and throughout the world of the 
American economy. In many ways, our economic 
future is important not only to us but also to many 
other countries. 

Our economic development has been remark- 
able, greater than any people perhaps has a right 
to expect. Consider our gross national product, 
that is, the grand total of the goods and services 
produced annually in the United States. In 1940 
our gross national product was $206 billion — in 
terms of present-day prices. In 1948 it was 
nearly $300 billion. Today our gross national 
product has reached an annual rate of approxi- 
mately $400 billion. 

Future Development in United States 

And what of the future ? Wliat can we expect 
the output of our economy to be in 1965 ? Accord- 
ing to one projection, it should be above $500 
billion. The congressional Joint Committee on 
the Economic Report has said that our gross na- 
tional product could increase to $540 billion by 
1965, or almost $500 billion if computed "at factor 

69 



cost," which means, roughly, after deducting taxes 
and subsidies. Others have projected present-day 
trends even further — to 1975 — almost 20 years 
from now — and have predicted an outpouring of 
$670 billion of goods and services on this same 
basis. Incidentally, all these projections are in 
terms of today's prices; that is, they represent 
entirely actual increases in goods and services, 
not mere increases in monetary values. 

Some people may well wonder how, with our 
economy now operating at near capacity, it will 
be possible to reach such economic heights in such 
a comparatively short period of time. Let us take 
a moment to examine one or two factors operating 
today which make such an achievement possible. 

First, look at what is happening to the Ameri- 
can population. A big surprise of tlie postwar 
decade was the sharp growth in population. The 
birth rate was low in 1933, with 18.4 youngsters 
per 1,000 of population, but it rose to a new high 
of over 26 per 1,000 in 1947. Since then the rate 
has been 25 per 1,000. Not many years ago it was 
predicted that the American population would be- 
come static within a few years and even start to 
decline thereafter. It was this interpretation 
which underlay some of the comments about a 
mature or stagnation economy. Now it appears 
that our population in 1965 can be expected to 
reach about 190 million. Twenty years from now 
it should be in the neighborhood of 215 million. 
The impact of this increase on the growth of the 
economy is obvious. For example, in the field 
of housing construction, which has played so im- 
portant a part in our prosperity, the prospects 
are for demand and construction of 12 million 
new houses during the current decade. By 1960 
it is estimated that annual construction expendi- 
tures on housing may be more than $33 billion, or 
22 percent greater than in 1950. 

Second, although there may be limits to such 
resources as manpower and basic materials, there 
is no foreseeable exhaustion of technology. In a 
sense, this is our primary resource, because with- 
out it the usefulness of our other resources would 
be severely limited. Over the past century we 
have achieved a fabulous increase in output per 
man-hour by constantly devising new and better 
machinery and methods to augment human effort. 

Our technology has always been dynamic. To- 
day we produce more than three times as much 
per worker in a 40-hour week as our grandparents 
did working 70 hours. And, just to take a look 



into the longer future, at the rate we have been 
increasing our productivity over the past 100 
years, by the year 2050 we should be producing 
as much in one 7-hour day as we do now in a 
40-hour week. Actually, we have only just begun 
to exploit the technological developments of 
World War II — atomic energy is probably the 
most spectacular example. Technology can be ex- 
pected to continue to increase productivity — per 
man, per acre, per machine. | 

Actually, one of the most important predictions 
that can be made about the United States economy 
for the next 20 years turns upon one percentage 
point. Productivity, which has been increasing 
at an average of 2 percent a year for nearly a 
century, and at 3 percent since 1950, will probably 
continue to increase over the next quarter century 
by an annual average of 3 percent. Consider what 
this added percentage point actually means. If 
United States productivity rises at an average 
annual rate of 2 percent, production per man-hour 
will double in 35 years, increase to 4 times in 70 
years, and 8 times in 105 years. But if American 
productivity rises at an annual rate of 3 percent, 
production per man-hour will double in less than 
24 years, increase 4 times in 47 years, and 8 times 
in 71 years. The implications for growth of this 
additional percentage point are staggering indeed. 

Peaceful Revolution in Society 

One wishes he could be as certain that social in- 
vention and spiritual enlightenment would keep 
pace with our scientific progress and economic 
growth, that our individualism would grow more 
pronounced as our material standards advanced. 
These are crucial questions. In fact, a recent 
"speculative projection" made by the California 
Institute of Technology concluded that "brain 
power" was the only raw-material shortage fore- 
seen ! But in any case, the real significance of 
the unfolding of the American economic drama 
involves more than new gadgets and material 
things. It gives people more choices on what to 
do with their lives. It is a peaceful revolution in 
society. J. Frederic Dewhurst and Associates, in 
their book Ainerica's Needs and Resources: A 
New Survey^ express it as follows : 

In many ways those of us now passing middle age have 
within our lifetime experienced a greater advance in our 
material standard of living and a more pervasive change 
in our way of life than occurred in all the previous cen- 
turies of Western history. The mass of the people, it 



70 



Department of State Bulletin 



is important to emphasize, have been the chief bene- 
ficiaries of this great material progress. In every past 
:me and civilization only the favored few were able to 
enjoy a high standard of living, because they alone could 
idinmand the lavish personal service to make it pos- 
sible. . . . This democratization of our way of life . . . 
is the inevitable outcome of a progressive technology 
applied to production. 

The same book describes the American techno- 
logical marvels at which I have hinted. Going 
to press around the beginning of 1955, they sug- 
gested that the gross national product in 1960 
might be about $414 billion (at 1954 prices). In 
the light of what we know today, that looks like 
a rather low estimate; but in a footnote the au- 
thors explained that $414 billion was the "medimn 
projection" of tlieir survey, and they went on to 
say that the 1960 figure "might be as low as $350 
billion or as high as $490 billion" and added that 
"under wartime emergency conditions it could 
rise to nearly $600 billion." I mention this not to 
confuse the subject but in order to illustrate the 
hazards of trend-projecting and to guard against 
the sin of complacency. As stated so well in the 
recent Economic Report of the President: 

To meet the challenge of prosperity, we must above 
all things avoid complacency. The continuance of gen- 
eral prosperity cannot be taken for granted. In a high- 
level economy like ours, neither the threat of inflation nor 
the threat of recession can ever be very distant. 

Moreover, there will be serious problems of ad- 
justment as we go along, such as temporary im- 
balances (as in agriculture today), the increased 
savings needed for public and private investment, 
and the shortening of hours of work, so that we 
cannot assiuue that economic progress will dispose 
of all our problems. 

Worldwide Economic Growth 

"V^Hiat may we conclude about the economic fu- 
ture in the rest of tlie world? Wliat will be 
happening in Europe, in Asia, in South America, 
in Africa while we advance to new economic 
achievements ? Will they be standing still ? Ob- 
viously they will not. They, too, are on the move. 
In fact, it is possible that the United States, with 
all its coming growth, may even account for a 
slightly smaller share, relatively, of the world's 
pi-oduction in the 1960's and 1970's than it does 
now. 

Everywhere governments and peoples are 
anxious to achieve economic improvement. Some 
of them are inexperienced and face formidable 



obstacles, but they are determined to overcome 
them. There is a sense of economic urgency 
everywhere in the world. Technology, which, as 
I have indicated, is a primary resource without 
which all other resources would be economically 
less important, is crossing international bound- 
aries as never before. The earth of every conti- 
nent is capable of supporting factory-made 
houses; the food of every continent is capable of 
being frozen and put in modern packages; the 
air of every continent behaves the same to a jet 
plane or a helicopter rotor; and the ether of all 
continents permits the passage of electronic im- 
pulses. It is probable that no other country is 
heading for a $600 billion economy in the next 
20 years, but they are headed for more economic 
goods than they have now. 

Economic growth has gone furthest in America, 
but it is not exclusively an American affair. 
Long-term projections suggest the possibility that 
world population and world production will ex- 
perience unprecedented rates of growth during 
the next two decades. 

First, consider population. In 1950 the popula- 
tion of the world was about two and a half billion. 
It seems likely that the present figure is 200 mil- 
lion higher, or about 2 billion 700 million, though 
we do not know precisely how many people there 
are in some countries. 

World population is growing at the rate of more 
than 35 million a year, and by 1960 it should be 
approaching 2 billion 900 million. Five years 
later, in 1965, it may be up to 3 billion 100 
million. And 10 years after that, in 1975, it is 
quite possible that the human race will number 
as many as 3 billion 600 million, and that even 
the rate of growth will be greater at that time than 
it is now. 

I realize that these figures are higher than 
many earlier projections. For example, Frank 
W. Notestein projected a world population of 3 
billion 345 million for the year 2000 A. D. That 
is less than the figure I have just mentioned for 
1975. When the Woytinskys produced their mas- 
sive volume ^Yorld Pofulation and Production in 
1953, they thought Notestein's projection was too 
high and revised it downward a little. But 
trend-projecting is a dynamic, fast-changing busi- 
ness; and, barring a nuclear conflict that would 
wipe out whole segments of humanity in an in- 
stant, there are good reasons for thinking now that 
previous estimates have been on the low side. 



Ju/y 9, 1956 



71 



Now let us consider production. Here we find 
ourselves on much less certain ground. To men- 
tion but a few of the complicating factors — we are 
hampered by inadequate data on current produc- 
tion and labor input, the absence of clear-cut his- 
torical trends for many countries, and nmnerous 
technical and accounting problems in reducing 
available data to comparable statistics. Even in 
the face of these uncertainties, however, we can 
obtain some idea of the general economic shape 
of the world 20 years hence. 

Gross World Product in Trillions 

In 1950 the total output of goods and services 
in the world — the sum of all gross national prod- 
ucts, or, we may say, the gross world product — 
was perhaps in the neighborhood of $866 billion. 

At the present time it is probably well beyond 
$1 trillion, or one thousand billions, and is ex- 
panding rapidly. 

In 1960 it could be about 1 trillion 300 billion 
dollars. 

In 1965 tliis impressive statistic could reach 
about 1 trillion 600 billion dollars. 

And for 1975 over 2 trillion 186 billion dollars, 
almost three times the 1950 world production. 

All these figures are in terms of the purchasing 
power of the dollar in 1953. If tliis were written 
for a learned publication, I should have to supply 
a long list of footnotes. For example, even if we 
knew exactly what foreign production was going 
to be, the problems of translating it into figures 
comparable for all countries would still be stagger- 
ing. But you will have to imagine the footnotes, 
for I shall not bore you with them here. 

Let me pick out two significant facts about these 
projections : 

First, world output may very well expand in the 
next 20 years faster than it has in the past. 

One reason for thinking that this may occur 
relates to the underdeveloped countries. The de- 
termined efforts of many of those countries to 
speed up their economic gi'owth seem likely to 
achieve a considerable measure of success, in spite 
of vast and formidable difficulties which confront 
them. Some of the underdeveloped areas, for ex- 
ample, India and parts of Latin America, may 
even increase their production between now and 
1975 at a faster rate than the United States — 
though our lead in absolute terms can be expected 
to grow larger. 



An even more important reason why world pro- 
duction may expand more rapidly than in the past 
is that the industrial nations may well be more 
successful than hitherto in maintaining a high 
and stable level of total demand. If so, this should 
make the drag of any recessions on average rates 
of growth much less severe than in previous 
periods. 

A second significant fact about our projections 
is that world output is expected to rise a great deal 
faster than world population. 

According to the projections, population will 
rise about 50 percent between 1950 and 1975. And 
in the same period, production may be expected to 
rise 150 percent, or at a rate three times that of 
population growth. 

If tliis is correct, it will mean that the per-capita 
output of the world will rise significantly. Ac- 
cording to the projections it will rise more than 
75 percent in that 25-year period, that is, from 
about $341 per capita in 1950 to about $604 per 
capita in 1975. 

In terms of human well-being, in terms of food 
and clothing and housing and refrigerators and 
radio sets and improved health and education, the 
implications of these prospective developments 
are extremely encouraging. To show how far the 
world has to go, however, before it begins to ap- 
proach the level of living to which we are accus- 
tomed, we should note that, even if the world 
avei'age output on a per-capita basis does reach 
$604 in 1975, it will still be far below the present 
per-capita figure in the United States and Canada. 
This now is over $2,000, and by 1975 it may well be 
above $3,000. Furthermore the per-capita output 
in some underdeveloped countries may remain be- 
low $100 a year — even if it nearly doubles in the 
next 20 years. 

Thus we see ahead of us a different world; a 
world in which mechanization is no longer the 
exclusive possession of a few countries; a world 
in which the jiroduction of goods and services will 
far outstrip anything in our previous experience. 

Consequences for America 

What will this world economic growth mean to 
the United States? 

The impact of our own economic growth on the 
individual American in terms of his physical en- 
vironment and his daily manner of living probably 
needs no elaboration. But there are additional 



72 



Department of State Bulletin 



consequences for America which will result from 
the phenomenal economic growth of the world in 
general. Let me mention some of those conse- 
quences : 

More Americans will be traveling abroad on 
business or pleasure and traveling faster and more 
cheaply as the years go by. Other peoples, in turn, 
will visit us in larger numbers and get to know us 
better. Already it is easier and quicker to circle 
the earth and pay a leisurely visit to every country 
than it was for our ancestors to cross our own 
continent. 

World economic gi'owth will also bring Ameri- 
cans into closer touch with other countries through 
improved communications. 

Americans and other economically developing 
jteoples will discover more about what the earth 
and the space ax'ound it are really like. It takes 
considerable economic advancement, for example, 
to place a satellite tilled with measuring instru- 
ments in the sky. 

One very important accompaniment to world 
economic development may well be the opening 
of larger and more appealing opportunities for 
American citizens and American business concerns 
to carry their enterprise and their investments to 
foreign countries. Such investments, in turn, 
will contribute to faster development in the coun- 
tries where they are made. 

Then, too, economic growth may bring long- 
term strategic shifts of power centers in the world, 
since population and output do not everywhere 
expand at the same rate. That is a subject in 
itself, and I shall not try to discuss it today but 
only to comment that such shifts will probably 
lead Americans to realize, even more clearly than 
now, that we cannot work out our destiny alone. 
The need for sound international relations is not 
going to get any smaller in our lifetime. We can 
be fairly certain of that. 

One of the greatest consequences of world eco- 
nomic expansion is trade. 

As world output climbs into the trillions, our 
commerce with other countries will almost in- 
evitably flow in a volume so vast as to render small 
by comparison the international trade of the pres- 
ent. The streams of trade, in turn, will give 
added stimulus to our economic growth; in fact, 
without trade our projected growth might not 
take place. 

As regions develop economically, they become 



bigger markets. Their people can buy more goods 
and services. There will be competition for these 
markets, of course. There should be. But, when 
markets are expanding steadily, there is room for 
those who can produce the things that are in de- 
mand. We in the United States will be sending 
our products abroad in quantities much greater 
than those of today. 

As our own country passes the $400 billion and 
$500 billion brackets of national production, our 
demand for raw materials will expand accord- 
ingly. That demand will have to be met increas- 
ingly from overseas. We shall need an ever- 
larger volume of imports to satisfy the American 
consumer and to serve our industries. Already 
we rely heavily on foreign sources of supply, and 
this reliance will gi'ow as time goes on. We used 
to be a net exporter of petroleum and copper ; now 
we are a net importer. We used to dig all our own 
iron ore; now we import a considerable amount. 
We bring in bauxite, nickel, tin, manganese, 
uranium. As our population grows, we shall also 
need ever-larger quantities of consumer goods 
which we cannot produce, like coffee and bananas, 
and even of consumer goods which we can produce 
but which are not as advantageous to us to pro- 
duce as certain other products. 

The prospect of greatly increased world produc- 
tion will, of coui-se, bring new f)roblems as it 
eases old ones. It will not necessarily simplify 
our foreign relations — especially with the under- 
developed countries. Wliile their rate of gi-owth 
might exceed that of the United States, the abso- 
lute gap between us may widen. Tliis situation 
will call for all the diplomatic skill and public 
understanding that we can muster. Rightly or 
wrongly, peoples abroad frequently think in terms 
of "catching up" with Western standards of liv- 
ing — or at least of narrowing the gap that has 
so long existed between them and the West. Thus 
they are not likely to be pleased with a situation 
in which this may turn out to be extremely diffi- 
cult, and the problem of maintaining political 
and social stability under these circumstances will 
require great understanding. Wliile economic 
progress is a necessary ingredient to improving 
the welfare of free men everywhere, it alone by 
no means assures the continued existence of a free 
society. After all, material well-being is not an 
end in itself but the means to a better life in all 
its aspects. 



July 9, 1956 



73 



The economic world to come must be a world 
dedicated to impi-oving the welfare of free men 
everywhere. As men and women over the world 
achieve higher standards of living, not only they 
but the world will be better off. The chances of 
mankind to achieve the social and spiritual bless- 
ings of a free society will be increased to the 
extent that the economic well-being of individual 
men and women is improved. Now, for the first 
time in all history, hundreds of millions of people 
in all continents of the world are beginning to see 
that new and challenging economic opportunities 
may be opened to them which will raise their 
standards of living. 

This is the vision we inay see as we lift our eyes 
to the future. 



Modifications in Proclamation 
on Tariff Negotiations 

Press release 368 dated June 30 

The President on June 29 issued a proclamation 
modifying the proclamation of June 13, 1956,^ 
giving effect to the concessions negotiated on a re- 
ciprocal basis by the United States at the 1956 
tariff negotiations held at Geneva, Switzerland, by 
the Contracting Parties to the General Agreement 
on Tariff's and Trade. This proclamation makes 
two relatively minor modifications in the earlier 
proclamation. First, it avoids a reduction in the 
duty on unconcentrated citrus fruit juices which 
was inadvertently included in the language origi- 
nally proclaimed. Secondly, it corrects the lan- 
guage used to describe a reduction in the duty on 
buttons of textile material. 

These modifications of the June 13 proclama- 
tion become effective June 30, 1956. 

PROCLAMATION 3146' 

Whereas by Proclnmation 3140 of Juue 13, 1056 (21 
F. R. 4237), the President has proclaimed such modifica- 
tions of existing duties and other import restrictions of 
the United States, or such continuance of existing cus- 
toms or excise treatment of articles imported into the 
United States as were found to be required or appropri- 
ate to carry out the Sixth Protocol of Supplementary 
Concessions to the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade, including the schedule of United States conces- 
sions (H. Doc. 421, 84th Cong., 2d Session) ; 



' Bulletin of June 2.5, 1956, p. 1057. 
' 21 Fed Reg. 4995. 



Whehieas the description of products in item 806 (a) 
in Part I of Schedule XX annexed to the said Sixth Pro- 
tocol of Supplementary Concessions reads as follows : 

"Cherry juice, and other fruit juices and fruit sirups, not 
specially provided for, containing less than % of one 
per centum of alcohol (not including prune juice, 
prune sirup, or prune wine, and except pineapple 
juice or sirup and naranjilla (solanum quitoense 
lam) juice or sirup)"; 

Whereas the said item 806 (a) was not intended to 
cover citrus fruit juices, but such juices other than nar- 
anjilla juice inadvertently were not excepted from the 
description of products set forth in the said item 806 (a) ; 

Whereas that portion of the description of products 
in item 1510 [second] in Part I of the said Schedule XX 
which follows the last semicolon therein, was erroneously 
worded to provide for buttons "wholly or in chief value 
of textile material" instead of for buttons "wholly or in 
part of textile material" : 

Now, therefore, I, DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, Pres- 
ident of the United States of America, acting under and 
by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitu- 
tion and the Statutes, including .section 3.50 of the Tariff 
Act of 1930, as amended (48 Stat, (pt 1) &43, eh. 474, .57 
Stat. (pt. 1) 125, ch. 118, 59 Stat. (pt. 1) 410, ch. 269, 63 
Stat. (pt. 1) 698, ch. 585, 69 Stat. 165, ch. 169), do pro- 
claim, effective June 30, 1956 : 

(a) That the said Proclamation 3140 of June 13, 1956, 
is hereliy terminated, to the extent that it shall be ap- 
plied as though the description of products in item 806 
(a) in Part I of Schedule XX to the Sixth Protocol of 
Supplementary Concessions to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade were stated as follows: 

"Cherry juice, and other fruit juices and fruit sirups, 
not specially provided for, containing less than % of 
one per centum of alcoliol (not including prune juice, 
prune sirup, or prune wine, and except pineapirte 
juice or sirup, naranjilla (solanum quitoense lam) 
and other citrus fruit juices, and naranjilla sirup)". 

(b) Tliat item 1510 [second] in Part I of the said 
Schedule II shall be applied as though that portion of the 
description of products therein which follows the last 
semicolon read as follows : "or wholly or in part of tex- 
tile material." 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the seal of the United States of America to be 
atflxed. 

Done at the City of Washington this twenty-ninth day 

of June in the year of our Lord nineteen hun- 

[sEAi,] dred and fifty-six, and of the Independence of 

the United States of America the one hundred 

and eightieth. 

By the President 

Herbert Hoovee, Jr. 

Actiiw Secretary of State 



74 



Deparfmenf of Stafe Bulletin 



Publication of Schedule 

of Recent Tariff Concessions 

Press release 349 dated June 22 

The Department of State on June 22 released 
a publication describing in statutory language 
the tariff concessions recently made by the United 
States, under authority of the Trade Agreements 
Extension Act of 1955, in return for concessions 
on U.S. export items. In these recently con- 
cluded taritf negotiations held in Geneva, Switzer- 
land, under the auspices of the contracting parties 
to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 
the United States and each of the other 21 gov- 
ernments struck a mutually satisfactory balance 
of concessions on products which figure im- 
portantly in their two-way trade.^ 

Pursuant to the provisions of the Trade Agree- 
ments Act, as amended, most of the U.S. conces- 
sions will be made effective in three annual stages, 
the effective date for the first stage being June 30, 
1956. The publication shows the concession rates 
of duty which are to become effective for each 
item in each stage, for each item which was the 
subject of a concession, and the country with whom 
the concession was negotiated. 

The publication, entitled General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade, Schedule XX (Department of 
State publication 6362, Commercial Policy Series 
159), may be purchased for 60 cents from the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govermnent 
Printing OiHce, Washington 25, D.C. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

84th Congress, 2d Session 

Kelinquishment of Consular Jurisdiction in Morocco. 
Hearings before tlie Senate Committee on Foreign Re- 
lations on S. J. Res. 1G5, approving the relinquishment 
of the consular jurisdiction of the United States in 
Morocco. April 10 and May 15, 1956. 31 pp. 

Mutual Security Act of 1950. Hearings before the Senate 
Committee on Foreign Relations on the mutual security 
program for fiscal year 1957. April 13-May 31, 1956. 
1083 pp. 

To Abolish Forced Labor Through ILO. Hearings before 
the Subcommittee on Labor of the Senate Committee 



' For an announcement of June 7 on the results of the 
1956 tariff negotiations, together with the Presidential 
proclamation giving effect to the new concessions, see 
Bm-LETiN of June 25, 1956, p. 1054. 



on Labor and Public Welfare on S. J. Res. 117, to provide 
for United States cooperation ■wiih other nations 
through the International Labor Organization to abolish 
forced labor. April 25 and 27, 1956. 293 pp. 
Amendment.? to Refugee Relief Act of 1953. Hearing 
before the subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the 
Judiciary on S. 3570, S. 3571, S. 3572, S. 3573, S. 3574, 
and S. 3606, bills to amend the Refugee Relief Act of 
1953, so as to increase the number of orphan visas and 
raise the age ; extend the life of the act ; permit issu- 
ance of visas to persons afflicted with tuberculosis ; 
permit the giving of assurances by recognized voluntary 
agencies ; provide for the reallocation of visas, and 
change the conditions under which visas may be issued 
to refugees in the Far East. May 3, 1956. 106 pp. 
U.S. Passports : Denial and Review. Hearings before 
Subcommittee No. 1 of the House Committee on the 
Judiciary on H. R. 9991, a bill to amend the Adminis- 
trative Procedure Act and the Communist Control Act of 
1954 so as to provide for a passport review procedure 
and to prohibit the issuance of passports to persons 
under Communist discipline. May 10 and 28, 1956. 
32 pp. 
Fisheries Act of 1956. Report to accompany S. 3275. S. 

Kept. 2017, May 17, 1956. 7 pp. 
The Great Pretense. A Symposium on Anti-Stalinism and 
the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party. H. 
Rept. 2189, May 19, 1956. 173 pp. 
Departments of State and Justice, the Judiciary, and Re- 
lated Agencies Appropriation Bill, 1957. Report to ac- 
company H. R. 10721. S. Rept. 2034, May 21, 1956. 
15 pp. 
Laws Controlling Illicit Narcotics Traffic. Summary of 
Federal legislation, statutes. Executive orders, regula- 
tions, and agencies for control of the illicit narcotics 
traffic in the United States, Including international, 
State, and certain municipal regulations. S. Doc. 120, 
May 21, 1956. 98 pp. 
Alutual Security Act of 1956. Report of the House Com- 
mittee on Foreign Affairs on H.R. 11356, to amend fur- 
ther the Mutual Security Act of 1954, as amended, and 
for other purposes. H. Rept. 2213, May 25, 1956. 98 pp. 
International Geophysical Year. A special report pre- 
pared by the National Academy of Sciences for the 
Senate Committee on Appropriations. S^ Doc. 124, 
May 28, 1956. 27 pp. 
The Communist Conspiracy, Strategy and Tactics of 
World Communism, Part I, Communism Outside the 
United States : Foreword, General Introduction, Sec- 
tion A : Marxist Classics, H. Rept. 2240, 202 pp. ; Sec- 
tion B: The U.S.S.R., H. Rept. 2241, 528 pp.; Section 
C : The World Congresses of the Communist Interna- 
tional, H. Rept. 2242, 372 pp.; Section D: Communist 
Activities Around the World, H. Rept. 2243, 553 pp.; 
Section E. : The Comintern and the CPUSA, H. Rept. 

2244, 343 pp. May 29, 1956. 
Preventing Citizens of the United States of Questionable 
Loyalty to the United States Government from Accept- 
ing Any Office or Employment in or under the United 
Nations. Report to accompany S. 782. S. Rept. 2118, 
June 5, 1956. 10 pp. 
Amending the Japanese-American Evacuation Claims Act 
of 1948, To Expedite Final Determination of the Claims. 
Report to accompany H. R. 7763, S. Rept. 2132, June 5, 
1956. 9 pp. 
Greetings to the German Bundestag. Report to accom- 
pany S. Res. 263. S. Rept. 2134, June 5, 1956. 2 pp. 
United States Participation in the International Bureau 
for the Publication of Customs Tariffs. Report to 
accompany S. J. Res. 178. S. Rept. 2138, June 5, 1956. 
2 pp. 
Authorizing Participation by the United States in Par- 
liamentary Conferences of the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization. Report to accompany H. J. Res. 501. 
S. Rept. 2140, June 5, 1956. 4 pp. 



Ju/y 9, 1956 



75 



The United Nations Expanded Program of Technical Assistance 



Statement hy Francis O. Wilcox 

Assistant Secretai'y for International iganization Affairs ^ 



I appreciate very much the opportunity to ap- 
pear again before this subcommittee to discuss the 
United Nations Expanded Program of Teclinical 
Assistance. Since tliis is one of the most important 
action programs being carried out by international 
organizations, I believe that a fuller understand- 
ing of its operation may be lielpf ul to the members 
of the subcommittee in their study of the spe- 
cialized agencies of the United Nations. 

During tlie last 6 years, 78 countries have 
pledged over $142 million to tlie special account by 
which the Expanded Program is financed. This 
has made it possible to recruit experts from 77 
countries and to make use of the facilities of 105 
countries and territories to provide training in 
various forms. It may safely be said that never 
before have the resoiu'ces of so many countries 
been mobilized for a worldwide cooperative 
enterprise. 

Some 131 countries and territories have been 
helped. Since the inception of the program in 
1950, some 5,000 experts have served in capacities 
ranging from advice on a nari'ow teclmical prob- 
lem to assistance in the formulation of overall 
national economic and social plans. Over 10,000 
fellowships have been awarded for study abroad, 
ranging from on-tlie-job training in industrial 
enterprises to long-term study at advanced educa- 
tional institutions. Equipment and supplies 
amounting to about $10 million have been pro- 
vided as part of approved projects. Teclmical 
assistance projects may range from a single ex- 

^ Made on June 2.5 before the Subcommittee on Inter- 
national Organizations and Movements of the Foreign 
Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives. For 
a statement by ftlr. Wilcox on the U.N. specialized agencies, 
made before the same subcommittee on Feb. 20. see 
Bulletin of Mar. 19, 1956, p. 4S0. 



pert spending a few months in a country advising 
on the solution of specific technical problems in 
an individual enterprise, or a single fellow study- 
ing a particular manufacturing process or admin- 
istrative technique, to a large regional training 
center combining many forms of assistance OA'er 
a period of years. 

As one might expect, some dissatisfaction with 
the operation of the program has been expressed 
in the past 2 or 3 years. Proposals liave also been 
made which would radically alter its character. 
I know you share our desire that tlie international 
programs Ave support sliould be .soundly organized 
and efficiently managed. 

I would like first to discuss with you the histor- 
ical background of the present organizational 
arrangements ; second, explain liow these arrange- 
ments work in practice; and third, test against 
this background the specific criticisms and sug- 
gestions whicli have been made. 

First of all, I should like to say that we always 
welcome suggestions of a constructive nature in 
connection witl\ United States participation in 
international organizations. The active interest 
wliich nongovernmental groups are taking in these 
matters has been lielpful. Although we may 
sometimes not find it possible to accept entirely 
their viewpoint, we do appreciate the sincerity 
of their interest. Let me assure you that we will 
always give careful thought to all the suggestions 
we receive in this area. It must be recognized 
that our problems are complex, requiring an 
assessment of our national interests on the one 
hand, and the interests of some 75 other partici- 
pating governments on the other. Even when we 
are sure we know what we want to do, we cannot 
always have our way. 



76 



Department of State Bulletin 



Historical Background of the U.N. System 

111 considering the problem of how to oi'ganize 
an international technical assistance program, I 
believe we are all seeking the same goal — the cre- 
ation of the kind of machinery which will result 
in the most effective use of the total resources 
of the United Nations agencies in the economic 
and social fields. 

In any consideration of the U.N. Technical As- 
sistance Program, the historical background of 
the U.N. system itself is significant. As the sub- 
committee knows, the present United Nations sys- 
tem was not created overnight. The United Na- 
tions and the 10 specialized agencies have their 
roots deep in the past. The charter of the United 
Nations was developed in part out of the experi- 
ence of the League of Nations, the World Court, 
and other international institutions of previous 
decades. Several of the specialized agencies trace 
their origin to the 19th century and the early 
part of the 20th centui-y. For example, the Food 
and Agriculture Organization (Fao) developed 
from the International Institute of Agriculture, 
founded at Rome in 1905. The World Health Or- 
ganization (Who) grew out of the International 
Office of Public Health, established at Paris in 
1909. Later, in 1919, came the International 
Labor Organization. Only four of the present 
specialized agencies were created during or after 
World War II : the International Civil Aviation 
Organization, tljp International Bank, the Inter- 
national Monetary Fund, and the United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organiza- 
tion (UNESCO). 

At the San Francisco Conference in 1945, the 
problem of what to do with this complex net- 
work of international agencies, old and new, was 
given special attention. There were two extreme 
schools of thought. One school argued in favor 
of complete centralization in order to assure max- 
imum coordination. This school of thought main- 
tained that if all activities — political, security, eco- 
nomic, social, and the rest — could be placed under 
one roof, there would be relatively little waste 
of money and manpower. It favored a single 
institution which, like a national government, 
would consist of a number of functional depart- 
ments and be financed from a single budget. 

The otlier school of thought argued in favor of 
decentralization, maintaining that the United Na- 
tions should be limited primarily to political and 



security matters and that the specialized agencies, 
as completely autonomous bodies, should deal with 
all other activities. They contended that no single 
institution could cope effectively with the whole 
range of international problems and that, in any 
case, the success of nonpolitical activities should 
not be jeopardized by linking them with contro- 
versial political issues. 

The issue of a centralized international struc- 
ture versus a decentralized structure was settled in 
1945. The principle of decentralization, with a 
recognition of the necessity for adequate coordina- 
tion, won out. Each organization has its own con- 
stitution, its own secretariat, its own rules of pro- 
cedure, its own membership, and its own budget. 
All these organizations, however, are bound to- 
gether in a common effort by agreements between 
the United Nations and each agency, as well as 
interagency agreements. The United Nations 
General Assembly reviews and makes recommen- 
dations on the administrative budgets of the spe- 
cialized agencies. The Economic and Social Coun- 
cil coordinates their programs. In the past 10 
years the Council has accomplished much in recom- 
mending priorities of programs, in urging a con- 
centration of effort, and in eliminating duplication 
among the various agencies. Moreover, the heads 
of the specialized agencies meet together regularly 
in tlie Administrative Committee on Coordination, 
which is under the chairmanship of the U.N. 
Secretary-General. Here they discuss common 
problems, plan joint programs, and strive to pre- 
vent and eliminate overlapping and wasted effort. 

Establishment of the Expanded Technical Assistance 
Program 

After the decentralized system was in operation, 
the question arose in 1949 as to how to organize 
an enlarged program for the provision of technical 
assistance to underdeveloped countries. Again, 
the question was whether a single new agency 
should be established or whether already existing 
decentralized machinery should be used. There 
were strong proponents for both approaches. 

A second problem was whether to establish a 
separate technical assistance budget for each 
agency or to establish one central fund from which 
money could be allocated to each of the agencies. 
Still a third problem was whether contributions 
to the technical assistance program should be vol- 
untary or whether the cost should be assessed 
against the member states. 



July 9, 1956 



77 



The conclusion reached by the Economic and 
Social Council, as set forth in its resolution of 
August 1949 establishing the Expanded Technical 
Assistance Program,^ was that the facilities of the 
technical agencies already functioning should be 
used and adequate machinery for coordinating 
their efforts provided. 

The Ecosoc resolution stated that the program 
was to be financed by voluntary contributions from 
governments to a special fund to be set up by the 
U.N. Secretary-General. The major part of the 
allocations from tlie fund to the various partici- 
pating agencies was to be made according to a scale 
of pi'edetermined percentages. 

The resolution established the Technical Assist- 
ance Committee (Tag), a standing intergovern- 
mental body made up of the 18 governments who 
are members of the Ecosoc. This committee gives 
general supervision to the progi*am. It examines 
each year's program presented to it by the Tech- 
nical Assistance Board and reports to the Council 
concerning it, making such recommendations as 
it may deem necessary. 

The resolution also established a Technical As- 
sistance Board (Tab), composed of the executive 
heads of the participating agencies, or their repre- 
sentatives, under the chairmanship of the U.N. 
Secretary-General. This board was directed to 
coordinate the program, to examine program pro- 
posals made by each of the agencies, and to make 
recommendations on these proposals and the over- 
all program to the Ecosoc through the Technical 
Assistance Committee. 

This was the initial machinery through which 
the Technical Assistance Program was to operate. 
The first 2 j'ears' experience demonstrated the 
necessity for more effective coordination of agency 
activities. 

Consequently, in 1952 Ecosoc recommended 
that the Secretary-General, after consultation 
witli the participating agencies, appoint a full- 
time executive chairman of the Technical Assist- 
ance Board. ^ It was his duty to examine pro- 
gram proposals submitted by the participating 
organizations, in order to facilitate the develop- 
ment of integrated country progi-ams. He was to 
make recommendations to the Technical Assist- 
ance Board with i-espect to program proposals, 
including the earmarking or allocation of funds. 



Projects were approved by the board, in agree- 
ment with the chairman. 

A further change in machinery for operation of 
the Expanded Program was approved in 1954 by 
Ecosoc and the General Assembly, to give added 
recognition to the principle that programs should 
be more responsive to the needs and desires of 
the underdeveloped countries. Under this resolu- 
tion,' there were two major changes : 

1. Funds are no longer allocated automatically 
to the participating organizations on the basis of 
the percentage formula established in 1949; they 
are distribvited among the agencies on the basis of 
programs requested by miderdeveloped countries 
and the priorities placed on them by the requesting 
governments. Subject to the total availability of 
funds, the agencies were protected in the resolu- 
tion from a decline of more than 15 percent in 
their progi'ams from year to year. 

2. The Technical Assistance Committee, which 
had previously reviewed the pi-ogram and made 
such recommendations as it deemed necessary, 
was now directed to review the overall program 
in the light of its importance for economic devel- 
opment, and to approve it. Subject to the con- 
firmation of the General Assembly, the Technical 
Assistance Committee also was directed to author- 
ize the allocation of funds among the agencies. 

Tlie dissatisfaction expressed about the program 
appeal's to center around these last two changes, 
approved in 1954. This dissatisfaction has led 
to the submission of a draft jonit resolution to 
this subcommittee by three of the national fami 
groups. 

Operation of the Technical Assistance Program 

Before turning to these criticisms, I would like 
to describe briefly the four basic steps in the 
development of teclinical assistance projects. 

1. Each spring, the Technical Assistance Board, 
which, as I have mentioned, is made up of repre- 
sentatives of all the participating agencies, sets 
target figures covering pi'ograms in all fields for 
each counti-y. These target figures show the 
amount of expenditure for technical assistance 
which it may be possible to make for all purposes 
during the ensuing year. They are based on Tab's 
estimate of the total funds wliich may be contrib- 



= ECOSOC Resolution 222. 
'ECOSOC Resolution -433. 



' General Assembly Resolution 831 ; Bulletin of Dec. 27, 
ia,j4, p. 1006. 



78 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



uted for the next year and distributed among 
countries on the basis of sucli factors as need, 
projects already in operation, and the availability 
of aid from other sources. For example, country 
X is given a target of $500,000 for 1957, divided 
into subtotals among agriculture, health, educa- 
tion, etc. At the same time, it is given a list 
of the 1957 costs of jDrojects currently in opera- 
tion, if these are continuing projects. The min- 
istries of health, of agriculture, of education, etc., 
examine their needs in the light of assistance 
which will be available and develop their requests 
for projects. 

It is my view, Mr. Chairman, that this self- 
examination by the underdeveloped countries, this 
conscious weighing of the total needs of the 
country, is one of the most important consequences 
of this new approach. Clearly, it is essential 
for a country to understand its own problems and 
its own needs before it can hope to make real 
jn-ogress. 

;2. Within the target figures, country X then 
l)r()ceeds to draw up its program requests for the 
lu'xt year in consultation with the Technical As- 
sistance Board resident representative and repre- 
sentatives of the participating organizations. The 
role of the Technical Assistance Board resident 
representative is to provide leadership in coordi- 
nation among the participating organizations. He 
does not have line authority over representatives 
of the specialized agencies. Nor does he interfere 
in technical negotiations between specialized 
agency representatives and ministries of recipient 
governments. Each of the specialized agencies 
participates as an equal in preparing recommended 
programs of technical assistance to be financed 
from the central fund. The governing bodies of 
the specialized agencies regularly review the tech- 
nical aspects of the program and provide their 
Directors General with policy guidance. 

3. The i^roposed program for country X is then 
forwarded to the Technical Assistance Board. 
The board combines this request together with 
the requests submitted by other countries into 
a total program for the following year. As I 
have stated, the board, in drawing up the program, 
insures that each participating organization is al- 
located at least 85 percent of the amount allo- 
cated to it under the current year's program, pro- 
vided that funds are available. It should be re- 
membered that the Teclmical Assistance Board is 



made up of agency representatives and not gov- 
ernment representatives. 

4. Tlie total program, with the board's recom- 
mendations, is reviewed and approved by the Tech- 
nical Assistance Committee. The Tag review of 
the program does not deal with country alloca- 
tions or with the technical aspects of the program, 
or with individual projects. It is concerned 
rather with the overall program and with inter- 
agency relationships. After Tag approves the 
program, it authorizes the allocation of funds to 
each of the participating organizations. This ac- 
tion is subject to confirmation by the General 
Assembly. 

After funds are allocated to the individual spe- 
cialized agencies for approved technical assistance 
projects, they are under the control of the agencies 
for expenditure. Each agency plans the details 
of its own projects, recruits its own experts, and 
is fully resijonsible for the operation of each of its 
projects. The technical assistance program of 
each agency is subject to the review and policy 
direction of the governing bodies of the agency 
in the same way as the activities financed from the 
assessed budget. The primary difference is that 
the agency governing body does not determine 
the total funds which will be available for the 
program. This is dependent primarily on the 
total of the voluntary contributions from govern- 
ments and secondly on the program as developed 
by the agencies in Tab and approved by Tag. 

Criticisms of the Program: Its Structure 

I would like now to discuss the specific criti- 
cisms which have been advanced in certain quar- 
ters, primarily by some of the farm organizations. 
These criticisms fall into two major categories. 
First is dissatisfaction with the structure and ad- 
ministration of the program. The second relates 
to the method by which the program is financed. 

The Danger of Centralization.. The fear has 
been expressed that the operation of the Expanded 
Program will result in bringing the activities of 
the specialized agencies under the political in- 
fluence and control of the General Assembly. The 
spokesman for the National Grange, in testifying 
before this subcommittee, stated that he felt that 
Fao "has been prostituting itself by taking large 
sums of money from the political organization, 
U.N., along with the controls and supervision of 



Ju/y 9, 1956 



79 



its technical programs, which the political U.N. 
is not qualified to give." 

I have explained earlier how technical assistance 
projects are developed and put into operation. 
The most important single element in this process 
is the recipient country — what it wants and what 
it needs for its economic development. Against 
this must be weighed the resources available to 
meet those needs. The job of stretching resources 
to fill the most urgent needs of underdeveloped 
countries is one which involves the whole inter- 
national machinery — the field stafi's of the spe- 
cialized agencies, the resident representatives, the 
specialized agency headquarters, their represent- 
atives in the Technical Assistance Board, and 
finally the govermnental rej)resentatives in the 
Technical Assistance Committee. I have exam- 
ined the record carefully and, on the basis of the 
operation of the program to date, I sincerely be- 
lieve the fears expressed by the farm groups are 
completely unfounded. 

Political problems are certainly uppermost on 
the agenda of the Security Council, and political 
pressures do influence many of the actions of the 
U.N. General Assembly. But I do believe it is 
completely unrealistic to say that, because the final 
approval of the Technical Assistance Program 
rests with the General Assembly, the technical 
judgments of the agencies will be overridden by 
political considerations. In the final analysis, 
whenever two or more governments meet, political 
considerations are involved. I question seriously 
whether there is any less politics in the debates 
of the specialized agencies themselves than in the 
General Assembly debates on technical matters. 

The secretariats and governing bodies of the 
specialized agencies are responsible for the sound- 
ness of each project which they midertake. Each 
agency recruits its own experts, purchases its own 
supplies and equipment, disburses the money it 
has received from the central fund, and is respon- 
sible for the success or failure of each of its own 
projects. The role of Tag and the General As- 
sembly in the final approval of the total Technical 
Assistance Program in no way detracts from the 
responsibility of the governing bodies of each of 
the specialized agencies for the projects in the 
agency's field of competence. I am a firm be- 
liever in the work of the specialized agencies. If 
I felt that the political influence of the General 
Assembly were in any way undermining their val- 



uable work, I would be among the first to advocate 
appropriate changes. 

As I have pointed out, there are a number of 
alternatives in organizing this program or any 
other international program. There are, of 
course, those who would like to see centralization 
of the program in one agency. There are others 
who would like to see complete decentralization 
among the specialized agencies with machinery to 
provide only essential minimum coordination. 
There are still others, and in this group I include 
the Department of State, who believe that the 
present machinery, although not perfect, offers a 
reasonable means for pooling the limited re- 
sources available in order to get the maximum 
amount of technical assistance from the funds 
contributed. If programing at the country level 
is important — and we believe that it is — then 
something more than a series of isolated, unre- 
lated technical assistance projects is necessary. 
The "something more" is a fitting together of 
projects into the total plan of the country, for its 
development. This job under present arrange- 
ments is the responsibility of the agencies operat- 
ing through the Tab. 

On this point, the subcommittee may be inter- 
ested to note the comments of the report of the 
Senate Subcommittee on Technical Assistance 
Programs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, 
as follows : 

Administration of the United Nations technical assist- 
ance program is tending toward centralization in the 
Technical Assistance Board, a group composed of repre- 
sentatives of the U.N. itself and of all the specialized 
agencies which participate in technical assistance. This 
trend has had a salutary effect In administration of the 
U.N. program, and the subcommittee recommends that 
United States representatives in tlie various U.N. agencies 
concerned support further moves in this direction. In 
particular, the subcommittee believes that the authority 
of the U.N. resident representatives in countries receiv- 
ing technical assistance should be strengthened. This 
would improve coordination among the specialized agen- 
cies and also between the U.N. and the United States pro- 
grams. It could also be expected to make for a more well- 
rounded and a better balanced technical assistance effort. 

Along this same line. Senator Green in his report 
on a study mission on technical assistance in the 
Far East, South Asia, and Middle East commented 
as follows: 

The trip afforded an opportunity to talk to many U.N. 
technical assistance oflBcials in various countries. They 
uniformly showed a firm grasp of the problems they face 



80 



DepaMment of State Bulletin 



and exhibited an exceptionally high level of competence. 

The trip left the general impression that the U.N. techni- 
1 al assistance program produces more per dollar exx)ended 
tlian does the bilateral program of the United States. 
'I'he explanation may be that the U.N. has less money 
and selects both its projects and its i)ersonnel more 
carefully. 

The U.N. program could be further improved, however, 
by a greater degree of centralization in its administration. 
Ctonsiderable progress has been made in this direction 
with more widespread use of resident representatives 
and with greater autliority centered in tlie U.N. Technical 
Assistance Board to allocate funds among the various 
specialized agencies. This trend seems to be continuing, 
with the result that the U.N. program is becoming less 
dispersed and is being administered a good deal more 
efficiently. It could probably be improved even more If 
the Technical Assistance Board's resident representatives 
were given authority over the technicians of the special- 
ized agencies more nearly comparable to that of an 
American mission chief over United States technicians. 

The U.N. program deserves continued strong support, 
financial and otherwise, from the United States. 

These views wliich have been reflected in the 
reports of various congi'essional committees obvi- 
ously deserve careful consideration. Certainly 
those who advocate further decentralization would 
do well to consider their merits and the sources 
from which they come. We in the executive 
branch are doing our utmost to see that the present 
machinery operates with a maximum of efficiency, 
so that these legitimate demands for coordination 
are met without in any way jeopardizing the au- 
tonomy or the efficiency of the specialized agencies. 

Relationship of Specialized Agencies arul the 
Expanded Program. It has been argued that un- 
der the present organization of the Expanded 
Program of Technical Assistance each specialized 
agency must go through the wasteful process of 
operating under two budgets, two sets of admin- 
istrative rules, two sets of governing bodies, two 
sets of books, and two sets of employees and that 
the expanded program is a separate entity super- 
imposed on the regular activities of the agency. 
Some of the agencies, notably the Fad, have been 
slow to integrate Etap into their regular activities, 
although there is no basic reason why this should 
have been so. In fact, the original resolution 
establishing Etap specifically provided that "the 
work undertaken by the participating organiza- 
tions under the expanded technical assistance pro- 
gram should be such as to be suitable for integra- 
tion with their normal work." 

Some of the agencies from the beginning have 
carried on their technical assistance projects and 



their regular activities side by side, using the same 
headquarters staff to backstop both programs. 
The Expanded Program has obviously required 
enlargement of administrative personnel and head- 
quarters program personnel to plan and carry out 
the extensive field operations which were not a 
normal part of the operation of some of the agen- 
cies. It has not, however, been necessary for agen- 
cies to establish two sets of books. Any organiza- 
tion must be able to account for the funds it uses 
regardless of the source. Moreover, so far as I 
am aware, the specialized agencies have been able 
to use the same accounting staff (augmented wher- 
ever necessary) , the same accounting procedures, 
and the same auditing procedures which they use 
for the regular budgets. 

While the operation of the Expanded Program 
has obviously caused some administrative stress 
and strain because of the considerable expansion 
in specialized agency activities, we feel that by 
and large the agencies have been able to assimilate 
the Expanded Program in an effective way. "Wltile 
there are obviously additional changes which can 
be made in the future to simplify the operation, 
we do not believe that there is anything basically 
unworkable about the present setup. Just this 
year, Fag is taking active steps to amalgamate 
the operation of its regular and its expanded 
activities, and we are hopeful that some of the 
difficulties it has encountered in the past will now 
be alleviated. 

Criticisms of tlie Program: Basis of Financing 

The question of the basis of financing teclmical 
assistance activities is an extremely difficult one 
and is one to which we have given very serious 
consideration. Likewise, the question of the pro- 
portion of the U.S. contribution to the Technical 
Assistance Program is a difficult one, of which we 
are constantly aware. 

Financing hy Voluntary Means or hij Assess- 
ment. It has been suggested in some quarters 
that the advantages of voluntary contributions 
are outweighed by the disadvantages and that 
technical assistance activities should be financed 
through assessments against the member states. 
Assessments are levies voted by the General Assem- 
bly or General Conference of each agency to sup- 
port its regular activities. The members are 
committed by their ratification of the constitution 
of the organization to pay the amount assessed. 



Jo/y 9, 1956 



81 



The primary disadvantage of voluntary financing 
is that contributions are on a year-to-year basis. 
Governments may or may not contribute as they 
see fit. This creates some clifRculty in long-range 
program planning, since the agencies have no as- 
surance of funds beyond those currently pledged. 

Plowever, there is some assurance of program 
stability, through a Working Capital and Reserve 
Fund which has been built up and now totals $12 
million. The record of pledges, which have in- 
creased steadily from year to year, and the excel- 
lent record of collections also give the program a 
certain degree of stability. In fact, the agencies 
increasingly can plan long-range projects with 
reasonable assurance that those projects can be 
carried to completion. 

There are currently five comparable programs 
being financed through voluntary contributions 
from governments: United Nations Expanded 
Program of Technical Assistance, United Nations 
Children's Fund, United Nations Relief and 
Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near 
East, United Nations Korean Reconstruction 
Agency, and the United Nations Refugee Fund. 

You will recall that, at the time the scale of as- 
sessment for the United Nations was beintr nego- 
tiated in 1946, the late Senator Vandenberg drew 
a distinction between the administrative budgets 
of the U.N. and operational programs such as the 
International Refugee Organization. We believe 
there is still a valid distinction between basic ad- 
ministrative budgets and operational programs 
and that tliere is a legitimate place for both as- 
sessed financing and voluntary contributions. 
An analogy which comes to mind is the payment 
of taxes by an individual to cover the cost of cer- 
tain basic services which he expects from his local 
government as contrasted with the voluntary con- 
tributions lie makes to the Community Cliest and 
his churcli to perform other services which he 
feels are necessary but are not tax-supported. 

We see no fundamental objection to the volun- 
tary financing of a program such as teclmical as- 
sistance. The support of governments is gen- 
erally enthusiastic and has been increasing stead- 
ily. Our share of the progi-am has been 
gradually reduced from 60 i)ercent to 50 percent. 
As the support of other governments continues to 
increase, we would hope to be able to reduce our 
percentage further, so long as this can be done 
without jeopardizing the size of the fund. If the 



technical assistance contributions now provided 
voluntarily were assessed against governments, I 
question seriously whetlier many countries would i 
be willing and able to assume the burden on a con- 
tinuijig basis. It is my conviction that putting 
the program on an assessed basis at the present 
time would reduce sharply the total amount of 
funds available for technical assistance. 

AVe certainly do not want to risk increasing the 
assessed cost of international organization activi- 
ties to the point where the system of international 
agencies might become too onerous a financial 
burden for some of the members. 

As Senator Vandenberg stated in 1946 : 

I .should consider it fatal to our aspirations if the 
United Nations should permit its aspirations to so far out- 
run its resources that any peace-loving nation would ever 
find it financially impossible to maintain its membership 
... or that it should ever lose its vote because of un- 
avoidable arrears. This must never become a so-called 
"rich man's club" ; it must always remain the "town 
meeting of the world." 

Governments by and large are reluctant to sub- 
scribe to a permanent increase in their financial 
commitments, although they may be quite willing 
to increase the amount they contribute voluntarily 
to international activities. Voluntary financing 
permits governments greater flexibility with re- 
spect to participation in certain programs from 
year to year. I fear that, if contributions for 
technical assistance were assessed, there would be 
a considerable reduction in the funds made avail- 
able for this purpose. 

In short, we are convinced that voluntary 
financing of some international programs is sound 
policj'. We see no reason why we should not con- 
tinue to support both assessed and voluntaiy 
programs. 

Convertibility of Contributions. Contributions 
to the Expanded Program may be made in local 
currencies and in goods and services, as well as 
in hard currencies. It has been suggested that 
all contributions should be made in convertible 
hard currencies. We would agree that this would 
be highly desirable. However, the question is 
really one of usability rather than convertibility 
and is actually a problem in the case of only a 
few of tlie contributions to the Expanded Program. 
The fact that contributions can be made in local 
currencies is one of the features that appeals to 
many contributing governments. For the most 
part, the participating organizations have been 



82 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



able to utilize inconvei'tible contributions with rel- 
atively little difficulty through hiring experts, pur- 
chasing equipment, and arranging training facil- 
ities which can be paid for in inconvertible 
currency. The prime problem has been in the 
utilization of Russian rubles, which has presented 
and still presents considerable difficulty. 

As for contributions in goods and services, a 
few contributions, notably those of Brazil and Den- 
mark, are contributions partly in educational serv- 
ices. Such contributions have been welcome and 
useful. 

We are undertaking diplomatic negotiations 
with other contributing countries to see whether 
it would be possible to require a higher degi-ee of 
convertibility in contributions. It is too early to 
report on tlie results of these negotiations, but 
we are hopeful that we may be able to improve 
the present situation. 

Level of U.S. Support of the Technical Assist- 
ance Program. The level of U.S. support for the 
Technical Assistance Program has also been ques- 
tioned. In order to get the program started, the 
U.S. initially contributed 60 percent of total con- 
tributions to the central fund. Our percentage 
has now been reduced to 50 pei'cent. Over a pe- 
riod of time we hope to be able to reduce our per- 
centage even further. 

With three major exceptions, states contribute 
to technical assistance in about the same ratio as 
they are assessed for the regular budgets. The 
U.S. contributes 50 percent as contrasted to its 
regular assessment of 3.3..33 percent. China con- 
tributes .07 percent as against its regular budget 
assessment of 5.62 percent. The Soviet Union, 
which is assessed 15.28 percent for 1956, is con- 
tributing 3.70 percent of the technical assistance 
fund. These two countries account for the bulk 
of the deficiency that the U.S. is making up by 
contributing more than 33.33 percent. It is ap- 
parent that if the U.S. reduced its contribution to 
33.33 percent it would create increased pressure 
for the use of Soviet experts and training facili- 
ties. Wliile we do not expect or suggest that the 
U.S. should continue indefinitely to contribute 50 
percent of the total program, we do believe that 
we should make any reduction below 50 percent 



gradually and only after assuring ourselves that 
the size and effectiveness of the total program will 
not suffer. 

I should also like to emphasize that the 50 per- 
cent figure applies only to contributions to the 
central fund. When local contributions by re- 
cipient governments are taken into account, the 
U.S. share of the total program is only about 17 
percent. 

Present Machinery Adequate 

In conclusion, I should like to repeat that, while 
the luachinery of the Expanded Program is not 
perfect, it is proving itself to be adequate for 
the job for which it was established. We would 
be extremely reluctant to see any major changes 
in tliis machinery at this time. I have talked 
to the Directors General of the more important 
participating organizations and I find that they 
share this view. 

The committee will be interested in a recent 
statement by the Achninistrative Committee on 
Coordination, which is composed of the Directors 
General of all the specialized agencies : 

The ACC wishes to emphasize once again tliat the Ex- 
panded Technical Assistance Program is not really a 
series of projects operated liy a number of separate agen- 
cies, but a composite whole planned jointly, in an increas- 
ingly effectual manner, within the participating agencies 
and in the countries concerned under tlie guidance of the 
Technical Assistance Board and the Technical Assistance 
Committee. 

The members of the ACC participating in the pro- 
gram . . . emphasize the readiness of their organizations 
to undertake, on the basis of the experience which they 
have now acquired, any larger tasks which it may become 
necessary to discharge as international action develops. 
Our tested and proven international machinery now exists 
for tliis purpose. 

Mr. Chairman, as I indicated in the beginning 
of this statement, our prime concern is to develop 
the kind of machinery which will result in the 
most effective use of the total limited resources of 
the United Nations agencies in the economic and 
social fields. I am convinced that this goal can 
be achieved through the present organizational 
arrangements for the Teclmical Assistance 
Program. 



July 9, 7956 



83 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Atomic Energy Agreements Amended 

The Atomic Energy Commission and the De- 
liai'tment of State (press release 363) annomiced 
on June 28 that the United States and Canada on 
June 26 conchided an agreement amending the 
agreement for cooperation in atomic energy mat- 
ters which has been in effect since July 21, 1955. 
The new agreement provides for the exchange of 
information on military package power reactors 
and other military reactors for the propulsion of 
naval vessels, aircraft, or land vehicles. Any 
United States data transmitted under this provi- 
sion to the Canadian Government will be re- 
stricted in the same manner as dissemination of 
such data is limited in the United States. Conse- 
quently such data will not be made available to 
private persons or firms other than those holding 
contracts for military work with the Canadian 
Government. The enlargement of the scope of 
cooperation between the two nations is based on 
section 144a of the United States Atomic Energy 
Act of 1954. 

The signing on June 27 of an agi-eement amend- 
ing and extending the U.S.-Danish atomic energy 
agreement which has been in effect since July 25, 
1955, was announced on June 28 (press release 
362). The principal change embodied in the 
amendments is to authorize the United States to 
lease uranium for fueling research reactors con- 
taining up to 12 kilograms of the fissionable Ura- 
nium-235 in an enrichment not to exceed 20 per- 
cent. The present limit is 6 kilograms of con- 
tained Uranium-235. 

Denmark plans to add a small research facility 
to its previously announced program for construc- 
tion of a pooltype research reactor. Additional 
nuclear material is needed for the added facility. 
Other amendments to the Danish agreement bring 
it in line with more recent research accords which 
have included authorization for sale or transfer 
for laboratory research of gi'am quantities of 
Uranium-233, Uranium-235, and plutonium. 

The Federal Republic of Germany and tlie 
United States signed a similar amending agi'ee- 
ment on June 29 (press release 367). 



C. Burke Elbrick, Acting Assistant Secretary i 
for European Affairs, and Chairman Lewis L. 
Strauss of the Atomic Energy Commission signed i ! 
all three agreements for the United States. 
George P. Glazebrook, Canadian Charge 
d'xVffaires, signed for his Government ; Ambassa- 
dor Henrik de Kauffman signed the IT. S. -Danish 
agreement; and Ambassador Heinz Krekeler 
signed the U.S.-German agreement. 

The amending accords will become effective af- 
ter they have been before the Joint Committee on 
Atomic Energy of Congress for 30 days and the 
Governments have notified each other that they 
have complied with all necessary statutory and - 
constitutional requirements. 

Agreements With United Kingdom 
on Long-Range Proving Ground 

Press release 355 dated June 25 

Secretary Dulles and British xVmbassador Sir 
Roger Makins signed two agreements on June 25 
concerning the long-range proving gi-ound for 
guided missiles in the Caribbean and South 
Atlantic. 

In 1950 and 1952 agi*eements were signed be- 
tween the Government of the United Kingdom 
and the Government of the United States to pro- 
vide for the establishment in the Bahamas of a 
long-range proving ground for guided missiles.' 
The range has subsequently been operated in 
close and successful cooperation between these 
Governments. 

The test range presently extends from Cape 
Canaveral southeast, through the Bahamas archi- 
pelago, with tracking stations on the islands of 
Grand Bahama, Eleuthera, San Salvador, Maya- 
guana, Grand Turk (of the Turks and Ciacos Is- 
lands), the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. 

The United States Air Force Missile Test Cen- 
ter, which operates the Florida Missile Test 
Range, is located at Patrick Air Force Base, 
Florida, and is one of the 10 centers of the Air 
Research and Development Command. The 
range is used to test guided missiles for govern- 
mental agencies and contractors. 

After consultation with the governments of the 
territories concerned, agreements have now been 



' Bulletin of July 31, 1950, p. 191, and Feb. 4. 19,->2, 
p. 166. 



84 



Department of State Bulletin 



siyiied between the Government of the United 
Kingdom and the Government of the United 
Slates to permit the extension of this range to the 
]>iitisli territories of St. Lucia in the Windward 
Jshmds and Ascension Ishxnd in the South At- 
Lantic. This extension should add considerably 
to the usefulness of the range and play a valuable 
part in the development of guided weapons. 

Effective steps will, of course, be taken to safe- 
guard fully the interests and safety of the in- 
habitants of tlie territories concerned and of ci- 
vilian shipping and air commerce. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Trade and Commerce 

International convention to facilitate the importation of 
commercial samples and advertising material. Dated 
at Geneva November 7, 1952. Entered into force No- 
vember 20, 1955.' 

Accessions deposited: Yugoslavia, May 29, 1956; Aus- 
tria, .Tune S, 1956. 

Fourth protocol of rectifications and modifications to an- 
nexes and to text.s of scliedules to the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva March 7, 
1955." 
Sit/nature: Peru, May 15, 1956. 

Protocol of terms of accession of .Tajian to the General 
.Vgreement on Tariffs and Trade, with annex A (sched- 
ules of the contracting parties) and annex B (schedule 
of .Japan). Done at Geneva .June 7, 19.55. Entered into 
force September 10, 1955. TIAS 34.38. 
Xotiflcation of intention to avplii concessions received: 
Indonesia, May 11, 1956 (effective .Tune 10, 1956). 

Fifth protocol of rectifications and modifications to tests 
of schedules to the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade. Done at Geneva December 3, 1955." 
Signature: Peru, May 15, 1956. 



BILATERAL 

Australia 

Agreement for cooperation concerning production of nu- 
clear power. Signed at Washington .Tune 22. 19.56. En- 
ters into force on the day on which each Government 
receives from the other written notification that it has 
complied with statutory and constitutional require- 
ments. 

Canada 

Agreement amending the agreement for cooperation con- 
cerning civil uses of atomic energy of June 15, 1955 
(TIAS 3304) by providing for the exchange of informa- 
tion on propulsion and power reactors. Signed at Wash- 
ington June 26, 19.56. Enters into force on the day on 
which each Government receives from the other written 



' Not in force for the United States. 
" Not in force. 



notification that it has complied with all statutory and 
constitutional requirements. 

Colombia 

Agreement extending agreement for a cooperative health 
program of September 15 and October 20, 19.50 (TIAS 
2203), as modified and supplemented. Effected by ex- 
change of notes at Bogota April 25 and May 17, 19.56. 
Entered into force May 25, 1956 (date of signature of 
extension of operational agreement). 

Cuba 

Agreement for cooperation concerning civil uses of atomic 
energy. Signed at Washington June 26, 1956. Enters 
into force on the day on which each Government receives 
from the other written notification that it has complied 
with statutory and constitutional requirements. 

Denmark 

Agreement amending the agreement for cooperation con- 
cerning civil uses of atomic energy of July 25, 1955 
(TIAS 3309). Signed at Washington June 27, 19.56. 
Enters into force on the day on which each Government 
receives from the other written notification that it has 
complied with statutory and constitutional retjuirements. 

France 

Convention supplementing the conventions of July 25, 1939, 
and October Is, 1946, relating to the avoidance of double 
taxation, as modified and supplemented by the protocol 
of May 17, 194S (59 Stat. 893; 64 Stat. (3) B3 ; 64 Stat. 
(3) B2S). Signed at Washington June 22, 1956. Enters 
into force on the date of exchange of ratifications. 

Germany 

Treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation, with pro- 
tocol and exchange of notes. Signed at Washington 
October 29, 1954. Enters into force July 14, 1956. 
Proclaimed by the President: June 26, 19.56. 

Honduras 

Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the 
prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on 
income. Signed at Washington June 25, 1956. Shall 
become effective as of January 1 of the year in which 
the exchange of ratifications takes place. 

Netherlands 

Agreement for cooperation concerning production of nu- 
i-lear power. Signed at Washington June 22, 1956. 
Enters into force on the day on which each Government 
receives from the other written notification that it has 
complied with statutory and constitutional require- 
ments. 

Poland 

Au'reement on the settlement for lend-lease and certain 
claims. Signed at Washington June 28, 1956. En- 
tered into force June 28, 1956. 

United Kingdom 

Agreement concerning the extension of the Bahamas Long 
liange Proving Griumd (TIAS 2009, 2426, 2789) by the 
establishment of additional sites in Ascension Islands. 
Signed at Washington June 25, 1956. Entered into 
force June 25, 19.56. 

Agreement concerning the extension of the Bahamas Long 
liange Proving Ground (TIAS 2099, 2426, 2789) by the 
establishment of additional sites in Saint Lucia. Signed 
at Washington June 25, 1956. Entered into force June 
25, 1956. 



July 9, 1956 



85 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale hij the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Oov- 
ernmcnt Printitii/ Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free puhliention^, irhich mail be ob- 
tained from the Department of State. 

Defense — Standard Contract Form for Use in Offshore 
Procurement Program. TIAS 3416. Pub. 6231. 23 pp. 
15(J. 

Agreement between the United States and Luxembours. 
Exchanges of notes — Signed at Luxembourg April 17, May 
10, and July 16, 1954. Entered into force September 30, 

ii)ri.5. 

Termination of Reciprocal Trade Agreement of April 24, 
1936. TIAS 3419. Pub. 6206. 3 pp. 5<i. 

Agreement between the United States and Guatemala. 
Exchange of note.s — Signed at Guatemala August 2 and 
September 28, 1955. Entered into force September 28, 
1955. 



General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. 

Pub. (;281. 17 pp. 10«i. 



TIAS 3437. 



Declaration on the Continued Application of Schedules to 
agreement of October 30, 1947, between the United States 
and other governments — Done at Geneva March 10, 1955. 
Entered into force with respect to the United States March 
21, 1955. 

Naval Mission. TIAS 3442. Pub. 6239. 2 pp. 5(f. 

Agreement between the United States and Venezuela — 
Extending agi'eement of August 23, 1950. Exchange of 
notes — Signed at Washington April 9 and August 12, 1954. 
Entered into force August 12, 1954. 

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization — Amendments to the Constitution. TIAS 3409. 
Pub. 6278. 6 pp. 54. 

Amendments adopted by the General Conference of the 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization at Montevideo, November 22 and December 8, 
1954. 



International Tracing Service. 

55 pp. 20<-. 



TIAS 3471. Pub. 6287. 



Agreement between the United States and the Federal 
Republic of Germany. Exchange of notes — Signed at 
Bonn and Bonn-Bad Godesberg June 6, 1955. Entered 
into force June 6, 1955 ; operative retroactively May 5, 
1955. Agreement between the United States and the In- 
ternational Committee of the Red Cross. Exchange of 
notes — Signed at Bonn-Bad Godesberg and Geneva June 6, 
1955. Entered into force May 5, 1955. Agreement be- 
tween the United States and other governments — Signed 
at Bonn Jime 6, 1955. And agreement between the 
Intel-national Commission for the International Trac- 
ing Service and the International Committee of the Red 
Cros.s — Signed at Bonn June 6, 1955. Entered into force 
May 5, 1955. 

Interchange of Patent Rights and Technical Information 
for Defense Purposes. TIAS 3478. 17 pp. 10(i(. 



Agreement and exchange of nutes between the United | 
States and the Federal Republic of Germany — Signed 
at Bonn January 4. 19.")6. Entered into force January 4. 
1956 ; operative retroactively December 27, 1955. 

World Health Organization Regulations No. 1. TIAS 

34,^2. .jO l>p. 2()i,-. 

Regulations adopted by the First World Health Assem- 
bly at Geneva, .July 24, 1948. Entered into force Janu- 
ary 1, 1950. And supplementary regulations adopted 
bv the Second World Health Assemlily at Geneva, June 
30, 1949. 

Establishment of United States Navy Medical Research 
Center at Taipei, Taiwan. TIAS 3493. 20 pp. 15«f. 

Agreement between the United States and China. Ex- 
changes of notes — Dated at Taipei March 30, April 26, 
and October 14, 1955. Entered into force October 14, 
1955. 



Disposition of Certain United States Property in Aus- 
tria. TIAS 3499. 22 pp. 15(t. 

Agreement between the United States and Austria — - 
Signed at Vienna September 2{!, 1955. Entered into 
force Septemlier 26, 1955. 

Defense— Loan of Aircraft Carrier to France. TIAS 8509. 
4 pp. 5<t. 

Agreement between the United States and France — 
Amending agreement of September 2. 1953. Exchange 
of notes — Signed at Washington February 3, 19.56. En- 
tered into force February 3, 1956. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3510. 7 pp. 
10«t. 

Agreement between the United States and Spain — Signed 
at Madrid March 5, 1956. Entered into force March 5, 
1956. 

Naval Mission to Peru. TIAS 3511. 2 pp. Stf. 

Agreement between the United States and Peru — Extend- 
ing agreement of July 31, 19-W, as extended. Exchange 
of notes — Signed at Washington January 27 and March 
14, 1956. Entered into force March 14, 1956. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 8512. 2 pp. 5<t. 

Agreement between the United States and Paliistan — 
Amending article II of agreement of January 18, 1955 — 
Signed at Karachi February 9 and 25, 1956. Entered 
into force February 25, 1956. 



* 



Surplus Agricultural Commodities. 



TIAS 3513. 9 pp. 



Agreement between the United States and Indonesia — 
Signed at Djakarta March 2, 1956. And exchanges of 
notes — Signed at Djaliarta March 2 and 5, 1956. Entered 
into force March 2, 1956. 

Narcotic Drugs — Exchange of Information for Control 
of Illicit Traffic. TIAS 3514. 4 pp. 54. 

Arrangement between the United States and the Federal 
Republic of Germany — Replacing arrangement of Decem- 
ber 24, 1927, and February 14, 1928. Exchange of notes — 
Dated at Washington January 17 and August 24, 1955, 
and March 7, 1956. Entered into force March 7, 1956. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3515. 4 pp. 
54. 

Agreement between the United States and Paliistan — 
Signed at Karachi March 2, 1956. Entered into force 
March 2, 1956. 



86 



Department of State Bulletin 



ily 9, 1956 

merican Principles 

mulanientals of U.S. Foreign Policy (Merchant) . 
he Meanini; of Foreign Affairs to the Average 

American (Eleanor Dulles) 

tomic Energy. Atomic Agreements Amended . 
usfria. Aid to Former Perseeiitees 

anada 

Idiiiic Agreements Amended 

uiulamentals of U.S. Foreign Policy (Merchant) . 

olombia. World Bank Loan to Colombia for 
Hirfiway Improvement 

'ommunism. Transcript of Secretary Dulles' 
News Conference 

'ongress, The 

'oii'^ressional Documents Relating to Foreign 
Policy 

eiiate Action Authorizing Mutual Security Pro- 
L;i'am (Dulles) 

he United Nations Expanded Program of Tech- 
nical Assistance (Wilcox) 

lenmark. Atomic Agreements Amended . . . 

•Economic Affairs 

111' Economic World To Come (Prochnow) . . . 

jclianon To Receive U.S. Aid To Improve Trans- 
jiortation 

iliidiflcations in Proclamation on Tariff Negotia- 
licms (text of proclamation) 

^uiilication of Schedule of Tariff Concessions . . 

■;ii;ning of Tax Convention With Honduras . . . 
S. -Pakistan Discussions on Double Taxation 
Cnnvention 

i\niid Bank Loan to Colombia for Highway Im- 
jirovement 

Educational Exchange. President Approves Ex- 
change Program With Eastern Europe .... 

Europe 

The Meaning of Foreign Affairs to the Average 
American (Eleanor Dulles) 

'resident Approves Exchange Program With East- 
ern Europe 

Far East. Fundamentals of U.S. Foreign Policy 
(Merchant) 

Germany 

Itemic Agreements Amended 

Spencer Phenix Appointed to Mixed Board at 
I'.onn 

Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Conference . 

Honduras. Signing of Tax Convention With Hon- 
duras 

Iceland. Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News 
Conference 

India. Prime Minister of India Postpones Visit to 
U.S. (Nehru, Eisenhower) 

Japan. U.S. Policy Toward Japan and Okinawa 
(Allison) 

Lebanon. Lebanon To Receive U.S. Aid To Im- 
prove Transportation 

Military Affairs. Agreements With United King- 
dom on Long-Range Proving Ground 

Mutual Security 

Defense Support for Spain Increased 

Senate Action Authorizing Mutual Security Pro- 
gram (Dulles) 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Transcript 
of Secretary Dulles' News Conference .... 

Pakistan. U.S.-Pakistan Discussions on Double 
Taxation Convention 

Poland. U.S. Concern for Welfare of Polish People 
(Hoover, White) 

Presidential Documents 

Modifications in Proclamation on Tariff Negotia- 
tions (proclamation) 



Index 



Vol. XXXV, No. 889 



56 

61 
84 
66 

84 
56 

67 

47 

7.5 
.53 



76 

84 

69 

67 
74 
68 
60 
67 
54 

61 
54 
56 

84 

60 

47 

68 
47 
53 
60 
67 
84 
68 
53 
47 
60 
55 

74 



Prime Minister of India Postpones Visit to U.S. . 53 

United Nations Day, 1956 (proclamation ) .... 54 

Publications 

Publication of Schedule of Tariff Concessions . . 75 

Recent Releases 86 

Spain. Defense Supixirt for Spain Increased . . 68 

Treaty Information 

Agreements With United Kingdom on Long-Range 

Proving Ground 84 

Atomic Agreements Amended 84 

Current Actions 85 

Signing of Tax Convention With Honduras ... 68 

U.S.S.R. Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News 

Conference 47 

United Kingdom. Agreements With United King- 
dom on Long-Range Proving Ground 84 

United Nations 

United Nations Day, 19.56 (text of proclamation) . 54 
The United Nations Expanded Program of Tech- 
nical Assistance (Wilcox) 76 

Yugoslavia. Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News 

Conference 47 

Name Index 

Allison, ,Iohn M 60 

Dulles, Eleanor 61 

Dulles, Secretary 47, 53 

Eisenhower, President 53, 54, 74 



Hoover, Herbert, Jr. 
Merchant, Livingston 
Nehru, Jawaharlal . 
Phenix, Spencer . . 
Prochuow, Herbert \. 
White, Lincoln . . . 
Wilcox, Francis O. . 



55 
56 
53, 54 
60 
69 
55 
76 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 25-July 1 

Releases may be obtained from the News Divi- 
sion, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 
Press releases issued prior to June 25 which ap- 
pear in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 338 and 
;!40 of June 20 and 349 and 352 of June 22. 

Subject 

Tax convention with Honduras. 

Agreements with U.K. on proving 
ground. 

Atomic agreement with Cuba. 

Foreign Service Institute Advisory 
Committee. 

Dulles : maintaining free-world unity 
(combined with Nti. 360). 

Phenix appointment (rewrite). 

DuUes : news conference transcript. 

Austria aids former persecutees. 

Atomic agreement with Denmark (re- 
write). 

Atomic agreement with Canada (re- 
write). 

Lend-lease agreement with Poland. 

Wilcox : "The U.N. and the Search for 
Disarmament." 

Educational exchange. 

Atomic agreement with Germany (re- 
write). 

Modifications in tariff proclamation. 

Dulles : Senate action on mutual se- 
curity. 

Hoover letter to Red Cross on food for 
Poland. 

*Not printed. 

fHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


354 
355 


6/25 
6/25 


•^356 
*357 


6/26 

6/26 


358 


6/27 


359 
360 
361 
362 


6/27 
6/27 
6/28 
6/28 


363 


6/28 


t364 
t365 


6/28 
6/29 


*366 
367 


6/29 
6/29 


368 
369 


6/30 
6/30 


370 


6/30 



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The year 1955 witnessed no lessening of American interest in the 
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Vol. XXXV, No. 890 



July 16, 1956 




OUR PARTNERSHIP IN CREATING A WORLD OF 

PEACE • Address by Vice President Nixon 91 

THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE SEARCH FOR 

DISARMAMENT • by Assistant Secretary Wilcox . . 97 

AMERICAN POLICY AND THE SHIFTING SCENE • 

by Acting Assistant Secretary Elbrick 108 

TRUST TERRITORY OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS • 

Statement by Delmas H. Nucker 121 

DEDICATION OF PLAQUE HONORING KOREAN 

WAR DEAD • Statements by Dag Hammarskjold, 

E. Ronald Walker, and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr 119 



For index see inside back cover 



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Vol. XXXV, No. 890 • Pcblication 636Q 
July 16, 1956 



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Our Partnership in Creating a World of Peace 



Address hy Vice President Nixon ^ 



Mrs. Nixon and I are singularly honored in 
being invited to participate in your celebration of 
the 10th anniversary of the independence of your 
courageous nation. It is fitting that we who 
fought side by side in Bataan and Corregidor 
should celebrate jointly our days of independence. 
You are a young nation, but already the wisdom 
and insight of your counsel is appreciated 
throughout the entire world. You are known for 
your devotion to freedom, your courage and in- 
tegrity in fighting for ideals, your determination 
to live up to the highest standards of liberty and 
democracy. We who share your ideals are proud 
that you have asked us to be here with you on this 
happy occasion. 

I come to you as a representative of a nation 
that cherishes your friendship and partnership. 
And I come especially as the representative of our 
beloved President, Dwight D. Eisenhower. As 
you know, he is happily recovering from an op- 
eration that prevented his being with you today. 
But he asked me, on the very day I left for Manila, 
to bring his fondest greetings to President Mag- 
saysay and to the Philippine people. He recalls 
the 4 years he spent in your country from 1936 
through 1939, and he values the many friendships 
he made at that time among the Filipino people. 
He wants you to know how impressed he is with 
your magnificent accomplishments in such a short 
time. You have his very best wishes as you pro- 
gress into the future with courage and confidence. 

I Imow I speak for the President and all Ameri- 
cans in paying tribute to the splendid administra- 
tion of President Magsaysay. He is known 



^ Made on the 10th anniversary of the independence 
of the Republic of the Philippines at Manila on July 4 
(press release 373 dated July 3). 



throughout the world, not only for his splendid 
conduct of the internal aifairs of your Republic 
but also for his work in drawing up the Pacific 
Charter. Here was a bold stroke for freedom. 

This was your declaration of independence, not 
only from the old colonialism of the last century 
but also from the far worse Communist colonial 
imperialism of today. We who stand shoulder 
to shoulder with you in this common fight for the 
survival of all that we cherish are proud of your 
leadership in jjroducing this gi-eat charter. 

May I add a personal note. Mrs. Nixon and I 
will never forget our previous visit to your cotm- 
try 3 years ago and the \varmth and friendliness 
of your reception. Everywhere we went we felt 
completely at home. There is a Spanish phrase 
of welcome which many of you will recognize — 
"Estan ustedes en su casa" — "You are in your own 
home." That is exactly how we felt during all 
the time we were in your country. In the cities 
and in the barrios, in your schools, factories, and 
farms we met hundreds of people. We feel, as 
does your President, that the real way to know 
a people is to meet those in all walks of life, as well 
as their official representatives. Our meetings 
with you are deeply engraved in our memories. 
Long after we leave public life, Mrs. Nixon and I 
will remember and cherish your friendship. 

May I add one final word of tribute. Just as 
we in the United States recognize George Wash- 
ington as the Father of our Country, we honor 
today in the Philippines a dedicated patriot and 
hero, Manuel Quezon. To him goes the credit for 
the agreement that led to the establishment of the 
Philippine Commonwealth in 1935. Eleven 
years later, the independence to which Manuel 
Quezon had devoted so much of his life became a 



Jo/y 16, 1956 



91 



great I'eality. Our nations were close partners 
before your independence, but we feel that we are 
even closer together today. 

Problems of Youthful Nations 

Because on this occasion we are jointly cele- 
brating the day on which our two countries ac- 
quired their independence, I think it is appro- 
priate for us to review some of the problems which 
newly independent countries face if they are to at- 
tain the goals for which they made such great 
sacrifices. Let us consider first the problems which 
face tlie youthful nations. It is significant to 
note that your problems are very much like those 
we faced 170 years ago, when we celebrated our 
10th anniversary as a free nation. 

At that time we knew that we were economically 
and militarily weak. But in spite of this weak- 
ness we were fiercely proud of our independence. 
The American people and Government felt then 
that might does not make right, that strength of 
armies is no substitute for honor and integrity, 
and that reason and justice should prevail in re- 
lations among nations. And we believe in those 
same principles today just as passionately as we 
did 180 years ago. 

Some may consider us naive when we speak of 
God-given rights, of the dignity of man, and of 
the equal sovereignty of all peoples. If these are 
simple views, then we are proud to be a simple 
people. We know that you will share these views, 
for you too believe that the greatness of nations 
is judged by eternal standards of right and wrong 
and not by the accidents of military and economic 
power. 

Both our nations faced grave internal problems 
after our independence. Both were weakened by 
the cruel blows of war. Both had to suffer the 
indignity of occupation by foreign troops. But 
we also share in common a rebirth from the ruin 
and devastation of war. We built up our econ- 
omies, restored law and order, and started the 
orderly political and economic development of 
our nations. 

Our two countries were alike in another way. 
We in the United States had the problem of our 
Tories, who were still loyal to a foreign ruler. 
Yours was a far greater problem. The authority 
of your Government was defied by the Huks. 
Many of these rebels, as you know, were simple 
people, led astray by their leaders. But among 



the leaders were men who were not truly Fili- 
pinos. They owed first allegiance to the mate- 
rialistic, ruthless, foreign ideology of Communist 
colonial imperialism. You fought the menace 
with great wisdom. You used military force 
where necessary, but you also removed the political 
and economic causes of discontent. In this effort 
your President, Ramon Magsaysay, played a lead- 
ing part. For this he has won the admiration 
of the whole free world. He showed how com- 
munism can and should be successfully fought — 
not simply by being against it but by beating the 
Communists in the very area they are trying to 
exploit — creating a better life for the people of 
a nation. 

In spite of the time and energy consumed by 
these efforts, and the resources devoted to defense, 
you have made remarkable economic progress in 
the last 10 years. We are proud of the fact that, 
according to an economic survey published by the 
United Nations, during the years 1946 to 1956 the 
Philippines had the highest annual rate of pro- 
duction growth of any country in the Far East. 

Strength Through Collective Security 

Let us now consider some of the problems con- 
fronting other nations who are charting their 
course on the newly found seas of independence. 
Some of these nations have raised a question as to 
whether their countries can be truly independent 
and be allied with a free-world power like the 
United States. Through the years they have be- 
come suspicious of the Western powers, feeling 
that any alliance with them might jeopardize their 
hard-won independence. 

Both of us can understand this feeling, since 
we both have known colonial status. Yet our 
partnership during the last 10 years is proof that 
alliance with an overseas power that holds the 
same standards of freedom and democracy can 
help both parties equally. We are friends. We 
are allies. We are equals. In our dealings there 
is not now and there must never be any so-called 
Big Power-Little Power or Big Brother-Little 
Brother relationships. Our alliance has not in- 
fringed upon your independence. On the con- 
trary, it has strengthened it. 

I hope that other nations will study this ex- 
ample carefully and realize what it means to walk 
side by side with the United States of America. 
Let them contrast your strength and security with 



92 



Deparfmenf of Sfate Bulletin 



the fate of small nations who were not united with 
us in mutual alliances. You are independent. 
But are Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania independ- 
ent? Is there any freedom in East Germany, 
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Kumania, Bul- 
garia, and Albania ? 

How much liberty is there in North Korea or 
North Viet-Nam? What has happened to an- 
cient Tibet ? We must all frankly face this ques- 
tion : Where there is a threat of Communist 
colonial imperialism, is a nation really safe in 
striking out alone? I know that, if I were an 
executive in a newly independent nation, I would 
ponder this question with the utmost care. You 
know that, in our efforts to promote collective 
security, we are not defending a discredited and 
repudiated colonialism. We have declared our 
belief in the right of all peoples to govern them- 
selves. We feel that progress toward self- 
government should be resolute and continuous. 
Some peoples may wish a completely independent 
existence. Others may choose to govern them- 
selves in some kind of association with older states. 
In modern times the really cruel colonialism has 
been the colonialism of the Communist world. 
It has enslaved over a dozen nations and has left 
hundreds of millions to suffer the harshest forms 
of tyranny. It has not only captured their bodies 
but tried to dominate their minds and kill their 
souls. 

What has checked the expansion of Communist 
colonial imperialism? To answer this question, 
look at Western Europe. Eight years ago. West- 
ern Europe was a cluster of weak nations, inviting 
invasion and aggi'ession. The pattern of Czecho- 
slovakia could have been repeated over and over 
again. But it was not repeated. Wliy? Be- 
cause, in the first place, your good partner, the 
United States, intervened strongly to protect 
Greece and Turkey. Then it asked these free 
nations to band together in a pattern of collective 
security. Thanks to Nato and aid from the 
United States, Western Europe can breathe se- 
curely today. These are the facts. Yet the agents 
of Communist colonialism have the supreme au- 
dacity to suggest to the ancient and honored na- 
tions of the East that our offers of help are a form 
of imperialism ! Is that what happened in Korea ? 
Are we subjugating the Free Republic of Viet- 
Nam ? You need but look around you to find the 
answers to these questions. 



Anniversary of Philippine independence 

Following is the text of a letter from President 
Eisenhower to Philippine President Magsaysay on 
the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the inde- 
pendence of the Philippine Republic. 

June 27, 1956 

Deab Mr. President : It gives me the greatest 
personal pleasure to extend to Tour Excellency and 
to the people of the Philippines the congratulations 
and sincere good wishes of the people of the United 
States on the tenth anniversary of Philippine 
independence. 

We are honored to share this day vpith our sister 
republic and proud indeed of the fine progress it 
has made under your leadership in its march to- 
ward national development. We are confident that 
the firm attachment of the Philippines to the ideals 
of democracy and human freedom which have guided 
the Republic so well during the trials of the first 
decade of independence will assure fulfillment of 
its goals in the next. 

In my stead, I have asked Vice President Nixon 
to represent the warm sentiments of the American 
people for the Philippines. 

With assurance of my high esteem. 
Sincerely, 

DwiQHT D. Eisenhower 

His Excellency 
Ramon Magsaysay 
President of the Republic of 
the Philippines 
Manila 



At the same time, we might ask another ques- 
tion : What would have happened if the free na- 
tions had not joined in defending Korea? Wlio 
would feel safe in Asia today if this one small 
country had been overrun? We all know that 
this was a test of collective security. And we are 
proud that the free nations of the world met this 
test. And may I say that your own soldiers 
played an honored part in this defense against 
aggression. Once again we fought together for 
the freedom of all of us. 

Neutralism and Independence 

We have heard recently a great deal of discus- 
sion of the attitude that goes by the name of neu- 
tralism. Let us see how it bears on the problem 
of independence. I would feel that generally a 
nation that rejects the principles of collective se- 
curity because it feels its independence will be 



July 16, 1956 



93 



compromised by association with other powers 
is not reading rightly the trends of modern his- 
tory. It has far more to gain by standing to- 
gether with free nations than by remaining aloof. 
But there may be other reasons for neutralism. 
Many nations have the same principles which we 
share in common, and they are prepared to defend 
them ; yet they feel that their own internal prob- 
lems compel them to abstain, at least for the mo- 
ment, from mutual-security pacts and associations. 
They wish to devote all their energies to building 
their own political and economic systems. Or 
they may feel that they are too geographically 
exposed to risk provoking Commimist colonial 
imperialism. 

We believe in the right of each individual nation 
to chart its own course, and we respect whatever 
decision it makes even though we might not fully 
agree with that decision. It is only natural that 
we should feel closer to those who stand with us 
as allies in the effort to keep the world free. But 
we, just as you, cherish also the friendship of other 
nations who share our dedication to the principles 
of democracy and freedom even though they have 
not seen fit to ally themselves with us politically 
and militarily. 

Is Freedom the Same as Tyranny? 

But there is still another brand of neutralism 
that makes no moral distinction between the Com- 
munist world and the free world. With this 
viewpoint, we have no sympathy. How can we 
feel toward those who treat alike nations that be- 
lieve in God and honor religion and morality, and 
nations that boast of atheism and the rule of force 
and terror alone ? How can anyone treat as equals 
those who believe in the dignity of man and the 
basic rights of all men, and those who treat their 
subjects as mere machines? Is democracy to be 
equated with dictatorship ? Is freedom the same 
as tyranny ? 

There are faults in the nations of the free world, 
and we all know and deplore them. But can any- 
thing that we have done compare with the history 
of communism recently portrayed by Nikita 
Khrushchev himself ? The Communists have con- 
victed themselves out of their own mouths. Even 
their lackeys, the Communist Parties throughout 
the world, have been forced to repudiate publicly 
this shameful record. Yet this is not the story 
of one man alone. It is inherent in Communist 



dictatorship. It follows of necessity from the 
principles of Marx and Lenin, which the present 
collective leadership of the Soviet Union still 
embraces. 

I shall not judge those who put communism 
and freedom in the same category. History shall 
judge til em much better than I can. I hope that 
no leader of a free people will adopt this line. 
Should he do so, however, I hope that he realizes 
that he endangers the security of his nation. For 
we believe, as you do, that godless Communist 
imperialism is evil in itself and a threat to the 
liberty and aspirations of free people everywhere. 

I know there are those who feel that friendly 
neutrality toward the Kremlin and Peiping may 
spare them. But you laiow the proverb : He who 
sups with the devil must have a long spoon. The 
Communists have been ruthless toward the people 
of the nations that they have engulfed. They 
have no memory of former favors, no kindness 
toward those who tried to be friendly. They are 
cold and calculating masters. Those who feel 
that they can outmaneuver them are taking a fear- 
ful risk. 

We hope that all the nations of Asia will under- 
stand our attitude toward collective security. In 
this regard, you can play a leading role in inter- 
preting our views and intentions to your neigh- 
bors. You have two great advantages in this re- 
gard. First, you have been our friends and 
partners during these years of independence. 
Second, your culture is a happy blend of the best 
of the West and East. You are familiar with 
the ancient culture of Europe. You know and 
understand our habits in the United States. Yet, 
at the same time you are an Asian people, with 
all the gracious qualities of Asian culture. 

Like your fellow Asians, you are a spiritual 
people. You have a sense of beauty and a deep 
understanding of history. You honor family life 
and respect the traditions of the past. With this 
happy blend of great cultures, you can be a bridge 
between East and West. You can help to remove 
the misunderstandings and hostility based on past 
errors. You can speak for us as one who knows 
and understands. 

The awakening and emergence of Asia is one 
of the most striking and important world de- 
velopments since the end of World War II. Along 
with the Republic of the Philippines, one nation 
after another has achieved full independence. 



94 



DeparlmenI of State Bulletin 



Today the new states are addressing their energies 
and wills to the difficult problems involved in ad- 
vancing the general welfare of their peoples. The 
dimensions of these problems challenge the 
imagination. Hundreds of millions of people in 
this vast area believe for the first time that, 
through their own efforts, but with some outside 
assistance, they can rise above the level of life 
which their ancestors knew for centuries. The 
will to succeed in these bold new progi-ams is mani- 
fest, for Asians today see a vision and are deter- 
mined that the vision shall materialize. It will 
not materialize this year ; it may not in some cases 
materialize to any significant degree for a genera- 
tion ; but Asians know that some day it shall. 

In fulfilling this vision Asia will realize its great 
potential. Conmiunism has achieved economic 
gains in some areas of the world, but in order to 
achieve them it lias saci'ificed the liberties and 
sacred aspirations which are cherished by human 

; beings. For this fundamental reason, communism 
is out of step with Asia's march toward the realiza- 
tion of its vision, because the jjeople of Asia will 
never tolerate substituting for the old-style co- 

llonialism from which they have acquired inde- 
pendence the much more tyrannical Communist 
colonial imperialism which the fanatical men in 
Peiping and Moscow are attempting to impose on 
all the world. 

"We in the United States, on the other hand, 
are proud to state that we share wholeheartedly 
the true aspirations of the people of Asia and of 
other newly developing areas to realize their 
dreams of economic progress. We shall welcome 
the oijportunity to be of assistance where our help 
is desired in reaching those goals. And our help 
is offered always in this spirit : The United States 
wants nothing which belongs to any other people 
or nation in the world. We want no economic 
satellites, no subservient lackeys in the council of 
nations. The only war we want to launch is the 
war against poverty, disease, ignorance, and fear 
wherever it exists. 

Asia is everywhere on the march. The spirit 
of the newly independent Asian nations is the 
spirit of the signers of the American Declaration 
of Independence 180 years ago today, who pro- 
claimed to the world : 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men 
are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator 
with certain unalienable rights, that among these are 



Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to 
secure these rights, Governments are instituted among 
Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the 
governed. 

We are proud that on this day we jointly cele- 
brate our independence with a people who share 
with us dedication to a goal worthy of great na- 
tions — a peaceful world in which individuals can 
be free, nations can be independent, and peoples 
can live together in peace, prosperity, and 
friendship. 



Strengthening Military Bases 
in the Philippines 

FoUovnng is the text of a joint statement released 
at Manila on July 3 hy Vice President Nixon and 
Ramon Magsaysay, President of the Republic of 
the Philippines. 

Vice President Nixon has discussed with 
President Magsaysay the necessity for strengthen- 
ing military bases in the Philippines in order to 
bolster the common defense of the two countrieb 
as well as that of the Free World in this area. 
President Magsaysay concurred in the need for 
such a step for the mutual benefit of both coun- 
tries. The President and the Vice President 
agreed that the two Governments will hold formal 
negotiations on military bases in the near future, 
and that these negotiations will be conducted on 
the basis of the following general principles : 

(1) The existence of a system of United States 
bases in the Philippines has been, and continues 
to be, a matter of mutual interest and concern to 
the two countries, for the purpose of insuring their 
common defense pursuant to the principles of the 
United Nations. 

(2) In consonance with this mutuality of in- 
terest and concern, certain land areas in the Philip- 
pines have been and are being used by the United 
States as bases. The Philippine Government will 
contribute, for use in accordance with the terms of 
the Military Bases Agreement, the additional land 
which is deemed necessary by both Governments 
for the strengthening of the base system; the 
United States will turn over to the Philippine 
Government those areas listed in the Military 
Bases Agreement which the parties may hereafter 
agree are no longer needed. In addition, the 
United States has contributed and will contribute 



Jw/y T6, 1956 



95 



such personnel, equipment and physical facilities 
as may be necessary for the effective maintenance 
of such bases for the defense of the Philippines 
and the United States in this area. 

(3) The United States has, since the independ- 
ence of the Philippines, always acknowledged the 
sovereignty of the Philippines over such bases; 
and expressly reaffirms full recognition of such 
Philippine sovereignty over the bases. Further, 
the United States will transfer and turn over to 
the Philippines all title papers and title claims 
held by the United States to all land areas used 
either in the past or presently as military bases, 
except those areas which may now or will be used 
by the United States for its diplomatic and con- 
sular establishment. Such transfer of title papers 
and title claims will not affect use of the bases in 
accordance with the terms of the Military Bases 
Agreement. 



Commemorating Japanese 
Peace Treaty Signing 

Remarks hy Secretary Dulles ^ 

It is a very great pleasure and honor for me 
to have this opportunity to present, on behalf of 
the Department of State, a plaque commemorat- 
ing the signing here 5 years ago, in 1951, of the 
Japanese Peace Treaty. The occasion is one that 
is, for me, full of many happy and significant 
memories, of which not the least is the pleasure 
which I always have in being in the City of San 
Francisco. 

I think people from all over the world find this 
so. It is one of the bonds of unity which exists 
between the Soviet rulers and those of the free 
world, like us, who come to San Francisco. I re- 
call that, when the question came up as to where 
the Japanese Peace Treaty should be signed, there 
was no problem at all in getting the Japanese 



' Made at the War Memorial Opera House of San Fran- 
cisco on June 21. The legend on the plaque unveiled by 
the Secretary reads : "This plaque is presented to the 
City of San Francisco by the Department of State on 
behalf of the Government of the United States of America 
to commemorate the use of the War Memorial Opera House 
of San Francisco for all plenary sessions of the Japanese 
Peace Conference. In this building on September S, IO.'jI, 
the Japanese Peace Treaty was signed by the representa- 
tives of forty-nine nations." 



96 



Peace Treaty signing to be held in San Francisco. ' 
And, when it was a question of discussing with 
Mr. Molotov in Vienna a little over a year ago as 
to where we would hold the commemoration cere- 
mony of the 10th anniversary of the United Na- 
tions, it was no problem at all in getting them to 
come to San Francisco. All of us who have had 
the opportunity to know San Francisco look for- 
ward to getting back. 

This Japanese Peace Treaty, upon which I had 
the opportunity and the honor of working at the 
request of President Truman, illustrates the bi- 
partisan character of our efforts of peace. This 
treaty is, I think, a landmark in that never before 
in history has a great and cruel war, which en- 
gendered deep feelings on both sides, been resolved 
by treaty which was so much a treaty of recon- 
ciliation; a fact which the Consul General 
[Yasusuke Katsuno] has just recalled, and one 
which Premier Yoshida of Japan spoke of when 
he was here at the time. It was a treaty which 
put behind a spirit of vindictiveness and substi- 
tuted a spirit of hope and reconciliation for the 
future. 

There are many people who wonder about and 
who even question the role of moral principles in 
international affairs. And, if there are any who 
are today skeptical on the point, I suggest they 
read the addresses which were made at the peace 
conference by the representatives of the 49 gov- 
ernments who signed the treaty. That spirit was 
evident in practically all of the addresses which 
were made by the representatives of the 49 gov- 
ernments who subsequently signed the treaty. It 
is an act upon which I think all of us who had a 
part, and the governments who were included at 
the conference, can look back with deep satis- 
faction. ■ 

As I was just saying a few minutes ago talk- 
ing to Kiwanis,- it is good to look back and see 
what it is that is motivated by the principles of 
religion. It is never enough just to look at the 
past; it is never good to be complacent upon the 
past. We look at the past with advantage only 
if looks inspire us as we go and show what we 
may have done that didn't take into account the 
mistakes that have been made so far. I believe 
that the peace treaty can serve us in both respects, 
reminding us of the evil of war and reminding us 
of what can be gained in reconciling and substi- 



= Bulletin of July 2, 1956, p. 3. 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



tuting amity where there was hatred, violence, 
and cnielty. That's a lesson we need always to 
learn and always to apply. 

One of the greatest fallacies is that peace is had 
merely by wanting to have peace. Peace is hard 
to win ; and peace never yet has been permanently 
won, for it takes many qualities like those we speak 



of today. If ever we think the peace can be won 
without those qualities, then I assure you that 
peace is forever to be lost. I hope that this plaque, 
which I now have the opportunity to unveil, will 
remind us of the lessons to be learned out of war 
and peace, and that we shall at long last have 
peace which is just and honorable. 



The United Nations and tlie Searcli for Disarmament 



iy Francis 0. Wilcox 

Assistant Secretaiy for International Organization Affairs' 



In speaking to you tonight about disarmament, 
I should purposely avoid use of that term for the 
most part. Eather, I should speak of the limita- 
tion, regulation, and control of arms. My reason 
is that "disarmament" is a word which can have 
misleading and inaccurate connotations. To some 
people it may present an image of a world without 
arms and therefore at peace. This, of course, is 
an oversimplification of the problem at least in two 
respects. 

In the first place, the word "disarmament" as 
used in our negotiations does not mean and has 
never meant, even to its most enthusiastic pro- 
ponents, the abandonment of armed forces. The 
maintenance of substantial armed strength is es- 
sential for internal security, for the fulfillment of 
international commitments, and for carrying out 
responsibilities in connection with the main- 
tenance of international peace and security under 
the U.N. Charter. 

In the second place, the relationship of disarma- 
ment to peace is a complex one. Indeed the pos- 
session of arms, under conditions of limitation and 
control, is probably the surest guaranty of peace. 
Weakness invites aggression. It is not the absence 
of arms but an effective system of limitation and 
control that we seek. 



' Address made before the Norman Wait Harris Foun- 
dation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111., on 
June 29 (press release 365). 



Nature and Urgency of the Problem 

Secretary Dulles, earlier this year, stated that, 
in his considered view, "Disarmament is the most 
difficult and the most compelling of all world prob- 
lems." For a decade now the question has been 
under consideration within the framework of the 
United Nations under articles 11 and 26 of the 
charter. These articles empower both the Secu- 
rity Council and the General Assembly to make 
recommendations on arms regulation and limita- 
tion to member states. As we look ahead, a va- 
riety of developments contribute to the sense of 
urgency with which we attempt to deal with the 
ever-mounting difficulties and the ever-mounting 
importance of a solution to this problem. Let me 
mention a few of these factors. 

Already the task of limitation and control of 
armaments has been enormously complicated by 
the accumulation of nuclear stockpiles. These 
stocki^iles, with relatively simple shielding, could 
be hidden beyond the range of presently known 
means of scientific detection. 

Already we are confronted with the potential 
dangers inherent in the development of nuclear 
weapons capability by the Communist world as 
well as by the free. 

Already stockpiles of fissionable materials suffi- 
cient to constitute grave danger are in being with- 
out international safeguards or regulations or 
controls. Delivery systems for both nuclear and 



Ju/y 16, 7956 



97 



conventional weapons are steadily improving. 

Trends based on present developments need be 
projected only a little way into the future to an- 
ticipate further factors that must be taken into 
account in our plans today. 

For instance, the steady accumulation of nuclear 
weapons stockpiles and of materials available for 
their manufacture constantly increases the danger 
to civilization that would arise from the outbreak 
of nuclear warfare. By this I mean that, if larger 
amounts of such materials are available, then 
greater quantities might be used in the heat of 
war, to the vast peril of nations and peoples and 
unborn generations in no way involved in the 
conflict. 

We must consider, too, the prospects of develop- 
ment within the foreseeable future of missiles 
equipped with thermonuclear warheads and ca- 
pable of traversing great distances. This de- 
velopment would drastically increase vulnerability 
to surprise attack and would diminish the utility 
of existing types of early-warning systems. By 
"early warning" I mean the 15 minutes which a 
nation will have to mobilize for defense and re- 
taliation ! And with this greater threat would 
come a mucli greater problem of control, since 
highly destructive missiles and their launcliing 
platforms could be hidden in small areas of 
ground space, in submarines, or in ships. 

Nor is this all. We must look ahead to the pos- 
sibility, as well, that, in the absence of control, 
atomic weapons may be widely diversified and 
fully integrated into the total structure, strategy, 
equipment, and training of military forces. As 
we move toward that time we may be headed to- 
ward a "point of no return" with respect to prac- 
tical prospects of comprehensive control of nuclear 
weapons. In a world of military forces so or- 
ganized and so equipped, reliance for defense upon 
conventional armaments would be as unrealistic 
as a proposal in 1917 that the Nation's defense 
be entrusted to the crossbow or even the flintlock 
musket of colonial days. 

There is another compelling reason for the early 
establishment of effective controls. The time is 
approaching when nuclear weapons capabilities 
may exist in many quarters of the globe. A deli- 
cate balance might be tragically upset by a single 
intrusion of local passions or a single misjudgment 
by one of the sovereign authorities with access to 
the trigger that could lamich a nuclear war. Ef- 



I 



fective controls would become far more costly and 
far more complex with the widening of areas to 
be inspected. 

At the moment only three states possess the ma- 
terials and the technical know-how to manufac- 
ture nuclear weapons. In another decade this 
number may be increased to as many as a dozen. 
If we do not take effective action fairly soon, the 
control problem may become academic. 

Lastly, I think we should contemplate the rising 
cost curve of defense in a decade of uninhibited 
nuclear weapons development. The expense both 
in terms of research and development and in terms 
of installation and operation of adequate defenses 
against long-range missiles would be nothing short 
of colossal. Added to this, the size and com- 
plexity of a military establishment able to re- 
taliate decisively even after absorbing such a blow 
must be considered in estimating the costs of de- 
fense against massive attack by such weapons. 

Disarmament as a Safeguard of the National 
Security 

In view of the unpleasant factors I have men 
tioned, our basic purpose in seeking an effective 
limitation of armaments is clear. It is to enhance 
the security of the United States with which the 
security of the entire free world is inseparably 
linked. That security requires that we maintain 
strength adequate to our defenses, our extensive 
commitments, and our responsibilities in the free- 
world coalition. ■ 

But such strength is not enough. The security 
that comes from an arms race is illusory, short 
lived, and fraught with increasing danger for 
reasons I have already described. 

For deterrent power alone cannot eliminate, al- 
though it may importantly reduce, the danger of 
war. And a war fought in the nuclear age, with 
all the weapons that could be created and stock- 
piled during an unlimited arms race, could, as we 
know, threaten civilization itself. 

I think it is important to realize that the danger 
of war arises in large part from the possibility of 
devastating surprise attack. Given the awful de- 
structive power of modern weaponry, an aggres- 
sor nation, in the absence of inspection or control, 
might calculate that it could deliver a surprise 
initial blow of such pi-oportions as to destroy the 
means of effective retaliation. The fact that the 
aggressor's calculation would be proved by events 



98 



Department of State Bulletin 



to be fatally wrong would be of small comfort to 
tlie victim. And it is the democracies of the world 
that have, by their whole scheme of values, tra- 
ditionally been compelled to accept the first blows 
of war. 

President Eisenhower's bold conception, set 
forth at Geneva last July,^ represents in our view a 
means not only of building confidence but also of 
reducing the threat to our security which is posed 
by the danger of surprise attack. Major aggres- 
sion seems far less likely if the aggressor is de- 
prived of the advantage of surprise. It is im- 
probable that preparation for an attack of such 
magnitude as to give hope of success could be con- 
cealed from aerial inspection. 

Wars could also arise, of course, even if the 
threat of surprise attack were removed, from a 
series of actions and counteractions which neither 
side intended to lead to hostilities. Our objective 
is to reduce this danger through agi-eement on a 
balanced and safeguarded system of limitation, 
regulation, and control of armaments, applicable 
fairly to ourselves and others. 

Such a system should not only reduce the likeli- 
hood of war, by lessening the terrible tensions 
which arise from an unlimited arms race. It 
should also reduce the threat to our security which 
would be posed in the event of nuclear conflict. 

Without altering the balance of deterrent 
power, such a system would at once reduce capa- 
bilities for successful aggression. Eventually, the 
reductions should be of such a character, and the 
machinery for inspection and enforcement so ef- 
fective, that no nation would be in a position to 
mount, or believe that it could mount, successful 
aggression against another. 

There are those who argue, and I think with 
good logic, that it is not the arms race which pro- 
duces international tensions. It is rather, they 
say, the political tensions between the Communist 
and the free-world countries which cause the com- 
petition for more lethal weapons. Reduce the 
former and you will automatically be on the way 
to eliminating the latter. 

An effective plan for limitation of armaments 
should, it is true, reduce the threat to our security 
by virtue of its impact on international political 
conditions as well as on levels of armament. The 
spread of Communist ideologies which menace the 



- BtTLLETiN of Aug. 1, 1955, p. 173. 
July J 6, 1956 



free world as a whole, and which contribute to 
the danger of war, is fostered by human want and 
fear. These ideologies seem to thrive on the lower 
standards of living that may be produced by an 
excessive burden of armaments, on the political 
and economic controls needed to sustain that bur- 
den, and on the fears, suspicions, and hatreds of a 
world in which unregulated weaponry imperils the 
very survival of the race. By alleviating these 
conditions, we may contribute to the process of 
peaceful change, which will eventually erode 
tyranny and thus help to create a peace that is 
just as well as lasting. 

The early achievement of a substantial measure 
of disarmament would contribute to our Nation's 
security, not only by weakening tyranny but also 
by strengthening the free woi'ld. This would set 
free great resources for productive purposes. It 
would mean that a benign war could be waged ef- 
fectively against hunger and disease and low 
standards of living. By these steps basic condi- 
tions of stability and cooperation among the free 
nations could be brought into being more quickly 
and surely. 

The United States, no less than other free na- 
tions, would be strengthened by steps which 
would permit a substantial measure of disarma- 
ment. As we are able to curtail that burden, as 
taxes can be reduced or their proceeds devoted 
to internal improvements, our energies will be re- 
leased for productive investments of benefit alike 
to the United States and to the world trading com- 
munity of which it is a part. 

Disarmament as an Integral Part of National Policy 

I have tried to describe the impelling reasons 
wliich underlie our policy with respect to dis- 
armament. Now let me indicate why I believe 
that this policy is a consistent and integral part of 
United States foreign policy as a whole. 

The primary objective of foreign policy, as I 
conceive it, is to advance the national security 
of the United States in the broadest sense of that 
term. National security, of course, is a complex 
of many factors. Foremost, however, among its 
pi'erequisites is the maintenance of a just and last- 
ing peace, and it is toward this goal that our for- 
eign policy, including that part which concerns 
disarmament, is primarily directed. 

99 



In pursuit of this objective the United States 
seeks concurrently both international agreement 
on disarmament — for reasons whicli I have indi- 
cated — and the resolution of other major interna- 
tional issues which perjaetuate injustice and create 
tensions among states. I emphasize the word con- 
currently, for the two approaches to our goal are 
interdependent. 

There is a Japanese proverb to the effect that 
"he who chases two rabbits at the same time fails 
to catch either one." This may be quite true of 
rabbits but it is definitely not true of two objec- 
tives so delicately interrelated as political ten- 
sions and armaments. Any government which 
pursues one and ignores the other will soon find 
the error of its ways. 

Armaments and armed forces, as I have said, 
' reflect the fear, tension, and insecurity arising 
from the existence of other luiresolved issues be- 
tween nations. With the end of World War II, 
for example, our Armed Forces were reduced from 
121/2 million men to 1^2 million men in the space 
of 2 years. They were not substantially enlarged 
until Communist aggression in Korea made such 
enlargement imperative. It is clear that disarma- 
ment is not independent of political developments. 

On the other hand, to say that armaments are 
nothing more than a reflection of political ten- 
sions is to overstate the case. The unique char- 
acter of modern weaponry makes the existence 
of unrestricted armaments a source of tensions in 
themselves, aggravating other issues and making 
their settlement more difficult. If the upward 
spiraling of tensions and armaments is to be suc- 
cessfully reversed, it must be by concurrent 
progress upon both elements of the interacting 
process. 

In his statement of April 16, 1953, President 
Eisenhower, charting the course of United States 
policy, set forth this principle of concurrent 
progress toward disarmament and the relaxation 
of tensions. Expressing in vivid terms the dan- 
gers to humanity from present weapons and affirm- 
ing our desire to divert expenditures to construc- 
tive ends, he recognized that it would be difficult to 
alter the armament situation markedly so long as 
the existing measure of suspicion and distrust 
remained. 

He called for concrete deeds which would relax 
tension. He affirmed the readiness of the United 
States to do its just part. He went on to say that 



"as progress in all these areas strengthens world ' 
trust, we could proceed concurrently with the next 
great work — the reduction of the burden of arma- 
ments now weighing upon the world." 

These principles are basic tenets of our policy 
today. Wliile seeking to resolve other major in- 
ternational issues, we seek to move ahead on the 
problem of armaments in specific ways which need 
not wait. 

More important is the relationship between the 
objectives of our disarmament policy and the 
moral foundation of our foreign policy as a whole. 
It is our firm policy to uphold and advance in every 
legitimate way the principles of individual rights 
and freedom upon which our Nation and the free 
world stand united. These policies and these 
principles require the achievement of an open and 
peaceful world relieved of its oppressive burden 
of arms. Such a world is at once an expression 
and a precondition for the fulfillment in the widest 
sense of ideals for which we stand. g| 

These are appealing arguments particularly for "i 
those who would like to see our resources used for 
constructive purposes. Even so, we must never 
lose sight of the fact that, in recent years at least, 
world peace has rested upon the deterring power 
of American military and economic strength. 

Over a century and a half ago Pascal wrote : 

Right without miglit is weakness. Might without right 
is tyranny. What we must do, therefore, is to combine 
might with right, mailing what is right, mighty, and what 
is mighty, right. 

This is wise counsel. In our quest for effective 
disarmament we must make sure that there is 
enough power on the side of law and order and 
justice in the world to keep the free world free. 

Major Periods of Negotiation 

Tlie United States has pursued for a decade now , 
within the United Nations framework the objec- ! 
tive of securing agreement on practical measures 
of disarmament. In broadest terms this decade 
of negotiation may be considered as falling into 
three general periods. 

The first of these periods, from 1946 to 1918, 
was characterized by the development of the 
United Nations Majority Plan. This plan was 
based closely upon tlie far-reaching propositions 
put forward by tlie United States which have come 
to be known as the Baruch Plan. 



100 



Department of State Bulletin 



Unfortunately some people are prone to forget 
that the United States took this initiative when we 
alone possessed atomic weapons and the facilities 
to produce them. 

You will recall that the Baruch Plan called for 
the centralization in an international authority of 
ownership or managerial direction of all fission- 
able materials capable of use for weapons pur- 
poses. The authority would license and supervise 
the use of fissionable materials for power re- 
actors. These materials were to be disposed in 
such a way that no nation could gain a dominating 
margin by seizure of the materials within its 
borders. Enforcement authority would rest in the 
Security Council operating without the veto. 

To these proposals the U.S.S.R. responded 
merely with condemnation and a call for a treaty 
outlawing the production and use of atomic 
weapons. It was the beginning of "Ban the Bomb 
and Trust the Russians," the familiar theme song 
played in several keys but with few variations for 
the next 10 years. The first report of the United 
Nations Atomic Energy Commission, incorpo- 
rating the essential elements of the Baruch Plan, 
met the deadening impact of a Soviet veto. Hopes 
remained high, however, and additional reports in 
1947 and 1948 presented improvements and modi- 
fications of the plan. However, Soviet reactions 
soon convinced the world of the insincerity of 
Soviet participation in United Nations efforts to 
achieve valid nuclear controls. 

There followed a 5-year period from 1948 to 
1953 which can be characterized as one of dis- 
couraging deadlock, a period which reached its 
lowest ebb with the outbreak of Communist ag- 
gi-ession in Korea in 1950. 

"Wliile details of negotiations during the period 
are a matter of record, I would like to mention 
two salient features. One is the unflagging efforts 
of the Western powers to develop soundly based 
proposals capable of meeting every valid Soviet 
criticism. The other is the purely propaganda 
objectives pursued by the Soviet Union. The fact 
is that the Soviets talked about disarmament while 
building nuclear capabilities. 

From the standpoint of the evolution of policy, 
one important development was the establishment, 
in line with the suggestion of President Truman 
in October 1950, of the present United Nations 
Disarmament Commission by merging the sep- 
arate commissions on conventional and atomic 
■weapons. 



A third period, from 1953 to 1955, might be 
called a period of new approaches. Within this 
period various events, among them the end of the 
Korean War and the death of Stalin, brought 
changes in the political climate which were con- 
ducive to new approaches and to renewed hope 
that progress might be made. 

The first authoritative expression of the central 
place of disarmament in United States policy in 
this period was the statement of President Eisen- 
hower of April 16, 1953, to which I have already 
referred. 

The first of the basically new approaches to 
arise was the President's "atoms for peace" speech 
before the General Assembly of the United Na- 
tions on December 8, 1953. After indicating in a 
general way the order of magnitude of atomic 
weapons stockpiles and something of the poten- 
tial destractiveness of modern weapons, he pro- 
posed the establishment of an international atomic 
energy agency. From cooperation in the peaceful 
vises of the atom he hoped might grow a greater 
readiness to join in the control of atomic weapons. 
Subsequent experience attests the productiveness 
of this approach, although its full benefits are 
still far from being realized. 

The second basically new approach was intro- 
duced in 1955, when the President at the meeting 
of the Heads of Governments at Geneva put for- 
ward the "open skies" plan for mutual aerial re- 
connaissance and exchange of military informa- 
tion as a means of relaxing tensions and minimiz- 
ing the danger of surprise attack. 

This proposal was the further outgrowth of the 
intensive policy review which continues in process 
in various departments of the Government. As a 
result of a decision in 1955 that coordination at the 
Cabinet level was desirable and that extensive 
studies were required, the President had appointed 
Harold E. Stassen as special assistant for dis- 
armament matters. Mr. Stassen had set up a small 
staff to assist him, and asked a number of the most 
competent authorities in American life to under- 
take a study of the requirements and methods of 
effective international control. 

The President's proposal at Geneva was a cre- 
ative response to the fact that the pace of techno- 
logical progress had introduced new dimensions 
to the problem of control, particularly in the nu- 
clear field. Older plans for inspection and con- 
trol of nuclear material, which were based on total 



Ju/y 16, 7956 



101 



accounting for production — past and present — 
had become technologically outmoded. 

In the absence of international controls, it had 
been possible for a country seeking to evade pros- 
pective control to build up a hidden stock of 
atomic weapons and shield them in such a way 
as to be beyond the range of detection. After 
Ambassador Lodge had called attention to this 
problem in March 1955, the Soviet Union recog- 
nized the fact explicitly in its proposal of May 10, 
1955,=* but still called for "prohibition" of weapons 
despite the impossibility of assuring that this 
could be done. Because of the margin of error 
under any system of accounting that has been de- 
vised, the amount of material that could be used 
for hidden weapons had increased year by year. 
With the passage of time, a crucial point had been 
reached at which this margin of error repre- 
sented a dangerous military potential in nuclear 
weapons. 

Other technological changes, as well, had out- 
moded earlier approaches to control. A relatively 
smaller amount of nuclear material could be made 
to produce greater yields of explosive power. The 
hydrogen bomb had entered the picture. Of 
most far-reaching significance, however, were the 
consequences and the cumulative effect of a decade 
of nuclear production proceeding without inter- 
national control. 

The Present Status of Disarmament Negotiations 

Partial Approach to Disarmament 

I have, up to this point, tried to outline man's 
efforts to cope with the stark realities and chal- 
lenging opportunities of the first 10 years of the 
atomic age. These efforts, under Western leader- 
ship, have been carried on within the framework 
of the United Nations. I think we will all agree 
that the United Nations is the proper forum in 
which to tackle this formidable problem. For if 
there is any issue which clearly transcends na- 
tional boundaries and the traditional sovereignty 
of states, it is the issue of the regulation and con- 
trol of nuclear armaments. 

Ten years of negotiation have so far failed to 
result in an agreed plan of control. I should like 
to stress, however, that this is not a failure charge- 
able to the United Nations. Certainly we should 
not blame the United Nations for the weaknesses 



and the shortcomings of its members. It is, after 
all, up to the members themselves to reach agree- 
ment on a plan which the United Nations can then 
implement. For our part we feel that we have 
faithfully lived up to our commitments under the 
charter to find a fair, equitable, and workable 
solution. 

As we entered 1956, the General Assembly under 
Western leadership overwhelmingly endorsed the 
practicality of a partial approach short of imme- 
diate adoi^tion of a comprehensive disarmament 
plan as the most promising basis for negotiations.* 
In simplest terms the approach is that we do all 
that can be done now, even while we continue to 
work toward comprehensive disarmament and 
while we tackle the scientific barriers and the 
barriers of distrust which now block a solution. 

Now some people will argue that a piecemeal 
approach to disarmament is both misleading and 
dangerous. A little disarmament, the argument 
runs, like a little education, could be a very dan- 
gerous thing. It might tend to lull the free world 
prematurely into a very false feeling of security. 

But since the wit of man has been unable thus 
far to devise an acceptable program of comprehen- 
sive disarmament, it seems logical to move ahead 
on whatever front we can. Before a child begins 
to run, he must first learn to walk. 

In accordance with this approach and with the 
specific mandate of the General Assembly that pri- 
ority should be given to such confidence-building 
measures as the Eisenhower plan and the Soviet 
plan for ground control posts, the United States 
has put forward during 1956 a variety of 
initiatives. 

P relvniinary Measures in U.S. Disarmament 
Program 

In the first place, we have reaffirmed our willing- 
ness to implement both the aerial reconnaissance 
and ground inspection proposals endorsed by the 
General Assembly. 

In the second place, we have proposed an imme- 
diate exchange for a test period of a small number 
of inspection personnel who could be used as mem- 
bers of inspection teams as soon as an inspection 
agreement is concluded. 

In the third place, we have proposed the desig- 
nation of small strips of territory in the United 



' Ibid., May 30, 1955, p. 900. 
102 



' For text of resolution, see Hid., Jan. 9, 1956, p. 63. 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe BuWet'in 



States and the U.S.S.R. within which the feasi- 
bility of inspection systems would be tested. 

Finally, as part of an air and ground inspec- 
tion system, we have proposed advance notifica- 
tion of planned movements of armed units through 
international air or water or over foreign soil. 

These may not seem to be far-reaching steps. 
Yet if any one of them were put into effect by the 
great powers, it would do much to erode the bar- 
riers of susjjicion and distrust that have made 
successful negotiations impossible. 

Reduction of Conventional Armaments 

We are by no means confining our efforts to 
nuclear weapons. In the field of conventional 
armaments, in order to do all that can be done 
without waiting, the United States proposed this 
year in London an immediate beginning on im- 
portant gradual reductions in armed forces under 
a sound agreement.'* It is our thought that arms, 
rather than men, are subject to supervision and 
control and that major armaments should be re- 
duced under proper safeguards. We have sug- 
gested, as a basis for measuring this arms limi- 
tation, reducing armed manpower to force levels 
of 2.5 million men for the U.S.S.R. and the United 
States, with corresponding reductions for other 
states. This, I submit, is a concrete and practi- 
cal beginning. Drastic reductions beyond this 
point can be carried out safely only as progress 
is achieved on important political issues. 

It should never be forgotten, however, that man- 
power is the most elusive factor in the disarma- 
ment equation. The Soviet Union, for example, 
can make good propaganda capital from an an- 
nouncement that it intends to reduce its armed 
forces by a million men. Actually, however, these 
men are fully trained and stand ready to return 
to service at a moment's notice. Unless the guns 
and tanks and planes that mold these men into 
active fighting units are also reduced, little real 
progress has been made. This is precisely why 
we believe the emphasis should be placed upon 
weapons rather than upon manpower. 

The Nuclear Threat 

Further initiatives, far-reaching in their im- 



plications, have been made by the United States 
this year in the field of nuclear weapons. 

In his letter of March 1 to Marshal Bulganin,^ 
the President stated that, in his judgment, our 
efforts must be directed especially to bringing 
under control the nuclear threat. 

As an important step in this direction, and as- 
suming the satisfactory operation of an air and 
gi'ound inspection system, the United States would 
be prepared to work out, with other nations, suit- 
able and safeguarded arrangements so that future 
production of fissionable materials anywhere in 
the world would no longer be used to increase the 
stockpiles of explosive weapons. The President 
suggested that this might be combined with his 
proposal of December 8, 1953, "to begin now and 
continue to make joint contributions" from exist- 
ing stockpiles of normal uranium and fissionable 
materials to an international atomic agency. 

These measures, if carried out adequately, 
would reverse the present deplorable trend toward 
a constant increase in nuclear weapons overhang- 
ing the world. The President stated as the ulti- 
mate hope of this Government that all production 
of fissionable materials anywhere in the world 
will be devoted exclusively to peaceful purposes. 
It is my hope that all the nations which may pos- 
sess fissionable material will subscribe to this great 
objective. 

The Proilem of Radiation 

One of the problems of the atomic age arises 
from the fact that many uses of atomic energy, 
peaceful or military, are accompanied by the pro- 
duction of radioactive materials, which though 
found to be of value in many fields can also be 
harmful. 

Last June Ambassador Lodge proposed that the 
United Nations undertake to pool the world's 
knowledge about the effects of atomic radiation on 
hmnan health. Upon United States initiative the 
General Assembly established a special scientific 
committee to collect, evaluate, and distribute re- 
ports received from governments on levels of radi- 
ation and scientific observations concerning the 
effects of radiation.'' 

The United States is cooperating to the fullest 
extent with the United Nations radiation com- 



° For texts of proposals submitted during the London 
meetings of the subcommittee of the U.N. Disarmament 
Commission, Mar. 19-May 4, 1956, see U.N. doc. DC/83. 



" Bulletin of Mar. 26, 1956, p. 514. 

' For an article on the committee's first meeting, see 
iUd., May 21, 1956, p. 860. 



Ju/y ?6, J 956 



103 



mittee in the collection and dissemination of data 
on this subject. We believe the first step in deal- 
ing with any scientific problem is to mobilize re- 
sources, explore what is known, and point out what 
still needs to be done. The work of the committee, 
we believe, will stimulate further study by com- 
petent authorities, encourage the international ex- 
change of information, and provide each nation 
with adequate data for reaching its own conclu- 
sions on the problem of radioactivity. 

The United States believes, on the basis of its 
own extensive studies and others such as the re- 
cent report of the National Academy of Sciences, 
that properly conducted nuclear tests do not at 
present constitute a hazard to human health and 
safety. 

Our Government, unlike the Soviet Union, pro- 
vides warning by prior announcement of the start 
and location of its tests and works out in con- 
sultation with other states extensive safeguards. 
If a disarmament agreement can be reached to limit 
nuclear weapons under proper safeguards, the 
United States would, of course, be prepared to 
agree to restrictions on the testing of such 
weapons. 

Importance of Inspection and Control 

I would like to touch briefly on United States 
proposals for inspection. Adequate inspection 
and control is a key principle underlying all our 
proposals in the disarmament field. 

It is our firm conviction that there should be 
inspection for the purpose of providing against 
great surprise attack, insuring compliance with 
such measures as may be agreed upon, and provid- 
ing the necessary basis for successive steps in 
achieving comprehensive disarmament. 

We believe that an effective system in this age 
of jet planes and nuclear weapons, and in view 
of the expanse of territories involved, must in- 
clude air inspection as well as ground inspection 
and some form of budgetary control. 

We believe inspection should encompass forces 
maintained outside the national boundaries by 
signatory states as well as those within their 
boundaries. 

We do not believe, however, that inspection 
should be any more extensive than is necessary to 
achieve the objectives of the disarmament agree- 
ment of which it is a part. 

Now I realize full well that the Soviets have 



said that they cannot tolerate the intrusion of , 
American aerial inspection over their territories. 
Khrushchev has made this point quite effectively 
by suggesting that the United States should not 
try to look in everybody's bedroom and every- 
body's garden. I also realize that the Soviets 
have their own legitimate defense and security 
needs. However, we are not proposing anything 
that we are not willing to be subjected to ourselves. 

Some people may wonder why we have at- 
tached such importance to an effective system of 
inspection and control. The reason is not far to 
seek. The purpose of arms limitation and con- 
trol is to increase the security of nations, not de- 
crease it. It is to provide real security, not false 
security. It is to build trust, not distrust. 

This being the case, we believe that no nation 
should be expected to reduce its armed strength 
on the basis of paper promises that other countries 
will do the same. 

Where We Stand 

Although no concrete agreements came from the 
recent London sessions of the disarmament sub- 
committee, there were advances and clarifications 
in positions in the course of negotiations which 
may serve as a basis for future progress. 

For example, at London there was for the first 
time apparent Soviet acceptance of the principle 
that a ground inspection system should be in place 
before disarmament begins. There was, for the 
first time, a Soviet definition, not as yet fully 
adequate, of what are called the "objects of con- 
trol," that is, the operations and installations to 
be subject to inspection. Also, at London the 
Soviets seemed to have abandoned their 10-year- 
old "ban the bomb" proposal as an immediate 
objective, although this theme seems to be emerg- 
ing again in some of their statements of the past 
few weeks. 

Negotiations at London produced better under- 
standing by the two sides of their respective posi- 
tions, and seeds planted by Western initiatives and 
new approaches put forward there may yet bear 
fruit when given further study by Soviet leaders. 

Wlien arguing with an opponent it is well to 
know just where you disagree. There were three 
major areas of disagi'eement with the Soviets at 
London : the need for inspection, particularly of 
air inspection ; the necessity for progress toward 
political settlements simultaneous with disarma- 



104 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



ment measures involving far-reaching reductions ; 
and apparent Soviet unwillingness to take any 
practical measures now to bring the nuclear threat 
under control. 

The latest development is the Soviet announce- 
ment of May 14 concerning projected reductions 
in force levels, and their letter of June 6 to Presi- 
dent Eisenhower transmitting this announcement.* 
The letter is under study and the President will, 
of course, give his personal attention to the reply. 
At this stage, I can only speculate, personally and 
unofficially as a fellow student of world affairs, 
as to some of the possible implications of the an- 
nouncement and the letter. 

In their reductions of forces, if carried out, the 
Soviet Union is, of course, merely following be- 
latedly the lead of the United States and its princi- 
pal allies. Soviet calls for extensive reductions 
on our part must be viewed in the light of this 
fact. As I have already mentioned, the United 
States has reduced its forces since World War II 
by over 9 million men, from a level higher than the 
Soviet Union to a level substantially below. 

On the positive side, the Soviet force reductions, 
if carried out, may indicate Soviet recognition of 
the fact that the United States, despite propa- 
ganda charges to the contrary, will not attack 
tliem. If this is the case the reductions may fore- 
shadow a possible willingness to negotiate more 
seriously than in the past toward the achieve- 
ment of stabilizing measures in the field of arma- 
ments. 

In many respects, however, the Soviet announce- 
ment and letter are disappointing. In contrast 
to the open record of our conventional armed 
strength, the world does not know what the Soviet 
manpower level now is nor what it would be after 
it is reduced. Therefore it cannot properly as- 
sess the effect of the Soviet action. 

There are still no Russian proposals addressed 
to the major threat, which is that of nuclear dev- 
astation. Still no system of safeguards against 
surprise attack has been advanced by them, and 
still no Western proposals for dealing with tliis 
threat have been accepted. 

The projected troop withdrawals from Ger- 
many would still leave Soviet forces there more 
numerous than those of all other countries com- 
bined, and forces of the Soviet Union could always 



' For text of letter, see White House press release dated 
June 8. 



be quickly reinforced in comparison to those of 
countries at a greater distance. 

There is no reference to measures looking to- 
ward the reunification of Germany in peace and 
fi'eedom, and indeed the steps suggested seem to 
imply continued division. Neither in the case of 
this particular problem nor in general is there yet 
a recognition of the necessity for progress toward 
the solution of major political problems along 
with progress toward disarmament. 

There is a discouraging propaganda flavor, too, 
in the Soviet attempt to cast doubt upon the ef- 
fectiveness of the United Nations subcommittee 
and to seek to deal with this liighly technical ques- 
tion primarily in other forums more susceptible 
to misuse for propaganda. 

Finally, the latest proposal still avoids the prob- 
lem of inspection and seems to deliberately seek 
to confuse unilateral, unagreed, uninspected, un- 
verified claims of reduction with a safeguarded 
system of arms limitation and control. 

Prospects for Disarmament 

In conclusion, let me turn to the prospect ahead. 
It is useful, I think, to view the problem in terms 
of the discouraging perspective of the past, the 
challenging opportunities of the present, and the 
compelling necessities of the future. 

Time does not permit a detailed analysis of 
areas of agreement reached during a decade of 
negotiations, but such an analysis would reveal a 
marked degree of movement in the positions of 
both the United States and the Soviet Union. 

During the past 10 years, the past 5 years, the 
past year, even the past 6 months, despite waver- 
ings and setbacks, an objective balance sheet wiU 
show the gap has progressively narrowed. 

An analysis of approaches to the problem over 
the last decade also affords a useful perspective. 
Disarmament negotiations before 1955 revolved 
largely around comprehensive, step-by-step arms 
reduction plans. These plans either began or 
ended with the total prohibition and elimination 
of nuclear weapons and had to be agreed substan- 
tially in full before any real beginning could be 
made. The current emphasis upon lesser and more 
immediate steps as starting points may well offer 
greater promise. 

In terms of present opportunities, it is important 
to bear in mind the many-sided character of the 
problem with which we are confronted. We will 



iu\Y 16, 1956 

39162a— 5&- 



105 



maximize our opportunities if we systematically 
examine and review the possibilities for advance- 
ment in each aspect of the problem. 

On the scientific side, for example, we must 
continue to press research looking toward a break- 
through that will permit detection of hidden 
nuclear weapons. 

In development of the peaceful uses of atomic 
energy we must provide adequate safeguards 
against diversion of nuclear materials for military 
purposes. 

In negotiations we shall press forward on the 
basic principles of the four-power declaration of 
May 4, 1956.' In this connection we shall explore 
in greater detail the possibilities for agreement 
after further consideration by the Soviet Union of 
the new approaches outlined by the President in 
his letter of March 1 to Marshal Bulganin. 

In our planning we shall seek to develop new 
measures and new approaches appropriate not 
only to the existing situation but to the techno- 
logical developments in such fields as guided 
missiles. 

In the political sphere we will seek concurrent 
progress toward the resolution of outstanding in- 
ternational issues. 

Lastly, we must bear in mind the necessities of 
the future, the new and ever greater dimensions 
of the problem, its complexities and its urgencies. 

In an age of uncontrolled nuclear weaponry, the 
problems of national security and defense could 
assume dimensions which we cannot measure by 
traditional concepts. Tensions arising from di- 
minished security in the world might well grow 
in proportion. Difficulties of securing agreement 
would be magnified. The hazards of an imper- 
fectly safeguarded disarmament system would be 
enlarged. Defense costs could place xmprece- 
dented burdens on the economies of the world. 
The devastation of war could involve the total 
population, economy, political unity, and social 
cohesion of even a "victor" state. 

Supremacy in a contest of will could no longer 
be a prize of war if gained at the cost of destruc- 
tion of the victorious power. 

In facing such a future, two firm requirements 
emerge as equally important. One is to pursue 
imaginatively and by every feasible means agree- 
ment to a comprehensive safeguarded system of 



" Bulletin of May 21, 1956, p. 838. 
106 



arms limitation and control. The second is, in the 
absence of such agreement, to move ahead with 
equal determination in the development and con- 
struction of such weapons of defense as our na- 
tional security demands. 

Given the tremendous complexities of the prob- 
lem one miglit be tempted to argue that agreement 
on acceptable limitation of armaments is a well- 
nigh impossible task. This is a position which 
even the most confirmed pessimist dare not take. 
Wliat must be done can be done. If the human 
race wishes to survive — and I think I can speak 
for one very small segment of it — then a way must 
be found to free the world from the persistent 
threat of total destruction. 

I remain confident that man, who possesses the 
ingenuity to build weapons powerful enough for 
his own self-destruction, also possesses enough 
common sense to keep these weapons under effec- 
tive control. 



Reaffirmation of U.S. Views 
on German Unification 



LETTER FROM PRESIDENT EISENHOWER TO 
PRESIDENT HEUSS 

The White House on June 16 made puilio the 
following mesMge from President Eisenhower to 
Theodor Heuss, President of the Federal Republic 
of Germany^ on the occasion of the third anni- 
versaiy of the public demonstration for freedom 
in East Berlin and East Germany on Jwne 17, 1963. 

Dear Mr. PREsroENT : On this day which com- 
memorates the spontaneous demand made tlu-ee 
years ago for the freedom of the seventeen million 
German people of the Soviet Zone, I wish to re- 
affirm the steadfast conviction of my country that 
the unjust division of Germany will surely come 
to an end. The Government and people of the 
United States are deeply dedicated to the causes 
of liberty and peace. We know that so long as 
unity in freedom is withheld from the German 
people by those who seek to impose an alien and 
totalitarian system on a part of your nation there 
can be no permanent security in Europe. We 
know also that these views are shared by our part- 
ners in the North Atlantic Treaty. 

The ending of the division of Germany is es- 
sential to the development of friendly and coop- 



Departtnent of State Bulletin 



erative relations between the Western nations and 
the Soviet Union. The way is open insofar as the 
United States Government is concerned for the 
Soviet Government to prove that its professed in- 
terest in developing such relations is genuine. I 
am convinced that the Soviet Union will come to 
recognize that it is in its own interest to negotiate 
a settlement which resjiects the right to freedom 
of the German people and the interests of both 
East and West, and will join with us in finding a 
solution to the German problem. 

This day you celebrate is I know a day of dedi- 
cation. I send you my greetings and together with 
my fellow Americans I look forward to the time 
when all Germany will at last be unified and free. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



ADDRESS BY JAMES B. CONANT 
AMBASSADOR TO GERMANY' 

Three years ago today the electrifying news 
coming from the Soviet Zone of Germany proved 
to the whole world that the oppressed population 
of the Soviet Zone had not been deceived by the 
systematic propaganda campaigns of its rulers. 
For years the Conimmiist regime had denied its 
subjects the means to express their will and their 
convictions ; there were no free elections, no free- 
dom of speech, no freedom of the press. Outside 
the Soviet Zone there may have been some doubt 
about the real opinions of the people condemned 
to suffer in silence. The I7th of June dispelled 
all such doubts. 

The worldwide effect of the I7th of June 1953 
can be compared only with the effect of the 20th 
of July 1944. Hitler, too, had brutally enforced 
the silence of the Geiman people. In those days 
the world had asked whether the whole German 
people had succumbed to the Nazi madness. Then 
the 20th of July 1944 showed unmistakably that 
there were Germans who deeply detested the 
tyrant. Just as clearly the I7th of June showed 
that the Germans in the Soviet Zone hated and 
detested the tyrannical regime imposed upon them. 

We know that even today the Soviets do not 
dare to let the population of the Soviet Zone ex- 
press its will freely. That became quite obvious 



in Geneva last year. You will remember that 
after the summit conference in Geneva there was 
some hope that progress might be made toward a 
reunified Germany, together with a system for 
European security. During this conference the 
Heads of Government of France, the United 
Kingdom, the U.S.S.E., and the United States 
lecognized their common responsibility for the 
settlement of the German question and the re- 
imification of Germany and agi'eed that the re- 
unification of Germany sliould take place by 
means of free elections and should be carrietl out 
in conformity with the national interest of the 
German people and the interest of European se- 
curity. Unfortunately a few months later at the 
Conference of Foreign Ministers the attitude of 
the Soviet member was quite different. "Wliereas 
the Western powers submitted proposals for the 
reunification of Germany by means of free elec- 
tions, the Soviet Union demanded negotiations 
between Pankow and Bonn. Such negotiations 
would, however, mean the indefinite division of 
Germany or the reunification of Germany as a 
satellite state; that is, reunification in slavery. 

My Government and the Government of the 
German Federal Eepublic will not relax their 
efforts to bring about reunification in freedom. 
Last Wednesday a thorough discussion between 
Chancellor Adenauer and Secretary of State 
Dulles took place in Washington at which I, as 
American Ambassador to the German Federal Re- 
jjublic, was present. The two statesmen were in 
complete agreement and at the end of their dis- 
cussions issued a communique^ from which I 
should like to quote the following sentence : 

Secretary of State Dulles and Chancellor Adenauer em- 
phasized German reunification aS a major objective of 
the West and the conviction that the attitude of the 
West toward the Soviet Union should be determined by 
the endeavor to promote the reunification of Germany 
in freedom. 

It is hardly necessary for me to point out the 
great significance of this sentence. 

Perhaps one of my listeners is now going to 
say that the Kremlin recently adopted a new 
course. My answer would be that, although we 
must never give up the hope that some day the 
attitude of the Kremlin toward the free world 
will change, we cannot ignore the fact that all the 
fine words from the Kremlin have not changed 



' Delivered in German over radio station RIAS in 
Berlin on June 17 (U.S. Embassy, Bonn, press release). 



'■ BUU.ETIN of .Tune 25, 1956, p. 1047. 



July 76, J 956 



107 



at all the situation of the people in the Soviet 
Zone. The Pi'esident of the Berlin House of 
Deputies, Herr Willy Brandt, recently said in a 
speech in the Bundestag : 

It can be stated (and in my opinion it must be stated) 
that we have heard many rather fine words from the 
Soviet Zone authorities but that we have seen few deeds 
which would correspond to these words. After all we 
have experienced, only deeds and facts can convince us. 
In the Soviet-occupied Zone of Germany there have been 
practically no changes in the life of the people. Nor have 
there been any changes in the field of travel and 
communications. 

I should like to add the following to the words 
of the President of the Berlin House of Deputies. 
The Soviets today are trying to convince the world 



that a change of attitude has taken place in the 
Kremlin. In the Soviet Zone of Germany the 
Soviets have the best possible opportunity to dem- 
onstrate their alleged change of heart. Un- 
fortunately the Soviets so far have made little use 
of this opportunity. It seems, rather, that they 
want to perpetuate the injustices of the status quo. 
I can assure my listeners that the United States 
will not agree to a settlement on the basis of this 
status quo; that is, the division of Germany. 
President Eisenhower in his message to President 
Heuss on the I7tli of June said that very clearly. 
For my listeners in the Soviet Zone I should like 
to read this message from the President of the 
United States to the President of the German 
Federal Republic. [See above.] 



American Policy and tlie Shifting Scene 



hy C. Burke ETbrick 

Acting Assistant Secretary for European Affairs'^ 



The topic you have asked me to discuss this 
afternoon is "American Policy and the Shifting 
Scene," and by way of opening let me compliment 
you upon your choice of a subject and caution 
you of my treatment of it. In a single, rather 
poignant phrase you have characterized the chief 
preoccupation of much of our Government today, 
from the highest policy levels to the operating 
posts in far places around the globe. But you are 
aware, I hope, that with the time and knowledge 
at my command I cannot come near to exhausting 
such a theme. I shall try, however, to suggest a 
few ideas and to share what perspective I have. 

The world scene is indeed shifting — in some 
ways that are hopeful, in others that are ominous. 
It ojffers great personal challenge to anyone con- 
nected with the shaping of foreign policy, and a 
far greater challenge to the nerve and wisdom of 
our entire Nation. 

It is essential to remember, I think, that, while 

'Address made before the Indiana University Confer- 
ence on Problems of American Foreign Policy at Bloom- 
Ington, Ind., on June 30. 



American policy must always be in some degree 
shaped hy external events, it is simultaneously and 
often to a greater degree a shaper of them. The 
theme of this conference, "Soviet Enigma and 
Western Response," is both timely and important. 
But I suggest that it might more properly be 
called "Western Leadership and the Soviet 
Response." 

The postwar epoch began of course with the 
West's hasty disbanding of the armed might that 
won the Second World War and its optimistic at- 
tempt to live as neighbors with the Soviet dictator- 
ship. It was only as we watched their efforts to 
expand their empire by force and subversion that 
we realized that the Communist aims of world 
domination were unchanged and that we must stop 
their advance if we were to insure our own 
survival. 

Today we can say, in retrospect, that by such 
measures as the Marshall plan and Nato, backed 
by American military power. Western Europe, 
the richest prize the Soviets sought, was saved 
from aggression. As they were checked in Europe, 



108 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



the Communists turned toM'ard the Far East. 
Their effort to invade South Korea was blocked by 
United Nations strength. In Indochina three 
truly free nations have now replaced a crumbling 
colonialism. On the Formosa Strait our deter- 
mination to protect an ally has so far kept the 
peace. 

Finally, when the death of Stalin released the 
Soviet Government from his rigid tactics, and 
when the joining of a free and prosperous Ger- 
many to Nato showed that the 10-year Soviet 
effort to take Western Europe had failed, the 
Soviets began to shift their methods. Now, in 
place of violence and threats directed West and 
East, we have economic and political penetration. 

New Soviet Approach 

As we in the State Department see it, there have 
been two main causes for the shifts in Soviet for- 
eign policy. One was the development of thermo- 
nuclear weapons, which has made the risk of a 
world war seem unprofitable even to Soviet 
leaders. The other cause was simply a pragmatic 
recognition by the Soviet leaders that former 
policies were not paying off and their judgment 
that a change of method toward greater emphasis 
on political and economic penetration offered 
much better opportunities. 

Thus, in foreign-policy terms, one of the chief 
purposes of the 20th Congress of the Communist 
Party was to adjust Soviet ideology to the nuclear 
age. The new weapons had, in a sense, paralyzed 
the dialectic. They had made undesirable even 
to Communists the "frightful collisions" which 
orthodox Soviet Communist doctrine held to be 
the necessary preface to final victory. By their 
effort to show that war was not the only means 
by which victory could be achieved, the Soviet 
leadersliip hoped to put the dialectic back in 
working order again. 

The new Soviet approach in world affairs is 
more subtle and flexible and therefore perhaps 
more complex to combat than the old case-hard- 
ened Stalinism. At the same time this use of more 
peaceful means in foreign policy is a trend that 
is welcome from our point of view, and a degree 
of internal liberalizing in the Soviet Union, high- 
lighted by the downgrading of Stalin, sets in mo- 
tion forces for good whose final effect the Soviet 
leadere themselves can neither predict nor en- 
tirely control. 



This, briefly, then, is the shifting scene before 
us. While we may take comfort in the hope that 
the contest with communism can now be fought by 
means other than a war of annihilation, we can- 
not ignore the possibility that Soviet aggressive- 
ness in the new form may be more successful 
than it was in the old. Most particularly there 
is the danger that the West, released from the 
fears generated by the open threats of Stalinism, 
will relax, lose its unity, or lower its guard. 

But if the new scene brings dangers, it brings 
opportunities as well. There are opportunities 
for achieving unity of a far broader kind than 
the largely military unity of the past decade. 
There is the opportunity for gradually converting 
the shift of Soviet tactics into a fundamental 
change of Soviet policies — for encouraging the 
men in the Kremlin to take a more realistic view 
of the whole international situation. 

At his latest press conference ^ Secretary Dulles 
characterized the present state of international 
communism as one of "perplexity," the reason 
being that "certain basic truths have caught up 
with it." The Secretary named two. The first 
is that communism without the application of iron 
discipline and brutal terrorism ceases to be an 
effective instrument of the cold war. The second 
is that such rule will not be indefinitely tolerated 
by those subject thereto unless it produces a suc- 
cession of victories. Mass shooting of workers 
during a strike and demonstration at Poznan, it 
may be said parenthetically, is not such a victory. 
These victories, the Secretary continued, have been 
conspicuously lacking in recent days. Why? 
Because of the show of unity and strength ex- 
hibited by the free nations and by the type of 
policies embodied in our mutual security program. 
The opportunity and the challenge before us, then, 
is obvious. In the face of what may turn out to 
be a serious crisis of international communism, we 
must maintain the present level of strength and 
accelerate the momentum generated by our poli- 
cies which aim at broader unity among the free 
nations of the West. For, as the Secretary pointed 
out, if the free-world countries should themselves 
lose the strength of unity, due to complacency, or 
because we are just plain tired of helping each 
other, then international communism would gain 
hope of new victories which could help it sur- 
mount its present trouble. 



" BULT^TiN of July 9, 1956, p. 47. 



July 16, 1956 



109 



Now that we have reviewed the general scene, 
what are the specific areas or points of policy 
which must apply to it ? 

Four Areas of Policy Consideration 

In the past the Soviet methods of hostility and 
aggi-ession have made necessary the building of 
defensive power to keep it in check. We still have 
need to be strong because we cannot afford to 
gamble our destiny on an uncertain estimate of 
Soviet intentions, and because we know that mili- 
tary weakness could easily invite a resurgence of 
Soviet military aggression. Therefore, at the 
same moment we i-esolve to maintain necessary 
defensive strength, we seek reliable means of re- 
ducing the world levels of armament. 

A major area of our foreign policy in the past 
has been the program of economic aid. Now, with 
the economy of Europe largely rebuilt, principal 
attention must be given to the needs of the under- 
developed nations of the Middle East and South 
Asia, which need and seek industrialization and 
agricultural development to gain economic free- 
dom and social progress to match their political 
emancipation. 

Not the least important element of our foreign 
policy is trade policy. The Soviets practice state 
trading. We place our faith in free enterprise. 
The Soviets seek to use trade as a weapon for 
political penetration of the weaker nations. We 
hope that increasing trade will strengthen the free 
nations. Good progress has been made in the past 
in clearing away unjustifiable trade barriers, and 
we look for future progress in this direction. 

These four, then, defensive capacity, arms con- 
trol, foreign aid, and expanded trade, are impor- 
tant areas of policy consideration as we face the 
shifting world scene. 

Unity Among Free Nations 

I Want to discuss with you in some detail today 
a fifth area, which I feel to be of particular im- 
portance. I refer to unity among the free nations, 
particularly as it is expressed through Nato. 

The new Soviet tactics have turned the focus of 
world attention toward South Asia and the Middle 
East and thus have tended to turn it away from 
Europe, which was their primary target and is 
still the richest prize, militarily, economically, po- 
litically. The new tactics have emphasized peace- 



ful rather than warlike means and thus have 
loosened the powerful adhesive of fear which has 
bound the free nations together. 

By this zigzag policy, of turning from Europe 
to another place, of shifting from warlike to peace- 
ful means, the Soviets seek to put the West off bal- 
ance and off its guard. They have divided to con- 
quer before, and they hope to use this trick again. 

At the time when the Marshall plan was ini- 
tiated, we were well aware of Europe's value to us. 
It should never be forgotten that the 300 million 
people of Western Europe have created a tre- 
mendous economic potential both in the natural re- 
sources they have tapped and in the industries they 
have created. If Europe's population, natural re- 
sources, scientific skills, bases, ports, and huge in- 
dustrial potential were added to that already ex- 
isting in the Soviet bloc, we would face a power 
difficult to meet. On the other hand, with Europe 
on our side the total Western industrial capacity 
is greater than the Soviet capacity by a ratio of 
seven to two. 

Were these the only factors making our close 
i-elationship witli Europe essential, they would be 
important enough. But there are other factors 
of equal weight. Europe continues to be the cen- 
ter of Western civilization, the source of our cul- 
tural heritage, a force toward the achievement of 
the goal of a peaceful world living in freedom. 
Our unity with free Europe has not only countered 
the threat of Soviet aggression but has made the 
Soviet leaders recognize that we are one in action 
and purpose. As a result, the treaty for Austria 
for which we had labored nearly 10 years was sud- 
denly achieved because the Soviet leadership 
recognized the unity of the free world and the 
pressure of public opinion against them on this 
issue. 

The maintenance of this unity is the purpose of 
our system of collective security, of which the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Nato, is the 
most important element. It provides the most 
effective system of defense at our disposal today. 
Unity is necessary not only to resist aggression 
from outside the free world but to prevent friction 
within it. Disunity in Europe has been partly the 
cause of two great world wars within a single 
generation and can be an obstacle to economic 
growth and health. Therefore the creation and 
maintenance of Atlantic unity is a very good thing 
in itself, as important for internal well-being as 



no 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



for the preservation of a united defense against 
outside aggression. 

It has become plain th&t if Nato is to continue to 
serve its unifying purpose something more than 
the cement of fear must be found to hold it to- 
gether. As Secretary Dulles put it not long ago, 
". . . we must increase the unity and dynamism 
of the free world by greater emphasis on coopera- 
tion for something rather than merely against 
something." 

"New Look" at NATO 

Therefore a study is now being made, by the 
Committee of Three Ministers appointed by the 
North Atlantic Council, of ways and means to im- 
prove Nato and to strengthen the unity of the 
Atlantic Community. 

The "new look" at Nato is one of the most im- 
portant current developments in our foreign 
policy. The members of the North Atlantic 
Treaty decided that in the future they would not 
only maintain their collective military effort but 
would also seek means of developing the non- 
military side of their relationship. 

Political, economic, and other areas of con- 
sultation are by no means new to Nato. There 
have been discussions around the council table 
from the beginning. What is now needed is that 
the Nato powers seek the possibility of harmo- 
nizing their policies to such an extent as to enable 
them to settle disputes even before they become 
sources of irritation and international conflict. 

The ability of the Nato countries to arrive at a 
common policy rests on many factors: common 
heritage, common experiences, common goals, com- 
mon fears. But it also depends on common sacri- 
fices. The Nato powers, who in order to create an 
effective military bulwark against a possible at- 
tack by the Soviet Union delayed time and again 
expenditures which would have improved the 
standard of living of their people, have made 
these common sacrifices. Some of these go very 
deep. In Britain, in addition to an appallingly 
high tax rate, road and other construction pro- 
grams were postponed again and again; in other 
countries, conscription was introduced where it 
had never before been contemplated — and I do not 
have to remind you of our own tax burden, more 
than half of which goes to military expenditures. 

Because of these common sacrifices and because 
of the knowledge that only in unity can freedom 



be maintained, all problems affecting the North 
Atlantic area should be discussed among these 
countries. 

The coordination of policies does not mean that 
we wish to duplicate, anywhere, the work already 
being done by other organizations. The economic 
future of some of the European countries is so 
closely linked as to have made it valuable for them 
to join together in intimate relationships such as 
the European Coal and Steel Community. These 
same countries — Germany, France, Italy, Bel- 
gium, Holland, and Luxembourg — are now look- 
ing toward the establishment of a common au- 
thority in the field of nuclear energy and toward 
a common market. These developments should 
and undoubtedly will proceed parallel to the Nato 
expansion program. Similarly, we do not wish 
to duplicate in Nato the effective work already 
being done by the Organization for European Eco- 
nomic Cooperation and the European Payments 
Union, both of which are concerned with further- 
ing the economic health of their member countries. 

The exact methods which will be used to im- 
prove Nato and strengthen the Atlantic Com- 
munity cannot at this time be forecast. As you 
probably know. Secretary Dulles recently dis- 
cussed the preliminary ideas of this Government 
with Mr. Pearson, the Canadian Minister of Ex- 
ternal Affairs, who is one of the Committee of 
Three Ministers appointed by the North Atlantic 
Council. That group has now sent a question- 
naire — a rather penetrating questionnaire, I might 
say — to all of the member governments, which 
they hope each government will answer and send 
back to them. On the basis of these answers they 
hope to prepare a report for consideration at a 
meeting of the Foreign Ministers this fall. 

These developments take time and they need 
not necessarily be fully developed when the first 
plan is written. When Nato was first established, 
there were no plans for a buildup of defense 
forces, for a unified command, for infrastructure, 
or a German contribution. These "teeth" came 
as circumstances demanded them. I am equally 
confident that the methods to solve political prob- 
lems will evolve as they are needed, provided we 
can establish a satisfactory framework. 

Wliat the Committee of Ministers will finally 
recommend I cannot now predict, nor can I pre- 
dict which problems will find priority in the con- 
sideration of the Council. But I believe that it 



Ju/y 16, 1956 



111 



should be quite clear that our allies face problems, 
major problems. France has been and is faced 
with serious difficulties in North Africa; Great 
Britain, Greece, and Turkey face a problem in 
Cyprus ; Germany faces the tremendous problem 
resulting from the continued division of the coim- 
try; Iceland faces economic problems of major 
proportions. These problems can and must be 
solved by all of us, working together. Just as in 
our private lives we would not abandon a friend 
in need, so must we be cognizant that our Euro- 
pean friends need our cooperation now as much as 
ever before. 

These are some of the thoughts I have about the 
future of Western Europe, as expressed through 
Nato. Before I leave this subject, I want to say a 
word or two about the state of preparedness which 
we have helped bring about by our efforts and 
those of our allies. 

State of Military Preparedness 

Let us take a quick look at that situation. In 
1949 the Nato military command had practically 
no armed forces at its command. There were 
four military airfields available (none of which 
could take jet aircraft) and limited naval forces. 
Today, after 6 years of buildup, financed both by 
the Europeans and by American aid, there are 
over 150 military airfields, all equipped to handle 
the most modern of aircraft, and over 6,000 planes. 
There are about 100 divisions available to us. 
There are naval forces, "striking fleets" in the 
Atlantic, the Mediterranean, the Channel, and the 
North Sea. During the buildup period many 
European countries doubled or tripled their de- 
fense expenditures. Despite Soviet gestures and 
other pressures for relaxation, our allies have con- 
tinued to maintain these expenditures near peak 
levels. 

Why is this continued expenditure by the Euro- 
peans, and the continuation of U.S. aid, neces- 
sary? Has not an adequate military shield al- 
ready been created? Do nuclear weapons not 
permit the abandonment of large standing armies ? 
These questions are asked by you and by our 
friends in Europe. 

Let me answer them by saying that the military 
posture of the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion is excellent. The military strategy evolved 
by our commanders finds, time and again, that 
two major military problems are still facing us. 



The first is the rearmament of Germany. Our 
defense plans include the strength which the 
planned German military contingent would pro- 
vide; any absence of these contingents would ne- 
cessitate a wholesale revision of our strategy 
since it would not permit a defense in depth. 

The second is the necessity to provide our forces, 
and those of our allies, with the most modern of 
weapons. These weapons cost money, lots of 
money. And, while it would be nice to dispense 
with large defense expenditures, the cost of mod- 
ern weapons — many times higher than that of 
keeping men in uniform — keeps our budgets high. 

And we still need the ground forces. General 
Gruenther, who recently again discussed this prob- 
lem with us, put it essentially this way: If an 
atomic stalemate is reached, the Soviet Union will 
probably refrain from an all-out atomic attack. 
But they may launch into small, localized actions 
which we might not wish to counter by loosening 
an atomic holocaust. To defend ourselves against 
this possibility we must have strong conventional 
weapons — and the men to use them. 

It is clear that the defense of the West is in- 
divisible. We do not need the support of Europe 
any less than Europe needs our support. Our aid 
money makes possible a greater actual amount of 
United States defense than if we spent the money 
on ourselves. For every dollar of American aid, 
they are putting up six dollars in defense expendi- 
tures of their own. 

In addition to men and money, European Nato 
countries — and Spain as well — are making a sub- 
stantial contribution to mutual defense by provid- 
ing military bases and facilities for U.S. troops 
stationed abroad. In time of war all of these bases 
would be available to us. Without such bases in 
Europe and Africa, our nuclear retaliatory power, 
which is still the principal deterrent against Soviet 
aggression, would be considerably less effective. 

From the point of view of some of the European 
countries, the presence of U.S. bases presents dif- 
ficult problems and represents a significant sacri- 
fice for the common defense. These bases involve 
many domestic problems for countries such as 
Iceland. 

While these problems exist, they must be bal- 
anced against the security which accrues to the 
entire collective defense picture of which the main- 
tenance of these bases is an essential part. 

Speaking of the military aid program, Secre- 



112 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



tary Dulles said in Iowa this month,^ ". . . by 
helping others we help ourselves more effectively 
than we could do in any other way. . . . The deci- 
sive reason for each item of expense is our own 
enlightened self-interest. . . . Not a single dollar 
is sought for this program for any reason other 
than an American reason." 

It has been my purpose to review with you this 
afternoon the shifting scene we face in the world 
today, and to go over some of the elements of 
American policy that must bear upon it, particu- 
larly as I am concerned with them. 

Now that we have gone over some of the de- 
tails, one question remains: Wliat are America's 
chances ? Can our foreign policy meet and master 
the challenges we face ? 

This much can be said with certainty : 

Our potential is excellent, materially, technolog- 
ically, politically, spiritually. In this struggle if 
the Communists had the assets we have, and we 
in turn had only what they have, then there would 
be cause for alarm. But if what we have is prop- 
erly used, I have little doubt in my mind that the 
free world can remain free and peace can be 
preserved. 

I said "properly used." That means continued 
support of essential armament; continued efforts 
toward appropriate world disarmament with 
proper safeguards through mutual inspection ; aid 
to the young nations in attaining their full politi- 
cal, social, economic, and industrial development; 
a trade policy permitting our friends to earn their 
own way ; and not least of all continued success in 
maintaining the unity of the West, both in the 
old sense of military alliance and in new terms 
of political and economic consultation and coop- 
eration. We cannot sit back passively and wait, 
nor dance to the Russian time. Rather, we must 
determine clearheadedly what must be done and 
then, without faltering, see that it is done. 

I am told that there is an oriental idiom for 
"crisis" which is composed of two words, one mean- 
ing "danger" and the other "opportunity." Crises 
occur in the shifting scene we face, and some of 
them are full of danger. But there are far more 
opportunities than dangers, if we recognize them. 
It is the task of American policy, and of the Amer- 
ican people on whose behalf policy is made, to 
sense these opportunities and make the most of 
them. 



' Ihid., June 18, 1956, p. 1002. 
July 16, 1956 



Lend-Lease Settlement 
With Poland 

Press release 364 dated June 28 

An agreement was reached on June 28 between 
the Government of the United States and the Gov- 
ernment of the Polish People's Republic for settle- 
ment of the World War II lend-lease account of 
Poland and certain other financial claims. 

The agreement, which resulted from a series of 
meetings in Washington which began in July 1954, 
was signed on the United States' behalf by Herbert 
V. Prochnow, Deputy Under Secretary for Eco- 
nomic Affairs, and on behalf of Poland by Rom- 
uald Spasowski, Ambassador of the Polish Peo- 
ple's Republic. 

The agreement provides that Poland will pay 
to the Government of the United States the net 
sum of $110,000 witliin 10 days. It also provides 
that Poland will assimie certain possible claims 
against the Government of the United States by 
residents of Poland. 

The lend-lease settlement with Poland follows 
the pattern of lend-lease settlements concluded 
with other lend-lease recipients. In this connec- 
tion it may be recalled that the general policy 
of the United States has been not to seek payment 
for lend-lease supplies which were lost, destroyed, 
or consumed during the war. Payment has been 
sought only for goods of civilian utility held by 
the recipient at the end of the war plus supplies 
en route on V- J day. 

In the case of Poland, all but $92,000 worth of 
about $12,000,000 of lend-lease assistance had been 
delivered prior to V-J day. Over 80 percent of 
the assistance to Poland comprised food, medical 
supplies, and clothing for Polish prisoners of 
war. The $110,000 settlement represents payment 
for the supplies received after V-J day plus a 
small sum for whatever usable civilian-type lend- 
lease supplies remained imder Polish control on 
V-J day. 

Following is the text of the agreement. 

Agreement Between the Government of the United 
States of America and the Government of the Polish 
People's Republic on Settlement for Lend-Lease and 
Certain Claims 

The Government of the United States of America and 
the Government of the Polish People's Republic have 
reached agreement as set forth below regarding settle- 
ment for lend-lease and for certain financial claims aria- 



113 



ing as a result of World War II. Both Governments, in 
arriving at this settlement, have taken full cognizance of 
the benefits already received by them in the defeat of 
their common enemies, and of tie aid furnished by each 
Government to the other in the course of the war. 

1. Definition. The term "lend-lease article" as used in 
this Agreement means any article transferred by the 
Government of the United States of America under the 
Act of March 11, 1941, 

( a ) to the Government of Poland, or 

(b) to any other government and retransf erred to the 
Government of Poland. 

2. Lend-Lease 

(a) Transfer of Title. Except as otherwise provided 
in this paragi-aph 2, the Government of Poland receives 
full title to lend-lease articles in its possession. 

(b) Right of Recapture. The Government of the 
United States of America reserves the right of recapture 
of lend-lease articles held by the Government of Poland 
of types essentially or exclusively for use in war or war- 
like exercises, if any, but has indicated that it does not 
intend to exercise generally this right of recapture. The 
Government of Poland agrees that such articles held by 
it, if any, wiU be used only for purposes compatible with 
the principles of international security and welfare set 
forth in the Charter of the United Nations. 

(c) Waiver of Payment. Except as provided in this 
Agreement, the Government of Poland will make no 
further payment to the Government of the United States 
of America for lend-lease articles. 

(d) Restrictions on Disposal. Disposals of lend-lease 
articles of types essentially or exclusively for use in war 
or war-like exercises, if any, and disposals of other types 
of lend-lease articles except for use in Polish territory, 
will be made only with the consent of the Government 
of the United States of America. All net proceeds of 
disposals requiring such consent will be paid to the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America. 

3. Claims. 

(a) The Government of Poland waives all its financial 
claims against the Government of the United States of 
America, except those in which liability has heretofore 
l)een acknowledged and the method of computation agreed 
upon, which (1) arose out of lend-lease or reciprocal aid 
or (2) arose from maritime incidents incidental to the 
conduct of war. 

(b) The Government of Poland will process the claims 
described in the following subparagraphs (1) and (2) 
and will discharge the liability with respect thereto of the 
United States of America and of the individuals, firms, 
and corporations against whom such claims are asserted : 

(1) Patent Claims. Claims of residents of Poland 
against the Government of the United States of America, 
Its contractors and subcontractors, for royalties under eon- 
tracts for the use of inventions, patented or unpatented, 
or for the infringement of patent rights, in connection 
with war production carried on or contracted for on or 
after September 1, 1939 and prior to September 2, 1945 
by the United States Government, its contractors or sub- 
contractors. 

(2) Requisition Claims. Claims of residents of Poland 
against the Government of the United States of America 



arising out of the requisitioning for use in the war pro- 
gram of property located in the United States of America 
in which the claimant asserts an interest. ' 

4. Payment. The Government of Poland will pay to 
the Government of the United States of America the net 
sum of US dollars 110,000 within ten days after this 
Agreement has been .signed. This amount is in payment 
for all lend-lease articles to which title is received by the 
Government of Poland pursuant to paragraph 2 of this 
Agreement. 

5. Other Claims Reserved. This Agreement does not 
affect claims or negotiations except those arising out of 
lend-lease or otherwise specifically disposed of by this 
Agreement. 

6. Effective Date. This Agreement shall be effective 
upon signature. 

Done in duplicate at Washington, this twenty-eighth ^ 
day of June, 1956, in the English and Polish languages, 
both being equally authentic. 

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA: 

Herbert V. Prochnow 
Deputy Under Secretary of State for Economic 

Affairs 
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE POLISH 
PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC: 

ROMUALD SPASOWSKI 

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 
of the Polish People's Repuhlic in Washington 



Modification of Restrictions 
on Long-Staple Cotton Imports 

WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

White House (Gettysburg, Pa.) press release dated July 2 

The President has issued a proclamation chang- 
ing the opening date for the annual import quota 
on long-staple cotton (established pursuant to sec- 
tion 22 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 
1933, as amended) from February 1 to August 1. 
The proclamation also established an interim 
quota for the period February 1, 1956, to July 31, 
1956, of 22,828,210 pounds, which is equivalent to 
one-half of the present annual quota. The present 
quota is otherwise unchanged. Accordingly, dur- 
ing the year beginning August 1, 1956, and each 
12-month period thereafter the quota will be 
45,656,420 pounds. 

The proclamation was issued pursuant to section 
202 (a) of the Agricultural Act of 1956, which 
places cotton having a staple length of l^^^e inches 
or longer within the quota which heretofore has 
been applicable to cotton having a staple length of 



114 



Department of State Bulletin 



ly^ inches or longer but less than l^yie inches. 
Section 202 (a) directs also that an opening date 
be established for the quota year which will permit 
entry to conform to normal marketing practices 
and requirements for such cotton. 
"VVlien initially established on September 20, 

1939, the quota applied to all grades and staple 
lengths of 1% inches and longer. For reasons of 
national defense the quota by Presidential proc- 
lamation on December 19, 1940, was suspended for 
cotton having a staple of l^^e inches and longer. 
These changes have the effect of lifting that 
suspension. 

PROCLAMATION 3145' 

Whebeias, pursuant to section 22 of the Agricultural 
Adjustment Act, as amended (7 U. S. C. 624), the Presi- 
dent issued a proclamation on September 5, 1939 (No. 
2351; 54 Stat. 2640), limiting imports of cotton having a 
staple length of I'/s inches or more to an annual quota 
of 45,656,420 jwunds, which proclamation was amended by 
Proclamation No. 2450 of December 19, 1940 (54 Stat. 
2769), suspending the quota on cotton having a staple 
length of li^^e inches or more, and by Proclamation No. 
2S56 of September 3, 1949 (14 F. R. 5517), changing the 
opening date from September 20 to February 1 for the 
annual quota for cotton having a staple length of 1% 
inches or more but less than li%6 Inches ; 

Wheeb^as section 202 (a) of the Agricultural Act of 
1956 (Public Law 540, 84th Congress), approved May 28, 
1956, provides as follows : 

"Sec. 202 (a). Hereafter the quota for cotton having a 
staple length of one and one-eighth inches or more, es- 
tablished September 20, 1939, pursuant to section 22 of 
the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933, as amended, 
shall apply to the same grades and staple lengths Included 
in the quota when such quota was initially established. 
Such quota shall provide for cotton having a staple length 
of one and eleven sixteenths inches and longer, and shall 
establish dates for the quota year which will recognize 
and permit entry to conform to normal marketing practices 
and requirements for such cotton." 

Whereas I find and declare that the termination of the 
said Proclamation No. 2450 of December 19, 1940, and the 
modifications hereinafter Indicated of the said Proclama- 
tion No. 2351 of September 5, 1939, are necessary in order 
to carry out the provisions of the said section 202 (a) of 
the Agricultural Act of 1956 : 

Now, THEREFORE, I, DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, 
President of the United States of America, acting under 
and by virtue of the authority vested in me by section 
202 (a) of the said Agricultural Act of 1956, do hereby 
terminate the said Proclamation No. 2450 of December 19, 

1940, and do hereby further modify the said Proclamation 
No. 2351 of September 5, 1939, so that (1) the quota year 



'21 Fed. Reg. 4995. 



for cotton having a staple length of 1% inches or more 
shall hereafter commence on August 1, and (2) the quan- 
tity of such cotton which may be entered or withdrawn 
from warehouse for consumption during the period May 
28, 1956, to July 31, 1956, inclusive, together with the 
quantity of cotton having a staple length of 1% inches or 
more but less than I'^^G inches which was entered or with- 
drawn from warehouse for consumption during the period 
February 1, 1956, to May 27, 1956, inclusive, shall not 
exceed 22,828,210 pounds. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this twenty-ninth day 

of June in the year of our Lord nineteen hun- 

[sEAL] dred and fifty-six, and of the Independence of 

the United States of America the one hundred 

and eightieth. 

By the President : 

Herbert Hoover, Jr., 

Acting Secretary of State 



Increase in Tariff on Imports 
of Linen Toweling 

WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

White House (Walter Reed Army Hospital) press release dated 
June 25 

The President on June 25 concurred with the 
United States Tariff Commission's unanimous 
recommendation for an increase in the tariff on 
certain imports of linen toweling. The Presi- 
dent's action and the U.S. Tariff Commission's in- 
vestigation and recommendation were made pur- 
suant to the escape-clause provisions of section 7 
of the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951, 
as amended. The tariff increase from 10 percent 
ad valorem to 40 percent ad valorem applies only 
to linen toweling (i. e., fabrics chiefly used for 
making towels) imported under paragraph 1010 
of the Tariff Act of 1930 and brings the duty on 
such imports into line with the duty on similar 
imports under paragraph 1009a. As recom- 
mended by the Tariff Commission, the increase 
does not affect other types of imports under para- 
graph 1010. These other imports comprise the 
great bulk of entries under paragraph 1010. 

The application leading to the Tariff Commis- 
sion's escape-clause investigation was filed on 



July 16, 1956 



115 



August 29, 1955, by a single fiiin, the Stevens 
Linen Associates, Inc., of Dudley, Mass. The 
Tariff Commission instituted its investigation on 
October 4, 1955. The Tariff Commission's report 
of its investigation was transmitted to the Presi- 
dent on May 15, 1956. 



PROCLAMATION 3143' 

WITHDRAWAL OF TRADE AGREEMENT CONCES- 
SION AND ADJUSTMENT IN RATE OF DUTY 
WITH RESPECT TO TOWELING OF FLAX, HEMP, 
OR RAMIE 

1. Wheeeas, under the authority vested in him by the 
Constitution and the statutes, including section 350 (a) of 
the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, the President on Oc- 
tober 30, 1947, entered into a trade agreement with cer- 
tain foreign countries, which trade agreement consists of 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the re- 
lated Protocol of Provisional Application thereof, to- 
gether with the Final Act Adopted at the Conclusion of 
the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee of the 
United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment 
(61 Stat. (Parts 5 and 6) A7, All, and A2050), and, by 
Proclamation No. 2761A of December 16, 1947 (61 Stat. 
1103), proclaimed such modifications of existing duties 
and other import restrictions of the United States 
and such continuance of existing customs or excise treat- 
ment of articles imported into the United States as were 
then found to be required or appropriate to carry out 
the said trade agreement on and after January 1, 1948 ; 

2. Whereas item 1010 in Part I of Schedule XX (origi- 
nal) annexed to the said General Agreement (61 Stat. 
(Part 5) A1264) reads as follows: 



Taria 
Act of 
1930 
para- 
graph 


Description of Products 


Rate of Duty 


1010 


Woven fabrics, not including articles finished or 
imfinished, of flax, hemp, ramie, or other 
vegetable fiber, except cotton, or of which 
these substances or any of them is the com- 
ponent material of chief value, not specially 
provided for. 


10% ad val. 



3. Whereas, in accordance with Article II of the said 
General Agreement and by virtue of the said Proclama- 
tion No. 2761A, the United States duty treatment of towel- 
ing (i. e. fabrics chiefly used for making towels) of flax, 
hemp, or ramie, or of which these substances or any of 
them is the component material of chief value, described 
in the said item 1010 is the application to the said towel- 
ing of the rate of duty specified in the column designated 
"Rate of Duty" in the said item 1010, which treatment re- 
flects the duty concession granted in the said General 
Agreement with respect to the said toweling ; 



• 21 FeA. Beg. 4643. 



4. Whereas the United States Tariff Commission has 
submitted to me its report of an investigation, including 
a hearing, under section 7 of the Trade Agreements Ex- 
tension Act of 1951, as amended (65 Stat. 72; 67 Stat 
472; 69 Stat. 162), on the basis of which it has found 
that the said toweling is, as a result in part of the duty 
reflecting the concession granted thereon in the said 
General Agreement, being imported into the United States 
in such increased quantities, both actual and relative, as 
to cause serious injury to the domestic industry produc- 
ing like or directly competitive products ; 

5. Whereas the said Tariff Commission has further 
found that in order to remedy the serious injury to the 
said domestic industry it is necessary to restore the rate 
of duty originally imposed on the said toweling by para- 
graph 1010 of the Tariff Act of 1030, namely, 40 per 
centum ad valorem, and has accordingly recommended - 
the withdrawal of the duty concession granted in the 
said General Agreement with respect to the said toweling ; 

6. Whereas, I find that the withdrawal for an indefl- 
nite period of the duty concession granted in the said 
General Agreement with respect to the said toweling, to 
permit the application to such products of the original 
rate of duty imposed thereon under paragraph 1010 of 
the Tariff Act of 1930, is necessary to remedy the serious 
injury to the said domestic industry ; and 

7. Whereas upon the withdrawal of the said conces- 
sion the rate of duty which will apply to the said towel- 
ing will be 40 per centum ad valorem : 

Now, therefore, I, DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, Presi- 
dent of the United States of America, acting under the au- 
thority vested in me by section 350 of the Tariff Act of 
1930, as amended, and section 7 (c) of the Trade Agree- 
ments Extension Act of 1951, and in accordance with the 
provisions of Article XIX of the said General Agreement, 
do proclaim that, effective after the close of business 
July 25, 1956, and until otherwise proclaimed by the 
President, the duty concession granted in the said General 
Agreement with respect to toweling (i. e. fabrics chiefly 
used for making towels) of flax, hemp, or ramie, or of 
which these substances or any of them is the component 
material of chief value, described in item 1010 in Part 
I of Schedule XX (original) of the said General Agree- 
ment, shall be withdrawn, and Proclamation No. 2761A 
of December 16, 1947, shall be suspended insofar as it ap- 
plies to the said toweling described in the said item 1010. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and caused the seal of the United States of America to 
be aflixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this twenty-fifth day 
of June in the year of our Lord nineteen hun- 

[SEAL] dred and fifty-six, and of the Independence of 
the United States of America the one hundred 
and eightieth. 

By the President: 
John Foster Dulles 
Secretary of State. 



116 



Department of State Bulletin 



Changes in Greek Tariff Rates 
on Automobiles and Trucks 

Press release 372 dated July 5 

Changes in the Greek tariff rates on automobiles 
and trucks negotiated between the United 
States and Greece were approved by the President 
on June 21. 

In 1955 Greece notified the Contracting Parties 
to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
that it wished to modify, under procedures con- 
tained in article XXVIII of the agreement, tariff 
concessions it had extended on 59 items. (Con- 
cessions are agreements to reduce tariff rates or 
"bindings," that is, agreements not to increase rates 
beyond a stated level.) In accordance with nor- 
mal procedures, Greece then entered into negotia- 
tions with the countries to which it had originally 
granted the 59 concessions, in order to agree upon 
new concessions as compensation. 

Only one of the 59 concessions — that on trucks 
and their trailers — had been negotiated originally 
with the United States. It was proposed to in- 
crease the basic rate of duty in this instance from 
3 to 10 percent. (In addition to the basic rate of 
duty there is in the Greek tariff a surcharge of 75 
percent of the basic duty.) Greek imports of 
trucks and their trailers from the United States 
in 1954 amounted to $430,000. Imports of the 
other 58 items from the United States in the same 
year were estimated at $2.5 million, the most im- 
portant being galvanized sheet iron, certain tex- 
tiles, and lumber. 

The new negotiations between Greece and the 
United States resulted in (1) breaking down the 
original category of "trucks and their trailers" 
into four items which will be treated separately 
for tariff purposes; and (2) a liberalization of the 
Greek tariff on automobiles. 

It was agreed that the basic rate on "trucks with 
driver's cabs only" would be increased to 6 per- 
cent only. This item accounts for virtually all of 
the Greek truck imports from the United States. 
"Complete trucks," on which the duty was raised 
to 10 percent, come principally from Europe. 

The basic rate on "trucks and their trailers" was 
increased to 10 percent, but the words "not else- 
where specified" were added as a safeguard against 
future specification of additional types of trucks 
separately at higher rates of duty. 

The Greek Govermnent also agreed that the 



basic rate on "panel trucks," used widely in 
Greece as passenger vehicles, would not be allowed 
to rise above 15 percent, the rate applicable to 
passenger automobiles of similar characteristics. 
The value of this concession is completely in the 
future since the present rate applied to these trucks 
is 10 percent. The concession was offered vol- 
untarily and in addition to those sought by the 
United States. 

Compensation was negotiated also on passenger 
automobiles weighing more than 800 kilogi-ams. 
Previously the dividing line between a 15 and a 
23 percent duty was an f.o.b. value of $1,300. 
In the negotiations it was agreed that the ceiling 
of the 15 percent category would be raised to 
$1,400. As a consequence, the types of American 
automobiles eligible for the 15 percent duty have 
been substantially increased. Greek imports of 
automobiles from the United States in 1954 were 
slightly more than $2 million. 

The new duties outlined above became effective 
on June 12, 1956. 

In addition to these direct concessions, the 
United States will benefit from concessions made 
to other countries. Their value cannot be deter- 
mined, however, until they come fully into effect. 



ICA To Assist Projects 
in Ceylon 

The International Cooperation Administration 
on June 29 announced that the United States will 
assist four development projects in Ceylon under a 
cooperative agreement signed on April 28, 1956. 

IcA said that $5,000,000 in fiscal 1956 economic 
and technical assistance funds has now been al- 
lotted to assist Ceylon, including projects for the 
improvement of its railway system, the develop- 
ment of power and irrigation projects, the ex- 
pansion of Ceylon University, and agricultural 
extension services. 

Projects receiving aid are as follows : 

$1,875,000 for the purchase of 15 Diesel loco- 
motives as part of a move to modernize Ceylon's 
railway services. Ceylon will allot local currency 
(rupees) to the equivalent of $1,860,000 to carry 
out other phases of the project. 

$1,824,000 worth of construction equipment, 
supplies, and technical assistance to supjiort the 



July 16, 1956 



117 



construction of irrigation projects and related 
maintenance facilities. Ceylon's expenditure for 
this work will amount to the rujjee equivalent 
of approximately $5,000,000. 

$581,200 for University of Ceylon expansion 
programs. Ceylon's share in this program is esti- 
mated at about $1,000,000. 

$75,000 to be used for supplies and equipment 
for govermnent agricultural research and exten- 
sion centers on which Ceylon will spend the rupee 
equivalent of $3,733,000. 

In addition, $35,000 has been made available 
for tlie purchase of scientific and professional 
equipment to assist the Ceylon Institute for Scien- 
tific and Industrial Research. Tliis is a nonprofit 
organization established by Ceylonese legislation 
in 1955 which provides advisory services to both 
private industry and government on questions of 
applied industrial research and productivity. 

The remaining allocations cover costs of U.S. 
technical staffs, freight charges, grants to Cej'- 
lonese for visits to the United States, and other 
program costs. 

Railway Facilities. The 15 new Diesel locomo- 
tives, plus special four-coach units to be built with 
Ceylonese funds, will meet in large measure the 
urgent need for improved and expanded railway 
facilities into Colombo, capital of Ceylon. 

Through these improved facilities, Colombo, 
important center of the nation's commerce and 
industry, will be better able to handle the large 
number of persons traveling daily into the city and 
will provide faster clearance of goods through 
Colombo's port. 

Use of Diesel equipment is expected to bring 
about major operational savings for the Ceylon 
Government Railways, particularly througli the 
replacement of overage steam locomotives. 

Irrigation Projects. The American funds for 
these projects will assist Ceylon to expand and 
quicken the work pace of irrigation and linked 



facilities already under way or in the planning . 
stages. 

The construction of such projects is of vital con- 
cern to Ceylon since they will provide land and 
livelihood to thousands of farm families now land- 
less and will establish focal points for the develop- 
ment of new rural communities. 

The overall plan of the Ceylon Government for 
the construction and development of irrigation 
provides for a total of 123,000 acres of new lands 
to be brought luider irrigation by 1962. 

University Expansion. American funds will 
contribute to the broadening of Ceylon Univer- 
sity's agricultural and engineering facilities and 
the introduction of additional technical and prac- 
tical research courses in the school of science. 

Because of current shortages of Ceylonese tech- 
nicians, engineers, research scientists, designers, 
and agricultural and industrial specialists, the ex- 
pansion of existing educational and training fa- 
cilities in these fields is a prerequisite to the de- 
velopment of the economic and agi'icultural base 
of the country. 

Agricultural Extension Services. Ceylonese ef- 
forts are now directed toward full coordination of 
the various agricultural research, education, and 
extension programs and widening training facili- 
ties for government agricultural administrators, 
technicians, farming advisers, and the farmers 
themselves. 

Eii'orts are also directed toward strengthening 
programs designed to guide farm women in prob- 
lems of improving farm living conditions. 

U.S. funds will be made available in the future 
to send a team of high-level Ceylonese agi'icultural 
and educational leaders on visits to the United 
States and Japan to study integrated agricultural 
programs. 

As a related part of this phase of the project, 
I^rovision lias been made to send two U.S. senior 
agricultural educatore to Ceylon to assist in this 
program. 



118 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Dedication of Plaque Honoring Korean War Dead 



; A plaque in jnemory of the men loho died in 
' Korea in the service of the United Nations was 
dedicated at United Nations Headquarters on June 
21. Folloimng are texts of statements tnade at the 
ceremony hy U.N. Secretary-General Dag Ilam- 
marskjold ; E. Roiuild Walker, Australian Repre- 
sentative to the United Nations and President of 
the Security Cowncil during June; and Henry 
Cabot Lodge, Jr., U.S. Representative to the 
United Nations, loho spoke on behalf of the 16 
U.N. member states who sent troops to Korea. 



STATEMENT BY MR. HAMMARSKJOLD 

"We meet here to dedicate this plaque inscribed 
*'In grateful remembrance of the men of the 
Armed Forces of Member States who died in Ko- 
rea in the service of the United Nations 
1950-1953." 

"In grateful remembrance of the men" — it is the 
individuals we honor with this plaque. But it is 
fitting that the organization in whose service they 
gave their lives is here represented first by the 
President of the Security Council, which assumed 
the main responsibility. Those who gave their 
lives came from many countries. Ambassador 
Lodge is on this occasion representing not only 
those from his own country — as we know% they 
were the great majority — but all who made their 
personal sacrifice, irrespective of their nationality. 

An occasion such as this one is a poignant re- 
minder that behind every historic action, national 
or international, is the individual human being, 
each giving of his courage and his devotion. Those 
whom we honor today were called upon by their 
governments to fight, as loyal citizens of their own 



countries, for a common cause. In devoted service 
they made the supreme sacrifice. 

To their memory it is fitting that we should pay 
simple and humble tribute. We cannot recall the 
lives they gave, and only in a small and imperfect 
measure can we share the grief of those they loved 
and left behind. But in paying them honor we 
can resolve to remember always their example of 
selfless sacrifice. In the memoi-y of their devotion 
we can find cause to renew our own. In the mem- 
ory of their sei'vice, we can seek to be worthy 
in our lives to the building of a jjeace that will 
endure. 



STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR WALKER 

We are about to unveil a memorial to the men of 
the United Nations forces who died in Korea. As 
President of the Security Council, I consider it 
a privilege to pay tribute to those brave men who, 
at the call of the United Nations, took up arms 
to resist aggression and gave their own lives so 
that others might live in freedom. 

The countries that contributed forces to the 
United Nations effort and suffered losses in Ko- 
rea can of coui-se never forget the extremely heavy 
sacrifices which were borne by the people of the 
United States nor the leadership and generous co- 
operation which the United States gave to all who 
i-allied to this United Nations cause. I consider 
it is particularly fitting therefore that the Per- 
manent Eepresentative of the United States should 
also speak to us in today's ceremony on behalf of 
all the comitries which gave the men in whose 
memory we dedicate this plaque. 

This occasion recalls many vivid memories for 



July 16, 7956 



119 



me personally. As Australian representative on 
Uncurk [U.N. Commission for the Unification 
and Eehabilitation of Korea] last year and as 
Ambassador to Japan for some years, it has been 
my privilege to know many of the men of the 
various components of the United Nations forces 
— in Korea, in bases and hospitals in Japan, and 
in the United Nations Headquarters in Tokyo. 
These men shared a noble comradeship that tran- 
scended all differences in nationality, in tongue, 
and in race and will long be an inspiration to 
those who observed it or experienced it. 

Not long ago I stood in the beautiful United 
Nations cemetery on the outskirts of Pusan, 
where the hills look down on the fields of silent 
graves. Some countries, such as the United States, 
have brought their dead home, while the men of 
other countries have found their last resting place 
in the land for whose freedom they have fought, 
beneath the flag of the United Nations, beneath 
their own national flags and the flags of their 
comrades in arms flown in honor of all the fallen. 
For me as an Australian, it was especially im- 
pressive, when visiting the graves of my own coun- 
trymen and our kinsmen of the Commonwealth, 
to lift my eyes to the neighboring rows of Turkish 
graves and the other United Nations gi'aves 
beyond. 

Today in the headquarters of the United Na- 
tions we honor the memory of all these men and 
we share the grief of those who mourn them, 
whether here or in distant lands. The fallen be- 
long to their own people, but they belong also to 
us all. Their lives and their sacrifice were dedi- 
cated not only to their own countries but also to 
that wider loyalty which in time to come will 
unite all men and women into one peaceful family. 
We shall not forget them. 



STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR LODGE 

The United States of America was the Unified 
Command during the fighting in Korea, and it is 
accordingly my privilege to speak on behalf of the 
16 member states who contributed troops, that is. 



Australia, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Ethiopia, 
France, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, 
New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, 
the Union of South Africa, the United Kingdom, 
and the United States of America. With the 
men of the Kepublic of Korea, who carried such 
a large part of the load, these men carried on the 
fighting, sustained the losses, and won the victory. 

The passage of time since these men died has 
made it all the clearer that this victory was worth 
winning. At stake was the very existence of this 
organization, the United Nations. At stake was 
the question of whether peace-loving nations could 
band themselves together to repel a ruthless and 
unprincipled aggression or whether the doctrine 
that might makes right would triumph and, hav- 
ing triumphed in Korea, would then, without 
much doubt, spread to the rest of the world. 
Stated in the simplest terms, such was the issue. 

The men whom we remember here today faced 
this issue. They proved their capacity to endure 
and to conquer. They won their war — and they 
preserved for us the chance to go forward. Their 
sacrifice reminds us that we do not measure man's 
life by its length but by its height. Indeed, the 
English poet Ben Jonson saw this long ago when 
he said : 

It Is not growing like a tree, 

In bulk, doth make man better be ; 

Or standing long an Oak, three hundred year, 

To fall a log at last, dry, bald and sere : 

A Lily of a day 

Is fairer far in May, 

Although it fall and die that nisht ; 

It was the plant and flower of light. 

In small proportions we just beauties see : 

And in short measures life may perfect be. 

For the future let the memories of our United 
Nations dead inspire us with the thought that the 
very existence of the United Nations must always 
depend on the willingness of the members to back 
up words by deeds — and in some cases by the blood 
of our sons. 

It is fitting indeed that we here, in the presence 
of the highest ranking officials of the United Na- 
tions, should bow our heads in prayer, as we have 
just done, and that we should for these great ends 
dedicate this plaque. 



120 



Department of State Bulletin 



Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 



Statem.ent hy Delmas H. Nucker 

U.S. Special Representative in the Trusteeship Council ^ 



My appearance before the Trusteeship Council 
this year has been a stimulating experience. A 
variety of ideas — some of which involve very 
fundamental policies — have been propounded by 
various members of the Council. Such an ex- 
change of ideas is a useful and interesting 
experience. 

I believe it is fair to say that many of the sug- 
gestions that have been made by members of the 
Council have stemmed from the report of the 
Visiting Mission.^ In my opening statement ^ I 
commented upon our pleasure at having the Mis- 
sion visit with us in the trust territory and being 
able to discuss our problems and policies with its 
members. Because of the very short time between 
our receipt of the Mission's report and my appear- 
ance here, I did not undertake to make detailed 
comments upon the Mission's recommendations. I 
believe, liowever, that during the questioning 
period I have been asked to comment upon virtu- 
ally all of the recommendations. 

In answering questions that have been based 
upon the Mission's report, as well as in the re- 
marks of the members of the Council during the 
general debate, I think there have been clearly 
brought fortli some honest differences of opinion 
regarding the philosophies that guide our admin- 
istration of the Trust Territory of the Pacific 
Islands. I appreciate the opportunity now to com- 
ment upon these issues and upon some specific 
points of our various programs. 



* Made in the U.N. Trusteeship Council on June 27 
(U.S./U.N. press release 2429). Mr. Nucker is Acting 
High Commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific 
Islands. 

= U.N. doc. T/1255 dated June 19. 

" Bulletin of July 2, 1956, p. 35. 



Problems of Political Development 

I am j^leased that almost all members of the 
Council and the Visiting Mission have stated their 
recognition of the difficulty of creating in the 
whole of the trust territory a common territorial 
awareness of unity — or a feeling of need to join 
togetlier to solve certain problems. We have, 
nevertheless, been urged to take measures to more 
rapidly educate the people in this direction. The 
Visiting Mission has noted that various factors, 
such as education at the Pacific Islands Central 
School, will accelerate the feeling of unity. 

I would also reiterate that the proposed confer- 
ence of Micronesian leaders to be held in August 
in Guam is one of the steps we are taking to create 
among the people of the various parts of the ter- 
ritory a realization of some of the common prob- 
lems facing the different districts and the common 
approaches being taken by our staff in the solution 
of those problems. 

"VVliile we are thoroughly appreciative of the 
feelings that have been expressed for the rapid 
creation of a feeling of unity and then a central 
political body for all of the territory, I feel that 
I should reemphasize that the administration is 
still firmly of the opinion that the soundest polit- 
ical growth for the people is through the mu- 
nicipalities and the districts. Moreover, the rate 
of progress must, in our view, be geared to the 
pace at which the people themselves are prepared 
and willing to accept new institutions and to ad- 
just their customs and traditions to them without 
creating voids and unbalances in the way of life 
that has become admirably adjusted to life on 
these small and relatively isolated islands. 

Lack of uniformity comes from the wishes of 
the peojale and is no detriment to any future cen- 



Jo/y 76, 1956 



121 



tral government. The States of the United States, 
for instance, vary — some have single-house legis- 
latures, some have two houses. The terms of mem- 
bers differ — salaries differ widely. Yet the United 
States is unified. 

It has been stated that it would be wise to 
greatly speed up a centralized political develop- 
ment in Micronesia. This implies the wisdom of 
an imposition of Western techniques and uniform- 
ity of methods in such development. 

Few individuals in this world enjoy being sub- 
jected to imposition. Most individuals enjoy and 
appreciate participation, particularly in matters 
affecting their political, social, and economic lives, 
not only today but in the years to come. 

I am pleased that within the framework of this 
policy it appears that the people and leaders in the 
Ti'uk District are now rapidly approacliing the 
point where they will desire the establishment of a 
District Congress. This situation contrasts 
sharply with that of a few yeare ago when such 
a District Congress failed because of a lack of 
desire for it. 

The representative of Guatemala commented 
upon the shortness of the meetings of certain of 
the existing District Congresses. In partial ex- 
planation of this situation I would like to point 
out that the problem of travel by the members 
of these bodies is an important factor. Many of 
the members must spend considerable time in 
travel to and from the meetings and hence are 
sometimes reluctant to meet or are anxious to be- 
gin the return trip. The Congi'esses can them- 
selves, of course, determine the length of their 
meetings. Although I did agree to a request from 
the Marshallese Congress that they be excused 
from meeting this past year, we do intend, as a 
matter of policy, to encourage meetings of the 
Congresses at the intervals stated in the cliartei-s 
granted to them. 

The distinguished representative of India men- 
tioned the desirability of electing magistrates on a 
biannual basis. I agi'ee and am soi-ry that my 
replies to questions created a wrong impression. 
We elect on an annual and a biannual basis — not 
a 6 months' basis. 

Insofar as the move of the trust teii'itory head- 
quarters from Guam to a site within the trust 
territory, which the representative of New Zea- 
land and others have urged, we are thoroughly 
appreciative of the reasons for the proposal but, 



when we take into account all of the factors in- 
volved, we do not feel that the time for such a 
move has yet arrived. 

Several members of the Council have also urged 
that the Saipan District of the territory be brought 
back under the civilian administration of the rest 
of the territory. Here again the proposal is one 
that we can readily appreciate and understand. 
The transfer to Navy administration, however, 
was made after due consideration, and the Coun- 
cil may be sure that the Administering Authority 
will do its utmost to insure that the principles and 
purposes of the trusteeship agreement are carried 
out in the Saipan District. Coordination between 
my office and staff and the Navy staff will continue 
and will be made as effective as possible. 

Question of U.S. Appropriations 

One fundamental issue on which we have dif- 
fered with the Visiting Mission, and on which 
various members of this Council obviously have 
different opinions, has arisen from the statement 
of the Mission that the Administering Authority 
should increase its appropriations so that the de- 
velopment of the territory is not hampered. I 
think one of the difficulties in this statement arises 
from the use of the word "hampered." To anyone 
who has followed the administration of the terri- 
tory over the past 10 years, I believe the word 
would appear ill-chosen. The Council has itself 
noted annually in its review of conditions in the 
territory a steady progress in political, economic, 
educational, and medical fields. 

It is true that, if larger appropriations had been 
made available, we could have substantially in- 
creased our staff, could have built many buildings, 
could have embarked upon numerous additional 
economic experiments, and could so have over- 
administered the territory as to have created a 
facade of various programs, structures, and enter- 
prises that had no real foundation other than the 
subsidies paid into them. I cannot believe that 
this type of false economy and overadministra- 
tion would have been in the best interests of the 
Micronesian people. Unless the size of the ad- 
ministration is in proportion to the need and the 
economic life of the territory is firmly founded 
on productivity, the dependency of the area is 
increased because it will never be able to support 
the artificially high standards created by over- 
subsidization. 



122 



Department of State Bulletin 



The level of appropriation is, to my mind, one of 
judgment and balance. Opinions on the subject 
obviously differ. I do not, however, believe that 
the past level of appropriations has hampered the 
development of the territory. Furthermore, I 
firmly believe that the amount of subsidization 
should and must be related to the needs of Micro- 
nesia — not to the Administering Authority's ap- 
praisal of the security value of the area. While 
recognizing the security significance of Micro- 
nesia, Congress has approved the Administering 
Authority's appropriation requests on the basis of 
helping Micronesia, not on the basis of buying 
security insurance for the United States. 

Transportation Difficulties 

Most members of the Council have commented 
upon the need to improve the transportation in the 
area. This has long been a problem of major con- 
cern to us and one in which we feel we have been 
making substantial progress. Our improvement 
program is, of course, not completed. We have 
entered upon the phase in which we are promot- 
ing and encouraging the trading companies and 
others to take over the transportation within the 
various districts. The Marshall Islands Import- 
Export Company has just taken delivery of a vessel 
which it was able to have constructed as a result of 
a loan made to it by the Trust Territory Govern- 
ment. This same company is already operating 
two other vessels that it has chartered from the 
Government. Similar developments are antici- 
pated in other districts, and substantial improve- 
ment in transportation services will result. 

Also in the field of transportation, attention has 
been drawn to the condition of our roads in the 
territory. I might say parenthetically that the 
greatest use of these roads is by the administration 
itself in the area of the district centers. The 
Trust Territory Government recognizes its respon- 
sibility for these roads that are of primary com- 
mercial use and is working to improve them. 

Availability of Capital 

In connection with the mining of bauxite on 
Babeldaup and the development of small indus- 
tries, the representative of Haiti raised a point 
regarding the introduction of foreign capital, the 
availability of local capital, and the nature of the 
economy in the territory. During the questioning 



period I believe I said in response to an inquiry 
that the economy of Yap is not essentially a 
money economy. I believe that the distinguished 
representative of Haiti misinterpreted that reply 
as applying to the entire territory. Taking the 
territory as a whole there is a reliance on a money 
economy along with subsistence agriculture. 
There is, therefore, available capital in the terri- 
tory for small undertakings. The local trading 
companies, for instance, have been financed by 
small purchases of stock by many people. As a 
matter of preference we would rather take a little 
longer to launch an enterprise if it can be done 
with Micronesian money than to bring in outside 
investors with the result that the Micronesians 
benefit only from the creation of jobs and wage 
income, for which there is no great need at this 
point. We agree that various economic enter- 
prises will be needed to further increase the mone- 
tary income of the people and the territory. The 
difference arises, I believe, in whether we should 
plunge ahead rapidly to create subsidized eco- 
nomic activity for its own sake or relate new eco- 
nomic enterprises to the needs of the area and 
create them by, for, and with the Micronesians. 
Our preference is definitely the latter course, and 
it is against this approach that we are assessing 
and exploring new economic enterprises. 

It is my hope that our new fisheries biologist 
will enable us to improve and increase the pro- 
ductivity of the territory in marine resources. Ini- 
tial attention is being given to trochus and other 
shellfish of possible economic import. Subse- 
quently, studies will be made in the fields of reef 
fishing and deep-sea fishing. 

The Visiting Mission and various members of 
the Council have commented upon the need for 
additional effort in the agricultural field. As I 
mentioned in response to questions on this point, 
our agricultural staff has been doubled within the 
past 18 months because we had recognized that 
increased emphasis on both subsistence and ex- 
port agriculture was needed. I believe that, as 
tliis expanded agricultural team draws up its pro- 
gram and begins its coordinated efforts in execu- 
tion of the program, the agricultural situation will 
be much improved. 

Attention has been directed to the statistics in 
regard to land holdings in the territory as a result 
of the repetition in the Visiting Mission's report 
of the same figure for public-domain holdings as 



July 16, 1956 



123 



had been used by the administration 2 years ago. 
This would seem to indicate that no progress has 
been made in returning lands to the Micronesians. 
In reviewing the problem, however, I believe it is 
fair to say that since the 1954 report to the United 
Nations more than ten square miles of public- 
domain lands have been returned or made avail- 
able to the Micronesians. Moreover, a sizable por- 
tion of the public-domain land is nonarable. Such 
of the public domain as is arable will be made 
available to the Micronesians through our home- 
steading program or otherwise. 

Educational Program 

I have followed closely and with much interest 
the comments made by the various rej^resentatives 
of the Council with respect to our educational pro- 
gram. I am in full agreement with the oft- 
repeated comment that, unless a sound education 
system is developed, other programs of the terri- 
tory cannot rest on a solid foundation. 

It has been suggested by the Visiting Mission 
that perhaps too heavy a burden has been j)laced 
in too short a time on the local municipalities by 
making them resijonsible for all elementary edu- 
cation. The representative from Guatemala has 
recommended that more aid should be given in the 
form of American schoolteachers as well as finan- 
cial subsidies for school buildings and equipment. 
It has been our firm belief that any worthwhile 
program of elementary education must stem from 
the local community itself. The limited poten- 
tials of the territory to develop economically 
would, it seems to me, make mandatory the de- 
velopment of a pattern of local education which 
can be correlated into the existing social and eco- 
nomic structure of the area. With this as a guide- 
line, we are aiding and encouraging the Micro- 
nesians to develop a local system of education 
within their own means of support. I would like 
to point out though that we are suj^porting and 
encouraging this local elementary school system in 
larger measure than might appear from reading a 
general account of our educational program. We 
are concentrating on using our American teachers 
as teacher-trainers for local elementary teachers; 
this program will be greatly expanded during the 
coming year. Production of text material suitable 
for local use is being accelerated ; financial subsidy 
for school buildings can now be secured through 
a matching fund arrangement, .tn short, in many 



indirect ways we are providing major support to 
the local elementary school program. 

Vocational education is receiving additional 
support by strengthening our inservice work pro- 
gram. Trained vocational experts have and will 
continue to be recruited to push this program for- 
ward. Our new Pacific Islands Central School 
also will have a strong vocational training pro- 
gram as part of its new curriculum. 

I appreciate the report made by the Unesco* 
and the amplifying comments made by the Unesco 
representative. I would like to assure the Council 
that the reports of the Unesco will be studied care- 
fully by our educators. 

The representative of Burma has noted that 
birth and mortality rates were not highlighted in 
our annual report. In this connection, I would 
like to point out a resume of birth and death sta- 
tistics has been included on page 135 of the 1955 
annual report.^ This past year our health statis- 
tician has developed a systematic reporting sys- 
tem for vital statistics throughout the territory, 
and I can assure the members of the Council that 
next year's report will have greater detail on this 
aspect. I might also mention that at the present 
time plans are being formulated for the conduct- 
ing of a territorywide census early in 1957, a 
census in which international standards will be 
closely adhered to so as to make our statistics more 
readily usable for comparative purposes. 

I was pleased to note the favorable comments 
made by the various representatives on our over- 
all health and medical program for this is one in 
which I feel the trust territory has made sig- 
nificant progress. This coming year we are plan- 
ning to expand our program of improving the 
out-island health-aide system so as to bring more 
of the benefits of the district health pattern into 
the more remote areas. This will be done by a 
program of training and refresher courses at our 
hospitals for health aides as well as expanding our 
medical field-trip programs. The implementa- 
tion of a territorywide BCG vaccination program 
will, we hope, enable us to gain even better control 
over tuberculosis. 

Additional medical practitioners are being 
trained. Three new candidates are ready for the 
Suva school this year, and our medical director has 
hopes that he may expand the number to five. 



^U.N. doc. T/1254. 
'V.N. doc. T/1244. 



124 



Department of State Bulletin 



Our postgraduate medical training program at 
hospitals in Hawaii will continue. The Visiting 
Mission report commented that the next step 
should be full-fledged medical university train- 
ing. As members of this Council know, to qual- 
ify for such training a university degree is a 
prerequisite. I assure the Council that we are 
looking forward to the day when enough young 
Micronesians will have reached this goal to allow 
us to launch such a program. 

Land Claims 

While I have desired to report fully in answer 
to questions on our plans for the displaced per- 
sons within our areas, I would like to reassure the 
Council again that all possible steps are being 
taken to remedy problems that have arisen. The 
logistic situation of Ujelang will be measurably 
imi^roved with the operation of a new intradistrict 
boat in the Marshalls. The Ujelangese land 
claims to Eniwetok will, I hope, be satisfactorily 
met within the next few months. 

Similar land claims of the ex-Bikinians now 
on Kili also should be satisfactorily met within 
the space of the next 2 months. While the Kili 
boat and Jabwor project has been slow in progress, 
it now has been activated and will, I feel, im- 
measurably add to the Kilians' welfare. The 
representative of Guatemala has commented that 
his delegation has noted that plans for the Jaluit 
project for Kili appear to have shifted somewhat 
and that this perhaps might add a disquieting 
factor to the program. I would like to point out 
that the plans for the Kili-Jaluit project are for- 
mulated in cooperation with the Marshallese-Kili 
project manager and the Kili Council and reflect 
the desires of the Kili people. I feel a project of 
this nature to succeed must have the full coopera- 
tion of the people themselves, and I fully hope 
that the Administering Authority will at all times 
maintain a flexible attitude so it can meet the needs 
and desires of the Kilians in solving problems 
that may arise in their readjustment. 

We are looking forward to the early return of 
the Rongelap people to their home atoll. I assure 
the Council that this move from Ejit to Rongelap 
will be carefully planned and that all steps will 
be taken to make the resettlement and adjustment 
as smooth as possible. 

Mr. President, in conclusion may I thank the 
members of the Council for their courtesy and the 



generous and kind personal comments that have 
been made to me. As I previously said, the ability 
to exchange views in this atmosphere is of tre- 
mendous value. I feel that each of the distin- 
guished representatives is motivated by a desire 
to help the Micronesians and to improve their self- 
sufficiency. May I assure the Council that this, 
too, is the aim of the Administering Authority. 

U.S. Views on Consideration 
of Algerian Question 

8tatement ty Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. 
U.S. Representative to the United Nations ^ 

The problem of Algeria is assuredly complex 
and its solution is at best not likely to be easy. 

But we here as members of an organization hav- 
ing a strongly humanitarian impulse must care 
deeply about every single individual in Algeria, 
even though some of these individuals may be in 
bitter conflict with each other. I say this because 
nothing that is human can be a matter of indiffer- 
ence to us. 

We all look to the day which we hope is not far 
distant when a liberal and just solution will be 
found which should enable all the people in Al- 
geria to live and work together in peace and har- 
mony. I am sure that we would not wish to take 
any action or conduct ourselves in such a way as 
to impede the attainment of the objective we all 
desire. 

Algeria is clearly in an evolutionary stage. 
There are bound to be differences of opinion at 
such a time as this as to what constitutes a satis- 
factory settlement of the Algerian question. But 
the concern of the United States is that a truly 
constructive solution for all should be found as 
soon as possible. 

Mr. President, the United States has considered 
carefully all of the factors involved, and we have 
concluded that consideration by the Security 
Council of this situation at this time would not 
contribute to a solution. That is why I shall have 
to vote against the adoption of this item.^ 



^Made in the Security Council on June 26 (U.S./U.N. 
press release 2427). 

= On June 26 the Security Council, Iiy a vote of 2 
(U.S.S.R. and Iran) to 7, with 2 abstentions (China and 
Yugoslavia), rejected a request (U.N. doe. S/3609) from 
13 Asian and African nations that the Algerian question 
be placed on the Council agenda. 



Ju/y 76, J 956 



125 



U.S. Delegations to 
International Conferences 

International Conference on Public Education 

The Department of State announced on July 5 
(press release 371) that the U.S. Government will 
be represented at the forthcoming International 
Conference on Public Education at Geneva, 
Switzerland, by the following delegates : 

Finis B. Engleman, Chairman, State Commissioner of 
Education, Hartford, Conn. 

Kenneth E. Brown, Specialist for Mathematics, U.S. OJRce 
of Education 

Gerald B. Leighbody, Associate Superintendent, Division 
of Instructional Services, Board of Education, Buffalo, 
N.Y. 

Frederika M. Tandler, Specialist, International Educa- 
tional Relations, U.S. Office of Education 

Convened jointly by the International Bureau 
of Education and the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco), 
tlie 19th International Conference on Public Edu- 
cation will meet July 9-17, 1956. Representatives 
from 83 countries, including the United States, 
have been invited to participate in the conference. 
The agenda consists of the following items: (1) 
school inspection; (2) the teaching of mathe- 
matics in secondary schools; and (3) reports on 
the progress of education during the year 1955-56 
presented by the Ministries of Education. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 

General Assembly 

UNREP Executive Committee. Annex to the UNKEF Re- 
vised Plan of Operations (1956). A/AC.79/21 Annex, 
December 9, 1955. 33 pp. mimeo. 

International Law Commission. International Responsi- 
bility. Report by F. V. Garcia-AmaUor, Special Rap- 
porteur. A/CN.4/96. January 20, 1956. 175 pp. 
mimeo. 

UNREF Executive Committee. Refugee Problems in 
Jordan, the Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, Iran and Turkey. 
A/AC.79/26, January 24, 1956. 9 pp. mimeo. 

International Law Commission. Questions Relating to 
the Law of the Sea. Report to be submitted to the 
General Assembly at its Eleventh Session. By 
J. P. A. Frangois. A/CN.4/97, January 27, 1956. 32 pp. 
mimeo. 

UNREP Executive Committee. Financial Rules for Vol- 
untary Funds [revised on 25 January 1956]. 
A/AC.79/10/Rev. 1, February 1, 1956. 8 jip. mimeo. 

Report on the Second Session of the UNREF Executive 



Committee (Geneva, 23-27 January 1956). A/AC.79/28, , 
February 2, 1956. 40 pp. mimeo. 

International Law Commission. Codification of the In- 
ternational Law relating to Diplomatic Intercourse and 
Immunities (Memorandum prepared by the Secre- 
tariat). A/CN.4/9S, February 21, 1956. 117 pp. 
mimeo. 

Information From Non-Self-Governing Territories : Sum- 
mary and Analysis of Information Transmitted Under 
Article 73 e of the Charter. Report of the Secretary- 
General. Caribbean Territories: Bahamas, Barbados, 
Bermuda, British Guiana, Jamaica, Trinidad and To- 
bago. A/3111, March 2, 1956. 125 pp. mimeo. 

International Law Commission. Comments by govern- 
ments on the provisional articles concerning the regime 
of the high seas and the draft articles on the regime of 
the territorial sea adopted by the International Law 
Commission at its Seventh Session. A/Cn.4/99, March 
12, 1956. 49 pp. mimeo. 

Provisional Agenda of the Eleventh Regular Session of the 
General Assembly : Item proposed by Greece. Appli- 
cation, under the auspices of the United Nations, of 
tlie principle of equal rights and self-determination of 
peoples in the case of the population of the Island of 
Cyprus. Letter dated 13 March 1956 addressed to the 
Secretary-General by the Permanent Representative of 
Greece to the United Nations. A/3120, March 13, 1956. 
1 p. mimeo. 

International Law Commission. Report on the Law of 
Treaties by G. G. Fitzniaurice, Special Rapporteur. 
A/CN.4/101, March 14, 1956. 76 pp. mimeo. 

Information Prom Non-Self-Governing Territories: Sum- 
mary and Analysis of Information Transmitted Under 
Article 73 e of the Charter. Report of the Secretary- 
General. Pacific Territories : American Samoa ; Cook, 
Niue and Tokelau Islands: Fiji; Gilbert and Felice 
Islands ; Guam ; Hawaii ; New Hebrides ; Pitcairn Is- 
land : Solomon Islands. A/3112, April 11, 1956. 133 
pp. mimeo. 

Information From Non-Self-Governing Territories : Sum- 
mary and Analysis of Information Transmitted Under 
Article 73 e of the Charter. Report of the Secretary- 
General. Summarv of Information on Alaska. 
A/3114/Add.l, April 12, 1956. 23 pp. mimeo. 

UNREF Executive Committee. Tentative Target and 
Country Allocations For the Revi.sed Plan of Operations 
(1957). (Submitted by the High Commissioner). 
A/AC.79/31, April 13, 1956. 21 pp. mimeo. 

Information From Non-Self -Governing Territories : Sum- 
mary and Analaysis of Information Transmitted under 
Article 73 e of the Charter. Report of the Secretary- 
General. Caribbean Territories : British Honduras, 
Leeward Islands, United States Virgin Islands. 
A/3111/Add.l, April 16, 1956. 54 pp. mimeo. 

UNREP Executive Committee. Memorandum on the Eli- 
gibility of Certain Categories of Refugees of German 
Ethnic Origin in Austria (Item submitted to the Com- 
mittee in its Advisory Capacity). A/AC.79/37, April 
17, 1956. 22 pp. mimeo. 

Information Prom Non-Self-Governing Territories : Sum- 
mary and Analysis of Information Transmitted Under 
Article 73 e of the Charter: Report of the Secretary- 
General. Jlediterranean Territories [Morocco and 
Tunisia]. A/3115, April 18, 1956. 94 pp. mimeo. 

Study of the Question of the Relationship of the Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Agency to the United Nations, 
Prepared by the Secretary-General in Consultation 
With the Advisory Committee On the Peaceful Uses of 
Atomic Energy at its Meetings From 27 March to 2 
April 1956. A/3122, April 20, 1956. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Information From Non-Self-Governing Territories ; Sum- 
ary and Analysis of Information Transmitted Under 
Article 73 e of the Charter. Report of the Secretary- 
Ccneral. Pacific Territories: Papua. A/3112/Add.l, 
May 1, 1956. 21 pp. mimeo. 

International Law Commission. Regime of the High 
Seas and Regime of the Territorial Sea. Addendum to 



126 



Department of State Bulletin 



the Report by J. P. A. Frangois, Special Rapporteur. 
Summary of replies from Governments and Conclusions 
of tlie Special liapporteur. A/CN.4/97/Add.l, May 1, 
1956. 24 iip. mimeo. 

Information From Non-Self-Governing Territories : Sum- 
mary and Analysis of Information Transmitted Under 
Article 73 e of tlie Charter. Report of the Secretary- 
General. I'acific Territories : Netherlands New Gui- 
nea. A/3112/Add.2, May 2, 1956. 18 pp. mimeo. 

Financial Statements of the United Nations Refugee Fund 
for the Year 1955 and the Report of the Hoard of Audi- 
tors Thereon (Note submitted by the High Commis- 
.sioner). A/AC.79/:53, May 2, 1956. 15 pp. mimeo. 

International Law Commission. Regime of the High Seas 
and Regime of the Territorial Sea. Addendum to tho Re- 
port by J. P. A. Frangois, Special Rapporteur. Sum- 
mary of replies from Governments and Conclu- 
sions of the Special Rapporteur (Continuation). 
A/CN.4/97/Add.2, May 4, 1956. 23 pp. mimeo. 

Interuatioual Law Commission. Regime of the High 
Seas, Supplementary Report. The Right of Interna- 
tional Organizations to Sail Vessels under their 
Flags, by J. P. A. Frangois, Special Rapporteur. 
.VCN.4/103, May 8, 1956. 4 pp. mimeo. 



Economic and Social Council 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. Re- 
port of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
United Nations. E/CN.11/417, December 15, 1955. 43 
pp. mimeo. 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far Bast. Report 
of the International Labour Organisation. E/CN.11/418, 
December 19, 1955. 25 pp. mimeo. 

The European Housing Situation. January 1956. 
E/ECE/HOU/57, E/ECE/221. 56 pp. printed. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



List of Treaties in Force 

Press release 376 dated July 6 

Treaties in Force: A List of Treaties and Other 
Intem<itioiial Agreements of the United States 
was released for publication by the Department of 
State on July 6. The publication lists treaties 
and other international agreements which were 
carried on the records of the Department as being 
in force between the United States and other coun- 
tries on October 31, 1955. It includes those 
treaties and other agreements which on that date 
had not been denounced by the parties, replaced or 
superseded by other agi'eements, or otherwise defi- 
nitely terminated. 

The list is arranged in two parts. Part 1 in- 
cludes bilateral treaties and other agreements 
listed by country, with subject headings under 



each country. Part 2 includes multilateral 
treaties and other agreements, arranged by sub- 
ject headings, together with lists of the countries 
which have become parties. Date of signature, 
date of entry into force for the United States, and 
citations to texts are given with each agreement 
listed. 

A consolidated tabulation of documents affect- 
ing international copyright relations of the United 
States is given in the appendix. 

Information on current treaty actions, supple- 
mentary to the information contained in Treaties 
in Force, is published weekly in the Department 
OF State Bulletin. 

Treaties in Force, Department of State publica- 
tion 6346 (234 pp.), is the first publication of 
its kind to be issued by the United States since 
1941. It is for sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D. C, for $1.25. 



Nortli Atlantic Ice Patrol 
Agreement Enters Into Force 

Press release 374 dated July 6 

The Department of State announced on July 6 
that the Agreement Regarding Financial Support 
of the North Atlantic Ice Patrol, opened for sig- 
nature at "Washington on January 4, 1956, entered 
into force July 5. 

The new agreement, which concerns the contri- 
butions of 11 countries supporting the Interna- 
tional Ice Patrol, will not affect the operation of 
the Ice Patrol itself but will bring about the dis- 
tribution of its cost ($461,566 for 1955) among 
participating countries based on the current fig- 
ures of the tonnage of their merchant shipping 
benefiting from the services of the patrol. The 
previous allocation of costs among contributing 
nations was based upon tonnage figures which are 
no longer applicable. Under the new agreement 
the contributions can be adjusted annually to con- 
form to changes in tonnage, including tlie addition 
of countries not previously contributing. 

The parties to the agreement are : Belgium, Can- 
ada, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, the Nether- 
lands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and 
the United States.^ 



' For further details regarding the agreement, see Bul- 
letin of Jan. 16, 1956, p. 105. 



Jo/y ?6, 7956 



127 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Aviation 

Protocol to amend the convention for the unification of 
certain rules relating to international carriage by air 
signed at Warsaw October 12, 1929 (49 Stat. 3000). 
Done at The Hague September 28, 1955. Enters into 
force 90 days after deposit of 30 instruments of ratifi- 
cation. 

Signatures: Belgium, Brazil, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, El 
Salvador, Prance. Federal Republic of Germany, 
Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Laos, Liecht- 
enstein, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, 
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
Venezuela, September 28, 1955 ; United Kingdom, 
March 23, 1956; United States, June 28, 1956. 

Fisheries 

Protocol amending the international convention for the 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries of February 8, 1949 (TIAS 
2089) by providing that annual meetings of the Inter- 
national Commission may be held outside North Amer- 
ica. Open for signature at Washington from June 25 
through July 9, 19.56. Enters into force on the date 
ratifications or adherences have been deposited by all 
the parties to the 1949 convention. 
Signatures: Canada, June 26, 1956 ; Italy, June 28, 1956 ; 

United Kingdom, June 29, 1956 ; Norway, Portugal, 

July 3, 1956 ; Spain, July 5, 1956. 

Narcotic Drugs 

Protocol for limiting and regulating the cultivation of the 
poppy plant, the production of, international and whole- 
sale trade in, and use of opium. Dated at New York 
June 23, 1953.' 
Accession deposited: Guatemala, May 29, 1956. 

North Atlantic Ice Patrol 

Agreement regarding financial support of the North At- 
lantic Ice Patrol. Opened for signature at Washington 
January 4, 1956. 
Signature: Canada, July 5, 1956. 
Entered into force: July 5, 1956. 

Trade and Commerce 

Sixth protocol of supplementary concessions to the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva 
May 23, 1956. Entered into force June 30, 1956. TIAS 
3591. 

Schedule of concessions entered into force: Turkey, 
June 30, 1956. 



BILATERAL 

Colombia 

Agreement amending the agreement of April 4, 1956, 
relating to the establishment of a meteorological station 
in Colombia. Effected by exchange of notes at Bogota 
June 7, 13, and 20, 1956. Enters into force upon entry 
into force of agreement of April 4, 1956. 

Germany 

Agreement amending the agreement for cooperation con- 
cerning civil uses of atomic energy of February 13, 
1956 (TIAS 3543). Signed at Washington June 29, 
1956. Enters into force on day on which each Gov- 
ernment receives from the other written notification 
that it has complied witli statutory and constitutional 
requirements. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sate bii the Suverintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may 6e o6- 
tained from the Department of State. 

The International Educational Exchange Program, 1955. 

Pub. 0323. International Information and Cultural Series 
46. 56 pp. 250. 

An illustrated pamphlet evaluating the program of the In- 
ternational Educational Exchange Service of the Depart- 
ment of State for the first 6 months of 1955. 

U.S. Policy in the Near East, South Asia, and Africa — 
1955. Pub. 6330. Near and Middle Eastern Series 20. 
63 pp. 25«!. 

A pamphlet by Harry N. Howard, U.N. Adviser for the 
Bureau of Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs, 
summarizing 1955 events in the Near East, South Asia, 
and Africa in relation to U.S. policy. Originally pub- 
lished in the Department of State Bulletin in three in- 
stallments. 

Our Quest for Peace and Freedom. Pub. 6337. General 
Foreign Policy Series 110. 25 pp. 150. 

Text of an address by Dwight D. Eisenhower, President 
of the United States, before the American Society of News- 
paper Editors at Washington, D. C, April 21, 1956. 



Guaranty of Private Investments. TIAS 3201. 
5902. 8 pp. 100. 



Pub. 



Agreement between the United States and Costa Rica. 
Exchange of notes — Signed at San Jos6 February 23 and 
25, 1955. Entered into force February 25, 1955. With 
related note dated February 26, 1955. 

Technical Cooperation — Agricultural Development Pro- 
gram. TIAS 3211. Pub. 5923. 18 pp. 150. 

Agreement between the United States and El Salvador — 
Signed at San Salvador March 21, 1955. Entered into 
force April 1, 1955. 



Education — Cooperative Program in Bolivia. 

Pub. 5925. 3 pp. 50. 



TIAS 3213. 



' Not in force. 



Agreement between the United States and Bolivia — Ex- 
tending agreement of November 22, 1950. Exchange of 
notes — Signed at La Paz February 25 and March 3, 1955. 
Entered into force March IS, 1955. 

Health and Sanitation — Cooperative Program in Bolivia. 

TIAS 3214. Pub. 5926. 3 pp. 50. 

Agreement lietween the United States and Bolivia — Ex- 
tending agreement of September 18 and October 7, 1950. 
Exchange of note.s — Signed at La Paz February 25 and 
March 3, 1955. Entered into force March 23, 1955. 

Technical Cooperation — Program of Rural Education. 
TIAS 3216. Pub. 60.54. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Haiti — Imple- 
menting agreement of May 28, 1954. Exchange of notes — 
Signed at Port-au-Prince January 28 and February 3, 1955. 
Entered into force February 9, 1955. 



128 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Food Production — Cooperative Program in Haiti. TIAS 

3217. Pub. G055. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Haiti — Extend- 
iiiu' agreement of September 18 and 27, 1950. Exchange 
ol notes — Signed at Port-au-Prince January 28 and Febru- 
ary 3, 1955. Entered into force March 24, 1955. 

Air Force Mission to Ecuador. TIAS 3219. Pub. 5933. 

3 pp. 50. 

Asreemeut lietween the United States and Ecuador — Ex- 
tending Military Aviation Mission Agreement of Decem- 
lier 12, 1940, as amended and extended. Exchange of 
iMtes — Signed at Washington May 10 and 23, 19."i5. En- 
tered into force May 23, 1955. Operative retroactively 
I )ecember 12, 1950. 

Army Mission to Ecuador. TIAS 3221. Pub. 5952. 3 
pp. 5<t. 

Agreement betveeen the United States and Ecuador — 
Amending and extending Military Mission Agreement of 
June 29, 1944, as amended and extended. Exchange of 
notes — Signed at Washington May 10 and 26, 1955. En- 
tered into force May 26, 1955. Operative retroactively 
September 21, 1952. 

Naval Mission to Cuba. TIAS 3222. Pub. 5977. 3 pp. 
50. 

Agreement hetv^een the United States and Cuba — Extend- 
ing agreement of August 28, 1951, as extended. Exchange 
of notes — Signed at Washington May 3, and 17, 1955. 
Entered into force May 17, 1955. 

Mutual Defense Assistance — Deposit of Belgian and 
Luxembourg Funds. TIAS 3223. Pub. 5936. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Belgium — 
Amending annex B of agreement of January 27, 1950. 
Exchange of notes — Signed at Brussels April 4 and 25, 
1955. Entered into force April 25, 1955. 

Health and Sanitation — Cooperative Program in Haiti. 
TIAS 3224. Pub. 6056. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Haiti — Extend- 
ing agreement of September IS and 27, 1950. Exchange 
of notes — Signed at Port-au-Prince Jauuary 28 and Febru- 
ary 3, 1955. Entered into force February 7, 1955. 

Relief Supplies and Equipment. TIAS 3225. Pub. 5938. 

4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Honduras. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Tegucigalpa March 21, 1955. 
Entered Into force March 21, 1955. 

Interchange of Patent Rights and Technical Information 
for Defense Purposes. TIAS 3226. Pub. 5939. 7 pp. 
100. 

Agreement, with agreed minutes to article V, between the 
United States and Norway — Signed at Oslo April 6, 1955. 
Entered into force April 6, 19.55. 

Financial Arrangements for Furnishing Certain Supplies 
and Services to Naval Vessels. TIAS 3227. Pub. 5949. 
7 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States and Peru — Signed 
at Lima January 7, 1955. Ekitered Into force April 7, 1955. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3228. Pub. 
5953. 5 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Israel — Signed 
at Washington April 29, 1955. Entered into force April 
29, 1955. 



Guaranty of Private Investments. TIAS 3230. Pub. 

5955. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Ecuador. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Washington March 28 and 29, 
1955. Entered Into force March 29, 1955. 

Mutual Security — Military and Economic Assistance. 

TIAS 3231. Pub. 5956. 7 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States and the Republic 
of the Philippines. Exchange of notes — Signed at Ma- 
nila April 27, 1955. Entered into force April 27, 1055. 

Emergency Relief Assistance. TIAS 3232. Pub. 5957. 
10 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States and Haiti. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Port-au-Prince March 22 and 
April 1, 1955. Entered Into force April 1, 1955. Operative 
retroactively October 15, 1954. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3234. Pub. 

60U9. 11 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States and Chile — Signed 
at Santiago January 27, 1955. Entered into force Jan- 
uary 27, 19.55. 

Financing Certain Educational Exchange Programs — 
Establishment of the Commission for Educational Inter- 
change. TIAS 3235. Pub. 6010. 10 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States and Chile — Signed 
at Santiago March 31, 1955. Entered into force March 
31, 1955. 

Health and Sanitation — Cooperative Program in Brazil. 

TIAS 3237. Pub. 6057. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Brazil — Ex- 
tending agreements of March 14, 1942 and December 27, 
1950, as amended and extended. Exchange of notes — 
Signed at Rio de Janeiro January 7 and February 8, 1955. 
Entered into force February 8, 1955. 

Technical Cooperation — Industrial Productivity Program, 

TIAS 323S. Pub. 6018. 33 pp. 150. 

Agreement between the United States and Mexico. Ex- 
change of notes — Dated at Mexico, D. F., March 9, 1955. 
Entered into force March 9, 1955. 



American Dead in World War IL TIAS 3239. 
3 pp. 50. 



Pub. 6266. 



Agreement between the United States and Belgium — Pro- 
visionally extending agreement of June 6 and July 23, 
1947, as modified. Exchange of notes — Signed at Brus- 
sels December 28, 1954, and January 7, 1955. Entered 
into force January 7, 1955. 

Productivity Program in Japan. TIAS 3241. Pub. 6019. 
9 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States and Japan. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Tokyo April 7, 1955. Entered 
Into force April 7, 1955. 

Defense — Facilities Assistance Program. TIAS 3243. 
Pub. 6023. 6 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Turkey. Ex- 
cliange of notes — Dated at Ankara April 25, 1955. En- 
tered into force April 25, 1955. With related aide- 
memoire — Dated at Ankara April 25, 1955. 

Technical Cooperation — Cooperative Program of Irriga- 
tion, Transportation and Industry. TIAS 3244. Pub. 
6038. 27 pp. 150. 



July 16, 1956 



129 



Agreement between the United States and Peru— Signed 
at Lima April 30, 1955. Entered into force April 30, 1955. 

Surplus Property— Settlement of Obligation of the Fed- 
eral Republic of Germany. TIAS 3245. Pub. 6248. 8 
pp. 10(f. 

Agreement between the United States and the Federal 
Republic of Germany. Exchange of notes — Dated at 
Washington March 11 and April 14, 1955. Entered into 
force April 19, 1955. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3247. Pub. 
6059. 17 pp. 15(«. 

Agreement between the United States and Argentina — 
Signed at Washington April 25, 1955. Entered into force 
April 25, 1955. With related note — Signed at Washington 
April 25, 1955. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3249. Pub. 
6062. 17 pp. 10<t. 

Agreement between the United States and Italy— Signed 
at Rome May 23, 1955. Entered Into force May 23, 1955. 
With related exchange of notes — Signed at Rome May 23, 

1955. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3251. Pub. 

6064. 5 pp. 5?!. 

Agreement between the United States and the Republic 
of Korea— Signed at Seoul May 31, 1955. Entered into 
force May 31, 1955. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities— Purchase of Addi- 
tional Wheat. TIAS 3252. Pub. 6065. 2 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and Yugoslavia. 
Exchange of letters — Signed at Belgrade May 12, 1955. 
Entered into force May 12, 1955. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities — Purchase of Addi- 
tional Wheat. TIAS 3253. Pub. 6060. 3 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and Yugoslavia — 
Amending agreement of January 5, 1955. Exchange of 
letters — Signed at Belgrade May 12, 1955. Entered into 
force May 12, 1955. 

Economic Aid to Yugoslavia — Special Project Expendi- 
tures. TIAS 3254. Pub. 6066. 3 pp. 5(J. 

Agreement between the United States and Yugoslavia. 
Exchange of letters — Signed at Belgrade May 12, 1955. 
Entered into force May 12, 1955. 

Economic Aid to Yugoslavia. TIAS. 32.55. Pub. 6024. 
3 pp. 5<}. 

Agreement between the United States and Yugoslavia. 
Exchange of letters— Signed at Belgrade May 12, 1955. 
Entered into force May 12, 1955. 

Defense — Facilities Assistance Program. TIAS 3256. 
Pub. 6031. 4 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and Greece. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Athens May 27, 1955. Entered 
into force May 27, 19.55. 

Mutual Defense Assistance — Extension of Facilities As- 
sistance Program. TIAS 3257. Puli. 6025. 4 pp. 5(1:. 

Agreement between the United States and Spain. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Madrid May 25, 1955. Entered 
into force May 25, 1955. 

Mutual Defense Assistance — Special Facilities Assistance 
Program. TIAS 3258. Pub. 6026. 7 pp. 10(*. 



Agreement between the United States and the Nether- 
lands. Exchange of notes — Signed at Tlie Hague April 
29,1955. Entered into force provisionally April 29, 1955; i 
definitively .Inly 1, 1955. 

Mutual Defense Assistance — Extension of Facilities As- < 
sistance Program. TIAS 3259. Pub. 6027. 2 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at London June 27, 1955. En- 
tered into force June 27, 1955. ' 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3260. Pub. 
6061. 4 pp. 5t 

Agreement between the United States and Thailand — 
Signed at Bangkok June 21, 1955. Entered into force y 
June 21, 1955. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3261. Pub. 

6(t72. 3 pp. 5<f.. 

Agreement between the United States and Israel — Supple- 
menting agreement of April 29, 195,5 — Signed at Washing- 
ton June 15, 1955. Entered into force June 15, 1955. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3262. Pub. 

6073. 8 pp. 10«(. 

Agreement between the United States and Colombia — 
Signed at Bogotil June 23, 1955. Entered into force June 
23, 19.55. 

Relief Supplies and Equipment — Duty-Free Entry and 
Exemption From Internal Taxation. TIAS 3264. Pub. 
6051. 6 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States and the Republic 
of Korea. Exchange of notes — Signed at Seoul April 22 
and May 2, 1955. Entered into force May 2, 1955. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities — Child Feeding Pro- 
gram. TIAS 3265. Pub. 6067. 17 pp. 10^. 

Agreement between the United States and Italy. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Rome June 30, 1955. Entered 
into force June 30, 1955. 

Telecommunications. TIAS 3266. Pub. 6092. 809 pp. 

$2.50. 

Convention, with annexes, and final protocol — Signed at 
Buenos Aires December 22, 1952. Signed on behalf of the 
United States subject to certain declarations. Proclaimed 
by the President of the United States September 13, 1955. 
Entered into force with respect to the United States June 
27, 1955. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3267. Pub. 

6074. 17 pp. 15(#. 

Agreement between the United States and Austria — Signed 
at Vienna June 14, 1955. Entered into force June 14, 1955. 

Technical Cooperation — Cooperative Program of Agricul- 
ture and Livestock. TIAS 3268. Pub. 6075. 4 pp. 54- 

Agreement between the United States and Chile — Extend- 
ing agreement of Januarv 16, 1951 — Signed at Santiago 
April 27, 19.55. Entered into force April 27, 1955. 

Guaranty of Private Investments. TIAS 3269. Pub. 
6076. 4 pp. 5<t. 

Agreement between the United States and Pakistan. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Washington May 26, 1955. 
Entered into force May 26, 1955. 



130 



Department of State Bulletin 



July 16, 1956 Index 

Algeria. U.S. Views on Consideration of Algerian 

Question (Lodge) 125 

American Principles. Our Partnership In Creating 

a World of Peace (Nixon) 91 

Asia. Our Partnership in Creating a World of 

Peace (Nixon) 91 

Ceylon. ICA To Assist Projects in Ceylon . . . 117 
Communism. Our Partnership in Creating a World 

of Peace (Nixon) 91 

Disarmament. The United Nations and the Search 

for Disarmament (Wilcox) 97 

Economic Affairs 

Changes in Greek Tariff Rates on Automobiles 

and Trucks 117 

Increase in Tariff on Imports of Linen Toweling . 115 
Modification of Restrictions on Long-Staple Cotton 

Imports 114 

North Atlantic Ice Patrol Agreement Enters Into 

Force 127 

Europe. American Policy and the Shifting Scene 

(Elbrick) 108 

Germany. Reaffirmation of U.S. Views on German 

Unification (Eisenhower, Conant) 106 

Greece. Changes in Greek Tariff Rates on Auto- 
mobiles and Trucks 117 

Health, Education, and Welfare. 19th Interna- 
tional Conference on Public Education . . . 126 
International Organizations and Meetings. 19th 

International Conference on Public Education . . 126 
Japan. Commemorating Japanese Peace Treaty 

Signing (Dulles) 96 

Korea. Dedication of Plaque Honoring Korean 

War Dead (Hammarskjold, Walker, Dodge) . . 119 
Military Affairs. Strengthening Military Bases in 

the Philippines (Nixon, Magsaysay) 95 

Mutual Security. ICA To Assist Projects in 

Ceylon 117 

Non-Self-Governing Territories. Trust Territory 

of the Pacific Islands (Nucker) 121 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. American 

Policy and the Shifting Scene (Elbrick) ... 108 
Philippines 

Anniversay of Philippine Independence .... 93 
Our Partnership in Creating a World of Peace 

(Nixon) 91 

Strengthening Military Bases in the Philippines 

(Nixon, Magsaysay) 95 

Poland. Lend-Lease Settlement With Poland ( text 

of agreement) 113 

Presidential Documents 

Anniversary of Philippine Independence .... 93 

Increase in Tariff on Imports of Linen Toweling 

(text of proclamation) 115 



Vol. XXV, No. 890 



Modification of Restrictions on Long-Staple Cotton 

Imports (text of proclamation) 114 

Reaffirmation of U.S. Views on German Unification . 106 

Publications 

List of Treaties in Force 127 

Recent Releases 128 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 128 

Lend-Lease Settlement With Poland (text of 

agreement) 113 

List of Treaties in Force 127 

North Atlantic Ice Patrol Agreement Enters Into 

Force 127 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 126 

Dedication of Plaque Honoring Korean War Dead 

(Hammarskjold, Walker, Lodge) 119 

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Nucker) . 121 

The United Nations and the Search for Disarma- 
ment (Wilcox) 97 

U.S. Views on Consideration of Algerian Question 

(Lodge) 125 

Name Index 

Conant, James B 107 

Dulles, Secretary 96 

Ei-senhower, President 106, 114, 115 

Elbrick, C. Burke 108 

Hammarskjold, Dag 119 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr 120, 125 

Magsaysay, Ramon 95 

Nixon, Richard M 91,95 

Nucker, Delmas H 121 

Walker, E. Ronald 119 

Wilcox, Francis 97 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: July 2-8 

Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 
Department of State, Washington 2.5, D.C. 

Press releases issued prior to July 2 which appear 
in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 364 of June 
28 and 365 of June 29. 

No. Date Subject 

371 7/5 Delegation to Conference on Public 

Education. 

372 7/5 Greek tariff rates on automobiles. 

373 7/3 Nixon : "Our I'artnership in Creating a 

World of Peace." 

374 7/6 Entry into force of ice patrol agreement. 
to7.'> 7/6 Documents on German foreign policy. 

376 7/6 List of treaties in force. 



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subject headings under each country. Multilateral treaties and 
agreements are arranged by subject and are accompanied by lists 
of the countries parties to each instrument. Date of signature, 
date of entry into force for the United States, and citations to 
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d. XXXV, No. 891 
July 23, 1956 




^ m 



UNITED STATES FOREIGN ECONOMIC POLICY • 

by Assistant Secretary Bowie ^^^ 

TRANSCRIPT OF SECRETARY DULLES' NEWS 

CONFERENCE OF JULY 11 1*5 

UNPUBLISHED DOCUMENTS DISTRIBUTED 
AMONG DELEGATES TO 20TH CONGRESS OF 
SOVIET COMMUNIST PARTY 153 

U.N. CONFERENCE ON INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC 

ENERGY AGENCY • Texts of Invitations and Report 

of Working Level Meeting 162 



For index see inside back cover 







Me Qle/uv'i^i^eTU c^ ^la^e jOU-llGllIl 



Vol. XXXV, No. 891 • Pubucation 6372 



July 23, 1956 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing OflBce 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

62 Issues, domestic $7.S0, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing ot this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 19, 1955). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and t/i« 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other offi- 
cers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of interna- 
tional relations are*! listed^currently. 



United States Foreign Economic Policy 



hy Robert R. Bowie 

Assistant Secretary for Policy Planning * 



The subject assigned to me — United States for- 
eign economic policy — is indeed a broad one. 
Hence it may be well to start by explaining my 
approach to it. 

My talk will not catalog or describe all the vari- 
ous elements or instrmnents of the foreign eco- 
nomic policy of the United States. Many of these 
will be discussed in detail by later speakers on 
your program who can talk as experts. It would 
be pointless for me merely to go over in brief what 
they will cover more fully, even if I were qualified 
to do so. 

Instead, my effort will be to provide a setting or 
context for the lectures that will follow. My 
main purpose will be to analyze the relation of 
our foreign economic policy to our overall na- 
tional objectives and policies. That seems to me 
the most useful contribution I can make to your 
meetings. 

This approach to the topic seems to me justified 
for another reason. In some respects, the term 
"foreign economic policy" is a misleading one. 
It suggests that economic policy is separable or 
independent. Actually foreign relations must be 
conducted, witliin the limits of human abilities, as 
an integrated whole. Every aspect — political, 
military, or economic — is interdependent with ev- 
ery other aspect. All go hand in hand, or should, 
if foreign policy is to be successful in achieving 
national objectives. Much of what I have to say 
will emphasize this close link between foreign eco- 
nomic policy and other parts of foreign policy. 



' Address made before the International Banking Sum- 
mer School at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J., 
on July 9. 



Need for an Expanding World Economy 

These intimate ties among the economic, politi- 
cal, and military aspects of foreign policy are evi- 
dent when we examine the nature and scope of 
United States interests in the world economy. 

The recognition of tliose interests developed 
gradually. Before World War I the United 
States was not generally looked on as a leading 
nation and was preoccupied with its own develop- 
ment. In foreign policy its perspective was lim- 
ited; its economic policies were based almost 
entirely on domestic needs and interests. In the 
decades after 1914, the relative power of the 
United States changed rapidly as a result of its 
own progress and the weakening of the other ma- 
jor nations. But in general this shift in status 
was not reflected in United States foreign policy 
until the outbreak of World War II. From then 
on, its foreign policies — political, military, and 
economic — were rapidly adapted to its changed 
position in the world. 

Today, the United States has a unique role 
among the free nations. With only 6 percent of 
the people, the United States produces about 40 
percent of the world's goods and services. Our 
output is almost twice that of the United King- 
dom, France, West Germany, and Italy combined. 

Since the years of World War II, the United 
States has sought to discharge the responsibilities 
of its special position. It has come to recognize 
the many interests it shares with other members 
of the free world. For example, it has under- 
taken commitments for collective defense unprec- 
edented in its history. 

In the economic field, the U.S. shares a com- 
mon interest with other free nations in the steady 



Ju/y 23, J 956 



135 



growth of their and our output of goods and 
services. In part, this interest flows from our 
position as a gi-eat trading nation. Our own 
prospects for economic growth are bound up, in 
some degree, with growth elsewhere. AVe buy 
15 percent of the world's imports, and we account 
for 20 percent of the world's exports. Increas- 
ingly, we look to foreign sources for many com- 
modities like copper and iron ore. Despite our 
continental economy, we could not insulate our- 
selves even from the strictly economic effects of 
stagnation or decline abroad. In all probability, 
the passage of time will make our prosperity even 
more dependent on world progress. 

This is only a part of our concern, however. 
The free world's economic base is vitally impor- 
tant to its ability to provide for the common 
defense. In our democratic comitries, the claims 
of defense constantly compete with those of hu- 
man welfare. Tlie mounting costs of modern mil- 
itary teclmology are reflected in all of our national 
budgets. Yet if we fail to maintain the deterrent 
of adequate military establishments, we shall take 
the very real risk of having neither welfare nor 
freedom. And so arises our common interest that 
the economic base for defense should expand. 

A third and dominating consideration is the 
political health of the free world. Obviously, 
this does not depend solely upon economic prog- 
ress. At the same time, the free-world political 
system will hardly survive, let alone flourish, if 
it is not associated with an expanding economic 
system. An inescapable fact is that peoples every- 
where have come to believe that it is possible to 
change the conditions of economic life for the 
better. We can recognize that this belief has 
been formed with grossly inadequate appreciation 
of the difficulties in the way. But we should be 
unforgivably blind if we did not understand the 
far-reaching political import of this new factor 
in world affairs. 

These, then, are the interlocking reasons for 
the American — and free-world — interest in an ex- 
j^anding woi'ld economy: (1) our own economic 
requirements, (2) our concern for the defenses 
of the free world, and (3) our recognition of the 
close relationship between political health and 
economic progress. 

In seeking to advance the objective of an ex- 
panding economy, it is essential to assess our sit- 



uation wisely. We need to remind ourselves con- 
stantly that the tremendous events of this century 
have changed things in fundamental ways. 

The 19th Century Pattern 

We can look back with longing to the orderly 
and relatively impersonal workings of the 19th 
centurj' world economy. Here was a grand de- 
sign indeed and to it we owe much of our present 
well-being. But its foundations have been shat- 
tered by two world wars, by a depression of un- 
precedented severity, and by the appearance of 
a rival economic system that dominates 900 mil- 
lion people and one-quarter of the surface of the " 
earth. 

The 19th century system rested on several essen- 
tial factors. 

The first was a political fact : Peoples were will- 
ing and governments were able to allow interna- 
tional imbalances to be corrected almost exclu- 
sively by domestic adjustments even to the point 
of large-scale unemployment. So long as this at- 
titude prevailed, the system was workable. Other 
features were, however, almost as crucial to the 
19th century pattern. 

As a second one, I would single out especially 
the conditions which enabled private capital to 
move across international boundaries with such 
relative facility. This depended on a whole com- 
plex of institutions and underlying assumptions. 
There was the gold standard and the London 
money market and the Bank of England to pro- 
vide and maintain a unified monetary system for 
the world. There were the British policies of 
freedom of the seas and freedom of trade. There 
was the British commitment to assure responsible 
action on the part of many other governments. 

Third : All of these went along with and helped 
to underwrite the basic understanding that the 
rules of the game would not be changed arbitrarily 
or in any radical way. Investors often lost every- 
thing through fraudulent ventures or in specu- 
lative panics, but that did not stop the process of 
investment. People were prepared to calculate 
this kind of risk and adjust to it. They could be 
sure that governments, at least, would not inter- 
fere to deprive private persons of their accus- 
tomed freedom of economic action. 

Fourth: The limited number of independent 
economic entities was a further aspect of the 19th 



136 



Department of State Bulletin 



century system. Large parts of the world found 
their place in the prevailing scheme as European 
colonies. And, except for the United States, most 
of the independent nations outside of Europe were 
effectively dominated in their economic conduct by 
the European powers. 

All of these elements of the lOtli century pat- 
tern have been drastically altered. 

In most democratic nations today, the state has 
assumed the burden of assuring full employment 
and the steady functioning of the economy. No 
longer are peoples or governments prepared to 
allow international imbalances to be adjusted au- 
tomatically by domestic deflation. "V^Hiatever its 
merits or defects, this is a political fact which 
appears likely to endure. 

Moreover, the effects of this change on the inter- 
national system have been multiplied by tlie crea- 
tion of a large number of new independent states 
in the former colonial areas. Their programs for 
rapidly developing more balanced economies rely 
heavily on government planning. 

These basic changes have also undermined the 
conditions which induced private capital to move 
so freely across boundaries. In many cases, the 
potential returns do not compensate for the added 
risks of changes in national monetary, legal, and 
economic policies. 

It is out of the question to restore the interna- 
tional order of the 19th century. We should rec- 
ognize its virtues and the purposes that it served. 
But under the conditions of the second half of 
the 20th century, the system could not function 
as it once did. Today, we can achieve similar 
ends only by conscious and cooperative effort 
among tlie nations. We need not despair about 
repairing some of the damage to international 
economic institutions ; we have had a measure of 
success already. But we must recognize that posi- 
tive actions by and among the nations are and 
will be necessary, and that these actions will have 
to square with the political practicabilities of 
the times. 

Requirements for Economic Growth 

Wliat kinds of action must the free nations 
take to achieve the steady economic growth that 
is required for their security and well-being? 

First 1 it is evident that the economic health of 
the free world will depend heavily on the domes- 
tic economic policies of its members. The goal 



must be to create conditions favorable to a high 
level of economic activity and a rapidly rising 
productivity. These turn, of course, on many fac- 
tors. One of the most crucial is a high rate of 
capital formation. Substantial resources must be 
devoted to new machinery and equipment. This 
depends on fostering attitudes and mechanisms 
that encourage and facilitate savings and invest- 
ment and innovation. 

Second, the free nations need trade and mone- 
tary policies that gain tlie advantages of inter- 
national specialization. For many nations an ex- 
panding volume of foreign trade is critical to their 
ability to achieve a satisfactory measure of eco- 
nomic growth. Industrial countries like the 
United Kingdom, Germany, and Japan have de- 
veloped economies that are heavily dependent on 
outside sources of food and raw materials and on 
foreign markets for their industrial output. These 
countries and the smaller industrial states can 
prosper only in an expanding world economy in 
which trade can flow with relative freedom. 

And sucli conditions are also important for 
other members of the free world. Our resources 
are not sufficient to afford the wastes that come 
from general and grievous departures from the 
principles of liberal trade policy. We have seen, 
too, that "beggar your neighbor" economic policies 
benefit only the predatory members of the world 
community. 

A third objective must be to assure that critical 
shortages of resources and skills shall not impede 
the process of economic growth in the less de- 
velojjed countries. To develop their economies 
and lift their living standards, they must import 
much industrial equipment and other products. 
Thus their growth, which is vitally important for 
its own sake, will also provide expanding markets 
for industrial exports. But to achieve it will re- 
quire adequate transfers of capital and skills to 
supplement the domestic savings of the less de- 
veloped countries. This is the field of investment 
and aid policy. 

United States economic policy can be considered 
broadly under these three categories : (1) domestic 
economic policy; (2) trade and monetary policy; 
and (3) investment and aid policy. 

Domestic Economic Policy 

For many countries, the prosperity of the 
United States has more effect on their own econ- 



iijlY 23, J 956 



137 



omies than any other single outside factor. Thus 
a great deal depends on how the United States 
economy is performing. 

For a decade now, its performance has been of a 
high order. The United States has had two rela- 
tively minor recessions, and these were quickly 
surmounted. Over the last 10 years business ac- 
tivity and employment have been almost con- 
sistently at high levels. 

This has taken place in a system of free enter- 
prise which is highly dynamic. The tax system 
seeks to foster a readiness to innovate and to take 
risks. And our antitrust laws and other measures 
are designed to maintain the essential vigor of the 
competitive system. 

There is general agreement about the merits 
of the free enterprise system for the United States. 
Yet all are conscious that government has a large 
role in assuring economic stability at high levels 
of activity. Since the depression, the Federal and 
State Governments have adopted a whole series 
of stabilizing measures and devices to supplement 
the traditional central banking controls. These 
include the program of unemployment insurance, 
Federal support of farm prices, and guaranties 
of bank deposits and of home mortgages. Fur- 
thermore, the Federal budget and taxes have be- 
come a major factor in the economy, through 
which the Federal Government can exercise con- 
siderable influence to limit economic fluctuations. 

This larger governmental role was recognized 
in the Employment Act of 1946. This act merely 
makes explicit what was implicit theretofore, that 
is, that the Federal Government has a responsibil- 
ity for assuring against a serious decline in United 
States economic activity. This public policy is 
one on which there is general agreement between 
the political parties. 

So, if our foreign economic policy begins at 
home, it begins with a political consensus, ex- 
pressed in law: Governmental policy will 
be directed toward maintaining high levels of em- 
ployment and output, and toward keeping swings 
in economic activity within close bounds. 

Trade and Monetary Policies 

Now let me turn to the field of trade and mone- 
tary policies. Here we have sought to progress 
by a variety of routes. 

For more than two decades now, basic American 
trade policy has been expressed in tariff reduc- 



138 



tions under the trade agreements legislation, not 
in new tariffs. Our 1930 tariff structure has 
gradually been revised to bring the average tariff 
on dutiable imports down by about 50 percent. 
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
(Gatt) was the result of American initiative. 
The Gatt's provisions for the reduction of trade 
barriers, to which 34 nations subscribe, represent 
progress toward a freer system of world trade. 

At the recently concluded Geneva meetings, the 
results included further concessions affecting 
trade valued at about $2.5 billion.^ The United 
States made an important contribution to this 
commendable outcome, as did the 21 other nations 
that negotiated the new agreement. 

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
can be made a more effective instrument through 
the establishment of the administrative machinery 
of the Organization for Trade Cooperation. 
This, however, still awaits approval by the 
Congress. 

There is now broad public support in the 
United States for a liberal trade policy. For six 
decades after our Civil War, high protectionism 
was United States public policy, with only one 
period of deviation. In effect, this position has 
been reversed. We go forward gradually, for 
there are strong interests and emotions involved. 
I do not overlook foreign criticism of the "peril 
point" and "escape clause" features of American 
tariff legislation or of the protection we accord to 
American shipping. But the broad pattern of 
movement has been steadily toward liberalized 
foreign trade. 

In the area of international monetary policy, I 
need only recall that Bretton Woods was held at 
an American invitation. We sought there, 
among other things, for agreement on techniques 
and procedures that would substitute, under mod- 
ern conditions, for the automatic features of the 
older international monetary system. The Inter- 
national Monetary Fund agreement embodies this 
approach. 

The hopes of Bretton Woods have not been 
fully realized, of course. But the work of the 
Imf and the economic recovery of Western Eu- 
rope put us much closer to eliminating the waste- 
ful system of exchange restrictions. Further 
steps toward the kind of world envisioned at Bret- 
ton Woods seem to us essential. 



' Bulletin of June 25, 1956, p. 1054. 

Department of State Bulletin 



It has been easy, to be sure, for the United 
States to stand out in favor of a multilateral sys- 
tem of international payments. We have had no 
balance-of-payments stringencies of our own. 
Yet, considering the natural desire of many of our 
industries for wider foreign markets, we have 
shown great understanding of the difficulties of 
others and have tolerated with patience wide- 
spread discrimination against our trade. 

Our policy has also recognized that progress 
toward improving the international economic sys- 
tem could and should also be made by regional 
groupings. We have supported the Oeec [Or- 
ganization for European Economic Cooperation] 
in its effective efforts to remove barriers to trade 
among its European members. We helped bring 
into being the European Payments Union, al- 
though we recognized that, for a time at least, the 
Epu would involve British and European dis- 
crimination against dollar trade. This was taken 
to be necessary to enable the great Western Eu- 
ropean and British Commonwealth trading area 
to move toward convertibility. 

As we see now, liberalization of dollar trade has 
proceeded a considerable distance in Western 
Europe. Nearly all the Western European coun- 
tries have freed half or more of their dollar im- 
ports from quantitative restrictions. In view of 
the strong reserve position of many foreign coun- 
tries, the United States has hopes for further 
early progress toward convertibility and nondis- 
criminatory trade. 

Six nations in Western Europe are also engaged 
in a related, but more basic, effort toward closer 
economic integrations, building on the existing 
Coal and Steel Community. If they succeed in 
creating a common market, the import will be far- 
reaching indeed — for political as well as economic 
reasons. Such measures could greatly enhance 
the prospects for healthy growth of the European 
economy. The United States sees no inherent 
conflict between such integration and cooperation 
by the integrated community in general efforts to 
reduce artificial trade barriers. Indeed, rapidly 
growing economies in Western Europe should 
facilitate such cooperation. 

In sum, the decade since World War II has seen 
much headway in removing the obstacles to trade 
among the free nations. Doubtless much more 
remains to be done and further progress will have 
its difficulties. But the efforts thus far, especially 



through such agencies as Gatt, Imf, Oeec, Epu, 
and the Coal and Steel Commimity have pro- 
duced imi^ortant results. In this field, the task 
for the future is to build on these foundations. 

Flow of Capital 

Economic progress of the free world also de- 
pends on a second major factor : the flow of capi- 
tal among its members. Until recent decades, this 
essential volume of capital was provided almost 
entirely by private investors. Such private in- 
vestment is still large. The amount invested 
abroad by private United States sources alone has 
been averaging about $1.5 billion a year. About 
80 percent of this amount goes to Canada, Latin 
America, and Western Europe. 

But many of the earlier conditions favoring pri- 
vate foreign investment no longer prevail, espe- 
cially in some of the countries most in need of 
capital for their development. The reasons for 
this have already been mentioned and need not 
be repeated. Doubtless much can and should be 
done to attract more private capital for foreign 
investment. 

There is little prospect, however, that this means 
alone will be adequate to meet the pressing need 
for foreign capital. Indeed, the necessity for some 
special measures was foreseen as early as 1944 
when the International Bank for Reconstruction 
and Development was created. And this estimate 
has been more than confirmed by the experience 
of the last decade. Since 1945 the United States 
has found it necessary to transfer more than $50 
billion to other nations in the form of public 
grants and loans. 

Aside from relief activities like Uneea [U.N. 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration], the 
first major transfer of public resources took place 
under the Marshall plan. Nobody would ques- 
tion, I suppose, that that program was decisive in 
checking economic deterioration and setting in mo- 
tion the forces of economic expansion in Western 
Europe. That robust European recovery, 
achieved by cooperative action, was essential both 
for economic health and for the defense effort that 
followed. 

The Korean War led to a second phase in the 
transfer of resources. United States military as- 
sistance, averaging more than $2.8 billion a year, 
has been designed to reinforce collective security, 
but its economic effects should not be ignored. 



July 23, 7956 



139 



Obviously, the program has served to lighten to 
that extent the military burden on our allies. In 
addition, their economies have benefited from 
United States spending for offshore procurement, 
operation of bases, and other purposes. 

So long as the Soviet Union continues to in- 
crease its military capability, the free nations 
must keep up their guard by maintaining the 
requisite forces for the conmion defense. Such 
forces should, of course, be adapted to take account 
of changes in military techniques and other con- 
ditions. Even so, military spending will be a con- 
tinuing economic burden and some countries will 
still need help to carry it. 

In the meantime, a third aspect of capital ex- 
port has come to the fore in the drive of the less 
developed nations for economic development. 

Many do not realize the depth of the economic 
gulf that separates the industrial nations from the 
less developed nations. In the advanced econo- 
mies of North America, Western Europe, and the 
British Conunonwealth, 500 million people now 
produce each year goods and services worth more 
than $700 billion. In the less advanced econo- 
mies of the free world, 1.2 billion people produce 
about $150 billion each year. In other words, the 
output in the industrial nations is about 10 times 
as high per capita. 

The problem differs sharply in kind as well as 
in degree from the postwar problem in Western 
Europe. Then the need was to restore and revive 
an advanced productive system. The European 
economies still had the stored-up skills and capital 
of many generations. They had an extensive edu- 
cational system, vast networks of public utilities, 
and highly developed mechanisms to induce sav- 
ings and convert them into productive assets. 

The less developed nations lack almost all these 
elements in vaiying degrees. They must create 
most of the basic social capital — transport, com- 
munications, power, educational facilities — which 
is largely taken for granted in the industrialized 
countries. They are grievously lacking in the 
technical and management skills that are vital to 
the operation of advanced industrial and agri- 
cultural systems. Even more, their economic 
growth will require far-reaching changes in eco- 
nomic and social relationships and even in habits 
of thought. Finally, these problems are posed 
within a context of illiteracy, poverty, and dense 
and growing populations. 



Yet the peoples of these nations believe and ex- 
pect that conditions can be materially improved in 
a measurable period of time. This is a major po- ' 
litical fact. We can recognize that economic 
growth in these countries will be a slow and diffi- 
cult process. Undoubtedly its pace and character 
will depend mainly on the efforts and choices of 
the peoples themselves. Yet the free world as a 
whole has a major stake in their economic progress 
under free ausiJices. And the industrialized na- 
tions clearly can assist such economic growth by 
wisely sharing techniques and resources. 

If foreign private investment could provide the 
needed resources, the advantages would be many. 
Such investment facilitates the selection of the 
most productive projects. In addition to provid- 
ing capital, such investment is also an efficient 
means for developing the necessary technical and 
managerial skills. And private investment also 
helps to transmit the qualities of innovation and 
enterprise so fundamental to economic progress. 

In these countries, a few fields, such as petro- 
leum, have indeed attracted substantial private 
foreign investment, despite the obstacles. There 
has also been some revival of European short- and 
medium-term investment in the less developed 
countries. If these countries succeed in achieving 
a steady measure of growth, the range of private 
investment activities will certainly expand. 

In the meantime, it is worth while to work to- 
ward reducing and minimizing discriminatory 
measures adopted in some of the less developed 
countries against foreign investment. It is pos- 
sible to understand the fears prompting such 
measures, without accepting them as wise or bene- 
ficial for those countries. For our part, we have 
sought to insure direct investors against some 
of the risks of foreign operations. We should 
also like to ease the tax burden on investors 
abroad if the Congress will permit. 

Public Financing and Technical Assistance 

Still, when all has been said, we know that the 
flow of direct private capital and skills will fall 
short of the mark for a long time. That will 
have to be supplemented by public or quasi-public 
financing and teclmical assistance on more than 
a transitory basis. 

The International Bank is an effective answer 
to part of the ijroblem. The bank provides a 
mechanism for tapping the private investment 



140 



Department of State Bulletin 



j market and today accounts for a significant por- 
tion of private portfolio investment. Its loans 
to the less developed areas now total more than $1 
billion. Its affiliate, the International Finance 
Corporation, will provide new latitude for as- 
sistance to foreign private enterjirise. 

In addition to loans, the bank provides valuable 
advisory assistance to borrowers and potential 
borrowers. Its survey missions have contributed 
to development planning in a number of less de- 
veloped countries. On occasion, staff members 
are assigned to technical posts in these countries. 
The bank's structure gives it flexibility for mak- 
ing use of opportunities for technical assistance 
of this kind. 

The United Nations also fills part of the need 
for technical assistance. This year 72 nations 
have pledged $28 million to provide the services 
of experts from the United Nations specialized 
agencies to less developed comitries. In Jan- 
uary, 1,360 United Nations specialists were spotted 
around the world. Over its first 5 years, the 
program amounted to about $115 million. The 
United States has found it a worthwhile activity, 
as is indicated by its contribution, 1951-55, of 
approximately $65 million.^ 

Important and valuable as they are, these in- 
ternational agencies and programs camiot fully 
meet the needs of the less developed countries for 
either capital or technical assistance. Recogniz- 
ing this, the United States has engaged in an ex- 
tensive program through various means. Since 
World War II, the Export-Import Bank has be- 
come a major source of United States develop- 
ment aid. More recently, beginning in 1949-50, 
we have carried on national programs of technical 
and material aid from annually appropriated 
funds. Within the past 2 years, American fai-m 
surpluses have come to have a place in aid to 
development programs abroad. 

Let me review briefly the role of these national 
instruments of United States aid and investment 
policy. 

The Export-Import Bank's primary function 
is to provide financing related to American ex- 
ports. In performing this function it makes 
possible, of course, an expanded outflow of United 
States goods and services. It has also contrib- 



' For background on the U.N. Expanded Program of 
Technical Assistance, see Bdxletin of July 9, 1956, p. 76. 



uted to economic development by its loans and 
technical services. 

In its 22 years of existence, the Export-Import 
Bank has disbursed more than $5 billion in loans 
and guaranties of loans. As among the less de- 
veloped regions, its most extensive operations have 
been in Latin America, but it has made large 
credits available to countries in Asia and Africa 
as well. 

As a public corporation, empowered to borrow 
from the United States Treasury, the bank has 
much more flexibility than agencies operating 
under annual appropriations procedures. Since 
its loans do not require government guaranties, 
it is able to assist directly the operations of pri- 
vate enterprise. In sum, the bank is an important 
and in some ways a unique mechanism for devel- 
opment assistance. 

But like the Ibrd [International Bank for Re- 
construction and Development], the Export-Im- 
port Bank is limited to loans repayable in foreign 
exchange. It is plain that such loans alone can- 
not meet many development needs. For the time 
being at least, there is room for grants and local- 
currency loans as well. 

The United States has had a decade of expe- 
rience involving a variety of forms of bilateral 
aid outside of Western Europe. The sums in- 
volved are sizable : $7.7 billion of nonmilitary aid, 
mainly grants, to Asia, Africa, and Latin Amer- 
ica in the period 1945-55. 

Much of this has been devoted to special pur- 
poses like the disposal of war-surplus equipment 
and provision for refugees and for survivors of 
disasters. More recently, a major part of our 
bilateral economic aid has been devoted to coun- 
tries recently at war or bearing military burdens 
beyond their own capacities. In fiscal years 1955 
and 1956, financial assistance to South Korea, 
the Indochinese States, Taiwan, and Pakistan ac- 
counted for over 60 percent of all United States 
economic aid to less developed countries. Even 
so, our economic assistance has been designed 
mainly to foster economic growth. 

One recent innovation is the use of our surplus 
farm commodities in the field of development 
assistance. Since 1954 the United States has 
sold — usually for local currencies — or granted 
more than $1 billion of surplus commodities under 
the "trade and development" provisions of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance 



July 23, 1956 



141 



Act of 1954. A large part of the proceeds in turn 
has been loaned to the purchasing nations for 
fiiiancing economic development projects. 

We are well aware of the need for caution and 
restraint in disposing of our surpluses. We have 
no wish to disrupt commodity markets or to im- 
poverish other nations. So far our record has 
certainly not been a reckless one. 

With ingenuity and skill, surplus disposal 
should be able to contribute materially to fiirther- 
ing the economic growth of the less developed 
nations. For example, these surpluses could pro- 
vide such countries a reserve of commodities to 
assure against explosive inflation and to allow 
them to take greater fiscal risks. 

The problems of the less developed nations call 
for a variety of measures and tecliniques. These 
countries are at different stages of development. 
For some, the critical need now is for training and 
technical skills ; for others, it is capital equipment ; 
and, as we have seen, consumer goods may make a 
major contribution to the process under proper 
conditions. The particular requirements of any 
country will change as it passes through various 
stages. 

Wliat we can be certain of is that over the next 
decade the less developed nations as a whole will 
need a steady inflow of resources and skills from 
the industrial countries. The goal of the free 
world should be to assure that this flow be in ade- 
quate volume and effectively responsive to specific 
needs as they appear. I believe that the United 
States policy is firmly committed to this goal. 

Need for Cooperation 

At the start of my remarks, I stressed that the 
economic health and growth of the free nations 
were vitally related not only to their well-being 
but to their security and stability. So far I have 
focused on the kinds of policies required to pro- 
mote such economic health and stability, both for 
the industrial nations and for the less developed 
members of the free world. 

The analysis sharply underscores, I hope, one 
basic point, that is, that the free nations cannot 
achieve the requisite well-being or growth in iso- 
lation. They must work together to promote these 
interests. If they cooperate to enhance the pro- 
ductivity of their economies, they can help each 
other to improve the standards of life of their 
peoples. But if they fail to recognize their com- 



mon interests and to act wisely to promote them, 
neither the mdustrial nor the less developed na- 
tions will be able to achieve enduring prosperity. ; 

The goals which the free nations must strive 
for are valid for their own sake. They would be 
essential even if the Soviet bloc did not exist. 
The existence of the Soviet bloc serves only to 
make more compelling the necessity for progress 
toward these goals. Indeed, the ultimate survival 
of the free nations may well turn on their ability 
to develop their productive power. 

The Soviet rulers are counting heavily on the 
economic growth of the Soviet Union and other 
countries of the Soviet bloc. We would be most 
unwise to ignore the material results they have 
achieved. The U.S.S.E. has attained a rapid 
rate of industrial growth and an extremely high 
rate of capital formation. For three decades it 
has succeeded in directing a very large share of 
output to investment and to military uses. The 
European satellites and Communist China are now 
engaged in emulating the Soviet system. Today, 
the total output of the Soviet economy is about 
one-third that of the United States; that of the 
bloc as a whole is somewhat more than one-half. 

These results have been attained at dreadful 
human cost. In substance, the Soviet system is a 
highly effective mechanism for holding down con- 
sumption to very low levels and for directing 
resources and energies to heavy industry and to 
producers' goods. In these terms, the system oj)- 
erates effectively. But its success has depended 
on brutal coercion and a disregard for human 
values that is abhorrent to all principles of free 
peoples. 

The Soviet rulers are clearly counting on this 
material progress to shift the balance of power 
in the world. The free nations cannot afford to 
be complacent. Judging by present prospects, 
the nations of Western Europe will do well to 
maintain an annual rate of economic growth of 
3.5 percent. Meanwhile, the Soviet bloc and its 
satellites expect, even with some decline in their 
rates of expansion, to maintain a rate of growth 
materially more rapid. At this pace, the Soviet 
bloc will equal or forge ahead of Western Europe 
in total output within two decades, although its 
living standards would still lag well behind those 
of Western Europe. | 

In the less developed countries, the prospects 
for sustained economic growth are much more 
speculative. The obstacles are much greater and 



142 



Department of State Bulletin 



more deeply rooted than in Western Eui'ope. 
These new nations face stupendous tasks of de- 
veloping skills, mobilizing resources, and creating 
new institutions and attitudes. The growth of 
population alone will pose major problems for 
many of these densely peopled areas. Thus, by 
1975 India may need 80 percent more food than 
in 1950 ; inevitably the need for resources and skills 
in agriculture will limit its rate of industrial 
progress. 

These considerations emphasize the importance 
of the economic tasks of the free nations. 

The lesson for the mature nations is plain 
enough. They cannot afford to allow narrow con- 
ceptions of national interests to impede vigorous 
measures to expand their efficiency and produc- 
tivity. There is no inherent necessity that the 
Soviet bloc should expand its output more rapidly 
than Western Europe. The resources of the West 
are greater and its working force is more pro- 
ductive, man for man. If these are used effec- 
tively and on a sustained basis, Western Europe 
need not fall behind Soviet-bloc expansion. 

Such an outcome will probably require, how- 
ever, a degree of joint effort among the European 
nations greater than has yet been achieved. The 
Epu and the Oeec are specific evidence that intra- 
European cooperation is practical. But Europe 
will probably need to go on to closer economic 
integration in order to provide the political and 
other bases for achieving its full potential growth. 
The success of the Coal and Steel Community sug- 
gests the feasibility of such measures of actual 
economic integration. This experience can be 
built upon, through such measures as Ettkatom 
and a gradual adoption of a common market, to 
get much fuller advantage from the great eco- 
nomic assets of Western Europe. 

That is one reason for United States support for 
progress toward European economic integration 
which was reaffirmed by President Eisenhower 
only a few weeks ago.* 

The other task of the developed nations is the 
provision of capital and skills to the less developed 
countries. These newer nations must themselves 
provide most of the resources and effort required 
for growth. But outside help may be critical in 
getting the initial start and maintaining early mo- 
mentum in the process of development. No one 
should underestimate either the importance or the 



difficulty of the task. As I have already stressed, 
it will require imaginative, long-term efforts by 
governments and private investors and institu- 
tions alike. 

Some observers now profess to see the future 
of the contest with the U.S.S.K. as being wholly 
in the economic field. This is certainly too limited 
a view. The Soviet Union is still a great military 
power. To advance its interests and influence, 
it will doubtless make use of political and other 
means to the full. But we should not under- 
estimate the economic aspects of the contest. 

For a century and a half the free societies have 
pioneered in advancing individual welfare with 
freedom. They have succeeded on a scale un- 
dreamed of until now. Surely they have no cause 
to doubt the outcome of a competition based on 
ability to fulfill human aspirations. 



Mr. Randall To Be Special Assistant 
on Foreign Economic Policy 

The White House {Gettysburg^ Pa.) released 
on July 10 the following letter from President 
Eisenhower to Clarence B. Randall. 

Jttlt 10, 1956 

Dear Mk. Eandall: I am delighted that you 
have agreed to serve as Special Assistant to the 
President in the area of foreign economic policy 
and that you will be taking up the work of your 
able predecessor in assisting and advising me in 
the orderly development of foreign economic pol- 
icy and programs.^ I shall count on you to assure 
the effective coordination of foreign economic mat- 
ters of concern to the several departments and 
agencies of the Executive Branch, and to effect a 
further simplification of the present administra- 
tive and coordinating structure in this field. 

In this capacity you will assume the chairman- 
ship of the Council on Foreign Economic Policy, 
whose membership consists of the Secretaries of 
State, Treasury, Agriculture, and Commerce, and 
the Director of the International Cooperation Ad- 
ministration, or their principal deputies, also my 
Administrative Assistant for Economic Affairs, 



' ma., June 4, 1956, p. 915. 
Ju/y 23, 1956 



' On June 22 the White House released an exchange of 
correspondence between President Eisenhower and Joseph 
M. Dodge in which the President agreed to Mr. Dodge's 
request to be relieved in mid-July of his duties as Special 
Assistant for Foreign Economic Policy. 



143 



my Special Assistant for National Security Af- 
fairs, and a member of my Council of Economic 
Advisers. The heads of other departments and 
agencies should continue to be invited by the chair- 
man to participate in meetings of the Council 
when matters of direct concern to them are under 
consideration. 

As a part of this mission, I shall look to you 
and your associates for the development of foreign 
economic policies and programs designed to meet 
the special problems created by Communist eco- 
nomic activities in underdeveloped areas of the 
free world. 

So that you may be fully advised on the foreign 
activities and problems of the Government, you 
are invited to attend pertinent meetings of the 
Cabinet and the National Security Council. I 
shall expect you to establish appropriate working 
relations with the National Security Council, the 
National Advisory Council on International 
Monetary and Financial Problems, and other 
relevant groups as necessary to assure that the 
formulation of foreign economic policy is prop- 
erly integrated with the formulation of national 
security policy, international financial policy, and 
domestic economic policy. 

You may provide yourself with such staff as is 
necessary to assist you in connection with these 
duties. In addition, you may need to make pro- 
vision from time to time for a limited number of 
special task forces for the review of specific for- 
eign economic matters. 

Needless to say, I am very glad that you are 
continuing your service in the field of foreign eco- 
nomic policy where you have already made such 
a notable contribution. In the critical but hope- 
ful years ahead we must continue to act construc- 
tively in this vital field in order that the cause 
of a just peace may be substantially advanced. 

With warm regard, 
Sincerely, 

DwTGHT D. Eisenhower 

The Honorable Clarence B. Kandall 
Special Assistant to the President 



Importance of Restoring Funds 
Cut From Mutual Security Program 

Statement hy President Eisenhower ^ I 

It is my earnest conviction that the successive 
slashes that the committees of the Congress have 
made in mutual security funds are not in the best 
interests of the United States of America. They 
would definitely injure our efforts to help lead the 
world to peace based on cooperation and justice. 

The mutual security program has positive, con- 
structive advantages and dividends for our people 
and our friends throughout the world, both at this 
moment and for the future. It is not enough to' j 
put our money for defense only into our own 
Armed Forces. We must continue building mu- 
tual security through cooperation with our friends 
abroad. 

We must never forget that the Marshall plan 
saved free Europe from communism. This Na- 
tion spent twelve billion dollars in that effort. 
Today, were it not for that program, we would be 
sjiending more, much more, each year to maintain 
our position in an impossible woi'ld situation. 
Likewise, we must have confidence in the free 
world. We must do what we can to help provide 
an opportunity for people to make a living. We 
cannot have a free world if that opportunity is 
lacking. If it is so lacking, then we are bound to 
have either dictatorship or foreign domination in 
those nations. 

That is what we are trying to avoid through the 
mutual security program. It is one of the wisest 
and most necessary programs our country has un- 
dertaken in world affairs. Without it there can 
be no peace. 

This is a mere outline of the grave reasons that 
lead me to say that it would be a grave mistake if 
the Congress should fail to restore a substantial 
part of the funds slashed from the mutual security 
program. This is not a partisan political pro- 
gram. It is a program for all our citizens in the 
best interests of the United States of America. 



'Issued to correspondents at Gettysburg, Pa., on July 9. 



144 



Department of State Bulletin 



Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Conference 



Press release 380 dated July 11 

Secretary Dulles : I thought that you might be 
interested in a comment from me with reference 
to the Soviet Communist Party statement of June 
30. So I prepared such a comment, and this time 
I got it mimeographed and in your hands in ad- 
vance so you would not have to copy it down as 
I read it.^ 

The Central Committee of the Soviet Com- 
munist Party made a statement on June 30, 1956, 
which is an important addition to the great Com- 
munist debate now in progi-ess. It attempts to 
explain how, under the Soviet Communist sys- 
tem, the abuses of Stalinism were tolerated for so 
many years and what they say will prevent the 
recurrence of such abuses. 

The statement seems primarily designed to re- 
assure those who compose the international Com- 
munist movement. But it was not only the Soviet 
Party members and Soviet workers who suffered 
from the abuses of Stalin. Other peoples also 
suffered. That is a fact which the Soviet Com- 
munists seem to ignore. They should see, if really 
their eyes are opened, that the violence and ter- 
rorism which they now denounce was not merely 
Soviet domestic policy but also Soviet foreign 
policy. Wliole peoples were thereby brought into 
grievous captivity. And the still free people have 
had to i^ay a heavy price to protect themselves. 
They, too, are entitled to be assured that the evil 
done in Stalin's name will be undone and that such 
policies will not recur. 

The Soviet Communist Party now promises a 
decentralization of power in favor of the Soviet 
Republics and, for individual citizens, "freedom 
of speech and of the press and freedom of con- 
science" and a rule of law. It says that "the 
highest aim of the Soviet State is to raise the popu- 
lation's living standards in every respect." But 

^ The following five paragraphs were also released sep- 
arately as press release 379 dated July 11. 



these things were already promised by the Soviet 
State Constitution adopted in 1936. That did not 
prevent the policies of violence and the massive 
terrorisms, tortures, enforced confessions, and 
judicial murders which Kirushchev described in 
his originally secret and now revealed speech of 
last February. 

Only the reality of vigorous democratic institu- 
tions will genuinely insure against the corrupting 
power of despotism. 

The whole world will therefore watch to see 
what will actually come of the present develop- 
ments. If they dependably alter the domestic and 
foreign policies and practices of the Soviet state, 
it would beneficially transform the world scene. 
We hopefully await the coming of that day. 

Now if you have questions. 

Q. At the beginning of the second paragraph of 
your statement you say that the Soviet Commu- 
nist statement was primanly designed to reassure 
those who compose the international Communist 
movement. Do you find evidence that it has or 
has not heen accepted iy them? 

A. I do not think that the evidence is yet in 
sufficiently to answer that question. It seems that 
the Communist Parties in many of these countries 
are still pondering over the matter. There are 
some initial reactions that seem to accept it. In 
other cases there is not complete acceptance. The 
overall response seems to be tentative rather than 
definitive. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in the other half of this sec- 
ond paragraph you talk about what the Soviets 
should do to undo the evil done in Stalin's ruvme. 
Specifically, do you mean that the Soviet Govern- 
ment, for one thing, should volvmtarily liberate 
the satellite countries as evidence of its neio 
policy? 

A. I believe that it should do so. It should re- 
store independence to the satellite countries. I 



July 23, 1956 



145 



think that is one of the touchstones of the reality 
of a new policy. That is a point which the United 
States has constantly emphasized, and President 
Eisenhower himself, as you will recall, personally 
expressed that point of view very strongly to 
Messrs. Khrushchev and Bulganin when he was 
at Geneva just about a year ago. 

Possibility of Transformation 
in U. S. S. R. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., in the last paragraph when 
you say, "TFe hopefully await the coming of that 
day^'' can we derive from that that you feel this 
transformation in the Soviet Union m/iy well alter 
Soviet aggression that has heen so troublesome 
over the years? 

A. I believe — although no one can be certain 
about the matter — I believe the forces that are now 
working are going to prove to be irresistible. 
Tliat does not mean that will happen today or 
tomorrow. I have testified several times about 
this matter before congressional committees in 
the last few weeks. I said there that no sudden 
transformation will come about. It is not a 
matter for this year or next year, but I believe 
this second postwar decade in which we are 
will see these new forces take charge of the 
situation and that we can really hopefully look 
forward to a transformation of the international 
scene. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you stated that you think 
these forces are irresistible. You still feel, 
though, that they can he reversed at any time? 

A. I would say that the current policies of the 
Soviet Union can still be reversed at any time be- 
cause they don't yet depend upon the consent of 
the governed. I believe that there are processes 
at work which will require Soviet policies to be- 
come responsive to the will of the governed, and at 
that point they cease to be suddenly reversible. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, will the elimination of the 
present rulers of the Soviet Union he conducive 
to the release of these forces or not? 

A. I would not want to comment in t«rms of 
personalities. I think that would be a highly 
speculative thing. It would first depend on who 
succeeded them. That would be getting into in- 
ternal affairs to a degree which I prefer not to get 
into. 



Q. Is there anything you can tell us ahout the 
Soviet note pointing out alleged violation of their 
air territory hy our planes? 

A. No. I received such a note yesterday after- 
noon from the Soviet Ambassador, making cer- 
tain complaints about the alleged violation of 
their air territory by supposedly United States 
bombers. I have referred the matter to the De- 
fense Department for inquiry. I know nothing 
about the matter whatsoever. 

Soviet Economic Aid 

Q. Air. Secretary, are you in agreement with 
what Mr. Nixon has heen saying in Asia ahout 
Comrmmist aid and the willingness of the United 
States to continue aid to countries that are re- 
ceiving economic aid from, the Oommunists? 

A. I didn't get the last part of your question. 

Q. Well, Mr. Nixon said that the United States 
would continue to supply economic aid to Asian 
countries that took it from the Communists — the 
Russians. 

A. I would merely say about that that I believe 
Vice President Nixon has very effectively and well 
expounded U.S. policy in the countries which he 
has visited. I don't recall the precise language to 
which you refer, but I am quite familiar in gen- 
eral with what Vice President Nixon has said in 
these countries, and I would say in general I am 
quite in accord with it. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, one of the specific quotes 
from Mr. Nixon's I'emarhs at Karachi dealt with 
foreign aid and, specifically, Soviet foreign aid. 
He said: '■'■Soviet aid is offered not with strings 
hut with a rope, and the recipient runs almost the 
certain risk of having the rope tightened around 
its neck?'' Would you agree with that view on 
Soviet aid? 

A. I do not think that Vice President Nixon 
said that. He quoted somebody else as having 
said it. That is the report which I got of the 
incident. 

Q. I read the State Department text of that 
news conference, sir, and he did say it. 

A. I read it also and that was not my under- 
standing of it. [Laughter] 

Q. Irrespective of whether he was quoting some- 
body else or himself, do you agree with that 
statement? 



146 



Department of State Bulletin 



A. I think it is almost certain there is a risk 
in accepting Soviet Communist aid. But I think 
that almost inevitably follows from the fact that 
the Soviet Union and satellite countries are them- 
selves so impoverished in terms of the need for 
consumer goods that only a strong political pur- 
pose could justify and lead the Soviet rulers to 
divert economic assistance from their own people 
to other peoples. There must, therefore, be a 
strong motive behind it. That motive needs to be 
watched carefully. I do not want to say in every 
case the taking of Soviet aid would involve a 
great danger, but certainly when you see an area 
as impoverished as the Soviet bloc is — and that 
is highlighted by the recent riots in Poznan — 
when you see the situation where the workers are 
rioting and risking their lives to get more bread, 
when you see such a country diverting its economic 
wealth to other people, there must be a strong 
political motive behind it, and that is a warning. 

Neutralism 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you still ielieve thai neu- 
tralism is immoral? 

A. I believe what I said,^ which is that the kind 
of neutralism which is indifferent to the fate of 
others and which believes security can best be 
sought in isolation and without concern for 
others — I said that kind of neutrality, I believe, 
is immoral. I did not say neutralism of all kinds 
is immoral. I described the kind of neutralism 
which I think is immoral, and to that view I still 
adhere. 

Q. Hoio is that expressed in the international 
field, Mr. Secretary f 

A. It is first of all expressed through member- 
ship, I would say, in the United Nations, which 
itself commits all of the members to the principle 
of standing together as against aggression. That 
indicates a concern for others. Now, of course, 
as we know, the operation of that provision of the 
United Nations Charter is subject to being im- 
peded by the veto power in the Security Council. 

The concept of mutual help, which is expressed 
in the United Nations Charter, has been translated 
in a good many cases into the collective security 
arrangements which are permitted under article 
51 of the charter, which is written — and I helped 



to write it — for the reason of having an alterna- 
tive to the Security Council and its veto power. 
So the concept of nations being willing to help 
each other is inherent in the United Nations Char- 
ter and is also inherent in the collective security 
arrangements made under article 51 of the charter, 
which was devised to permit overcoming the pos- 
sible veto power in the Security Council. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the further point — Mr. Nixon 
in his Manila speech ^ made a distinction between 
two hinds of neutrals, one that just is independent 
the way we were when we were yowng and the sec- 
ond which makes no moral distinction between 
right and wrong. Do you think any of the present 
governments in Asia qualify in the second 
category? 

A. Well, I wouldn't want to call countries by 
name. I think I had better not do that. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the definition of a concern for 
others as being expressed through membership 
in the United Nations means, as a practical mat- 
ter, does it not, that there practically aren't cmy 
neutrals in the world? Practically all the coun- 
tries which have been able to get into the United 
Nations are there. 

A. Yes, with one exception, Switzerland, which 
has felt that its membership in the United Na- 
tions would be inconsistent with its traditional 
policy of neutrality. I would not want even there 
to say that the neutrality of Switzerland was 
immoral. It is based upon a very special set of 
circumstances, and I think in the statement which 
I made, and which has been alluded to by another 
questioner, I said "except under very exceptional 
circumstances," and there could be exceptional 
circumstances, I' think perhaps are, in the case of 
Switzerland. But Switzerland has not joined the 
United Nations, although it could do so, because it 
felt that was inconsistent with its traditional 
policy of neutrality. 

Q. I think some of us had the impression from 
the statement you made that the standard which 
was in your mind, the standard of action or com- 
mitment, was the collective security system, that 
is, the willingness to take a position on some spe- 
cific current issue during the past 10 years. Your 
definition here broadens neutrality to the point 
where I now have the impression that hardly any 



■ Bulletin of June 18, 1956, p. 999. 
Jo/y 23, 1956 



' ma., July 16, 1956, p. 91. 



147 



country would he considered to he mumoral m its 
neutral policy. 

A. I think there are very few, if any, although 
I do believe this: I believe that countries which 
denounce genuine collective security pacts are seek- 
ing to i^romote a somewhat wrong view of 
neutrality. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there have heen repeated re- 
ports that this country is reevaluating its Middle 
East policy and that as a consequence mayhe the 
United States will assume full inembership in the 
Baghdad Pact. Is such a reevalwition taMng 
place, and is the possibility of full membership 
under consideration? 

A. No, there has been no recent consideration 
or change of policy with reference to the Baghdad 
Pact. Our position in that respect remains as it 
has been. 

Rearmament 

Q. Mr. Secretary, within the past week the ques- 
tion of rearmament has taken a pretty had kicking 
aroumd in Germany — West Germany — and in 
Japan. In Bonn the opposition icalked out, and 
in Tokyo the Socialists won in the Upper House 
on the issue. In the evaVaation of those circum- 
stances is there any possible sign that loe may take 
a new look at the rearmament of both countries? 

A. The United States is not pressing any coun- 
try to rearm. We do point out that the respon- 
sibilities of membership in collective security or- 
ganizations do imply a willingness on the different 
countries' part to share to some fair degree the 
responsibilities of the measure of collective arma- 
ment which is deemed to be desirable. It is there- 
fore, I think, incumbent, for example, upon Ger- 
many, having become a member of the North 
Atlantic Treaty, to bear a fair share of the respon- 
sibility and of the burden in terms of armament 
of the collective defense arrangement which is 
being maintained under the North Atlantic 
Treaty. In the case of Japan, there the situation 
is somewhat different. Japan is not a member of 
any collective security arrangement, although it 
does have a security treaty with the United States. 
But the question of what the Japanese do about 
their constitution is for them to decide, and we 
have not taken any position on that matter. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, to tohat do you ascribe the 
failure of the Japanese Government to get enough 



conservative seats in the Upper House to amend 
the constitution? Do you believe that that may 
he a letting down of the guard in the face of the 
Soviet peace offensive? 

A. I think I said before — if not, I will say 
again — that there is less fear in the world of war 
than was the case heretofore. I think we can all of 
us be very glad that that is the case. But we have 
to recognize that people who are not so afraid 
of war as they were are not going to be willing 
to assume quite as heavy a burden for armament 
as they did before. But I would personally much 
prefer to have a world in which there is less dan- 
ger of war than a world in which the danger ■ 
of war is so great that everybody feels they have 
to rush into armament. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, these irresistible trends in 
Russia you spoke about before, do you think they 
eventually toill help to bring about German re- 
unification in this second postwar decade? 

A. Yes, I believe so. 

Influence Through "Conduct and Example" 

Q. What could the West do in order to help 
those forces at work in Russia? Could we do 
something or should we jxist let them work hy 
themselves? 

A. I believe that the most we can do is to ad- 
here to the old historic American tradition of set- 
ting an example of the good fi-uits of freedom. 
One of the phrases which I most often go back to 
is in the opening paragraph of The Federalist 
papers, in which it is said, "It seems to have been 
reserved to the American people by their conduct 
and example to show . . ." and then it goes on. 
I believe that the best thing we can do is to show 
by our conduct and example how good are the 
fruits of this kind of a society, and that it is that 
example which will be most influential. 

The idea that we can help along by direct in- 
terference is, I think, a false idea. It very rarely 
helps to bring about changes in a foreign country 
to have foreigners themselves directly intervene 
in their internal affairs. But we can and do, I 
think, set an example which is felt throughout 
the world, and that tends to stimulate these proc- 
esses. Tliey would not be irresistible in my 
opinion if it were not for the fact that there is 
this constant demonstration going on as to how 
good freedom is. It is a conduct and example 



148 



li&pat\m&n\ of State Bulletin 



which catches the imagination of people, and that 
is why people throughout the world are constantly 
striving to get more freedom and more liberty. 

Q. Do you think that the -policy of exchange 
of contacts would also have an impact? 

A. I believe that it will, largely because it will 
bring to the peoples of the Soviet Union a greater 
knowledge of what are the freedoms that we en- 
joy and how good are the fruits of tliose free- 
doms. Much of that is still denied to the Soviet 
people, and our conduct and example is only per- 
suasive if it is known. If people can't see what we 
do, our example doesn't count there; if they don't 
know of our conduct, that doesn't count there. So 
that in order that our conduct and example be in- 
fluential it must be known. 

Foreign Aid Cut 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the House gives indication 
of chopping about a billion and a half out of 
the President's foreign aid program. No-w, both 
you and the President have spoken in general 
terms of the damage that would do. What spe- 
cific damage will be done to United States and 
free-world security if that cut is sustained today 
or tomorrow? 

A. Well, the use of that money, as I pointed 
out before, is in terms of particular persons and 
places. It is all right to deal with this money 
as an anonymous thing — I wouldn't say it is all 
right ; it is all wrong to deal with it as an anony- 
mous thing. We have to translate this thing into 
terms of actual places and actual persons, and the 
greater part of this money goes to particular places 
which I have enumerated. A great deal of it 
goes to Korea. What do we want to do with 
Korea? Do we want to undermine the defensive 
capability of Korea or not? How about For- 
mosa ? How about Viet- Nam ? How about Tur- 
key, and so forth ? You go around the map, and 
in each case you have got particular situations, 
particular people, who are friendly with us, who 
have coordinated their policies with ours; and if 
you have drastically to alter those policies, and 
not even be able to cushion the shock, it can have 
a very serious effect upon the wliole system of 
mutual security which we have built up. 

Q. Do you feel that the Republicans in Con- 
gress have not sufficiently backed up the President 
in this? 

July 23, 1956 

392413—56 3 



A. I think the Republicans in Congress have 
backed up the President very well. As I recall, 
when the vote was taken in the House Appropria- 
tions Committee, all of the Republicans, I think, 
but one voted against the big cut, and practically 
all of the Democrats voted for the big cut. 

Q. How about on the House floor? Quite a 
feio Republicans lined up there. 

A. You are talking about the appropriation 
now, or the authorization? 

Q. On the authorization. 

A. I thought you were talking about the big 

cut. 

Q. Well, I am, talking about both. But you got 
900 lopped off the authorization, which I figured 
you werenH too happy about either. 

A. Yes, but a good deal of that came back, 
which we expected that it would. The big con- 
cern we have is about the appropriations. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is there any conflict between 
a policy whereby we influence people by our con- 
duet and example and a policy of liberation of 
the satellite nations? 

A. I see no inconsistency between the policy of 
conduct and example and the policy of liberation, 
because it has been our conduct and example 
which has been the great liberating force through- 
out the world. Throughout practically all of the 
last century the example which we set of our 
freedom and independence was a tremendously 
inspiring liberating force. It has been in large 
part that which lias brought about this tremen- 
dous evolution from colonialism to independence. 
I don't claim for the United States the sole credit 
for that at all, because there are plenty of other 
democratic countries within the free world who 
have set that example and who have tliemselves 
taken an initiative. But what the United States 
did in the way of its conduct and example goes 
way back to the early days of this hemisphere 
when, following our independence, other Ameri- 
can countries gained their independence. The 
Monroe Doctrine, which exemplifies our belief 
in the independence of these countries, our con- 
duct with reference to the Philippines — our whole 
example has been a profound influence. And 
when you talk, for example, to the people of a 
country like Indonesia — or India for that mat- 
ter — you find that the history that they know, 



149 



from which they get their inspiration, is very 
largely early American history. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., all Commimist organs are 
currently engaged in spreading an idea of the 
United States ieing engaged in subversive activi- 
ties and citing, in that connection., the appropria- 
tion of $100 million and the recent move in the 
Senate for $25 miUion. You, undmihtedly, know 
the appropriations referred to. Do you care to 
say anything about that? 

A. There has been, of course, no final action 
taken on any of those matters at the present time. 
But whatever sums are appropriated or made 
available, if there are any, would be used only 
for the purpose of carrying out this concept which 
I have described; that is, making known to the 
peoples of the world the good fruits of a free 
society. It is not going to be used for subver- 
sive activities as it is alleged. 

U.S.-lndian Relations 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could yon tell us how you 
feel about the prospect of losing Mr. Cooper as 
Ambassador to India, and could you assess for 
us now what you think the status of the relations 
between our two countries is? 

A. It is naturally a disappointment to us in 
the State Department to see a very fine, able, and 
sensitive Ambassador drop out of that important 
position. I do not think that it will have any 
permanent effect upon the relations of our two 
countries, and I believe that the relations of our 
two countries are fundamentally good. There is 
some surface agitation as between our two coun- 
tries, but when you really get down to the funda- 
mentals of our relations with each other, our 
respect for each other, the good economic rela- 
tions we have, the many exchanges of persons 
and peoples that we have, I think it is a funda- 
mentally wholesome and sound relationship. 

There are, of course, differences in our views 
about a good many international affairs, and the 
Government of India takes certain views about 
international affairs wliich are different ifrom 
our own. But I have constantly emphasized we 
do not hold that against India in the sense of its 
being anything that is to be attacked by us or 
as basically affecting our relations, because, as I 
have often said, the hallmark of freedom is dif- 
ference, and we must always expect that there 



will be differences between free peoples. And 
we do not seek for the kind of enforced conformity 
which has been, up to now at least, a hallmark of 
Soviet communism. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you still plan to accom- 
pany the President to Panama, and, if so, could 
you tell us what you expect from that meeting?'^ 

A. I do expect to go with the President to Pan- 
ama. The meeting is not a business meeting, but 
it is a meeting where most, I think, of the Presi- 
dents of the 21 American Republics will gather 
for personal acquaintance and for informal ex- 
change of views. I believe that out of it will 
come a fresh sense of fellowslup and a still fur- 
ther invigoration of the Organization of American 
States, which is a wonderful international or- 
ganization — in many respects the best that there 
is in the world. 

Q. Thank you, sir. 



President Sends Greetings 
to Asian Leaders 

Following are texts of letters from President 
Eisenhower to Ngo Dinh Diem, President of Viet- 
Nam, and to Chiang Kai-shek, President of the 
Republic of China, lohich Vice President Nixon 
delivered on his recent trip to the Far East.^ 

PRESIDENT EISENHOWER TO 
PRESIDENT DIEM> 

Dear Mr. President: At this time I wish to 
extend to you and to your associates my warmest 
congratulations. The people of my country and 
of the entire Free World admire the devotion, the 
courage and determination which you have shown 
in surmounting the difficulties which confronted 
your newly independent country. 

We recall, in particular, your success in inspir- 



*The Presidents of the American Republics will meet 
at Panama City July 21-22 to commemorate the 130th 
anniversary of the Consress of Panama. 

■ For text of a letter from Mr. Eisenhower which Mr. 
Nixon presented to President Magsaysay of the Philip- 
pines, see Bulletin of July 16, 1956, p. 93. 

= Delivered at Saigon on July 6. The Republic of Viet- 
Nam on July 7 marked the second anniversary of Presi- 
dent Diem's government. 



150 



Department of State Bulletin 



ing a sense of national unity among your people ; 
the courage of the A^ietnamese nation in withstand- 
ing the pressures of aggressive Communism ; and 
tlie notable progress made by your country toward 
the great goal of constitutional government. 

I am proud that the Government and the people 
of the United States have been able to contribute 
to your successful efforts to restore stability and 
security to your country, and to help lay a solid 
basis for social and economic reconstruction. 

I speak for the people of the United States in 
our well wishes today to you and your country- 
men and I look to many years of partnership in 
the achievement of our common goals. 
Sincerely yours, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 
His Excellency 
Ngo Dinh Diem, 

President of the RepuMic of Viet-Nam, 
Saigon, Viet-Nam. 



PRESIDENT EISENHOWER TO 
PRESIDENT CHIANG » 

Dear Mr. President: I welcome the opportu- 
nity to send you my warm personal gi-eetings 
through Vice President Nixon. I liave asked him 
to make this special trip in order to convey to you 
personally, and through you to the courageous 
Chinese people, my admiration for your unyield- 
ing stand against Communism. 

International communism alters its tactics from 
time to time, but we have as yet no evidence of any 
change in its objectives. The American people 
and Government realize this. Likewise, let there 
be no misapprehension about our own steadfast- 
ness in continuing to support the Republic of 
China. 

I am encouraged to hear of tlie progress which 
has been made in improving the security and well- 
being of the people of Taiwan despite the dangers 
and difficulties confronting you. I am sure that 
you share my own confidence tliat the close coop- 
eration which has so long characterized our rela- 
tions will continue. No problems are too great 
for solution when a will to work together exists. 

Your leadership and courage have served as an 



inspiration to your people and to free men every- 
where who have stood firm against the Communist 
tyranny. 

Sincerely yours, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

His Excellency 
Chl\ng ICai-shek, 

President of the Republic of China, 
Taipei, Taiwan. 



Polish Red Cross Declines 
U.S. Offer of Food 

Following is the text of a letter from Acting 
Secretary Hoover to Harold Starr, General Cown- 
sel of the American Red Cross, together with two 
letters from Mr. Starr to Mr. Hoover. 



ACTING SECRETARY HOOVER TO MR. STARR, 
JULY 7 

Press release 377 dated July 3 

Tliank you for your letter of July 2, in wliich 
you informed me of your transmission to the 
League of Red Cross Societies of the offer of the 
United States Government of wheat, flour, and 
other foodstuffs, to relieve the shortages report- 
edly current in Poland and particularly in the 
Poznan area. We deeply appreciate your coop- 
eration in transmitting our offer of assistance. 

I have now received your letter of July 6, in 
which you inform me of the advice of the League 
of Red Cross Societies to tlie effect that the Polish 
Red Cross does not see fit to accept tlie offer. As 
I indicated to you in my letter of June 30,^ we 
stood ready in all good faith to be of help to 
the Polisli people. Our offer to be of assistance 
in relieving distress in Poland remains open. 

We welcome your suggestion to keep us in- 
formed of any further reports received from the 
League of Red Cross Societies in regard to our 
offer. 



MR. STARR TO MR. HOOVER, JULY 2 

Promptly upon receipt of your letter of June 
30, we advised tlie League of Red Cross Societies 



3 Delivered at Taipei on July 7. 
My 23, 7956 



' Bulletin of July 9, 1956, p. 55. 



151 



in Geneva of the offer of the United States Gov- 
ernment of wheat, flour and other foodstuffs, to 
relieve the shortages reportedly current in Poland. 

As you know, the League of Ked Cross Societies 
is presently engaged in the distribution of food- 
stuffs to the sufferers from the winter floods of 
the Danube in Hungary, and the League was, 
accordingly, advised that a program similar in 
content could be undertaken in Poland through 
their auspices, if acceptable to them and to the 
Polish Ked Cross. 

The League has assured us that it was prepared 
to accept the responsibility and that it would 
promptly transmit the offer of assistance to the 
Polish Ked Cross. Furthermore, we are to be 
advised immediately by the League of the response 
from the Polish Red Cross, and we shall, in turn, 
keep you currently informed. 



MR. STARR TO MR. HOOVER, JULY 6 

Supplementing my letter of July 2, 1956, rela- 
tive to the offer of the United States Government 
to make available wheat, flour and other food- 
stuffs to relieve the shortages currently reported 
in Poland, we have now received cable advice from 
the League of Red Cross Societies that the Polish 
Ked Cross does not see fit to accept the offer. 

A copy of the cable containing the foregoing 
advice is enclosed and you will note it contains an 
expression of the League's appreciation for our 
Government's offer. 

It may be that the Polish Ked Cross will pro- 
vide a more detailed expression of its rejection of 
the offer to the League of Ked Cross Societies, and 
we shall ask the League promptly to furnish us 
copies of such further details. We shall, of 
course, keep you informed of any further advice 
received. 



Text of Cable Transmitting 
Reply of Polish Red Cross 

Following telegram received Polcross "We have 
received your telegram of July 2. In reply we see 
no necessity to accept proposal of United States 
Government presented in telegram." Please ad- 
vise State Department and express appreciation 
of League for offer. 



Immigration Quota for Sudan 

A PROCLAMATION' 

Whereas under the provisions of section 201 (b) of ttie 
Immigration and Nationality Act, ttie Secretary of State, 
tlie Secretary of Commerce, and the Attorney General, 
jointly, are required to determine the annual quota of 
any quota area established pursuant to the provisions of 
section 202 (a) of the said Act, and to reiwrt to the 
President the quota of each quota area so determined; 
and 

Wherb^as the Sudan, formerly the Anglo-Egyptian Su- 
dan, declared its independence on December 19, 1955 and 
has been recognized as an independent country by the 
United States ; and 

Whereas the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Com- 
merce, and the Attorney General have reported to the 
President that in accordance with the duty imposed and 
the authority conferred upon them by section 201 (b) of 
the Immigration and Nationality Act, they jointly have 
made the determination provided for and computed under 
the provisions of section 201 (a) of the said Act ; and have 
fixed, in accordance therewith, an immigration quota for 
the Sudan as hereinafter set forth : 

Now, therefore, I, DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, Presi- 
dent of the United States of America, acting under and by 
virtue of the authority vested in me by the aforesaid Act 
of Congress, do hereby proclaim and make known that 
the annual quota of the quota area hereinafter enum- 
erated has been determined in accordance with the law 
to be, and shall be, as follows : 



Area No. 


Quota Area 


Quota 


86 


Sudan 


100 



The provision of an immigration quota for any quota 
area is designed solely for the purpose of compliance vpith 
the pertinent provisions of the Immigration and Nation- 
ality Act and is not to be considered as having any signifi- 
cance extraneous to such purpose. 

Proclamation No. 2980 of June 30, 1952 "^ is amended 
accordingly. 

In vfiTNESs WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this ninth day of July 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and 
[sb:al] fifty-six, and of the Independence of the United 
States of America the one hundred and eighty- 
first 

By the President : 

John Foster Dulles, 
Secretary of State. 



'■ No. 3147 ; 21 Fed. Reg. 5127. 
' Bulletin of July 14, 1952, p. 83. 



152 



Department of State Bulletin 



Unpublished Documents Distributed Among Delegates 
to 20th Congress of Soviet Communist Party 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Department of State announced on June 30 
that it had recently obtained through a confiden- 
tial source certain documents which were, it is 
believed, distributed to the delegates at the 20th 
Party Congress of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union on February 25, 1956. 

They were distributed as supplements to the 
version of the speech of First Party Secretary 
N. S. Khrushchev, which was previously released 
by the Department (June 4) .' The 18 documents, 
which deal with Soviet affairs in 1922-23, have 
been under study by the Department to determine 
the previous history of publication or reference. 

In view of the fact that on June 30 the Com- 
munist Party of the Soviet Union made public a 
segment of the documents in this series, the De- 
partment has decided to make available the docu- 
ments in its possession at this time, in the interests 
of scholarship and historical perspective on the 
events of 1922-23. 

TEXT OF DOCUMENTS 

FOR THE EXCLUSIVE USE OF PARTY 
ORGANIZATIONS 



1. Protocol by N. K. Krupskaya CLenin's Wife) and 
Kamenev, May 18, 1924, on Notes Transmitted by 
Lenin. Unpublished 

I transmitted the notes which V. I. Uyich dictated to 
me during his illness from 23 December to 23 January — 
13 separate notes. This total number does not yet in- 
clude the note concerning the national question (Mariya 
Ilyishna has it). Some of these notes have already been 
published (on the Workers-Peasants Inspection, and on 
Sukhanov). Among the unpublished notes are those of 
24-25 December '22 and those of 4 January '23 which 
contain personal characterizations of some CC members. 



Vladimir Ilyich expressed the definite wish that this note 
of his be submitted after his death ^ to the next Party 
Congress for its information. 

N. Krdtskata 

The documents mentioned in the declaration of Com. 
N. K. Krupskaya, which are to be transmitted to the CC 
Plenum commission, were received by me on 18 May '24. 

L. Kamenev 

Vladimir Ilyich's notes mentioned aliove and trans- 
mitted to Com. Kamenev — are all known to me and were 
earmarked by Vladimir Ilyich for transmittal to the Party. 

18. V. 24. 

N. Keupskata 



End of protocol 



L. Kamenev 
N. Krupskaya 



2. Note by Central Committee Plenum Commission 
on Lenin's Notes, May 19, 1924. Unpublished 

Having familiarized itself with the documents which 
were transmitted to Com. Kamenev by N. K. Krupskaya 
on 18. V. 24, the CC Plenum Commission decided : 

To submit them to the nearest Party Congress for its 
information. 

19. V. 24 

G. ZiNOVTEV 

A. Smienov 
M. Kalinin 

N. BtTKHARIN 

J. Stalin 
L. Kamenev 

3. Lenin's "Letter to the Congress" Regarding 
Enlargement of Central Committee, December 23, 
1922. Unpublished 

I. 

LETTER TO THE CONGRESS 

I should very much like to advise that a series of 
changes in our political organization be undertaken at 
this Congress. 



'Not printed here; see Conff. Bee. of June 4, 1956, 
p. 8465. 



'Lenin died Jan. 21, 1924. The 13th Congress of the 
Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) took place 
May 23-31, 1924. 



July 23, 1956 



153 



I should like to share with you those thoughts which I 
consider to be most essential. 

I submit, as of j^rimary importance, that the size of the 
CC membership be enlarged to several dozen, possibly 
even to one hundred members. It seems to me that our 
Central Committee would be exposed to great danger in 
case future developments would not be favorable to us 
(and we cannot rely on it) — if we had not undertaken 
such a reform. 

Next, I would like to call the Congress' attention to the 
proposal that under some conditions Gosplan resolutions 
should be given a legislative character, taking into con- 
sideration here Com. Trotsky's proposition — up to a cer- 
tain point and under certain conditions. 

Referring to the first point, i. e., enlargement of CC 
membership, I am of the opinion that it is necessary for 
the raising of CC authority and for the serious work 
aimed at raising the efficiency of our apparatus, as also 
for the prevention of conflicts between small CC group- 
ings which would gravely affect the fate of the Party as 
a whole. 

I think that our Party has the right to demand 50-100 
CC members from the working class whom it can give up 
without taxing its strength too highly. 

This reform would lay the foundation for a greater 
stability of our Party and would help it in its struggle 
in the encirclement of hostile nations, a struggle which 
in my opinion can and must greatly sharpen in the next 
few years. I think that thanks to such a move the sta- 
bility of our Party would increase a thousandfold. 

Lenin 

23 XII '22 
Written by M. V. 



4. Lenin, Additions to Above, December 24 and 
December 25, 1922, and Postscript, January 4, 1923 
(Popularly Known as Lenin's "Testament"). Pub- 
lished in Various Sources, Including Leon Trotsky, 
"The Real Situation in the Soviet Union," Pages 
320-323 

Continuation of the notes 
24 December '22 

II 

By the stability of the Central Committee, of which I 
spoke above, I mean measures to prevent a split — if such 
measures can at all be found. Because the White Guard- 
ist from Russkaya Mysl (I think it was S. F. Oldenburg) 
was of course right when, in the first place, in their action 
against Soviet Russia, he banked on the hope of a split 
in our Party and also when, in the second place, in speak- 
ing of this split, he banked on very serious differences 
of opinion in the Party. 

Our Party rests upon two classes and this may possibly 
result in the violation of its stability ; and its fall could 
not be prevented if these two classes did not reach an 
agreement. Under such conditions to apply this or that 
solution, and even to discuss the stability of our CC, Is 
useless. No preventive measures would In such an event 



avert a split. I hope, however, that this [the possibility 
of a split in the Party] would threaten only in the remote 
future, that it is so improbable that we need not even 
talk about it. 

I have in mind stability which would make a split im- 
possible in the near future and I intend to examine here i 
a series of a purely personal nature. 

In my opinion, and from this viewpoint, such CC mem- , 
hers as Stalin and Trotsky present the most important 
factor pertaining to stability. The character of relation- 
ship between them contains, to my mind, the greater part 
of the danger of that split, which could be avoided ; this 
preventive aim can, I think, best be served along with 
other purposes by raising the number of CC members to 
50, to 100 persons. 

Com. Stalin has, having become Secretary General, con- 
centrated enormous power in his hands and I am not at 
all certain that he is capable of utilizing this power with 
sufficient caution. Com. Trotsky, on the other hand, as 
was already demonstrated in his fight against the CC in 
connection with the question of the People's Commissariat 
of Communications, distinguishes himself not only as pos- 
sessing great abilities. He is probably the most able man 
in the present CC but at the same time he possesses an 
exaggerated self-confidence and an exaggerated attraction 
to the purely administrative side of affairs. 

These two traits of the two able leaders of the present 
CC might quite innocently lead to a split; if our Party 
does not take steps to prevent this, the split can occur 
unexpectedly. 

I will not further attempt to characterize other CC 
members as to their personal qualities. I will recall only 
that the October episode of Zinovlev and Kamenev was, of 
course, not an accident, but we should use it against them 
even less than non-Bolshevism against Trotsky. 

Speaking about the younger CC members, I want to 
sa.v a few words about Bukharin and Pyatakov. In my 
opinion they are the most able forces (of the younger 
men) ; but in regard to them we should be aware of the 
following: Bukharin is not only a very valuable and 
very prominent Party theoretician, but is properly re- 
garded as the favorite of the whole Party ; his theoretical 
views, however, can be accepted as fully Marxist views, 
but only with a very large grain of salt, because there is 
something of the scholastic in him (he never studied and, 
I think, has never completely understood, the dialectic). 

25. XII. 

Now for Pyatakov; he is a man of unquestionably 
strong will and of great ability ; he is, however, too much 
tempted by administrativeness, by the purely administra- 
tive side of things, to be relied on in an important politi- 
cal question. 

It is clear that the first as well as the second observa- 
tion refers only to the present, but both are made just 
in case these two able and loyal workers are not able 
to find an occasion to round out their knowledge and get 
rid of their onesidedness. 

Lenin 

25. XII. 22 
Written by M. V. 



154 



Department of State Bulletin 



Supplement to Letter of Decemher 24, 1922 

Stalin is too rude .and this defect, which can be freely 
tolerated in our midst and in contacts among us Commu- 
nists, can become an intolerable defect in one holding 
the position of the Secretary General. Because of this, 
I propose that the comrades consider ways and means 
by which Stalin can be removed from this position and 
another man selected, a man who, above all, would differ 
from Com. Stalin in only one quality, namely, greater 
tolerance, greater loyalty, greater kindness and more con- 
siderate attitude toward his comrades, less capricious tem- 
per, etc. This circumstance could appear to be a mean- 
ingless trifle. I think, however, that, from the viewpoint 
of preventing a split and from the viewpoint of what I 
have written above concerning the relationship between 
Stalin and Trotsky, this is not a trifle, or if it is one, 
then it is a trifle which can acquire a decisive significance. 

Lenin 
Wrltteu by L. F. 
4 January 1923 

5. Lenin, Note on Enlargement of Central Com- 
mittee, December 26, 1922. Unpublislied 

Continuation of notes 
26 December 1922 

III 

The enlargement of the OC membership to 50 or even 
100 persons should serve, as I see it, a two- or three-fold 
purpose; the more CC members there are, the more 
persons will get to know the CC work and the smaller 
will be the danger of a split as a result of taking some 
careless step. Enlistment of many workers into the CC 
will help our workers improve the efl5ciency of our 
apparatus,^ which is very bad. Actually we have in- 
herited it from the old regime, because it was entirely 
impossible for us to reorganize it completely in such a 
short time, especially during the period of war, of famine, 
etc. For that reason the "critics," who, in a derogatory 
or sarcastic manner, point out the defects of our appa- 
ratus, can be boldly answered that they have no concept 
whatever of the conditions of our present revolution. 
Effective reorganization of the apparatus within five 
years was entirely impossible — especially during the 
period of the revolution. It is enough that during five 
years we managed to create a government of a new 
type in which the workers at the head of the peasants 
stand against the bourgeoisie, and this at the time 
when we are encircled by a hostile world; this was a 
tremendous accomplishment. This knowledge should not, 
however, blind us to the fact that it is actually the old 
apparatus which we have taken over, the apparatus of the 
Czar and of the bourgeoisie, and that now, when we have 
attained peace and have satisfied our minimal needs, we 
should devote all our effort toward improving the efli- 
ciency of the apparatus. I picture this to myself in this 
manner ; several dozen workers taken into the CC ma- 



' Lenin here apparently is referring to the governmental 
or administrative apparatus. 

luly 23, 1956 



chinery will be more able than anyone else to occupy 
themselves with the control, efficiency and transforma- 
tion of our apparatus. It became evident that the 
Workers-Peasants Inspection, which initially possessed 
this function, is incapable of performing it and can be 
used only as an "auxiliary," or, under some conditions, 
as an assistant of these CC members. Workers drawn 
into the CC should, in my opinion, not be recruited from 
among those who have behind them a long period of 
service in the Soviet apparatus (in this part of my 
letter I count the peasants as workers in every case), 
because these workers have acquired certain habits and 
certain prejudices, which we specifically consider it 
necessary to combat. 

The CC staff should be enlisted largely from among the 
workers who are below the level of the group which were 
promoted during the last five years to positions in the 
Soviet apparatus, and from among those who are close 
to the common workers and peasants, who are not di- 
rectly or indirectly in the category of the exploiters. I 
think that such workers, now attending all CC meetings, 
and all Politbureau meetings, and having the opportunity 
to read all CC documents — are capable of creating the 
cadre of loyal supporters of the Soviet system ; they will 
be able also, firstly, to add to the stability of the CC itself, 
and secondly to work actually on rebuilding the apparatus 
and making it efficient. 

Written by L. F. 
26. XII '22 

6. Lenin, Notes Concerning the Assignment of 
Legislative Functions to Gosplan, December 27, 
1922. Unpublished, but Excerpts Appear in Trotsky, 
"The Stalin School of Falsification," Page 76, and 
Max Eastman, "Since Lenin Died," Page 15 

Continuation of notes 
27 December 1922 

IV 

CONCERNING THE ASSIGNMENT OF 
LEGISLATIVE FUNCTIONS TO 
GOSPLAN 

This idea was, it seems to me, first put forth by Com. 
Trotsky. I opposed it, because I considered that in such 
a case this would introduce a basic inconsistency into the 
s.vstem of our legislative institutions. After a thorough 
examination of this question, I have nevertheless come to 
the conclusion that it contains an essentially healthy idea, 
namely, that Gosplan is somewhat divorced from our legis- 
lative institutions despite the fact that, being an assembly 
of competent individuals, experts and representatives of 
science and technology, it actually has the most data 
necessary to assess the situation. 

Until now, however, our viewpoint was that Gosplan 
should deliver to the State carefully compiled materials 
sufficient for State institutions to decide the affairs of 
the State. I consider that in the present situation, when 
governmental affairs have become unusually complicated, 
when it is continuously necessary to decide on questions 



155 



which require the expert knowledge of Gosplan members 
and occasionally on questions which do not require such 
expert knowledge, and, what is more, when it is necessary 
to decide on questions, parts of which do and parts of 
which do not require such expert knowledge of Gosplan — 
I consider that at the present time we have to take the 
step to broaden Gosplan's powers. 

I picture to myself this step as follows : Gosplan's deci- 
sions cannot be put aside by the regular governmental 
processes, but require special procedures such as presenta- 
tion of the matter before a VTIK session, its preparation 
in accordance with special instructions, accompanied by 
special regulations and notes necessary for consideration 
of whether a given Gosplan decision should be abrogated 
and finally — the review of Gosplan's decisions should be 
made at regular and specific intervals, etc. 

Com. Trotsky's concurrence in this matter, in my opin- 
ion, could and should be obtained, but not as to the assign- 
ment to the post of Gosplan chairman of one of our 
political leaders or the chairman of the Supreme Council 
of National Economy, etc. It seems to me that in this 
question the basic consideration is much too closely tied 
up with personal considerations. It seems to me that the 
currently expressed objections to the chairman of Gosplan, 
Krizhanovsky, and his deputy, Pyatakov, are twofold. 
On the one hand they are criticized on the grounds that 
they are too easygoing, that they do not assert themselves, 
that they lack character, and on the other hand, that they 
are supposedly too uncouth, that they behave like first 
sergeants, that they do not have sufficiently solid scien- 
tific background, etc. It seems to me that these criticisms 
encompass two sides of the question pushed to their ex- 
tremes and that we do need in Gosplan the skillful com- 
bination of both of these types, one represented by 
Pyatakov and the other by Krizhanovsky. 

In my opinion Gosplan should be headed by a man with 
scientific background, specifically in technology or agri- 
culture, a man with great practical experience, an ex- 
perience of several dozen years in the field of technology 
or agriculture. In my opinion such a man needs not so 
much administrative ability as he needs wide experience 
and the ability to lead. 

Lenin 

27 Xii. '22 
Written by M. V. 

7. Continuation of Above, December 28, 1922. 
Unpublished 

Continuation of the letter on the legislative character of Gosplan 

28 Xii. 22 



I have noted that some of our comrades, who are in 
positions to affect the affairs of the State in a decisive 
manner, overemphasize the administrative side of the 
question, which at the proper time and place is, of course, 
indispensable, but which, however, should not be er- 
roneously equated with scientific knowledge, with the 
capacity for comprehension of broad realities, with leader- 
ship talent, etc. 

Every governmental institution, and specifically 



Gosplan, requires the happy combination of these two 
qualities ; thus, when Com. Krizhanovsky told me that he 
managed to get Pyatakov for the work in Gosplan and that 
there was a meeting of minds as to the division of labor — 
I, giving my consent, felt, deep in me, on the one side, 
certain doubts, but visualized, on the other hand, that we 
might realize the desired combination of the two types of 
governmental leaders. Whether my hope was realized — to ' 
assess this, we must wait awhile ; we must, over a period 
of time, check this in practice; in principle, however, — 
I think — we cannot doubt that the proper functioning of 
governmental institutions absolutely requires such a com- 
bination of characters and types (men, qualities). In my 
opinion, in this case, the exaggeration of "administrative- 
ness" is just as harmful as exaggeration generally. A 
director of a governmental institution should possess in 
the highest degree the capacity for leadership and a solid 
scientific and technical knowledge to the extent needed for 
checking a person's work. This is essential. Without it, 
no real work can be done. On the other hand, he has to 
know how to administer and has to have for this purpose ^ 
a suitable assistant or even assistants. It is doubtful 
whether we will find the combination of these two qualities 
in one person ; it is equally doubtful whether such a com- 
bination is neces.sary. 

Lenin 
Written by L. F. 

28 Xll. 22 

8. Continuation of Above, December 29, 1922. 
Unpublished 

Continuation of the notes 

29 December 1022 

VI 

Gosplan, it appears, is being completely transformed 
into a commission of experts. At the head of this institu- 
tion there should be a man of great and broad scientific 
attainments in tlie field of technology. Administrative 
ability should be here only a useful adjunct. Gosplan 
doubtlessly needs to be to a certain degree Independent 
and self-governing provided only that the employees of 
this institution are honest and honestly seek to carry out 
our plan of economic and social construction. 

The last quality is found today, of course, only in unique 
cases, because the overwhelming majority of scientists, of 
which Gosplan is naturally made up, is heavily burdened 
with bourgeois views and preconceptions. To control 
these people in this respect should be the task of several 
individuals who can constitute a Gosplan presidium ; these 
individuals should be Communists and should be checking 
daily, during the progress of work, to what degree the 
bourgeois scientists are devoted to the cause, whether 
they are unburdening themselves of their bourgeois prej- 
udices, and also whether they are gradually accepting the 
Socialist point of view. This twofold activity — scientific 
control coupled with purely administrative work — is the 
ideal to which Gosplan leaders in the new republic should 
aspire. 

It is logical to chop up the work done by Gosplan into 
individual directives, or — on the other hand — should we 



156 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



aim at the creation of a permanent band of specialists who 
would be subject to systematic control by the Gosplan 
presidium, who could reach decisions as to the entirety 
of the problems within the scope of Gosplan's activity? 
In my judgment, the second of the two is more logical 
and we should make an effort to limit the number of burn- 
ing and important sijecific problems. 

Lenin 

Written by M. V. 
29. Xii. 22 

9. Lenin, Notes on Raising the Number of Central 
Committee Members, December 29, 1922. Unpub- 
lisiied 

Continuation of the notes 
29 December 1922 



VII 



(FOR THE CHAPTER ON RAISING 
THE NUMBER OF CC MEMBERS) 

When raising the number of CC members, it is neces- 
sary, in my opinion, to solve — probably first of all — the 
problem of control and efiiciency of our apparatus, which 
is good for nothing. For this purpose we should utilize 
the services of highly qualified specialists; the task of 
making these specialists available belongs to the Work- 
ers-Peasants Inspection. 

How the work of these control specialists, who also 
have sufficient knowledge, is to be coordinated with the 
work of these new CC members — practice should decide. 
It appears to me that the Workers-Peasants Inspection 
(as the result of its development and also as the result 
of doubts in regard to this development) has reached 
a stage, which we now observe, namely, a stage of tran- 
sition from a separate People's Commissariat to the 
assignment of special functions to CC members. This 
transition is away from an institution which inspects 
absolutely everything — away from a group consisting only 
of a few members who are, however, first-class inspec- 
tors who have to be well paid (this is particularly indis- 
pensable in our era when everything has to be paid for 
and in the situation when the inspectors are employed 
only in those institutions which offer better pay). 

If the number of CC members is adequately raised and 
if they attend each year a course on administration of 
governmental affairs, benefiting from the help of the 
highly qualified specialists and of the members of the 
Workers-Peasants Inspection, who are highly authorita- 
tive in every sphere of activity — then, I think we will 
successfully solve this problem which has so long evaded 
solution. 

Therefore, totally : about 100 CC members and no more 
than 400-500 assistants, who, in their capacity as mem- 
bers of the Workers-Peasants Inspection, control in 
accordance with their directives. 

Lenin 

29 December 1922 
Written by M. V. 



10. Memorandum to Members of the Party Central 
Committee Covering Transmission of Following 
Documents, April 16, 1923. Unpublished 

Proletarians of all countries, Unite! 

THE COMMUNIST PARTY (BOLSHEVIKS) OF RUSSIA 

THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE 

DEPARTMENT OF THE BUREAU OF THE SECRETARIAT 

NO. 12644/3 

16 April 1923 

TO ALL MEMBERS OF THE C C/R C P 

On order of Com. Stalin there are sent for the infor- 
mation of CC members : 

a. A letter of Com. Trotsky to the CC members ; 

b. Articles of Com. Lenin on the national question, 
written at the end of December, 1922 ; 

c. A letter of Com. Fotiyeva to Com. Kamenev together 
with his answer ; 

d. A letter of Com. Fotiyeva to Com. StaUn ; 

e. Com. Stalin's declaration. 

Assistant to the CC Secretary, 
A. Nazaretyan 

11. Letter From Trotsky to Stalin and Members of 
the Central Committee on Lenin's Article on the 
Nationalities Question, April 16, 1923. Unpublished, 
but Eastman, "Since Lenin Died," Describes Con- 
tent on Page 23 

TO COM. STADIN 
TO ALL MEMBERS OF THE CC/RCP 

I have today received the enclosed copy of a letter from 
the personal secretary of Com. Lenin, Com. Fotiyeva, to 
Com. Kamenev concerning an article of Com. Lenin about 
the national question. 

I had received Com. Lenin's article on 5 March to- 
gether with three notes of Com. Lenin, copies of which 
are also enclosed. 

I had made at that time a copy of this article, as of a 
document of particularly basic significance, and have used 
it as the basis for my corrections (accepted by Com. 
Stalin) of Com. Stalin's theses, as well as for my own 
article on the national question published In Pravda. 

This article, as already stated, is of singularly basic 
significance. It contains also a sharp condemnation of 
three CC members. As long as even a shadow of hope 
existed that Vladimir Uyich had left some instruction 
concerning this article for the Party Congress, for which 
it was obviously meant, judging by all signs and espe- 
cially by Com. Fotiyeva's note — so long have I avoided 
bringing this article up. 

In the situation which has now arisen — as is also evi- 
dent from Com. Fotiyeva's letter — I have no alternative 
but to make this article known to the Central Committee 
members, because, in my opinion, this article has no lesser 
significance from the viewpoint of Party policy on the 
national question than the former article on the question 



July 23, 1956 



157 



of the relationship between the proletariat and the 
peasantry. 

If— on the basis of motives of an inner-Party nature, 
whose significance is self-evident — no CC member will 
make this article in one or another form known to the 
Party or to the Party Congress, I, on my part, will con- 
sider this as a decision of silence, a decision which— 
in connection with the Party Congress— removes from me 
personal responsibility for this article. 



16. IV. 23 
NO. 199/t 



Enclosures : Com. Fotiyeva's 
letter, three notes and an 
article of Com. Lenin. 

L. Tbotskt 



Received at 8 : 10 p.m. 
16. IV. 23 

For accuracy : E. Lepeshinskaya 



12. L enin's Article onlNationalities Question, De- 
cember 30, 31, 1922. Published in R. Pipes, "The 
Formation of the Soviet Union: Communism and 
Nationalism, 1917-23," Pages 273-274 



Continuation of the notes 
30 December 22. 



COPY 



CONCERNING THE NATIONAL QUES- 
TION OR "AUTONOMIZATI ON" 

I have committed, I think, a great offense against the 
workers of Russia because I have not pressed with suf- 
ficient energy and sharpness the well-known autonomiza- 
tion question, known oflScially, it seems to me, as the 
question of the union of the Socialist Soviet republics. 

In the summer, when this question arose, I was ill, and 
then in the autumn I was too confident of my recovery and 
believed that I could press this matter at the October and 
the December Plenums. However, I could not attend 
either the October Plenum (devoted to this problem) or 
the December Plenum; and in this way this question 
passed me by almost entirely. 

I managed only to talk with Com. Dzerzhinsky, who had 
returned from the Caucasus, and who related to me how 
this question looks in Georgia. I also managed to ex- 
change a few words with Com. Zinoviev and passed on to 
him my anxiety concerning this question. What I heard 
from Com. Dzerzhin!5ky, who was at the head of a com- 
mission sent by the Central Committee for the purpose of 
"investigating" the Georgia incident, made me expect 
nothing but the worst. If things have gone so far that 
Ordzhonikidze could stoop to using physical violence, 
which was told me by Com. Dzerzhinsky, then it can be 
imagined in what a quagmire we have landed. Evidently 
the whole concept of "autonomization" was basically 
wrong and inopportune. 

It is said that we need the unity of the apparatus. 
Whence came these assurances? Was it not from the same 
Russian apparatus, which, as I have already noted in one 
of the earlier numbers of my journal, we have taken over 



from the Czarate and have only thinly anointed with the 
Soviet holy oil? 

It cannot be doubted but that we should have waited 
with this matter until we could have said that we answer / 
for our apparatus as for our very own. And now we j 
should conscientiously say something quite the opposite, 
namely that we call as our ovra an apparatus which is 
really foreign to us and which is a bourgeois and Czarist 
hodgepodge, which we had no chance of subduing during 
the past five years without the help of our states under 
conditions when the "business" of war and the fight 
against the famine was more important. 

Under such conditions it is an entirely natural thing 
that the point about the "freedom to withdraw from the 
union," with which we justify ourselves, will prove to be 
but a scrap of paper insufficient for the defense of foreign 
races in Russia against the inroads of that very generically 
Russian man, the Great Russian, the chauvinist, and 
actually a villain and a ravager, which is what the typical 
Russian bureaucrat is. It cannot be doubted but that the 
insignificant percentage of Soviet and Sovietized workers 
will drown in this chauvinistic sea of Great Russian 
rascality like a fly in the milk. 

It is offered in the defense of this undertaking that the 
people's commissariats whose activity includes the mat- 
ters pertaining to the national spirit, national education, 
are autononiou.s. But a question arises here whether it is 
possible to keep the people's commissariats entirely un- 
related to the center and also a second question, whether 
we have applied measures with proper care for the purpose 
of defending foreign races against the generically, the 
typically, Russian Derzhimorda [after a character in a 
novel by Gogol, noted for his brutal arrogance]. In my 
judgment we have not taken such measures although we 
could and should have done so. 

I think that a fatal role was played here by hurry and 
the administrative impetuousness of Stalin and also his 
infatuation with the renowned "social-nationalism." In- 
fatuation in politics generally and usually plays the worst 
role. 

I am also afraid that Com. Dzerzhinsky, who went to 
the Caucasus in order to investigate the "crimes" of these 
"social-nationalists," distinguished himself also by his 
typically Russian disposition (it is a common knowledge 
that Russified members of other nationalities always like 
to exaggerate when it comes to typically Russian atti- 
tudes) ; the objectivity of his whole commission is charac- 
terized by Ordzhonikidze's "accomplishments." In my 
opinion, no provocation and also no insults can justify 
these Russian good deeds and that Com. Dzerzhinsky has 
committed an irreparable offense by treating these deeds 
frivolously. 

To all other citizens of the Caucasus, Ordzhonikidze 
was the government. Ordzhonikidze had no right to allow 
himself such impulsiveness as that with which he and 
Dzerzhinsky have tried to excuse themselves. Quite to 
the contrary, Ordzhonikidze was duty-bound to show self- 
control to a degree that is not obligatory for other plain 
citizens, let alone a citizen charged with a "political" 
crime. After all the "social-nationalists" were actually 
citizens charged with a political crime, and all circum- 



158 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



stances of this accusation could only thus describe it. 
Here we are already approaching a very basic question : 
what should we understand by internationalism. 

Lenin 



Continuation of notes 
31 December 1922 



COPT 



CONCERNING THE NATIONAL QUES- 
TION OR " AUTONOMIZ ATI ON" 

(continuation) 

I have already written in my works treating the national 
question that an abstract concept of nationalism is abso- 
lutely worthless. Distinction should be made between the 
nationalism of an oppressing nation and the nationalism 
of an oppressed nation, the nationalism of a large nation 
and the nationalism of a small nation. 

Speaking about the second type of nationalism, we, the 
nationals of a great nation, show ourselves almost always 
in historical practice guilty of untold numbers of outrages 
and, what is more — we do not even observe that we are 
perpetrating untold numbers of acts of violence and abuse ; 
it should suffice for me to cite my own Volga recollections 
to show with what contempt we treated non-Russians ; a 
Pole is always referred to as "Polak," a Tartar is sar- 
castically called a "count," a Ukrainian— a "khokhol," * 
a Georgian and other members of the Caucasian nations — 
a "Capcasian man." ° 

For this reason the internationalism of the oppressing 
nation, or of the so-called "great" nation (even If it is 
great only through its violence, great only as an overlord 
can be "great"), should depend not only on the formal 
observation of equality among nations, but also of such 
inequality by which the oppressing nation, the large na- 
tion, would compensate for that inequality which actually 
exists in life. He who does not understand this does not 
understand the true proletarian approach to the national 
question, actually still retains the petit bourgeois outlook, 
and, for that reason, cannot but fall into the bourgeois 
position. 

What is important to a proletarian? For a proletarian 
it is not only important but essential and compelling that 
other nationalities offer him the maximum of trust in 
the proletarian class struggle. What is the prerequisite 
for this? More than a formal equality is required. It is 
required that he compensate, in one way or another, 
through his behavior toward, or through his concessions 
to, the other nationalities for that distrust, that sus- 
picion, those grievances which they have experienced in 
the historical past at the hands of the government of the 
"big power" nation. 

I should think that Bolsheviks and Communists need 
no further explanation. I think that in the case before 
us, the case of the Georgian nation, we have a typical 
example in which a really proletarian approach requires 
of us a special caution, understanding, and the making of 
concessions. A Georgian who treats this side of the 



matter with frivolity, who frivolously chatters about the 
charges of "social-nationalism" (while he himself is not 
only a real and an authentic "social-nationalist" but also 
a brutal Great Russian Derzliimorda) , that Georgian 
actually harms the interests of proletarian class solidarity, 
because nothing so much impedes the development and 
the strengthening of proletarian class solidarity as na- 
tional injustice ; the oppressed nationals are not as sensi- 
tive in regard to any other matter as in regard to their 
equality and in regard to nonobservance of this equality 
by the proletarian comrades even when this is due only 
to negligence or is demonstrated in the form of a joke. 
It is for this reason that in this case it would be preferable 
to sin by too much rather than too little concession and 
indulgence toward national minorities. It is for this 
reason that the basic interest of proletarian solidarity 
and, therefore, of the proletarian class struggle, demands 
in this case that we never treat the national question in 
a formal manner, but that we always take into account 
the indispensable difference which should exist in the re- 
lationship of the proletarian oppressed (or small) nation 
with the oppressing (or large) nation. 

Lenin 

31 XII. 22 

for accuracy : Lepesbinskaya 



Continuation of the notes 
31 December 1922 



COPY 



* A reference to the softness of Ukrainian speech as com- 
pared with the Great Russian. 
° A reference to illiterate pronunciation. 



CONCERNING THE NATIONAL QUES- 
TION OR "AUTONOMIZATION" 

(continuation) 

What practical measure should be taken in the situa- 
tion which has developed? 

Firstly, we should retain and strengthen the union of 
socialist republics ; there can be no doubt about this. 
We need this as the Communist proletariat of the whole 
world needs it in the fight with the international bour- 
geoisie and in the defense against its machinations. 

Secondly, we should retain the union of socialist re- 
publics in regard to the diplomatic apparatus. It should 
be mentioned here that this apparatus is quite excep- 
tional in the governmental apparatus. We excluded 
everyone from the old Czarist apparatus who formerly 
had even the slightest influence. Here, the whole ap- 
paratus, possessing the slightest influence, was made up 
of Communists. For this reason this apparatus has ac- 
quired for itself (we can boldly say) the name of a Com- 
munist apparatus which has been tested and cleansed 
of the old Czarist bourgeois and petty bourgeois influence 
to a degree incomparably higher than that attained in 
the apparatuses with which we have to be satisfied in 
the other people's commissariats. 

Thirdly, Com. Ordzhonikidze has to be punished as an 
example (I say this with regret, the more so because 
I myself belong to the circle of his friends and have 
worked with him abroad, In the emigration) ; it is also 
necessary to examine again or anew all the materials 
of the Dzerzhinsky commission in order to correct that 
great mass of injustices and of biased judgments defi- 
nitely contained in them. Political responsibility for this 



Jo/y 23, 7956 



159 



whole truly Great Russian-nationalistic campaign should 
be placed squarely on the backs of Stalin and Dzerzhinsky. 

Fourthly, we should introduce the most rigorous rules 
concerning the use of the national language in the re- 
publics of other nations which are members of our union ; 
and we should ensure the most meticulous observance of 
these rules. There is no doubt that under the pretext 
of the unity of railway service, under the pretext of 
fiscal unity, etc., a great number of abuses of the essen- 
tially Russian type will be experienced by us. To fight 
these abuses we must practice an exceptional vigilance ; 
this is in addition to the special integrity required of 
those who will devote themselves to this fight. We will 
need here a detailed code which can be compiled, even 
if only imperfectly, only by the nationals residing in a 
given republic. It should not be predetermined that, 
while we do this, we will nevertheless not consider at the 
next Congress of Soviets the return to the former situa- 
tion, i. e., that we will retain the union of the socialist 
soviet republics only in the sphere of military affairs 
and diplomacy, while in other matters each of the people's 
commissariats will be fully independent. 

We should keep in mind that the split of the people's 
commissariats and the lack of coordination of their 
work in relation to Moscow and to other centers can be 
overcome to a suflBcient degree with the authority of the 
Party provided this authority is used with a more or less 
satisfactory circumspection and impartiality. Tlie harm 
to our state which could result from lack of unity of the 
national apparatuses with the Russian apparatus will be 
incomparably smaller, infinitely smaller, than that other 
harm to us and also to the whole international, to the 
hundreds of millions of the nations of Asia, which, tread- 
ing in our footsteps, is expected in the nearest future to 
appear on the stage of history. It would be an unforgiv- 
able opportunism if we, on the eve of this emergence of 
the East and in the dawn of its awakening, would under- 
mine in Its eyes our authority even through the smallest 
tactlessness toward and injustice against our own mem- 
bers of other races. The necessity of solidarity against 
the imperialism of the West which is defending the 
capitalist world is a different matter. Here, there is no 
doubt and I need not say that I praise these measures 
without any qualification. It is another thing, however, 
when we see that we ourselves generate an imperialistic 
outlook on relations with the oppressed nationalities, even 
if it concerns only insignificant points; this undermines 
completely our whole principled sincerity and our whole 
principled defense of the fight against imperialism. And 
the day of tomorrow in the history of the world will be 
precisely that day when the people oppressed by imperial- 
ism will awaken and when the decisive, long, and hard 
fight for their liberation will begin. 

Lenin 

31. XII. 22 

For accuracy ; Lepeshinskaya 

13. Lenin to Trotsky, Regarding Lenin's Lack of 
Confidence in Stalin's Attitude Toward Georgia Case, 
March 5, 1923. Published in Trotsky, "The Stalin 
School of Falsification," Page 81 



Copi/ from a copy 
For Eyes Only 



TOP SECRET 



Dear Com. Trotskt. 

I ask you urgently to undertake the defense of the 
Georgia case in the CO of the Party. This case is at 
present "being shot at" by Stalin and Dzerzhinsky and I 
cannot count on their objectivity. Even to the contrary. 
If you would agree to undertake the defense of that case, 
I would be at ease. If you could not for some reason 
agree to do this, please return to me all the materials. 
This will be for me the sign of your refusal. 

Hearty Party greetings, 

Lenin 

Written by M. V. 
5 March '23 

For accuracy : M. Volodicheva 

14. Note From Lenin's Secretary to Trotsky, March 
5, 1923. Published in Trotsky, "The Stalin School 
of Falsification," Page 81 

To Comrade Teotskt. 

Vladimir Ilyich asked me that, in addition to the letter 
whose content you were given by telephone, I inform you 
that Com. Kamenev is going to Georgia on Wednesday; 
VI. II. wants to know if you would not want to send there 
something from yourself. 

M. VOLODICHEIVA 
5 March '23 



15. Letter of Fotiyeva (One of Lenin's Secretaries) 
to Kamenev and Trotsky, Regarding Lenin's Article 
on Nationalities, April 16, 1923. Published in 
Trotsky, "The Stalin School of Falsification," 
Page 82 

THE LETTER OF COM. FOTIYEVA 

TO COM. KAMENEV, 

COPY TO COM. TROTSKY 

Lev Borisovich 

I am transmitting to you, as the active Chairman of 
the Political Bureau, the following which is pertinent to 
our telephone conversation : 

As I have already informed you on 31.XII. 22, Vladimir 
Ilyich had dictated an article concerning the nationality 
question. 

He was very interested in this question and was himseU. 
preparing to present this question at the Party Congress. 

Shortly before his last illness he informed me that he 
would publish this article, but later, after that, he took ill 
and made no final arrangements. 

V. I. considered his article as a document of guidance 
and attached great importance to it. On the order of 
Vladimir Ilyich this article was transmitted to Com. 
Trotsky to whom V. I. entrusted the defense of his posi- 
tion on this question at the Party Congress because they 
have both held identical views in this matter. 

The only copy of this article which I have is preseiTed 
at V. I.'s order in his secret archive. 



160 



Department of Sfate Bulletin 



I am transmitting this for your information. 
I was unable to do it earlier because I have only today 
returned to work after a period of illness. 

Personal Secretary to Com. Lenin 

L. FOTITEVA 
16. IV. 23 
For accuracy : E. Lepeshinskaya 

16. Acknowledgment by Kamenev of Receipt of 
Fotiyeva's Letter, April 16, 1923. Unpublished 

COPY 

ANSWER OF COM. KAMENEV TO 
THE CO SECRETARIAT 

Only a moment ago, at 35 minutes after 5, I received 
the enclosed note from Com. Fotiyeva. I am sending 
this note to the CC because it contains nothing which 
pertains to me personally. In my opinion the CC should 
immediately decide affirmatively the question of publish- 
ing the article of Vladimir Ilyich. 

L. Kamenev 



which, without a doubt, are of a distinct basic significance, 
and which Com. Trotsky had received already on 5 March 
of this year — he considers admissible to keep as his own 
secret for over a month without making their content 
known to the Political Bureau or to the CC Plenum, until 
one day before the opening of the 12th Congress of the 
Party. The theme of these articles — as I was informed 
today by the Congress delegates — is subject to discussion 
and rumors and stories among the delegates; these arti- 
cles, as I have learned today, are known to people who 
have nothing in common with the CC; the CC members 
themselves must seek information from these rumors and 
stories, while it Is self-evident that the content of these 
articles should have been reported first of all to the CC. 
I think that Com. Lenin's articles should be published 
in the press. It is only regrettable that — as is clearly evi- 
dent from Com. Fotiyeva's letter — these articles appar- 
ently cannot be published because they have not been 
reviewed by Com. Lenin. 

J. Stalin 

10 o'clock p. m. 
16. IV. 23 



For correctness : 
E. Lepeshinskaya 



16. IV. 23 
5: 43 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 



17. Letter From Fotiyeva to Stalin, Regarding 
Lenin's Letter on Nationalities, April 16, 1923. 
Unpublished 

THE LETTER OF COM. FOTITEVA 

Com. Stalin 

I have today sought the advice of Mariya Ilyinishna in 
the question whether Vladimir Ilyich's article which I 
sent to you should be published because of the fact that 
Vladimir Ilyich had expressed the intent to publish it 
in connection with a speech which he intended to make 
at the Congress. 

Mariya IlyinLshna has expressed the opinion that this 
article should not be printed because V. I. had not issued a 
clear order concerning its publication ; she only grants 
the possibility of making this article known to the dele- 
gates to this Congress. 

From my point of view I need only to add that V. I. 
did not consider this article to be in its final form and 
ready for the printer. 

L. Fotiyeva 

16. IV. 23 

9 o'clock in the evening 

18. Declaration by Stalin to Central Committee 
Members Regarding Transmission of Lenin's Article 
on Nationalities, April 16, 1923. Unpublished 

THE DECLARATION OF COM. STALIN 
TRANSMITTED TO CC MEMBERS 

I am greatly surprised that the articles of Com. Lenin 
July 23, 7956 



84th Congress, 1st and 2d Sessions 

Civil Air Policy. Hearings before a subcommittee of the 
House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce 
on H. R. 4648 and H. R. 4677, bills to amend the Civil 
Aeronautics Act of 1938, as amended, and for other 
purposes, H. R. 8902 and H. R. 8903, bills to amend 
subsection 406 (b) of the Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938, 
as amended. March 18 and July 22, 1955 (before entire 
committee) ; January 17-April 20, 1956 (before Sub- 
committee on Transportation and Communications). 
G28 pp. 

Swiss Watches — Adjustments. Hearings before the Per- 
manent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate 
Committee on Government Operations. June 29, 30, 
1955, and January 10, 1956. 239 pp. 



84th Congress, 2d Session 

Hearings before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs 
on draft bills proposed in Executive communications 
No. 863, No. 953, and No. 1601, amending the United 
States Information and Educational Exchange Act of 
1948, and No. 1409, providing for cultural and athletic 
exchanges and participation in international fairs and 
festivals. March 6-15, 1956. 172 pp. 

Mutual Security Act of 1956. Minority views to accom- 
pany H. R. 11356, to amend the Mutual Security Act 
of 1954, and for other purposes. H. Rept. 2213, part 
2, June 5, 1956. 12 pp. 

Maintenance of Production of Tungsten, Asbestos, Fluor- 
spar, and Columbium-Tantalum in the United States 
and Its Territories. Report to accompany S. 3982. 
S. Rept. 2146, June 6, 1956. 9 pp. 

Extension of Export Control Act of 1949. Report to 
accompany H. R. 9052. S. Rept. 2147, June 6, 1956. 
7 pp. 

Authorizing the Panama Canal Company To Convey to 
the Department of State an Improved Site in Colon, 
Republic of Panama. Report to accompany H. R. 6245. 
H. Rept. 2266, June 6, 1956. 5 pp. 

161 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Invitations to U.N. Conference on Atomic Energy Agency 



The Working Level Meeting on the Draft 
Statute of the International Atomic Energy 
Agency on July 2 released the following texts of 
invitations to governments and to U.N. special- 
ized agencies for the conference which will con- 
vene at V.N. Headquarters in New York on Sep- 
temher W to discuss., approve., and open for signa- 
ture the Statute of the International Atomic En- 
ergy Agency. These texts were approved hy the 
Working Level Meeting at its 21st session, June 28. 



INVITATION TO GOVERNMENTS 

A Negotiating Group, composed of Australia, 
Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, 
India, Portugal, the Union of South Africa, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 
and the United States of America, having con- 
cluded its deliberations on a draft Statute for the 
International Atomic Energy Agency and, recall- 
ing resolution 912 II (X) of the General Assem- 
bly of the United Nations,^ has agreed to convene 
a Conference at the United Nations Headquarters 
in New York on September 20, 1956 for the pur- 
pose of discussing, approving, and opening for 
signature the Statute of the International Atomic 
Energy Agency. The Government of the United 
States of America, acting on behalf of the Nego- 
tiating Group*, has the honor to invite the Gov- 
ernment of to participate in this 

Conference. 

The Conference is being convened pursuant to 
decisions reached by the Negotiating Group at 

' For text of General Assembly resolution, see Bulletin 
of Nov. 14, 1955, p. 801. 



meetings held in Washington, D.C., from Febru- 
ary 27 to June 28, 1956. The joint report of the 
Group is enclosed. This report includes the text 
of the draft Statute of the International Atomic 
Energy Agency and the Agenda and Rules of Pro- 
cedure for the Conference. 



*NoTE : Except as noted in paragraph 6 of the enclosed 
report, which reads : 

"6. The Group also agreed that the invitations to the 
Conference should be extended, on its behalf, by the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America to States Mem- 
bers of the United Nations and of the Specialized Agen- 
cies. The Representative of the United States indicated 
that his Government would be honored to issue the invi- 
tations on behalf of the Group, and noted, with reference 
to statements made by other Representatives, that the 
Group should understand that an invitation would be 
sent to the Government of the Republic of China. The 
U.S.S.R. Delegation stated that it would not object to 
the issuance of invitations by the Government of the 
United States in the name of the twelve States par- 
ticipating in the present Meeting to the Conference for 
approval of the Statute of the International Atomic En- 
ergy Agency. However, the Representative of the Soviet 
Union stated that his Government insisted on the send- 
ing of an invitation to the People's Republic of China 
and objected categorically to the sending of an invita- 
tion to the addressee to which the United States Repre- 
sentative had referred. The U.S.S.R. further considered 
that invitations should be addressed both to North and 
South Korea and to North and South Viet-Nam. The 
Representative of Czechoslovakia made a statement to 
the .same effect as the statement made by the Representa- 
tive of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The 
Representative of India stated that his Government in 
respect of China could only agree to an invitation to the 
Central People's Republic. His Government considered 
that the invitation in respect of Korea should be ad- 
dressed to both North and South Korea, and that sim- 
ilarly the invitation to Viet-Nam should be addressed to 
both North and South Viet-Nam. The Delegation of the 
United Kingdom also made a statement of its position 
on the question of sending an invitation to China." 



162 



Department of State Bulletin 



Attention is drawn, in particular, to the Rules 
of Procedure concerning the composition of dele- 
gations and submission of credentials (Eule 4) ; 
regulations governing the submission and consid- 
eration of amenchnents to the Statute (Rules 24 
and 25) ; the Secretary General of the Conference 
(Rule 11) and expenses of delegations and the 
Conference (Rule 38). All amendments submit- 
ted in accordance with the first sentence of Rule 
24 of the Rules of Procedure should be trans- 
mitted to the Government of the United States 
of America not later than September 10. 

It will be appreciated if the Government of 

will, at its earliest convenience, 

notify the Government of the United States of 
America whether it accepts this invitation. 



INVITATION TO U.N. SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

A Negotiating Group, composed of Australia, 
Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, 
India, Portugal, the Union of South Africa, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 
and the United States of America, having con- 
cluded its deliberations on a draft Statute for 
the International Atomic Energy Agency and, 
recalling resolution 912 II (X) of the General 
Assembly of the United Nations, has agreed to 
convene a Conference at the United Nations Head- 
quarters in New York on September 20, 1956 for 
the purpose of discussing, approving, and open- 
ing for signature the Statute of the International 
Atomic Energy Agency. The Government of 
the United States of America, acting on behalf 
of the Negotiating Group, has the honor to invite 
the [name of Specialized Agency] to designate 
a representative to attend this Conference in an 
observer capacity. 

The Conference is being convened pursuant to 
decisions reached by the Negotiating Group at 
meetings held in Washington, D. C, from Febru- 
ary 27 to June 28, 1956. The joint report of the 
Group is enclosed. This report includes the text 
of the draft Statute of the International Atomic 
Energy Agency and the Agenda and Rules of 
Procedure for the Conference. 

It will be appreciated if the [name of Special- 
ized Agency] will, at its earliest convenience, no- 
tify the Government of the United States of 
America whether it accepts this invitation. 



REPORT OF WORKING LEVEL MEETING 

1. The Working Level Meeting of the twelve- 
nation Negotiating Group on the draft Statute 
of the International Atomic Energy Agency held 
eighteen plenary sessions in Washington, D. C. 
between February 27 and April 18, 1956. A sum- 
mary of the origin and development of the Meet- 
ing is described in Amiex I attached.^ A list of 
the participants is attached as Amaex II. 

2. The initial three sessions were devoted to a 
first reading of the draft Statute of August 22, 
1955,^ and delegations indicated those articles on 
which they wished to propose amendments. Dur- 
ing its next fifteen sessions the Group reviewed 
each article of the Statute, together with the pro- 
posed amendments, taking into account the com- 
ments advanced during the proceedings of the 
tenth regular session of the United Nations Gen- 
eral Assembly as well as those of the thirty-nine 
States which submitted observations on the Stat- 
ute in response to a request made by the initial 
Negotiating Group in August 1955 to all States 
Members of the United Nations and its Special- 
ized Agencies. 

3. The Negotiating Group established three com- 
mittees: (1) a Scientific Committee to provide 
the Meeting with appropriate technical definitions 
and to review the Statute in its entirety for sci- 
entific accuracy; (2) a Drafting Committee to 
review the articles and proposed changes both 
as to language and place of order of the language ; 
and (3) a Committee of the Whole to work out 
detailed arrangements for an international con- 
ference on the draft statute. 

4. At the final plenary session on April 18, 
1956, the Negotiating Group approved, ad refer- 
endum^ the revised text of the draft Statute at- 
tached as Annex III. While the Australian, 
Czechoslovak, Indian and Soviet Delegations re- 
served their positions on certain provisions of the 
Statute, as described in Annex IV, all delega- 
tions voted in favor of the Statute as a whole. 

5. At the same session, the Group agreed that 
a conference should be convened at the United 
Nations Headquarters in New York in the latter 
part of September 1956 to discuss, approve and 
open for signature the Statute of the International 
Atomic Energy Agency. 



^ Annexes not printed here. 

' Bulletin of Oct. 24, 1955, p. 666. 



Jo/y 23, J 956 



163 



6. The Group also agreed that the invitations 
to the Conference should be extended, on its be- 
half, by the Government of the United States of 
America to States Members of the United Nations 
and of the Specialized Agencies. The Repre- 
sentative of the United States indicated that his 
Government would be honored to issue the invi- 
tations on behalf of the Group, and noted, with 
reference to statements made by other Representa- 
tives, that the Group should understand that an 
invitation would be sent to tlie Government of 
the Republic of China. The U.S.S.R. Delegation 
stated that it would not object to the issuance of 
invitations by the Govermnent of the United 
States in the name of the twelve States partici- 
pating in the present Meeting to the Conference 
for approval of the Statute of the International 
Atomic Energy Agency. However, the Repre- 
sentative of the Soviet Union stated that his Gov- 
ernment insisted on the sending of an invitation 
to the People's Republic of China and objected 
categorically to the sending of an invitation to 
the addressee to which the United States Repre- 
sentative had referred. The U.S.S.R. further 
considered that invitations should be addressed 
both to North and South Korea and to North and 
South Viet-Nam. The Representative of Czecho- 
slovakia made a statement to the same effect as the 
statement made by the Representative of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Representative 
of India stated that his Government in respect of 
China could only agree to an invitation to the 
Central People's Republic. His Government con- 
sidered that the invitation in respect of Korea 
should be addressed to both North and South Ko- 
rea, and that similarly the invitation to Viet-Nam 
should be addressed to both North and South Viet- 
Nam. The Delegation of the United Kingdom 
also made a statement of its position on the ques- 
tion of sending an invitation to China. 

7. At meetings held on June 22, 26, and 28, 1956, 
the Negotiating Group adopted the present report 
and considered arrangements for the Conference. 
The Group approved the text of the invitation to 
the Conference and decided that the Conference 
should convene on September 20, 1956. The 
Group also unanimously approved the Agenda 
and Rules of Procedure for the Conference, at- 
tached as Annexes V and VI. The Group agreed, 
in addition, to invite the specialized agencies of 



the United Nations to designate representatives to 
attend the Conference as observers. 

ATTACHMENTS : 

Annex I — Origin and Development of the Meeting (one 
page) 

Annex II — Participants (2 pages) 

Annex III — Draft Statute of the International Atomic 
Energy Agency ( 24 pages ) ' 

Annex IV — Reservations (5 pages) 

Annex V — Agenda of the Conference on the Statute of 
the International Atomic Energy Agency 
(one page) 

Annex VI — Rules of Procedure of the Conference on the 
Statute of the International Atomic En- 
ergy Agency (12 pages) 



U.S. Views on Nuclear Tests 
in Pacific Trust Territory 

Statement hy Mason Sears 

V.S. Representative in the Trvsteeship Cowncil ^ 

Before the High Commissioner concludes this 
debate, I have a short statement to make. It con- 
cerns the very thoughtful remarks yesterday by 
the representative of Burma [U Mya Sein] and 
today by the representatives of India [Arthur S. 
Lall] and Syria [Najmuddine Rifai] about the 
nuclear tests in the Pacific Trust Territory. 

Mr. President, every citizen of the United States 
regrets the necessity for these experiments and 
sincerely looks forward to the day when they will 
be no longer necessary. Toward that end the 
United States has repeatedly declared that it will 
continue to seek a safeguarded and controlled dis- 
armament program which can lead to the cessa- 
tion of further tests. 

Mr. President, I will now refer for a moment to 
the propriety of conducting tests in the Marshall 
Islands. 

First of all, the trust agreement of 1947 was 
clearly predicated upon the fact that the islands 
were a strategic area in which nuclear tests had 
already been held and would be held again. 

Secondly, let me ask a question. "Wlien you 
come right down to it, does anyone suppose that 
the United States would have voluntarily trans- 



' For text of draft statute, see iUd., May 21, 1956, p. 852. 
' Made in the U.N. Trusteeship Council on June 27 
(U.S./U.N. press release 2428). 



164 



Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



ferred the islands to the Trusteeship System 
if further nuclear tests were thereby to he 
prohibited ? 

And lastly, tests have been conducted in 1948, 
1951, 1952, and again in 1954 without objection 
from any United Nations body. In fact, no ob- 
jection to the tests was ever heard in any quarter 
imtil the unfortunate "fallout" of radiated ashes 
in 1954. 

The issue, therefore, is not the moral misuse of 
a strategic trust territory. It is rather that these 
tests have dramatized the horrifying issue of what 
might happen to the world if an aggressor nation 
were to precipitate a nuclear war. 

But, Mr. President, let us not forget that there 
is another side to the Pacific tests, which I believe 
the Council will appreciate. It involves a belief 
which I think almost' every member of this Coun- 
cil will share. This is a recognition that the 
nuclear tests in the Pacific have been so extensively 
photographed and advertised that the whole world 
has now come to understand that a third world 
war might destroy the human race. 

In consequence, it might well be that the Pacific 
tests will go down in history as the time and the 
place that made future international war impossi- 
ble. If so, the Marshall Islands, without loss of 
life or important damage to more than 5 square 
miles of territory, will have shared in making one 
of the greatest contributions that have ever been 
made to the welfare of mankind. 



U.S. Delegations to 
International Conferences 

22d Session, ECOSOC 

The U.S. delegation to the 22d session of the 
U.N. Economic and Social Council at Geneva, 
Switzerland, July 9-August 10, will be as follows : 
United States Representative 

John C. Baker, President, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 
Deputy United States Representatives 
Walter Kotsehnig, Director, Office of Economic and Social 

Affairs, Department of State 
Nat B. King, U.S. Mission to the United Nations, New 

York, N. Y. 

Adi'isers 

Kathleen Bell, Office of Economic and Social Affairs, De- 
partment of State 



Clarence I. Blau, Assistant to the Director, Bureau of 
Foreign Commerce, Department of Commerce 

Kathryn G. Heath, Senior Staff Officer for International 
Relations, Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare 

John H. Richter, Chief, European Analysis Branch, For- 
eign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture 

William J. Stibravy, Office of International Financial and 
Development Affairs, Department of State 

George Tesoro, U.S. Resident Delegation for Interna- 
tional Organizations and Consulate General, Geneva 

George Tobias, Labor Attach^, U.S. Resident Delegation 
for International Organizations and Consulate General, 
Geneva 

Frederick Vreeland, U.S. Resident Delegation for Inter- 
national Organizations and Consulate General, Geneva 

Virginia Westfall, Office of International Administration, 
Department of State 

William H. Wynne, Office of International Finance, De- 
partment of the Treasury 

Scerctarii of Delegation 

Henry F. Nichol, U.S. Resident Delegation for Interna- 
tional Organizations and Consulate General, Geneva 



Current U. N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 



Economic and Social Council 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. Com- 
mittee on Industry and Trade. Report of the Inter- 
Secretariat Working Party on Trained Personnel for 
Economic Development (Fifth Meeting) to the Com- 
mittee on Industry and Trade (Eighth Session). 
E/CN.11/I&T/122, January 5, 1956. 47 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. Re- 
port of the United Seminar on Population in Asia and 
the Par East. E/CN.11/415, January 6, 1956. 31 pp. 
mimeo. 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. Re- 
port of the Inland Transport Committee (Fifth Ses- 
sion) to the Commission (Twelfth Session). 
(E/CN.11/416), January 19, 1956. 36 pp. mimeo. 

Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral 
Awards. Report by the Secretary-General. E/2822, 
January 31, 1956. 59 pp. mimeo. 

Commission on the Status of Women. Report of the 
Inter-American Commission of Women to the Tenth 
Session of the United Nations Commission on the Status 
of Women. E/CN.6/281, February 23, 1956. 27 pp. 
mimeo. 

Advisory Services in the Field of Human Rights. Report 
of the Secretary-General. E/2825, February 29, 1956. 
6 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Commission for Europe. The Commission's 
Programme of Work for 1956/1957. E/ECE/236, Feb- 
ruary 29, 1956. 49 pp. mimeo. 

Review of International Statistics (Part I). (Memo- 
randum prepared by the Secretary -General). 
E/CN.3/196, February 29, 1956. 48 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Development of Undert-Developed Countries. 
Survey of Current Work on Industrialization and Pro- 
ductivity. E/2816, March 2, 1956. 151 pp. mimeo. 

Forced Labour. Information Submitted by the Govern- 
ment of the People's Republic of Poland Concerning 
Laliour Conditions in Poland. B/281.5/Add.2, March 7, 
1956. 26 pp. mimeo. 



Jo/y 23, 7956 



165 



Report of the Expert Group on the Economic Develop- 
ment of Southern Europe. B/ECE/233/A(id.l, March 
12, 1956. 175 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Development of Under-Developed Countries. 
Conservation and Utilization of Non-Agricultural Re- 
sources. Report by the Secretary-General. E/2836, 
March 13, 1956. 6 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Development of Under-Developed Countries. 
Proposals for a Programme of Work on Industrializa- 
tion and Productivity. E/2832, March 17, 1956. 67 pp. 
mimeo. 

Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. 
Memorandum by the Secretary-General. E/2840, 
March 22, 19.56. 6 pp. mimeo. 

Commission on Narcotic Drugs. The Single Convention : 
Second Draft. E/CN.6/AC.3/7, March 29, 1956. 107 pp. 
mimeo. 

Review of the Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs During 1955. 
E/CN.7/309, March 29, 1956. 62 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Commission for Latin America. Co-Ordination 
with the Inter-American Economic and Social Council. 
Note by the Secretariat. E/CN.12/AC.34/6, March 30, 
1956. 8 pp. mimeo. 

Advisory Services in the Field of Human Rights. Memo- 
randum by the Secretary-General. E/2853, April 9, 
1956. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Commission for Latin America. Progress Re- 
port by the Executive Secretary. E/CN.12/AC.34/2, 
April 10, 19.56. 15 pp. mimeo. 

Advisory Services in the Field of Human Rights. Ob- 
servations of Specialized Agencies. E/2854, April 10, 
1956. 8 pp. mimeo. 

Forced Labour. Information submitted by the Govern- 
ment of Czechoslovakia concerning labour conditions in 
Czechoslovakia. E/2815/Add. 3, April 13, 1956. 24 pp. 
mimeo. 

Commission on Human Rights. Recent developments 
under the European Convention for the Protection of 
Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Memo- 
randum by the Secretary-General. E/CN.4/554/Add. 3, 
April 11, 1956. 12 pp. mimeo. 

Technical Assistance Committee. Report of the TAC 
Working Group on the Evaluation of the Expanded 
Programme. E/TAC/48, April 12, 1956. 12 pp. mimeo. 

United Nations Programme of Technical Assistance under 
General Assembly resolutions 200 (III), 418 (V), 723 
(VIII) and Economic and Social Council resolution 222 
A (IX). Report by the Secretary-General. E/2856, 
April 19, 1956. 60 pp. mimeo. 

Forced Labour. Statement submitted by the Government 
of the People's Republic of Romania concerning labour 
conditions in Romania. E/2815/Add. 4, April 20, 1956. 
11 pp. mimeo. 

Exchange of Telegrams Between the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs of the Mongolian People's Republic and the 
President of the Economic and Social Council [regard- 
ing the application of the Mongolian People's Republic 
for membership in ECAFE]. E/2862, April 24, 1956. 2 
pp. mimeo. 

Forced Labour. Comments of the Portuguese Permanent 
Mission to the United Nations on the Conclusions re- 
garding Portugal in the Report of the Ad Hoc Commit- 
tee on Forced Labour. E/2S15/Add. 5, April 26, 1956. 
9 pp. mimeo. 

Replies from Governments to the Questionnaire on Forced 
Labour. Portugal. E/AC.36/ll/Add. 26, April 26, 1956. 
9 pp. mimeo. 

The Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. A 
Forward Look. Report of the Technical Assistance 
Board With the Comments thereon of the Administra- 
tive Committee on Co-ordination. E/TAC/49 and Corr. 
1, May 11, 1956. 49 pp. mimeo. 

Eighth Annual Report of the Economic Commission for 
Latin America (10 May 1955-15 May 1956). E/CN.12/ 
AC.34/9/Rev. 1. 90 pp. mimeo. 

Annual Report of the United Nations High Commissioner 
for Refugees. E/28S7, May 16, 1956. 112 pp. mimeo. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



U.S. and Belgium Agree To Extend 
Cooperation in Atomic Energy 

On July 12 the U.S. Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion and the Department of State (press release 
381) announced that the Governments of the 
United States and Belgium had concluded an 
agreement further extending their cooperation in ^ 
the field of civilian uses of atomic energy. The 
new accord is in the form of an amendment to 
the Agreement for Cooperation between the two 
nations that has been in effect since July 21, 1955.^ 
The amendment is designed to recognize further 
the special relationship that exists between the 
Government of the United States and the Govern- 
ment of Belgium in the field of atomic energy. 

The agreement was signed July 12 by Baron I 
Silvercruys, Ambassador of Belgium, in the name 
of the Government of Belgium, and for the United 
States by Lewis L. Strauss, Chairman of the 
Atomic Energy Commission, and by Deputy Un- 
der Secretary of State Robert Murphy. It is now 
before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy of 
the Congress for the 30-day statutory waiting 
period. 

The new accord enlarges the scope of classified 
information that may be exchanged in the field 
of research, experimental power demonstration, 
and power reactors and in the areas of teclmology 
of ore discovery and processing. 

Under the original agreement, the United States 
may sell uranium enriched up to 20 percent with 
fissionable uranium-235 for fueling research and 
power reactors in Belgium. Under the new ac- 
cord, the Commission, at its discretion, may make 
a portion of the U-235 sold to Belgium available 
as material enriched up to 90 percent for use in 
a materials-testing reactor capable of ojierating 
with a fuel load not to exceed 8 kgs. of contained 
U-235 in uranium. 

In the event the proposed International Atomic 
Energy Agency to foster peaceful uses of the 
atom is established, it is stipulated that the two 
Governments will consult concerning any changes 
deemed mutually desirable in light of the crea- 

^ Treaties and Other International Acts Series 3301. 



166 



Department of State Bulletin 



tion of the international agency. Also, Belgium 
is one of the six nations in Western Europe now 
considering creation of an atomic energy commu- 
nity. The revised accord will permit, at the re- 
quest of Belgium, the transfer of its rights and 
obligations under this agreement to an integrated 
European atomic energy community provided the 
organization is capable of assuming them and 
enters into an appropriate agreement for cooper- 
ation with the United States. 

Belgium has been an important supplier of 
uranium ore since the U. S. atomic program began 
in 1940. Arrangements for continued purchases 
of Belgian ores are unaffected by the new agree- 
ment. 



U.S.-German Treaty of Friendship 
Enters Into Force 

Press release 383 dated July 13 

The Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navi- 
gation with the Federal Republic of Germany 
signed at Washington on October 29, 1954,^ will 
enter into force on July 14, 1956. Instruments 
of ratification were exchanged at Bonn on June 
14, 1956, and the treaty was proclaimed by the 
President of the United States on June 26. 

The present treaty is the first of this type which 
the Federal Republic of Germany has negotiated 
with any comitry since the end of World War II, 
and it is a significant measure in the strengthen- 
ing of cordial relations between the United States 
and the Federal Republic. 

On June 14, during the ceremony of exchanging 
ratification instruments in Bonn, a press release 
of the German Foreign Office stated "The treaty 
. . . may be considered as a decisive step in post- 
war German foreign trade policy, and will in its 
basic principles have a definite influence on the 
entire system of commercial treaties which the 
Federal Republic is about to establish." 

The following points are highlighted in the 
treaty : 

1. Each country agrees to accord, within its 
territories, to citizens and corporations of the 
other, treatment no less favorable than accorded 



' For an announcement of the signing of the treaty, 
together with statements by Secretary Dulles and Ger- 
man Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, see Bulletin of Nov. 
8, 1954, p. 681. 



its own nationals and corporations with respect 
to engaging in the usual commercial, industrial, 
and financial activities; 

2. The signatory governments formally endorse 
standards regarding the protection of persons, 
their property and interests which reflect ad- 
vanced legal and constitutional principles; 

3. Both countries recognize the need for special 
attention to stimulation of the international move- 
ment of private capital and agree that such move- 
ment shall not be imnecessarily hampered ; and 

4. The two Governments reassert their adher- 
ence to the principles of nondiscriminatory treat- 
ment of trade and shipping. 

The new treaty deals in detail with a wide 
range of subject matter, which falls into nine 
broad categories : (a) entry, travel, and residence ; 
(b) basic personal freedoms; (c) property-right 
guaranties; (d) conduct and control of business 
enterprises; (e) taxation; (f) exchange restric- 
tions; (g) exchange of goods; (h) navigation; 
and (i) exceptions, territorial applicability, and, 
miscellaneous provisions. 

The volume of U. S. trade with the Federal 
Republic has been substantial in recent years and 
continues to rise. U. S. exports to Germany were 
valued at $493.7 million in 1954 and $594.7 mil- 
lion in 1955. Imports from the Federal Repub- 
lic increased from $278.2 million in 1954 to $366.2 
million in 1955. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Automotive Traffic 

Convention concerning customs facilities for touring. 
Done at New York June 4, 1954.' 

Ratifications deposited: United Kingdom, February 27, 
1956 ; Switzerland, May 23, 1956. 
Customs convention on temporary importation of private 
road vehicles. Done at New York June 4, 1954.' 
Ratifications deposited: United Kingdom, February 27, 
1956 ; Switzerland, May 23, 1956. 

Aviation 

Convention on international civil aviation. Done at Chi- 
cago December 7, 1944. Entered into force April 4, 
1947. TIAS 1591. 
Adherence deposited: Sudan, June 29, 1956. 

Cultural Property 

Convention for protection of cultural property in event of 
armed conflict, and regulations of execution. Done at 



' Not in force. 



July 23, 1956 



167 



The Hague May 14, 1954. Enters into force August 
7, 1956." 

Ratification deposited: Hungary, May 17, 1956. 
Protocol for protection of cultural property in event of 
armed conflict. Done at The Hague May 14, 1954. 
Enters into force August 7, 1956." 
Ratification deposited: Mexico, May 7, 1956. 

Fisheries 

Protocol amending the international convention for the 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries of February 8, 1949 ( TIAS 
2089) by providing that annual meetings of the Inter- 
national Commission may be held outside North Amer- 
ica. Done at Wasliington June 25, 1956.' 
Sir/natures: Denmark, France, Iceland, and the United 
States, July 9, 1956. 

Nortii Atlantic ice Patrol 

Agreement regarding financial support of the North At- 
lantic Ice Patrol. Opened for signature at Washington 
January 4, 1956. Entered into force July 5, 1956. 
Notification tty the Netherlands of extension to: Nether- 
lands Antilles, July 5, 1956. 

Postal Services 

Convention of the Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, 
final protocol, and regulations of execution. Signed 
at BogotA November 9, 1955. Entered into force 
March 1, 1956. 
Ratification deposited: Canada, May 2, 1956. 

Agreement relative to parcel post, final protocol, and 
regulations of execution of the Postal Union of the 
Americas and Spain. Signed at Bogotii November 9, 
19i!>5. Entered into force March 1, 1956. 
Ratification deposited: Canada, May 2, 1956. 

Trade and Commerce 

Sixth protocol (if supplementary concessions to the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva 
May 23, 1956. Entered into force June 30, 19.56. TIAS 
3.591. 

Schedules of concessions entered into force: Peru, June 
30, 1956 ; France, July 1, 1956. 

Trade-Marks 

Memorandum of understanding regarding German trade- 
marks in Italy. Sismed at Rome by the United States, 
the United Kingdom, France, and Italy, July 5, 1956. 
Entered into force July 5, 1956. 

Wheat 

International wheat agi-eement, 1956. Open for signa- 
ture at Washington until and including May 18, 19.56.' 
Acceptances deposited: Korea, July 7, 1956; Austria, 

July 10, 1956 ; Vatican City State, July 12, 1956. 
Notifications of intention to accept received: Australia, 
June 26, 1956; Sweden, June 27, 19.56; Mexico, June 
29, 1956 ; Guatemala, July 9, 19.56 ; Denmark, July 10, 
1956 ; Belgium, Union of South Africa, and Yugoslavia, 
July 12, 1956. 
Senate advice and consent to ratification given: July 11, 
1956. 



Government receives from the other written notifica- 
tion tliat it lias complied with statutory and constitu- 
tional requirements. 

Brazil 

Agreement amending agricultural commodities agreement 
of November 16, 1955 (TIAS 3417) to provide for addl- | 
tional purchases of wheat and wheat flour and for 
extension of time for such purchases to July 31, 1956. 
Effected by exchange of notes at Washington June 28 ' 
and 29, 1956. Entered into force June 29, 1956. 

Ecuador ^ 

Reciprocal trade agreement. Signed at Quito August 6, ■ 
1938. Modified by exchange of notes at Quito March 2, 
1942. 53 Stat. 1951 and 56 Stat. 1472. 
Terminated: July 17, 1956.' 

Ethiopia 

Agreement extending the agreement of May 18 and June 
12, 1954, supplementing and extending the agreement 
of December 24, 1952, and March 30, 1953 (TIAS 3026 
and 2802), relating to the extension of technical coop- 
eration to Eritrea. Effected by exchange of notes at 
Addis Ababa April 4 and June 12, 1956. Entered into 
force June 12, 1956. 

Iran 

Treaty of amity, economic relations, and consular rights. 
Signed at Tehran August 15, 1955.' 
Senate advice and consent to ratification given: July 
11, 1956. 

Italy 

Agreement supplementing the surplus agrii-ultural com- 
modities agi-eement of May 23, 1955, as amended (TIAS 
3249, 3.525, and 3526). Signed at Rome July 5, 1956. 
Entered into force July 5, 1956. 

Netherlands 

Treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation, with 
protocol and exchange of notes. Signed at The Hague 
March 27, 1956.' 

\8enate advice and consent to ratification given: July 
11, 1956. 

Nicaragua 

Treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation, and pro- 
tocol. Signed at Managua January 21, 1956.' 
Senate advice and consent to ratification given: July 11, 
1956. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



BILATERAL 

Belgium 

Agreement amending the power reactor agreement for 
cooperation concerning civil uses of atomic energy of 
June 15, 1955 (TIAS 3301). Signed at Washington 
July 12, 1956. Enters into force on day on which each 



Confirmations 

The Senate on June 26 confirmed Frederick Blake 
Payne to be Diiector, Office of Economic Affairs, United 
States Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion and European Regional Organizations. 



'Will not enter into force at that time for the United 
States. 



^Notice of intention to terminate given by the United 
States Jan. 17, 1956. 



168 



Department of State Bulletin 



PUBLICATIONS 



German Foreign Policy Documents 

The Department of State announced on July 
14 (press release 375 dated July 6) the release 
of the sixth volume of Documents on German For- 
eign Policy, 1918-191^5. This is series D, volume 
VI, The Last Months of Peace, March-August 
1939. The volumes are published cooperatively 
by the United States, Great Britain, and France 
from archives of the German Foreign Office cap- 
tured by Allied forces at the close of World War 
II. 

Under a reciprocal arrangement some of the 
volumes are edited and printed by the British 
and some by the United States Government. This 
volume was put out by the British on May 28, 
and flat sheets were sent to the United States for 
final binding by the Government Printing Office. 

The volume begins immediately after the Ger- 
man occupation of Prague on March 15, 1939, and 
ends on August 8, 1939, with the crisis over Poland 
at an acute stage. 

The documents are printed in chronological 
order. There is a list of documents by topics 
to guide the reader. 

As is customary in this series, the selection of 
documents has been made jointly by the British, 
French, and United States editors, who share full 
responsibility for the selections made. 



Recent Releases 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov- 
ernment Printinrj Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may be obtained 
from the Department of State. 

Guaranty of Private Investments. TIAS 3270. Pub. 

6077. 5 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Hondura.s. Ex- 
chanfie of notes — Signed at Tegucigalpa April 22 and June 
10, 1955. Entered into force June 10, 1955. 

Mutual Defense Assistance — Disposition of Surplus 
Equipment and Materials. TIAS 3271. Pub. 6086. 4 
pp. 5<f. 

Agreement between the United States and Yugoslavia. 
Exchange of notes — Signed at Belgrade May 19 and 22, 
1955. Entered Into force May 22, 1955. 



Mutual Defense Assistance — Disposition of Surplus 
Equipment and Materials. TIAS 3272. Pub. 60S7. 5 
pp. 54. 

Agreement between the United States and Cuba. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Habana March 18 and May 3, 
1955. Entered into force May 3, 1955. 

Mutual Defense Assistance — Disposition of Surplus 
Equipment and Materials. TIAS 3273. Pub. 6078. 3 
pp. 5«(. 

Agreement between the United States and Peru. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Lima March 22 and April 30, 
1955. Entered into force April 30, 1955. 

Mutual Defense Assistance — Disposition of Surplus 
Equipment and Materials. TIAS 3274. Pub. 6079. 4 
pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Thailand. 
Exchange of notes — Signed at Bangkok July 6, 1955. Eln- 
tered into force July 6, 1955. 

Mutual Defense Assistance — Disposition of Surplus 
Equipment and Materials. TIAS 3275. Pub. 6080. 4 
pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Turkey. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Ankara May 26, 1955. Entered 
into force May 26, 1955. 

United States Educational Commission in the United 
Kingdom — Additional Financial Contributions. TIAS 

3276. Pub. 6039. 3 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at London May 23, 1955. En- 
tered into force May 23, 1955. 

United States Educational Foundation in Thailand. 

TIAS 3277. Pub. 6040. 3 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Thailand — 
Modifying agreement of July 1, 10.50, as amended. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Bangkok June 23, 19.55. En- 
tered into force June 23, 1955. 

American Commission for Cultural Exchange with Italy — 
Educational Exchange Program. TIAS 3278. Pub. 6041. 
4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Italy — Modi- 
fying agreement of December IS, 194S. as amended. Ex- 
change of notes— Signed at Rome April 22 and June 30, 
1955. Entered into force June 30, 1955. 

United States Educational Commission in Austria. TIAS 

3279. Pub. 6042. 7 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States and Austria — Modi- 
fying agreement of June 6, 1950. Exchange of notes — 
Signed at Vienna June 6, 1955. Entered into force June 
6, 1955. 

United States Educational Foundation in Greece. TIAS 

3280. Pub. 6029. 5 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Greece — Modi- 
fying agreement of April 23, 1948, as amended. Exchange 
of notes— Signed at Athens March 12 and June 4, 1955. 
Entered into force June 4, 1955. 

United States Educational Commission for France. 

TIAS 3281. Pub. 6028. 5 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and France^ 
Amending and extending agreement of October 22, 1948, as 
amended. Exchange of notes — Dated at Paris June 30, 
1955. Entered into force June 30, 1955. 



Jo/y 23, J 956 



169 



United States Educational Foundation in Norway. 

TIAS 3282. Pub. 6030. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Norway — Modi- 
fying agreement of May 25, 1949, as amended. Exchange 
of notes — Signed at Oslo June 15, 1955. Entered into 
force June 15, 1955. 

Air Transport Services. TIAS 3285. Pub. 6032. 9 pp. 
10(f. 

Agreement between the United States and Syria — Signed 
at Damascus April 28, 1947. Entered into force provision- 
ally April 28, 1947 ; definitively June 21, 1955. 

Interchange of Patent Rights and Technical Information 
for Defense Purposes. TIAS 3286. Pub. 6033. 13 pp. 
1(V. 

Agreement between the United States and Greece — Signed 
at Athens June 10, 1955. Entered into force June 16, 1955. 

Interchange of Patent Rights and Technical Information 
for Defense Purposes. TIAS 3287. Pub. 6034. 17 pp. 
15«(. 

Agreement and exchange of letters between the United 
States and the Netherlands — Signed at The Hague April 
29, 1955. Entered into force provisionally April 29, 1955 ; 
definitively July 13, 1955. 

Technical Cooperation — Road Transportation Program. 

TIAS 3288. Pub. 6097. 22 pp. 150. 

Agreement between the United States and Bolivia — Signed 
at La Paz August 3, 1955. Entered into force August 3, 
1955. 

Mutual Defense Assistance — Disposition of Surplus 
Equipment and Materiel. TIAS 3289. Pub. 6098. 4 pp. 
5«f. 

Agreement between the United States and Iraq. Exchange 
of notes — Signed at Baghdad July 25, 1955. Entered into 
force July 25, 1955. 

Technical Cooperation. TIAS 3290. Pub. 6081. 21 pp. 
150. 

Agreement and memorandum of understanding between 
the United States and Libya — Signed at Tripoli July 21, 
1955. Entered into force July 21, 1955. 

Technical Cooperation — Program of Technical Assistance 
to Medium and Small Industry. TIAS 3291. Pub. 6088. 
4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Chile — Ex- 
tending agreement of June 30, 1952 — Signed at Santiago 
March 17, 1955. Entered Into force March 17, 1955. Op- 
erati\'e retroactively December 31, 1954. 

Vocational and Industrial Education. TIAS 3292. Pub. 
6089. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Brazil — Ex- 
tending agreement of October 14, 1950. Exchange of 
notes — Signed at Rio de Janeiro June 3 and 13, 1955. En- 
tered into force June 16, 1955. 

Technical Cooperation — Industrial Apprenticeship Train- 
ing Program. TIAS 3293. Pub. 6082. 2 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Brazil — Ex- 
tending agreement of June 30, 1952. Exchange of notes — 
Signed at Rio de Janeiro June 30 and July 29, 1955. En- 



tered into force July 29, 1955. Operative retroactively 
July 1, 1955. 

Army Mission to Cuba. TIAS 3294. Pub. 6090. 3 pp. 
50. 

Agreement between the United States and Cuba — Extend- 
ing agreement of August 28, 1951, as extended. Exchange 
of notes — Signed at Washington May 3 and 17, 1955. En- 
tered Into force May 17, 1955. 

Air Force Mission to Cuba. TIAS 3295. Pub. 6083. 
3 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Cuba — Extend- 
ing agreement of December 22, 1950, as extended. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Washington May 3 and 17, 
1955. Entered into force May 17, 1955. 

Defense — Communications Facilities in Newfoundland, 

TIAS 3290. Pub. 60S4. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Canada — 
Amending agreement of November 4 and 8, 1952, as 
amended. Exchange of notes — Dated at Ottawa March 
31 and June 8, 1955. Entered into force June 8, 1955. 

TIAS 3302. 



Claims — War Damage to Private Property. 

Pub. 6068. 5 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Luxembourg. 
Exchange of notes — Signed at Luxembourg June 15, 1955. 
Entered into force June 15, 1955. 

Participation of Belgian Forces in United Nations Opera- 
tions in Korea. TIAS 3325. Pub. 6017. 7 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States and Belgium — 
Signed at Washington July 15, 1955. Entered into force 
July 15, 1955. 

Sale and Purchase of Tin Concentrates. TIAS 3327. 

Pub. 6085. 2 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Thailand — 
Signed at Bangkok September 9, 1955. Entered into force 
September 9, 1955. 

Technical Cooperation— Artibonite Valley. TIAS 3329. 

Pub. 6100. 9 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States and Haiti. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Port-au-Prlnce May 11 and 
June 24, 1955. Entered into force June 24, 1955. 

Military Advisory Mission to Brazil. TIAS 3330. Pub. 
6101. 5 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Brazil — Amend- 
ing agreement of July 29, 1948, as extended. Exchange 
of notes — Signed at Rio de Janeiro April 13 and May 16, 
1955. Entered into force May 16, 1955. 

Technical Cooperation — Technical Labor Services Pro- 
gram. TIAS 3331. Pub. 6102. 7 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States and El Salvador — 
Signed at San Salvador August 8, 1955. Entered into 
force August 8, 1955. 

Health and Sanitation — Cooperative Program in Costa 
Rica. TIAS 3332. Pub. 6103. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States and Costa Rica — 
Extending and amending agreement of February 13, 1951 — 
Signed at San Jos6 April 25, 1955. Entered into force 
April 25, 1955. 



1 
1 



170 



Department of State Bulletin 



July 23, 1956 I n d 

Atomic Energy 

Invitations to U.N. Conference on Atomic Energy 
Agency 162 

U.S. and Belgium Agree To Extend Cooperation 
iu Atomic Energy 166 

U.S. Views on Nuclear Tests in Pacific Trust Terri- 
tory (Sears) 164 

Belgium. U.S. and Belgium Agree To Extend Co- 
operation in Atomic Energy 166 

China. President Sends Greetings to Asian 
Leaders 150 

Communism. Transcript of Secretary Dulles' 
News Conference 145 

Congress, The 

Congressional Documents Relating to Foreign 
Policy 161 

Importance of Restoring Funds Cut From Mutual 

Security Program (Eisenhower) 144 

Department and Foreign Service. Confirmations 

(Payne) 168 

Economic Affairs 

Mr. Randall To Be Special Assistant on Foreign 

Economic Policy (Eisenhower) 143 

United States Foreign Economic Policy (Bowie) . 135 

Germany 

German Foreign Policy Documents 169 

U.S.-German Treaty of Friendship Enters Into 
Force 167 

Immigration and Naturalization. Immigration 

Quota for Sudan (text of proclamation) . . . 152 

International Organizations and Meetings 

Invitations to U.N. Conference on Atomic Energy 
Agency 162 

22d Session, EOOSOC 165 

Mutual Security 

Importance of Restoring Funds Cut From Mutual 

Security Program (Eisenhower) 144 

Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Conference . 145 

Non-Self-Governing Territories. U.S. Views on 

Nuclear Tests in Pacific Trust Territory ( Sears) . 164 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Confirma- 
tions (Payne) 168 

Poland. Polish Red Cross Declines U.S. Offer of 
Food (Hoover, Starr) 151 

Presidential Documents 

Immigration Quota for Sudan 152 

Importance of Restoring Funds Cut From Mutual 

Security Program 144 

President Sends Greetings to Asian Leaders . . . 150 
Mr. Randall To Be Special Assistant on Foreign 

Economic PoUcy 143 

Publications 

Gorman Foreign Policy Documents 169 

Recent Releases 169 



ex 



Vol. XXXV, No. 891 



Sudan. Immigration Quota for Sudan (text of 
proclamation) 152 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 167 

U.S. and Belgium Agree To Extend Cooperation in 
Atomic Energy 166 

U.S.-German Treaty of Friendship Enters Into 
Force 167 

U.S.S.R. 

Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Conference . 145 

Unpublished Documents Distributed Among Dele- 
gates to 20th Congress of Soviet Communist 
Party . 153 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 165 

22d Session, ECOSOO 165 

U.S. Views on Nuclear Tests in Pacific Trust Ter- 
ritory (Sears) 164 

Viet-Nam. President Sends Greetings to Asian 

Leaders 150 

Name Index 

Bowie, Robert R 135 

Dulles, Secretary 145 

Eisenhower, President 143,144,150,152 

Hoover, Herbert, Jr 151 

Payne, Frederick Blake 168 

Randall, Clarence B 143 

Sears, Mason 164 

Starr, Harold 151 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: July 9-15 

Releases may be obtained from the News Divi- 
sion, Department of 'State, Washington 25, D. C. 

Press release issued prior to July 9 which appears 
in this issue of the Bulletin is No. 375 of July 6. 

No. Date Subject 

377 7/9 Hoover letter to Red Cross on offer of 
food to Poland. 
t378 7/9 Cambodian awards to Air Force bands- 
men. 

379 7/11 Dulles : June 30 statement by Soviet 

Communist Party. 

380 7/11 Dulles : news conference transcript. 

381 7/12 Atomic energy agreement with 

Belgium. 
*382 7/12 Davis, U.S. nominee for FAG Director 

General. 
383 7/13 U.S.-German treaty of friendship, 

commerce and navigation. 
*384 7/13 Educational exchange. 



* Not printed. 

t Held for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



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TREATIES IN FORCE . . . 

A List of Treaties 

and Other International Agreements 

of the United States 



epartment 

of 

State 



This publication is a guide to treaties and other international 
agreements in force for the United States on October 31, 1955. 
It includes treaties and other agi'eements which on that date had 
not expired by their terms or had not been denounced by the 
parties, replaced or sujierseded, or otherwise definitely terminated. 

Bilateral treaties and agreements are listed by country, with 
subject headings under each country. Multilateral treaties and 
agreements are arranged by subject and are accompanied by lists 
of the countries parties to each instrument. Date of signature, 
date of entry into force for the United States, and citations to 
texts are given with each treaty and each agreement listed. 

A consolidated tabulation of documents affecting international 
copyright relations of the United States is given in the appendix. 

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Vol. XXXV, No. 892 



July 30, 1956 




THE UNITED NATIONS: FRAMEWORK FOR PEACE • 

by Deputy Assistant Secretary Phillips 175 

TRANSCRIPT OF SECRETARY DULLES' NEWS 

CONFERENCE OF JULY 18 181 

DETENTION OF U.S. PERSONNEL IN SOVIET 
UNION • Text of U.S. Note, Statement by Deputy Under 
Secretary Murphy 189 

CONTINUING THE U.N. SEARCH FOR AGREEMENT 
ON DISARMAMENT 

Statements by Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., and 

Ambassador James J. Wadsworth 196 

Text of Resolution 209 



For index see inside back cover 




"*»■»• «>» 



^nt 



^e/taoi^l^ent c^ t/lale 



bulletin 



Vol. XXXV, No. 892 • Publication 6375 
July 30, 1956 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. aovemment Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

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Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 19, 1955). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and item? contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government ivith information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other offi- 
cers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department, Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



The United Nations: Framework for Peace 



iy Christopher H. Phillips 

Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Organization Afairs'^ 



I am delighted to be meeting with an associa- 
tion such as yours, which is dedicated to the prin- 
ciples and purposes of the United Nations and 
specialized agencies and which, through both na- 
tional branches and through the International 
Federation of University Women, is helping to 
translate these principles into practical action. 

Your association, moreover, makes a very direct 
contribution to several aspects of the work of the 
United Nations and Unesco. For example, mem- 
bers of the A.A.U.W. in this country and in 
other member countries of the U.N. participate 
in the work of the Commission on the Status of 
Women. This work is especially important to 
those countries where women are just being given 
opportunities for educational, political, and eco- 
nomic responsibilities. 

Your International Federation has consultative 
status with the U.N. and your national association 
works closely with the U.S. delegation to the U.N. 
Your association collects information regularly on 
educational and other opportunities for women 
which is incorporated into the reports of Unesco 
and has made an outstanding contribution to the 
work of the National Commission for Unesco. 

Furthermore, your international fellowship 
program, which makes grants to outstanding 
women in many countries to carry on advanced 
study, is an excellent example of "people to peo- 
ple" international cooperation, which is so essen- 
tial to the achievement of genuine international 
understanding. 

In short, I feel that I am meeting a group which 

^ Address made before the South Atlantic Regional Con- 
ference of the American Association of University Women 
at Huntington, W. Va., on July 17 (press release 390). 



is in every sense of the word an active partner in 
the official work of your Government designed to 
further world peace. 

That is why I welcome this opportunity to speak 
to you this afternoon on the United Nations. The 
United Nations is not a static organization ; it is 
not a cure-all. How well it works, to what extent 
it fulfills the potential of resolve and hope and 
wisdom of its founders depends on support and 
understanding and faith that we, the member 
countries, give to it. 

The element of understanding is most impor- 
tant. It is no accident that those who know the 
United Nations best are usually its strongest sup- 
porters. It is those who know least about the 
United Nations who are usually its severest critics. 
In other words, we must know not only what the 
United Nations is supposed to do and can do but 
also what it is not designed to do. Only then can 
we judge fairly its accomplishments and short- 
comings. 

The United Nations is two things, and we some- 
times confuse the one with the other. It is a state- 
ment of principles and purposes, known as the 
charter, designed to bring about international 
peace and well-being. And it is an organization 
established to make these principles and purposes 
a reality. 

The physical symbol of the United Nations is 
the magnificent building standing on the banks 
of the East River in New York from which ema- 
nate such confusing sounds of both harmony and 
discord. 

To carry the philosophical approach a bit fur- 
ther, one might say that the charter represents 
man's reach; the organization as it works, man's 



My 30, 1956 



175 



grasp. The United Nations provides a framework 
for peace. It is not in itself an automatic peace 
producer. In some respects it is a little like a 
burglar alarm. Wliat happens after the alarm is 
sounded is up to the members. 

Effectiveness of the United Nations 

A survey of the United Nations' progress to- 
ward its goal of a peaceful world must take into 
account its strength and limitations, what we can 
expect of it and what it has accomplished. 

The United Nations, as you know, is not and 
was never intended to be a supergovernment or, 
in fact, to have any legislative or law-enacting 
powers at all. How then, we may ask, does it get 
anything done at all ? 

The answer is that the United Nations derives 
its real power from its ability to mobilize world 
opinion. In Senator Vandenberg's words, it is the 
"town meeting of the world." 

Most states desire to live at peace with other 
states; they are for justice and against tyranny; 
they don't like to see the weak pushed around by 
the strong. This moral power when mobilized can 
exert a tremendous force on the conduct of nations. 
One very tangible example is the United Na- 
tions action to resist aggression in Korea. It 
should be remembered that this momentous deci- 
sion was taken on recommendation of the Security 
Council. The Council had no power to enforce its 
recommendation. Yet 16 nations responded with 
arms and men and 47— the overwhelming major- 
ity—of the General Assembly gave their moral or 
material support. It is unlikely that any nation 
will again believe that it can get away with such 
barefaced aggression as the Communists launched 
in Korea. 

Another tangible example of the efficacy of the 
United Nations in marshaling world opinion is the 
maintenance of an armistice in the Middle East. 
For 8 years now the armistice, in spite of violent 
incidents, has been kept. It has been supervised 
by a mere handful of unarmed United Nations ob- 
servers empowered only to investigate infractions 
of the armistice and to report back to the parent 
body. 

This is no small accomplishment. Both sides in 
the Palestine conflict have just grievances. Pas- 
sions run high. Yet clearly the United Nations 
has helped to induce on both sides a "decent respect 



176 



to the opinions of mankind." Neither wishes to 
incur the condemnation of world opinion. 

Sometimes the influence of the United Nations is 
less clear-cut and tangible than the examples I < 
have given. 

For instance, take the 13 United States fliers held 
by the Chinese Communists in violation of the 
Korean armistice. The United States, in this case, 
used the United Nations to bring this flagrant 
injustice to world attention. The result was a 
General Assembly resolution requesting the Sec- 
retary-General to intervene directly with the Chi- 
nese Communists on behalf of the United Nations. 
It is testimony to the prestige of the United 
Nations and to the skill of the Secretary-General 
that the captured fliers were returned, after a face- 
saving delay, by a regime denied recognition by 
the United Nations. May it not be that this was a 
move to gain respectability before the bar of world 
opinion? Here once again, the United Nations 
served the cause of justice. 

Less tangible still, but perhaps of most sig- 
nificance in the long run, is the increasingly evident 
desire of member countries to justify their actions 
within the context of the charter. And I mean 
not only their international conduct but practices 
within their own borders and jurisdiction as well. 
Let me give you an illustration. For a number 
of yeare now the International Labor Organiza- 
tion and the Economic and Social Council have 
been securing and presenting before the United 
Nations facts on forced labor and slave labor in 
member countries. The evidence has pointed ir- 
refutably to the Communist states, who not only 
countenance forced labor but use it for political 
punishment and economic advantage. 

Year after year the Soviet and satellite Com- 
munists have denied this. They still deny it. But 
at last there is some evidence that they may be 
questioning the expedience of this inhuman 
practice. 

I believe we are justified in giving the LTnited 
Nations, acting as the conscience of mankind, some 
credit for this progress. We must not, however, 
jump to the conclusion that Soviet communism or 
communism in the satellite states has yet changed 
its role of oppressive domination of the people. 
The recent brutal suppression by the Polish Com- 
munist authorities of the workers' demonstration 
in Poznan should be warning enough. 
The Polish workers and students who demon- 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe BuWefin 



stratecl in the streets of Poznan were protesting 
economic exploitation. But it was not poor liv- 
ing conditions alone which gave rise to this out- 
burst; the Polish people were also protesting 
against political oppression — against Soviet Com- 
munist rule of their country. In voicing these 
grievances publicly the demonstrators performed 
an act of tremendous courage — and one which the 
free world should take to heart. The ruthless 
shooting down of the demonstrators was a typical 
example of Stalinism in action and provided an 
interesting and revealing example of just how 
genuine Communist criticism of Stalin really is. 

In another important area the U.N. has played 
an important role. This is the outmoding of co- 
lonialism. Since 1945 some 600 million people 
have achieved independence, and the U.N. has 
done much to speed the process. It is becoming in- 
creasingly difficult for any country to deny by 
force the attainment of self-government or inde- 
pendence by peoples who have shown their desire 
and ability to govern themselves. 

In summation, to paraphrase a familiar state- 
ment frequently used by men to express admira- 
tion for women's tenacity, never underestimate 
the power of mobilized world opinion. As it has 
developed in the United Nations, it is a positive 
force for evolution and good. 

President Eisenhower's Proposal 

I think there is no more striking example of the 
use of the United Nations as a framework for 
peace than the proposal President Eisenhower put 
before it in 1953. It was in December of that year 
that he appeared before the General Assembly and 
called upon the member states to join with the 
United States in pooling and sharing atomic 
knowledge and resources for the peaceful use of 
mankind. 

The initiative was ours, but the response was 
immediate, favorable, and almost unanimous. I 
say almost, for the Soviet Union, whose coopera- 
tion was most essential, opposed the idea and de- 
nounced it as a propaganda move. 

It took 2 years for the cumulative pressure of 
world public opinion to bring the Soviets around. 
In December 1955, they joined in a unanimous 
vote of the 10th General Assembly to move ahead 
with the establishment of an International Atomic 
Energy Agency devoted solely to the peaceful uses 



of the atom. It now seems a certainty that this 
agency will come into existence within the year.^ 

This episode is an excellent illustration of the 
fact that, while the United Nations provides the 
framework of peace, it is how we use it that counts. 
Of course, we are not always successful in our ef- 
forts to work toward peace within the United 
Nations framework. 

Perhaps the failure of the United Nations over 
10 years to make much progress toward genuine 
safeguarded arms limitation is the best illustration 
in point. There is no question but that the United 
Nations is the proper forum for tackling this 
formidable task. All nations great or small have a 
vital stake in the issue. With the coming of the 
atomic age, the threat of destruction transcends 
national boundaries and the political sovereignty 
of states. 

We must face the fact that 10 years of negotia- 
tion have not been successful in achieving a work- 
able plan for the limitation, regulation, and con- 
trol of arms. It is not, however, a failure charge- 
able to the United Nations that agreement has not 
been reached. It is, rather, evidence that the 
United Nations cannot impose agreement upon its 
members but that it is the members themselves 
who must, first of all, agree to abide by the pro- 
visions of the charter. 

We sincerely believe that we have, for our part, 
faithfully lived up to our commitments under the 
charter to find an equitable and workable solution. 
When we alone possessed the knowledge, the tech- 
niques, and the ability to produce atomic weapons, 
we offered to bring this knowledge and power 
under the control of the United Nations. It is the 
United States that has reduced its forces by over 
9 million men since the end of World War II. We 
have come down from a level of forces higher than 
that of the Soviet Union to a level considerably 
below. This holds true even in light of the recent 
Soviet announcement thatHhey would reduce their 
forces by an additional 1.2 million. 

In contrast to our open record of efforts to re- 
duce and control conventional and nuclear arma- 
ments, the Soviet moves have been largely paper 
proposals and propaganda initiatives. For years 



' For a report of the Working Level Meeting on the draft 
statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, to- 
gether with texts of the invitations to a conference at 
U.N. Headquarters in September, see Bulletin of July 
23, 1956, p. 162. 



July 30, 7956 



177 



they have proposed "banning the bomb and trust- 
ing the Russians'' and, in general, advanced pro- 
posals which sounded well but which had little sub- 
stance when it came to the matter of developing 
measures to insure that both sides would abide 
by agreements. 

In spite of these discouragements and setbacks, 
the United States believes that continued disarma- 
ment negotiations are gradually narrowing the 
gap between the positions of the Soviet Union and 
ourselves. We are firmly resolved to continue 
these negotiations in the United Nations, even 
though Mr. Khrushchev quite recently has tended 
to dismiss the work of the United Nations Dis- 
armament Commission as useless. 

In facing the future, we shall be guided by two 
requirements. The first is to explore with imagi- 
nation and courage every possible avenue that 
might lead to agreement to a safeguarded system 
of arms limitation and control. The second is, 
imtil or unless agreement is I'eached, to continue 
realistically and effectively the development and 
production of such weapons of defense as our na- 
tional security and the security of the free world 
demands. 

The ultimate recognition by all states that there 
is no alternative to peace will, we must fervently 
hope, lead to a workable agreement on safeguarded 
disarmament. "While the difficulties are vastly 
more complicated, the pattern for such an agree- 
ment has been set by the successful negotiations 
for the International Atomic Energy Agency. 

Specialized Agencies 

So far I have been talking about the big politi- 
cal and security issues which have faced the 
United Nations. These are the headline items — 
the things we most often hear and read about. 
They are the problems about which statesmen 
like to make long and sometimes windy speeches, 
which in turn sometimes give rise to a popular 
conception of the United Nations as a forum for 
talk rather than action. 

Of course, talk is important in the United Na- 
tions. It is directed to audiences the world over, 
and it is part of the process of molding public 
opinion. But the United Nations is far more than 
a talkathon. It carries on important action pro- 
grams which, though seldom making the head- 
lines, profoundly affect people in the most remote 
corners of the world. 



Most of this work is carried on through the 
specialized agencies of the United Nations — or- 
ganizations like the Food and Agriculture Organi- 
zation, the World Health Organization, the 
International Labor Organization, and the United 
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization. These autonomous agencies are re- 
lated by special agreements to the U.N. As a 
result of their work dynamic economic and social 
forces are being channeled to peaceful purposes. 

I like to think of the work of these agencies as 
the grassroots activities of the U.N. In count- 
less hamlets and villages in the Far East, the 
Middle East, and Latin America, the U.N. through 
its specialized agencies is a tangible force for 
good which comes to grips with pressing human 
problems. It touches people where the need is 
greatest and the opportunity most challenging. 

I recall the story told me by an expert of the 
Who. He had been working on a malaria-control 
project in a village in north Thailand. Just for 
curiosity he asked the village head man some 
questions to find out what he knew about the 
outside world. This venerable man had never 
heard of President Eisenhower or Nehru or the 
U.N. But when asked if he had ever heard of the 
World Health Organization, a smile of recogni- 
tion lit up his face. Yes, indeed, he knew "Mr. 
WHO." He was the man who had been in his 
village and killed all the mosquitoes. 

One of the most significant of the U.N. action 
programs is the Expanded Program of Teclmical 
Assistance. Money for this program comes from 
voluntary contributions of governments to a cen- 
tral fund. Disbursements from the f imd are made 
to the specialized agencies, which in turn send out 
the experts and provide the teclinical know-how 
needed in the less-developed countries of the 
world. Last year 76 countries contributed to this 
program and 92 countries and territories received 
technical assistance. 

I have visited some of the countries where the 
program operates. I have seen livestock-improve- 
ment projects over 2 miles high in the Andean 
Mountains of Ecuador. I have seen ancient skills 
of Andean Indians revived and put to economi- 
cally useful purposes in all sorts of beautiful hand- 
icraft and textile work. I have seen the amazing 
results of compreliensive health and sanitation 
programs in remote rural villages in Central 
America. I have seen young men in Haiti learn- 



178 



Department of Slate Bullefin 



ing the secrets of the gasoline engine and the 
use of modern machine tools. I have seen the re- 
sults of forest and natural-resources surveys which 
have led to the exploitation of previously unknown 
natural resources. These projects and many 
others are typical of what is going on under the 
U.N. Technical Assistance Program all over the 
world. 

This is a self-help program, because each coun- 
try receiving assistance must contribute from its 
own resources to the projects being financed by 
the U.N. In terms of the U.S. program of tech- 
nical cooperation it is relatively small — about $30 
million as compared with $140 million. Some- 
times, however, countries prefer to receive techni- 
cal assistance from the U.N. rather than through 
bilateral arrangements. Among some of the newly 
independent coimtries of the world this is par- 
ticularly true because of sensitivity to alleged po- 
litical strings attached to bilateral agreements. 

The United States has played a leading role in 
the United Nations Technical Assistance Program 
since its inception. This, of course, is in addition 
to what we do through our own program of bi- 
lateral teclinical cooperation. We participate in 
both programs because it is in our enlightened 
self-interest to do so. 

We know that the United States cannot long 
survive as one oasis of prosperity in a world of 
misery. We do not, as some mistakenly believe, 
seek to buy friendship, which of course is im- 
possible. Rather, our basic long-run aim is the 
growth of societies around the world capable of 
retaining their freedom and independence. This 
does not mean creating a galaxy of U.S. satellites. 
It means helping countries to learn how to handle 
effectively their own problems while meeting the 
legitimate aspirations of their people. 

Activities like the Expanded Program of Tech- 
nical Assistance and the basic work of the spe- 
cialized agencies contribute greatly to the U.N. 
as a framework for peace. They not only develop 
habits of practical international cooperation at 
the teclmical and professional level, but they at- 
tack poverty, hunger, disease, and illiteracy — 
the root causes of instability, unrest, and war. 

It is, of course, true that as a "have" country 
in teclmical skills and know-how we find ourselves 
more on the giving than receiving end as far as 
tangible benefits are concerned. However, from 
both the short-range and long-range point of view 



we are the beneficiaries of the increased security 
and stability which these U.N. programs give to 
societies emerging into the fuller life of the 20th 
century. 

The New Dimensions of the United Nations 

I have reviewed briefly how the U.N. provides 
a framework for the maintenance of peace through 
action in the political, economic, and social fields. 
Now I would like to say a few words about the 
new dimension the U.N. brings to U.S. foreign 
policy. The President has referred to the U.N. 
as "the cornerstone of our foreign policy." We 
have been one of the strongest supporters of the 
United Nations since its founding. Clearly, we 
believe that participation in the United Nations 
promotes our national security and is an impor- 
tant way of advancing our foreign-policy 
objectives. 

Our membership in the United Nations and our 
support for it does not mean, however, that every- 
thing it does advances our interests. After all, 
there are 75 other members who have their own 
problems and interests. Nor does it mean that we 
must bring all our foreign-policy problems before 
the United Nations. It is not designed to take 
the place of normal diplomatic relations and ne- 
gotiations but to supplement these and to be a 
court of last appeal in serious matters affecting 
international security. Indeed this is clearly 
stated in the charter. Article 33 says that "the 
parties to any dispute, the continuance of which 
is likely to endanger the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and security, shall, first of all, seek 
a solution by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, con- 
ciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to 
regional agencies or arrangements, or other peace- 
ful means of their own choice." 

We are sometimes criticized for bypassing the 
United Nations in the conduct of our foreign 
policy. While we believe that participation in the 
United Nations serves our enlightened self-in- 
terest, it cannot, of course, always take the place of 
normal diplomatic relations between nations. 

On the other hand, there are critics who charge 
that the United Nations is threatening to inter- 
fere with our internal affairs, to impose distaste- 
ful treaties upon us, or even to dictate the courses 
we conduct in our schools. The charter, as you 
know, expressly forbids the United Nations to 
interfere in the internal affairs of any member 



July 30, 7956 



179 



country. As to the making of treaties, the United 
Nations can propose treaties for the considera- 
tion of members. But it is entirely up to the in- 
dividual countries themselves whether or not they 
will approve these treaties through their legal con- 
stitutional processes. Knowing our United States 
Senate, I doubt very much that a United Nations 
proposed treaty to which we objected could be 
sneaked through when a majority of the Senators 
were looking the other way. 

It is of course true that there is a tendency for 
the major powers to guard zealously against any 
real or imagined loss of sovereignty in the United 
Nations. Sometimes they do not like their actions 
or policies to be scrutinized or questioned by 
countries who do not carry an equal burden of 
power and responsibility. But I believe that those 
whose causes are just have little to worry about 
from such public examination of their policies. 

In this connection there is an interesting dif- 
ference of outlook between the major powers and 
some of the smaller and newly independent coun- 
tries. Secretary-General Hammarskjold de- 
scribed it to me this way after one of his global 
journeys. He said the newer countries are apt to 
regard their participation in the U.N. as an ex- 
tension rather than a limitation of their national 
sovereignty. Through the U.N. they exert in- 
fluence greater than they can alone. In the forum 
of the U.N., for example, they feel able to chal- 
lenge effectively the great powers, and they fre- 
quently do. 

After a brief, turbulent 11 years, what can we 
trutlifully say about this rough-hewn framework 
for peace, created with such high hopes 11 years 
ago? Have the great expectations of 1945 been 
realized, or have they come to be only things tliat 
dreams are made of ? The answer, I believe, lies 
somewhere between the two extremes. 

True, we have not reached the millennium, and 
many of the hopes of 1945 have yet to be realized. 
Nevertheless the U.N. has performed impressive 
services for the free world. It has exposed the 
glaring divergence between Communist words and 
Communist deeds. It has revealed the broad com- 
mon denominator of social and economic aims 
which bind nations together. It has released 
human energies and enterprise into constructive 
channels. It has fostered the development of a 



common conscience of right and wrong in inter- 
national relations. 

The United Nations thus serves as a yardstick 
by which the conduct of nations can be measured 
and the cause of an orderly and peaceful world 
can be advanced. 

The foundations of the U.N. are basically sound. 
They provide tremendous potentialities for peace- 
ful evolution. It may be long before the structure 
is completed. But a most hopeful beginning has 
been made. The continued growth of the U.N. 
depends not only on the ability of governments to 
understand its powers and limitations. It re- 
quires also the sustained interest and critical 
understanding of organizations like the American 
Association of University Women which reach 
into every corner of our country. 

I cannot emphasize too strongly the importance 
of cutting through ignorance and prejudice and 
coming to grips with facts. As has been pungently 
stated, "It ain't people's ignorance that causes all 
the trouble — it's their knowing so dang much that 
ain't so." 

Letters of Credence 

Ecuador 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Ecuador, 
Teodoro Alvarado Garaicoa, presented his creden- 
tials to President Eisenhower on July 16. For the 
text of the Ambassador's remarks and the text of 
the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 386. 

Hungary 

The newly appointed Minister of the Hungarian 
People's Eepublic, Peter Kos, presented his cre- 
dentials to President Eisenhower on July 17. For 
tlie text of the Minister's remarks and the text of 
the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 392. 

BrazU, 

The newly appointed Brazilian Ambassador, 
Ernani do Amaral Peixoto, presented his creden- 
tials to President Eisenhower July 18. For the 
text of the Ambassador's remarks and the text of 
the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 396. 



180 



Department of State Bulletin 



Transcript of Secretary Dulles' News Conference 



Press release 397 dated July 18 

Secretary Dulles: I have no prepared state- 
ment. I will be glad to answer your questions. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you favor a reduction in 
the manpower strength of the U.S. armed forces? 

A. I have not gone into that matter at all except 
in terms of the broad general policy. I think 
that is a question primarily for the military people 
to make recommendations about. The broad con- 
cept of our defensive policy I have set out a good 
many times in terms of primary reliance upon se- 
lective deterrent power. I believe in that general 
principle. But how it is applied is, in the first 
instance, a technical matter for the military 
advisers. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., would it he possible to carry 
out the kind of cuts which are under consideration 
now., and at the same time fulfill the military obli- 
gations of the United States under its various 
alliances? 

A. In the first place, I do not know what are 
these cuts that you refer to as being under consid- 
eration. I am not aware of any particular cuts. 
I have no doubt that they are being discussed in 
the Pentagon, but I have no familiarity with 
them ; I have seen no figures nor discussed any fig- 
ures with any members of the Pentagon. 

Q. Coidd I ask, then, whether substantial cuts 
could be made in the armed services without af- 
fecting the strength of the United States overseas? 

A. "Well, are you talking primarily now about 
Nato.? 

Q. I was thinking primarily of NATO. 

A. "VYell, our understanding about the NxVto 
forces was very clearly set forth in the statement 
which I made in London in October, I think it 
was, 1954, at the time of the London-Paris Ac- 



cords.^ We said at that time that it would be the 
policy of the United States to maintain armed 
forces in Europe which would involve our carry- 
ing a fair share of the total Nato responsibility 
there, and that statement was confirmed later on 
by President Eisenhower, after consultation with 
the congressional leaders. There is no intention 
whatsoever of going back on that policy 
declaration. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there is a distinct sentiment 
in the United Nations regarding talks with dele- 
gates who are infonned that the prospects for 
some definite and valuable disarmament are better 
note than they have been ever in the last decade. 
Would you subscribe to that? 

A. I would say that the basis for the thinking is 
the growing realization throughout the world that 
some limitation of armament is becoming more 
and more imperative in view of the increasingly 
destructive character of modern armaments. I 
am not sure that any great progress has yet been 
made in finding agreed technical ways of assuring 
that disarmament would be upon a dependable 
and controlled basis. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could I return to Mr. Ran- 
kin's question? Do your remarks mean that you 
did not see that Admiral Radford was preparing, 
although not in definite form and had reached no 
conclusions, proposals for reductions in our Armed 
Forces of about 800,000 men? 

A. I saw a newspaper story to that effect. I 
have had no consultation nor conference whatever 
with Admiral Eadford about the subject, nor have 
I heard any such figure mentioned other than in 
the press story. 

Q. Thank you. 

'BuLMTiN of Oct. 11, 1954, p. 523. 



July 30, J 956 



181 



Q. Mr. Secretary, is it still the view of this Gov- 
ernment that the West German Federal Republic 
should raise 12 divisions as soon as possihle? 

A. It is the view of the United States Govern- 
ment that all of the members of Nato should make 
the contribution which has been worked out by 
Saceur and by the committee there which works 
out these force goals. The agreed force goal for 
the Federal Eepublic of Germany is 12 divisions, 
and unless and until there is some change by the 
joint action of Nato we believe that the commit- 
ments thus given should be fulfilled. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you thirJc that modern 
warfare has progressed to the point where sv/ih a 
change is possihle now? 

A. The change in the Nato force goals? 

Q. Yes. 

A. Well, that again is a question which is more 
appropriate at this stage for consideration by the 
military people than by the civilians. You will 
recall that the Council of Ministers decided, I 
think it was in December 1954, that the planning 
should take into account atomic weapons, and the 
planning has been going ahead on that basis. 
Now, whether the military people doing that plan- 
ning will finally come up with proposals for re- 
duction or not, I do not yet know. That would 
normally not come up until the fall of this year, at 
a time when there comes about the so-called annual 
review of the force goals. 

Q. Mr. Sec7'etary, does opinion in Europe place 
as m,uch importance on the maintenance of large 
combat armed forces as, let^s say, a year or two 
ago? 

A. Well, I think that there has been a growing 
feeling throughout the world that recent develop- 
ments call for a greater emphasis upon modern 
weapons and the means of their delivery and pro- 
tection against their delivery, and perhaps less 
weight upon manpower. That trend has been evi- 
denced in the past division of our own military 
effort as between the different armed services. 
It is apparent in what is taking place in Russia, 
assuming that the Soviets are in fact carrying out 
what they said they would do in the way of re- 
duction of their manpower. We know that there 
has been no reduction in their efforts in the atomic 



and thermonuclear field. There is that general 
trend which is manifest, I think, wherever there is 
military thinking throughout the world.. That is 
the general trend. But to translate that general 
trend into terms of the particular problem of Nato 
is something which I am not qualified to do, cer- 
tainly at the present time. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, to sum up, would it he correct 
to say that from your standpoint, looking at the 
problems and the State Department's view, if the 
Pentagon — ov/r military people — and the NATO 
military people felt that this trend in modem 
weapons made possihle at some future date a lower 
figure for the West German armed forces, that 
would not cross your pwrposes from a political 
standpoint? 

A. That is a rather complicated question. 

Q. Well, turn it around: Are there political 
objections from your viewpoint which might, you 
feel, be strong enough to override the change in the 
military thinking if that came about? 

A. The only thinking that we have in relation 
to that problem is our thinking as a member of 
Nato, and of course, if there is an agreement in 
the Nato Council upon lower force goals, there 
would be no particular reason that I can think of | 
from a political standpoint why we should urge 1 
something higher than the force goals that the ■ 
military people thought were important. Gen- 
erally speaking, the history of these things has 
been that the military people do not tend readily 
to lower their sights as far as force goals are J 
concerned. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is it your information that the 
Russians in their manpower cuts are turning to 
primary reliance on the atomic and hydrogen 
weapons? 

A. They certainly seem to be putting their pri- 
mary effort in that type of activity at the present 
time, that is, of atomic and thermonuclear missiles 
and the possible means of their delivery. But 
they have not yet, so far as we know, reduced their 
armed forces to such a degi'ee as to insure that those 
forces could not still be a threat to Europe or to 
any contiguous area. In other words, their land 
forces have been so large that they could still be 
reduced substantially and still leave the Soviet 
Union with very formidable land power. But 
certainly the trend of emphasis seems to have been 



182 



Department of State Bulletin 



in favor of reduction of their manpower, which is 
perhaps not wholly for military reasons but also 
because of the fact that more workers are needed 
in the farms and in the factories. But the trend 
seems to be toward the reduction of manpower 
and the continued concentration upon the thermo- 
nuclear weapons. As I say, that trend has not 
yet gone to the point so that we can dismiss as 
unimportant the land forces which the Soviet 
Union has, which are still quite formidable. 

NATO Ground Forces 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you think NATO would he 
materially weakened or even destroyed if there was 
a substantial reduction in grovmd combat forces 
in Europe? 

A. I certainly do not think that there would be 
any destruction of Nato if, in accordance with 
competent military advice, there was a reforming 
of the defense pattern of Nato. If that involved 
more emphasis upon the new weapons and the ca- 
pability of the atomic weapons and defense against 
that and less emphasis upon manpower, and if that 
was a competent military judgment, confirmed by 
the political leaders of the different countries, I 
would not think that the adoption of that concept 
would have any effect at all in, as you put it I 
think, destroying Nato. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is there any indication or in- 
formation or evidence that NATO authorities 
favor a substantial reduction of ground troops? 

A. I have not discussed that in any way with 
any of the Nato authorities. I have had no talk 
with them at all on that topic since last December. 
General Gruenther was here, but we only discussed 
with him the possible impact of our mutual se- 
curity legislation, and possible cuts in that pro- 
gram, upon our contribution to Nato. So I have 
not been informed at all as to their thinking, in 
accordance with this directive which we gave 
them a year and a half ago, that their planning 
should take atomic weapons into account. 

Q. Another question, Mr. Secretary. If there 
is going to be a substantial reduction of NATO 
ground forces, ivoiddnH that necessarily or subse- 
quently lead to a reduction of the military aid 
frog ram? 

A. Well, I don't know that there will be a re- 
duction of ground forces. And the cost, you know, 



of these new weapons is very considerable. A 
principal item involved in the current military aid 
program is the provision of new weapons to Nato. 
Now, those weapons are not themselves nuclear 
weapons. They are primarily the means of pro- 
tection against thermonuclear and atomic weapons, 
and that item is a very large item indeed. I think 
no one yet feels confident that it is possible to 
make an overall net reduction of cost even if there 
were the kind of shift your question envisages. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in light of the next decade's 
increase in long-distance capabilities and also a 
natural desire of people to see foreign troops leave, 
won't the next decade see a phasing out of overseas 
bases for America? 

A. Well, that is a question which I think can't 
be answered with a "yes" or a "no." I would say 
that I hope very much that the political develop- 
ments of the next decade will make it practical and 
safe to rely less upon military force, and make 
it possible to effect some reductions in our over- 
seas disposition of forces. But that can't be an- 
swered in the abstract, because there could at any 
moment be political developments at one place or 
another which would require an increase rather 
than a decrease. You have to play this thing 
by keeping in tune with the events. But I hope 
very much that the next decade will have the trend 
that I indicate. 

Q. Along that line, would you presume that our 
actions in the Philippines in turning over our 
rights, title, and so forth to the air bases ^ would 
set a precedent for Okinaioa? Vice President 
Nixon went into this at Manila. 

A. Well, I don't think you could make any pre- 
cise parallel because, of course, our legal position 
in Okinawa is quite different from our legal posi- 
tion in the Philippines. There is a residual sov- 
ereignty which Japan has in Okinawa, but for the 
time being at least all of the powers and rights of 
government are exercised by the United States in 
accordance with the Japanese peace treaty. That 
is quite a dissimilar situation from the Philippines. 

Q. Mr. President — [Laughterl — Mr. Secretary, 
doesn't that rise of neutralism and the develop- 
ment of long-range weapons indicate that in the 

' Ibid., July 16, 1956, p. 95. 



July 30, 1956 



183 



foreseeable future the defense of the United States 
wUl be based in the United States f 

A. I don't think that question can with confi- 
dence be answered in the affirmative. Certainly, 
as there develops a greater capacity to deliver 
weapons from a distance, there will be less de- 
pendence upon foreign bases. But even that is 
an oversimplification because of the fact that, while 
you could perhaps ultimately develop your i-etalia- 
tory power exclusively in the United States, it 
could be much more costly to do so. I think I 
have pointed out here before, in illustrative terms, 
that a bomber operating from a base nearby the 
Soviet Union might be a bomber which costs one- 
tenth as much, and perhaps it could make 10 times 
as many missions, as a comparable retaliatory 
threat based upon the continental United States. 
If so, your ratio in that matter in terms of cost 
is about 100 to 1. So that, while it could be done, 
it would be a very costly operation to do it, in 
light of the present state of development. 

Q. aSIt, you neglected the first part of my 
premise, lohich loas the rise of neutralism, whereby 
we may not have those bases. 

A. Of course, if you assume that we don't have 
the bases, then obviously we will have to base 
our deterrent of retaliatory power upon the United 
States. 

Q. Mr. Sec7-etary, would this be in accordance 
with the various multilateral agreements we have, 
like NATO and so on, that we concentrate the 
retaliatory poioer in the United States? 

A. "Well, I do not think that the situation that 
was suggested will arise in the sense that neutral- 
ism will develop to such a point that there will not 
be a combined defense of the North Atlantic Treaty 
area, certainly that portion of it which lies in 
Europe. And I believe that there will continue 
to be, for the foreseeable future, the extension of 
common facilities and so forth in Europe under 
the North Atlantic Treaty. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the Army always contends 
that it must be prepared to fight these sinall brush- 
fire loars. What part do wars of that type play 
in these trends and thinking that you have been 
talking about? Is suoh war ruled out, or is it 
felt they will be fought with atomic weapons? 

A. Of course, we would like to rule them out if 



we could. And I do think that through the proc- 
esses of diplomacy, through deterrent power 
other than atomic weapons — for instance, in some 
cases there are deterrents of an economic and finan- 
cial character — it is possible to do a great deal to 
exclude the possibility of the so-called brush wars. 
Perhaps the possibility cannot be excluded en- 
tirely. As you know, our theory of deterrence is 
a theory of selective deterrent, and in the case of 
a brush war, we need not drop atomic weapons 
over vast populated areas. 

Evaluation of Recent Soviet Proposals 

Q. Mr. Secretary, these two most recent pro- 
posals by the Soviet Union — reduction of arms and 
the suspension of nuclear explosives — do you at- 
tach any sincerity at all to these proposals, and, if 
you do, what can we do to counteract their obvious 
propaganda value? 

A. Well, you referred to two things — the reduc- 
tion of the numbers of their armed forces, I think, 
was the first — 

Q. I was thinking primarily, sir, in that connec- 
tion in terms of what happened just recently, when 
they accepted our figure for the reduction on both 
sides, not just their own unilateral reduction which 
they have announced. 

A. Well, that was not the acceptance of the total 
package, nor did it include acceptance of the con- 
trols and checks that would be necessary to deter- 
mine whether or not there was in fact a reciprocity 
of reduction. It doesn't do any good for the 
Soviet to accept figures unless they give the pos- 
sibility of checking and controlling what actually 
happens. It has been basic to the United States 
policy that we would not reduce our Armed Forces 
in reliance merely on a promise by another country 
to reduce its armed forces, unless there was some 
way of checking and controlling tliat promise. 
And so far a great difficulty with the Soviet Union 
has been that they have consistently rejected any 
effective means of controlling and checking as to 
whether or not they in fact did what they promised 
to do. 

Q. Well, is your answer then that you do not 
think that there is any element of sincerity in the 
proposal? 

A. I think that, as far as the reduction of their 



184 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



own manpower is concerned, there is sincerity to 
it — if you want to use that word — in the sense that 
I believe that a combination of their own military 
concepts plus the need of more people in factories 
and on the farms has probably led them to bring 
about a reduction of their own armed forces, or 
will do so. In other words, if you ask me whether 
I think in fact they are going to do it, I would say 
I think that they probably are, for the reasons 
which I mentioned. But that is nothing upon 
which we can depend unless we have some means, 
or there is some international system set up, for 
actually checking that they have done it — because 
perhaps they won't do it. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the Egyptian Ambassador 
said yesterday, after his return from Cairo, Egypt 
is noto prepared to accept our earlier offer on the 
Aswan Dam, in financing it. Are we prepared 
to go ahead loith that offer now? 

A. I would not want to offer to answer that 
question in advance of seeing the Ambassador, 
whom I'm seeing, I think, tomorrow afternoon. 
All I can say is that quite a lot of things have 
happened since the offer was made and those would 
have to be taken into account and will be taken 
into account in my talk with the Egyptian 
Ambassador. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you plan to attend the 
Bepuhlican Convention, and if so, do you have any 
plans to make a speech there? 

A. I do plan to be present at San Francisco 
while the convention is on, or at least during part 
of the time the convention is on, particularly dur- 
ing the period when the platform will be under 
consideration. I have no present plans to make a 
speech. 

Q. Do you intend, sir, to help write the plat- 
form plank on foreign policy as you did in 1952? 

A. I expect I will have a certain part in the 
writing of it, yes. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, can you say anything now 
about your post Pan American plans? 

A. I shall probably be in that general area for 
the balance of the week, perhaps, subject to work- 
ing out of details with the governments concerned, 
going to Colombia and Ecuador, and to Peru for 
the inauguration. I will be back on Sunday 
[July 29]. 



Q. Mr. Secretary, have you looked into prec- 
edent for the Secretary of State helping his party 
write the foreign policy program? I dorCt re- 
memher other Secretaries of State being at politi- 
cal conventions. I may be mistaken. 

A. No, I do not recollect and I have not looked 
into that. But it seems to me quite unrealistic to 
think that a Secretary of State should not have 
some voice in the writing of the platform of his 
party in relation to foreign affairs. 

Q. Where is the line, sir, between that partici- 
pation and the statement you made to us some time 
earlier that you had no plans to take any part in 
the political campaign this year? How do you 
divide the two? 

A. I would not think that giving my views, in 
response to inquiries, to those who have the re- 
sponsibility of the platform, would be engaging in 
political activity. 

Q. You have no plans to make any speeches that 
you would consider political during the campaign? 

A. I have no plans at the present time. 

Q. Do you think it is possible to write a biparti- 
san plank on foreign policy? 

A. That depends on the Democrats. If they 
agree, I could write one. 

Q. Have they invited you to their con/vention? 

A. No, but they still may. It would be a very 
good idea. I would be delighted to go. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, why do you have to go to 
San FraTwisco for it? DonH you think the plat- 
form is going to be written here anyway before the 
convention? 

A. Undoubtedly the platform will be initially 
drafted here. I suppose that the prospective 
chairman of the Eesolutions Committee will go out 
to San Francisco with drafts covering the different 
planks of the platform. But after the convention 
begins or, indeed, before the formal convention 
begins, there will be hearings, I suppose, as cus- 
tomary, and various interested parties will appear 
before the Resolutions Committee and make pro- 
posals and suggestions with reference to various 
items of the platform, including foreign policy. I 
do not think that the platform will take final form 
until after those different views have been heard. 

Q. Sir, don't you think there is a certain risk at- 



July 30, 1956 



185 



taohed in a very partisan foreign-policy plank 
appearing which then later — suppose your party 
wins the election again — you would have to defend 
before possibly another Democratic Congress? 

A. Well, your question assumes that the plat- 
form will be highly partisan. 

Q. It was in 1952, sir. 

A. We are talking about 1956. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, are you preparing a foreign- 
policy plank for the platform? Are you now pre- 
paring such a plank? 

A. I am starting to crystallize some of my own 
thinking about what might be in a plank, but so 
far I have not had any discussion of it with the 
people who will presumably be charged with the 
actual drafting of it. 

U. N. Technical Assistance 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would you discuss the impli- 
cations of a cut on the Hill of an appropriation to 
the technical assistance aspects of the U.N.?^ 

A. I greatly regret that that cut has taken place. 
I think it took place not primarily because of any 
serious objection on the part of most of the Com- 
mittee to the program as such. It was primarily, 
I think, a feeling that we ought not to contribute 
as much as 50 percent of the program. The effort 
was to cut our contribution to 331/3 percent of the 
total program. I would like myself to see the cut 
restored, because there is no assurance that we can 
abruptly, at least, get contributions from other 
quarters to fill in the gap and therefore it may 
result in a weakening of the program. I believe 
that for a long-term proposition it is sound to ex- 
pect other countries to carry sufficient of the pro- 
gram so that our percentage could be reduced to 
331/3 percent. But, as I say, to do it abruptly the 
way that it has been done would cause confusion 
and difficulties there and some weakening of the 
program. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, I would like to go tack to the 
manpower question for just a moment. The rea- 
sons tohich you have outlined for your belief that 
the Russians a/re going to make the cut they spoke 

' For a statement on the U.N. Expanded Program of 
Technical Assistance by Assistant Secretary Wilcox before 
the Subcommittee on International Organizations and 
Movements of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, see 
ilici., July 9, 1956, p. 76. 



of and for possible reductions in American forces 
are all internal military reasons, that is, reasons 
which relate to needs for manpower in factories 
and for a decreased need for manpower in the 
military. My question is this: Do you see any 
elements in international affairs, in relations, for 
example, between the United States and the 
Soviet Union, which would be favorable to a re- 
duction of forces? 

A. I believe that, as I indicated, the primary 
reasons for the Soviet reduction, if it takes place, 
are internal reasons, a shift of their own concep- 
tions about the proper balance today of military 
forces and the need for more people in the factories 
and on the farms. Now, I think there has been 
some considerable diminution of international ten- 
sions. I think it is generally agreed there is less 
risk of general war than has been the case here- 
tofore. That may be an element in Soviet calcu- 
lations. Also there is the fact that, while we have 
not attempted to make propaganda use of it, the 
United States set an example in reducing its 
Armed Forces. The Soviet Union is a Johnny- 
come-lately in that respect, although it is talking 
as though it was setting the example. We, in fact, 
of course, made the big cut immediately after the 
close of the Second World War. We built up 
again at the time of the Korean War. As soon as 
that was over, we started cutting down. So that 
I think we have really set the example in this re- 
spect. That may have had some impact upon the 
Soviet Union. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could I ask a related question 
to that? Would you say that the relaxation or 
diminution in international tension was also a 
reason for the United States to consider further 
reductions in its Armed Forces? 

A. Well, I feel that it is vitally important for 
the United States to maintain a certain measure of 
superiority or equality with the Soviet Union in 
terms of atomic weapons, missiles, and means of 
their delivery, and so forth. I would not think 
that the situation permitted of any particular re- 
duction in that respect. It might be possible that 
the trend that I referred to in terms of reduction 
of manpower may perhaps be somewhat continued, 
but that is primarily for the military people in 
the first instance to make a recommendation. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you are portrayed in a press 
report today as feeling that an ultimate cut in 



I 



186 



Department of State Bulletin 



the proposed West German troops for NATO 
may he acceptable. Did you discuss this question 
(with Chancellor Adenauer when he was here? 

A. No. Wlien I discussed the matter with 
Chancellor Adenauer, it was in terms of the great 
importance of the Federal Eepublic carrying out 
its present commitment to Nato. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, it has been reported that you 
submitted to the Senate Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee a list of the diplomatic changes in the Mid- 
dle East posts. Could you tell us whether those 
reports are correct, and could you discuss some of 
the reasons for those changes? 

A. I can't comment on the changes that are 
being discussed in the press until the matter has 
been dealt with officially by the President. As 
you know, the practice in these matters is to seek 
the agrement of foreign governments to any 
diplomatic exchange, and until that has been re- 
ceived it is not considered to be good international 
manners to discuss diplomatic changes. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, a followup, if I may, on that 
cut for technical aid of the U.N. It has been re- 
ported that representatives of the Department of 
State in Geneva have reported bach here that they 
have encountered embarrassment and distress in 
dealings with the Econom,ic and Social Council be- 
cause of this impending cut. Has that informa- 
tion, assuming that it is substantially correct, 
been given to the Hill as one of the complications 
involved in something of this kind? 

A. I am sorry I can't answer that question. I 
would assume that it has been, through one or 
another of the Assistant Secretaries. But I am not 
familiar personally with the report that you refer 
to, nor have I dealt with it in any way. 

Q. Thank you, sir. 



Delegations to Inaugural Ceremonies 
in Peru and Bolivia 

Press release 402 dated July 20 

President Eisenhower on July 20 named Secre- 
tary Dulles as his personal representative to head 
the U.S. delegation to the inauguration of the 
President-elect of Peru, Dr. Manuel Prado 
Ugarteche. 

At the conclusion of the meeting of Presidents 



in Panama, the Secretary will proceed to Bogota, 
Colombia. He will spend July 24 there in confer- 
ences with the President and other Government 
officials. On July 25 he will proceed to Quito, 
Ecuador, where he will confer with the President 
and officials of the Ecuadoran Government. 

Secretary Dulles will be accompanied to Colom- 
bia and Ecuador by Mrs. Dulles; Henry F. Hol- 
land, Assistant Secretary for Inter- American Af- 
fairs ; Carl W. McCardle, Assistant Secretary for 
Public Affairs; Maurice M. Bernbaum, Director, 
Office of South American Affairs ; and William B. 
Macomber, Special Assistant to the Secretary of 
State. 

On July 26 Mr. Dulles will fly to Lima, Peru, 
where he will act as chief of the U.S. delegation 
and personal representative of the President at 
the ceremonies for the inauguration of the Presi- 
dent-elect of Peru, Dr. Manuel Prado. The in- 
auguration program will take place in Lima from 
July 27 through August 1. 

The U.S. delegation to the inaugural ceremonies 
in Lima will include the following, with the rank 
of special ambassador to represent the President : 

Theodore C. Achilles, Ambassador to Peru 

Henry F. Holland, Assistant Secretary of State for Inter- 
American Affairs 

Charles H. Percy, President, Bell and Howell Corpora- 
tion 

Willard L. Beaulac, Ambassador to Argentina 

The other members of the U.S. delegation are : 

Albert P. Morano, U.S. House of Representatives 
Carl W. McCardle, Assistant Secretary of State for Pub- 
lic Affairs 
Maj. Gen. Robert W. Douglass, Jr., U.S. Air Force 
George A. Blowers, Director, Export-Import Bank 
Maurice M. Bernbaum, Director, Office of South Ameri- 
can Affairs, Department of State 
William B. Macomber, Si)ecial Assistant to the Secretary 
of State 

Members of the U.S. Embassy staff at Lima, 
Peru, also named on the delegation are: 

Clare H. Tlmberlake, Deputy Chief of Mission 

Francis A. Llnville, Counselor of Embassy for Economic 

Affairs 
Col. Thomas M. Metz, U.S. Army Attache 
Comdr. Arthur O. Mclntyre, U.S. Naval Attach^ and Naval 

Attach^ for Air 
Col. Charles H. Shaw, U.S. Air Attach^ 
John R. Neale, Director, U.S. Foreign Operations Mission 

As the Secretary must be in Washington to re- 
ceive Prime Minister Robert Menzies of Australia, 
who arrives on July 31, it will be necessary for the 



Ju/y 30, 1956 



187 



Secretary to depart from Lima on the evening of 
July 28. 

The necessity to return to Washington will make 
it impossible for the Secretary of State to head the 
U.S. delegation to the ceremonies for the inaugu- 
ration of the President-elect of Bolivia, Hernan 
Siles Zuazo, which will take place in La Paz, Bo- 
livia, from August 3 through August 8. 

The U.S. delegation to the Bolivian inaugural 
ceremonies will be headed by Gerald Drew, U.S. 
Ambassador to Bolivia, and will include with the 
rank of special ambassador to represent the Presi- 
dent: 

Henry F. Holland, Assistant Secretary of State for Inter- 
American Affairs 
Charles H. Percy, President, Bell and Howell Corporation 
Cecil B. Lyon, U.S. Ambassador to Chile 

The other members of the U.S. delegation are : 

Bourke B. Hickenlooper, U.S. Senate 
Maj. Gen. Robert W. Douglass, Jr., U.S. Air Force 
George A. Blowers, Director, Export-Import Bank 
Maurice M. Bernbaum, Director, Office of South Ameri- 
can Affairs, Department of State 

Members of the U.S. Embassy staff at La Paz, 
Bolivia, also named on the delegation are : 

Eugene A. Gilmore, Deputy Chief of Mission 

Col. Charles H. Shaw, U.S. Air Attach^ 

Lt. Col. Isaac W. Cundiff, U.S. Army Attach^ 

Ross A. Moore, Director, U.S. Foreign Operations Mission 



Aswan High Dam 

Press release 401 dated July 19 

At the request of the Government of Egypt, the 
United States joined in December 1955 with the 
United Kingdom and with the World Bank in an 
offer to assist Egypt in the construction of a high 
dam on the Nile at Aswan.^ This project is one 
of great magnitude. It would require an esti- 
mated 12 to 16 years to complete at a total cost 
estimated at some $1,300,000,000, of which over 

^ Bulletin of Dec. 26, 1955, p. 1050. 



$900,000,000 represents local currency require- 
ments. It involves not merely the rights and in- 
terests of Egypt but of other states whose waters 
are contributory, including Sudan, Ethiopia, and 
Uganda. 

The December offer contemplated an extension 
by the United States and United Kingdom of 
grant aid to help finance certain early phases of the 
work, the effects of which would be confined solely 
to Egypt, with the understanding that accom- 
plishment of the project as a whole would require 
a satisfactory resolution of the question of Nile 
water rights. Another important consideration 
bearing upon the feasibility of the undertaking, 
and thus the practicability of American aid, was 
Egyptian readiness and ability to concentrate its 
economic resources upon this vast construction 
program. 

Develojiments within the succeeding 7 months 
have not been favorable to the success of the proj- 
ect, and the U.S. Government has concluded that 
it is not feasible in present circumstances to par- 
ticipate in the project. Agreement by the riparian 
states has not been achieved, and the ability of 
Egypt to devote adequate resources to assure the 
project's success has become more uncertain than 
at the time the offer was made. 

This decision in no way reflects or involves any 
alteration in the friendly relations of the Govern- 
ment and people of the United States toward the 
Government and people of Egypt. 

The United States remains deeply interested in 
the welfare of the Egyptian people and in the de- 
velopment of the Nile. It is prepared to consider 
at an appropriate time and at the request of the 
riparian states what stejis might be taken toward 
a more effective utilization of the water resources 
of the Nile for the benefit of the peoples of the 
region. Furthermore, the United States remains 
ready to assist Egypt in its effort to improve the 
economic condition of its people and is prepared, 
through its apjDropriate agencies, to discuss these 
matters within the context of funds appropriated 
by the Congress. 



188 



Department of State Bulletin 



Detention of U.S. Personnel in Soviet Union 



Following is the text of a note delivered to the 
Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs hy the Ameri- 
can Embassy at Moscow on July 16 concerning 
Soviet detention of U.S. personnel involved in 
aircraft incidents, together with a statement made 
hy Deputy Under Secretary Murphy on July 18 
hefore the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. 

U.S. NOTE OF JULY 16 

Press release 388 dated July 16 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Ministry of For- 
eign Affair9 of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics and has the honor to refer to the question 
of the detention of United States military per- 
sonnel in the Soviet Union. 

The United States Government has for~*some 
time received, from persons of various nationali- 
ties freed from Soviet Government imprisonment 
during the last several years, reports that they 
have conversed with, seen or heard reports con- 
cerning United States military aviation personnel, 
belonging either to the United States Air Force 
or to the United States Navy Air Arm, in actual 
detention in the Soviet Union. The United States 
Government has sought in all such cases to obtain, 
if possible, precise identification of American na- 
tionals detained by tlie Soviet Government, al- 
though it notes that by international law and 
international practice the Soviet Government is 
obliged to inform the United States Government 
first of any American nationals whom the Soviet 
Government holds in custody or to permit such 
nationals to communicate with the proper United 
States authorities. 

The reports concerning such personnel have now 
become so persistent and detailed, and so credible, 
that, although the United States Government is 
not able to identify by name these American na- 
tionals now detained by the Soviet Government, it 

Jo/y 30, 1956 

393163—56 3 



requests the Soviet Government to inform the 
United States Government in detail concerning 
each American military person who has been de- 
tained in the Soviet Union at any time since Janu- 
ary 1, 1949 of whom the United States Government 
has not heretofore been informed by the Soviet 
Government, giving in each case the name of the 
person and the circumstances underlying his 
detention. 

Specifically, the United States Government is in- 
formed and is compelled to believe that the Soviet 
Government has had and continues to have under 
detention the following : 

1. One or more members of the crew of a United 
States Navy Privateer-type aircraft which came 
down in the Baltic Sea area on April 8, 1950.^ The 
United States Government has since that time re- 
ceived reports that various members of the crew of 
this United States aircraft were, and are, detained 
in Soviet detention places in the Far Eastern area 
of the Soviet Union. In particular, it is informed, 
and believes, that in 1950 and in October, 1953 at 
least one American military aviation person, be- 
lieved to be a member of the crew of this United 
States Navy Privateer, was held at Camp No. 20 
allegedly near Taishet, and Collective Farm No. 
25, approximately 54 kilometers from Taishet, Said 
to be under sentence for alleged espionage. This 
American national was described as having suf- 
fered burns on the face and legs in the crash of his 
aircraft and using crutches or a cane. 

Reports have been received from former pris- 
oners of the Soviet Government at Vorkuta that in 
September, 1950 as many as eight American na- 
tionals, believed to be members of the crew of the 
United States Navy Privateer to which reference 
is made, had been seen in the area of Vorkuta and 
specifically, that one person who was interned at 

' For correspondence with the Soviet Union concerning 
this incident, see Buixetin of May 1, 1950, p. 667, and 
May 15, 1950, p. 753. 



189 



Vorkuta in September, 1950 stated that he was 
serving a twenty- five year espionage sentence and 
had been a member of a downed United States 
aircraft. 

For the information of the Soviet Government, 
the crew of the United States Navy Privateer when 
it departed for its flight over the liigh seas of 
the Baltic consisted of the following United States 
Navy personnel, all nationals of the United States : 
Name Rank Serial Number 

Fette, John H Lt 320676 USNR 

Seeschaf, Howard W Lt 264005 USN 

Reynolds, Robert D Lt. jg 36857.3 USN 

Burgess, Tommy L Ens 506762 USN 

Danens Jr., Joe H ADl 3685438 USN 

Thomas, Jack W ADl 2242750 USN 

Beckman, Frank L ATI 2799076 USN 

Pui-eell, Edward J CT3 254043S USN 

Rinniar Jr., Joseph Norris. ATS 2542600 USN 

Bourassa, Joseph Jay— AL3 9539864 USN 

2. One or more members of the crew of a United 
States Air Force B-29 which came down on June 
13, 1952, either over the Sea of Japan or near the 
Kamchatka area of the Soviet Union. An officer, 
believed by the United States Government to have 
been a member of this crew, was observed in Oc- 
tober 1953 in a Soviet hospital north of Magadan 
near the crossing of the Kolyma River between 
Elgen and Debin at a place called Narionburg. 
This officer stated that he had been convicted, 
wrongfully, under Item 6 of Article 58 of the 
Soviet Penal Code. 

For the infoi-mation of the Soviet Government, 
the United States Air Force personnel on board 
the B-29 which has been missing since June 13, 
1952, were as follows : 



Name Rank 

Busch, Samuel N Major. 



Sculley, James A 1st Lt 

Service, Samuel D 1st Lt — 

McDonnell, Robert J 1st Lt— 

Homer, William B M/Sgt AF 

Moore, David L M/Sgt AF 

Blizzard, William A S/Sgt AF 

Monserrat. Miguel W S/Sgt AF 

Berg, Eddie R S/Sgt AF 

Bonura, Leon F S/Sgt AF 

Becker, Roseoe G S/Sgt AF 

Pillsbury, Danny H A/IC AF 



Serial Number 

AO 

AO 

AO 

AO 



'33811 
693414 
752509 
2222264 
7025704 
15229915 
19244175 
13164064 
17281746 
18359162 
19.391813 
18245964 



3. Wliile the foregoing specific cases involve the 
crew members of two aircraft, it may well be that 
the Soviet Government has in its custody members 
of the crews of other United States aircraft, par- 



ticularly crew members of aircraft engaged on 
behalf of the United Nations Command side of the 
military action in Korea since 1950. 

The United States Government desires that the 
Soviet Government make its inquiry on the fore- 
going subject as thoroughly as possible, but that 
it keep this Embassy informed of progress as soon 
as possible. 



STATEMENT BY DEPUTY UNDER SECRETARY 
MURPHY, JULY 18 

The State Department and the various agencies 
of this Government abroad have for years re- 
ceived from time to time reports of the presence in 
Soviet prisons or prison camps of American citi- 
zens. The Department has endeavored to make a 
careful examination so far as possible of the rec- 
ords and other evidence available to determine 
whetlier the reports were credible and whether 
the individuals in question were actually Ameri- 
cans. In a number of cases it was determined 
that the reports were not sufficiently credible to 
justify action or the individuals turned out not 
to be American citizens entitled to the protection 
of the United States Government. In cases in 
wliich tlie Department was convinced of tlie iden- 
tification and citizenship of the individuals 
reported, the Department has taken vigorous dip- 
lomatic action to obtain the release of the indi- 
viduals identified. 

Because it was believed that we would be more 
successful in diplomatic negotiations if we could 
identify by name and history individuals of whose 
presence in Soviet detention we had evidence, the 
Department and Embassy at Moscow concentrated 
on those cases. There may be mentioned as an 
example of such an incident the case of John 
Noble, whom the Department succeeded in repat- 
riating at the end of 1954. 

From time to time, particularly in 1954 and 
1955, reports came in from repatriates, American 
and others, that they had heard of or actually seen 
American military personnel, some particularly 
identified as military aviation personnel, in Soviet 
detention camps or prisons. There are also cases 
of persons identified as American Army personnel 
on whose cases we are working. In no case were 
the informants able to identify the individual avi- 
ation personnel by name, although physical de- 



190 



Department of State Bulletin 



scriptions were given sometimes where the indi- 
vidual was seen or they were otherwise identified, 
such as that they were members of a crew which 
had been brought down over the Baltic or in one 
case a crew member on board an aircraft which 
had come down off Kamchatka. 

The Department made careful attempts to trace 
down each of these stories. By June 1956 it con- 
sulted with the Embassy at Moscow and the Em- 
bassy at Tokyo (which had been in consultation 
on this subject with the Japanese Foreign Office) , 
as well as with the Navy, Air Force, and Army 
Departments and the Office of Secretary of De- 
fense, as to whether we should not approach the 
Soviet Government upon the basis that the Soviet 
Government was under a legal duty to inform us 
whether these reports, though anonymous as to 
the identity of the individual Americans involved, 
were true. We also took into account the fact 
that publicity to the request might encourage 
other repatriates to come forward with informa- 
tion which might be more specific than informa- 
tion we had already received. The Ambassadors 
in Moscow and Tokyo and the Department of De- 
fense and the other Departments concerned all 
concurred in the proposal that this approach 
should be made. 

As the committee will see, whether there is any 
success to the present approach will depend in the 
first place on the possibility that the Soviet author- 
ities will actually make an attempt to find out, 
if they do not already know, what American per- 
sonnel they have been holding of whom they have 
not notified us. In the second place, the publicity 
attendant to the release of the text of the note to 
the Soviet Government may encourage other 
repatriates to get in touch with American authori- 
ties abroad or in this country and give us addi- 
tional information. This is at present a hope but 
there is evidence to base reliance on it. We have 
at least one case of an individual who had appar- 
ently been for years vaguely referred to as an 
American but whom Japanese repatriates in 1955 
more positively identified so that we succeeded in 
identifying him to the Soviet Government and he 
has been repatriated successfully. We have had 
several instances in which vague reports turned 
out after considerable investigation to be funda- 
mentally true although original identifications 
were not sufficiently accurate. 

July 30, 1956 



Alleged Violations of Soviet Territory 



U.S. NOTE OF JULY 19 



Press release 398 dated July 19 



Following is the text of a note delivered to the 
Soviet Embassy at Washington on July 19. 

The Department of State has the honor to in- 
form the Embassy of the Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics that the latter's note no. 23 of July 
10, 1956 alleging violations of Soviet territory by 
United States Air Force twin-engine medium 
bombers coming from Western Germany, has re- 
ceived the most serious consideration of the 
United States Government. It is noted that the 
Soviet Government's note refers to "the American 
Zone of Occupation in Western Germany". At- 
tention is called to the fact that there is no longer 
an American Zone of Occupation in Western Ger- 
many. Presumably, the reference is to the Fed- 
eral Republic of Germany. 

A thorough inquiry has been conducted and it 
has been determined that no United States mili- 
tary planes based, or flying, in or adjacent to the 
European area at the time of the alleged over- 
flights could possibly have strayed, as alleged, so 
far from their known flight plans, which carefully 
exclude such overflights as the Soviet note alleges. 
Therefore the statement of the Government of the 
Soviet Union is in error. 

The Department of State at the same time feels 
obliged to comment on the accompanying state- 
ments in the Soviet Embassy's note implying a 
plot to hinder the improvement of international 
relations and insinuating that the alleged Ameri- 
can Air Force flights might have been arranged 
by General Twining in Germany, following his 
visit to the Soviet Union. These remarks, which 
are as obviously out of place as they are imwar- 
ranted, indeed of themselves have the effect of hin- 
dering the improvement of international relations. 

Department of State, 

Washington, July 19, 1956. 

SOVIET NOTE OF JULY 10 

Embassy of the Union of Sovtbt Socialist Republics 
No. 23 

The Embassy of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
presents its compliments to the Department of State of 

191 



the United States of America and, on instructions from 
the Soviet Government, has the honor to state the follow- 
ing. 

According to precisely established data