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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



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IE 

FICIAL 

EEKLY RECORD 



VOLUME XXXVI: Numbers 915-939 



January 7-June 24, 1957 



IITED STATES 
IREIGN POLICY 



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Correction for Volume XXXVI 

The Editor of the Bulletin wishes to call atten- 
tion to the followiug error in volume XXXVI : 

February 25, page 295 : The sentence beginning 
at the bottom of the first column should read, "The 
second historical fact which I ask you to remember 
as we explore the international scene of today is 
the emergence of international communism as the 
one great, aggressive threat to the liberties of man- 
kind." 



INDEX 

Volume XXXVi, Numbers 915-939, January 7-June 24, 1957 



Ac-id-grade fluorspar, escape-clause relief held unneces- 
sary, 369 
Aden: 

Commercial samples and advertising material, exten- 
sion of international convention (1952) to facili- 
tate importation to, 548 
Formation of ijrotectorate, 519 
Adenauer, Konrad, 719, 955, 961, 965 

Advertising material and commercial samples, interna- 
tional convention (1952) to facilitate importation of, 
156, 548, 868 
Advisory Committee on the Arts, designation of chair- 
man, 193 
Aerial inspection and ground control. See under Dis- 
armament 
Afghanistan : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 443 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 380, 990 
Economic and technical assistance, U.S., interim re- 
port on Ambassador Richards' mission, announce- 
ment and joint communique, 724, 729 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sicU, and civilians, 203 
Soviet-bloc aid to, 14 
Africa (see also individual countries) : 
Economic trends in, address (Bowie), 836 
Educational exchange, U.S. program for, statement 

(Murphy), 666 
Emergence of, in world affairs, report to the President 

(Nixon), 635 
Importance to free world, statement (Nixon), 436 
Africa, South-West, conditions in territory of, statement 
(Knowland) and General Assembly resolution, 195, 
196 
Agricultural surpluses, U. S., use in overseas programs : 
Agreements with — 

Austria, 949 ; Brazil, 102, 118, 136 ; Burma, 42 ; Chile, 
746, 773; China, Republic of, 156; Colombia, 731, 
868 ; Ecuador, 381, 42G ; Finland, 950 ; Greece, 290, 
337, 590; Haiti, 337; Iceland, 709, 710; Iran, 337, 
426; Israel, 746; Italy, 290, 381, 670, 710; Japan, 
290 ; Korea, 203, 289, 338, 830 ; Peru, 220, 829, 909 ; 
Poland, 1003, 1033 ; Spain, 381, 710 ; Thailand, 118, 
290, 548; Turkey, 242, 381, 910; Yugoslavia, 290, 
630 



Agricultural surpluses — Continued 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act: 
Administration of. Executive order, 905 
President's 5th semiannual progress report to Con- 
gress, 183 
Discussions with Poland regarding surplus commodi- 
ties, proposed, 299 
Export license applications for shipments to Poland, 

134 
Statements : Humphrey, 236 ; Kotschnig, 785 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 

See under Agricultural surpluses 
Agriculture : 

European common market area, question of agricul- 
tural policy, statement (Corse), 864 
Food and Agriculture Organization, functions, state- 
ment (Phillips), 627, 628 
Plant protection convention, international, question of 

U.S. approval, statement (Phillips) , 627 
U.S.-Mexican cooperative efforts, address (Rubottom), 
314 

World food reserve, U.S. position on establishment of, 
statement (Humphrey) and General Assembly 
resolution, 233, 235 
Aid to foreign countries. See Economic and technical 

aid and Military assistance 
Air Force mission, agreements with — 
Chile, extending 1951 agreement, 242 
Haiti, extending 1949 agreement, 156 
Air navigation and transport. See Aviation 
Air pollution. Technical Advisory Board on, progress re- 
port to IJC, 696 
Aircraft. See Aviation 
Aldrich, Winthrop, 157 

Algerian question. General Assembly actions concerning: 
Address and statements : Dulles, 304 ; Lodge, 421 • 

Wadsworth, 422 ; Wilcox, 690 
Resolutions, 422 

Admittance to and residence in U.S., proposed legisla- 
tion concerning, 248, 249 

Chinese nationals in U.S., U.S. position regarding re- 
turn to Communist China and Taiwan, 261 

Convention (1929) regarding status of, 241 

Members of U.S. Armed Forces, President's recom- 
mendation to Congress for naturalization of, 250 



Index, January fo June 7957 



1039 



Allison, John M., 470 

Allowances for U.S. Government civilians serving over- 
seas, 110 
Allyn, Stanley C, 72, 779 
Al-Saud, Saud ibn Abd al-Aziz, 135, 308 
Alsike clover seed. President aslis study of tariff quota 

on, 584 
Ambassadorial tallis at Geneva (U.S.-Communist China), 
progress of negotiation on release of American pris- 
oners and renunciation of force principle, address 
(Jones), 267 
American Council on NATO, message (Eisenhov^er), 252 
American Doctrine, U.S. policy of economic and mili- 
tary assistance and the question of use of armed 
forces to counter Soviet aggression in the Near 
and Middle East : 
Addresses and statements: Dulles, 303, 533; Eisen- 
hower, 436; Jones, 265: Merchant, 258; Murphy, 
477, 522, 650; Rountree, 758, 077 
Congressional action regarding : 
President's message to Congress, S3 
Statements: Dulles, 126, 129, 170, 172, 173, 304, 480; 

Eisenhower, 480; Hill, 131 
Texts of joint resolutions, 128 (proposed), 481 
Israeli support of, announcement, 968 
Mission of Ambassador James P. Richards: 
Appointment as Special Assistant to the Presi- 
dent, 130, 480 
Departure of mission and delegation listed, 481, 526 
Results of mission, addresses and statements : 
Khalidy, 731; Richards, 730, 763, 841, 969; Roun- 
tree, 977 
Texts of communiques, 725, 731, 763, 844, 968 
Views of members of Baghdad Pact, 217, 730 
American Principles and the United Nations, address 

(Hoffman), 51 
American Republics. See Latin America, Inter-American, 

and iH<livi(iual countries 
American States, Organization of. See Organization 

of American States 
American war graves, agreement extending 1947 agree- 
ment with the Netherlands, 630 
Amity, economic relations, and consular rights, treaty 

with Iran, 009 
Anglo-American financial agreement (1945), amend- 
ment of: 
Current actions, 548, 1033 

President's messages to Congress regarding, 169, 492 
Statement (Kalijarvi), 625 
Text of amendment, 492 
Antarctica, U.S. concern over Soviet presence in, state- 
ment (Dulles), 535 
Antofagasta, agreement with Chile for establishment and 

operation of weather station at, 630, 710 
ANZUS Treaty, 494, 495 
Aqaba, Gulf of («ee also Israeli hostilities) : 

International character of, statements (Dulles), 484, 

487 
Israeli views on, 562 

1040 



Aqaba, Gulf of — Contiuueu 

Right of innocent passage through : 

Statements: Dulles, 400, 402, 404, 405, 598; Lodge, 

432 
Report (Hammarskjold), 272 
U.S. aide memoire, 393 
U.S. position on, address and statement: Lodge, 326; 

Wilcox, 558 
■Withdrawal of Israeli forces from : 
Report (Hammarskjold), 394 

U.S. position, address and statements: Dulles, 401, 
483; Eisenhower, 388, 389, 390; Hagerty, 393; 
White House, 391 
Arab-Israeli dispute («ee also Suez Canal problem) : 
Arms supply to the Middle East, renunciation of, 

Soviet proposal and U.S. reply, 523, 520 
Background data, addresses (Murphy), 515, 650 
Israeli dispute with Syria, statements (Lodge), 1029 
Israeli hostilities with Egypt. Sec Israeli hostilities 
Palestine refugees, iielief and rehabilitation of, state- 
ments (Lord) and text of General Assembly resolu- 
tion, 5S5, 587, 589 
U.N. role, address (Wilcox), 556, 559 
U.S. views, addresses and statements : Dulles, 9, 172, 
173, 9G5 ; Merchant, 257, 261 ; Murphy, 521 
Arab States, political situation in, address (Murphy), 518 
Arbitral Tribunal and Mixed Commission, Germany, 
multilateral agreement amending administrative 
agreement (1954) concerning, 156 
Arctic areas, proposal for aerial inspection zones in, 

statements (Dulles), 894 
Argentina : 
Aliens, convention (1929) regarding status of, 241 
Export-Import Bank loan, 418 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
agreements relative to money orders and parcel 
post, final protocols, and regulations of execu- 
tion, 710 
Arias Espinosa, Ricardo M., 54 

Armaments (see also Atomic energy, nuclear weapons; 
Disarmament; and Guided missiles) : 
Arms buildup in Far East, address (Jones), 267 
Arms for peace, address (Dulles), 716 
Arms shipments to Middle East, renunciation of, Soviet 

proposal and U.S. reply, 523, 526 
Free-world need for, address (Macomber), 412 
International control and reduction of, addresses and 
statements : Bowie, 837 ; Lodge, 227, 423 ; Pomeroy, 
697 ; text of U.S. memorandum, 231 
Military strength of Communist-bloc countries, address 

(Murphy), 476 
Weapons supply to Republic of Korea, U.S. considera- 
tion of, statement ( Dulles) , 898 
Weapons system in NATO countries, U.S. policy, ex- 
cerpt from report to Congress (Eisenhower), 934 
Armand, Louis, 2.")0, 300 
Armed forces : 

Geneva conventions (1949), treatment of, 203, 670, 949 
NAC communique regarding use of, 840 

Deparfment of Sfofe Bulletin 



Amiert forces — Continued 
Reduction of: 

Soviet declaration concerning, 91, 92 
U.S. proposal, statement (Lodge), 227; text of U.S. 
memoraiulum, 231 
SEATO countries, training exercises, 499 
Withdrawal of foreign forces from Egypt {see also 
under Israeli hostilities), 216 
Armed Forces, U.S. : 
Air Force agreement with U.K. amending 19.56 agree- 
ment regarding construction of military housing 
and community facilities, 630 
Alien members. President's recommendations to Con- 
gress for naturalization of, 250 
Atomic weapons, accessibility to U.S. forces in Pacific, 

537 
In Europe, maintenance of strength of, statement 

(Dulles), 3 
International naval review, U.S. invitation to celebrate 

founding of American Colonies, 319 
Military missions, U.S., abroad. See Military missions 
Troops overseas, problems regarding, statements 
(Dulles, Wilson), 9G.3, 1000 
Arts, Advisory Committee on the, designation of chair- 
man, 193 
Asakai, Koichiro, 1013 

Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia («ee also Far East 
and individual countries) : 
Civilization and culture, common foundations of East 

and West, statement (Allyn), 72 
Collective security (see also Southeast Asia Treaty Or- 
ganization), ANZUS Treaty, 494, 40.5 
Colombo Plan, communique and Cith annual report of 

Consultative Committee, 30, 31. 204 
Communist subversion in : 

SEATO efforts to counter, 497, 527 

Text of foreword to War or Peace (Dulles), 602, 

603 
U. S. efforts to counter, addresses and statement: 
Dulles, .535; Jones, 265, 266; Murphy, 477, 478; 
Robertson, 995 
ECAFB. See Economic Commission for Asia 
Economic, social, and cultural progress and coopera- 
tion in, 500, 501 
Economic Development Fund, President's Asian, 786 
Economic trends in, address (Bowie), 836 
Hungarian revolution, Asian position on, 264 
International organizations, membership in, list of 

countries, 374 
U.S. policy, address (Jones), 263 
Aswan Dam («ee also Suez Canal), relationship to seiz- 
ure of Suez Canal, statements (Dulles), 535, 641, 
645 
Atlantic Community (see also North Atlantic Council and 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization) : 
Growth and development of: 
Address and statement: Eisenhower, 640; Norstad, 

254 
Report of Committee of Three on Non-Military Co- 
operation in NATO, 18 
D.S.-U.K. views on, 561 



Atlantic fisheries, northwest, protocol amending inter- 
national convention (1949), current actions, 203, 670, 
829, 909, 990, 1032 
Atomic energy, nuclear weapons : 
Accessibility to U.S. forces in the Pacific, 537 
Control and limitation, international : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, relationship to 
international control, statements : Dulles, 878, 879 ; 
Wilcox, 890 
Soviet proposals, 92, 229 

U.S. policy, address (Bowie), 837; statement 
(Lodge), 226; texts of U.S. memorandum and note. 
230, 902 
NAC communique regarding use of, 840 
Necessity for production of, excerpt from President's 

budget message to Congress, 164, 165 
Testing of: 

Eniwetok and IJikini inhabitants compensated for 

leaving homes, 101 
Japanese note of protest and U.S. replies, 901 
Relationship to disarmament, statement (Dulles), 

770 
U.S.-U.K. views, statements (Dulles), 4S4, .590, 601; 
text of joint communique, 562 
Atomic ener.gy, peaceful uses of: 
Agreements with — 

Australia, 990; Belgium, 289; Canada, 509; Den- 
mark, 420 ; Dominican Republic, 78 ; Ecuador, 990 ; 
Germany, Federal Republic of, 426 ; Guatemala, 
789; Iran, 509, 629; Iraq, 1033; Norway, 469, 470; 
Portugal, 1033; Sweden, 548; Switzerland, 290; 
Thailand, 630 
EURATOM. See Atomic Energy Community 
German Federal Minister for Atomic Affairs, visit to 

U.S., 538 
Inter-American Nuclear Energy Commission, proposal 
to establish, statement (Eisenhower) and announce- 
ment, 1014, 1010 
2d International Atomic Energy Conference, invita- 
tion to convene in Chicago, 708 
U.S. programs for development : 

Address and statements : Berding, 808 ; Kotschnlg, 
786 ; Lodge, 226 
President's message and report to Congress, ex- 
cerpts, 164, 165, 939 
U.S. memorandum, 230 
Atomic energy, radiation effects on human health, U.S.- 
U.K. views on, 562 
Atomic Energy Agency, International : 
Relationship to U.N., text of General Assembly resolu- 
tion concerning, 240 
Statute, current actions, 203, 241, 380, 625, 609, 709, 

745, 829, 909, 990, 1032 
U.S. participation in, question of: 
Addresses and statements : Berding, 809 ; Dulles, 
878, 898; Eisenhower, 124; Wadsworth, 880; Wil- 
cox, 887 
Statute, transmittal to U.S. Senate, letter (Eisen- 
hower), report (Dulles), summary of statute, 
015, 616, 618 



Index, January to June 1957 



1041 



Atomic Energy Community, European : 
Nuclear power target, publication of report on, 901 
U.S. position, addres.s (Murphy), 649 
U.S.-German views on, joint communiques, 491, 956 
Visit of EURATOM committee to U.S. : 
Invitation, letters (Dulles, Spaak), 29 
Announcement, 250 

White House statement and text of communique, 306 
Atomic Energy Conference, 2d Internationa], Invitation 

to convene in Chicago, 708 
Atomic energy information, tripartite (U.S., U.K., 
Canada) policy on declassification of, statement 
(Strauss), 35 
Atoms for peace. See Atomic energy, peaceful uses of; 

and Atomic Energy Community 
Attorne.v General, U.S., action concerning Hungarian 

refugees, statement (Eisenhower), 96 
Australia : 

Air transport, consultations on agreement with U.S., 

909 
ANZUS Treaty, 494, 495 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S. for 

cooperation, 990 
GATT, 5th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 156 
Naval vessels, agreements with U.S. concerning financial 
arrangements for furnishing of supplies and serv- 
ices, 203 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 710 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 549 
Austria : 

Export-Import Banlj loan, 491 
Hungarian refugees in. See Hungarian refugees 
President of Austria, death of, cablegram (Eisen- 
hower), 134 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 949 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 909 
GATT, procfes verbal and amending protocols, 470, 

590, 829 
OTC, agreement on, 590 
State treaty, 241 

Universal copyright convention (1952), with proto- 
cols, 709 
Auto travel, international. See Travel 
Aviation : 

Aerial inspection and ground control. See under 

Disarmament 
Civil Aviation Organization, International. See Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
Internatonal civil aviation, review of U.S. policy, ad- 
dress (Kalijarvi), 1011 
Soviet airspace, alleged violation by U.S. planes, U.S. 

and Soviet notes, 135 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air navigation services in Faroe Islands, Greenland, 
and Iceland, agreements on joint financing, 380, 548 
Air services, agreement amending annex to 1946 
agreement with U.K. providing for additional route 
to Barbados, 204 
Air services transit, international agreement (1944), 
709 



Aviation — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Air transport agreements with — 
Australia (consultations), 909; Iran, 198, 199 
(text), 203; Korea, 790, 825 (text) ; Mexico, 548, 
575 (text) ; Netherlands, 579, 710, 746, 747 (text), 
1013 ; Syria, 846, 809 ; Switzerland, 590 
Aircraft, imported, agreement and arrangements 
concerning certificates of airworthiness, with — 
France, 203 ; Norway, 426 
Civil aviation, international convention (1944) on, 

and amending protocol, 289, 909 
Transportation by air, international, convention and 
protocol (1929) for unification of rules relating 
to, 829 
U.S.-U.K. air talks adjourned, 437 
Azores, agreement with Portugal extending 1951 agree- 
ment relating to use of facilities in, 670 

Baghdad Pact: 

Importance of, U.S. views, 520, 534 

Middle East situation, Moslem members' views, text of 

communique, 216 
Military Committee, U.S. delegation, 989 
Ministerial Council, U.S. observer delegation to 3d ses- 
sion, 989 
U.S. participation in military and economic aspects, 
question of, announcement and statements (Rich- 
ards, Khalidy), 724, 730, 731; U.S.-U.K. com- 
munique, 561 
Bahamas long range proving ground facilities, agreements 

with U.K. regarding, 157, 790 
Bailey, Sen. Josiah W., 1021, 1022, 1023 
Balke, Siegfried, 538 
Baltic States: 

Anniversary of independence, statement (Dulles), 347 
Soviet aggression in, address (Merchant), 260 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development. See Inter- 
national Bank 
Barbados : 

Air services, agreement amending annex to 1946 agree- 
ment between U.S. and U.K. providing for addi- 
tional routes to, 204 
Commercial samples and advertising material, interna- 
tional convention (1954) to facilitate importation 
of, extension to, 548 
Barco, James W., 460 
Bataan, anniversary of fall of, messages (Eisenhower, 

Garcia), 679 
Belgium : 

European common market and free trade area. See 

European common market 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, visit to U.S., 250 
Tariff negotiations (GATT) with U.S., 581 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Faroe Islands, agreements on joint financing of, 
548 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 

1955 power reactor agrcpiuont with U.S., 289 
IFC, articles of agreement, 203 

Mutual defense assistance, agreement amending an- 
nex B to 1950 agreement with U.S., 949 



1042 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Belgium — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
North Atlantic ocean stations, agreement (1954) on, 
829 
U. S. Ambassador, confirmation, 630 
Bellegarde, Dantes, 540 

Belo Horizonte, Brazil, opening of U.S. consulate, 950 
Benson, George Charles S., 36 
Berding, Andrew H., 030, 805 
Berle, Adolf A., Jr., 1022, 1023 
Berlin : 

Position vis-a-vis East and West, addresses (Eleanor 

Dulles), 175,606, 978 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, application to 
Land Berlin, 1033 
Berman, Edward, 424 

Bermuda meeting of Heads of Government, U.S.-U.K. 
exchange of views : joint communique with annexes, 
561; statements (Dulles), 595, 645 
Bicycles, U.S. tariff policy regarding, 369 
Bikini and Eniwetok, former inhabitants compensated 

for leaving homes, 101 
Bliss, Don C, 950 
Blyley, Katherine G., 36 

Board of Foreign Scholarships, appointments, 36 
Bohlen, Charles E., 869 
Bolivia : 
Economic stabilization program, U.S. support for, 103 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 630 
Bonds, German Dollar, Validation Board for : 
Establishment, 444 

Report ( Sept. 1, 1955-Aug. 31, 1956) , 447 
Bonsai, Philip W., 630 
Bowie, Robert R., 835 
Bowman, Linn B., 424 
Brazil : 

Industrial development, excerpt from report to Con- 
gress (Eisenhower), 937 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural surpluses agreement with U.S., 102, 118 
Copyright protection of literary, artistic, and scien- 
tific works, agreement with U.S., 668, 670 
Guided missiles facility, agreement with U.S. for 

establishment of, 289, 316 
IFO, articles of agreement, 203 

Loan agreement with U.S. for economic develop- 
ment, 1.36 
Submarines, agreement with U.S. for loan of, 203 
Telecommunication convention (1952) international, 
final protocol, and additional protocols, 1033 
U.S. consulate at Belo Horizonte, opening, 950 
Bricker amendment, statement (Dulles), 304 
British Commonwealth, Foreign Relations, volume on, 

published, 550 
British Guiana, extension of international convention 
(1952) to facilitate importation of commercial 
samples and advertising material to, 548 
British Honduras, extension of international convention 
(19.52) to facilitate importation of commercial 
samples and advertising material to, 548 
Broadcasting. See Telecommunications 
Bruce, David K. E., 549 
Buchanan, Wiley T., 338 



Budget, U.S., fiscal year 1958 : 
President's message to Congress and report to American 

people, 163, 875 
Statement (Dulles), 795 
Building for Peace, address (Murphy) , 647 
Bulganin, Nikolai, 89 
Bunker, Ellsworth, 510 
Burma : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S. amend- 
ing 1956 agreement, 42 
Economic cooperation, agreement with U.S., 746 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 203 
Slavery, protocol amending 1926 convention, 909 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 950 
Burns, John H., 869 

Butter oil and butter substitutes, quota on imports, an- 
nouncement and proclamation, 817 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (see also Soviet 
Union) : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 709 
Cultural property, convention and protocol (1954) for 
protection in event of armed conflict, and regula- 
tions of execution, 1032 

Cabot, John M., 1033 

Caicos and Turks Islands, extension of civil aircraft serv- 
ice to, U.S.-U.K. agreement, 157 
Calendar of international meetings, 37, 193, 372, 541, 740, 

906 
Cambodia : 
Opium, protocol regulating production, trade, and use 

of, 710 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 290 
Cameroons, British, political and economic progress In, 

statement (McGregor), 822 
Cameroons, French, political developments in, statement 

(Sears), 820 
Canada : 
Ambassador to Egypt (E. H. Norman), announcement 
and exchange of U.S.-Canadian notes concerning, 
539, 694 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 893 
Atomic energy information, declassification of, tri- 
partite policy (U.S., U.K., Canada), statement 
(Strauss), 35 
International Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada), execu- 
tive meeting of, 695 
Tariff concessions on potatoes, GATT, negotiations with 

U.S. on, 360, 773 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 

Faroe Islands, agreements on joint financing, 548 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 1955 
agreement with U.S. for cooperation concerning, 
509 
Fisheries in Fraser River system, protocol to 1930 
convention with U.S. for protection, preservation, 
and extension of, 76, 118, 1033 
Fur seals. North Pacific, interim convention on con- 
servation of, 337, 376, 377 (text) 
GATT, 5th protocol of rectifications and modifications 
to texts of schedules, 1033 



Index, January to June 1957 



1043 



Canada — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Haines-Fairbanks pipeline, defense agreement witti 

U.S. providing for maintenance of, 242 
Navigation improvements in connecting channels of 

Great Lakes, agreements vifith U.S., 42, 509, 746 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending 1949 
International convention for, 670 
Canary Islands, establishment of U.S. consular agency 

in, 338 
Cape Frances Viejo, agreement with Dominican Republic 
for establisliment of long range radio aid to naviga- 
tion station, 574, 590 
Caribbean Commission, meeting and U.S. delegation, 948 
Carpenter, I. W., Jr., 540 
Carroll, Mr. and Mrs. Kevin, 654 
Cartwright, Robert F., 667 
Ceylon, agreement with U.S. providing for reciprocity 

on nonimmigrant visas and fees, 289 
Chapin, Seldin, 759 
Charter of the United Nations. See United Nations 

Charter 
Chaves, Osvaldo, 54 
Chile : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 540 

Economic stabilization program, U.S. support of, 

statement (White), 773 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 746 
Air Force mission, agreement extending 1951 agree- 
ment with U.S., 242 
IFC, articles of agreement, 789 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, 

trade, and use of, 949 
Military assistance, agreement with U.S. regarding 

disposition of equipment and materials, 203 
Weather stations, agreement with U.S. for estab- 
lishment and operation of, 630, 710 
WMO, convention, 868 
China, Communist : 

Aggression in the Far East, address (Robertson), 298 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, question of 
representation in, statement and address: Wads- 
worth, 881 ; Wilcox, 892 
Economic development, U.S. views on ECAFE report, 

statement (Kotschnig), 783 

Geneva ambassadorial talks with U.S., progress of 

negotiation on release of American prisoners and 

renunciation of force principle, address (Jones), 267 

Relationship to Soviet Union, statement (Dulles), 768 

Strength of, vis-a-vis SEATO nations, statement 

(Dulles), 600 
Subversive activities against Taiwan, address (Jones), 

267 
Support of Soviet policies, address (Murphy), 478 
Travel of American newsmen to, U.S. policy: 
Announcement, 54 

Statements: Dulles, 301, 305, 48.'5, 488, 000, 610, 768, 
771, 895, 967 ; Murphy, 664 
U.N. membership, question of, U.S. views, 7, 298, 603 



China, Communist — Continued 

U.S. nationals in Communist China and Chinese na- 
tionals in U.S., U.S. views on return to their re- 
spective countries, 2G1 
U.S. policy of nonrecognition, address and statements: 

Dulles, 404, 531, 536; Robertson, 297 
U.S. trade policy toward, 301, 772, 967 
China, Republic of : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, representation 
in, statement and address: Wadsworth, 881; Wil- 
cox, 892 
Chinese nationals in United States, U.S. views on re- 
turn to Taiwan, 262 
Renunciation of force principle, application to Taiwan 
area, discussions at Geneva ambassadorial talks, 
267, 268 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 156 
Defense facilities, agreement with U.S. to facilitate 

construction, 78 
Investment guaranties, agreement amending 1952 

agreement with U.S., 949 
Medical research, agreement amending 1955 agree- 
ment with U.S. providing for U.S. Navy unit in 
Taipei, 156 
Naval craft, small, agreement amending 1954 agree- 
ment with U.S. relating to loan of, 1033 
U.S. Air Force missile unit, stationing in Taiwan, 854 
U.S. economic and military assistance to, excerpt from 

report to Congress (Eisenhower), 936, 937 
U.S. policy, addresses and statements : Dulles, 531, 
641, 903, 964, 967 ; Jones, 267 ; Robertson, 297 
Chiriboga V., Jos6 R., 36 
Christmas Island, British nuclear tests on, statement 

(Dulles), 484 
Civil aviation. See Aviation. 

Civil Aviation Organization, International : See Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
Civilian persons, Geneva convention (1949) relative to 

protection in time of war, 203, 670, 949 
Civilian Service Organization, agreements with U.S. re- 
lating to disbandmeut of German element of, 830 
Civilians, U.S. See U.S. citizens 
Claims : 

Denmark, legislative proposal for payment for ships 

requisitioned by U.S. in World War II, 1020 
German external debts, progress in settling, 444 
German dollar bonds. Validation Board Report, 447 
Interhandel issue, U.S. position on Swiss claim, texts 

of notes and memorandum, 350 
Lend-lease and reciprocal aid and surplus war prop- 
erty, agreement further extending joint statement 
(1945) with U.K. relating to settlement for, 1033 
Polish-American, proposal for negotiation for settle- 
ment of, announcement, joint statement, and ex- 
change of notes, 1003. 1005, 1007 
Tort claims, proposed settlement under Information 

and Educational Exchange Act, 570 
War damage claims against Italy, 670, 901 
Claxton, Philander P., Jr., 12 



1044 



Department of State Bulletin 



Climatology, Commission for, WMO, 2d session : 
Article (Landsberg), 612 
U.S. delegation, 153 
Coal and Steel, European Community for. President of 

High Authority to visit U.S., 040 
Coal mining officials, Polish, visit to U.S., 611 
Coe, Robert D., SC9 
"Cold war," article and statement : Dulles, 5 ; Oechsner, 

571 
Collective security (see also Mutual defense, Mutual se- 
curity, and National security) : 
Asia (sec also Southeast Asia Treaty Organization), 

ANZUS Treaty, 494, 405 
Development and value of, foreword to War or Peace 

(Dulles), 602 
Europe. See European security and North Atlantic 

Treaty Organization 
Far East, agreements in, address (Murphy), 651 
Near and Middle East. See Baghdad Pact 
U.S. views on : 

Addresses and statements : Dulles, 171, 494, 676, 

715 ; Eisenhower, 917 ; Murphy, 478 
President's message and report to Congress, excerpts, 
124, 934 
U.S.-U.K. views on, text of communique, 561 
Colllgan, Francis J., 990 
Collum, Robert S., 721 
Colombia : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 731, 

868 
Educational exchange program, agreement with U.S., 

156, 381 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 1033 
U.S. recognition of provisional government, 901 
Colombo Plan, 8th meeting of Consultative Committee, 
communique, and 5th annual report, 30, 31, 204 
Columbia River diversion project, progress report by the 

IJC, 696 
Commerce : See Trade 

Commercial relations, U.S. and other countries. See 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. : Tariff policy, 
U.S. ; Tariffs and trade, general agreement on ; and 
Trade 
Commercial samples and advertising material, interna- 
tional convention (1952) to facilitate importation 
of, 156, 548, 868 
Commercial treaties. See Trade: Treaties 
Committee for Reciprocity Information, 359, 360, 581, 

583 
Committee of Three, report on nonmllitary cooperation 

in NATO, 17, 18, 27 
Common marlcet. See European common market 
Communications. See Telecommunications 
Communism, international (.tee also China, Communist; 
and Soviet Union) : 
Communist-bloc countries, military strength of, 476 
Continuing threat of, addresses, report, and statement: 
Dulles, 495 ; Eisenhower, 211, 436, 875 ; Robertson, 
684, 685, 686 
Problems of, statement (Dulles), 50 
Propaganda tactics, address and statement : Berding, 
807 ; Dulles, 171 



Communism, international — Continued 
Subversive activities in — 

iVfrica, report (Nixon), 638 

Asia, addresses: Jones, 205, 266; Murphy, 477, 478, 
651 ; Robertson, 295, 382, 995 ; foreword to War or 
Peace (Dulles), 602, 603; excerpts from SEATO 
report, communique, and statements (Dulles), 
497, 527, 529 

East Germany, addresses (EleanorDulles), 175, 605, 
978 

Iran, address (Chapin), 761 

Korea, statement (Greenbaum), 141, 142, 143, 144 
_ Latin America, address (Robertson), 857 

Near and Middle East (see also American Doctrine), 
addresses: Merchant, 257; Murphy, 6.50; Roun- 
tree, 756, 974, 975 
U.S. efforts to counter through mutual security pro- 
grams, address, message, and statement: Dulles, 
675 ; Eisenhower, 915, 920 
Conant, James B., 290 
Conferences and organizations, international (see also 

subject), calendar of meetings, 37, 193, 372, 541, 740, 

906 
Congress, U.S. : 
Addresses by — 

Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, 956, 
958 

President of Viet-Nam, 8.52 
Bipartisan conference of President Eisenhower with 

leaders of Congress, SS 
Canadian Ambassador to Egypt, Senate Internal Se- 
curity Subcommittee allegations regarding, 539 
Documents relating to foreign policy, lists of, 137, 

221, 290, 371, 506, 629, 774, 818, 941, 1028 
Legislation, proposed : 

Anglo-American financial agreement (1954), amend- 
ment of. President's message of transmittal and 
text of amendment, 492; statement (Kalijarvi), 
625 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, question of 
U.S. participation, address and statements: Dulles, 
878 ; Wadsworth, 880 ; Wilcox, 887 

Bricker amendment, statement (Dulles), 304 

Immigration and Nationality Act, revision of, mes- 
sage (Eisenhower), 247 

Loyalty clearance procedure of Americans employed 
by international organizations, statement (Wil- 
cox), 56 

Middle East proposals, question of economic and 
military assistance and the use of armed forces 
to counter Soviet aggression in. See American 
Doctrine 

Mutual security program for 1958, message and 
statements: Dulles, 675, 926; Eisenhower, 920; 
Richards, 973 

Payment to Denmark for ships requisitioned by U.S. 
in World War II, 1020 

Plant protection convention, international, state- 
ment (Phillips), 627 

State Department appropriations, appeal for partial 
restoration of proposed cuts, statement (Dulles), 
795 



Index, January to June 1957 



1045 



Congress, U. S. — Ck)ntiiiued 

Legislation, proposed — Continued 

U.S. Information and Educational Exchange Act of 

1948, amendments, 5G6 
Wheat agreement (195G), international, approval of, 
article (Highby), 318, 382 
Middle East, congressional study of U.S. policy in, 

statement (Dulles), 300 
Presidential messages, reports, etc. See Eisenhower, 
Dwight D. : Messages, letters, and reports to Con- 
gress 
Consular rights, amity, and economic relations, treaty 

with Iran, 909 
Consular rights, friendship, and commerce, treaty with 

El Salvador, 548 
Consular service, U.S. See Foreign Service 
Consultative Committee for Economic Development In 
South and Southeast Asia, 8th meeting, communique, 
and 5th annual report, 30, 31, 204 
Cook Islands, including Nine, application of international 
convention (1952) to facilitate importation of com- 
mercial samples and advertising material to, 868 
Copyright : 
Literary, artistic, and scientific works, reciprocal 

agreement with Brazil, 668, 670 
Universal copyright convention (1952), with protocols, 
380, 548, 669, 709 
Cornerstone ceremony for new State Department build- 
ing, 116 
Cornwall Island, agreement with Canada relating to 

dredging of north channel of, 42 
Correspondents, U.S. See Newsmen, U.S. 
Corse, Carl D., 779n, 863 
Costa Rica, OAS role in settlement of dispute with 

Nicaragua, 858 
Cotton Advisory Committee, International, 16th plenary 

meeting, U.S. delegation, 908 
Cotton textiles : 
Question of exports to U.S. : 
Italian announcement, 220 
Japanese program, 218 

U.S. position, announcement and letter (Eisenhower), 
219 ; statement (Dulles), 303 
Velveteen fabrics, postponement of action on tariff on 
imports of, 105, 370 
Coulter, Eliot B., 722 
Council of Ministers, SEATO. See under Southeast Asia 

Treaty Organization 
Cuba: 

Collisions at sea, regulations (1948) for preventing, 949 
Investment receipts, agreement with U.S. providing 

guaranties against inconvertibility of, 381 
Universal copyright convention (1952), with protocols, 

669 
U.S. Ambassador, resignation (Gardner), 910; con- 
firmation (Smith), 1033 
Cultural property, convention and protocol (1954) for pro- 
tection in event of armed conflict, 289, 470, 1032 



Cultural relations : 

Convention (1954) for promotion of inter-American re- 
lations, 380 

Limitations on, statements : Cartwright, 667 ; Murphy, 
663 

U.S. cooperation with — 

American universities, 573; Mexico, 313; NATO 
countries, 25; SEATO countries, 501, 503, 528; 
Thailand, 442 ; Turkey, 214 
Cumming, Hugh S., Jr., 426 
Customs : 

Customs procedures, U.S., simplification of, excerpts 
from President's economic report to Congress, 224 

Customs tariffs, convention (1890) creating interna- 
tional union for publication of, and protocol, 470, 
589, 829 

Gift parcels for Hungary, removal of import duties, 134 

Inspection, facilitation of, excerpt from U.S. report to 
the U.N. Secretary-General concerning interna- 
tional travel, 152, 153 

Private road vehicles, convention (1954) on temporary 
importation of, 42, 829 

Touring, convention (1954) concerning facilities for, 
42, 829 
Cyprus : 

Commercial samples and advertising material, interna- 
tional convention (1952) to facilitate importation 
of, extension to, 548 

Negotiations concerning, U.S. views and text of General 
Assembly resolution, 54, 507, 508 
Czechoslovakia : 

American air attach^, alleged intrusion into restricted 
area, text of U.S. note, 940 

Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 829 

U.S. protest of interference with visitors to American 
Embassy, 11 

Dammam, port of, agreement with Saudi Arabia for im- 
provement of, 680, 681 
Debts, German external, progress in settlement: 
Article (Fickett), 444 

Report of Validation Board for German Dollar Bonds 
(Sept. 1, 1955-Aug. 31, 1956), 447 
Defense (see also Mutual defense and Mutual security) : 
Agreements relating to, with — 

Canada, 242; Iceland, 100, 157, 382; Portugal, 221, 
670 
Guided missiles. See Guided missiles 
Offshore procurement, agreements relating to, with — 

Federal Republic of Germany, 337, 789 ; Spain, 157 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreements for exchange of, with — 
France, 547, 590 ; Turkey, 830 
U.S.-U.K. talks, test of joint communique, 255 
Defense Department: 

Administration of military assistance programs, pro- 
posed, 801 
Budgetary recommendations, message to Congress 

(Eisenhower), 923 
Girard case, joint statement with State Department 
concerning, 1000 
Defense support. See Mutual security 



1046 



Department of State Bulletin 



De Galindez, Jesus, 1027, 1028 

De la Maza, Octavio, 221, 611, 1026, 1027 

Delaney, George P., 1032 

De Moya, Alonzo Manuel, 1013 

Denmark : 

Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 

1955 agreement with U.S., 426 
GATT, protocols amending and proems verbal, 789, 829 
ICJ, statute, declaration recognizing compulsory juris- 
diction deposited, 289 
North Atlantic ocean stations, agreement (1954) on, 

829 
OTC, agreement on, 789 

Ships requisitioned by the U.S. in World War II, pro- 
posed payment for, 1020 
U.S. Ambassador, resignation, 869 
De Seynes, Philippe, 11 
De Torrents, Henry, 719 
Dhahran Airfield (Saudi Arabia) : 

Agreement with Saudi Arabia regarding, 309, 680, 710 
Discrimination against U.S. airmen stationed at, 
question of, statement (Dulles), 770 
Development loan fund, U.S., proposal for, addresses, 
statement, and message : Dillon, 802 ; Dulles, 927 ; 
Eisenhower, 918, 923 
Diem, Ngo Dinh, 771, 851 
Dillon, C. Douglas, 549, 800, 946 
Diplomatic representatives, U.S., abroad. See under 

Foreign Service 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S. : 

Hungarian assistant military and air attach^ declared 

persona non grata, U.S. note, 983 
Presentation of credentials : Afghanistan, 443 ; Canada, 
893; Chile, 540; Dominican Republic, 1013; 
Ecuador, 36 ; Haiti, 540 ; Honduras, 181 ; Japan, 
1013 ; Libya, Panama, Paraguay, 54 ; Switzerland, 
719 
Soviet assistant military attach^ declared persona non 
grata, announcement and U.S. note, 181 
Disarmament (see also Armaments, Armed Forces, and 
Disarmament Commission, U.N.) : 
Aerial inspection and ground control, U.S. and Soviet 
positions : 
Address and statements : Berding, 809 ; Dulles, 894, 

895, 899, 900, 965, 906, 967 ; Lodge, 71, 225, 423 
Correspondence between President Eisenhower and 

Premier Bulganin, 89 
Excerpt from state of the Union message, 124 
Soviet declaration, 90 
U.S. memorandum, 230 
General Assembly consideration of : 

Address and statements : Lodge, 225 ; Wilcox, 691 
Texts of Committee I resolution and U.S. memoran- 
dum, 230 
London talks : 
Progress on negotiations, statements (Dulles, Hag- 

erty, Stassen), 767, 772 
U.S. representatives, 538 
Nuclear weapons, control of. See Atomic energy 
Relationship to Federal Republic of Germany : 

Joint declaration (Adenauer, Elsenhower), 956 
Statements (Dulles), 894, 895, 900, 961, 965, 966, 967 
U.S.-U.K. views on need for, 562 



Disarmament Commission, U.N. {see also Disarmament) : 
Composition and organization, 538 
Enlargement of, U.S. views, statement (Lodge), 229 
List of documents, 742 
Displaced persons. See Hungarian refugees, Intergov- 
ernmental Committee, and Refugees 
Dominican Republic : 

Ambassador to U. S., credentials, 1013 
Murphy, Gerald Lester, disappearance of. See Mur- 
phy, Gerald Lester 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civU uses of, agreement with U.S. for 

cooperation concerning, 78 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 

590 
Long range radio aid to navigation station, agree- 
ment with U.S. for establishment of, 574, 590 
Universal postal convention (1952), 745 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 950 
Double taxation on income, agreements for avoidance of, 
with— 
Honduras, 316, 337, 426 ; Japan, 574, 630, 867 
Drain, Richard D., 426 
Drees, Willem, 580 
Dreier, John C, 811 
Drew, Gerald A., 790, 859 
Drugs, narcotic, protocol (1953) regulating production, 

trade, and use of opium, 42, 710, 949 
Dulles, Eleanor, 175, 605, 978 
Dulles, John Foster : 
Addresses and statements : 
Algerian question, need for exchange of views, 304 
American Doctrine, 126, 129, 170, 303, 304, 480, 533 
Antarctica, U.S. concern over Soviet presence in, 535 
Aqaba, Gulf of, 400, 401, 402, 404, 405, 483, 484, 487, 

598 
Arab-Israeli dispute, 9, 172, 173, 965 
Aswan Dam, 535, 641, 645 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, question of U.S. 

participation, 878, 898 
Atomic weapons, accessibility to U.S. forces in the 

Pacific, 537 
Australia-U.S., mutuality of interests in world af- 
fairs, 494 
Baghdad Pact, importance of, 534 
Baltic States, anniversary of independence, 347 
Bermuda conference, results of, 595 
Bricker amendment, 304 
British Prime Minister resignation, 130 
Central America, U.S. relations with, 598 
"Cold war," resumption of, 5 
Communist China : 
Admission to U.N., 7 
Recognition of, 404, 536 
Strength vis-a-vis SEATO nations, 600 
Trade with, 301 

Travel of U.S. newsmen to, 301, 305, 485, 488, 600, 
646, 768, 771, 895, 967 
Congressional review of Middle East policy, 300 
Cornerstone ceremony for new State Department 

building, 116 
Dhahran Airfield, question of discrimination against 
U.S. airmen stationed at, 770 



Index, January to June 1957 



1047 



Dulles, John Foster — Continued 

Addresses and statements — Continued 
Disarmament, 767, 772. 894, 895, 899, 900, 961, 965, 

966, 967 
Dynamic peace, 715 
East- West trade, controls on, 403 
French Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 440 
Gaza Strip, 401, 483, 484, 543, 562, 646 
German reunification and disarmament, relationship 

between, 894, 89.5, 900, 961, 965 
German-U.S. talks, 484, 489 
Girard case, 963, 964, 1000 
Guided missiles, U.S., deployment of, 596 
Hungary, question of U.S. military aid to, 533 
Indonesia, relationship to SEATO countries, 483 
Indonesia, U.S. views on internal development of, 536 
"Innocent passage," meaning of, 400 
International law, relationship to peace and justice, 

402 
Iran, independence of, 768 
Israeli hostilities with Egypt, 300, 305, 391, 394, 402, 

405, 434, 482, 483, 562, 596, 646 
Japan, admission to U.N., 6 
Japanese textiles, 303, 484 
Kashmir dispute, 305, 306 
Korea, Republic of, question of supply of modem 

weapons to, 898 
Korean armistice. Communist violations of, 645 
Malaya, discussions at Bermuda conference, 645 
Marshal Tito, proposed visit to U.S., 7, 304 
Mutual security program, 675, 716, 926 
NAC Ministerial Meeting, 804, 8.39 
Near and Middle East : 

American Doctrine. See American Doctrine, supra 

Communist aggression, 132 

Foreign-aid technicians, question of return, 486 

Franco-American views on, 485 

Hammarskjold mission, 595 

Situation in, 533 

U.S. aid, question of resumption of, 485, 486 
Nuclear testing, U.S.-U.K. views on, 596, 601 
Nuclear tests, U.K., on Christmas Island, 484 
Nuclear tests and disarmament, relationship be- 
tween, 770 
Oil pipeline in Middle East, proposed international, 

600 
Oil shortage in Europe, 303 
Okinawa and Ryulcyu Islands, U.S. policy on return 

to Japan, 766 
Passports, question of executive denial, 485 
Philippine President, death of, 563 
Philippines, negotiations regarding U.S. bases in, 

487, 533, 536 
Poland, question of U.S. aid, 7, 599, 646 
Quemoy and Matsu Islands, U.S. policy on defense of, 

641 
Satellite nations, U.S. views, 3, 8, 464, 766 
SEATO Council of Ministers meeting (3d), 493, 529, 

531, 532, 534 

1048 



Dulles, John Foster — Continued 

Addresses and statements — Continued 

Sharm el-Sheikh, withdrawal of Israeli forces from, 

599 
Southeast Asia, continuing threat of Communist 

aggression, 535 
Soviet Union, relationship to satellite nations and 

Communist China, 768 
State Department appropriations, appeal for partial 

restoration of proposed cuts, 795 
Suez Canal problem. See under Suez Canal problem 
Suez Canal Users Association, question of forma- 
tion of, 644 
Syria, question of U.S. aid to, 964 
Taiwan, U.S. policy, 963, 964, 967 
Tiran, Straits of, 401, 402, 404, 405, 486, 488, 562, 

599, 646 
Tripartite agreement (1950), U.S. policy concern- 
ing, 304 
U.N. Emergency Force, 483, 484, 487, 536, 596, 598 
U.S. Ambassador to Ireland, appointment of, 770, 

771 
U.S. forces in Europe, maintenance of strength of, 3 
U.S. responsibilities in new year, 50 
Correspondence, messages, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 616 
EURATOM group invited to U.S., 29 
Income tax, protocol supplementing 19.54 conven- 
tion with Japan, 867 
Japan's admission to U.N., 39 
Truman Doctrine, 10th anniversary of, 417 
Discussions and meetings : 
Arab States, representatives of, 434 
Germany, Federal Republic of. Foreign Minister of 
the, joint communique, 490 
Immigration and nationality laws, delegation of 

authority, 157 
News conferences, 3, 300, 400, 482, 533, 595, 641, 765, 894, 

961 
War or Peace, new editions published, 601 
Dun, Rt. Rev. Angus, 116 
Durbrow, Elbridge, 549 
Dynamic Peace, address (Dulles), 715 

East-West contacts. See Exchange of persons 

East-West trade: 

Communist China, U.S. trade policy toward, 301, 772, 

9G7 
Controls on, U.S. position, statement (DuUes), 403 
East Germany, tenuous trade position of, address 

(Eleanor Dulles), 608 
Poland. See under Poland 

Eban, Abba, 394, 397, 399 

ECAFB. See Economic Commission for Asia and the Far 
East 

ECE. See Economic Commission for Europe 

Economic and Social Council, U.N. : 

Documents, lists of, 155, 509, 614, 709, 789 
International travel, resolution on development of, 146 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Economic and technical aid to foreign countries (see also 
Agricultural surpluses, American Doctrine, Colombo 
Plan, Export-Import Bank, International Banli, In- 
ternational Cooperation Administration, Mutual 
security and other assistance programs, Underdevel- 
oped countries, and United Nations : Technical 
assistance program) : 
Addresses and statement : Kalijarvi, 406, 661 ; Kotsch- 

nig, 786 ; Macomber, 413 
Africa, recommendations for U.S. policy toward, 

report (Nixon) , «S7, 639 
Aid to— 

Asia, 268, 500; Bolivia, 103; Burma, 746; Chile, 773; 
Ethiopia, 830; Iceland, 100; Iraq, 1033; Latin 
America, 565, 733 ; Libya, 746 ; Morocco, 746 ; Near 
and Middle East, 975; Saudi Arabia, 680, 710; 
Tunisia, 670 
Communist aid to Southeast Asia, 498 
Iran, continuation of aid to, 654 
Legislative proposals regarding, statement (Dulles), 

677, 678 
Middle East, U.S. and Soviet views on, texts of notes, 

524, 525, 526 
Poland, negotiations with U.S. See under Poland 
Soviet program of. See under Soviet Union 
Technical training in tourism, 147 
Thailand, appreciation of aid expressed, 442 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, U.N. : 
Economic development activities, statement (Kotsch- 

nig), 780 
Industry and Trade, ECAFB Committee on, meeting 
and U.S. delegation to 9th session, 508 
Economic Commission for Europe, U.N. : 
Natural gas, meeting of working party on problems of, 

424 
12th session, confirmation of U.S. delegate, 779 
Economic Commission for Latin America, U.N., confir- 
mation of U.S. representative to 7th session, 989 
Economic Development Fund, President's Asian, 786 
Economic development fund, U.S. proposal for, addresses, 
statement, and message: Dillon, 802; Dulles, 927; 
Eisenhower, 918, 923 
Economic development in South and Southeast Asia, com- 
munique and 5th annual report of Consultative Com- 
mittee (Colombo Plan), 30, 31, 204 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. {see also individual 
countries) : 
Aid to foreign countries. See Agricultural surpluses. 
Economic and technical aid, Export-Import Bank, 
and Mutual security 
Domestic economy, statement (Kotschnig), 784 
East- West trade. See East- West trade 
European common market. See European common 

market 
Foreign economic policy : 

Development loan fund, U.S., proposal for, addresses, 
statements, and message : Dillon, 802 ; Dulles, 927 ; 
Eisenhower, 918, 923 
Implementation in the Par East, address (Robert- 
son), 998 
President's economic report to Congress, excerpts, 
223 



Economic policy and relations — Continued 
Foreign economic policy — Continued 
Principles of, addresses: Kalijarvi, 659; Murphy, 

943 
Trade agreements program, 1st annual report to Con- 
gress on operation of (Eisenhower), 363 
Underdeveloped countries, addresses and statement: 
Dillon, 802; Dulles, 716; Eisenhower, 917; Hoff- 
man, 239, 240 
U.S. views on changing aspect of, address (Kali- 
jarvi), 1009 
OTC. See Trade Cooperation, Organization for 
Tariff policy. See Tariff policy, U.S. 
Economic relations, consular rights, and amity, treaty 

with Iran, 909 
Economic stabilization program in Bolivia, U.S. support 

of, 103 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council, U.N. 
Ecuador : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 36 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 381, 

426 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, research reactor agree- 
ment with U.S., 990 
Educational exchange programs, agreement with 

U.S. for financing, 830 
Trade agreement with U.S., termination of, 371 
Universal copyright convention (1952), with proto- 
cols, 548 
Weather station, agreement with U.S. for establish- 
ment and operation of, 830, 949 
Education («ee also Educational exchange program) : 
American-sponsored schools abroad, assistance to, 189 
Board of Foreign Scholarships, appointments, 36 
Cold War and the Universities, article (Oechsner), 571 
Economic development of Turkey, role of education in, 

address (Warren), 214 
Educational information, license regulations simplified 

on exports of, 317 
Latin America : 

Educational opportunities for women, address ( Stew- 
art), 861 
UNESCO meeting on primary education in, U.S. dele- 
gation, 424 
Women, educational opportunities for, statement 
(Hahn), 704 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, U.N. : 
Constitution, 42, 203 

Educational opportunities for women, report on, state- 
ment (Hahn), 705 
Executive Board, U.S. delegation to 47th session, 546 
General Conference, 9th session, statements (AUyn), 

72 
Latin America, meeting on primary education in, U.S. 
delegation, 424 
Educational Exchange, U.S. Advisory Commission on, 
designation of chairman of Advisory Committee on 
the Arts, 193 



Index, January to June 1957 



1049 



Educational exchange program, international (see also 
Education) 
Agreements with — 
Colombia, 156, 381; Ecuador, 830; Finland, 42; Ice- 
land, 425, 630; Ireland, 547, 630; Paraguay, 668, 
746; Thailand, 241, 290; Turkey, 242 
Amendments to U.S. Information and Educational Ex- 
change Act of 1948, proposed, 566 
Cultural exchange program with SEATO countries, 

inauguration of, 503 
Funds derived from agricultural surpluses, use in ex- 
change program, 189 
Inter-university projects, article (Oechsner), 572 
Program for mutual understanding, statement (Mur- 
phy), 666 
Provisions in Anglo-American financial agreement 
(1945), as amended, regarding exchange program, 
statement (Kalijarvi), 626 
State Department appropriations, effect of proposed 

cuts in, statement (Dulles), 798 
Turkish-American programs, address (Warren), 214 
Egypt : 
Arab-Israeli dispute. See Arab-Israeli dispute 
Dispute with Israel. See Israeli hostilities 
Economic and political problems, U.S. position, address 

(Murphy), 517 
Minorities in, reported mistreatment of, statement 

(Wadsworth), 106 
Soviet-bloc aid to, 14 
Suez Canal problem. Sec Suez Canal 
Travel to, U.S. lifts restrictions, 654 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 829 
Customs facilities for touring, convention (1954) 
concerning, 829 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 290 
U.S. negotiations with, statement (Dulles), 405 
Eisenhower, Dwight D. : 
Addresses and statements : 

British Prime Minister, resignation, 130 
Foreign policy and foreign aid, 846 
Hungarian refugees, action by Attorney General con- 
cerning, 96 
Hungary's national holiday, 538 
Inaugural address, 211 
India, visit of Prime Minister to U.S., 47 
Inter-American Committee of Presidential Repre- 
sentatives, 1014 
Israeli hostilities with Egypt, 387 
Marshall plan, 10th anniversary, 1002 
Mutual security programs and waging of peace, 915 
National security and cost of waging peace, 875 
NATO, 8th anniversary, 640 

Near and Middle East, Communist aggression in, 132 
Philippine President, death of, 563 
:Saudi Arabia, visit of King to U.S., 308 
Tiet-Nam, visit of President to U.S., 8.54 
AVorking for a world of peace and justice, 435 
.American Doctrine. See American Doctrine 



Eisenhower, Dwight D. — Continued 
Correspondence and messages : 

Air transport negotiations with the Netherlands, 580 

American Council on NATO, 252 

Austrian President's death, cablegram to Chancellor 
of Austria, 134 

Bataan, 15th anniversary of fall of, 679 

British Prime Minister, exchange of greetings on ap- 
pointment, 174 

Disarmament and reduction of international tension, 
correspondence with Soviet Premier Bulganin, 89 

Ghana, recognition of, 489 

Greek-Turkish aid program, 10th anniversary, 539 

Israeli withdrawal from Egyptian territory, 433 

Japan, admission to U.N., 39 

Pakistan, anniversary as republic, 563 

U.S.-Thai relations, 442 
Executive orders. See Executive orders 
Meetings : 

Congressional leaders, bipartisan conference with, 88 

Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, y.'iS 

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, 561 
Messages, letters, reports to Congress : 

Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, 
5th semiannual progress report, 183 

Anglo-American financial agreement (1945), amend- 
ment of, 492 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 615 

Budget message, 163 

Cotton textiles, escape-clause relief held imnecessary, 
219 

Cotton velveteen fabrics, postponement of action on 
tariff on imports of, 105 

Groundfish fillets, rejection of tariff increase, 56 

Immigration and Nationality Act, recommended re- 
visions, 247 

Income tax, protocol supplementing 19.54 agreement 
with Japan, 867 

International economic situation, excerpts from eco- 
nomic report, 222 

Mutual security program, 11th semiannual report, 
excerpts, 931 

Mutual security program for 1958, 920 

OTC, proposed U.S. membership, 657 

Safety pins, request for further import data, 701 

State of the Union, excerpts, 123 

Straight pins, decision against increase in tariff on, 
702 

Trade agreements program, 1st annual report on 
operation of, 363 

Tung oil imports, study on effects of, 585 

Violins and violas, decision against increase in tariflC 
on, 703 
President's Committee for Hungarian Refugees Relief, 

text of final report, 984 
Proclamations. See Proclamations 
Eisenhower, Milton S., 11, 565 
Eisenhower Doctrine. See American Doctrine 
Election observers, U.S., Rumanian refusal to admit, 213 
Electronics industry and munitions control, address 

(Pomeroy), 697 



1050 



Deparimenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



El Salvador: 

Friendship, commerce and consular rights, treaty with 

U.S., 548 
Universal postal convention (1952), 909 
Elbrick, C. Burke, 382 
Eniwetok and Bikini, former inhabitants compensated 

for leaving homes, 101 
Escapee program, U.S., assistance to Hungarian refugees, 

655, 721 
Espaillat, Brig. Gen. Arturo R., 1027, 1028 
Estonia : 
Anniversary of independence, statement (Dulles), 347 
Soviet aggression in, address (Merchant), 260 
Ethiopia : 
Economic assistance, agreement vplth U.S., 830 
Universal postal convention (1952), G30 
U.S. aid in teacher-training program, 938 
U.S. Ambassador, resignation (Simonson), 790; con- 
firmation (Bliss), 950 
U.S. economic and military assistance, joint communi- 
que regarding Ambassador Richards' mission, 763 
Etzel, Franz, 250, 306 

EURATOM. See Atomic Energy Community, European 
Europe (see also individual countries) : 

Aerial inspection zones in. See under Disarmament 
Collective security. See European security and North 

Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Common market and free trade area. See European 

common market 
Eastern Europe : 

Developments in, U.S. vievrs, address (Murphy), 649 
Soviet policies in, U.S.-U.K. views on, 561 
U.S. intervention in, Soviet allegation, statement 
(Knowland), 463 
Foreign Relations, volume on, published, 550 
International organizations, membership in, list of 

countries, 374 
Refugees. See Hungarian refugees, Intergovernmental 
Committee for European Migration, and Refugees 
and displaced persons 
Unity of, U.S.-German views, 956 ; U.S.-U.K. views, 561 
Western Europe: 

Economic consequence of closing of Suez Canal, state- 
ment (Merrill), 34 
Free enterprise, development of, address (Kalijarvi), 

COO 
Free-world policy toward, address (Bowie), 837, 838 
Fuel program for, EURATOM proposal, statement 

and communique, 306 
Oil shortage in, U.S. position, address and statement: 

Dulles, 303 ; Merchant, 258 
U.S. policy toward, statement and addresses : Dulles, 
3 ; Holmes, 343 ; Murphy, 649 
Europe, Economic Commission for. See Economic Com- 
mission 
European Atomic Energy Community. See Atomic En- 
ergy Community 
European common market and free trade area : 
Exchange of U.S. views regarding, with— 

France, 438 ; Germany, Federal Republic of, 491, 956 ; 
U.K., 561 



European common market — Continued 

Relationship to GATT and OTC, address and state- 
ment : Corse, 863 ; Kalijarvi, 816 
U.S. position on, 182, 224, 649, 813, 814 
European Community for Coal and Steel, President of 

High Authority to visit U.S., 640 
European Migration, Intergovernmental Committee for. 

See Intergovernmental Committee 
European recovery plan (Marshall plan), 10th anni- 
versary, 1002 
European security («ee also North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization) : 
Study of problem. 491, 537 

U.S. proposal, Soviet rejection of, address (Holmes), 
345 
Exchange of information. See Information, exchange of ; 

and Technical information 
Exchange of persons (see also Cultural relations and 
Educational exchange) : 
Exchanges between East and West Germany, 606 
Latin American women, visit to U.S., 862 
Need for increase in, excerpt from President's message 

to Congress, 169 
Polish coal mining oflBcials, visit to U.S., 611 
U.S. elections observers, Rumanian refusal to admit, 213 
U.S. exchanges with satellite nations, statement (Mur- 
phy), 666 
Exchange rate, Polish, establishment, announcement and 

exchange of notes, 1003, 1006 
Executive oi-ders: 

Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 

(19.54), administration of, 905 
Joint Mexican-United States Defense Commission, 
amendment to U.S. membership-appointment sec- 
tion, 59 
Operations Coordinating Board, transfer to National 
Security Council, 504 
Export-Import Bank, U.S. : 
Aid to underdeveloped countries, statement and address 

(Hoffman), 239, 330 
Assistance in stabilizing economy of Chile, 773 
Exemption from double taxation on interest from loans 
and investments in Japan, protocol regarding, 574 
Extension of credit to U.K., 29 
Lending activities — 

Excerpts from President's budget message and eco- 
nomic report to Congress, 109, 224 
Policies in Latin America, addresses (Rubottom), 
311, 733 
Loans to — 

Argentina, 418 ; Austria, 491 ; Honduras, 315 ; Nica- 
ragua, 104 
Exports, U.S. (see also Tariffs and trade, general agree- 
ment on ; and Trade) : 
Agricultural surpluses : 

Export license applications for shipment to Poland, 

134 
Shipments under the Agricultural Trade Develop- 
ment Act, excerpts from 5th semiannual progress 
report to Congress, 184, 191, 192 
Gift parcels to Hungary, regulations regarding, 134 
Technical data, simplification of license regulations, 317 
External debts, German, settlement of, 444, 447 



Index, January to June 1957 



1051 



Falc6n Dam, U.S.-Mexlcan cooperative effort, address 

(Rubottom), 314 
Falkland Islands, extension of international convention 
(1952) to facilitate importation of commercial sam- 
ples and advertising material to, 548 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization of the 

United Nations 
Far East (see also Asia and individual countries) : 
Communist activities in, addresses : Murphy, 651 ; Rob- 
ertson, 295, 382, 995 
ECAFE. See United Nations Economic Commission 

for Asia and the Far East 
Increase in U.S. travel to, 504 
Farland, Joseph S., 950 

Faroe Islands, agreement on joint financing of air navi- 
gation services in, 380, 548 
Fawzi, Mahmoud, 776 
Federal Republic of Germany. See Germany, Federal 

Republic of 
Fernando de Noronha, Island of, agreement with Brazil 
for establishment of guided missiles facility on, 289, 
316 
Ferrocerium and other cerium alloys, escape-clause relief 

held unnecessary, 369 
Fickett, Lewis P., Jr., 444 

Fiji, extension of international convention (1952) to fa- 
cilitate importation of commercial samples and ad- 
vertising material to, 548 
Finance Corporation, International (see also Inter- 
national Bank), articles of agreement, 203, 789 
Fingerprinting : 

Legislation concerning, proposed, excerpt from Presi- 
dent's message to Congress, 249 
Purpose of, excerpt from U.S. report to U.N. Secre- 
tary-General, 151 
Finland : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 950 
Air services transit, international agreement (1944), 

709 
Educational exchange programs, agreement amending 

1952 agreement with U.S., 42 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 203 
Fish and fisheries : 

Conservation problems, statement (Greenbaum), 64 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, appoint- 
ment of U.S. commissioner, 908 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending inter- 
national convention (1949), current actions, 203, 
670, 829, 909, 990, 1032 
Sockeye salmon fi.sheries, protocol to 1930 convention 
with Canada for protection, preservation, and ex- 
tension of, in the Fraser River system, 76, 118, 1033 
Fitzgerald, Rufus H., 193 
Flake, Wilson C, 950 
Folger, John Clifford, 630 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 

functions, statement (Phillips), 627, 628 
Food reserves, world, U.S. position on establishment of, 

statement (Humphrey), 234 
Foreign Affairs, Report to the Founder on, address (Rob- 
ertson), 682 



Foreign aid, U.S. (see also Agricultural surpluses; Eco- 
nomic and technical aid ; Economic policy and rela- 
tions, U.S. ; Mutual security ; Underdeveloped coun- 
tries; and individual countries) : 
Foreign aid and foreign policy, remarks (Eisenhower), 

846 
Question of resumption of in Middle East, statements 
(Dulles), 485, 486 
Foreign buildings program, U.S., provisions in Anglo- 
American financial agreement (1945), as amended, 
regarding, statement (Kalijarvi), 626 
Foreign economic policy, U.S. See Economic policy ana 

relations, U.S. 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 

Consultations with allies, question of, statement (Dul- 
les), 4 
Development and objectives, addresses : Eisenhower, 
435; Holmes, 343; Macomber, 411; Murphy, 648; 
Robertson, 682 
Documents. See under Congress 
Guiding principles, addresses: DuUes, 715; Murphy, 

942 
Foreign policy and foreign aid, remarks (Eisenhower), 

846 
Formulation of, address (Murphy), 475 
Increasing public knowledge of, address (Berding), 805 
Legislation. See under Congress 
Policy toward Eastern Europe, statement (Knowland), 
464 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1939, Volume II, 
General, The British Commonwealth, and Europe, 
published, 550 
Foreign Scholarships, Board of, appointments, 36 
Foreign Service (see also State Department) : 
Allowances for American overseas personnel, address 

(Lethco), 110 
Ambassadors, confirmations, 290, 382, 470, 510, 549, 790, 

809, 950, 1033 
Ambassadors, resignations, 157, 290, 381, 670, 790, 869, 

910 
Appropriations, appeal for partial restoration of pro- 
posed cuts, statement (Dulles), 795 
Consular agency in Canary Islands, establishment, 338 
Consular jurisdiction of the Saarland, change from 

Strasbourg, France, to Frankfort, Germany, 157 
Consulate general at Accra, Ghana, elevation to em- 
bassy status, 489 
Consulate general at Aleppo, establishment, 42 
Consulates, establishment at — 
Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 950 
Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, 910 
Diplomatic representation abroad, recommendation for 

increase in Africa, report (Nixon), 636, (J39 
Embassy at Prague, U.S. protest of interference with 

visitors to, 11 
Examination announced, 549 
Foreign Service fees revised, 381 
Minister to Hungary, return from Budapest, 441 
Foi-eign Service Institute : 

Advisory Committee, meeting of, 830 
Effect of appropriations cuts on operation of, statement 
(Dulles), 798 



1052 



Department of State Bulletin 



Foreign trade. See Trade 
Formosa. See China, Republic of 
France : 
Algeria. See Algerian question 
Cameroon, French, political developments in, 820 
European common market and free trade area. See 

European common market 
French nationals in Egypt, reported mistreatment of, 

106 
Saarland, change in consular jurisdiction from Stras- 
bourg, France, to Frankfort, Germany, 157 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
Togoland, French, General Assembly action to send 
study commission to, statements (Nash) and text 
of resolution, 282, 285 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aircraft, imported, arrangement with U.S. relating 

to certificates of airworthiness, 203 
Arbitral Tribunal and Mixed Commission, agreement 
amending administrative agreement of 1954 con- 
cerning, 156 
German assets in Italy, memorandum of understand- 
ing regarding, 669 
German as.sets in Thailand, agreement relating to 

disposition of, 337 
North Atlantic ocean stations, agreement (19.54) on, 

829 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreement with U.S. for exchange of, 
547, 590 
WMO, notification regarding application of conven- 
tion to the Saarland, 090 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 549 
Visit of Premier to U.S., text of joint statement (Eisen- 
hower, Alollet), remarks (Dulles, Nixon, MoUet), 
and oflBcial party, 438 
Eraser River salmon fisheries, protocol to 1930 conven- 
tion with Canada for protection, preservation, and 
extension of, 76, 118, 1033 
Free enterprise, encouraging development abroad, ad- 
dress (Kalijarvl), 6.59 
Free trade area. See European common market 
Free World, Tasks Ahead for the, address (Bowie), 835 
Friendship, commerce, and consular rights, treaty with 

El Salvador, 548 
Fulbrlght Act See Educational exchange program 
Fur seals, North Pacific, interim convention on conserva- 
tion of, 337, 376, 377 (text) 

Gambia, extension of international convention (1952) to 
facilitate importation of commercial samples and ad- 
vertising material to, 548 
Garcia, Carlos P., 680 
Gardner, Arthur, 910 

GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 
Gaza Strip (see also Israeli hostilities) : 
Background of political organization of, address (Mur- 
phy), 517 
Deployment of UNEP troops. See under United Na- 
tions Emergency Force 
Egyptian belligerency in, U.S. position, statement (Dul- 
les), 646 

Index, January to June 1957 

180212—68 3 



Gaza strip — Continued 

Future status, U.S. position, statement (Lodge), 432 
U.S.-Israeli views, agreed statement (Dulles, Meir), 562 
U.S.-U.K. views on, 561 
Withdrawal of Israeli forces from : 
Israeli position on, U.S. views: aide memolre, 392; 
statement (Dulles), 401 
U.N. Secretary-General's reports regarding 394, 544 
U.S. position, address and statements : Dulles, 483, 484, 
543; Eisenhower, 388, 389; Hagerty, 393; Lodge, 
326, 431, 543 ; White House, 391 ; Wilcox, 558, 550 
General agreement on tariffs and trade. See Tariffs and 

trade 
General Aniline and Film Corporation, 350 
General Assembly, U.N. {see also United Nations) : 
Algerian question. See Algerian question 
British Togoland, approval of union with Gold Coast, 

statements (Nash), 106, 108 
Cyprus, resumption of negotiations on, U.S. views, 

statement (Wadsworth), 507 
Documents, lists of, 1.54, 468, 742 
Eastern Europe, Soviet allegation of U.S. intervention 

in, text of draft resolution, 464 
French Togoland, decision to send commission to study 

situation in, statements (Nash), 282 
Functions and composition of, address (Wilcox), 688 
Hungarian question. See Hungarian question 
Israeli hostilities with Egypt. See under Israeli hos- 
tilities 
Korea, unification and rehabilitation of, statement 

(Greenbaum), 141 
Resolutions : 

Address (Wilcox), 689, 690 

Algerian question, 423 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, 240 

British Togoland, union with Gold Coast, 109 

Cyprus, resumption of negotiations on, 508 

Disarmament, 230 

French Togoland, decision to send study commission 

to, 285 
Hungarian question, 140 
Korea, reunification and rehabilitation, 143 
South- West Africa, question of, 196 
U.N. conference on law of the sea, convocation of, 61 
U.N. Emergency Force, 70, 327 
U.N. Relief Works Agency for Palestine Refugees, 

589 
World food reserve, 235 

Withdrawal of Israeli forces from Egypt, 270, 327 
U.N. Emergency Force, actions regarding. See under 
United Nations Emergency Force 
Geneva ambassadorial talks, U.S.-Communist China, 
progress of negotiation on release of American pris- 
oners and renunciation of force principle, address 
(Jones), 267 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners of 
war, wounded, sick and shipwrecked, and civilians, 
203, 670, 949 
Genocide, convention (1948) on prevention and punish- 
ment of crime of, 42 
George, Walter F., 88, 347 
Gerety, Pierce J., 157 

1053 



German Dollar Bonds, Validation Board for : 
Establishment, 444 

Report (Sept. 1, 1955-Aug. 31, 1956), 447 
Germany : 

Berlin. See Berlin 

External debts, prewar, settlement of, 444, 447 

German assets In — 

Italy, memorandum of understanding regarding, 669 

Thailand, agreement on disposition of, 337 
Reunification : 

Four-Power Working Group studies problem, 491, 537 

NAG communique, 840 

Relationship to disarmament, statements (Dulles), 

894, 80.5, 000 

U.S.-German talks: address (Adenauer), 959; joint 

communique (Dulles, von Brentano), 490; joint 

declaration (Eisenhower, Adenauer), 955, 956; 

statements (Dulles), 484, 489 

U.S.-U.K. views, 561 

Validation Board for German Dollar Bonds, 444, 447 

Germany, East, Soviet activities in, addresses: Eleanor 

Dulles, 175, 605, 978 ; Murphy, 649 
Germany, Federal Republic of : 
Chancellor, visit to U.S., 719, 955 
European common market and free trade area. See 

European common market 
Federal Minister for Atomic Affairs, visit to U.S., 538 
Foreign Minister, visit to U.S., 490 

Rearmament of, necessity for, address (Holmes), 345 
Relationship of Federal Republic to first-stage agree- 
ment on disarmament, statements (Dulles), 894, 

895, 961, 965 

Saarland, change in consular jurisdiction from Stras- 
bourg, France, to Frankfort, 157 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Faroe Islands, agreements on joint financing, 548 
Arbitral Tribunal and Mixed Commission, multi- 
lateral agreement amending administrative agree- 
ment of 1954 concerning, 156 
Army and navy personnel, agreements with U.S. re- 
lating to training of, 78 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 

1956 agreement with U.S., 426 
Civilian Service Organization, agreements with U.S. 
relating to disbandmont of German element of, 830 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 

710 
Naval vessels or small craft, agreement with U.S. 

relating to loan of, 990 
Offshore procurement, agreements with U.S. relating 

to, 337, 789 
Wheat agreement (1956), International, application 
to Lund Berlin, 1033 
U.S. Ambassador, resignation (Conant), 290; confirma- 
tion (Bruce), 549 
Ghana («ee also Gold Coast) : 

Importance of, report (Nixon), 635 
Independence ceremonies, U.S. delegation and remarks 
(Nixon), 348, 436 

1054 



Ghana — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, international, convention (1944) on, 

909 
ICJ, statute, 630 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 

1033 
U.N. Charter, 630 
WHO, constitution, 829 
WMO, convention, 868 
Union of independent Gold Coast with British Togo- 
land, General Assembly approval of, statements 
(Nash), 106, 108; text of resolution, 109 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 950 
U.S. recognition, announcement and message (Eisen- 
hower), 489 
Gibraltar, extension of international convention (1952) 
to facilitate Importation of commercial samples and 
advertising material to, 548 
Giordanl, Francesco, 250, 306 
Girard, William S., 963, 964, 1000 
Gleason, Thomas H., 810 

Gold Coast (see also Ghana), extension of international 
convention (1952) to facilitate importation of com- 
mercial samples and advertising material to, 548 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom 
Great Lakes : 
Navigation improvements in connecting channels, 

agreements with Canada regarding, 42, 509, 746 
Water pollution, progress report by IJC on elimination 
of, 696 
Greece : 

Greek-Turkish aid program, 10th anniversary, letters; 

Dulles, Truman, 417 ; Eisenhower, 539 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements amending and 
supplementing 1956 agreement with U.S., 290, 337, 
590 
Civil aviation, international, protocol amending cer- 
tain articles of 1944 convention on, 42 
Naval vessels, supplies and services, agreement with 
U.S. concerning financial arrangements for the fur- 
nishing of, 337 
U.S. economic aid. Ambassador Richards' mission to 
the Middle East, address (Richards) and text of 
joint communique, 841, 844 
Greenbaum, Edward S., 60, 141, 332 

Greenland and Faroe Islands, agreement on joint financ- 
ing of air navigation services in, 380, 548 
Gross, Fulgence, 665n 
Groundfish fillets, escape-clause relief held unnecessary, 

55, 369 
Guatemala : 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, research reactor agree- 
ment with U.S., 789 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 669 
Communist penetration, U.S. aid in combating, address 

(Eisenhower), 918 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 

with protocols, 1033 
Trade agreement with U.S., termination, 371 
Universal postal convention (1952), 909 

Department of State Bulletin 



Guided missiles (see also Outer-space projectiles) ; 
Agreement with Brazil for establishment of facility for, 

289, 316 
Deployment of U.S. missiles, statements (Dulles, Hag- 

erty), 596 
U.S. Air Force guided missile unit on Taiwan, agree- 
ment with Republic of China for stationing of, 854 
U.S.-U.K. agreement on, 561 
Gulf of Aqaba. See Aqaba 

Hagerty, James C, 393, 596, 768n, 772 
Hahn, Mrs. Lorena B., 704 
Haiti : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 540 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air Force mission, agreement extending 1949 agree- 
ment with U.S., 156 
Drought assistance, agreement with U.S., 337 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 
of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 949 
U.S. Ambassador, 790, 859 

U.S. recognition of new government, 53, 399, 859 
Haines-Fairbanljs pipeline, defense agreement with Can- 
ada providing for maintenance of, 242 
Hammarskjold, Dag : 
Correspondence and reports : 
Hungarian question, 10, 139 
Suez Canal problem, 778 

Withdrawal of Israeli forces from Egypt, 271, 273, 
275, 394, 544 
Mission to the Middle East, progress of, statement 
(Dulles), 595 
Hannah, Norman B., 590 
Hanes, John W., Jr., 426, 990 
Hare, Raymond A., 290 
Hartman, Douglas W., 447 
Hatters' fur. President decides against study of tariff on, 

585 
Hawaii, concern over British nuclear tests on Christmas 

Island, statement (Dulles), 484 
Heads of Government meeting, proposed, U.S. and So- 
viet views, 89, 93 
Heads of Government meeting at Bermuda, U.S.-U.K. 
exchange of views : joint communique with annexes, 
561; statements (Dulles), 595, 645 
Health and sanitation : 
Health certificates and inspection, excerpt from U.S. 
report to U.N. Secretary-General concerning inter- 
national travel, 151, 152, 153 
Malaria eradication : 
Campaign in Mexico, address (Rubottom), 315 
Program for the Western Hemisphere, announcement, 
1016 ; statement and remarks : Eisenhower, 1014 ; 
Milton Eisenhower, Mora, Soper, 565 
Health Assembly, World, (see under World Health Or- 
ganization) 

Health Organization, World. See World Health Organ- 
ization 
Henderson. Loy W., 989 
Herter. Christian A., 426, 747, 960, 1020 
Highby. L. I., 318, 382 
Hildreth, Horace A., 670 



Hill, Robert C, 131, 73G, 950, 1017 
Hoffman, Paul G., 51, 236, 328 
Hoghland John S., 2d, 1033 
Holmes, Julius C, 343 
Honduras : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 181 
Dispute with Nicaragua, OAS role in settlement of, 
announcement, address (Rubottom), and statement 
(Dreier), 811, 857 
Double taxation on income, agreement with U.S. for 

prevention of, 316, 337, 426 
Inter-American Highway, Export-Import Bank loan 
for extension of, 315 
Hong Kong, extension of international convention (1952) 
to facilitate importation of commercial samples and 
advertising material to, 548 
Houghton, Amory, 549 
Housing, military family, use of foreign currencies for 

construction, rent, or procurement of, 187 
Housing and community facilities for use of U.S. Air 
Force, agreement amending 1956 agreement with 
U.K. for construction of, 630 
Humphrey, George M., 961 
Humphrey, Hubert H., 233, 280 
Hungarian question : 

Developments in Hungary (October 1956-February 

1957), letter (Lodge), 865 
Question of U.S. military aid, statement (Dulles), 533 
Refugees. See Hungarian refugees 
Soviet activities in Hungary 259, 465, 649, 654 
Soviet and U.S. views, letter (Eisenhower) and Soviet 

declaration concerning, 89, 90. 
U.N. actions regarding : 
Addresses ( Wilcox ), 556, 557, 690, 692 
Efforts for withdrawal of Soviet forces, 85 
Establishment of special U.N. committee to investi- 
gate and report, 138 
U.S. position and significance to Asia, address (Jones), 
264 
Hungarian refugees : 
Agreement between U.S. and Austria relating to relief 

for, 949 
ICEM efforts for resettlement, 109, 743 
President's proposals, recommendation, and action con- 
cerning, 96, 125, 247, 933 
Report to the President (Nixon) , 94 
U.N. appeal for assistance to, 10 
U.S. assistance to, 9, 337, 442, 720, 984 
Hungary : 

Import duties removed on gift parcels for, 134 
Military and air attach^ declared persona non grata, 

text of U.S. note, 983 
National holiday, statement (Eisenhower), 538 
Postal cancellation stamp, U. S. reply to Hungarian 

protest to use of, texts of notes, 849 
Rebellion in. See Hungarian question 
Refugees. See Hungarian refugees 
Soviet policies in, U.S.-U.K. views, 561 
U.S. military attach^, U.S. rejection of Hungarian 

charges against, text of note, 810 
U.S. Minister, return from Budapest, 441 



Index, January lo June J 957 



1055 



ICA. See International Cooiwrntion Administration 
lOAO. See International Civil Aviation Organization 
Iceland : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement vpith U.S. for 

financing sales of, 709, 710 
Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Faroe Islands, agreements on joint financing of, 
380, 548 
Defense negotiations with U.S., announcement, agree- 
ment on defense negotiations, and agreement on 
setting up defense standing group, 100, 157, 382 
Educational exchange, agreement with U.S., 425, 630 
Trade agreement with U.S. relating to tuna canned in 

brine, 371 
U.S. loan to finance imports, 100 
ICEM. See Intergovernmental Committee for European 

Migration 
ICJ. See International Court of Justice 
IFC. See International Finance Corporation 
lUah, Abdul, 135 

ILO. See International Labor Organization 
Immigration and Nationality Act : 

Administration by Bureau of Security and Consular 

Affairs, delegation of authority, 157 
Provision for discretionary parole into U.S. of aliens, 

96» 
Recommended revision of, message to Congress 
(Eisenhower), 247 
Immigration into U.S. («ce also Vi.sas), iwtentialities of, 

addre.ss (Coulter), 722 
Imports (see also Customs; Tariff policy, U.S.; Tariffs 
and trade, general agreement on ; and Trade) : 
Butter oil and butter substitutes, quotas on U.S. im- 
ports, proclamation, 817 
Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention (1952) to facilitate Importa- 
Hon, 156, 548, 868 
Oil, consideration of U.S. import program, 370 
U.S. loan to finance imports into Iceland, 100 
Income tax, conventions for avoidance of double taxation 

on. See Double taxation 
India : 

Industrial development, excerpts from report to Con- 
gress (Eisenhower), 937 
International Banli loan, 102 
ICJ, statute, notification of withdrawal of compulsory 

jurisdiction deposited, 509 
Kashmir dispute. See Kashmir 
Lend-lease silver debt repayment to U.S., remarks 

(Turnage), 1002 
Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 47 
Soviet-bloc aid, 13 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 510 
Weights and measures, convention (1875) for creation 
of international office of, 509 
Indonesia : 

IFC, articles of agreement, 203 

Internal development, U.S. views, 536 

Relationship to SEATO countries, statement (Dulles), 

483 
Soviet-block aid, 13 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 470 



Industrial property, convention on the protection of, 118 
Industry and Trade, ECAFE Committee on, meeting and 

U.S. delegation to 9th session, 508 
Information, exchange of («ee also Technical informa- 
tion) : 
Atomic energy information, provision of the statute 
of the International Atomic Energy Agency re- 
garding, 883 
Cooperation between members of NATO, excerpt from 
report of Committee of Three on Non-Military 
Co-operation in NATO, 25 
Educational information, license regulations simplified 

on exports of, 317 
Need for increase in, excerpt from President's budget 
message to Congress, 169 
Information Agency, U.S. See United States Information 

Agency 
Information and Educational Exchange Act (1948), 

proposed amendments, statement (Lightner), 506 
Information program, U.S., recommendations for improve- 
ment in Africa, report (Nixon), 639 
Inland Transport Committee (ILO), U.S. delegation to 

6th session, 546' 
Inspection proposals, mutual. See under Disarmament 
Inter-American Commission for Women, work of, 861 
Inter-American Committee of Presidential Representa- 
tives, 11, 479, 735, 858, 1014 
Inter-American cultural relations, convention for promo- 
tion of, 380 
Inter-American Highway : 

Export-Import Bank loans for extension of, to: 

Honduras, 315 ; Nicaragua, 104 
Progress in completing, 311, 314, 564 
Inter-American Nuclear Energy Commission, proposed 
establishment, statement (Eisenhower) and an- 
nouncement, 1014, 1016 
Inter-American problems. See Latin America 
Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, role of, 

857 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, appointment 

of U.S. commissioner, 908 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration : 
Council and Executive Committee, 5th and 6th sessions, 
announcements, article (Warren), and U.S. dele- 
gations, 109, 656, 743 
Hungarian refugees, assistance to, 721 
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, 

convention, 380 
Interhandel issue, U.S. position on arbitration of, texts of 

notes and memorandum, 350 
International Atomic Energy Agency : See Atomic Energy 

Agency, International 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment (see also International Finance Corporation) : 
Lending activities, importance of, excerpts from Presi- 
dent's economic report to Congress, 224 
Loans to — • 
India, 102; Iran, 217; Japan, 101, 130; Latin 
America, 733 ; Mexico, 312 
U.S. alternate governor, confirmation, 946 



1056 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



International Civil Aviation Organization : 
Jet Operations Kequiremeuts Panel, U.S. delegation to 

2(1 meeting, 198 
Protocol concerning meetings of the Assembly, 42, 289 
International Cooperation Administration {see also Eco- 
nomic and teclinical aid and Mutual security) : 
Excerpt from President's report to Congress, 932, 936, 

939 
Statement (Hoffman), 329 
International Cotton Advisory Committee, 16th plenary 

meeting, U.S. delegation. 908 
International Court of Justice : 
Admission of new members, 42, 630 
Question of seeking advisory opinion on principle of 

innocent passage through Gulf of Aqaba, 598 
Statute of : 
Declaration recognizing compulsory jurisdiction, 241, 

242, 289, 789, 949 
List of signatories, 78 

Notification of withdrawal of recognition of compul- 
sory jurisdiction, 470, 509, 949 
International Finance Corporation {see also International 

Bank), articles of agreement, 203, 789 
International Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada), execu- 
tive meeting, 695 
International Labor Organization : 

Inland Transport Committee, U.S. delegation to 6th 

session, 546 
International Labor Conference, U.S. delegation to 40th 

session, 1031 
International Labor Office, U.S. delegation to 134th 
session, 468 
International law : 
Innocent passage {see also Aqaba and Tiran), mean- 
ing of, statement (Dulles), 400 
Law of the sea, proposed U.N. conference on, 60 
Relationship of peace and justice with, address and 
statement : Dulles, 402 ; Eisenhower, 389 
International Monetary Fund : 

Monetary activities, Importance of, excerpts from 

President's economic report to Congress, 224 
U.K. arranges to buy U.S. dollars, announcement and 

statement (Jacobsson), 28 
U.S. alternate governor, confirmation, 946 
International naval review, invitations to, 349 
International organizations {see also subject) : 
Calendar of meetings, 37, 193, 372, 541, 740, 906 
Membership in, lists of countries, 78, 374 
Protocol concerning application of universal copyright 

convention (1952) to works of, 380, 669, 709 
Question of legislation on loyalty of Americans em- 
ployed by, statement (Wilcox), 57 
International Organizations Employees Loyalty Board, 

functions of, 58 
International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, 76 
International telecommunication convention (1952), 203 
International Union for the Publication of Customs Tar- 
iffs, convention (1890) creating and protocol modify- 
ing, 829 



Investment of private capital abroad : 
Africa, opportunity in, report (Nixon), 637 
Investment guaranties, agreements with — 

China, Republic of, 949 ; Cuba, 381 ; Luxembourg, 
118 ; Turkey, 426 
Latin America, addresses : Hill, 737 ; Murphy, 652 ; 

Rubottom, 733, 734 
Mexico, address (Rubottom), 312 
Underdeveloped countries, address (Hoffman), 328, 

331 
U.S. views on, address, report, and statements : Eisen- 
hower, 222, 223; Hoffman, 238; Kalijarri, 661; 
Kotschnig, 783, 785, 786, 787 
Iran : 

Historical development and U.S. relations with, ad- 
dress (Ghapin),759 
International Bank loan, 217 
Murder of U.S. technicians, 654 
Soviet threat to, address (Murphy), 520 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 337, 

426 
Air tran.sport, agreement with U.S., 198, 199 (text), 

203 
Amity, economic relations, and consular rights, 

treaty with U. S., 909 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement with U.S., 

509, 629 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prison- 
ers of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 670 
IFC, articles of agreement, 203 

Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 
203 
U.S. economic and technical assistance : 
Address (Eisenhower), 918 
Continuation of, 654 

Interim report on Ambassador Richards' mission, 
announcement and joint communique, 724, 727 
Iraq: 
Crown Prince, announcement of visit to U.S., 135 
Iraq Development Board, U.S. member, 5(53 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement with U.S., 

1033 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 203 
Economic assistance, agreement with U.S., 1033 
IFC, articles of agreement, 203 
U.S. economic and technical assistance, interim report 
on Ambassador Richards' mission, announcement 
and joint communique, 724, 730 
U.S. relations with, 519 
Ireland : 

Educational exchange program, agreement with U.S., 

547, 630 
North Atlantic ocean stations, agreement (1949) on, 

829 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment and confirmation, 770, 
771, 869 
Israel : 

Arab-Israeli dispute. See Arab-Israeli dispute and 
Israeli hostilities 



Index, January fo June 1957 



1057 



Israel — Continued 

Establishment of, and problems confronting, address 

(Murphy), 516,517 
Existence of, U.S. policy regarding, statement (Dulles), 

3(M) 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
Support of U.S. Policy in Middle East, announcement 

and Israeli communique, 968 
Travel to, U.S. lifts restrictions, 654 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1055 

agreement with U.S., 740 
Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Faroe Island.s, agreements on financing, 548 
Israeli hostilities with Egypt (see also Aqaba, Gaza 
Strip, Sharm el-Sheikh, Tiran, and United Nations 
Emergency Force) : 
Baghdad Pact, Moslem members' views, text of com- 
munique. 216 
Egyptian belligerency toward Israel, question of, state- 
ments (Dulles), 596,646 
Sanctions against Israel, U.S. position on the question 

of use of, statements (Dulles), 300, 402, 405 
U.S.-Israeli views on, agreed statement (Dulles, Meir), 

562 
Withdrawal of Israeli forces from Egypt : 
General Assembly actions and deliberations : 
Letter (Eisenhower), 433 
Reports and note (Hammarskjold), 271, 273, 275, 

395, 544 
Resolutions, 270, 327 

Statements : Hammarskjold, 544 ; Lodge, 269, 270, 
271, 325, 431, 543 
U.S. position, address, annoiuicement, and state- 
ments : Dulles, 305, 391, 394, 434, 482, 483 ; Eban, 
394 ; Eisenhower, 387 ; Hagerty, 393 ; State Depart- 
ment, 392 ; White House, 391 ; Wilcox, 558 
Italy : 
European common market and free trade area. See 

European common market 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 290, 381, 670, 710 
Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Faroe Islands, agreements on joint financing, 548 
Atlantic fisheries, northwest, protocol amending in- 
ternational convention (1949), 1032 
German assets in Italy, memorandum of understand- 
ing regarding, 669 
IFC. articles of agreement, 203 

Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organiza- 
tion, convention, 380 
War damage claims, memorandum of understanding 
with U.S., 670, 901 
U.S. Ambas.sador, confirmation, 290 
Velveteen textiles, control of exports to U.S., 220 

Jacobason, Per, 28 

Jamaica, extension of international convention (19.52) 

to facilitate importation of commercial samples and 

advertising material to, 548 
Jainmu, State of. See Kashmir 



Japan : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 1013 

Atomic and nuclear explosions, protests against and 

U.S. replie.s, texts of notes, 901 
Cotton textiles, control of exports to U.S., 218, 303 
Free-world policy toward, address (Bowie), 837, 838 
Girard case, 963, 964, 1000 

Industrial development, excerpt from report to Con- 
gress ( Eisenhower ) , 937 
International Bank loans, 101, 136 
Joint Japan-U.S. Committee, 1000, 1001 
Military defense program, progress of, excerpt from 

report to Congress (Kisenhower), 936 
Okinawa and Ryukyu I.slands, U.S. policy on return 

to Japan, statement (Dulles), 766 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural surpluses, agreement supplementing un- 
derstandings to 19.56 agreement with U.S., 290 
Double taxation on income, protocol supplementing 

1954 convention with U.S., 574, 630, 867 
Fnr seals, North Pacific, interim convention on con- 
servation of, 337, 376, 377 (text) 
GATT, accession to, report to Congress (Eisen- 
hower), 365 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 289 
ICJ, statute, 42 

Mutual defense assistance, agreement providing for 
financial contributions for U.S. administrative and 
related expenses, 790 
Nonimmigrant passport visa fees, agreement with 

U.S. for reciprocal waiver of, 746 
U.N. Charter, 42 

AVhaling convention (1946), international, protocol 
amending, 990 
U.N. membership, letters and statements : Eisenhower, 

39 ; Dulles, 6, 39 ; Lodge, 39, 40 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 290 
U.S. relations with, statement (Dulles), 963 
Jarring, Gunnar V., 4.o7, 459 
Jefferson, Thomas, 682 
Jerbi, Suleiman, 54 

Jet Operations Requirements Panel (ICAO), U.S. dele- 
gation to 2d meeting, 198 
Jews in Egypt, reported mistreatment of, statement 

(Wadsworth), 106 
Joint Commission, International (U.S.-Canada), execu- 
tive meeting, 695 
Joint Mexican-U.S. Defense Commission, Executive or- 
der concerning designation of U.S. members, 59 
Joint U.S.-Japan Committee, 1000, 1001 
Jones, Howard P., 263, 790 
Jones, John Wesley, 510 
Jones, Richard Lee, 07, 286 
Jordan : 

Communist penetration, U.S. aid in combating, address 

(Eisenhower), 919 
Establishment of, and problems confronting, address 

(Murphy), 516, 517 
Independence of, statements (Dulles, Hagerty, White). 
768, 708n 



1058 



Department of State Bulletin 



Jordan — Continued 

Relief supplies and packages, agreement with U.S. re- 
lating to duty-free entry and defrayment of inland 
transportation charges, 590 
Travel to, U.S. lifts restrictions, 654 
Justice, International Court of. See International Court 

Kalljarvi, Thorsten V. : 
Addresses, remarks, and statements : 

Anglo-American financial agreement (1945), 625 
Economic negotiations between Poland and U.S., 

1004, 1008 
Foreign economic policy, U.S., 406, 659, 813, 1009 
Confirmation as Assistant Secretary of State, 5-19 
Karoly, Meszaros, 983 
Kashmir dispute : 
Security Council consideration of, statements: Barco, 
460; Lodge, 231, 457, 462; resolutions, 232, 462 
(proposed), 463 
U.S. views, statements (Dulles), 3(15, 300 
Kenya, extension of international convention (1952) to 
facilitate importation of commercial samples and 
advertising material to, 548 
Khalidy, Awnl, 731 
Knowland, William F., 195, 463 
Koerner, Theodor, 134 

Kootenai River project, progress report by the IJC, 696 
Korea : 
Armistice agreement. Communist violations of, address 
and statements : Dulles, 645, 898 ; Greenbaum, 143 ; 
Jones, 267 
U.N. actions regarding, statements (Greenbaum), 141, 
332; foreword to War or Peace (Dulles), 602 ; Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution, 143 
Korea, Republic of : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 203, 

289, 338, 830 
Air transport, agreement with U.S., 790, 825 (text) 
Exchange rate, foreign, discussions with U.S., 220 
U.S. military assistance to, excerpts from report to Con- 
gress (Eisenhower), 935 
Kotlicki, Henryk, 1004, 1008, 1009 
Kotschnig, Walter M., 508, 780 
Krebs, Max V., 590 
Krylov, Maj. Yuri P., 181 
Kuwait, oil resources of, 519 

Labor : 
Migratory labor, agreement extending 1951 agreement 

with Mexico, 118 
Trade uniouism in Africa, growth of, report (Nixon), 

638 
Union membership and equal pay for women, state- 
ment (Hahn), 706 
Labor Organization, International. See International 

Labor Organization 
Land reclamation in Japan, International Bank loan for, 

136 
Landsberg, Helmut E., 153, 612 
Lange, Halvard, 18 



Laos: 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 241 
Geneva conventions (1940) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 203 
TransiX)rtation by air. International, couveuLion and 
protocol (1929) for unification of rules relating 
to, 829 
U.S. policy regarding, text of note, 771 
Latin America {see also Inter- American, Organization of 
American States, and individual countries) : 
Caribbean Commission, meeting and U.S. delegation, 

948 
Economic and trade relations with U.S., addresses: 

Hill, 730 ; Murphy, 652 
Economic Commission for, confirmation of U.S. repre- 
sentative to 7th session, 989 
Economic Interdependence in the Americas, address 

(Rubottom), 732 
Malaria eradication. See under Health and sanita- 
tion 
Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 1956, 

proclamation, 443 
Pan American games (1959), statements: Carpenter, 

540 ; Rubottom, 539 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and agree- 
ments relative to parcel post and money orders, 
242, 425, 426, 710 
Primary education in, U.S. delegation to UNESCO 

meeting on, 424 
U.S. relations with, address and statement : Dulles, 598 ; 

Rubottom, 855 
Women in Latin America, Widening Horizons for, 
address (Stewart), 860 
Latvia : 
Anniversary of independence, statement (Dulles), 347 
Soviet aggression in, address (Merchant), 260 
Law, international. See International law 
Law Commission, International, 00 
Law of the sea, proposed U.N. conference on, statement 

(Greenbaum) and text of resolution, 60 
Lebanon : 
IFC, articles of agreement, 203 

U.S. economic and military assistance, interim report 
on Ambassador Richards' mission, announcement 
and joint communique, 724, 725 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 590 
Leeward Islands, extension of international convention 
(19.52) to facilitate importation of commercial 
samples and advertising material to, 548 
Legislation. See under Congress 
Lend-lease, silver debt repayment by India, remarks 

(Turnage), 1002 
Lend-lease and reciprocal aid, agreements with U.K. re- 
lating to settlement of, 169, 492, 5-18, 625, 1033 
Less developed countries. See Underdeveloped countries 
Lethco, Joseph W., 110 
Lewis, William S., 307 

Liberia, agreement with U.S. for transfer of property 
located at Roberts Field, 338 



Index, Janugry fo June 1957 



1059 



Libya : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 54 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Civil aviation, international, protocol amending cer- 
tain articles of the 1954 convention on, 42 
Development assistance, agreement with U.S., 746 
Slavery convention (1926), 548 
U.S. economic and military assistance, Ambassador 
Richards' mission to the Middle East, announce- 
ment, address (Richards), and texts of joint com- 
muniques, 724, 726, 841, 845 
U.S. relations with, address (Murphy), 520 
Lighter flints, escape-clause relief held unnecessary, 369 
Lightner, E. Allan, Jr., 566 

Linen toweling, escape-clause relief held necessary, 369 
Loans, International Bank. See International Bank 
Loans, U.S. («ee also Export-Import Bank) : 
Multilateral trade and economic development, loans for, 
excerpt from report to Congress (Eisenhower), 187 
Private enterprise abroad, use of loans in promoting, 
excerpt from report to Congress (Eisenhower), 938 
London agreement on German external debts (1953) : 
Progress achieved in implementation of, article 

(Fiekett),444 
Validation Board, report on activities (Sept. 1, 1955- 
Aug. 31, 19.56), 447 
Lord, Mrs. Oswald B., 585, 587 
Lithuania : 
Anniversary of independence, statement (Dulles), 347 
Soviet aggression in, address (Merchant), 260 
Lodge, Henry Cabot : 
Correspondence : 
Hungary, developments in, 865 

Suez Canal problem, request for meeting of Security 
Council, 776 
Statements: 
Algerian question, 421 
Disarmament, U.S. position, 71, 225, 423 
Ghana, admission to U.N., 490 
Hungarian refugees, U.S. contribution to U.N. for 

assistance to. 9 
Himgary, establishment of U.N. committee to in- 
vestigate and report on conditions in, 138 
Israeli-Syrian dispute, 1029 
Japan, admission to U.N., 39, 40 
Kashmir dispute, 231, 457, 462 
Suez Canal problem, 775, 987, 988 
Withdrawal of Israeli forces from Egypt, 269, 270, 
271, 325, 431, 543 
London talks on disarmament. See under Disarmament 
Loyalty Board, International Organizations Employees, 

functions, 58 
Luxembourg : 

European common market and free trade area. See 

European common market 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 241 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S. provid- 
ing for, 118 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement amending an- 
nex B of 1950 agreement with U.S., 868 



Luxembourg — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) 

concerning temporary importation of, 42 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs fa- 
cilities for, 42 

MacArthur, Douglas, II, 290 
Mackinsen, Paul, 665n 
Macmillan, Harold, 174 
Macomber, William B., Jr., 411 
Magsaysay, Ramon, 563 

Malaria eradication. See under Health and sanitation 
Malaya : 
Bermuda conference discussion of, statement (Dulles), 

645 
Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention (1952) to facilitate importa- 
tion of, extension to Malaya, 548 
Malta, extension of iuternational convention (1952) to 

facilitate importation of commercial samples and 

advertising material to, 548 
Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovernmental, 

convention, 380 
Maritime policy, U.S., address (Hill), 1017 
Marshall, Gen. George C, 1002 
Marshall plan, 10th anniversary, message (Eisenhower), 

1002 
Martino, Gaetano, 18 
Mashkantsev, Gennadi F., 719 
Matsu and Quemoy Islands, U.S. policy on defense of, 

statement (Dulles), 641 
Mauritius, extension of international convention (1952) 

to facilitate importation of commercial samples and 

advertising material to, ,548 
Mayer, Ren6, 640 
McCardle, Carl W., 381, 400 
McColium, Robert S., 204, 655 
McConaughy, Walter P., 950 
McGregor, Robert G., 819, 822 
McLeod, Scott, 109, 656, 770, 869 
Medical research, agreement amending agreement with 

Republic of China providing for U.S. Navy unit in 

Taipei, 156 
Mein, J. Gordon, 950 
Meir, Mrs. Golda, 562 
Merchant, Livingston T., 256 
Merchant Marine, U.S., address (Hill), 1017 
Merchant Marine Act (1930), 1017 
Merrill, Robert T., 34 
Meteorological Organization, World. See World Meteor^ 

ological Organization 
Meteorology. See Weather 
Mexico : 
Joint Mexican-U.S. Defense Commission, Executive or- 
der concerning designation of U.S. members, 59 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, agreement with U.S., 548, 575 (text) 

Austrian state treaty, 241 

Migratory labor, agreement extending 1951 agree- 
ment with U.S., 118 



1060 



Department of State BuUetin 



Mexico — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Standard-band broadcasting channels, agreement 

with U.S., 288, 290, 315 
Universal copyright convention, and protocol, 380 
U.S. relations with, address (Rubottoui), 310 
Middle East. Sec Near and Middle East 
Migratory labor, agreement extending 1951 agreement 

with Mexico, 118 
Military assistance (see also Military missions, Mutual 
defense, aitd Mutual security) : 
Advantages of, address (Eisenhower), 917 
Chile, agreement regarding disposition of equipment, 

materials, and property, 203 
Near and Middle East (see also American Doctrine), 

address (Rountree), 975 
Saudi Arabia, agreement regarding, 309, 680, 710 
Yugoslavia, continuation of aid to, 936, 939 
Military bases, negotiations with Philippines regarding, 

statements (Dulles), 487, 533, 536 
Military family housing, use of foreign currencies for con- 
struction, rent, or procurement of, 187 
Military housing and community facilities for use of U.S. 
Air Force, agreement amending 1956 agreement with 
U.K. for construction of, 630 
Military missions, U.S. : 
Agreements regarding, with^ 
Haiti, 156; Nicaragua, 510; Peru, 868; Venezuela, 
426 
Air Force missile unit on Taiwan, stationing of, 854 
Military program, U.S. See Defense, Mutual defense. 

Mutual security, and National security 
Minorities in Egypt, reported mistreatment of, statement 

(■\Vadsworth),106 
Missiles. See Guided missiles and Outer-space projec- 
tiles 
Mixed Armistice Commission, 1029, 1030 
Mixed Commission and Arbitral Tribunal, Germany, 
multilateral agreement amending administrative 
agreement of 1954 concerning, 156 
Mod, Peter, 466 
Mollet, Guy, 438 
Molotov, Vyacheslav M., 260 

Monetary Fund, International. See International Mone- 
tary Fund 
Mora, Jos6 A., 565 
Morocco : 
Economic aid, U.S., Ambassador Richards' mission to 
the Middle East, address (Richards) and text of 
joint communique, 841, 845 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 203 
Customs tariffs, convention (1890) creating Interna- 
tional union for publication of, and protocol modi- 
fying, 829 
Economic, technical, and related assistance, agree- 
ment with U.S., 746 
ICT, statute, 42 

Tangier, status of, final declaration and annexed pro- 
tocol of international conference on, 242 
U.N. Charter, 42 
UNESCO, constitution, 42 
WMO, convention, 156 

Index, January to June 1957 



Munitions control and the electronics industry, address 

(Pomeroy), 697 
Murphy, Gerald Lester : 
Disappearance in Dominican Republic, 221 
Documents regarding, received from Dominican Gov- 
ernment, 349, 405 
Status of case, statement (Rubottom) before Senate 

Foreign Relations Committee, 1025 
U.S. request for reopening of case, announcement and 
text of U.S. note, 610 
Murphy, Robert, 475, 515, 647, 663, 942 
Muscat and Oman, U.S. relations with, 519 
Mutual defense assistance agreements (see also Military 
missions), with — 
Belgium, amending annex B of 1950 agreement, 949 
China, Republic of : 

Defense facilities, agreement facilitating construc- 
tion of, 78 
Small naval craft, agreement amending 1954 agree- 
ment relating to loan of, 1033 
U.S. Air Force missile unit on Taiwan, stationing of, 
854 
Germany, Federal Republic of, training of army and 

navy personnel, 78 
Japan, providing for financial contribution for U.S. 

administrative and related expenses, 790 
Luxembourg, amending annex B of 1950 agreement, 

868 
Spain, disposition of equipment and materials, 42 
U.K., disposition of equipment and materials furnished 
by U.S., 1033 
Mutual defense treaties and agreements (see also ANZUS 
Treaty, Baghdad Pact, Collective .security. Defense, 
Mutual security. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 
and Southeast Asia Treaty Organization) : 
Joint Mexican-U.S. Defense Commission, Executive 

order concerning designation of U.S. member, 59 
Worldwide arrangements to counter Communist expan- 
sion, address (Macomber), 412 
Mutual security and other assistance programs (see also 
Agricultural surpluses. Economic and technical aid. 
Military assistance, and Mutual defense) : 
Defense support to ECAFE countries, statements 

(Kotschnig),783, 788 
Greek-Turkish aid program, 10th anniversary, letters 

(Eisenhower), 539 
Investment guaranties, agreements with — 

China, Republic of, 949 ; Cuba, 381 ; Luxembourg, 
118 ; Turkey, 426 
Marshall plan, 10th anniversary, message (Eisen- 
hower), 1002 
Near and Middle East. See American Doctrine 
New approach, need for, addresses and statements : 
Berding, 809; Dillon, 800; Dulles, 675, 716; Eisen- 
hower, 915 ; Murphy, 478, 944 

1957 program, excerpts from President's 11th semi- 
annual report (July 1-Dec. 31, 1956) to Congress 
and letter of transmittal, 931 

1958 program : 

Address and statement : Dulles, 926 ; Richards, 972 
President's address to the Nation, 876 
President's messages to Congress, 163, 920 

1061 



Mutual security — Continued 

Program to counter Soviet-bloc economic penetration of 
free world, address (Claxton), 12 
Mutual Security Appropriation Act (1957), proviso on par- 
ticipation in U.N. technical assistance program, 410 

NAC. See North Atlantic Council 

Nagy, Imre, 466 

Najib-Ullah, 443 

Narcotic drugs, protocol (1953) regulating production, 

trade, and use of opium, 42, 710, 949 
Nash, Frank C, 106, 108, 282 

National security (see also Collective security. Mutual 
defense, and Mutual security) : 
Interloclting elements of, address (Murphy), 475 
President's address to the Nation concerning, 875 
President's message to Congress, 164, 165, 370 
National Security Council : 
Functions, 476 

Transfer of Operations Coordinating Board to, an- 
nouncement and Executive order, 504 
Nationalism, problems arising from development of, ad- 
dresses, message, and statements : Bovcie, 836 ; 
Eisenhower, 123, 847; Murphy, 516; Eountree, 756, 
974 ; Sears, 820 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Natural gas, meeting of ECB working party on problems 

in Europe, 424 
Naval Review, International, invitations to, 349 
Naval vessels, agreements for furnishing supplies and 
services to, with — 
Australia, 203 ; Greece, 337 
Naval vessels or small craft, agreements relating to loan 
of, with — 
China, Republic of, 1033 ; Germany, Federal Republic 
of, 990 ; Spain, 670 
Navigation improvements in connecting channels of Great 

Lakes, U.S.-Canadian agreements, 42, 509, 746 
Near and Middle East (see also individual countries) : 
American Doctrine. See American Doctrine 
Arab-Israeli dispute. See Arab-Israeli dispute 
Baghdad Pact. See Baghdad Pact 
Foreign aid, U.S., question of resumption of, statement 

(Dulles), 485 
General Assembly action regarding, address (Wilcox), 

689, C92 
Hammarskjold mission to the Middle East, progress of, 

statement (Dulles), 595 
Historical study of U.S. policy in, statement (Dulles), 

300 
Israeli hostilities with Egypt. See Israeli hostilities 
Map, in color, facing p. 128 
Northern tier states, U.S. partners in collective defense, 

address (Murphy), 520 
Oil pipeline, proposed international, statement (Dulles), 

600 
Palestine refugees, relief and rehabilitation of, state- 
ments (Lord) and General Assembly resolution, 
585, 587, 589 
Situation in, U.S. views, addresses, report, and state- 
ments : Dulles, 51, 533 ; Eisenhower, 932 ; Hill, 131 ; 
Murphy, 447, 515 ; Rountree, 755, 973 ; Wilcox, 558 



Near and Middle East — Continued 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
Travel to, U.S. lifts restrictions, 654 
Tripartite agreement (1950), U.S. policy concerning, 

statement (Dulles), 304 
U.S. exchange of views regarding, with — 

France, joint statement (Eisenhower, MoUet), 438 
Germany, Federal Republic of, joint communique, 

491 
Saudi Arabia, joint communique, 308 
Soviet Union, notes and Soviet draft declaration, 523 
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 47 
Nelson, Wesley R., 564 
Netherlands : 

European common market and free trade area. See 

European common market 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, negotiations and agreement with U.S., 

579, 710, 746, 747 (text), 1013 
American war graves, agreement extending 1947 

agreement with U.S., 630 
IFC, articles of agreement, 203 
North Atlantic ocean stations, agreement (1954) on, 

829 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 670 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 630 
Neutralism : 

SEATO countries' views on, 529 
U.S. views, address (Robertson), 999 
Newsmen, U.S., question of travel to Communist China : 
Announcement, 54 

Statements: Dulles, 301, 305, 485, 488, 600, 646, 768, 
771, 895, 967 ; Murphy, 664 
New Zealand : 

ANZUS Treaty, 494, 495 

Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention (1952) to facilitate importa- 
tion of, 868 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 790 
Niagara Falls project, progress report by the IJC, 695 
Nicaragua : 

Disputes with Costa Rica and Honduras, OAS role in 
settlement of, announcement, address (Rubottom), 
and statement (Dreier), 811, 857, 858 
Export-Import Bank loan, 104 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 380 
Military missions, agreement with U.S. regarding 

duties of, 510 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, 470 
Universal postal convention (19.">2), iS68 
Nigeria, Federation of, extension of international con- 
vention (1952) to facilitate importation of commer- 
cial samples and advertising material to, 548 
Nile River, importance of, report (Nixon), 630 
Nine, application of international convention (1952) to 
fat'ilitate importation of commercial samples and 
advertising material to. 868 



1062 



Department of State Bulletin 



Nixon, Richard M. : 
Remjirks : 

Departure for Africa, 43fi 
Visit of Freneli Premier to U.S., 439 
Visit of Indian Prime Minister to U.S., 47 
Reports to the President : 
iVfrica, emergence of, G35 

Hungarian refugees, providing for the needs of, 94 
Visit to Ghana, U.S. delegation to independence cere- 
monies, 348 
Non-self-governing territories (see also Self-determina- 
tion and Trust territories), French vievk's on asso- 
ciation with European common marliet, 438 
Norman, E. H., .538, 694 
Norstad, Gen. Lauris, 2.51 

North Atlantic Council (see also Atlantic Community and 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization) : 
Ministerial Council meeting : 
Departure statement (Dulles) and U.S. delegation, 

804 
Results of meeting, excerpts from President's report 

to Congress, 934; statement (Dulles), 839 
Text of communique, 840 
Resolutions : 
Peaceful settlement of disputes between members of 

NATO, 17 
Report of the Committee of Three on Non-Military 
Co-operation in NATO, 17 
North Atlantic oceans stations, agreement (1954) on, 829 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (see also Atlantic 
Community and North Atlantic Council) : 
Addresses, message, report, and statement: Eisen- 
hower, 252, 640, 934 ; Holmes, 344 ; Norstad, 251 
Committee of Three on Non-Military Co-operation, re- 
port of, 18 
National Information OflBcers, 4th conference, U.S. del- 
egation, 468 
Scholarship award, 720 
U.S. exchange of views regarding, with — 
France, joint statement (Eisenhower, Mollet), 439 
Germany, Federal Republic of : joint communique, 
491; joint declaration (Eisenhower, Adenauer), 
956 
United Kingdom, joint communique, 561 
North Borneo, extension of international convention 
(1952) to facilitate importation of commercial sam- 
ples and advertising material to, 548 
North Pacific fur seals, interim convention on conserva- 
tion of, 337, 376, 377 (text) 
Northern tier pact. See Baghdad Pact 
Northern tier states, U.S. partners in collective defense, 

address (Murphy), 520 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending interna- 
tional convention (1940), current actions, 203, 670, 
829, 909, 990, 1032 
Norway : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Aircraft, imported, agreement with U.S. providing 
for certificates of airworthiness, and arrangements 
terminating 1933 agreement, 426 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses of, agreement with U.S. 
for cooperation, 469, 470 



Norway — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 

203 
ICJ, statute, declaration recognizing compulsory ju- 
risdiction deposited, 242 
North Atlantic ocean stations, agreement (1954) on, 

829 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol to international 

convention (1949) for, 909 
Road traflSe, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 745 
Slavery convention (1926), protocol amending, and 

annex, 745 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 
amending, 746 
U.S. Ambassador, resignation (Strong), 381; confirma- 
tion (Willis), 950 
Nucker, Delmas H., 101 
Nuclear energy. See Atomic energy 

Nuclear Energy Commission, Inter-American, proposal to 
establish, statement (Eisenhower) and announce- 
ment, 1014, 1016 

OAS. See Organization of American States 

O'Boyle, Archbishop Patrick A., 117 

Ocean stations, North Atlantic, agreement (1954) on, 829 

O'Connor, Roderic L., 950 

Oechsner, Frederick Cable, 571 

Offshore procurement, agreements relating to, with — 

Federal Republic of Germany, 337, 789; Spain, 157 
Oil: 

Crisis in Iran, address (Chapin) , 761 
Pollution of seas by oil, meeting of National Commit- 
tee on, and appointment of committee chairman, 
349 
Supply to Western Europe, problem of. See under 

Suez Canal problem 
U.S. import programs, consideration of, 370 
Okinawa, U.S. policy on return to Japan, statement 

(Dulles), 766 
Oman and Muscat, U.S. relations with, 519 
"Open skies" proposals for aerial inspection. See under 

Disarmament 
Operations Coordinating Board : 
Functions of, 476 

Transfer to National Security Council, announcement 
and Executive order, 504 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, and 

use of, 42, 710, 949 
Organization for Trade Cooperation. See Trade Cooper- 
ation, Organization for 
Organization of American States : 

Nicaraguan-Honduran conflict, consideration of, an- 
nouncement and statement (Dreier), 811 
Peacemaking role, address (Rubottom), 857, 858 
Strengthening of, announcement and statement (Eisen- 
hower), 1014 
Organizations, international. See International organi- 
zations 
Orphans and displaced persons, propo.sed legislation con- 
cerning admittance to U.S., message to Congress 
(Eisenhower), 248,249 
OTC. See Trade Cooperation, Organization for 



Index, January to June 1957 



1063 



Otepka, Otto F., 790 

Outer-space projectiles (see also Guided missiles), U.S. 
proposal for control of : 

Statements (Lodge), 227, 423 

Text of U.S. memorandum, 231 

Pact of Mutual Cooperation. See Baghdad Pact 
Pakistan : 

Anniversary of establishment as republic, message 

(Eisenhower), 563 
Collective defense measures, 520 
Community development program, 038 
Kashmir dispute. See Kashmir dispute 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 829 
ICJ, statute, notice of withdrawal of compulsory 
jurisdiction deposited, 470 
U.S. Ambassador, resignation, 670 

U.S. economic and military assistance, interim report 
on Ambassador Richards' mission, announcement 
and joint communique, 724, 728 
Palestine {see also Arab-Israeli dispute and Israeli hos- 
tilities), partition of, address (Murphy), 516 
Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 1956, proc- 
lamation, 443 
Pan American games (1959), statements: Carpenter, 540; 

Rubottom, 539 
Panama : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 54 
Canal Zone, U.S. annual payment for use of, 443 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, 868 
Wheat agreement (1956), international, 42 
Paraamlnosalicylic acid and salts, escape-clause relief 

held unnecessary, 369 
Paraguay : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 54 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Cultural relations, inter- American convention (1954) 

on, 380 
Educational exchange, agreement with U.S., 668, 746 
Relief supplies and packages, duty-free entry and 
exemption from internal taxation of, agreement 
with U.S., 746 
Parker, Cola G., 1032 
Passamaquoddy Bay power project, progress report by 

the IJC, 696 
Passports (see also Visas) : 

Definition and issuance of, statements : Cartwright, 

667 ; Murphy, 663, 664 
Executive denial, question of, statement (Dulles), 485 
Passport regulations, clarification of, excerpt from U.S. 
report to U.N. Secretary-General concerning inter- 
national travel, 147, 151, 152. 153 
Policy for travel to Communist China, 54, 305, 485 
Responsibilities of Secretary of State in issuance of, 

statement (Dulles), 896 
Special clearance fees reduced, 904 

Validation of travel to certain Middle Eastern coun- 
tries, 654 
Patent rights and technical Information for defense pur- 
poses, agreements for exchange of, with — 
France, 547, 590 ; Turkey, 830 



Patterson, Richard S., 204 
Peace : 

Addresses and remarks : Adenauer, 959 ; Bowie, 837 ; 

Dulles, 715; George, 347; Murphy, 647 
President's addresses, remarks, and report regarding, 

211, 435, 846, 875 
War or Peace, new editions published, 601 
Pearson, Lester B., 18 
Penghu, U.S. policy on defense of, statement (Dulles), 

641 

Persons, exchange of. See Cultural relations. Educa- 
tional exchange, and Exchange of persons 
Peru : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 829, 

909 
Army mission, agreement amending 1956 agreement 

with U. S., 868 
Nonimmigrant passport visas and visa fees, agree- 
ments with U.S. relating to, 746 
Universal postal convention, 949 
U.S. aid, 220 

Weather station, agreement with U.S. for establishment! 

and operation of, 909, 950 

Pescadores Islands. See Penghu 

Petroleum. See Oil 

Philippines : 

Bataan, anniversary of fall of, messages (Eisenhower, 

Garcia), 679 
Death of Philippine President, statements (Eisenhower, 

Dulles), 563 
Relief supplies and packages, agreement with U.S. fon 

duty-free entry and tax exemption, 338 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 869 
U.S. military bases, negotiations on, statements 

(Dulles), 487, 533, 536 
U.S. mutual security aid, excerpt from report to Con- 
gress (Eisenhower), 938, 939 
Phillips, Christopher H., 240, 627 
Phleger, Herman, 550 
Pibulsonggram, P., 442 
Plant protection convention, international, question of 

U.S. approval, statement (PhilUps), 627 
Poland : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S. regard-_ 

ing, 1005, 1007 (proposed), 1033 
Agricultural surpluses, U.S., export license applica- 
tions for shipments to Poland, 134 
Coal mining officials, visit to U.S., 611 
Economic negotiations with U.S. : 
Invitation to open discussions, 299 
Polish and U.S. delegations, 440 
Progress of negotiations, statements (Dulles), 7, 599^ 

64G 

Results of negotiations, announcement, joint state- 
ment, texts of agreements, exchanges of notes, and 
statement and remarks (Kalijarw, Kotlicki), 1008 
Political developments in, address (Murphy), 649 
Pomeroy, Leonard H., 697 
Popper, David H., 990 



1064 



Department of State Bulletin 



Portugal : 
Atomic energy, civil uses of. agreement amending 1955 

agreement with U.S.. 10.S.3 
Azores, agreement extending 1951 agreement with U.S. 

regarding use of facilities in, 670 
Defense agreement, negotiations with U.S. postponed, 

221 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending inter- 
national convention (1!)49) for, 203 
Safet.y of life at sea, application of 1948 convention to 
Portuguese territories, 829 
Postal cancellation stamp, U.S. reply to Hungarian pro- 
test to use of, texts of notes, 849 
Postal convention (1952), universal, current actions, 630, 

745, 868, 909, 949 
Postal service to Hungary, resumption of, 135 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, final 
protocols, regulations of execution, and agreements 
relative to parcel post and money orders, 242, 425, 
426, 710 
Potatoes, tariff negotiations with Canada concerning, 

360, 773 
Presidential Representatives, Inter-American Committee 

of, 11, 479, 735, 858, 1014 
President's Asian Economic Development Fund, 786 
President's Committee for Hungarian Refugee Relief, text 

of final report, 984 
["risoners of war : 
Geneva convention (1949) relative to protection and 

treatment of, 203, 670, 949 
Korea, failure of Communists to account for missing 
UXC prisoners of war, 143 
Proclamations by the President : 
Rutter oil and butter substitutes, import quotas on, 817 
Copyright arrangement with Brazil, 669 
Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 1907, 443 
World trade week, 1957, 079 
Propaganda, Communist tactics, address and statement: 

Berding, 807 ; Dulles, 171 
Property, cultural, convention and protocol for protec- 
tion in event of armed conflict, and regulations of 
execution, 1032 
Property, industrial, convention (1934) for the protec- 
tion of, 118 
Property, war surplus, lend-lease and reciprocal aid, and 
claims, agreement further extending the joint state- 
ment (1954) with United Kingdom relating to settle- 
ment for, 1033 
Property claims, American-Polish, proposal for negotia- 
tion for settlement of, announcement, joint state- 
ment, and exchange of notes, 1003, 1005, 1007 
Property located at Roberts Field, agreement with 

Liberia for transfer of, 338 
Public relations, importance in promoting peace, address 

(Berding), 805 
Publications : 
Congress, lists of documents relating to foreign policy, 

137, 221, 290, 371, 506, 029, 774, 818, 941, 1029 
State Department : 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1939, Vol. II, 
General, The British Commonwealth, and Europe, 
published, 550 



Publications — C(mtinued 

State Department — Continued 
Lists of recent releases, 157, 206, 242, 338, 382, 670, 

790, 869, 910, 950, 1033 
The Secretaries of State: Portraits and Biographical 

Sketches, published, 204 
Treaties in Force: A List of Treaties and Other 
International Agreemetits of the United States, 
published, 202 
Translation, publication, and distribution of books and 

periodicals, funds for, 189 
United Nations, lists of current documents, 41, 154, 

468, 509, G14, 709, 742, 788 
War or Peace, new editions published, 601 
Puerto Montt, agreement with Chile for establishment 

and operation of weather station at, 630, 710 
Puga, Mariano, 540 

Quemoy and Matsu Islands, U.S. policy on defense of, 

statement (Dulles), 641 
Quintero, agreement with Chile for establishment and 

operation of weather station at, 630, 710 

Race discrimination in U.S., effect on African nations, 

report (Nixon), 636 
Radiation, atomic energy, efi:ects on human health, 

U.S.-U.K. views on, 562 
Randall, Harold M., 989 
Rawinsonde observation stations. See Weather : Weather 

stations 
Raymond, John M., 510 
Read, James M., 10, 11 

Reciprocity Information, Committee for, 948 
Reconstruction and Development, International Bank for. 

See International Bank 
Refugee Fund, U.N. See United Nations Refugee Fund 
Refugee Relief Act, total visa issuance under, 03 
Refugees and displaced persons (see also Hungarian ref- 
ugees. Intergovernmental Committee, and United 
Nations Refugee Fund) : 
Asylum to victims of Communist persecution, proposed, 

excerpt from state of the Union message, 125 
Copyright convention (1952), universal, protocol 1, ap- 
plication of convention to works of refugees and 
stateless persons, 548, 669, 709 
East Germany, refugees from, addresses (Eleanor 

Dulles), 177, 609 
Escapee program, U.S., role in resettling refugees, 655 
Palestine refugees, relief and rehabilitation of, state- 
ments (Lord) and General Assembly resolution, 
585, 587, 589 
Reinhardt, G. Frederick, 549 

Relief and rehabilitation. See Agricultural surpluses, 
Economic and technical aid, Hungarian refugees. 
Refugees, and individual countries 
Relief supplies and packages, agreements relating to duty- 
free entr.y, defrayment of inland transportation 
charges, and tax exemption, with^ 
Jordan, 590 ; Paraguay, 746 ; Philippines, 338 
Representation allowances, need for increase in appro- 
priations, 798 
Richards, James P. See American Doctrine : Mission of 
Ambassador Richards 



ndex, January to June 1957 



1065 



Richmond, Vice Adm. Alfred C, 349 

Rio Treaty (Inter- American Treaty of Reciprocal Assist- 
ance ) , role of, 857 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 745 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

importation of, 42, 829 
Robertson, Norman A., 893 
Robertson, Walter S., 295, 382, 682, 995 
Rountree, William M., 755, 973 

Ruanda-Urundi, political and economic progress in, state- 
ment (McGregor), 819 
Rubottom, Roy R., Jr., 310, 589, 855, 1025 
Rumania : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 745 
Customs tariffs, protocol modifying 1890 convention 
for creation of international union for publication 
of, 589 
Independence of, 80th anniversary, 850 
Parliamentary elections, U.S. observers refused admis- 
sion, 213 
Russell, Francis H., 790 

Ryukyu Islands, U.S. policy on return to Japan, state- 
ment (Dulles), 766 

Saarland : 

Change in consular jurisdiction from Strasbourg, 

France, to Frankfort, Germany, 157 
Convention of WMO, notification by France regarding 
application of, 990 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948), 829 
Safety pins, President requests further data on imports 

of, 701 
St. Clair River, navigation improvements in, U.S.-Cana- 

dian agreement, 746 
St. Helena, extension of international convention (1952) 
to facilitate importation of commercial samples and 
advertising material to, 548 
Saint John River Basin project, progress report by the 

IJC, 696 
St. Marys River, navigation improvements in, U.S.-Ca- 

nadian agreement, 746 
Sakai, Mrs. Naka, 1000 
Salans, Carl Fredric, 720 

Salmon fisheries, sockeye, protocol to 1930 convention 
with Canada for the protection, preservation, and 
extension of, in the Fraser River system, 76, 118, 
1033 
Samoa, Western, application of international convention 
to facilitate importation of commercial samples and 
advertising material to, 868 
Sandys, Duncan, 255 
Sanitation. See Health and sanitation 
Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, establishment of American con- 
sulate, 910 
Sarawak, extension of international convention (1952) 
to facilitate importation of commercial samples and 
advertising material to, 548 
Satellite nations {see alio Soviet-bloc countries) : 

Developments in, addresses and statements : Dulles, 

50 ; Macomber, 414 ; Murphy, 476 
East-West contacts. See Exchange of persons 
East- West trade. See East- West trade 



Satellite nations— Continued 
Soviet policies in : 
Addresses and statement : Dulles, 768 ; Murphy, 477^ 

649 
U.S.-U.K. views, 561 
U.S. intervention in, Soviet allegation, statement. 

(Knowland), 463 
U.S. policy regarding, addresses and statements r 
Bowie, 839 ; Dulles, 3, 8, 717, 706 ; Murphy, 943 
Satterthwaite, Joseph C, 510 
Saud ibn Abd al-Aziz Al-Saud, 135, 308 
Saudi Arabia : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Customs tariffs, convention (1890) creating interna- 
tional union for publication of, and protocol, 470 
Dharan Airfield and related military and economie 

matters, agreement with U.S., 309, 680, 710 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 
203 
U.S. airmen stationed in, question of discrimination 

against, statement (Dulles), 770 
U.S. economic and military a.ssistance, interim report 
on Ambassador Richards' mission, announcement 
and joint communique, 724, 731 
U.S. relations with, 518 

Visit of King to U.S., announcement, text of com- 
munique, exchange of greetings, and list of official 
party, 135, 308 
Scientific information, license regulations simplified on 

exports of, 317 

Sea, law of the, proposed U.N. conference, statement 

(Greenbaum) and General Assembly resolution, 60, 

61 

Sears, Mason, 820 

Seas, oil pollution of, appointment of national committee 

chairman for study on, 349 
SBATO. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Sebald, William J., 549 
Secretaries of State: Portraits and Biographical Sketches, 

published, 204 
Security Council, U.N. : 

Documents, lists of, 154, 468, 742 

Kashmir dispute. See Kashmir dispute 

Membership, U.S. position on question of expansion 

of, statement (Humphrey), 280 
Resolutions on Kashmir dispute, 232, 463 
Role in world problems, addresses (Wilcox), 555, 688' 
Suez Canal problem. See under Suez Canal problem 
Self-determination : 
Cameroons, progress toward self-government, state- 
ments : McGregor, 822 ; Sears, 820 
Kashmir, problem of. See Kashmir 
Togoland. See Togoland 
U.S. views, remarks (Eisenhower), 847 
Seychelles, extension of international convention (1952) 
to facilitate importation of commercial samples and 
advertising material to, 548 
Sharni el-Sheikh {see also Israeli hostilities) : 
Israeli position on, note and report (Ilammarskjold), 

273, 275 
U.S. position on, address (Wilcox), 558 



1066 



Department of State Bulletin 



Sharm el-Sheikh— Continued 

Withdrawal of Israeli forces from : 
Reports (Hammarskjold), 394, 545 
Statements : Dulles, 599 ; Lodge, 543 
U.S. aide memoire, 392 
Ships and shipping: 
Merchant shipping, need for alleviating shortage of, 

statement (Jlerrill), 34 
Payment to Denmark for ships requisitioned by U.S. 

during World War II, statement (Herter), 1020 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Collisions at sea, regulations (1948) for preventins 
949 ^' 

Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organiza- 
tion, convention, 380 

Merchant vessels, agreement between U.S. and Vene- 
zuela relating to exemption from port require- 
ments, 510 

Naval vessels. See Naval vessels 

Navigation improvements in connecting channels of 
the Great Lakes, U.S.-Canadian agreements, 42 
509, 746 

Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 829 
Submarines, agreement with Brazil for loan of, 203 
U.S. maritime policy, address (Hill), 1017 

Sierra Leone, extension of international convention 
(1952) to facilitate importation of commercial sam- 
ples and advertising material to, 548 

Simonson, Joseph, 790 

Sinai peninsula. See Israeli hostilities 

Singapore, extension of international convention (1952) 
to facilitate importation of commercial samples and 
advertising material to, 548 

Skaupy, Walther, 448 

Slavery convention (1926), and protocol amending, cur- 
rent actions, 548, 745, 909 
Smith, Earl E. T., 1033 

Smith-Mundt Act. See Information and Educational Ex- 
change Act 

Social progress in SEATO countries, 501 

Societe Internationale pour Participations Industrielles 
et Commerciales S. A., 350 

Somaliland Protectorate, extension of international con- 
venUon (1952) to facilitate importation of commer- 
cial samples and advertising material to, 548 

Soper, Fred L., 565 

South Africa, Union of. See Union of South Africa 

South America. See Latin America 

South and Southea.st Asia. See Asia 

South Pacific Commission, review conference, U.S. dele- 
gation, 778 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization : 
Council of Ministers, 3d meeting : 
Announcement and U.S. delegation, 493 
Final communique, 527 
Statements (Dulles), 493, 529, 531, 532 
Cultural exchange program, U.S., inauguration of, 503 
Military progress, excerpts from President's report to 

Congress, 935 
Purpose of, statement (Dulles), 534 

ndex, January to June 1957 



Southeast Asia Treaty Organization— Continued 
2d annual report, 496 

Strength of, vis-a-vis Communist China, statement 
(Dulles), 600 
Soviet Union (see also Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Re- 
public, Communism, Disarmament, East-West trade, 
Satellite nations, and Ukrainian Soviet Socialist 
Republic) : 

Aggression in the Middle East, U.S. efforts to counter. 
See American Doctrine 

Airspace over Vladivostok, alleged violation by over- 
flight of U.S. planes, U.S. and Soviet notes, 135 

Antarctica, U.S. concern over Soviet presence in, 53S 

Baltic states, Soviet actions toward, address and state- 
ment : Dulles, 347 ; Merchant, 260 

East Germany, Soviet activities in, addresses: Eleanor 
Dulles, 175, 605, 978 ; Murphy, 649 

Economic strength and potential, address (Bowie), 835 

Economic trade policy, U.S. views, addresses and state- 
ment : Claxton, 12 ; Kalijarvi, 659 ; Kotschnig, 787 ; 
Rountree, 974 

European security system, Soviet rejection of, address 

(Holmes), 345 
Foreign policy, development of, and free world efforts 

to counter, addresses and statements: Dulles, 6, 

530; Bowie, 838; Claxton, 15; Holmes, 343; 

Macomber, 411 ; Murphy, 477 ; Robertson, 295, 382 
Hungary, Soviet activities in. See Hungarian question 
Internal problems with Communist system, address 

(Hill), 133 

Kashmir dispute, Soviet position on, statements 

(Barco), 460,461 
NATO, Soviet opposition to, address (Norstad) and 

NAC communique regarding, 251, 252, 840 
Soviet assistant military attach^ and embas.sy employee 
in U.S. declared persona non grata, announcements 
and U.S. notes, 181, 719 
Subversive activities. See under Communism 
Travel ban on embassy personnel in, announcement and 

text of U.S. note of protest, 985 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 709 
Cultural property, convention and protocol for pro- 
tection in event of armed conflict, 289 
Fur seals. North Pacific, interim convention on con- 
servation of, 337, 376, 377 (text) 
U.N. membership, Soviet position regarding Korea and 

Viet-Nam, statements (Greenbamn), 332 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 1033 
U.S. attaches, expulsion of, statement (White), 307 
U.S. intervention in Eastern Europe, Soviet allegation, 
statement (Knowland), 463 
Soviet-bloc countries (see also East- West trade and 
Satellite nations) : 

Economic diplomacy in free world, analysis of technique 

of, address (Claxton), 12 
Military strength of, addres.s (Murphy), 476 
Spaak, Paul-Henri, 29, 250 

1067 



Spain : 

Agricultural conmiodilies, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 381, 710 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement with U.S. on dis- 
position of equipment and materials, 42 
Naval vessels or small craft, agreement with U.S. re- 
lating to loan of, 670 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending Inter- 
national convention (1949) for, 829 
Offshore procurement, agreement amending memo- 
randum of understanding (19.54) with U.S. relating 
to, 157 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and agree- 
ments relative to parcel post and money orders, 
242, 425, 426, 710 
Spano, Bartholomew S., 198 

Specialized agencies, U.N. {see also name of agency), 
developing cooperation through the, remarks, 
(Wilcox), 197 
Stassen, Harold E., 538, 772 
State Department (see also Foreign Service) : 

Administrator, Bureau of Security and Consular Af- 
fairs, delegation of authority to perform functions 
in connection with immigration and nationality 
laws, 157 
Appointments and designations, 204, 338, 382, 426, 510, 

590, 670, 790, 869, 950, 990, 1033 
Appropriations, appeal for partial restoration of pro- 
posed cuts in, statement (Dulles), 795 
Assistant Secretaries of State, confirmations : Berding, 

630 ; Elbrick, 382 ; Kalijarvi, 549 
Assistant Secretary of State for Policy Planning, resig- 
nation (Bowie), 910 
Confirmations, 382, 426, 549, 630 
Cornerstone ceremony for new State Department 

building, 110 
Counselor, confirmation (Reinhardt), 549 
Foreign Service examination, announced, 549 
Legal Adviser, resignation (Phleger), 550 
Publications. See under Publications 
Resignations, 157, 381, 550, 910 

Under Secretary of State, confirmation (Herter), 426 
State of the Union message, excerpts, 123 
Stateless persons and refugees : 

Protocol concerning application of universal copyright 

convention (19.52) to works of, 548, 669, 709 
Treatment of stateless persons in Egypt, concern re- 
garding, statement (Wadsworth), 106 
Status lists of international agreements, 78 
Steel production in Japan and India, International Bank 

loans for, 101, 102 
Stewart, C. Allan, 860 
Stimpson, Harry F., Jr., 510 
Stockwell, Charles W., 308 
Storey, Robert G., 36 
Straight pins, President decides against increase in tariff 

on, 702 
Straits of Tiran. See Tiran 

Strategic materials, stockpiling of, excerpt from Presi- 
dent's budget message to Congress, 167 

1068 



Strauss, Lewis L., 35 

Strom, Carl W., 290 

Strong, L. Corrin, 381 

Student-exchange program. See Educational exchange 

Stump, Adm. Felix B., 493 

Submarines, agreement with Brazil for loan of, 203 

Sudan : 
American Doctrine for Middle East, joint communique 

regarding Ambassador Richards' mission 764 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
ICJ, statute, 42 
U.N. Charter, 42 
UNESCO, constitution, 203 
Suez Canal problem [see also Israeli hostilities ana 
United Nations Emergency Force) : 
Addresses and statements : Dulles, 5, 7, 172, 303, 305, 
306, 403, 404, 405, 482, 485, 486, 488, 489, 535, 536, 
537, 597, 600, 601, 641, 642, 643, 644, 645, 646, 756, 
898, 965; Eisenhower, Mollet, 438; Jones, 264; 
Lodge, 775, 987, 988 ; Merchant, 256 ; Merrill, 34 
American use of the canal, statement (Dulles), 644 
Aswan Dam, relationship to seizure of the canal, state- 
ments (Dulles), 535, 041, 645 
British-French-Israeli military action against Egypt: 
Soviet views, letter (Bulganin), 89, 90, 91 
U.S. views, address and statement: Dulles, 5; Mer- 
chant, 256 
Withdrawal of forces from Egypt, views of Moslem 
members of Baghdad Pact, 216 
Clearance and opening of the canal : 

Advance of U.S. funds for, text of U.S. note, 105 
Statements (Dulles), 5, 7, 403, 405, 482, 480, 489, 601 
Economic ramifications in Europe and the Near East 

of closing of the canal, 34. 932 
Economic sanctions against Egypt, question of, state-- 

ment (Dulles), 643 
Israeli right of passage through the canal, statements! 

(Dulles), 306, 404, 488, 042, 898 
Oil supply to Western Europe, problem of : 
Alternate supply routes, question of, statementai 

(Dulles), 597, 600 
U.S. shipments, 258, 303 
Operation of the canal, statements: Dulles, 485, 537, 

705 ; Eisenhower, Mollet, 438 

Security Council considerations regarding operation* 

of the canal, statements and letters: Fawzi, 776; 

Hammarskjold, 778; Lodge, 775, 776, 987, 988 

Seizure of the canal, U.S. views, statement (Dulles), 

536 
Settlement of the problem : 
Joint communique (U.S.-U.K.) regarding, 561 
Statements (Dulles), 172, 305, 482, 642, 646, 905 
Significance to U.S.-Asian relations, address (Jones), 

264 
Suez Canal Users Association : 
Council meeting, 845 
Formation of, statement (Dulles), 644 
Sugar agreement (1953), internaUonal, 470, 868 
Suoniela, Arnie J., 908 
Surplus agricultural commodities. Sec Agricultural 
surpluses 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Sweden : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Faroe Islands, agreements on joint financing, 548 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 548 
GATT, 0th protocol of supplementary concessions, 156 
ICJ, statute, declaration of compulsory jurisdiction de- 
posited, 789 
International conference in Tangier, final declaration 

and annexed protocol, 242 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 1033 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 1033 
Switzerland : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 719 

Interhandel issue, U.S. position on arbitration of, texts 

of notes and memorandum, 350 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air transport, exchange of notes approving inter- 
pretation of 1945 agreement with U.S., 590 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement with U.S. for 

cooperation concerning, 290 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 709 
North Atlantic ocean stations, agreement (1954) on, 

829 
Opium, protocol for regulating cultivation, production, 

trade, and use of (1953), 42 
Trade agreement, supplementary, with U.S., 371 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 869 
Syria : 
Dispute with Israel, statements (Lodge) regarding, 

1029 
Pipeline in, views of Moslem members of Baghdad Pact 
on destruction of, 217 
Travel to, U.S. lifts restrictions, 654 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air transport, agreement with U.S. amending annex 

to 1947 agreement, 846, 869 
Telecommunication convention (19.52), international, 
final protocol, and additional protocols, 1033 
U.S. aid to, question of, statement (Dulles), 9C4 
U.S. consulate general at Aleppo, establishment, 42 

Taiwan. See China, Republic of 

Tanganyika, extension of international convention (1952) 
to facilitate Importation of commercial samples and 
advertising material to, 548 
Tangier, status of, final declaration of international con- 
ference on, and annexed protocol, 242 
Tansey, Hubert E., 308 

Tariff policy, U.S. (see also Customs and Tariffs and 
trade, general agreement on) : 
Acid-grade fluorspar, escape-clause relief held unneces- 
sary, 309 
Alsilie clover seed. President asks study of tariff quota 

on, 584 
Bicycles, escape-clause action regarding, 369 
Excerpts from President's economic report to Congress, 

223 
Ferrocerium and other cerium alloys, escape-clause re- 
lief held unnecessary, 369 

Index, January to June J 957 



Tariff policy, U.S. — Continued 
Groundflsh fillets, escape-clause relief held unnecessary, 

55, 369 
Hatters' fur. President decides against study of tariff 

on, 585 
Linen toweling, escape-clause relief hold necessary, 581, 

369 
Paraaminosalcylic acid and salts, escape-clause relief 

held unnecessary, 369 
Problems in development of, address (Kalijarvi), 1011 
Safety pins. President requests further import data on, 

701 
Straight pins, President decides against increase in 

tariff on, 702 
Tuna canned in brine, increase in import duty, 371 
Tung oil, President orders investigation of effects of 

imports of, 585 
U.S. Foreign Service fees, revision of tariff of, 381 
Velveteen fabrics, postponement of action on tariff on 

imports of, 1005, 370 
Violins and violas. President decides against increase 

in tariff on, 703 
Watches and watch movements, escape-clause action 

regarding, 371 
Woolen and worsted fabrics, revision of tariff quota, 54 
Tariffs, customs. See Customs 

Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (see also Trade 
Cooperation, Organization for) : 
"Geneva wool reservation," definition of, 55 
Import-restrictions policy, con.sultations on, 359 
Intersessional Committee, meeting and U.S. dele- 
gates, 779 
Japan, accession to GATT, 365 
9th session (1955), review of objectives and results, 

report to Congress (Eisenhower), 364 
Proems verbal of rectification concerning protocol 

amending part I and articles XXIX and XXX, 

protocol amending preamble and parts II and III, 

and protocol of organizational amendments, 470, 

789 
Protocol of organizational amendments, 470, 789 
Protocol of rectification to French text of, 590, 829 
Protocols amending, 470, 789 
Rectifications and modifications to texts of schedules, 

5th protocol, 156, 1033 
Relationship to European common market, address and 

statement : Kalijarvi, 816 ; Corse, 863 
Supplementary concession, 6th protocol, 156, 203, 289, 

500, 710, 829 
Tariff concessions, question of extension under article 

XXVIII, 946 
Tariff concessions on potatoes, negotiations between 

U.S. and Canada, 360, 773 
Tariff negotiations between U.S., U.K., and Belgium, 

581 
U.S. trade agreements program, relationship to GATT, 

President's report to Congress, 363 
Taxation. See Double taxation 
Taylor, Henry J.. 869 
Teberg, Col. D. E., 940 
Technical Advisory Boards, reports to the IJC, 696 

1069 



Technical aid to foreign countries. See Economic and 

technical aid 
Technical assistance, U.N. See under United Nations 
Technical information (see also Information, exchange 
of): 
Exchange of, importance in economic development, ad- 
dress (Kalijarvi), 408 
Export control of technical information regarding mu- 
nitions, address (Pomeroy), 699 
License regulations simplified on exports of, 317 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreements for exchange of, with— 
France, 547, 590 ; Turliey, 830 
Telecommunications : 

International telecommunication convention (1952), 

with protocols, 118, 203, 1032 
Long range radio aid to navigation station, agreement 
with Dominican Republic for establishment, 574, 
590 
Standard-band broadcasting channels, agreement with 
Mexico on use of, 288, 290, 315 
Tension, international, correspondence (Eisenhower, Bul- 

ganin) and Soviet declaration concerning, S9, 90 
Territorial waters and related matters, law of the sea, 
proposed U.N. conference, statement (Greenbaum), 
60; text of General Assembly resolution, 61 
Textiles. See Cotton textiles 
Thailand : 

Economic and technical aid, U.S., appreciation of, let- 
ters (Eisenhower, Pibulsonggram ) , 442 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S. re- 
garding, 118, 548 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 

1956 agreement with U.S., 630 
Educational exchange program, agreement amending 

19.")0 agreement with U.S., 241, 290 
German assets in Thailand, agreement relating to 
disposition of, 337 
Thompson, Llewellyn B., 1033 
Tiran, Straits of (.see also Israeli hostilities) : 

Deployment of U.N. Emergency Force at, address and 

statements: Lodge, 326, 544; Wilcox, 558, 559 
Innocent passage through, question of : 
Communique (Dulles, Meir), 562 
Report (Hammarslijold), 394, 397 
Statements: Dulles, 401, 402, 404, 40.5, 599, 646; 
Lodge, 432 
International character of, U.S. position, statement 

(Dulles), 486 
Islands in, question of occupancy, statement (Dulles), 
4S8 
Tito, Marshal, 7, 304 

Tobacco sales to U.K. and construction of military hous- 
ing and community facilities for U.S. Air Force, 
agreement amending 1956 agreement with U.S., 030 
Tobago, extension of international convention (1952) to 
facilitate importation of commercial samples and ad- 
vertising material to, 548 
Todd, Col. J. C, 810 



Togoland, British, General Assembly approval of union 
with Gold Coast, statements (Nash) and resolution, 
106, 108, 109 
Togoland, French, General Assembly action to send study 
commission to, statements (Nash) and resolution, 
282, 285 
Tokelau Islands, application of International convention 
(19.j2) to facilitate importation of commercial sam- 
ples and advertising material to, 868 
Tourism. See Travel, international 
Trade (see also Agricultural surpluses; Cotton textiles; 
East- West trade ; Economic policy ; European com- 
mon market; Exports, U.S.; Imports; Tariff policy, 
U.S. ; Tariffs and trade, general agreement on ; and 
Trade Cooperation, Organization for) : 
Arms traffic, U.S. and international control of, address 

(Pomeroy), 697 
Communist disruptive activities, SEATO report, 498 
ECAFE region, U.S. and Soviet trade with, statement 

(Kotschnig), 788 

Foreign trade policy, U.S., addresses, message, report) 

and statement: Eisenhower, 124, 222; KalijarvU 

662, 813 ; Kotschnig, 784 

Latin America, U.S. trade with, addresses : Murphy 

652 ; Rubottom, 732, 734 
Mexico, U.S. trade with, address (Rubottom), 312 
Relationship to peace, address (Dulles), 716 
Soviet-bloc trade promotion in the free world, addreai 

(Claxton), 12 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commercial samples and advertising material, inten 

national convention (1952) to facilitate importai 

tion of, 156, 548, 868 

Friendship, commerce and consular rights, agree< 

ment with El Salvador, .548 

U.S. trade agreements program. 1st annual report tii 

Congress on operation of (Eisenhower), 363 

U.S. loans for the development of, 187 

U.S. maritime policy, address (Hill), 1017 

Wheat, international trade transactions in, articli 

(Highby), 218, 219, 323, 382 
World trade week (1957), proclamation, 679 
Trade Agreements, Interdepartmental Committee on, 582 

947 
Trade Agreements Committee (TAG), functions, 1011 
Trade and Industry, ECAFE Committee on, meeting an« 

U.S. delegation to 9th session, 508 
Trade Cooperation, Organization for : 
Agreement on, current actions, 590, 7S9 
Relationship to European common market and fret 

trade area, 810 

U.S. membership, question of, excerpts from Presi 

dent's messages and report to Congress, 124, 166 

657 

Trade fairs, U.S. participation in, 186 

Trade unionism in Africa, growth of, report (Nixon) 

638 

Trading with the Enemy Act, relevance to travel to Com 
munist China, 54 



1070 



Department of Sfofe BwHefiV 



Travel, international (sec also Intel-- American Highway, 
Passports, and Visas) : 
Alien tourists, President's recommendations to Con- 
gress regarding admittance to U.S., 249 
American citizens, limitations on travel abroad, state- 
ments : Murphy, G63 ; Cartwright, 667 
Communist China, question of travel of U.S. newsmen 

to. See under China, Communist 
Far East, increased U.S. travel to, 504 
Latin America, importance of tourism in, address 

(Rubottom), 733, 735 
Middle East, U.S. lifts restrictions on travel to certain 

countries in, 654 
Policy and practices in the field of, excerpt from U.S. 
report to the U.N. Secretary-General and ECOSOC 
resolution, 145, 146 
Road traffic, convention (1940) on, with annexes, 745 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary Importation of, 42, 829 
Soviet Union, travel ban on embassy personnel in, an- 
nouncement and U.S. note of protest, 985 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs fa- 
cilities for, 42, 829 
Treaties, agreements, etc., international {for specific 
treaty, see country or subject) : 
Collective defense treaties and arrangements, impor- 
tance and development of, statement (Dulles), 171 
Current actions on, listed, 42, 78, 118, 156, 203, 241, 
289, 337, 380, 425, 470, 509, 548, 589, 630, 669, 709, 
745, 789, 829, 868, 909, 949, 990, 1032 
Treaties in Force: A List of Treaties and Other Inter- 
national Agreements of the United States, pui- 
lished, 202 
Trinidad, extension of international convention (1952) to 
facilitate importation of commercial samples and ad- 
vertising material to, 548 
Tripartite Agreement (19.50), U.S. policy on, statement 

(Dulles), 304 
Troops, U.S. See Armed forces, U.S. 
Tropical Tuna Commission, Inter-American, appointment 

of U.S. commissioner, 908 
Trucial States, 519 
Truman, Harry S., 417 
Truman Doctrine, 10th anniversary, letters : Dulles, 

Truman, 417 ; Eisenhower, 539 
Trust territories, U.N. : 

Cameroons, British and French, progress toward self- 
government, statements : McGregor, 822 ; Sears, 820 
Gold Coast. See Gold Coast and under Ghana 
Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the, compensation 
to former inhabitants of Bikini and Eniwetok, 101 
Ruanda-Urundi, review of progress in, statement 

(McGregor), 819 
Togoland. See Togoland 
Tru.steeship Council, U.N. {see also Trust territories), 

lists of documents, 155, 509, 788 
Tuna canned in brine, U.S. import policy regarding, 371 
Tuna Commission, Inter-.:Vmerican Tropical, appointment 
of U.S. commissioner, 908 



Tung oil. President orders investigation of effects of im- 
ports of, 585 
Tunisia : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 203 
Economic and technical assistance, agreement with 

U.S., 670 
Genocide, convention (1948) on prevention and 

punishment of the crime of, 42 
ICJ, statute, 42 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 

118 
UNESCO, constitution, 42 
U.N. Charter, 42 
WMO, convention, 242 
U.S. economic aid. Ambassador Richards' mission to 
the Middle East, address (Richards) and text of 
joint communique, 841, 845 
Turkey : 

Economic development, contributions of Turkish- Ameri- 
can cultural relations to, address (Warren), 214 
Greek-Turkish aid program, 10th anniversary, letters : 

Dulles, Truman, 417 ; Eisenhower, 539 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements supplementing 

agreements with U.S., 381, 910 
Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention (1952) to facilitate importa- 
tion of, 156 
Educational exchange, agreement amending 1949 

agreement with U.S., 242 
GATT, protocol of rectification to French text, 829 
IFC, articles of agreement, 203 

Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S. provid- 
ing for, 426 
Patent rights and technical information for defense, 
agreement with U.S. to facilitate interchange of, 
830 
U.S. economic and military assistance, interim report 
on Ambassador Richards' mission, announcement 
and joint communique, 724, 720 
Turks and Caicos Islands, extension of civil aircraft 

service to, U.S.-U.K. agreement, 157 
Turnage, William V., 1002 
Tyler, William R., 510 
Twining, Gen. Nathan F., 989 

Two- Way Streets Around the World, address (Kalijarvi), 
406 

Uffelman, Paul R., 307 

Uganda, extension of international convention (1952) to 
facilitate importation of commercial samples and 
advertising material to, 548 
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic {see also Soviet 
Union), convention (1954) and protocol for protec- 
tion of cultural property in event of armed conflict, 
470 
Underdeveloped countries («ee also Investment of private 
capital abroad) : 
Africa, emergence of, report (Nixon), 635 
Economic assistance to, Soviet program of. See under 
Soviet Union 



Index, January to June 1957 



1071 



Underdeveloped countries — Continued 

Economic development, U.S. position, addresses and 
statements: Bowie, 838; Dillon, 802; Dulles, 927; 
Hoffman, 23G ; Kalijarvi, 660, 661, 662 
Industrialization of, address (Hoffman), 328 
Soviet-bloc economic diplomacy in, analysis of tech- 
niques, address (Claxton), 12 
Spirit of nationalism in, remarks (Eisenhower), 847 
U.N. technical assistance program. See under United 

Nations 
U.S. aid to, address, message, remarks, and report: 
Dulles, 717 ; Eisenhower, 848, 921, 936 
UNESCO. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization, U.N. 
Union of South Africa : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute of, 1032 
IFC, articles of agreement, 789 

Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 
amending, 829 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. See Soviet Union 
United Kingdom : 

Air talks with U.S. adjourned, 437 

Atomic energy information, declassification of, tripar- 
tite policy (U.S., U.K., Canada), statement 
(Strauss), 35 
Bermuda meeting of Heads of Government, U.S.-U.K. 
exchange of views, joint communique, with an- 
nexes, 1561; statements (Dulles), 595, (>45 
British nationals in Egypt, reported mistreatment of, 

statement (Wadsworth), 100 
Cyprus. See Cyprus 

Defense talks with U.S., text of joint communique, 255 
European common market and free trade area. See 

European conmion market 
Financial arrangements with IMP and Export-Import 
Bank, announcements and statement (Jacobsson), 
28 
Foreign Relations, volume on British Commonwealth, 

published, 550 
Gold Coast. See Gold Coast and also under Ghana 
Guided missiles, U.S., deployment in U.K., statements 

(Dulles, Hagarty), 596 
Nuclear tests on Christmas Island, statement (Dulles), 

484 
Prime Minister Eden, resignation, statements (Dulles, 

Eisenhower), 130 
Prime Minister Macmillan. appointment, exchange of 

letters with Pre.sident Eisenhower, 174 
Tariff negotiations (GATT) with U.S., 581 
Togoland, British, General Assembly approval of union 
with Gold Coast, statements (Nash) and text of 
resolution, 106, 108, 109 
Trade with Communist China, U.S. views of U.K. policy 

on, 967 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air services, agreement amending annex to 1946 
agreement with U.S. providing for additional route 
to Barbados, 20^1 
Air services, agreement amending 1955 agreement 
with U.S. extending service to the Turks and 
Caicos Islands, 157 

1072 



United Kingdom — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Anglo-American financial agreement (1945), amend- 
ment of, 169, 492, 548, 625, 1033 
Arbitral Tribunal and Mixed Commission, multi- 
lateral agreement amending administrative agree- 
ment (1954) concerning, 156 
Bahamas long range proving ground, agreement 

amending 1950 agreement with U.S., 790 
Commercial samples and advertising material, exten- 
sion to various colonies and possessions of inter- 
national convention (1952) to facilitate importa- 
tion of, 548 
GATT, 6th protocol of supplementary concessions, 

289 
German assets in Italy, memorandum of understand- 
ing regarding, 669 
German assets in Thailand, agreement relating to dis- 
position of, 337 
ICJ, statute, 949 
Lend-lease and reciprocal aid, surplus war property, 
and claims, agreement further extending the joint 
statement (1945) with U.S. relating to settlement, 
1033 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement with U.S. fori 

disposition of equipment and materials, 1033 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending 19491 

international convention for, 670 

Tobacco sales to U.K. and construction of military^ 

housing and community facilities for U.S. Air 

Force, agreement amending 1956 agreement with 

U.S., 630 

Whaling convention (1946), 

amending, 949 

U.S. Ambassador, resignation 

firmation (Whitney), 382 

United Nations : 

Addresses : 

Administrative and Budgetary 

United Nations (Jones), 286 
American Principles and the United Nations (Hoff- 
man), 51 
The United Nations and Public Understanding (Wil- 
cox), 555 
The United Nations and Responsibilities for the Fm 
ture (Wilcox), 688 
Admission of new members : Ghana, 630 ; Japan, 6. 39 

42 ; Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, 42 
Charter. See United Nations Charter 
Disarmament. See Disarmament and Disarmament 

Commission, U.N. 

Documents, lists of, 41, 154, 468, 509, 014, 709, 742, 788 

General Assembly. See General Assembly 

Hungarian question. See Hungarian question 

Hungarian refugees, U.S. contribution to U.N. for, i 

Kashmir dispute. See Kashmir dispute 

Membership in U.N. and U.N. organizations, lists ol 

countries, 78, 374 I 

Membership question, U.S. position : ] 

Conmmnist China, statements and foreword to Wai 

or Peace (Dulles), 7, 531, 603 

Department of Sfafe Bu//ef/ii 



international, protocol 
(Aldrich), 157; con- 



Problems of the 



Diiitcfl Nations — Coiitiuuod 

Meinbersbip question — Continued 

Korea, Republic of, statements (Greenbaum), 144, 

332 
New members, address ( Wilcox ) , 559 
Viet-Nam, statement (Greenbaum), 332 
Near and Middle East, actions in settlement of dispute 
in. See under Arab-Israeli dispute, Israeli hos- 
tilities, and Near and Middle East 
Kelationship to the International Atomic Energy 
Agency, text of General Assembly resolution, 240 
Security Council. See Security Council 
Specialized agencies (see also name of agency), devel- 
oping cooperation through the, remarks (Wilcox), 
11)7 
Technical assistance program : 

Soviet-bloc financial contributions to, address (Clax- 

ton), 14 
U.S. financial contributions to, statement (Dulles), 

030 
U.S. participation in, addresses : Hoffman, 330 ; Kali- 
jarvi, 409 
Trust territories. See Trust territories and Trustee- 
ship Council 
U.N. conference on law of the sea, proposed, statement 
(Greenbaum) and General Assembly resolution, 
60, 61 
U.S. support of, address (Dulles), 718 
U.S. views on function of, addresses and remarks : 
Bowie, 837; Eisenhower, 435, 847; Murphy, 652, 
943 
United Nations Charter : 
Amendments to, desirability of, foreword to War or 

Peace (Dulles), 603 
List of signatories, 78 
United Nations Command (Korea), 143 
United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, 11th 

session, statements (Hahn), 704 
United Nations Economic and Social Council. See Eco- 
nomic and Social Council, U.N. 
United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the 
Far East : 
Committee on Industry and Trade, meeting and U.S. 

delegation to 9th session, 508 
Economic development activities, statement (Kot- 
schnlg), 780 
Dnited Nations Economic Commission for Europe : 
Natural gas, meeting of working party on problems 

of, 424 
12th session, confirmation of U.S. delegate, 779 
Jnited Nations Economic Commission for Latin America, 
confirmation of U.S. representative to 7th session, 
9S9 

Jnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization 



United Nations Emergency Force (see also Israeli hos- 
tilities and Suez Canal problem) : 
Deployment of : 
General Assembly action regarding : 

Addresses and statements : Eisenhower, 388, 389 ; 

Lodge, 2G9, 270, 326, 432, 543; Wilcox, 091 
Note and reports (Hammarskjold), 271, 274, 275, 

276, 277, 278, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 544 
Resolution, 327 
U.S. views, statements (Dulles), 483, 484, 536, 596, 
598 ; aide memoire, 392 
Financing of, address and statements (Jones), 66, 288; 

General Assembly resolution, 70 
Question of withdrawal of participating members, 
statement (Dulles), 487 
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, 

functions, statement (Phillips), 627, 628 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, assist- 
ance to Hungarian refugees, 721 
United Nations Refugee Fund (UNREF) : 
4th session of Executive Committee, functions and U.S. 

delegation, 240 
5th session of Executive Committee and Standing Pro- 
gram Subcommittee, U.S. representatives, 990 
U.S. makes final 19-56 payment to, 337 
United Nations Relief Works Agency (UNRWA), aid to 
Palestine refugees, U.S. views, statements (Lord) 
and General Assembly resolutions, 585, 587, 589 
United Nations Truce Supervision Organization in Pales- 
tine, report on Syrian complaint against Israel, 1029 
United Nations Trusteeship Council. See Trusteeship 

Council, U.N. 
United States citizens and nationals : 
Claims. See Claims 
Alurder of U. S. citizens in Iran, 654 
Protection of: 

Communist China, detention and release of U.S. ci- 
vilians and question of travel of American news- 
men to. See under China, Communist 
Disappearance of U.S. citizen in the Dominican Re- 
public. See Murphy, Gerald Lester 
Girard, William S., 963, 964, 1000 
ICA efforts during Middle East crisis, 932 
Responsibility of President and Secretary of State, 
statement (Murphy), 663, 664 
United States Information Agency : 

Administration of the Agricultural Trade Development 

and Assistance Act of 195-'i, 005 
Proopsals concerning, state of the Union message, 125 
United States Merchant Marine, U.S. maritime policy, 

address (Hill), 1017 
United States Navy medical research unit, Taipei, agree- 
ment amending agreement with Republic of China 
providing for, 156 
Universal copyright convention (1952), with protocols, 

current actions, 380, 548, 669, 709 
Universal postal convention (1952), current actions, 630, 

745, 868, 909, 949 
Uruguay, Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, con- 
vention and agreements relating to parcel post and 
money orders, 42.5, 426 
U.S.S.R. See Soviet Union 



Index, January to June 1957 



1073 



Validation Board for German Dollar Bonds : 
Establishment, 444 

Report (Sept. 1, 1955- Aug. 31, 1956), 447 
Vandenberg, Sen. Arthur H., 1022 
Van der Beugel, E. H., 747 
Velveteen fabrics. See Cotton textiles 
Venezuela : 
Air Force mission, agreement extending 1953 agree- 
ment with U.S., 426 
Army mission, agreement extending 1951 agreement 

with U.S., 426 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 625 
IFC, articles of agreement, 203 

Merchant vessels, agreement with U.S. relating to ex- 
emption from port requirements, 510 
Vessels. See Naval vessels and Ships and shipping 
Viet-Nam : 

Communist threat to, address (Jones), 260, 267 
Economic and political progress, U.S. support of, ad- 
dress ( Murphy ) , 945 
Industrial property, convention (1934) for the protec- 
tion of, 118 
U.N. membership and unification of, U.S. and Soviet 

positions, statements (Greenbaum), 332 
U.S. aid, 937 

U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 549 

Visit of President to U.S., announcement, joint state- 
ment, address to Congress, exchange of greetings 
(Diem, Eisenhower), and members of official party, 
771, 851 
Villeda Morales, Ramon, 181 
Violas and violins, President decides against increase in 

tariff on, 703 
Visas (.see also Passports) : 

Changes in and clarification of regulations concerning 
issuance of, excerpt from U.S. report to U.N. 
Secretar.v-General, 145, 149, 150, 151 
Issuance of immigrant and nonimmigrant visas during 

19SC, 418 
Issuance uuder Refugee Relief Act, 93 
Passport visas and visa fees, agreements relating to, 
with — 
Ce.ylon, 289 ; Japan, Peru, 746 
Relationship of issuance of visas to immigration into 
the U.S., address (Coulter), 722 
Von Brentano, Heinrich, 490, 719 
Voorhees, Tracy S., 442 

Wadsworth, James J., 106, 422, 507, 880 

Wailes, Edward Thompson, 441 

Walmsley, Walter Newbold, 778 

War damage claims against Italy, memorandum of under- 
standing and final date for filing, 670, 901 

War graves, American, agreement extending 1947 agree- 
ment with the Netherlands, 630 

War or Peace foreword to new editions, 001 

War victims, Geneva conventions (1949) relative to pro- 
tection and treatment of, 203, 670, 949 

Ward, Robert E., Jr., 670 

Warren, Fletcher, 214 

Warren, George L., 743 



Weather : 

Climatology, international cooperation in, article 

(Landsberg), 612 
Weather stations, agreements for establishment and 
operation of, with — 
Chile, 630, 710 ; Ecuador, 830, 949 ; Peru, 909, 950 
Weather stations, North Atlantic, agreement (1954) 
on, 829 
Weights and measures, convention (1875) for creation 

of international ofiice, 509 
West, George L., Jr., 510 

Western Samoa, application of international convention 
to facilitate importation of commercial samples and 
advertising material to, 868 
Whaling convention (1946), international: 
Amendments to schedule, 289 

Protocol amending, current actions, 710, 746, 829, 949, 
990, 1033 
Wheat agreement (1956), international: 
Article (Highby), 318, 382 
Current actions, 41, 42, 590, 670, 1033 
Wheat Council, International, 318, 319, 321, 382 
White, Francis, 1033 
White, Lincoln, .54, 307, 768n, 773 
Whitehouse, Charles, 590 
Whitney, John Hay, 382 
WHO. See World Health Organization 
Wieland, William A., 1033 
Wilcox, Francis O., 57, 197, 555, 688, 887, 1031 
Wilkins, J. Erne.st, 468, 1031 
Willis, Frances E., 950 
Willson, Clifford, 563 
Wilson, Brewster, 654 
Wilson, Charles E., 2.55, 1000 

Windward Islands, extension of international convention 
(1952) to facilitate importation of commercial sam- 
ples and advertising material to, 548 
WMO. See World Meteorological Organization 
Women, United Nations Commission on Status of, 11th 

session, statements (nahu),704 
Women in Latin America, widening horizons for, address 

(Steward), 800 
Woolen and worsted fabrics, revision of U.S. tariff quota, 

54 
World Bank. See International Bank 
World food reserve, U.S. policy on establishment of, state- 
ment (Humphrey), 233 
World Health Assembly. See under World Health 

Organization 
World Health Organization: 
Constitution, 829 

World Health Assembly, 10th, meeting and U.S. dele- 
gation, 823 
World Health Assembly, 11th, invitation to convene in 
U.S., 708 
World Meteorological Organization : 
Commission for Climatology, 2d session, U.S. delega- 
tion and article (Landsberg), 153, 612 
Convention, current actions, 156, 242, 868, 990 
Worsted and woolen fabrics, revision of U.S. tariff 
quota, 54 



1074 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Wounded and sick, Geneva conventions (1949) relative 
to treatment in time of war, 203, C70, 949 

Yemen : 

Ambassador Richards' mission to the Middle East, 

statement regarding, 763 
Development of, address (Murphy), 519 
Yugoslavia : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 290, 630 
American consulate at Sarajevo, establishment, 910 



Yugoslavia— Continued 
Marshal Tito, proposed visit to U.S., statements 

(Dulles), 7, 304 
U.S. military assistance to, announcement and excerpt 
from report to Congress (Eisenhower), 03G 939 
Young, Philip, 630 

Zanzibar, extension of international convention (1952) to 
facilitate importation of commercial samples and 
advertising material to, 548 

ZeUerbach, James David, 290 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

Publication 6620 

Released June 1958 



For sale by the Superintendent of Doeuments, U. S. Oovemment Printing Office 
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 25 cents 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



liii-l 



f] 




Y RECORD 

a STATES 
3N POLICY 



Vol. XXXVI, No. 915 January 7, 1957 

SECRETARY DULLES' NEWS| CONFERENCE OF 

DECEMBER 18 3 

MUTUAL SECURITY AND SOVIET FOREIGN AID • 

fey Philander P. Claxton, Jr J2 

ADMISSION OF JAPAN TO THE UNITED NATIONS 

• Messages From President Eisenhower and Secretary Dulles 

and Statements by Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. . . 39 

COLOMBO PLAN NATIONS REVIEW ECONOMIC 

PROGRESS • Fin«/ Communique and Extract From 
Annual Report 3Q 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF THREE ON NON- 
MILITARY CO-OPERATION IN NATO 18 

For index see inside back cover 



Bnston Public Lftrary 
3uperin«''n'''>nt of Documents 



JAN 2 9 1957 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XXXVI, No. 915 • Pcblication 6433 
January 7, 1957 



For Sftle by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Qoverament Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
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Secretary Dulles' News Conference of December 18 



Press release 624 dated December 18 

Following is the Depai'tment of State's release 
of Secretary Dulles^ news conference of December 
18. 

Secretary Dulles: I am very glad to be back 
here again after a little absence. I want to take 
this occasion to again pay public tribute to the 
capable and dedicated work that was done by 
Acting Secretary Hoover during my absence. 
Also, because we may not meet again before 
Christmas, I want to wish you all a merry 
Christmas. 

Now, if you have questions. 

U.S. Forces in Europe 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there has been a lot of speoit- 
lation about the possibility of some kind of posi- 
tive response by the United States to a reference 
in Premier Bulganin's disarmament message on 
November 17 about reducing forces in Europe.^ 
I think that he suggested: one, cutting back and, 
two, eventually removing all forces. Can you 
say what kind of response might be made to this 
idea or what the possibility for action in this field 
is? 

A. Well, I cannot forecast at this time to you 
the precise terms of the reply that will be made 
by President Eisenhower to Premier Bulganin. 
Actually, I believe that the suggested reply is be- 
ing considered by the Standing Committee of the 
North Atlantic Treaty Coimcil in pursuance to 
our policy of exchanging views about these things 
with the allies most directly concerned. I think 
I can say this, that there is no plan, and I think 
there will be no suggestion in the reply, that our 
strength in Europe will be reduced. We dis- 
cussed that matter rather fully at the Nato meet- 
ing and in our discussion of the new directive to 
be given to our military authorities. And the 

'U.N. doc. A/3366. 
Januory 7, 1957 



assumption is that the United States strength in 
Europe will continue. That doesn't mean that 
there may not be some adjustment or streamlining 
of the divisions because that is a program that is 
being considered by the Defense Department in 
relation to all our divisions everywhere as part 
of the effort to make them more mobile and better 
adapted to modem warfare and new weapons. 
But there is no planning now in contemplation for 
reducing United States strength in Europe. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could I put the question this 
way: You have long said that mxiny things are 
afoot in the Soviet Union, and the evidence is 
clear that this is true in the satellites. There seems 
also to be a general feeling here that the satellite 
situation has changed — the military equation — be- 
cause the Russians no longer can count on the 
satellite troops in a conflict with the West. Is this 
an opportunity to make soine new approach on a 
European political settlement, and, if that were 
true, loould that involve some alteration of the 
military posture of the two sides? 

A. I would think that, if developments within 
the satellite nations took such a turn that they 
became genuinely independent nations, that would 
justify a general review of the situation. The 
United States has made clear — I expressed it in the 
speech which I gave at Dallas at the end of Oc- 
tober, I think it was ^ — and President Eisenhower 
said the same thing shortly thereafter, that the 
United States has no purpose at all to turn these 
satellite countries into our allies, in the sense that 
we have no desire to surround the Soviet Union 
with a band of hostile states and to revive what 
used to be called the cordon sanitaire, wliich was 
developed largely by the French after the First 
World War with a view to circling the Soviet 
Union with hostile forces. We have made clear 
our policy in that respect in the hope of facilitat- 



" BuxLETiN of Nov. 5, 1956, p. 695. 



ing in that way an evolution — a peaceful evolu- 
tion — of the satellite states toward genuine inde- 
pendence. So far there has not been any response 
to that sufficient to justify, I believe, any basic re- 
appraisal of the military position. It is of course 
quite true that the situation has changed — the 
equation has changed — that, whereas perhaps a 
couple years ago the Soviet Union felt, and we 
perhaps felt, that the Soviet could count on 60 or 
more divisions from the satellite forces to fight on 
its side, it now looks as though the Soviets could 
not count on them fighting on their side. They 
might be shooting m the other direction, and it 
might require a subtraction in the Soviet forces to 
balance that factor in the equation. Nevertheless, 
even taking that into account, the potential Soviet 
strength in Europe is so large that even after, as 
I say, taking that into account, the problem of 
military balance does not yet permit, in my opin- 
ion, and in the opinion of our military advisers, of 
any reduction in the strength of Nato forces in 
Europe. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, are you then saying that the 
continued partition of Germany and the complete 
indepeTidence of all satellite states are prerequi- 
sites of any American acceptance of an all-Europe 
security treaty? 

A. Well, I am saying this: I think that if 
there were a genuine independence of the satellite 
countries that would certainly facilitate the kind 
of a review that had been suggested. I also would 
say that we are not prepared to review the mili- 
taiy situation on the continent of Europe on any 
basis which presupposes a line drawn through 
Germany and which implies the continued par- 
tition of Germany. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you feel, after your visit 
to Paris, that there has been something of a re- 
establishment of the good feeling that existed pre- 
viously to the Suez crisis with our allies? 

A. I think there is no doubt at all but what 
relations are better than before I went to Paris 
and had the talks that took place within the Nato 
Council and also the talks tliat took place outside 
of the Nato Council. I would not go so far as to 
say that there are still no scars that remain — no 
differences of opinion about past performance. 
But the best way to forget the past is to be plan- 
ning for the future. That is a rule that I think ap- 
plies to life in all its aspects, including inter- 



national life. As we think about the future and 
plan for the future together, there tends to be a 
healing of the old wounds, and I think that process 
is under way. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there has been some sugges- 
tion that possibly one of the great boons which 
might come from the visit of Mr. Nehru to this 
country woxdd be an eventual settlement of the 
problem in the Middle East. Can you give us 
any comment about that, or any indication of 
what the talks are apt to lead to, sir? 

A. No, I'm sorry to say that I do not feel that 
I can comment upon Prime Minister Nehru's visit 
here while the visit is still in process. I have not 
yet had a chance to talk with the President be- 
cause he is on his way back now from Gettysburg, 
and I don't know what has transpired there. I 
had my own talk with Prime Minister Nehru on 
Sunday afternoon. But while the talks are going 
on I prefer not to comment upon them. 

Question of Consultation With Allies 

Q. Mr. Secretary, to what degree is the United 
States committed by your cojnmitments in th& 
Paris meeting to consult vnth its allies, and to 
what degree is it not committed to consult with its 
allies on international problems? 

A. Well, I made clear there that, as far as con- 
sultation went, we were prepared to consult fully 
with our allies about any of our problems or any 
of oxir policies in any part of the world. I said 
that our policies were known, there was nothing 
secret about them, and we would be glad to discuss 
them, explain them, and if any of our allies had 
any suggestions to make we would be glad to take 
them into account. And I said that applied to 
our policies whether in relation to the Far East, 
or the Near East, or this American Hemisphere. 

Now, then, I made another point, however, 
which was that in these areas we are bound by 
treaty to take action in certain contingencies. All 
of that is known in advance. It is known, for ex- 
ample, and I pointed out in Paris, that we are 
bound by treaty with the liepublic of China on 
Taiwan to join with it to defend Taiwan and the 
Pescadores in the event of attack. If that attack 
occurs, we will have to comply with our treaty 
obligations. The time to discuss that policy, if 
they want to discuss it, is now, and we are pre- 
pared to discuss it now, ;ind. indeed, I did expmuid 



Deparimeni of Sfafe Bulletin 



it a year ago, I think, to the Nato Council. There- 
fore, we are prepared to discuss and counsel with 
them about policies anywhere. But where action 
is required we cannot agree to suspend action to 
which we are bound by treaty with other allies. 
We cannot suspend action to comply with that 
treaty in order at that stage to discuss it with the 
Nato allies. 

I would like to add one thought here because 
there is a good deal of misunderstanding, I found, 
in Paris on this question of consultation. It is as- 
sumed that our complaint about the British and 
the French is primarily because they failed to con- 
sult with us, or with the Nato Council. That is 
not the case. It is qtiite true that the actual at- 
tack occurred without our knowledge and came 
as a complete surprise to us. But there had been 
prior consultation about this matter for nearly 
3 months. The views of the United States were 
fully known as to why we were opposed to this. 
We had discussed it during the three trips that I 
made to London, beginning with my first trip there 
the end of July. It had been discussed with the 
British and French Ministers when we met here 
at the Security Council meeting. The matter had 
been fully discussed; they knew our views; they 
knew why we were opposed to any such action. 
And our complaint is not that there was not a 
discussion of these matters; not that we had not 
had an opportunity to make our views known — 
the point was that we considered that such an at- 
tack under the circumstances would violate the 
charter of the United Nations and would violate 
article 1 of the North Atlantic Treaty itself, which 
requires all the parties to that treaty to renounce 
the use of force and to settle their disputes by 
peaceful means. That is our complaint : that the 
treaty was violated; not that there was not con- 
sultation. And we made perfectly clear that as 
far as we are concerned we want to live up to our 
treaty obligations, as we understand them. We 
are prepared to explain those obligations, to give 
our interpretations of them, so there is no lack of 
understanding about what our policies are. But 
if we are bound by treaty to do something, or if we 
are bound by treaty not to do something, we expect 
to conform to those treaties. Those treaty obli- 
gations are not themselves a matt<;r of discussion 
in the sense that we will have to submit to the 
Nato Council whether or not we comply with our 
treaties. 



Clearing Suez Canal 

Q. Mr. Secretary, it seems to he generally 
agreed that Europe's economic difJicuUies will in- 
crease in direct proportion to the length of time 
the Suez Canal remains closed. There are some 
diflic^dties regarding the clearing of the canal 
right now in which Egypt and the United Nations 
and Britain and France are particularly involved. 
Do we have a deadline which we have set hy which 
the canal must be cleared, and, whether we have 
or tnhether we have not, lohat are we doing to per- 
suade Mr. Nasser to cooperate in this venture? 

A. Well, there is no deadline that I know of 
fixing a date by which the canal must be cleared. 
It would be quite impossible to have such a dead- 
line because the engmeers who are studying the 
matter don't have the slightest idea yet of the full 
nature of the obstacles or how long it will take to 
clear the obstacles. Therefore, to have a deadline 
for completion would be physically and tecluii- 
cally impossible. Now we are, of course, deeply 
concerned that the canal shall get back into opera- 
tion just as soon as possible. That is a matter of 
economic and financial concern to the nations of 
Europe, to the nations of Asia, and to the United 
States itself, which is carrying some of the finan- 
cial burdens of this interruption. Therefore, our 
national interest and our interaational interest 
is that the canal shall get back into operation as 
soon as possible. There are a great many practical 
and psychological problems that are involved, and 
our belief is that the best way to get that result 
is to give backing to the Secretary-General, who 
has been entrusted with the primary responsi- 
bility in this matter. He has competent people as 
his advisers. We are always at his disposal to 
give any advice that he thinks he can usefully get 
from the United States. But we are backing Mr. 
Hammarskjold in this matter as the best way to 
get the job done. 

Policy on "Cold War" 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there are reports from Mos- 
cow, from Western correspondents and diplomats 
there, that the Soviet Governtnent appears to have 
reached an operational assumption that this Gov- 
ernment in Washington desires and intends a 
resumption of the cold war. Would you please 
clarify for us the actual policy of this Government 
in respect to that matter? 



January 7, J 957 



A. Well, I can say very categorically that the 
United States does not desire "a resumption of the 
cold war." Of course, this phrase "cold war" is 
a somewhat ambiguous phrase, and I don't expect 
you would find the definition of it if you turn to 
Webster's Dictionary or the Oxford Dictionary. 
So there is always a question of definition when 
there are used somewhat loose phrases of this sort. 
But the change in the atmosphere that has oc- 
curred since the Geneva conference is not due to 
any action of the United States that I am aware 
of; certainly, not due to any desire upon our part. 
It has been due to Soviet action. It has tried to 
stir up trouble in the Near East, to try to obstruct 
a settlement of the Near East problems at these 
Suez conferences. It was always the apparent 
policy of the Soviet Foreign Minister to try to 
see to it that no agreement was reached between 
Egypt and the British and the French. And 
whenever it looked like an agreement might be 
near at hand it was the Soviet Government carry- 
ing on propaganda in the Arab countries which 
fought against and denounced the proposed set- 
tlement, making it very difficult indeed for the 
Arab countries to accept the settlement. Then, 
of course, we know the tragic events of Hungary. 
I may say, also, of course, there was the fact that 
at the Geneva summit conference there was a very 
definite agreement that Germany should be re- 
unified by free elections. That agreement was 
torn up. All of those have created an impression 
as to the Soviet policy which seems to be not read- 
ily reconcilable with what they indicated at 
Geneva. Between the actions that have been taken 
with respect to the Geneva agreement about Ger- 
many, the policies in the Near East, and the 
policies in Hungary, it doesn't look very much as 
though the Soviet Union wanted really to develop 
friendly relations with the free world. But the 
responsibility for that, I think, lies wholly upon 
the Soviet Union, and there is no desire or plot- 
ting on our part to bring that about. 

Q. Mr. Secretary^ has Britain told the United 
States that it intends to cut its NATO troop com- 
mitment hy about perhaps 50 percent? 

A. Well, there has been a discussion in Paris at 
the Nato meeting, and in some of the talks that 
took place in more restricted gi-oups as a by- 
pi'oduct of the Council meeting, that the situation 
would call for a reconsideration of the United 
Kingdom forces on the continent of Europe. You 



may recall that at tlae time when the pledge of 
those forces was made, at the time of the London 
and Paris Accords and the making of the Brussels 
Treaty, or revision of the Brussels Treaty, the 
British pledge contained a reference to the possi- 
bility of financial considerations justifying a re- 
consideration of that pledge.^ I think there is a 
feeling that the financial position of the United 
Kingdom at the present time does justify some 
reconsideration of that pledge, and the reconsider- 
ation is being given. There has been no decision 
as yet as to what will take place. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, we know that France and 
Bntain need crude oil and fuel oil, and we know 
that they have a shortage of gasoline. Now we 
stand ready to give them everything they need, and 
we have even a surplus of tanker bottoms at pres- 
ent to carry this to them. Why is it they hxive 
informed this Goveimment they do not want to 
take any gasoline lohen they have a shortage? 

A. Well, I am afraid you are out of my depth. 
I didn't know that tliey had given such 
information. 

Q. Well, if you donH know it, then mayhe they , 
haverOt. 1 

A. I don't claim to be omniscient. There are 
lots of things happen that I don't know about. j 

Q. We have been told in other press conferences 
by officers of this administration that Britain and 
France didn't want gasoline. 

A. It may be tliat their primary desire may be 
in the form of crude oil [and do their own 
refining].* 

Japan's Admission to U,N. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, today and perhaps by this 
time Japan is scheduled to become the 80th mem- 
ber of the United Nations. Would you have any 
comment about her accession to membership in 
the United Nations? 

A. I just got word that Japan has been ad- 
mitted to the United Nations by a vote of 77 in 
favor and no oppositions. That is an event which 
the United States very greatly welcomes. We 
have been seeking that for several years. The 
road has been rockj' because of the Soviet veto 
that was imposed for so long. 

'lUA.. Oct. 11, 1954, p. 520. 

' Uracketed phrase added to transcript. 



Department of State Bulletin 



You will perhaps recall my very special interest 
in the Japanese situation because of the part I 
had in negotiating the Treaty of Peace with 
Japan. We expressed at that time the hope that 
Japan would quickly be admitted to the United 
Nations. Japan is surely entitled to take its place 
in that grouping of the family of nations. We 
are confident that Japan, by its presence there, 
will strengthen the United Nations, that its part 
will be constructive. So it is not only a result to 
which the Japanese are entitled and which we are 
very glad to see happen; it is also a result that the 
United Nations is entitled to, and that is a point 
too for which we are gratified. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, what is your attitude toward 
the latest Soviet jyrojjosal for admitting Com- 
munist China into the United Nations? 

A. Well, I would hope that that is an academic 
question. The United States stands firmly op- 
posed to the admission of Communist China to the 
United Nations. I don't think I need perhaps to 
give all the reasons here, but I think they are 
ample. They have been expressed earlier at the 
United Nations General Assembly, and there has 
been no change in our views since then. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, can you give us any indica- 
tion of what sort of a foreign-aid 'program is being 
studied noio with a vieio to requests lohich will he 
made to the coTning session of Congress — for in- 
stance, will there he any possibility of economic 
aid for Poland? Will there he any request for 
some sort of a little Marshall plan for Western 
Europe? 

A. I would not be able to comment upon the 
prospective budget which is in preparation. All 
of the Departments in the Government are under 
strict injunction not to comment about the budget 
until it is approved by the President and can be 
communicated to the Members of Congi'ess. I 
would say that, quite apart from the details of the 
budget, and as to the policy involved, it is, I think, 
well known that the United States has made con- 
tact with the new Polish Government with a view 
to ascertaining whether there is any mutually ac- 
ceptable program whereby we could give assist- 
ance to Poland which would assist it to maintain 
its growing independence. But it is unlikely that 
the amount of that would be a major factor in the 
budget that we are considering. Tliere is no plan 
that I am aware of being prepared which w^ould 



represent what might be called "a little Marshall 
plan." 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would you try to clarify a 
point on troops in Europe? You have said this 
morning that ive oppose and are not considering 
a reduction in military strength and that we will 
not accept a line dividing Germany hut that this 
does not preclude a possible adjustment or stream- 
lining of forces. Does this, hoioever, mean that 
we will not consider a bilateral pullhack of forces 
from Germany with the objective of the unifwa- 
tion of Germany? 

A. I do not see any present likelihood of that 
becoming a practical proposition. 

Possibility of Visit by Marshal Tito 

Q. Mr. Secretary, woxdd you favor an early visit 
to the United States by Marshal Tito? 

A. Well, I think that it would serve a useful 
piu-pose if there were a visit from Marshal Tito. 
There are things which might usefully be talked 
over, I think, in that way. As you know, I went 
myself to Brioni and talked with Marshal Tito a 
year ago last November,^ and I found that that 
was a worthwhile conversation. Many things that 
we talked about then have proved of utility and 
have indicated an understanding by Marshal Tito 
of some of the satellite problems which has been 
confirmed by subsequent events. I think that was 
a useful talk, and I would think that there might 
be utility again in such a talk at a high level. 

Q. Has a decision been wnade to invite him,, sir? 

A. Well, sympathetic consideration is being 
given to it, although there has not yet been a for- 
mal invitation with the fixing of a date, nor indeed 
do we know definitely that the idea will ever come 
to consummation. The visit is in the process of 
detailed development, you might say, at this 
stage. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there appears to he in West- 
em Europe still some residue of the feeling that, 
while we pressed the British and French and the 
Israelis very hard to comply with the United Na- 
tions, loe have not exerted an equal pressure on 
the Egyptians to cooperate in both a long-range 
settlement of the canal problem and in clearing the 
canal. Noio, what could you say on this point spe- 

= Bulletin of Nov. 21, 1955, p. 833. 



January 7, 1957 



cifwaUy, and including what our views are on 
whether the canal clearing operations should begin 
even before all foreign forces are withdrawn from 
Egypt? 

A. Well, on the last point, I would say that in 
a sense the canal clearing operations are already 
under way. Of course, they have been for some 
time under way in the portion of the canal which 
is under the control or was under the control of 
the British and the French. They have also be- 
gun in the other part of the canal, because there 
is going on there the engineering exploratory work 
which must precede any actual physical work of 
clearing the canal. You have got to know where 
the obstacles are, what the nature of the obstacles 
is, you have got to plan as to what you try to do 
with them, whether you take them away or shift 
them, what you do. 

There is an area of plamiing there which must 
precede the physical attacking of the problem. 
That is under way at the present time, under the 
direction of General Wlieeler. And I believe that 
that work then will go on without any interruption 
as the British and French withdrawal is com- 
pleted. 

Now, the question of whether or not British 
units will be used there is a highly complicated 
problem, but I believe there will be no serious in- 
terruption of the work because, as I say, this en- 
gineering survey and planning has to take place 
first. 

Status of Satellites 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you have spoken today of 
the military equation, of the contemplated reply 
of this Government to the Bulganin letter, and. 
also of consultation in Paris with our NATO 
allies. Are we or do we have in the making any 
startling new proposals to take the initiative at 
this time, as some people say, of opporfujiify for 
the free world? 

A. Well, I would not want to characterize our 
plans as being startling or new, as far as that is 
concerned. The developments are taking place. 
We have great hope that they will result in a very 
important change in the international picture. I 
doubt whether that change that we hope for can be 
advanced by anything that is very startling. I 
have alre^idy indicated that the United States is 
very openminded to any suggestions that might be 
made as to the status — whether neutralization or 



otherwise — of satellite countries which would take 
away any fear, I would hope, by the Soviet Union 
that it would be physically or militarily endan- 
gered if it facilitated this evolution to independ- 
ence. 

Now, tliat is a basic policy position which has 
been enunciated by the President and me in the 
past. It has not been developed further because 
there has been no particular response to it. But 
I would hope that perhaps, through that line of 
thinking, we might at some stage help to produce 
a situation which would be better from every- 
body's standpoint, also including the Soviet 
Union. 

I had a talk about 6 montlis ago, I think, with 
one of the leading figures in Europe, who knew a 
great deal about the satellite situation. And he 
was saying to me, "It's vei-y important that this 
satellite situation should develop in such a way 
that the Soviet Union is surrounded by friendly 
countries." And I said, "We have no desire what- 
ever that the Soviet Union shall be surrounded 
by nnfx-iendly countries. But," I said, "that is 
not a matter which is m our control as much as it 
is in the control of the Soviet Union." I said, 
"Unless they move fast, they are going to find 
that they are going to be surromided by un- 
friendly peoples and consequently in the long run 
by unfriendly governments. They have got to 
move fast or else events will get out of their 
control." 

I said that 6 months ago. And that is the way 
things have gone. But they haven't gone that 
way because the United States wanted them to go 
that way. We would have liked to have seen the 
evolution in a more complete and orderly way, 
and we are entirely prepared to make it as clear 
as can be that the United States has no desire to 
capitalize upon this situation as part of any pro- 
gram of a hostile character against the Soviet 
Union. 

Q. Is it correct, sir, to assume from, what you 
are saying about the satellite areas that it is this 
Government's position that this is essentially a 
unilateral Soviet problem, that \ce are not pre- 
pared to negotiate with the Russians over the 
status of the satellites or of their forces in the 
satellites in relation to the Western forces in 
Western Europe? 

A. Well, the Soviet Union has alwaj's taken the 
position that this was a matter it could deal with 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



and it was no matter that they are. willing to dis- 
cuss with us. You will recall at the summit 
meeting President Eisenhower raised this prob- 
lem in liis opening speech,® and Chairman Bul- 
ganin in his reply, as they went around the table, 
said, "Tliis is a matter which we ai'e gomg to deal 
with ourselves and we do not admit of any dis- 
cussions with anybody about it." ' Now, that is 
their decision. If at any time the Soviet Union 
wanted any more formal expression of our views, 
we would always be glad to give it to them. 

Q. But in the Bulgardn, the last Bulganin 
letter, there loas a reference to possible relation- 
ship between the Wavsaio military setup a^id 
NATO. Is this a negotiable possibility from our 
side? 

A. Not in terms of an equating of the Warsaw 
Pact and Nato, no. That is not the context within 
which I think the problem ought to be discussed 
because the Warsaw Pact is totally different from 
Nato. We would not want to recognize or seem 
to give sanctity to that Warsaw Pact, which in 
fact is not a device for providing mutual security 
for those countries but is a device for perpetuating 
Soviet control over those countries. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in your considered judgment, 
is there hope for a peaceful settlement between 
Israel and her Arab neighbors, particularly 
Egypt, in the near future, in view of the continued 
refusal of these neighbors to recognize IsraeVs 
sovereignty, and if so, in what way can the United 
States prove a helpful force for peace? 

A. Certainly the United States has hope for a 
settlement of the political problems, economic 
problems, refugee problems, and the like in that 
area. Our basic position remains pretty much the 
same, or I think I can say the same, as was ex- 
pressed in the speech on this subject which I made 
on the 26th of August of last year.* Of course, 
events since then have led to our hopes being con- 
siderably deferred. And the atmosphere at the 
present moment is not, I'm afraid, conducive to 
bringing about such a settlement at an early date. 
But the efforts of the United States will continue 
to be made for a settlement along the lines of my 
August 26th statement. 

" Ihid., Aug. 1, 1955, p. 171. 

' For text of Mr. Bulganin's opening aiidress at the 
Geneva summit conference, see The Geneva Conference 
of Heads of Oovernment, July 18-2S, 1955 (Department 
of State publication 6046), p. 35. 

' Bulletin of Sept. 5, 1955, p. 378. 



Additional U.S. Contribution to U.N. 
for Hungarian Refugees 

WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

White House press release dated December 15 

The President announced today that the United 
States will contribute $4 million to the Secretary- 
General of the United Nations to be used for as- 
sistance to Hungarian refugees. 

The contribution is in response to a resolution 
of the U.N. General Assembly and a joint appeal 
for help issued by the Secretary-General and the 
U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees [see 
below]. 

An earlier United States contribution of $1 
million was made to the United Nations for the 
same purpose on November 13, 1956.^ Since that 
time, the influx of refugees from Hungary into 
Austria has continued, and more than 130,000 have 
escaped into Austria from their homeland. 

The additional contribution of $4 million from 
the United States wiU assist the Austrian Govern- 
ment, working in cooperation with the High Com- 
missioner, the International Red Cross, and other 
intergovernmental and voluntary agencies, in 
meeting the heavy demands placed upon the Re- 
public of Austria by the arrival of these refugees. 

In announcing this contribution, the President 
said that the U.S. Government was proud to join 
with other governments, through the United Na- 
tions, in providing additional means to carry on 
the humanitarian work of assistance to the Hun- 
garian refugees. He also expressed admiration 
for the generous and efficient assistance being 
given the refugees by the Federal Government of 
Austria and by intergovernmental and private 
organizations. 



STATEMENT BY HENRY CABOT LODGE, JR. 
U.S. REPRESENTATIVE TO THE U.N. ' 

It gives me great pleasure to present to you tlus 
check of $4 million as a contribution by the United 
States Government for aid to Hungarian refu- 
gees. It comes in response to the resolutions 
passed by the United Nations General Assembly 



^ U.S./U.N. press release 2515 (not printed). 

" Made on presenting the second U.S. contribution for 
Hungarian refugee relief to U.N. Secretary-General Dag 
Hammarskjold on Dec. 17 (U.S. /U.N. press release 2560). 



January 7, 1957 



and to the subsequent appeals made by you and 
the Hif^h Commissioner for Refugees asking gov- 
ernments and organizations to contribute gener- 
ously. 

Over 130,000 men, women, and children have so 
far fled from their homeland ; their plight is seri- 
ous and their care is a legitimate concern of all 
United Nations members. These people are only 
seeking the basic human freedoms declared by the 
United Nations Charter to be the birthright of all 
and the basis for an enduring peace. 

Because of the heartfelt and efficient assistance 
being given to the Hungarian refugees on their 
arrival in Austria by the Austrian jjeople through 
their Government and the various humanitarian 
organizations there, we expect that a very large 
part of our contribution will go to the Austrian 
Government. 

And I would like to add this further thought : 
Wliile the United States Government has now con- 
tributed $5 million through the United Nations 
to aid Hungarian refugees, much more is still 
needed. The Secretary-General has appealed for 
a $10 million fund as a minimum necessary to meet 
immediate requirements. 

I hope that all who sympathize with the gallant 
people of Hungary will back up their convictions 
with practical assistance. 



TEXTS OF U.N. APPEALS TO GOVERNMENTS AND 
NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS FOR 
REFUGEE AID 

Appeal to Governments 

U.N. press release dated November 29 

Following is the text of a telegram addressed today to 
all governments members of the United Nations and to the 
Oovernments of the Federal Repuhlic of Oermany, Japan, 
the Repuhlic of Korea, Monaco, San Marino, Suntzerland, 
the Vatican, and, Viet-Nam hy the Secretary-General and 
the United Nations Deputy High Commissioner for 
Refugees. 

Please bring following attention your Government : 
Wish gratefuU.v acknowledge generous efforts being 
made by many governments in implementation of Gen- 
Assembly resolution A/Res/398 " concerning assistance to 
refugees from Hungary, and have honour request that im- 
mediate attention be given subsequent resolution A/Res/- 
409 ' adopted by GenAssembly on 21 November at its 
eleventh session and transmitted by me to your Permanent 
Representative on 26 November. This resolution urges 
governments and non-governmental organizations "To 



' Bui-LETiN of Nov. 19, 19!J6, p. 807. 
'IMd., Dee. 3, 1956, p. 871. 



make contributions to the SecGen, the United Nations 
High Commissioner for Refugees or other appropriate 
agencies for the care and resettlement of Hungarian refu- 
gees and to coordinate their aid programmes in consulta- 
tion with the Office of the High Commissioner." 

A situation of the utmost urgency has now developed. 
In a communication to the SecGen, the Permanent Repre- 
sentative of Austria to UNations wrote on 26 November 
"The Hungarians streaming into Austria at the present 
time arrive deprived of any means and in a state of ex- 
haustion. They have to be cared for immediately, to be 
fed and clothed. The Austrian Federal Government, in 
cooperation with everyone willing to help, is undertaking 
all possible efforts to accommodate these unfortunate 
people as quickly as possil)le. But, in spite of all the 
desperate efforts on the part of the Austrian authorities 
and the Austrian people to cope with this difficult problem, 
Austria cannot do it alone. She necessarily depends on 
generous joint immediate help from other countries." The 
Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees in a report 
(Document A/3371) submitted on 19 November estimated 
original cost of care for refugees then expected to remain 
in Austria for six months. At that time, only some 
thirtyfour thousand refugees had arrived and minimum 
number expected to remain for six months was estimated 
at twenty thousand. As of 28 November, the Office of the 
High Commissioner reports that approximately ninetytwo 
thousand arrivals had so far been recorded, as against 
approximately twentytwo thousand departures. The 
High Commissioner's original estimate of the number of 
refugees likely to remain in Austria therefore requires 
substantial upward revision, bearing in mind the time ele- 
ment involved in completing arrangements for resettle- 
ment, and the reluctance of many refugees to move again 
pending clarification of the situation in their home coun- 
try. In light of information available at that time, origi- 
nal estimate of High Commissioner's office was that 
6,530,000 dollars would be minimum sum required to pro- 
vide for expected twenty thousand refugees in Austria 
during six months, in addition to aid provided on emer- 
gency basis by Red Cross and other agencies. Already 
on 21 November, the growing influx of refugees made it 
necessary to submit an addendum to this original report 
and estimate pointing out that it was obvious that original 
figtires no longer applied and concluding "Any appeal 
following GenAssembly action would have to be based on 
new estimates." 

While it is still not possible to estimate exactly dimen- 
sions of problem over next six months, it is now considered 
in light of present information as to number of refugees 
in Austria and those likely to be moved elsewhere in im- 
mediate future, and offers of assistance already communi- 
cated to the SecGen and the Deputy High Commissioner, 
that not less than a further ten million dollars will be 
required for meeting minimum needs for estimated sixty 
thousand Hungarian refugees for next six months. 

We would tlierefore be grateful to receive at your earli- 
est convenience an indication of any further assistance 
you are prepared in this emergency to make available to 
the SecGen or to the Office of the High Commissioner for 
Refugees. We would request precise indications of the 
nature and extent of such assistance, whether in cash or 
in tlie form of temporary asylum or resettlement offers. 



10 



Department of State Bulletin 



Dag Hammarskjold SecGen and James Read Deputy 
High Commissioner for Refugees. 

Appeal to Nongovernmental Organizations 

U.N. press release dated November 29 

FoUowiny is the text of a letter sent today to non- 
governmental oryanizations active in aiding refugees bij 
Philippe de Seynes, Under-Secretary in charge of relief 
to the Hungarian people, and James M. Read, United 
Nations Deputy High Commissioner for Refugees. 

We wish to draw your attention to paragraphs 3 and 4 
of resolution 409, adopted by the General Assembly on 
21 November 1950, relating to the situation of refugees 
from Hungary. 

A copy of this resolution is enclosed. 

The paragraphs referred to read as follows: 

"3. Urges governments and non-governmental organi- 
zations to make contributions to the Secretary-General, 
to the High Osmmissioner for Refugees or to other ap- 
propriate agencies for the care and resettlement of Hun- 
garian refugees, and to coordinate their aid programmes 
in consultation with the OflBce of the High Commissioner ; 

"4. Requests the Secretary-General and the High Com- 
missioner fur Refugees to make an immediate appeal to 
both governments and non-governmental organizations to 
meet the minimum present needs as estimated in the re- 
port of the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugee.«i 
to the Secretary-General and authorizes them to make 
sub.sequent appeals on the basis of plans and estimates 
made by tlie High Commissioner with the concurrence of 
his Executive Committee." 

An urgent appeal for contributions for aid to Hun- 
garian refugees over the next six months has been trans- 
mitted to governments. 

The appeal stresses not only the extreme urgency of the 
need but also recognizes the inadequacy of resources 
available to the Government of Austria for dealing with 
this problem. 

We are gratefully aware of the deep sympathy of 
organizations and individuals around the world for these 
new victims of tragedy and express the hope that non- 
governmental organizations and private citizens will sup- 
plement the funds provided by governments with mone- 
tary contributions or offers of material aid. 

In the light of the needs referred to above, and in ac- 
cordance with paragraphs 3 and 4 of resolution 409, it 
would be appreciated if non-governmental organizations 
would inform the Secretary-General and the United Na- 
tions High Commissioner for Refugees of the nature and 
extent of any contributions they may be able to make. 

We acknowledge with deep gratitude the service to refu- 
gees which many voluntary agencies have rendered for a 
long period of years. While recognizing the great need 
for the continuation of their long-standing programmes to 
refugees, we express the confident hope that these agen- 
cies will urgently increase their aid programmes so as to 
render maximum additional help to these new refugees. 
Yours sincerely, 
Philippe de Seynes James M. Read 

Under-Secretary Deputy United Nations 

in charge of Relief High Commissioner 

to the Huni/arian People for Refugees 



Interference by Czechoslovak Police 
With Visitors to U.S. Embassy 

Folloioing is the substantive portion of a note 
sent iy the U.S. Em hassy at Prague to the Czecho- 
slovak Foreign Office on December 7. 

It has been noted for some weeks that uniformed 
police stationed at the entrance to the chancery 
liave been interfering with visitors to the Embassy, 
requiring them to produce identity documents, 
making notes from such documents and on occa- 
sion questioning them. The interference even ex- 
tended to American citizens and members of other 
diplomatic missions in Prague attempting to enter 
the chancery. 

The Embassy considers this action entirely un- 
warranted and requests that action be taken to 
bring about its prompt termination. 



Representatives of American Presidents 
To Hold Second Meeting 

Press release 630 dated December 21 

The State Department announced on December 
21 that the next meeting of the Inter- American 
Committee of Presidential Representatives will 
convene in Washington on January 28, 1957. Of- 
ficial notification of the date has been sent to all 
representatives of the American Presidents by the 
Committee's secretariat, which is located in the 
Department of State. 

The Committee was formed as a result of the 
proposal advanced by President Dwight D. Eisen- 
hower at the Panama Meeting of American Presi- 
dents last July.^ At that time the Presidents 
agreed to name personal representatives to form a 
committee for the purpose of drawing up recom- 
mendations on strengthening the Organization of 
American States through increased activities in 
the economic, social, financial, technical, and 
atomic energy fields. 

The representative of the President of the 
United States is Milton S. Eisenhower, president 
of the Jolins Hopkins University, who was elected 
chairman of the Committee at its first session, held 
at Washington September 17-19, 1956.= 

' Buixetin of Aug. 6, 19.56, p. 219. 

° For text of communique issued following the first ses- 
sion, see ibid., Oct. 1, 1956, p. 513. 



Jonuory 7, 7957 



11 



Mutual Security and Soviet Foreign Aid 



by Philander P. Claxton, Jr. 

Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations 



Until the events of the last few weeks in Eastern 
Europe and the ]\Iiddle East there seemed to be, 
since the death of Stalin and particularly since 
the summit meeting a year ago and the 20th Party 
Congress last February, a new trend in Soviet 
foreign policy. This new trend was apparent in 
all East-West relations as a marked campaign to 
make the declared Soviet policy of "competitive 
coexistence" seem plausible. It was particularly 
apparent in Soviet policies and behavior toward 
the so-called underdeveloped countries, especially 
certain countries of Asia, where the Sino-Soviet 
bloc countries have been engaged \i\ an unprec- 
edented drive to establish good relations by offers 
of increased trade, credits, and technical assistance. 

My purpose tonight is to examine with you the 
main outlines of this new Soviet economic diplo- 
macy — and its significance to our friends in the 
world and to ourselves — as it has developed over 
the last 3 years. The indications have been that 
the new policy of economic penetration was in- 
tended to be of some extended duration. I be- 
lieve that for the purpose of this evening's discus- 
sion — as well as for tentative planning purposes — 
it may be considered as still underlying the present 
violence. It must be recognized, however, that 
Soviet behavior in Hungary and in the Middle 
East crisis suggests that Soviet diplomacy may 
be entering a new, tougher phase which would re- 
quire substantial revision of this assumption. 

Let us consider first the magnitude and form of 
the Sino-Soviet bloc's economic offensive. 



' Address made before the 9th annual cross-examination 
tournament at the University of Pittsbur.nh, Pittsl)urgh, 
I'a., on Dec. 7. 



There have been three principal economic means 
which the bloc has employed to expand its ties 
with free-world countries: (1) its trade-promo- 
tion drive, (2) its offers of credit, and (3) its tech- 
nical assistance. 

Trade-Promotion Drive 

The trade-promotion drive by the end of August 
of this year had achieved 203 trade and payments 
agreements between bloc and nonbloc countries. 
This represented nearly double the number of such 
agreements in force at the end of 1953, with most 
of the increase accounted for by underdeveloped 
countries. These bilateral agreements generally 
specify the level of trade and types of conunodities 
for which the two countries will provide official 
trading facilities. They do not assure that trade 
will reach the specified levels, and in actual prac- 
tice exchanges have often been much lower. 

However, bloc trade with the free world during 
the first quarter of this year was moving at an 
annual rate of over $5 billion, of which $1.5 bil- 
lion was with the iniclerdeveloped countries. On 
the bloc side, the European satellites accounted 
for a little over half of the trade; the U.S.S.R., 
one-third; and Communist China, 15 percent. 
Bloc trade witli the underdeveloped countries is 
distributed as follows: countries in South Asia 
and tlie Far East, 22 percent; those in tlie Middle 
East and independent Africa, 28 percent; Latin 
America, 30 percent; and the underdeveloped 
countries of nonbloc Europe, 20 percent. In all 
regions the percentage gains over the level of 
trade 2 years ago are substantial. On the other 
hand, there are relatively few countries where 



12 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



bloc trade represents as much as 10 percent of total 
foreign trade of tlie free country. The notable 
exceptions are Afghanistan, Yugoslavia, Iceland, 
Burma, Egypt, and Turkey, and in some instances 
these countries have for some years had fairly 
significant trading relations with the bloc. 

In its trade drive, the bloc has capitalized on 
the desire of underdeveloped countries to expand 
their foreign markets for their major products 
and to stabilize their export earnings. It has 
widely publicized its willingness to take surplus 
commodities on long-term contracts and has given 
the impression that it is sometimes willing to pay 
premium prices. In return it offers manufactured 
goods of types which are not produced in adequate 
quaiUity in underdeveloped countries and are ur- 
gently needed to meet the targets of ambitious 
economic development programs. 

Trade promotion has been pushed energetically 
througli diplomatic channels as well as large num- 
bers of traveling missions and an increasing num- 
ber of permanent trade offers. Bloc use of local 
advertising media has expanded noticeably in 
Latin America and the Near East, and participa- 
tion in trade fairs has grown impressively. This 
year bloc countries are expected to participate in 
131 fairs and exhibitions in 37 free-world coun- 
tries. Unlike most of the earlier bloc efforts, in 
wliicli general trade offers reflected propaganda 
objectives more than any real desire to do busi- 
ness, the present campaign appears to represent 
a serious drive to expand markets for a wide va- 
riety of bloc products. 

While these efforts must be credited with a con- 
siderable degree of success, the sailing has not 
been entirely smooth. For example, some of the 
underdeveloped countries which have sold or bar- 
tered their products to the bloc countries have been 
disillusioned to find that the bloc countries have 
thus put the same goods back in the market in 
competition with the original seller! More im- 
portant is the growing recognition throughout the 
free world of the inflexibility and other disad- 
vantages of bloc barter trading. In addition much 
of the optimism regarding sales to the Commu- 
nists at favorable prices has proved unwarranted. 
Tlie Soviets are generally hard traders. This is 
illustrated by the Burmese experience. Burma's 
rice crop is its major foreign-exchange earner. 
Burma was delighted when the bloc offered to 
buy its surplus rice in barter for goods produced 
by bloc membei-s. This arrangement, originally 



hailed as a great benefit to Burma, has turned out 
to be anything but a gain, since the products of- 
fered in return by the bloc are overpriced and 
have not always been of the types which the Bur- 
mese wanted most urgently. In Latin America, 
as another example, the countries with the largest 
exports to the bloc have found themselves in the 
position of creditors since the goods offered by the 
bloc have had relatively limited appeal to their 
importers. 

Foreign Lending by U. S. S. R. 

Let us now turn from the trade promotion as- 
pect of the new Soviet economic diplomacy to its 
most dramatic feature : the large-scale entry into 
the foreign lending field. After years of de- 
nouncing foreign aid as an unvarnished instru- 
ment of Western imperialism, the U.S.S.R. and 
European satellites have now signed agi-eements 
to extend to 11 underdeveloped countries about 
$1.4 billion in credit for the purchase of Soviet- 
bloc goods and technical services — including arms. 
This is more than double the level of a year ago. 
The largest single beneficiary is Yugoslavia, 
which, as a Communist country, is a special case. 
With the exception of Yugoslavia, the emphasis 
of this lending drive has been on the underdevel- 
oped nations of the Near East and South Asia. 
Three of these nations, Egypt, India, and 
Afghanistan, together with Yugoslavia, account 
for the bulk of the total agreed credits. Credits 
to India, which have exceeded $100 million, were 
raised 2 weeks ago by another $126 million. 
Indonesia also has recently accepted an offer of a 
$100 million line of credit. In addition, firm 
offers totaling about $150 million are under con- 
sideration by other underdeveloped countries. 
The U.S.S.R. is providing a little over half of the 
credits extended and the European satellites the 
remainder. Recently, even Communist China en- 
tered the foreign-assistance field with agreements 
to provide grants to Cambodia and Nepal. But 
grants are the exception. Soviet-bloc aid is prac- 
tically all in the form of credits ; and, in at least 
one case where a gift was involved, the recipient 
at the same time gave the U.S.S.R. a return gift. 

Major emphasis is placed on the claim that these 
credits have "no strings," and the appeal of the 
credits is enhanced by the fact that they ordinarily 
carry an interest rate of only 2 to 2.5 percent. 
Moreover, the bloc's terms usually provide for 
repayment in local currency or commodities. 



January 7, 1957 



13 



This feature, however, may hold some later sur- 
prises to diminish the early joy of the borrowers. 
No prices have been agreed on for the commodities 
to be furnished as repayment, and if the Soviets 
should choose to drive a hard bargain, the gains 
from low interest rates could prove highly 

illusory. 

The composition of Soviet-bloc credits reveals 
a fairly wide variety of projects for developing 
industry, power, transport, and mineral resources 
as well as facilities for scientific research and 
education. Several important agreements in- 
volve military items and training. For example : 
In the case of Egypt, bloc members are supplying 
in part under credit arrangements substantial 
quantities of arms, a ceramics factory, a power 
plant, large bridges, railway engines, coaches and 
freight cars, and other heavy equipment. In the 
case of Afghanistan, bloc countries are providing, 
also in part under credit terms, construction of 
automotive maintenance shops, an irrigation sys- 
tem, two airports, some oil storage depots, a 
cement plant, water-supply improvement, and a 
variety of small industrial plants. In each case 
the project has been skillfully devised to have a 
particular appeal to the recipient country, and it 
must be recognized that, initially at least, the 
psychological impact of the assistance has been 
substantial. This, of course, illustrates one of the 
main features of Soviet tactics : Since the Krem- 
lin's purpose is to achieve political objectives and 
it has no real desire to promote balanced long-term 
growth in nonbloc areas, it has not insisted on 
economic justification for projects. The bloc may 
even consider that its economic leverage will be 
increased in countries which borrow more than 
they will be able to repay. However, again we 
should not underestimate the favorable impression 
which the Soviets have made on most of the re- 
cipients by the speed with which they have com- 
pleted loan negotiations and moved to implement 
agreements, and by the quality of equipment and 
technical service furnished thus far. 

Technical Assistance Programs 

The third instrument used by the bloc in its 
economic offensive is its program of technical 
assistance to certain underdeveloped countries. 
Although still small by U.S. standards, these 
activities have been increasing steadily, and bloc 
technicians are now at work in 14 different imder- 



14 



developed coimtries performing a wide variety of 
technical services. In Egypt, Afghanistan, 
India, Burma, and other underdeveloped coun- 
tries, bloc tecluiicians are assisting in local eco- 
nomic-development projects, such as mining, 
transportation, heavy uidustry, and manufactur- 
ing, and sometimes appear in general advisory 
capacities to governments. Arms experts from 
the bloc have appeared in Egypt. Moreover, a 
o-rowing number of individuals from under- 
developed countries have accepted Communist in- 
ducements to go to the bloc countries for training. 
It should not be assumed that this program is 
merely a disguised espionage operation. On the 
other hand, we can assume that no opportunity 
will be lost for trying to create a favorable dis- 
position toward the Soviet system. 

Wliile the Soviets have been expanding their 
direct teclmical-assistance activities, they have 
also reversed their former policy of refusing to 
participate in the United Nations Technical As- 
sistance Program. 

Since the summer of 1953, the Soviet bloc has 
contributed $5.2 million to the United Nations 
Technical Assistance Program. Of the t«tal bloc 
contribution of $5.2 million, the U.S.S.R. has 
made available $4 million. 

The bloc contributions have been used for the 
supply of bloc equipment and experts, for study 
tours, and for fellowships within the Soviet bloc. 
In 1955 approximately $1.3 million was spent, al- 
most all of which was for the supply of bloc 
equipment. For 1956, projects are approved 
which use approximately $3.2 million, of which 
about $1.8 million is for roadbuilding, insect con- 
trol, and other types of equipment. Six study 
tours are scheduled, and 41 experts are to be 
supplied by the bloc under the 1956 United 
Nations program. The most ambitious project 
using bloc technical-assistance funds, however, is 
the technological institute in Bombay sponsored 
by the U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization (Unesco), for which the U.S.S.E. 
is providing $1.5 million. 

All of these activities represent significant 
changes in the bloc's pattern of behavior in the 
foreign economic field up to the death of Stalin. 
'Wliy have the Soviet Union and its satellites now 
undertaken them? Is the explanation economics? 
I^et us consider first the expansion of trade. The 
goal of economic self-sufHciency, or autarchy, has 
traditionally been a paramount factor in Soviet 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



planniiifi, and it is still too early to conclude that 
bloc planners have changed theii" economic think- 
ing in any radical way. However, some greater 
degree of flexibility rather than rigid adherence 
to the self-sufficiency concept is apparent. Since 
trade is still very small in relation to bloc gross 
national product, we may well see a continuing 
bloc ell'ort to increase trade with nonbloc comitries 
substantially above current levels. However, it 
is still most unlikely that the U.S.S.R. would 
willingly allow trade to reach a point where any 
important sector of the economy becomes depend- 
ent on foreign supplies. 

Political Aspects of Economic Offensive 

It is more difficult to find a convincing economic 
rationale for the bloc's external-credit programs. 
The goods and services provided under these pro- 
grams represent a diversion of resources which 
may eventually be repaid, but it is difficult to 
imagine that the program has much appeal to the 
huge areas within the bloc which are still very 
much underdeveloped. Some observers have 
speculated that, since the loans are to be repaid 
in commodities, the bloc may be attempting to 
assure its future supplies of such items. In other 
cases credits may be considered necessary as a 
means of entering new markets traditionally 
oriented to the West. Such considerations can- 
not be ruled out completely, but they do not pro- 
vide any satisfactory explanation for the type and 
size of progi-am undertaken in the past 2 years. 
For these answers we must turn to the political 
sphere and examine the economic offensive in the 
broader context of overall Soviet foreign policy 
and diplomacy. 

Since Stalin's death Communist strategy abroad 
has been significantly altered. Especially since 
the summit meeting in 1955, the U.S.S.R. has 
seemed anxious to avoid a general war, no doubt 
in recognition of the almost unlimited destructive- 
ness of nuclear weapons. The Kremlin has not 
only modified the tone of its propaganda and offi- 
cial statements in the direction of greater em- 
phasis on peaceful coexistence ; it has encouraged 
cultural and technical exchanges with Western 
countries ; it has granted greater freedom to West- 
ern tourists and correspondents ; and Soviet lead- 
ers like Bulganin and Khrushchev made ostensibly 
friendly visits to a number of non-Communist 
countries. After years of delay a peace treaty 



was concluded with Austria, and overtures were 
made to bring Yugoslavia back into the Com- 
munist fold. Finally, at the 20th Party Congress 
Stalin was expressly denounced and the doctrine 
of separate national roads to socialism was pro- 
claimed. 

What we saw then was a Soviet communism 
anxious to avoid war but nevertheless bent, as 
befoi'e, on expansion — expansion by means still 
aimed at the overthrow of existing institutions but 
carrying a minimum risk of forceful retaliation by 
non-Communist countries. Such a policy must 
find expression on many levels other than military. 
Even though the U.S.S.R. continues to put vast 
resources of materials and technology into the 
arms race and Soviet theoreticians are occupied 
in trying to reconcile peaceful coexistence with 
the revolutionary nature of communism, its ex- 
ternal policies strive to convince the world that 
the U.S.S.R. is peaceful. 

In the underdeveloped areas, the U.S.S.R. has 
promoted its campaign for respectability by a 
wide variety of new as well as old-fashioned kinds 
of diplomacy. One weapon of Soviet strategy in 
these areas is anticolonialism, a hypocritical op- 
position to the colonial policies — past and pres- 
ent — of the Western powers, and an attempt to 
associate the U.S.S.R. with the legitimate na- 
tional aspirations of colonial and newly independ- 
ent peoples. Offers of arms to Egypt, Afghani- 
stan, and Syria may actually be intended to foment 
local hostilities in the Middle East, but they are 
represented as demonstrating the U.S.S.R.'s 
desire to assist these countries in their fight against 
colonialism. 

Next to nationalism, the dominant motivation 
of the governments and peoples of most underde- 
veloped countries is their desire for economic 
progress — generally at a rate more rapid than their 
domestic resources can support. The Soviet pur- 
pose seems to be to convince these peoples that a 
fi-ee private-enterprise system cannot provide 
rapid economic growth whereas, by following the 
Soviet model, industrialization can be achieved 
quickly, without remaining or becoming subservi- 
ent to Western capitalism. In Marxist theory and 
propaganda, capitalism has always been identified 
with colonialism, and the underdeveloped coun- 
tries, especially the newly independent countries 
of Asia and Africa, are urged to reject both. 

How should we consider these Soviet economic 
activities? Intrinsically they are not wrong or 



January 7, 7957 



15 



dangerous. The U.S. has made substantial con- 
tributions to the economic growth of the less de- 
veloped areas and has encouraged other comitries 
to do likewise. Moreover, we have eagerly sought 
the elimination of the Iron Curtain between the 
Communist bloc and the free world and would 
hope that honest economic contacts could help to 
achieve this result. The danger be^iomes evident 
only when we examine the ohjectwes and motives 
that so plainly underlie Soviet economic offers and 
all other Soviet maneuvers. 

Mr. Klirushchev himself has provided the free 
world with a clear warning in his frank statement 
to the Supreme Soviet early this year : "... we 
never renounced," he said, "and we will never re- 
nounce our ideas, our struggle for the victory of 
communism." At another time he said — no more 
plainly but a little more colorfully — that the 
TJ.S.S.E. will stop being Communist when shrimp 
learn to whistle. 

Does the danger in the Soviet economic offen- 
sive lie then merely in the fact that it may serve 
Soviet interests? I think not. Our aid programs 
are also intended to serve our proper national in- 
terest.. But, as Secretary Dulles said several 
months ago: ". . . the crucial question is: "Wliat 
are those interests and how are they intended to be 
served ?" - He added : 

Our interests will be fully served if other nations main- 
tain their independence and strengthen their free insti- 
tutions. We have no further aims than these. We want 
a world environment of freedom. We have shown this, 
time after time, by electing to give freedom where we 
could have had conquest. Our historic policy, reflecting 
the will and the views of our own free people, is wholly 
compatible with the interests of the less developed coun- 
tries as their leaders themselves have expressed them. 



Implications for U.S. Policy 

How seriously must we take this new Commu- 
nist strategy? Let me cite the warning of the 
members of the U.S. delegation to the last meeting 
of tlie United Nations General Assembly. After 
watching the activities of the Soviets and learning 
the reactions of representatives of other countries 
tliey issued this statement : ^ 

The present period in history may one day he recog- 
nized as a major turning point in the struggle between 
Communism and freedom. It appears to be clearly a 



" Bulletin of Mar. ,';, 10.^6, p. 3G;1. 
= lUd., Jan. 2.3, 19r.6, p. 117. 



shift in the cold war, in which economic and social prob- 
lems have moved to the forefront. . . . 

We believe that the United States must counter these 
Soviet efforts. We can succeed, not by outbidding Com- 
munism in sheer amounts of economic aid, but by making 
newly independent and newly articulate peoples feel that 
they can best satisfy their wants by becoming and re- 
maining part of the community of free nations. 

We welcome more emphasis on economic and educa- 
tional endeavors, for we have a proven experience in 
these fields. 

We are in a contest in the field of economic develop- 
ment of underdeveloped countries which is bitterly com- 
petitive. Defeat in this contest could be as disastrous 
as defeat in an armaments race. 

We could lose this economic contest unless the country 
as a whole wakes up to all its implications. 

It is significant that two members of the Foreign 
Affairs Committee of the House of Representa- 
tives [Representatives Brooks Hays and Chester 
E. Merrow] were on the delegation which made 
this statement and that it was later released to the 
public by Secretary Dulles with the approval of 
President Eisenhower. 

We need have no concern that the leaders of the 
newly independent nations of the Near and Far 
East will be unaware of the dangers of economic 
dependence on the Soviet Union. At the same 
time their people are insistent upon progress 
toward higher standards of living. They know 
that in {\\e short space of their own lives the Soviet 
Union has risen from a backward area to a great 
industrial power. They aie perhaps only dimly 
aware of the cost of this achievement in human 
misery and loss of liberty. They see and they 
envy and admire the industrial progress. They 
want to equal it in their own nations. They will 
inevitably compel their leaders to turn to the Com- 
munist bloc for help unless they find it from an- 
other source. • 

There are, of course, other sources of help avail- 
able. Private capital investment, with the tech- 
nical assistance which accompanies it, is and will 
continue to be a major source. Such lending in- 
stitutions as our own U.S. Export-Import Bank 
and the International Bank are also significant 
sources. Our mutual security program, with its 
development assistance, technical cooperation, de- 
fense support, and military assistance, has been 
and is an important source of help. 

This brings us back to where we started, for the 
future of this program is now under consideration 
by a Citizens Advisory Committee appointed by 
tlie President, by several of the great committees 



16 



Deporfmenf of Sfofe Bulletin 



of the Congress, and by the Nation itself as ex- 
emplified by the discussions which you have been 
holding here this week.* I would not suggest for 
a minute that these reviewers think of our own 
mutual security program as an item-by-item — or 
even a generalized — response to the new Soviet 
economic drive. If anything, the reverse is 
true — the Soviet effort is a flattering imitation of a 
bold design we have originated and carried out 
with great success. The lesson for the future is 
to be ourselves and to shape our helpful efforts to 
the genuine needs of our friends. Meanwhile, we 
may keep in mind as a central thought the words 
of tlie President in his message to Congress earlier 
this year : ^ 

"The mutual security program is vitally impor- 
tant to our people. Its cost is not disproportionate 
to our Nation's resources and to our national in- 
come. That cost is a low price to pay for the se- 
curity and vastly greater chances for world peace 
which the program provides. 

"The mutual security program is an indispen- 
sable part of our national effort to meet affirm- 
atively the challenge of all the forces which 
threaten the independence of the free world and 
to overcome the conditions which make peace in- 
secure and progress difficult." 



Whereas the parties have further undertaken to seek 
to eliminate conflicts in their international economic 
policies and will encourage economic collaboration be- 
tween any or all of them ; 

WiiEREAB NATO unity and strength in the pursuit of 
these objectives remain essential for continuous co- 
operation in military and non-military fields ; 

The North Atlantic Council: 

Reaffirms the obligations of all its members, under 
Article I of the Treaty, to settle by peaceful means any 
dispute between themselves ; 

Decides that any such disputes which have not proved 
capable of settlement directly be submitted to good ofiices 
procedures within the NATO framework before member 
governments resort to any other international agency 
except for disputes of a legal character appropriate for 
submission to a judicial tribunal and those disputes of 
an economic character for which attempts at settlement 
mii,'ht best be made initially in the appropriate specialised 
economic organizations ; 

Recognises the right and duty of member governments 
and of the Secretary General to bring to its attention 
matters which in their opinion may threaten the solidar- 
ity or effectiveness of the Alliance ; 

Empowers the Secretary General to offer his good 
oflSces informally at any time to member governments 
involved in a di.spute and with their consent to initiate 
or facilitate procedures of inquiry, mediation, concilia- 
tion, or arbitration ; 

Authorises the Secretary General where he deems it 
appropriate for the puniose outlined in the preceding 
paragraph to use the assistance of not more than three 
permanent representatives chosen by him in each instanca 



NATO Council Resolutions 

Following are the texts of two resolutions re- 
leased hy the NATO Information Division on 
December llf. after their adoption hy the North 
Atlantic Council during its Ministerial Session 
at Paris December 11-H. {For the text of a 
communiqiie released at the close of the session, 
see Bulletin of December 24--31, page 981.) 

Resolution on the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes 
and Differences Between Members of the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization 

Whereas the parties to the North Atlantic Treaty, 
under Article I of that treaty, have undertaken "to 
settle any international disputes in which they may be 
involved by peaceful means in such a manner that in- 
ternational peace and security and justice are not en- 
dangered" ; 



' For an account of the studies being made, see "Foreign 
Aid Under the Microscope," by Thorsten V. Kalijarvi, 
Deputy Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs, ihid., 
Nov. 5, 1956, p. 723. 

^Ibiii., Apr. 2, 1906, p. 550. 



Resolution on the Report of the Committee of Three 
on Non-Military Co-operation in NATO 

Whereas the North Atlantic Council at its meeting in 
Paris on 5th May established a Committee composed of 
the foreign ministers of Italy, Canada and Norway to 
advise the Council on ways and means to improve and 
extend NATO co-operation in non-military fields and to 
develop greater unity within the Atlantic Community ; 

Whereas the Committee of Three has now reported on 
the task assigned to it and has submitted to the Council 
a number of recommendations on such ways and means 
to improve and extend N.\TO co-operation in non-military 
fields ; 

The North Atlantic Council: 

Takes note of the Report of the Committee of Three 
and 

Approves its recommendations ; and 

Invites the Council in Permanent Session to implement 
in the light of the comments made by governments the 
principles and recommendations contained in the Report ; 
and 

Invites the Secretary General to draw up for considera- 
tion by the Council such further specific proposals as may 
be required for the implementation of these recommenda- 
tions and to report periodically on the compliance with 
these recommendations by governments. 

Authorises the Committee of Three to publish their re- 
port. 



ianuaty 7, 1957 

411962—57 3 



17 



Report of the Committee of Three on Non-Military Co-operation in NATO 



Following is the text of the report made to the North 
Atlantic Council by the Committee of Three (Foreign 
Ministers Gaetano Martina of Italy, Balvard Lange of 
Norway, and Lester B. Pearson of Canada) as released 
by the NATO Information Division at Paris on December 
14, at the conclusion of the North Atlantic Council 
meeting. 

Chapter 1: General Introduction 

The Committee on Non-Military Co-operation, set up 
by the North Atlantic Council at its session of May, 1956, 
was requested : "to advise the Council on ways and means 
to improve and extend NATO co-operation in non-military 
fields and to develop greater unity within the Atlantic 
Community". 

2. The Committee has interpreted these terms of refer- 
ence as requiring it (1) to examine and re-deflne the ob- 
jectives and needs of the Alliance, especially in the light 
of current international developments; and (2) to make 
recommendations for strengthening its internal solidarity, 
cohesion and unity. 

3. The Committee hopes that the report and recom- 
mendations which it now submits will make NATO's 
purely defensive and constructive purposes better under- 
stood in non-NATO countries ; thereby facilitating and 
encouraging steps to lessen international tension. The 
events of the last few months have increased Oils tension 
and reduced hopes, which had been rai.sed since Stalin's 
death, of finding a .secure and honourable basis for com- 
petitive and ultimately for co-operative coexistence with 
the Communist world. The effort to this end, however, 
must go on. 

4. Inter-allied relations have also undergone severe 
strains. The substance of this report was prepared by 
the Committee of Three in the course of its meetings and 
inter-governmental consultations last September. Subse- 
quent events have reinforced the Committee's conviction 
that the Atlantic Community can develop greater unity 
only by working constantly to achieve common policies by 
full and timely consultation on issues of common con- 
cern. Unless this is done, the very framework of co-oper- 
ation in NATO, which has contributed so greatly to the 
cause of freedom, and which is so vital to its advancement 
in the future, will be endangered. 

5. The foundation of NATO, on which alone a strong 
superstructure can be built, is the political obligation 
that its members have taken for collective defence : to 
consider that an attack on one is an attack on all, which 
will be mot by the collective action of all. There is a 
tendency at times to overlook the far-reaching importance 



of this commitment ; especially during those periods when 
the danger of having to invoke it may seem to recede. 

6. With this political commitment for collective defence 
as the cornerstone of tlie foreign and defence policies 
of its members, NATO has a solid basis for existence. 
It is true, of course, that the ways and means by which 
tlie obligation is to be discharged may alter as political 
or strategic conditions alter; as the threat to peace 
changes its character or its direction. However, any 
variations in plans and strategic policies which may be 
required need not weaken NATO or the confidence of its 
members in NATO and in each other ; providing, and the 
proviso is decisive, that each member retains its will and 
its capacity to play its full part in discharging the po- 
litical commitment for collective action against aggres- 
sion which it undertook when it signed the Pact; pro- 
viding also — and recent events have shown that this is 
equally important — that any changes in national .strategy 
or policy which affect the coalition are made only after 
collective consideration. 

7. The first essential, then, of a healthy and develop- 
ing NATO lies in the whole-hearted acceptance by all its 
members of the political commitment for collective de- 
fence, and in the confidence which each has in the will 
and ability of the others to honour that commitment if 
aggression should take place. 

S. This is our best present deterrent against military 
aggression ; and consequently the best assurance that 
the commitment undertaken will not be engaged. 

9. However, this deterrent role of NATO, based on 
solidarity and strength, can be discharged only if the 
political and economic relations between its members 
are co-operative and close. An Alliance in which the 
members ignore each other's interests or engage in po- 
litical or economic conflict, or harbour su.spicions of each 
other, cannot be effective either for deterrence or de- 
fence. Recent experience makes this clearer than ever 
before. 

10. It is useful, in searching for ways and means of 
strengthening NATO unity and understanding, to recall 
the origin and the aims of the Organization. 

11. The Treaty which was signed in Washington in 
]04!l was a collective response — we had learned that a 
purely national respon.se was iusutficient for security — 
to tlie fear of military aggression by the forces of the 
ITSSR and its allies. These forces were of overwhelm- 
ing strength. The threat to Greece, the capture of 
Czechoslovakia, the blockade of Berlin, and the pressure 
against Yugoslavia showed that they were also 
aggressive. 



18 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



12. While fear may have been the main urge for the 
creation of NATO, there was also the realisation — con- 
scious or instinctive — that in a shrinking nuclear world 
it was wise and timely to bring about a closer association 
of kindred Atlantic and Western European nations for 
other than defence pui-poses alone ; that a partial pooling 
of sovereignty for mutual protection should also promote 
[)rogress and co-operation generally. There was a feel- 
ing among the governments and peoples concerned, that 
this closer unity was both natural and desirable; that 
the common cultural traditions, free institutions and 
democratic concepts which were being challenged, and 
were marked for destruction by those who challenged 
them, were things which should also bring the NATO 
nations closer together, not only for their defence but 
for their development. There was, in short, a .sense of 
Atlantic Community, alongside the realisation of an im- 
mediate common danger. 

13. Any such feeling was certainly not the decisive or 
even the main impulse in the creation of NATO. Never- 
theless, it gave birth to the hope that NATO would grow 
beyond and above the emergency which brought it into 
being. 

14. The expression of this hojie is found in the Preamble 
and in Articles 2 and 4 of the Treaty. These two Articles, 
limited in their tenns but with at least the promise of 
the grand design of an Atlantic Community, were in- 
cluded because of this insistent feeling that NATO mnst 
become more than a military alliance. They reflected 
the very real anxiety that if NATO failed to meet this 
test, it would disappear with the immediate crisis which 
produced it, even though the need for it might be as 
great as ever. 

15. From the very beginning of NATO, then, it was 
recognized that while defence co-operation was the first 
and most urgent requirement, this was not enough. It 
has also become increasingly realised since the Treaty 
was signed that security is today far more than a mili- 
tary matter. The strengthening of political consultation 
and economic co-operation, the development of resources, 
progress in education and public understanding, all these 
can be as important, or even more important, for the 
protection of the security of a nation, or an alliance, as 
the building of a battleship or the equipping of an anny. 

16. These two aspects of security — civil and military — 
can no longer safely be considered in watertight com- 
partments, either within or between nations. Perhaps 
NATO has not yet fully recognised their essential inter- 
relationship, or done enough to bring about that close 
and continuous contact between its civil and military 
sides which is essential if it is to be strong and enduring. 

17. North Atlantic political and economic co-operation, 
however, let alone unity, will not be brought about in a 
day or by a declaration, but by creating over the years 
and through a whole series of national acts and policies, 
the habits and traditions and precedents for such co- 
operation and unity. The process will be a slow and 
gradual one at best ; slower than we might wish. We can 
be satisfied if it is steady and sure. This will not be the 
case, however, unless the member governments — espe- 
cially the more powerful ones — are willing to work, to a 
much greater extent than hitherto, with and through 



NATO for more than purposes of collective military 
defence. 

18. While the members of NATO have already devel- 
oped various forms of non-military co-operation between 
themselves and have been among the most active and con- 
structive participants in various international organiza- 
tions, NATO as such has been hesitant in entering this 
field, particularly in regard to economic matters. Its 
members have been rightly concerned to avoid duplica- 
tion and to do, through other existing international 
organizations, the things which can best be done in that 
way. 

19. Recently, however, the members of NATO have been 
examining and re-assessing the purposes and the needs 
of the Organization in the light of certain changes in 
Soviet tactics and policies which have taken place since 
the death of Stalin, and of the effect of the present tur- 
moil in Eastern Europe on this development. 

20. These changes have not diminished the need for 
collective military defence but they have faced NATO 
with an additional challenge in which the emphasis is 
largely non-military in character. NATO must recognize 
the real nature of the developments which have taken 
place. An Important aspect of the new Soviet policies 
of competitive coexistence is an attempt to respond to 
positive initiatives of the Western nations aimed at im- 
proving, in an atmosphere of freedom, the lot of the 
economically less developed countries, and at establishing 
a just and mutually beneficial trading system in which 
all countries can prosper. The Soviet Union is now ai> 
parently veering towards policies designed to ensnare 
these countries by economic means and by political sub- 
version, and to fasten on them the same shackles of Com- 
munism from which certain members of the Soviet bloc 
are now striving to release themselves. The members of 
NATO must maintain their vigilance in dealing with this 
form of penetration. 

21. Meanwhile some of the immediate fears of large- 
scale all out military aggression against Western Europe 
have lessened. This process has been facilitated by evi- 
dence that the Soviet Oovernment have realised that any 
such all out aggression would be met by a sure, swift and 
devastating retaliation, and that there could be no victory 
in a war of this kind with nuclear weapons on both sides. 
With an increased Soviet emphasis on non-military or 
para-military methods, a review is needed of NATO's 
ability to meet effectively the challenge of penetration 
under the guise of coexistence, with its emphasis on con- 
flict without catastrophe. 

22. Certain questions now take on a new urgency. 
Have NATO's needs and objectives changed, or should they 
be changed? Is the Organization operating satisfactorily 
in the altered circumstances of 1956? If not, what can 
be done about it? There is the even more far-reaching 
question : "Can a loose association of sovereign states 
hold together at all without the common binding force 
of fear'/". 

23. The Committee has been examining these questions 
in the light of its firm conviction that the objectives which 
governments had in mind when the Pact was signed re- 
main valid ; that NATO is as important now to its member 
states as it was at that time. 



January 7, 1957 



19 



24. The first of these objectives — as has already been 
pointed out — is security, based on collective action -with 
adequate armed forces both for deterrence and defence. 

25. Certainly NATO unity and strength in the pursuit 
of this objective remain as essential as they were in 1949. 
Soviet tactics may have changed ; but Soviet armed might 
and ultimate objectives remain unchanged. Moreover, re- 
cent events in Eastern Europe shovf that the Soviet Union 
will not hesitate in certain circumstances to u.se force and 
the threat of force. Therefore the militai-y strength of 
NATO must not be reduced, thougli its character and 
capabilities should be constantly adapted to changing cir- 
cumstances. Strengthening the political and economic 
side of NATO is an essential complement to — not a sub- 
stitute for — continuous co-operation in defence. 

26. In spite of these recent events Soviet leaders may 
place greater emphasis on political, economic and propa- 
ganda action. There is no evidence, however, that this 
will be permitted to prejudice in any way the maintenance 
of a high level of military power in its most modern form 
as a base for Soviet activity in these other fields. 

27. We should welcome changes in Soviet policies if 
they were genuinely designed to ease international ten- 
sions. But we must remember that the weakening and 
eventual dissolution of NATO remains a major Com- 
munist goal. We must therefore remain on guard so 
long as Soviet leaders persist in their determination to 
maintain a ijreponderance of military power for the 
achievement of their own political objectives and those 
of their allies. 

28. This brings us again to the second and long-term 
aim of NATO : the development of an Atlantic Community 
whose roots are deeper even than the necessity for com- 
mon defence. This implies nothing less than the per- 
manent association of the free Atlantic peoples for the 
promotion of their greater unity and the protection and 
the advancement of the interests which, as free democra- 
cies, they have in common. 

29. If we are to secure this long-term aim, we must 
prevent the centrifugal forces of opposition or indiiler- 
ence from weakening the Alliance. NATO has not been 
destroyed, or even weakened, by the threats or attacks 
of its enemies. It has faltered at times through the 
lethargy or complacency of its members ; through dissen- 
sion or division between them ; by putting narrow national 
considerations above the collective intere.st. It could be 
destroyed by these forces, if they were allowed to 
subsist. To combat these tendencies, NATO must be used 
by its members, far more than it has been used, for 
sincere and genuine consultation and cooperation on 
questions of common concern. For this purpose, resolu- 
tion is more important than resolutions; will than words. 

30. The problem, however, goes deeper than this. NATO 
countries are faced by a political as well as a military 
threat. It comes from the revolutionary doctrines of 
Communism which have by careful design of the Com- 
munist leaders over many years been sowing seeds of 
fahsehood concerning our free and democratic way of life. 
The best answer to such falsehoods is a continuing demon- 
stration of the superiority of our own institutions over 
Communist ones. We can show by word and deed that 
we welcome political progress, economic advancement and 



orderly social change and that the real reactionaries of 
this day are these Communist regimes which, adhering 
to an inflexible pattern of economic and political doctrine, 
have been more successful in destroying freedom than in 
promoting it. 

31. We must, however, realise that falsehoods concern- 
ing our institutions have sometimes been accepted at face 
value and that there are those, even in the non-Commu- 
nist world, who under the systematic influence of Com- 
munist propaganda, do not accept our own analysis of 
NATO's aims and values. They believe that while NATO 
may have served a useful defensive and deterrent role 
in the Stalinist era, it is no longer necessary, even for the 
f-ecurity of its members ; that it is tending now to become 
an agency for the pooling of the strength and resources 
of the "colonial" powers in defence of imperial privileges, 
racial superiority, and Atlantic hegemony under the 
leadership of the United States. The fact that we know 
these views to be false and unjustified does not mean that 
NATO and its governments should not do everything they 
can to correct and counteract them. 

32. NATO should not forget that the influence and in- 
terests of its members are not confined to the area covered 
by the Treaty, and that common interests of the Atlantic 
Community can be seriously affected by developments 
outside the Treaty area. Therefore, while striving to 
improve their relations with each other, and to strengthen 
and deepen their own unity, they should also be con- 
cerned with harmonising their policies in relation to other 
areas taking into account the broader interests of the 
whole international community ; particularly in working 
through the United Nations and elsewhere for the main- 
tenance of international peace and security and for the 
solution of the problems that now divide the world. 

33. In following this course, NATO can show that it is 
more than a defence organization acting and reacting to 
the ebb and flow of the fears and dangers arising out of 
Soviet polic.v. It can prove its desire to co-operate fully 
with other members of the international community in 
bringing to reality the principles of the Charter of the 
United Nations. It can .show that it is not merely con- 
cerned with preventing the cold war from deteriorating 
into a shooting one ; or with defending itself if such a 
tragedy should take place ; but that it is even more con- 
cerned with seizing the political and moral initiative to 
enable all countries to develop in freedom, and to bring 
about a secure peace for all nations. 

34. Our caution in accepting without question the 
pacific character of any Soviet moves, our refusal to 
dismantle our defences before we are convinced that 
conditions of international confidence have been restored, 
will, particularly after the events in Ilun^'ary. be under- 
stood by all people of sincerity and gocxi will. What 
would not be understood is any unwillingness on our part 
to seek ways and means of breaking down the barriers 
with a view to establishing such confidence. 

3.">. The cominu; together of the Atlantic nations for 
good and constructive purposes — which is the basic prin- 
ciple and ideal underlying the NATO concept — mnst 
rest on and grow from deei)er and more permanent fac- 
tors than the divisions and dangers of the last ten years. 
It is a historical, rather than a contemporary, develop- 



20 



Department of State Bulletin 



ment and if it is to achieve its real purpose, it must be 
considered in that light and the necessary conclusions 
drawn. A short-range view will not suffice. 

3G. The fundamental historical fact underl.vin.g tliis 
development is that the nation state, l)y itself and relying 
exclusively on national iwlicy and national power, is in- 
adequate for progi'ess or even for survival in the 
nuclear a.ge. As the founders of the North Atlantic 
Treaty foresavr, the growing interdependence of states, 
politically and economically as well as militarily, calls 
for an ever-increasing measure of international cohesion 
and co-oi)eration. Some states may be able to en.iuy a 
degree of political and economic independence when 
things are going well. No state, however powerful, can 
guarantee its security and its welfare liy national action 
alone. 

37. This basic fact underlies our report and the recom- 
mendations contained therein which apjiear in the 
subsequent chapters. 

38. It has not been diflScult to make these recommenda- 
tions. It will be far more difficult for the member 
governments to carry them into effect. This will re- 
quire, on their part, the firm conviction that the trans- 
formation of the Atlantic Community into a vital and 
vigorous political reality is as important as any purely 
national purpose. It will require, above all, the will 
to carry this conviction into the realm of practical govern- 
mental policy. 

Chapter S: Political Co-operation 

I. Introduction 

39. If there is to be vitality and growth in the concept 
of the Atlantic Community, the relations between the 
members of NATO must rest on a solid basis of confidence 
and understanding. Without this there cannot be con- 
structive or solid political co-operation. 

40. The deepening and strengthening of this political 
co-operation does not imply the weakening of the ties of 
NATO members with other friendly countries or with 
other international associations, particularly the United 
Nations. Adherence to NATO is not exclusive or restric- 
tive. Nor should the evolution of the Atlantic Commu- 
nity through NATO prevent the formation of even closer 
relationships among some of its members; for instance 
within groups of European countries. The moves toward 
Atlantic co-operation and European unity should be 
parallel and complementary, not competitive or conflicting. 

41. Effective and constructive international co-opera- 
tion requires a resolve to work together for the solution 
of common problems. There are special ties between 
NATO members, special incentives and security interests. 
Which should make this task easier than it otherwise 
would be. But its successful accomplishment will de- 
pend largely on the extent to which member governments, 
in their own policies and actions, take into consideration 
the interests of the Alliance. This requires not only the 
acceptance of the obligation of consultation and co-opera- 
tion whenever necessary, but also the development of 
practices by which the discharge of this obligation be- 
comes a normal part of governmental activity. 

42. It is easy to profess devotion to the principle of 
political — or economic — c-onsultation in NATO. It is 



difficult and has in fact been shown to be impossible, if the 
proper conviction is lacking, to convert the profession into 
practice. Consultatidn within an alliance means more 
than exchange of information, tliough that is necessary. 
It means more than letting the N.\T() Council know about 
national decisions that have already been taken ; or try- 
ing to enlist support for those decisions. It means the 
discussion of problems collectively, in the early stages of 
policy formation, and before national positions become 
fixed. At best, this will result in collective decisions on 
matters of common interest affecting the Alliance. At 
the least, it will ensure that no action is taken by one 
member without a knowledge of the vie«s of tlie others. 

II. Consultation on Foeeign Policies 

A. Scope and Character of Political Consultation 

43. The essential role of consultation in fostering 
political co-operation was clearly defined by an earlier 
NATO Committee on the North Atlantic Community in 
1951: 

". . . The achievement of a closer degree of co-ordina- 
tion of the foreign policies of the members of the North 
Atlantic Treaty, through the development of the 'habit of 
consultation' on matters of common concern, would greatly 
strengthen the solidarity of the North Atlantic Com- 
munity and increase the individual and collective capacity 
of its members to serve the peaceful purposes for which 
NATO was established. ... In the political field, this 
means that while each North Atlantic government retains 
full freedom of action and decision with respect to its 
own policy, the aim should be to achieve, through ex- 
changing information and views, as wide an area of 
agreement as possible in the formulation of policies as a 
whole. 

"Special attention must be paid, as explicitly recog- 
nised in Article 4 of the Treaty, to matters of urgent and 
immediate importance to the members of NATO, and to 
'emergency' situations where it may be necessary to con- 
sult closely on national lines of conduct affecting the 
interests of members of NATO as a whole. There is a 
continuing need, however, for effective consultation at an 
early stage on current problems, in order that national 
policies may be developed and action taken on the basis 
of a full awareness of the attitudes and interests of all 
the members of NATO. While all members of NATO have 
a responsibility to consult with their partners on appro- 
priate matters, a large share of responsibility for such 
consultation necessarily rests on the more powerful mem- 
bers of the Community." 

44. These words were written five years ago. They 
hold true now more than ever before. If we can say that 
they have not been ignored by NATO we must also recog- 
nise that the practice of consulting has not so developed 
in the NATO Council as to meet the demands of political 
changes and world trends. The present need, therefore, 
is more than simply broadening the scope and deei>ening 
the character of consultation. There is a pressing re- 
quirement for all members to make consultation in NATO 
an integral part of the making of national policy. With- 
out this the very existence of the North Atlantic Com- 
munity may be in jeopardy. 

4.5. It should, however, be remembered that collective 
discussion is not an end in itself, but a means to the end 
of harmonising policies. Where common interests of the 
Atlantic Community are at state consultation should al- 



January 7, 1957 



21 



ways seek to arrive at timely agreement on common lines 
of policy and action. 

46. Siicli agreement, even with the closest possible co- 
operation and consultation, is not easy to secure. But 
It is essential to the Atlantic Alliance that a steady and 
continuous effort be made to bring it about. There can- 
not be unity in defence and disunity in foreign policy. 

47. There are, of cour.se, certain practical limitations 
to consultation in this field. They are sufficiently ob- 
vious in fact to malie it unnecessary to emphasise them in 
words. Indeed the danger is less that they will be min- 
imised or evaded than that they will be exaggerated and 
used to justify practices which unnecessarily ignore the 
common interest. 

48. One of these limitations is the hard fact that ulti- 
mate responsibility for decision and action still rests on 
national governments. It is conceivable that a situation 
of extreme emergency may arise when action must be 
talven by one government before consultation is possible 
with the others. 

49. Another limitation is the difficulty, and indeed the 
unwisdom, of trying to specify in advance all the subjects 
and all the situations where consultation is necessary; 
to separate by area or by subject the matters of NATO 
concern from those of purely national concern ; to define 
in detail the obligations and duties of consultation. These 
things have to work themselves out in practice. In this 
process, experience is a better guide than dogma. 

50. The essential thing is that on all occasions and in 
all circumstances member governments, Isefore acting or 
even before pronouncing, should keep the interests and 
the requirements of the Alliance in mind. If they have 
not the desire and the will to do this, no resolutions or 
recommendations or declarations by the Council or any 
Committee of the Council will be of any great value. 

51. On the assumption, however, that this will and this 
desire do exist, the following principles and practices in 
the field of political consultation are recommended: 

(a) members should inform the Council of any de- 
velopment which significantly affects the Alliance. They 
should do this, not merely as a formality but as a pre- 
liminary to effective political consultation; 

(b) both individual member governments and tlie 
Secretary General should have the right to raise for dis- 
cussion in the Council any subject which is of common 
NATO interest and not of a purely domestic character ; 

(c) a member government should not, without adequate 
advance consultation, adopt firm policies or make major 
political pronouncements on matters which significantly 
affect the Alliance or any of its members, unless circum- 
stances make such prior consultation obviously and 
demonstrably impossible ; 

(d) in developing their national policies, members 
should take into consideration the interests and views of 
other governments, particularly those most directly con- 
cerned, as expressed in NATO consultation, even where 
no community of view or consensus has been reached in 
the Council; 

(e) where a consensus has been reached, it should be 
reflected in the formation of national policies. When for 

national reasons the consensus is not followed, the govern- 



22 



ment concerned should offer an explanation to the Coun- 
cil. It is even more important that where an agreed and 
formal recommendation has emerged from the Council 
discussions, governments should give it full weight in 
any national actions or policies related to the subject of 
that recommendation. 

B. Annual Political Appraisal 

52. To strengthen the process of consultation, it is rec- 
ommended that Foreign Ministers, at each Spring meet- 
ing, should make an appraisal of the political progress of 
the Alliance and consider the lines along which it should 
advance. 

53. To prepare for this discussion, the Secretary Gen- 
eral should submit an annual report : 

(a) analysing the major political problems of the Alli- 
ance; 

(b) reviewing the extent to which member governments 
have consulted and co-operated on such problems : 

(c) indicating the problems and possible developments 
which may require future consultation, so that difficulties 
might be resolved and positive and constructive initiatives 
taken. 

54. Member governments, through their Permanent Rep- 
resentatives, should give the Secretary General such in- 
formation and assistance, including that of technical ex- 
perts, as he may require in preparing his report. 

C. Preparation for Political Consultation 

55. Effective consultation also requires careful plan- 
ning and preparation of the agenda for meetings of the 
Council l)oth in Ministerial and permanent session. Po- 
litical questions coming up for discussion in the Council 
should so far as practicable be previously reviewed and 
discussed, so that representatives may have background 
information on the thinking both of their own and of 
other governments. When appropriate, drafts of reso- 
lutions should be prepared in advance as a basis for dis- 
cussion. Additional preparatory work will also be re- 
quired for the annual political appraisal referred to in the 
preceding section. 

56. To assist the Permanent Representatives and the 
Secretary General in discharging their responsibilities 
for political consultation, there should be constituted 
under the Council a Committee of Political Advisers from 
each delegation, aided when necessary by specialists 
from the capitals. It would meet under the chairman- 
ship of a member of the International Staff apiwinted by 
the Secretary General, and would include among its re- 
sponsibilities current studies such as those on trends 
of Soviet policy. 

III. Peaces'ITl Settlement of Inter-Member Disputes 

57. In tlie development of effective political co-opera- 
tion in NATO, it is of crucial importance to avoid serious 
inter-member disputes and to settle them quickly and 
satisfactorily when they occur. The settlement of such 
disputes is in the first place the direct responsibility of 
the meml)er governments concerned, under both the 
Charter of the United Nations (Article 3:?) and tlie 



Department of State Bulletin 



North Atlantic Treaty (Article 1). To clarify NATO's 
responsibilities in dealing with disputes which have not 
proved capable of settlement directly and to enable NATO, 
if necessary, to help in the settlement of such disputes, 
the Committee recommends that the Council adopt a reso- 
lution under Article 1 of the Treaty on the following 
lines : 

(a) reaffirming the obligation of members to settle 
by peaceful means any dispute between themselves; 

(b) declaring their intention to submit any such dis- 
putes, which have not proved capable of settlement 
directly, to good offices procedures within the NATO 
framework before resorting to any other international 
agency ; except for disputes of a legal character appro- 
priate for submission to a judicial tribunal, and those dis- 
putes of an economic character for which attempts at 
settlement might best be made initially in the appropriate 
specialised economic organization ; 

(c) recognising the right and duty of member gov- 
ernments and of the Secretary General to bring to the 
attention of the Council matters which in their opinion 
may threaten the solidarity or effectiveness of the Al- 
liance ; 

(d) empowering the Secretary General to offer his good 
offices informally at any time to the parties in dispute, 
and with their consent to initiate or facilitate procedures 
of enquiry, mediation, conciliation, or arbitration ; and 

(e) empowering the Secretary General, where he deems 
it appropriate for the purpose outlined in (d) above, to 
use the assistance of not more than three Permanent 
Representatives chosen by him in each instance. 

IV. Pabuamentary Associations and the PAHiXAMEaj- 
TABT Conference 

58. Among the best supporters of NATO and its pur- 
IKJses are those Members of Parliament who have had a 
chance at first hand to see some of its activities and to 
learn of its problems, and to exchange views with their 
colleagues from other parliaments. In particular, the 
formation of national Parliamentary Associations and 
the activities of the Conference of Members of Parlia- 
ment from NATO countries have contributed to the de- 
velopment of public support for NATO and solidarity 
among its members. 

59. In order to maintain a close relationship of Par- 
liamentarians with NATO, the following arrangements 
are recommended : 

(a) that the Secretary General continue to place the 
facilities of NATO headquarters at the disposal of Par- 
liamentary Conferences and give all possible help with 
arrangements for their meetings; 

(b) that invited representatives of member govern- 
ments and the Secretary General and other senior NATO 
civil and military officers attend certain of these meetings. 
In this way the parliamentarians would be informed on 
the state of the Alliance and the problems before it, and 
the value of their discussions would be increased. 

Chapter 3: Economic Co-operation 
I. Introduction 

60. Political co-operation and economic conflict are not 



reconcilable. Therefore, In the economic as well as in 
the political field there must be a genuine desire among 
the members to work together and a readiness to consult 
on questions of common concern based on the recognition 
of common interests. 

61. These common economic interests shared by the 
members of NATO call for : 

(a) co-operative and national action to achieve healthy 
and expanding economies, both to promote the well-being 
and self -confidence of the Atlantic peoples and to serve as 
the essential support for an adequate defence effort; 

(b) the greatest possible freedom in trade and pay- 
ments and in the movement of manpower and long-term 
capital ; 

(c) assistance to economically underdeveloped areas 
for reasons of enlightened self-interest and to promote 
better relations among peoples ; and 

(d) policies which will demonstrate, under conditions 
of competitive coexistence, the superiority of free institu- 
tions in promoting human welfare and economic progress. 

62. A recognition of these common NATO interests, and 
collective and individual effort to promote them, need not 
in any way prejudice close economic relations with non- 
NATO countries. Economic, like political co-operation, is 
and must remain wider than NATO. At the same time, 
the NATO countries have an interest in any arrangements 
for especially close economic co-operation among groups 
of European member nations. It should be possible — as 
it is desirable — for such special arrangements to promote 
rather than conflict with the wider objectives of Article 2 
of our Treaty, which are of basic importance to the stabil- 
ity and well-being, not only of the North Atlantic area, 
but of the whole non-Communist world. 

II. Nato and Other Organizations 

63. While the purposes and principles of Article 2 are 
of vital importance, it is not necessary that member coun- 
tries pursue them only through action in NATO itself. 
It would not serve the interests of the Atlantic Community 
for NATO to duplicate the operating functions of other 
international organizations designed for various forms 
of economic co-operation.' NATO members play a major 
part in all these agencies, whose membership is generally 
well adapted to the purposes they serve. 



' The outstanding instances are the Organization for 
European Co-operation (OEEC) (which includes all 
NATO countries as fuU or associate members and four 
others) ; the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
(GATT) ; the International Monetary Fund (IMF) ; the 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
(IBRD) ; the International Finance Corporation (IFC) ; 
and the various other United Nations agencies including 
the Economic Commission for Europe. Several NATO 
members participate actively in the Colombo Plan for 
promoting economic development in Asia. Most members 
are taking an active part in technical assistance pro- 
grammes and are also participating in discussions of pro- 
posals for the creation of a Special United Nations Fund 
for Economic Development (SUNFED). [Footnote in 
the original.] 



January 7, 1957 



23 



64. Nor do there now appear to be significant new areas 
for collective economic action requiring execution by 
NATO itself. In fact, the common economic concerns of 
the member nations will often best be fostered by con- 
tinued and increa.sed collaboration both bilaterally and 
through organizations other than NATO. This collabo- 
ration should be reinforced, however, by NATO consulta- 
tion whenever economic issues of .special interest to the 
Alliance are involved ; particularly those which have 
political or defence implications or affect the economic 
health of the Atlantic Community as a whole. This, in 
turn, requires a substantial expansion of exchange of 
information and views in NATO in the economic as well 
as in the political field. Such economic consultation 
should seek to secure a common approach on the part of 
member governments where the questions are clearly re- 
lated to the political and security interests of the Alliance. 
Action resulting from such a common aijproaeh, however, 
should normally be taken by governments either directly 
or through other international organizations. 

65. NATO, as such, should not seek to establish formal 
relations with these other organizations, and the har- 
monising of attitudes and actions should be left to the 
representatives of the NATO governments therein. Nor 
is it necessary or desirable for NATO members to form a 
"bloc" in such organizations. This would only alienate 
other friendly governments. There should, however, be 
consviltation in NATO when economic i.ssues of special 
political or strategic importance to NATO arise in other 
organizations and in particular before meetings at which 
there may be attempts to divide or weaken the Atlantic 
Alliance, or prejudice its interests. 

III. Conflicts in Economic Policies of NATO Countries 

66. NATO has a positive interest in the resolution ot, 
economic disputes which may have iwlitical or strategic 
repercussions damaging to the Alliance. These are to be 
distinguished from disagreements on economic policy 
which are normally dealt with through direct negotiations 
or by multilateral discussions in other orgauization.s. 
Nothing would be gained by merely having repeated in 
NATO the same arguments made in other and more tech- 
nically qualified organizations. It should, however, be 
open to any member or to the Secretary General to raise 
in NATO issues on which they feel that consideration 
elsewhere is not making adequate progress and that NATO 
consultation might facilitate solutions contributing to the 
objectives of the Atlantic Community. The procedures 
for peaceful settlement of political disputes discussed in 
the previous chapter should also be available for major 
disputes of an economic character which are appropriate 
for NATO consideration. 

IV. Scientific and Technical Co-opbSlAtion 

67. One area of special importance to the .\tlantic 
Community is that of science and technology. During the 
last decade, it has become ever clearer that progress in 
this field can be decisive in determining the security of 
nations and their position in world affairs. Such progress 
is also vital if the Western world is to play its proper role 
in relation to economically underdeveloped areas. 

68. Within the general field of science and technology, 
there is an especially urgent need to Improve the quality 
and to increase the sui»ply of scientists, engineers and 



technicians. Responsibility for recruitment, training and 
utilisation of scientific and technical personnel is prima- 
rily a national rather than an international matter. Nor 
is it a responsibility solely of national governments. In 
the member countries with federal systems, state and 
provincial governments play the major part, and many of 
the universities and institutes of higher learning in the 
Atlantic area are independent institutions free from de- 
tailed control by governments. At the same time, prop- 
erly designed measures of international co-operation 
could stimulate individual member countries to adopt 
more positive policies and, in some cases, help guide them 
in the most constructive directions. 

60. Certain activities in this connection are already be- 
ing carried out by other organizations. Progress in this 
field, however, is so crucial to the future of the Atlantic 
Community that NATO members should ensure that every 
pos.sibility of fruitful co-operation is examined. As a 
first concrete step, therefore, it is recommended that 
a conference be convened composed of one or at the most 
two outstanding authorities, private or governmental, 
from each country in order: 

(a) to exchange information and views concerning the 
most urgent problems in the recruitment, training and 
utilisation of scientists, engineers and technicians, and 
the best means, both long-term and short-term, of solving 
those problems ; 

(b) to foster closer relations among the participants 
with a view of continued interchange of experience and 
stimulation of constructive work in member countries ; 
and 

(c) to propo.se specific measures for future interna- 
tional co-operation in this field, through NATO or other 
international organizations. 

V. Consultation on Economic Problems 

70. It is agreed that the Atlantic Community has a 
positive concern with healthy and accelerated develop- 
ment in economically underdeveloped areas, both inside 
and outside the NATO area. The Committee feels, how- 
ever, that NATO is not an appropriate agency for ad- 
ministering programmes of assistance for economic 
development, or even for systematically concerting the 
relevant i)olieies of member nations. What member 
countries can and should do is to keep each other and 
the Organization informed of their programmes and 
policies in this field. When required NATO should review 
the adequacy of existing action in relation to the in- 
terests of the Alliance. 

71. The economic interests of the Athmtic Community 
cannot be considered in isolation from the activities and 
policies of the Soviet bloc. The Soviets are resorting all 
too often to the use of economic measures designed to 
weaken the Western Alliance, or to create in other areas 
a high degree of dependence on the Soviet world. In this 
situation it is more than ever imiH)rtant that NATO 
countries actively develop their own coiislructive commer- 
cial and financial policies. In particular, they should 
avoid creating situations of which the Soviet bloc coun- 
tries might take advantage to the detriment of the At- 
lantic Coninuinity and of other non-Communist countries. 
In this wliolc Held ol' comiietitive economic coexistence 



24 



Department of State Bulletin 



member countries should consult tosether more fully In 
order to determine their course deliberately and with the 
fullest jiossible knowledge. 

72. There has been a considerable evolution in NATO's 
arrangements for regular economic consultation. In 
addition, a number of econoniic matters have been brought 
before the Council for consideration on an ad hoc basis. 
No substantial new machinery in this field is called for. 
Hovever, in view of the extended range of topics for 
regular exchange of information and consultation de- 
scribed above, there should be established under the Coun- 
cil a Committee of Economic Advisers. This group should 
be entrusted with preliminary discussion, on a systematic 
basis, of the matters outlined above, together with such 
tasks as may be assigned by the Council or a[)proved by 
the Council at the Committee's request. It would absorb 
any continuing function of the Committee of Technical 
Advisers. Since its duties would not be full-time, mem- 
ber governments could be represented normally by oflicials 
mainly concerned with the work of other international 
economic organizations. Membership, however, should be 
flexible, the Committee being composed, when appropriate, 
of specialists from the capitals on particular toi>ics under 
consideration. 

Chapter 4: Cultural Co-operation 

73. A sense of community must bind the people as well 
as the institutions of the Atlantic nations. This will 
exist only to the extent that there is a realisation of their 
common cultural heritage and of the values of their free 
way of life and thought. It is important, therefore, for 
the NATO countries to promote cultural cooperation 
among their peoples by all practical means In order to 
strengthen their unity and develop maximum support 
for the Alliance. It is particularly Important that this 
cultural co-operation should be wider than continental. 
This, however, does not preclude particular governments 
from acting on a more limited multilateral or even bi- 
lateral basis to strengthen their own cultural relations 
within the broader Atlantic framework. The Committee 
welcomes the measures for cultural co-operation within 
the Atlantic Community which have been initiated by 
private Individuals and non-governmental groups. These 
should be encouraged and increased. 

74. To further cultural collaboration, the Committee 
suggests that member governments be guided by the fol- 
lowing general principles : 

(a) government activities in this field should not dupli- 
cate but should support and supplement private efforts; 

(b) member governments should give priority to those 
projects which require joint NATO action, and thus con- 
tribute to a developing sense of community; 

(c) in developing new activities in the cultural field, 
NATO can most fruitfully place the main emphasis on in- 
spiring and promoting transatlantic contacts ; 

(d) there should be a realistic appreciation of the 
financial Implications of cultural projects. 

7.'i. In order to develop public awareness and under- 
standing of NATO and the Atlantic Community, the 



Council should work out arrangements for NATO courses 
and seminars for teachers. 

76. NATO and its member governments should broaden 
their support of other educational and related activities 
such as the NATO Fellowship and Scholarship Pro- 
gramme ; creation of university chairs of Atlantic .studies ; 
visiting professorships ; government-sponsored pro- 
grammes for the exchange of persons, especially on a 
transatlantic basis : use of NATO information materials 
in schools ; and establishment of special NATO awards 
for students. 

77. Governments should actively promote closer rela- 
tions between NATO and youth organizations and a spe- 
cialist should be added to the International Staff in this 
connection. Conferences iinder NATO auspices of repre- 
sentatives of youth organizations such as that of .July 
1950 should be held from time to time. 

78. In the interests of promoting easier and more fre- 
quent contacts among the NATO peoples, governments 
should review and, if possible, revise their foreign ex- 
change and other policies which restrict travel. 

79. In view of the Importance of promoting better un- 
derstanding and goodwill between NATO service person- 
nel, it would be desirable, in co-operation with the mili- 
tary authorities, to extend exchanges of such personnel 
beyond the limits of normal training progi-ammes. Such 
exchanges might, as a first step, be developed by govern- 
ments on a bilateral basis. In addition, member govern- 
ments should seek the assistance of the Atlantic Treaty 
Association and other voluntary organizations in the fur- 
ther development of such exchanges. 

80. Cultural projects which have a common benefit 
should be commonly financed. Agreed cultural projects 
initiated by a single member government or a private or- 
ganization, such as the recent seminar held at Oxford or 
the Study Conference sponsored by the Atlantic Treaty 
Association on "the Role of the School in the Atlantic Com- 
munity", should receive financial support from NATO 
where that is necessary to supplement national resources. 

Chapter 5: Co-operation in the Irrformatioii Field 

81. The jjeople of the member countries must know 
about NATO if they are to support it. Therefore they 
must be informed not only of NATO's aspirations, but of 
its achievements. There must be substance for an effec- 
tive NATO information programme and resources to carry 
it out. The public should be informed to the greatest 
possible extent of significant results achieved through 
NATO consultation. 

82. NATO information activities should be directed pri- 
marily to public opinion in the NATO area. At the same 
time an understanding outside the NATO area of the 
objectives and accomplishments of the Organization is 
necessary if it is to be viewed sympathetically, and if its 
activities are not to be misinterpreted. 

83. The important task of explaining and reporting 
NATO activities rests primarily on national information 
services. They cannot discharge this task If member gov- 
ernments do not make adequate provisions in their na- 
tional programmes for that purpose. It is essential, there- 
fore, that such provision be made. NATO can and should 
assist national governments in this work. The promotion 



January 7, 1957 



25 



of information about and public understanding of NATO 
and the Atlantic Community should, in fact, be a joint 
endeavour by the Organization and its members. 

84. One of NATO's functions should be to co-ordinate 
the work of national information services in fields of 
common interest. Governments should pool their experi- 
ences and views in NATO to avoid differences in evalua- 
tion and emphasis. This is particularly important in the 
dissemination of information about NATO to other coun- 
tries. Co-ordinated policy should underline the defensive 
character of our Alliance and the importance of its non- 
military aspects. It should cover also replies to anti- 
NATO propaganda and the analysis of Communist moves 
and statements which affect NATO. 

85. In its turn, the NATO Information Division must be 
given the resources by governments as well as their sup- 
port, without which it could not discharge these new 
tasks — and should not be asked to do so. 

86. In order to facilitate co-operation between the 
NATO Information Division and national information 
services, the following specitic measures are recom- 
mended : 

(a) an Officer should be designated by each national 
information service to maintain liaison with NATO and 
to be responsible for the dissemination of NATO informa- 
tion material ; 

(b) governments should submit to NATO the relevant 
information programmes which they plan to implement, 
for discussion in the Committee on Information and Cul- 
tural Relations. Representatives of national informa- 
tion services should take part in these discussions ; 

(c) within the NATO Information Division budget, pro- 
vision should be made for a translation fund so that 
NATO information material can be translated into the 
non-official languages of the Alliance, according to reason- 
able requirements of the member governments ; 

(d) NATO should, on request, provide national services 
with special studies on matters of common interest. 

87. The journalists' tours sponsored by NATO should 
be broadened to include others in a position to influence 
public opinion, such as trade union and youth leaders, 
teachers and lecturers. Closer relations between private 
organizations supporting NATO and the NATO Informa- 
tion Division should also be encouraged. ■ 

Chapter 6: Organization and Functions 

88. The Committee considers that NATO in its present 
form is capable of discharging the non-military functions 
required of it. Structural changes are not needed. The 
machine is basically satisfactory. It is for governments 
to make use of it. 

89. At the same time, certain improvements in the 
procedures and functioning of the Organization will be 
required if the recommendations of this report are to be 
fully implemented. The proposals in this Chapter are 
submitted for this purpose. 

A. Meetings of the Council 

90. More time should be allowed for Ministerial Meet- 
ings. Experience has shown that, without more time. 
Important issues on the agenda cannot be adequately con- 



sidered. Decisions concerning some of them will not be 
reached at all, or will be reached only in an unclear form. 

91. Efforts should be made to encourage discussion 
rather than simply declarations of policy prepared in ad- 
vance. Arrangements for meetings should be made with 
this aim in view. For most sessions, the numbers present 
should be sharply restricted. In order to facilitate free 
discussions, when Ministers wish to speak in a language 
other than French or English, consecutive translation into 
one of these official languages should be provided by inter- 
preters from their own delegations. 

92. Meetings of Foreign Ministers should be held when- 
ever required and occasionally in locations other than 
NATO Headquarters. Ministers might also participate 
more frequently in regular Council meetings, even though 
not all of them may find it possible to attend such meetings 
at the same time. The Council of Permanent Representa- 
tives has powers of effective decision : in other words, the 
authority of the Council as such is the same whether gov- 
ernments are represented by Ministers or by their Per- 
manent Representatives. Thus there should be no firm or 
formal line between Ministerial and other meetings of the 
Council. 

B. Strengthening the Links Between the Council and 
Member Governments 

93. It is indispensable to the kind of consultations en- 
visaged in this report that Permanent Representatives 
should be in a position to speak authoritatively and to 
reflect the current thinking of their governments. Dif- 
ferences in location and in constitutional organization 
make impossible any uniform arrangements in all mem- 
ber governments. In some cases it might be desirable to 
designate a high official in the national capital to be con- 
cerned primarily with NATO affairs. The purpose would 
be to help both in fostering NATO consultations whenever 
national policies impinge on the common interests of the 
Atlantic Community, and in translating the results of 
such consultations into effective action within the national 
governments. 

94. To ensure the closest possible connection between 
current thinking in the governments and consultations in 
the Council, there might be occasional Council meetings 
with the participation of specially designated officials or 
the permanent heads of foreign ministries. 

C. Preparation for Council Meetings 

95. Items on the agenda of Ministerial Meetings should 
be thoroughly examined by Permanent Representatives 
and releveiit proposals prepared before Ministers meet. 
For this purpose it may be found desirable for govern- 
ments to send senior experts to consult on agenda items 
before the meetings take place. 

96. The preparation of questions for discussion in the 
Council should be assisted by appropriate use of tlio ■ 
Council's Committees of Political and Economic Advisors. 
(Recommendations on the establishment of these Comr 
mittees are set forth in Chapter 2, paragraph 56, and 
Chapter 3, paragraph 72.) 

97. In the case of consultations on special subjects, 
more use should be made of senior experts from national 
capitals to assist permanent delegations by calling them, 
on an ad hoc basis, to do preparatory work. Informal 



26 



Department of State Bulletin 



discussions iiraong sppcialists witL oorrcspoudiug resiKin- 
sibilities are a partitularly valuable means of concerting 
governmental attitudes in the early stages of policy forma- 
tion. 

98. Member governments should make available to one 
another through NATO "basic position material" for back- 
ground information. This would help the Alliance as a 
whole in the consideration of problems of common con- 
cern and would assist individual governments to under- 
stand more fully the reasons for the position adopted by 
any member country on a particular issue which might 
be its si)ecial concern, but which might also affect in 
varying degrees other members of NATO. 

D. The Secretary General and the International Staff 
09. To enable the Organization to make ite full con- 
tribution, the role of the Secretary General and the In- 
ternational Staff needs to be enhanced. 

100. It is recommended that the Secretary General pre- 
side over meetings of the Council in Ministerial, as he 
does now in other sessions. Such a change with respect 
to the conduct of the Council's business would follow 
naturally from the new responsibilities of the Secretary 
General, arising out of the recommendations of this re- 
port. It is also warranted by the Secretary General's 
unique opportunities for becoming familiar with the 
problems and the activities of the Alliance as a whole. 

101. It would, however, still be desirable to have one 
Minister chosen each year as President of the Council in 
accordance with the present practice of alphabetical rota- 
tion. This Minister, as President, would continue to have 
especially close contact with the Secretary General dur- 
ing and between Ministerial ileetings, and would, as at 
present, act as the spokesman of the Council on all formal 
occasions. He would also preside at the formal opening 
and closing of Ministerial sessions of the Council. 

102. In addition : 

(a) the Secretary General should be encouraged to 
propo.se items for NATO consultation in the fields covered 
by this report and should be responsible for promoting and 
directing the process of consultation ; 

(h) in view of these resiwnsibilities, meml)er govern- 
ments should undertake to keep the Secretary General 
fully and currently informed through their permanent dele- 
gations of their governments' thinking on questions of 
common concern to the Alliance ; 

(c) attention is also called to the additional respon.si- 
hilities of the Secretary General, recommended in connec- 
tion with the annual political appraisal (Chapter 2, para- 
graph 52) and the peaceful settlement of disputes (Chap- 
ter 2, paragraph 57). 

103. The effective functioning of NATO depends in large 
measure on the etficiency, devotion and morale of its Secre- 
tariat. Acceptance of the recommendations in this report 
would impose on the Secretariat new duties and resiwnsi- 
bilities. Governments must, therefore, be prepared to 
give the International Staff all necessary support, both in 
finance and personnel. If this is not done, the recom- 
mendations of the report, even if accepted by governments, 
will not be satisfactorily carried out. 

Palais de Chaillot 
Paris, XVIe. 

January 7, J 957 



Annex 

Comnvittec of Three 
I'urnml liccord of Proceedings 

The Committee of Three, consisting of Dr. Gaetano 
Marti no (Italy), Mr. Halvard Lange (Norway) and Mr. 
Lester H. Pearson (Canada) was established by the North 
Atlantic Council in Ministerial Session on 5th May, 1956, 
with the following terms of reference : 

". . . to advise the Council on ways and means to im- 
prove and extend NATO co-ojieration in non-military 
fields and to develop greater unity within the Atlantic 
Cou)munit.v." 

2. The Committee held its first meetings from 20th to 
22nd .lune. 1956, at NATO Headquarters in Paris. Dur- 
ing these discussions, the procedure to be followed by the 
Committee was established, and it was decided to send 
a Ciuestionnaire to each NATO member government in 
order to obtain its views on a number of specific problems 
with respect to co-operation in the political, economic, 
cultural and infonnatlon fields and regarding the organi- 
zation and functions of NATO. In addition, the Com- 
mittee issued a memorandum containing explanatory 
notes and guidance to assist countries in the preparation 
of their replies to the Questionnaire. The Questionnaire 
was circulated on 2Sth June, 1956, and governments were 
requested to submit their replies by 20th August. 

8. The Committee reassembled in Paris on 10th Sep- 
tember, 1956, and held a series of meetings lasting until 
the 22nd of that month. After having examined and 
analysed the replies to the Questionnaire, the Committee 
held consultations with each member country individually. 
The pui-pose of these consultations was to clarify, where 
necessary, the position taken by governments in their re- 
plies, and to discuss with the representatives of other 
governments in a preliminary way certain views of the 
Committee. 

4. The consultations took place in tlie following order : 

Wednesday, 12th September a. m. Iceland (represented 
by Mr. H. G. Andersen, Permanent Representative of 
Iceland to the North Atlantic Council) ; p. m. Turkey 
( represented by Mr. N. Birgi, Secretary General of the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs). 

Thursday, 13th September a. m. The Netherlands (repre- 
sented by Mr. .1. W. Beyen, Minister for Foreign Af- 
fairs) ; p. m. Greece (represented by Mr. E. Averof, 
Minister for Foreign Affairs). 

Friday, 14th September a. m. Belgium (represented by 
Mr. P. H. Spaak, Minister for Foreign Affairs) ; p. m. 
Germany (represented by Professor Hallstein, Secre- 
tary of State for Foreign Affairs). 

Monday, 17th Septeml)er a. m. Luxembourg (repre.sented 
by Mr. M. J. Bech, Prime Minister and Minister for For- 
eign Affairs) ; a. m. France (represented by Mr. C. 
Pineau, Minister for Foreign Affairs) ; p. m. United 
States (represented by Senator George, special repre- 
sentative of President Eisenhower) ; p. m. Portugal 
( represented by Mr. P. Cunha, Minister for Foreign 
Affairs). 

Tuesday, 18th September a. m. Denmark (represented by 
Ernst Christiansen, Deputy Foreign Minister) ; p. m. 
United Kingdom (represented by Mr. Anthony Nutting, 
Minister of State for Foreign Affairs). 

5. In addition the Committee met with the following 
groups : 



27 



(a) On Wednesday, 12th September, meeting with the 
Standing Committee of the Conference of Members of 
Parliament from NATO countries, consisting of the fol- 
lowing persons : 

Belgium Mr. Frans Van Cauwelaert 

Mr. A. (le Meeler 
Canada Senator, the Hon. Wishart McL. 

Robertson, P. C. 

France Mr. Maurice Schumann 

Germany Herr F. Berendsen 

Dr. Richard Jaeger 
Netherlands Mr. J. J. Fens 

Mr. J. L. Kranenburg 

Mr. E. A. Vermeer 

Turkey Colonel Seyfi Kurtbek 

United Kinsdom.. Colonel Walter Elliott, C.H., M.C., M.P. 
United States Congressman Wayne L. Hays, M.C. 

(b) On Saturday, 15th September, meeting with the 
Atlantic Treaty Association, represented by : 

Count Morra, Chairman 
Dr. Nord, Vice-Chairman 
Dr. Flynt, Vice-Chairman and 
Mr. John Eppstein, Secretary General 
and a number of delegates from national member or- 
ganizations. 

(c) On Tuesday, 18th September, meeting with Gen- 
eral Billotte and Mr. Barton, representing the Signa- 
tories of the Declaration of Atlantic Unity. 

6. As a result of these consultations a draft report to 
the Council was prepared. In this work the Committee 
benefited from the expert advice of three special con- 
sultants. They were Professor Lincoln Gordon ( Harvard 
University), Professor Guide Carli (Rome) and Mr. 
Robert Major (Oslo). 

7. The Committee met again in New York on 14th 
November and re-examined the report in the light of 
the important world events which occurred in the in- 
terval since its September meeting. The Committee, 
after approving the report, furnished the other Foreign 
Ministers with an advance copy, preparatory to con- 
sideration of the report by the North Atlantic Council. 



British Arrangements With 
Monetary Fund and Eximbani< 

INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ANNOUNCE- 
MENT, DECEMBER 10 

The Government of the United Kingdom has 
made arrangements with the International Mone- 
tary Fund under which it may purchase with ster- 
ling, from the Fund, up to the amount of its quota 
of U.S.$1,300 million. These aiTangements fall 
into two parts: 

(i) a drawing of U.S.$561,470,000 ; and 
(ii) a stand-by arrangement under which up to 
the equivalent of U.S.$738,530,000 in foreign cur- 
rencies may be purchased with sterling at any time 
during the next twelve months. 



Tlie United Kingdom Government purchased a 
total of U.S.$300 million from the Fund in 1947 
and 1948. These sums have since been fully re- 
paid, partly by repurchase by the United Kingdom 
and partly by purchases of sterling by other 
members. 



STATEMENT BY IMF MANAGING DIRECTOR 
PER JACOBSSON, DECEMBER 10 

The drawing of $561,470,000 is intended to add 
to the monetary reserves of the United Kingdom 
to meet payments requirements. This amount will 
be at the immediate disposal of the United King- 
dom. 

The stand-by arrangement, on the other hand, 
will make available the equivalent of $738,530,000 
in Fund member currencies to be used at any time 
during the next twelve months at the request of 
the United Kingdom, to supplement the amount 
immediately transferred. 

In the speech of the Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, Mr. Macmillan, on December 4, and in 
its representations to the Fund the United King- 
dom Government has made clear that it intends 
to maintain the rate of the pound sterling at its 
present parity and to avoid the reimposition of 
external controls. To this end the United King- 
dom Government has announced that it will follow 
fiscal, credit and other policies designed to 
strengthen the economy, both internally and ex- 
ternally. 

The pursuit of such policies will clearly promote 
the objectives of the Fund. For this reason, and 
in view of the special importance of sterling as a 
worldwide reserve and trading currency, the Fimd 
has approved a transaction of this magnitude. It 
has done so in the firm belief that the action 
taken will permit the policies and measures of the 
United Kingdom to continue to operate and thus 
effectively contribute to the restoration of the 
strong balance-of-paj'inents position which had 
been emerging in the first half of 1956. 

In this connection it should be pointed out that 
the trading position of the United Kingdom lias 
been and continues to be essentially sound. In the 
course of 1956, pressure on the economy was eased 
under the impact of the monetary and fiscal meas- 
ures and the benefit of investments over the past 
few years now coming to fruition. The credit 
squeeze was showing good results, the rise in prices 
had been checked, and exports, including those to 



28 



Department of State Bulletin 



tlie dollar markets, had reached record levels. A 
state of equilibrium had almost been achieved. 

From the end of July, however, the balance-of- 
payments position came under pressure. The 
pressure was not caused by weakness in the current 
account, but reflected a decline in confidence whicli 
caused remittances of sterling to be delayed and 
payments through sterling to be accelerated. 
Since sterling serves as a means of payments for 
half the world's commercial transactions, it is a 
currency particularly susceptible to tliese influ- 
ences. It is for the purpose of reversing this trend 
against a world-wide trading currency that the 
International Monetary Fund has today approved 
support on such a massive scale. 

EXIMBANK ANNOUNCEMENT, DECEMBER 21 

The Export-Import Bank and the British Em- 
bassy announced on December 21 that the bank had 
authorized a line of credit of $500 million in favor 
of the British Government to be available for the 
United Kingdom's dollar requirements for United 
States goods and services, including dollar re- 
quirements for petroleum. 

The line of credit will he made against the U.K. 
Government holding of United States dollar se- 
curities. It will be available for a period of 12 
months. Repayments will begin 3 years after 
each disbursement and will be made in semiannual 
installments over 4% years thereafter. Interest 
on each disbursement will be chargeable at 41^ 
percent, payable semiannually. 

U.S. Extends Invitation to 
Euratom Committee 

Press release 629 dated December 21 

The Department of State and the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs in Brussels on December 21 re- 
leased the text of a letter from the Secretary of 
State to Paul-Henri Spaak, Foreign Minister of 
Belgium and President of the Intergovernmental 
Conference for the Commnon Market and EU- 
RATOM, together with a translation of the let- 
ter's reply, concerning an invitation hy the U.S. 
Government to a group of three distinguished 
Europeans uiorhing on a program of atomic en- 
ergy development in connection with EURATOM 
to visit the United States. The texts of tlie letters 
follow. 



Secretary Dulles to Foreign Minister Spaak 

Degkmhek 10, 19r)6 
Mt dear Mk. President: We have noted with 
great interest the decision of the Brussels Con- 
ference to appoint three "AVise Men" whose task 
it is to establish production targets in the field of 
nuclear energy for Euratom, the rate at which 
nuclear power stations can be installed, and the 
means and resources needed for the achievement 
of a common program. 

In the past, both the President and I have in- 
dicated the sympathetic support of this country 
for the efl^orts of the Six Nations to develop an 
integrated atomic energy community. Not only 
would a successful Euratom contribute impor- 
tantlj' to the goal of a closer and mutually bene- 
ficial association of Western European states, but 
such a community could do much to further the 
development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, 
the encouragement of which has been a major 
objective of this country over the last several 
years. 

I would appreciate, therefore, your extending 
an invitation to the "Wise Men", on behalf of the 
Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission and 
myself, to come to the United States in the course 
of their study in order that United States Gov- 
ernment otKcials and American private groups can 
assist them in every appropriate way in carrying 
out their important mission. 
Sincerely yours, 

John Foster Dulles 
His Excellency 

Paul- Henri Spaak, 
President of the 

Intergovernmental Committee 
for the Common Marhet 
and EURATOM, 
Brussels. 



Mr. Spaak to Secretary Dulles 

December 19, 1956 
Mr. Secretary : The letter that you kindly sent 
to me on December 10 has received my full atten- 
tion. I have brought it to the attention of the 
Committee of the Chiefs of Delegation of the 
Conference for the Common Market and Eura- 
tom, which met at Paris on December 13. 

The Committee was very pleased at the evidence 
of interest that the American Government con- 
tinues to show in the efforts of the Six Nations to 



ianuary 7, 1957 



29 



create an atomic community. It decided with 
pleasure to forward to the three Wise Men the 
invitation in which you and the Chairman of the 
Atomic Energy Commission invite them to visit 
the United States in order to complete their work. 
I have just learned that Messrs. Etzel, Giordani 
and Armand ^ gratefully accept this invitation 
and that they plan to go to the United States dur- 
ing the course of the month of Januaiy. 

Please accept, Mr. Secretary, the assurances of 
my highest consideration. 

P. H. Spaak 

The Honorable 

John Foster Dulles, 
Secretary of State, 
Washington. 



Colombo Plan Nations Review 
Economic Progress 

Press release 622 dated December 17 

Following are the texts of a communique issued 
on Decemher 8 at Wellington, New Zealand, by 
the Consultative Committee of the Colombo Plan 
for Cooperative Econo?nio Development of South 
and Southeast Asia at the conclusion of its eighth 
meeting, and of an extract from the Committee''s 
annual report. Walter S. Robertson, Assistant 
Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs, headed the 
U.S. delegation to the Consultative Committee 
meeting. Member governments of the Commit- 
tee are: Australia, Burma, Cambodia, Canada, 
Ceylon, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Nepal, 
New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippi7ies, Thailand, 
the United Kingdom together with Malaya and 
British Borneo, the United States, and Yiet-Nwm. 

COMMUNIQUE OF DECEMBER 8 

1. The eighth meeting of the Consultative Com- 
mittee, representing the member Governments of 
the Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic 

' Franz Etzel, Vice President of the High Authority of 
the European Coal and Steel Community ; Francesco 
Giordani, President of the Italian National Research 
Committee and former President of the Italian National 
Committee for Nuclear Research ; Louis Armand, Presi- 
dent of the French National Railway System aud Chair- 
man of the Industrial Equipment Committee of the 
French Atomic Energy Commission. 



Development in South and South East Asia, was 
held in Wellington from 4 to 8 December 1956. 

2. The meeting reviewed the progress, and con- 
sidered the problems of development, during the 
past year, in the countries of the area and sur- 
veyed the present economic position of the individ- 
ual countries, and of the region as a whole. An 
assessment was made of some of the tasks ahead 
for the countries of the Colombo Plan in South 
and South East Asia. A draft report prepared 
by officials in a preliminary meeting from 19 No- 
vember to 1 December 1956 was discussed by Min- 
isters who approved the text of the Fifth Annual 
Eeport, for publication in member comitries' 
capitals on or after 15 January 1957. The dis- 
cussions were full, frank and cordial and not the 
least value of the meeting lay in the friendly per- 
sonal association between the representatives of 
the member Governments. 

3. In the region as a whole several significant 
advances were made in both the planning and 
execution of economic development programmes 
during the fifth year of the Colombo Plan. In 
1955-56, there was progress in the development of 
the area as a whole, although this progress was 
not uniform. National income continued to rise 
at a rate slightly in excess of population growth. 
Most of the Colombo Plan countries in 1955-56 
contributed to and benefited from the continued 
expansion in world industrial production and 
trade. Agricultural production, on balance 
showed a little improvement over the previous 
year ; there was an increase in mining output, par- 
ticularly in petroleum production in the area. 
Significant progress was made in industrial pro- 
duction as a result of greater utilization of exist- 
ing equipment and expanded facilities resulting 
from new investment. 

4. The past year has been, in a measure, a turn- 
ing point in the progress of the Asian members 
of the Colombo Plan. Many countries have re- 
cently formulated new or renewed national plans 
and others have given continuing attention to im- 
proving the planning and execution of their pub- 
lic investment projects. For 1955-56, the aim was 
to expend an estimated £791 million on develop- 
ment in the public sector in countries of the area 
and for 1956-57 it is the intention to raise the level 
of expenditure by over a quarter. The greater 
part of this cost of development in the public 
sector is being provided through the efforts of the 
people of the area. In addition to governmental 



30 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



development projects, private investment is mak- 
ing an important contribution especially in agri- 
culture and small-scale industries. 

5. In 1955-56 assistance from contributing mem- 
ber governments of the Plan, from international 
institutions and from other agencies, was greater 
than in previous years and the rate at which it 
was used on specific projects was accelerated. 
External capital assistance in addition to supple- 
menting the countries' own resources has a value 
of generating further domestic investment. It 
was recognized that there is an important place for 
private external investment as a means of obtain- 
ing capital inflow, particularly because of the 
technical knowledge it brings with it and its 
flexibility. 

6. One of the main obstacles to balanced eco- 
nomic development in the Colombo Plan area is 
the lack of skilled personnel. Much can be done 
through capital projects to raise productivity, but 
without adequate technical skills the fullest use 
may not be made of new possibilities opened up 
by higher soil fertility, electric power and new 
machinery. The main emphasis in improving 
social services such as health and education, too, 
must lie with trained staff, helped by modern 
equipment. For these reasons, successive meet- 
ings of the Consultative Committee have stressed 
the need for the training of students of the area 
in the more developed countries and the sending 
of experts to the area. The committee found this 
year that one of the fruits of the Colombo Plan has 
been the ability of some countries of the area to 
send experts to, and receive trainees from their 
neighbours, and noted that additional opportuni- 
ties for such intra regional assistance will increase, 
as development progresses and more experience is 
obtained. 

7. Since 1950, teclinical assistance has been 
extended to approximately 11,000 trainees, while 
about 4,000 experts have been provided. 

8. The Committee took note of the progress re- 
ported by the United States on a proposal for a 
regional nuclear center to be located in Manila.^ 
The United States informed the committee of the 
future steps to be taken in consultation with the 
members of the Colombo Plan; it was also indi- 
cated that the United States was prepared to 
contribute approximately $20 million to the estab- 

' For text of a statement made by Mr. Robertson at 
the meeting, see Bulletin of Dec. 17, 1956, p. 957. 



lishment of the center subject to mutually satisfac- 
tory arrangements being worked out with other 
participating countries. Canada reported on 
progress in the construction of the Canada-India 
Reactor. This Reactor is being established at 
the Indian Atomic Energy Research Centre near 
Bombay. 

9. Two major aspects of development during the 
period under review were noted: first, the en- 
deavours of countries to attain higher rates of 
economic growth while preserving the economic 
and social stability required to make that growth 
continuous and its results enduring; and second, 
the need for flexibility in the execution of plans. 
In some countries, post-war rehabilitation is still 
to be completed, or other difficulties are still to be 
overcome, and it is only now that they are be- 
gimiing to find themselves in a position to formu- 
late development plans. For others, the task 
is now to move forward from the economic and 
social basis already provided by their own efforts 
and by cooperation within the Colombo Plan. 

10. These and other problems in the tasks ahead 
have been discussed in the Annual Report for 
1956. Member governments of the Colombo Plan 
are confident that their friendly and willing co- 
operation will continue in facing the difficulties 
and challenges that lie ahead in the building of 
a new life for the countries of South and South 
East Asia. 



EXTRACT FROM ANNUAL REPORT 

Some Tasks Ahead 

1. The Annual Reports of the Consultative Committee 
review the general economic situation and development 
progress and prospects of South and South East Asia. 
Such reviews of the past and assessments of the future 
focus attention on certain problems relating to the future 
development of the countries of the area which warrant 
consideration. 

2. The 1955 Annual Report," for instance, found wide 
differences in the economic situation of the countries of 
the area, that much development work remained to be 
done, that while the need for external resources remained, 
the problem of mcbilising domestic resources was of para- 
mount importance, and that certain economic problems, 
common to the region, had been thrown into sharper 
focus. These issues were broadly stated and drawn out 
in a necessarily tentative way ; only the passage of time 
would permit more definite conclusions. 

3. Another year of experience makes it possible to 



" For an extract from this report, see ibid., Dec. 12, 
1955, p. 995. 



January 7, 1957 



31 



delineate issues further and draw provisional conclusions 
regarding some of the problems common to the area. 
These may be summarized as follows : 

(a) While further progress in the economic growth 
of the region has been made in the past year countries 
have become aware of the increasing need for maintain- 
ing flexibility in furthering their development pro- 
grammes, while consolidating existing gains. 

(b) In spite of considerable economic growth in past 
years, the problem of developing suflScient opportunities 
for productively employing the ever increasing human 
resources of the area remains. 

(c) Varying stages and forms of development and 
the wide range of experience within the region provide 
new opportunities for cooperation among the countries 
of South and South East Asia. 

(d) Future development will tend to require more 
complex and difficult decisions in such matters as the 
extent to which the fruits of development can and should 
be devoted to consumption rather than investment, the 
pattern of investment, and the impact of a country's de- 
velopment programme upon its external situation and 
the economic life of other countries. 

(e) The task ahead will require the mobilization of 
additional developmental energies in both the public and 
the private sectors. 

(f ) While the flow of external resources to the coun- 
tries in the region has so far been largely in forms of 
grants, increased opportunities may develop for drawing 
on foreign private investment and on public and private 
loans as sources of external capital. 

4. The years ahead will require increasing attention 
to the problems of maintaining flexibility in development 
programmes while consolidating existing advances and 
continuing development. For many countries in South 
and South East Asia, the economic growth process has 
involved the planning and programming of resources over 
long periods of time. The implementation of programmes, 
however, is dependent upon the availability of requisite 
resources at the right time, in the right place, and in the 
right combination. Sometimes these resources are not 
available because of crop failures, foreign exchange strin- 
gencies, and imf oreseen shortages of equipment and skilled 
personnel. Under these circumstances, there is a need 
for flexibility in programmes. Plans provide a broad 
framework of overall objectives as flexible guides to future 
policies and action. Constant vigilance will be required 
to ensure that appropriate adju.stments are made to meet 
changed conditioas. It is also necessary in this connec- 
tion to refer to the possibility of taking steps towards the 
building of defences within the economies of the countries 
of the region to enable them to sustain their development 
despite short-term upsets like drought, floods etc. 

5. Countries in the region may find it necessary to give 
Increasing attention not only to flexibility in the imple- 
mentation of programmes, but also to the more general 
problem of consolidating existing achievements while 
continuing to move forward. 

G. Countries of the area also find it necessary to devote 
increasing attention to creating new opportunities for 
employing their expanding labour force. Available infor- 
mation tends to indicate that development progress may 



not be providing employment opportimities commensurate 
with the growth of the labour force. On the other hand, 
employment opportunities provided by development may 
not be fully utilized because of the limited availability 
of necessary skills and talents in the labour force. Future 
programmes, recognizing both the social and economic 
exigencies of the situation, are seeking to devote increased 
attention to creating additional work facilities for the 
presently unemployed or under-employed, as well as pro- 
viding needed training for an expanding labour force. 
Some countries may seek a partial solution to this current 
and long-term problem through increased emphasis upon 
industrialisation and greater labour mobility ; others may 
concentrate on additional work opportunities for under- 
employed agricultural workers; others may devote a por- 
tion of their development efforts to projects employing 
a great deal of labour. The means and varied possible 
approaches to resolve this difficult situation will, in the 
years ahead, provide an additional body of common experi- 
ence upon which all countries may be able to draw. 

7. Development progress in South and South East Asia, 
provides a wide range of experience differing from coim- 
try to country. Some countries, for example, are well 
advanced in the implementation of long-range develop- 
ment programmes. Others are still engaged in the initial 
task of assessing resources and determining programme 
priorities. Continued developmental efforts and progress 
under differing situations in the countries of the area 
have produced, in a number of ways, opportunities for 
interchanges of uuitual interest. Some countries have 
successfully utilised a particular approach or overcome 
an important obstacle which other countries are about 
to encounter in some phase of their development. Begin- 
nings have already been made in exchanging experiences 
in the resolution of particular problems. It is noted, for 
instance, that one country of the area which has pioneered 
in community development projects is now responding to 
the request of another memlier for assistance in initiating 
such a progi-amme. 

8. Another beginning in the interchange of experience 
within the area is in the field of training and education. 
Countries of the area are develoiiing skiUs and training of 
interest to each other. This experience is, in many in- 
stances, already being shared with others in the area. 
In some cases, the various experience or techniques de- 
veloped within the area may have greater applicability 
and effectiveness than similar experience obtained else- 
where. Out of these opportunities provided by a grow- 
ing body of economic experience within the area, it may be 
found that assistance for many of South and South East 
Asia's development problems can come from the region 
itself. 

9. The informal consultation which has been pursued 
for many years in Consultative Committee meetings can 
further assist in this process. Continuing progress in all 
countries will provide further ideas and problems which 
can be exchanged profitably with other member countries. 
Increasingly, aid-recipient countries of the area are also 
becoming aid-donor countries, particularly in the field of 
technical assistance. No clear pattern has emerged as to 
the ultimate extent or intensity of such mutual coopera- 
tion but it appears that an opportunity is i)resent in which 
all could participate and from which all could gain. It 



32 



Department of State Bulletin 



is clear that there is considerable scope for .greater re- 
gional cooperation in South and South East Asia. 

10. The experience of the past year has confirmed once 
again the importance of viewing the process of develop- 
ment and implementation of programmes in the broadest 
possible context. Programmes for expanding economic 
growth are generally conceived in terms of stated objec- 
tives relating to the internal economic situation, such as 
percentage increases in national income, production tar- 
gets, employment opportunities, and export availabilities. 
While in many Instances the validity of these objectives 
is derived from important domestic considerations, their 
realization is often dependent upon external factors be- 
yond the control of the developiug country. Many coun- 
tries of the area find that effective development therefore 
requires consideration of the proposed programme in a 
broad setting. On the one hand, there is the genuine de- 
sire on the part of many countries to undertake indus- 
trialization in order to utilize locally available material 
resources and to create new employment opportunities. 
There is a natural and laudable desire on the part of 
countries to diversify in order to achieve a balanced econ- 
omy. On the other hand, there is the problem of equating 
internal programmes with external resources availabili- 
ties in such a way as to achieve objectives without engen- 
dering critical balance of payments difficulties. It should 
be borne in mind that any development programmes which 
lead to an impairment of the export earnings of a country 
or the prosperity of its trading partners are likely to be 
self-defeating in the long run. The past decade has wit- 
nessed an increasingly discernible movement towards 
higher levels of world trade. Development can aid this 
movement and profit from it. In the years ahead, as the 
Colombo Plan countries of South and South East Asia, 
with more than one-fourth of the world's population, un- 
dertake larger development programmes, the task of con- 
sidering programmes from the standpoint of both the in- 
ternal and external impact will become more necessary 
and, in some instances, more difficult. It is, however, a 
consideration essential to sound development progress. 

11. The review of the past year has focused attention 
on the all-important relationship between consumption 
and investment. In the future, as development outlays 
increase, the maintenance of a balanced relationship be- 
tween consumption and investment will have greater im- 
iwrtance and become increasingly difficult to achieve. In- 
creased consumption is one of the tangible benefits of de- 
velopment and indeed, in a region with very low levels 
of living, it may be regarded as an important factor in 
increasing productivity. Too great an increase in invest- 
ment without a corresponding increase in consumption 
tends to create strains and stresses which threaten finan- 
cial stability, particularly in view of the continuing in- 
crease in the population of the region. On the other hand, 
a point can be reached when too great a consumption 
increase threatens to curtail investment and the future 
rate of growth. This problem of devising appropriate 
fiscal and other measures to permit a reasonable increase 
in both consumption and investment constitutes one of 
the most difficult tasks for the Governments of the coun- 
tries of the region. 

12. There is no simple solution for resolving the prob- 



lem posed by the respective roles of consumption and in- 
vestment. Many countries, as part of the initial phase 
of development, have encouraged investments which, in 
one way or another, in agriculture or industry, re.sult in 
the availability of more consumer goods in the short term. 
With a relatively sound base they have undertaken ex- 
penditure on larger, slower-yielding investment projects 
with a view to promoting a faster pace of development 
in the future. This emphasis, however, is not adequate 
in itself and has to be supplemented by corresponding 
fiscal and other measures. Such measures have an im- 
portant bearing on the mobilization and allocation of re- 
sources in a developing country. 

13. The task of mobilising resources is a continuing one. 
Past experience in the area indicates that early emphasis 
is on mobilising resources for those projects which the 
government plans and directs, such as roads and other 
basic facilities. At the same time, it becomes necessary 
and desirable to maximise the efforts and productivity 
of all parts of the economy. It is essential, therefore, to 
bring forth, through training, administrative and financial 
measures, a more widespread initiative throughout the 
economy. This kind of initiative can be stimulated by a 
variety of means, including effective policies on the part 
of governments. Establishment or installation of basic 
facilities will support the economic efforts of individuals, 
groups and communities. Farm-to-market roads, for in- 
stance, will provide increased outlets for greater output 
by the individual producer. The assured availability of 
power can result in the establishment of industrial facili- 
ties by private resources. The availability of adequate 
financial facilities, or programmes of land reform, can 
provide incentives for the release of new energies in the 
agricultural and industrial sectors. 

14. Development requires a variety of resources, the 
greater part of which has necessarily to be mobilized 
internally by the developing coimtry itself. External 
capital has, however, made a significant contribution to 
development by supplying goods and services not available 
for mobilization domestically in the countries of South 
and South East Asia. Capital to the Colombo Plan area 
has taken the form principally of grants and loans by 
governments, private foreign investment and loans from 
international financial Institutions. As economic advances 
art made in the area, opportunities arise for greater resort 
to private investment and to private and public lending 
agencies as sources of external capital. 

15. This assessment of the problems and Issues of the 
future which arise out of a review of the past tends to 
underscore the value of the Consultative Committee as a 
forum for an annual exchange of views. Experience this 
year indicates that the desirability of such consultation in- 
creases rather than diminishes as development progress 
is made In South and South East Asia. The Committee 
clearly affords increasing opportunities for an increased 
interchange of experiences on common problems. As the 
Colombo Plan enters its sixth year there is renewed cour- 
age, confidence and determination to move ahead in the 
economic betterment of South and South East Asia. The 
record of achievement set forth in this Report gives reason 
to believe that, however great may be the difficulties 
ahead, they will be overcome. 



January 7, 1957 



33 



Need for Alleviating Shortage 
of Merchant Shipping 

Statement by Robert T. Merrill 
Chief of the Shipping Division ^ 

My name is Eobert T. Merrill. I am here at the 
kind invitation of the Federal Maritime Board 
to present on behalf of the Department of State 
certain considerations which lead the Department 
to believe that the United States public interest 
would be served by a decision to place in operation 
as soon as possible a number of vessels presently 
in the Maritime Administration's laid-up fleet. 
The Department is aware of and appreciates the 
reasoning which led the Congress in the Merchant 
Sales Act of 1946 to "sterilize" the unsold war- 
built vessels in the laid-up fleet, prescribing defi- 
nite standards wliich must apply as a condition 
to breaking them out for operation. One of these 
standards, prescribed in section 5 (e), is that the 
Board be of the opinion that the operation of the 
vessels is required in the public interest. 

Although the Department believes that vmder 
normal circumstances the provision of shipping 
services, both here and abroad, is a business best 
governed by the free play of economic forces, it is 
convinced that in the existing situation we are 
facing an emergency in shipping where the supply 
is grossly inadequate for the transport of neces- 
sary commercial cargoes and of programs spon- 
sored by United States Government agencies. 
This situation of extreme shortage has led to the 
spiraling of rates to levels which will adversely 
affect the economic structures of friendly import- 
ing countries and which will not contribute to 
the long-term benefit of the countries providing 
the shipping services or of the shipping companies 
themselves. 

The Department also would be reluctant to 
recommend the activation of vessels where the 
period of emergency could be so short that the 
proportion of break-out expense which might be 
recovered from operation would be dispropor- 
tionately small, even when the betterment of the 
vessels due to break-out is considered. In this 
instance, liowever, it believes that the period dur- 
ing which the vessels are needed will be sufficiently 
long for the Government to recoup the costs in- 
volved. 



Some of the foreign countries affected by the 
present shortage of ships were allies of this country 
in World War II. Some have been assisted in the 
recovery of their economies by moneys appropri- 
ated for Marshall plan aid and subsequent recov- 
ery progi'ams because the Congress considered 
their recovery to be in the United States public 
interest. Some are parties, together with the 
United States, to North Atlantic Treaty joint de- 
fense arrangements. The Board previously has 
determined that the carriage of coal from the 
United States to specific friendly countries is in 
the United States public interest (the Isbrandtsen 
case, doc. no. M-67). Under present circum- 
stances the economies of a number of friendly 
countries would be jeopardized by the shipping 
shortage which has developed due to the closing 
of the Suez Canal. 

Estimates as to coal exports from the United 
States, which have been widely quoted in connec- 
tion with the Board's decision of October 3 to 
charter 30 ships to American Coal Shipping, Inc., 
run over 40 million tons for 1956, 50 million tons 
for 1957, and as high as 100 million tons in 1960. 
European industrial production has been increas- 
ing, and fuel is needed to support that increase. 
Shipments from the United States of agricultural 
products, including grain, are well in advance of 
normal due to the Public Law 480 programs, and 
create an additional demand for bulk carriers. 
New construction of ships has not kept pace with 
the trend of exports and imports. For some time 
there has been little or no idle tonnage on the mar- 
kets ; every ship offered was soon employed. From 
the short- and long-range viewpoint, it does not 
appear that the release of a reasonable number of 
vessels from the laid-up fleet will adversely affect 
the emplojanent of privately owned vessels, 
whether American or foreign. 

The closing of the Suez Canal has complicated 
the situation, especially the need for tankers, but 
also for dry-cargo vessels. European firms cap- 
able of converting from oil to coal are doing so. 
Late in November the President approved the re- 
activation of the Middle East Emergency Com- 
mittee, which will permit United States oil com- 
panies to do joint planning in the movement of 
petroleum supplies without penalty under the 
antitrust laws." This should enable up to 500,000 
barrels per day of additional oil to be transported 
from the United States Gulf aiid from Caribbean 



■ Made on Dec. 10 before the Federal Maritime Board. 



- Bulletin of Dec. 17, 1956, p. 953. 



34 



Department of State Bulletin 



ai'eas to Western Europe. There is a shortage 
of dry-cargo vessels as well as of tankers, and 
more will be needed to meet the minimmn fuel 
requirements of friendly countries. The Suez sit- 
uation not only has raised rates but has increased 
the distances many ships must travel and so has 
increased the general need for more tonnage. 

Estimates as to the time that will elapse before 
the canal is in full operation run as high as 6 
months, although partial restoration of operation 
may be possible sooner. 

The coal charter rate from Hampton Roads to 
the continent of Europe is now well in excess of 
$15 per ton. "Wlien we add to that $11, for the 
mine price of the coal plus the cost of bringing it 
to Hampton Eoads, we have over $26-per-ton coal 
at seaports in Belgium and Holland and possibly 
$40 coal by the time it reaches the consumer. The 
European economy simply cannot function effec- 
tively on the basis of such high-priced fuel, and it 
is obvious that much of the recovery that has been 
accomplished with the assistance of the Marshall 
plan and subsequent enactments will be lost and 
that countries closely linked to us through Nato 
and other arrangements will be faced with a ser- 
ious problem unless something is done to relieve 
the shortage of shipping which is a primary cause 
of such high rates. Moreover, we may well 
jeopardize the export market for coal, which on 
a continuing basis depends on our ability to de- 
liver large tonnages at stable and competitive 
rates. If the rates are to increase still further, 
this would not be likely to attract more ships to 
the transport of coal because there are now no 
ships available unless taken from other necessary 
employment. 

The Department is not favoring any particu- 
lar application for the assignment of vessels. It 
believes that the Board and the Maritime Ad- 
ministration, in consultation when necessary with 
agencies responsible for the transport of Govern- 
ment programs, can best determine the number of 
ships needed to ease the shortage and can best 
work out, in accordance with the provisions of 
existing statutes, the terms and conditions of their 
employment. The Department hopes, however, 
from the standpoint of the foreign-relations re- 
sponsibilities entrusted to it, that an adequate 
nvunber of presently laid-up ships will be made 
available as soon as possible to meet the present 
and anticipated needs. 



U. S., U. K., and Canada Declassify 
Additional Atomic Energy Data 

SUxtement hy Lewis L. Strauss 

Chairman, U.S. Atomic Energy Comrmssion'^ 

AEC press release dated December 12 

A large additional volume of technical informa- 
tion essential to the development of a civilian nu- 
clear industry here and abroad is authorized for 
open publication under a revised policy covering 
the declassification of atomic energy information 
in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada. 

The information declassified by the new guide, 
now approved by the three nations, relates to all 
phases of nuclear power from ore recovery and 
fabrication of fuel elements to the design and op- 
eration of plants for the chemical recycling of 
spent fuel elements from civilian reactors. 

The new policies covering tripartite declassifica- 
tion involve many areas of nuclear activity. How- 
ever, of prime interest to American industry is the 
newly authorized declassification of civilian power 
reactor information. 

Data on concepts, physics, chemistry, compo- 
nents, and other aspects of these reactors have been 
available through previous tripartite declassifica- 
tion actions. Major release of research reactor 
data dates back to November 1950. Many cate- 
gories of restricted data have been available to 
cleared individuals and organizations in this coun- 
try under the Atomic Energy Commission's Civil- 
ian Access Permit Program. 

The latest action will permit publication of a 
large portion of that information which hitherto 
has been governed by access permits. For ex- 
ample, among the facilities that become declassi- 
fied under the new guide is our first full-scale 
civilian nuclear power plant now nearing com- 
pletion at Shippingport near Pittsburgh, Pa.; 
also, the experimental sodium reactor at Santa 
Susana, Calif.; the second-stage homogeneous 
reactor at Oak Ridge, Tenn. ; and several others. 

However, the access permit program remains 
as an important aid to the continued integration 
of U.S. industry and management in the atomic 
energy program on a free competitive basis. 

In addition, and clearly related to the reactor 
data wliich will become available, is the declassi- 

* Similar announcements were released simultaneously 
at London and Ottawa. 



January 7, 1957 



35 



fication of the tecluiology of heavy-water manu- 
facture ; final stages of the separation of zirconium 
and hafnium-two metals used in reactors; and 
the liquid thennal diffusion process of isotope 
separation, which may be used to make slightly 
enriched uranium fuel. 

Of interest to our friends abroad, especially 
those now participating in the program of co- 
operation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy 
through bilateral agreements, is the fact that pur- 
suant to today's actions the United States can 
now effectively cooperate with other friendly 
nations on an unclassified basis for civil power 
purposes. This will greatly facilitate the con- 
clusion of agreements for cooperation. 

Uranium mining operators, underwriters, and 
investors in the United States and in other ura- 
nium-producing countries will benefit by the re- 
moval of all tripartite restrictions on the publica- 
tion of statistics on overall uranium ore reserves 
and present and future ore-concentrate production 
figures. The Morld uranium industry, which now 
represents a private investment of many million 
dollars, will be able to participate in planning for 
nuclear power development. 

The revision of the guide is tlie result of the long 
study by the three nations of the security of in- 
formation, jointly held, on nuclear data growing 
out of their wartime cooperation in atomic energy 
development. 

As reports, drawings, and other materials ai'e 
reviewed and declassified under the new guide 
and published, a substantial volume of informa- 
tion on peaceful uses of atomic energy will be 
added to the already large store of declassified 
data. 

Today's announcement does not mean that all 
the newly declassified data will become available 
immediately, nor does it mean that the several 
hundred firms who now have classified material 
in their files, under the access permit program, 
will receive immediate notices as to exactly which 
data are declassified. 

However, the Conmiission will move ahead rap- 
idly in its review of classified information of in- 
terest to industry. The Commission expects to 
institute shortly an accelerated review program 
similar to the one (hat examined over 30,000 docu- 



ments and reports early this year. Following this 
accelerated review, publication will be encouraged 
and the most useful of the declassified material 
should be available within 6 months or less. 

The information to be released will provide a 
practical basis for enlarging and improving high 
school, college, and university curricula on nu- 
clear science and engineering, and textbook pub- 
lisher will be enabled to produce new, updated 
texts and general study aids on nuclear energy 
applications. 

A like opportunity is opened up for the general, 
teclinical, and business press to provide a wider 
scope of information to those readers who need to 
know more about nuclear energy and its uses. 

We are confident that the benefits of the actions 
announced today will have equal application in 
the United Kingdom and Canada. For the 
United States, the new large volume of informa- 
tion to be declassified shoidd speed the develop- 
ment of ci\nlian nuclear power here at home and 
at the same time enable us to be of greater as- 
sistance to other nations in fulfilling the broad 
aims of President Eisenhower's atoms-for-peace 
program. 

Applications of atomic energy in the reactor 
field which are primarily of military interest con- 
tinue classified. 



Letters of Credence 

Ecu-ador 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Ecuador, 
Jose R. Chiriboga V., presented his credentials to 
President Eisenhower on December 19. For the 
text of the Ambassador's remarks and the text of 
the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 627. 



Board of Foreign Scholarships 

The President on December 18 appointed the 
following to be members of the Board of Foreign 
Scholarships for terms expiring September 22, 
1959: Katherine G. Blyley (reappointment), 
George Charles S. Benson, and Robert G. Storey. 



36 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ' 

Adjourned During December 1956 

UNESCO General Conference: 9th Session New Delhi Nov. 5 -Dec. 5 

ITU International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Com- Geneva Nov. 22-Dec. 7 

mittee (CCIT) : Preliminary Study Group. 

Customs Cooperation Council: 9th Session Brussels Nov. 26-Dee. 1 

U.N. ECE Housing Committee: 13th Session atid Working Parties. Geneva Nov. 26-Dec. 1 

1st Inter-American Technical Meeting on Housing and Planning . BogotA Nov. 26-Dec. 7 

U.N. ECE Steel Committee and Working Parties Geneva Dec. 3-7 

FAO Plant Protection Committee for Southeast Asia and Pacific Bangkok Dec. 3-7 

Region: 1st Meeting. 

FAO/WHO Technical Meeting on Food Additives Rome Dec. 3-10 

ITU International Telephone Consultative Committee (CCIF): Geneva Dec. 3-14 

18th Plenary Assembly (Final Meeting). 

ICAO Panel on Aircraft Rescue and Fire-fighting Equipment at Montreal Dec. 3-14 

Aerodromes. 

International Wheat Council: 21st Session London Dec. 4-5 

Consultative Committee for Economic Development in South and Wellington, New Zealand . . . Dec. 4-8 

Southeast Asia (Colombo Plan): Ministerial Meeting. 

UNESCO Executive Board: 46th Session New Delhi Dec. 6 (1 day) 

American International Institute for the Protection of Childhood: Montevideo Dec. 8-10 

Semiannual Meeting of Directing Council. 

ITU International Telegraph Consultative Committee (CCIT): Geneva Dec. 8-14 

8th Plenary Session (Final Meeting). 

Symposium on Tropical Cyclones Brisbane, Australia Dec. 10-14 

FAO European Contact Group on the Uses of Isotopes and Radi- Wageningen, Netherlands . . . Dec. 10-14 

ation in Agricultural Research: 1st Meeting. 

U.N. ECE Inland Transport Committee Geneva Dec. 10-14 

Caribbean Commission: 23d Meeting Barbados, British M'^est Indies. Dec. 10-15 

U.N. ECE Coal Committee Geneva Dec. 10-15 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: Special Session New York Dec. 10-18 

FAO Working Partv on Price Support Svstem Rome Dec. 10-21 

U.N. ECE/FAO Conference on European Statisticians on 1960 Rome Dec. 10-21 

Census Preparations. 

International Tin Studv Group: Management Committee . . . . London Dec. 11 (1 day) 

NATO Council: Ministerial Session Paris Dec. 11-14 

SEATO Studv Group on Skilled Labor Bangkok Dec. 13-19 

U.N. ECAFE Railway Subcommittee: 5th Session of Working Bangkok Dec. 13-19 

Party on Railway Track Sleepers. 

International Sugar Council: Special Session London Dec. 14 (1 day) 

ITU International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Com- Geneva Dec. 15-22 

mittee (CCIT): 1st Plenarv Assemblv of New CCIT (former 

CCIT and CCIF combined)". 

U.N. Economic and Social Council: Resumed 22d Session . . . . New"iork Dec. 17-21 

In Session as of December 31, 1956 

North Pacific Fur Seal Conference Washington Nov. 28, 1955- 

U.N. General Assembly: 11th Session New York Nov. 12, 1956- 

Scheduled January l-March 31, 1957 

ICAO Special North Atlantic Fixed Services Meeting Montreal Jan. 3- 

ICAO Panel on Visual Aids to Approach and Landing: 1st Meeting. London Jan. 7- 



> Prepared in the OflSce of International Conferences, Dec. 21, 1956. Asterisks indicate tentative dates. Following 
is a list of abbreviations: UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; ITU, Inter- 
national Telecommunication Union; CCIT, formerly Comity consultatif international t616graphique, now Comite inter- 
national ta^graphique et tel^phonique (CCIT and CCIF combined) ; U.N., United Nations; ECE, Economic Commission 
for Europe; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; WHO, World Health Organization; ICAO, International Civil 
Aviation Organization; NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization; SEATO, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization; 
ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council; ICEM, Intergovern- 
mental Committee for European Migration; WMO, World Meteorological Organization; UPU, Universal Postal Union; 
ILO, International Labor Organization; UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund. 

January 7, 1957 37 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 

Scheduled January 1-March 31, 1957— Continued 

U.N. ECOSOC Transport and Communications Commission: 8th New York . . Jan 7- 
Session. 

U.N. ECE^d Hoc Working Party on Standardization of Conditions Geneva Jan 7- 

of Sale for Citrus Fruit. 

FAO Committee on Commodity Problems: Working Party on Colombo, Ceylon . . Jan 8- 

Coeonut and Coconut Products. 

ICEM Working Party Geneva. . Jan 8- 

WHO Executive Board: 19th Session Geneva! . . Jan 14*- 

WMO Commission for Climatology: 2d Session Washington. Jan 14- 

U.N. ECE Committee on Agricultural Problems: 8th Meeting . . Geneva Jan 14- 

^?X^^^ ^°'''''"^ ^'^'^y °" ^'^'^ '^''''°^P°''*' °^ D'*°g<^''°"s *^oods . Geneva ' ' ' Jan 14- 

ICAO Panel on Future Requirements of Turbo-jet Aircraft: 2d Montreal Jan 21- 

Meeting. 

U.N. ECE/FAO International Consultation on Insulation Board, Geneva. . . . Jan 21- 

Hardboard, and Particle Board. 

WMO Regional Association I (Africa): 2d Session Las Palmas, Canary Islands. . Jan 21- 

Conference for Coordmation of Very High Frequency Maritime The Hague Jan 21- 

Mobile Frequencies in Certain High Traffic Areas of the North 

and Baltic Seas. 

U;N. Refugee Fund Standing Program Subcommittee: 4th Session . Geneva Jan. 23- 

Inter- American Committee of Presidential Representatives: 2d Washington. . Jan 28- 

Meeting. 

UPU Executive and Liaison Committee: Airmail Subcommittee . Luxor, Egypt Jan 29- 

International Sugar Council: 1 1th Session London . Jan 29- 

U.N. Refugee Fund Executive Committee: 4th Session Geneva. ........ . Jan 29- 

U.N. ECAFE Inland Transport Committee: 6th Session .... Bangkok .......... Feb 15- 

U.N. ECOSOC Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination New York ......... Feb 18- 

and Protection of Minorities. 

ILO Governing Body: 134th Session (and Committees) Geneva Feb. 25- 

U.N. ECOSOC Population Commission: 9th Session New York .....'.'..'. Feb 25- 

U.N. ECE ^d //oc Working Party on Gas Problems: 2d Session . Geneva. .......... Feb! 25- 

International Atomic Energy Agency: Preparatory Commission . . New York ! ! ! Februarv 

Inter- American Travel Congresses: Permanent Executive Com- Lima, Peru ' Februarv* 

mittee. ' ' 

U.N. ECOSOC Committee on Nongovernmental Organizations . . New York Mar 4- 

UNICEF Executive Board and Program Committee New York . ! ! ! ! ! Mar 5- 

U.N. ECAFE Industry and Trade Committee: 9th Session . . . Bangkok ...!!!!!! Mar 7- 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 19th Session New York ! ! Mar! 10- 

FAO ^d Hoc Meeting on Grains Rome !!!!!! Mar 11- 

ILO Inland Transport Committee: 6th Meeting Hamburg Mar 11- 

?l'^^^.*-'°"""'-^'^'^^'''^*'"^ Canberra, Australia ! ! ! ! ! Mar! 11- 

ICAO Aerodromes, Air Routes, and Ground Aids Division: 6th Montreal Mar. 12- 

Session. 

FAO Committee on Commodity Problems: 28th Session Rome Mar. 18- 

Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Safety and Health: Geneva. .!!!!!!!!! Mar! 18- 

3d Session. 

U.N. ECAFE Commission: 13th Session Bangkok Mar. 18- 

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Status of Women: 11th Session. . New York . ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Mar! 18- 

U.N. ECE Coal Committee Geneva ! ! ! ! ! Mar! 18- 

ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Geneva !!!!!! Mar 25- 

Recommendations: 27th Session. 

FAO Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission: 4th Session Bandung, Indonesia March 

FAO Teak Subcommission: 2d Session Bandung, Indonesia . . ! ! ! March 

ILO Committee on Forced Labor: 2d Session Geneva March or April 



38 Department of Slate Bulletin 



Admission of Japan to the United Nations 



The U.N. General Assemhly on December 18 voted to admit Japan to 
memhership in the United Nations. The vote was 77 in favor, non^ opposed 
{Hungary and the Union of South Africa were absent) . Japan thu^ became 
the 80th member of the U.N.; the Assembly on November 12 had unani- 
7nousIy approved the admission of Sudan, Morocco, and Tunisia. 

Following are texts of congratulatory messages from President Eisen- 
hower to Prime Minister Ichiro Hatoyama and from Secretary Dulles to 
Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu, together with statements made by 
U.S. Representative Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., in the Security Council during 
the debate on Japanese membership and in the General Assembly following 
the vote. {See also Secretary Dulles'' remarks at his December 18 news 
conference, page 6.) 



PRESIDENT EISENHOWER TO MR. HATOYAMA 

White House press release dated December 18 

His Excellency 
Ichiro Hatotama, 
Prime Minister of Japan, 
Tokyo. 

Dear Mr. Prime Minister: Please accept my 
heartfelt congratulations to the Japanese Govern- 
ment and people upon Japan's achieving long- 
deserved membership in the United Nations. All 
free nations repose in this organization their con- 
fidence for the peaceful future of mankind. The 
membership of Japan makes this concept more 
meaningful than ever before. The American 
people rejoice in the action of the General Assem- 
bly today and welcome Japan as a new and worthy 
associate in the world's struggle for peace. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



SECRETARY DULLES TO MR. SHIGEMITSU 

Press release 626 dated December 18 

His Excellency 

Mamoru Shigemitsu, 
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 

Dear Mr. Minister : I am profoundly gratified 
to welcome Japan as a member of the United 



Nations. This marks a step for which the Japa- 
nese and American peoples have been waiting 
since the conclusion of the peace treaty of con- 
ciliation signed at San Francisco in 1951. I know 
that we can now look forward to the exertion of 
Japan's prestige and influence within the United 
Nations forum in the vigorous defense of freedom. 

Sincerely, 

John Foster Dulles 



AMBASSADOR LODGE IN THE SECURITY COUN- 
CIL, DECEMBER 12 

U.S./U.N. press release 2552 

The United States has a high regard for the 
influence, the culture, and the great contribution 
to civilization of the great Japanese nation. We 
have long been aware of the contribution to the 
strengthening of international peace and secm'ity 
and to the other purposes of the charter which 
Japan could make as a member of the United 
Nations. We are sure that the voice of Japan 
will be a significant addition to the growing par- 
ticipation and responsibility of Asian and of other 
countries in the United Nations. We also have 
a great regard and liking for her distinguished 
representative here, Ambassador [Tosliikazu] 
Kase. 

For all these reasons we have looked forward 



January 7, 1957 



39 



with keen anticipation — and, I might say, im- 
patience — to a meeting of the Security Council at 
which the application of Japan to become a 
member of the United Nations would at last re- 
ceive the unanimous endorsement which it de- 
serves. On four occasions since 1952, the United 
States, together with the great majority of the 
Secui-ity Coimcil, has voted for and sponsored 
Japan's membership in the United Nations and 
has tried to be of every possible service to the 
Japanese Government in assisting it to obtain 
its rightful place. The gi-ave injustice that has 
excluded Japan from the United Nations has 
long needed correction, and we have tried to leave 
no stone unturned. 

Mr. President, I hope and trust that this meet- 
ing this morning is the meeting which we have 
so long awaited and which will mark Japan's 
entrance. The question before the Council is the 
application of Japan for membersliip in the 
United Nations. It is a question on which, if I 
am not mistaken, every member of the Security 
Coimcil has now taken an affirmative stand. Our 
duty is therefore simple enough. 

Since this question has been waiting for more 
than 4 years, I tnist that now we can act upon it 
immediately and that the General Assembly can 
ratify the action of the Security Council in the 
immediate future and welcome Japan as the 80th 
member of the United Nations.' 



AMBASSADOR LODGE IN THE GENERAL ASSEM- 
BLY, DECEMBER 18 

U.S. delegation press release 2564 

It is the greatest pleasure to extend a warm 
welcome and the greetings of the United States 
of America to the newest member of the United 
Nations, a country with one of the oldest civiliza- 
tions in the world — Japan. 

Out of the productive springs of Japanese 
culture have come some of the finer tilings of life 
which have benefited tlie entire world. Classical 
Japanese drama, the delicate feelings of Japanese 
art, the simple beauty of their architecture, and 

^ The Security Council voted unanimously to recommend 
to the General Assembly that Japan be admitted (U.N. 
doc. S/3758). 



the subtlety of their poetry have enriched tlie 
lives of all humanity. 

With the addition of Japan to our membership, 
also, we bring into our midst not only an ancient 
civilization but also a country with an advanced 
technology and a modern outlook. Tliis advanced 
level of technology will enable Japan to contribute 
gi'eatly to the industrial development of less de- 
veloped areas. As an industrial nation with a 
large international trade, Japan can be expected 
to contribute in many different ways to the work 
of the United Nations. 

Japan began its ties with the modern world a 
century ago. The United States was actively in- 
volved in these new contacts from the very begin- 
ning, and our relations, with the exception of the 
tragic period of the Second World War, have 
been cordial and close. We confidently believe 
they will continue thus in the future. We are 
glad at the thought that a few years ago Mr. 
Dulles, who is now our Secretaiy of State, per- 
sonally undertook the negotiations which resulted 
in the peace treaty with Japan which restored 
JajDan to its proper sovereign role in the com- 
munity of nations. 

The steady and vigorous efforts of many gov- 
ernments and many people have finally resulted 
in Japanese admission to this great world forum 
after it had been unjustly denied its rightful 
place for many years by a clear-cut abuse of 
the veto. Let me in particular pay tribute to the 
imtiring efforts of the distinguished representa- 
tive from Peru, Ambassador Belaunde, through 
his chairmanship of the Good Offices Committee. 
The part that he played was indispensable and is 
a monument to his sagacity and statesmanship. 

As representative of the host government, I 
extend a cordial greeting to the distinguished 
Foreign Minister of Japan, Mr. Shigemitsu, and 
assure him that the United States delegation to 
the United Nations is looking forward to the con- 
structive contributions which I am confident the 
Japanese delegation will render to the United 
Nations on all of the complicated issues with 
which we must deal. 

Mr. President, tlie admission of tliis great 
nation marks a gi-eat day for the United Nations. 
It will greatly increase the influence, vigor, and 
the value of our organization. 



40 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 

Economic and Social Council 

Technical Assistance Committee. Expanded Programme 
of Technical Assistance. Administrative and opera- 
tional services costs. Report of the Technical Assistance 
Board. E/TAC/54, October 31, 1956. 16 pp. mimeo. 

Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Pro- 
tection of Minorities. Date, Duration and Agenda of 
any Further Conference of Non-Governmental Organi- 
zations Interested in the Eradication of Prejudice and 
Discrimination that may be Convened. Report of the 
Secretary-General on the results of his consultations 
with non-governmental organizations. E/CN.4/Sub.2/- 
180, November 5, 10.56. 42 pp. mimeo. 

Transport and Communications Commission. Situation 
with Respect to Ratification of the Convention on Road 
Traffic (1949). E/CN.2/176, November 6, 19.56, and 
E/CN.2/176/Corr.l, November 8, 1956. 8 pp. mimeo. 

Transport and Communications Commission. Regional 
Developments in the Field of Inland Transport. Note 
by the Secretary-General. E/CN.2/175, November 10, 
1956. 22 pp. mimeo. 

Transport and Communications Commission. Co-ordina- 
tion of the Activities of Specialized Agencies in the Field 
of Transport and Communications. Note by the Secre- 
tary-General. E/CN.2/178, November 10, 1956. 14 pp. 
mimeo. 

Transport and Communications Commission. Co-ordina- 
tion of Inland Transport. Note bv the Secretary-Gen- 
eral. E/CN.2/182, November 13, 1956. 8 pp. mimeo. 

Transport and Communications Commission. Informa- 
tion on Technical Assistance Activities in the Field of 
Transport and Communications. Note by the Secretary- 
General. E/CN.2/184, November 13, 1956. 17 pp. 
mimeo. 

Transport and Communications Commission. Passports 
and Frontier Formalities. Note by the Secretary-Gen- 
eral. E/CN.2/1S5, November 14, 1956. 24 pp. mimeo. 

Negotiation of an Agreement with the International 
Finance Corporation. E/2935, November 20, 1956. Note 
by the Secretary-General. 1 p. mimeo. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Status of Deposit of Acceptances 
of International Wheat Agreement 

Press release 62S dated December 20 

The International "VVlieat Agreement of 1956 
has been formally accepted by govermnents re])re- 
senting well over the required two-thirds of the 
wheat sales and purchases guaranteed in the agi'ee- 
ment.^ 



'For text of agreement, see S. Exec. I, 84th Cong., 2d 
sess. ; for texts of President Eisenhower's message of 
transmittal to the Senate and Secretary Dulles' report to 
the President on the agreement, see Buixetin of .July 2, 
1956, p. 26. 



The U.S. Government is tlie depositary for in- 
struments of acceptance and accession. December 
1 was the deadline for the deposit of instruments 
by those countries which had in July notified the 
United States of intention to accept the agreement. 

On or before December 1, instruments of accept- 
ance of the agreement were deposited with the 
Government of the United States by the follow- 
ing "importing country"' signatory governments 
listed in annex A to article III : Austria, Belgium, 
Bolivia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominican Repub- 
lic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Federal Rejjub- 
lic of Germany, Greece, Guatemala, India, Ire- 
land, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Liberia, Mexico, 
New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Peru, Philip- 
pines, Portugal, Switzerland, Union of South 
Africa, Vatican City State, and Yugoslavia. 

On or before December 1, instruments of acces- 
sion to the agreement were deposited with the Gov- 
ernment of the United States by the following 
"importing country" nonsignatory governments in 
accordance with article XXI of the agreement: 
Cuba, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, Indonesia, Saudi 
Arabia, Spain, and Venezuela. (Panama depos- 
ited its instrument of acceptance on December 14, 
1956, having been gi-anted an extension of time 
for that purpose by the International Wlieat 
Council.) 

On or before December 1, instruments of ac- 
ceptance of the agreement were deposited with 
the Government of the United States by the fol- 
lowing "exporting country" signatory govern- 
ments listed in amiex B to article III : Argentina, 
Australia, Canada, France, Sweden, and the 
United States of America. 

Present membership of the agreement accounts 
for 100 percent of the guaranteed sales and ap- 
proximately 85 percent of the guaranteed pur- 
chases listed in the agreement. 

The agi-eement is in force pursuant to para- 
graph 3 of article XX thereof, wherein it is pro- 
vided that organizational and administrative por- 
tions of the agreement enter into force as of July 
16, 1956, and the portions of the agreement relating 
to "rights and obligations" take effect from 
August 1, 1956. 

The 1956 agreement prolongs for a period of 
3 years, with certain modifications, the arrange- 
ments with respect to purchases and sales of wheat 
first established by the International "Wlieat 
Agreement of 1949 and renewed with modifica- 
tions in 1953. The stated objective of this agree- 



January 7, 1957 



41 



ment, and its predecessors, is to "assure supplies 
of wheat to importing countries and markets for 
wlieat to exporting countries at equitable and 
stable prices." 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Automotive Traffic 

Conveution concerning customs facilities for touring. 

Done at New York June 4, 1954.' 

Ratification deposited: Luxembourg, November 21, 1956. 
Customs convention on temporary importation of private 

road vehicles. Done at New York June 4, 1954.' 

Ratification deposited: Luxembourg, November 21, 
1956. 

Aviation 

Protocol amending articles 48 (a), 49 (e), and 61 of the 
convention on international civil aviation (TIAS 1591) 
by providing that sessions of the Assembly of the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization shall be held not 
less than once in 3 years instead of annually. Done 
at Montreal June 14, 1954. 
Ratifications deposited: Libya, December 6, 1956; 

Greece, December 12, 1956. 
Entered into force: December 12, 1956. 

Genocide 

Convention on prevention and punishment of the crime 
of genocide. Done at Paris December 9, 1948. Entered 
into force January 12, 1951.^ 
Accession deposited: Tunisia, November 29, 1956. 

Narcotic Drugs 

Protocol for limiting and regulating cultivation of the 
poppy plant, production of, international and wholesale 
trade in, and use of opium. Done at New York June 23, 
1953.' 
Ratification deposited: Switzerland, November 27, 1956. 

United Nations 

Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the Inter- 
national Court of Justice. Signed at San Francisco 
June 26, 1945. Entered into force October 24, 1945. 
59 Stat. 1031. 

Admission to memhership: Morocco, Sudan, and 
Tunisia, November 12, 1956; Japan, December 18, 
1956. 

Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organization. Done at London November 
16, 1945. Entered into force November 4, 1946. TIAS 
1580. 



Signatures : Tunisia, October 9, 1956; Morocco, Novem- 
ber 7, 1956. 

Acceptances deposited: Morocco, November 7, 1956; 
Tunisia, November 8, 1956. 

Wheat 

International wheat agreement, 1956. Open for signature 
at Washington through May 18, 1956. Entered into 
force July 16, 1956, for parts 1, 3, 4, and 5, and August 
1, 1956 for part 2. 

Acceptance deposited: Panama, December 14, 1956. 
Proclaimed ^y the President: December 11, 1956. 



BILATERAL 

Burma 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of February 8, 1956, as amended (TIAS 3498, 
3628). Effected by exchange of notes at Rangoon De- 
cember 4, 1956. Entered into force December 4, 1956. 

Canada 

Agreement relating to the dredging of the north channel 
of Cornwall Island. Effected by exchange of notes at 
Ottawa November 7 and December 4, 1956. Entered 
into force December 4, 1956. 

Finland 

Agreement amending the preamble and articles 1 and 8 of 
the agreement of July 2, 1952 (TIAS 2555), for financing 
certain educational exchange programs. Effected by 
exchange of notes at Helsinki November 30, 1956. 
Entered into force November 30, 1956. 

Spain 

Agreement for disposition of equipment and materials 
furnished by the United States under the Mutual De- 
fense Assistance Agreement of September 26, 1953 
(TIAS 2849), and no longer required by Spain. Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at Madrid November 27, 
1956. Entered into force November 27, 1956. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



' Not in force. 

- Not in force for the United States. 



Consular Offices 

The Department of State announced on December 14 
that, effective December 12, 1956, a Consulate General 
was established at Aleppo, Syria. Alfred Atherton is the 
principal officer at Aleppo. 



42 



Department of State Bulletin 



January 7, 1957 



Index 



Vol. XXXVI, No. 915 



American Republics. Representatives of Ameri- 
can Presidents To Hold Second Meeting ... 11 

Asia. Colombo Plan Nations Review Economic 
Progress (texts of communique and report ex- 
tract) 30 

Atomic Energy 

U.S. Extends Invitation to Euratom Committee 

(Dulles, Spaak) 29 

U.S., U.K., and Canada Declassify Additional 

Atomic Energy Data (Strauss) 35 

Canada. U.S., U.K., and Canada Declassify Addi- 
tional Atomic Energy Data (Strauss) .... 35 

Czechoslovakia. Interference by Czechoslovak Po- 
lice With Visitors to U.S. Embassy (text of 
note) 11 

Department and Foreign Service 

Board of Foreign Scholarships 36 

Consular Offices 42 

Economic Affairs 

British Arrangements With Monetary Fund and 
Eximbank (Jacobsson) 28 

Colombo Plan Nations Review Economic Progress 

(texts of communique and report extract) . . 30 

Need for Alleviating Shortage of Merchant Ship- 
ping (Merrill) 34 

Ecuador. Letters of Credence ( Chiriboga ) ... 36 

Educational Exchange. Board of Foreign Scholar- 
ships 36 

Europe 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of Decem- 
ber 18 3 

U.S. Extends Invitation to Euratom Committee 

(Dulles, Spaak) 29 

France. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of De- 
cember 18 3 

Germany. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 
Decemberl8 3 

Hungary. Additional U.S. Contribution to U.N. for 
Hungarian Refugees (Lodge, Read, Hammar- 
skjold, De Seynes) 9 

Japan 

Admission of Japan to the United Nations (Eisen- 
hower, Dulles, Lodge) 39 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of Decem- 
ber 18 3 

International Organizations and Meetings 

Calendar of Meetings 37 

Colombo Plan Nations Reviev? Economic Progress 

(texts of communique and report extract) . . 30 

NATO Council Resolutions 17 

Report of the Committee of Three on Non-Military 

Co-operation in NATO 18 

Mutual Security. Mutual Security and Soviet For- 
eign Aid (Claxton) 12 

Near East. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 
December 18 3 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization 

NATO Council Resolutions 17 

Report of the Committee of Three on Non-Military 

Co-operation in NATO 18 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of Decem- 
ber 18 3 

Presidential Documents. Admission of Japan to 

the United Nations 39 



Refugees and Displaced Persons. Additional U.S. 
Contribution to U.N. for Hungarian Refugees 
(Lodge, Read, Hammarskjold, De Seynes) ... 9 

Syria. Consular Offices 42 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 42 

Status of Deposit of Acceptances of International 

Wheat Agreement 41 

U.S.S.R. 

Mutual Security and Soviet Foreign Aid (Clax- 
ton) 12 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of Decem- 
ber 18 3 

United Kingdom 

British Arrangements With Monetary Fund and 

Eximbank (Jacobsson) 28 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of December IS . 3 

U.S., U.K., and Canada Declassify Additional 

Atomic Energy Data (Strauss) 35 

United Nations 

Additional U.S. Contribution to U.N. for Hungar- 
ian Refugees (Lodge, Read, Hammarskjold, 

De Seynes) 9 

Admission of Japan to the United Nations (Eisen- 
hower. Dulles. Lodge) 39 

Current U.N. Documents 41 

Yugoslavia. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 

DecemberlS 3 

Name Index 

Atherton, Alfred 42 

Chiriboga V., Jos6 R 36 

Claxton, Philander P., Jr 12 

De Seynes, Philippe 11 

Dulles, Secretary 3,29,39 

Eisenhower, President 39 

Hammarskjold, Dag 10 

Jacobsson, Per 28 

Lange, Halvard 18 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr 9,39,40 

Martino, Gaetano 18 

Merrill, Robert T 34 

Pearson, Lester B 18 

Read, James M 10,11 

Spaak, Paul-Henri 29 

Strauss, Lewis L 35 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: December 17-23 

Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 
Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 
Subject 

Colombo Plan communique. 

Educational exchange. 

Dulles : news conference. 

Members of Nixon party. 

Dulles : message to Shigemitsu. 

Ecuador credentials (rewrite). 

Status of Wheat Agreement accept- 
ances. 

DuUes-Spaak letters concerning 
EURATOM. 

Meeting of Inter-American Committee 
of Presidential Representatives. 

*Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


622 


12/17 


*»J23 


12/18 


624 


12/18 


t62.5 


12/18 


626 


12/18 


627 


12/19 


628 


12/20 


629 


12/21 


630 


12/21 



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the nature and urgency of the problem; 
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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 





Vol. XXXVI, No. 916 



January 14, 1957 



UNITED STATES RESPONSIBILITIES IN NEW YEAR 

• Statement by Secretary Dulles 50 

VISIT OF PRIME MINISTER NEHRU OF ENfDIA • Texts 

of Joint Statement, Greetings Exchanged With President 
Eisenhower and Vice President Nixon, and Mr. Nehru's 
Address to the Nation 47 

QUESTION OF LEGISLATION ON LOYALTY OF 
AMERICANS EMPLOYED BY INTERNATIONAL 

ORGANIZATIONS • Statement by Assistant Secretary 
Wilcox 57 

AMERICAN PRINCIPLES AND THE UNITED NATIONS 

• by Paul G. Hoffman 51 

NINTH SESSION OF UNESCO GENERAL CONFER- 

ENCE • Statements by Stanley C. Allyn 72 

PROPOSED U.N. CONFERENCE ON LAW OF THE SEA 

• StatementbyEduxtrdS.Greenbaum and Text of Resolution 60 

For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XXXVI, No. 916 • Publication 6434 
January 14, 1957 



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U.S. Qovernment Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.O. 

Pbick: 

{2 issues, domestic $7.60, foreign $10.26 

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approved by tho Director of the Bureau ot 
the Budget (January 19, 1956). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Dep.\rtment 
Ot State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government tcith information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other offi- 
cers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phasea of 
international affitirs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of tlie Department, 
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Visit of Prime Minister Nehru of India 



Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of I?idia, 
made an oficial visit to Washington from Decem- 
ber 16-20. Following are the joint statement 
issued by the Prime Minister and President Eisen- 
hower at the close of the visit, texts of the greet- 
ings exchanged between the Prime Minister and 
Vice President Nixon at the National Airport and 
between the Prime Mmister and the President at 
the White House, and the text of Mr. Nehru's ra- 
dio and television address to the Nation on Decem- 
ber 18. 



JOINT STATEMENT 

White House press release dated December 20 

Prime Minister Nehru and President Eisen- 
hower liad long anticipated a personal meeting to 
discuss current world problems. In tliree days 
in Washington and a day at the President's farm 
at Gettysburg, they were afforded in a completely 
informal atmosphere the opportunity for full and 
frank talks on a wide range of problems of in- 
terest and concern to both countries. 

The talks confirmed the broad area of agree- 
ment between India and the United States, which 
are bound together in strong ties of friendship de- 
riving from their common objectives and their ad- 
herence to the highest principles of free democ- 
racy. The principles and policies of the 
Governments of India and the United States have 
evolved on the basis of respect for the dignity of 
man and of the need to improve the welfare of the 
individual. 

The Prime Minister and the President are con- 
vinced that the greater understanding of their re- 
spective policies reached at tliese talks will fa- 
cilitate the constant efforts of India and the United 
States towards the achievement of peaceful and 
friendly intercourse among nations in accordance 
with the principles of the United Nations. 



WELCOME AT NATIONAL AIRPORT 

White House press release dated December 16 
Greetings by Vice President Nixon 

Mr. Prime Minister, it is a very great honor for 
me to extend on behalf of President Eisenhower 
and the American people a very warm welcome to 
you and to the members of your party ^ on the oc- 
casion of your visit to the United States. 

This visit has a great deal of significance for a 
number of reasons. This is a decisive moment in 
history. You represent the largest democracy in 
the world, and the United States is the second 
largest democracy in the world ; and while as free 
and independent sovereign nations our Govern- 
ments do not always agree on policy, we have and 
share a common dedication and devotion toward 
developing the kind of a world in which individ- 
uals can be free, in which nations can be independ- 
ent, and in which peoples can live together in 
peace. And we know that the conversations that 
you have with President Eisenhower, with other 
members of our Government, will contribute not 
onJy to better understanding between our two 
Governments and our two peoples but to the cause 
of world peace, based on freedom and justice, to 
which we are all devoted. 

We only regret that your visit here is brief, that 
you cannot see more parts of our country ; but I 
can assure you that all of our 167 million American 
citizens share this expression when I say we are 
glad to have you with us, and, while you are here, 
this certainly will be your home. 



' The Prime Minister was accompanied by Mrs. Indira 
Gandhi, his daughter ; G. L. Mehta, Indian Ambassador 
to the U.S., and Mrs. Mehta; N. R. Pillai, Secretary Gen- 
eral, Ministry of External Affairs and Commonwealth 
Relations ; M. O. Mathai, Special Assistant to the Prime 
Minister ; and the following personal assistants : Om 
Prakash, N. Sreeraman, and Abdul Hamid. 



January 14, 7957 



47 



Reply by Prime Minister Nehru 

Mr. Vice President, I am deeply grateful to you 
for your welcome and for what you have said. It 
is a great happiness to me to come here for the 
second time to this great country/ and I consider 
it a great privilege that I should have the oppor- 
tunity to meet the President and talk to him at 
this rather important and even, perhaps, critical 
moment in our history. 

You mentioned, Mr. Vice President, the ideals 
that govern this great Eepublic, the ideals of inde- 
pendence and individual freedom. I can assure 
you that we, in India, adhere to those ideals and 
that we are going to continue to adhere to them, 
whatever else may befall us. 

We believe in the freedom of the individual, the 
freedom of the human spirit. And in many other 
things, too, I have found that there is so much in 
common, even though we are separated by half 
the world, between this great Eepublic and the 
Republic of India. 

And so I thank you again, Mr. Vice President, 
and I should like to express my gratitude to the 
President for his gracious invitation to me to come 
here. 



WELCOME AT WHITE HOUSE 

White House press release dated December 16 

Greetings by President Eisenhower 

Mr. Prime Minister, this is an event to which I 
have long looked forward. It is a privilege and 
an honor to welcome you to this land — and to this 
house. 

I speak for the American people and the Govern- 
ment when I say that we hope you will find your 
trip here most enjoyable — that you and your 
daughter will have a visit that is full of interest. 

We thank you for coming. 

Reply by Mr. Nehru 

Mr. President, I am deeply gi-ateful to you for 
the gracious invitation which has brought me here 
and for your kind words. I have been looking for- 
ward to this visit for a long time, and now that I 
am here I feel happy to be not only your guest, Mr. 
President, but among the American people who 
are so very friendly and hospitable. 

' Mr. Nehru first visited the U.S. in October 1949. 



I look forward to these few days here. I am 
only sorry that my visit is a short one. 
Thank you, sir. 

ADDRESS BY MR. NEHRU, DECEMBER 18 

Friends, I am emboldened to address you in 
this intimate fashion because of the friendship 
and hospitality which you, the citizens of the 
United States, have showered upon me. I have 
come to your great country on a brief visit at the 
gracious invitation of your President, whose hu- 
manity and whose distinguished and devoted 
services to the cause of peace have won for him a 
unique place among the statesmen of the world. 
I am happy to be here, and my only regret is that 
I can only stay a few days and have no opportunity 
of meeting many of you personally. 

Five years ago a professor of an American 
university visited me in Delhi and gave me a gift 
which I have treasured greatly. This was a mold 
in brass of Abraham Lincoln's right hand. It is 
a beautiful hand, strong and firm and yet gentle. 
It has been kept ever since on my study table, and 
I look at it every day, and it gives me strength. 

This may, perhaps, give you some idea of our 
thinking and our urges in India. For, above all, 
we believe in liberty, equality, the dignity of the 
individual, and the freedom of the human spirit. 
Because of this we are firmly wedded to the demo- 
cratic way of life and, in our loyalty to this cause, 
we will not falter. Nearly 7 years ago we consti- 
tuted our country into a republic and gave to our- 
selves a constitution based on these principles and 
guaranteeing the fundamental human rights of 
freedom of the individual, equality of man, and 
the rule of law. 

Five years ago we had general elections in our 
country for our central Parliament as well as for 
our State Assemblies. These elections were organ- 
ized on a vast scale by an authority free of gov- 
ernment control, so as to insure that they were 
free and impartial. Early next year we are going 
to have another general election in which 200 mil- 
lion voters are entitled to participate. You will 
realize the vastncss of these elections when I tell 
you that there will be 1,200,000 polling booths, so 
that no voter need have to go far to give his vote. 

As you know, India is a big country, with a 
population of 370 million, one-seventh of the total 
population of the world. It is a country steeped in 



48 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



liistory and tradition, with a civilization nearly as 
old as recorded time and a culture nourished on its 
own soil and blended happily with those of other 
peoples and of other lands. This year we cele- 
brated in India and in many other countries the 
2,500th anniversary of a very great son of India, 
the Buddha, who gave us a message of peace and 
compassion. 

Toleration and Understanding 

Througli the centuries India has preached and 
practiced toleration and understanding and has 
enriched human thought, art and literature, phi- 
losophy and religion. Her sons journeyed far and 
wide, braving the perils of land and sea, not with 
thoughts of conquest or domination but as mes- 
sengers of peace or engaged in the commerce of 
ideas as well as of her beautiful products. During 
these millennia of history India has experienced 
both good and ill, but throughout her checkered 
history she has remembered the message of peace 
and tolerance. In our own time tliis message was 
proclaimed by our great leader and master, Ma- 
hatma Gandlii, who led us to freedom by peaceful 
and yet effective action on a mass scale. 

Nine years ago we won our independence 
through a bloodless revolution, in conditions of 
honor and dignity both to ourselves and to the 
erstwhile rulers of our country. We in India to- 
day are children of this revolution and have been 
conditioned by it. Although your revolution in 
America took place long ago and the conditions 
were different here, you will appreciate the revo- 
lutionary spirit which we have inherited and 
which still governs our activities. Having at- 
tained political freedom, we are earnestly de- 
sirous of removing the many ills that our country 
suffers from, of eliminating poverty and raising 
the standards of our people and giving them full 
and equal opportunities of growth and 
advancement. 

India is supposed to be given to contemplation, 
and the American people have shown by their 
history that they possess great energy, dynamism, 
and the passion to march ahead. Something of 
that contemplative spirit still remains in India. 
But at the same time the new India of today has 
also developed a certain dynamism and a passion- 
ate desire to raise the standards of her people. 
But with that desire is blended the wish to adhere 
to the moral and spiritual aspects of life. 



Economic Development 

We are now engaged in a gigantic and exciting 
task of achieving rapid and large-scale economic 
development of our country. Such development, 
in an ancient and imderdeveloped country such as 
India, is only possible with purposive planning. 
True to our democratic principles and traditions, 
we seek, in free discussion and consultation as well 
as in implementation, the enthusiasm and the will- 
ing and active cooperation of our people. We com- 
pleted our first Five- Year Plan 8 months ago, and 
now we have begun on a more ambitious scale our 
second Five- Year Plan, which seeks a planned de- 
velopment in agriculture and industry, town and 
country, and between factory and small-scale and 
cottage production. I speak of India because it is 
my country and I have some right to speak for her. 
But many other countries in Asia tell the same 
story, for Asia today is resurgent, and these coun- 
tries which long lay under foreign yoke have won 
back their independence and are fired by a new 
spirit and strive toward new ideals. To them, as 
to us, independence is as vital as the breath they 
take to sustain life, and colonialism, in any form, 
or anywhere, is abhori'ent. 

The vast strides that technology has made have 
brought a new age of which the United States of 
America is the leader. Today the whole world is 
our neighbor and the old divisions of continents 
and countries matter less and less. Peace and 
freedom have become indivisible, and the world 
cannot continue for long partly free and partly 
subject. In this atomic age peace has also become 
a test of human survival. 

Recently we have witnessed two tragedies which 
have powerfully affected men and women all over 
the world. These are the tragedies in Egypt and 
Hungary. Our deeply felt sympathies must go 
out to those who have suffered or are suffering, 
and all of us must do our utmost to help them and 
to assist in solving these problems in a peaceful 
and constructive way. But even these tragedies 
have one hopeful aspect, for they have demon- 
strated that the most powerful countries cannot 
revert to old colonial methods or impose their 
domination over weak countries. World opinion 
has shown that it can organize itself to resist such 
outrages. Perhaps, as an outcome of these trage- 
dies, freedom will be enlarged and will have a more 
assured basis. 



January 14, 1957 



49 



Peace Is India's Aim 

The preservation of peace forms the central aim 
of India's policy. It is in the pursuit of this policy 
that we have chosen the path of nonalinement in 
any military or like pact or alliance. Nonaline- 
ment does not mean passivity of mind or action, 
lack of faith or conviction. It does not mean sub- 
mission to what we consider evil. It is a positive 
and dynamic approach to such problems that con- 
front us. We believe that each country has not 
only the right to freedom but also to decide its 
own policy and way of life. Only thus can true 
freedom flourish and a peojile grow according to 
their own genius. 

We believe, therefore, in nonaggression and non- 
interference by one counti-y in the affairs of 
another and the growth of tolerance between them 
and the capacity for peaceful coexistence. We 
think that by the free exchange of ideas and trade 
and other contacts between nations each will learn 
from the other and truth will prevail. We there- 
fore endeavor to maintain friendly relations with 
all countries, even though we may disagree with 
them in their policies or structure of govermnent. 
We think that by this approach we can serve not 
only our country but also the larger causes of 
peace and good fellowship in the world. 

Between the United States and India there had 
existed friendly and cordial relations even before 
India gained her independence. No Indian can 
forget that in the days of our struggle for freedom 
we received from your country a full measure of 
sympathy and support. Our two Republics share 
a common faith in democratic institutions and the 
democratic way of life and are dedicated to the 
cause of peace and freedom. We admire the 
many qualities that have made this country gi-eat 
and, more especially, the humanity and dynamism 
of its people and the great principles to which the 
fatliers of the American Revolution gave utter- 
ance. We wish to learn from you and we plead 
for your friendship and your cooperation and 
sympathy in the great task that we have under- 
taken in our own coimtry. 

I have had the great privilege of having long 
talks with the President, and we have discussed 
many problems which confront the world. I can 
tell you that I have greatly profited by these 
talks. I sliall treasure their memory, and they 
will help me in many ways in my thinking. I 
sincerely hope that an opportunity may be given 
to us before long to welcome the President in our 



own country and to demonstrate to him tlie high 
respect and esteem in which we hold him. 

We have recently witnessed grievous trans- 
gressions of the moral standards freely accepted 
by the nations of the world. During tliis period 
of anxiety and distress the United States has 
added greatly to its prestige by upholding wor- 
thily the principles of the charter of the United 
Nations. 

The danger of war is not past, and the future 
may hold fresh trials and tribulations for hu- 
manity. Yet, the forces of peace are strong and 
the mind of humanity is awake. I believe that 
IJeace will triumph. 

We are celebrating in this season the festival 
of peace and good will, and soon the New Year 
will come to us. May I wish you all a happy New 
Year and express the hope that this year will see 
the triumph of peace and freedom all over the 
world. 



United States Responsibilities 
in New Year 

Statement by Secretary Dulles 

Press release 638 dated December 28 for release December 31 

A New Year always brings new opportunities 
and fresh hope. This year there are reasons for 
hope. 

All the world now knows that Soviet commu- 
nism is not the "wave of the future." The future 
belongs to those who exercise their God-given 
right to believe, to think, and to choose. That has 
been most dramatically demonstrated by the heroic 
people of Hungary. Despite 11 years of Soviet 
indoctrination, the people rebel and thousands 
contribute their life blood so that the torch of 
liberty burns bright for all to see. 

In Poland, and in satellite countries generally, 
there is a rising tide of patriotism and insistence 
upon governments that will serve the people and 
respect great national traditions. 

In free countries the Communist parties which 
have been part of international communism show 
signs of wanting to think for themselves. 

Within the Soviet Union itself the people in- 
creasingly demand more personal security, more 
intellectual freedom, and more enjoyment of the 
fruits of their labor. 

So, we can welcome the New Year. 

But the future is not without its dangers. The 



50 



Department of State Bulletin 



rulers of Soviet Russia are still powerful, and 
they still seek success. That is notably the case in 
the Middle East, where Soviet propaganda vigor- 
ously offers communism to those who want free- 
dom and well-being. 

The United States has a major responsibility 
to help to prevent the spread to the Middle East 
of Soviet imperialism. That area is immensely 
important to all freedom-loving. God-fearing 
people. There are to be found the lioly shrines 



which symbolize the faith of three great religions. 
There are the resources, the channels of communi- 
cation which serve vitally the welfare of the 
peoples of the Middle East and of other regions. 
During the coming year the United States will 
have to accept an increasing responsibility to assist 
the free nations of the Middle East, and elsewhere, 
to maintain their freedom and to develop their 
welfare. We must live by the Golden Rule. By 
so serving others we serve ourselves. 



American Principles and the United Nations 



hy Paul G. Hoffman 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ^ 



For the past several weeks I have shared with 
the distinguished ambassadors on the dais partic- 
ipation in the 11th General Assembly of the United 
Nations. It has been an exciting and reward- 
ing experience. I have learned at first hand how 
dedicated the overwhelming percentage of the 
delegates are to the cause of peace and how com- 
plete is their agreement with President Eisen- 
hower's statement that the United Nations is our 
one best hope for peace. I have sensed also on 
the part of most of the delegates a keen desire to 
build greater unity among the people of the world 
and an appreciation of the fact that unity can come 
only with better understanding. 

May I speak personally for just a moment of 
my own eagerness to learn more about the tradi- 
tions, the philosophy, and the culture of Asia. 
You know much that I would profit by. I have 
been fascinated at the General Assembly as I have 
observed the dignity, the kindness, and the tran- 
quillity with which Prince Wan presides over 
those turbulent sessions. Miss Wolf, the dynamic 
secretary of the National Council, tells me that 
the Asian teachers who are supported by the Coun- 

' Address made before the National Council of Asian 
Affairs at New York, N. Y., on Dec. 6 (U.S. delegation 
press release 2545). 



cil are making an indelible impression on their 
students. Perhaps, if I had had an Asian as a 
teacher when I was young, I would understand the 
basis of Prince Wan's serenity. 

To my admission that my comprehension of 
Asia is limited may I add that it is only recently 
that I have come to have some understanding of 
the deep sources of strength in our own free society 
in these United States. I recognize that every 
nation must forge out its own way of life, but per- 
haps you will find something of interest in my 
story. 

What Makes America Great? 

Wlien I was administrator of the Marshall plan, 
I was operating under a congressional directive 
to "sell America" to the countries we were helping. 
I took on the assignment with enthusiasm and 
built up a sales story along standardized lines. 
I thought it was quite effective. It was full of 
facts about the high standards of living enjoyed 
by our workers and farmers and the opportunities 
for everyone in education and in social and cul- 
tural life — all supported with statistics about our 
thousands of schools and factories and the millions 
of automobiles, radio and television sets, and tele- 
phones we owned. 



Januaty 14, 1957 



51 



The people who heard me seemed impressed, but 
somewhere along the line I became uneasy. My 
story failed to take into account one very obvious 
fact — that America was a great country in the 
times of Washington, Jefferson, and Lincoln, long 
before we had high standards of living, long be- 
fore we had our radios and telephones and, yes, 
even our automobiles. I had been dealing with 
effects and not causes. 

We have, I believe, every reason to be thankful 
for the fact that, with one-sixteenth of the world's 
population and approximately one-sixteenth of its 
natural resources, we turn out one-third of the 
world's total goods and one-half of all its manu- 
factured products; that in America people of 
widely different origins and divergent beliefs work 
together so effectively for their common good; 
and that we have even made higher education 
available to practically every citizen who wants it. 

But the important question is : How did this all 
come about? Certainly not because we are a mas- 
ter race, because there is no such thing as a master 
race. We are in fact an amalgam of races. Any- 
one who has traveled about the world is well aware 
that the potential for growth and development is 
astounding within all people, wherever they are, 
whatever their color, their religion, or their race. 
We all know brilliant Chinese, Japanese, Burmese, 
Negroes, and Indians ; wise Catholics, Jews, Prot- 
estants, Moslems, and Buddhists. No race or na- 
tion has a monopoly on talent or genius. Some of 
the biggest men, intellectually, come from the 
smallest nations. 

This forces one conclusion — that the United 
States has become strong and highly productive 
because more people since the beginning of our 
country have had a greater opportunity to grow 
and develop than in any other country of which 
I have knowledge. As a natural consequence we 
have had more than our share of individuals who 
have acquired initiative, imagination, and drive, 
which are so essential to a country's progress. 

The most important question : What has brought 
this all about? To find the answer we must go 
back to the founding of the Republic. Our Found- 
ing Fathers were profound believers in the dignity 
and worth of the individual. Many of them were 
deeply religious, holding all men to be children 
of God with certain inalienable rights as individ- 
uals. And even the few wlio were not in the formal 
sense of the word religious shared the conviction 
that society must serve the individual — that any- 
thing else would be a tragic return to serfdom. 



They had in mind the creation of a society in 
wliich there would be not only equality but cer- 
tainty of opportunity for everyone — a society 
whose every child would be born with the oppor- 
tunity to realize fully his capacities not only to 
make a good living but for intellectual and spirit- 
ual growth. 

Individualism and Voluntarism 

To give reality to this concept, they set forth 
two gi-eat principles that were to be the guidelines 
of the new nation. 

First was the guaranty of freedom and justice 
for the individual. In our Bill of Rights, we 
Americans were guaranteed that our Government 
would not interfere with our right to speak freely 
on any subject we chose ; to assemble freely with 
others for any peaceful purpose ; to worship God 
in our own way; to be equal with every other 
American before the law ; to be secure in our per- 
sons and our property ; to be free from unreason- 
able arrests or detention without real cause; and 
to a fair public trial if accused of any crime. 

The second great principle was the limitation 
of powers of the Government. The Founding 
Fathers, thinking of the supreme rights of the in- 
dividual, were deeply concerned about power. 
They would have agreed fully with Lord Acton's 
assertion that "power tends to corrupt and ab- 
solute power corrupts absolutely." 

They were therefore careful to provide devices 
for a wide diffusion of decision making. It was 
not to be the power of government alone to make 
decisions affecting the lives of the governed. Gov- 
ernment in fact was to make as few decisions as 
possible and the governed as many as possible. 
A large field was left open to tlie individual for 
voluntary action. 

So it is that we Americans every day make de- 
cisions that help determine the course of our own 
lives and we join with others to make decisions of 
mutual importance to us. Our forefathere willed 
us not only the privilege but the responsibility of 
voluntary determination. 

And voluntarism has flourished almost from the 
day the Nation was founded. We organize on a 
voluntary basis to improve our schools, our towns, 
our health, our spiritual life, our industries, our 
local and national economies. 

This fact has, I believe, had much to do with our 
becoming a strong society. It is quite inevitable 
tliat a society conunitted to the two principles of 



52 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



individualism and voluntarism would carry on 
most of its business activities under a system of 
free enterprise. Neither governmental monopo- 
lies nor private cartels square with these concepts. 
However, the businessmen of America recognize 
that there are areas in which i^ublic enterprise best 
serves the public interest. 

Not for a moment would any American claim 
that we have as yet realized the goals set forth for 
us by our forefathers. America is still unfinished 
business. Nevertheless we can say, I believe, that 
each generation since the founding of the Republic 
has brought expanded opportunities for our 
growth and development materially and spirit- 
ually. We can say with assurance that this free 
society does encourage growth. 

I shall never forget a comment made to me by a 
friend of mine who had spent the greater part of 
a year observing the progress in a totalitarian 
society. Wlien he returned, I asked him the usual 
stupid question — whether the country he had just 
visited could achieve the material goals it had set 
for itself. His answer startled me. He said, 
"Yes, I believe so," but he added, "At what a cost !" 
He meant, of course, that the impact of their ruth- 
less system on people of that country was devas- 
tating. It produced goods but withered the souls 
of men. 

Opportunities Before United Nations 

In closing, let me add my voice to that of many 
others in stressing two major opportunities that 
lie before the United Nations — and of course be- 
fore the peoples of the world. 

First, I submit that the United Nations must 
work to promote and foster a common understand- 
ing among the nations of the world as to what we 
mean by such words as "rightness," "morality," 
and "justice." True, they are difficult of precise 
definition, and the mores of one people may not 
be the mores of another people; but there are a 
number of basic human concepts on which all 
right-minded people agree. In every religion 
with wliich I am familiar we find such imderlying 
concepts : thou shalt not steal ; thou shalt not kill ; 
and do unto others as you would have done unto 
yourself. However we may say these words, or 
in whatever language we express them, we mean 
much the same thing. 

Furthermore, the area of agreement on what 
is right and what is wrong is expanding. Under 
the charter of the United Nations the use of ag- 



gression as an instrumentality of national policy 
is outlawed. The fact that aggression has been 
labeled as immoral has not, of course, put an end 
to its use. 

During the last few years all of us have wit- 
nessed events which were essentially tragic and 
were essentially in violation of the moral con- 
cepts we have been talking about tonight. We 
have seen the tragedy of Korea; we have seen 
tension arise in many parts of the world. We 
have seen this world come close to open and wide- 
sjjread conflict in the Middle East, and we have 
watched and listened with agony to the events in 
Himgary. Nevertheless, the general agreement 
that aggression is immoral represents a distinct 
advance. 

The United Nations has acted in these crises to 
mobilize public opinion, but not always with the 
speed it should and not always with the imanimity 
among its members that is such a vital factor. If 
fires are to be put out, the fire department must get 
to the fire — and get there fast. If world opinion 
is to be crystallized quickly against aggi-ession 
when aggi'ession takes place, all right-minded 
nations from all parts of the world should imite 
in deploring the aggression. The key words in 
our minds today should be neither East nor West, 
but right or wrong. 

These are truly days to try men's souls. The 
dangere are great, but so are our opportunities. 
We can, if we act wisely and take full advantage 
of the fact that Egypt, Great Britain, France, 
and Israel have accepted the good offices of the 
United Nations, move toward a just and hiunane 
solution of the problems of the Middle East. We 
can, in the situation in Hungary, despite the fact 
that the United Nations has been flouted, take 
appropriate action in the General Assembly to 
make it clear once and for all that decent people 
evei-ywhere will neither ignore nor condone bru- 
tality. We can, I sincerely believe, if we act 
courageously, start laying the foundation for the 
first enduring peace with honor and justice that 
this world has ever known. 

Recognition of Haitian Government 

Press release 631 dated December 24 

The U.S. Embassy at Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on 
December 24 informed the Foreign Minister of 
Haiti, Jean Price-Mars, that the U.S. Government 
has recognized the new Government of Haiti. 



January 14, 1957 



53 



U.S. Views on British Formula 
for Self-Government for Cyprus 

Statement hy Lincoln White 
Acting Chief, News Division ^ 

The United States has noted with sympathetic 
interest the long and earnest labors of Lord Kad- 
cliffe to find a formula for self-government for 
Cyprus. The making by the United Kingdom of 
proposals for self-government could be the first 
step toward an eventual peaceful and generally 
acceptable final solution of the Cyprus problem. 
The formula now produced by Lord Kadcliffe 
seems to be unacceptable in certain respects by 
some who are concerned with the matter. Never- 
theless, the United States still hopes that our three 
allies who, together with the people of Cyprus, are 
deeply concerned with this issue, will strive to 
agree upon a way of moving together toward a 
solution which is so important to themselves and 
to the entire free world. 



Passports of Newsmen in Red Ciiina 
Valid Only for Return to U.S. 

Press release 639 dated December 28 

The Department of State has learned that three 
United States newsmen have gone to Communist 
China despite the fact that the passports issued 
to them for travel abroad were specifically marked 
not valid for travel to Communist China. They 
did this although the U.S. Government opposes 
travel by American citizens to an area where their 
fellow citizens are held as political hostages and 
where the United States cannot provide normal 
diplomatic and consular protection. As a result 
of this misuse of the passports issued to them, their 
passports will be made valid only for return to the 
United States. Their cases are being called to the 
attention of the Treasury Department in view of 
the relevant provisions of the Trading With the 
Enemy Act. 

It should be clearly understood that in taking 
this action the United States is not motivated by 
any desire to deny to the American public in- 
formation about Communist China. As the De- 
partment of State noted on August 7, 1956,^ the 
Chinese Communists have created a special im- 

' Made to correspondunts on Dec. 27. 
= Bulletin of Aug. 20, 1U56, p. 313. 



pediment to the travel of Americans in the area 
which they control. They have imprisoned 
American citizens and employed them as political 
hostages for bargaining purposes. This obstacle 
to travel by Americans has not yet been removed 
despite our efforts to secure the release of the 
Americans now imprisoned. 



Letters of Credence 

Libya 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Libya, 
Suleiman Jerbi, presented his credentials to Presi- 
dent Eisenhower on December 26. For the text of 
the Ambassador's remarks and the text of the 
President's reply, see Department of State press 
release 634. 

Panama 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Panama, 
Ricardo M. Arias Espinosa, presented his creden- 
tials to President Eisenliower on December 26. 
For the text of the Ambassador's remarks and the 
text of the President's reply, see Department of 
State press release 632. 

Paraguay 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Paraguay, 
Osvaldo Chaves, presented his credentials to Pres- 
ident Eisenhower on December 28. For the text 
of the Ambassador's remarks and the text 
of the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 636. 



Imports of Woolen Fabrics 

Press release 633 dated December 26 

The 1957 low-duty tariff quota on imports of 
woolen and worsted fabrics will be a single, an- 
nual tariff quota, not apportioned by quarters, 
countries, or otherwise, the Department of State 
announced on December 26. 

A "low-duty tariff quota" is one which, instead 
of setting an absolute limit on imports, sets a limit 
only on the amount that can enter at a specified 
rate. If and when such a quota is exceeded, any 
additional imports for the rest of the year pay a 
higher rate. The United States, effective Oc- 
tober 1, 1956, established such a quota on woolen 
and worsted fabrics, invoking the "Geneva wool 



54 



Department of State Bulletin 



fabric reservation" in the General A^-eement on 
Tariffs and Trade. 

In response to suggestions that tliis quota be 
apportioned, a pubhc notice was issued by the 
Committee for Reciprocity Information on No- 
vember 19, 1956, inviting views with regard to 
methods of applying the tariff quota for 1957.^ 
Opinions were souglit particularly on the desira- 
bility of allocating the annual tariff quota by 
quarters. The Government agencies concerned, 
after considering tlie various statements sub- 
mitted, and other information, concluded that allo- 
cation by quarters or otherwise would lead to 
greater uncertainties for the trade and less orderly 
marketing tlian would be the case under a single, 
annual tariff quota. 

The amount of the tariff quota for 1957 will be 
announced in the first quarter of the year, as soon 
as possible after 1956 production figures are avail- 
able. Under the formula established in the reser- 
vation to tariff paragraphs 1108 and 1109 (a) in 
schedule XX of the General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade, the tariff quota for 1957 will be not 
less than 5 percent of the average annual U.S. 
production of similar fabrics in the years 1954-56. 
For the final quarter of 1956 the tariff quota of 
3.5 million pounds was established. This 3.5 mil- 
lion pounds is one-quarter of a quantity (14 mil- 
lion pounds) which was determined by tlie Presi- 
dent to be not less than 5 percent of average an- 
nual U.S. production of similar fabrics for the 
calendar years 1953-55. 

In reciprocal tariff negotiations in 1947 the 
United States reduced the ad valorem rate on wool 
fabrics dutiable imder tariff paragraphs 1108 and 
1109 (a) to 20 or 25 percent, depending on the type 
of fabric. However, at the same time, the "Ge- 
neva wool fabric reservation" was written into the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. This 
reservation gave the United States the right to 
make the reduced rate applicable to a quantity 
not less than 5 percent of average annual U.S. 
production of similar fabrics in the 3 iimnediately 
preceding calendar years. Imports of these 
fabrics in excess of such an amount may be subject 
to an ad valorem duty rate no higher than 45 
percent ad valorem. These ad valorem rates 
ai"e in addition to specific (cents-per-pound) rates 
which are compensatory for the rate of duty 
on raw wool and which do not change under 
the reservation. 



'■ Bulletin of Dec. 3, 1956, p. 887. 
January 14, 1957 



President Decides Against Increase 
in Tariff on Groundfish Fillets 

White House (Augusta, Ga. ) press release dated December 10 

The President announced on December 10 that 
he has decided against a tariff increase as recom- 
mended by the U.S. Tariff Conmiission in the 
groundfish fillets "escape clause" case. 

The President, in identical letters to the chair- 
men of the Senate Finance and House Ways and 
Means Committees, said he was "not persuaded 
that, on balance, the proposed duty increase 
would constitute a sound step in resolving" the 
difficulties confronting the domestic groundfish 
fishing industry. "Because of that conviction," the 
President continued, "I have decided in view of all 
of tlie factors bearing on this case that I cannot ac- 
cept the Tariff Commission's recommendations." 

The President in his letters to tlie chairmen said 
that he was "reluctant to impose a barrier to our 
trade with fi"iendly nations unless such action is 
essential and clearly promising of positive, pro- 
ductive results to the benefit of the domestic indus- 
try in question. My reluctance to impose such a 
barrier is heightened in this case because the other 
nations concerned are not only our close friends, 
but their economic strength is of strategic impor- 
tance to us in the continuing struggle against the 
menace of world communism." Canada, Iceland, 
and Norway are the principal exporters of ground- 
fish fillets to the United States. 

The President also said that "it might well be, 
in fact, that the proposed duty increase would only 
further complicate the industry's basic problems." 
The President said that "bold and vigorous steps" 
should be taken now "to provide root solutions for 
the industry's problems." The President noted 
that legislation signed into law by him earlier this 
year was designed to assist the domestic industry 
in improving its competitive position. The Presi- 
dent said that "the Administration's examination 
into the industry's problems has continued beyond 
the enactment of these laws." He said, "these 
studies . . . look toward the development of addi- 
tional opportunities for promoting the well-being 
and sound management of all of our fish and wild- 
life resources, including our commercial fisheries 
resources. These further efforts should be of as- 
sistance to the domestic groundfish fishing indus- 
try in its search for solutions to the fmidamental 
problems it faces." 

The U. S. Tariff Commission in its report to the 



55 



President on October 12 ^ found, as a result in 
part of the customs treatment reflecting the trade 
agreement concession applying to groundfish 
fillets, that they are being imported into the 
United States in such increased quantities as to 
cause serious injury to the domestic industry. 
The Tariff Commission in its report recommended 
that imports of gi'oundfish fillets now dutiable at 
1%0 per pound should be made dutiable at 
2.81250 per pound and that those now dutiable at 
21/^0 per pound should be made dutiable at 3.750 
per pound. 

The Tariff Commission's investigation and 
report were made pursuant to section 7 of the 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951, as 
amended. 

The Tariff Commission's recommendation in 
this case was unanimous, but, as the President 
pointed out in. his letter to the chairmen of the 
two committees, "It is the Tariff Commission's 
responsibility in these matters to investigate and 
report to the President any finding of serious 
injury or threat of serious injury within the 
meaning of the law. It is the President's respon- 
sibility, on the other hand, to consider not only 
the question of injury and measures recommended 
for its relief, but also all other pertinent factors 
bearing on the security and well-being of the 
nation." 



President's Letter to Chairmen of Congressional 
Committees' 

December 10, 1956 
Dear Mr. Chairman : On October twelfth the 
United States Tariff Conunission, pursuant to 
Section 7 of the Trade Agreements Extension Act 
of 1951, as amended, submitted to me a report of 
its findings and recommendations in the gi-ound- 
fish fillets "escape clause" case. The Conunission 
found, as a result in part of the customs treatment 
reflecting the trade agreement concession applying 
to these products, that they are being imported 
into the United States in such increased quantities 
as to cause serious injury to the domestic industry. 
The Commission accordingly recommended that 

' Copies of the report may be obtained from the U.S. 
Tariff Commission, Washington 25, D. C. 

' Addressed to Senator Harry Flood Byrd, chairman of 
the Senate Committee on Finance, and Representative 
Jere Cooper, chairman of tlie House Ways and Means 
Committee. 



those imports of groundfish fillets presently duti- 
able at 1%0 i^er pound should be dutiable at 
2.81250 per pound, and that those dutiable at 21/00 
per pound should be dutiable at 3.750 per pound. 

It is the Tariff Commission's responsibility in 
these matters to investigate and report to the 
President any finding of serious injury or threat 
of serious injury within the meaning of the law. 
It is the President's responsibility, on the other 
hand, to consider not only the question of injury 
and measures recommended for its relief, but also 
all other pertinent factors bearing on the security 
and well-being of the nation. 

As an aspect of national policy dedicated to 
fostering the security and economic growth of 
the United States, this nation seeks to encourage 
in all feasible ways the continued expansion of 
beneficial trade among the free nations of the 
world. In view of this policy I am, as I have said 
before, reluctant to impose a barrier to our trade 
with friendly nations unless such action is essential 
and clearly promising of positive, productive re- 
sults to the benefit of the domestic industry in 
question. My reluctance to impose such a bar- 
rier is heightened in this case because the otlier 
nations concerned are not only our close friends, 
but their economic strength is of strategic impor- 
tance to us in the continuing struggle against the 
menace of world communism. 

I have analyzed this case with great care. I am 
fully aware that the domestic groundfish fishing 
industry is faced with serious problems, but I am 
not persuaded that, on balance, the proposed duty 
increase would constitute a sound step in resolving 
those difficulties. Because of that conviction, I 
have decided in view of all of the factors bearing 
on this case that I cannot accept the Tariff Com- 
mission's recommendations. It might well be, in 
fact, that the proposed duty increase would only 
further complicate the industry's basic problems. 

Over the years, the consumption of groundfish 
fillets has shown a persistent upward trend, con- 
sumption rising to a record level in 1955. This 
trend is expected to continue; the United States, 
by all indications is heading toward a further 
increased population and a greater expansion of 
its economy. If, as this growth takes place, there 
is a proportionate increase in requirements for 
fisli and fish products in the United States, the 
domestic demand for these products will more than 
exceed the present combined total of domestically 
caught fisli plus imports. This is an encouraging 



56 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



prospect which the domestic industry should pre- 
pare to exjjloit. 

At the same time, I recognize that beset as it is 
with problems ranging from the age of its vessels 
to competition with other food products, the fish- 
ing industiy of the United States will experience 
difficulties in the years ahead, despite the bright 
prospects for increased consumption of fish and 
fish products, miless bold and vigorous steps are 
taken now to provide root solutions for the in- 
dustry's problems. To this end, the Administra- 
tion last year proposed and I signed into law 
several bills designed to assist the industry in im- 
proving its competitive position. These laws 
include provisions for increased fmids for re- 
search and market development programs, edu- 
cational grants, and a $10 million revolving loan 
fund for vessel and equipment improvement 
purposes. 

The Administration's examination into the 
industry's problems has continued beyond the en- 



actment of these laws. These studies, in which 
we are benefitting from consultations with State 
and local officials and private groups, look toward 
the development of additional opportunities for 
promoting the well-being and sound management 
of all of our fish and wildlife resources, including 
our commercial fisheries resources. These further 
efforts should be of assistance to the domestic 
groimdfish fishing industry in its search for solu- 
tions to the fundamental problems it faces. They 
should also help the industry to improve its posi- 
tion without the imposition of further trade re- 
strictions which might actually discourage needed 
improvements. 

This approach is consistent with our objective 
of achieving a dynamic, expanding, free enter- 
prise economy and also accords with our national 
policy of seeking the highest attainable levels of 
mutually profitable and beneficial trade and in- 
vestment among the countries of the free world. 
DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



Question of Legislation on Loyalty of Americans 
Employed by International Organizations 



Statement iy Francis 0. Wilcox 

Assistant Secretary for Intei^national Organization Affairs ^ 



I wish to preface my remarks by saying I appre- 
ciate the consideration shown by the subcommittee 
in permitting me to choose the time most conven- 
ient for my appearance. I also appreciate the 
opportunity extended me to comment on the ques- 
tion of the desirability of legislation dealing with 
the loyalty measures to be applicable to American 
nationals employed by, or seeking employment 
with, public international organizations. 

This is not the first opportunity the Department 
of State has had to comment on legislation of the 
type now under consideration. In 1953 the De- 
partment, when commenting on S. 3, observed 
that it seemed in the best interest of the United 
States to give the executive procedure a thorough- 

' Made on Dec. 17 before the Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. 



going ti-y and that the question of any legislative 
approach to the problem be held in abeyance 
pending an assessment of the results produced 
imder that procedure. In 1955 the Department, 
then commenting on S. 782 and having had the 
benefit of seeing the results of the Executive order 
procedure, recommended that legislation was un- 
necessary. The Department observed that the 
objective of S. 782 had already been achieved 
imder the Executive order procedure. 

As I see it, the objectives of the Congress and 
of the executive branch in these matters are iden- 
tical. There are two principal objectives. First, 
we should seek to have additional top-flight 
Americans employed by international organiza- 
tions. Second, and equally important, these 
Americans must be people of the highest loyalty 
and integrity. In order to achieve these objec- 



January 14, 1957 



57 



tives we must be certain that the loyalty clearance 
procedure satisfies loyalty and security needs 
witliout creating any unnecessary obstacles to the 
recruitment of qualified Americans. An un- 
wieldy process, or major changes at this time, 
could discourage Americans from seeking em- 
ployment with international organizations. Also, 
international organizations might tend to exclude 
Americans from their employment programs 
simply to avoid becoming involved in protracted 
or new and untried procedures. In order to con- 
tinue to receive the maximum cooperation from 
the organizations concerned, it seems best that we 
adhere to a procedure which they have accepted. 
It seems to me that any departure from the pro- 
cedure now in effect would needlessly reopen to 
public international debate the question of this 
Government's obligation to respect the independ- 
ent character of international secretariats. 

Since January 9, 1953, the loyalty clearance of 
Americans employed by, or seeking employment 
with, public international organizations has been 
accomplished under the provisions of Executive 
Order 10422,^ as amended by Executive Order 
10459 ^ on June 2, 1953. The Executive order, as 
amended, assigns specific areas of responsibility 
to the International Oi'ganizations Employees 
Loyalty Board and to the Department of State. 
Since Judge Henry S. Waldman, Chairman of the 
International Organizations Employees Loyalty 
Board, is scheduled to appear before the subcom- 
mittee, I shall confine my statement to the Depart- 
ment of State's functions pursuant to the terms of 
the Executive order. 

The Executive order designates the Secretary 
of State as the channel through which personnel 
forms are to be routed to the Loyalty Board by the 
individual employee or applicant. In practice, 
with the concurrence of the Loyalty Board, some 
international organizations forward the personnel 
forms directly to the Loyalty Board. The Secre- 
tary of State is also the channel through which 
the Loyalty Board forwards its advisory deter- 
minations to the executive heads of the interna- 
tional organizations. These determinations are 
made by the Loyalty Board upon the basis of re- 
ports of investigation which the Board retains. 
Thus, in this connection, the Department of State 

■ Bulletin of Jan. 12, 1953, p. 62. 
' Ibid., June 22, 1953, p. 882. 



acts as a courier. It does not evaluate either the 
reports of investigation or the advisory determi- 
nations. 

As we are all aware, the Executive order has no 
binding force and effect upon international organ- 
izations. An advisory determination, whether 
favorable or adverse, submitted to the executive 
head of an organization is for, and I quote the 
Executive order, "his use in exercising his rights 
and duties with respect to the personnel." The 
decision as to whether a given employee, or ap- 
plicant for employment, meets the required stand- 
ard of integi-ity is made by the executive head. 

The most important function exercised by the 
Department of State, in order to give force and 
effect to the provisions of the Executive order, 
relates to the arrangements negotiated with the 
executive heads of organizations employing, or 
contemplating the employment of, American na- 
tionals. Following the issuance of the Executive 
order in January 1953, the Department of State 
negotiated arrangements with the organizations 
concerned. The arrangements, in substance, pro- 
vide that employees of American nationality, or 
American nationals seeking employment, execute 
appropriate personnel forms for submission to the 
Loyalty Board. Furthermore, under the arrange- 
ments, the executive heads of the organizations 
take into consideration the Loyalty Board's ad- 
visory determination in deciding whether to em- 
ploy or retain the American concerned. 

The Department of State and the International 
Organizations Employees Loyalty Board have 
worked together closely to give full effect to the 
intent of the Executive order. In the light of the 
experience gained since January 1953, it is the 
Department's considered opinion that the Execu- 
tive order's mandate has been carried out. The 
Department of State and the Loyalty Board work- 
ing together have, wlierever necessary, and with- 
out sacrificing the intent of the Executive order, 
overcome the administrative problems which 
arose. We have also been successful in establish- 
ing machinery which permits the expeditious com- 
pletion of the investigative procedure without 
unduly hampering the recruitment and employ- 
ment of qualified Americans. 

It has been the expressed desire of both the ex- 
ecutive branch and the legislative brunch that more 
Americans obtain employment with international 
organizations. In fact, in appearances before 



58 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



committees of both the Senate and the House, I 
am frequently asked if we are doing everything 
possible to encourage and increase the employment 
of Americans by international organizations. 
The Department of State is convinced that the 
goal is being met within the spirit and intent of 
the Executive order. It is the Department of 
State's considered opinion also that legislation of 
the type proposed in 1953 and 1955 — I refer to 
S. 3 and S. 782 — would add nothing to the safe- 
guards contained in the Executive order. Indeed, 
it would have an adverse effect on the recruitment 
and employment of Americans by international 
organizations. I feel very strongly that legisla- 
tion which would serve to supplant the Executive 
order procedure would set the United States back 
2 or 3 years in its efforts to see qualified, competent 
Americans of high integi-ity on the payroll of in- 
ternational organizations in which the United 
States participates. 

The basic reason for my conclusion is that we 
have spent 3 years in setting up and improving 
a working system. The organizations have grad- 
ually come to understand it and to work with us 
under it. If we change this system, as the draft 
bills would have done, we would create new prob- 
lems and have to start the difficult process all over 
again. Moreover, there are a number of coun- 
tries in these organizations which have been 
critical of us all along. We have now largely 
succeeded in overcoming these criticisms. It 
would not now be in the national interest to pur- 
sue a course which would again stir up this criti- 
cism and ill will. 

For these reasons the Department of State is 
opposed to proposals such as those under dis- 
cussion. I am certain that Mr. Waldman's 
presentation and analysis of the Executive order 
procedure will make it abundantly clear that the 
procedure has served to overcome the conditions 
which existed prior to 1953, whereby employment 
with international organizations could be obtained 
without proper and adequate review of infor- 
mation. 

In closing, Mr. Chairman, I wish to emphasize 
tliat the United States remains determined that 
there should be no question regarding the loyalty 



or integrity of our citizens who hold positions 
with international organizations and that they 
sliould be sound and responsible Americans. We 
have done and shall continue to do everything we 
can to this end. I think it is fair to state that 
we have made remarkable progi'ess since this 
problem came into sharp focus in 1952. The pro- 
cedure we have today serves the best interests of 
the United States. We believe this procedure 
will continue to meet the common objectives of 
the Congress and of the executive branch. 



IVIembership of Mexican-U.S. 
Defense Commission 

Executive Order 10692' 

Amendment of Executive Order No. 90S0 To Provide foe 
THE Designation of Members of the Joint Mexican- 
United States Defense Commission by the Secretabt 
op Defense 

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President 
of the United States it is ordered as follows : 

Section 1. The third paragraph of Executive Order 
No. 9080 of February 27, 1942,' authorizing the creation 
of the Joint Mexican-United States Defense Commission, 
is hereby amended to read as follows : 

"The United States membership of the Commission 
shall consist of an Army member, a Navy member, and 
an Air Force member, each of whom shall be designated 
by the Secretary of Defense and serve during tlie pleasure 
of the Secretary. The Secretary shall designate from 
among the United States members the chairman thereof 
and may designate alternate United States members of 
the Commission." 

Sec. 2. The amendment made by section 1 hereof shall 
not be construed as terminating the tenure of any person 
who is a member, chairman, or alternate member of the 
United States section of the Commission on the date of 
this order, but such tenure may be terminated by the 
Secretai-y of Defense. 

The White House, 
December 22, 1956. 



> 21 Fed. Reg. 10325. 
" 7 Fed. Reg. 1607. 



January 14, 1957 



59 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Proposed U.N. Conference on Law of the Sea 



Statement hy Edward S. GreerAaum 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ^ 



The United States delegation has been extreme- 
ly interested in the general debate wliich is now 
drawing to a close on the International Law Com- 
mission's report on the law of the sea.^ At the 
outset I would like to take tliis opportunity to 
subscribe to the eloquent tribute that my col- 
leagues have paid to the International Law Com- 
mission for its work in preparing this report. I 
can do so with complete detachment and sincerity 
because I have had no part in this magnificent 
work. The Committee has indeed been fortunate 
in having some of the distinguished members of 
the Commission assist us in our discussions here. 
Included among them is the able rapporteur, Pro- 
fessor Francois, who has made so great a contri- 
bution to the formulation of this report. The 
United States Government believes that the Law 
Commission's report constitutes a major contri- 
bution to the solution to the problems of the sea, 
a subject which has occupied scholars for so many 
years — a subject which in our troubled world of 
today is becoming of ever-increasing importance. 
The solution of these problems is of the greatest 
importance to all the nations of the world, and 
we as lawyers have the responsibility of carrying 
out this important task. In so doing we will be 
fulfilling a fundamental principle of the United 
Nations, which is to seek solutions of internation- 
al disputes or situations "in conformity with the 
principles of justice and international law." The 

'Made in Committee VI (Legal) on Dec. 14 (U.S. 
delegation press release 2557). 
= U.N. doc. A/3159. 



report now before us affords us a challenging op- 
portunity to formulate rules of international law 
in this vitally important field. 

How can this best be done? We believe by 
acting favorably upon the recommendations of 
the International Law Commission. According- 
ly, the United States delegation, along with 21 
other states, has joined in cosponsoring the reso- 
lution which is now before the Committee,^ which 
would implement the recommendation of the 
International Law Commission that an inter- 
national conference of plenipotentiaries should be 
convened to examine the law of the sea. The 
United States has cosponsored this resolution be- 
cause of our view that reference of the whole sub- 
ject of the law of the sea to a conference is the 
only effective method of dealing with the problem. 

Since we do not believe that the Sixth Com- 
mittee should make any decisions on substantive 
naatters at this time, tlie United States delegation 
will not comment in detail upon all aspects of the 
73 draft articles which have been submitted by 
the Commission. However, during om* general 
debate much has been said by other delegations 
on many of the major questions involved. In 
tlie interest of recording our own views on some 
of these questions I will discuss briefly a few of 
tlic major points covered in the Commission's re- 
port. In so doing I fully realize that, after the 
extremely interesting and illmninating remarks 
that you have heard from so many distinguished 

" U.N. doc. A/C. 6/L. 385. 



60 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Text of Resolution Convoking Conference on Law of the Sea 

U.N. doc. A/C.6/L.398 



The Ocncral Assembly, 

Hamng received the report of the International Law 
Commission covering the work of its eighth session, 
which contains draft articles and commentaries on the 
law of the sea, 

Recalling that the General Assembly in resolution 
798 (VIII) of 7 December 1953, "having regard to the 
fact that the problems relating to the high seas, terri- 
torial waters, contiguous zones, the continental shelf 
and the superjacent waters were closely linked together 
juridically as well as physically", decided not to deal 
with any aspect of those matters until all the problems 
involved had been studied by the International Law 
Commission and reported upon by it to the General 
Assembly, 

Cenisldering that its resolution 899 (IX) of 14 De- 
cember 1954 - requested the International Law Commis- 
sion to submit its final report on these subjects In 
time for the General Assembly to consider them "as 
a whole" at its eleventh session, 

Talcing into account also paragraph 29 of the Com- 
mission's report wherein "the Commission considers — 
and the comments of Governments have confirmed this 
view — that the various sections of the law of the sea 
hold together, and are so closely interdependent that 
it would be extremely difficult to deal with only one 
part and leave the others aside", 

1. Expresses its appreciation to the Commission for 
its valuable work on this complex subject ; 

2. Decides, in accordance with the recommendation 
contained in paragraph 28 of the Commission's report, 
that an international conference of plenipotentiaries 
should be convoked to examine the law of the sea, 
taking account not only of the legal but also of the 
technical, biological, economic and political aspects of 
the problem, and to embody the results of its work in 
one or more international conventions or such other 
instruments as it may deem appropriate ; 

3. Recommends that the conference should study the 
question of free access to the sea of landlocked coun- 
tries, as established by international practice or 
treaties ; 

4. Requests the Secretary-General to convoke such 
a conference at Rome early in March 1958 ; 

5. Invites all States Members of the United Nations 
and States members of the specialized agencies to 
participate in the conference and to include among 
their representatives experts competent in the fields 
to be considered ; 



6. Invites the interested specialized agencies and 
inter-governmental bodies to send observers to the 
conference ; 

7. Requests the Secretary-General to invite appro- 
priate experts to advise and assist the Secretariat in 
preparing the conference, with the following terms of 
reference : 

(a) to obtain in tlie manner which they think most 
appropriate from the invited Governments any further 
provisional comments the Governments may wish to 
make on the Commission's report and related matters, 
and to present to the conference in systematic form 
any comments made by the Governments and the rele- 
vant statements made in the Sixth Committee in the 
eleventh and previous sessions of the General Assem- 
bly; 

(b) to present to the conference recommendations 
a)ncerning its method of work and procedures, and 
other questions of an administrative nature ; 

(c) to prepare or arrange for the preparation of 
working documents of a legal, technical, scientific or 
economic nature in order to facilitate the work of the 
conference ", 

8. Requests the Secretary-General to arrange also for 
the necessary staff and facilities which would be re- 
quired for the conference, it being understood that the 
technical services of such experts as are needed will 
be utilized ; 

9. Refers to the conference the Commission's report 
as the basis for its consideration of the various prob- 
lems involved in the development and codification of 
the law of the sea ; and also the verbatim records of 
the relevant debates in the General Assembly, for con- 
sideration by the conference in conjunction with the 
Commission's report ; 

10. Requests the Secretary-General to transmit to 
the conference all such records of world-wide or re- 
gional international meetings as may serve as official 
background material for its work ; 

11. Calls upon the invited Governments and groups 
thereof to utilize the time remaining before the opening 
of the conference for exchanges of views on the con- 
troversial questions relative to the law of the sea ; 

12. Expresses the hope that the conference will be 
fully attended. 



' Introduced on Nov. 27 (A/C.6/ L..385) ; adopted by 
Committee VI, as amended, on Dee. 20 by a vote of 
65-1 (Ic-eland). 

- For text, see Bulletin of Jan. 10, 1955, p. 64. 



ianuaty 14, 1957 

412329—57 3 



61 



delegates, it is difficult to contribute new ideas or 
make worthwhile remarks that have not already 
been presented. Nevertheless, we venture the 
hope that the few comments that we would like 
to make may be helpful. 

Breadth of the Territorial Sea 

First of all, Mr. Chairman, I would like to refer 
to the question of the breadth of the territorial 
sea. In the report of the Commission covering the 
work of its seventh session, the Commission con- 
sidered that "international law does not require 
states to recognize a breadth [of territorial sea] 
bej'ond three miles." The United States considers 
that this is the true legal situation and indeed feels 
that it would be unrealistic, in the absence of gen- 
eral agreement upon a breadth of territorial 
waters in excess of 3 miles, to expect states which 
adhere to this traditional limit to recognize uni- 
lateral attempts of other states to appropriate 
large areas of what had theretofore been recog- 
nized as high seas. There is universal agreement 
that each state is entitled to a territorial sea of a 
breadth of 3 miles, but, as has been evidenced by 
the debates of the past days, there is wide disagree- 
ment as to the legality of claims to territorial seas 
in excess of 3 miles. 

There have been several statements that this 
3-mile rule is an obsolete one. It has been sug- 
gested that because it is an old rule it is no longer 
A^alid for the modern world. My Government cer- 
tainly does not accept this point of view. Our 
attitude on the breadth of the territorial sea is 
based in large part upon our traditional and 
strong adherence to the principle of the freedom 
of the sea, a principle imder which the oceans of 
the world are to be open freely to the ships of all 
nations, large and small, and under which princi- 
ple the strong nations are prevented from assert- 
ing their power to control the seas at the expense 
of the weak. We do not think that changes have 
occurred on the international scene which require 
the abandonment of the 3-mile rule. It is, of 
course, correct to argue that we should not blindly 
follow a rule of law merely because it has persisted 
for many years. AVe do not argue that a law 
should be retained just because it is ancient, but 
neither do we Ijelieve that a law must be regarded 
as obsolete and should be abandoned just because 
it is ancient. On the contrary, there is a strong 



presumption that a long accepted rule of law has 
valid and sound reasons for persisting throughout 
the years. 

The rules of the road are examples of rules of 
conduct which have an ancient origin but which 
continue to have validity in modern times. The 
Ten Commandments are ancient, but that does not 
mean that they are obsolete. Tlie teachings of the 
Koran are old, but that does not make them in- 
valid today. 

I do not mean to suggest that the 3-mile rule is 
on a plane with or of the same character as the 
laws laid down in the Ten Commandments or the 
Koran. "Wliat I do mean to say is that those who 
advocate changing a rule that has been upheld 
throughout the years have the heavy burden of 
demonstrating that the rule has outlived its use- 
fulness and can no longer be upheld. They also 
have the burden of demonstrating that the ob- 
jectives sought cannot be accomplished in some 
other way. With specific reference to the question 
of the breadth of the territorial sea, those who seek 
to justify extending the 3-mile limit must justify 
restricting the freedom of the seas. Every mile 
by which the territorial sea is widened encroaches 
to that extent upon the extent of the high seas and 
thereby lessens the freedom of the seas. The In- 
ternational Law Commission emphasizes this 
point in article 27 of the draft, where it states that 
"the high seas being open to all nations, no State 
may validly purport to subject any part of them 
to its sovereignty." 

I do not, of course, mean to implj' that the ques- 
tion of the extent of the territorial sea should not 
be examined in the light of some of tlie arguments 
which have been advanced in favor of expanding 
the 3-mile rule. There have been a number of 
reasons advanced, some of which the United States 
regards with sympathy, in support of the claims 
for increasing the rights on the part of coastal 
states over areas of the sea off their coasts. How- 
ever, the United States view is that none of the 
reasons which have been advanced leads to the 
conclusion that the o-mile rule of international law 
must be changed to allow for a wider breadth of 
territorial sea. The problems which generally 
concern a large number of coastal states, particu- 
larly as they involve the fish stocks oft' their coasts, 
may be met, we believe, by means other tliun 
through extensions of the territorial sea. 

The United States delegation has been dis- 



62 



Department of State Bulletin 



turbed to hear the position which was tiiken dur- 
ing the debates by several other delegations, that 
each state possesses the right to establish unilat- 
erally and according to its conception of its own 
best interests whatever breadth of territorial sea 
it desires. Of course, it must be clear to anyone 
who asserts this position that inherent in it is the 
possibility of conflict with the states who could 
not accept an outward extension of a territorial 
sea which another state might claim. 

Carried to its logical conclusion this concept 
would result in complete chaos and the disappear- 
ance of the freedom of the seas. As I have stated 
before, Mr. Cliairman, it is universally accepted 
that states are entitled to a 3-mile breadth of ter- 
ritorial sea. It is in the interest of maintaining 
this general acceptance and of avoiding interna- 
tional controversy over diverse claims to terri- 
torial seas that the United States strongly 
supports the attempt through a conference to ar- 
rive at solutions. With regard to the alleged 
right of each state unilaterally to delimit its ter- 
ritorial sea, it is pertinent to recall tlie statement 
made by the International Court of Justice in the 
Norwegian fisheries case which establishes the 
lack of validity of such an extreme position : 

The delimitation of sea areas has always an interna- 
tional aspect ; it cannot be dependent merely upon the will 
of the coastal State as expressed in its municipal law. 
Although it is true that the act of delimitation is neces- 
sarily a unilateral act, because only the coastal State is 
competent to undertake it, the validity of the delimita- 
tion with regard to oiher States depends upon interna- 
tional law. 



Work of Inter-Americiin Conferences 

Now, Mr. Chairman, I should like to refer briefly 
to the work of the Inter- American Council of 
Jurists, which met in Mexico City in the early 
part of 1956 ^ and of the Inter-American Special- 
ized Conference, which met at Ciudad Trujillo a 
month later.* I refer to these two conferences 
because we have heard reference to them, in some 
of the other statements which have been presented, 
which may have inadvertently given a wrong im- 
pression to some delegates. It is important that 
this Committee understand that the Mexico City 
resolution of the Inter-American Council of 



* For an account of the meeting, see B0i,LETrisr of Feb. 

20, lO.'iC. p. 296. 

' Ibid., May 28, 1956, p. 894. 



Jurists, which contains the novel notion that each 
state is free to determine its territorial waters, 
provided that it does so within "reasonable" limits, 
was merely a "preparatory study." The Council 
had been requested to make this study in prepara- 
tion for a plenipotentiary conference which was 
held the following month at Ciudad Trujillo. 
This preparatory study was not approved by the 
later conference. Instead, the conference simply 
resolved to record the fact that "the states repre- 
sented at this conference take dili'erent positions 
with respect to the breadth of the territorial sea" 
and recommended that the American States con- 
tinue "diligently to examine" the matter "with a 
view to finding satisfactory solutions." The 
United States Government, therefore, considers 
that the Mexico City resolution cannot be regarded 
as the expression of the position of the American 
Republics on the question of the breadth of the 
territorial sea. As the delegates of several x\jneri- 
can Republics have correctly stated, the only of- 
ficial position of the Organization of American 
States is the resolution of the Ciudad Trujillo 
conference." 

Before I leave the subject of the territorial sea, 
Mr. Chairman, I would like to urge the members 
of the U.N. to give very careful consideration to 
any proposals the final eif ect of which would be to 
restrict the freedom of the seas. In this day of 
improved metliods of transportation and com- 
munication, which have served to bring nations 
ever closer together, it is vitally important that 
the international highways of the sea and of the 
superjacent air should not be brought imder the 
domination or control of national states. Any 
proposals which would residt in restricting the 
freedom of the seas would not be progress but 
rather a retrogression to tliose past eras when the 
high seas were under the domination of national 
states. We sincerely believe that the doctrine of 
the freedom of the seas, in its widest implications, 
is the principle fairest to all, large and small. 

Any purported widening of the territorial sea 
will to that extent impinge upon the freedom of 
the seas. As the International Law Commission 
states in article 27, 

Freedom of the high seas comprises, inter alia, 

1. Freedom of navigation, 

2. Freedom of Ashing, 

3. BYeedom to lay submarine cables and pipelines, 

4. Freedom to fly over the high seas. 



■ Ihid., p. 897. 



January 14, J 957 



63 



This means that when a coastal state purports 
to extend its territorial waters it in effect says to 
all other states, "You may no longer have freedom 
to navigate, to fish, to lay cables and pipelines, or 
to fly over these waters." We firmly believe tliat 
the legitimate needs of coastal states can be ade- 
quately met without their taking drastic action 
which involves these consequences. 

In defense of extreme claims to territorial seas, 
it has been stated that their objective is only the 
control of natural resources of such seas and that 
freedom of navigation will not thereby be inter- 
fered with, since under international law foreign 
vessels have a right of innocent passage through 
the territorial sea. It will be evident at once that 
there is quite a difference between freedom of navi- 
gation on the high seas and the right of innocent 
passage through the territorial sea. Once a ship 
leaves the high seas and enters the territorial sea 
of another state the exclusive jurisdiction of its 
own state ceases and it becomes subject to the laws 
and regulations of the sovereign of the tei-ritorial 
sea. Although the ship has a right of innocent 
passage, this right is circumscribed by a number 
of restrictions, which an examination of articles 15, 
16, 17, and 18 of the International Law Commis- 
sion's draft will indicate and which it is not neces- 
sary to discuss in detail here. Not only is this 
right restricted, but in certain circumstances the 
right of innocent passage may be temporarily sus- 
pended altogether. Of course the coastal state is 
the judge, at least in the first instance, as to when 
these conditions exist. 

As I have noted earlier in my statement, Mr. 
Chairman, the reasons which appear to be most 
frequently advanced in support of extensions of 
the territorial sea relate to questions concerning 
high-seas fisheries, and they seem in particular to 
be based upon the concern on the part of coastal 
states over the possibility of depletion of high-seas 
fisheries and the desire to take measures for their 
conservation. The United States Government is 
in sympathy with this concern on the part of 
coastal states, and we acknowledge that special rec- 
ognition must be given to their interests in con- 
serving the resources of the high seas adjacent to 
their territorial seas. In this connection we note 
that the International Law Commission, in its 
draft articles on high-seas fisheries, has made what 
we consider to be very useful proposals for taking 
account of the special interests of the coastal states. 



We believe that there exists a very real hope for , 
an agreement satisfactory to most states, under 
which all legitimate national interests in the fish 
stocks of the high seas will be taken into account. 
As my delegation is particularly interested in the 
fishery articles as proposed by the Commission, I 
would like at this point to comment briefly on cer- 
tain aspects of tliis part of the Commission's 
report. 



Commission's Proposals on Fisheries 

During the past several days a number of state- 
ments have been made by delegates that the pur- 
pose of certain claims to sovereignty over great 
widths of the seas was solely for the conservation 
of natural resources. Article 50 of the Law Com- 
mission's report defines the term "conservation," 
a definition derived from the report of the 1955 
Rome Conference on Conservation of the Living 
Resources of the Sea.'' It is the understanding of 
ray Government that the objective of the Law 
Commission articles on fisheries is to assure such 
"conservation" tliroughout all areas of the high 
seas — those areas adjacent to the territorial waters 
of states as well as the more offshore areas. To 
the extent, then, that fishery articles achieve this 
objective, they take care of the conservation prob- 
lem in a satisfactory manner without the neces- 
sity for extensions of sovereignty. 

My Government has carefvilly studied the fish- 
ery articles and is of the opinion that, with some 
modifications to meet certain practical problems of 
conservation, administration, and management, 
the articles will provide a solution for the con- 
servation issues. Many of the proposals included 
in these articles are contained in one form or 
another in present successful fishery conservation 
conventions or are derived from the experience 
obtained in the operation of these conventions. 
Thus there is evidence that this is a practical ap- 
proach to the conservation problem. The Law 
Commission articles are particularly promising in 
this respect, for they include certain procedures, 
designed to assure the effective operation of the 
conservation proposals, which are more fully de- 
veloped than in existing conventions. The effec- 
tiveness of these provisions would be true whether 
the methods of fishing are by small boats or by 
long-range mechanized fleets. My Government 

' U.N. doc. A/Conf. 10/5/Rev. 2. 



64 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



believes that a careful, objective study of these 
articles will lead others to substantially these same 
conclusions. 

Before leaving this subject, I might add that, 
if the purpose of the claims of certain countries 
to sovereignty over broad areas of the sea is other 
than conservation, then the proposed Ilc fishery 
articles might not satisfy such other purpose. 

Question of Arbitration 

Objections have been voiced by some delegates 
to the Law Commission proposals for obligatory 
arbitration. I am inclined to believe that in some 
cases at least these objections are based on a 
misunderstanding of the nature of the differ- 
ences to be arbitrated and of the type of arbitra- 
tion proposed. 

The articles provide that the fishing states regu- 
late and restrict their fishing activities when re- 
quired for the purposes of conservation and that 
imder certain specified conditions these states 
agree that their fishermen on the high seas be sub- 
ject to the regulatory conservation measures of 
other states, measures in whose formulation they 
would have no voice. Under other specified con- 
ditions unilateral conservation action by the 
coastal state would be authorized. The Commis- 
sion suggests specific criteria to be used in deter- 
mining the reality of the conditions specified for 
each situation. 

As the reasons for these proposals are better un- 
derstood, we can be optimistic that most fishing 
states will be prepared to subject themselves, al- 
though perhaps reluctantly, to these new and in 
some cases drastic limitations on their historic 
sovereign rights, but only if they can be assured 
that in fact the stipulated conditions exist. To 
provide this assurance, the Law Commission pro- 
poses that, when the existence of these conditions 
is questioned and other means of determining the 
facts fail, the question shall be referred to an arbi- 
tral commission of the type defined. It should 
be noted that the arbitral procedures referred to 
in the Ilc articles do not preclude resort to other 
methods of peaceful settlement which may be 
fomid agreeable to the parties in dispute. It is 
only when other methods fail or are not desired 
by the parties that the Ilc arbitral procedure 
would be utilized. The term "arbitral commis- 
sion" itself seems somewhat of a misnomer, for the 
commission has more of the nature of a factfinding 



body than of the traditional arbitral body. The 
fxmction of the "arbitral commission," as proposed 
by the Law Commission, is to determine whether 
or not the specified conditions exist. It should 
also be noted that, under the International Law 
Commission's jiroposals, the parties to the dispute 
would themselves participate in setting up the 
"arbitral commission." 

I believe it is most probable that a full under- 
standing of the problem dealt with and a thorough 
study of the factfinding procedure proposed by the 
International Law Commission will result in gen- 
eral support of such procedure as an equitable solu- 
tion. Certainly, without a procedure such as this, 
most states could not be expected to accept the pro- 
posed restrictions on their sovereign rights. Fur- 
thermore, if states agree on the conditions that 
justify the subjection of their nationals while op- 
erating on the high seas to the conservation regula- 
tions of other states, then there appears to be no 
valid reason why they should object to a procedure 
designed to best determine whether such condi- 
tions exist. We ask those who object to this pro- 
posal : how else should these disputes be resolved ? 

The Continental Slielf 

Turning now to the question of the continental 
shelf, my delegation has listened with interest to 
the discussion of this subject and particularly to 
the references which have been made to the procla- 
mation respecting the natural resources of the 
subsoil and seabed of the continental shelf which 
was issued by the President of the United States 
on September 28, 1945.^ While it may not have 
been the first made by any state with respect to the 
shelf, this proclamation did constitute what may 
be regarded as a landmark in the development of 
international law in tliis field. Before the issu- 
ance of this proclamation there was what might 
be regarded as a void in international law with 
respect to the exploitation of the continental shelf. 
With the development of techniques making prac- 
ticable the development of the resources of the 
shelf, it was deemed necessary that attention be 
given to the development of international law 
with respect to the activities of states in exploiting 
the resources of the shelf. Under the proclama- 
tion the United States regards "the natural re- 
sources of the subsoil and seabed of the continental 



' Bulletin of Sept. 30, 1945, p. 484. 



January 14, 1957 



65 



shelf beneath the high seas but contiguous to the 
coasts of the United States as appertaining to tlie 
United States, subject to its jurisdiction and con- 
trol." This claim was, we believe, based upon 
considerations which strongly support the con- 
clusion that control of the development of the 
continental shelf should reside in the coastal state. 
The reasons supporting this conclusion, as sum- 
marized in the proclamation, are : 

1. The effectiveness of measures to utilize or 
conserve the resources of the shelf is contingent 
upon cooperation and protection from shore. 

2. The continental shelf may be regarded as an 
extension of the land-mass of the coastal nation 
and thus naturally appurtenant to it. 

3. The resources frequently form a seaward ex- 
tension of a pool or deposit lying within the 
territory. 

4. Tlie interest of self-protection compels the 
coastal nation to keep close watch over activities 
off its shores which are of the nature necessary for 
the utilization of these resources. 

In making this proclamation, the United States 
was careful not to violate the established principle 
of freedom of the seas as it applied to the high 
seas above the shelf. The proclamation expressly 
states that "the character as high seas of the waters 
above the continental shelf and the right to their 
free and unimpeded navigation are in no way thus 
affected." It thus specifically rejects the concept 
of asserting sovereignty over the high seas. Fol- 
lowing upon the United States proclamation, thei-e 
came a series of proclamations on the part of other 
states laying claim to the continental shelf. Some 
of these proclamations, which have been repre- 
sented as being based upon the United States 
proclamation, differ in at least one important re- 
spect from the United States proclamation, that 
is, they claim not only the shelf but also the super- 
jacent waters. In the view of the United States, 
areas of the high seas cannot be appropriated by 
the coastal state in connection with what may 
otherwise be a legitimate claim to the continental 
shelf. 

Mr. Chairman, several times during the general 
debate we have heard reference to the Law Com- 
mission's definition of piracy as set out in article 
39 of the report. As a part of the discussion of 
this subject the Committee has had to listen to 
charges of alleged support on the part of the 
United States Navy for alleged acts of piracy in 



66 



the China seas. There have also been allegations 
of coercion on the part of the United States Gov- 
ernment with respect to some of the seamen from 
the seized ships who came to the United States. 
These charges were and are categorically denied. 
The United States Government merely desires to 
remind the Committee that this subject was taken 
up and fully answered at the Assembly during its 
9th session in 1954.^ With respect to the charges 
of coercion of the seamen in question I would like 
to affirm that the United States Government ex- 
tended asylum to these men at their own request. 
This, of course, was not the first, nor I dare say 
will it be the last, occasion on which persons in 
similar circumstances have seized the opportunity 
to escape to freedom. 

I would also like to note briefly the references 
which have been made to the question of testing 
nuclear weapons on the high seas. My Govern- 
ment, Mr. Chairman, is firmly convinced that 
whatever testing we have been responsible for has 
not been contrary to any rule of international law. 
However, this is not the appropriate place to dis- 
cuss this important question. It has serious polit- 
ical elements, and it is our view that it should be 
considered as a part of the overall problem of dis- 
armament. As you know, it is a subject of discus- 
sion and consideration elsewhere in the United 
Nations. 

Mr. Chairman, the discussion which we have 
had on the Commission's report has been a long 
and exceedingly thorough one. The report of the 
International Law Commission, which should 
serve as the basis for further consideration of 
matters relating to the law of the sea, has been in 
the hands of the member governments for only 
a relatively short time. The matters involved 
need to be considered by many departments within 
each government, and there will need to be ade- 
quate time to complete diplomatic preparations 
before a real possibility of reaching agreement 
among states may be said to exist. These con- 
siderations are especially valid with regard to 
those states which have recently been admitted 
to the organization and which therefore have had 
even less time to prepare their positions on the 
problems involved. For all these reasons, Mr. 
Chairman, the United States delegation is strongly 
of the view that the proper decision which the As- 
sembly should take now is to convene a special 

"Ibid., Dec. 27, 11)54, p. 996. 

Department of Slate Bulletin 



conference such as that which has been recom- 
mended by the International Law Conmiission in 
paragraph 28 of the Commission's report. 

In connection with the proposal to convene a 
conference, there has been made the suggestion 
that a preparatory commission of governmental 
representatives be establislied to assist the Secre- 
tary-General in his preparations for the confer- 
ence. It has even been suggested that this com- 
mission might consider the substance of the 
subjects to be taken up at the conference for the 
purpose of preparing proposals in addition to 
those which we already have in the Law Commis- 
sion's report. The United States Government 
does not favor a suggestion of this sort, particu- 
larly as it pertains to the possibility of further 
substantive study by the proposed committee. It 
is our view that the Law Commission's excellent 
report provides the best material to serve as the 
basis for the deliberations of the conference. The 
Law Commission's report is the product of many 
years of arduous and thorough study by highly 
qualified persons. The work of jireparing this 
study was entrusted to the Commission by the 
Assembly. It is our view, Mr. Chairman, that the 
Secretary-General should be entrusted with the 
task of preparing the convening of the conference, 
in consultation with such experts as he considers 
advisable. 

We share the feeling of some delegates that it is 
regi-ettable that a delay is necessary, but on bal- 
ance we agi-ee with the arguments that further 
time is needed for the careful preparation that 
will be required on the part of all participants, 
including particularly the newly admitted 
members of the United Nations. Accordingly, we 
believe that the spring of 1958 is a suitable time 
for the proposed conference. It is our feeling 
that such a date will in the long run expedite 
rather than hinder our work and bring to an early 
fulfillment the objectives we have in mind. "We 
have no preference as to the place and will gladly 
accept whatever decision is made on this subject. 

In conclusion, Mr. Chairman, I want again to 
stress the importance of maintaining an open 
mind toward the coming conference. My dele- 
gation agrees with the position taken by several 
other delegations that such an attitude is essential 
for its success. We should not blindly adhere to 
a position that we may have taken in debate to 
meet some specific point. We are not now trying 
to decide what is the law of the sea, nor what it 



should be. That is not our present task. We are 
about to vote on a proposal that an inteniational 
conference of plenipotentiaries be held for that 
purpose. If it is held, its task will be to try to 
establish the law of the sea, including the breadth 
of the territorial sea, which the International Law 
Commission suggests, in article 4 of its report, 
"should be fixed by an international conference." 
That determination should be made in the light 
of all the pertinent facts — technical, biological, 
economic, political, as well as historical and legal. 
Our present task is to do everything possible to 
enable that conference to perform its important 
duties successfully. It is our purpose to try to 
aid in that task. 



Financing of United Nations 
Emergency Force 

Following are texts of statements made in Com- 
mittee V {Administrative and Budgetary) on 
December 6, 6, and 17 iy Richard Lee Jones, U.S. 
Rejn'esentative to the General Assembly. 



STATEMENT OF DECEMBER 5 

U.S. delegation press release 2547 

I listened with great interest to the statement 
made by the representative of the Secretary-Gen- 
eral on December 3 ^ concerning the apportionment 
of the expenses incurred for the United Nations 
Emergency Force. I noted with satisfaction the 
Secretary-General's analysis of the situation and 
his recommendation = that the United Nations ex- 
penses for this operation be apportioned on the 
basis of the regular scale of assessments applying 
to the financial year 1957. 

The United States Government lends its full 
support to the Secretary-General's recommenda- 
tions concerning the financing of Unef and will 
cooperate in their implementation energetically 
once they are approved by the General Assembly. 

We are all, I am sure, inspired by the additional 
effort made by so many nations to contribute di- 
rectly and without charge to this great cause in 
the form of troops, materiel, and services. Of 

' U.N. doc. A/C.5/687 dated Dec. 3. 

° For text of the Secretary-General's reiwrt on admin- 
istrative and financial arrangements for UNEF, see U.N. 
doc. A/3383 dated Nov. 21. 



ianuaty 14, 7957 



67 



special note, I think, is the contribution of a non- 
member, the Swiss Federal Government, in de- 
fraying the cost of air transportation in the 
amount of approximately $500,000. Consistent 
with the measures taken by these contributing na- 
tions, the United States has agreed to contribute, 
without charge, substantial facilities for the trans- 
portation of members of the Unef and to author- 
ize the use of equipment received by certain mem- 
bers under various United States aid programs. 
It is hoped that even more nations will be 
prompted to lend direct assistance. The United 
States for its part stands prepared to assume addi- 
tional burdens, outside the common costs budget, 
commensurate with those that may be undertaken 
by other nations. 

STATEMENT OF DECEMBER 6 

D.S. delegation press release 2548 

Our delegation has listened with great interest 
to the views expressed by other delegations on the 
problem of financing the United Nations Emer- 
gency Force. We are very sympathetic with the 
concern which has been expressed by a number of 
delegations over their ability to pay their share 
of the initial $10 million appropriation. We real- 
ize that, for a nmnber of countries, this additional 
cost of their membership in the United Nations 
will be a real burden. 

Nevertheless, Mr. Chairman, we share the view 
of many others here that this is an obligation 
which the organization must face, which is in- 
separable with the spirit of the charter. The vote 
establishing the Unef ^ was an overwhelming ex- 
pression of the membership of the organization, 
and we can only conclude that the members should 
be prepared to support their words and votes with 
deeds. 

We know of no more reasonable basis for reflect- 
ing these facts and for sharing the common costs 
of Unef than the scale of assessments for the regu- 
lar budget. Certainly, it is improper and imprac- 
tical to ask the Secretary-General to develop new 
scales which are political in nature. 

This is an important decision we are called upon 
to take. The application of the scale to this cost 
will be an indication of the real maturity which 
the United Nations is achieving. 

Many governments, including my own, must 

' Fur text of resolution establishing UNEF, see Bulle- 
tin of Nov. 19, 1956, p. 793. 



accept financial obligations subject to normal con- 
stitutional procedures, that is, the appropriation 
of fmids. This is a totally different view fi-om 
that which has been expressed by several delega- 
tions, that they do not consider themselves bound 
by any action of the General Assembly with re- 
spect to the United Nations Emergency Force. 
This latter view, of course, we cannot accept. We 
must view the matter as the responsibility of all of 
us who are jjartners in tliis great organization. 

In conclusion, Mr. Chairman, I would like to 
reaffirm the support of the United States Govern- 
ment for the prmciple laid before us by the 
Secretary-General. 

STATEMENT OF DECEMBER 17 

D.S. delegation press release 2559 

As one of the sponsors of the amendments con- 
tained in document A/C.5/L.411,* I wish to make 
one final statement to this Committee before the 
vote. It is my duty to emphasize to my dis- 
tinguished colleagues the deep concern which my 
Government feels over tliis issue, both from the 
point of view of principle and of practical diplo- 
macy and administration. We are concerned 
now with a decision affecting the strength and 
prestige and future action of this Assembly. 

Six weeks ago, acting with the dispatch re- 
quired by the situation, the General Assembly 
took a decision to establish an Emergency Force 
and authorized the Secretary-General to enter 
into commitments with respect to it. Almost 4 
weeks ago the Secretary-General presented a re- 
port on administrative and financial arrange- 
ments with respect to a Force wliich was already 
in being. 

Three weeks ago the General Assembly author- 
ized commitments for that Force up to $10 million 
to be undertaken in the name of the United 
Nations.^ Representatives here have had 3 weeks 
in which to secure instmctions so that they could 
vote on the third important step in this process — 
the assessment of those costs. 

The world is waiting for this Assembly to back 
up its commitments, for this Assembly to assume 



* This proposal, cosponsored by Canada, Norway, and 
the U.S., later joined by Finland, would amend a 19-power 
draft resolution (U.N. doc. A/C.5/L.410) calling for the 
appointment of a nine-member committee to consider fur- 
ther the question of financing UNEF. 

" Bulletin of Dec. 10, 19r)G, p. 91S. 



68 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



its responsibilities. The world has its eyes on the 
future. Can the organization be expected to act, 
to fulfill its promises? Until now we have pre- 
sented only a promise of postponement. 

Over the weekend, Mr. Chairman, we have all 
heard that the lives of certain, members of our 
Emergency Force in Egypt have been imperiled. 
T^liat can we expect to be the reaction of troops 
of that Force, some of whom volunteered for 
service, should they learn that, while they were 
risking their lives, members of this organization 
were declining to give to this operation the finan- 
cial support which is required ? 

Canada, Norway, and the United States have 
offered these amendments to the draft resolution 
contained in document A/C.5/L.410 because, in 
our opinion, that resolution is not adequate to deal 
with the present situation. For the reasons I 
have mentioned we cannot avoid our responsi- 
bility merely by creating a committee to study 
the matter in all its aspects as this resolution pro- 
poses. We must take a basic decision now con- 
cerning the financing of the expenses which the 
Secretary-General has been authorized to make, 
and this is what is proposed in the first operative 
paragraph of the amendments. 

No matter how much we may rationalize, Mr. 
Cliainnan, I believe that all of us who consider 
this problem seriously must come to the conclusion 
tliat the Secretary-General was correct when he 
proposed that this Committee decide to assess 
member states on the basis of the regular scale of 
assessments to secure funds up. to the amount of 
$10 million. I have read again the statement 
made in this Committee on behalf of the Secre- 
tary-General 2 weeks ago, reafiirmmg liis original 
recommendation. That reasoning is convincing. 
Members would do well to ask themselves whether 
they can reject it. 

Several days ago, Mr. Chairman, I had a con- 
versation with a representative of one of the 
smaller countries, who had taken a serious look 
at this problem. He made an analysis of the sit- 
uation before us which, I believe, warrants care- 
ful consideration — particularly by certain smaller 
countries which are somewhat inclined to believe 
that they should not pay their regular share of 
the common costs of this enterprise and that the 
so-called great powers should pay all or practically 
all the Unef costs. 

This representative, whom I shall not identify — 
I shall refer to him as Ambassador X — pointed 



out that his country was not happy at the prospect 
of paying an assessment for Unef, both because of 
financial problems involved and because it felt that 
it bore no particular responsibility for the events 
which had occurred so far away in Egypt and 
which necessitated the creation of Unef. But 
Ambassador X went on to say his Govermnent 
would pay its regular assessment because the ac- 
tion by the General Assembly in creating Unef 
was of great historical importance in that it es- 
tablished a method for dealing with threats to the 
peace which his Government strongly favored. 
The creation of Unef represented common action 
through the United Nations rather than unilat- 
eral action by great powers to deal with threats to 
world peace as they alone thought best. 

Ambassador X stated that this common action 
through the United Nations — rather than mii- 
lateral great-power action — was what his country 
and other small countries most earnestly desired. 
They wished to have a voice in a decision which 
could bring on or which could avoid another great 
world conflict. This involved, said Ambassador 
X, a willingness on the part of small coimtries to 
pay their share of the costs of an action on which 
they had had an opportunity to speak and vote. 
If they declined to pay their fair share and insisted 
that the great powers assume the burden of pay- 
ment, then they could not expect that those powers 
would long contiime, in situations threatening the 
peace, to seek United Nations action — action in 
which they had but one vote — as opposed to 
unilateral action, which they could hope to control. 
In other words, smaller countries could not expect 
to enjoy the possibility of controlling policies by 
their votes without assuming the burdens resulting 
from the execution of these policies. 

Mr. Chairman, I suggest that the analysis of the 
situation made by this distinguished representa- 
tive warrants careful consideration. The prin- 
ciple involved is very clear. Nevertheless, as I 
have stated on several occasions, my Government 
recognizes that, in the present situation, a fully 
logical and inflexible application of the principle 
might well present financial problems to certain 
small countries. Therefore my Government, like 
a number of other member and nonmember govern- 
ments, has made and is continuing to make large 
voluntary contributions [such as transportation, 
materiel, etc.] to ease the financial burden on the 
memberslup as a whole. 

We have appointed a United Nations Com- 



January 14, 1957 



69 



mander [Maj. Gen. E. L. M. Burns] and have given 
him a task. He must have some basic financial 
resources under his direct control — for his own 
headquarters and for the costs of those basic com- 
mon items which will hold his force together. 
Beyond this, voluntaiy contributions are necessary 
and appropriate. But I must state frankly that 
such contributions can be expanded to the benefit 
of the entire membei-ship only if this organization 
indicates a willingness to share equitably the com- 
mon expenses of Unef which we have authorized 
the Secretary-General to make. I can say that, 
unless the organization is willing to assess all 
members on the regular scale up to $10 million, my 
Government will find it most difficult to justify 
further voluntary contributions. On the other 
hand, if this assessment is voted, my Government 
hopes to be able to expand voluntary contrilnitions 
and will expect other governments in a position to 
do so to follow a similar course. Only if this is 
done is there a real hope that the common costs 
subject to regular assessment can be kept at $10 
million. 

But, some ask, what will happen if the common 
costs exceed $10 million? We have agreed, Mr. 
Chairman, to the creation of a nine-member com- 
mittee to study this problem and to recommend 
how to finance any costs in excess of $10 million. 
Tlie creation of this committee, of course, implies 
that it may explore and recommend various meth- 
ods of financing the excess, including all possi- 
bilities of voluntary contributions as well as the 
possibility of an assessment of members on a scale 
different from the regular scale of assessments. 
No one can say now what is a reasonable and ap- 
propriate method of financing since we do not 
know what the excess will be or even if there will 
be an excess of common costs. And I might add 
that the newly created committee will not be able 
to make helpful recommendations until it has re- 
ceived detailed estimates from the Secretary-Gen- 
eral. Accordingly, I suggest that, before approv- 
ing January 20 as the date for the committee to 
report, M-e ask the representative of the Secretary- 
General when helpful estimates might be 
available. 

Finally, Mr. Chairman, with reference to the 
proposed amendments, a number of delegations 
have asked the sponsors to dro]) the proposed 
second operative paragraph, which reads: 

Decides further, tliat this decision shall be without 
prejudice to the sul)sequ('iit upportioumeiit of any expenses 



in excess of $10 million which may be incurred in connec- 
tion with UNEF. 

There appear to be some doubts about the im- 
plications of this paragraph, and, although we 
believe it would be helpful to retain it, we are 
prepared to withdraw it and accordingly request 
that it not be put to the vote. 

Mr. Chairman, I wish to say one more word to 
my colleagues. This vote we are about to take is 
one of the most important — perhaps the most im- 
portant — we have ever had in this Committee. It 
involves tlie question of whether the member gov- 
ernments really believe in common action to pre- 
serve the peace. It involves the question of 
wliether member governments will assume the 
burden of decisions which the General Assembly 
takes. Accordingly, it involves the entire future 
of the organization as an instrument of collective 
security. There are many eyes upon us at this 
time, and the entire world will note what we do. 
I trust that no one will take lightly the responsi- 
bility which is ours today. 



RESOLUTION ON ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINAN- 
CIAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR UNEF' 

U.N. doc. A/Res/448 

The General AssemWy, 

Recallhifi its resolutions 1001 (ES-I) of 7 November 
1956 and A/Res/412 of 26 November 1956, 

Empliasixing the fact that expenses incurred by the 
Secretary-General under the resolutions of the General 
Assembly are without prejudice to any subsequent deter- 
minations as to responsibilities for situations leading to 
the creation of the United Nations Emergency Force and 
to ultimate determination as to claims established as a 
result of expenses arising in connexion therewith, 

Considering that the Secretary-General in his report 
(A/3302) of 4 November 1956, particularly in paragraph 
15, has stated that the question how the Force should be 
financed requires further study, 

Considering that the Secretary-General, in his reports 
(A/3383 and A/C.5/687) dated 21 November and 3 Decem- 
ber 1956, has recommended that the expenses relating to 



° Adopted in Committee V on Drc. 20 by a vote of 57 to 8 
(Soviet bloc), with 9 abstentions (Bolivia, Cambodia, 
Egypt, Greece, Israel, Italy, Turkey, Union of South. 
Africa, U. K. ). Hungary, Laos, Morocco, Nepal, Nica- 
ragua, and Tunisia were absent. Twenty-five nations 
joined in sponsoring the final draft, which incorporated 
the original draft resolution contained in A/C.5/L.410 
viith the amendments suggested by Canada, Finland, Nor- 
way, and the U.S. (A/C.5/L.411 ). The resolution was 
adopted in the plenary session on Dec. 21 by a vote of 62 
to S, with 7 abstentions. 



70 



Deparlmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



the Force should be apixirtioned in the same luaiiner as the 
expenses of the Organization, 

Considering further that several divergent vievrs, not 
yet reconciled, have been held by various Member States 
on contributions or on the method suggested by the Secre- 
tary-General for obtaining such contributions, 

Considcriny that the Secretary-General has already 
been authorized to enter into commitments for the ex- 
penses of the Force up to an amount of $10 million, 

Considering further that the matter of allocation of the 
expenses of the Force beyond $10 million necessitates fur- 
ther study in all its aspects, 

1. Decides that the expenses of the United Nations Emer- 
gency Force, other than for such pay, equipment, supplies 
and services as may be furnished without charge by Mem- 
ber Governments, shall be borne by the United Nations and 
shall be apportioned among the Member States, to the ex- 
tent of $10 million in accordance with the scale of assess- 
ments adopted by the General Assembly for contributions 
to the annual budget of the Organization for the financial 
year 10.")" ; 

2. Decides further that this decision shall be without 
prejudice to the subsequent apportionment of any ex- 
penses in excess of $10 million which may be incurred in 
connexion with the Force : 

3. Decides to estalilish a Committee composed of Canada, 
Ceylon, Chile, El Salvador, India, Liberia, Sweden, Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of 
America to examine the question of the apportionment of 
expenses of the Force in excess of $10 million. This 
Committee shall take into consideration, among other 
things, the discussions on this matter at the Genera! As- 
sembly, and shall study the question in all its aspects, 
including the possibility of voluntary contributions, the 
fixing of maximum amounts for the expen.ses of tlie Emer- 
gency Force that, with prior approval by the General As- 
sembly, could be established on each occasion, and the 
principle or the formulation of scales of contributions 
different from the scale of contributions by Member States 
to the ordinary budget for 1957. The Committee will 
present its report as soon as possible. 

U.S. Determination To Seek 
Agreement on Disarmament 

Statement hy Henry Cohot Lodge ^ Jr. 
U.S. Representative to the United Nations ^ 

"We have before us today a factual report,- pre- 
pared by the Secretariat, on the subject of dis- 
armament. The United States supports the 
adoption of this draft report and its transmission 
to the General Assembly for its consideration. 

The General Assembly as a whole will, in a few 
weeks, conduct a review of this record, and it 
would not be useful to attempt substantive debate 
in this Commiasion. 

Certain features of the record, however, before 
us deserve notice. 



One is the thoroughness with which this Com- 
mission has itself reviewed during 195G the work 
of its subcommittee. The United States as a 
member of the Commission welcomes and will in 
every way encourage the further development of 
this trend. In this connection we note, too, the 
importance of the contributions of all its 
members, not merely those who are members of 
the subcommittee. 

The United States welcomes, too, evidence of 
movement on the part of the Soviet Union toward 
positions that give greater hope for the sound 
agreement that is so profoundly in the interest 
alike of the Soviet Union, of the United States, 
of the membere of this Commission, and of the 
world. As I have already said in the General 
Assembly,' the United States notes with some 
hope recent indications that the Soviet Union ap- 
pears willing to consider aerial inspection as a 
positive factor in the problem of armaments. 

Even as we review the record of the year be- 
hind us, the United States loolvs primarily to the 
year ahead and to the opportunities for progress 
that it may aiford. 

The United States is prepared to renew its effort 
to I'each a sound, safeguarded agreement for the 
reduction and regulation of armaments and aimed 
forces. Such an agreement with effective inspec- 
tion would be in mutual interests of all nations. 
It would lessen the danger of war. It would re- 
duce the burdens of armaments. It would ease the 
nuclear threat. It would facilitate advance in 
the conditions of living of all peoples. It would 
accelerate the progress of the atoms-for-pcace 
program for the benefit of mankind. It would 
create a better atmosphere for solving difficult 
political questions. 

We are aware of the difficulties. But we are 
determined, with sincerity and persistence, to seek 
agreement. We are ready thoughtfully to con- 



'Made in the Disarmament Commission on Dec. 20 
(U.S. /U.N. press release 2570). 

' U.N. doc. A/3470 dated Dec. 20. The report is in the 
form of a covering letter from the Commission chairman, 
Sir Pierson Dixon of the United Kingdom, to the Secre- 
tary-General, requesting him to transmit to the Security 
Council and the General Assembly the third report of 
the Disarmament Subcommittee (U.N. doc. DC/83 dated 
May 4, 19.56) and the records and relevant documents 
of the Disarmament Commission meetings. 

'U.S. delegati(m press release 252G dated Nov. 22 (not 
printed). 



January 14, 1957 



71 



sider proposals of all governments, and we will 
take furtlier initiative to reach an agreement 
which would advance the prospects of a just and 
lasting peace. 



The United States therefore, Mr. Chairman, 
will propose that a meeting of the Disarmament 
Subcommittee be held in March after the end of 
the current session of the General Assembly. 



Ninth Session of UNESCO General Conference 



Statements hy Stanley C. Allyn 
Chairman, U.S. Delegation 



FoUoioing is the text of a statement made on 
November 9 hy Stanley C. Allyn, chairman of the 
U.S. delegation, at the ninth session of the General 
Conference of the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization, which met 
at New Delhi, India, November 5 to December 5, 
together loith a statement released hy Mr. Allyn 
at New York on December 9 folloiving his return 
from the conference. 



STATEMENT OF NOVEMBER 9 

Mr. President and my fellow delegates : In the 
name of my Government and of our delegation to 
this conference I wish to thank the Government 
and the people of India for the painstaking prep- 
aration that has gone into the conference arrange- 
ments. Tlie United States delegation is deeply 
grateful to our hosts for their hospitality. The 
cordial atmosphere which pervades this splendid 
capital city provides an ideal setting for a fruitful 
meeting. 

Our delegation has come to New Delhi eager to 
listen, to learn, and to contribute what it can to 
the deliberations of the conference. We know we 
will be rewarded by this experience and that this 
conference will produce concrete results. 

It is further gratifying to be the guests of a 
nation so historic, so rich in culture and noble 
traditions. Our delegation is also aware of 
India's bi'illiant accomplishments within the 



framework of its Five- Year Plan, and its social re- 
forms of the past 9 years have captivated the 
imagination of the American people. 

It is particularly fitting that the member states 
chose New Delhi as the site for this General 
Conference. Asia contains lialf the world's popu- 
lation. The whole area is in the process of an 
evolution with great significance for peoples 
everywhere. 

Asia has been called the cradle of civilization. 
Here man first created and practiced the arts of 
writing, arithmetic, and mapmaking. Here is the 
origin of languages like Sanskrit, Hebrew, and 
others which are the foundation of Western cul- 
ture. Asians gave things their names, developed 
the almanac and the calendar, invented the 
wheel. No great religion on earth is foreign to 
this area. From Asia, peoples and cultures trav- 
eled west, leaving their imprint on the shores of 
the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. 

Sometimes there is a tendency to emphasize the 
differences and misunderstandings between Asia 
and the West, while overlooking the many essen- 
tial values we possess in common. For example, 
most of tlie new Asian governments have empha- 
sized the democratic process, the equality of man 
before the law, and the importance of individual 
rights. These principles have long been the foun- 
dation of most of the Western systems of govern- 
ment, wliich liave not liesitated to defend these 
principles when the need arose. 



72 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Here then, rather than difference, is agreement 
on essentials. 

We both believe in constitutional representative 
government and the democratic process. We be- 
lieve in responsible legislatures; in judiciaries in- 
dependent of political pressure; and we insist 
that our Government officials be accountable to 
the people. 

Nevertheless, as Prime Minister Nehru has al- 
ready pointed out so movingly, over our peaceful 
assembly there is a shadow of political tension and 
armed conflict. We fully associate ourselves with 
the Prime Minister's concern that in the Middle 
East and in Hungary the peace of the world is in 
jeopardy. We share the hope of all that the cease- 
fire in Egypt will lead to an enduring peace and 
that the heroic revolt in Hungary will bring true 
independence to that country. 

Increasing Importance of UNESCO 

The situation is grave, but it would be still more 
serious if we were to abandon our task in the face 
of these depressing events. To those who believe 
in the goals of Unesco, the present crisis is another 
proof of the continuing, if not indeed of the in- 
creasing, importance of Unesco. Temporary fail- 
ures and setbacks do not disprove the validity of 
our objectives. They merely spotlight how much 
more we need to do. 

We should, of course, recognize that there will 
always be differences of viewpoints and differ- 
ences in methods of reaching similar objectives. 
Unescx) offers a forum in which a frank exchange 
of views can take place. 

To a representative of the American community, 
such a frank exchange is welcome. Within our 
country we have a great diversity of cultural, so- 
cial, and economic institutions and groups, all of 
which enrich our lives. This diversity is a dis- 
tinguishing characteristic of American society. 
We welcome new ideas from every source, and it 
is no more valid to place a single label on the 
American society than it is to place a single label 
on the different Asian cultures and ways of life. 
The use of terms like capitalism, socialism, free 
enterprise, and state ownership grossly oversim- 
plifies the complex societies in which all of us live. 

The American people have evolved a dynamic 
economy which has supplied material things in 
great abundance and at the same time has brought 
a full flowering of human freedom. The sharing 



of the national pi'oduct by investors and workers, 
the cooperation of management and labor, the 
partnership roles of public ownership and private 
enterprise, the personal participation in the gov- 
erning process by the individual citizens — all 
these are part and parcel of the American society. 

The basic conflict in the world today is not so- 
cialism versus capitalism. It is the conflict of 
freedom versus the lack of freedom. It is the 
question of the freedom of men and of nations 
to choose for themselves the kind of life — political, 
social, cultm*al, religious, and economic — they 
want to live. In this conflict the United States 
stands for freedom and the dignity of man. It is 
only those who would deny this freedom to others 
who are the ideological opponents of democracies, 
whether they be Asian or Western and regardless 
of their economic systems. 

UNESCO's role is to try to bring about a mutual 
understanding of the great diversities which char- 
acterize our respective societies. But it is not 
its function to try to resolve political differ- 
ences. These are the proper concern of other U.N. 
organizations. 

Our organization — Unesco — is now 10 years 
old. The catalog of its accomplisliments is a long 
one, but it is no cause for any relaxation of effort. 
Let us say, rather, that it is a base for future 
progress. 

Problems Confronting UNESCO 

The educational, scientific, and cultural prob- 
lems which still confront us are tremendous. We 
need only study Unesco's program to be impressed 
with its magnitude. 

We know that children in schools are outnum- 
bered by children who have no schools. Illiteracy 
is widespread. Despite the great strides of science 
we have been able to do little about converting 
arid and semiarid lands to productive purposes. 
Social scientists have only begun their explora- 
tions of the causes of international tension, of dis- 
crimination of many kinds, and of the capacity of 
societies to adapt to teclinological change. 

In the days ahead we will take up the question 
of an improved mutual understanding of Asian 
and Western cultures. We will discover in this 
area alone a truly massive array of unexplored 
problems and possibilities. The Director General 
[Luther Evans] has presented us with program 
proposals that build solidly on past experience. 



January 14, 1957 



73 



He and the secretariat deserve our full support. 

In the view of tlie United States delegation the 
Director General has made a sound recommenda- 
tion in the selection of three vital areas of work 
for the development of long-term projects. The 
acceleration of teacher training in Latin America 
will aid nearly a third of Unesco's membership. 
The promotion of research on increasing the pro- 
ductivity of arid regions grapples with a world- 
encircling problem affecting more than 40 member 
nations. The development of mutual apprecia- 
tion of Asian and Western cultures is of interest 
to all nations represented here. 

The United States expects to participate fully in 
these major projects and to derive benefit from 
them. Americans have long been interested in 
the history, the arts, the traditions, the philos- 
ophies, and the peoples of Asia. This interest has 
grown rapidly since 1945. Some of our great 
foundations have imdertaken programs for the 
exchange of scholars, for the development of re- 
search on Asian cultures, for the training of lan- 
guage specialists, and for a host of other activities. 

More than 50 American universities have special 
study programs dealing with one or more of the 
cultural areas of Asia. Some 800 organizations 
and institutions are carrying on activities related 
to this area. 

Last spring the United States National Com- 
mission was host to a distinguished group of cul- 
tural leaders from 10 countries of South and 
Southeast Asia. I am delighted to see some of 
them at this conference. They toured the United 
States from San Francisco on our west coast to 
Boston on our east coast, visited our universities 
and cultural centers, lived in our cities, saw our 
farms and our factories ; and they came to know 
our people. 

It is not for us to say what our Asian visitors 
learned from this experience, but we can say that 
the impact on American participants was signifi- 
cant. 

In a few months our National Commission will 
publish a report of this conference which will be 
made available to Unesco. 

In 1957 our National Commission will hold a 
nationwide conference, perhaps in San Francisco, 
to discuss the development of mutual appreciation 
of the cultures of Asia and the West as exemplified 
by the major project on this subject. 



74 



Hope for the Future 

We look forward to the next 2 years of Unesco's 
work with hope and confidence. The growing in- 
fluence of the organization should enhance the 
prestige of Unesco and attract more active cooper- 
ation on the part of the member states, a coopera- 
tion indispensable to achieving our common 
objectives. 

We pledge to Unesco the continuing support of 
our Government and National Commission. 

We are committed to the principles expressed 
in the constitution of Unesco, principles which 
harmonize with those in our own Constitution and 
Bill of Rights. In accordance with these prin- 
ciples this conference must zealously guard the 
continued integrity of the organization and its 
program. There must be no attempt to distort 
its resolutions or work plans for political or propa- 
ganda purposes. 

The support of my country for Unesco is linked 
to our support of the United Nations itself. A few 
days ago our President took occasion to review 
the position of the United States Government 
toward the United Nations, in view of the present 
crisis in the Middle East and the dark events in 
Eastern Europe. He said : 

The processes of the United Nations . . . are not ex- 
hausted. ... I am even more deeply convinced that the 
processes of the United Nations need further to be de- 
veloped and strengthened. . . . The passionate longing 
for peace on the part of all peoples of the earth compels 
us to speed our search for new and more effective instru- 
ments of justice. ... To our principles guiding us in 
this quest we must stand fast. In so doing we can honor 
the hopes of all men for a world in which peace will truly 
and justly reign.' 

Neither are the processes of Unesco exhausted. 
The potential of the organization has scarcely 
been tapped. Despite the impressive achievements 
of 10 years of effort we all know that we have only 
begun. 

But our task is not to seek the spectacular vic- 
tory ; ours is the slow, methodical, and sometimes 
thankless task of him who plants trees in the hope 
that future generations will reap the fruit of his 
labor. 

As we carry on the work of this conference here 
in New Delhi, we are deeply conscious of the 
spirit of tlie father of the Indian nation, Mahatma 



' Bulletin of Nov. 12, 195(5, p. 743. 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



Gandhi, who throughout his life proclaimed the 
essential unity and dignity of man, the goals for 
■which the whole Unesco program strives. 



RETURN STATEMENT 

I have just returned from New Delhi and the 
Ninth General Conference of the U.N. Edu- 
cational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 
The conference met to determine the U.N. Edu- 
cational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's 
progi-am and budget for the next 2 yeai^s — 1957 
and 1958. The conference met in the midst of 
the crises in Hungary and the Middle East. Thus 
what was supposed to be a nonpolitical meeting 
was inevitably affected by the political reper- 
cussions of events several thousand miles away. 
These political overtones greatly complicated the 
business of the meeting. 

I have come away from the conference with a 
number of impressions. I have no way of telling 
the extent to which the good will shown the U.S. 
delegation reflects the feelings of the people of 
the various nations toward the United States. 
But if it is in any way indicative of popular feel- 
ing — for example, in South and Southeast Asia — 
I would be optimistic about the prospect for the 
American position in the region as well as for an 
improvement in Asian-American relations. 

It may not be generally realized here, but the 
regard of the less developed nations for Unesco 
is heartening. Their needs, particularly in the 
field of education, are urgent. Unesco offers 
them an opportunity to meet some of these edu- 
cational and cultural needs without potentially 
embarrassing commitments. They look to the 
United States for vigorous and positive leader- 
ship in Unesco. 



Role of U.S. in UNESCO 

Unesco liolds an immense potential for the 
United States. If in our participation in Unesco 
we offer the leadership and the constructive ap- 
proach expected from us, we have an opportimity 
to build warm and durable relations in areas that 
are vital to us in many ways. Furthermore, we 
have a chance to demonstrate that we can act as 
an effective force for peace in line with one of our 
basic foreign policy objectives. In my view 



Unesco offers a unique instrument to help attain 
this objective. 

I would like also to underscore a secondary 
American interest of a highly practical nature 
that we may sometimes overlook, perhaps because 
it is indirect. Unesco's most effective work is 
done in education — helping establish formal 
school systems where there are none, teacliing 
adults, and providing fundamental education, 
which is really down-to-earth instruction in better 
living. The educational level of a country and 
its standard of living are closely related. Wliere 
you find widespread illiteracy, you find per capita 
incomes of a hundred or two hundred dollars a 
year. Raise the educational level, and the pro- 
ducing and buying power of the country follows 
it up. So, to put this on a business basis, the 
Unesco program helps build production and mar- 
kets by improving conditions of living. And we 
all know that depressed economies are vulnerable 
to Communist exploitation. 

Soviet attempts in New Delhi to turn the confer- 
ence into a sounding board for political propa- 
ganda were promptly identified for what they 
were and met with determined resistance from a 
vast majority of the delegations, which deeply 
resented such tactics. Hence, despite these inter- 
ruptions, a good deal was accomplished. 

Emergency educational aid to the damaged 
school systems in Hungary and the Middle East 
was approved by acclamation. The three so-called 
major projects also were incorporated into the 
program. This represents a step toward a much- 
needed concentration of Unesco's energies and 
resources. 



Major Projects 

In the light of what I have said, I don't think I 
need comment on the first major project — the 
program to extend primary education in Latin 
America. 

The second major project — arid-zone research — 
is a question of much concern to many member 
states, including this countiy. This effort has 
been romantically described as ''making the desert 
bloom." The description is an overstatement. 
The initial efforts of the ecologists, meteorologists, 
geologists, and other specialists attacking the 
2)roblem of the desert will be directed at discover- 
ing ways and means of checking its spread. In 



January 14, 1957 



75 



addition, Unesco will facilitate a poolin": of 
knowledge on matters relating to the productivity 
of arid regions. 

The third major project aims at improving cul- 
tural I'elations between Asia and the West. Ob- 
viously, in an effort of this sort much planning 
and study is required. For the 2 years to come, 
this project will be in the experimental or pilot 
stage to discover effective methods of operation. 
UNESCO, here, is tackling an extremely coinplex 
and very important problem, and measurable, re- 
sults may be some time in coming. 

My connection with Unesco at New Delhi has 
convinced me that the organization has under- 
taken worthwhile work not being covered by any 
other agency. Its efforts are not only for the gen- 
eral good but are directly in this Nation's interest. 
We need Unesco and Unesco needs us. 

I have not gone into details of the New Delhi 
conference, but I hope that our delegation's official 
report, which will be available shortly, will be 
read by many Americans. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



United States and Canada Sign 
Salmon Conservation Agreement 



Press release 637 dated December 28 
DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The United States and Canada signed at Ot- 
tawa on December 28 a protocol to the Sockeye 
Salmon Convention of 1930 ^ placing the pink 
salmon of the Fraser River System under the 
terms of the convention. Signing on behalf of the 
United States were Ambassador Li\'ingston T. 
Merchant and William C. Herrington, Special As- 
sistant for Fisheries and Wildlife to the Under 
Secretary of State. Minister of Fisheries James 
Sinclair signed for Canada. 

The protocol amends the 1930 convention in a 

• Treaty Series 918. 



number of ways. Its most important change is to 
place the pink salmon of the Fraser River System 
under the jurisdiction of the International Pacific 
Salmon Fisheries Commission. The Commission, 
which was established in 1937, consists of three 
representatives each from the United States and 
Canada. It has had since 1937 the responsibility 
for the investigation and management of the 
Fraser River sockeye salmon. Its success in the 
sockeye fisheries has been outstanding. 

The Commission will now have the same powers 
of research and regulation over pink salmon as it 
has over sockeye salmon. It is charged with so 
regulating the pink-salmon fisheries as to achieve 
maximum sustainable productivity of the pink- 
salmon stocks. At the same time it must, as far 
as is possible, divide the catch equally between the 
United States and Canadian fishermen. The con- 
vention area remains unchanged. It covers Juan 
de Fuca Strait, part of Georgia Strait, the Fraser 
River System, and an area of the high seas of the 
Pacific Ocean. The Fraser River pink salmon, 
which make their spawning runs every 2 years 
through the straits, account for much of the $10 
million pink-salmon catch made every other year 
by the fishermen of Washington and British 
Columbia. 

Other modifications made by the protocol in 
the convention include an increase in the size of 
the Commission's Advisory Committee and a 
greater flexibility in the Commission's power to 
issue regulations in certain areas. The protocol 
also provides for intensive investigation by the 
Commission and by research agencies on both sides 
of the border of all pink-salmon stocks which enter 
convention waters. The protocol calls for a 
United States-Canadian Government meeting in 
its seventh year of operation for a review of re- 
search findings and a consideration of further ar- 
rangements for pink-salmon conservation. 

The protocol is subject to the advice and consent 
to ratification of the Senate. It will enter into 
effect upon the exchange of ratifications by the 
two Governments. 



TEXT OF PROTOCOL 

Protocol Between the United States of America and 
Canada to the Convention for the Protection, Pres- 
ervation AND Extension of the Sockeye Salmon 
Fisheries in the Fraser River System, Signed at 
Washington on the 2GTn Day of May-, 1930. 



76 



Department of State Bulletin 



The Government of the United States of America and 
the Government of Canada, desiring to coordinate the 
programs for the conservation of the socl^eye and pink 
salmon stocks of common concern by amendment of the 
Convention between the United States of America and 
Canada for the Protection, Preservation and Extension 
of the Sockeye Salmon Fisheries in the Fraser River 
System, signed at Washington on the 26th day of May, 
1930, hereinafter referred to as the Convention, 

Have agreed as follows : 

ARTICLE I 

The Convention as amended by the present Protocol 
shall apply to pink salmon with the following exception : 

The understanding stipulated in the Protocol of Ex- 
change of Ratifications signed at Washington on the 2Sth 
day of July, 1937, which provides that "the Commission 
shall not promulgate or enforce regulations until the 
scientific investigations provided for in the Convention 
have been made, covering two cycles of sockeye salmon 
runs, or eight years ;" shall not apply to pink salmon. 

ARTICLE II 

The following words shall be deleted from the first 
sentence of Article IV of the Convention : 

". . . that when any order is adopted by the Commis- 
sion limiting or prohibiting taking sockeye salmon tn any 
of the territorial waters or on the High Seas described 
in paragraph numbered 1 of Article I, such order shall 
extend to all such territorial waters and High Seas, and, 
similarly, when in any of the waters of the United States 
of America embraced in paragraph numbered 2 of Arti- 
cle I, such order shall extend to all such waters of the 
United States of America, and when in any of the Cana- 
dian waters embraced in paragraphs numbered 2 and 3 
of Article I, such order shall extend to all such Canadian 
waters, and provided further. . . ." 

ARTICLE III 

The following paragraph shall be added to Article VI 
of the Convention : 

"All regulations made by the Commission shall be sub- 
ject to approval of the two Governments with the excep- 
tion of orders for the adjustment of closing or opening of 
fishing periods and areas in any fishing season and of 
emergency orders required to carry out the provisions of 
the Convention." 

ARTICLE IV 

Article VII of the Convention shall be replaced by the 
following Article : 

"The Commission shall regulate the fisheries for sockeye 
and for pink salmon with a view to allowing, as nearly 
as practicable, an equal portion of such sockeye salmon 
as may be caught each year and an equal portion of such 
pink salmon as may be caught each year to be taken by 
the fishermen of each Party." 



ARTICLE V 

Paragraph (3) of the understandings stipulated in the 
Protocol of Exchange of Ratifications signed at Washing- 
ton on the 28th day of July, 1937, shall be amended to 
read as follows : 

"That the Commission shall set up an Advisory Com- 
mittee composed of six persons from each country who 
shall be representatives of the various branches of the 
industry including, but not limited to, purse seine, gill 
net, troll, sport fishing and processing which Advisory 
Committee shall be invited to all non-executive meetings 
of the Commission and shall be given full opportunity to 
examine and to be heard on all proposed orders, regula- 
tions or recommendations." 

ARTICLE VI 

1. The Parties shall conduct a coordinated investigation 
of pink salmon stocks which enter the waters described 
in Article I of the Convention for the purpose of determin- 
ing the migratory movements of such stocks. That part 
of the investigation to be carried out in the waters de- 
scribed in Article I of the Convention shall be carried out 
by the Commission. 

2. Except with regard to that part of the investigation 
to be carried out by the Commission, the provisions of 
Article III of the Convention with respect to the sharing 
of cost shall not apply to the investigation referred to 
in this Article. 

3. The Parties shall meet in the seventh year after the 
entry into force of this Protocol to examine the results 
of the investigation referred to in this Article and to 
determine what further arrangements for the conserva- 
tion of pink salmon stocks of common concern may be 
desirable. 

ARTICLE VII 

Nothing in the Convention or this Protocol shall pre- 
clude the Commission from recording such information 
on stocks of salmon other than sockeye or pink salmon as 
it may acquire incidental to its activities with respect 
to sockeye and pink salmon. 

ARTICLE VIII 

The present Protocol shall be ratified and the exchange 
of the instruments of ratification shall take place in Ot- 
tawa as soon as possible. It shall come into force on the 
day of the exchange of the instruments of ratification. 

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorized 
by their respective Governments, have signed this Proto- 
col and have aflixed thereto their seals. 

Done in duplicate at Ottawa this 28th day of December 
1956. 

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: 
LiviNosTON T. Merchant 
Wm. C. Hebrington 

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF 
CANADA : 

James Sinclaib 



January 74, 1957 



77 



status Lists 



Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Court of Justice 

Signed at San Francisco June 26, 1945. Entered into force October 24, 1945. 59 Stat. 1031 



Party 



Afghanistan . . . 

Albania 

Argentina 

Australia 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Bulgaria 

Burma 

Byelorussian S. S. R 
Cambodia .... 

Canada 

Cevlon 

Chile 

China 

Colombia 

Costa Rica .... 

Cuba 

Czechoslovakia . . 

Denmark 

Dominican Republic 

Ecuador 

Egypt 

El Salvador .... 

Ethiopia 

Finland 

France 

Greece 

Guatemala .... 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Hungary 

Iceland 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Ireland 

Israel 



Effective date 


Nov. 19 


1946 


Dec. 14 


1955 


Oct. 24 


1945 


Nov. 1 


1945 


Dec. 14 


1955 


Dec. 27 


1945 


Nov. 14 


1945 


Oct. 24 


1945 


Dec. 14 


1955 


Apr. 19 


1948 


Oct. 24 


1945 


Dec. 14 


1955 


Nov. 9 


1945 


Dec. 14 


1955 


Oct. 24 


1945 


Oct. 24 


1945 


Nov. 5 


1945 


Nov. 2 


1945 


Oct. 24 


1945 


Oct. 24 


1945 


Oct. 24 


1945 


Oct. 24 


1945 


Dec. 21 


1945 


Oct. 24 


1945 


Oct. 24 


1945 


Nov. 13 


1945 


Dec. 14 


1955 


Oct. 24 


1945 


Oct. 25 


1945 


Nov. 21 


1945 


Oct. 24 


1945 


Dec. 17 


1945 


Dec. 14 


1955 


Nov. 19 


1946 


Oct. 30 


1945 


Sept. 28 


1950 


Oct. 24 


1945 


Dec. 21 


1945 


Dec. 14 


1955 


May 11 


1949 



Party 



Italy 

Japan 

Jordan 

Laos ■ 

Lebanon 

Liberia 

Libya 

Lu.xembourg 

Mexico 

Morocco 

Nepal 

Netherland.s 

New Zealand 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Pakistan 

Panama 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Philippines 

Poland 

Portugal 

Rumania 

Saudi Arabia 

Spain 

Sudan 

Sweden 

Syria 

Thailand 

Tunisia 

Turkey 

Ukrainian S. S. R 

Union of South Africa 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 

United Kingdom 

United States 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Yemen 

Yugoslavia 



EBective 


Dec. 


14, 


Dec. 


18, 


Dec. 


14, 


Dec. 


14, 


Oct. 


24, 


Nov. 


2, 


Dec. 


14, 


Oct. 


24, 


Nov. 


7, 


Nov. 


12, 


Dec. 


14, 


Dec. 


10, 


Oct. 


24, 


Oct. 


24, 


Nov. 


27, 


Sept 


30, 


Nov. 


13, 


Oct. 


24, 


Oct. 


31, 


Oct. 


24, 


Oct. 


24, 


Dec. 


14, 


Dec. 


14, 


Oct. 


24, 


Dec. 


14, 


Nov. 


12, 


Nov. 


19, 


Oct. 


24, 


Dec. 


16, 


Nov. 


12, 


Oct. 


24, 


Oct. 


24, 


Nov. 


7. 


Oct. 


24, 


Oct. 


24, 


Oct. 


24, 


Dec. 


18, 


Nov 


15, 


Sept 


30, 


Oct. 


24 



1955 
1956 
1955 
1955 
1945 
1945 
1955 
1945 
1945 
1956 
1955 
1945 
1945 
1945 
1945 
1947 
1945 
1945 
1945 
1945 
1945 
1955 
1955 
1945 
1955 
1956 
1946 
1945 
1946 
1956 
1945 
1945 
1945 
194,-1 
1945 
1945 
1945 
1945 
1947 
1945 



Current Actions 



BILATERAL 

China 

Agreement to facilitate construction of defense facilities 
as provided in agreements of January 30 and February 
9, 1951 (TIAS 2298), and October 23 and November 1, 
1952 (TIAS 2712). Effected by exchange of notes at 
Taipei November 21, 1956. Entered into force Novem- 
ber 21, 1956. 

Dominican Republic 

Agreement for cooperation concerning civil uses of atomic 
energy. Signed at Washington June 15, 1956. 



Entered into force: December 21, 1956 (day on which 
each Government received from the other written 
notification that it had complied with statutory and 
constitutional requirements) . 

Germany 

Agreement relating to the training of German Army per- 
sonnel pursuant to the llutual Defense Assistance 
Agreement of June 30, 1955 (TIAS 3443). Effected by 
exchange of notes at Bonn December 12, 1956. Entered 
into force December 12, 1956. 

Agreement relating to the training of German Navy per- 
sonnel iiursuaut to the Mutual Defense Assistance Agree- 
ment of June 30, 19.55 (TIAS 3443). Effected by ex- 
change of notes at Bonn December 12, 1956. Entered 
into force December 12, 1956. 



78 



Department of State Bulletin 



January 14, 1957 



Index 



Vol. XXXVI, No. 916 



American Principles. American Principles and tlie 

United Nations (Hoffman) 51 

Canada. United States and Canada Sign Salmon 
Conservation Agreement (Department announce- 
ment, text of protocol) 76 

China. Passports of Newsmen in Red China Valid 
Only for Return to U.S 54 

Communism. United States Responsibilities in 

New Year (Dulles) 50 

Congress, The 

President Decides Against Increase in Tariff on 

Groundfish Fillets 55 

Question of Legislation on Loyalty of Ameri- 
cans Employed by International Organizations 
(Wilcox) 57 

Department and Foreign Service. Question of 
Legislation on Loyalty of Americans Employed by 
International Organizations (Wilcox) .... 57 

Disarmament. U.S. Determination To Seek Agree- 
ment on Disarmament (Lodge) 71 

Economic Affairs 

Imports of Woolen Fabrics 54 

President Decides Against Increase in Tariff on 

Groundfish Fillets 55 

United States and Canada Sign Salmon Conserva- 
tion Agreement (Department announcement, text 
of protocol) 76 

Haiti. Recognition of Haitian Government ... 53 

India. Visit of Prime Minister Nehru of India 

(Eisenhower, Nixon, Nehru) 47 

International Law. Proposed U.N. Conference on 

Law of the Sea (Greenbaum, text of resolution) . 60 

International Organizations and Meetings 

Ninth Session of UNESCO General Conference 

(Allyn) 72 

Question of Legislation on Loyalty of Americans 
Employed by International Organizations (Wil- 
cox) 57 

Libya. Letters of Credence (Jerbi) 54 

Mexico. Membership of Mexican-U.S. Defense 

Commission (text of Executive order) .... 59 

Near East 

Financing of United Nations Emergency Force 

(Jones, text of resolution) 67 

United States Responsibilities in New Tear 

(Dulles) 50 

U.S. Views on British Formula for Self-Government 

for Cyprus (White) 54 

Panama. Letters of Credence (Arias Espinosa) . 54 

Paraguay. Letters of Credence (Chaves) ... 54 

Presidential Documents 

Membership of Mexican-U.S. Defense Commission . 59 
President Decides Against Increase in Tariff on 

Groundflsli Fillets 55 

Visit of Prime Minister Nehru of India 47 



Treaty Information 

Current Actions 78 

Status Lists 78 

United States and Canada Sign Salmon Conserva- 
tion Agreement (Department announcement, text 

of protocol) 76 

United Kingdom. U.S. Views on British Formula 

for Self-Government for Cyprus (White) ... 54 

United Nations 

American Principles and the United Nations 

(Hoffman) 51 

Financing of United Nations Emergency Force 

(Jones, text of resolution) 67 

Ninth Session of UNESCO General Conference 

(Allyn) 72 

Proposed U.N. Conference on Lave of the Sea 

(Greenbaum, text of resolution) (JO 

Signatories of U.N. Charter and Statute of Inter- 
national Court of Justice 78 

U.S. Determination To Seek Agreement on Dis- 
armament (Lodge) 71 

Name Index 

Allyn, Stanley C 72 

Arias Espinosa, Ricardo M 54 

Chaves, Osvaldo 54 

Dulles, Secretary 50 

Eisenhower, President 47, 48, 55, 59 

Greenbaum, Edward S 60 

Hoffman, Paul G 51 

Jerbi, Suleiman 54 

Jones, Richard Lee 67 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr 71 

Nehru, Jawaharial 47, 48 

Nixon, Richard M 47 

White, Lincoln 54 

Wilcox, Francis O 57 



Check List of Department of State 


Press Releases: December 24-30 


Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 


Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 


No. Date 


Subject 


631 12/24 


Recognition of new Haitian Govern- 




ment. 


632 12/26 


Panama credentials (rewrite). 


633 12/26 


Imports of woolen fabrics. 


634 12/26 


Libya credentials (rewrite). 


*635 12/28 


Cornerstone laying ceremony. 


636 12/28 


Paraguay credentials (rewrite). 


637 12/28 


Pink salmon conservation agreement 




with Canada. 


638 12/28 


Dulles : year-end statement. 


639 12/28 


U.S. newsmen in Communist China, 
ed. 


*Xot print 



U. S, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 15S7 




the 



« BOSTON 17, MASS 

United STATts 
Government Printing Office 

DIVISION OF PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

Washington 25, D. C. 

OFFICIAL. BUSINESS 



PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE TO AVOIL 

PAYMENT OF POSTAGE, 9300 

(GPO) 



The Search for Disarmament 



Publication 6398 



20 CenU 



Department 

of 

State 



TJie Search for Disarmwment, a 35-pag6 pamphlet, discusses 
several aspects of the compelling problem of disarmament, "the 
limitation, regulation, and control of arms." The pamphlet, based 
on an address by Francis O. Wilcox, Assistant Secretary for Inter- 
national Organization Affairs, covers the following topics : 

the nature and urgency of the problem; 
disarmament as a safeguard of the national security; 
disarmament as an integral part of national policy; 
major periods of negotiations; 
the present status of disarmament negotiations; 
prospects for disarmament. 

Copies of The Search for Disarmarnent may be purchased from ' 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D. C, at 20 cents each. 



Order Form 

To: Supt. of Documents Please send me copies of The Search for Disarmament. 

Govt. Printing Office 
Washington 25, D.C. 

Name: 

Street Address ; 

Enclosed And: 

City, Zone, and State: 



(cash, theck, or 
money order). 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XXXVI, No. 917 




January 21, 1957 



PRESIDENT ASKS FOR AUTHORIZATION FOR U.S. 
ECONOMIC PROGRAM AND FOR RESOLUTION 
ON COMMUNIST AGGRESSION IN MIDDLE 

EAST • Message of the President to the Congress .... 83 

PROVIDING FOR THE NEEDS OF THE HUNGARIAN 

REFUGEES • Report to President Eisenhower by Vice 
President Nixon 94 

CORRESPONDENCE OF PRESIDENT EISENHOWER 
AND PREMIER BULGANIN CONCERNING RE- 
DUCTION OF INTERNATIONAL TENSION AND 
DISARMAMENT 89 

CORNERSTONE CEREMONY FOR NEW DEPART- 
MENT OF STATE BUILDING 116 

ALLOWANCES FOR AMERICAN OVERSEAS PER- 
SONNEL • by Joseph W. Lethco 110 



KK 



JTED STATES 
REIGN POLICY 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XXXVI, No. 917 • Publication 6436 
January 21, 1957 



For Bale by the Superintendent o( Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.C. 

Price: 

62 Issues, domestic $7.60, [orelgn $10.26 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 19, 1965). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items coutalned herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bdlletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other offi- 
cers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
Intive material in the fieUl of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



President Asks for Authorization for U.S. Economic Program 
and for Resolution on Communist Aggression in IVIiddle East 



MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS' 



To THE Congress of the United States : 

First may I express to you my deep apprecia- 
tion of your courtesy in giving me, at some incon- 
venience to yourselves, this early opportunity of 
addressing you on a matter I deem to be of grave 
importance to our country. 

In my forthcoming State of the Union Message, 
I shall review the international situation gener- 
ally. There are worldwide hopes which we can 
reasonably entertain, and there are worldwide 
responsibilities which we must carry to make cer- 
tain that freedom — including our own — may be 
secure. 

There is, however, a special situation in the 
Middle East which I feel I should, even now, lay 
before you. 

Before doing so it is well to remind ourselves 
that our basic national objective in international 
affairs remains peace — a world peace based on 
justice. Such a peace must include all areas, all 
peoples of the world if it is to be enduring. There 
is no nation, great or small, with which we would 
refuse to negotiate, in mutual good faith, with 
patience and in the determination to secure a bet- 
ter understanding between us. Out of such under- 
standings must, and eventually will, grow confi- 
dence and trust, indispensable ingredients to a 
program of peace and to plans for lifting from 
us all the burdens of expensive armaments. To 
promote these objectives our government works 
tirelessly, day by day, month by month, year by 
year. But until a degree of success crowns our 
efforts that will assure to all nations peaceful ex- 

' Delivered before a joint session of the Senate and the 
House of Representatives on Jan. 5 (White House press 
release) ; H. Doe. 46, 85th Cong., 1st sess. 



istence, we must, in the interests of peace itself, 
remain vigilant, alert and strong. 

I. 

The Middle East has abruptly reached a new 
and critical stage in its long and important his- 
tory. In past decades many of the coimtries in 
that area were not fully self-governing. Other 
nations exercised considerable authority in the 
area and the security of the region was largely 
built around their power. But since the First 
World War there has been a steady evolution 
toward self-government and independence. This 
development the United States has welcomed and 
has encouraged. Our country supports without 
reservation the full sovereignty and independence 
of each and every nation of the Middle East. 

The evolution to independence has in the main 
been a peaceful process. But the area has been 
often troubled. Persistent cross-currents of dis- 
trust and fear with raids back and forth across 
national boundaries have brought about a high 
degree of instability in much of the Mid East. 
Just recently there have been hostilities 
involving Western European nations that once 
exercised much influence in the area. Also the 
relatively large attack by Israel in October has 
intensified the basic differences between that nation 
and its Arab neighbors. All this instability has 
been heightened and, at times, manipulated by 
International Communism. 

II. 

Kussia's rulers have long sought to dominate the 
Middle East. That was true of the Czars and 
it is true of the Bolsheviks. The reasons are not 



January 27, 1957 



83 



hard to find. They do not affect Russia's security, 
for no one plans to use the Middle East as a base 
for aggression against Russia. Never for a mo- 
ment has the United States entertained such a 
thought. 

The Soviet Union has nothing whatsoever to 
fear from the United States in the Middle East, 
or anywhere else in the world, so long as its riders 
do not themselves first resort to aggression. 

That statement I make solemnly and 
emphatically. 

Neither does Russia's desire to dominate the 
Middle East spring from its own economic interest 
in the area. Russia does not appreciably use or 
depend upon the Suez Canal. In 1955 Soviet 
traffic through the Canal represented only about 
three fourths of 1% of the total. The Soviets 
have no need for, and could provide no market for, 
the petroleum resources which constitute the prin- 
cipal natural wealth of the area. Indeed, the 
Soviet Union is a substantial exporter of petroleum 
products. 

The reason for Russia's interest in the Middle 
East is solely that of power politics. Considering 
her announced purpose of Communizing the world, 
it is easy to understand her hope of dominating 
the Middle East. 

This region has always been the crossroads of the 
continents of the Eastern Hemisphere. The Suez 
Canal enables the nations of Asia and Europe to 
carry on the commerce that is essential if these 
countries are to maintain well-rounded and pros- 
perous economies. The Middle East provides a 
gateway between Eurasia and Africa. 

It contains about two thirds of the presently 
known oil deposits of the world and it normally 
supplies the petroleum needs of many nations of 
Europe, Asia and Africa. The nations of Europe 
are peculiarly dependent upon this supply, and 
this dependency relates to transportation as well 
as to production. This has been vividly demon- 
strated since the closing of the Suez Canal and 
some of the pipelines. Alternate ways of trans- 
portation and, indeed, alternate sources of power 
can, if necessary, be developed. But these can- 
not be considered as early prospects. 

These things stress the immense importance of 
the Middle East. If the nations of that area 
should lose their independence, if they were domi- 
nated by alien forces hostile to freedom, that 
would be both a tragedy for the area and for many 



other free nations whose economic life would be 
subject to near strangulation. Western Europe 
would be endangered just as though there had 
been no Marshall Plan, no North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization. The free nations of Asia and Af- 
rica, too, would be placed in serious jeopardy. 
And the countries of the Middle East would lose 
the markets upon which their economies depend. 
All this would have the most adverse, if not dis- 
astrous, effect upon our own nation's economic 
life and political prospects. 

Then there are other factors, which transcend 
the material. The Middle East is the birthplace of 
three great religions — Moslem, Christian and 
Hebrew. Mecca and Jerusalem are more than 
places on the map. They symbolize religions 
which teach that the spirit has supremacy over 
matter and that the individual has a dignity and 
rights of which no despotic government can right- 
fully deprive him. It would be intolerable if the 
holy places of the Middle East should be subjected 
to a rule that glorifies atheistic materialism. 

International Communism, of course, seeks to 
mask its purposes of domination by expressions of 
good will and by superficially attractive offers of 
political, economic and military aid. But any free 
nation, which is the subject of Soviet enticement, 
ought, in elementary wisdom, to look behind the 
mask. 

Remember Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. In 
1939 the Soviet Union entered into mutual assist- 
ance pacts with these then independent countries ; 
and the Soviet Foreign Minister, addressing the 
Extraordinary Fifth Session of the Supreme So- 
viet in October 1939, solemnly and publicly de- 
clared that "we stand for the scrupulous and 
punctilious observance of the pacts on the basis 
of complete reciprocity, and we declare that all 
the nonsensical talk about the Sovietization of the 
Baltic countries is only to the interest of our com- 
mon enemies and of all anti-Soviet provocateurs." 
Yet in 1940, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were 
forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union. 

Soviet control of the satellite nations of Eastern 
Europe has been forcibly maintained in spite of 
solemn promises of a contrary intent, made during 
World War II. 

Stalin's death brought hope that this pattern 
would change. And we read the pledge of the 
Warsaw Treaty of 1955 that the Soviet Union 
would follow in satellite countries "the principles 
of mutual respect for their independence and 



84 



Department of State Bulletin 



sovereignty and non-interference in domestic af- 
fairs." But we have just seen the subjugation of 
Hungary by naked armed force. In tlie aftermath 
of this Hungarian tragedy, world respect for and 
belief in Soviet promises have sunk to a new low. 
International Communism needs and seeks a 
recognizable success. 

Thus, we have these simple and indisputable 
facts : 

1. The Middle East, which has always been 
coveted by Eussia, would today be prized more 
tlian ever by International Communism. 

2. The Soviet rulers continue to show that they 
do not scruple to use any means to gain their ends. 

3. The free nations of the Mid East need, and 
for the most part want, added strength to assure 
their continued independence. 

III. 

Our thoughts naturally turn to the United Na- 
tions as a protector of small nations. Its charter 
gives it primary responsibility for the maintenance 
of international peace and security. Our country 
has given the United Nations its full support in 
relation to the hostilities in Hungary and in 
Egypt. The United Nations was able to bring 
about a cease-fire and withdrawal of hostile forces 
from Egypt because it was dealing with govern- 
ments and peoples who had a decent respect for 
the opinions of mankind as reflected in the United 
Nations General Assembly. But in the case of 
Hungary, the situation was different. The Soviet 
Union vetoed action by the Security Council to 
require the withdrawal of Soviet armed forces 
from Hungary. And it has shown callous indif- 
ference to the recommendations, even the censure, 
of the General Assembly. The United Nations 
can always be helpful, but it caimot be a wholly 
dependable protector of freedom when the am- 
bitions of the Soviet Union are involved. 

IV. 

Under all the circumstances I have laid before 
you, a greater responsibility now devolves upon 
the United States. We have shown, so that none 
can doubt, our dedication to the principle that 
force shall not be used internationally for any ag- 
gressive purpose and that the integrity and inde- 
pendence of the nations of the Middle East should 
be inviolate. Seldom in history has a nation's 
dedication to principle been tested as severely as 
ours during recent weeks. 



There is general recognition in the Middle East, 
as elsewhere, that the United States does not seek 
either political or economic domination over any 
other people. Om- desire is a world environment 
of freedom, not servitude. On the other hand 
many, if not all, of the nations of the Middle East 
are aware of the danger that stems from Inter- 
national Communism and welcome closer coopera- 
tion with the United States to realize for them- 
selves the United Nations goals of independence, 
economic well-being and spiritual growth. 

If the Middle East is to continue its geographic 
role of uniting rather than separating East and 
West; if its vast economic resources are to serve 
the well-being of the peoples there, as well as that 
of others; and if its cultures and religions and 
their shrines are to be preserved for the uplifting 
of the spirits of the peoples, then the United States 
must make more evident its willingness to support 
the independence of the freedom-loving nations of 
the area. 

V. 

Under these circumstances I deem it necessary 
to seek the cooperation of the Congress. Only 
with that cooperation can we give the reassurance 
needed to deter aggression, to give courage and 
confidence to those who are dedicated to freedom 
and thus prevent a chain of events which would 
gravely endanger all of the free world. 

There have been several Executive declarations 
made by the United States in relation to the Mid- 
dle East. There is the Tripartite Declaration of 
May 25, 1950,= followed by the Presidential as- 
surance of October 31, 1950, to the King of Saudi 
Arabia.^ There is the Presidential declaration of 
April 9, 1956, that the United States will within 
constitutional means oppose any aggression in the 
area.* There is our Declaration of November 29, 
1956, that a threat to the territorial integrity or 
political independence of Iran, Iraq, Pakistan or 
Turkey would be viewed by the United States with 
the utmost gravity.^ 

Nevertheless, weaknesses in the present situation 
and the increased danger from International Com- 
munism, convince me that basic United States 
policy should now find expression in joint action 



- Bulletin of June 5, 1950, p. 886. 

'A letter expressing U.S. interest In the independence 
of Saudi Arabia, delivered by U.S. Ambassador Raymond 
A. Hare at tlie time he presented his credentials. 

' Bulletin of Apr. 23, 1956, p. 668. 

" Ibid., Dec. 10, 1956, p. 918. 



January 2J, 1957 



85 



by the Congress and the Executive. Furtliermore, 
our joint resolve should be so couched as to make 
it apparent that if need be our words will be 
backed by action. 

VI. 

It is nothing new for the President and the 
Congress to join to recognize that the national 
integrity of other free nations is directly related 
to our own security. 

We have joined to create and support the se- 
curity system of the United Nations. We have 
reinforced the collective security system of the 
United Nations by a series of collective defense 
arrangements. Today we have security treaties 
with 42 other nations which recognize that their, 
and our, peace and security are intertwined. We 
have joined to take decisive action in relation to 
Greece and Turkey and in relation to Taiwan. 

Thus, the United States through the joint action 
of the President and the Congress, or, in the case 
of treaties, the Senate, has manifested in many 
endangered areas its purpose to support free and 
independent governments — and peace — against 
external menace, notably the menace of Interna- 
tional Communism. Thereby we have helped to 
maintain peace and security during a period of 
great danger. It is now essential that the United 
States should manifest through joint action of the 
President and the Congress our determination to 
assist those nations of the Mid East area which 
desire that assistance. 

The action which I propose would have the 
following features. 

It would, first of all, authorize the United States 
to cooperate with and assist any nation or group 
of nations in the general area of the Middle East 
in the development of economic strength dedicated 
to the maintenance of national independence. 

It would, in the second place, authorize the 
Executive to undertake in the same region pro- 
grams of military assistance and cooperation with 
any nation or group of nations which desires such 
aid. 

It would, in the third place, authorize such as- 
sistance and cooperation to include the employ- 
ment of the armed forces of the United States to 
secure and protect the territorial integrity and 
political independence of such nations, requesting 
sucli aid, against overt armed aggi-ession from any 
nation controlled by International Communism. 

These measures would have to be consonant with 



the treaty obligations of the United States, includ- 
ing the Charter of the United Nations and with 
any action or reconomendations of the United Na- 
tions. They would also, if armed attack occurs, be 
subject to the overriding authority of the United 
Nations Security Council in accordance with the 
Charter. 

The present proposal would, in the fourth place, 
autliorize the President to employ, for economic 
and defensive military purposes, sums available 
under the Mutual Security Act of 1954, as 
amended, without regard to existing limitations. 

The legislation now requested should not include 
the authorization or appropriation of funds be- 
cause I believe that, under the conditions I suggest, 
presently appropriated funds will be adequate for 
the balance of the present fiscal year ending June 
30. I shall, liowever, seek in subsequent legisla- 
tion tlie authorization of $200,000,000 to be avail- 
able during each of the fiscal years 1958 and 1959 
for discretionary use in the area, in addition to the 
other mutual security programs for the area here- 
after provided for by the Congress. 

VII. 

This program will not solve all the problems of 
the Middle East. Neither does it represent the 
totality of our policies for the area. There are 
the problems of Palestine and relations between 
Israel and the Arab States, and the future of the 
Arab refugees. There is the problem of the future 
status of the Suez Canal. These difficulties are 
aggravated by International Communism, but 
they would exist quite apart from that threat. It 
is not the j^urpose of the legislation I propose to 
deal directly with these problems. The United 
Nations is actively concerning itself with all these 
matters, and we are supporting the United Na- 
tions. The United States has made clear, notably 
by Secretary Dulles' address of August 26, 1955, 
that we are willing to do much to assist the United 
Nations in solving the basic problems of Palestine. 

The proposed legislation is primarily designed 
to deal with the possibility of Communist aggres- 
sion, direct and indirect. There is imperative 
need that any lack of power in tlie area should be 
made good, not by external or alien force, but by 
the increased vigor and security of the independ- 
ent nations of the area. 

Experience shows that indirect aggression rarely 
if ever succeeds where there is reasonable security 
against direct aggression ; where the goverimient 



86 



Deparfmeni of Sfafe Bulletin 



possesses loyal security forces, and where economic 
conditions are such as not to make Communism 
seem an attractive alternative. The program I 
suggest deals with all three aspects of tliis matter 
and thus with the problem of indirect aggression. 

It is my hope and belief that if our purpose be 
proclaimed, as proposed by the requested legisla- 
tion, that very fact will serve to halt any con- 
templated aggression. We shall have heartened 
the patriots who are dedicated to the independence 
of their nations. They will not feel that they 
stand alone, imder the menace of great power. 
And I should add that patriotism is, throughout 
this area, a powerful sentiment. It is true that 
fear sometimes perverts true patriotism into 
fanaticism and to the acceptance of dangerous en- 
ticements from without. But if that fear can be 
allayed, then the climate will be more favorable 
to the attainment of worthy national ambitions. 

And as I have indicated, it will also be necessary 
for us to contribute economically to strengthen 
those countries, or groups of countries, which have 
governments manifestly dedicated to the preser- 
vation of independence and resistance to subver- 
sion. Such measures will provide the greatest 
insurance against Communist inroads. Words 
alone are not enough. 

VIII. 

Let me refer again to the requested authority 
to employ the armed forces of the United States 
to assist to defend the territorial integrity and 
the political independence of any nation in the 
area against Communist armed aggression. Such 
authority would not be exercised except at the de- 
sire of the nation attacked. Beyond this it is my 
profound hope that this authority would never 
have to be exercised at all. 

Nothing is more necessary to assure this than 
that our policy with respect to the defense of the 
area be promptly and clearly determined and de- 
clared. Thus the United Nations and all friendly 
governments, and indeed governments which are 
not friendly, will know where we stand. 

If, contrary to my hope and expectation, a sit- 
uation arose which called for the military appli- 
cation of the policy which I ask the Congress to 
join me in proclaiming, I would of course main- 
tain hour-by-hour contact with the Congress if it 
were in session. And if the Congress were not in 
session, and if the situation had grave implica- 



tions, I would, of course, at once call the Congress 
into special session. 

In the situation now existing, the greatest risk, 
as is often the case, is that ambitious despots may 
miscalculate. If power-hungry Communists 
should either falsely or correctly estimate that the 
Middle East is inadequately defended, they might 
be tempted to use open measures of armed attack. 
If so, that would start a chain of circumstances 
which would almost surely involve the United 
States in military action. I am convinced that 
the best insurance against this dangerous contin- 
gency is to make clear now our readiness to coop- 
erate fully and freely with our friends of the 
Middle East in ways consonant with the purposes 
and principles of the United Nations. I intend 
promptly to send a special mission to the Middle 
East to explain the cooperation we are prepared 
to give. 

IX. 

The policy which I outline involves certain bur- 
dens and indeed risks for the United States. 
Those who covet the area will not like what is pro- 
posed. Already, they are grossly distorting our 
purpose. However, before this Americans have 
seen our nation's vital interests and human free- 
dom in jeopardy, and their fortitude and resolu- 
tion have been equal to the crisis, regardless of 
hostile distortion of our words, motives and 
actions. 

Indeed, the sacrifices of the American people 
in the cause of freedom have, even since the close 
of World War II, been measured in many billions 
of dollars and in thousands of the precious lives 
of our youth. These sacrifices, by which great 
areas of the world have been preserved to free- 
dom, must not be thrown away. 

In those momentous periods of the past, the 
President and the Congress have united, without 
partisanship, to serve the vital interests of the 
United States and of the free world. 

The occasion has come for us to manifest again 
our national unity in support of freedom and to 
show our deep respect for the rights and independ- 
ence of every nation — however great, however 
small. We seek not violence, but peace. To this 
purpose we must now devote our energies, our de- 
termination, ourselves. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 
The WnrrE House 
January 5, 1957 



January 21, 1957 



87 



President's Bipartisan Conference 
Witli Congressional Leaders 

White House press release dated January 1 

The President met on January 1 with the leaders 
of both political parties in the Senate and the 
House of Representatives for a bipartisan confer- 
ence on foreign policy, mutual security, and na- 
tional defense. 

During the meeting the leaders also received 
from the Vice President a review of his report 
to the President on the Hungarian refugee 
situation. 

The President thanked the leaders for the bi- 
partisan cooperation he had always received from 
them in the field of foreign affaire. 

The Secretary of State then reviewed world de- 
velopments, particularly during the last 6 months. 
He expressed the opinion that the position of inter- 
national conununism liad deteriorated throughout 
the world and that the United States at the same 
time had moved into a position of great opportu- 
nity for world leadership for peace and stability 
as well as for world responsibility. 

The President and the Secretary of State then 
discussed in more detail the Middle East situation. 
The President asserted that the Middle East was 
a vitally important area to the entire world. To 
help that area remain free the President rec- 
ommended that the Congress join with him in 
serving notice to the world that the United States 
would resist any Communist aggression in that 
area. 

Specifically, he requested the leaders: (1) to 
authorize an enlarged program of economic aid 
to the nations in that area by authorizing addi- 
tional monies for the President's Emergency Fund 
which would be used for that purpose, and (2) to 
support a congressional resolution which would 



be designed to deter Communist armed aggi-ession 
in the Middle East area. 

A general discussion then followed. It was 
agreed that the matter should be promptly dealt 
with on the basis of an early Presidential message 
to the Congress and hearings by the appropriate 
congressional committees. 

The Director of the International Cooperation 
Administration then reviewed for the leaders the 
program for the coming year in mutual assistance, 
including mutual military support and economic 
and technical assistance for our allies and friends. 

The Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff next outlined the 1958 
program of the Defense Establishment of the 
United States and the measures which they deemed 
necessary to protect the Nation against attack and 
to insure peace in the world. 

The Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion followed with a review of the United States' 
participation in the President's atoms-for-peace 
program through the international atomic pro- 
gram of the United Nations. 

The Director of the United States Information 
Agency stressed the importance of the agency's 
program to present to the peoples of the world 
America's position in maintaining peace and work- 
ing for cooperation with all fi-iendly nations. 

The Secretary of Commerce urged congressional 
approval for participation by the United States 
in the Organization for Trade Cooperation 
(Otc). 



Walter F. George Appointed 
Special Assistant to President 

Tlie President on January 4 appointed AValter 
F. George to be Special Assistant to the President 
with the personal rank of Ambassador. 



88 



Department of State Bulletin 



Correspondence of President Eisenhower and Premier Bulganin Concerning 
Reduction of International Tension and Disarmament 



THE PRESIDENT TO PREMIER BULGANIN 

White House press release dated January 2 

December 31, 1956 

Dear Mr. Chairman : I have given careful con- 
sideration to the declaration by the Soviet Gov- 
ernment to which you had invited my attention in 
your letter of November 17, 1956, but find myself 
in basic disagreement with the analysis of your 
government as it relates to the source of inter- 
national tension. 

The people of the United States cannot accept 
the declaration's attempt to dismiss as "a slander- 
ous campaign" the world's indignant reaction to 
the Soviet armed actions against the people of 
Hungary. While the Soviet Government has not 
responded to the constructive recommendations of 
the United Nations with respect to Himgary, the 
parties at dispute in the Middle East have ac- 
cepted the assistance of the United Nations. A 
similar response by the Soviet Union to the reso- 
lutions of the United Nations concerning Hungary 
would constitute a significant step toward the re- 
duction of the tensions to which the Soviet decla- 
ration addresses itself. 

Your government's statement suggests that the 
strategic situation in Western Europe is now 
advantageous to the armed forces of the Soviet 
Union. This statement does not seem calculated 
to relieve international tensions. Moreover, I am 
convinced in the light of my long association with 
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization that it is 
fully capable of carrying out its mission of col- 
lective defense. 

You suggest further meetings of heads of gov- 
ernment. I could agree to a meeting whenever 
circumstances would make it seem likely to accom- 
plish a significant result. But, in my opinion, 
deliberations within the framework of the United 
Nations seem most likely to produce a step forward 



in the highly complicated matter of disarmament. 
Accordingly the United States will make further 
proposals there. 

I take hope from your apparent willingness to 
consider aerial inspection as a positive factor in 
the problem of armaments. Much to my regret, 
however, your government's declaration does not 
signify willingness to seek agreement on the basic 
element of my Geneva proposal of averting sur- 
prise attack through aerial inspection of the cen- 
ters of our military power. 

The United States is giving this and your other 
disarmament proposals careful study. We are 
prepared to discuss them, as well as the further 
United States proposals, in forthcoming meetings 
of the Disarmament Subcommittee. 

You may be sure that our government will 
continue its efforts in behalf of effective control 
and reduction of all armaments. It will be my 
never-ending purpose to seek a stable foundation 
for a just and durable peace in the mutual interest 
of all nations. 

Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



PREMIER BULGANIN TO THE PRESIDENT 

The Kremlin 

Moscow 
November 17, 1956 

Dear Mr. Pkesidext: The military attack on 
Egypt has brought on a serious aggravation of the 
international situation. In consideration of this 
fact it is the duty of all states and especially those 
countries which bear the basic responsibility for 
the preservation of peace to find means for the 
solution of questions in dispute through negotia- 
tions. 

In this dangerous moment for the cause of peace 



ianvary 2?, 1957 



89 



the Soviet Government considers it essential to 
appeal to the governments of all countries and in 
the first instance to the governments of the great 
powers to unite their efforts for their adoption of 
urgent measures directed towards the prevention 
of war, cessation of the arms race and the solution 
of questions in dispute by peaceful means. 

In sending to you the declaration of the Soviet 
Government on the question of disarmament and 
reduction of international tension my colleagues 
and I express the hope that the U.S.A. and you 
personally, Mr. President, will examine with all 
attention the proposals of the Soviet Government 
set forth in the declaration. 

Btjlganin 



Declaration of the Soviet Government Concerning 
the Question of Disarmament and Reduction of 
International Tension 

November 17, 1956 
The armed attack of England, France and Israel on 
Egypt has created a situation dangerous for the cause of 
peace and has placed before the peoples In all sharpness 
the question of the threat of a third world war. It is 
known that in the above-mentioned countries large scale 
measures have been carried out for the mobilization of 
ground, naval and air forces, for calling up reserves, for 
mobilization of Industry, transportation, and lines of com- 
munication for servicing military needs. Thus in these 
countries in essence has been created a wartime situation, 
especially if it is taken into consideration that in all 
countries of the North Atlantic bloc (NATO) rabid mili- 
tary propaganda has been unleashed. The aggressive 
actions of England, France and Israel against Egypt, the 
military measures undertaken by them, and the situation 
of war hysteria have created a real danger of expansion 
of the conflict with the utilization of the destructive means 
of the latest military equipment. 

The unprovoked aggression against Egypt naturally 
mobilized the peoples of the East In rising to the defense 
of Egypt, which is struggling for its vital national inter- 
ests, for independent national existence, and thereby for 
the defense also of its own national independence. 

As a result of the heroic opposition of the Egyptian 
people, and in the face of the growing indignation of the 
entire world against the military venture in the Middle 
East, which has been condemned by the United Nations, 
the organizers of aggressive war have been forced to 
cease military operations against Egypt. Nevertheless, 
It is impossible to consider that the real military danger 
has been removed and that a military fire will not flame 
with still greater force. The basis for the concern of the 
peoples is the fact that at the present time the armed 
forces and military equipment of England and t'Yance are 
being concentrated on Cyprus and also in Port Said, wliich 
was occupied by Anglo-French forces even after the dec- 
laration by England and France concerning the cease 



fire, and consequently in violation of the obligations under- 
taken by them before the entire world. 

For the realization of their military plans for the Mid- 
dle East, England and France have transferred to the 
region of military actions large formations including 
those which were on the territory of Western Germany. 
The French Government in addition has transferred a 
significant portion of its army to the region of North 
Africa for the purpose of suppressing the national libera- 
tion movement in Algeria. 

As a result of military actions against Egypt, the Suez 
Canal has been put out of operation for a long period; 
oil pipelines passing across the territory of Arab coun- 
tries have been destroyed; there have been disrupted 
communications, which have vitally important signifi- 
cance for England, France and other countries of P^urope, 
particularly taking into account that all this has led to 
the cessation of transportation of oil to Europe through 
the Mediterranean Sea. Thus for England, France and 
other Western European countries .serious difficulties have 
been created in the receipt of liquid fuel, so essential for 
industry of these countries and having decisive military 
significance, insofar as without liquid fuel in contempo- 
rary conditions military equipment is dead and armies 
cannot fight. 

Thus, the military adventure against Egypt has led to 
a serious weakening not only of the political but also of 
the military strategic positions of England, France and 
Europe and to a serious weakening of all the military 
forces of the North Atlantic bloc on the European con- 
tinent. It is not without reason that, in official circles 
and the press of the Western powers, it is noted with 
alarm that a very delicate situation has been created for 
the organizers of the aggression against Egypt in con- 
nection with the fact that their principal armed forces 
are concentrated in the region of the Near East and in 
North Africa while those forces which are in Euroi)e re- 
main without sufficient equipment. 

There comes to attention the fact that those circles of 
the Western powers who are responsible for the aggres- 
sion against Egypt attempt at the present time, through 
fabrications concerning the aggressive intention of the 
Soviet Union in the Middle East and Europe, both to dis- 
tract attention from the fact of the open aggression com- 
mitted against Egypt and thereby to hide the collapse 
which this adventure has suffered. 

Attempts are being made to fan with regard to the 
Soviet Union a slanderous campaign in connection with 
the collapse of the counterrevolutionary military plot 
against People's Hungary, which is, as has now become 
completely clear, an integral part of the general plot of 
the imperialists against the peace and security of the 
peoples, both in the Middle East and in Europe. All sorts 
of fabrications are being spread concerning an alleged 
concentration of Soviet troops undertaken in various 
countries of Eastern Europe, unusual movements of So- 
viet forces to the western and southern borders of the 
U.S.S.It., etc. All this is utilized by certain circles in 
the West for a rebirth of the cold war, for an ever greater 
increase of the arms race in the countries of N.\TO, this 
basic aggressive grouping which has been openly used 



90 



Department of State Bulletin 



in recent times for the preservation and reestablishment 
of tlie shameful system of colonial repression. 

The creation of this tense situation, including the in- 
tensification of the arms race, is advantageous in the first 
instance to tlie monopolists of the United States, England 
and France, who are squeezing out fabulous profits from 
military orders. Such a situation permits them also to 
preserve at high levels the taxes on the working people 
who are bearing on their shoulders the main burden of 
expenditures for armament and for preparation for 
ground, naval and air warfare. 

Thus on the one hand it is recognized that the Anglo- 
French-Israeli aggression against Egypt has created a 
complicated situation for Western Europe and for NATO 
as a whole. On the other hand, to the Soviet Union is 
ascribed all sorts of clumsy schemes in regard to Western 
Europe, the Middle East, etc., and war hysteria is inflated 
by every means. 

However, those who rush to such means have got them- 
selves completely entangled. 

If the Soviet Union were actually guided by any sort 
of attendant considerations, the situation which has arisen 
for it from the point of view of the relation of forces be- 
tween the powers, and had the aggressive intentions which 
are attributed to it, then it would seem that the Soviet 
Union could utilize the situation which has been created 
at the i)re.sent time for attack against the armed forces 
of the Atlantic bloc and could have achieved the military 
objectives ascribed to It in regard to Western Europe 
even without the use of modern nuclear weapons and 
rockets. 

It can be stated directly that at the present time the 
strategic situation in Western Europe is advantageous 
to the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union to an even 
greater degree than that obtaining at the end of the 
Second World War, when the mobilized and armed Soviet 
Army could have become consolidated in all of Western 
Europe if the Soviet Union had pursued such an aim. 

But, at the end of the Second World War as at the 
present time, the U.S.S.R. did not and does not have any 
other aims than the preservation and strengthening of 
peace, which the i)eoples of all countries long for. 

Only during the past year the Soviet Government has 
unilaterally undertaken major reduction of its armed 
forces by 1,840,000 men, has cut its military budget by 
almost 10,000,000,000 rubles, and has liquidated its military 
bases in Port Arthur and Porkkala Udd. Contrary to 
the false propaganda of the Western powers, it is not 
carrying out any kind of mobilization or movement of its 
troops to its borders. Its troops are occupied with their 
military tasks and are found at their customary bases. 
The Soviet people are engaged in peaceful, creative labor 
in the broad expanses of newly assimilated virgin lands, 
on gigantic construction projects of the sixth five-year 
plan, in the laboratories and the scientific institutes, in 
the various fields of culture, art, and science. 

The Soviet Government declares that the Soviet Union 
has always been and remains an opponent of deciding 
controversies and disagreements between states by means 
of war. It has always been guided and is guided by the 
Leninist policy of peaceful coexistence of states, regard- 



less of the differences in their social and state systems. 
In its relations with other states the Soviet Government 
is guided by the decisions of the historic 20th Congress 
of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, in which 
there was openly stated to the whole world the negative 
attitude of the U.S.S.R. toward war as a means of re- 
solving international controversies and in which its clear 
position on the principles of the coexistence of socialist 
countries with capitalist countries was set forth. 

The Soviet state has stood and henceforth will firmly 
stand on the.se basic positions, since this proceeds from 
the very nature of the socialist state, the basic task of 
which is the raising of the living standard of Its people 
and the development of the productive forces of society, 
free from the fetters of capitalist productive relations. 
It is possible to ensure this not under conditions of war 
but under conditions of a peaceful development permitting 
the utilization of the inexhaustible possibilities of raising 
the socialist economy, culture, and science. 

There are no social groups and classes in the Soviet 
Union which would become rich by war and a military 
situation and which would be interested in the arma- 
ment race, in the seizure of foreign territory, and in the 
unleashing of aggressive wars. 

It is well known that Russia has been transformed in 
a short historical period from a backward agrarian 
country into a powerful industrial state, possessing all 
the conditions and resources for a further rapid upsurge 
of its economy, for the raising of the material welfare 
and the cultural level of the Soviet people. The fact 
that the volume of Industrial production of the U.S.S.R. 
has increased by more than twenty times during the past 
25 years while the volume of industrial productions of 
all capitalist countries has increased less than twofold 
during the same period bears witness to the unprece- 
dented rate of growth of the economy of the Soviet Union. 

The Soviet Union possesses an enormous territory, 
colossal deposits of coal, petroleum, iron ore, and non- 
ferrous metals ; inexhaustible reserves of power re- 
sources, including the newest methods of producing elec- 
tric energy through the use of atomic raw materials. The 
planned economy of the Soviet Union guarantees a normal 
market for manufactured goods, and therefore the 
U.S.S.R. is not faced with the problem of conquering 
markets for its goods. Its economic relations with other 
states are built on the foundation of equal rights and 
mutual advantage which provides the possibility for nor- 
mal exchange of goods in the interest of the further rais- 
ing of the national economy. 

The peoples of the Soviet Union, having taken the path 
of socialism and having achieved unprecedented successes 
In the development of its national economy and culture, 
could be convinced by this experience that the socialist 
system is the most progressive and provides the possi- 
bility of such development of national economy in the 
U.S.S.R. as well as in the other socialist states as in- 
evitably will guarantee the victory of socialism in peace- 
ful economic competition with capitalism. The Soviet 
people are engaged in the solution of the task of catching 
up with and overtaking the most developed capitalist 



January 21, 1957 



91 



countries according to the level of per capita production 
of industrial goods. The Soviet jieople are confident that, 
relying on a powerful technology and the great advantages 
of the socialist economic system, they can in a short his- 
torical period attain that many-sided development of the 
material and spiritual forces of man, and that harmony 
of social life which the building of communism will bring. 

The Soviet Government is profoundly convinced that 
the interests of the Soviet people in the preservation and 
strengthening of peace completely coincide with interests 
of all other peoples of both the West and East. They 
need not atom bombs nor tanks and cannon but clothing, 
food, housing, schools for children, and a quiet and secure 
future. The peoples of the underdeveloped countries want 
to put an end to age-old backwardness, poverty, and the 
wretched heritage of colonial oppression. 

The events of recent times in the Near East have 
graphically shown how great are the forces interested in 
the preservation of peace and ready to restrain aggressors 
with all resolution. At the same time, these events have 
shown that the aggressive circles of certain powers are 
prepared in the name of their narrow interests to throw 
peace into the abyss of a new world war, threatening the 
peoples with new military conflicts fraught with serious 
consequences for mankind. 

This is why the Soviet Union at this moment of responsi- 
bility is again raising its voice for the cessation of the 
armaments race, for the prohibition of atomic and hydro- 
gen weapons, and for the prohibition of tests of these 
weapons. 

For the purpose of the practical and speediest realiza- 
tion of these demands, in which all peoples are vitally 
Interested, the Soviet Government proposes : 

(1) To reduce in the course of two years the armed 
forces of the Soviet Union, the United States of America, 
and China to 1-1.5 million men for each of these states, 
the armed forces of England and France to 650,000 men 
each, and those of each of the remaining states to 150,000- 
200,000 men. 

As a first step to this, to reduce in the course of the 
first year, the armed forces of the Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Republics, the United States of America, and China 
to 2.5 million men and the armed forces of England and 
France to 750 thousand men for each of these states. 

The above-mentioned countries should reduce their 
armaments accordingly. 

(2) To effect in the course of the above-mentioned 
period the ban of atomic and hydrogen weapons, with 
the cessation of the production of nuclear weapons, the 
ban on tlieir use, full destruction of stocks of these 
weapons, and their elimination from the armaments of 
states. 

As a first step, to cease immediately the testing of 
atomic and hydrogen bomb.s. 

(3) To re<luee during 1957 by one-third the armed 
forces of the United States of America, the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, England, and France stationed 
on the territory of Geniiany, with establishment of appro- 
priate control for this reduction. 

(4) To carry out during 1957 the significant reduction 
of the armed forces of the United States of America, 
England, and Franc-e stationed on the territory of coun- 



tries participants in NATO, and the armed forces of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics stationed on the ter- 
ritory of member-countries of the Warsaw Pact. 

(5) To liquidate in the course of two years, foreign 
army, naval, and air bases on the territories of other 
states. 

(6) To curtail the military expenditures of govern- 
ments in the course of two years, corresponding to the 
reduction of armed forces and annaments, banning of 
atomic and hydrogen weapons, and the liquidation of for- 
eign military bases on the territories of other states. 

(7) For observation of the carrying out by the states 
of the obligations undertaken by them concerning dis- 
armament, to establish a strict and effective international 
control, utilizing all necessary rights and functions for 
this purpose. 

For the purpose of preventing a sudden attack by one 
state on another, to establish on the territory of states, 
on a reciprocal basis, control posts in large port.s, rail- 
road junctions, highways, and airports, which will see 
that no dangerous concentration of armed forces and 
armaments takes place. 

The Soviet Government has already repeatedly ex- 
pressed its attitude toward the proposal about the so- 
called plan for aerial photography and declared that this 
proposal does not decide either the problem of controlling 
disarmament or preventing aggression. 

Considering, however, that the proposal for aerial 
photography is presented as a condition for reaching 
agreement on disarmament questions, which creates seri- 
ous obstacles for achieving such an agreement, the Soviet 
Government for the purpose of facilitating the quickest 
achievement of agreement is prepared to consider the 
question of using aerial photography in the area in Europe 
where basic military forces of the North Atlantic Pact are 
located and in countries participating in the Warsaw 
Pact to a depth of 800 kilometers to the East and West 
from the line of demarcation of the above-mentioned mili- 
tary forces, if there is agreement of the appropriate 
states. 

In proposing the realization of the above-mentioned 
measures, the Soviet Government considers that after 
their implementation it is necessary to raise the question 
about the complete liquidation of armed forces and arma- 
ments of all types with retention by states of only such 
contingents of militia (police) which are necessary for 
assuring internal security and the security of frontiers. 

The Soviet Government, true to its policy of guarantee- 
ing peace and desiring to create confidence among i>eoples 
that armaments will never be used for deciding disputes 
among states, again proposes to conclude a pact of non- 
aggression among countries belonging to the North Atlan- 
tic Alliance and the countries of the Warsaw Pact. Such 
a pact, considering that among its members would be the 
Soviet Union and the United States of America, that is, 
the states having the most powerful armed forces, would 
radically change the entire international situation, aiding 
the reduction of international tension and the creation 
of trust among states. 

Since the examination in U.N. agencies of disarmament 
questions has so far not led to any real results in deciding 
the question of reducing armaments and prohibiting atomic 



92 



Department of State Bulletin 



weapons, the Soviet Government considers it necessary, 
along with the continuation of efforts in this direction in 
agencies of the U.N., to seek more effective means for 
settling these problems. Considering that the present 
international situation dictates the necessity for taking 
immediate measures for the purpose of preventing war and 
stopping the armaments rate, the Soviet Government con- 
siders it appropriate to convoke a conference of heads of 
governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
the United States of America, England, France, and India, 
as was proposed by the President of the Swiss Confedera- 
tion.' Such a conference could assist achievement of 
agreements on questions dealing with the problem of 
disarmament. 

The successful conduct of a conference of heads of gov- 
ernments of the five states could prepare for the convoca- 
tion of a wider conference for examination of these ques- 
tions, in which the heads of government of all countries 
participating in NATO and in the Warsaw Pact could 
take part. The Soviet Government considers it desirable 
that such a conference should also be attended by the 
heads of government of a series of other countries and, 
first of all, the Chinese People's Republic, India, Yugosla- 
via, Indonesia, and Burma, which are not either in the 
Warsaw Pact or in such military groups as NATO, SEATO, 
or the Baghdad Pact. 

If difficulties are encountered in convoking a confer- 
ence of the heads of government of the five powers, then 
in the opinion of the Soviet Government the convocation of 
the cited broader conference would meet the interests of 
reducing international tension and improving the inter- 
national situation. 

The Soviet Government considers it necessary with all 
seriousness to underscore the fact that before the world 
at pre.sent are two paths : either the path of terminat- 
ing the cold war, rejecting the policy of "positions of 
strength," disarmament, and the creation of all condi- 
tions for the peaceful coexistence of states with different 
economic and social systems, or the continuation of the 
armaments race, the continuation of the cold war — the 
path leading to an unpreeedentedly burdensome and de- 
structive war which would bring to the entire world inesti- 
mable calamities and sufferings. 

The Soviet Government has stood and stands for the 
position that in the world there are no controversial prob- 
lems which could not be settled peacefully taking into 
account the legitimate interests of the appropriate states. 
As for existing ideological disagreements, they cannot 
be the basis for exacerbation of relations among states, 
for propaganda of war, and even more for application of 
force of one state against another state. Such disagree- 
ments can and must be decided by means of a struggle of 
ideas, in which the advantages of one ideology or other, 
also of one economic system or other, will be proven by 
the very course of historical development. 



Submitting its proposals for disarmament, which are 
dictated by the interests for preserving and strengthening 
peace among peoples, the Soviet Government expresses 
the confidence that they will be supi>orted by all who strive 
not in words but in deeds for the liquidation of the danger 
of a new war and for the strengthening of universal peace. 



Total Visa Issuance Under 
Refugee Relief Act 

Press release 2 dated January 3 

The issuance of visas under the Refugee Relief 
Act of 1953 ended on December 31, 1956. Tenta- 
tive statistics received by the Department of State 
from posts abroad report a total visa issuance of 
189,967. This figure reflects complete issuance of 
all visas permitted in all categories of the law plus 
worldwide orphan issuance where there were a 
sufficient number of sponsored applicants to meet 
the requirements. A breakdown of the tentative 
final figures by category as established in the 
Refugee Relief Act is as follows : 



' Bulletin of Nov. 26, 1956, p. 839. 



Sec. 4(a) (1) - German Ethnic Expel- 
lees residing in Germany and 
Austria 

Sec. 4(a) (2) - Escapees from Behind 
the Iron Curtain in Germany and 
Austria 

Sec. 4(a) (3) - Escapees from Behind 
the Iron Curtain in NATO Coun- 
tries, Turkey, Iran 

Sec. 4(a) (4) - Anders Poles in British 
Isles 

Sec. 4(a) (5) and (6) - (Combined by' 
the Graham Amendment) - Italian 
Refugees and Preference Category 
Relatives 

Sec. 4(a) (7) and (8) - (Combined by' 
the Graham Amendment) - Greek 
Refugees and Preference Category 

Sec. 4(a) (9) 'and '(10) - (Combi'ne'd by' 
the Graham Amendment) - Dutch 
Refugees and Preference Category 
Relatives 

Sec. 4(a) (11) - European Refugees 
in the Far East 

Sec. 4(a) (12) - Asian Refugees from' 
Communism in the Far East . . 

Sec. 4(a) (13) - Chinese Refugees with' 
Chinese National Passports . . . . 

Sec. 4(a) (14) - Palestine Refugees in 
the Near East 

Sec. 5(a) - Orphans Adopted by United 
States Citizens 



Authorized 



65, 000 

35, 000 

10, 000 
2,000 

60, 000 

17, 000 

17, 000 
2,000 
3,000 
2,000 
2,000 
4,000 



Issued 



38, 662 

35, 000 

10, 000 
2,000 

60, 000 

17, 000 

15, 403 
902 
3,000 
2,000 
2,000 
4,000 



January 21, 1957 



93 



Providing for tlie Needs of the Hungarian Refugees 



REPORT TO PRESIDENT EISENHOWER BY VICE PRESIDENT NIXON, JANUARY 1, 1957 



Introduction 

This report deals only with a symptom, and not 
with the basic problem. No matter how well we 
care for the victims of oppression, the guilt of 
those who drove them from their homes, who 
killed their fellow-countrymen and who today 
keep their nation in slavery must never be 
forgotten. 

The revolt of the courageous people of Hun- 
gary against their oppressors is one of the most 
significant events in the history of mankind. 
Without plan or organization they rose up in final 
revulsion against the subjugation and cruelty 
which has been imposed upon them. What they 
did and are doing was not in vain for, by their 
deeds, they sounded the death knell of interna- 
tional Communism for all the world to hear. 

In a discussion confined as is this report to the 
present plight of the Hungarian refugees, we 
recognize that we are not dealing with the basic 
question of how freedom is to be provided for 
Hungary. Compliance by the U.S.S.R. with 
the resolution of the United Nations ^ calling for 
the removal of Soviet troops from Hungary is the 
only adequate and permanent solution to that 
problem, and to the problems which face the Hun- 
garian people. Solutions short of this must be 
considered temporary and basically not satis- 
factory. 

On the basis of a first-hand survey ^ of the 
Hungarian refugees from the time they cross the 
border into Austria until they leave the Camp Kil- 
mer Reception Center, I submit the following 
findings and recommendations : 

' For text, see Bulletin of Nov. 19, 1956, p. 803. 



Number and Character of Refugees 

Approximately 155,000 refugees have crossed 
the border between October 23, 1956 and January 
1, 1957. An average of approximately 800 per 
day are coming across the border at this time. 
(See Appendix 1) 

The quality of the people who fled Hungary is 
of the highest order. For the most part they were 
in the forefront of the fight for freedom and fled 
only when the choice was death or deportation 
at the hands of the foreign invaders or temporary 
flight to a foreign land to await the inevitable 
freedom for Hungary. The large majority are 
young people — students, technicians, craftsmen 
and professional people. There are many family 
units, including a large number of children. (See 
Appendix 2) 

The majority of the refugees who have been 
interviewed say that they left Hungary because 
of fear of liquidation or of deportation. The 
number of floaters and of those who left Himgary 
purely for economic reasons is relatively small. 

The majority of those who have been inter- 

" Mr. Nixon left Washington for Vienna on Dec. 18 and 
returned to Washington on Dec. 24. He visited the Camp 
Kilmer Reception Center on Dec. 27. The Department of 
State announced on Dec. 18 (press release 625) that the 
Vice President's party included Representative Bob Wil- 
son ; William P. Rogers, Deputy Attorney General ; John 
B. Hollister, Director, International Cooperation Admin- 
istration ; Robert L. King, Dwight S. Porter, and H. G. 
Torbert, Jr., Department of State; and LiOie G. Gaunt, 
Secretary to the Vice President. Lowell T. Coggeshall, 
Special Assistant to the Secretary of Health, Education, 
and Welfare, and George Katona, Professor of Psychology, 
University of Michigan, traveled separately and joined 
the party in Austria. 



94 



Department of State Bulletin 



viewed to dcate have expressed a desire to return 
to Hungary in the event of a change of government 
which would make it safe for tliem to do so. 

The problem of checking the security back- 
grounds of the refugees is not as difficult as usual, 
due to the fact that in addition to the usual docu- 
mentary evidence available in such cases, direct 
evidence is being volunteered by other refugees 
who are well-informed as to the identity of spies 
and agents in their communities. 

I am convinced that if the screening process 
which is presently in effect is continued the Hun- 
garian refugees who are admitted to the United 
States will present no significant risk of inter- 
nal subversion in this country. 

Talcing all the above factors into consideration, 
I believe that the countries which accept these 
refugees will find that, rather than having as- 
sumed a liability, they have acquired a valuable 
national asset. As Mr. Herbert Hoover said on 
December 27, 1956, "The Hungarian refugees have 
proved by their courage and sacrifice that they 
are the traditional sort of persons who make 
Americans." 



Disposition of Refugees to Date 

88,000 of the 155,000 refugees have been reset- 
tled in countries other than Austria, as of Janu- 
ary 1. Of this 88,000, 15,000 have gone to the 
United States, and 73,000 have been accepted in 
other countries. 

Of the 67,000 who are in Austria at this time, the 
Austrian Government had indicated that approxi- 
mately 30,000 could be assimilated into the Aus- 
trian economy, provided some assistance was given 
to Austria for the construction of housing and 
other facilities to provide for them during an ad- 
justment period. 

This leaves a minimum of 37,000 in Austria at 
the present time for whom homes must be found 
in other countries. 



Estimate of Eventual Total Refugee Movement 

How long the exodus of refugees from Hungary 
into Austria will continue will depend upon what 
happens in Hungary. If the character of the 
Hungarian Government were to change so that a 
degree of freedom were to be provided for the 
Hungarian people, there is little question but that 
the number of refugees leaving Hungary would 



be substantially reduced, and there is also no ques- 
tion but that many of those who have left Hun- 
gary would return. 

There is also the possibility that the Hungarian 
Government might decide to step up its efforts to 
close the border, and, in that event, the number of 
refugees leaving Hungary probably would be sub- 
stantially reduced. 

Another factor which must be taken into account 
in analyzing the total problem is that some of the 
73,000 who have gone to other countries did so 
with the understanding that they were going there 
temporarily and would eventually have the oppor- 
tunity to go to the United States. 

The President has stated that the United States 
would accept within this country those who went 
to other countries with such an understanding. 

"Wliile the total number of refugees in the above 
categories can not be estimated with any degree 
of certainty, there can be but one conclusion. The 
United States and other free nations must take 
substantially more refugees than they have agreed 
to take up to this time. 

Recommendations as to Future United States 
Policy on Accepting Additional Refugees 

It has been suggested that the United States 
should announce at this time that it would take 
a fixed additional nmnber of refugees. 

Another suggestion that has been made is that 
the United States should agree to take a certain 
percentage of all Hungarian refugees who are 
presently in Austria, and of those who may come 
to Austria from Hungary in the future. 

I have concluded that it would not be wise for 
the United States to be tied down either to a fixed 
percentage or a fixed number. 

It should be our policy, along with other free 
nations of the world, to take our full share of 
these escapees from Communist tyranny. 

We should not place a ceiling on what we will 
do in fulfilling our traditional national mission 
of providing a haven of refuge for victims of 
oppression. In addition, because of the uncer- 
tainty of the situation witliin Hungary, it is not 
possible for us to make any accurate estimate of 
what such a fixed number should be. 

For us to agree to take a percentage of all ref- 
ugees is also unrealistic. Conditions change 
within the various countries which might provide 
homes for refugees, and our policy should be flex- 
ible enough to take such changes into accoimt. 



January 21, 1957 



95 



Attorney General To Parole 
Refugees Until Congress Acts 

Statement hy President Eisenhower 

White House press release dated January 1 

The Attorney General will continue to parole 
Hungarian refugees into the United States until 
such time as the Congress acts. This action, in my 
opinion, is clearly in the national interest. It will 
prevent a stoppage of the flow of these refugees and 
will permit the United States to continue, along 
with the other free nations of the world, to do its 
full share in providing a haven for these victims 
of oppression. 



Our policy should be based on the following 
principles : 

1. All free nations should share to the extent 
of their capabilities in the responsibility for re- 
settling refugees. Both through the United Na- 
tions, and through noraial diplomatic channels, 
the government of the United States should work 
toward the realization of this objective. The U.S. 
Escapee Program, the Intergovernmental Com- 
mittee for European Migration, and the United 
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, all of 
which are engaged in various phases of resettle- 
ment activity, should receive support from us for 
this purpose. 

2. Until Congress passes appropriate legisla- 
tion, admission of Hungarians to the United States 
should be continued under the parole procedures 
now in effect.^ Most of these admissions should 
continue to apply to Hungarians in Austria to 
relieve the pressure in that country. However, 
some should be reserved for the Hungarians now 
in temporary asylum in Western Europe outside 



'Sec. 212 (d) (5) of the Immigration and Nationality 
Act reads as follows : "The Attorney General may in his 
discretion parole into the United States temporarily un- 
der such conditions as he may prescribe for emergent 
reasons or for reasons deemed strictly in the public in- 
terest any alien applying for admission to the United 
States, but such parole of such alien shall not be regarded 
as an admission of the alien and when the purposes of 
such parole shall, in the opinion of the Attorney General, 
have been seiTed the alien shall forthwith return or be 
returned to the custody from which he was paroled and 
thereafter his case shall continue to be dealt with in the 
same manner as that of any other applicant for admis- 
sion to the United States." 



of Austria, with the understanding that they 
would eventually be admitted to the United States. 
Preference within this latter group should be 
given at this time primarily to those with rel- 
atives in this country. To this end, we should 
begin taking applications from the refugees out- 
side of Austria. U.S. diplomatic representatives 
in the countries who are now offering asylum 
should wherever possible work out arrangements 
whereby refugees from Austria could be received 
in those countries to replace those we take for re- 
settlement in the United States. 

3. An amendment to the Inunigration and Na- 
tionality Act should be presented to the Congress 
for immediate consideration which would : 

a. Regularize the status of Hungarian refugees 
brought into the United States under the parole 
procedure, and 

b. Provide flexible authority to grant admission 
to this country of additional numbers of Hmigar- 
ian and other refugees from Communist persecu- 
tion, through the use of non-quota visas within an 
annual ceiling. 

Such a provision should take into account the 
escapees who left Hungary before October 23, 
1956, and the meritorious cases of those from 
other Eastern European countries who can not be 
resettled in the United States because of the termi- 
nation of the Refugee Relief Program and the 
lack of any other legislative authority for their 
admittance. 

c. I strongly urge the enactment of the amend- 
ments to the Immigration and Nationality Act 
proposed by the President to the Eighty-fourth 
Congress.* Such amendments would provide ade- 
quate flexibility in our immigration policy to meet 
more fully our world responsibilities. For ex- 
ample, it would permit consideration for certain 
escapees from Communism other than those in 
Eastern Europe, including Chinese Nationalists 
wlio have had to flee from the Communist Govern- 
ment in their country. 

4. It has been suggested that no change in the 
law is needed and that the whole problem of 
refugees from Communist countries can be 
handled adequately under the parole provisions of 
the present Act. 

While the Attorney General has interpreted the 
parole provisions so as to cover the 15,000 Hun- 
garian refugees who have been admitted up to this 

* Bulletin of Feb. 20, 1956, p. 275. 



96 



Department of State Bulletin 



time, and while I believe that the applications of 
additional Hungarian refugees should be proc- 
essed under that provision between now and the 
time the Congress has an opportunity to con- 
sider amendments to the Act, tlie circumstances 
and the limits under which this provision should 
be applied in the future should be spelled out by 
the Congress. 

As the Attorney General has stated, neither he 
nor any other administrative official should have 
unlimited authority to admit aliens to the United 
States on a parole basis. It is obvious that such 
power, if arbitrarily used, could completely cir- 
cumvent tlie basic purposes and objectives of the 
Immigration Law. 

Economic Assistance by the United States 

Our govermiiental aid for care and maintenance 
of Hungarian refugees has been partially directed 
tlirough the United Nations. We should continue 
our participation with the other free nations in 
this United Nations effort in order to secure the 
most effective combination of our resources. But 
it will be necessary, also, to deal directly with the 
Austrian government and relief agencies on vari- 
ous aid matters, particularly those involving ex- 
penditures afl'ecting the Austrian economy. 

In connection with economic assistance to 
Austria, it should be pointed out that the cost to 
the Austrian government has been considerable 
up to this time. Austria is a relatively small coun- 
tr}' of approximately seven million people. It has 
a housing shortage. Its economic recovery, 
though remarkable, was impeded by the long occu- 
pation of the country, ended only last year. Its 
budgetary capabilities are already strained. A 
substantial refugee program was present in 
Austria prior to this new influx from Hungary 
and most facilities were already overflowing. It 
cost approximately one dollar a clay to feed each 
refugee and in addition substantial amounts must 
be found to improve or renovate existing build- 
ings, to provide internal transportation, furniture, 
medical care, and related costs. 

The refugees arrive destitute with no posses- 
sions but the clothes on their backs and they re- 
quire some additional clothing and the basic 
amenities needed for living. Although much 
financial aid has come from the charitable or- 
ganizations, particularly the Red Cross Societies, 
and much more will be given through their help, 

January 21, 1957 

412770—57 3 



the fact remains that the residual financial burden 
falls on the Austrian government. This will in 
turn require the help of other governments, includ- 
ing our own. 

The League of Red Cross Societies, of which the 
American Red Cross is a member, has assumed re- 
sponsibility for care and maintenance of 35,000 
refugees in the larger camps in Austria. The 
funds which we have transmitted to the United 
Nations (five million dollars) have been divided 
between the Austrian Government and the Lickoss 
based on their respective needs and requirements. 
.Vdditional financial assistance to Licross thi'ough 
the United Nations will be required and should be 
provided. 

It is also recommended that the governmental 
agencies concerned continue to explore the maxi- 
mum use of surplus agricultural commodities both 
for the food i"equirements of the refugees as well 
as for the generation of counterpart funds which 
might be used for some of the cash requirements 
for the relief program. 

Most of the cash contributions from our gov- 
ernment have up to now been made from the 
P^mergeiicies Fund provided in Section 401 of the 
Mutual Security Act. Current estimates are that 
presently appropi'iated funds will be adequate to 
provide for foreseeable costs of the Hungarian Re- 
lief Program for this fiscal year — until July 1, 
1957. 

The United States voluntary agencies may in 
this emei-gency period need limited governmental 
financial aid to assist them in the resettlement 
program in this country. This assistance would 
not ordinarily be required, but the sudden influx 
of Hungarian refugees has in the case of certain 
agencies placed particularly severe demands on 
their financial resources which they are unable to 
meet through the voluntary contributions avail- 
able to them. To the extent that private contribu- 
tions are not available there is no alternative but 
to provide support through government funds. 

Coordination of the activities of the voluntary 
agencies and the Federal Government concerned 
with refugee resettlement in the United States 
sliould continue to be the responsibility of the 
President's Committee on Hungarian Refugee Re- 
lief. The Committee, under the able direction of 
Mr. Tracy Voorhees, has done an admirable job.^ 



" For a list of the full committee, see ibid., Dec. 24-31, 
1956, p. 980. 

97 



General Comments 

This report is not intended to cover all phases 
of the refugee problem. A more detailed report 
has already been submitted orally to the President 
and additional data on economic assistance will be 
submitted by Mr. Hollister. 

After a thorough examination of the placement 
procedures at the Kilmer Reception Center, I am 
convinced that there is no question but that the 
American economy can easily and profitably as- 
similate into our economy the refugees from Hun- 
gary who are entering the United States. (See 
Appendix 3) 

This report would not be complete without pay- 
ing tribute to the work of the voluntary agencies 
who have provided an inspiring example in the 
best American tradition of extra-governmental 
charity in welfare work. They moved in quickly 
when the refugees first began leaving Hungary. 
They provided food, clothing and care in the first 
chaotic days. They are processing the i-efugees 
for their movement out of Austria and it is to 
them that we look for the successful resettlement 
of Hungarian as well as other Iron Curtain refu- 
gees in the United States and other countries. 
They deserve the continued generous financial 
support of the American people. 

I should also like to pay tribute to the American 
governmental officials who have worked willingly 
and ably night and day during these last two 
months. Our Ambassador to Austria and his staff, 
and the staffs of the Immigration and Naturaliza- 
tion Service, the Public Health Service, and the 
Department of Labor have all done a superb job. 
The contribution of the United States Armed 
Forces in instituting and running the air and sea 
lifts has been in the best traditions of their re- 
spective services. I saw no more striking example 
of the generous spirit of America than the activi- 
ties of the wives of Armed Forces personnel who 
arranged to provide special care for refugees at 
the various installations through which the refu- 
gees passed on their way to the United States. 

Another example is the soup kitchen run by the 
wives of American governmental personnel in 
Vienna where three to four thousand I'efugees are 
fed daily. These are only examples of similar ac- 
tivities at the various installations where Ameri- 
can personnel are assigned to this problem. 

In conclusion, it is essential that in our neces- 
sary and understandable concern over the immedi- 
ate problem of providing for the needs of refugees 



we not lose sight of the historical significance of 
this mass migi-ation of people from an area of 
slavery to an area of freedom. The Communist 
leaders thought they were building a new order 
in Hungary. Instead they erected a monument 
which will stand forever in history as proof of the 
ultimate failure of International Communism. 
Those people, both inside and outside of Hungary, 
who had the courage to expose by their actions 
this evil ideology for what it is deserve all the 
gratitude and support which we in the Fi'ee World 
are so willingly giving today. 



Status Report op Hungarian Refugee Situation, 

Austria 



Appendix 1 

Rep* 

(as of 31 December 1956, 0700 Hours) 

1. Total influx into Austria 28 October 1956 to 

date 155, 085 

2. Total number arrived in Austria last 24 

hours 1 711 

3. Total number residing in Austria as of 31 

December 1956 . 67, 008 

4. Movements: 

Curmda- 
Hve total 
Country Quota moved 

Total 87, 572 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
)8. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 



Switzerland . . . 
Germany. . . . 
Holland .... 

France 

Sweden .... 
United Kingdom 
Australia. . . . 
Canada .... 

U.S.A 

Belgium .... 
New Zealand . . 
Ireland .... 
Luxembourg . . 

Italy 

Spain 

Denmark . . . 

Brazil 

Colombia . . . 

Chile 

South Africa . . 
Norway .... 
Argentina . . . 
Iceland .... 
Israel 



2 10, 000 

13, 552 

3 5, 000 

Unlimited 

4,000 

Unlimited 

5,000 

Unlimited 

21, 500 

3, 000 

1, 000 

1,000 

200 

4,000 



10, 300 

10, 934 

2, 920 

8,395 

3,993 

12, 866 

1,055 

7, 635 

19, 668 

3,019 

66 

530 

189 

3,451 



1,000 
3,000 
1, 000 
1,000 
500 
1,000 
2,000 



1,000 



47 

148 

528 

20 

52 

756 



' Arrivals in Austria. Daily average by weeks for 
December. 

Number 
per day 

1st week 2, 532 

2nd week 1, 724 

3rd week 1, 185 

4th week 866 

Last 3 days 714 

2 6,000 on a temporary basis. 
> 2,000 on a temporary b.isis. 

Unltod States Dopartmont of Justiop 
ImmlfTOtlon and .Naturalization Service 



98 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Appendix 2 

Recent Hungarian Refugees and Parolees Admitted 
TO THE United States by Major Occupation Group 

(received and processed in Central OflSce through 
December 28, 1956) 



Occupation group 



Total 

Professional, technical, and kindred workers. . 

Farmers and farm managers 

Managers, officials, and proprietors, except farm 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Sales workers 

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers. . . 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Private household workers 

Service workers, except private household. . . 

Farm laborers 

Laborers, except farm and mine 

No occupation 

Housewives 

Retired 

Students 

Children under 14 years of age 

Not reported 



Number 



9,253 



1, OGO 
112 
121 
557 
100 

1,963 

1,538 

65 

244 

99 

435 

2,959 



746 

6 

602 

1,565 

40 



Recent Hungarian Refugees and Parolees Admitted 
BY Sex, Age, and Marital or Family Status 

(received in Central Office through December 28, 1956) 



United States Department of Justice 
Immigration and Naturalization Service 



Total 

Age: 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-29 years 

30-39 years 

40-49 years 

50-59 years 

60 years and over 

Not reported 

Marital status — refugees only: 

Single 

Married 

Widowed 

Divorced 

Unknown 

Family status — parolees only: 

Principal applicant .... 

Spouse 

Child 

Unknown 



Total 


Males 


9,253 


6,028 


572 


298 


611 


320 


461 


2.38 


1, 309 


955 


3,310 


2,354 


1,762 


1,099 


865 


561 


281 


170 


71 


28 


11 


5 


3,205 


2, 458 


1,932 


1,084 


81 


27 


197 


128 


22 


16 


2,339 


1, 859 


629 


24 


847 


432 


1 


. . . . 



Females 



3,225 



274 
291 
223 
354 
956 
663 
304 
111 
43 



747 

848 

54 

69 

6 



480 

605 

415 

1 



Appendix 3 



Kilmer Refugee Status Summary 
(as of December 30, 1956) 



Month 
December 



Date 



1 Saturday . 

2 Sunday. . 

3 Monday . 

4 Tuesday . 

5 Wednesday 

6 Thursday . 

7 Friday . . 

8 Saturday . 

9 Sunday. . 

10 Monday . 

11 Tuesday . 

12 Wednesday 

13 Thursday. 

14 Friday . . 

15 Saturday . 

16 Sunday. . 

17 Mondav . 

18 Tuesday . 

19 Wednesday 

20 Thursday. 

21 Friday . . 

22 Saturdav . 

23 Sunday." . 

24 Monday . 

25 Tuesday . 

26 Wednesday 

27 Thursday. 

28 Fridav . . 

29 Saturday . 

30 Sunday. . 



#of 
planes 
arrived 




2 
3 
3 
4 
4 
3 

o 

4 
5 
8 
7 

15 
7 

12 
5 

17 

o 

6 
5 

11 

12 
8 

22 
9 

13 
9 
8 
7 



#of 
refugees 
arrived 



149 

143 
211 
218 
277 
290 
207 
224 
292 
359 
494 
417 

,025 
466 
694 
330 

, 101 
124 
416 
313 
709 
740 
517 

, 406 
597 
870 
596 
473 
491 



#of 
refugees 
departed 



90 
90 
57 
108 
1.56 
62 
97 
223 
144 
384 
161 
163 
239 
55 
202 
117 
256 
365 
400 
519 
341 
229 
169 
282 
186 
316 
823 
575 
542 
445 



Total 
planes 
arrived 



13 

13 

15 

18 

21 

25 

29 

32 

35 

39 

44 

52 

69 

74 

81 

93 

98 

115 

117 

123 

128 

139 

151 

159 

181 

190 

203 

212 

220 

227 



Total 
refugees 
received 



951 
951 
058 
269 
487 
764 
054 
261 
485 
777 
136 
630 
047 
072 
538 
232 
562 
663 
787 
203 
516 
225 
965 
482 
888 
485 
355 
951 
424 
915 



Total 
refugees 
departed 



583 

613 

730 

838 

994 

1, 056 

1, 153 

1, 376 

1, 520 
1,904 

2, 065 
2, 228 
2,467 
2, 522 
2, 724 

2, 841 
3,097 

3, 462 
3,862 

4, 381 
4,722 
4,951 

4, 120 

5, 402 
5, 588 
5, 904 
6,727 
7, 302 
7,844 
8,289 



Total 
refugees 
on band 



33 
315 
329 
431 
493 
782 
975 
885 
965 
873 
1,071 
1, 402 



580 

2, 550 
2,814 

3, 391 
3,465 

4, 201 
3, 925 
3, 822 
3, 794 
4,274 
4,845 

5, 080 

6, 300 
6, 581 
6,628 
6,649 
6,580 
6,626 



January 21, 1957 



99 



U.S.-lcelandic Defense Negotiations 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 6 (press release 610) that the Governments 
of the United States and of Iceland have agreed 
that recent developments in world affairs and the 
continuing threat to the security of Iceland and 
the North Atlantic community call for the pres- 
ence of defense forces in Iceland under the United 
States-Iceland Defense Agreement of May 5, 1951, 
and therefore that the discussions requested by the 
Government of Iceland concerning the revision of 
the agreement and the withdrawal of the defense 
force should be discontinued.^ 

It has also been decided to set up a group for 
high-level consultation between the two Goveni- 
ments on matters affecting defense aiTangements. 
In this manner it is hoped that future problems 
can be reviewed and disposed of as they develop 
and that the need for formal negotiations under 
article VII of the agreement can be avoided. 

The North Atlantic Council has been informed 
of the foregoing and has welcomed the arrange- 
ments which have been reached. 

These agreements are embodied in two ex- 
changes of notes in Keykjavik on December 6 be- 
tween U.S. Ambassador John J. Muccio and the 
Icelandic Minister of Foreign Aifairs, Gund- 
mundur I. Gundmundsson. The substantive parts 
of the two exchanges read as follows. 



AGREEMENT ON DEFENSE NEGOTIATIONS 

Becognizing the traditional principles expressed by the 
Government of Iceland upon its adherence to the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization relating to the stationing 
of forces in Iceland and the fact that final decision as to 
the presence of the defense forces in Iceland rests witli 
the Govcrnnieut of Iceland, the Governments of Iceland 
and the United States have held discussions concerning 
the revision of the Defense Agreement and the with- 
drawal of the defense force and have reached an under- 
standing that the recent development of the world affairs 
and the continuing threat to the security of Iceland and 
the Nortli Atlantic community call for the presence of 
defense forces in Iceland under the Defense Agreement 
and therefore decided : 

1. That discussions concerning the revision of the De- 
fense Agreement for the purpose of the withdrawal of 



' F(ir background, see Bulletin of July 30, 1956, p. 192 ; 
Aug. 20, 1956, p. 306 ; and Oct. 15, 1956, p. 580. 



the Defense Force will be discontinued until notice is 
given according to paragraph 2 below. 

2. That the six-month period of notice provided for in 
Article VII of the Defense Agreement will start to run 
when either Government gives notice. 

3. That a Standing Group will study defense needs in 
the light of the development of world conditions and 
make recommendations to the Governments how to meet 
these problems. 



AGREEMENT SETTING UP ICELAND DEFENSE 
STANDING GROUP 

An Iceland Defense Standing Group consisting of not 
more than three senior representatives of each Govern- 
ment will be constituted for the following purposes : 

I. to consult from time to time as to the defense needs 
of Iceland and the North Atlantic area, to consider ar- 
rangements appropriate to meeting such needs, and, tak- 
ing into account the general political and military situa- 
tion, to make recommendations to the two governments ; 

II. to make preparations ccmsistent with military 
readiness for a broader participation by Icelandic na- 
tionals in the performance of functions connected with 
defense in.sofar as fpialitied personnel are available, and to 
assure the establishment of training programs appropriate 
to this purpose ; 

III. to endeavor to resolve general problems of policy 
with regard to the relations between the Icelandic people 
and the Defense Force. 



United States Loan to Iceland 
Will Finance Imports 

The International Cooperation Administration 
announced on December 28 the conclusion of a $4 
million loan to the Iceland Bank of Development 
to finance essential general imports into Iceland. 
The loan, which was requested in order to continue 
Iceland's economic development program, is guar- 
anteed by the Government of Iceland. 

The loan, to be administered by the Export- 
Import Bank of Washing-ton, will include some 
$000,000 in Danish kroner and Dutch guilder 
owned by the United States, chiefly as a residt of 
prior years' sales of surplus U.S. agricidtural com- 
modities to Denmark and to the Netherlands for 
local currencies. The balance of about $3.4 mil- 
lion will be in dollars. 

Tlie loan is repayable in doHars at 3 ])ercent 
interest, or in either Danish kroner, Dutch guilder, 
or Icelandic krona at 4 percent interest. The term 
of the loan is for 22 years, including a 2-year 
grace period on principal repaymenls but with no 
grace for interest payments. 



100 



Department oi State Bulletin 



Funds for the dollar part of the loan will be 
drawn from the Special Presidential Fund author- 
ized by Congress for such use as the President 
determines is important to the security of the 
United States. 



People of Eniwetok and Bikini 
Compensated for Leaving Homes 

The Office of the High Commissioner of the 
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands at Guam 
announced on November 25 that the people of 
Eniwetok and Bikini have been compensated for 
moving from their home islands in order to facili- 
tate the atomic experiments of the United States 
in the Western Pacific.^ The announcement 
stated that formal settlement had been made with 
the former residents of Bikini and Eniwetok, now 
living at Kill and Ujelang respectively, whereby 
they are being provided with trust funds and cash 
amounting in all to half a million dollars, and 
other considerations in addition. The settlement 
marks the satisfactory culmination of U.S. efforts 
to provide adequate compensation for the people 
who left their familiar habitat for new homes on 
other islands, in order to provide a testing ground 
for atomic power. 

Terms of the trust agreement amount to $300,- 
000 for the Bikinians now located at Kill and 
$150,000 for the people of Eniwetok now living 
at Ujelang. Also, both groups have been given 
land-use rights to their present island homes, plus 
an additional $25,000 already delivered in cash to 
each group, and other considerations. In return, 
the United States is given land- use rights to Bikini 
and Eniwetok. 

The additional considerations include land-use 
rights to certain small islands adjacent to their 
present home in the case of the Kilians, and also a 
50-foot boat which they will use in transporting 
passengers and copra, the dried meat of the coco- 
nut, between Kili Island and nearby Jaluit Atoll. 

The High Commissioner, Delmas H. Nucker, 
reported that he had conferred personally with 
both the former Bikinians and the people of Eni- 
wetok and that, in compliance with the wishes of 

' Tlie aniioimcement was transmitted to the U.N. Secre- 
tary-General by the U.S. Representative to the United 
Nations on Dec. 14 and was circulated on Dec. 26 (U.N. 
doc. T/129.5). 



each group, the Trust Territory Government has 
agreed to establish the respective trust fmids, 
make the additional payments in cash, and give 
other considerations. Word that all contracts 
carrying out the terms of these agreements had 
been formally signed by the people of Ujelang and 
Kili, and the initial cash payments delivered, was 
received at the High Commissioner's office at 
Guam by dispatch from the Marshall Islands, 
where a representative of the Trust Territory 
Government had signed the papers on behalf of the 
Trust Territory Administration. 

The Trust Territory Administration for almost 
10 years has been assisting the former Bikini and 
Eniwetok residents to become established in their 
new islands. During this period a subsistence and 
education progi'am has been carried on to insure 
their welfare and well-being. 

"It is gratifying to be able to report that the 
people of Kili and Ujelang were in total accord 
with the terms of settlement,"' the High Commis- 
sioner stated following his return from discussions 
with the relocated families. "Their satisfaction 
was demonstrated to me during our recent con- 
ferences, both of which closed on assurances of 
complete satisfaction." 

The payments for land use by the United States 
were a subject of discussion at the annual U.N". 
Trusteeship Council hearings on trust territory 
affairs in June 1956. The amicable settlement of 
these Bikini and Eniwetok claims by mutual as- 
.sent of all parties gives material proof of the 
United States' fulfillment of its obligations in con- 
nection with the Marshall Islands experiments. It 
also marks a step forward in trust territory ad- 
ministration. 



World Bank Loans for Steel 
Production in Japan and India 



LOAN TO JAPAN 

The World Bank on December 19 announced a 
loan of $20 million to finance part of the cost of 
constructing a modern strip mill at the Kawasaki 
Steel Corporation's plant near Tokyo. The loan 
was made to the Japan Development Bank, a gov- 
ernment agency which supplies long-term credit 
for industrial development in Japan and acts as 



January 2J, 1957 



101 



an instrument for governmental guaranty of pri- 
vate borrowing abroad. The Development Bank 
will I'elend the proceeds of the loan to the privately 
owned Kawasaki Corporation. 

The First National City Bank of New York is 
participating in the loan, witliout the World 
Bank's guaranty, to the extent of $1,252,000, rep- 
resenting the first two maturities falling due in 
May and November 1960. 

The rapid industrial growth that Japan is now 
exi>eriencing has created a shortage of iron and 
steel, and increased output of tliese products is es- 
sential to meet domestic demand. Furthermore, 
tlie steel industry supplies materials for exported 
products such as machinery and transportation 
equipment, which are an important factor in 
Japan's foreign excliange earnings. 

Kawasaki, formerly a division of the Kawasaki 
Dockyard Company, has been producing steel 
since 1918. It is now one of tlie largest steel pro- 
ducers in Japan. Until recently it had no blast 
furnaces and its steel production was based almost 
entirely on purchased scrap; its principal prod- 
ucts were ship plate and steel sheet. In 1950 it 
became a separate company and undertook iron- 
making and the expansion of its steel works to en- 
able it to become a fully integrated producer. 
Space for such expansion was not available at its 
main works in Kobe, and the company decided to 
locate its new plant at Chiba on Tokyo Bay, where 
it would have ready access to the country's prin- 
cipal industrial area. 

The first stage of construction at Chiba was 
completed in 1954 ; it consisted of a blast furnace, 
open hearth furnaces, and a high-capacity slab- 
bing mill. The second stage, now to be undertaken 
with the assistance of the bank loan, will be the 
construction at Chiba of finisliing facilities, con- 
sisting of semicontinuous hot and cold strip mills. 



LOAN TO INDIA 

The World Bank on December 20 announced a 
loan equivalent to $20 million in various curren- 
cies for the expansion of steel production in India. 
The loan was made to the Indian Iron and Steel 
Company, Ltd. (Iisco), a privately owned Indian 
company whose steel works are situated at Burn- 
pur in West Bengal. The loan will help to finance 
additional rolling capacity so that Iisco will be 
able to increase its output of semifinished and fin- 



ished steel to 800,000 tons annually. Iisco is 
India's second largest steel producer, and the out- 
put of its plant accounts for about a third of 
India's present steel production. 

The emi^hasis in India's second Five- Year Plan 
is on the expansion of industry and transport, and 
tlie development of iron and steel production is 
tlie outstanding feature of tlie industrial program. 
India is in a particularly good position to produce 
steel. An abundance of conveniently located raw 
material — iron ore, coal, manganese, and lime- 
stone — and a plentiful supply of labor enable it to 
produce steel at costs as low as any in the world. 

The bank has now lent a total equivalent to 
$126.5 million to increase iron and steel produc- 
tion in India. This is the second loan to Iisco; 
the first, $31.5 million, was made in December 
1952. The other steel loan, $75 million, was made 
to the Tata Iron and Steel Company, Ltd., in June 
1956. The loans are assisting in expansion pro- 
grams which will enable the two private com- 
panies to produce 2.3 million tons of finished steel 
annually. In addition the Government is building 
three plants which will have a total production of 
2.2 million tons annually. The combined output 
of the two companies and the Government plants 
is the target for Indian steel production to be 
achieved by 1961 under the second Five- Year 
Plan. 



Surplus Commodity Agreement 
Signed With Brazil 

Press release 640 dated December 31 

The United States and Brazil on December 31 
sifnied an aoreement authorizing the sale to Brazil 
through private U.S. traders of wheat, edible oils, 
lard, and dairy products to a total value of $138,- 
700,000, including ocean freight. These sales are 
being made under authority and provisions of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance 
Act of 1954, as amended. The agreement was 
signed in the office of Secretary of Agriculture 
Ezra T. Benson by Ernani do Amaral Peixoto, 
Brazilian Ambassador to the United States, and 
by Acting Deputy Under Secretary of State for 
Economic Affairs Thorsten V. Kalijarvi. 

The agreement provides that payment for the 
commodities under the sales program will be made 
in Brazilian currency. A part of tlie currency 
accruing will be earmarked for loans designed to 



102 



Department of State Bulletin 



contribute to Brazil's economic development and 
will be payable in dollars or Brazilian currency 
under the terms of a supplemental loan agreement. 
The balance will be reserved for the use of the 
United States in Brazil. 



Support for Bolivian Economic 
Stabilization Program 

ICA ANNOUNCEMENT 

The International Cooperation Administration 
annoimced on December 14 that, in its bilateral 
program with Bolivia, Ica is making available $10 
million to assist in the Bolivian Government's 
stabilization program. Further support for this 
program is being provided by means of a standby 
arrangement of $7.5 million with the International 
Monetary Fund and an exchange agreement for 
$7.5 million with the United States Treasury. 

Monetary stabilization is part of a long-range 
program for bringing about a balance in Bolivia's 
overall economic position. The program has been 
prepared by the Bolivian National JNIonetary Sta- 
bilization Council, headed by Bolivia's President, 
Hernan Siles Zuazo, aided by three U.S. financial 
advisers and in consultation with a recent Inter- 
national Monetary Fund mission to Bolivia. 

In view of the gravity of the present economic 
situation, the Bolivian Government has under- 
taken a comprehensive economic stabilization pro- 
gram, including a fundamental reform of the ex- 
change system as well as comprehensive internal 
stabilization measures. Bolivia will institute 
sources of new revenue through increased taxes 
and will put into effect a tariff reform and a reduc- 
tion of the expenditures of the Government and 
autonomous agencies. 



TREASURY DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Treasury Department announced on De- 
cember 14 that Under Secretary of the Treasury 
W. Efindolph Burgess, the Bolivian Ambassador. 
Victor Andrade, and the President of the Central 
Bank of Bolivia, Franklin Antezana Paz, have 
signed an exchange agreement designed to sup- 
port a comprehensive Bolivian program for abol- 



ishing trade and exchange controls and attaining 
increased economic stability. 

The Bolivian Government proposes to introduce 
a free exchange market in which the value of its 
currency unit, the boliviano, will be determined by 
basic supply and demand forces; it proposes to 
discontinue all foreign-exchange and import con- 
trols. The Bolivian authorities will operate a 
stabilization fund to minimize exchange rate fluc- 
tuations arising from temporary or erratic influ- 
ences but not to resist fundamental changes dic- 
tated by market forces. 

The Bolivian Government has announced sup- 
porting domestic measures including increased 
taxes, strict control of bank credit, and reduction 
of expenditures bj^ the Government and govern- 
mental agencies. 

In connection with these economic reforms the 
Bolivian authorities have entered into a standby 
arrangement with the International Monetary 
Fund. Further important support for the Boli- 
vian stabilization effort will be provided by the 
International Cooperation Administration, which 
has arranged to allocate a specific portion of U.S. 
aid to Bolivia for direct support of the Bolivian 
stabilization effort. 

The Treasury Exchange Agreement supple- 
ments these arrangements. It provides that the 
Bolivian authorities may request the U.S. Ex- 
change Stabilization Fund to purchase bolivianos 
up to an amount equivalent to $7.5 million, should 
the occasion for such purchase arise. Bolivia 
would subsequently repurchase for dollars any 
bolivianos so acquired by the Treasury. 



MONETARY FUND ANNOUNCEMENT 

The International Monetary Fund announced 
on December 14 that the Government of Bolivia 
has consulted the fund i-egarding a comprehensive 
economic stabilization program which is being 
put into effect on December 15, 1956. 

It provides for a fundamental reform of the 
exchange system and procedui-es for exchange 
stabilization. Major adjustments will be made 
in the fields of taxes, tariffs, Government expendi- 
tures, wages, and social security. Price controls 
will be I'emoved and measures will be adopted to 
eliminate the deficits of the principal Govern- 
ment-owned enterprises. 

Bolivia's new exchange system will be based on 



January 21, 1957 



103 



a unified, fluctuating excliange rate, in place of 
the complex multiple rates that previously ex- 
isted. Trade and exchange restrictions are being 
removed. The Central Bank of Bolivia intends 
to permit the boliviano to find an appropriate 
level in a free market as quickly as possible. The 
Bolivian authorities intend to intervene in the 
market whenever necessary to avoid excessive 
variations arising from temporary factore. 

To support Bolivia's stabilization efforts the 
fund has agreed to a 1-year standby arrangement 
under which Bolivia may purchase foreign cur- 
rencies from the fund equivalent to U.S.$7.5 
million. The fund is informed that Bolivia has 
also concluded an exchange agreement for $7.5 
million with the United States Treasury and an 
arrangement with the International Cooperation 
Administration of the United States which makes 
available $10 million for the same purpose. 

The fmid expects to remain in close touch with 
the Bolivian authorities during the period of its 
standby agreement. 



Eximbank Loan to Nicaragua 
for I liter- American Highway 

A loan of $2 million to assist Nicaragua in com- 
pleting its section of the Inter- American Highway 
in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Public 
Roads was announced on December 27 by Lynn U. 
Stambaugh, first vice president of the Export-Ira- 
port Bank. 

The loan will aid Nicaragua in building 107 
miles of the Inter-American Highway across that 
country from Honduras to Costa Eica. The high- 
way will extend 1,.590 miles from the Texas border 
through Central American countries to Panama 
City. The Central American portion is being 
built by U.S. grants for two-thirds of the cost, each 
country paying one-third of the total. 

Eximbank authorized a $9.,5 million loan to 
Costa Rica in 1955 to complete the Inter- American 
Highway across that country by 1958.^ The 
Nicaraguan project will be completed about July 
1959, barring contingencies. 

At the jiresent time 135 miles of the highway 
liave been built in Nicaragua, from Sebaco, 65 
miles northeast of Managua, to Rivas, 70 miles 



' Bulletin of Nov. 28, 1955, p. 898. 
104 



southeast of Managua. This section of the high- 
way also was assisted by a $2 million Eximbank 
loan, made in 1951, which has been repaid. 

The new project calls for construction and com- 
pletion of 85 miles of highway between Sebaco 
and El Espino on the Honduran border and 22 
miles of highway betAveen Rivas and Penas 
Blancas on the Costa Rican border. 

Improvement of the section of the highway from 
Sebaco to El Espino is expected to stimulate the 
marketing of high-altitude coffee and to some ex- 
tent lumbering, as well as to encourage through 
commercial traffic from Honduras. Improvement 
at the southern end of the highway, between Rivas 
and Penas Blancas, is expected to develop and 
expedite traffic between the port of San Juan del 
Sur and the Managua area, assist the development 
of cattle ranching in this section of Nicaragua, and 
facilitate tlirough traffic to Costa Rica. 

For both these sections, permanent surfacing 
of the road is expected to alleviate substantially 
maintenance problems of the present gravel road, 
which is badly damaged by the pounding taken 
during the rainy season from November through 
May. 

Nicaragua's economy has achieved a satisfactory 
position during the last 6 years. A combination 
of favorable export prices for coft'ee and other 
goods and of sounder economic policies has re- 
sulted in substantial development of the country 
accompanied by a relatively stable internal and ex- 
ternal financial position. Increases in internal 
investment have been mostly in the private sec- 
tor of the economy, assisted bj' government credits 
to enable expanded investment in agi'iculture. 

Total cost of completing the Inter-American 
Highway in Nicaragua is estimated at $8.5 million 
and will be met as follows : 

U.S. grant $5.7 million 

Nicaragua's share 2.8 " 

EXIMBANK loan 2.0 

Provided by Nicaragua 8 " 

Existing administrative arrangements provide 
that the Government of Nicai-agua will disburse 
loan funds under the supervision and fiscal con- 
trol of the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads for con- 
struction, engineering, and incidental expenses re- 
quired for the project. 

The loan will be repaid in semiannual install- 
ments over a 15-year period, commencing not later 
than August 1, 1959. 

Deparimenf of Stale Bullelin 



President Postpones Action 
on Tariff on Cotton Velveteen 

White House press release dated December 21 

The President on December 21 informed the 
chairmen of the Senate Finance and House Ways 
and Means Committees that he was extendmg the 
period of his consideration of the escape-clause 
case relating to the tariff on imports of cotton 
velveteen fabrics. 

In its report on this case, dated October 24, 
1956, the U.S. Tariff Commission recommended 
an increase in the duty on such imports. In 
identical letters to the chairmen of the two com- 
mittees, the President said, "The Tariff Commis- 
sion's report is imder intensive consideration in 
the Executive Branch. Because of the nature 
of the issues involved, however, it is now ap- 
parent that these studies will require more 
time than is usually necessary in these matters." 
The President said he was extending the period 
of his consideration "somewhat beyond the cus- 
tomai-y sixty-day period which in this case expires 
December 24, 1956." 

President's Letter to Chairmen of Congressional 
Committees ' 

December 21, 1956 
Dear Mr. Chairman : On October 24, 1956, the 
United States Tariff Commission, pursuant to Sec- 
tion 7 of the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 
1951, as amended, submitted to me a report of its 
findings and recommendations with respect to im- 
ports of cotton velveteen fabrics. 

The Tariff Commission's report is under inten- 
sive consideration in the Executive Branch. Be- 
cause of the nature of the issues involved, how- 
ever, it is now apparent that these studies will 
require more time than is usually necessary in 
these matters. 

I am, therefore, extending the period of my 
consideration of the Tariff Commission's report 
somewhat beyond the customaiy sixty-day period 
■which in this case expires December 24, 1956. 
This letter is to notify you, in conformance with 
the provisions of the law, why I shall not take 
action within that period. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 
AND CONFERENCES 



U.S. To Advance Funds 
for Clearing Suez Canal 

n.S./U.N. press release 2575 dated January 3 

Following is the text of a note sent on January 2 
hy the Representative of the United States of 
America to the Secretary-General of the United 
Nations dealing with the question of advancing 
funds to defray the expenses of Suez Canal 
clearance. 

The Kepresentative of the United States of 
America to the United Nations presents his compli- 
ments to the Secretary General of the United Na- 
tions and has the honor to refer to his note dated 
December 25, 1956,^ regarding advances of funds to 
defray the expense of initial work in clearing the 
Suez Canal. 

The Government of the United States is deeply 
interested in the reopening of the Canal as a mat- 
ter of urgency in order to contribute to the preser- 
vation of peace, the strengthening of the economies 
of Members of the United Nations, and the free 
flow of international commerce. 

The Government of the United States is pre- 
pared to advance, in accordance with terms and 
arrangements to be worked out with the Secretary 
General, funds up to the amount of five million 
dollars in response to the Secretary General's 
appeal for advances to assure the payment of 
expenses involved in the initial work of clearing 
the Canal.^ It is the understanding of the Govern- 
ment of the United States that the Secretary Gen- 
eral is seeking to obtain a maximum of advances 
on the same basis from the Governments of other 
United Nations Members, and that the Govern- 
ment of Egypt has given its assurance that the 
United Nations will have the full cooperation of 
that Government in the execution of its part in the 
Canal clearing operations. 



' Addressed to Harry Flood Byrd, chairman of the 
Senate Committee on Finance, and Jere Cooper, chairman 
of the House Ways and Means Committee. 



' Not printed. 

"On Jan. 8 the United States advanced $5 million for 
this purpose, to be transferred to the International Bank 
for Reconstruction and Development as fiscal agent of the 
United Nations (U.S./U.N. press release 2578). 



ianva^i 27, 1957 



105 



The Government of the United States has noted 
the offer from the Secretary General to provide 
further information concerning the matter of 
advance of funds, and will wish to confer with the 
Secretary General on the terms and arrangements 
to be made regarding an advance by the United 
States. 



Treatment of Minorities in Egypt 

Statement hy James J. Wadsworth 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ^ 

The United States has received information 
concerning the treatment of certain nationals and 
stateless persons in Egypt which occasions con- 
cern. It has not yet been possible to evaluate this 
information fully. Nor has it been possible to 
obtain a clarification of some aspects of the situa- 
tion wliich are still obscure. 

The information which is presently available to 
the United States indicates that an indeterminate 
number of persons, including British and French 
nationals and persons of Jewish origin in Egypt, 
have been subjected to pressure and intimidation 
and, in some instances, have been ordered de- 
ported. While recognizing the right of any gov- 
ernment to take measures which are necessary in 
the interests of its security, the United States must 
express its concern at any unwarranted pressures 
exerted against a minority. The United States 
Ambassador in Cairo has been requested to bring 
to the attention of the Government of Egypt the 
concern of the American people over these reports. 

The United States hopes that everything pos- 
sible will be done to insure that measures will not 
be employed which will discriminate unjustly 
against human beings merely because of racial or 
religious grounds or on the basis of foreign na- 
tionality. 

Finally, Mr. President, may I suggest that the 
matter we are now discussing is not one which is 
likely to benefit from prolonged discussion here. 
Certainly it will not benefit from any intemperate 
discussion. That is why, without in any way 
wanting to cut off the speakers that follow me, I 
would suggest that we bring this phase of the dis- 
cussion to an early end. 



Assembly Approves Union of 
British Togoland With Gold Coast 

Following are texts of statements made by Frank 
C. Nash, U.S. representative to the General Assem- 
bly, during the debate in Committee lY (Trustee- 
ship) and in plenary on the future of British Togo- 
land, together with the Assembly's resolution on 
the subject. 

STATEMENT IN COMMITTEE IV 

If the recommendation of the Trusteeship Coun- 
cil is endorsed by the General Assembly, as we 
earnestly hope it will be, the action will mark the 
end of nearly half a century of international tute- 
lage over the peoples of British Togoland. It will 
be a heretofore unprecedented action, and we must 
therefore be sure that the United Nations, for its 
part, will be acting responsibly and in accord with 
the principles, goals, and objectives of its charter. 

We of this Committee are asked, in effect, to 
agree with the Administering Authority and the 
Trusteeship Council that it is the will and desire 
of the people of British Togoland that the trust 
agreement should be terminated in favor of inte- 
gration with a soon to become independent Gold 
Coast. We are assured that this is the desire of 
the majority of the people of British Togoland by 
the United Nations Plebiscite Commissioner, who 
has informed us that the plebiscite was held in an 
atmosphere of freedom, impartiality, and fairness. 

We have followed with close attention the very 
clear and effective presentations made by the vari- 
ous oral petitioners for their respective pomts of 
view. Let me say, first of all, that we were very 
favorably impressed with the ability and talent as 
well as the moderation and restraint shown by the 
petitioners, all of which augurs well for the politi- 
cal leadership of this part of West Africa. 

After weighing the pros and cons, the United 
States delegation feels that the recommendation 
of the Trusteeship Council is the right one, and 
we are pre^^ared to vote for any resolution which 
invites the Administering Authority to take the 
remaining steps necessary to give effect to the will 
of the Togolese people. In doing so, we are fully 
aware that some of the people of British Togoland 
would have preferred some delay and that others 



'Made in plenary session on Dec. 21 (U.S. delegation 
press release 2572). 

106 



' Made on Nov. 28 (U. S. delegation press release 2530). 
Department of State Bulletin 



would have preferred a different coui'se of action. 
But we believe that this minority, for many of 
whose views we have sympathy and respect, will 
understand that democratic processes require ac- 
ceptance of majority decisions and that they will 
yield graciously to this representative principle. 
We are the more ready to support this view be- 
cause we have full confidence that the Gold Coast 
Government, under tlie able and distinguished 
leadership of Prime Minister Nkrumah, will give 
every consideration to the interests and welfare 
of all the people of Togoland. 

Mr. Chairman, in this action we are taking one 
of the most significant steps in the history of the 
United Nations. It is a step which fulfills the 
promise of freedom and justice which was under- 
taken in 1918 when the principle of international 
tutelage was first enunciated. Before that time, it 
was the practice that victors in war were en- 
titled to annex the territorial spoils of war and 
that colonies would pass from one rule to another 
as if they were mere chattels or pawns on an in- 
ternational chessboard. I am proud to say that 
it was an American statesman. President Wood- 
row Wilson, who strongly enunciated the novel 
doctrine that, in adjusting colonial claims, "the 
interests of the population concerned must have 
equal weight with the equitable claims of the gov- 
ernment whose title is to be determined." This 
principle led to the foundation of the mandates 
system, which later developed into the present 
trusteeship system. Tlie effects of this principle 
of international responsibility have had repercus- 
sions far beyond the trust territories to which they 
had immediate application. Never again will the 
conscience of the free world permit the weaker 
peoples and smaller nations to be treated as if 
they were the mere tools and pawns of the more 
powerful. 

Mr. Chairman, our decision with respect to 
British Togoland, taken at a time when the light 
of freedom is once again being smothered in cer- 
tain other parts of the world, is an occasion for 
renewed confidence and dedication. Freedom, 
dignity, and equality are inalienable rights which 
all men are created to enjoy. The suppression of 
these rights anywhere is an ignoble act which has 
the inevitable effect of reducing, in some degree, 
the freedom of all men everywhere. 

First of all, we of the United States delegation 
wish to congi-atulate the people of British Togo- 



land, who have been freely granted the right to 
choose their destiny and have cast their lot with 
their independent neighbors and friends of the 
Gold Coast. 

Secondly, we wish to pay tribute to the Admin- 
istering Authority, the United Kingdom, which 
has proved once again that, wherever their influ- 
ence and administration have extended, people 
have been taught to respect the principles of 
democratic or parliamentary government, free- 
dom of speech and assembly, respect for minority 
rights, judicial procedures, and other basic con- 
cepts of self-government. The United Kingdom 
has discharged its trust well and fully deserves 
the approbation of the United Nations for a task 
excellently accomplished. 

Next, we would like to congratulate the Gov- 
ernment and the people of the Gold Coast — soon 
to be called Ghana — who have set an example of 
right conduct between the stronger and the less 
strong. Had they followed the unliappy example 
of some nations, they might have attempted to 
take coercive steps to assimilate these neighboring 
people in British Togoland. But instead they 
have fully respected the rights of their neighbors 
and have trusted to persuasion and example to 
bring about a freely chosen cooperative relation- 
ship. 

Finally, we wish to pay tribute to the United 
Nations, without at the same time forgetting the 
pioneering efforts of the League of Nations, for 
having carried out faithfully and effectively the 
difficult task of international supervision over this 
territory for nearly half a century, for having 
offered advice and assistance to the Administering 
Authority, for having carefully examined any 
grievances advanced by the inhabitants of Togo- 
land, for having sent periodic visiting missions 
to the territory, and, finally, for having set 
up the heretofore imprecedented plebiscite super- 
vision under the competent direction of Senor 
Espinosa ^ and thus paved the way for the final 
action which we are now about to take. 

Mr. Chairman, there are many difficult prob- 
lems before the United Nations, and we have grave 
and sufficient reasons for anxiety and discourage- 
ment. But in consummating these final steps to- 
ward the freedom and independence of the people 
of Togoland we have every reason to hope for the 
future. We believe that this event will have 



'Eduardo Espinosa y Prieto of Mexico. 



January 27, 7957 



107 



salutary eifects throughout the whole non-self- 
governing world, and we hope that it will serve 
as an example of the orderly and peaceful way 
by which a formerly colonial territorj' can attain 
self-government or independence. 



STATEMENT IN PLENARY SESSION 3 

The vote which we are about to take is unique 
in the annals of the United Nations. "We are for 
the first time taking the final action by which a 
trust territory will achieve the status of independ- 
ence — in this case by a freely chosen integration 
with a neighboring country which is about to 
achieve its own independence. Although this As- 
sembly is directly concerned only with the trust 
territory of British Togoland, its indirect interest 
and concern with the new forthcoming State of 
Ghana is very great. Ghana, we hope, will be one 
of the new members of the United Nations in the 
near future. 

This action, Mr. President, is significant in the 
view of my delegation because it marks the first 
termination of a trusteeship agreement, one which 
in one form or another has existed for nearly half 
a century. We are thus bringing to an end a trus- 
teeship and replacing it by independence. The 
role of the United Nations in this development 
has, in our opinion, been most significant, and in 
particular we wish to pay tribute to the expert 
work and indefatigable energy of Senor Espinosa 
as the agent of this United Nations in supervising 
the plebiscite by which the people of British Togo- 
land freely chose to join the new State of Ghana. 

The United States, Mr. President, will vote in 
favor of terminating the trusteeship agreement 
and integrating British Togoland with the new 
State of Ghana because this is the free choice of 
the people of British Togoland. This body must, 
in our opinion, affirm and reaffirm the right of the 
people in any part of the world to make such a 
free choice. 

Unfortunately, another type of imperialism has 
emerged in certain areas which has had the effect 
of suppressing former independent societies and 
peoples and subjugating them to a cruel and heart- 
less form of alien rule. We have been struggling 
with such a situation in these Assembly halls dur- 
ing the past several weeks. It is one of the strik- 

"Made on Dec. 13 (U. S. delegation press release 2555). 



ing paradoxes of our time that, just as the old 
colonialism is giving way, a new and worse form 
of imperialism is being imposed upon people who 
deserve a better way of life. 

Mr. President, I cannot conclude these remarks 
without saying a word about the opinion of my 
delegation concerning the magnificent accom- 
plishments of the Administering Authority, the 
United Kingdom, with the supervision of the 
trusteeship system. We have seen with our own 
eyes how the Administering Authority has 
brought a knowledge not only of modern medi- 
cine, education, and government administration 
but has instilled in the people under its charge 
knowledge and experience in truly democratic gov- 
ernment, honesty in administration, impartial 
judicial procedures, respect for minority rights, 
and many other principles and practices which 
form the basis for trulj' self-governing institu- 
tions. In fact, it is not too much to say that, 
wherever the influence of the United Kingdom has 
extended, whether in my own country or those in 
Africa or elsewhere, they have through that in- 
fluence reflected these principles which have be- 
come enshrined as the rule of law and practice in 
those countries. 

And now in welcoming — as we hope the action 
being taken today by this General Assembly will 
welcome — Togoland and the new State of Ghana 
in a day not too distant in the futui-e we hope, 
my delegation would like to pay tribute to Prime 
Minister Nkrumah and his colleagues for the way 
in which they have facilitated the good relations 
between the Togolese people and the present Gold 
Coast. We would, however, Mr. President, also 
like to utter one note of caution. It has been 
evident, from the words of cei-tain of the oral 
petitioners from this area of Africa to which I 
have been listening during the past weeks in the 
Fourth Committee, that there are some West Af- 
ricans who are somewhat dissatisfied with the de- 
cision of the General Assembly. One of these 
dissident groups seeks a federal form of govern- 
ment in Ghana; another seeks a form of inde- 
pendence for both British and French Togoland. 
We would strongly urge these groups to accept 
the principle that political maturity seeks to 
achieve political change by peaceful means and to 
operate on the democratic premise that minorities 
should yield to majorities as long as there is a 
complete freedom for the minorities to seek to be- 
come in the majority. 



108 



Department of State Bulletin 



We. are confident, Mr. President, as I conclude 
these remarks, that the soon to be independent 
people of the new State of Ghana, including the 
people of British Togoland, will prove themselves 
to be responsible, progressive, and politically ma- 
ture and thus play a major role as a strong, free, 
and democratic state which can be an example for 
the entire world. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION' 

U.X. doc. A/Res/425 

The General Assembly, 

RecaUing that, by resolution {M4 (X) of 15 December 
1955,' it recommended, in pursuance of Article 76 b of the 
Cliarter of the United Nations, that a plebiscite be organ- 
ized and conducted in the Trust Territory of Togoland 
under British administration by the Administering Au- 
thority in consultation with and under the supervision of 
a United Nations Plebiscite Commissioner, in order to 
ascertain the wishes of its inhabitants in regard to the 
union of their Territory with an independent Gold Coast 
or otherwise, 

Having received the report of the United Nations Plebi- 
scite Commissioner ' on the organization, conduct and re- 
sults of the plebiscite and having noted, in particular, the 
conclusion contained in the report that the plebiscite was 
held in an atmosphere of freedom, impartiality and fair- 
ness. 

Having also received the report of the United Kingdom 
Plebiscite Administrator,' 

Xoting that the majority of the inhabitants of the Trust 
Territory participating in the plebiscite have expressed 
themselves in favour of the union of the Territory with 
an independent Gold Coast, 

Noting also the recommendation of the Trusteeship 
Council in its resolution 1496 (XVIII) of 31 July 1956 
that appropriate steps be taken, in consultation with the 
Administering Authority, for the termination of the Trus- 
teeship A.greement for the Territory to become effective 
upon the attainment of independence by the Gold Coast, 

Having been informed by the Administering Authority 
that it is the intention of the United Kingdom Government 
that the Gold Coast shall become independent on 6 March 
1957, 

1. Expresses its approval of the union of the Territory 
of Togoland under British administration with an inde- 
pendent Gold Coast and accordingly invites the Adminis- 



* Adopted on Dec. 13 by a vote of 63 to 0, with 9 ab- 
stentions. 

' BtTLLETiN of Jan. 16. 1956, p. 102. 

* A/3173 and Add.l. 

' Official Records of the Trusteeship Council, Eight- 
eenth Session, Annexes, agenda item 12, doc. T/1269 
and Add.l. 



tering Authority to take such steps as are necessary to 
this end ; 

2. Resolves, with the agreement of the Administering 
Authority, that, on the date on which the Gold Coast 
becomes independent and the union with it of the Territory 
of Togoland under British administration takes place, the 
Trusteeship Agreement approved by the General Assembly 
in its resolution 63 (I) of 13 December 1946 shall cease to 
be in force, the objectives of trusteeship having been 
attained ; 

3. Requests the Government of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland to notify the Secre- 
tary-General as soon as the union of the Territory of 
Togoland under British administration with an independ- 
ent Gold Coast has been effected ; 

4. Requests the Secretary-General to communicate to 
all Jlembers of the United Nations and to the Trusteeship 
Council at its nineteenth session the notification by the 
Government of the United Kingdom referred to in para- 
graph 3 above. 



U.S. Delegations to 
International Conferences 

ICEM Executive Committee 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 4 (press release 4) that Scott McLeod, Admin- 
istrator of the Bureau of Security and Consular 
Affairs, will represent the United States at a spe- 
cial meeting of the Executive Committee of the 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Mi- 
gration (Icem) to be held at Geneva, Switzer- 
land, beginning on January 14, 1957. The meet- 
ing, called to consider the problems of moving 
Himgarian refugees in 1957, will follow a meeting 
of the five-nation working group of Australia, 
Brazil, Italy, Netherlands, and the United States 
which has been called for January 8 to consider 
the financing of refugee movements. 

With funds supplied by 27 member govern- 
ments, Icem in 1956 organized the transportation 
of over 89,000 Hungarian refugees from Austria 
and will continue tliis service in 1957. 

ISIr. McLeod will be accompanied by George L. 
Warren, Adviser on Kefugees, Department of 
State. 

On the initiative of the United States, Icem was 
established in 1951 to help relocate Europe's sur- 
plus manpower and refugees. The principal 
places of relocation providing new homelands and 
jobs are in Australia, Canada, Latin America, and 
the United States. 



fanuary 2 J, 7957 



109 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Allowances for American Overseas Personnel 



hy Joseph W. Lethco ^ 



Each American company having personnel on 
duty in foreign areas has its own personnel policy, 
and any nonsalary benefits provided for those em- 
ployees must fit the pattern established in the over- 
all personnel operation. It would be presump- 
tuous of me to expect that my remarks in this 
meeting will provide, or lead to, solution of a 
specific type of problem for all companies repre- 
sented or a general solution to all allowance prob- 
lems of one company. 

"Wliat I should like to do is to discuss some of the 
allowances available to employees of the Depart- 
ment of State assigned to foreign areas and the 
reasons why each allowance is necessary. Time is 
too limited to permit any discussion of general 
personnel policies or some of the fringe, nonallow- 
ance benefits that may be available. The allow- 
ances to be explained are available to employees 
of other United States Government agencies, with 
a few exceptions. 

To understand the concept and administration 
of the various allowances it is necessary to bear in 
mind the group of employees eligible to receive 
them. In addition to being an employee of the 
United States Government, the recipient of an 
allowance must be an American citizen and a 
civilian, and must be stationed in a foreign area. 
At present there are about 30,000 such employees. 
Excluded are employees of American contractors 
on Government jobs, alien employees, the Govern- 
ment employees in United States territories and 
possessions, and military personnel (who, of 
course, have a separate allowance system) . 

* Address made before the National Foreign Trade Con- 
vention at New York, N.Y., on Nov. 26. Mr. Lethco is 
Assistant Chief, Allowances Division, Office of Personnel. 



Another fact fundamental to our allowance 
system is that an employee's salary while on for- 
eign duty is the same as in the United States. 
There is no increase in salary provided for the 
man going overseas and, conversely, no reduction 
on return to the United States. Most of the allow- 
ances provided are for the purpose of offsetting 
costs incident to the overseas assignment. 

Another important factor is the mobility of 
Government service in foreign areas. The result 
of frequent moving is additional expense to the 
Government and to the employee. 

For the purposes of this discussion. Govern- 
ment allowances may be grouped into three 
categories : 

(1) those necessary to cover costs of moving 
the employee and his family from one post of as- 
signment to another ; 

(2) those payments needed to cover job-con- 
nected expenses; and 

(3) allowances related to the post of assignment. 



Costs of Changing Posts 

The move from one post to another forces cer- 
tain indirect costs on the employee, but the Govern- 
ment assumes most of the direct expenses. The 
transportation of the employee and his family are 
paid, and in lieu of actual expenses for subsistence 
a fixed rate of per diem is paid to the employee for 
himself and each member of his family. Travel 
per diem stops upon arrival at the post of assign- 
ment. 

The employee's effects are packed and shipped 
at Government expense within certain weight 



110 



Department of State Bulletin 



limits, the maximum varying from 4,000 pounds 
gross for the low-paid employee having no family 
to 18,000 pounds for the high-salaried employee 
with family. If an employee cannot use his ef- 
fects at the new post — for example, if he is to 
occupy Government-owned and -furnished quar- 
ters — the unused effects may be stored in lieu of 
shipment. There is provision, also, for storing of 
effects in an emergency, such as civil disturbances, 
acts of nature, and so on, and for a maximum of 3 
months at a new post while the employee is locat- 
ing a place to live. 

Some of the more or less indirect costs incurred 
by an employee in the course of a transfer are not 
offset by the transportation, shipping, and storage 
provisions. In a change of residence there will 
be the cost of changing certain pieces of furniture 
that do not fit the new house or apartment, the 
insurance on goods shipped (the Government does 
not insure them against damage or loss) , and many 
other minor expenses. If the old post and the 
new are in different climates, a partial change of 
wardrobe may be necessary. The Department off- 
sets part of these indirect costs through payment 
of a transfer allowance varying in amounts from 
$100 paid to the single employee transferring be- 
tween posts in the same climatic zone to $400 for 
the employee with wife and children who moves 
into a different climatic zone. The transfer al- 
lowance is payable on transfer to Washington 
from a foreign post. In all cases, it is a one-time, 
lump-sum payment. 

Job-Related Costs 

There are two payments available to the em- 
ployee for expenses directly related to his assign- 
ment : the representation allowance and the official 
residence allotment. I will touch very briefly on 
those because they are not of primary interest to 
this group. The representation allowance is to 
defray costs of official entertaining, purchase of 
suitable tokens for presentation on appropriate 
occasions, et cetera. In short, it is to reimburse 
employees for necessary expenses incurred in pro- 
moting the interests of the United States and is 
limited to funds appropriated specificallj' for rep- 
iresentation purposes. 

The chief of mission, his deputy, and occasion- 
ally other high-ranking representatives of the 
lUnited States at a foreign post must maintain res- 
lidences suitable to their official stations and 



thereby incur costs beyond what they would have 
in another capacity at the post. The additional 
costs may be repaid to them by the Department 
from the Official Residence Expenses allotment. 

Allowances Based on Post of Assignment 

Let us now turn to the benefits needed for the 
employee because of the post to which he is as- 
signed. The first of these, known as the hurdship 
differential, is not related to cost but to environ- 
mental conditions and can be covered very briefly. 

The hardship differential is additional salary 
paid to employees assigned to posts involving 
extraordinarily difficult living conditions, ex- 
cessive physical hardship, or notably unhealthf ul 
conditions. These payments are based upon liv- 
ing conditions, not on living costs. Examples of 
difficult living conditions might be a local popu- 
lation that is extremely anti-American, or lack of 
recreational facilities or places of interest. Phys- 
ical hardship might result from wholly inadequate 
housing, extremely hot or cold climate or excessive 
humidity, limited variety of foods available, or no 
running water and electricity. Notably unhealth- 
ful conditions are self-explanatory. 

Hardship must exist to a relatively liigli degree 
at a post before a differential is payable; less than 
one-third of the posts now established cari-y a dif- 
ferential payment for the employee. Employees 
are expected to overlook considerable hardship as 
part of the self-sacrifice necessarily involved in 
overseas service. The rates of additional payment 
are 10, 15, 20, or 25 percent of base pay, the latter 
being the legal limit. This compensation for serv- 
ice at a hardship post may appear, at first glance, 
to be added money in the bank. However, expe- 
rience has shown that the additional money is 
spent to help offset the conditions at the post or to 
take frequent vacation trips to resort or rest 
areas. The employee may buy air-conditioners if 
the climate is very hot and humid. Following or 
during a tour of duty at an unhealthful post 
tliere may be large medical costs on behalf of 
members of liis family. There are many uses for 
the salary differential other than the savings bank. 

Allowances and Post Cost Levels 

Let us now focus attention on those allowances 
that are directly related to the maintenance costs 
for the employee and his family at a post. From 
the standpoint of both the employee and the ex- 



lanuary 21, 1957 



111 



penditure of Government funds the most impor- 
tant of these is the quarters allowance. 

Quarters Allowance. By law the Government is 
required to furnisli the employee in foreign areas 
free housing in the form of Government-owned 
or -rented quarters, including heat, light, and fuel, 
or pay him an allowance in lieu thereof. For 
most employees, the quarters allowance represents 
the only financial inducement for foreigii service. 
All other allowances merely offset costs incurred 
because of foreign assignments. With his housing 
costs at the post being paid, he has, in effect, a 
bonus equivalent to the amount he would spend 
for housing while serving in Washington. 

The maximum rates for a post are based on the 
actual costs incurred by all employees at a post 
and vary, for the individual, by grade and family 
status. The employee receives only the amount 
he actually spends for rent, heat, light, and fuel 
up to the maximmn and pays from his own pocket 
any amount by which his costs exceed the maxi- 
mum for his grade and family status. The maxi- 
mums are adjusted as cost reports for all per- 
sonnel at a post indicate that an adjustment is 
warranted but are seldom set high enough to give 
complete coverage of all costs of all personnel 
at the post. We believe that there may be a tend- 
ency for the individual receiving the allowance 
to be less careful with turning off lights, holding 
heating costs down, and so on, than he would be if 
he were paying the bills. Therefore, we consider 
that reimbursement of 85 to 90 percent of expendi- 
tures is adequate. As a general policy, the maxi- 
mums are set at levels that will provide that per- 
centage of reimbursement to a majority of person- 
nel at the post. 

Several American firms have obtained the quar- 
ters classifications of posts on a continuing basis. 
We hojoe that they have been useful. Anyone 
utilizing our quarters classifications should check 
with us as to the representativeness of the class. 
In certain posts where the Government staff re- 
porting costs is very small the level may not be 
truly indicative of the average rent level. There 
are also a number of posts where all United States 
employees, or the majority of them, reside in 
Government-owned or -leased quarters, and as a 
result the quarters classification is either nominal 
or not indicative of average costs. 

Temporary Lodging. When the employee ar- 
rives at a post, he spends some time locating and 



renting a liouse or apartment, and his furniture 
may not arrive untU later. During this time he 
and his dependents, if any, usually live in a hotel, 
with room costs that exceed what the quarters 
allowance would be if he were paid that allow- 
ance. During that time, instead of paying him a 
quarters allowance, the Department of State and 
several other agencies pay what is known as a tem- 
porary lodgings allowance. Again it is a maxi- 
mum rate, with reimbursement of actual costs for 
room rent up to the maximum. It varies by num- 
ber and ages of the employee's family and is based 
on the hotel rates for rooms only, no food or other 
costs are included. It terminates at the end of 3 
months or upon occupation of residence quarters, 
whichever is sooner. Even if the employee is un- 
able to locate permanent quarters and continues 
to live in a hotel, the regular quarters allowance 
replaces the temporary at the end of the 3-month 
period. Neither the temporary nor the regular 
quarters allowance is paid concurrently with 
travel per diem. 

Post Allowance. As I have said, the quarters 
allowance or its substitute, the temporary lodging, 
is paid to all employees, regardless of their post 
of assignment, except when free quarters are fur- 
nished. However, the quarters allowance induce- 
ment to serve abroad will not solve the problems 
of the employee assigned to Moscow, whose wife 
finds that a dozen eggs cost $i.80 at the kolkhoz 
market, or the employee in Caracas, who must pay 
$4.65 for a carton of regular cigarettes. The post 
allowance is designed to serve as a balancing factor 
to keep salaries worth what they would be at home. 
The basic principle is that an employee at the post, 
spending his salary and post allowance, will be 
able to purchase goods and services equivalent to 
those he could purchase in Washington with his 
salary only. No post allowance is paid in most 
areas of the world where costs ai'e at or below 
Washington levels. 

It is through the process of determining the com- 
parative cost of living at the foreign post in rela- 
tion to like costs in Washington that the Depart- 
ment produces the figures that are believed to be 
most useful to the American businessman. They 
are the cost-of-living indexes (excluding quarters 
costs) that are being furnished at regular inter- 
vals to the National Foreign Trade Council for 
distribution. To understand and use those in- 
dexes it is necessaiy to understand something of 



112 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



the basic information and procedures that go into 
their production. 

With the premise established that a comparison 
of living costs is necessary, the first step is to ob- 
tain information on the price levels. It is not 
feasible to price all things for which the family 
must spend ; so a sampling technique is necessary. 
The list of articles or services to be priced has cer- 
tain characteristics that are important : (1) each 
article selected has a generic value in that it repre- 
sents the cost level of a group of related articles — 
for example, the price of bread represents the 
relative level for all baked goods; (2) each article 
selected must be available for pricing tliroughout 
the world; (3) the final list must be a minimum 
consistent with accurate measurement. The net 
result is that we collect about 700 prices at each 
foreign post and in Washington. 

It is important that the prices collected repre- 
sent the actual level at the post — neither bare sub- 
sistence nor luxury. Because of the different 
grades, sizes, and so forth on the market in differ- 
ent parts of the world, it is not possible to select 
articles exactly comparable; therefore, detailed 
specifications are not used. We ask for prices of 
beef — not for sirloin steak, New York style cut. 
For each article priced we secure the highest, the 
lowest, and a middle price at each outlet. Using 
the example of beef, the three prices at a store 
might be for tenderloin, stew beef, and a chuck 
roast. 

The selection of stores to be included in the 
sample is on the same basis, that is, a high-priced, 
a mediiun-priced, and the lowest level at which 
an American can trade. We do not price the hole- 
in-the-wall store in the slum area in which an 
American cannot be expected to make purchases. 
The same type of pricing, that is, three levels of 
stores and three prices for each article in each 
store, is done in Washington. All prices are re- 
ported in the local currency and in local sizes or 
weights. 

The first step in computing the indexes in the 
Washington office is to convert reported prices, 
sizes, and weights to American units, using the ex- 
change rate at which the Government employee 
purchases local currency. For example, pesos per 
kilogram become cents per pound. Then the 
median of the prices for an article at the post is 
compared with the Washington median for the 
same article. Use of the median instead of the 



arithmetic average prevents distortion by one ex- 
treme price, either high or low. 

Applying the Washington expenditure pattern 
to these price ratios gives us a comparison of the 
actual jarice level at the post with that of Wash- 
ington. This comparison is published in the Na- 
tional Foreign Trade Council's bulletins as the 
'■'■local relative" ; that is, the relative level of prices. 

However, we cannot stop here and call that local 
relative a comparison of living costs. If a visit 
to the doctor costs $5 in Washington and $5 at 
the post, the price relative is 100. But if the em- 
ployee must see the doctor twice as often at the 
post, then the cost of doctors at the post is double 
that of Washington, or $10. It is necessary to 
take into account that added usage, or "use fac- 
tor," by increasing the weight, or importance, of 
medical care at certain posts. 

The use factor adjustments vai-y by post for the 
different segments of the budget. Most areas of 
the world do not have the conveniences that are 
common in the United States. A few of these 
are the modern supermarket with its abundance 
of all kinds of foods, including many that are 
ready to serve, laundries and cleaning establish- 
ments, good medium-priced restaurants, and the 
many home appliances that cannot be used because 
of inadequate electricity or wiring or gas, or be- 
cause of the type of home constiiiction. The cli- 
mate and health conditions vai-y, and not the least 
important factor is the local customs to which 
Americans must confonn in some degi'ee. 

The weight for domestic help must be increased 
to allow for the sei*vants necessary to do the work 
of laundering and cleaning, marketing, and the 
increased housework due to lack of modern con- 
veniences. In certain areas, a caste system or 
other local customs may require more servant help. 
The servants' maintenance adds to the food bill 
and the clothing budget. Lack of refrigeration 
in a hot, humid climate increases food spoilage and 
requires f urtlier added weight for the food budget. 
That same climate causes rapid deterioration of 
clothing and household textiles, or a very cold 
climate may require more and heavier clothing. 
Crude laimdry and cleaning methods will de- 
crease further the life expectancy of textiles of all 
kinds. 

As we have previously mentioned, the health 
and sanitation conditions at some posts require 
more visits to the doctor, thereby increasing medi- 



Januar/ 27, 1957 



113 



cal costs. For some posts, a weighting factor may 
be decreased; for example, if no adequate restau- 
rants are available a higher percentage of meals 
are eaten at home. In that case the weight for 
"food away from home" is decreased and, concur- 
rently, the volume of food purchased for prepara- 
tion at home is increased slightly. In short, 
every effort is made to reflect conditions having a 
bearing on living costs. 

When all the use factors have been applied to 
the price ratios for the post and the results com- 
bined into an average figure, we have a cost-of- 
living index for the post on the basis of Washing- 
ton as 100. That index is shown in the Trade 
Council's bulletin as the HoccU' index''' and repre- 
sents the relative cost of following a typically 
American expenditure pattern with all goods and 
services, including imports, purchased on the local 
market. It is the comparison most commonly 
used by those American firms who are making any 
use of our data. 

For the Government employee it is necessary to 
bring into the picture the effect of any special 
facilities that may be available to him. These 
include any commissary that may be at the post, 
any free import privileges he may enjoy, and the 
volume of goods purchased elsewhere and shipped 
to the post, either by individual or group order or 
brought with him at the time he is assigned to the 
post. These facilities vary from post to post, just 
as the use factors differ for the various areas. 
The prices paid through each facility and the local 
market are combined by the relative importance 
of each and the resulting averages processed in the 
same way as previously described for local prices 
only. This produces the "effective relative" and 
"effective index" for the Government employee, 
comparable to the "local relative" and the "local 
index." The "effective index" is the basis for any 
post allowance for the Government employee. 

As stated previously, the local index is the figure 
most commonly used by private industry. For 
most posts it shows higher costs than the effective 
index. For a few posts, the effective may be 
higher because certain goods used by Americans 
are not available locally and the cost of im- 
porting them has been included. The local in- 
dex has omitted their cost if no substitutes are 
available. Some firms utilize the higher of the 
two indexes, on the basis that their employees will 
have to import the same goods as the Government 



man. However, the effective index may have been 
reduced because of some special facility, with the 
result that it is not as high as it would be for the 
private citizen. You might wish to make some 
upward adjustment to compensate for that condi- 
tion. It would usually be small. 

An element that is very important and must 
always be considered is the exchange rate. 
Obviously, the relatives and indexes are valid only 
when an employee can obtain local currency for 
his dollars at the same rate as that used in the 
index computations. If a company uses a rate 
different from that shown in the N.F.T.C. publi- 
cation, the local index may be adjusted by applica- 
tion of the ratio of the rates. That will not hold 
true for the effective index, which may reflect some 
purchases in dollars or with a different currency 
in another country. In indexes furnished to the 
Council or to a private company, the exchange 
rates on which they are based are always included. 

Spendable Income. We have noted that the ef- 
fective index is the guide to a post allowance. If 
costs at the post are 10 percent above Washington 
levels, the employee needs 10 percent more money 
to spend than he would have in Washington ; hence 
we increase his "spendable income" by 10 percent 
in the form of a post allowance. Spendable in- 
come is that part of base salary remaining after 
subtracting taxes and savings. The Government 
employee pays United States income tax regard- 
less of the post of assignment and is exempt from 
foreign income taxes. His savings represent dol- 
lars left in this country and include retirement 
deductions and life insurance premiums, as well 
as any other savings. The average by salary i 
group is derived from a study of Federal employee 
expenditures, which shows that, as base pay in- 
creases, the proportion of it used for day-to-day 
living expenses decreases. For example, the man 
and wife with income of $4,250 use almost 85 per- 
cent, or $3,600, for direct living costs ; but, if the 
income is $12,000, only 60 percent, or $7,200, is 
necessary for such expenses. The rest goes for sav- 
ings and taxes unaffected by costs. The single man 
spends about 25 percent less. As the post allow- 
ance is an equalizing payment, it is based on that 
which is to be equalized, that is, that part of his 
salary that the employee needs to use for living 
expenses at his post — the spendable income. There : 
are small additional payments for children, 
roughly appi'oximating the product of the post 



114 



Department of State Bulletin 



index times the taxable income deduction for a 
dependent. 

The post allowance is a flat rate of payment; 
that is, the employee does not have to account 
for the use made of it. It is payable only at those 
posts where costs are in excess of Washington. 
It is effective the day the employee arrives at the 
post. "We have recently added a small additional 
amount, known as the supplementary post allow- 
ance, to be paid on behalf of each member of the 
family in excess of two, for the purpose of offset- 
ting part of the cost of eating in the hotel or res- 
taurants while the employee is locating permanent 
quarters. The supplementary portion stops when 
the employee and family move into housekeeping 
quarters or at the end of 3 months after arrival 
at the post, whichever is soonest. 

Education Allowance 

There are two other allowances to meet unusual 
costs that must be borne by the employee. The 
most important of these is the education allow- 
ance. An employee stationed in the United States 
has the American public school system available 
for educating his children at little or no cost. He 
is entitled to comparable education services while 
on foreign duty. In many areas of the world the 
cost of educating a child is a major expense, and 
the Government assists in defraying those costs 
for children in grades 1 through 12. Maximum 
rates of allowances, by grades, are established for 
each post for home study courses, the local school, 
and, if the local school is inadequate, for attend- 
ance at the nearest adequate school away from the 
post. In the latter case, room, board, and round- 
trip transportation are included. A school is con- 
sidered adequate if a child finishing a specified 
grade at that school can successfully pursue his 
studies in the next higher grade in the American 
public schools. 

An employee is free to select any school and any 
method of education for his child but will not re- 
ceive an allowance in excess of costs incurred or 
the maximum rate prescribed for his post for the 
applicable method of education, whichever is less. 
If the employee wishes to send his child to the 
United States for secondary education, the Gov- 
ernment will pay the cost of one round trip from 
the post. In that case, no education allowance is 
payable. The round-trip travel is payable also 
for college education. 

January 21, 1957 



Separation Allowance 

The other allowance related to living cost is 
that paid when it is necessary for the employee to 
maintain his wife and any minor children outside 
the country of his assignment. It is paid only 
when the Government determines that it is neces- 
sary — never solely at the request of the employee. 
Posts are not classified for this allowance. If the 
Government refuses permission for the family to 
accompany the employee to his post, as in an area 
of civil strife where the danger is great, the allow- 
ance will be paid automatically. Otherwise, each 
request is handled individually and decision made 
on its merits. The amount is based on the size of 
the family and the employee's salary and offsets 
part of the additional cost of maintaining separate 
establishments. In addition to separate mainte- 
nance for his family, the employee may receive 
other allowances to which he is entitled as an em- 
ployee without dependents at his post. 

Conclusion 

We have touched on various allowances in which 
this gi-oup might be interested. I would like to 
refer to certain elements that bear on the sub- 
ject that were touched lightly or not at all. 

(1) Each allowance is designed for a specific 
purpose and is not payable across the board to all 
employees. In the Government-owned residence, 
no quarters allowance is payable. No post allow- 
ance is paid in over half the foreign posts. Under 
no circumstances is it possible for an employee to 
receive concurrently all the allowances mentioned 
here today. 

(2) Salaries of Government employees are not 
changed because of changes in posts of assignment. 
The salaries are established by law. We make up 
for special conditions through allowances. In the 
low-cost areas the unchanged salary means a break 
for the employee. Rotation of assignment pre- 
vents any great windfall for anyone. 

(3) The cost-of-living indexes are applicable 
only for Americans. They cannot be used for 
nationals of any other country, because expendi- 
ture patterns and preferences would be different. 
We pay a post allowance to employees in Paris, but 
there is no doubt that a Frenchman would find 
living in Washington far more expensive than in 
Paris. 

(4) The information I have given you on com- 



115 



putation of the indexes shows that all comparisons 
are relative to Washington. That means that 
post indexes cannot be used to show changes in 
cost over a period of time unless they are adjusted 
by changes in the Washington index over the same 
period. Since Washington is always 100 in the 
measurement process, it is necessary to use the 
trend reported for Washington by the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics in any adjustments of that nature. 
Also, the measurement procedures do not produce 
dollar-and-cent budgets for a post, either for the 
total or for groups of items within the total. To 
produce such data would require adjustment of the 
Washington base budget from the data of the 
expenditure survey and then application of the 
post ratios. 

(5) And, finally, let me say that we are ready to 
assist American private industry in any way pos- 
sible. As previously mentioned, we want the user 
to be familiar with the data. We hesitate to fur- 
nish data to anyone who we feel is not aware of its 
limitations. As many of you already know, we 
gladly answer correspondence or discuss problems 
at our office or by telephone. Sitting down at the 
table and going over problems in detail has proved 
to be the best method of reaching an imder- 
standing. 

We are proud of what we believe to be the most 
comprehensive collection of worldwide data on liv- 
ing costs that can be found in this country or else- 
where. The methodology used is considered by 
experts, both Government and private, to be as 
equitable as poasible for consistent worldwide ap- 
plication. This is supported by a recent report of 
a major research organization after detailed analy- 
sis of the Department's methods and similar prac- 
tices by several American firms. The report con- 
tains the following statement: 

Of all the methods studied, the more comprehensive, 
thorough and refined is tliat employed by the State Depart- 
ment. . . . The State Department local index is the liest 
available measurement of overseas living costs applied to 
an American expenditure pattern and weighted to allow 
for local customs. 

I would like to conclude with another quota- 
tion. This is from the letter of a newspaper re- 
porter to his liome oUice, which had just inaugu- 
rated a new system of cost-of-living allowances. 



I want to tell you, and you can tell Mr. 



-, that 



I am filled with admiration for the new living allowance 
formula. The arbitrary nature of most living allowances 



has upset me over and over in the past; it is good to get 
these things definitely taped down. 

This, of course, does not make me happy about having 
my living allowance cut in half. However, I have no 
doubt that if you keep track of the State Department index 
you will very soon find that the allowance here should be 
raised again. 

He was right. The allowances at that post were 
raised 30 days later. 



Cornerstone Ceremony for New 
Department of State Building 



TRANSCRIPT OF CEREMONY 

Press release 8 dated January 5 

Invocation hy the Rt. Rev. Angus Dun: 
Lord God of Hosts, Father of all nations, with- 
out whom we build in vain, bless the work which 
we here begin and all who will labor here to pre- 
serve our liberties, to maintain the rightful in- 
terests of our people and a righteous order among 
the nations. Grant that with malice toward none, 
with charity for all, with firmness in the right as 
Thou dost give us to see the right, we may strive 
to fulfill Thy purpose for us and to achieve a just 
and lasting peace with all nations. 

Deliver us from self-righteousness and from the 
pretense of being moved by motives loftier than we 
have yet been granted. Give us a better under- 
standing of the heritage and hopes of other 
peoples. Save us from seeking to impose our ways 
of life upon them. We remember especially those 
lands and peoples, heirs with us of common liber- 
ties, who are now in bondage. Open to us the 
ways in which we may set forward their deliver- 
ance without bringing the devastation of war on 
them and Thy world. 

Give us a just understanding even of those we 
count as our enemies. Keep us mindful that there 
is that in us which C4Ui make us Thy enemies. 
And as we need Thy forgiveness, teach us to for- 
give. All of which we ask in the name of Him who 
gave Himself to heal our broken hiunanity, Thy 
Son, Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

Secretary Dulles : 

Mr. President, distinguished guests, and fellow 
members of the Department of State: You, Mr. 



116 



Department of State Bulletin 



President, are about to lay the cornerstone of the 
new building of the Department of State and then 
you will go to address the Congress of the United 
States with reference to matters of the Middle 
East. These two events are not without relation- 
ship to each other. Your address will indicate 
how gi'eatly have grown the interests and the re- 
sponsibilities of the United States, and this new 
building now to be begim will indicate the efforts 
of the Department of State and of the Foreign 
Service of the United States to be more fully re- 
sponsive to those great and growing responsi- 
bilities. 

There has, indeed, been a growth. The first 
Secretary of the United States for Foreign Affairs, 
Robert Livingston, had his office in Philadelphia. 
There was a total staff of four, including the 
Secretary himself. The total salary of the four 
was $6,000, and they were housed in a building 12 
feet wide by 30 feet deep. The next Secretary of 
State was Thomas Jefferson, and by that time the 
staff had grown to six. And then there came the 
first Secretary of State to be here in Washington, 
John Marshall. By that time the staff had grown 
to nine. Today the staff is about 7,500, and it is 
scattered through 29 different buildings here in 
the District of Columbia. That obviously is an 
inefficient arrangement, and Congress has been 
wise enough and foresighted enough to recognize 
that fact and has appropriated the funds to enable 
this new building to be begun and we hope quickly 
carried to completion so that we shall all be housed 
in the same building. 

ilr. President, you will be laying this corner- 
stone with the exact original trowel which was 
used by George Washington to lay the cornerstone 
of the National Capitol 164 years ago. And I 
think that makes it appropriate that on this occa- 
sion we should go back and reread what George 
Washington said in his farewell address about the 
pui-poses and objectives of the United States in 
relation to foreign affairs. After recapitulating 
some of our problems, he summarized in these 
words : 

It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and at no distant 
period a great nation to give to mankind the magnanimous 
and too novel example of a people always guided by an 
exalted justice and benevolence. 

Mr. President, to that great ideal I, in the name 
of the Department of State and all of its members 
and of the Foreign Service of the United States, 



rededicate ourselves. That, indeed, is a great 
goal, and we for our part shall do all we can to 
realize it. 

A t this point the President of the United States 
and the Secretary of State assisted in laying the 
co7'nerstone. 

Benediction by the Most Rev. Patrick A. 
O'Boyle: 

In the Name of the Father and of the Son and 
of the Holy Ghost, Amen. 

Almighty and eternal Father, we humbly in- 
voke Thy blessing upon this historic ceremony. 
In this critical hour of the world's history, so 
fraught with danger to the very foundations of 
civilization, we dedicate this building to Your 
gi-eater honor and glory and to the cause of last- 
ing peace and friendship among the nations and 
the peoples of the world. We ask You, Lord, to 
bless the efforts of our beloved nation toward this 
long-awaited goal. Help us to be humble and 
magnanimous in the use of our enormous wealth 
and power; but help us, too, to have the courage 
of our convictions and to stand firm for what is 
right and just in the field of international rela- 
tions. Help our representatives in the Depart- 
ment of State and in the United Nations to strive 
with manly fortitude toward the establislunent of 
an international order founded on justice, inspired 
by charity, and buttressed by a code of interna- 
tional law and international etliics. In Thy infi- 
nite mercy and goodness, hasten the day when the 
suffering peoples of the world may enjoy economic 
and political security together with that full meas- 
ure of freedom to which every human being is 
entitled and without which life is hardly worth 
the living. 

Conscious of our own unworthiness, we implore 
Thy mercy on a sinful world in the Name of Thy 
Divine Son, the Prince of Peace, Wlio Himself 
has taught us the i^erfect prayer: Our Father, 
Who art in Heaven, hallowed be Thy Name ; Thy 
Kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth as it is 
in Heaven. Give us this day our daily bread and 
forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who 
trespass against us, and lead us not into tempta- 
tion but deliver us from evil. Amen. 

Tfie National Anthem was played hy the Ma- 
rine Corps Band, and the President of the United 
States and Secretary of State departed. 



January 27, 7957 



117 



DEPOSIT OF DOCUMENTS 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 2 (press release 1) that Secretary Dulles that 
day had placed documents of historical U.S. for- 
eign-policy interest in a copper box in prepara- 
tion for the laying of the new State Department 
building cornerstone by President Eisenhower on 
January 5. The box was to be placed in a niche 
in the foundation and sealed in by the corner- 
stone. 

The documents contained in the box were 
selected by the Department's Historical Division 
with a view to giving to a future generation an 
insight into the operations and policies of the 
Department in the mid-20th century, and also into 
the international setting and problems of the 
times.^ 



HISTORIC TREASURES USED IN CEREMONY 

Among the national treasures used by President 
Eisenhower in laying the cornerstone of the new 
Department of State building, according to a De- 
partment announcement of January 4 (press re- 
lease 5), was the silver trowel which George 
Washington used to lay the cornerstone of the 
U.S. Capitol building on September 18, 1793. 

Another national treasure — the desk of Thomas 
Jefferson, upon which he wrote the Declaration 
of Independence — -was used as the resting place 
for the trowel before it was handed to the Presi- 
dent for the ceremony. 

The trowel was loaned by the Alexandria-Wash- 
ington Lodge No. 23, A. F. and A. M., of Alex- 
andria, which maintains custody of it. It was 
made by John Diiffey, a silversmith of Alexandria, 
Va., specifically for the Capitol cornerstone cere- 
mony. It has since been used on other historic 
occasions, including the laying of the cornerstone 
of the Thomas Jefferson Memorial by President 
Roosevelt on November 15, 1939. 

The Thomas Jefferson desk, loaned by the Na- 
tional Museum, was designed by Mr. Jefferson and 



' The issue of the Bulletin which was selected for in- 
clusion was that for Nov. 19, 1956, containing among 
other items the statute of the International Atomic En- 
ergy Agency, letters exchanged by President Eisenhower 
and Soviet Premier Bulganin and by the President and 
Israeli Prime Minister Ben-Gurion, and General Assembly 
statements and resolutions on the Middle Eastern and 
Hungarian questions. 



made for him by Benjamin Eandolph of Pliiladel- 
phia. It was in the custody of the Department of 
State for a number of years, was turned over to 
the Library of Congress in 1921, and shortly there- 
after was entrusted to the keeping of the National 
Museum. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 
Property 

Convention for the protection of industrial property. 
Signed at London June 2, 1934. Entered into force 
August 1, 1938. 53 Stat. 1748. 
Adherence effective: Viet-Nam, December 8, 1956. 

Telecommunications 

International telecommunication convention. Signed at 
Buenos Aires December 22, 1952. Entered into force 
January 1, 1954. TIAS 3266. 
Accession deposited: Tunisia, December 14, 1956. 



BILATERAL 

Brazil 

Agricultural commodities agreement pursuant to title I 
of the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance 
Act of 1954, as amended (68 Stat. 454, 455; 69 Stat. 44, 
721). Signed at Washinston December 31, 1956. En- 
tered into force December 31, 1956. 

Canada 

Protocol to the convention for the protection, preservation 
and extension of the soclieye salmon fisheries in the 
Eraser River system of May 26, 1930 (50 Stat. 1355). 
Signed at Ottawa December 2S, 1956. Enters into force 
on the date of exchange of instruments of ratification. 

Luxembourg 

Agreement providing for investment guaranties authorized 
by sec. 413 (b) (4) of the Mutual Security Act of 1954, 
as amended (68 Stat. 832, 846; 70 Stat. 558). Effected 
by exchange of notes at Luxembourg November 26 and 
December 7, 1956. Entered into force December 7, 1956. 

Mexico 

Agreement exteudiiicc the migratory labor agreement of 
August 11, 1951 (TIAS 2331), as amended. Effected by 
exchange of notes at Mexico December 20, 1956. En- 
tered into force December 20, 1956. 

Thailand 

A,i;reemeut amending the surplus agricultural commodi- 
ties agreement of June 21, 1955 (TIAS 3200) by pro- 
viding for sale of dairy products to Thailand. Effected 
by exchange of notes at Bantikol; December 14, 1956. ; 
Entered into force December 14, 1956. 



118 



Department of State Bulletin 



anuary 21, 1957 



Index 



Vol. XXXVI, No. 917 



Urica. General Assembly Approves Union of British 
ToKoIand Wltli Gold Coast (Nash, text of resolution) . 100 

Vtomic Energy. People of Eniwetok and Biliini Compensa- 
ted for Leaving Homes 101 

Jolivia. Support for Bolivian Economic Stabilization 
Program 103 

3razil. Surplus Commodity Agreement Signed With Bra- 
zil 102 

Congress. The 

president Aslts for Authorization for U.S. Economic Pro- 
gram and for Resolution on Communist Aggression in 
Middle East 83 

President Postpones Action on Tariff on Cotton Velvet- 
een 105 

President's Bipartisan Conference With Congressional 
Leaders 88 

>epartment and Foreigrn Service 

Allowances for American Overseas Personnel (Lethco) . 110 
;;ornerstone Laying for New Department of State Build- 
ing 116 

)isarmament. Correspondence of President Eisenhower 
and Premier Bulganin Concerning Reduction of Inter- 
national Tension and Disarmament 89 

Economic A£Fairs 

Sximbanlv Loan to Nicaragua for Inter-American High- 
way 104 

'resident Postpones Action on Tariff on Cotton Velvet- 
een 105 

Support for Bolivian Economic Stabilization Program . 103 
Surplus Commodity Agreement Signed With Brazil . . 102 
Jnited States Loan to Iceland Will Finance Imports . . 100 
World Bank Loans for Steel Production in Japan and 
India 101 

5gypt 

Dreatment of Minorities in Egypt (Wadsworth) . . . 106 
J.S. To Advance Funds for Clearing Suez Canal (text of 
note) 105 

lungary 

attorney General To Parole Refugees Until Congress Acts 
(Elsenhower) 96 

'rovlding for the Needs of the Hungarian Refugees 
(Nixon) 94 

celand 

J.S.-Icelandic Defense Negotiations 100 

iJnited States Loan to Iceland Will Finance Imports . . 100 

India. World Banl^ Loans for Steel Production In Japan 

j and India 101 

ntemational Organizations and Meetings. ICEM Execu- 

I tive Committee (delegate) 109 

apan. World Banl^ Loans for Steel Production in Japan 
, and India 101 

Intual Security 

'resident Aslis for Authorization for U.S. Economic Pro- 
gram and for Resolution on Communist Aggression in 
Middle East 83 

i.S.-Icelandlc Defense Negotiations 100 

fear East. President Asks for Authorization for U.S. Eco- 
nomic Program and for Resolution on Communist Ag- 
gression in Middle East 83 

Nicaragua. Eximbank Loan to Nicaragua for Inter-Ameri- 
can Highway 104 

"lon-Self-Governing Territories 

Jeneral Assembly Approves Union of British Togoland 
With Gold Coast (Nash, text of resolution) .... 106 

'eople of Eniwetok and Bikini Compensated for Leaving 
Homes 101 

lorth Atlantic Treaty Organization 

I.S.-Icelandic Defense Negotiations 100 



Presidential Documents 

Attorney General To Parole Refugees Until Congress 

Acts 96 

Correspondence of President Elsenhower and Premier Bul- 
ganin Concerning Reduction of International Tension 
and Disarmament 89 

President Asks for Authorization for U.S. Economic Pro- 
gram and for Resolution on Communist Aggression in 
Middle East 83 

Refugees and Displaced Persons 

Attorney General To Parole Refugees Until Congress Acts 

(Eisenhower) 98 

ICEM Executive Committee (delegate) 109 

Providing for the Needs of the Hungarian Refugees 

(Nixon) 94 

Total Visa Issuance Under Refugee Relief Act .... 93 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 118 

Surplus Commodity Agreement Signed With Brazil . . 102 

U.S.-Icelandic Defense Negotiations 100 

U.S.S.R. 

Correspondence of President Elsenhower and Premier Bul- 
ganin Concerning Reduction of International Tension 
and Disarmament 89 

President Asks for Authorization for U.S. Economic Pro- 
gram and for Resolution on Communist Aggression in 
Middle East 83 

United Nations 

Assembly Approves Union of British Togoland With Gold 

Coast (Nash, text of resolution) 106 

Treatment of Minorities in Egypt (Wadsworth) . . . 106 
U.S. To Advance Funds for Clearing Suez Canal . . . 105 
World Bank Loans for Steel Production in Japan and 

India 101 

Name Index 

Bulganin, Nikolai 89 

Dulles, Secretary 116 

Dun, Angus 116 

Eisenhower, President 83, 89, 96, 105 

George. Walter F 88 

Lethco, Joseph W 110 

McLeod, Scott 109 

Nash, Frank C 106 

Nixon, Richard M 94 

O'Boyle, Patrick A 116 

Wadsworth, James J 106 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: December 31-January 6 

Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 
Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Press releases issued prior to December 31 which 
appear in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 610 of 
December 6 and 625 of December 18. 



No. 

640 



Date 

12/31 

1/2 
1/3 



Subject 

Surplus commodity agreement with 
Brazil. 

Cornerstone documents deposited (re- 
write). 

Visa issuance under Refugee Relief 
Act. 

Gerety resignation (rewrite). 

McLeod to represent U.S. at ICEM 
(rewrite). 

President to use historic treasures in 
cornerstone laying (rewrite). 

McCollum appointment (rewrite). 

Cornerstone ceremonies. 



tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



t3 
4 


1/3 
1/4 


5 


1/4 


t6 

S 


1/5 
1/5 



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The Quest for Peace 



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the major steps in the search for peace through the security and 
unity of the free world. 

The quotations from the President and the Secretary of State 
set forth problem and action on the following subjects : 



Atoms for Peace 

Austrian Treaty 

Bipartisanship 

Captive Peoples 

Change of Soviet Policy 

China 

Deterrence of War 

European Unity 

Foreign Trade 

Germany Enters Nato 

Indochina 

International Communism 

Iran 

Korea 



Latin America 

1. Communist Penetration in 
Latin America 

2. Economic Development in 
Latin America 

3. Organization of American 
States 

4. Strengthening Inter- 
American Friendship 

Less Developed Countries — 
Target of Soviet Communism 

Seato (Southeast Asia Treaty 
Organization) 

Spanish Bases 

Trieste Settlement 



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Vol. XXXVI, No. 918 January 28, 1957 

THE STATE OF THE UNION • Message of the President 

to the Congress ^Excerpts) 123 

MIDDLE EAST PROPOSALS • Statement by Secretary 

Dulles (with map) 126 

A STEP TOWARD STABILITY IN THE MIDDLE EAST 

• by Assistant Secretary Hill 131 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY ESTABLISHES COMMITTEE 
TO INVESTIGATE AND REPORT ON CONDITIONS 

IN HUNGARY • Statement by Ambassador Henry Cabot 
Lodge, Jr., Report by Secretary-General, and Text of 
Resolution 138 

THE KOREAN PROBLEM IN THE GENERAL ASSEM- 

BLY • Statement by Edward S. Greenbaum and Text of 
Resolution 141 

U.S. POLICY AND PRACTICES IN THE FIELD OF 

INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL • Report to the U.N. Sec- 
retary-General 145 



STATER 
POLICY 



For index see inside back cover 



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Washington 26, D.O. 

Price: 

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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
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Vol. XXXVI, No. 918 • Publication 6441 
January 28, 1957 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the irork of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as icell as 
special articles on various pluises of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
tchich the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



rhe State of the Union 



MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS (EXCERPTS)i 



fo THE Congress of the United States : 

I appear before the Congress today to report on 
he State of the Union and the relationships of 
he Union to the other nations of the world. I 
ome here, firmly convinced that at no time in the 
listory of the Republic have circumstances more 
mphatically underscored the need, in all echelons 
pf government, for vision and wisdom and 
esolution. 

You meet in a season of stress that is testing 
he fitness of political systems and the validity of 
lolitical philosophies. Each stress stems in jDart 
rom causes peculiar to itself. But every stress 
5 a reflection of a universal phenomenon. 

In the world today, the surging and under- 
tandable tide of nationalism is marked by wide- 
pread revulsion and revolt against tyranny, 
njustice, inequality and poverty. As individuals, 
oined in a common hunger for freedom, men and 
mmen and even children pit their spirit against 
;uns and tanks. On a larger scale, in an ever 
lore persistent search for the self-respect of 
uthentic sovereignty and the economic base on 
i'liich national independence must rest, peoples 
ever old ties; seek new alliances; experimenf^- 
smetimes dangerously- — in their struggle to sat- 
jfy these human aspirations. 

Particularly, in the past year, this tide has 
hanged the pattern of attitudes and thinking 
tnong millions. The changes already accom- 
lished foreshadow a world transformed by the 
pirit of freedom. This is no faint and pious 
ope. The forces now at work in the minds and 
earts of men will not be spent through many 
ears. In the main, today's expressions of 

'Delivered on Jan. 10 (White House press release) ; 
. Doc. 1, Soth Cong., 1st sess. 



nationalism are, in spirit, echoes of our fore- 
fathers' struggle for independence. 

This Kepublic cannot be aloof to these events 
heralding a new epoch in the affairs of mankind. 

Our pledged word, our enlightened self-interest, 
our character as a Nation commit us to a high role 
in world affairs: a role of vigorous leadership, 
ready strength, sympathetic understanding. 

The State of the Union at the opening of the 
8oth Congress continues to vindicate the wisdom 
of the principles on which this Republic is 
founded. Proclaimed in the Constitution of the 
Nation and in many of our historic documents, 
and founded in devout religious convictions, these 
principles enunciate: 

A vigilant regard for human liberty. 
A wise concern for human welfare. 
A ceaseless effort for human progress. 

Fidelity to these principles, in our relations with 
other peoples, has won us new friendships and has 
increased our opportimity for service within the 
family of nations. The appeal of these principles 
is universal, lighting fires in the souls of men 
everywhere. We shall continue to uphold them, 
against those who deny them and in counselling 
with our friends. 

The existence of a strongly armed imperialistic 
dictatorship poses a continuing threat to the free 
world's and thus to our own Nation's security and 
peace. There are certain truths to be remembered 
here. 

First, America alone and isolated cannot assure 
even its own security. We must be joined by the 
capability and resolution of nations that have 
proved themselves dependable defenders of free- 
dom. Isolation from them invites war. Our se- 



^nuary 28, 1957 



123 



curity is also enhanced by the immeasurable inter- 
est that joins us with all peoples who believe that 
peace with justice must be preserved, that wars of 
aggression are crimes against humanity. 

Another truth is that our survival in today's 
world requires modern, adequate, dependable mili- 
tary strength. Our Nation has made great strides 
in assuring a modern defense, so armed in new 
weapons, so deployed, so equipped, that today our 
security force is the most powerful in our peace- 
time history. It can punish heavily any enemy 
who undertakes to attack us. It is a major deter- 
rent to war. 

By our research and development more efficient 
weapons- — some of amazing capabilities — are being 
constantly created. These vital efforts we shall 
continue. Yet we must not delude ourselves that 
safety necessarily increases as expenditures for 
military research or foi'ces in being go up. In- 
deed, beyond a wise and reasonable level, which 
is always changing and is under constant study, 
money spent on arms may be money wasted on 
sterile metal or inflated costs, thereby weakening 
the very security and strength we seek. 

National security requires far more than mili- 
tary power. Economic and moral factors play 
indispensable roles. Any program that endangers 
our economy could defeat us. Any weakening of 
our national will and resolution, any diminution 
of the vigor and initiative of our individual citi- 
zens, would strike a blow at the heart of our 
defenses. 

The finest military establishment we can pro- 
duce must work closely in cooperation with the 
forces of our friends. Our system of regional 
pacts, developed within the Charter of the United 
Nations, sei'ves to increase both our own security 
and the security of other nations. 

This system is still a recent introduction on the 
world scene. Its problems are many and difficult, 
because it insists on equality among its members 
and brings into association some nations tradition- 
ally divided. Kepeatedly in recent months, the 
collapse of these I'egional alliances has been pre- 
dicted. The strains upon them have been at times 
indeed severe. Despite these strains our regional 
alliances have proved durable and strong, and dire 
predictions of their disintegration have proved 
completely false. 

With other free nations, we should vigorously 
prosecute measures that will promote mutual 
strength, prosperity and welfare within the free 



world. Strength is essentially a product of eco- 
nomic health and social well-being. Conse- 
quently, even as we continue our programs of mili- 
tary assistance, we must emphasize aid to oui 
friends in building more productive economies 
and in better satisfying the natural demands oi 
their people for progress. Thereby we shall movf 
a long way toward a peaceful world. 

A sound and safeguarded agreement for oper 
skies, unarmed aerial sentinels, and reduced arma- 
ment would provide a valuable contribution to 
ward a durable peace in the years ahead. Anc 
we have been persistent in our effort to reach sucl 
an agreement. We are prepared to make furthe: 
proposals in the United Nations. We are willin< 
to enter any reliable agreement which would re 
verse the trend toward ever more devastating 
nuclear weapons; reciprocally provide against th, 
possibility of surprise attack ; mutually control thi 
outer space missile and satellite development ; an( 
make feasible a lower level of armaments am 
armed forces and an easier burden of military ex 
penditures. Our continuing negotiations in thii 
field are a major part of our quest for a confiden. 
peace in this atomic age. 

This quest requires as well a constructive attil 
tude among all the nations of the free world tc 
ward expansion of trade and investment, that ca 
give all of us opportunity to work out economi 
betterment. 

An essential step in this field is the provision c 
an administrative agency to insure the orderl 
and proper operation of existing arrangement 
under which multilateral trade is now carried oi 
To that end I urge Congressional authorizatio 
for United States membership in the propose 
Organization for Trade Cooperation, an actio 
which will speed removal of discriminatio 
against our export trade. 

We welcome the efforts of a number of our Emx 
pean friends to achieve an integrated communit 
to develop a common market. We likewise we 
come their cooperative effort in the field of atomi 
energy. 

To demonstrate once again our unalterable pui 
pose to make of the atom a peaceful servant o 
humanity, I shortly shall ask the Congress to ai 
thorize full United States participation in tbi 
International Atomic Energy Agency. 

World events have magnified both the respop 
sibilities and the opportunities of the Unite- 
States Information Agency. Just as, in recen 



124 



Department of State Bu/fef/i 



lonths, the voice of communism has become more 
shaken and confused, the voice of truth must be 
more clearly heard. To enable our Information 
Agency to cope with these new responsibilities and 
opportunities, I am asking the Congress to in- 
crease appreciably the appropriations for this 
program and for legislation establishing a career 
service for the Agency's overseas foreign service 
officers. 

The recent historic events in Hungary demand 
that all free nations share to the extent of their 
capabilities in the responsibility of granting asy- 
lum to victims of Communist persecution. I re- 
quest the Congress promptly to enact legislation 
to regularize the status in the United States of 
Hungarian refugees brought here as parolees. I 
shall shortly recommend to the Congress by special 
message the changes in our immigration laws that 
I deem necessary in the light of our world 
responsibilities. 

The cost of peace is something we must face 
boldly, fearlessly. Beyond money, it involves 
changes in attitudes, the renunciation of old preju- 
dices, even the sacrifice of some seeming self-inter- 
est. 

Only five days ago I expressed to you the grave 
concern of your government over the threat of 
Soviet aggression in the Middle East.= I asked 
for Congi'essional authorization to help counter 
this threat. I say again that this matter is of vital 
and immediate importance to the Nation's and 
the free world's security and peace. By our pro- 
posed programs in the Middle East, we hope to 
assist in establishing a climate in wliich construc- 
tive and long-term solutions to basic problems of 
the area may be sought. 

From time to time, there will be presented to 
the Congress I'equests for other legislation in the 
broad field of international affairs. All requests 
will reflect the steadfast purpose of this Admin- 
istration to pursue peace, based on justice. Al- 
though in some cases details will be new, the under- 
lying purpose and objectives will remain the same. 

All proposals made by the Administration in 
this field are based on the free world's unity. This 
unity may not be immediately obvious unless we 
examine link by link the chain of relationships 
that binds us to evei'y area and to every nation. 
In spirit the free world is one because its peoples 
uphold the right of independent existence for all 

= Bulletin of Jan. 21, 1957, p. 83. 



nations. I have already alluded to their economic 
interdependence. But their interdependence ex- 
tends also into the field of security. 

First of all, no reasonable man will question 
the absolute need for our American neighbors to 
be prosperous and secure. Their security and 
prosperity are inextricably bound to our own. 
And we are, of coui'se, already joined with these 
neighbors by historic pledges. 

Again, no reasonable man will deny that the 
freedom and prosperity and security of Western 
Europe are vital to our own prosperity and se- 
curity. If the institutions, the skills, the man- 
])ower of its peoples were to fall under the domina- 
tion of an aggressive imperialism, the violent 
change in the balance of world power and in the 
pattern of world commerce could not be fully 
compensated for by any American measures, mili- 
tary or economic. 

But these people, whose economic strength is 
largely dependent on free and uninterrupted 
movement of oil from the Middle East, cannot 
prosper — indeed, their economies would be se- 
verely impaired — should that area be controlled 
by an enemy and the movement of oil be subject 
to its decisions. 

Next, to tlie Eastward, are Asiatic and Far 
Eastern peoples, recently returned to independent 
control of their own affairs or now emerging into 
sovereign stateliood. Their potential strength 
constitutes new assurance for stability and peace 
in the world — if they can retain their independ- 
ence. Should tliey lose freedom and be domi- 
nated by an aggressor, the world-wide effects 
would imperil the security of the free world. 

In short, the world has so shrunk that all free 
nations are our neighbors. Without cooperative 
neighbors, the United States cannot maintain its 
own security and welfare, because : 

First, America's vital interests are world-wide, 
embracing both hemispheres and every continent. 

Second, we have community of interest with 
every nation in the free world. 

Third, interdependence of interests requires a 
decent respect for the rights and peace of all 
peoples. 

These principles motivate our actions within 
the United Nations. There, before all the world, 
by our loyalty to them, by our practice of them, 
let us strive to set a standard to which all who 
seek justice and who hunger for peace can rally. 



January 28, 7957 



125 



May we at home, here at the Seat of Govern- 
ment, in all the cities and towns and f annlands of 
America, support these principles in a personal 
effort of dedication. Thereby each of us can help 
establish a secure world order in which oppor- 
tunity for freedom and justice will be more wide- 
spread, and in which the resources now dissipated 
on the armaments of war can be released for the 
life and growth of all humanity. 

When our forefathers prepared the immortal 
document that proclaimed our independence, they 
asserted that every individual is endowed by 
his Creator with certain inalienable rights. As 
we gaze back through history to that date, it is 
clear that our nation has striven to live up to 
this declaration, applying it to nations as well as 
to individuals. 

Today we proudly assert that the government 
of the United States is still committed to this 
concept, both in its activities at home and abroad. 



The purpose is Divine; the implementation is 
human. 

Our country and its government have made mis- 
takes — human mistakes. They have been of the 
head — not of the heart. And it is still true that 
the great concept of the dignity of all men, alike 
created in the image of the Almighty, has been 
the compass by which we have tried and are try- 
ing to steer our course. 

So long as we continue by its guidance, there 
will be true progress in human affairs, both among 
ourselves and among those with whom we deal. 

To achieve a more perfect fidelity to it, I sub- 
mit, is a worthy ambition as we meet together 
in these first days of this, the first session of the 
85th Congress. 

DwiGHT D. ElSENHOWEK 

The Whtpe House 
January 10, 1957 



Middle East Proposals 



Statement by Secretary Dulles ' 



Since World War II, the United States has had 
to meet a series of critical situations with strong 
measures backed with national unity. 

In 1947 the Congress adopted a major program 
for military and economic aid to Greece and 
Turkey, then menaced by Communist aggression. 

In 1948 the Congi-ess adopted the European Ke- 
covery Program (Marshall plan) in order to sus- 
tain freedom and independence in Europe. 

In 1949 we entered into the North Atlantic 
Treaty alliance. 

In 1950 the United States fought in Korea 
against Communist armed aggression. 

In 1953 we made a mutual defense treaty with 
the Re]:)ub] ic of Korea. 

In 1954 we endorsed the Caracas Declaration 
calling for action in this hemisphere against in- 
ternational communism. 



' Made before tlie House Committee on Foreign Aflaira 
on Jan. 7 (press release 7). 



In 1954 we signed the Southeast Asia Collective 
Defense Treaty. 

In 1955 the Congress authorized the President 
to employ the armed forces of the United States 
for the protection of Taiwan and Penghu and re- 
lated areas, and later that year we ratified a 
mutual defense treaty with the Republic of Cliina, 

These are a few of the momentous steps which 
the United States has taken during the past dec- 
ade, as one area after another was menaced by 
the direct and indirect aggression of the forces of 
international communism. 

Basic U.S. Position 

The dangers have been met in different ways, 
as circumstances dictated. In some cases there 
was economic aid alone. In some cases there was 
both economic and military aid. In some cases 
we dealt only with the military aspect of the 
problem. Also in some cases there was action by 



126 



Department of State Bulletin 



the Congress by legislation. In some cases there 
was action by treaty processes. And in some 
cases the Executive acted with the tacit acquies- 
cence of the Congress. 

But though the needs have been different and 
the constitutional methods have been different, 
there have been basic underlying similarities. 

In each case we proceeded from the premise that, 
as it was put by President Truman in his Greek- 
Turkey message, "totalitarian regimes imposed 
upon free peoples, by direct or indirect aggression, 
undermine the foundations of international peace 
and hence the security of the United States." ^ 

Also, all our treaty and legislative action has 
been designed to promote peace by making clear 
our position in advance and thus to deter aggres- 
sion and to prevent dangerous miscalculations by 
would-be aggressors. 

Also, in each case our resolve has been impressive 
because of the national unity which expressed it. 

Also, in each case where we have so acted, we 
have in fact preserved freedom. 

The Threat to the Middle East 

Today we concern ourselves with the Middle 
East. Few if any of us doubt that it would be a 
major disaster for the nations and peoples of the 
JSIiddle East, and indeed for all the world, if that 
area were to fall into the grip of international 
communism. 

It would be a political disaster for the nations 
of the Middle East because then those nations, 
like the European satellites, would lose the na- 
tional independence which they so ardently desire 
and which now they are beginning to exercise in 
full measure. 

It would be an economic disaster to them. The 
principal economic asset of the area is petroleum, 
and only the free nations offer an adequate market. 

It would be a disaster for the peoples of the 
Middle East because they are deeply religious 
peoples and their spiritual suffering would be 
grievous if they were subjected to the fate of 
other religious peoples who have fallen under 
the rule of atheistic, materialistic cominunism. 

The disaster would spread far beyond the con- 
fines of the Middle East itself. The economies 
of many free-world countries depend directly up- 
on natural products of the Middle East and on 
transportation through the Middle East. And, 

"Bulletin (supplement) of May 4, 1947, p. 829. 
January 28, 1957 



indirectly, the entire free-world economy is con- 
cerned. Western Europe is particularly depend- 
ent upon the Middle East. The vast sacrifices the 
United States has made for the economic recovery 
of Europe and military defense of Europe would 
be virtually nullified if the Middle East fell under 
the control of international communism. 

Finally, a Communist breakthrough in the Mid- 
dle East would encourage the Soviet rulers to 
resort everywhere to more aggressive policies. It 
would severely weaken the pressures within the 
Soviet world for more liberal policies. It would 
be a severe blow to the strugghng peoples of 
Hungary and Poland who are so valiantly striv- 
ing for more independence. It would undo, 
throughout the world, much of the benefit of the 
earlier actions I have recalled. 

For all these reasons, the United States must do 
whatever it properly can to assist the nations of 
the Middle East to maintain their independence. 

No Single Formula 

The question of what to do is extraordinarily 
difficult. The area is much divided among itself. 
There is a high degree of disunity between the 
Arab States and Israel, a disaccord which has 
been heightened by the recent Israeli military 
action in Egypt. There is much disunity as be- 
tween Arab States themselves. There is suspicion 
against any outside force lest it be a de-vice to re- 
impose colonialism. That suspicion has been 
heightened by recent events which impair what 
have been mutual relations between the Middle 
East and Europe. There is the problem of the 
Suez Canal. 

It is not feasible to find a simple answer to the 
question of how the United States can help to keep 
the area free. It is hard to help in one direction 
without creating suspicion in another. No single 
formula will solve all the problems of the Middle 
East. They will have to be attacked in a variety 
of ways, as we have steadily sought to do and will 
continue to do. But the evolution of events now 
requires us to add a new element to reinforce our 
other actions in the area. 

President Eisenhower's Recommendation 

After the most thorough consideration. Presi- 
dent Eisenhower has concluded, and has recom- 
mended to the Congress, that action be taken which 
will first of all make unmistakably clear that 

127 



Proposed Resolution on Economic and Military Cooperation in Middle East 

JOINT RESOLUTION 



To authorize the President to undertalte economic 
and military cooperation with nations in the general 
area of the Middle East in order to assist in the 
strengthening and defense of their independence. 

Whereas a primary purpose of the United States 
in its relations with all other nations is to develop and 
sustain a just and enduring peace for all, in accordance 
with the Charter of the United Nations ; and 

Whereas the peace of the world and the security of 
the United States are endangered as long as interna- 
tional communism and the nations it controls seek by 
threat of military action, use of economic pressure, 
internal subversion, or other means to attempt to bring 
under their domination peoples now free and inde- 
pendent ; and 

Whereas such danger now exists in the general area 
of the Middle East : Therefore be it 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives 
of the United States of America in Congress assemhled. 
That the President be and hereby is authorized to co- 
operate with and assist any nation or group of nations 
in the general area of the Middle East in the develop- 
ment of economic strength dedicated to the mainte- 
nance of national independence. 

Sec. 2. The President is authorized to undertake. 
In the general area of the Middle East, military as- 
sistance programs with any nation or group of nations 
of that area desiring such assistance. Furthermore, he 
is authorized to employ the Armed Forces of the United 
States as he deems necessary to secure and protect the 
territorial integrity and political independence of any 
such nation or group of nations requesting such aid 
against overt armed aggression from any nation con- 



it is the policy of the United States, declared by 
the Congress and the President, to cooperate with 
the nations of the Middle East to maintain their 
independence. 

It -would in the second place authorize the 
President to assist any nation or group of na- 
tions in that general area in the development of 
economic strength dedicated to the maintenance 
of national independence. 

It would in the third place authorize the Presi- 
dent to undertake military assistance programs 
with any such nation or group of nations, if they 
desire such assistance. 

It would in the fourth place authorize the Presi- 
dent to emi)loy the armed force of the United 
States to secure and protect the territorial integ- 
rity and political independence of any such nation 
or group of nations requesting such aid against 



trolled by international communism ; Provided, That 
such employment shall be consonant with the treaty 
obligations of the United States and with the Charter 
of the United Nations and actions and recommenda- 
tions of the United Nations; and, as specified in Article 
51 of the United Nations Charter, measures pursuant 
thereto shall be immediately reported to the Security 
Council and shall not in any way affect the authority 
and responsibility of the Security Council to take at 
any time such action as it deems necessary in order 
to maintain or restore international peace and security. 

Sec. 3. The President is hereby authorized, when 
he determines that such use is important to the se- 
curity of the United States, to use for the purposes 
of this joint resolution, without regard to the provi- 
sions of any other law or regulation, not to exceed 
$200,000,000 from any appropriations now available 
for carrying out the provisions of the Mutual Security 
Act of 1954, as amended. This authorization is in 
addition to other existing authorizations with respect to 
the use of such appropriations. 

Sec. 4. The President shall within the month of Jan- 
uary of each year rejjort to the Congress his action 
hereunder. 

Sec. 5. This Joint Resolution shall expire when the 
President shall determine that the peace and security 
of the nations in the general area of the Middle East 
are reasonably assured by international conditions cre- 
ated by action of the United Nations or otherwise. 



' H.J. Res. 117, 85th Cong., 1st sess., introduced on 
Jan. 5 by Representative Thomas S. Gordon, chairman 
of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and referred to 
the committee. 



overt armed aggression from any nation controlled 
by international communism. 

In order to enable the President tlie better to 
carry out economic and military assistance pro- 
grams, it is proposed that from funds already 
appropriated by past mutual security legislation 
up to $200 million may be used in the President's 
discretion for the Middle East, this authority to 
be supi^lementary to his present discretionary au- 
thority under existing legislation. This does not 
involve the authorizing or appropriating of any 
additional money. We seek greater flexibility in 
respect of funds already appropriated so tliat the 
peace ammunition already provided by the Con- 
gress can be more freely and effectively used in 
what has, since last June, become an area of 
greater need than was then anticipated. The 
matter of funds for future fiscal vears will be 



128 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



dealt with later, as outlined by the Presidential 
message. 

The authority to use the armed forces of the 
United States is designed to apply to cases of 
overt armed aggression coming from some nation 
"controlled by international communism." That 
phrase is taken from the Mutual Security Act. 
Any employment of armed force would be con- 
sonant with the United Nations Charter and the 
other treaty obligations of the United States, 
notably the provision found in the charter of the 
United Nations and in our security treaties that 
we shall refrain in our international relations 
from a threat or use of force against the territorial 
integrity or political independence of any state. 
Furthermore, such use of force would be subject 
to article 51 of the charter of the United Nations, 
whicli recognizes the inherent right of collective 
self-defense if an armed attack occurs but which 
goes on to provide that the exercise of this right 
of self-defense shall in no way affect the authority 
and responsibility of the Security Council to take 
such action as it deems necessary in order to main- 
tain or restore international peace and security. 
Coordination with the United Nations would be 
further assured by a provision that any United 
States use of force shall be consonant with the 
actions and recommendations of the United 
Nations. 

The proposed legislation is in the judgment of 
our President necessary to meet the danger. 

The danger can take any one or more of several 
forms. There is the possibility of open armed 
attack. There is the possibility of subversion, 
a danger which is increased if there be a sense 
of insecurity. There is the danger that economic 
conditions be such as to make communism seem 
an attractive choice. Any program, to be ade- 
quate, must be prepared to meet all three of these 
dangers and any combination of them. Also, 
those needs cannot be met under present con- 
ditions unless we make clear now, in relation to 
the Middle East, what we have already made clear 
in relation to so many areas; namely, that armed 
Communist attack would have to be met, if need 
be, by the armed force of the United States. 

Is there, in fact, doubt that the United States 
would, sooner or later, react with force if Com- 
munist-controlled governments used open force to 
conquer the Middle East? "Would it not then 
be obvious that the United States itself was in 



process of being imperiled? Would not action 
be the overwhelming will of the Congress and of 
the Nation ? But if that be so, the time to make 
clear our resolve is now. Only thus can we ade- 
quately serve the cause of freedom and of peace. 

You may feel — I do feel — that there is in fact no 
doubt as to what the Congress would do if inter- 
national communism set out on a piecemeal con- 
quest of the world by war. But imtil the Con- 
gress has actually spoken, there is doubt in the 
Middle East and there may be doubt in the Soviet 
Union. If those doubts persist, then the danger 
persists and grows. If we elect to wait and see 
and then decide, the waiting period will greatly 
heighten vulnerability to both direct attack by 
overwhelming force and to indirect aggression. 
And we shall not have deterred the aggression. 

Only if Congress quickly dispels doubts, only if 
it puts the stamp of its approval upon a rounded 
program of economic and military assistance and 
reassurance for the Middle East, will it have 
done the maximum it can do to preserve peace 
and freedom. 

The purpose of the proposed resolution is not 
war. It is peace. The purpose, as in the other 
cases where the President and the Congress have 
acted together to oppose international com- 
munism, is to stop world war III before it starts. 

Secretary Dulles Comments 
on "Short Form" Resolution 

Press release 11 dated January 9 

At the hearing held by the Foreign Affairs 
Committee of the House of Representatives on 
January 9 on the pending Middle East joint reso- 
lution, Secretary Dulles was requested to comment 
upon a suggested "short form" resolution which 
had been reported in the press.^ The Secretary 
said that the purposes of the author seemed to 
coincide with those expressed in the proposed 
joint resolution (H. J. Kes. 117) but that he had 
doubts regarding the "short form" on the follow- 
ing points: 

1. It could be interpreted as designed to estab- 



' "The United States refrards as vital to her Interest 
the preservation of the independence and intesiity of the 
states of the Middle East and, if necessary, will use her 
armed forces to that end." 



January 28, 1957 



129 



lish unilaterally a United States protectorate over 
the area, irrespective of the desires or requests of 
the countries themselves, and as such it might 
well be resented in the area. 

2. In dealing with the use of United States 
armed forces to preserve the independence and 
integrity of the states of the Middle East, the 
"short form" would not limit such use to defense 
against armed attack, which under article 51 of the 
United Nations Charter is the basis for collective 
self-defense. 

3. It seems to call for United States armed 
action to preserve the integrity of all the Middle 
East states not merely against a Connnunist armed 
attack but against any external attack, and thus 
it might, for example, have required United States 
military intervention in the fighting which oc- 
curred last year. 

4. It would seem to call for military action to 
overthrow a regime brought into power from 
without even though no violence were used. This 
would raise a question of the conformity of such 
action with our U.N. Charter obligations and the 
interpretation of the charter which was adopted 
by the United States at the United Nations emer- 
gency Assembly last October and November. 

5. It would not actually grant the President any 
authority with respect to the use of armed forces 
even to protect a state of the area, at its request, 
against Commimist armed attack. 

6. It does not touch at all upon the economic 
phase of the problem, which is of extreme impor- 
tance and urgency. 

7. It entirely ignores the U.N. and the impor- 
tance of coordinating any national action with 
the authority conferred upon the U.N. by the 
charter. 



James P. Richards Appointed 
Special Assistant to President 

White House press release dated January 7 

The President on January 7 appointed James 
P. Richards of South Carolina, former chairman 
of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, as 
Special Assistant to the President with personal 
rank of Ambassador. Mr. Richards' duties will 
be to advise and assist the President and the Sec- 
retary of State on problems of the Middle Eastei-n 
area. 



In this capacity Mr. Richards will head a special 
group of State Department, Defense Department, 
and International Cooperation Administration of- 
ficials to implement certain aspects of the Govern- 
ment's policies in relation to the Middle East, par- 
ticularly as they may develop pursuant to the Pres- 
ident's request to the Congress for a joint declara- 
tion of policy. In addition to advising on policy 
problems, it is expected that Mr. Richards will 
travel to the Middle Eastern area in order to assist 
in the development of administration planning for 
the area. 



Resignation of Sir Anthony Eden 
as British Prime Minister 

statement by President Eisenhower 

White House press release dated January 9 

I have just been informed of the official an- 
nouncement of the resignation of Sir Anthony 
Eden as head of Her Majesty's Government in the 
United Kingdom. 

Sir Anthony is an old and good friend. During 
the days of World War II and since, there have 
been few periods when he and I were not engaged 
in the study of some problem common to our two 
countries. Through the years I have developed 
for him a great respect and admiration. 

As Foreign Minister and then as Prime Minis- 
ter, Sir Anthony has been a dedicated leader in 
the cause of freedom. He is a staunch believer 
in the need for unity among the conununity of 
free nations, especially between his coiintry and 
ours. 

Mrs. Eisenhower and I extend to him and to 
Lady Eden our hopes that Sir Anthony will soon 
fully recover his health so that he may have 
many useful years of happiness ahead. 

Statement by Secretary Dulles 

Press release 12 dated January 9 

It is a matter of deep regret that Sir Anthony 
Eden has felt compelled to lay down the arduous 
duties of his office because of health. I have 
myself known Sir Anthony for many years, and 
we were closely associated during the period when 
he was Foreign Minister and I was Secretary of 
State. We attended together many international 
conferences and always cooperated closely. Also 



130 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



since he became Prime Minister I have had several 
opportunities to see and work with him. 

This friendly association has been a privilege to 
me and through it I came to admire and respect 
his ability and effective dedication to the cause 
of freedom in the world and unity between the 



free nations, particularly between the United 
Kingdom and the United States. I hope that the 
opportunity for a rest which will now come to Sir 
Anthony will assure him many years of happiness 
and the possibility of his continuing to contribute 
to the common cause of freedom. 



A Step Toward Stability in the IVIiddie East 



by Robert C. HUl 

Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations ^ 



As you know, North Carolina has been humor- 
ously termed a "valley of humility between two 
mountains of conceit." It goes without saying 
that this great State, with its booming and ever- 
growing industry and its forward-looking atti- 
tude, has no reason to be humble. Quite the con- 
trary, it has every reason to be proud of its herit- 
age and confident in its future. 

Nevertheless, humility stands out as a true vir- 
tue in this day and age, when dictators and proph- 
ets of various "isms" strut with vain arrogance on 
the world stage. Khrushchev and Bulganin have 
now taken off the garb with which they sought to 
fool what they believe to be Little Red Riding 
Hoods of the free world into thinking they are 
peace-loving characters. In Hungary they showed 
that their teeth were as sharp and jagged as ever. 

Set against the superegos who endanger world 
peace or who play around the edges with com- 
munism, humility is a heartening virtue. It is 
certainly possessed by our beloved President, 
Dwight D. Eisenhower. In recent decades, we 
have witnessed Chief Executives who have acted 
in the foreign field by decrees called Executive 
orders. At times they have strained the Presiden- 
tial powers and acted by fiat. President Eisen- 
hower has, throughout his period of office, recog- 



' Address made before the Chamber of Commerce at 
Henderson ville, N. C, on Jan. 12 (press release 18 dated 
Jan. 11). 



nized that, under the Constitution, there are three 
coequal branches of Govermnent — the executive, 
judicial, and legislative. Rather than attempting 
to infringe upon tlie rights of Congress, he has 
sought to bring it into every important aspect of 
our foreign policy. 

That is why, in another of the world situations 
with which he has dealt so skillfully, this time the 
crisis in the Middle East, the President has turned 
to Congress and asked it for the authority neces- 
sary to keep out the Communist colonizers and 
to assist in the just solution of the international 
problems in the general area of the Middle East. 

As Assistant Secretary of State for Congres- 
sional Relations, it is my duty and my privilege 
to work with the Congress on matters affecting our 
foreign affairs. I have found in the Senate and 
the House men and women who keenly are aware 
of the beliefs of their constituents and earnestly 
and sincerely try to carry out their wishes. I have 
found that the Members of the Senate and the 
House put our Nation's welfare above partisan 
politics in matters of international relations. 

There is no doubt that Americans admired the 
leadership provided by President Eisenhower and 
Secretary Dulles from the start of the Suez crisis. 
They admired the President's refusal to be stam- 
peded by any of the nations involved. They ad- 
mired him for refusing to tolerate aggression in 
any form. This stand won him worldwide support 



January 28, 7957 



131 



in the United Nations. It convinced the nations 
of the world and of the Middle East that the 
United States did not intend to see their sover- 
eignty destroyed. President Eisenhower thus 
brought the prestige of the United States to a new 
high. 

The next phase with regard to the Middle East 
logically begins. 

The Communist Threat 

Under United Nations insistence, Britain and 
France have withdrawn their forces from Suez. 
With the way thus cleared, we can assist in deal- 
ing with many of the basic problems. The chief 
of these, as the President and Secretary of State 
have stressed time and time again to Congress, 
is the Communist threat in this general area. 
The Soviet Union has striven mightily for more 
than two generations to get a foothold, and then 
gain control, of the rich and strategic Middle East. 
Eussian interest in the Persian Gulf area has 
been a geopolitical factor since the days of the 
Czars. The Soviet leaders have sought, with in- 
creasing activity, to dominate this area, which is 
not only a strategic crossroads of the world but 
wherein lie two-thirds of the free world's oil 
reserves. 

In 1955 President Eisenhower asked for au- 
thority to employ American armed forces to pro- 
tect Formosa, then immediately threatened by at- 
tack. There were those who predicted this would 
lead at once to wai". Yet this stern warning de- 
livered jointly by the President and the Congress 
that the United States was prepared to meet force 
with force proved effective and remains effective 
in the Far Eastern area today. 

The United States is equally determined not 
to stand idly by and permit Communist colonial- 
ism to absorb this vital area or its now independent 
people of varying races. The problem of assuring 
the free movement of the world's commerce 
through Suez, and the many other challenging 
problems in this fast-changing area, cannot be 
solved unless the Communist threat is removed. 
As in the case of Formosa, it is only fair to let 
the would-be aggressor know the American peo- 
ple's determination, as expressed by the President 
and implemented by the Congress, not to permit 
interference in the affairs of the free nations of the 
Middle East. 

President Eisenhower, in his address to the joint 



session of Congress exactly one week ago today,^ 
pointed out that 

The Soviet Union has nothing whatsoever to fear from 
the United States in the Middle East, or anywhere else 
in the world, so long as its rulers do not themselves first 
resort to aggression. . . . Neither does Russia's desire 
to dominate the Middle East spring from its own eco- 
nomic interest in the area. Russia does not appreciably 
use or depend upon the Suez Canal. . . . The Soviets have 
no need for, and could provide no market for, the petro- 
leum resources which constitute the principal natural 
wealth of the area. 

Then the President told the Congress the real 
motivation for would-be Soviet aggression. He 
stated : 

The reason for Russia's interest in the Middle East is 
solely that of power politics. Considerins her announced 
purpose of Communizing the world, it is easy to under- 
stand her hope of dominating the Middle East. 

Later, on January 7, Secretary Dulles told the 
House Committee on Foreign Affairs:^ 

... a Communist breakthrough in the Middle East 
would encourage the Soviet leaders to resort everywhere 
to more aggressive policies. It would severely weaken 
the pressures within the Soviet world for more liberal 
policies. It would be a severe blow to the struggling 
peoples of Hungary and Poland who are so valiantly 
striving for more independence. 

The President informed the Congress that 

Experience shows that indirect aggression rarely if 
ever succeeds where there is reasonable security against 
direct aggression. 

As a matter of fact, the House Select Committee 
on Soviet Aggression — after a careful study of 
every satellite taken over by the Red bosses and 
also the non-Russian parts of the Soviet Union 
absorbed — reported tliat none was ever swallowed 
up "without the use or threat of use of the Red 
Army." 

The President also informed the Congress that 
safeguards against aggression included posses- 
sion by local governments of loyal security forces 
and '"economic conditions such as not to make 
Communism seem an attractive alternative." 

The actual resolution as introduced in Congress 
bj' the new and distinguished chairman, Thomas 
Gordon, of the House Foreign Affaii-s Committee 
is so explicit that I propose to read its salient 
parts. They are short and to the point, imple- 
menting the policy the President requested. 

■ Bulletin of Jan. 21, 1957, p. 83. 
' See p. 126. 



132 



Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives 
of the United States of Ameriea in Connress assemUed, 
That the President be and hereby is authorized to co- 
operate with and assist any nation or group of nations 
in the };eneral area of the Middle East in the develop- 
ment of economic strength dedicated to the maintenance 
of national independence. 

Sec. 2. The President is authorized to undertake, in 
the general area of the Middle East, military assistance 
programs with any nation or group of nations of that 
area desiring such assistance. Furthermore, he is au- 
thorized to employ the Armed Forces of the United 
States as he deems necessary to secure and protect the 
territorial integrity and political independence of any 
such nation or group of nations requesting such aid against 
overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by 
International communism: Provided, That such employ- 
ment shall be consonant with the treaty obligations of 
the I'nited States and with the Charter of the United 
Nations and actions and recommendations of the United 
Nations: and, as specified in article 51 of the United Na- 
tions Charter, measures pursuant thereto shall be imme- 
diately reported to the Security Council and shall not in 
any way affect the authority and responsibility of the 
Security Council to take at any time such action as it 
deems necessary in order to maintain or restore inter- 
national peace and security. 

Sec. 3. The President is hereby authorized, when he 
determines that such use is important to the security of 
the United States, to use for the purposes of this joint 
resolution, without regard to the provisions of any other 
law or resulation, not to exceed $200,000,000 from any ap- 
propriations now available for carrying out the provisions 
of the Mutual Security Act of 1954, as amended. This 
authorization is in addition to other existing authoriza- 
tions with respect to the use of such appropriations. 

May I comment that our aims are, in the tra- 
dition and spirit of the United States, sincere and 
noble. That small gallery of critics who feed 
upon sensationalism and misrepresentation can- 
not distort these principles. 

As many times in our history this is a moment 
when we can be especially proud of our country 
and of the institutions which have made us strong 
and free and thus able to project into this world, 
long ridden with ancient hates and prejudices, a 
touch of something new and better for mankind. 

For this reason I am certain that the Congress 
of the United States will adopt the President's 
program for the Middle East. For this reason I 
am certain that the American people will give it 
the same full and enthusiastic support they have 
given the President himself. 

Crumbling Facade of Soviet State 

We see the contrast to our own system of free- 
dom and free enterprise in the crumbling facade of 

ianuaty 28, 1957 



the Soviet slave state. This police state has posed 
to the world as a leader of a "new idea." But 
what, I ask, is new about tyranny, regimentation, 
and a planned economy so rigid that it has proved 
it can never work? This system is, in truth, long 
outmoded. It goes back before the Dark Ages. 
All that is different in the Soviet system is the 
form of the sales technique— and even that is 
not very new because deceit and lies have been 
tried before with dismal failure. This technique 
is to promise everything to everyone; then, if you 
take over the people, you put them in chains. 

The Communist system has begun to crack. The 
Hungarian revolt proved that men hunger to be 
free. It proved that this desire to be free is 
stronger than the indoctrination by the Com- 
munists driven home to them since their child- 
hood. It is stronger than self-interest. It is 
stronger than life itself. The Hungarian patriots 
showed the world that they prefer to die for 
freedom than to live under Communist tyranny. 
If the Soviet troubles were limited to Hungary, 
it might not be too difficult a task for the Kremlin's 
uneasy masters. After all, one big country can 
crush a smaller defenseless one. But the Kremlin 
faces the fact there is a gradual stirring in all the 
satellites, as well as in the U.S.S.R. itself. Let us 
not forget that almost half the people of the Soviet 
Union are not Russian. These non-Russians de- 
test their Russian masters. 

Anyone could have told the bosses of a so-called 
new system that bureaucracy and a rigid economic 
system always had uncorrectable faults. Louis 
XVI and Marie Antoinette found that out on the 
guillotine. Why have the Communists been 
plundering rich Hungary of meat and wheat if 
their collective farms are doing well? Wliy are 
they plundering other satellites to the starvation 
point? Obviously, the collective farm system is a 
failure. 

It may not be a quick process, but the Com- 
munist police state is dying at its roots. Secre- 
tary Dulles has repeatedly made clear that in- 
ternal troubles which may well lead to greater 
freedom are developing. They are developing far 
beyond hopes and expectations. The trouble 
within the Red orbit is serious. I am sure Con- 
gress and the American people are aware of this. 
History shows that police states with their rigid 
patterns must expand to live. That is why it is 
important to prevent such Soviet expansion in the 
Middle East or anywhere else. That is another 

133 



reason why I am so confident that Congress will 
act on the Middle East resolution with due de- 
liberation and resolve. 

In contrast to the failing Soviet system, let us 
look at our own. The free expression of our di- 
vergent views permits us under our traditions of 
freedom to come up with something approaching 
the right answer to problems — and to correct our 
errors quickly after we have made them. 

The United States is committed to constant 
progress ; we are not afraid of change within the 
flexibility of the wise system our forefathers con- 
ceived. That is why we in the United States live 
better today tlian any people at any time in all 
history. I think we should take pride in our 
accomplishments rather than analyzing ourselves 
too much or concentrating upon the soft points 
in our national life, which we constantly seek to 
change. 

We should be proud to be patriots even though 
there has been a campaign for several decades to 
make patriotism an evil word. We must all be 
patriots these days. For a nation as strong as 
ours, unified through pride in its heritage, beliefs, 
and accomplishments, cannot be defeated. It will 
play a new role in creating a better and a peaceful 
world for all mankind. 

One cannot deny that these Middle East prob- 
lems are tremendously difficult, rooted in centuries 
of hatred and misunderstanding. They will not 
be solved overnight by any administration — Re- 
publican or Democratic. But I say that, regard- 
less of the painstaking, frustrating days ahead, 
the President's request to Congi-ess is an essential 
step toward the clierished goal of stability and 
understanding in this vital region. As such it 
deserves the firm support of all Americans — 
Democrats and Republicans — for only by such 
unity will our great Nation exert moral leader- 
ship whicli is vital to the survival of Western 
democracy and the welfare of all mankind. 

Death of Austrian President 

The White House on January 5 inade public the 
following cablegram from President Eisenhower 
to Chancellor Julius Raab of Austria. 

I wish to express to the people of Austria and 
to you personally my profound sympathy and that 
of the people of the United States at the death of 
President Koerner.' 

DwiQHT D. Eisenhower 



' President Theodor Koerner died on Jan. 4. 



U.S. To Permit Licensing to Poland 
of Surplus Farm Commodities 

The Department of Commerce annoimced on 
January 5 that it now will give consideration to 
applications for licenses to export surplus agricul- 
tural commodities to Poland for U.S. dollars at 
world market prices. Apart from this action with 
regard to Poland, the general policy prohibiting 
exports of subsidized agricultural products has not 
been changed for Soviet-bloc countries, although 
at some future time consideration may be given to 
applications for exports of such commodities to 
certain other Eastern European countries. Public 
announcement will be made if, and when, such a 
decision is taken. 

The policy change permits the licensing to Po- 
land of surplus agricultural commodities subsi- 
dized or sold by the Commodity Credit Corpora- 
tion for export, for U.S. dollars at world market 
prices. To the extent that Poland wishes to make 
such purchases, this relaxation should permit that 
country to utilize these commodities for the benefit 
of the Polish people. 

Hungary Lifts Import Duties 
on Gift Parcels 

The Bureau of Foreign Commerce of the De- 
partment of Commerce reported on January 9 
that the Hungarian Government has announced 
that gift parcels sent to Hungary will be admitted 
duty free. Hungarian authorities have advised 
that until further notice gift parcels addressed to 
individuals and organizations in that country will 
not be subject to customs duties. Such parcels 
may contain any mailable article needed by the 
addressee and his family, such as clotliing, non- 
perishable foods, and medicines. Items in com- 
mercial quantities are not permitted. 

U.S. export controls permit shipment of gift 
packages up to $50 in value by mail to all foreign 
countries except Communist China and North 
Korea, without the necessity of applying for in- 
dividual export licenses. The packages may con- 
tain only those items normally sent as gifts, such 
as food, toilet articles, and civilian clothing. Cer- 
tain sulfonamide and antibiotic drug preparations 
may be included in the parcel provided their value 
does not exceed $25. All other drugs in dosage 
form may be shipped up to the full $50 limitation. 



134 



Department of State Bulletin 



Only one parcel a week may be sent by any one 
donor to any one donee. 

Mail service to Hungary, which was discon- 
tinued on November 23, now has been resumed, the 
U.S. Postmaster General has announced. Gift 
packages should conform to Post Office regula- 
tions as to size, weight, and permitted contents. 



Alleged Overflight of Soviet Area 
by American Planes 

U.S. NOTE OF JANUARY 11 

Press release 14 dated January 11 

Following is the text of a note delivered on 
January 11 to the Embassy of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics in Washington, D.C. 

The Department of State informs the Embassy 
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics that the 
latter's unnumbered note dated December 15, 1956, 
concerning an alleged overflight of the Vladivos- 
tok area by three American planes on December 
11, 1956, has been given careful attention. 

With respect to the alleged violation of Soviet 
air space, a thorough investigation has revealed 
that the only authorized United States Air Force 
flights in the general area of the Sea of Japan 
were normal training activities. 

If, however, the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics would offer information to enable positive 
identification of aircraft allegedly involved, or 
otherwise establish proof of the allegation, the 
United States Government would be pleased to 
conduct a further study of the matter. 

Departscent of State, 
Washington, D. C. 

SOVIET NOTE OF DECEMBER 15 

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics considers it necessary to advise the Government of 
the United States as follows : 

According to precisely determined data, on December 
11, 1956, between 13:07 and 13:21 o'clock, Vladivostok 
time, three American jet planes, type B-57, coming from 
the direction of the Sea of Japan, south of Vladivostok, 
violated the national boundary of the U.S.S.R. by invad- 
ing the air space of the Soviet Union. These planes pene- 



trated the air space over the territory of the U.S.S.R. in 
the Vladivostok area. Good weather prevailed in the area 
violated, with good visibility, which precluded any possi- 
bility of the loss of orientation by the fliers during their 
flight. 

This violation by American planes of the air space of 
the Soviet Union cannot be regarded as other than a pre- 
meditated act on the part of the military authorities of 
the U.S.A. with the clear aim of reconnaissance, which 
cannot help leading to the aggravation of the interna- 
tional situation in the Far East. 

The Government of the Soviet Union strongly protests 
to the Government of the U.S.A. against this gross viola- 
tion of the air space of the Soviet Union by American 
planes and insists that the Government of the U.S.A. take 
measures to punish the guilty parties and to prevent any 
future violations of the national boundaries of the U.S.S.R. 
by American planes. 

The Soviet Government considers it necessary to state 
that in case of any repetition in the future of violations 
of the air space of the U.S.S.R. by American planes, the 
Government of the United States of America will have to 
bear the full responsibility for the consequences of such 
violations. 



King of Saudi Arabia 
To Visit United States 

White House press release dated January 7 

The King of Saudi Arabia, His Majesty Saud 
Ibn Abdul al-Aziz Al Saud, has accepted the Pres- 
ident's invitation to visit the United States. The 
King and his party will visit Washington Jan- 
uary 30, 31, and February 1. ,. 

This visit is the first state visit of 1957 and marks 
the first time a reigning monarch of Saudi Arabia 
has visited the United States. The visit has been 
under consideration for several months. The 
President and the King are expected to discuss the 
problems of the Middle East area which are of 
mutual interest to the two countries. 



Crown Prince Abdul lllah of Iraq 
To Visit United States 

Press release 17 dated January 11 

His Royal Highness Crown Prince Abdul lUah 
of Iraq has indicated his interest in visiting the 
United States and will pay an informal visit to 
this country early in February. During the 
course of the visit he will call on U.S. officials in 
Washington for discussions of current Middle 
Eastern problems. 



January 28, J 957 



135 



This will be the Crown Prince's third visit to 
the United States. As Regent of Iraq, he paid 
a state visit in 1945 and accompanied King Faisal 
of Iraq on his state visit in 1952. 

World Bank Loan to Japan 
for Land Reclamation 

The World Bank announced on December 19 
that documents had been signed that day for a 
loan equivalent to $4.3 million in various cur- 
rencies to assist in the execution of land reclama- 
tion projects in Japan and to increase imports of 
dairy cattle. Most of the loan will be used to im- 
port equipment which will be operated on pilot 
projects to test the feasibility of land reclamation 
in Japan by the application of modern mechanical 
methods. 

The reclamation will be carried out in three dif- 
ferent areas of northern Japan: Kamikita in 
northern Honshu, the Konsen plain in eastern 
Hokkaido, and the Ishipari River valley in west- 
ern Hokkaido. The projects are expected to re- 
duce the time and cost involved in transforming 
an initial 54,000 acres of presently uncultivated 
land into productive farm areas suitable for mixed 
farming. If, as expected, mechanized land recla- 
mation proves successful in the pilot areas, the 
methods developed should be applicable on a 
larger scale in many other areas of Japan. 

The loan was made to the Agricultural Land 
Development Machinery Public Corporation and 
is guaranteed by the Government of Japan. The 
corporation was established by the Japanese Gov- 
ernment in 1955. While its initial operation will 
be in the nature of pilot projects, ultimately its 
activities will be extended to large-scale reclama- 
tion. The loan is for a term of 15 years and bears 
interest of 5 percent, including the 1 percent com- 
mission charged by the bank. Amortization will 
begin November 1, 1959. 

Japan has a pressing need to open new lands to 
cultivation so that the production of food can be 
increased. Although its population of 90 million 
numbers more than half that of the United States, 
Japan's land area is only one-twentieth as large, 
and, because of the mountainous terrain, much of 
this land is unsuitable for cultivation. At present 
Japan imports about one-fifth of its food require- 
ments, and, with the population growing at the 
rate of one million a year, output of food will need 
to be increased by 15 percent within 10 years if the 



present situation is not to worsen. Presently cul- 
tivated land is already intensively used, and it is 
mainly by developing unused lands for agriculture 
that Japan can hope to avoid a growing food 
deficit. This is well understood in Japan, and in 
recent years the Government has been devoting 
about 12 percent of its total expenditure to the 
support and increase of agricultural production. 
The projects which the bank's loan will assist are 
part of this effort. 

Japan has at least 2.5 million acres of potentially 
arable land which for various reasons have not 
been brought under cultivation. Recent efforts to 
reclaim portions of this acreage have been con- 
fined to settling farmers on the land and support- 
ing tliem wliile they attempted to clear and pre- 
pare areas for agriculture by their own hand labor. 
Much of the land is covered with scrub growth or 
hai'dwood trees so that clearance has been labor- 
ious and slow. Following a visit by a bank agri- 
cultural mission in 1954, Japan decided to estab- 
lish pilot projects to test the feasibility of large- 
scale and rapid reclamation of this type of land 
by the use of modern clearing and earth-moving 
equipment. 

Neither the natural increase of domestic cattle 
nor the numbers imported have been sufficient to 
meet Japan's increasing demand for dairy prod- 
ucts in the postwar years. To provide additional 
stock for existing farms and for new farms to be 
established on reclaimed lands, Japan needs to 
import an additional 2,500 head of cattle annually 
for several years. The bank loan will enable the 
Government to import 5,000 head of dairy breed- 
ing cattle over a period of about 2 years and thus 
encourage the growth of mixed fanning in Japan. 
The cattle will be imported from Australia. 

U.S. Farm Surpluses Finance 
Development Loan for Brazil 

The International Cooperation Administration 
announced on January 8 that tlie United States 
has signed a loan agreement with Brazil wliich 
will provide the equivalent of $117,895,000 in Bra- 
zilian cruzeiros over the next 3 years to further 
Brazil's economic development. Funds for this 
loan will come from sales of U.S. wheat and other 
farm products to Brazil under title I of the Agri- 
cultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 
of 1954, as amended (Public Law 480). 

With proceeds from these sales a line of credit 



136 



Department of State Bulletin 



is being established for the National Bank for 
Economic Development, an agency of the Bra- 
zilian Government, to be used for loans to govern- 
mental, mixed, and private enterprises which are 
within the scope of the development program of 
Brazil. Through this loan capital will be pro- 
vided to expand Brazil's hydroelectric energy out- 
put, railroad transportation facilities, and iron 
and steel production. Included will be loans for 
such specific projects as construction of the Furnas 
Dam and other work in the Kio Grande River 
basin; expansion of power production and other 
sites of the Siio Francisco River basin, including 
the Tres Marias project ; and construction of a new 
railway line between Passo Fundo and General 
Luz in Rio Grande do Sul. 

The Brazilian Government is undertaking a 
wide range of development projects essential to 
the country's economic growth. Much of the 
planning and work now under way to increase 
industrial and agricultural production and to im- 
prove Brazil's transportation network is being 
carried out along guidelines set forth by the Joint 
Brazil-United States Economic Development 
Commission some 3 years ago. The National 
Bank for Economic Development, the Brazilian 
Government lending agency which will channel 
the loan funds to development enterprises in Bra- 
zil, is itself an outgrowth of one of the Joint Com- 
mission's recommendations. 

This loan agreement supplements an agricul- 
tural commodities agreement signed De<«mber 
31, 1956,' which authorized the sale for local 
currency of $138.7 million worth of U.S. surplus 
farm products — mostly wheat — to Brazil. 

Formal signing of the loan agreement took 
place on January 7. It was signed for Brazil 
by Ernani do Amaral Peixoto, Brazilian Am- 
bassador to the United States, and for the United 
States by Hawthorne Arey, a director of the 
Export-Import Bank of Washington, which 
executes and administers collection of Ica loans. 

According to terms of the agreement, the total 

• Bulletin of .Ian. 21, 1957, p. 102. 



cruzeiro equivalent of $117,895,000 will be dis- 
bursed in three annual installments — the first be- 
ing $32,980,000. Other provisions call for repay- 
ment of the loan by Bi'azil over a 40-year period, 
with interest at 4 percent if repaid in cruzeiros 
and 3 percent if repaid in U.S. dollars. 

This is the largest economic development loan 
thus far extended a Latin American Republic un- 
der provisions of title I of the Agricultural Trade 
Development and Assistance Act. A previous 
transaction provided for extension of a $31.3 mil- 
lion development loan to Brazil, and other loans 
have been or are being negotiated with Argentina, 
Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Peru. 

Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 



84th Congress, 2d Session 

United States Aid Operations in Iran. Hearings before 
a subcommittee of the House Committee on Govern- 
ment Operations. May 2-July 16, 1956. 1,268 pp. 

Legislative History of the Senate Committee on Foreign 
Relations. S. Doc. 150, July 26, 1956. 84 pp. 

Development of the Upper Columbia River Basin, Canada 
and the United States. S. Rept. 2831, December 10, 
1956. 2 pp. 

Foreign Policy and Mutual Security. Draft report sub- 
mitted to the House Committee on Foreign Affairs pur- 
suant to a committee resolution providing that the Com- 
mittee on Foreign Affairs shall examine and reappraise, 
under the direction of the chairman, the objectives, 
methods, and results of the foreign policies and pro- 
grams of the United States involved in the Mutual Se- 
curity Act and related legislation, together with hear- 
ings held by the Committee on Foreign Affairs October 
9-November 28, 1956. December 24, 1956. 367 pp. 
[Committee print.] 



85th Congress, 1st Session 

Sixteenth Semiannual Report on Educational Exchange 
Activities. Letter from chairman. United States Ad- 
visory Commission on Educational Exchange, transmit- 
ting the 16th semiannual report on the educational ex- 
change activities conducted under the United States 
Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948, 
for the period January 1 through June 30, 1956, pur- 
suant to Public Law 402, 80th Congress. H. Doc. 40, 
January 3, 1957. 4 pp. 

Middle East Situation. Address of the President of the 
United States delivered before a joint session of the 
Senate and the House of Representatives. H. Doc. 46, 
.lanuary 5, 1957. 8 pp. 



January 28, 1957 

413691 — 57 3 



137 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



General Assembly Establishes Committee To Investigate 
and Report on Conditions in Hungary 



Following are texts of a statement on the Hun- 
garian question hy Henry Cahot Lodge, Jr.^ U.S. 
Representative to the General Assembly; a report 
hy U.N. Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold ; 
and a resolution adopted hy the Assembly on 
January 10. 



STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR LODGE' 

More than 2 months have passed since the Soviet 
Union attacked the Hungarian people with mas- 
sive force. Since that time the General Assembly 
has repeatedly turned its attention to the situa- 
tion in that terror-stricken little country. It has 
set forth its objectives, clearly and unequivocally, 
in a series of resolutions — objectives which have 
been totally and flagrantly disregarded by the 
Soviet Government and by the existing Hun- 
garian authorities. In a climactic action the 
United Nations has even gone so far as to condemn 
the Soviet oppression of Hungary and to do so by 
an overwhelming vote.^ 

We now confront another aspect of this tragic 
ease. On November 16 last, the Secretary- 
General, pursuant to the resolution adopted by 
the Assembly on November 4,' appointed a com- 
mittee of three investigators to look into the 
situation caused by the Soviet intervention in 
Hungary. 

There is now before us, in document A/3485, 
a report by the Secretarj^-General on the in- 
vestigation with which he has been charged 



1 Made in plenary on Jan. 9 (TJ.'S. delegation press 
release 2.582). 

•U.N. doc. A/Re8/424 (Bulletin of Dec. 24-31, 1956, 
p. 979). 

•U.N. doc. A/Ke8/393 (Bulletin of Nov. 19, 1956, p. 
803). 



by the Assembly. The Secretary-General has 
reached two major conclusions. 
The first is : 

So far there has heen no possibility for representatives 
of the United Nations to malie direct observations in 
Hungary, nor has the co-operation necessary for the 
investigations been forthcoming from Governments di- 
rectly concerned. 

And here is a second quotation : 

. . . the Assembly may now wish to establish a special 
ad. hoc committee which would take over the activities 
of the group of investigators established by the Secretary- 
General, and follow them up under somewhat broader 
terras of reference. 

Now, Mr. President, the United States believes 
that these observations of the Secretary-General 
deserve serious and urgent consideration by the 
Assembly. We believe that the members of the 
United Nations must continue to focus attention 
on the problem of Hungary. The valiant Hun- 
garians must not think they have been forgotten. 
Indeed, they must know that they will be always 
remembered so long as men prize human liberty. 
To this end, we should receive the fullest infor- 
mation regarding the situation created by the 
attack of the Soviet Union on the Hungarians and 
on the developments which relate to the recom- 
mendations of the General Assembly on this 
subject. 

We believe that this objective can best be ac- 
complished by the creation of a committee of 
governments to be charged with investigating and 
with reporting on these matters to the present 
session of the Assembly and thereafter as appro- 
priate. Since we are convinced of the gi-eat im- 
portance of direct observation in Hungary, we 
think that this committee should be authorized 
to establish such observation in Hungary and 



138 



Department of State Bulletin 



elsewhere, as well as to collect evidence, testimony, 
and information which will enable it to report 
fuUy. 

If the delegates will forgive a personal note, 
but one which I think is pertinent, I would like 
to say that earlier this week 1 visited the Hun- 
garian refugee center at Kilmer, N. J., an hour 
from here. My visit lx)tli touched and inspired me. 
In the first place, these people were fine-looking 
men and women. With them were many smaU 
children who were truly beautiful. Here they 
were 3,000 miles from their native land. And 
why? Because they were citizens of a small 
country, who wanted to five their lives in peace 
and freedom and who were prevented from doing 
so by their colossal neighbor to the east. 

To say that these obviously God-fearmg, sim- 
ple, industrious people were Fascists, counter- 
revolutionaries, or Horthyists — ^to use the phrases 
of the Soviet speakers — is as untrue and as fan- 
tastic to anyone who takes the trouble to go and 
see these people for himself as it is to supj)ose that 
the Russian revolution was the last revolution 
which will ever occur on this earth. 

We must hope that the Soviet rulei's will see 
that what they have done in Hungary is not only 
morally indefensible but that it constitutes a total 
failure even when looked at from the solely prac- 
tical gi-oimds of Soviet strategy. 

The plight of the Hungarian people is of vital 
interest to us all, and particularly, if I may say 
so, to that majority of the human race which lives 
in small countries and which wants to be able to 
live in peace and freedom without oppression from 
more powerful neighbors, because what can hap- 
pen to one can happen to another. 

The United States, therefore, after considering 
the issues arising from the Secretary-General's 
report, has cosponsored with other delegations a 
resolution which would entrust the mandate I 
have described to a committee of five governments 
and which would call upon all member states to 
give every possible assistance to the committee in 
the fulfillment of its task. Adoption of this reso- 
lution will reaffirm the objectives which we have 
previously endorsed and provide the Assembly 
with a means of insuring a flow of information on 
developments in Hungary. 

The resolution is self-explanatory. We are 
sure that this action will be supported by this As- 
sembly. This action may not be spectacular, but 
it will surely be useful because it will be a cease- 



less vehicle for trutli and we know that the truth 
is mighty and will prevail. 

We therefore urge its speedy adoption so that 
the committee which it establishes can turn 
promptly to its important work. 

REPORT BY SECRETARY-GENERAL 

U.N. doc. A/3485 dated January B 

In a report to the General Assembly (A/3403), 
30 November 1956, the Secretary-General gave an 
interim account of action taken by him on the 
basis of various resolutions adopted by the Gen- 
eral Assembly concerning the withdrawal of for- 
eign troops from Hungarian territory and related 
questions, including that of deportations, and con- 
cerning investigations of the situation caused by 
foreign intervention in Hungary. Humanitarian 
activities, including assistance to refugees, have 
been dealt with mainly in other reports. 

In his report, 30 November, the Secretary- 
General drew the attention of the General Assem- 
bly specifically to the steps taken for investigation 
and observation of the developments in Hungary. 
As announced to the General Assembly, 16 Novem- 
ber (A/3359), a group of three had been estab- 
lished by the Secretary-General to assist him in 
fulfilling the investigatory duties with which he 
had been charged by the General Assembly. This 
group consisted of Mr. O. Gundersen, Mr. A. Lall, 
and Mr. A. Lleras. The Secretary-General 
wishes to include in the present report an account 
of the views expressed by this group concerning 
the nature of and conditions for the investigations 
with which it was charged. 

The group presented to the Secretary-General, 
15 December 1956, the following note : 

Referring to our conversation with you yesterday when 
we exchanged views regarding the task of investigation 
which you asked us to undertake in pursuance of Assem- 
bly resolution A/Res/393 dated 4 November 1956 and in 
accordance with your Information to the General Assembly 
(A/33-j9) of 16 November 1956, we would like briefly to 
state our views at the present stage. 

Already in the first conversation we had with you we 
noted that the resolution of the General Assembly of 4 No- 
vember 1956 appeared to envisage the process of investi- 
i;ation, observation and reporting as a unified one. More- 
over, that resolution, as also subsequent resolutions of the 
General Assembly, called on the Governments concerned 
to assist in the process of fact-finding and assessment of 
the Hungarian situation. While we immediately set out 
to examine the material made available to us in New York 
we found that it did not contain sufficient evidence for a 



January 28, 1957 



139 



broad-based investigation of the events that had taken 
place in Hungary- We found ourselves, as it were, in 
possession of a fringe of the material vfhich we would 
have reijuired for the kind of assessment of the situation 
which we felt that the General Assembly had had in view. 
In short, what we have looked at is the available and 
generally known material which does not put us In a posi- 
tion to add anything signilicant to what is common knowl- 
edge about the situation in Hungary. We have also taken 
note of the fact that as a result of your approaches in 
pursuance of General Assembly resolution A/Res/413 ' 
dated 4 December lOoG only one country of those requested 
has found it possible to offer facilities for observation. 
Until it is possible to open up further sources of reliable 
material through observation on the spot in Hungary and 
by the co-operation of the Governnjents directly concerned, 
there would be little purpose in our attempting an assess- 
ment of the present situation or of recent events. In 
these circumstances the question arises as to whether it 
is not best for the process of investigation to be suspended 
for the present, and for the matter to be re-examined at 
a later stage. 

Serious consideration should be given to the 
conchision of the group that short of access to 
reliable material, provided through observation 
on tlie spot in Hungary and by the co-operation 
of the Governments directly concerned, there 
would be little purpose in attempting an assess- 
ment of the present situation or of recent events. 

So far there has been no possibility for repre- 
sentatives of the United Nations to make direct 
observations in Hungary, nor has the co-operation 
necessary for the investigations been forthcoming 
from Governments directly concerned. The only 
source of new and direct information, under these 
circiunstances, possibly available might be hear- 
ings with refugees from Hungary, conducted, in 
the first place, in neighbouring coimtries. 

The Government of Austria has declared itself 
prepared to receive observers for such a purpose. 
Offers to the United Nations to send observers for 
hearings with refugees have been received from 
the United States of America and Italy. Some 
additional points of significance might be estab- 
lished through hearings with refugees in these 
countries, but, in order to yield results of value, 
such hearings nuist be extensive and organized 
in a juridically satisfactory form. 

Tlie Secretary-General continues, on his part, to 
try to further tlie aims of the General Assembly, 
pursuant to paragraph 5 of the last resolution 
on the Hungarian question.^ He has, under pres- 



ent circimistances and pending also the result of 
efforts along other lines, hesitated now to initiate, 
himself, further investigatory activities, includ- 
ing liearings with refugees. 

The Secretary-General has felt that this might 
be the proper time for a reconsideration of the 
form to be given to the investigatory activities. 
In view of the active and continued concern of 
the General Assembly for the development, the 
Assembly may now wish to establish a special ad 
hoc committee which would take over the activities 
of the group of investigators established by the 
Secretary-General, and follow them up under 
somewhat broader terms of reference. 

Such a committee should obviously serve as an 
organ of the General Assembly for a continued 
observation of developments in relation to Hun- 
gary in all those respects which may be of rele- 
vance to the Assembly. The work of a committee 
with such a mandate might facilitate for the 
General Assembly the consideration of matters 
relating to Hungary beyond what could be 
achieved through an investigation of the kind with 
which the Secretary-General has been charged. 
The committee, if established, should report di- 
rectly to the General Assembly. It would be en- 
titled to all the assistance and facilities which the 
►Secretariat might provide for it in the fulfilment 
of its task. 



RESOLUTION ADOPTED ON JANUARY 10 • 

U.N. doc. A/Res/449 

The General Assemblij, 

Recalling its previous resolutions on the Hungarian 
problem, 

Reafflrming the objectives contained therein and the 
continuing concern of the United Nations in this matter. 

Having received the report of the Secretary-General of 
5 January 1957 (A/3485), 

Desiring to ensure that the General Assembly and all 
Members of the United Nations shall be in pos.session of 
the fullest ami best available information regarding the 
situation created by the intervention of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Kepublics, through its use of armed force 
and other means, in the internal affairs of Hungary, as 
well as regarding devclopnietits relating to the recommen- 
dations of the General Assembly on this subject, 



' BtTLLETiN of Dec. 17, 1956, p. 963. 
■• U.N. doc. A/Res/424. 



' Si>ons()recl by Argentina, Relglum. Canada, Chile, Co- 
lomliia, the Iioiiiinican Republic, El Salvador, France, Ire- 
land, Italy, .lapan, Liberia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, 
Norway, Pakistan, Peru, the rhilippincs, ypain, Sweden, 
Thailand. Turkey, U.K., and U.S. ; adopted on Jan. 10 by 
a vote of 59 to 8 (Soviet bloc), with 10 abstentions. 



140 



Department of State Bulletin 



1. Estublishts, for the above-mentioned puriwses, a Spe- 
cial Committee, composed of representatives of Australia, 
Ceylon, Denmark, Tunisia, and Uruguay, to investigate, 
and to establish and maintain direct observation in Hun- 
gary and elsewhere, talcing testimony, collecting evidence 
and receiving information, as appropriate, in order to re- 
port its findings to the General Assembly at its present 
session, and thereafter from time to time to prepare ad- 
ditional reports for the information of Members of the 
United Nations and of the General Assembly If it is in 
session ; 

2. Calls upon the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
and Hungary to co-opei-ate in every way with the Com- 
mittee and, in particular, to permit the Committee and its 
staff to enter the territory of Hungary and to travel 
freely therein ; 



3. Requests all Member States to assist the Committee 
in any way appropriate in its task, making available to 
it relevant information, including testimony and evidence, 
which Members may possess, and assisting it in securing 
such information ; 

4. Invites the Secretary-General to render the Com- 
mittee all appropriate assistance and facilities; 

5. Calls upon all Member States promptly to give effect 
to the present and previous resolutions of the General 
Assembly on the Hungarian problem; 

6. Reaffirms its request that the Secretary-General con- 
tinue to take any initiative that he deems helpful in re- 
lation to the Hungarian problem, in conformity with the 
lirinciples of the Charter of the United Nations and the 
resolutions of the General Assembly. 



The Korean Problem in the General Assembly 



Statement hy Edward S. Greenbaum 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ^ 



The United States believes that the increase in 
world tensions arising from the situations in the 
Middle East and Eastern Europe should not be 
allowed to obscure the importance of the United 
Nations responsibility in the Korean situation. 
On the contrary, this increased tension makes it 
more urgent to find solutions to these problems. 

The United Nations has long been vitally con- 
cerned with the Korean problem. Collective ac- 
tion by the United Nations in meeting Commmiist 
aggression in Korea was without precedent in the 
history of this organization. We cannot forget 
the suffering of the Korean people and the heavy 
casualties of United Nations forces on behalf of 
Korean peace, imity, and freedom. 

However, for 10 years the efforts of the United 
Nations to seek a settlement of the Korean prob- 
lem have run head on against constant Communist 
resistance. We all know this history. The in- 
flexible and rigid Communist attitude has frus- 
trated past efforts to reach a solution. The result 
has been continued suffering in Korea. But we 

'Made in Committee I (Political and Security) on Jan. 
4 (U. S. delegation press release 2577). 



hope and believe that United Nations efforts will 
succeed. They must not fail. 

Past discussions here have established clearly 
that the primary problem in Korea is political 
unification of the country. Military and political 
tensions would cease to exist if unification was 
effected. Conversely, until unification is achieved, 
the Korean situation will remain a potential dan- 
ger to world peace. 

The Geneva conference of 1954 is the principal 
term of reference in approaching the Korean 
problem today. Fifteen nations which had par- 
ticipated in the military action in response to the 
appeal of the United Nations, in concert with the 
Republic of Korea, enunciated at the Geneva con- 
ference two fundamental principles which they 
believed provided the basis of a Korean settlement 
consistent with the objectives of the United Na- 
tions. They are : 

1. The United Nations, under its Charter, is fully and 
rightfully empowered to take collective action to repel 
aggression, to restore i)eace and security, and to extend 
its good oflSces to seeking a peaceful settlement in Korea. 

2. In order to establish a unified, independent and 



January 28, 1957 



141 



democratic Korea, genuinely free elections should be held 
under United Nations supervision, for representatives in 
the National Assembly, in which representation shall be 
in direct proportion to the indigenous population in 
Korea.'' 

The Communist side rejected these principles. 
It advanced instead various formulae for unifica- 
tion that would have assured a North Korean re- 
gime veto to the formation of any unified govern- 
ment that was not established under Communist 
domination. In particular, the Communists op- 
posed any plan for United Nations supervision of 
the elections and demanded withdrawal of foreign 
forces as a first step toward unification. 

Since the Geneva conference of 1954, this As- 
sembly has twice overwhelmingly endorsed the 
principles enunciated by the nations representing 
the United Nations Command side as providing 
an equitable basis for a Korean settlement. Nev- 
ertheless the Chinese Communists and the North 
Korean regime have not changed their position. 
This is established in the opening portion of the 
report of the United Nations Commission for the 
Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea.^ 

Progress in Republic of Korea 

Despite the failure to achieve peaceful unifica- 
tion of the country, the Republic of Korea has 
continued to develop the representative character 
of its government. There has been the free ex- 
pression of the popular will. A strong two-party 
system is clearly emerging. We see this confirmed 
in the Uncubk report. We are encouraged to note 
in the Uncubk report that progressive evidence 
of the deepening of democratic roots has con- 
tinued. 

1956 saw the pattern of progress maintained. 
This is eloquently demonstrated by the 1956 elec- 
tions for President and Vice President on May 15. 
President Syngman Rhee was reelected by a sub- 
stantial majority, but the opposition Democratic 
Party, formed by a merger of various opposition 
groups, secured the election of its candidate, 
Chang Myon, as Vice President. Subsequentlj^, 
the administration party, the Liberal Party, won 
in the great majority of elections for provincial 
and local positions. The Uncurk report gives 
complete information as to how more than 7 mil- 
lion free Koreans voted. 



« Bulletin of June 28, 1954, p. 973. 
" U.N. doc. A/3172. 



Since this Assembly in 1947 first called for free 
elections throughout Korea under United Nations 
auspices as a basis for Korean unification, three 
national legislative elections, as well as various 
local and provincial and presidential elections, 
have been held. All of these have been under the 
observation of the United Nations Commission. 

This wholesome demonstration of free elections 
should be contrasted with what has taken place 
in North Korea. There has never been any United 
Nations observation in the north. There we 
merely have the bald announcement by the North 
Korean regime that local and provincial elections 
were held on November 20 and 27, 1956. But we 
have no means of confirming this. How does the 
General Assembly know that these elections ac- 
tually took place? Under what conditions and 
with what results ? Were such elections in North 
Korea only a repetition of the carefully staged 
demonstrations which occurred in North Korea 
before hostilities began in 1950? No elections 
have been held for an assembly in North Korea 
since 1948, when the Commimists excluded the 
United Nations Commission and refused to par- 
ticipate in free elections under United Nations ob- 
servation throughout Korea. The delegates will 
recall that it was on the basis of these staged elec- 
tions in 1948 that the Communists pretended to 
represent the whole of the Korean peoJDle. If the 
Communists wish to demonstrate good faith, the 
elections announced for North Korea this year 
afford an excellent opportunity for them to do so. 

Pending a political settlement of the Korean 
problem, the military forces of the United Nations 
Command remain in the field, facing those of 
North Korea and the Chinese Communists. The 
armistice of 1953 established an effective cease-fire. 
During these 3 years no more than minor incidents 
have disturbed that cease-fire. 

The reinforcement provisions of the armistice, 
however, which were designed to maintain a bal- 
ance between the forces in the field, have not been 
observed by the Communist side. They have vio- 
lated these provisions cynically in many respects. 
The most obvious and serious of tlie many viola- 
tions relates to the introduction of combat aircraft. 

It is a well-known fact, established bj' aerial 
photographs in the closing hours of the Korean 
hostilities, that the Communist side did not have 
any combat aircraft in North Korea at the time 
of the signing of the armistice agreement. Yet 



142 



Department of State Bulletin 



the Communists now have a strong air force in 
North Korea numbering approximately 750 
planes; half of them are jets. They offer no ex- 
planation of the entry of these aircraft. Not im- 
til January 1956 did they present any report on 
aircraft to the Neutral Nations Supervisory Com- 
mission, and then they merely reported destruc- 
tion of aircraft whose presence in North Korea 
was previously denied by the Communist side. 
They have still reported no entries or departures 
of combat aircraft. 

The United Nations Command, which itself con- 
tinues carefully to observe the reinforcement pro- 
visions of the armistice agreement, has repeatedly 
called upon the Communist side in the Military 
Armistice Commission to correct these obvious de- 
faults with respect to the repoi'ting and reinforce- 
ment provisions of the armistice agreement. 

In May of this year the United Nations Com- 
mand was impelled, after long negotiation and 
consultation, to take action on the problem of the 
Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, which 
is closely related to the problem of Communist 
violation of the reinforcement provisions of the 
armistice agreement. The United States, in its 
capacity as the Unified Command, reported on 
August 15 in detail to the U.N. on this action.* 

Prisoners of War 

There is another armistice problem about which 
I wish to speak briefly. It is the failure of the 
Communist side to account for United Nations 
Command prisoners of war and the continued 
Communist detention of Korean and foreign ci- 
vilians. At this time, when the Chinese Commu- 
nists have recently annomiced adherence to the Ge- 
neva conventions governing the treatment of 
prisoners of war and of civilians, though with the 
same qualifying reservations attached by the 
U.S.S.K., it should be noted that in Korea they are 
still defying both the letter and spirit of those con- 
ventions and of the armistice agi-eement. 

i\Iore than 3 years after the signing of the ar- 
mistice agreement, the Communist side still has 
not given a satisfactory accounting for United Na- 
tions Command prisoners of war as required by the 
armistice agreement. The United States is con- 
tinuing to press for an accounting of some 450 per- 
sonnel, of whose fate we have reason to believe the 



Text of Resolution on Korea ' 

U.N. doc A/ReB/452(A) 

The General Assembly, 

Havinp noted the report of the United Nations 
Commission for the UniUcation and Rehabilitation 
of Korea (A/3172), 

Recalling resolutions 811 (IX) and 910 (X) of 
11 December 1954 and 29 November 1955 re- 
spectively, 

Noting that the Armistice Agreement of 27 July 
1953 remains in effect, 

1. Reaffirms that the objectives of the United Na- 
tions are to bring about by peaceful means the es- 
tablLshment of a unified, independent and demo- 
cratic Korea under a representative form of govern- 
ment, and the full restoration of international peace 
and security in the area ; 

2. Urges that continuing efforts be made to 
achieve these objectives in accordance with the 
fundamental principles for unification set forth by 
the nations participating in the Korean Political 
Conference, held at Geneva in 1954, on behalf of the 
United Nations and reaffirmed by the General As- 
sembly in resolutions 811 (IX) and 910 (X) ; 

3. Calls upon the United Nations Commission for 
the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea to con- 
tinue its work in accordance with existing resolu- 
tions of the General Assembly and to observe and 
report on elections throughout Korea, and calls upon 
all States and authorities to facilitate this activity 
on the part of the Commission ; 

4. Requests the Secretary-General to place the 
Korean question on the provisional agenda of the 
twelfth session of the General AssemlJly. 



' Sponsored by the U.S. (U.N. doc. A/C.1/L.158) ; 
adopted by Committee I on Jan. 8 by a vote of 57 
to 8 (Soviet bloc), with 13 abstentions; adopted by 
the General Assembly on .Tan. 11 by a vote of 57-8-9. 



* Bm-LETiN of Sept. 3, 1956, p. 390. 
January 28, 7957 



Communist side has knowledge. The United 
States is not the only government suffering from 
this situation. Other governments which contrib- 
uted military forces to the United Nations Com- 
mand also have personnel for whom no accounting 
has been given. Most of the unaccounted person- 
nel were in the military services of the Republic 
of Korea. There is substantial evidence that a 
great number are still being detained by the North 
Korean regime. 

Refugees escaping from the North Korean area 
continue to bring eye-witness reports regarding 
such personnel. Also held by the North Korean 
regime are thousands of South Koreans who were 
removed from South Korea during the hostilities. 

This Communist detention of prisoners of war 



143 



and Korean and foreign civilians is a continuing 
and cruel injustice. The suffering of the individ- 
uals immediately affected and anguish of their 
families and associates are of deep concern to my 
Goverimient. 

At its 10th session, the General Assembly re- 
quested India to report to this session on the prog- 
ress made toward the final settlement of the ex- 
prisoners of war in neutral countries. It has done 
so.° It reports that 88 ex-prisoners refused re- 
patriation and chose settlement in neutral coun- 
tries. These ex-prisoners were taken to India 
pending their final disposition. The disposition 
of these individuals is now near completion as a 
result of ari'angements that have been made for 
their settlement in neutral countries of their 
choice. It is gratifying that most of the ex- 
prisoners will be able to start a new life as free men 
in their newly adopted covmtries. 

Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina generously of- 
fered to accept for permanent resettlement former 
prisoners wlio desired to go to Latin America. 
Most ex-prisoners who so opted have already emi- 
grated to these countries or are waiting for final 
arrangements to be completed. The United States 
wishes to express its appreciation to the Govern- 
ments of Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina for their 
humanitarian and generous offers to accept these 
ex-prisoners for settlement. It also desires to re- 
cord its appreciation to the Government of India 
and the Secretary -General for their efforts in mak- 
ing the necessary arrangements for this resettle- 
ment. 

Question of U.N. Membership 

Mr. Chairman, no review of developments in 
Korea should ignore one other recent development. 
I refer to the strong and increasingly widespread 
expressions by many Koreans asking for the early 
admission of the Republic of Korea to membership 



■ U.N. doc. A/3203. 



in the United Nations. Recently a representative 
of the Republic of Korea presented to the Secre- 
tary-General of the United Nations a petition con- 
taining millions of signatures of Koreans who look 
to the day when the Republic of Korea will be 
represented here as a full member of this organiza- 
tion. Although the Republic of Korea belongs to 
various specialized agencies of the United Na- 
tions, it has been excluded from membership in this 
body by the arbitrary veto of the Soviet Union. 
The United Nations approved the establishment 
of the Republic of Korea as an independent gov- 
ernment. The General Assembly on previous oc- 
casions has reconunended the admission of the Re- 
public of Korea to the United Nations. Morally 
and legally it is entitled to membership. The 
United States urges its early admission to the 
United Nations. 

In conclusion, Mr. Chairman, I should like to 
make a few brief observations regarding the reso- 
lution submitted by my delegation. The United 
States is vitally concerned that the sacrifices which 
were made by its troops and the troops of other 
nations in Korea shall not be in vain. It knows 
that all the nations who joined with it in the task 
of turning back aggi'ession share this feeling. It 
is for that reason that we have offered a draft reso- 
lution which records our determination that the 
United Nations will continue the task it started 
and "establish a unified, independent, and demo- 
cratic Korea." 

We regard this resolution as an important one. 
We hope that it can be adopted by this Committee 
speedily and with wide support. By so doing this 
Committee will enable the United Nations to re- 
affirm unequivocally its objectives in Korea. Such 
action will make clear that the objective of a free, 
independent, unified Korea remains paramount 
in our minds. Such action will also make clear 
that this objective should be achieved in a way 
consistent with the principles of the Geneva con- 
ference. To do less would be to sliirk the re-spon- 
sibility which is ours. 



144 



Department of State Bulletin 



U.S. Policy and Practices in the Field of International Travel 



Following is a report submitted by the United 
States to the U.N. Secretary-General on action 
taken by this country to facilitate international 
travel.^ 

The following data is related to correspondingly 
numbered paragraphs of resolution 563 XIX : 

1. (a) The United States has examined and 
found beneficial the effect of increased tourism on 
its internal economy and on international trade, 
and is continuously engaged in encouraging fur- 
ther increases. As the proponent of numerous 
declarations relative to the desirability of increas- 
ing tourism, in various international forums, the 
United States believes its strong endorsement of 
the intent of this resolution is well known. 

1. (b) The tourist facilities in the United 
States are believed to be in an advanced state of 
development. As of interest in support of this, 
United States domestic travel has attained a 
volume of $15 billion annually, encouraged by the 
transportation, hotel and other facilities, and 
stimulated by the numerous and varied attractions. 
Eecent statistics show the expenditures by United 
States citizens abroad to have reached a total of 
$1.6 billion. 



' Excerpt from annex II of a report by the Secretary- 
General (U.N doc. E/2n33, dated Nov. 23, 1956) to the 
23d session of the Economic and Social Council, made in 
rosponse to a resolution passed during the 19th session of 
ECOSOC (see box). The document contains five sec- 
tions: I. Introduction; II. Summary of Comments of 
Governments Concerning Measures Taken in Response to 
ECOSOC Resolution 563 (XIX) ; III. Action by Interna- 
tional Organizations; IV. International Tourist Statis- 
ti s; and V. Conclusion; also, three annexes containing 
the Secretary-General's note to the various countries re- 
questing information, the texts of the replies of the Gov- 
ernments, and information about the World Health Or- 
ganization's activities relating to development of Inter- 
national travel. The U.S. report is entitled: "Informa- 
tion Concerning Action in the United States for Inclusion 
in the Report of Secretary-General to the 23rd Session 
of the Economic and Social Council, Pursuant to Resolu- 
tion 563 XIX of 31 March 1955." 



1. (c) Implementation of the suggestion that 
adequate support be given official organizations 
engaged in the development of tourism has taken 
place. Commencing 1 July 1956 the International 
Travel Division in the Department of Commerce 
has been provided with funds by congressional 
appropriation to promote international travel. In 
this same framework a Travel Advisory Commit- 
tee has been formed composed of 30 executives of 
the principal tourism organizations in private in- 
dustry. In addition there has been established an 
Interdepartmental Committee on Foreign Travel 
with membership from all the executive agencies 
concerned with international travel or with border 
crossing formalities. Full co-operation between 
government and private agencies is thereby 
attained. 

1. (d) All United States embassies have been 
instructed to negotiate with the Governments to 
which they are accredited to work out broad agree- 
ments which will facilitate travel on a reciprocal 
basis and thereby assure to Americans the rights 
and privileges which the United States is offering 
to foreigners. 

Among the changes are the following : 

1. A non-immigrant visa may be valid for any 
number of visits within a period of four years and 
with no fee. Two years was the previous maxi- 
mum validity. (A United States passport has a 
maximum validity of four years.) 

2. A non-immigrant visa may be revalidated 
up to four years without a formal application. 
The previous period was two years. 

3. A non-immigrant visa may be revalidated 
within a year, rather than three months as pre- 
viously required. This is to facilitate the travel 
of those who reside long distances from the United 
States and could hardly be expected to pay another 
visit to the United States within a short period of 
time. 

4. Consular officers have been instructed that 
they may issue a non-immigrant visa valid for two 



January 28, 1957 



145 



Development of International Travel 

U.N. doc. E/Resolutlon 563 (XIX) ' 

The Economic and Social Council, 

Baving considered the proposal made by the 
United States of America concerning the develop- 
ment of international travel, its present increas- 
ing volume and future prospects (document 
E/26S8)," 

Recognizing the importance of international 
travel in promoting International understanding and 
cultural relationships, in fostering international 
trade, in furthering economic development and in 
contributing towards the improvement of balances 
of payment, 

Taking into account the useful work already per- 
formed in this field by national, international and 
regional organizations, including the United Na- 
tions and its regional economic commissions, 

1. Invites States Members of the United Nations 
and of the specialized agencies : 

(a) To examine the beneficial effect which in- 
creased tourism could have on their internal 
economy, and the part it plays in International 
trade ; 

(b) To survey their tourist facilities to determine 
existing deficiencies, and to encourage the develop- 
ment of transportation, hotel and other needed fa- 
cilities, amenities and attractions; 

(c) To give adequate support to the official or- 
ganizations engaged in the development of tourism, 
and to encourage their co-operation with private 
agencies in this field; 



entries in cases where this may be required when 
an alien wishes to visit the United States, proceed 
to a third country, and then return to the United 
States on his way home. Heretofore, in some in- 
stances an alien has been required to wait some 
time in the third country before he could get the 
visa to return to his home through the United 
States. The new provision for a round-trip visa 
will facilitate the travel of these people. 

5. Wliere foreign countries require single entry 
visas on a reciprocal basis, the Department pro- 
poses a joint agreement to allow citizens of both 
countries to buy at any one time as many such 
visas, or entries, as he may desire. Now he must 
go to the issuing office every time he wants to make 
a trip. 

6. Heretofore, one type of visa has been required 
for a businessman and another type for a tourist 
for pleasure. Tlie Department, after consultation 
with the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 
has instructed consuls to issue visas valid both for 



(d) To simplify wherever practicable the entry 
and exit procedures and formalities applicable to 
tourists, and to co-operate in the development of 
international travel arrangements designed to fa- 
cilitate tourism ; 

(e) To encourage the exchange of technical ad- 
vice between countries possessing well-developed 
tourist programmes and facilities and those with 
less experience ; 

2. Requests the organs of the United Nations and 
the appropriate specialized agencies to give favour- 
able consideration to constructive projects which 
are within their competence and are designed to 
increase tourist facilities and to promote travel ; 

3. Requests the Secretary-General to study the 
statistics available relating to tourist travel and to 
report to the Statistical Commission as early as 
possible with a view to the establishment of uni- 
form definitions, standards and methods; 

4. Further invites the non-governmental organiza- 
tions concerned with tourism to continue and in- 
crease their efforts to promote international travel ; 

5. Further requests the Secretary-General to sub- 
mit to the Council at its twenty-third session a re- 
port on the measures taken in response to this 
resolution. 



^ For a statement on this resolution by the U.S. 
representative in ECOSOC, see Bulletin of May 2, 
1955, p. 741. 

" Ibid., Mar. 21, 1955, p. 491. 



business and for pleasure where no fees are re- 
quired, or where the fees for the two different types 
of visas are the same. If any other country 
charges different fees for these two types of visas, 
American consular officers may now issue a visa 
valid both for business or for pleasure, if the alien 
desires to pay the higher fee. 

7. The Department has also provided that 
aliens may have their names registered and main- 
tained on quota waiting lists and still be issued 
non-immigrant visas for bona fide visits, with the 
proviso that any violation of non-immigrant status 
will result in the removal of the name from the 
quota waiting list. Further, the name may not be 
reinstated as of the date of original priority. 

8. In co-operation with other agencies of Gov- 
ernment, the Department is adopting a new and 
simplified application form for a non-immigrant 
visa. Questionnaire forms and preliminary ap- 
plication blanks wliich have been used in the past 
and which have slowed up the issuance of non- 



146 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin i 



immigrant visas will now be used only when it is 
necessary to mail them to persons living some dis- 
tance from the Consulate. 

9. A bill endorsed by the Department is pending 
in Congress which would eliminate the issuance of 
fee stamps and the Department has under con- 
sideration a simplified system of recording fees 
in an efl'ort to speed up the process of issuing a 
visa. 

The United States also participates actively in 
numerous organizations interested in the develop- 
ment of international tourism. Through the or- 
ganizations and by other means the United States 
actively seeks international arrangements to fa- 
cilitate tourism. In 1956 the United States rati- 
fied the United Nations Conventions on Customs 
Facilities for tourists' personal effects and 
automobiles. 

1. (e) The United States has offered to Latin 
American Governments tlirough the International 
Cooperation Administration, advice and technical 
assistance on the broad problems of expanding 
tourism, and it is now in a position to provide tech- 
nical assistance for other countries in the field of 
tourism, if adequate justification therefore is 
demonstrated. The International Cooperation 
Administration is prepared to finance limited 
amounts of technical assistance to countries par- 
ticipating in the Mutual Security Program. It is 
willing, for example, to undertake technical train- 
ing of foreign nationals and the sending of Ameri- 
can experts overseas to provide consultation and 
training in technical aspects of tourism. These 
are the types of activities which the U.S. Govern- 
ment has already carried out to some extent in the 
Mutual Security Program. 

Eelation Between the Practices of the United 
States and the Recommendations of the Meet- 
ing OF Experts To Prepare for a World Con- 
ference ON Passports and Frontier Formalities 
(Geneva, 14-25 April 1947) ^ 

U.S. Status as of 1 July 1956 

There follows a statement of the practices fol- 
lowed by the United States Government as of 1 
July 1956 and of the extent to which the United 
States is willing to go to conform to the specific 

' For an article on this meeting, see Bttlletin of June 
22, 1947, p. 1201. 

January 28, J 957 



recommendations and conclusions agreed to by the 
Meeting of Experts : 

I. Documents' 

A. Passports 

(i) With regard to American citizens traveling 
abroad there is no permanent provision of law 
under which passports are required for such travel 
either to depart from or enter into the United 
States. As a war-time measure, however, regu- 
lations were instituted requiring passports of all 
United States nationals, with certain exceptions, 
departing from or entering into the United States 
after 15 January 1942. Shortly after the sur- 
render of Japan these regulations were amended 
to permit United States nationals to travel with- 
out passports between the United States and for- 
eign territories in the Western Hemisphere. 

With regard to aliens entering the United 
States, the Government of the United States had 
concluded, prior to the Meeting of Experts at 
Geneva, bilateral emergency arrangements with 
respect to citizens of Canada and Mexico entering 
the United States temporarily. It has been the 
experience of this Government that bilateral agree- 
ments abolishing the passport requirement for 
travel between countries are appropriate between 
countries having common frontiers. Under such 
circumstances, the exclusion or deportation of an 
alien to his country of nationality, whenever these 
measures are necessary, is relatively easy to 
accomplish. 

However, with regard to aliens coming into the 
United States from countries which do not have a 
common boundary with the United States this 
Government has not found it possible to conclude 
satisfactory bilateral or multilateral agreements 
for the reciprocal waiver of passport requirements 
primarily because foreign governments have not 
been willing to agree to receive back into their 
territory all persons who may have entered the 
United States from such territory regardless of 
their nationality or citizenship status. Such a 
provision would of necessity be part of any agree- 
ment because aliens coming to the United States 
from non-contiguous countries must be deported 
when ( 1 ) upon arrival they are found not to be en- 



' The headings and numbers correspond to the text of 
the recommendations of the 1947 Meeting of Experts on 
Passports and Frontier Formalities reproduced in the 
Appendix to Annex I. [Footnote in the original.] 



147 



titled to admission as hona fde non-immigrants 
under the laws and regulations of the United 
States and (2) after arrival they become deport- 
able either for overstaying their period of admis- 
sion or because of objectionable activities in this 
country. If such aliens were not in possession of 
valid passports, the Government of the United 
States would be subjected to considerable expense 
and delay in arranging for their deportation. 
The current United States practice of requiring 
passports for aliens arriving in the United States 
from non-contiguous territories provides this 
country with a reasonable assurance that some 
foreign country will receive the alien whenever 
he becomes deportable. Any bilateral or multi- 
lateral agreement abolishing the passport re- 
quirements would have to provide the same assur- 
ance to the United States Government. 

For these reasons the Government of the United 
States concurs in the conclusion of the Meeting of 
Experts at Geneva that the abolition of the pass- 
port requirements of aliens generally is not fea- 
sible at present except upon basis of reciprocal 
bilateral or multilateral agreement. 

(ii) The "international-type" of passport 
recommended by the Conferences of 1920 and 1926 
in a somewhat simplified form is issued by the 
United States. 

( ill ) The present form of passport issued by the 
United States was adopted many years ago as 
being the simplest form of document for inter- 
national travel. The non-immigrant card does 
not simplify the passport regime because it sets 
up two passport systems, non-immigrant and other 
passports, and it complicates the issuance of a 
passport by requiring the issuing authority to 
determine tlie non-immigrant intent of the appli- 
cant for such a passpoi't and officially warrant 
the purpose of the holder. This is a much more 
complex matter than the official establishment of 
the identity and nationality required in connexion 
with the current passport regime. 

While the United States does not propose to 
change its procedure relative to the use of the 
passport indicated in (ii) above, it is prepared 
to recognize a tourist card issued by a foreign 
country (sncli as tluit recommended in Resolution 
I of tiie Till 1(1 Inter-American Travel Congress 
of Rarilociie, 1949), provided such card contains 
all the information necessary for a document of 



148 



identity and nationality, and bears a valid visa 
issued by a United States consular officer. 

The United States has developed a simplified 
border-crossing procedure for use by Mexicans, 
Canadians, British subjects domiciled in Canada, 
aliens permanently residing in the U.S., and 
United States citizens in travel to and from Can- 
ada and Mexico for short visits. This has been 
possible due to the common borders between these 
countries and the United States and the existence 
of an understanding that any visitors from their 
territory found to be inadmissible will be received 
back. 

(iv) The United States cannot under present 
legislation issue a "collective passport". However, 
it does issue a passport to include members of a 
family group. The Government of the United 
States also on occasion provides special facilities 
for group movements into the United States. 

(v) An American passport may be issued for 
any period up to two years, thereafter the pass- 
port may be renewed for a period or periods not 
exceeding two years. Thus, it has a potential va- 
lidity of four years from the date of issue. It is 
the present practice of the United States to issue 
passports valid for the full period of two years 
and to renew them for a similar period in the 
absence of good reason for limiting the documents 
to a shorter period. The United States considers 
it impracticable to issue a passport for so long a 
period as five years since, under the Immigration ; 
and Nationality Act, the nationality of the United 
States may be lost by the performance of a num- 
ber of acts or the fulfillment of certain conditions 
and it is considered desirable that an American 
citizen who is abroad or intends to travel abroad 
present his case to an appropriate American ofli- 
cial at least every two years to determine his na- 
tionality status. After an American national has 
been issued one passport, subsequent passports are 
obtainable expeditiously and with much less 
formality. 

(vi) In time of peace, the United States issues 
passports to nationals of this country valid for 
travel in all foreign countries in the absence of 
good reasons for restricting their validity for use 
in certain countries or areas and subject, of course, 
to compliance with the regulations of foreign! 
countries. 

(vii) The fee of $9.00 which is charged for the 

Deporfmenf of Sfafe Bu//ef/ni 



issuance of an American passport approximates 
the cost of issuing such a document and the serv- 
ices connected therewith in tlae United States and 
on the part of diplomatic and consular officers of 
the United States abroad. 

(viii) The United States lias constantly sought 
to make it possible for American nationals to 
apply for passports with as little burden and in- 
convenience as possible. Applications for pass- 
ports may be made before passport agents in 
Washington, D.C., New York, N.Y., San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., Boston, Mass., New Orleans, La., 
Chicago, 111.,* and before clerks of all Federal 
courts and clerks of all state courts having author- 
ity to naturalize aliens. There are about 3800 
such courts conveniently located througliout the 
United States. Applications for passports by per- 
sons residing in American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, 
Puerto Rico, and the "Virgin Islands may be made 
to the chief executive of these islands. Abroad, 
American nationals may apply for passports in 
all American diplomatic and consular offices. 
Each applicant for a passport, whether in the 
United States or abroad, is obliged under the law 
to make initial formal applications to any of these 
offices in person and under oath. Applications for 
renewals may be made in writing. United States 
passport application forms have been revised to 
make the application procedure simpler and faster. 

B. Visas 

(i) The Government of the United States does 
not normally require exit visas or departure per- 
mits of aliens seeking to leave the United States. 
However, as a preliminary formality at the point 
of departure, a form of exit control is exercised to 
insure payment of Federal income tax liabilities. 

(ii) Although the Meeting of Experts at 
Geneva declined to recognize a distinction between 
countries which have, and those which do not have 
a quota system for immigrants so far as the ques- 
tion of abolishing non-immigrant visa require- 
ments is concerned, the Delegation of the United 
States did not agree that there should be no such 
distinction. The Government of the United States 
supports that view. 

The United States has recommended that en- 
trance and transit visas should be abolished by 



countries having no quantitative immigration re- 
strictions. 

The United States has waived the visa require- 
ment for non-immigrant travel by Canadians and 
for certain Mexican citizens. 

Pursuant to the President's Directive of 26 May 
1954 to facilitate international travel," the valid- 
ity period of most types of non-immigrant visas 
has been extended by bilateral negotiation on a 
reciprocal basis to forty-eight months for na- 
tionals of fifty-seven countries. 

However in general the waiver of visa require- 
ments for many countries is impracticable for the 
following reasons : 

Inadmissible aliens and quota immigrants in ex- 
cess of the immigration quotas are now stopped at 
their foreign source. The demand for visas under 
the quotas is increasing and many quotas are over- 
subscribed. In such a situation experience shows 
that many aliens attempt to evade quota restric- 
tions by seeking to enter the United States in the 
guise of non-immigrants. Except for the pres- 
ent non-immigrant visa system many thousands 
of immigrants would arrive at ports of entry in 
the United States and seek entry in a non-immi- 
grant status. Some would be admitted tempo- 
rarily and would have to be apprehended and de- 
ported for overstaying the period of their admis- 
sion, while many others would have to be excluded 
and returned to the countries whence they came, 
at great cost to the Government of the United 
States and the transportation companies. 

Furthermore, unless aliens desirous of proceed- 
ing to the United States are first examined by of- 



* On Oct. 1, 1956, a new passport agency was opened 
at Los Angeles, Calif. (Bulletin of Oct. 8, 1956, p. 565). 



"The directive, in the form of a memorandum from the 
President to the Departments of State, Commerce, Justice, 
and the Treasury, reads as follows : 

"In my message to the Congress on the subject of foreign 
economic policy I emphasized the importance of inter- 
national travel both for its cultural and social advan- 
tages to the free world and for its great economic sig- 
nificance. In my message I stated that I would instruct 
the appropriate agencies and departments, at home and 
abroad, to consider how they can facilitate international 
travel. I made specific note that these agencies would 
be requested to simplify procedures where practicable 
relating to customs, visas, passports, exchange or mone- 
tary restrictions, and other regulations that sometimes 
harass the traveler. I request that you take appropri- 
ate steps on these and related matters, consistent with 
your responsibilities in this field, to encourage inter- 
national travel consonant with the national interest." 



January 28, J 957 



149 



ficers of this Government stationed abroad the 
sole inspection will take place only after the aliens 
shall have arrived at a port of entry in the United 
States. Such inspection would impose a greater 
burden than that now resting upon the immigra- 
tion authorities at our ports, with the result that 
many more aliens than at present under the exist- 
ing system of visa requirements would be subjected 
to protracted delays at a port of entry in the 
United States. 

(iii) The Government of the United States 
takes the same position with respect to transit visa 
requirements as it has taken regarding the visa 
requirements in the cases of other classes of non- 
immigrants and for the same reasons. Visas are 
waived in the case of passengers directly transit- 
ing the United States without stopover upon ap- 
propriate bonding agreement concluded between 
the air, ship, or rail transportation line concerned 
and the Attorney General, as well as in certain 
other cases. 

(iv) Pui-suant to the President's Directive of 
26 May 1954 to facilitate international travel, the 
validity of most types of non-inmiigrant visas has 
been extended by bilateral negotiation on a re- 
ciprocal basis to a maximum validity period of 
forty-eight months in the cases of nationals of 
fifty-seven countries. The validity of one or more 
types of non-immigrant visas for a period of 
twenty-four months is in eifect in seven countries. 
The validity of multiple-entry types of non-immi- 
grant visas for a period of twelve months is in ef- 
fect in nine countries and for six months in six 
countries. United States law permits increase of 
the validity period to forty-eight months through 
negotiation, based upon reciprocity. 

Multiple-entry visas are authorized for nation- 
als of all except twenty-five countries and United 
States law likewise permits extension of this type 
to these countries through negotiation based upon 
reciprocity. 

As a further aid to travel, a system of revalida- 
tion for the period allowed in the initial visa is in 
effect. Permanent residents of the United States 
who are aliens may obtain, prior to departure, a 
re-entry permit for use in lieu of a visa. 

(v) The Government of the United States fol- 
lows completely this practice and has done so for 
many years. 

(vi) The Government of the United States 
follows completely the practice of nondiscrimi- 



nation with regard to fees for visas. By law the 
fee for an immigrant visa is $25, while the fee for 
non-immigrant visas is based upon reciprocity. 
Through extensive renegotiation of mutual agree- 
ments in the last year, the large majority of non- 
immigrant visas are issued without any fee what- 
soever. The United States is willing at all times 
to enter into a reciprocal agreement with any of 
the remaining countries for a waiver or reduction 
of such visa fees. The schedule of all visa fees is 
available together with the tariff of all consular 
fees which is posted as required by law at each 
United States consulate. 

(vii) The Government of the United States is 
quite willing to abolish all non-immigrant visa fees 
on a bilateral or multilateral basis. On this basis 
it has concluded a number of agreements with other 
countries for the reciprocal waiver or reduction 
of non-immigrant visa fees. 

(viii) The Govermnent of the United States 
has simplified its visa procedure as far as is com- 
patible with the requirements of public health and 
security. The visa application has been reduced 
to a size comparable to an ordinary postcard. 

All typewritten entries are made on one side of 
the abbreviated application form. The number of 
signatures has been reduced to a minimum. The 
preparation of the application requires only a few 
minutes. 

There is never any discrimination against iona 
fde visitors for legitimate commercial business. 

(ix) Authority is delegated by law to consular 
officers of the United States to issue entrance visas 
and transit visas. Reference to "Washington is 
made in certain specified cases wherein the Depart- 
ment of State considers that an advisory opinion 
is necessary prior to the issuance of a visa. 

(x) This has invariably been the practice of 
the United States.* A diplomatic or consular 
officer of the United States has always had author- 
ity to grant a visa to an alien who applies at liis 
office but does not reside in his district. In the 
case of an alien who is appl5'ing for a visa outside 
of his home district in order to evade investigation, 
or when facilities for investigating the applicant 
are not available, a diplomatic or consular officer 
of the United States may, in his discretion, decline 



' The recommendation reads as follows : 

"Diplomatic and consular authorities should be em- 
powered in special circumstances to grant visas to persons 
not domiciled in their area." 



150 



Department of State Bulletin 



to accept jurisdiction of the case and refer the 
alien to the diplomatic or consular officer in the 
alien's home district. 

(xi) The United States employs the device of 
fingerprinting to secure a positive identification 
record which directly contributes to the simplifi- 
cation of travel formalities. It makes possible 
the free movement of aliens admitted into the 
United States from place to place without burden- 
some police control over or notification of the 
police autliorities regarding their movements. 
Contrary to the practice followed in some coim- 
tiies which do not require fingerprinting, the 
United States maintains no system of internal 
police registration. 

(xii) The personal appearance of applicants 
for visas for the United States is required. Expe- 
rience has shown that many aliens attempt to 
evade quota restrictions by seeking to enter in the 
guise of non-immigrants. The personal appear- 
ance of applicants for non-immigrant visas at the 
diplomatic or consular office in such circiun- 
stance is a step in the determination of the pur- 
pose of the applicant. Applicants for visas must 
also subscribe to their application under oath be- 
fore the diplomatic or consular officer and must 
be fingerprinted before visas are issued originally 
to them. The Government of the United States 
therefore cannot adopt the procedure recom- 
mended in this respect by the Meeting of Experts. 
However, in the revalidation of visas of persons 
who were previously registered and fingerprinted 
in connexion with the issuance to them of visas 
which they have used to enter the United States, 
neither personal appearance nor fingerprinting as 
a general rule is required under the revalidation 
plan. 

(xiii) Non-immigrant travelers are required to 
present a valid foreign passport. If the consul 
deems it necessary they may be required to undergo 
a physical examination or present a police certifi- 
cate or present evidence that they are not likely 
to become a public charge while in the United 
States. The interrogation of the applicant is 
as brief and the processing of applicants is as ex- 
peditious as the circumstances and volume permit. 

(xiv) The maximum period for which an alien 
may be admitted to the United States in immedi- 
ate and continuous transit is 29 days. The term 
"immediate" contemplates a reasonably expedi- 
tious departure of the alien in the normal course 



of travel as the elements permit and assumes a 
prearranged itinerary without any unreasonable 
layover privileges. There is provision in certain 
cases for a waiver of the usual requirements to 
permit transit through the United States. 

(xv) In some cases group visas may be granted 
or the visa requirements may be waived on an 
emergency basis. Collective or group visas usu- 
ally may not be issued, as the individual registra- 
tion and fingerprinting requirements cannot be 
waived if a visa is granted. If the visa require- 
ments are waived no registration or fingerprinting 
is required except in the case of an alien who re- 
mains in the United States for more than 29 days. 
This seems to be a more practicable and satisfac- 
tory arrangement for the United States than that 
suggested by the Meeting of Experts. 

(xvi) This has always been the practice in the 
United States.' The immigration authorities at a 
port of entry may obtain an emergency waiver of 
the passport or visa requirements by telephoning 
to the Secretary of State at the traveller's expense. 
Such waivers are usually granted on an emergency 
basis if there is a valid reason why the traveller 
has no passport or visa and if the alien concerned 
is otherwise admissible into the United States. 

(xvii) While generally the visa regulations be- 
come effective upon publication in the Federal 
Register, the Government of the United States 
consistently gives public knowledge through pub- 
lication of all substantive and procedural rules 
which it deems to be affected with the public in- 
terest. This is required under the Federal Reg- 
ister Act of 1935 and the Administrative Proce- 
dure Act. 

(xviii) The Government of the United States 
never charges supplementary fees, official or un- 
official, in connexion with the issuance of visas. 
Persons desiring to have documents notarized by 
diplomatic or consular officers of the United States 
are required to pay a notarial fee, but this is not 
a part of the visa service. It is usually performed 
in cases where no visa services whatever are in- 
volved. 

C. Other Dociunents 

(i) The United States Government is honour- 



' The recommendation reads as follows : 

"In exceptional cases where the traveller has arrived, 
by any means of transport, without a visa, the frontier 
authorities should be permitted to regularize the position 
by appropriate means." 



January 28, 1957 



151 



ing valid international certificates of inoculation 
and vaccination in accordance with the interna- 
tional conventions, when such certificates are 
validated by the health authority of either the 
country of issuance or sub-division thereof, or by 
a physician designated by such health authority. 
Presentation of these certificates expedites quar- 
antine clearance when evidence of immunity is 
required. 

(ii) For a large majority of non-immigrants no 
deposit whatever is required. A bond is required 
only in those cases where there is some doubt as 
to whether the alien visitor will be able to effect 
his return to the country whence he came or there 
is a question as to whether he is a bona fide visitor. 
In this latter case, a bond is required to guarantee 
departure. This procedure is not intended nor 
does it in effect constitute a denial of facilities for 
persons who are not well-to-do. 

II. Frontier Formalities 

(a) It is the policy of the United States Gov- 
ernment to carry out frontier control activities 
as expeditiously as possible. To this end the 
United States has centralized all controls at each 
point of entry. 

Passport control on the land borders is carried 
out by immigrant inspectors who board trains 
prior to their arrival at the border for inspection 
purposes. On arrivals at seaports, passport con- 
trol is performed on board vessel at the time it 
arrives at the dock. 

With regard to the inspection of baggage, such 
inspection is accomplished on board trains en 
route from Canada and Mexico or at the point of 
foreign origin wherever the traffic warrants the 
assignment of officers for this purpose. Baggage 
arriving by highways is inspected alongside the 
vehicle or on premises adjacent to the highway. 
Experience has shown that customs inspection of 
passengers' baggage on board ships is not prac- 
ticable. The United States is exploring the possi- 
bility of establishing inspection staffs at certain air 
traffic centres outside this country to perform 
frontier formalities at points of departure for 
the United States in order to expedite air traffic 
when there are no intervening stops. Such in- 
spection with respect to immigration has already 
been instituted at Montreal and Toronto, Canada, 
which precludes additional immigration examina- 
tions at United States ports of arrival. 

In the field of air transportation, frontier for- 



malities at United States airports have been sim- 
plified and expedited to a very high degree, due in 
large part to the approval and implementation by 
the United States Government of practically all 
of the provisions of Annex 9 to the Convention on 
International Civil Aviation. The value of this 
Annex in the facilitation of international air 
transportation is already reflected in the reduced 
cost of operating United States airlines, through 
savings in man-hours and reduction in the number 
of forms used in connexion with international 
flights. As member States in the International 
Civil Aviation Organization implement to a 
greater degree the provisions of Annex 9, further 
savings to all carriers may be expected. 

The United States has no frontier formalities 
with regard to currency control since there are no 
restrictions on the import or export of currency. 

With regard to sanitary control, the United 
States has concluded a bilateral agreement with 
Canada whereby in the absence of quarantinable 
diseases in cither country quarantine inspection is 
waived. With regard to approved passenger ves- 
sels arriving at the port of New York on regular 
schedules a medical officer aboard (as a member of 
the ship's staff) performs the quarantine inspec- 
tion and certifies by radio as to the safety of per- 
sons and things aboard the vessel from the stand- 
point of health considerations. Arrangements 
have been reached with Canada for the carrying 
out of frontier formalities with regard to sanitary 
control at single frontier ports where authorities 
of both countries can-y out their duties, or where 
authorities of one country carry out control 
measures for both countries. In addition, the 
United States Government has stationed medical 
officers in foreign countries to examine applicants 
for visas in order to expedite their entry into the 
United States. 

(b) In the United States the responsible author- 
ities endeavour to provide adequate facilities and 
staffing to handle international traffic, and con- 
siderable effort is being put forth constantly to 
effect improvements. 

A. Police Control 

(i) An alien entering the United States is not 
subject to police and registration formalities sub- 
sequent to his entrance. In so far as inunigration 
inspection is concerned there is but one entry 
made in an alien's passport and that is made by 
a rubber stamp. 



152 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



(ii) Passports of travellers entering or passing 
through the United States are not taken from 
them, retained, or impounded by this Government 
except in unusual individual cases. 

B. Currency Control and Facilities for Exchang- 

ing Money 

( i ) The United States has no restrictions on the 
import or export of foreign exchange. 

(ii) The United States Government has estab- 
lished local committees composed of the local 
representatives of Government agencies, transport 
companies and businessmen who are actively en- 
gaged in developing travel facilities at ports of 
entry. 

C. Customs Inspection of Luggage 

(i) The United States Government has con- 
stantly endeavoured to simplify customs and plant 
quarantine inspection procedures, and is prepared 
to participate in any international survey of exist- 
ing practices with the view to achieving interna- 
tional uniformity. 

(ii) (See views under "II. Frontier Formali- 
ties;', (a)) 

(iii) (a) Facilities are available in the United 
States for examining incoming and, when exami- 
nation is required, outgoing shipments of baggage 
at interior points where customs facilities are 
maintained, provided the shipments are trans- 
ported from or to the border point in bond. 

(b) The United States Government is exploring 
the possibility of extending this practice. 

(c) Baggage passing through the United States 
I in bond is opened for inspection only under most 

unusual circumstances. 

(iv) The United States Government publishes 
and distributes gratuitously pamphlets of customs 
information for travellers. Placards containing 
such information are also posted in customs offices 
on the land frontiers. 

D. Public Health Inspection 

The United States Government levies no charge 
for the medical examination of crew and passen- 
gers with their baggage. United States Public 
Health regulations place specific responsibilities 
upon carriers coming into the United States with 
regard to pre-embarkation precautions and meas- 
ures en route which materially reduce the need 
for inspection of clothes and baggage for disease 
vectors and insects when crew or passengers have 



embarked in or passed through endemic areas. 
Wlien examination is required upon arrival, it is 
conducted as rapidly as possible by or under the 
supervision of the Public Health Authorities. 

The United States is in accord with the views 
expressed in the two paragraphs of the final rec- 
ommendation.* 



U.S. Delegations to 
International Conferences 

Commission for Climatology, World Meteorological 
Organization 

The Department of State announced on January 
10 (press release 13) that the Commission for 
Climatology of the World Meteorological Organi- 
zation (Wmo) will hold its second session at Wash- 
ington, D.C., January 14 to 26, 1957, at the invi- 
tation of the U.S. Government. 

The U.S. Government will be represented by 
the following delegation : 

Principal Delegate 

Helmut E. Landsberg, chairman, Director, OflSce of Clima- 
tology, U. S. Weather Bureau 

Delegates 

Woodrow C. Jacobs, Director of Climatology, Air Weather 
Service, U.S. Air Force, Andrews Field 

Herbert C. S. Thorn, Chief Climatologist, Office of Clima- 
tology, U.S. Weather Bureau 

Advisers 

Joseph W. Berry, Climatologist for State of Colorado, U.S. 
AA''eather Bureau, Denver, Colo. 

William H. Haggard, Chief, Climatic Advisory Services 
Branch, Office of Climatology, U.S. Weather Bureau 

Harold B. Harshbarger, Chief, Climatic Field Services 
Branch, Office of Climatology, U.S. Weather Bureau 

Lt. Cmdr. Russell M. Jonson, USN, Assistant for Clima- 
tology, Office of Chief of Naval Operations, Department 
of the Navy 

John J. Keyser, Technical Assistant for Climatology, Of- 
fice of Chief of Naval Operations, Department of the 
Navy 



' The paragraphs read as follows : 

"As a final recommendation, the meeting desires to sug- 
gest that the Economic and Social Council should, after 
a suitable interval, consider the desirability of a further 
meeting of experts being convened to review the position 
which has then been reached, and if possible to make rec- 
ommendations which may lead to further progress. 

"The meeting expresses the hope that in the event of 
such a future meeting of experts being held, a still larger 
number of governments may find it possible to be repre- 
sented." 



January 28, 1957 



153 



AVilliam L. Molo, Chief, Data Integration Branch, Data 
Control Division, Directorate of Climatology, Air 
Weather Service, U.S. Air Force, Andrews Field 

Paul H. Putnins, Acting Chief, Foreign Areas Section, 
Office of Climatology, U.S. Weather Bureau 

Robert W. Schloemer, Assistant to Director, Office of 
Climatology, U.S. Weather Bureau 

William C. Spreen, Chief Technical Consultant, Climatic 
Analysis Division, Directorate of Climatology, Air 
Weather Service, U.S. Air Force, Andrews Field 

The Commission for Climatology is one of eight 
technical commissions established by the Wmo at 
its first congress in 1951. A similar commission 
had been in existence since 1929 as part of the In- 
ternational Meteorological Organization, the 
predecessor body founded in 1878 which Wmo 
replaced. The Wmo is a specialized agency of the 
United Nations with a membership that now em- 
braces 69 states and 26 territories. Each Wmo 
member is entitled to participate in the work of 
the technical commissions and to be represented 
at sessions of the commissions. C. Warren 
Thornthwaite of the United States was elected 
president of the Commission for Climatology at 
the first Wmo congress and was reelected at the 
first session of the Commission in 1953. 

The Commission for Climatology studies mete- 
orological observation and network requirements 
for climatological investigation of surface and 
upper-air conditions and the application of cli- 
matic data to the activities and well-being of the 
peoples of the world. 

The agenda for the second session of the Com- 
mission includes a review of technical regulations, 
use of aircraft meteorological observations for 
climatological purposes, earth-temperature in- 
vestigations, development of an international 
guide to climatological practices, reporting of 
rainfall intensities for hydrology, and scientific 
lectures and discussions. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 

Security Council 

Cablegram Dated 10 December 1956 from the Minister for 
Foreign Affairs of the Mongolian People's Republic 
Addressed to the President of the Security Council. 
S/3757, December 11, 1956. 1 p. mimeo. 

Letter Dated 20 December 1956 from the Chairman of the 
Disarmament Commission Addressed to the Secretary- 
General. S/3760, December 20, 1956. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Letter Dated 2 January 1957 from the Minister for For- 



eign Affairs of Pakistan Addressed to the President of 
the Security Council. S/3767, January 2, 1957. 4 pp. 
mimeo. 

General Assembly 

Regulation, Limitation and Balanced Reduction of AU 
Armed Forces and All Armaments ; Conclusion of an 
International Convention (Treaty) on the Reduction 
of Armaments and the Prohibition of Atomic, Hydro- 
gen and other Weapons of Mass Destruction. Letter 
dated 17 November 1956 from the Secretary-General of 
the delegation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics to the eleventh session of the General Assembly, 
addressed to the President of the General Assembly 
[enclosing a statement by the Soviet Government on 
disarmament and the lessening of international ten- 
sion]. A/3.366, November 17, 1956. 10 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for 
Refugees. Statement made by the Deputy High Com- 
missioner for Refugees at the 690th meeting [of the 
Third Committee]. A/C.3/L.507, November 24, 1956. 

13 pp. mimeo. 

Question Considered by the First Emergency Special Ses- 
sion of the General Assembly from 1 to 10 November 
1956. Aide memoire dated 21 November 1956 trans- 
mitted to the Secretary-General from the Permanent 
Mission of France to the United Nations. 
A/3400/Add.l, November 27, 1956. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Question Considered by the First Emergency Special Ses- 
sion of the General Assembly from 1 to 10 November 
19.56. Letter dated 27 November 1956 from the Minis- 
ter for Foreign Affairs of Israel, addressed to the Pres- 
ident of the General Assembly. A/3398, November 28, 
1956. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Question Considered by the First Emergency Special Ses- 
sion of the General Assembly from 1 to 10 November 
1956. Letter dated 27 November 1956 from the Princi- 
pal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, ad- 
dressed to the Secretary-General. A/3399, November 
28, 1956. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Question Considered by the First Emergency Special Ses- 
sion of the General Assembly from 1 to 10 November 
1956. Letter dated 27 November 1956 to the Secretary- 
General from the Chairman of the French delegation 
to the eleventh session of the General Assembly. 
A/3400, November 28, 1956. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Question Considered by the First Emergency Special 
Session of the General Assembly from 1 to 10 Novem- 
ber 1956. Administrative and financial arrangements 
for the United Nations Emergency Force. Twenty- 
second report of the Advisory Committee on Adminis- 
trative and Budgetary Questions to the eleventh session 
of the (General Assembly. A/3402, November 30, 1956. 
7 pp. mimeo. 

Question Considered by the Second Emergency Special 
Session of the General Assembly from 4 to 10 November 
1956. Report of the Secretary-General. A/3403, No- 
vember 30, 19.")6. 6 pp. mimeo. 

Ueiiatriation of Greek Cliildren. Communication dated 

14 November lOliO from the International Committee 
of the Red Cross and the League of Red Cross Societies. 
A/."422, l>ecember 4, 1956. 5 pp. mimeo. 

System of Travel and Subsistence Allowances to Members 
of Organs of the United Nations. Report of the Fifth 
Committee. A/3426, December 5. 1956. 14 pp. mimeo. 

Question Considered by tlie First Emergency Special ! 
Session of the General Assembly frcmi 1 to 10 Novem- ' 
lier 1956. Letter dated 11 December 19."6 from the 
Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of ' 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United 
Nations, addressed to tlie President of the General 
Assembly. A/344."i, December 12, 1956. 1 p. mimeo. 

Question Considered by tlie First Emergency Special '. 
Session of the General Assembly from 1 to 10 Novem- 



154 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



ber 1956. Administrative and financial arrangements 
for the United Nations Emersency Force : possible 
claims in respect of death or disability attributable to 
service with the Emergency Force. Thirty-fifth report 
of the Advisory Committee on Admini.strative and 
Budgetary Questions to the eleventh session of the 
General Assembly. A/3456, December 14, 1956. 4 pp. 
niimeo. 

Question Considered by the First Emergency Special 
Session of the General Assembly from 1 to 10 Novem- 
ber I'.loli. I^etter dated 13 December 1056 from the 
Chairman of the Delegation of Israel, addressed to the 
President of the General Assembly. A/3457, December 
14, 1!)."j6. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Question Considered by the First Emergency Special Ses- 
sion of the General Assembly from 1 to 10 November 
1956. Letter dated 14 December 1056 from the Chair- 
men of the Missions of Egj'pt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, 
Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia 
and Yemen to the eleventh session of the General As- 
sembly addressed to the President of the General As- 
sembly. A/3458, December 14, 1956. 2 pp. mimeo. 

The Togoland Unification Problem and the Future of the 
Trust Territory of Togoland under British administra- 
tion. Special report of the Trusteeship Council. Ad- 
dendum to part II : The future of Togoland under French 
administration. A/3169/Add.l, December 19, 1956. 115 
pp. mimeo. 

Question of the Frontier Between the Trust Territory of 
Somaliland under Italian administration and Ethiopia. 
Report of the Italian Government on the progress of 
direct Italo-Ethiopian negotiations for delimiting the 
frontier between the Trust Territory of Somaliland 
under Italian administration and Ethiopia. A/3463, 
December 19, 1956. 19 pp. mimeo. 

Regulation, Limitation and Balanced Reduction of All 
Armed Forces and All Armaments. Conclusion of an 
International Convention (Treaty) on the Reduction of 
Armaments and the Prohibition of Atomic, Hydrogen 
and other Weapons of Mass Destruction : Report of the 
Disarmament Commission. Letter dated 20 December 
1956 from the Chairman of the Disarmament Commis- 
sion, addressed to the Secretarj'-General. A/3470, De- 
cember 20, 1956. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Question Considered by the First Emergency Special Ses- 
sion of the General Assembly from 1 to 10 November 
1956. Letter dated 18 December 1056 from the Perma- 
nent Representative of Israel to the United Nations, 
addressed to the Secretary-General. A/3474, Decem- 
ber 21, 1956. 2 pp. mimeo. 

Question Considered by the First Emergency Special Ses- 
sion of the General Assembly from 1 to 10 November 
1956. Letter dated 21 December 1956 from the Per- 
manent Representative of Jordan to the United Nations, 
addressed to the Secretary-General. A/3478, Decem- 
ber 21, 1956. 1 p. mimeo. 

Question Considered by the First Emergency Special Ses- 
sion of the General Assembly from 1 to 10 November 
1956. I-etter dated 31 December 1956 from the Per- 
manent Representative of Israel to the United Nations, 
addressed to the Secretary-General. A/3483, December 
31, 1956. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Trusteeship Council 

The Future of the Trust Territory of Togoland under 
French Administration. Memorandum by the Adminis- 
tering Authority. T/1290, December 6, 1956. 18 pp. 
mimeo. 

The Future of the Trust Territory of Togoland under 
French Administration. Report of the Referendum 
Administrator in Togoland on the popular consultation 
of 28 October 1956. T/1292, December 8, 1950. 75 pp. 
mimeo. 

Conditions in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. 
Note verbale dated 14 December 1956 from the Repre- 



sentative of the United States of America to the Secre- 
tary-General. T/1295, December 26, 1956. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Economic and Social Council 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. Re- 
port of the Railway Sub-Committee (fourth session) to 
the Inland Transport Committee (sixth session). 
E/CN.ll/Trans/120 (E/CN.ll/Trans/Sub.1/46), AprU 
25, 1956. 59 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. Com- 
mittee on Industry and Trade. Report of the Second 
Meeting of the Worliing Party of Senior Geologists on 
the Preparation of a Regional Geological Map for Asia 
and the Far East (5 to 9 June 1956, Tokyo, Japan). 
E/CN.ll/IcS:T/126, August 22, 1956. 18 pp. mimeo. 

United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries on a Sup- 
plementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the 
Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to 
Slavery. Text of tlie Supplementary Convention on the 
Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions 
and Practices Similar to Slavery. E/Conf.24/20, Sep- 
tember 4, 1956. 8 pp. mimeo. 

Final Act of the United Nations Conference of Plenipo- 
tentiaries on a Supplementary Convention on the Aboli- 
tion of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and 
Practices Similar to Slavery. B/Conf.24/22, Septem- 
ber 4, 1956. 6 pp. mimeo. 

Commission on Human Rights. Sub-Commission on Pre- 
vention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. 
Study of Discrimination in Education. E/CN.4/Sub.2/ 
181, November 7, 1956. 248 pp. mimeo. 

Commission on Human Rights. Sub-Commission on Pre- 
vention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. 
Study of Discrimination in the Matter of Religious 
Rights and Practices: Progress Report by the Special 
Rapporteur. E/CN.4/Sub.2/lS2, November 12, 1956. 
32 pp. mimeo. 

Development of International Travel, its Present Increas- 
ing Volume and Future Prospects. Note and Addendum 
to the note by the Secretary-General. E/2933, 
E/2933/Add.l, and E/2933/Add.2, November 23, De- 
cember 20, 1056, and January 3, 1957. 168 pp. mimeo. 

Population Commission. Tentative Programme of Work 
on Population Studies for 1957-19.58 (Memorandum sub- 
mitted by the Seceretary-General). E/CN.9/140, No- 
vember 26, 1956. 9 pp. mimeo. 

Commission on Human Rijihts. Sub-Commission on Pre- 
vention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. 
Memorandum on the Principal Activities of UNESCO 
in the Field of Prevention of Discrimination and Pro- 
tection of Minorities since the Eighth Session of the 
Sub-Commission. E/CN.4/Sub.2/183, November 28, 
1956. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Population Commission. Regional Population Studies 
(Memorandum submitted bv the Secretary-General). 
E/CN.9/138, November 29, 1956. 11 pp. mimeo. 

Technical Assistance. Report of the Technical Assist- 
ance Committee. E/2938, December 5, 1956. 21 pp. 
mimeo. 

Commission on Human Rights. Freedom of Information. 
Note by the Secretary-General. E/CN.4/732, Decem- 
ber 7, 1056. 10 pp. mimeo. 

Negotiation of an Agreement with the International Fi- 
nance Corporation. E/2940, December 10, 1956. 2 pp. 
mimeo. 

Negotiation of an Agreement with the International Fi- 
nance Corporation. Report by the President of the 
Council. E/2043, December 17, 1956. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Population Commission. 1960 World Populaticm Census 
Programme. Report on the results of regional meet- 
ings held during the last quarter of 1956. (Prepared 
by the Secretary-General) E/CN.9/135/Add.l, Decem- 
ber 19, 1056. 30 pp. mimeo. 

Provisional Agenda for the Twenty-third Session of the 
Economic and Social Council. Note by the Secretary- 
General. E/2946, January 4, 1957. 7 pp. mimeo. 



January 28, 1957 



155 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Educational Exchange Agreement 
With Colombia 

Press release 9 dated January 9 

The Governments of Colombia and the United 
States on January 9 signed an agreement putting 
into operation a program of educational exchanges 
authorized by the Fulbright Act. The signing 
took place at Bogota, with Jose Manuel Rivas Sac- 
coni, Foreign Minister of Colombia, representing 
his Government and C. Montagu Pigott, Charge 
d'Affaires of the United States in Colombia, rep- 
resenting the Government of the United States. 

The agreement provides for the expenditure of 
Colombian currency up to an aggregate amount 
of the peso equivalent of $500,000 received from 
the sale of surplus agricultural products in Co- 
lombia to finance exchanges of persons between 
the two countries to study, do research, teach, or 
engage in other educational activities. The pur- 
pose of the program is to furtlier the mutual un- 
derstanding between the peoples of Colombia and 
the United States by means of these exchanges. 

Under the terms of the agreement a Commis- 
sion for Educational Exchange between the 
United States and Colombia will be established 
in the latter country to facilitate the administra- 
tion of tlie program. The Commission's Board 
of Directors will consist of six members with 
equal representation as to Colombian and United 
States citizens in addition to the United States 
Ambassador, who will serve as honorary chair- 
man. All recipients of awards under the pro- 
gram authorized by the Fulbright Act are selected 
by the Board of Foreign Scholarships, whose 
members are appointed by the President of the 
United States. The Board maintains a secre- 
tariat in the Department of State. 

Witli the signing of this agreement, Colombia 
becomes the 34th country to participate in the 
educational exchange program initiated 10 years 
ago under authority of the Fulbright Act. Edu- 
cational exchanges between Colombia and the 
United States have been carried out for a number 
of years under the Act for Cooperation between 
the American Republics, the Smith-Mundt Act, 



and other legislation. The new agreement will 
considerably augment the present number of 
exchanges. 

After the members of the Commission have been 
appointed and a program has been formulated, 
information about specific opportunities to par- 
ticipate in the exchange activities will be released. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Germany 

Agreement amending the administrative agreement of De- 
cember 1, 19.04 (TIAS 3233), concerning the Arbitral 
Tribunal and the Mixed Commission under the agree- 
ment on German external debts (TIAS 2792) by pro- 
viding for the transfer of the seat of the Tribunal and 
the Commission from Bremen to Koblenz. Signed at 
Bonn November 30, 19156, by the Federal Republic of 
Germany, the United States, the United Kingdom, and 
France. Entered into force November 30, 1956. 

Trade and Commerce 

International convention to facilitate the importation of 
commercial samples and advertising material. Dated 
at Geneva November 7, 1952. Entered into force No- 
vember 20, 19.")5.' 
Accession deposited: Turkey, December 8, 1956. 

Fifth protocol of rectifications and moditications to texts 
of schedules to the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade. Done at Geneva December 3, 1955.' 
Sii/nature: Australia, December 20, 1956. 

Sixth protocol of supplementary concessions to the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva 
May 23, 1956. Entered into force June 30, 195G. TIAS 
3,591. 

Schedules of concessions entered into force: Sweden, 
January 1, 1957. 

Weather 

Convention of the World Meteorological Organization. 
Done at Washington October 11. 1947. Entered into 
force March 23, 1950. TIAS 2052. 
Accession deposited: Morocco, January 3, 1957. 



BILATERAL 

China 

Agreement amending the surplus agricultural commodi- 
ties agreement of August 14, 1956 (TIAS 3G6G). Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at Taipei October 5 and 12, 
1956. Entered into force October 12, 19,56. 

Agreement amending the agreement of March 30, April 
26, and October 14, 19.55 (TIAS 3493), for a United 
States Navy Medical Research Unit in Taipei. Effected 
by exchange of notes at Taipei December 27, 1956. En- 
tered into force December 27, 1956. 

Haiti 

Agreement extending the Air Force Mission agreement of 
January 4. 1949, as extended (TIAS 1SG3, 2S07). Ef- 
fected by excliange of notes at Washington December 
3, 19.56, and January 7, 1957. Entered into force Janu- 
ary 7, 1957. 



' Not in force for the United States. 
' Not in force. 



156 



Department of State Bulletin 



Iceland 

Agreement to discontinue the discussions for revision of 
the defense agreement of May 5, 1951 (TIAS 2266), 
and to establish an Iceland Defense Standing Group. 
Effected by exchanges of notes at Reykjavik December 
6, 1006. Entered into force December 6, 1056. 

Spain 

Agreement amending article 17 of the memorandum of 
understanding of July 30, 1954 (TIAS 3094), relating 
to otTshore procurement by revising the effective date 
of the no-profits provisions. Effected by exchange of 
notes at Madrid December 21 and 27, 19.56. Entered 
Into force December 27, 1956. 

United Kingdom 

Agreement amending the agreement of July 11 and 22, 
1955 (TIAS 3379), providing for regular use by civil 
aircraft of certain facilities in the Bahama Islands 
long-range proving ground for guided missiles by ex- 
tending the civil aircraft service to the Turks and 
Caicos Islands. Effected by exchange of notes at Wash- 
ington December 6, 1056, and January 4, 1957. Entered 
into force January 4, 1957. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Resignations 

Wlnthrop W. Aldrich as Ambassador to Great Britain. 
For text of Mr. Aldrich's letter to the President and the 
President's reply, see White House press release dated 
December 27. 

Pierce J. Gerety, as Deputy Administi-ator for the 
Refugee Relief Act, effective February 1. For an ex- 
change of correspondence between Secretary Dulles and 
Mr. Gerety, see press release 3 dated January 3. 

Delegation of Authority' 

rublic Notice 149 

By virtue of the authority vested in the Secretary of 
State by section 4 of the act of May 26, 1949 (63 Stat. Ill ; 
5 U. S. C. 151c) and in accordance with the provisions of 
section 104 (b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act 
(66 Stat. 174; 8 U. S. C. 1104), there is delegated to the 
Administrator, Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs, 
the authority to perform all the functions conferred upon 
the Secretary of State by section 359 of the Immigration 
and Nationality Act (66 Stat. 273; 8 U. S. C. 1502). 

Dated : December 20, 1956. 

For the Secretary of State. 
Lot W. Hendf.bson, 

Deputy Under Secretary for Administration 



Consular Offices 

The Saarland, formerly under the informal consular 
jurisdiction of the Consulate at Strasbourg, France, was 
placed under the consular jurisdiction of the Consulate 
General at Frankfort, Germany, on January 1, 1957. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Wa.shington 25, D.C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, 
except in the case of free publications, which may be 
obtained from the Department of State. 

Participation of the United States Government in Inter- 
national Conferences— July 1, 1954-June 30, 1955. Pub. 
6335. International Organization and Conference Series 
I, 31. X, 269 pp. 70^. 

A volume designed to serve as a record of the official 
participation of the United States Government in multi- 
lateral international conferences and meetings of inter- 
national organizations during the period July 1, 1954- 
June 30, 1955. 

New Opportunities in the U.S. Foreign Service. Pub. 
6413. Department and Foreign Service Series 59. 20 pp. 
15«!. 

A revised publication containing information concerning 
the opportunities which exist for persons interested in 
becoming career officers in the Foreign Service of the 
United States. 



You and Your Passport. 

eign Service Series 63. 



Pub. 6426. Department and For- 
10 pp. 5«S. 



= 22 Fed. Reg. 228. 



A leaflet containing information of interest to any person 
who plans to go abroad. 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain. TIAS 3653. 

87 pp. 30<f. 

Convention, final protocol, and regulations of execution 
between the United States of America and other govern- 
ments — Signed at Bogotd November 9, 1955. Entered into 
force March 1, 1956. 

Parcel Post— Postal Union of the Americas and Spain. 

TIAS 3654. 47 pp. 20^. 

Agreement, final protocol, and regulations between the 
United States of America and other governments — Signed 
at Bogota November 9, 1955. Entered into force March 1, 
1956. 

Money Orders— Postal Union of the Americas and Spain. 

TIAS 3655. 33 pp. l^if. 

Agreement and final protocol between the United States 
of America and other governments — Signed at Bogotd 
November 9, 1955. Entered into force March 1, 1956. 



January 28, 1957 



157 



Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3666. 20 
pp. 15^. 

Agreement and exchange of notes between the United 
States of America and China — Signed at Taipei August 
14, 1956. Entered into force August 14, 1956. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3667. 2 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and the 
Republic of Korea — Amending agreement of March 13, 
1956, as amended. Exchange of notes — Signed at Seoul 
October 10 and 15, 1956. Entered into force October 15, 
1956 ; operative retroactively March 13, 1956. 

Relocation of Roosevelt Bridge. TIAS 366S. 3 pp. 5^. 

Agreement lietween the United States of America and 
Canada. Exchange of notes — Signed at Washington Octo- 
ber 24, 1956. Entered into force October 24, 1956. 

Emergency Flood Relief Assistance. TIAS 3669. 2 
pp. 50. 

Agreement t>etween the United States of America and 
India. Exchange of notes — Signed at New Delhi Septem- 
ber 27, 1956. Entered into force September 27, 1956. 

Parcel Post. TIAS 3670. 26 pp. 15(i). 

Agreement and detailed regulations between the United 
States of America and Ceylon — Signed at Colombo July 
18, 1955, and at Washington November 25, 1955. Entered 
into force July 1, 1956. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3671. 4 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Chile — Amending agreement of March 13, 1956. Exchange 
of notes — Signed at Washington October 22 and 23, 1956. 
Entered into force October 23, 1956. 

Establishment of an Oceanographic Research Station in 
Barbados. TIAS 3672. 24 pp. 15<t. 

Agreement between the United States of America and the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland — 
Signed at Washington November 1, 1956. Entered into 
force November 1, 1956. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3673. 2 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Finland — Supplementing agreement of May 6, 1955, as 
amended and supplemented — Signed at Helsinki October 
24, 1956. Entered Into force October 24, 1956. 

Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council. TIAS 3674. 7 pp. 10(f. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Other Governments, as revised at the Sixth Session of 
the Council, Tokyo, September 30-October 14, 1955. En- 
tered into force October 31, 1955. 

Air Transport Services. TIAS 3675. 3 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland — 
Amending agreement of February 11, 1946, as amended. 
Exchange of notes — Signed at Washington October 17 
and 30, 1956. Entered into force October 30, 1956. 

Defense — Loan of Vessels and Small Craft to China. 
TIAS 3676. 6 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
China, amending agreement of May 14, 1954, as amended. 
Exchange of notes — Dated at Taipei October 16 and 20, 
1956. Entered into force October 20, 1956. 



General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. TIAS 3677. 

34 pp. 150. 

Protocol of rectification to the French text of agreement 
of October 30, 1947, between the United States of America 
and other governments — Dated at Geneva June 15, 1955. 
Entered into force October 24, 1956, with respect to recti- 
fications of Parts II and III of the general agreement. 

Double Taxation — Taxes on Estates and Inheritances. 
TIAS 3678. 21 pp. 150. 

Convention between the United States of America and 
Italy — Signed at Washington March 30, 1955. Entered 
into force October 26, 1956. 



TIAS 3679. 36 pp. 



Double Taxation — ^Taxes on Income. 

15(*. 

Convention between the United States of America and 
Italy — Signed at Washington March 30, 1955. Entered 
into force October 26, 1956 ; operative retroactively 
January 1, 1956. 

Status of Tangier. TIAS 3680. 16 pp. 10(f. 

Final declaration and annexed protocol between the 
United States of America and other governments — Dated 
at Tangier October 29, 1956. Entered into force October 
29, 1956. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3684. 3 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Spain, amending agreement of March 5, 1956. Exchange 
of notes — Signed at Madrid September 20 and 28, 1956. 
Entered into force September 28, 1956. 



Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 3685. 
100. 



9 pp. 



Agreement between the United States of America and 
Spain — Signed at Madrid October 23, 1956. Entered into 
force October 23, 1956. 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: January 7-13 

Releases may be obtained from the News Divi- 
sion, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Press release is.sued prior to January 7 which 
appears in this issue of the Bulletin is No. 3 of 
January 3. 

No. Date Subject 

7 1/7 Dulles : statement before House For- 
eign Affairs Committee. 
9 1/9 Educational exchange agi'eement with 
Colombia. 
*10 1/9 Educational exchange. 

11 1/9 Dulles : comments on "short form" res- 

olution on Middle East. 

12 1/9 Dulles : Eden resignation. 

13 1/10 Delegation to Climatology Commission 

(rewrite). 

14 1/11 Note to U.S.S.R. on alleged overflight of 

American planes. 
tl5 1/11 Buchanan appointment (rewrite). 
tl6 1/11 Colombo Plan annual report. 

17 1/11 Iraqi crown prince to visit U.S. 

18 1/11 Hill : "A Step Toward Stability in the 

Middle East." 



*Not printed. 

tlleld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



158 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



January 28, 1957 I n d 

Agriculture 

U.S. Farm Surpluses Finance Development Loan 

for Brazil 136 

U.S. To Permit Licensing to Poland of Surplus 

Farm Commodities 134 

Austria. Death of Austrian President (Eisen- 
hower) 134 

Brazil. U.S. Farm Surpluses Finance Development 

Loan for Brazil 136 

I Colombia. Educational Exchange Agreement With 
Colombia 156 

< Communism 

Middle East Proposals (Dulles, map) 126 

A Step Toward Stability in the Middle East (HiU) . 131 

Congress, The 

Congressional Documents Relating to Foreign 

Policy 137 

Middle East Proposals (Dulles, map) 126 

Proposed Resolution on Economic and Military 
Cooperation in Middle East 128 

Secretary Dulles Comments on "Short Form" Reso- 
lution 129 

The State of the Union (Eisenhower) 123 

Department and Foreign Service 

C'linsular Offices 157 

Iit'legation of Authority 157 

.lames P. Richards Appointed Special Assistant to 
President 130 

Rt'siiaiations (Aldrich, Gerety) 157 

Economic Affairs 

U.S. Farm Surpluses Finance Development Loan 

for Brazil 136 

U.S. Policy and Practices in the Field of Interna- 
tional Travel (U.S. report to U.N. Secretary- 
General) 145 

U.S. To Permit Licensing to Poland of Surplus 

Farm Commodities 134 

World Bank Loan to Japan for Land Reclamation . 136 

Educational Exchange. Educational Exchange 

Agreement With Colombia 156 

France. Consular Offices 157 

Germany. Consular Offices 157 

Hungary 

General Assembly Establishes Committee To In- 
vestigate and Report on Conditions in Hungary 
(Lodge, Hammarskjold, text of resolution) . . 138 

Hungai-y Lifts Import Duties on Gift Parcels . . 134 

Immigration and Naturalization. Delegation of 

Authority 157 

International Organizations and Meetings. Com- 
mi.'ision for Climatology, World Meteorological 

Organization (delegation) 153 

Iraq. Crown Prince Abdul Illah of Iraq To Visit 

United States 135 

Japan. World Bank Loan to Japan for Land 

Reclamation 136 

Korea. The Korean Problem in the General Assem- 
bly (Greenbaum, text of resolution) 141 



e X Vol. XXXVI, No. 918 

Middle East 

James P. Richards Appointed Special Assistant to 

President 130 

Middle East Proposals (Dulles, map) 126 

I'roposed Resolution on Economic and Military 

Cooperation in Middle East 128 

Secretary Dulles Comments on "Short Form" Reso- 
lution 129 

A Step Toward Stability in the .Middle East ( HiU) . 131 
Poland. U.S. To Permit Licensing to Poland of 

Suri)lus Farm Commodities 134 

Presidential Documents 

Death of Austrian President 134 

Resignation of Sir Anthony Eden as British Prime 

Minister 130 

The State of the Union 123 

Publications. Recent Releases 157 

Refugees and Displaced Persons. Resignations 

(Gerety) 157 

Saudi Arabia. King of Saudi Arabia To Visit 

United States 135 

Science. Commission for Climatology, World Mete- 

orolotrical Organization (delegation) 153 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 155 

Educational Exchange Agreement With Colombia . 156 

U.S.S.R. 

Alleged Overflight of Soviet Area by American 

Planes (texts of notes) 135 

A Step Toward Stability in the Middle East (Hill) . 131 

United Kingdom 

Resignation of Sir Anthony Eden as British Prime 

Minister (Eisenhower, Dulles) 130 

Resignations (Aldrich) 157 

United Nations 

Commission for CUmatology, World Meteorological 

Organization (delegation) 153 

Current U.N. Documents 154 

General Assembly Establishes Committee To In- 
vestigate and Report on Conditions in Himgary 

(Lodge, Hammarskjold, text of resolution) . . 138 
The Korean Problem in the General Assembly 

(Greenbaum, text of resolution) 141 

U.S. Policy and Practices in the Field of Interna- 
tional Travel (U.S. report to U.N. Secretary. 

General) 145 

World Bani Loan to Japan for Land Reclamation . 136 

Name Index 

Al Saud, Saud Ibn Abdul al-Aziz 135 

Aldrich, Winthrop W 157 

Dulles, Secretary 126, 129, 130 

Eden, Anthony 130 

Eisenhower, President 123, 130 134 

Gerety, Pierce J 157 

Greenbaum, Edward S 141 

Hammarskjold, Dag 139 

Hill, Robert C 131 

Illah, Abdul 135 

Koerner, Theodor 134 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr 133 

Richards, James P 130 



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OFFICIAU BUSINESS 



The Quest for Peace 



This 35-pjige album-style pamphlet presents quotations from 
President Eisenhower and Secretary of State Dulles highlighting 
the major steps in the search for peace through the security and 
unity of the free world. 

The quotations from the President and the Secretary of State 
set forth problem and a.ction on the following subjects: 



Atoms for Peace 

Austrian Treaty 

Bipartisanship 

Captive Peoples 

Change of Soviet Policy 

China 

Deterrence of War 

European Unity 

Foreign Trade 

Germany Enters Nato 

Indochina 

International Communism 

Iran 

Korea 



Latin America 

1. Communist Penetration in 
Latin America 

2. Economic Development in 
Latin America 

3. Organization of American 
States 

4. Strengthening Inter- 
American Friendship 

Less Developed Countries — 
Target of Soviet Communism 

Sea TO (Southeast Asia Treaty 
Organization) 

Spanish Bases 

Trieste Settlement 



Copies of The Queat for Peace may be purchased from the 
Superintendent of Documents, Goverimient Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D. C, at 40 cents each. 



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Please send me copies of The Quest for Peace. 

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(cash, check, or City, Zone, and State: 

money order). 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 





Vol. XXXVI, No. 919 



February 4, 1957 



RECORD 



BUDGET MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT (Excerpts) . . 163 
THE COMMUNIST THREAT TO THE MIDDLE EAST • 

Statement by Secretary Dulles 170 

THE MEANING OF BERLIN FOR THE FREE 

WORLD • by Eleanor Dulles 175 

AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENT WITH IRAN 

SIGNED • Department Announcement and Text of 
Agreement 198 

FIFTH PROGRESS REPORT ON THE AGRICUL- 
TURAL TRADE DEVELOPINIENT AND ASSIST- 
ANCE ACT 183 



POLICf 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XXXVI, No. 919 • Publication 6444 
Fd>ruary 4, 1957 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Qoverament Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.O. 

Price: 

82 Issues, domestic $7.60, foreign $10.26 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 19, 1966). 

Note: Contents ol this publication ar« not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by tlie 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and tlie Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as m>cH as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of tlie Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of tlie Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



Budget Message of the President 



EXCERPTS FROM MESSAGE 

To the Congress of the United States: 

I am presenting with this message my recom- 
mended budget for the United States Government 
for the fiscal year 1958, which begins next July 1. 

This is the fourth budget which I have trans- 
mitted to the Congress. 

In my first budget message— that for the fiscal 
year 1955 — I emphasized the administration's de- 
termination to chart a course toward two impor- 
tant fiscal goals — balanced budgets and tax reduc- 
tions. 

Seductions in spending evidenced in the 1955 
budget made possible a large tax reduction and tax 
reform program. 

The 1956 budget was balanced. 

The 1957 budget will be balanced. 

A balanced budget is proposed for 1958. 

I believe this policy of fiscal integrity has con- 
tributed significantly to the soundness of our Na- 
tion's economic growth and that it will continue 
to do so during the coming fiscal year. 

Budget Totals 
[Fiscal years. In billions] 





195fi 
actual 


1957 
estimate 


1968 
estimate 


Budget receipts 

Budget expenditures .... 


$68. 1 
66. 5 


$70. 6 
68. 9 


$73.6 
71.8 


Budget surplus . . . 


1.6 


1.7 


1.8 



This budget is for the first fiscal year of my sec- 
ond term in office. In making plans for the com- 
ing year, I have been guided by the following na- 
tional objectives : 



' H. Doc. 16, 85th Cong., 1st sess. ; transmitted on Jan. 
IG. The message, together with summary budget state- 
ment, is for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. ;' 
price $1.50. 

february 4, 1957 



1. Peace, justice, and freedom for our own and 
other peoples ; 

2. Powerful Armed Forces to deter and, if need 
be, to defeat aggression ; 

3. A healthy and growing economy with pros- 
perity widely shared ; 

4. Enhancement of individual opportunity and 
the well-being of all our people ; 

5. Wise conservation, development, and use of 
our great natural resources ; 

6. Fiscal integrity; 

7. A well-balanced choice of programs at home 
and abroad ; and 

8. Increasing international trade and invest- 
ment essential to the growth of the economies of 
the United States and the rest of the free world. 

We have made considerable progress toward 
these goals. We will continue this progress in the 
years ahead. 



Budget Programs and Performance 

By far the largest part of the budget for the 
coming fiscal year, 63 percent, will be devoted to 
maintaining and improving our own defenses and 
to strengthening the defenses and economies of 
other nations in the interest of collective security 
and world peace. Civil benefits will account for 
24 percent of budget expenditures ; interest, 10 per- 
cent ; and all other operations, administration, and 
contingencies, 3 percent. 

Protection, including collective secttrity. — ^As 
a simple matter of self-preservation, we must 
maintain our own strength and promote world 
stability by helping to build up the strength of 
friendly nations. At the same time, we must ac- 
tively advance our other efforts for lasting peace 
and inform the world in aU appropriate ways of 
our peaceful aims. 

The new and more powerful weapons which are 
being delivered to our Armed Forces in increasing 



163 



Budget Expenditures by Purpose 

[Fiscal years. In blUions] 





1956 
actual 


1957 
estimate 


1958 
estimate 


Protection, including collec- 
tive security 

Civil benefits 

Interest 

Civil operations and admin- 
istration 


$42. 4 
15. 3 

6.8 

2.0 


$42. 7 

16. 5 

7.3 

2.3 
.2 


$45.3 

16.9 

7. 4 

1.8 
. 4 








Total 


66.5 


68.9 


71.8 



quantities and varieties are much more costly to 
produce, operate, and maintain than the weapons 
they are replacing. Furthermore, we are now en- 
gaged in the development of a whole new family 
of even more advanced weapons for all the serv- 
ices. Large expenditures will be required to bring 
these weapons into use. During the transition, 
we must continue to purchase enough of the cur- 
rent types to preserve our readiness until the effec- 
tiveness of the advanced weapons is demonstrated 
in tests. Despite these upward pressures on ex- 
penditures, future defense costs must be held to 



Expenditures for Protection, Including Collective 

Security 



[Fiscal years. 


In blUlons] 








1966 
actual 


1957 
estimate 


1958 
estimate 


Major''national security pro- 
grams: 

Department of De- 
fense — military func- 
tions 

Mutual security pro- 
gram — military . . . 

Atomic Energy Com- 
mission 

Stockpiling and defense 
production expansion . 


$35.8 

2.6 

1.7 

.6 


$36. 

2.6 

1.9 

. 4 


$38.0 

2.6 

2.3 

.4 


Subtotal 


40.6 


41.0 


43.3 


Related programs: 

Mutual security pro- 
g r a m — e c o n o m i c , 
technical, and other . 

United States Informa- 
tion Agency 

Federal Civil Defense 
Administration . . . 

Selective Service Sys- 
tem 


1.6 
. 1 
. 1 

(') 


1.5 
. 1 
. 1 

(■) 


1.8 
. 1 
. 1 


Subtotal 


1.8 


1.7 


2.0 


Total 


42.4 


42.7 


45.3 



' Loss than 60 million dollars. 

164 



tolerable levels. Effective action must be taken to 
improve efficiency and to maintain a proper bal- 
ance between expenditures for future military 
strength and expenditures for current readiness. 

The introduction of new equipment and weapons 
with vastly greater combat capability is also hav- 
ing a powerful impact on concepts of military 
strategy, tactics, and organization. The combat 
power of our divisions, wings, and warships has 
increased to such an extent that it is no longer 
valid to measure military power in terms of the 
number of such units. 

I have given careful consideration to the many 
complex factors which enter into the development 
of a well-balanced military structure. I am con- 
vinced that the defense programs and funds for 
their support as recommended in this budget pro- 
vide a wise and reasonable degree of protection 
for the Nation. 

Our nuclear weapons and our ability to employ 
them constitute the most effective deterrent to an 
attack on the free nations. We shall continue 
to expand our nuclear arsenal until an agreement 
has been reached for reduction and regulation 
of armaments under safeguarded inspection 
guaranties. 

At the same time, we are increasing the portion 
of the production of fissionable materials allocated 
to peaceful uses at home and abroad and we look 
forward to the day when all production may be 
used for peaceful purposes. This budget pro- 
vides for increased effort on power reactor develop- 
ment and on new uses of atomic energy in biology, 
medicine, agriculture, and industry. It will also 
make possible greater sharing of our peaceful 
atomic energy developments with other nations 
through the atoms-for-peace program. 

World events continue to demonstrate the value 
of our programs of mutual assistance. Continued 
assistance, both military and economic, to friendly 
nations will provide the essential margin beyond 
their own resources needed to support anc 
strengthen their defenses and their economies, 
The intensified worldwide conflict of ideas also 
requires a further increase in our programs ol 
international information. 



Legislative Program 

As has already been indicated in the State of the 
Union message, continuation of military and 



Department of State Bulletin 



economic assistance to the free nations of the world 
is a keystone of the administration's efforts to 
promote peace, collective security, and well-being 
for all peoples. Essential complements of these 
assistance programs are steps to increase interna- 
tional trade and investment. Both can be ma- 
terially advanced by taking the actions necessary 
to avoid unfair tax duplications on business con- 
ducted overseas and by the prompt enactment of 
legislation approving United States membership 
in the proposed Organization for Trade Coopera- 
tion. This administrative agency will greatly aid 
the orderly operation of existing arrangements 
governing multilateral trade to help prevent dis- 
crimination and restrictions against our foreign 
commerce. 

Although necessity forces us to keep ever in 
mind the destructive power of nuclear weapons, 
it is equally essential that we keep in mind the 
firm determination of the United States to share 
the fruits of its efforts to develop the peaceful uses 
for atomic energy. Seventy-two nations have now 
signed the charter of the International Atomic 
Energy Agency, which was established under the 
auspices of the United Nations. Prompt action 
by the Congress is needed to authorize full partici- 
pation by the United States in the work of this 
Agency. The United States has offered for dis- 
tribution through this Agency 5,000 kilograms of 
fissionable uranium 235 out of the 20,000 kilograms 
previously offered for atomic research and power 
uses in other nations, as part of our atoms-for- 
peace program. 

The other proposals which are parts of the ad- 
ministration's legislative program are discussed 
in my analysis of the budget. The fact that they 
are not included in this summary presentation in 
no way detracts from their importance or the 
strength of my recommendation that they be con- 
sidered and enacted by the Congress in its present 
session. 

Analysis of the Budget 

I am presenting my budgetary recommendations 
in greater detail under nine major program head- 
ings in the analysis of the budget which follows 
this message. The Economic Report will contain a 
further discussion of some of these proposals. 

It is always difficult to make plans and forecast 
expenditures a year or more in advance. This is 



particularly true when historic events are taking 
place in Eastern Europe, when United Nations 
forces are deployed in the Middle East, when un- 
certainties abound in other parts of the world, and 
when in our own land economic change is contin- 
uous. This budget has taken into account present 
conditions and developments which today appear 
most likely at home and abroad. It provides funds 
for all necessary Government activities on a. 
reasonable scale, and efforts will continue to be 
made by every executive department and agency 
to improve efficiency and to maintain expenditures 
well within the budget estimates. It is a carefully 
balanced budget — balanced in its receipts and ex- 
penditures, balanced in its choice of programs. I 
consider it well adapted to the needs of the present 
and the future. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

January 16, 1957. 



EXCERPTS FROM THE PRESIDENT'S ANALYSIS 
OF THE BUDGET 



Major National Security 

Events in recent months have dramatized the 
need for strong collective security. The military 
strength of the United States is a bulwark for 
world peace and freedom. A large share of the 
budget must go to maintain the Nation's military 
forces in their present high state of readiness and 
to introduce new weapons. Also, effective sup- 
port must be given to the defense forces of other 
nations. Advances in nuclear technology must 
be applied to improving national defense and, in 
increasing degree, to peacetime uses in the United 
States and the rest of the free world. 

Development and control of atomic energy. — 
Until an agreement for limitation of armaments 
is negotiated and an effective inspection system is 
functioning, this Nation will continue to inci'ease 
the number and variety of nuclear weapons. In 
the fiscal year 1958, emphasis will be placed on 
weapons for tactical purposes and weapons with 
reduced radioactive fallout. The substantial 
present effort to develop military propulsion re- 
actors will be continued. 

Efforts to develop the peaceful uses of atomic 
energy will be greatly increased, particularly the 



febtvary 4, 1957 



165 



Major National Security 

(Fiscal years. In millions] 



Program or agency 


New obllgatlonal authority 


Expenditures 




1956 actual 


1967 estimate 


1958 estimate 


1956 actual 


1957 estimate 


1958 estimate 


Gross budget expenditures: 

Department of Defense — military functions: 
Direction and coordination of defense . 


$13 

15,517 

7,354 

9,648 

654 


$15 

17, 690 

7,645 

10, 200 

637 

200 


$17 

16, 481 

8,539 

10,517 

688 

2,258 


$14 

16, 749 

8,702 

9,745 

582 


$14 

16, 890 

8,581 

9,732 

637 

150 


$17 
17, 472 




9, 131 


Navy defense 

Other central defense activities .... 
T*rono9pd for later transmission 


10, 349 
714 
347 








Total, Department of Defense. . . . 

Development and control of atomic energy: 

Present orotrram 


33, 187 
1,179 


36, 387 
1,961 


38, 500 

2,400 
120 

130 
' i, 450' 


35, 791 
1,651 


36, 005 
1,940 


38, 031 
2,310 




30 


Stockpiling and defense production expan- 


521 
1,016 


2,018 


791 
2,611 


759 
2,600 


650 


Mutual security program — military; 

Present Droerram 


2, 100 




500 














Total 

Deduct applicable receipts: 

DpDartment of Defense — militarv functions. 


35, 903 


40, 366 


43, 600 


40, 845 

(') 
203 


41, 303 

5 
334 


43, 621 
31 










255 












Net buderet exDenditures 








40, 641 


40, 965 


43, 335 













' Less than one-half million dollars. 

development of reactors to produce atomic power 
at competitive prices. 

This budget provides for increased effort by the 
Atomic Energy Commission to explore new power 
reactor concepts, to fabricate and operate reactor 
experiments, and to develop the basic reactor 
technology essential to the Nation's progress and 
leadership in the field. Increased support will 
also be given to the growing activities by private 
industry and public power bodies in power reactor 
development. 

In the belief that basic responsibility for con- 
struction of large-scale commercial power reactors 
should not have to be assumed by the Federal 
Government, no funds for construction of new 
large-scale reactors are proposed in this budget. 
A number of new proposals from non-Federal in- 
terests are now being developed. However, if ac- 
ceptable proposals for non-Federal construction of 
promising reactor types do not materialize within 
a reasonable time, a request will be made to the 
Congress for funds for direct construction by the 
Federal Government. 

As a further and necessary step to facilitate in- 
dustry's investment in atomic powerplants, legis- 
lation will again be proposed to authorize the 
Government to supplement commercially available 



insurance against liability arising from possible 
nuclear accidents. 

More resources will be applied to the longer 
term effort to develop thermonuclear power re- 
actors. Increased research is planned for 1958 on 
the problems arising from the numerous and ex- 
tensive applications of atomic energy, such as re- 
actor safety, radioactive waste disposal, and the 
biological eflFects of radiation. At the same time, 
support of research in nuclear physics and in new 
uses of atomic energy in biology, medicine, agri- 
culture, and industry will be strengthened. Also, 
the budget provides for increases in equipment 
grants and in teacher training to improve educa- 
tion in nuclear technology and to help alleviate 
the shortage of nuclear scientists and engineers. 

In order to help other nations develop their 
own atomic energy programs, the 1958 budget pro- 
vides for training centers in the United States and 
abroad, equipment grants, and other technical as- 
sistance from appropriations for the Atomic 
Energy Commission and the mutual security pro- 
gram. Four nations have already accepted and 
many others are expected to accept the United 
States offer to share the costs of building research 
reactors. A number of nations have indicated 
interest in procuring power reactors in this coun- 



166 



Departmenf of Sfa/e Bulletin 



try, and the Export- Import Bank will consider 
applications for loans to finance such procurement. 
The budget also includes funds for United States 
participation in a second world conference on the 
peaceful uses of atomic energy to be held in 
calendar year 1958. 

Stockpiling and defence production. — By the 
end of the current fiscal year, the stockpile of 
strategic and critical materials, such as rubber, 
aluminum, copper, and nickel, will have reached 
a value greater than 6 billion dollars. Further ac- 
quisitions toward the stockpile objectives will be 
limited in most instances to (1) materials for 
which contracts have already been made; (2) 
materials which can be procured at favorable 
prices and which will serve to maintain the mobi- 
lization base; and (3) materials obtained in ex- 
change for surplus agricultural products. 

Mutual security program, military. — The armed 
forces of 38 countries receive military equipment 
and training through the military assistance por- 
tion of the mutual security program. This as- 
sistance bolsters the military forces of coimtries 
faced with a threat of external aggression or in- 
ternal subversion. 

Military assistance plans for the fiscal year 1958 
have been related to the plans for this Nation's 
military establishment. As in the case of United 
States forces, a large part of the funds will be 
used for new types of weapons for air defense. 

In the fiscal years 1957 and 1958, an increasing 
amount of military assistance equipment is to be 
furnished on a reimbursable rather than a grant 
basis. Changes in legislation will be recom- 
mended to facilitate these sales. 

The level of unexpended balances for military 
assistance will have been reduced for 5 successive 
years. The Department of Defense has made sig- 
nificant improvements in tlie operation of this pro- 
gram in this fiscal year, especially in the timing of 
orders and the utilization of funds. 

The new obligational authority of 2,450 million 
dollars recommended in this budget for military 
assistance has been included as an appropriation to 
the President, as in previous years. Considera- 
tion is being given as to what pattern of appropria- 
tions will best serve the aims of the Government in 
pi'oviding military assistance. 

International Affairs and Finance 

The United States can work toward its goal of 
lasting peace by continuing to help its friends over- 



MuTUAL Secubitt Peoqbam 

[Fiscal years. In millions] 





Budget eipendltures 


Recom- 
mended 




1966 
actual 


1957 
estimate 


1958 
estimate 


new obli- 
gational 

authority 
for 1958 


Military: ' 

Present program . 
Proposed legisla- 


$2,611 


$2, 600 


$2, 100 
500 

1,150 
600 


$2, 450 
1,950 


Economic, technical, 
and other: ' 

Present program . 
Proposed legisla- 


1,587 


1,500 










Total 


4, 198 


4, 100 


4,350 


' 4, 400 



' Budget expenditures for military assistance do not 
reflect proceeds from sale of military equipment previously 
procured with military assistance funds, since these pro- 
ceeds go directly into miscellaneous receipts of the Treas- 
ury. 

2 Discussed in the international affairs and finance sec- 
tion of this analysis. Excludes investment guaranty 
program. 

' Compares with new obligational authority of 2,703 
million dollars in 1956 and 3,767 million dollars in 1957, 
excluding investment guaranty program. 

seas protect their freedom from foreign domina- 
tion and better their economic conditions. This 
budget is designed to do that. It also provides 
funds to promote international understanding 
through a wider exchange of ideas and persons, 
and to extend a helping hand to refugees from 
tyranny and victims of famine. 

In the conduct of our international affairs it is 
necessary to allow for appropriate flexibility in 
choosing the proper channel to meet each particu- 
lar situation. In many instances the most effective 
way to achieve United States objectives, particu- 
larly in the political area, is to work through the 
United Nations. In other instances it may be 
more effective to utilize regional organizations 
such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
and the Organization of American States. The 
Government will, of course, continue to conduct a 
major part of its economic and military assistance 
bilaterally, by dealing directly with other govern- 
ments through conventional channels, including 
the Export-Import Bank. In addition, the Inter- 
national Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment and the International Monetary Fund will 
imdoubtedly continue their active and sound pro- 
grams of lending for economic development and of 
strengthening the exchange systems of their mem- 
bers, relying in part on the capital subscriptions 
and guaranties of the United States Government. 



February 4, 1957 



167 



International Apfaibs and Finance 
[Fiscal years. In millions] 



Program or agency 



Budget expenditures 



1966 actual 



1967 estimate 



1958 estimate 



Recommended 
new obligatlonal 
authority for 1968 



Gross budget expenditures: 

Economic and technical development: 

Mutual security program — economic, technical, and 
other: 

Present program 

Proposed legislation 

Investment guaranty program 

Export-Import Bank 

Emergency commodity assistance (Department of 

Agriculture) 

Other 

Foreign information and exchange activities: 

United States Information Agency 

Department of State 

President's Special International Program 

Conduct of foreign affairs (Department of State and other). 



$1, 587 



$1, 500 



6 
212 

94 
22 

86 

20 

5 

120 



7 
776 

127 
69 

103 

21 

9 

155 



$1, 150 

600 

13 

670 

45 
32 

128 
29 
18 

194 



$1, 950 



94 
27 

144 
35 
20 

189 



Total 

Deduct applicable receipts: 

Investment guaranty program . 
Export-Import Bank 



2,151 

3 

302 



2,767 

5 
379 



2,878 

6 
427 



» 2, 460 



Net budget expenditures 



1,846 



2,382 



2,444 



Compares with new obligatlonal authority of 2,123 million dollars in 1956 and 2,233 million dollars in 1957. 



The United States Government will also work 
through the many private welfare organizations 
operating abroad. 

The Government's varied overseas activities 
have been, and are being, regularly reviewed. 
For example, recommendations to improve our 
mutual security operations are being developed 
by the President's Citizen Advisers on the Mutual 
Security Program. Special studies are also being 
conducted by the Senate Foreign Relations and 
House Foreign Affairs Committees. A special 
message on the mutual security progi'am will be 
sent to the Congi-ess after due consideration has 
been given to the recoimnendations and studies 
that have been completed. 

Mutual security program, economic, technical, 
and other. — In oi'der that the United States may 
continue to help cooperating comitries to develop 
their economies and to meet the burdens of main- 
taining military strength, the budget provides for 
an appropriation of 1,950 million dollars for the 
fiscal year 1958 for the nonmilitary portion of the 
mutual security program. The military assist- 
ance portion of the mutual security program was 
discussed in the major national security section of 
this analysis. Total appropriations recommended 
for the two portions together in 1958 are 4,400 
million dollars, compared with 3,804 million 



dollars enacted for 1957 and 4,860 million dollars 
recommended for 1957 one year ago in the 1957 
budget. 

Expenditures for economic assistance are esti- 
mated at a moderately higher level in the fiscal 
year 1958 than in the current fiscal year, carrying 
on our help in the development of the economic 
potential of less developed countries. Many of 
these countries have recently won their independ- 
ence. Such development should add to the sta- 
bility of their institutions, and tend to remove 
long-run causes of international friction. A sig- 
nificant part of the expenditures for economic de- 
velopment will be in the form of loans. 

When the special message on mutual security 
is presented to the Congress, the mutual security 
appropriations recommended in this budget will 
be identified with specific activities, insofar as the 
kinds and amounts of assistance can be reasonably 
forecast. However, there are many changing : 
situations in the world today and it is necessary ' 
to be able to meet these situations quickly and 
flexibly. The amount recommended for the eco- 
nomic portion of the Mutual Security Program 
includes certain funds to be appropriated on this : 
basis. 

Middle East. — An important example of this 
type of changing situation was discussed in the 



168 



Department of State Bulletin 



recent message on the Middle East.- The message 
emphasized the importance of that area of the 
world and recommended policies designed to 
strengthen the countries of that area. Currently 
available funds can be used to meet 1957 require- 
ments. The reconmiended 1958 appropriations of 
4,400 million dollars for the total mutual security 
program include 200 million dollars to be avail- 
able for discretionary use in tlie Middle East, in 
addition to the specific country programs for the 
area. In order to make most effective use of these 
funds, especially in relation to solving some of 
the current problems, it is essential that adequate 
flexibility be permitted in their use. 

International investments aiid loans.- — Loans by 
the Export-Import Bank for development projects 
and for assisting the export of United States goods 
are expected to continue at a high level in the 
coming fiscal year. 

The estimated increase since 1956 in expendi- 
tures of the Bank results both from the current 
rate of loans and from reduced estimates of pri- 
vate participation in the Bank's loans because of 
attractive alternative private investment oppor- 
tunities in the United States. Despite rising col- 
lections of the Export-Import Bank from loan 
repayments, the increase in expenditures is esti- 
mated to result in a change from net receipts of 
90 million dollars in the fiscal year 1956 to net ex- 
penditures of 243 nullion dollars in 1958. Wliile 
this budget proposes no increase in the Bank's 
presently available borrowing authority, it may 
later become necessary to request some increase in 
borrowing authority to meet future needs. 

The International Monetary Fund will be the 
major source of funds to strengthen the reserve 
position of the United Kingdom at the present 
time. The Fund is an international organization 
to which the United States has made substantial 
amounts of capital available in the past. There- 
fore, a drawing on these funds does not appear as 
an expenditure in the budget now. 

The Export-Import Bank recently announced a 
line of credit against securities to the United 
Kingdom for the purchase of United States 
products. 



'■ Bulletin of Jan. 21, 1957, p. 83. 



The Government of the United Kingdom has 
also sought a waiver of the 81 million dollar inter- 
est payment that was due last month under the 
terms of the Anglo-American Financial Agree- 
ment of 1945 and the related lend-lease and sur- 
plus property settlement. The exact applicability 
of the waiver provisions is now not clear. Since 
there have been changes in the conditions en- 
visaged at the time the agreement was signed, 
recommendations will shortly be made to the Con- 
gress for appropriate modification of the present 
language of the Agreement so as to carry out the 
spirit of the original intention. This interest 
payment has been excluded from the estimates of 
receipts for the fiscal year 1957. 

Foreign information and exchange activities. — 
The intensified worldwide ideological conflict em- 
phasizes the importance of the role of both the 
Government and private organizations in exchang- 
ing information, persons, and ideas abroad. Over- 
seas information services and cultural exchanges 
are designed to facilitate sympathetic understand- 
ing of Ajnerican life, culture, and institutions by 
other peoples. Another major role of these pro- 
grams is to demonstrate to the people of other na- 
tions the way in which American policies and ob- 
jectives are in keeping with their own aspirations. 

This budget recommends that expenditures in 
the fiscal year 1958 for the entire range of foreign 
information and exchange activities — including 
exchanges under the Fulbright and Smith-Mundt 
legislation, and cultural and trade fair programs 
abroad — be increased by 42 million dollars over 
the 1957 estimate. This will permit extension of 
this work within the free world, especially in Asia 
and Africa, as well as providing more information 
to those peoples not yet free. Emphasis will be 
placed on person-to-person contacts on both official 
and unofficial levels. 

Conduct of foreign affairs. — The tasks of the 
Department of State have been steadily extended, 
both in Washington and in a growing number of 
overseas posts. The budget recommendations con- 
tinue to strengthen the staff and facilities of the 
Department. Estimated expenditures in 1958 for 
the conduct of foreign affairs, including buildings, 
are 194 million dollars, 40 million dollars more 
than in 1957. 



febrwary 4, 7957 



169 



The Communist Threat to the Middle East 



Statement by Secretary Dulles ' 



I appear before you in support of President 
Eisenhower's urgent request that the Congress 
and the President, acting in unison througli a 
joint resolution, should promptly take certain 
steps to prevent international communism taking 
over the Middle East.^ 

The Danger 

We all, I know, recognize that the Middle East 
is a vital part of the free world. The people there 
have aspirations for liberty such as have always 
struck a responsive chord in the hearts of the 
American people. Much of the world's livelihood 
depends on the natural resources and avenues of 
trade of the Middle East. And there are to be 
found the holy places of three great religions. 

It would be abhorrent and dangerous if that 
area were ruled by international commimism. 
Yet that is the present danger. 

The Middle East has always been coveted by 
the rulers of Russia. That was true in the days 
of the Czars. It is more than ever true of Soviet 
communism. Also today it seems to Communist 
rulers that events have played into their hands 
and that a great victory is almost within their 
grasp. And indeed their confidence is not with- 
out basis. 

Military Aspects 

Soviet ground, naval, and air forces are sta- 
tioned in the areas adjacent to the Middle East— 

' Made before a Joint session of the Foreign Relations 
and Armed Services Committees of the Senate on Jan. 
14 (press release 19). 

'For text of the President's special message to Con- 
gress on .Ian. 5 and of the proposed resolution on the 
Middle East, see Bullctin of Jan. 21, 1957, p. 83, and 
Jan. 28, 10.57, p. 128. 



Bulgaria, the Black Sea, the Ukraine, the Cau- 
casus, and Central Asia. These Soviet forces are 
of a size, and are so located, that they could be 
employed at any time with a minimum of warn- 
ing. This fact is nothing new. But today it 
takes on new implications. 

There has been a change in the possible deter- 
rent role of certain Western European nations. 
Until recently they provided a serious deterrent 
to Communist aggression against the Middle 
East. But for a variety of reasons — psychologi- 
cal, financial, and political — this no longer meets 
the needs. 

Another new factor is evidence that the Com- 
munist rulers may now be thinking in terms of 
possible "volunteer" operations in the Middle East, 
such as the Chinese Communists perpetrated in 
Korea. 

No one can reliably predict whether, and if so, 
when, there would be Communist armed aggres- 
sion, but three things are known : ( 1 ) the Com- 
munist capability, (2) the temptation, (3) the 
lack of any moral restraints. 

The existence of such a threat, unless it be effec- 
tively deterred, creates fear, uncertainty, and 
greater opportimity for subversion to succeed. 
We saw open armed aggression against the Repub- 
lic of Korea. We have recently seen it again 
against Hungary. And in 1948 we saw the Com- 
munists take over Czechoslovakia from within, 
an operation aided by the presence of Red armies 
without, against which there was no deterrent. 

Such dangers reemerge today in relation to the 
Middle East. 

Economic Aspects 

Superimposed on the latent military threat is 
a new and dangerous economic blow to the Middle 
East. The closing of the Suez Canal and of pipe- 



170 



Department of State Bulletin 



lines deprives oil-producing and oil-transiting 
countries of revenues upon which their govern- 
ments depend. The impact of this loss is only 
now beginning to be felt because tax and royalty 
payments usually lag behind the actual produc- 
tion and movement of oil. In addition, there are 
important losses due to the sharp decline in travel 
expenditures and dislocation of commerce. This 
development is of a magnitude which could en- 
danger orderly government and create conditions 
ripe for the type of takeover at which interna- 
tional communism is most adept. 

Subversive Aspects 

Communist propaganda is vigorously at work. 
Its Arab-langiiage radio bombards the area. The 
output has recently gone up by 50 percent. Com- 
munist sentiments find their way into the Arab 
press and radio of certain countries. The Soviet 
Union is portrayed as the "savior" of the area 
as against Western imperialism and as against 
Israel's alleged expansionist ambitions. Nothing 
is said about Hungary. 

There is ample evidence of Communist infiltra- 
tion into certain areas, particularly organized 
labor; and there are plottings of assassinations 
and sabotage to gain Communist ends. Local 
Communists have recently obtained small arms, 
where such arms were made available, for what it 
was thought might be house-to-house fighting. 
Arab refugees, nearly one million in number, are 
a special target for Communist propaganda. 

The Need 

Thus the Middle East area is at once en- 
dangered by potential military threats against 
which there is now no adequate deterrent, by a 
rapidly mounting financial and economic crisis, 
and by subversive efl'orts which seek advantage 
from exceptional opportunities arising out of re- 
cent events. This adds up to a new and grave 
danger. 

It behooves us as a Nation to marshal all ap- 
propriate assets to meet the danger. 

I say "all" because halfway measures will not 
suffice. We dare not risk doing less than all we 
properly can. 

I say "appropriate" because obviously the 
measures we take must not recall colonialism or 
imply any hostility to the aspirations of the 
peoples of the area. They must be measures 
which we take only as they are desired by the 



nations of the Middle East to help them be free 
and strong. Furthermore, our policies must ac- 
cord with the principles and purposes of the 
United Nations, and we should welcome and re- 
inforce United Nations action wherever it can 
suffice. 

U.S. Basic Principles and Practice 

President Truman, in his Greek-Turkey mes- 
sage to the Congress on March 12, 1947, laid down 
a basic proposition. He said "totalitarian re- 
gimes imposed upon free peoples, by direct or 
indirect aggression, undermine the foundations 
of international peace and hence the security of 
the United States." We have ever since pro- 
ceeded on that premise. 

The Vandenberg Resolution of June 11, 1948, 
outlined, in general terms, acceptable procedures. 
It called for the "progressive" development of 
collective defense arrangements, the association 
of the United States with them where its national 
security was affected, and "making clear" United 
States "determination to exercise the right of in- 
dividual or collective self-defense imder article 
51 [of the United Nations Charter] should any 
armed attack occur affecting its national security." 

The principle laid down by President Truman 
and the procedure indicated by the Vandenberg 
Resolution have in fact been used. Collective 
defense arrangements have been "progressively" 
applied, and our determination to act for collec- 
tive self-defense has been "made clear" by joint 
action of the President and the Congress in many 
specific situations. 

Thus in 1948 the President and the Senate 
joined to make the North Atlantic Treaty. In 
1951 we joined to extend the North Atlantic 
Treaty area to include Greece and Turkey. In 
1954 we joined to extend the treaty to the Fed- 
eral Republic of Germany. 

In 1955 we joined to make the Southeast Asia 
Collective Defense Treaty to protect that part 
of the world against Communist aggression. 

In 1955, through a joint resolution passed by 
the Congress and signed by the President, we 
made clear our determination to exercise with the 
Republic of China the right of collective self- 
defense as regards Taiwan, Penghu, and related 
areas. 

Between 1951 and 1955 the Senate and the Pres- 
ident made other multilateral and bilateral de- 
fense arrangements covering the Philippines, 



February 4, 1957 



171 



Australia and New Zealand, Japan, Korea, and 
the Eepublic of China. 

Thus, when danger from international com- 
munism became acute, the President and the Con- 
gress, or the Senate, have acted together to meet 
the danger. 

Also, it may be observed, when that has hap- 
pened the danger has subsided and peace has 
prevailed. 

The time has now come when, in accordance 
with past practice, the President and the Congress 
should act together in relation to the Middle East. 

President Eisenhower's Proposals 

The President has asked the Congress of the 
United States now to authorize the use of armed 
forces of the United States to secure and protect 
the territorial integrity and political independ- 
ence of the nations of the Middle East which 
request such aid. Thereby we will have taken 
the first indispensable step to preserve the area, 
both against such attack and also from the dire 
consequences of the nations of the Middle East 
feeling exposed to the danger of such an attack. 

The President has, in the second place, asked 
tlie Congress to reaffirm our willingness to assist 
the nations of the area so desiring to build up 
appropriate security forces of their own. Lim- 
ited local forces, well-equipped and loyal, are an 
essential ingredient of defense, particularly as 
against subversion. This can be achieved with- 
out an arms race between the Arab States and 
Israel. We remain opposed to that, as declared 
by the Tripartite Declaration of May 25, 1950. 

By assisting where desired the maintenance of 
security forces to maintain internal order and to 
provide some initial resistance to attack from 
without where that is a danger, the United States 
will have taken the second indispensable step to 
assist the nations of the area to maintain their 
independence and to combat subversion. 

Finally, the President has asked the Congress 
for greater facilities to provide financial assist- 
ance in the area. This is perhaps most important 
of all. The assistance may have to be along lines 
somewhat different than was contemplated when 
the mutual security program was presented to the 
Congress a year ago.' 

We are not yet in a position to say just what 



the new needs are. These will be ascertained by 
a mission to be headed by Mr. Richards.' But 
it can now be said with certainty that the needs 
are far more urgent and probably will be quite 
different from what was foreseen a year ago. 

We do not ask the Congress for more money 
for the current fiscal year. Let me emphasize 
that fact, which seems not yet fully understood. 
We do not now ask Congress for one dollar more 
of authorization or appropriation. The problem 
of funds for 1958 will be dealt with independently 
of this pending legislation. But we do need more 
flexibility in the use of what has already been 
authorized and appropriated for 1957. If the 
Congress agrees to that, it and the President will 
have taken together the third indispensable step 
to enable the United States to help the nations 
of the Middle East maintain their freedom. 

Problems Other Than of Communist Source 

There are, of course, many important problems 
of the area whicli are not dealt with by the pro- 
posals which the President has laid before you. 
There are problems relating to the Suez Canal, 
and problems arising out of unstable and un- 
friendly Arab-Israel relations. 

All these matters are receiving urgent consid- 
eration, but they do not seem to require legisla- 
tive action at this time. 

The United Nations has now assumed primary 
responsibility for solving certain of these prob- 
lems, and the able Secretary-General of the 
United Nations is actively working on them. We 
are giving these United Nations efforts our full 
support. We are encouraged to believe that cer- 
tain of the problems to which I have alluded will 
thus be brought to a satisfactory conclusion. Al- 
ready the orderly withdrawal of United Kingdom 
and French forces has been effected, and Israeli 
withdrawal from Egypt is under way. The Suez 
Canal is being efficiently cleared. The Secretary- 
General is seeking to bring about an early re- 
sumption of talks about the future status of the 
canal, in accordance with the six principles which 
were unanimously adopted by the Security Coun- 
cil last October and agreed to by Egypt.* He is 



'Ibid., Apr. 2, 105C, p. S^. 



' Former Representative James P. Richards. For the 
announcement of his appointment as Special Assistant 
to the President, see Bi'li.etin of Jan. 28, l!>o7, p. ISO. 

° Ibid., Oct. 22, 1956, p. CKJ. 



172 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



also well aware of the problems of transit through 
the Gulf of Aqaba and the status of the Gaza 
Strip. 

Since last spring he has been working actively 
on stabilizing the armistice lines, pursuant to a 
United States-sponsored resolution. 

There are also the more basic problems of Arab- 
Israel relations. These include the establishment 
of permanent boundaries, the settlement of refu- 
gees, and the undertaking of major water and 
irrigation developments. The United States has 
made clear its willingness to make a large contribu- 
tion to the settlement of these matters, preferably 
through the United Nations. That United States 
position was expressed in my address of August 
26, 1955, and, as indicated by President Eisen- 
hower in his special message of January 5, 1957, 
the United States adheres to those proposals. 
Wlien such a program becomes practical of ac- 
complishment, that would require Senate treaty 
action and congressional appropriations. But, 
unhappily, the time for that is not yet here. 

There is, of course, interconnection between 
present unsettlements in the area and Communist 
opportunities in the area. The Communists fo- 
ment unsettlement, and so long as unsettlements 
exist Communist opportunities exist. The United 
States believes that no effort should be spared to 
solve the problems of the area. But we do not 
take the pessimistic view that, unless and until 
these problems can be solved, nothing can use- 
fully be done to prevent the area being taken over 
by international communism. 

On November 1, 1956, in introducing the United 
States cease-fire resolution in the United Nations 
General Assembly,* I recalled the problems and 
the provocations of the area, and I said : 

... All of us, I think, would hope that out of this 
tragedy there should come something better than merely 
a restoration of the conditions out of which this tragedy 
came about. . . . Surely this organization has a duty to 
strive to bring about that betterment. 

I can say to you today that the United Nations 
organization is indeed striving to bring about 
that betterment — and so is the United States. 

The proposals now before you in no way cut 
across or replace these efforts being made by the 
United Nations and by our own Government to 
solve the problems of the Middle East. On the 



" Ihid., Nov. 12, 1956, p. 751. 
February 4, 1957 



contrary, these proposals, if adopted, will help to 
eradicate malignant influences which are striving, 
with some success, to make these problems in- 
soluble. 

The Role of the Congress 

What the President has laid before the Congress 
is the aspect of the situation with which the United 
Nations cannot adequately deal, and with which 
the President cannot adequately deal without help 
from the Congress. 

Experience indicates that a nation rarely, if 
ever, loses its independence (1) if that nation is 
not exposed to oj^jcn armed attack by overwhelm- 
ing force; (2) if it has loyal and adequately 
equipped forces for at least internal security; 
and (3) if the economic situation does not seem 
hopeless. 

The United Nations cannot itself adequately in- 
sure those conditions. For example, the Soviet 
Union exercises veto power in the Security Council 
and it defies General Assembly recommendations. 
That is a gap that the United Nations itself cannot 
close. 

But just as the United Nations cannot depend- 
ably create these conditions, so the President can- 
not adequately do so without the concurrence of 
the Congress. 

'\Aliatever may be the correct constitutional view 
of the authority of the President to use the Armed 
Forces of the United States, the fact is that the 
Soviet rulers feel more deterred if the Congress 
has spoken. Also the fact is that the peoples who 
are subjected to threat feel more secure if the 
Congress or, in the case of treaties, the Senate 
has spoken. 

We are dealing here not with a theory but with 
a fact. The fact is that, in a situation where we 
need to use all the assets we possess, there is an 
asset which the Congress of the United States 
can contribute, if it will. That asset may prove 
decisive in the result. 

It is also the fact that the Mutual Security Act 
and relative appropriation acts create a maze of 
conditions which are no doubt useful and which 
can be complied with in the ordinary case. But 
we are not dealing with an ordinary case. We are 
dealing with an emergency situation created by 
a sudden stoppage of vital revenues upon which 
orderly government depends. There needs to be 
greater discretion in the President to get things 

173 



done. Here again Congress can make a contri- 
bution which may be vital, and this without its 
costing the American taxpayer a single cent more. 

Finally, there is need that there be joint action 
by the President and the Congress which will deal 
as a rounded whole with the three vital aspects of 
the situation, namely: (1) military deterrents 
against armed aggression from without ; (2) mili- 
tary assistance to maintain security within; and 
(3) economic assistance to prevent the breakdown 
of orderly government. 

It has been said that the desired results can 
partially be achieved without new legislation and 
that the President's proposals involve some dupli- 
cation. That may be so. But even so, there will 
be immense practical gain if the Congress will 
join with the President to express, in a new single 
act, the purpose of our Nation in relation to the 
new situation which has come about since the 
Congress was last in session. 

Conclusion 

Let me repeat and reemphasize the gravity of 
the present situation. 

In many respects the last year has seen a 
weakening of international communism on several 
fronts. But this is a situation where he who wins 
the last test wins all. I do not say that this is 
the last test, although it could well be the decisive 
test in the struggle between communism and free- 
dom. Certainly, if the Middle East loses its free- 
dom, the result will be to nullify a great part of 
the efforts and sacrifices which have been made 
by the free peoples in recent years and inter- 
national communism will have gained a great 
and perhaps decisive victory. On the other hand, 
if the Middle East stays free, we can reasonably 
look forward to gains for freedom throughout all 
the world. And "all" includes the present Soviet 
and Cliinese Communist part of the world. 

I can assure you that the leaders of international 
communism will take every risk that they dare to 
take in order to win the Middle East. Already 
they have made that clear. 

When the stakes are so great, I do not believe 
the Congress of tlie United States should play, 
or wants to play, merely the role of an observer. 
It possesses assets, perhaps decisive assets, to 



throw into the struggle. That is what the Presi- 
dent has pointed out in his special message to the 
Congress, and I do not doubt that the Congress 
will respond. 



President Exchanges Greetings 
With British Prime Minister 

Following is an exchange of letters between 
President Eisenhower and the new Prime Minister 
of the United Kingdom, Harold Macmillan, made 
public by the White House on January 15. 

President Eisenhower to Prime Minister Macmillan 

Dear Harold, I send my warmest congratula- 
tions to you on becoming Prime Minister of the 
United Kingdom. Your distinguished career is 
well known on this side of the Atlantic, and has 
earned our widespread respect. My own warm 
admiration stems, as you know, from our associa- 
tion in North Africa and through the succeeding 
years. For me that association has been as agree- 
able as it has been productive. 

I feel confident you will bring to your new task 
the same vision, determination and sympathetic 
understanding you have shown in tiie past. For 
myself, and for the people of the United States, 
let me wish you every success in carrying out the 
great responsibilities which now devolve upon you 
as Prime Minister. 

With warm regard, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

Prime Minister Macmillan to President Eisenhower 

My dear Friend, Thank you for your kind mes- 
sage. I too have warm and vivid memories of the 
time when we worked together in North Africa, 
and of our association since then. You know how 
much importance I attach to the friendship be- 
tween tlie peoples of Britain and tlie United States, 
not least because of my own personal links with 
your country. I look forward to working with 
you once again to further this friendship. 
With all good wishes, 

Harold Macmillan 



174 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



The Meaning of Berlin for tlie Free World 



hy Eleanor Dulles 

Special Assistant to the Director, Office of German Affairs^ 



Never has the meaning of Berlin for the free 
world been more apparent than since the Hun- 
garian revolution. When one compares the situ- 
ation in East Germany with that in Hungary, one 
sees the main reasons why East Germany, though 
persistently and strongly anti-Communist, has not 
exploded into bloody revolt. 

The primary reasons, which merit careful con- 
sideration in any appraisal of the facts in the 
East-West struggle in Germany, are all related to 
Berlin. In Berlin the Western allies have given 
political guaranties against abandonment of the 
territory to Soviet aggression and have reinforced 
this with various types of aid. This firm position 
gives hope not only to the people of Berlin but 
to all Germans, including those now under Com- 
munist domination, that there is a future in free- 
dom. There is in Berlin a door, an escape hatch, 
through which refugees have been fleeing to the 
West without cessation and with relatively little 
interference or danger for more than 6 years. 

Moreover, the East Berliners, in close contact 
with West Berlin and envying them their collec- 
tive bargaining and other civil rights, tried to 
assert their demands in June 1953 and learned 
through costly experience that revolt in Berlin and 
in the provinces would be repressed brutally with 
tanks and guns. This lesson of 3 years ago has 
taught them the more difficult road to freedom 
that is patient, unflagging endurance and the con- 
servation of strength until the time of their de- 
liverance comes. 

Those living in the East, constantly aware of 

' Address made before a combined meeting of the World 
Affairs Council, the League of Women Voters, and the 
Bryn Mawr Club at Albany, N. Y., on Jan. 17 (press 
release 27). 



the 22 divisions of the Soviet occupying force, con- 
tinue to think of themselves as Germans, as anti- 
Communists, and as free men. They rely on sup- 
port from the West, maintaining their contacts 
for flight, if necessity requires, and remember that 
there can be no quick solution to their problems. 
Their safety valve through Berlin serves to pre- 
serve their leaders among the flow of refugees for 
the day of reunification and reconstruction. They 
learned their lesson in restraint in the revolt in 
June 1953, which was touched oif in Berlin but was 
carried on in more than 260 cities and towns. 
Germans learned then the dangers of premature 
revolt just as the rest of the world learned of 
German determination to be free. 

There is no one who can predict with certainty 
whether or not the suppressed hatred of commu- 
nism in the East Zone might now flare up into 
open resistance if conditions worsened. There is 
reason to think that the Soviets know and fear 
this danger. They have made repeated promises 
of improved economic conditions. In January 
1957 they summoned the stooge Communist 
leaders of the zone to Moscow and gave them new 
assurances of "independence." They had earlier, 
in July, offered to cut the cost of occupation by 
50 percent in 1957, which slightly lessened the 
heavy financial burdens on the economy of the 
East Zone. They have recently announced that 
food rationing would end soon. They liave indi- 
cated the further development of heavy indus- 
tries, partly as an aid to defense and partly to 
increase national income. They have endeavored 
to give an illusion of sovereignty to the area but 
have followed each halfhearted gesture by new 
and irksome restrictions on freedom of action. 

The residents of the East will be hard to de.- 



February 4, 1957 



175 



ceive. None of the Soviet offers to improve their 
lot will be taken at face value unless they result 
in some tangible improvements. They can not 
onlyaneasure and assess with some degree of ac- 
curacy what goes on in the East Zone but also 
compare any slight change with the notable prog- 
ress of "West Berlin. 

An Island City 

It is hard to realize the strangeness of the sit- 
uation of this island city. There is no parallel 
in the world for its isolated and significant lo- 
cation. It lies 100 miles from the nearest Western 
free territory. It can be reached from "Western 
Germany and the outside world through long, 
narrow corridors available for rail, road, airpaths, 
and barge traffic. There are times when even 
these agreed roads to Berlin are harassed by 
Soviet obstructions and delays. Through subter- 
fuge and on various pretexts freight, passengers, 
and barges have from time to time been halted. 

Air flight into Berlin is over three agreed air- 
paths 10 miles wide. Many residents of Berlin, 
lacking the money for air travel and afraid that 
they may be kidnaped if they travel by surface, 
are virtually prisoners in the city. Yet, in spite 
of these difficulties, with the help of the "Western 
allies and of the Federal Republic, the city has 
begim to prosper. Thus in 1957, surrounded and 
restricted, threatened and harassed, the workers 
are earning more money, production is increasing, 
exports from the city have steadily moimted, and 
the facilities and cultural life of Berlin have in- 
creased in a brilliant fashion. 

The city serves as a place of comparison and for 
exchange of information. Through Berlin, 
knowledge of the outside world, including changes 
in Hungary, Poland, and Yugoslavia, is widely 
known. RIAS, the radio voice of Berlin, de- 
scribes the world today for millions in the sur- 
rounding territory. 

The statistics tell part of the story, but it is more 
evident in the bearing and attitude of the people. 
Unemployment is still a serious problem, largely 
because of the 50,000 white-collar workers 
stranded when the city ceased to be the capital. 
Nevertheless, imemployment is now about 10 per- 
cent of the labor force, and the total number of 
jobless, as compared with more than 30 percent 
4 years ago, has been cut by two-thirds. Pro- 
duction, which was reduced by war devastation. 



removals of machinery, and by the blockade, fell 
to less than a third of its prewar levels. It has 
now quadrupled, bringing the standard of living 
of most of the people to near prewar levels. 

This striking economic improvement in "West 
Berlin stands as an impressive contrast to the stark 
conditions prevailing in East Berlin and even 
worse conditions in the rest of the Soviet-occupied 
territory. There clothing is shabby, the goods are 
coarse, there are only thick, heavy working shoes, 
tools are defective, food supplies are inadequate. 
There are virtually no meat, butter, or eggs. 
Sugar, potatoes, and cheese are hard to come by. 
Fuel conditions are deplorable. Fuel is lacking 
for homes and factories. The main buildings are 
falling into dilapidation tlu'ough lack of repairs. 
Such basic items as electric light bulbs, aspirin, and 
textiles are in severe shortage. Passenger cars in 
East Germany are rarely seen on the roads. 

A Chance for Respite 

Tlie comparison between East and "U^est in Ber- 
lin affects general conditions and attitudes in East 
Germany in various ways. Above all, it gives a 
living example of the practical failure of com- 
munism. It gives a chance for those who want to 
buy an occasional article of luxury or necessity to 
meet their needs in West Berlin, or by going 
through Berlin in West Germany. 

The visits to Berlin are of incalculable im- 
portance for those from the East. Like men sub- 
merged in darkness and despair, many hundreds of 
thousands come to the city for a breath of fresh air. 
The usual attendance of East Zone residents at the 
industrial faire held every September in Berlin 
has been well over 500,000. Since these visitors 
are allowed certain special privileges when they 
show their identification papers, the statistics are 
relatively accurate. 

Li addition to the industrial fair, there are the 
cultural festival, the film festival, the agricultural 
fair, and certain May Day events, the Green Week, 
and other special events to which hundreds of 
thousands are invited. Although some persons 
cross directly into the Federal Republic, on the 
whole the larger number go in and out of Berlin 
because of the relative ease with which they can 
cross both the zonal and sector border at tliat point. 
These men, women, and children go back to their 
homes with the feeling that the door to freedom 
is not shut, that they can make contact with their 



176 



Department of State Bulletin 



friends and relatives, and that they can from time 
to time enjoy the advantages of Western economic 
and cultural life. 

It is certain that this chance to get a few days' 
relief from the police-state and the oppressive con- 
ditions in the Soviet-occupied zone is one of the 
main functions wliich Berlin serves. It is signifi- 
cant that no such relief was available in Budapest 
or in Wai-saw — no period of restoration of mind or 
spirit was available. Thus, as the pressure rose 
among these brave anti-Communist people, the ex- 
plosion was inevitable. Contrariwise, this is one 
of the reasons why in East Germany there is an im- 
flagging but guarded resistance to tyranny but no 
recent tendency to violence or open revolt. 

The Flight of the Refugees 

Another reason here for the absence of revolu- 
tion in East Gennany which relates to the open 
door of Berlin is the flight of the refugees. 

The world has been immeasiirably impressed and 
stirred by the tragedy of the flight of the refugees 
from Hungary. It is fitting that tliis tribute of 
understanding and compassion should be paid to 
the brave people who have left their homes and 
taken the risks that come not only with crossing the 
border but also with the struggle of starting a new 
life on alien soil. 

It is important also at this time, as questions 
are raised as to the future of Germany, to under- 
stand the meaning of the continued flow of ref- 
ugees from the Soviet-occupied zone of Grermany to 
the West. This large and continuing flight, now 
reacliing more than 1,600,000 persons, is unprece- 
dented in history. Most of the refugees go first 
to Berlin. There they can enter easily; only oc- 
casionally is one kidnaped or killed trying to 
escape. If they come singly or in pairs, and if 
they do not attempt to take possessions with them, 
they can usually pass from East Zone to East 
Sector and from East Sector to West Sector un- 
noticed and unchallenged. 

This large-scale and continuing movement of 
people from East Germany has a meaning similar 
to and not less significant than the flow of refugees 
from Hungary. It indicates that conditions under 
dictatoi-sliip are for most people intolerable and 
that in general those who make a deliberate choice 
to stay are of heroic proportions. Only a few 
who are very young or very old can endure the 
Communist-imposed regime. It is true, of course, 

February 4, 1957 

414388—57 3 



that there are in the zone, as in every community, 
some who are unaware or indifferent to all but 
the simplest phj'sical aspects of life. Of this 
minority, one need not speak. There is reason to 
think their number in East Germany is a small 
percent of the 17 million living there. The strik- 
ing fact is that week in and week out, over a 
period of more than 6 years, thousands of persons 
have crossed from the Communist-dominated area 
into Berlin to make their new and, they hope, 
temporary homes in the West. 

Many forget that, before the refugee flow began 
in 1950, the West Germans were forced to accept 
9 million persons expelled from the former Ger- 
man territories, and they have given refuge to 
more than a quarter of a million escapees from 
other countries. It was not realized when these 
arrangements were made some 6 or 7 years ago 
that there would be an additional burden on the 
German economy and an additional problem for 
the social system of 1,600,000 refugees in vohmtary 
flight from the zone. 

Thus, the total of these refugees from dictator- 
sliip, coming mostly through the city of Berlin, has 
been in excess of any voluntary movement of 
people from their homes at any time in recent 
history. 

Each person who crosses into Berlin testifies 
in a dramatic fashion to the failure of communism. 
He is wagering his future, the present welfare of 
his family, and the fate of his children that the 
freedom of the West is his best hope. Some are 
only vaguely aware of the political meaning of 
the choice they are making. Some flee from fear, 
some from hunger, some in anger, and some in 
defiance. All are making what is perhaps the 
supreme decision of their lives and one which 
cannot be reversed. Moreover, it is known that 
few of these people wish to cross the ocean to the 
Western Hemisphere because they intend to retm-n 
to their homes in East Germany. Because of the 
very regularity and familiarity of administrators 
and newsmen with the crossing over of these thous- 
ands, because the story of this imbroken stream 
of refugees has been told before, the full impact 
of the situation has been to some extent forgotten. 
Only with the sudden explosion in Hungary has 
the spotlight of world opinion again been turned 
on the million and a half pitiful and courageous 
people. 

The questions which are being asked every- 



177 



where about the refugees are much the same. For 
instance, the questions and answers in Vice Presi- 
dent Nixon's report " are strikingly apt in con- 
nection with tlie refugees from East Germany. 

The quality of the people who fled Hungary Is of the 
highest order. For the most part they were in the 
forefront of the flght for freedom and fled only when 
the choice was death or deportation at the hands of the 
foreign invaders or temporary flight to a foreign land 
to await the inevitable freedom for Hungary. The 
large majority are young people — students, technicians, 
craftsmen and professional people. There are many 
family units, including a large number of children. 

The majority of the refugees who have been inter- 
viewed say that they left Hungary because of fear of 
liquidation or of deportation. The number of floaters 
and of those who left Hungary purely for economic 
reasons is relatively small. 

The majority of those who have been Interviewed to 
date have expressed a desire to return to Hungary in 
the event of a change of government which would make 
it safe for them to do so. 

The problem of checking the security backgrounds of 
the refugees is not as difficult as usual, due to the fact 
that in addition to the usual documentary evidence 
available in such cases, direct evidence is being volun- 
teered by other refugees who are well-informed as to 
the identity of spies and agents in the communities. . . . 

Taking all the above factors into consideration, I be- 
lieve that the countries which accept these refugees will 
find that, rather than having assumed a liability, they 
have acquired a valuable national asset. 

In Germany, as in the case of Hungary, the 
types of people are in the majority young, healthy, 
and able-bodied. They are good workmen, good 
students, and competent professional men. "While 
they have not engaged in active armed combat 
against the Communists, they have left their 
homes because they did not think they could live 
a decent and free life. They are also in the fore- 
front of the fight for freedom. They would like 
to go back and reconstruct a liberated homeland. 
They have left everything behind. They know 
not what sacrifices they may have to endure before 
a hoped-for return. 

Berlin has served these people well. By the 
accident of location, in spite of Soviet attempts 
to isolate the city, they find safe haven and trans- 
portation to what is a new and untried situation 
in the outside world. If they could not slip into 
the city and become safe in this slielter among 
fellow Germans, when the longer zonal border was 
closed, one can be relatively sure that some type 
of rebellion would have broken out. Just before 



' Bulletin of Jan. 21, 1957, p. 94. 
178 



the breaking point of desperation they have a 
choice wliich tliey consider consistent with the 
long-run aims of their nation, which safeguards 
at least the basic needs of their families, and 
wliich offers an opportunity for constructive work 
without the risks of a bloody revolt against over- 
whelming military forces. 

This opening in the Iron Curtain has served 
as a place where the issues could be reviewed. It 
has been a point where wise counsel could influence 
the more rebellious and where information of 
world events can be disseminated. It is thus one 
of the main reasons why there has not been an up- 
rising in East Germany this year. The early 
manifestations of this uprising were stimulated 
by miscalculations as to the extent to which 
Stalin's death might permit a softening of Soviet 
jjolicy. Thus tliei-e was a desperate hope among 
the workers that they could win concessions. 
There were after the announcement of the "new 
course" some improvements in economic con- 
ditions. Tlierefore the increased demands for 
production and the setting of new norms with 
lower wages sparked an explosion. 

The Uprising of June 1953 

The uprising of June 16 spread like a flash fire 
through the zone on June 17. It started spon- 
taneously when a group of stonemasons building 
the walls of the huge apartment houses on what is 
still called Stalin Allee began to talk over their 
working conditions. Then approximately 100 
men decided to go in a body and ask for better 
worlring conditions and wages. They had been 
refused once; they would try again. They 
marched down the street in the workmen's smoclts. 
They were rebuffed at the administration build- 
ing in Leipziger Strasse, they were joined by 
others, and in anger at the rejection of their plea, 
began to tear down the Communist signs and burn 
them. Soon there were thousands of demonstra- 
tors and a few small buildings were set on fire. 
Some young men at the Brandenburg Gate 
managed to climb to the top and tear down the 
Communist flag. They shouted, "We will not 
be slaves." Then the tanks appeared and later 
shooting began, followed by soldiei-s, and more 
than 2,000 rioters, stunned and horrified, were 
pushed from the street over the sector border. 

News of the revolt spread by telephone, radio, 
and by persons traveling from town to town. By 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



June 17 more than 260 towns and villages were 
striking or resisting in various forms. Men 
demonstrated by burning propaganda signs, by 
striking, and by demanding civil rights, their 
intense desire for personal independence and 
decent living. The magnitude of the revolt and 
its meaning has not been fully understood to this 
day. In some towns the uprising lasted as long 
as 3 weeks. Communication and information 
with the West was cut off by the military. 

The cry was heard for free votes, more food, 
independence for the individual, freedom from 
forced labor, and reunification with the rest of 
Germany. It was heard in Jena, Weimar, Dres- 
den, and Leipzig and in scores of other cities. 
Political prisoners were set fi-ee by the demon- 
strators. Soviet barracks were burned; work 
stopped throughout the zone. Karl Marx City 
was on strike. 

Only the universal presence of the Kussian 
Army forced men behind bai"s, into the mines and 
workshops. Guns and tanks stopped the spread 
of the revolution. 

The scars remain to this day, but the heroism of 
June 1953 is not forgotten. The Soviets learned 
of the force of resistance to tyranny which had 
been latent. They met this threat to their control 
by bringing in food and supplies and meeting a 
few of the demands, but also by shifting troops to 
protect their positions in an alien land. The Ger- 
mans demonstrated to the world their will for 
freedom but also learned the bitter cost of revolt 
against military might. They have had to recall 
this lesson many times as they have faced the 
months of waiting for reunification. 

Focus for Western Support 

All the influences on the East Zone radiating 
from Berlin take on their meaning in the light of 
the large Soviet forces which have shown no in- 
clination to loosen their grasp, and the Allied 
declarations in support of Berlin. Three times in 
the last 4 years have the allies repeated their as- 
surance that "the security and welfare of Berlin 
and the maintenance of the position of the Three 
Powers there are regarded by the Three Powers 
as essential elements of the peace of the free 
world in the present international situation. Ac- 
cordingly they will maintain armed forces within 
the territory of Berlin as long as their responsi- 
bilities require it. They therefore reaffirm that 



they will treat any attack against Berlin from any 
quarter as an attack upon their forces and them- 
selves." ^ 

Thus there is in East Germany more than else- 
where a direct and face-to-face opposition of 
forces. There is the armed might of communism, 
and there is the sense that inevitably the forces of 
democracy and the free world so visible and strong 
in Berlin will eventually win freedom for those 
who are willing to endure for their freedom long 
years of waiting. 

The words of the Western allies would have 
little meaning unless they were backed vip by con- 
crete evidence of the intention of assisting Berlin 
and by the presence of Allied soldiers and the oc- 
cupying commission in Berlin. Even the Nato 
statement of December 16, 19.55,* would not neces- 
sarily be understood in East Germany without the 
presence in Berlin of our men, who have been both 
symbols and representatives of the Allied forces, 
before, during, and after the Berlin blockade. 

The Allied military forces in Berlin are few in 
number. There is no secret as to this fact. It is 
not the numbers that count, however, as to their 
significance and the fact that an attack on such 
small forces is equivalent in the eyes of the powers 
represented to an attack upon themselves in their 
homelands. They have a meaning in Berlin simi- 
lar to that of the U.N. forces in the Middle East. 
They stand for justice and international coopera- 
tion and the will to resist aggression. 

Concern for the welfare of Berlin has been made 
manifest abundantly by material help. This has 
been seen during the years of the European re- 
covery program and has been continued in the 
form of moderate grants of aid every year down 
to the present. 

This aid has been employed to rebuild the basic 
utilities during the first years of dire need and 
then to reconstruct and equip the very considerable 
plant of this manufacturing center. During all 
the years since 1947 considerable fmids from the 
United States and from the Federal Republic of 
Germany have been put into low-cost housing and 
buildings for which there is a general need. The 
gap caused by bombing and wartime deterioration 



' See the tripartite declarations of May 27, 1952 {ibid., 
June 9, 1952, p. 897), and Oct. 3, 1954 {ibid., Oct. 11, 1954, 
p. 521), and the tripartite agreement of Oct. 23, 1954 
{ibid., Nov. 15, 1954, p. 731). 

* Ibid., Dec. 26, 1955, p. 1047. 



February 4, 1957 



179 



has resulted in an acute shortage which has not 
yet been fully overcome. Wlierever the U.S. 
funds have got into a new or reconstructed build- 
ing, there are found on the wall three symbols, the 
Berlin Bear, the sliield of the Federal Kepublic, 
and the U.S. colors, so that throughout the city the 
extensive and continuing help of the United 
States can be seen and recognized. 

In addition to such basic help to the economic 
and social life of the city, there have been at least 
four notable projects which have been greeted 
with special appreciation by the Berliners and 
which are particularly spectacular from the point 
of view of the visitor from the East. 

The first of these is the Free University. It 
was started when, during the blockade, the city 
authorities refused to buckle under to Communist 
threats and stayed with the West, moving their 
headquarters to West Berlin. At that time a few 
houses were taken as a nucleus for a f i-ee university. 
Around these small original buildings has now 
grown up an impressive university for more than 
9,000 students. A fine libi-ary with various audi- 
toriums has been given by Henry Ford II to the 
university. Another striking example of aid has 
been our assistance to the extent of 30 percent of 
the cost to a $6 million fashion center for the gar- 
ment industry, one of the principal sources of in- 
come and employment in the city. And in addi- 
tion we have given the city of Berlin a large and 
modern library. Now a conference hall for free 
assemblage and free speech is being built near the 
old Eeiclistag by the Americans with German help. 

Thus the meaning of Berlin for respite, escape, 
and a focus of Western support is crucial to the 
type of resistance which will be found in the East 
Zone. 

"The Flash Point of Revolt" 

An examination of the situation as seen from 
Berlin is that there is in every community a flash 
point at which there will be an explosion, beyond 
which revolt is inevitable. The explosion comes 
under a given amount of pressure and after a de- 
gree of desperation has been reached. Although 
this critical point may not come at the very lowest 
point of oppression, but when there is an expecta- 
tion of change, it still comes sooner if hope of an 
end to the indignities and privations of the regime 
is gone. It comes later and only after extreme acts 
of tyranny if there is a reasonable prospect of 
gaining ultimate release. 



In the case of East Germany the dangers are 
compounded by the proximity of Poland and the 
complex influences of conditions there. It is 
widely thought that any disturbance occurring in 
the Soviet-occupied zone would be such a threat 
to a whole system of Communist relations that dire 
results would follow a revolt. There is probably 
no place behind the Iron Curtain where the con- 
sequences would be so immediate and far- 
reaching. 

For the residents of the East Zone this point 
of explosion is less likely to be reached and there 
is less inclination to take the most desperate risks 
as long as Berlin serves as a safety valve. As 
long as the people who come and go can have res- 
pite under conditions of mental and physical 
ease, they can endure their lot and maintain their 
inner sense of ultimate deliverance. As long as 
several millions of the 17 million or more living 
under Soviet control can travel to the West and 
return, they are not likely to take desperate meas- 
ures and sacrifice themselves in a defiant gesture. 
If living conditions do not seriously deteriorate 
below present levels, if food, fuel, and clothing 
continue to support life even at the present drab 
and cheerless level, they will continue their ap- 
pearance of submission and only the more vulner- 
able individuals will flee from their homes or at- 
tempt to rebel openly. Thus, the low flash point 
of a Hungary will not be reached in Germany if 
the Communist rule does not become more op- 
pressive and if Berlin remains an oasis to which 
they can go in considerable numbers. 

If, however, access to Berlin were seriously 
hampered or if the restrictions and police meas- 
ures should become markedly worse, the lower 
flash point of revolt would be reached in East 
Germany as in Hungary. 

The potential of resistance is vital and strong in 
the minds and hearts of the East Germans. They 
have not, through inadvertence or as the result 
of delusion, surrendered any essential right. The 
churches are full. The desire for education is 
manifest. The stories of the refugees are full of 
e^jisodes of outspoken criticism and varied re- 
quests for greater freedom, even to the point of in- 
curring great risks. 

Westerners, when they go into the zone, are 
welcomed. Visitors from outside are told in no 
uncertain terms of the views of the East Germans 
toward the Soviet overlords. "N^Hien opportunity 
offers, as when they journeyed vmder threat of re- 



180 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



prisal to Berlin during the food-package program 
in 1953, they show coiu'age and anticommunism 
to an extent not widely realized. 

It is the hope of everyone who knows these 
people that Soviet harassment will not drive them 
to this final point, that the repressed force will 
not erupt, and that they can hold their present 
attitude of endurance over the necessary period 
of trial. 

All of the peace-loving peoples who look to a re- 
unified, strong, and democratic Germany hope 
most earnestly that the pressure on East Germany 
will be relaxed so that the danger of a revolt is 
diminished. Similarly, it is to be hoped that 
those who find themselves in acute danger can 
continue to flee to the West to become the leaders 
of the future. Every lessening of the human op- 
pression, every increase in communication and 
contacts between East Europe and the West, is in 
the interest of a better world and a quicker restora- 
tion of the basic human rights. We salute those 
who remain and endure. We salute those who, 
though they are forced to flee, continue their loyal 
fight for those who are still in the homeland. 

A summarization of the meaning of Berlin is 
thus to keep the faith of the East Germans alive 
and to make plain to the outside world that the 
East Zone is in no sense absorbed into the Com- 
munist bloc. The fact that there is restraint and a 
surface calm is no indication of a reorientation 
toward Russia. It does not take a second June 17 
to prove this. The contacts in and through Berlin 
give evidence that communism has made little 
progress there. 

The conclusion which must guide United States 
policy, and which undoubtedly influences current 
Soviet planning, is that there is a flash point and, 
when this is reached, the explosion comes. If, 
however, there are ways of relieving conditions, 
if people, even though against the Communist 
regime, see hope of gradual adjustment and better 
conditions in the future, they will avoid the more 
desperate bloody revolt. Let us hope the East 
Berliners can be spared this costly ordeal. 



Soviet Attache Declared 
Persona Non Grata 

Press release 23 dated January 15 

Department Announcement 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 15 that it had declared Maj. Yuri P. Krylov, 
Soviet Assistant Military Attache, persona non 
grata and had informed the Soviet Charge 
dAffaires ad interim that Major Krylov should 
depart from the United States immediately. The 
Soviet Charge was informed that Major Krylov 
had engaged in activities incompatible with his 
diplomatic status by improperly purchasing quan- 
tities of electronic equipment. On various oc- 
casions. Major Ki-ylov had purchased such ma- 
terials through American intermediaries. In ad- 
dition, Major Krylov had attempted to purchase 
classified military information. 

Text of U.S. Note 

The Department of State informs the Embassy 
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics that 
the Government of the United States has ascer- 
tained that Major Yuri P. Krylov, Assistant Mili- 
tary Attache of the Embassy of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, has engaged in higloly 
improper activities incompatible with his diplo- 
matic status. 

Major Krylov's continued presence in the 
United States is no longer considered acceptable 
and the Embassy is requested to arrange for his 
immediate departure. 



Letters of Credence 

Honduras 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Honduras, 
Ramon Villeda Morales, presented his credentials 
to President Eisenhower on January 18. For the 
text of the Ambassador's remarks and the text of 
the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 29. 



February 4, 1957 



181 



U.S. Views on European Common 
Market and Free Trade Area 

Press release 21 dated January 15 

Belgium, France, the German Federal Kepiiblic, 
Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands have been 
engaged in negotiations with a view to establish- 
ing a common market among them. The common 
market would involve the elimination of substan- 
tiallj^ all of the barriers to trade among these six 
countries and the establishment by them of a com- 
mon external tariff toward outside countries. The 
United Kingdom has expressed a desire to asso- 
ciate itself with the envisaged six-country common 
market in a free-trade-area relationship. Under 
this arrangement barriers to trade between the 
United Kingdom and the six coimtries of the com- 
mon market would be eliminated on a wide range 
of products. However, the United Kingdom 
would continue to maintain its own tariff against 
countries outside the fi'ee trade area, and the six 
countries of the common market would do the same 
with their unified tariff. Other Western Euro- 
pean coimtries have indicated an interest in asso- 
ciating themselves with these arrangements on a 
basis similar to that of the United Kingdom. 

Following is a statement of U.S. policy with re- 
spect to the proposed European common market 
and free trade area. This is a summary of views 
which have been communicated to the governments 
concerned. 

The attitude of the United States with respect to 
current Western European proposals for a com- 
mon market and free trade area is determined by 
two traditional policies of the U.S. Government: 
our consistent support of moves to further the po- 
litical and economic strength and cohesion of 
Western Europe within an expanding Atlantic 
community and our long-standing devotion to 
progress toward freer nondiscriminatory multi- 
lateral trade and convertibility of currencies. 

It is in the light of these complementary objec- 
tives that the United States welcomes the initia- 
tives for a conmion market and free trade area in 
Western Europe. The details of the common-mar- 
ket treaty are being worked out in negotiations 
now taking place in Brussels among Belgium, 
France, the German Federal Kepublic, Italy, Lux- 
embourg, and the Netherlands ; the governments of 
these countries have indicated that it is their in- 
tention that the common market which they envis- 
age should result in the expansion of their trada 



not only with each other but also with other 
countries. 

A European common market based on pro- 
visions which hold the promise of attaining this 
objective will have the support of the United 
State-s. This would be consistent with U.S. sup- 
port of such arrangements as the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade and the Articles of 
Agreement of the International Monetary Fund, 
both of which have as their objective the expan- 
sion of nondiscriminatory multilateral trade. 

Certain aspects of the common-market arrange- 
ments will be of particular interest to the LT.S. 
Government: those relating to agriculture, those 
having a bearing on the liberalization of import 
controls affecting dollar goods, and measures both 
public and private which bear on international 
trade. The European market for agricultural ex- 
ports from the United States is important, and we 
will wish therefore to study carefully the possible 
impact of coimnon- market arrangements on it. 
The progress which Western European countries 
have made in recent years in liberalizing imports 
from the dollar area has been encouraging; it is 
hoped that this progress will be continued as 
rapidly as the circumstances permit. Since the 
six countries are also participants in the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, it is assumed 
that such import restrictions as may be found 
necessary to maintain will be consistent with the 
standards of the general agreement. 

The United Kingdom has made Imown its pre- 
liminary decision to associate itself with the 
common-market countries in a free-trade-area ar- 
rangement. The association of the United King- 
dom in such an arrangement would further 
strengthen the unity of the Atlantic Community 
and the free world. The United States hopes that 
such free-trade-area arrangements as may be con- 
cluded among the proposed common market, the 
United Kingdom, and other Oeec countries would 
also encourage the expansion of international 
trade from which all of the free-world countries, 
and not only those participating in the common 
market and free trade area, would benefit. 

In summary it is our hope and expectation that 
the negotiations on the common market and free 
trade area will be carried forward and concluded 
in such a manner that from these European ini- 
tiatives will come a new contribution to the unity 
and prosperity of Europe and the Atlantic Com- 
nuniity and to the welfare of the entire fx'ee world. 



182 



Department of State Bulletin 



Progress Report on the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 



FIFTH SEMIANNUAL REPORT ON ACTIVITIES UNDER PUBLIC LAW 480, JULY 1-DECEMBER 31, 1956 < 



President's Message of Transmittal 

To the Congress of the United States: 

I am transmitting herewith the fifth semi-annu- 
al report on activities carried on under Public 
Law 480, 83d Congress, as amended, outlining 
operations under tlie act during the period July 1 
through December 31, 1956. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

The White House, January H, 1957. 

Introduction 

This report deals with activities under the sev- 
eral Public Law 480 programs during the first 6 
months of fiscal year 1957. During the period 
covered by this report. Public Law 962 amended 
title I of the act, increasing its authority from 
$1,500 million to $3,000 million, exempting the 
sales of fi*esh fruit and fruit products from the 
cargo preference laws, and adding subsection (j) 
to section 104 to provide assistance to activities and 
projects authorized by section 203 of the United 
States Information and Education Act of 1948, 
as amended. In addition, the Mutual Security 
Act of 195G amended title I by adding subsection 
(i) to section 104 to finance the translation, pub- 
lication, and distribution of books and periodicals, 
including Government publications abroad. Pub- 
lic Law 962 amended title II of the act permitting 
the transfer of surplus agricultural commodities 
abroad for "extraordinary" relief requirements in 
addition to the transfers already authorized. 

The authority under this act, as amended, ex- 



pires June 30, 1957. Tlie conditions wliich 
prompted this special legislation will exist 
beyond that date. Accordingly, early in this ses- 
sion of Congress a limited extension of the act will 
be recommended. 

Summary 

During the period July-December 1956, pro- 
graming of surplus agricultural commodities 
under the three titles of the act totaled $1,657.2 
million, bringing to $4,677.1 million the total 
amount of programs since the beginning of oper- 
ations imder the act. 

Since the beginning of tlie program, agreements 
for the sale of agricultural commodities for for- 
eign currency under title I total $2,826.1 million 
at an estimated Ccc cost ^ ($1,938.2 million at 
export market value), of which $1,324.1 million 
($894.2 million at export market value) represents 
agreements signed during the period covered by 
this report. 

Shipments under title I since the beginning of 
the program total about $850 million at export 
market value, of which approximately $345 
million represented shipments during the July- 
December 1956 period. 

Cumulative authorizations for famine relief 
and other assistance abroad under title II of the 
act totaled $280 million at Ccc cost, of which $62 
million was authorized during this period. Cu- 



' White Hou.se press release dated Jan. 14 ( H. Doc. 50, 
85th Cong., 1st sess.). For texts of the first four semi- 
annual reiwrts, see Bhi-letin of Jan. 31, 1955, p. 200 ; Aug. 
1, 1955, p. 107 ; Jan. 23, 1956, p. 130 ; and Aug. 6, 1956, 
p. 230. 



^As used in this report, CCC cost represents the cost 
of commodities to the Commodity Credit Corporation, 
including investment, processing, handling, and other 
costs. Export market value reflects the price at which 
these commodities are sold to foreign buyers under the 
program. The export market value figures are less than 
the CCC cost for those commodities for which sijecial 
export programs have been developed for dollar as well 
as foreign currency sales to meet competition in inter- 
national trade. [Footnote in original.] 



February 4, 1957 



183 



mulative donations for foreign and domestic relief 
through non-profit voluntary agencies and inter- 
governmental organizations under title III of the 
act amounted to $826 million at Ceo cost, of which 
$123.7 million was donated during this period. 
Cumulative barter contracts entered into under 
title III amounted to $745 million at export 
market value, of which $147.4 million represents 
contracts entered into during this period. Al- 
though the figures cited for the different programs 
are not comparable, the amoimts shown give an 
indication of the value of commodities being 
moved or committed imder these programs. 

Title I. Foreign Currency Sales 

AGREEMENTS SIGNED 

Nineteen agreements, or supplements to agree- 
ments, involving a Ccc cost of approximately 
$1,324.1 million, were entered into with 14 coun- 
tries during the period July-December 1956. The 
commodity composition, export market value, and 
Ccc cost of these agreements are shown in Table I. 

TABLE I 

CoMMODiTT Composition op Agreements Signed 
July-December 1956 



TABLE II 

Commodity Composition of all Agreements Signed 
Through December 31, 1956 



Commodity 


Unit 


Approximate 
quantity 


Export 
market 
value 


CCC 

cost 


Wheat and wheat flour . . 


Bushel .... 
. . do . . . . 


1270,031,000 

Ml, 689, 000 

8, 446, 000 

873, 700 

21, 629, 000 

63,673,000 

603, 405, 000 

78,054,000 


Million 

dollars 

439.2 

17.6 

51.4 

12.5.0 

16.8 

11.4 

92.7 

18.9 


Million 

dollars 

728.0 

28 6 


Rice 


Cwt 

Bales 

Pound .... 
. . do . . . . 


109 8 


Cotton 


188 7 


Tobacco 


16 8 




19 5 


Fats and oils 


. . do 


92 7 




. . do . . . . 


18.9 










773.0 
121.2 


1, 202. 9 


Ocean transportation . . . 






121 2 










Total, including ocean 


894.2 


1,324.1 


transportation. 







1 Wheat and wheat equivalent of flour. 

« Corn, 9,678,000 bushels; oats, 1,092,000 bushels; barley, 919,000 bushels. 

Seventy-eight agreements, or supplements to 
agreements, with a total Ccc cost of $2,826.1 
million, have been entered into with 30 countries 
since the inception of the program. The com- 
modity composition, export market value, and 
Ccc cost of these agreements are shown in Table 
II. 

SHIPMENTS 

Title I shipments since the beginning of the pro- 
gram totaled approximately $850 million at ex- 



Commodity 


Unit 


Approximate 
quantity 


Export 
market 
value 


CCC 
cost 


Wheat and wheat flour . . 
Feed grains 


Bushel .... 
. . do . . . . 


■431,90.5,000 

! 6.5, 917, 000 

19,012,000 

2,566,000 

15,400 

148,734,000 

142,828,000 

130,044,000 

1, 597, 977. 000 

3, 000, 000 

37, 000 

80,940,000 

55,000 


Million 

dollars 

713.3 

8.5.8 

120.0 

384.8 

.3 

40.3 

98.0 

31.4 

248.5 

1.2 

.3 

3.1 

2.5 


Million 

dollars 

1,2.54.9 

130.9 


Rice . . . 


Cwt 

Bales .... 
. . do . . . . 


236.9 


Cotton 


540.3 




.3 


Meat products 


Pound . . . 
. . do . . . . 


40.3 
98.0 


Dairy products ... 


. . do . . . . 


51.6 




. . do . . . . 


257.2 


Poultry 


. . do . . . . 


1.2 


Dry edible beans 

Fruits and vegetables . . . 
Seeds 


Cwt 

Pound .... 
Cwt 


.3 
3.1 
2.5 






Total commodities . . 


1,729.5 
208.7 


2,617.4 


Ocean transportation . . . 






208.7 










Total 


1,938.2 


2,826.1 











' Wheat and wheat equivalent of flour. 

2 Feed wheat, 2,234.000 bushels: com, 27,095,000 bushels; oats, 6,843,000 
bushels; barley, 24,960,000 bushels; grain sorghums, 5,795,000 bushels. 

port market value through December 31, 1956, of 
which about $345 million represented shipments 
made during the reporting period. The export 
market value of commodities programed under all 
agreements signed through December 31, 1956, 
was approximately $1,729.5 million (excluding 
ocean transportation costs). 

Except for cotton, substantially all of the com- 
modities programed through June 30, 1956, had 
been exported by December 31, 1956. The large 
carryover of cotton from fiscal year 1955 and 1956 
agreements was reduced by heavy shipments dur- 
ing the reporting period. This reduction resulted 
principally from the Ccc cotton export program 
to sell cotton at competitive prices. 

Shipments since the beginning of the program 
through December 31, 1956, totaled about 7.5 mil- 
lion metric tons, of which about 3 million metric 
tons were shipped during the reporting period. 

Increases in Government export programs and 
increased world trade resulted in a serious short- 
age of privately owned U.S.-flag commercial ves- 
sels. This situation was aggravated by the closing 
of the Suez Canal. The Federal Maritime Board, 
in November and December, authorized the release 
of 70 Government-owned vessels for use by U.S. 
operators in transporting agricultural commodi- 
ties. 

USUAL MARKETINGS 

In accordance with the provisions of title I re- 
quiring reasonable safeguards that sales of agri- 
cultural commodities for foreign currencies shall 



184 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



not displace our usual marketings or be unduly 
disruptive of world market prices, appropriate 
assurances have been obtained from governments 
with ■which agreements have been negotiated. 
Also, sales for foreign currencies under title I 
have been made at the price level no lower than 
that for commodities available for export sales for 
dollars. 

CURRENCY USES 

Under agreements entered into during the July- 
December 1956 period the dollar values of planned 
foreign currency uses for the ten purposes speci- 
fied in section 104 of the act are shown in Table 
III. 

TABLE III 

Planned Uses of Foreign Curbenct Under Agree- 
ments Signed During July-December 1956 





Million 
dollar 
equiva- 
lent 


Percent 
of total 


Ap-lcultural market development (sec. 104 (a)) ' . . . 
Purchases of strategic material (sec. 104 (b)) ' 


11.0 


1.3 


Common defense (sec. 104 (c)) 


65.3 
6.6 

54.0 
182.1 

571.9 
2.0 

1.7 

4.6 


6 2 


Purchase of goods for other countries (sec. 104 (d))'. . . 
Grants for balanced economic development and trade 
among nations (sec. 104 (e)) . . 


.6 
6 1 


Payment of United States obligations (sec. 104 (0) '. . 

Loans for multilateral trade and economic development 

(sec. 104 (g)) 


20.5 
64 4 


International educational exchange (sec. 104 (h)) '. . . 

Translation, publication, and distribution of books 

and periodicals (sec. 104 (i)) ■ 


.2 
.2 


Assistance to American-sponsored schools, libraries, 
and community centers (sec. 104 (j)) 


.6 


Total 


2 888.2 


100 







• Inorder to provide flexibility in the use of funds, many agreements provide 
that a specified amount of local currency proceeds may be used under sec. 
104 (a), (b), (0, (h), and (i). In some instances, possible uses under sec. 
104 (d) are also included in this category. Therefore, estimates based on the 
best information now available are indicated above under subsections (a), 
(b), (h), and (i). Balances not otherwise distributed are Included under 
subsection (f). This distribution is subject to revision when allocations 
have been completed. 

' Includes ocean transportation financed by CCO except for estimated $6 
million difTerential in the Indian agreement for which no rupee deposits 
will be required. 

Agricultural marJcet development. — Section 104 
(a) : A part of the foreign currencies accruing 
from title I sales is being used to assist the develop- 
ment and expansion of foreign markets for United 
States agricultural products. 

Market development projects are initiated and 
carried out in close cooperation with United States 
and foreign trade groups in a manner designed to 
be beneficial to both groups. In most cases, the 
United States Government ftirnishes part of the 
foreign currencies required for the projects and 
supervises the activities. The United States trade 
group carries out the project and provides for the 
necessary dollar costs. The cooperating foreign 
trade gi'oup meets part of the local costs. 



This procedure gives private traders in the 
United States and abroad the opportimity to work 
together on the problems of expanding old and 
developing new commercial mai'kets for United 
States agricultural commodities on a continuing 
basis. It ensures that projects are beneficial to 
both the United States and the foreign country. 

During the period July-December 1956, over 20 
projects were approved providing for commitment 
of about $2 million equivalent in foreign curren- 
cies. This brings total commitments to about $4.1 
million equivalent as of December 31, 1956. The 
U.S. farm commodities to be promoted abroad un- 
der these projects are cotton, wheat and flour, beef 
cattle, dairy cattle, soybeans, tobacco, fruit, tallow, 
dairy products, poultry and eggs. 

Types of activities included in these projects are 
visits by foreign trade representatives, consumer 
preference surveys, advertising and public rela- 
tions programs, market surveys, exhibitions and 
demonstrations, merchandising and other special- 
ized training in marketing. Arrangements were 
made for these activities to take place in twenty 
countries. 

Three new types of projects undertaken during 
the reporting period follow : 

(1) A team of German food inspection experts 
was brought to the U.S. to acquaint them with ac- 
cepted American pure-food standards and meth- 
ods of food preservation. A basis for a better un- 
derstanding was sought so that more U.S. proc- 
essed agricultural products may be admitted into 
Germany ; 

(2) A world-wide survey of prices of agricul- 
tural commodities at producer, wholesale, and re- 
tail levels was started. The study should permit 
simultaneous price comparisons of specific com- 
modities at particular stages of marketing. It is 
expected to show where there are price advantages 
to the U.S. in international trade for particular 
commodities and to indicate the countries in which 
market development activities would be most 
fruitful. A private research firm with world- 
wide branches has been employed to make the 
study; and 

(3) Arrangements were made whereby the U.S. 
fruit export trade contributed pictorial material 
for an illustrated catalog to be printed in Austria 
for distribution there and in other countries. The 
48-page booklet in color should serve to introduce 
various U.S. fruit items to foreign importers. 



February 4, 7957 



185 



Trade fairs: Market development projects are 
also conducted through participation in interna- 
tional trade and food fair's. During calendar year 
1956, U.S. agricultural exhibits under Public Law 
480 were shown at trade and food fairs with a total 
attendance of nearly 7,500,000. Exhibits in pros- 
pect for the early part of 1957 include Verona, 
Italy ; Barcelona, Spain ; and Tokyo, Japan. 

United States exhibits in these fairs are organ- 
ized cooperatively with private agricultural trade 
groups. In general, exhibit ideas, technical per- 
sonnel, and display materials for the agricultural 
exhibits are provided by the trade groups. The 
Government organizes and manages the exhibits ; 
rents the space ; provides for the design, construc- 
tion, and operation of the exhibits ; ships necessary 
materials and commodities; and provides travel 
and per diem for industrial technicians and com- 
modity specialists participating in the joint effort. 

Trade fairs serve to acquaint large numbers of 
people with the quality and availability of U.S. 
agricultural products. It permits many prospec- 
tive customers to see, taste, and feel these products 
for the first time. 

The largest agricultural exhibit during the 
July-December 1956 period was at the British 
Food Fair in London, August 28-September 15. 
At this major fair, with a total attendance of more 
than 500,000, the U.S. featured meat, lard, frozen 
poultry, dairy products, grain products, rice, and 
frozen foods. Samples distributed included f i-ank- 
furters, cheese, milk solids, doughnuts, and orange 
juice made from frozen concentrate. Five repre- 
sentatives of U.S. agricultural trade associations 
assisted with the exhibit and used the occasion to 
establish contacts with British trade leaders. 

Smaller agricultural displays held during the 
period were in connection with Department of 
Commerce exhibits at Vienna, Austria ; Salonica, 
Greece ; Zagreb, Yugoslavia ; Bangkok, Thailand ; 
and, for the second successive year, Bogota, Co- 
lombia. The Bogota exhibit of wheat and flour 
and the Bangkok exhibit of recombined milk were 
arranged in direct support of the work of U.S. 
market development teams operating in those 
countries. 

Purchase of strategic materials. — Section 104 
(b) : No local currency was earmarked for this 
purpose under title I agi'eements entered into 
during the reporting period. The total amount of 
local currency earmarked to date for the purchase 
of strategic materials is $7.2 million. 



Common defense. — Section 104 (c) : This section 
of the act jirovides that local currency proceeds of 
sales may be used to procure military equipment, 
materials, facilities, and services for the common 
defense. During the reporting period, $55.3 mil- 
lion equivalent was earmarked for this purpose. 
This brings the total amoimt planned for common 
defense to $221.3 million for agreements signed 
with Brazil, the Eepublic of China (Taiwan), 
Iran, Korea, Pakistan, and Yugoslavia. The use 
of $20.5 million equivalent has been authorized so 
far, including about $14.5 million worth of rupees 
to Pakistan and $6 million worth of hwan to Korea. 
In Pakistan the funds provided are being used 
primarily to meet military construction and Paki- 
stani troop support costs. Currency available in 
Korea is being used to bolster the military position 
of the Eepublic of Korea. 

Purchases of goods for other friendly coun- 
tries.— Section 104 (d) : This section provides that 
the U.S. may use local currency proceeds of siirplus 
commodity sales to purchase goods and services for 
other friendly countries. Sales agreements may 
eannark specific amounts or may provide that un- 
sjiecified portions of sales proceeds which will be 
set aside for U.S. uses may be used for this purpose. 
The act provides that, unless the requirement is 
waived, dollar reimbursement must be made to 
Ccc if local currency is used to procure goods or 
services which will be furnished on a grant basis. 

There is usually no advance commitment by the 
U.S. to use these funds either to procure specific 
goods or services or to authorize purchases for a 
particular country. Certain standards conform- 
ing closely with commercial practices have been 
established for the use of these f mids. These are 
designed to avoid undue disruption of normal 
trade patterns and to assure that purchases are 
made at competitive prices. 

Use of about $12 million equivalent of these 
funds has been authorized, including $3.3 million 
worth of yen during the last six months. The 
equivalent of $1.3 million of yen will be used to buy 
Japanese cement needed in Taiwan. In addition, 
$2 million of yen were used. to furnish some of the 
immediate needs for civilian relief in the Ryukyu 
Islands following typhoon "Emma". 

Grants for economic development. — Section 104 
(e) : About $60 million of local currency has been 
earmarked for grants for economic development. 
These are matle only in special circumstances and 



186 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



comprise about 3 percent of the total sales proceeds 
expected to accrue. 

Payment of United States obligations. — Section 
10-i (f) : Agreements signed during the period 
July-December 1956 tentatively earmarked $182.1 
million, or 20.5 percent of sales proceeds, for the 
payment of United States obligations. Not all of 
these funds will be used for the payment of U.S. 
obligations because a number of agreements signed 
during the period of this report include a com- 
bined total for several U.S. purposes, such as 
market development, purchases of goods for other 
comitries, and international educational exchange, 
as well as for the payment of U.S. obligations. 
Since dollar reimbursement is required for nearly 
all of the fimds used under section 104 (f) even- 
tual dollar recovery may be considerably more than 
the 10 percent minimum stipulated in the act. 

All dollar payments for these foreign currencies 
are credited to the Commodity Credit Corpora- 
tion. Reimbureement to Ccc will be spread over a 
number of years and is likely to be considerably 
less than the total earmarked under this section. 
This is because (1) re-payments for military fam- 
ily housing will extend over many years; (2) 
currencies available for Treasury sale accumulate 
in some countries where U.S. agency expenditures 
are low ; and (3) losses are sustained in some cases 
due to exchange rate differentials. 

The Treasury Department sells foreign cur- 
rencies to Government agencies for appropriated 
dollars at the rate of exchange at which they could 
otherwise obtain the currencies. This is not nec- 
essarily the same exchange rate as is applicable 
to the commodity sales. The dollar return to Ccc 
consequently is often less than the dollar market 
value of the commodities sold. 

In countries such as Turkey and Spain, most 
sales are to defense agencies for use in meeting the 
costs of military base construction. Substantial 
purchases are also made by such agencies as the 
Department of State and the United States In- 
formation Agency, which have continuing needs 
for funds to meet administrative and operating 
expenses. 

A small portion of these currencies has been 
made available for con'gi-essional travel expenses, 
a use exempted from the requirement for dollar 
disbui-sement by section 502 (b) of Public Law 
665, 83d Congress. 

Military farmly housing. — Public Law 765, 83d 
Congress, Public Law 161, and Public Law 968, 

February 4, 1957 



84th Congress, authorize the use of up to $250 
million worth of foreign cm-rencies generated by 
title I sales for construction, rent, or procurement 
of United States military family housing and re- 
lated community facilities in foreign countries. 
This legislation further provides that Ccc shall be 
reimbursed from appropriations available for the 
payment of quarters allowances to the extent the 
housing is occupied. 

Tentative allocation of local currency for pur- 
chase or construction of military family housing 
amounted to a total of $98.4 million equivalent in 
agreements with the following countries: 

Million dollar 
equivalent 

Austria 6. 4 

Finland 7. 

Greece 2. 

Italy 13.0 

Japan -•>• 1 

Portugal 1-5 

Spain 16. 

United Kingdom 27. 4 

Total 98.4 

During the reporting period, Greece and Portu- 
gal were added to the list of countries in which 
military family housing programs were being de- 
veloped. 

The amount allocated in Italy was raised from 
$3.5 million in Italian lire to $13 million. The 
program now provides for a total of 616 units in- 
cluding 45 units for the Air Force, 415 for the 
Army, and 156 for the Navy. 

In the LTnited Kingdom, a substantial number 
of units for the Air Force and the Navy has been 
completed mider the 1955 agreement ($15.2 mil- 
lion). Approximately 1,000 additional units, to- 
gether with related community facilities, will be 
constructed with the $12.2 million equivalent 
available from the second sales agreement signed 
in June 1956. 

Loans for multilateral trade and economic de- 
velopment.— Section 104 (g) : Over $1 billion of 
local currencies — just over half of the total pro- 
ceeds expected from sales made to date — will be 
lent by the United States to purchasing countries 
to promote economic development and inter- 
national trade. Over half of these loan funds will 
be available to countries in the Near East and 
Asia. This includes the large loan components 
of the multi-year programs for Indonesia and 
India; funds which will accrue for loan purposes 
as a result of sales to Japan; and substantial 
amounts earmarked for seven other countries in 
this area. Almost $300 million equivalent will be 
set aside for loans to five Western European coun- 

187 



tries, including Italy, Spain, and Yugoslavia. 
About $225 million in local currencies will be 
available for loans to Brazil, Chile, and five other 
Latin American countries to which U.S. surplus 
farm products have been sold under this program. 

Plans for the productive use of these funds are 
gradually being developed by the foreign govern- 
ments in cooperation with the United States. 
Special emphasis is being placed upon appropri- 
ate coordination of plans for the use of these sub- 
stantial local currency resources with the overall 
development programs of the coimtries. Foreign 
governments are being encouraged to use some 
of these funds for relending to private enterprise. 
Loans will be made through established banking 
facilities of the comitry concerned to locally- 
owned companies, as well as to those financed by 
U.S. investors and by investors from other 
friendly foreign coimtries. Some of the funds may 
also be used to cover a portion of the local costs of 
development projects for which foreign exchange 
financing is being furnished by the International 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development and 
the Export-Import Bank. Loan funds may also 
be used to supplement planned governmental ex- 
penditures for roads, port, and storage facilities, 
and other public improvements. Thus over the 
next several years, these funds are expected to 
make an important contribution to the economic 
growth of many friendly foreign countries. 

The agreements specify terms and conditions of 
repayment which have been developed in cooper- 
ation with the National Advisory Council on 
International Monetary and Financial Problems. 
Strategic materials, services, foreign currencies, 
or dollars may be accepted in payment of the 
loans. 

During the last six months, loan agreements 
have been concluded with six countries providing 
for local currency loans of $131 million equiva- 
lent. Since the beginning of the program, the 
equivalent of $236 million in loans have been 
negotiated with 11 countries. This includes (in 
million dollar equivalents) : Austria, $16.0; Bra- 
zil, $31.32; Chile, $4.0; Colombia, $10.0 ; Ecuador, 
$3.1; Greece, $4.2; Israel, $31.29; Japan, $108.85; 
Peru, $7.75 ; Spain, $10.5 ; and Yugoslavia, $9.0. 
A further acceleration in the rate at which loan 
agreements are concluded is expected. Negotia- 
tions are progressing and some of the problems 
which have occasioned delays in the past are near- 
ing solution. In addition, it is anticipated that a 



much shorter time should be required to negotiate 
successive loan agreements with those countries 
with wliich more than one sales agreement has 
been entered into. 

Most of the loan agreements concluded so far 
provide only that the funds will be used for eco- 
nomic development, without reference to specific 
projects. Countries may then formulate their 
plans for the use of these funds over a period 
of time. In some instances, however, virtual 
agreement on fund utilization is reached at the 
same time that the loan is negotiated. Actual 
disbursement of funds is authorized as local cur- 
rency deposits become available and as funds are 
needed for the projects. 

By December 31, 1956, economic development 
projects involving expenditures of up to $181 mil- 
lion equivalent have been approved for 8 countries 
including (in million dollar equivalents) : Aus- 
tria, $1.5; Brazil, $31.32; Chile, $4.0; Ecuador, 
$3.1 ; Israel, $15.4 ; Japan, $108.85 ; Peru, $7.75 ; 
and Spain, $9.0. Of these amounts, expenditures 
of up to $84 million equivalent were approved dur- 
ing the last six months including (in million dollar 
equivalents) : Peru, $3.35 ; Brazil, $31.32 ; and 
Japan, $49.35. Most of the Peruvian soles will be 
used in connection with the irrigation project ap- 
proved some time ago. About $1.5 million 
equivalent may be used in the drought area in the 
southern part of the country for construction of 
farm-to-market roads, agi'icultural credit, and 
similar projects. Present plans contemplate the 
use of a substantial portion of the Brazilian 
cruzeiros for improvement of rail and river trans- 
port facilities. Funds will also be used to finance 
storage construction, expansion of electric power 
and for other industrial purposes. Japanese yen 
will also be used for electric power development, 
as well as for reclamation of industrial land sites, 
forestry, food processing, and similar projects. 
About $13 million of these funds will be used to 
finance irrigation, drainage, and reclamation of 
agricultural land. 

In general, the U.S. considers that it is unwise 
to use these funds directly for projects which may 
result in increased production of agricultural 
commodities already in world surplus. However, 
in countries like Japan, which even at their pres- 
ent poj)u]ation levels must import a very large 
percentage of their food requirements, any small 
increases in production will readily be consumed 
at home and will not enter into world markets. 



188 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



International Educational Exchange. — Section 
104 (h) : The educational exchange program is 
authorized by Congress to help promote mutual 
understanding between the people of the United 
States and those of other countries. 

Based upon the planned uses of foreign cur- 
rency under agreements signed from the beginning 
of the program through December 31, 1956, seven 
educational exchange programs are expected to 
be reactivated or extended (Public Law 584, 79th 
Congress, the Fulbright Act) for which the 
original souixes of foreign currency have been 
exhausted. 

In addition, the planned use for the foreign 
currency is providing a base for initiating eleven 
educational exchange programs under the Ful- 
bright Act, including seven in Latin America. 

Negotiations for new or extended agreements 
to support educational exchange programs are 
underway as follows (values in dollar equivalent) : 
Argentina, $600,000; Brazil, $980,000; Chile, 
$500,000; Colombia, $500,000; Ecuador, $300,000; 
Finland, $250,000; Japan, $750,000; Korea, 
$900,000; Pakistan, $1,050,000; Paraguay, 
$150,000; Peru, $500,000; Portugal, $300,000; 
Spain, $600,000; Thailand, $400,000; and Turkey, 
$750,000. 

Additional programs in active preparation in- 
clude Indonesia, $600,000 ; Iran, $750,000 ; Repub- 
lic of Chma (Taiwan), $750,000; and India, 
$1,800,000. 

Translation, publication., and distribution of 
books and periodicals. — Section 104 (i) : As indi- 
cated previously, subsection (i) was added to 
section 104 of the act by the Mutual Security Act 
of 1954. Not more than $5 million may be allo- 
cated for this purpose during any fiscal year. 

It is planned that American textbook exhibits 
will be furnished to educators abroad for ultimate 
use in schools of their countries. 

To facilitate the program, local currencies will 
be used to acquire rights to books, procure paper, 
translate textbook material, and furnish printing 
equipment. 

Assistance to American-sponsored schools, li- 
braries, and com/munity centers. — Section 104 (j) : 
This subsection was added to section 104 of the 
act by Public Law 962, 84th Congress. Through 
December 31, 1956, the equivalent of $4.6 million 
was planned for this currency use. The currency 
will be used to aid American sponsored schools 
abroad and binational organizations which pro- 



mote U.S. interests and mutual understanding. 
Agreements entered into with Brazil, Italy, Paki- 
stan, Spain, and Turkey provide for section 104 
(j) uses. 

American sponsored schools will be aided 
through the purchase of land, buildings, and 
equipment. Buildings acquired will not only 
make more classrooms available but will result 
in more laboratories and dormitories. For ex- 
ample, it is planned that the American School in 
Rome will acquire a small tract of land for play- 
ground and other school purposes; it is further 
planned that the villa now used for classrooms will 
be re-modeled to provide dormitory space not now 
available. Local currencies will also be used to 
offer scholarships (for children of the foreign 
country), to augment teachers' salaries, and for 
curriculum improvement. 

Binational organizations will be aided through 
the purchase and lease of buildings and through 
furnishing books and other educational materials. 
In addition to binational center projects, this au- 
thority will be used to support such educational 
facilities as the Institute of American Studies in 
Rome. 

Title II 

Title II of the act provides a continuing means 
by which the U.S. can use surplus farm products 
held by Ccc to help friendly foreign people in 
time of need. By Executive Order, the Interna- 
tional Cooperation Administration is responsible 
for administering this program. Under present 
legislation, the program will end on June 30, 1957, 
and expenditures are limited to $500 million, in- 
cluding Ccc's investment in the conmiodities. 
Cumulative obligations totaled $280 million on 
December 31, 1956. 

During the reporting period about $46 million 
worth of dried milk, fats, wheat, rice, and other 
grain products have been used for these purposes. 
In addition, about $16 million was used to pay 
some of the costs of ocean transportation of these 
commodities, as well as those donated to U.S. 
voluntary and intergovernmental agencies for 
distribution abroad. 

About $15 million of surplus commodities have 
been authorized to help feed the Hungarian refu- 
gees in Austria and for distribution in Hungary 
by the International Conmiittee of Red Cross. 
More will be authorized if and when needed. 
Supplies of food readily available from stocks 



fehtMoty/ 4, 1957 



189 



held mainly by U.S. voluntary agencies in Europe 
were used during the initial emergency. These 
will be replaced by direct shipments of dried 
milk, cheese, wheat, flour, and other grains and 
grain products from the United States. 

About 40,000 tons of wheat will be furnished to 
Afghanistan to alleviate a threatened bread short- 
age resulting from floods in the southern part of 
the country and drought in the northern area. 
Shipment of 20,000 tons of wheat has been author- 
ized to help victims of the floods which occurred 
in Iran last July. About 45,000 tons of wheat will 
go to Tunisia for free distribution to the needy 
and for use as payment for work relief. Severe 
drought and premature frosts in the mountainous 
regions of Bolivia seriously reduced winter food 
supplies. Shipment of 8,000 tons of rice and 5,000 
tons of wheat, valued at $3.1 million, has been 
authorized to meet the threat of famine there. 
Over 200,000 bags of rice will be contributed for 
relief in the Kyukyus Islands following severe 
typhoon damage last summer. About 3,000 tons 
of dried milk will be shipped to India to replace 
stocks released by Unicef for emergency distribu- 
tion to flood victims. 

Italy will receive $13.5 million of foods to carry 
on the expanded school lunch program under- 
taken in fiscal year 1955. A similar program has 
been started in Japan and $15 million of wheat 
and dried milk has been furnished for this purpose. 
Commitments made earlier for relief supplies to 
Yugoslavia, British Honduras, and Mexico were 
also fulfilled during the last six months. 

Title III 

Title III of the act covers donations for domes- 
tic use and for distribution abroad by nonprofit 
voluntary agencies and intergovernmental organi- 
zations as well as Ccc barter activities. 

Section 302, domestic donations.— Bnv'mg the 
July-December 1956 period, the distribution of 
surplus commodities to domestic outlets has been 
made under authority of the act and under author- 
ity of section 32 of the Agricultural Act of 1935, 
as amended. 

For the reporting period domestic donations 
totaled approximately 518 million pounds of which 
about 104 million pounds, valued at $5.6 million, 
was distributed under title III. Domestic recipi- 
ents of these commodities consisted of more than 
11 million children in public and private schools, 
1.4 million jiersons in charitable institutions and 



about 3 million needy persons in family units. 

Section 302, foreign donations. — Section 302 of 
the act authorizes donations of surplus foods in 
Ccc stocks to United States nonprofit voluntarj' 
relief agencies and to intergovernmental organiza- 
tions, such as the United Nations International 
Children's Emergency Fund to assist needy per- 
sons outside of the United States. Most of these 
agencies have been making regiilar relief distribu- 
tion around the world for many yeai-s. The avail- 
ability of surplus food permits them to distribute 
substantially lai'ger amounts of relief foods than 
would be possible from their own private financing. 
Processing, packaging, and other related costs 
are paid under this authority. The Agricultural 
Act of 1956, enacted May 28, 1956, permits the use 
of title II funds to finance the ocean freight costs 
of these shipments. In some instances, ocean 
freight costs are paid in whole or in part by the 
agencies or the government of the recipient coim- 
try. The foreign governments accord duty-free 
entrance to these shipments; either the foreign 
government or the relief agencies pay the cost of 
transportation within the foreign countries. The 
commodities are clearly identified as a gift from 
the people of the United States. The foods are 
given free to needy persons who do not have the 
means to buy them. Program requests and opera- 
tions in each comitry are reviewed by a committee 
consisting of representatives of United States 
diplomatic missions, foreign govenmients, and the 
voluntary agencies. Assurances are obtained that 
the relief program does not conflict with normal 
commercial trade or other United States surplus 
food disposal operations. 

Corn meal and wheat flour were added July 1, 
1956, to the list of commodities available for 
foreign donation. Butter and butter oil, which 
were available during the fiscal year 1956, were 
withdrawn on July 1, 1956, because Ccc inven- 
tories of butt«r were depleted and anticipated 
purchases were not expected to be sufHcient to cover 
more than sales and domestic requirements. For 
the same reason, dry beans were withdrawn from 
the list on September 30, 1956, and rice was with- 
drawn on December 31, 1956. Because of the de- 
pletion of inventories, the quantity of non-fat dry 
milk available for foreign donation will be reduced 
substantially during the third quarter of the fiscal 
year 1957. The quantity and value of commodi- 
ties approved for foreign donation for the period 
July-December 1956, are shown in Table IV. 



190 



Department of State Bulletin 



TABLE IV 

Commodities Approved for Donation for Foreign 
Relief Through Nonprofit Voluntary Agencies 
AND Intergovernmental Organizations, July-De- 
cember 1956 



Commodity 


Potinds 


Estimated 
CCC cost 




Millions 

24.6 

63.5 

13.7 

147.9 

248.3 

196.6 

69.7 

142.0 


Million 
dollars 
2.3 




28.0 




.5 




6.6 




46.7 


Rice 


23.8 




2.9 


Wheat flour 


8.3 






Total 


896.2 


118.1 







Section 303, Barter. — Tliis authoi-ity, one of six 
successive legislative acts providing for barter, 
reempliasized this progi-am by directing the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture to expedite barter operations 
and by directing other agencies to cooperate. 
Subsequently, Public Law 968, previously noted, 
authorized certain U.S. military housing acqui- 
sition abroad with foreign currencies generated 
by agricultural export programs, including barter. 

Barter is effected through contracts between 
Ccc and private United States business firms 
under which the contracting firms use commercial 
trade channels in fulfilling these contracts. Bar- 
ter contracts provide for the delivery of specified 
materials with payment to be received in Ccc- 
owned agricultural commodities which must be 



TABLE V 

Comparison of Barter Contracts Entered Into in 
Specified Periods ' 



Materials 


1949-50 
through 
1953-64 


1964-55 


1955-56 


July-De- 
cember 
1956 




Million dollars 


Strategic: 
Minimum stockpile 


71.8 


5.7 
152.8 
100.9 


4.9 
189.7 
109.9 


bo! 1 






112.6 








Total strategic 


71.8 


269.4 


304.5 


132.7 


'TcP^! 


28.4 
7.4 


22.4 


8.6 








other 




2.7 


14.7 










Total supply 


36.8 


22.4 


11.3 


14.7 


Grand total 


107.6 


281.8 


316.8 


147.4 



1 Years beginning July 1. December 1956 preliminary. 

' Contracted for by CCC against the ODM supplemental stockpile procure- 
ment directives to USD A for kinds, quantities^ and specifications. Materials 
to be transferred to GSA as provided by section 206 of the Agricultural Act 
of 1956. 

' Materials, goods, and equipment for other Government agencies. 



exported by the contractor. The origin of ma- 
terials and the destination of agricultural com- 
modities are limited to friendly countries but are 
not required to be identical. 

As a supporting export program, barter is de- 
signed to permit purchase by U.S. firms of ma- 
terials abroad for Government use conditional 
upon the firms' ability to export an equivalent 
value of agricultural commodities from Ccc in- 
ventories in payment. 



TABLE VI 
Agricultural Commodities Exported Through Barter in Specified Periods ' 





Unit 


1949-50 
through 
1963-54 


1954-55 


1955-56 


July-December 1966 ' 


Commodities 


Under all 
contracts 


1955-66 
contracts 


1956-57 
contracts 




Quantities in thousand units 


Wheat 


Bu 

. . do 


33,445 

9,388 

990 


46, 261 
4,381 
4,725 
5,244 
2,835 
217 

19, 687 


68,646 
65, 148 
22, 089 
41,841 
14, 906 
3,912 
15,044 
61 
36 


61, 991 
8,806 
12, 137 
10, 316 
12, 306 
4,254 


40, 603 
6,305 

10. 436 
9,766 
9,312 
3,327 


21,388 




2,600 




Cwt 

Bu 

. . do 


1,701 




661 


Oats . ... 


2,994 




. . do 




927 




Lb 

Bale 

M. T 


4,630 
56 
20 




Cotton 3 


491 
30 


376 
30 


115 


others * 


6 










Total quantity (metric tons) 


1,227 


1,759 


5,544 


3,431 


2,518 


913 










Million doUars 




107.6 


124.6 


300.4 


228. 


168.4 


69.6 







' Years beginning July 1. 
2 Includes partial estimate for December. 

s July-December 1956 represents sales with exportation to be made within 1 year under new cotton export sales program (aimouncement CN-EX-2, dated 
April 17, 1956, as amended). 

' Includes flaxseed, dried skim milk, linseed oil, cottonseed meal, soybeans, tobacco, peanuts, and beans. 



februaty 4, 1957 



191 



Barter contracts negotiated during the July- 
December 1956 period totaled $147.4 million. 
Barter exports of agricultural commodities from 
Ccc inventories against outstanding contracts, 
largely contracts negotiated prior to July 1956, 
had an export market value of $228 million in 
July-December 1956 in comparison with barter 
material deliveries to Ccc of $95.5 million in this 
same period. Barter contractors are encouraged 
to take agricultural commodities in advance of 
material deliveries to effect storage savings, and 
the excess in agricultural commodity exports is 
covered by cash deposits or irrevocable letters 
of credit in favor of Ccc. 

Barter contracts negotiated in this reporting 
period were at a much lower rate than for the pre- 
vious reporting period when contracts totaled 
$266.7 million, and slightly lower than the pre- 
vious average 6-month rate of $149.4 million imder 
the expanded barter program. 

Agricultural commodity exports by contractors 
in fulfillment of barter contracts with Ccc were 
the highest for any 6-month period to date, total- 
ing $228 million for the period covered by this re- 
port ( Table VI ) . Exports under barter contracts 
will fluctuate in accordance with activity in this 
field. 



TABLE VII 

Value of AoRicnLTURAL Commoditt Exports Under 
Barter bt Destination, July 1, 1954, Through De- 
cember 31, 1956 » 

[Thousand dollars] 



Country 


Value 


Country 


Value 


Austria _ . 


3,916 

66,346 

647 

1,145 

644 

164 

172 

3,545 

7,538 

47 

14 

1,491 

32, 662 

66, 171 

11, 160 

142 

653 

96 

17,650 

6,848 

6,452 

91,040 


Korea 


3,069 
9,922 
90,858 


Belgium 


Mexico 


BrazU 


Netherlands 


ChUe 




Colombia 




36 


Costa Rica 






Cuba 


Portugal 


2,624 
33 


Denmark . . 


Saudi Arabia 


Egypt 


Spain 


4,621 
1 159 


El Salvador 


Sweden 


Ecuador 






Finland.- . - 


Taiwan (Formosa) 

Trieste 


2,822 

1,337 

6, 816 

118, 633 

27 


France 


West Germany 


Turkey 


Greece 




Guatemala 




India 






Iran 




2,663 
77,988 


Ireland 




Israel 


Total 


Italy.. 


653,036 


Japan 









A total of 41 coimtries has received agricultural 
commodities exported under barter arrangements 
since the expanded barter program beginning July 
1, 1954, through December 31, 1956, as shown in 
Table VII. 

The rate of material deliveries to Ccc by con- 
tractors against barter agreements in the report 
period increased somewhat over that for past pe- 
riods. Acquisitions of strategic materials to date 
have been limited to materials within the Office of 
Defense Mobilization procurement directives to 
the Department of Agriculture for both the stra- 
tegic and supplemental stockpiles. Materials de- 
livered in the report period compared with past 
deliveries are indicated in Table VIII. 

TABLE VIII 

Value of Materials Delivered by Barter Contrac- 
tors IN Specified Periods ' 





1949-60 
through 
1953-54 


1954-56 


1955-66 


July-December 1966 > 


Material 


Under 
all con- 
tracts 


1955-56 
con- 
tracts 


1966-67 
con- 
tracts 




Million dollars 


Strategic: 
Minimum stockpile . 
Long-term stockpile . 


71.8 


4.8 
54.6 

2.1 


3.5 
92.7 

72.2 


1.3 

42.2 

61.4 


1.3 
39.1 

42.6 


3 1 


Supplemental stock- 
pile 3 




8 9 








Total strategic . . 


71.8 


61.5 


168.4 


94.9 


82.9 


12.0 


'?cfi'':' 


28.4 
7.4 


21.1 


9.0 


.6 


.6 








Other 


























Total supply. . . 


35.8 


21.1 


9.0 


.6 


.6 




Grand total . . . 


107.6 


82.6 


177.4 


95.6 


83.6 


12.0 



1 Commodity values at export market prices. Includes partial estimate 
(or Di'iiliilirr 19.66. 

" Iniiiiclrs Cyprus ($6,000) and other .shipments for which documents listing 
couinrus of dostination have not been processed. Includes cotton valued at 
$00.6 million for which contractors have one year from purchase to effect 
export under special cotton export program. 



■ Years beginning July 1. 

' Includes partial estimate for December. 1956-56 also includes certain 
deliveries against earlier contracts. 

s Contracted for against the ODM supplemental stockpile procurement 
directives to USDA for kinds, quantities, and specifications. Alaterials to 
be transferred to GSA as provided by section 206 of the Agricultural Act of 
1966. 

' Materials, goods, and equipment for other Government agencies. 



To date, virtually no materials acquired by Ccc 
against long-term objectives have been transferred 
to the strategic stockpile. Also, although no 
materials have been transferred from Ccc inven- 
tories to the supplemental stockpile as authorized 
by the Agricultural xVct of 1956, it is expected 
that such transfers will be act-omplislied soon. 
As of November 30, 1956, Ccc inventories of stra- 
tegic materials for transfer to the stockpile were 
valued at $222 million of which $110.1 million 
were procured against long-term objectives of the 



192 



Department of State Bulletin 



strategic stockpile and $111.9 million against 
0dm supplemental stockpile objectives.' 

Dr. Fitzgerald Appointed Chairman 
of Advisory Committee on the Arts 

Press release 26 dated January 16 

The United States Advisory Commission on 
Educational Exchange annoimced on January 16 
that it has designated Chairman Rufus H. Fitz- 



' An appendix to this report contains the following ad- 
ditional tables (not printed here) : 

Table I : Commodity composition of programs under 
title I, Public Law 480 agreements signed July 1, 1956, 
through Dec. 31, 1906. 

Table II : Commodity composition of programs under 
title I, Public Law 480 agreements signed from beginning 
of program through Dec. 31, 1956. 

Table III : Approximate quantities of commodities 
under title I, Public Law 480 agreements signed July 1, 
1956, through Doc. 31, 1956. 

Table IV : Approximate quantities of commodities 
under title I, Public Law 480 agreements signed from 
beginning of program through Dec. 31, 1956. 

Table V : Planned uses of foreign currency under title 
I, Public Law 480 agreements signed July 1, 1956, through 
Dec. 31, 1956. 

Table VI : Planned uses of foreign currency under title 

I, Public Law 480 agreements signed from beginning of 
program through Dec. 31, 1956. 

Table VII : Transfer authorizations issued under title 

II, Public Law 480, July 1, 1954, through Dec. 31, 1956. 



gerald as chairman of the Advisory Committee on 
the Arts. This committee was created by Public 
Law 860, 84th Congress, to advise the President, 
the Secretary of State, and the United States Ad- 
visory Commission on Educational Exchange con- 
cerning the promotion and strengthening of 
international relations through cultural exchanges. 
The provisions of the act call for a chairman to be 
selected by the United States Advisory Commis- 
sion on Educational Exchange from among its 
membership and nine other members to be ap- 
I^ointed by the Secretary of State. 

Arthur H. Edens, vice chairman of the com- 
mission and president of Duke University, stated 
that the designation of Dr. Fitzgerald as chair- 
man of this committee would assure strong leader- 
ship of the committee because of his knowledge 
and experience in this field. Chairman Fitz- 
gerald, chancellor emeritus of the University of 
Pittsburgh, was director and professor of the 
School of Fine Arts and head of the Department 
of History and Appreciation of Fine Arts at the 
State University of Iowa from 1929 to 1938. 

In addition to Chairman Fitzgerald and Vice 
Chairman Edens, the presidentially appointed 
Advisory Commission on Educational Exchange 
is composed of : Mrs. Anna L. Rose Hawkes, presi- 
dent of the American Association of University 
Women and recently retired dean of Mills Col- 
lege ; Arthur A. Hauck, president of the Univer- 
sity of Maine ; and Laird Bell, Chicago attorney. 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings^ 



Adjourned During January 1957 

ICAO Special North Atlantic Fixed Services Meeting Montreal Jan. 3-21 

FAO Statistical Subcommittee of the Cocoa Study Group: 1st Rome Jan. 7-9 

Meeting. 
U.N. ECE Working Party on Standard Conditions of Sale of Citrus Geneva Jan. 7-11 

Fruits. 
U.N. ECOSOC Transport and Communications Commission: 8th New Yorli Jan. 7-16 

Session. 



' Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, Jan. 16, 1957. Asterisks indicate tentative dates. Following 
is a list of abbreviations: ICAO, International Civil Aviation Organization; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; 
U.N., United Nations; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council; ICEM, Inter- 
governmental Committee for European Migration; WMO, World Meteorological Organization; GATT, General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade; UNREF, United Nations Refugee Fund; UPU, Universal Postal Union; SEATO, Southeast 
Asia Treaty Organization; ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; UNESCO, United Nations Edu- 
cational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; ILO, International Labor Organization; UNICEF, United Nations 
Children's Fund; ITU, International Telecommunication Union. 



February 4, 1957 



193 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 

Adjourned During January 1957 — Continued 

ICAO Panel on Visual Aids to Approach and Landing London Jan. 7-19 

ICE M Working Party Geneva Jan. 8-12 

FAO Committee on Commodity Problems: Working Party on Colombo, Ceylon Jan. 8-18 

Coconut and Coconut Products. 

WMO Working Group on Meteorological Telecommunications of Las Palmas, Canary Islands . . Jan. 10-19 

Regional Association I (Africa): 3d Session. 

ICEM Executive Committee: Special Session Geneva Jan. 14-18 

U.N. ECE Agricultural Problems Committee: 8th Meeting . . . . Geneva Jan. 14-18 

WMO Commission for Climatology: 2d Session Washington Jan. 14-25 

GATT