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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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the 
Department 

of 
State 



United States 
Government Printing Office 

DIVISION OF PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

Washington 25, D. C. 



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OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



The American Ambassador . . . 



This 22-page pamphlet discusses the role of America's highest 
ranking diplomatic official, the Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary. The pamphlet corrects prevalent misconceptions 
about the operations of American posts abroad and presents a 
brief historical discussion of American diplomacy from the 
earliest days of the Nation to the present time. Other sections 
deal with the American woman in diplomacy and the requirements 
for the ideal ambassador in today's world. 



Publication 6420 



10 cents 



The American Agricultural Attache . . . 

In an expanding world community, American agriculture needs 
information on agricultural developments in other countries, 
assurance that the foreign market for American agricultural prod- 
ucts will be maintained and promoted, and representation at the 
international level. All three functions are performed by the 85 
agricultural attaches in 54 countries throughout the world. This 
23-page pamphlet contains an account of the development of the 
agricultural attache service and a discussion of each of the func- 
tions of the attache. A final section covers the requirements, 
salaries, and assignment periods for the career service of the 
agricultural attache. 



Publication 6422 



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rHE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XXXVI, No. 927 



AprU 1, 1957 



ICIAI 

KLY RECORD 

TFn STATES 
tiUN POLICY 



THE UNITED STATES LOOKS AT THE MIDDLE 

EAST • by Deputy Under Secretary Murphy 515 

THIRD MEETING OF THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTH- 
EAST ASIA TREATY ORGANIZATION 

Firuil Communique 527 

Statements by Secretary Dulles 529 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference, Canberra, March 13 . . . 533 

UNITED STATES REPLIES TO SOVIET PROPOSAL 

FOR DECLARATION ON MIDDLE EAST 523 

COIMPLIANCE WITH U.N. RESOLUTION CALLING 
FOR WITHDRAWAL OF ISRAEL FROM 
EGYPTIAN TERRITORY 

Statement by Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, March 8 , . . 543 
Statement by U.N. Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold, 

February 22 544 

Report of U.N. Secretary-General, March 8 544 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XXXVI, No. 927 • Pubucation 6471 
April 1, 1957 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 2B, D.O. 

Prick: 

62 Issues, domestic $7.60, foreign $10.26 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 19, 1956). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
bo reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF Ptatk Bulletin as the source will bo 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a iveekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as icell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



J 



The United States Looks at the Middle East 



by Deputy Under Secretary Murphy ' 



I am indeed grateful for this opportunity to ap- 
pear here at Georgetown University and before 
this forum for a discussion of some of the prob- 
lems of the Middle East. The issues which have 
arisen during the last 6 months within that area 
have engaged the loyalties and sympathies of the 
American people. There has been a high degree 
of involvement of local American interest in the 
solutions of the problems posed by the Middle 
East. We of the State Department appreciate a 
chance to talk over this situation with an informal 
audience such as this and to express our views as 
to the best course to follow in the national interest 
of the United States. 

I am also delighted with the formulation of the 
topic for this evening's presentation. It seems 
most appropriate to exchange views on the Middle 
East at this time in hope that we may achieve 
a better understanding of the delicate problems 
involved. Georgetown's inquiries into our for- 
eign relations are justly famous, and I hope I may 
be of even some small assistance to you in your 
study of the area. 

The United States has vital security interests 
in the Middle East. These interests are magni- 
fied by our role as leader of the free world. 

In the first place, it would be a major setback in 
this great struggle if the two-hundred-odd million 
Moslems of the area should be persuaded that 
they could achieve their destiny as nations under 
the sway of international communism. The 
Soviet Union has become very active in this region. 
Its expansionist purposes are unmistakable. 

' Address made at the International Relations Enquiry 
at Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., on Mar. 14 
(press release 145). 



Secondly, the Middle Eastern area specifically 
contains perhaps 75 percent or more of the world's 
oil resources under its sands. The continuing un- 
interrupted flow of this oil is necessary to the 
economic and military strength of our European 
allies, which in turn is necessary to our own 
security. Although we can, as is presently being 
demonstrated, temporarily supply our European 
allies with their fuel needs, the drain upon the 
reserves of the Western Hemisphere over a pro- 
tracted period would gi'eatly weaken the free 
world. 

Finally, the Middle East area itself is of great 
strategic geographic importance. It controls 
both the land and sea routes linking Asia, with its 
raw-material resources, with Western Europe, 
which is the major supplier to Asia of manufac- 
tured goods essential to its development. It con- 
trols the gateway to Africa, with its vast human 
and mineral resources, which is just beginning to 
play its role upon the world stage. 

Hence, the United States must act with a high 
degree of responsibility and friendly impartiality 
in the clashes of national interests which are keep- 
ing the Middle East in a state of turmoil. We 
consider the people in the area our friends, and we 
want them to remain our friends. 

The major internal problem, which over- 
shadows every other issue in the area, is the Arab- 
Israeli dispute. The creation of the State of 
Israel has a significant and illuminating back- 
ground. In fact, I should like this evening to 
dwell on the origin and causes of some of the situ- 
ations we face in the area, in the hope that our 
present objectives and courses of action will be 
more readily understood. 



April 1, 1957 



515 



Emergence of Nationalism in Middle East 

A good starting point is the emergence of na- 
tionalism in the Middle East some time during the 
latter half of the 19th century. The Ottoman 
Empire had by then grown accustomed to its role 
as a "sick man." But the forces of nationalism 
were already at work among its peoples. A 
Viennese journalist, Theodore Herzl, motivated 
by the clamor and implications of the Dreyfus 
affair in France, decided that the Jewish people 
could not achieve a secure status until they had 
become identified with a national entity. He 
succeeded in restating the age-old religious long- 
ing of the Jews to return to the Holy Land in 
modern nationalistic terms. 

These same forces were at work among the 
Arab peoples of the Ottoman Empire. The brief 
emergence of Egypt under Muhammad Ali in the 
early years of the century as a power which could 
challenge the world order had given new hope to 
those who dreamed of the days when an Arab 
caliph had ruled a united Islam. We Americans 
had more than a little to do with the emergence of 
an Arab nationalism which thought and spoke in 
the popular terms of the day. It was in our edu- 
cational and missionary institutions in the area 
that the Arabic language had a rebirth and where 
our political philosophy received eager acceptance. 

In the course of World War I, the Allied Pow- 
ers sought the support of both of these national- 
isms. The appeal to Jewish nationalism took the 
form of the Balfour Declaration of November 2, 
1917. The appeal to the Arabs took the form of 
assurances and encouragement to the Sharif of 
Mecca, Protector of the Holy Places of Islam, who 
revolted against his Turkish overlords in the hope 
of assuming a new caliphate. The romantic fig- 
ure of Lawrence of Arabia stalks through these 
pages of history. 

At the close of the war, the British found them- 
selves in possession of a mandated area handed 
them by the League of Nations. This area ap- 
peared to be almost as barren in resources as it 
was rich in religious and historical tradition and 
controversy. It was soon divided into two sepa- 
rate entities : Palestine and Transjordan. 

Transjordan was brought into being as a fief 
for the late King Abdullah. Abdullah was one 
of the sons of the Sharif of Mecca. His brother, 
Feisal, who had been proclaimed as King of Syria, 
was beleaguered by the French in Damascus, who 



were attempting to assert the authority given 
them by the League for their mandate in Syria 
and Lebanon. Abdullah's presence in Syria j 
would have been an embarrassment to the British ; 
so it was decided that he should be asked to tarry 
on his journey and remain in Transjordan, where 
a state of his own would be established. Winston 
Churchill has told how he created Transjordan 
one Sunday afternoon while he was in Jerusalem. 
All this came to pass, and during King Abdullah's 
lifetime the State of Transjordan was a model of 
the close collaboration between the Arabs and 
Great Britain. The Arab Legion was created and 
maintained by the British and proved its worth 
when it assisted Allied forces in putting down a 
revolt in Iraq in 1941. 

In Palestine, that portion of the mandate to the 
west of the Jordan Kiver, there was rapid eco- 
nomic and social development as Jews from all 
over the world came to take on the task of drain- 
ing the marshes and making the desert bloom. It 
soon became apparent, however, that reconcilia- 
tion of Jewish and Arab nationalism in this state 
would not be an easy task. There was bloodshed 
between Arabs and Jews almost from the very 
beginning of the mandate. Indeed, the longest 
period of real tranquillity in Palestine was the 
duration of World War II, when the magnitude of 
events on the world scene made pointless the local 
conflict. 

Partition of Palestine | 

At the close of World War II, violence again 
erupted in Palestine. Britain made a final su- 
preme effort to reach an amicable settlement be- . 
tween Arabs and Jews. When this failed, Britain \ 
decided to turn the problem over to the United 
Nations. After dispatching a commission to the 
field to study the problem and make recommenda- 
tions, the United Nations General Assembly voted 
in November 1947 to recommend both the partition 
of Palestine into an Arab and a Jewish state, to 
be politically independent but in economic union, 
and the territorial internationalization of Jerusa- 
lem. Jewish leaders decided to accept this recom- 
mendation, although it fell considerably short of 
their expectations, and proclaimed their state in 
May 1948. Arab leaders both within and outside 
Palestine decided to contest it by force. 

The United States had strongly supported the 
partition resolution in the General Assembly and 



516 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



■was deeply concerned that a peaceful solution 
should be reached in the Palestine problem. 
Fighting broke out in 1948 and continued through 
several broken United Nations truces until General 
Armistice Agreements were signed in accordance 
with a Security Council directive in 1949. These 
agreements were to have been but the first step 
in a process leading to a peace arrangement be- 
tween the parties brought about under United 
Nations auspices. They have remained to this day 
as the only international agreements regulating 
relations between Israel and the neighboring Arab 
States. Ralpli Bunche [Under-Secretary of the 
United Nations], who is back in the area today, 
had a great deal to do with the successful nego- 
tiation of these agreements. 

The territorial situation emerging from the 
Armistice Agreements was quite different fi-om 
that envisaged in the partition resolution. Israel, 
which had surprised the world with its military 
prowess, was in occupation of considerably more 
territory than that originally allotted to the Jewish 
state. Transjordan, whose Arab Legion was by 
far the most effective Arab fighting force, gained 
possession of the Judean hills stretching from 
Nabhis to Hebron. This territory was formally 
incorporated into Transjordan, which had mean- 
while in 1950 changed its name to the Hashemite 
Kingdom of Jordan. The proposal for an in- 
dependent Arab state in economic union with the 
Jewish state fell by the wayside, as did that for an 
internationalized Jerusalem. Jerusalem has been 
divided and is imder de facto occupation by the 
Israelis in the New City and by the Jordanians in 
the Old. 

These events were bound to have tremendous 
repercussions in Jordan, which was no longer a 
quiet and well-ordered Arab entity oriented toward 
the British. Its population was trebled overnight, 
and one-third of its inhabitants were Arab refugees 
subsisting on a United Nations dole. The new 
Jordan faced its relationship with Britain with 
distrust arising out of the Palestine conflict. Like 
other nations in the region, Jordan desired to assert 
full sovereignty and independence and to cast off 
longstanding ties with larger powers in the "West. 
The assassination of King Abdullah, a stanch 
ally of Britain, in 1951, the dismissal of Lieutenant 
General Glubb and other Arab leaders from the 
Arab Legion in 1955, the anger at Britain for hav- 
ing undertaken military operations against Egypt, 



all hastened the desire to minimize British influ- 
ence. The Anglo-Jordan Treaty of 1948, under 
which the British guaranteed Jordan's territorial 
integrity and subsidized Jordan's defense estab- 
lishment, was terminated yesterday. Jordan, 
which recognizes its lack of economic viability and 
acknowledges its need for foreign aid, has sought 
such assistance from the Arab states of Egypt, 
Sj'ria, and Saudi Arabia. Jordanians have also 
exj>ressed the hope that United States aid can be 
increased. It is clifEcult to see a secure and pros- 
perous future for Jordan in tlie absence of an 
Arab-Israel settlement. 

Since 1948 Israel has seen a trebling of popu- 
lation and considerable economic development. 
Economic progress has been impaired by the lack 
of political stability in the area, however, and 
Israel daily encounters the obstacles to progress 
created by continuing Arab hostility. Israelis 
have had to become used to border incidents, eco- 
nomic warfare, and lack of any kind of relations 
with their immediate neighbors. 

It might be worth while to add a footnote to this 
historical excursus about how and why the Gaza 
Strip came into being. The territory of the town 
of Gaza and the land to the north and south of 
it were allotted, under the 1947 partition resolu- 
tion, to the Arab state. "Wlien Egypt undertook 
military operations in Palestine in 1948, it en- 
tered Palestinian territory at the old international 
frontier to the south of Gaza. The end of the 
hostilities and the signing of the armistice saw 
Egypt remaining in occupation of the 5-by-25- 
mile strip of territory along the Mediterranean 
with Gaza roughly at its center. Egypt continued 
to occupy this territory by virtue of the Armistice 
Agreement. Egypt never claimed sovereignty 
over the Strip but said that it was held in military 
occupation subject to an ultimate peace settlement 
which would secure the rights of the Palestine 
Arabs. In addition to the indigenous population 
of about 60,000, there are 200,000 Arab refugees 
who fled from what is now Israel. So even before 
the creation of the United Nations Emergency 
Force, the United Nations had considerable re- 
sponsibility for the care and subsistence of at 
least two-thirds of the population of Gaza. 

The New Regime in Egypt 

Egypt is the spearhead of Arab hostility to Is- 
rael. Egypt, too, has undergone important 



April ?, ?957 



517 



changes in the recent past. New revohitionary 
leaders forced the abdication of King Farouk in 
1952 and proclaimed a republic in 1953. The new 
regime set itself with enthusiasm to the task of 
improving basic economic conditions. Large es- 
tates were broken up. Attention was given to ir- 
rigation projects to reclaim desert lands. The 
passage of legislation to encourage foreign in- 
vestment suggested realistic appraisal of the 
country's need of outside help. There were even 
faint glimmers of hope for a realistic and rational 
approach to the intensely emotional problem of 
Palestine. 

To this seemingly devoted leadership the 
United States offered encouragement and sup- 
port. We sought to promote understanding and 
conciliation between Egypt and Britain in the 
longstanding dispute over the British-held base in 
Suez. Without taking sides or pressuring either 
party, we worked to keep open the avenue of con- 
ciliation, and just before the second anniversary 
of the regime in Egypt agreement in principle 
was announced on this thorny problem. We of- 
fered technical assistance to stimulate the pace of 
development and economic aid, in keeping with 
the country's capacity to absorb it, to accelerate 
the rate of economic growth. In the last 5 years 
we have provided Egypt with nearly $90 million 
of assistance in various forms. 

Recognizing the country's need to strengthen its 
internal security and keep its defenses in readi- 
ness, the United States indicated willingness to 
make reasonable quantities of defensive arms 
available to the new government. The Egyptian 
leaders studied a gi-ant-aid agreement which we 
were prepared to enter into and decided against it. 
They asked to buy arms. They found difficulty 
in paying for them, and we agreed to consider al- 
ternative financing arrangements. We were un- 
derbid in terms of financing. Egypt bought So- 
viet arms in exchange for Egyptian cotton — cot- 
ton, a commodity bulging from our own ware- 
houses, a commodity we could not consider im- 
porting in quantity. 

Although deeply concerned at this evidence of 
new Soviet mischief in the area, we sought to con- 
tinue fruitful cooperation with Egypt in other 
spheres. Egypt's wish to store within its own 
borders its share of the untapped waters of the 
Nile received our sympathetic consideration. We 
were not unmindful of some expert opinion that 



storage in the humid upper reaches of the Nile — 
outside Egypt's boundaries — might involve less 
loss by evaporation. We were not unmindful of 
the rights of other riparian states, and our offer 
of help for the Aswan Dam presupposed agree- 
ment on division of waters. But, basically, it 
looked as though the Egyptian leadership was 
fully determined to commit its resources to the 
Pligh Dam. Their determination seemed to be a 
driving economic force in itself. We offered to 
help. In reply Egypt asked that our help be 
given on a basis which caused us misgivings. We 
reluctantly reached the conclusion that other com- 
mitments had undermined the possibility of a 
sustained economic effort on Egypt's part, without 
which our assistance would be unavailing. 

We continued willing to assist on less ambitious 
projects. We announced our decision regarding 
the Aswan Dam on July 19 last year. On July 26 
Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal Company. 

The stubborn, unpleasant realities — the eco- 
nomic facts of life — have not been conducive to the 
kind of relationship we had hoped to develop. We 
felt these economic problems could not be gain- 
said. Our views were received with suspicion and 
misunderstanding by colonial-sensitive Arab 
opinion as being animated by selfish interest. 

Our hopes for cooperation were dimmed by a 
historical legacy which for the most part involved 
nations other than the United States. This is 
ironic but basic to our situation in Egypt, in SjTia, 
and to a lesser degree in other parts of the region. 
Happily this is not the case in Lebanon, a sophis- 
ticated and advanced nation with which we main- 
tain friendly relations, nor is it true in Saudi 
Arabia, Iraq, and some other countries. 

The Arabian Peninsula 

As we move away from the countries at the core 
of the Arab-Israel dispute, the focus of our inter- 
est and concern in the Middle East shifts. The re- 
cent visit of King Saud was symbolic of the spot- 
light being thrown increasingly on one of the least 
known parts of the Arab world, the Arabian pen- 
insula. This peninsula, approximately one-third 
the area of the United States, contains a variety of 
peoples, lands, resources, and historical back- 
grounds. It is the cradle of the modern Arab peo- 
ple. It has in the past been the home of fabled 
rulers, like the Queen of Sheba, and the spices and 



518 



Department of State Bulletin 



incenses of Biblical times probably came from its 
highlands. 

Since the consolidation of the Saudi Kingdom 
in 1925, Saudi Arabia has been the largest and in 
many ways the most important of the states of the 
peninsula. The United States has had relations of 
special importance with this Kingdom since the 
1930's and is currently negotiating an agreement 
which will provide for further cooperation. King 
Saud is an important Arab leader and as Keeper 
of the Holy Shrines at Mecca and Medina is a 
figure of growing significance in the Arab world. 
Firmly committed against communism, he follows 
his father's traditional policy of close friendship 
with the United States. 

The other major independent kingdom in the 
peninsula is the highland state of Yemen in the 
southwestern corner of the peninsula. It is the 
source from which the ancestors of the modern 
Arabs migrated, and its ruins give evidence that 
gi-eat kingdoms once existed in its mountains. 
Today this ancient land is seeking to develop its 
resources and to modernize its cities. A conces- 
sion was granted in 1955 to an American company 
to explore for minerals. The Imam has also been 
tempted by liberal offers of aid from the Soviet 
bloc, and Soviet and satellite experts have re- 
cently begun to arrive. The Soviet assistance has 
included at least one shipment of satellite arms 
sought by the Imam to strengthen Yemen in its 
dispute with the British over the Aden Protec- 
torate. 

The Aden Protectorate was formed through a 
series of treaties by which the British maintain 
political control over some 40 minor principali- 
ties in the hinterlands to the north and the east 
of the Crown Colony of Aden. An unsettled 
border between these principalities and Yemen, 
tribal difficulties in the area, and Yemeni claims to 
much of the Protectorate have resulted in spas- 
modic outbursts of violence along the border. Re- 
cently, these have increased in severity, although 
there is hope that talks may take place between 
the two parties which will lessen the current 
tension. 

To the east of Aden lies the Hadhramaut, a 
highland area which was the ancient source of 
frankincense and myrrh. This also forms a part 
of the Aden Protectorate, but its ties, strangely 
enough, are primarily with India, where many of 
its people have gone as merchants. 



In the southeastern corner of the peninsula lies 
Muscat and Oman, a little known independent 
principality with which the United States has had 
very long relations. One of the first treaties 
signed by the United States in Asia was with the 
Sultan of Muscat in 1832. The United States had 
a consulate in Muscat for over 60 years and, in 
view of the imjiortance of the area, is now consider- 
ing the reestablislunent of a post there. 

To the north lies a series of small principali- 
ties under British protectorate known as the 
Trucial States, named from the truce arrange- 
ments made with these states in the 19th century 
in order to halt attacks by pirates on British ships 
in the Persian Gulf. One of the Trucial States, 
Abu Dhabi, together with the Sultan of Muscat, 
is involved in a dispute with Saudi Arabia over 
the sovereignty of a key transportation and trade 
center in southeastern Arabia, the Buraimi oasis. 
The United States has exercised informal good 
offices seeking a solution to this problem and is 
hopeful that, when diplomatic relations are again 
established between Saudi Arabia and the United 
Kingdom, which represents these two states, 
further talks can be held. 

On the western shores in the Persian Gulf are 
three states which are better known to the world 
because of their oil resources. The largest and 
richest is Kuwait at the north end of the Gulf, 
where oil production exceeds that of any other 
state in the Middle East. The Shaikli of Kuwait 
was recently described as the biggest oil man of 
them all. Kuwait, like the other two states, 
Bahrein and Qatar, is bound by treaty relation- 
ship to the United Kingdom, which provides for 
their foreign affairs and defense. 

This vast peninsula has been thrust into promi- 
nence not only by fabulous resources but by the 
important role its leaders are beginning to play 
in the events of the area. We can anticipate that 
in the days to come the strange names of places 
and people will become increasingly known and 
important to us in the developing United States 
relationships to the peoples of the Middle East. 

Iraq lies at the northeast comer of the Arabian 
peninsula and linlvS it with Iran and South Asia. 
Iraq has been the one Arab nation which has par- 
ticipated in Western-sponsored collective security 
arrangements. It has been genuinely concerned 
with the Communist threat and seeks United 
States assistance to strengthen its defenses.^ 



April 1, 1957 



519 



Prime Minister Nuri Al-Said has since 1932 been 
the iron man of Iraqi politics and has led the 
country in significant economic and social develop- 
ment. Recent events liave tested the stability of 
the Iraqi Government, but its anti-Ck>mmunist 
stand and friendsliip with the United States have 
not been impaired. We have provided Iraq with 
substantial assistance, mostly military, to assist 
it in presei-ving its security and stability. 

The Northern Tier 

The Arabian peninsula and the Palestine area 
are insulated against the direct tlirust of Com- 
munist imperialism by two very important na- 
tions — Turkey and Iran. These two, together 
witli Iraq and Pakistan, have consistently demon- 
strated their confidence in the principle of collec- 
tive security and form a bulwark against Soviet 
penetration. 

Shortly after World War II, the Soviet Union 
souglit to gain a military foothold in northern 
Iran and to establish a puppet government there. 
The Soviet Union was forced to withdraw by 
Iran's strong protests and by pressures exerted by 
the United Nations, with the United States play- 
ing a leading role. Parallel with these pres- 
sures on Iran the Soviet Union resimied its tra- 
ditional attempts to force Turkey into yielding 
control over the Dardanelles and the Bosporus. 
Aggressive Soviet actions in Turkey and Greece 
were successfully met and overcome by the mili- 
tary and economic support furnished under 
United States policies adopted in 1947. 

Turlvey and Pakistan were among the first states 
in the Middle East to work actively for the realiza- 
tion of collective defense in the Middle East. In 
April 1954 they signed an agreement of coopera- 
tion and consultation, followed in February 1955 
by the conclusion of an agreement with similar 
objectives between Turkey and Iraq. The latter 
agreement, to which Pakistan, Great Britain, and 
Iran eventually adhered, is familiarly known as 
the Baghdad Pact, and it represents the most ef- 
fective step thus far taken by tlie nations of the 
Middle East to fill the deficit of power in that 
troubled area. 

Not only have Turkey and Pakistan taken the 
initiative in the Middle East. Each is contribut- 
ing to tlie collective defense of a wider area, Tur- 
key as a member of tlie North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization, Pakistan as an original signatory 
of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. 



In short, these countries have shown in a variety 
of ways that they share with us certain basic 
assumptions about the need for collective measures 
of defense to deter aggression by international 
communism. This fact, as much as any other, 
has helped sliape the close relations that exist be- 
tween the United States and these nations of the 
"northern tier." The United States has extended 
military and economic aid to Turkey, Iran, and 
Pakistan for some years, the total amount being 
well over $2 billion. United States aid has lielped 
them achieve significant economic gains while at 
the same time strengthening the effectiveness of 
their military defenses. These countries are im- 
portant allies to the United States. Their in- 
dependence and stability are of major interest to 
us. 

Independent Libya 

On the western flank of the Middle East is 
Libya, a relatively new country strategically 
placed in North Africa. The United States has 
supported and assisted Libya on political, eco- 
nomic, and military fronts from the first day of 
its independence in 1951. In 1949 we joined a 
large majority of the members of the U.N. General 
Assembly in approving a resolution calling for 
Libya's independence prior to January 1, 1952. 
Under authority of this resolution, Libya declared 
itself free and independent on December 24, 1951. 

Of the total Libyan revenues of $30 million in 
fiscal year 1956, $12 million, or 40 percent, will be 
U.S. aid. Our surplus agricultural products, 
valued at approximately $10 million since January 
1954, have played an important role in alleviating 
hunger and preventing famine conditions in 
Libya. United States technical assistance to 
Libya since fiscal year 1954 has totaled almost $7 
million. In addition, the United States has con- 
tributed over 50 percent of all funds expended by 
the United Nations for technical assistance in the 
country. 

Under terms of the Mutual Security Act, the 
United States has programed militai"}' assistance 
for Libya and will equip a 1,000-man increment of 
the Libyan Army. 

Libyan foreign policy has shown a marked 
friendliness to the United States and a growing 
understanding and appreciation of tlie threat of 
international communism. By agreement with 
Libya, the United States operates a major air 
base at "Wlieolus Field, near Tripoli. In 1956 



520 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Libya turnexi down Soviet offers of economic and 
military assistance but peinnitted establishment of 
diplomatic relations. Libya also evicted the 
Egyptian Embassy's military attache last fall for 
activities considered inimical to Libyan 
sovereignty. 

We are proud of the progress being made by 
Libya and happy that we are able to assist. The 
orderly development of the new states of Africa 
to political stability and economic well-being is a 
source of gratification. 

Major Elements of U.S. Policy 

The main purpose of this examination of the 
individual countries and specific problems of the 
Middle East has been to define the situations we 
are working with and to point up the major ele- 
ments of our policies. To imderstand the really 
critical problems being headlined today, it is 
essential to have a good grasp of the background 
and the ramifications of the issues affecting the 
whole area. 

TVIiere do we stand on these really critical prob- 
lems ? I want to refer in particular to the Arab- 
Israeli dispute, the Suez Canal, and Soviet efforts 
to penetrate the region. 

The Arab-Israeli issue has been a United Na- 
tions problem from its very beginning. We are 
hopeful that the United Nations will remain the 
forum because we believe that the nations involved 
are responsive to the ideals of peace with justice. 
Prior to the events of last October and November, 
the tempo of events had been building to fever 
pitch. We had recognized that President Nas- 
ser's nationalization of the Suez Canal Company 
and, more particularly, the manner in which this 
was announced had provoked the British and 
French and alarmed the Israelis. But at the same 
time we were convinced that the type of action 
they chose to take in the last days of October and 
the early days of November was in error. Fur- 
thermore, and more importantly, the painstaking 
beginnings which had been made through the 
United Nations toward the establishment of a sys- 
tem of world order were being jeopardized by this 
resort to force when the possibilities of negotia- 
tions had not been completely exhausted. 

In the historic debates which took place in the 
United Nations around the clock through those 
crowded days of early November it became clear 
that there was a realization that a large portion 
of the responsibility for the situation which had 



arisen rested upon the United Nations for its fail- 
ure to come to grips with the basic problems which 
lay at the root of the conflict. The United States 
emphasized its intention to take advantage of this 
fluidity in the situation by introducing two resolu- 
tions on November 3 ^ in the United Nations Gen- 
eral Assembly which revealed our determination 
to come to grips with the basic issues. 

Out of this debate came a very significant action. 
The United Nations was enabled to create a force 
in being, the United Nations Emergency Force, in 
record time. For years the possibility of estab- 
lishing a United Nations police force to enforce 
decisions of the United Nations had been debated 
in a desultory fashion, but it too had become a 
casualty of the cold war until the crisis created in 
the Middle East made the members put aside their 
hesitation. The Unef under its present authority 
has a limited mission — to oversee the withdrawal 
of British, French, and Israeli forces from 
Egypt — and it is in Egypt with the agreement of 
the Egyptian Government. This phase of its mis- 
sion has now largely been completed, but there is 
earnest consideration being given, under a resolu- 
tion of February 2,^ to authorizing the force in 
being to act as a deterrent to the resumption of 
hostilities and as a means of tranquilizing the area 
while new approaches are sought toward an 
eventual settlement. The principle which was at 
stake was the authority of the United Nations and 
its ability to take a constructive and fair approach 
in creating and maintaining conditions under 
which the conflict of national interests between the 
parties concerned could be worked out. 

To enable this situation to move forward along 
the lines which all the members of the United 
Nations except the Soviet bloc seemed to desire, it 
was a prerequisite that the Israelis withdraw from 
Egypt without having achieved political ad- 
vantages which Israel did not possess before it 
invaded Egypt. On the other hand, Israel had 
some very legitimate and genuine concerns for its 
own security, particularly regarding free passage 
through the Straits of Tiran and the danger of 
renewed fedayeen raids from the Gaza Strip. 
These two aspects of the problem have now been 
fully brought to the attention of the world public, 
and a number of states, led by the United States, 
have made unilateral declarations of their own 



' U.N. docs. A/3272 and 3273. 

= Bulletin of Feb. 25, 1957, p. 327. 



AptW 1, 1957 



521 



policy in regard to these issues. These have, in 
turn, enabled Israel to withdraw in the confidence 
that the world community would now earnestly 
direct its attention to remedying the conditions 
which led to the outbreak of the conflict. 

The Suez Canal problem, which became linked 
in its latter stages with the question of Israel 
withdrawal, is also essentially a problem for the 
United Nations. The only existing unanimously 
approved agreement by all the parties concerned 
is embodied in the Security Council resolution of 
October 13, 1956,* which sets forth the six prin- 
ciples under which the parties concerned agree to 
work out a final arrangement for the future opera- 
tion of the canal. The prospects of the canal 
being opened in the near future under an interim 
operating arrangement without prejudicing the 
final settlement seem favorable. The difficulties 
of working out detailed implementation of the six 
principles should by no means be discounted. But 
in the light of the new determination of the 
United Nations and the persistent and tireless 
efforts of Secretary-General Hammarskjold to 
find a solution which can be accepted by all the 
parties, the United States is convinced its best 
hope for achieving the objectives of the free 
world in this respect lie within the United 
Nations. 

Irresponsible Behavior of Soviet Union 

Tlie record of the events of the last 6 months in 
the Middle East reveals a high degree of irrespon- 
sible behavior by the Soviet Union. The repeated 
attempts to take advantage of this situation to 
achieve political profit with the Arabs or to exer- 
cise pressure upon Israel, Britain, and France 
after they had already agreed to withdraw from 
this ill-fated adventure, besides the obvious pur- 
pose of distracting attention from their brutal 
attack on Hungary, can lead one to conclude only 
that the Soviet Union's objectives in the area are 
to weaken it to the maximum extent possible and 
to keep it in a constant state of turmoil and chaos. 

To deal with this problem, which relates to the 
area as a whole, we Iiave devised the Middle East 
plan or American Doctrine for the Middle East as 
embodied in the message of President Eisenhower 
to the Congress of January 5, 1957.= The plan 
aims to do three things, each of them with the con- 
sent of the states involved. First, if the states of 

* Ibid.. Oct. 22, 1956, p. 616. 
■ Ibid., Jan. 21, 1957, p. 83. 



522 



the area wish it, we are prepared to strengthen 
their internal security and their legitimate na- 
tional self-defense through the extension of mili- 
tary aid. Secondly, if the states of the area desire 
it, we are prepared to cooperate with them in eco- 
nomic projects designed to raise the standards of 
living and strengthen the stability of the coun- 
tries, thereby diminishing the attractiveness of 
grandiose offers of economic aid from the Soviets 
designed to promote subversion. And thirdly, 
we are prepared to use the armed forces of the 
United States to prevent direct overt aggression 
by forces controlled by international communism. 

This proposal has now received strong support 
from the Congress of the United States and the 
endorsement of a large majority of the representa- 
tives of the American people. Ambassador 
James Richards left 2 days ago ^ to travel 
throughout this area, to explain to the various 
governments just precisely in what ways the 
American Doctrine for the Middle East could 
assist them in strengthening their ability to re- 
main free and independent, and to work out 
recommendations which would be conducive to 
that end. I 

In our judgment the major threat to the Middle 
East is represented by the forces of international 
communism, and we feel deeply that we must 
never lose sight of this danger. The United 
States has a vital stake in keeping the Middle 
East from falling under Soviet domination. In- 
deed we must not allow the situation there to de- 
teriorate to a point where the nations of the area 
in desperation would turn to the Soviet Union for 
help. Wliile internal quarrels may engage our 
emotions and loyalties, we must not permit these 
factors to influence our exercise of great and 
grave responsibility as a leader of the free-world 
nations or to color the sense of justice and 
friendly impartiality which is so deeply rooted in 
the traditions of the American people. 

We are taking important and constructive meas- 
ures in the Middle East. The problems ahead 
are, to say the least, formidable and will require 
the very best diplomacy of which we are capable. 
Nevertheless, progress has been made. 

We of the Department of State thank George- 
town University and the International Eelations 
Enquiry for this chance to talk with you. We 
shall watch with interest the following discus- 
sions in this series on tlie Middle East, 



' Ibid., Mar. 25, 1957, p. 481. 



Department of State Bulletin 



United States Replies to Soviet Proposal for Declaration on Middle East 



Press release 131 dated March 11 

Following is the text of a note delivered 
ly U.S. Charge d'Affaires Richard H. Davis to 
the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Andrei Gromyko, 
at Moscow, March 11, 1957, in reply to a Soviet 
note of February 11, 1957, concerning the Middle 
East. The British and French Governments 
also replied to the Soviet note on March 11. 



U.S. NOTE OF MARCH U 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Ministry of For- 
eign Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics and, on instructions of its Government, 
has the honor to transmit the following communi- 
cation in reply to the Ministry's note of February 
11, 1957 concerning the Middle East area. 

It is noted that the Government of the U.S.S.R. 
proposes that the Governments of the United 
States, United Kingdom, France and the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics should, jointly or 
separately, proclaim basic principles governing 
their relations with countries of the Middle East. 

In dealing with this proposal, the United States 
Government deems it essential to set forth the fol- 
lowing considerations : 

The United States adheres and will continue to 
adhere to the principles of the United Nations 
Charter in its dealings with countries in the Mid- 
dle East as elsewhere. Along with the other prin- 
ciples of the Charter, it fully supports those 
singled out in the Ministry's note— peaceful settle- 
ment of disputes ; non-interference in internal af- 
fairs; respect for sovereignty and independence. 
It is ready to cooperate with any country, great or 
small, sincerely dedicated to carrying them out. 
The United States Government feels obliged, how- 
ever, to point out that the Soviet Union could 
demonstrate its own willingness to carry out the 
liigh principles it sets forth by itself respecting 

kptW 1, 7957 



those U.N. resolutions addressed to the U.S.S.R. 
calling for compliance by the U.S.S.R., such as 
those relating to its actions with respect to Hun- 
gary. Great Britain and France, the other recip- 
ients of the Soviet proposal, have just made such 
a demonstration as a contribution to world order 
in fully complying with United Nations resolu- 
tions regarding the withdrawal of their forces 
from Egypt. 

The form which cooperation in the Middle East 
should take — with specific reference to the pro- 
posal of the Soviet Government — is a matter for 
decision in consultation with the Middle Eastern 
states. Because of its respect for the iirinciple 
of non-interference in the affairs of other nations, 
the United States would not wish to be party to 
an attempt by the great powers, as suggested by 
the U.S.S.R., to arrogate to themselves decisions 
on matters of vital importance to the nations of 
the Middle East; or to prevent those who feel 
themselves tlireatened from association of their 
own free will with other nations in legitimate col- 
lective security arrangements, in accordance with 
the provisions of the United Nations Charter. 
When it comes, therefore, to such matters as mili- 
tary "blocs", the liquidation of foreign bases and 
the withdrawal of foreign troops, set forth in the 
principles proposed by the U.S.S.R., the United 
States Government must point out that the Middle 
Eastern states are fully capable of deciding what 
cooperative efforts are required to enable them to 
play their part in the defense of the area. 

The principles in the Soviet note include a caU 
for renunciation of arms shipments to the Middle 
East. With regard to this point, the United 
States Government wishes to make clear that it has 
consistently recognized a need on the part of the 
Middle Eastern states to maintain a certain level 
of armed forces to assure their internal security 
and legitimate self-defense and to play their part 
in the defense of the area as a whole. The United 
States has also consistently sought to avoid an 

523 



arms race between the Arab states and Israel. In 
carrying out its policy with regard to the export 
of arms to the Middle East, the United States Gov- 
ernment has always kept in mind the need to en- 
courage stability and foster progress toward last- 
ing peace and security there. It therefore regrets 
that the Soviet Government, on the contraiy, saw 
fit to effect massive shipments of arms into the area 
at a time when regional disputes there had become 
sharply exacerbated. 

Finally, the Ministry's note talks of economic 
cooperation to be carried out, it states, without any 
conditions incompatible with the dignity and sov- 
ereignty of these countries. The Soviet Govern- 
ment ought to be aware that the United States pro- 
vides, and will continue to provide, economic as- 
sistance only to those Middle Eastern states re- 
questing it. No attempt is, or will be, made to 
force this assistance on any state, or through it to 
seek to impose conditions upon the countries con- 
cerned. There is no basis, therefore, for consider- 
ing the acceptance of such assistance incompatible 
with national dignity and sovereignty. 

The Soviet proposal, as a whole, is clearly based 
on a false premise. It stems, presumably, from 
the distorted interpretation of the nature and pur- 
pose of United States policies contained in the 
Ministry's note. 

Contrary to this interpretation, President 
Eisenhower's outline of United States policy to- 
ward the Middle East envisages genuine practical 
efforts directed toward consolidating peace and 
security there in full cooperation with the Middle 
Eastern countries concerned. These efforts are 
designed to make a full contribution to economic 
progress in the area and to help the countries there 
maintain their independence. 

Also, there is cause for considerable doubt as to 
the seriousness of the Soviet Government's invita- 
tion to the Govermnent of the United States to 
join it in cooperation in the Middle East. It has 
been put forward at a time when certain Soviet 
official acts and statements suggest that the 
U.S.S.R. neither desires nor expects such coopera- 
tion. In fact, on the day following the delivery 
of its call for cooperation in the Middle East, the 
U.S.S.R. engaged once more in vilification of the 
United States by introducing into the United Na- 
tions a spurious item attacking this Government's 
policies in that area. This followed a similar 
baseless Soviet item distorting United States poli- 



cies toward Eastern Europe.^ Consequently, 
there is much reason to question whether the coop- 
eration proffered by the U.S.S.R. is intended to 
further a mutually desired aim. 

On its part, the United States will continue to 
work toward peace and greater stability in the 
Middle East through the United Nations and 
through measures taken at the request of, and in 
cooperation with, the states in the area themselves. 
It would like to be able to hope that the Soviet 
Union would make its own contribution to tran- 
quillity there. The United States naturally de- 
sires to see friendly relations, based on mutual 
respect and confidence, develop not only among 
the Middle Eastern states but also between them 
and countries outside the area, including the 
U.S.S.R. However, as elsewhere, this largely de- 
pends on the U.S.S.R. itself. If the U.S.S.R. will 
indeed conduct itself in a manner conforming to 
the principles it proposes, it will be moving in 
this direction and not only make a contribution to 
peace in the Middle East but in other areas as 
well. 



SOVIET NOTE OF FEBRUARY 11 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics expresses its respects to the Embassy 
of the United States of America and upon the instructions 
of the Soviet Government has the honor to communicate 
the following: 

As a result of the efforts of the peace-loving peoples, 
supported by the United Nations, the aggressive actions 
against Egypt were liquidated, and favorable circum- 
stances have developed and real possibilities have been 
Created for insuring peace and also for settling inter- 
national problems in the region of the Near and Middle 
East. 

The liquidation of the hot-bed of war in this region 
created prerequisites for strengthening national inde- 
pendence, governmental sovereignty and economic de- 
velopment not only of Egypt but of all countries of the 
Near and Middle East, and also opened the way for broad 
cooperation of countries of this region with all countries 
on principles of equality among states, formulated in 
particular in the decisions of the Bandung Conference. 

The peace-loving peoples justly expected that hence- 
forth peace in the Near and Middle East would be pre- 
served and strengthened, that an end would be placed 
to the policy of foreign intervention in the internal affairs 
of the countries of this region, that the sovereignty and 



' For a statement by Senator Knowland on the Soviet 
item on alleged U.S. intervention in Eastern Europe, see 
Bxn,LETiN of Mar. 18, 1957, p. 463. 



524 



Department of State Bulletin 



independence of the countries of the Near and Middle 
East would be sincerely respected and that the countries 
of this region, especially the victim of agfrression — 
Egypt — would be given unselfish economic assistance. 

However, the period of softening of the tense situation 
in this region, regrettably, turned out to be of short 
duration and the hopes of the peoples were not realized. 

As a result of the unilateral moves on the part of some 
powers, the situation in the Near and Middle East in the 
recent past has again become seriously exacerbated. This 
exacerbation is evoked first of all by the fact that there 
are intentions to utilize in a unilateral manner in the 
Near and Middle East without the agreement of the 
United Nations, armed forces of one of the great powers 
at its own discretion for intervention in the internal af- 
fairs of this region. There is also in view the granting of 
so-called economic assistance to countries of the Near 
and Middle East, foisting on them conditions that these 
countries reject any kind of ties with specific states — 
members of the United Nations — that is, with the ac- 
ceptance of political conditions for this "assistance" in- 
compatible with the dignity and sovereignty of these 
countries and with the high principles of the United 
Nations. 

It is impossible not to recognize that Implementation 
of such a policy in circumvention of the United Nations 
would lead to a new dangerous exacerbation of the situa- 
tion in this region, which only recently was an arena of 
military operations evoked by aggression against Egypt, 
and would threaten the cause of world peace. 

The mentioned plans are nothing other than a continua- 
tion of the policy of creating closed aggressive military 
blocs of the type of NATO, SEATO, and the Baghdad 
Pact and erection of artificial economic and political 
barriers interfering with normal ties among states. 

The principle of peaceful coexistence of states regard- 
less of differences in their social and state systems is the 
basis of the foreign policy of the Soviet Union. It is 
known that in establishing its friendly relations with 
the Arab States the Soviet Union not only never sought 
deterioration of relations with these countries with other 
great powers, but on the contrary came out for the neces- 
sity of wide international cooperation, came out for the 
necessity of guaranteeing durable peace and creating an 
atmosphere of trust in the region of the Near and Middle 
East. The Soviet Union does not have and does not 
aspire to have military bases and any concessions in the 
Near and Middle East countries for the purpose of ex- 
tracting profits and does not aspire to receive any privi- 
leges in this region, since all this is incompatible with the 
principles of Soviet foreign policy. 

The Soviet Union is vitally interested that peace exists 
in the region of the Near and Middle East, situated in the 
immediate vicinity of its borders. It is sincerely inter- 
ested in strengthening the independence of the countries 
of this region and in their economic prosperity. 

In the opinion of the Soviet Government, preservation 
of peace in the Near and Middle East is a necessary con- 
dition not only for the development of Near and Middle 
East countries, but also, as recent events have demon- 
strated, for providing for the economic welfare of many 
other countries. 



The necessity of consolidating peace and security in the 
Near and Middle East demands broad development of 
political, economic, and cultural ties between all coun- 
tries, particularly of joint actions, in accordance with 
the Charter of the United Nations, of great powers who 
bear basic responsibility for the maintenance of peace. 

The Soviet Government considers that it would be pos- 
sible to secure firm and lasting peace in this region by 
means of joint efforts of the great powers — the U.S.S.R., 
U.S.A., England, and France, permanent members of the 
United Nations Security Council, if all the above-men- 
tioned great powers built their relations with the Near and 
Middle East countries on the basis of general principles 
of a policy of non-intei-vention in their internal affairs 
and respect for their national independence and 
sovereignty. 

Proceeding from the foregoing, the Soviet Government 
proposes to the Governments of the United States of 
America, England, and France, to draw up and proclaim 
basic principles concerning the question of peace and 
security in the Near and Middle East, and of non-inter- 
vention in the internal affairs of this region. These prin- 
ciples could be laid down as a basis of a joint declaration, 
acceptance of which would exclude the possibility of a 
dangerous unilateral action of this or that great 
power in respect to the Near and Middle East countries 
and would help to strengthen peace and security in 
this most important region, to develop national economies, 
and to consolidafe the independence of these countries. 

It goes without saying that the declaration would be 
open to adherence by any government interested in peace 
and security which desires to build relations with the 
Near and Middle East countries on the basis of the prin- 
ciples mentioned. 

The proposals concerning the corresponding obligations 
of the participant powers of the declaration could be im- 
mediately brought to the attention of the governments 
and peoples of the Near and Middle East countries. 

In transmitting herewith the basic theses of a draft 
declaration of the four powers — U.S.S.R., U.S.A., England, 
and France, proposed by the Government of the U.S.S.B., 
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs would be grateful to the 
Embassy of the United States of America for informing 
it regarding the acceptability to the Government of the 
United States of America of the basic principles presented 
in this draft of the declaration concerning the question of 
peace and security in the Near and Middle East and non- 
intervention in the Internal affairs of the countries of 
this region. 

The Soviet Government would also have no objections 
if the Governments of the United States of America, 
England, France, and the Soviet Union issued separate 
declarations, identical in content and based on the prin- 
ciples set forth in the enclosed draft, on their relations 
with the Near and Middle East countries. 
CAttacbment) 

DRAFT DECLARATION 

Draft of the basic principles of the declarations by the 
Governments of the U.S.S.R., the United States, Britain, 
and France regarding the question of peace and security 



April 1, 1957 



525 



in the Near and Midflle East and noninterference In 
the internal alTairs of the countries of this region. 

Moscow, February 11, 1957. 

The basic principles of the declaration by the Govern- 
ments of the U.S.S.R., the United States, Britain, and 
France on the questions of peace and security in the Near 
and Middle East and noninterference in the internal 
affairs of countries of this area : 

The Governments of the U.S.S.R., the United States, 
the United Kingdom, and the French Republic, guided by 
lofty peace-loving aims and the principles of the United 
Nations expressed in its Charter, declare their agreement 
that at the basis of their policy in respect of the countries 
of the Near and Middle East lies the aspiration to estab- 
lish peace and security in the Near and Middle East and 
in the whole world; acknowledge and respect the lofty 
principles of relations between states formulated at the 
Bandung Conference of Asian and African Countries; 
are striving to create favorable conditions for the 
strengthening of the national independence and national 
sovereignty of the countries of the Near and Middle East; 
express a sincere desire to contribute disinterestedly by 
common efforts to the economic development of the coun- 
tries of this area, and are in this proceeding from the 
fact that the natural wealth of the underdeveloped coun- 
tries is the inalienable national property of the peoples 
of these countries, which have the full right to dispose of 
and use it in the interests of the development of their 
national economy and progress. 

The Governments of the U.S.S.R., the United States, 
Britain and France wish to contribute to the all-around 
development of economic, business, and cultural relations 
of the countries of the Near and Middle East on the basis 
of equality and mutual advantage for all countries. They 
are of the opinion that wide economic and trade relations 
of the countries of that area are in accordance not only 
with the interests of these countries but also with the 
interests of securing economic prosperity for other coun- 
tries of the world. They recognize the need for a peace- 
ful settlement of all international problems and questions 
relating to the Near and Middle East, by way of negotia- 
tions. 

Being aware of the importance of the responsibility 
which they carry for the maintenance of peace and 
security throughout the world, the Governments of the 
U.S.S.R., the United States, Britain, and France pledge 
themselves to follow in their policy toward the Near and 
Middle East the principles stated below : 

1 — The preservation of peace In the Near and Middle 
East by settling outstanding questions exclusively by 
peaceful means and by the method of negotiations ; 

2 — Noninterference in the internal affairs of Middle 
Eastern countries, and respect for their sovereignty and 
independence ; 

3 — Renunciation of all attempts to involve these coun- 
tries in military blocs with the participation of the Great 
Powers ; 

4 — Liquidation of foreign bases and withdrawal of 
foreign troops from the territory of Middle Eastern 
countries; 



526 



5 — Reciprocal refusal to deliver arms to Middle Eastern 
countries ; 

6 — Promotion of the Middle Eastern nations' economic 
development without attaching any political, military, or 
other terms incompatible with the dignity and sover- 
eignty of these countries. 

The Governments of the U.S.S.R., the United States, 
Great Britain, and France express the hope that other 
states, in their relations with Middle Eastern countries, 
will adhere to the same principles. 



Ambassador Richards Leaves 
for Middle East 

Followmg is the text of a statement made hy 
Ambassador James P. Richards., Special Assist- 
ant to the President, at Washington National Air- 
port on March 12 on his departure for the Middle 

East} 

Press release 132 dated March 11 

President Eisenhower has asked me to visit the 
nations of the Middle East to present and discuss 
his proposals to promote peace, freedom, and eco- 
nomic well-being of the area. I feel honored by 
his request and undertake this mission with a sense 
of the very great responsibility it involves. 

The President is seeking through this program 
to make an important contribution to the security 
and stability of the independent nations of the 
Middle East who wish our cooperation. I share 
his hope that full explanation and discussion of 
the program will demonstrate the close identity of 
interests between Middle Eastern countries and 
my own. 

It is only natural that a new initiative such as 
the President's may not be completely understood 
in the first instance and may even be misinter- 
preted in some quarters. I shall try to remove 
such misunderstandings if any have arisen. 

The determination of the United States to assist 
in the maintenance of the independence of free 
nations, including those of the Middle East, has 
been fully demonstrated. My colleagues and I 
begin this mission proudly conscious of recent 
American leadership giving practical effect to 
that determination. 

The strong support of the Congress for the 
President's program once again gives assurance 
tliat the American people hold out a hand of 



' For background, see Bulletin of Mar. 25, 1957, p. 4S0. 
Department of State Bulletin 



friendship to the historic lands and peoples of 
the Middle East. It is the American hope that 
all governments will work actively for freedom 
and stability in a peaceful world. 

In keeping with the spirit of the President's 
proposals, discussions will be held only with gov- 
ernments who wish them, and we will not try to 
force our views upon others. The President and 
I do not look upon this mission as the inaugura- 
tion of a vast new aid program. We do believe 



that the greater flexibility which the Congi-ess has 
approved in the use of funds will enable us to 
undertake some new and more effective programs 
which will materially contribute to the strength- 
ening of the area. 

In our preparation for this important mission, 
we have deeply appreciated the support and good 
wishes of the American people and of those in 
other lands. Our inspiration and our purpose 
are strong. We shall do our best. 



Third Meeting of the Council of the Southeast Asia 
Treaty Organization 



Folloio-ing is the text of the final communi- 
que issued at the close of the third annual meeting 
of the Council of Ministers of the Southeast Asia 
Treaty Organization, held at Canberra, Australia, 
March 11 to 13, together with three statements 
Tnade iy Secretary Dulles at the meeting and the 
transcript of a news conference held iy Secretary 
Dulles at Canberra on March 13. 



FINAL COMMUNIQUE, MARCH 13 

Press release 141 dated March 13 

Plans to consolidate and enhance the progress 
made in preserving the freedom of all countries 
in Southeast Asia have been agreed to by the 
Seato Council at its third meeting, held under 
the chairmanship of Mr. K. G. Casey, Minister 
for External Affairs of Australia. 

These plans provide for : 

Maintenance of the defensive capacity of Treaty 
members to deal effectively with armed aggres- 
sion. 

Extension of the program to detect, appraise, 
expose and combat subversion directed from with- 
out. 

Development of the economic resources of 
Treaty members, particularly the Asian member 
states, by measures inside and outside Seato. 

AprW 1, 1957 



Defense Plans 

The Ministers believe that while the immediate 
military threat to peace in Southeast Asia has 
diminished, the forces of international Commu- 
nism are still working for the ultimate objective 
of world domination. 

The Council noted that in Asia the Communist 
so-called peace front is in reality a front of mil- 
lions of armed men. The military strength of 
Communist China and of North Viet-Nam is con- 
tinually being increased. 

In the circumstances the Council agi-eed that 
Seato could not relax its vigilance and must main- 
tain its capacity to deter and repel aggression. In 
the face of the threat which is not itself static, 
the Seato nations by their united efforts are con- 
tinually increasing and adapting their capacity 
to deal with it. If the Communists have chosen 
for tactical reasons to exert their pressure by other 
than military means for the present, this does not 
mean that they would not attempt to exploit any 
weakness in Seato military preparedness if the 
opportunity came. 

As a result of the work of the military advisers 
over the past year, Seato Governments are agreed 
upon the nature of the Communist threat in the 
Treaty area and the kind of military measures 
which would be necessary to defeat it. 

Military planning is a continuing process and 

527 



will be helped by the setting-up of a pennanent 
military planning office at Bangkok with staff 
representing all member countries. 

Close cooperation among the forces of the mem- 
ber countries is being assisted by realistic train- 
ing exercises arranged by the Seato military ad- 
visers. 

Anti-Subversion Program 

The Council believes that the military threat 
to the region is deterred by the very existence of 
Seato and the collective defense represented by 
its members. The emphasis in Communist and 
Communist-inspired tactics in the area has there- 
fore continued to move from the open threat of 
force to more flexible tactics of non-violent pene- 
tration and undermining of non-Communist states 
still accompanied in some cases by aimed insur- 
rection. 

Believing that public knowledge of these 
tactics — of how and where subversion is occur- 
ring — is an essential prerequisite of effective ac- 
tion against them, the Council agreed to direct its 
civil organization to intensify its work of identi- 
fying all phases of subversive tactics; to make 
known its findings amongst member governments ; 
and to expose them to the scrutiny of public 
opinion. 

With this object the Council approved specific 
projects for the exposure of these activities. Basic 
material for these projects will come from analy- 
ses by the Committee of Security Experts and 
from information provided by the Seato Ee- 
search Service Center and by member govern- 
ments. The Council recognized that in counter- 
ing subversion the primary responsibility rests 
with each government, aided as necessary by its 
friends. But an important supplementary role 
can be played by Seato, and decisions made by 
the Council at its present meeting will make that 
role more effective. 

Economic and Social Progress 

The Council discussed economic activities re- 
lating to Article III of the Treaty.^ The repre- 
sentatives of Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thai- 
land drew attention to the economic problems in 
their countries requiring cooperative action with 
other members, and the Council discussed what 



' For text, see Buixbtin of Sept. 20, 1954, p. 393. 



528 



were the most appropriate arrangements by which 
these problems might be resolved. 

Seato expert Committees have recommended 
specific projects to assist in relieving the economic 
burden of defense and to make a contribution to- 
wards the continuation of economic development 
under Seato's protective shield. Council mem- 
bers undertook to consider the carrying out of 
these recommendations. 

The Council noted with satisfaction the prog- 
ress made in the economic development of Asian 
member states. The Council also noted that a 
number of countries, particularly the United 
States, were providing considerable economic as- 
sistance bilaterally as a direct contribution to 
treaty objectives. In addition to these bilateral 
programs, some assistance is being provided spe- 
cifically under the auspices of Seato. For ex- 
ample, the Australian Government is thus pro- 
viding 2 million pounds. 

The Council decided that Seato cultural activi- 
ties should include encouragement and assistance 
to national activity in this field. It urged member 
governments to foster bilateral cultural exchanges 
within the Seato Community. 

In addition the Council approved a number of 
multilateral projects in the cultural relations field. 

This is a new and promising development which 
will strengthen the spirit of friendship which 
already marks the relations between the eight 
Seato member countries. A major cultural proj- 
ect approved for immediate introduction is a 
Seato fellowship program under which scholars 
of Seato countries will be encouraged to under- 
take study and research in fields of special interest 
to Seato. 

Another important project adopted is the con- 
vening in one of the Asian member coimtries, of 
a "Round Table" meeting, consisting of outstand- 
ing authorities, in order to discuss Asian civiliza- 
tions and cultures. 

The Council also adopted a French proposal that 
the competent bodies of Seato should consider 
the problem of educational assistance in the Treaty 
area and recommend measures applicable in this 
field within the framework of Seato. 

Permanent Organization and Budget 

The Council considered the strengthening of the 
permanent civil organization in Bangkok and to 
that end decided to appoint a Secretary General 

Department of State Bulletin 



and a Deputy Secretary General. They directed 
the Council Representatives to determine the terms 
of reference of these officers and the timing of the 
appointments and to consider and report on nomi- 
nations from member governments for these posts. 
The Council approved a budget of $787,145 for 
the fifteen months ending June 30, 1958 to cover 
the cost of their permanent civil and military head- 
quarters in Bangkok and to help finance certain 
joint jn-ograms. 

Final Observations 

Among the topics discussed by the Council was 
that of neutralism. 

It was observed with concern that some govern- 
ments have in varying degrees adopted a line of 
active opposition to collective security arrange- 
ments such as Seato which are in full accord with 
the Charter of the United Xations. 

It was hoped that as time passed and the value 
of Seato became more widely appreciated that 
those who criticized it today would eventually be 
willing to welcome it. Seato is not an exclusive 
organization but remains open to all those coun- 
tries in Southeast Asia who are willing to share its 
benefits and responsibilities. The Council mem- 
bers wish to stress that it was genuine concern for 
the security of the area which led to their volun- 
tary association in Seato ; all nations of the area 
whether members of Seato or not, are benefiting 
from the protection provided by Seatos collective 
deterrent strength. 

The members of the Council recorded their ab- 
horrence at the use of Soviet forces to crush the 
struggle by the Hungarian people for independ- 
ence. They noted that the Soviet action was con- 
doned and supported by Communist China. They 
noted the vivid and revealing contrast provided 
by the policies of certain member governments, 
which have already led or are now leading to 
full independence in various hitherto dependent 
territories. 

The Comicil met in an atmosphere of great 
friendship, understanding and mutual trust. As 
the organization moves into its new and expanded 
phase of activity, the Council members are deter- 
mined that Seato will work for the enrichment as 
well as the defense of human life and liberty in 
accordance with the principles and purposes of tlie 
Charter of the United Nations. 

The representatives attending the Third Seato 

April 7, 1957 

420297 — 57 3 



Council Meeting were: Australia - Rt. Hon. R. G. 
Casey; France - M. Pierre de Nelice; New Zea- 
land -Hon. T. L. MacDonald; Pakistan -Mr. S. 
Amjad Ali; Philippines- Vice President Carlos 
P. Garcia; Tliailund-Mr. Rak Panyarachun; 
United Kingdom -Rt. Hon. The Earl of Home; 
United States -Hon. John Foster Dulles. 



STATEMENT BY SECRETARY DULLES AT OPEN- 
ING SESSION, MARCH 11 

Press release 128 dated March 11 

It is a great satisfaction for me to serve for the 
third time as the United States representative at 
the annual conference of the Seato Council. It 
is appropriate that we thus come together to take 
stock of our strength in the vital Seato area. We 
are happy to be able to do this in the hospitable 
land of Australia. 

During the 3 years since our defensive treaty 
M'as signed, Seato has proven a strong bulwark. 
It has contributed greatly to the relative peace 
and security which all the member nations now 
enjoy. Seato is an effective force against aggres- 
sion and subversion. This fact has encouraged 
constructive developments in many fields. The 
increased stability in the treaty area is fully 
evident. 

One notable example is the unity and strength 
developed by the Republic of Viet-Nam. A 
serious problem does, however, remain in Laos, 
where, despite the Geneva armistice agreement, 
international communism continues to support the 
Pathet Lao insurgents. The Republic of Korea, 
Japan, and the Republic of China are outside the 
treaty area, but there is an interlocking connection 
with them because the United States does have 
collective defense treaties with these other free 
Asian nations. It may therefore be relevant to 
report that there is growing strength in each of 
these three other free nations. 

Political progi-ess within our treaty area is at- 
tested by the fact that the Federation of Malaya 
will soon achieve full independence. With re- 
spect to Singapore, amiable and fruitful dis- 
cussions are now in progress. During the period 
of Seato's existence, the free countries of the area 
have conducted orderly elections on a nationwide 
basis and have been able to implement their ideals 
of universal suffrage and free elections. 

Substantial social and economic progi-ess has 



529 



been made by all member states. A broad inter- 
change of visits by officials, as between the free 
Asian countries, has served to create new bonds 
of fi-iendship and understanding. Useful inter- 
changes have also taken place between the free 
Asian nations and the West. I recently had the 
pleasure of receiving in my offices the 1,000th Thai 
to come to the United States under the technical 
training program conducted by our International 
Cooperation Administration.^ By such inter- 
changes in their lands and ours, the American 
people learn much about the ancient culture and 
the modern aspirations of free Asian nations. I 
hope in turn tliat they learn something of value 
from us and that it will serve both to advance 
their own professional careers and to contribute to 
the happiness and well-being of their peoples. 

United States cooj^eration with our Asian 
partners continues through bilateral arrangements 
for economic aid, technical assistance, and cultural 
exchange. These include our recent program of 
Seato cultural gi-ants.=* Also of help is our mem- 
bership in the Colombo Plan and Ecafe [Eco- 
nomic Commission for Asia and the Far East], 
and our bilatei'al agreements of sharing knowledge 
and materials for the peaceful uses of atomic 
energy. Plans for an Asian Nuclear Center lo- 
cated at Manila are being actively studied by the 
Colombo Plan nations with assurance of sub- 
stantial United States support, both technical and 
fuiancial. 

Our mutual security pacts, including Seato, are 
other manifestations of the same intent. And let 
there be no doubt in any quarter — be it friendly 
or hostile — that the American Nation is united in 
its determination to respond to our obligations 
under these pacts. Also that determination is 
backed by power in being and in useful places. 

Beyond the Treaty Area 

We need, however, also to look beyond the con- 
fines of our own treaty area. Events elsewhere 
have been dramatic and instructive. Since we last 
met, it has been demonstrated beyond a doubt that 
the materialistic rule of communism will never 
meet the aspirations with which human beings are 
endowed by their Creator. 



' For an exchange of corresiiondence between President 
Elsenhower and the Prime Minister of Thailand, see 
Bulletin of Mar. 18, 1957, p. 442. 

'Ibid., Mar. 25, 1957, p. 503. 



Within the Soviet Union, the rulers have had to 
disavow Stalin's brand of communism. They have 
had to move, even though slowly, toward granting 
their people greater personal security, gi'eater 
freedom of thought and of conscience, and greater 
enjoyment of the fruits of their labor. Within 
Poland and Hungary, 12 years of indoctrination 
have failed to persuade the youth that the Soviet 
system satisfies either national or their individual 
desires. Throughout the satellite area, there is 
revulsion against the brutal colonialism and ex- 
ploitation of Soviet imperialism. We can con- 
fidently conclude from this that international com- 
munism now imposed upon many of the peoples 
of Asia is a passing and not a permanent phase. 

On the other hand, developments elsewhere re- 
veal characteristics which should keep us on guard. 
When the people's revolt in Hungary could not 
be subdued by the Eed Army forces already there, 
Hungary was openly invaded and overrun by So- 
viet divisions, spearheaded by tanks. They ruth- 
lessly slaughtered the j^eople of Hungary who 
were manifesting their desire of freedom. The 
Soviet rulers did this in defiance of repeated calls 
from the United Nations that the Soviet desist 
from this armed attack upon another member state 
in violation of the charter. 

In the Middle East, the Soviet rulers have per- 
sistently sought to foment trouble. Wlienever it 
seemed that the difficulties in the area might be 
peacefully composed, the Soviets have intervened 
and by vicious propaganda and by large-scale 
arms shipments sought to set the peoples of the 
area against each other. All of this again is in 
clear defiance of their obligations to seek the 
settlement of international disputes by peaceful 
means and in conformity with the principles of 
justice and international law. 

We must keep indelibly clear in our minds that 
international communism is not regardful of le- 
gality or of humanity or of the moral force of 
world opinion as reflected in the General Assem- 
bly of the United Nations. For these reasons it 
is at most but a transient if painful episode in the 
history of mankind. 

The open support given by the Communist Chi- 
nese to Soviet colonialism and imperialism and to 
Soviet defiance of the United Nations has ominous 
implications for all free Asian nations. These ac- 
tions give us all ample warning of the true nature 
of the Chinese Communist regime. They also 



530 



Department of Stale BuUelin 



finphiisize the continuing importance of the mili- 
tary side of Seato, of the work of our military ad- 
\iser.s and of our combined military planning. All 
of this has been highly ell'cctive. 

Avoiding Communist Traps 

A year ago at Karachi I stated (hat the success 
of our trade, aid, and cultural exchange programs 
was producing imitators.'' These imitatore, I said, 
would use such programs for completely different 
purposes. Our purpose is to build up the free na- 
tions. Their purpose would be to destroy freedom 
and independence. 

I also predicted that the free Asian leaders who 
had shown great political skill in winning in- 
dependence for their countries would readily dis- 
tinguish between liberty and tyranny. They 
would do so even though tyranny went about 
disguised in the pilfered clothes of liberty. I 
do not think any of the free Asian leaders have 
been deceived. Some may not yet be fully aware 
of the danger from the numerous underground 
forces which the Communist conspirators tradi- 
tionally use. However, in various free Asian 
countries there is already evidence of official action 
to counter Communist penetration of schools, 
trade unions, and minority groups. These are 
encouraging beginnings in meeting a large-scale 
and growing threat. 

We who are members of Seato may gain influ- 
ence beyond the treaty area as we ourselves set a 
good example. Let us put our own houses in 
order. Let us avoid Communist traps baited with 
offers of trade and aid. Let us expose Communist 
techniques of subversion. Let us make economic 
and social progress. Let us build up our educa- 
tional systems. T^et us give fair treatment to 
minority groups. Let us train capable trade-union 
leaders. Thus we can do much to show other free 
nations how to seal off effectively the various tra- 
ditional avenues of Communist penetration. 

The several Seato committees have done much 
planning to assist member nations toward this end. 
I congratulate all who have taken part in laying 
this groundwork for Seato activities and cooper- 
ation in many fields. In the months and years 
ahead those plans need to be put into effect and 
enlarged. I am sure that in these meetings here 
at Canberra we shall contribute strongly to this 
achievement. 



' Ibid., Mar. 19, 1956, p. 449. 
April h 1957 



STATEMENT BY SECRETARY DULLES ON U.S. 
CHINA POLICY, MARCH 12 

Press release 138 dated March 13 

The United States adheres steadfastly to the 
three main aspects of its China policy, which is to 
recognize the Republic of China ; not to recognize 
the so-called People's Republic of China; and to 
oppose the seating of this People's Republic in 
the United Nations as the accredited representa- 
tive of what the charter calls the Republic of 
China. 

This policy is not merely an expression of 
emotional dislike of Chinese communism, al- 
though the creed and practices of the Chinese 
Communists are in fact repugnant to us. Also 
our policy is not merely an expression of senti- 
mental loyalty to the Republic of China, although 
we do feel loyalty to a Government which was 
loyal to the Allied cause throughout even the 
darkest days of the Second World War. 

Our policy stems primarily from considera- 
tions of national interest and, we believe, of inter- 
national interest. First of all we ask ourselves: 
Will the interests of the United States be ad- 
vanced by according diplomatic recognition to the 
Chinese Communist regime? 

The answer to that is in our opinion clearly 
negative. United States diplomatic recognition 
of the Chinese Communist regime would serve no 
national purpose but would strengthen and en- 
courage influences hostile to us and our allies and 
further imperil lands whose independence is re- 
lated to our own peace and security. 

In this connection we recall that there are many 
millions of immigrant Chinese who form parts of 
the populations of free Asian countries. Today 
many of them, perhaps most of them, remain loyal 
to the Republic of China now seated at Taiwan, 
which symbolizes the China that they know. We 
can see only loss and no gain in action which would 
make these overseas Chinese more apt to serve 
the subversive policies of the Chinese Communist 
regime. 

If we examine this matter from the standpoint 
of the United Nations, we come to a similar con- 
clusion. The United Nations would not be 
strengthened if the Communists were there to 
represent China, and we cannot see that they have 
any right to this role. 

The charter seeks that membership should be 
made up of peace-loving governments able and 



531 



willing to carry out their obligations under the 
charter. There is no evidence that the Chinese 
Communist regime would represent China in the 
spirit envisaged by the charter. It has fought 
the United Nations in Korea and still stands con- 
demned as an aggressor against the United Na- 
tions. It seized Tibet by force. It promoted the 
war in Indochina. It refuses to renounce resort 
to war as an instrument of its policy in relation 
to Taiwan and the Penghus. Its conduct toward 
other nations and their citizens does not reflect the 
tolerance and good neighborliness which the mem- 
bers of the United Nations are supposed to prac- 
tice. 

If the Communist regime were allowed to repre- 
sent the Republic of China in the United Nations, 
it would presumably sit on the Security Council 
as a permanent member with veto power. That 
Council is the body which by the charter is en- 
trusted with primary responsibility for the main- 
tenance of peace and security in conformity with 
the principles of justice and international law. It 
would be grotesque if that high responsibility were 
to be conferred upon a regime which itself stands 
condemned as an armed aggressor against the 
United Nations and which itself is a most con- 
spicuous, violator of justice and international law. 

The United Nations is faced with growing re- 
sponsibilities. These could not be more readily 
discharged by giving the Chinese Communists the 
opportunity to work mischief there. 

We believe that United States policies are not 
merely in our own interest and in the interest of 
the free world but also that they are in the in- 
terest of the Chinese people themselves, with 
whom the American people have historic ties of 
friendship. 



STATEMENT BY SECRETARY DULLES AT 
CLOSING SESSION, MARCH 13 

Press release 140 dated March 13 

We have, I believe, every leason to be gratified 
with what has been accomplished during the 3 
days of the Seato Council meeting at Canberra. 
Inspired by the opening address of Prime Minis- 
ter Menzies, we have gone on to adopt sound 
recommendations for expanded activities. These 
will promote the peace and security of the area by 
making the Seato nations better able to counter 
in all its varied aspects the Communist threat. 



These programs cover diverse fields, such as 
combined military-defense information programs, 
economic cooperation, and cultural exchange. But 
they all have a single purpose. Their aim is to 
strengthen spiritually and physically the peoples 
and nations who wish to resist the Communist 
menace and to pursue in freedom their individual 
and national aspirations. These manifold activi- 
ties of Seato require for their success a high degree 
of coordination. This will be promoted by the 
Secretary General and Deputy Secretary General, 
new positions which the Council here has agreed 
to establish. 

I wish, Mr. Chairman, to express my apprecia- 
tion and that of the entire United States delega- 
tion to our host, the Government of Australia, to 
you, Mr. Casey, our able chairman, and to the 
others here in Canberra who have done so much 
to make the Council meeting the success it has 
been. We recognize the enormous effort that goes 
into preparing for such an important meeting at- 
tended by so many people of different lands. We 
have been met on all sides by careful preparation, 
courtesy, cooperation, and good humor. It is the 
excellence of arrangements made for us here that 
has pennitted us to accomplish so much in these 
3 days. 

These arrangements have a significance which 
goes far beyond the personal enjoyment of the dele- 
gates themselves. It contributes to the develop- 
ment of the friendship between our countries 
which, as Prime Minister Menzies pointed out, is 
one of the imponderable but most valuable assets 
of our association. In this connection, I am sure 
that my colleagues will wish to join me in asking 
the chairman to convey to the Speaker of the House 
and the President of the Senate our gratitude for 
their gracious hospitality and ask them to convey 
to the parliamentary stall' and to Hansard our ap- 
preciation for their great assistance and the skill 
with which they have handled this important 
conference. 

The success of this third Council meeting, like 
that of the previous two, also owes much to the 
various Seato committees, the Council represent- 
atives, and the military advisers, who did such 
excellent work in preparing their reports and 
recommeiulafions. Their conscientious efforts 
through the more than 2 years of Se.vto's existence 
have made it possible for us to look forward each 
year with increased confidence in ourselves and in 



532 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



our capacity to resist the vaT-iod forms of attack 
wliich we know are being made and will continue 
to be made against us by the Communists. 

At this meeting we have again aflirmed our be- 
lief that only through the exercise of wliat the 
United Nations Charter calls the inherent right 
of collective defense backed by adequate force can 
we exfject to remain free. By constant vigilance 
and dedication to the high purposes expressed in 
our treaty and in the Pacific Charter, we can hope 
that in the coming year Seato will contribute fur- 
ther to the peace and security not only of South- 
east Asia but of the world. Thank you. 



SECRETARY DULLES' NEWS CONFERENCE, 
CANBERRA, MARCH 13 

Press release Hi dated March 14 

Secretary Dulles: I am very happy to have a 
chance to meet with you for a few minutes. Our 
conference has just closed, and I shall be going 
back to Washington the first thing tomorrow 
morning. It has been, I think, a good conference. 
It has not been spectacular; it has been harmo- 
nious and in that respect perhaps it has not made 
much news, but from the standpoint of a member 
of the Council I would rather have it that way. 
We have built, I think, constructively, and I have 
tlie feeling more than ever before that Seato is a 
real solid going concern. My feeling in that re- 
spect is somewhat increased perhaps by the fact 
that I am told that the Communist propaganda is 
attacking us very viciously and blaming all the 
evils of much of the world upon Seato. That, at 
least, proves that we are not insignificant. I 
might say in reply that I think events of recent 
years have demonstrated beyond the possibility of 
doubt that the Communists try to make trouble 
where there is none and, if there is any anywhere, 
they try to make it worse. That has certainly 
been our experience during this last year. Now 
if you have any questions I would be glad to try 
to answer them. 

Q. Mr. Dulles, is it correct that under tchat is 
noio knoion a.s the Eisenhower Doctrine, if one of 
the middle East powers asked for military aid to 
frotect therii from armed aggression, the United 
States will give such aid? 

A. Well, there are three aspects of the so-called 
Eisenhower Doctrine. One is to assist the coun- 



tries to build up their economies so they can be 
strong and independent. The second is to help 
them to develop their own defensive capabilities 
so that they will have a dependable security- 
defense force. And the third is, if they are at- 
tacked by a Communist-controlled country and if 
they want our assistance, the President is author- 
ized to give it. 

Q. Mr. Dulles, the situation in the Middle 
East — do you see any alarming portents in the 
nei'j developments there? 

A. Well, I would not like to answer that ques- 
tion because I am not fully up to date. I would 
prefer not to talk about the recent developments 
in that part, of the world. Those are being 
handled — from the standpoint of the United 
States — being handled from Washington. And I 
am not kept fully informed, and I would prefer 
not to comment on the basis of inadequate in- 
formation on what is obviously a delicate situa- 
tion. 

Q. Mr. Dulles.^ could you ansioer a subsidiary 
question stemming from the first one? 

A. All right. 

Q. Why toas it that the United States did not 
give military aid, to Hungary when she appealed 
to the United, States to protect her from Russia? 

A. Well, there was no basis for our giving mili- 
tary aid to Hungary. We had no commitment to 
do so, and we did not think that to do so would 
either assist the people of Hungary or the people 
of Europe or the rest of the world. 

U.S. Negotiations With the Philippines 

Q. Mr. Dulles, has there been any progress in 
the United States negotiations with the Philip- 
pine Government on the question of American 
bases in the Philippines? 

A. There has been no recent progress made. 
The talks have been temporarily suspended. I 
expect that they will be resumed soon. The dif- 
ferences between us are, I think, not insurmount- 
able, and I expect that there will be an amicable 
settlement, but at the moment the discussions are 
in suspension. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the question I have been try- 
ing to ask is whether or not the events in the Mid- 
dle East have caused any change in your plans to 



April I, 7957 



533 



return home. You are still planning to stay over- 
night here and start hack tomorrow morning? 

A. Yes, I am going back according to schedule, 
going back tomorrow morning. I hope to spend 
a day at Honoluhi and rest up, and I will be back 
in Washington on Saturday or Sunday and get 
ready for the Bermuda conference with Mr. 
Harold Macmillan, which will begin on Wednes- 
day afternoon. 

Q. We should not put any significance to your 
leisurely trip tomorrow? You donH regard the 
Middle East situation as alarming? 

A. No, all I can say is that I am conscious that 
the people in Washington are perfectly able to 
take care of it. 

Q. That means you tuill miss the National Se- 
curity Cowncil meeting that is called for Thurs- 
day? 

A. They have them every Thursday ; so, if I am 
ever absent on a Thursday, I miss that meeting. 

Q. I understand that this was specially called 
for the Middle East discussion. 

A. I don't think so. I think it is a regular 
Thursday meeting. 

Q. Mr. Dulles., is Ameiica introducing atomic 
weapons to Southeast Asia for SEATO defense in 
the area? 

A. No, not that I am aware of. We have atomic 
capabilities in our own mobile forces in the area, 
but they are confined, as far as I am aware, to 
our own forces. 

Q. Mr. Dulles, could you say why it is that 
President Eisenhower has not asked for authority 
to protect any European country against armed 
aggression? 

A. We have such authority in the North Atlan- 
tic Treaty. You see, we get the authority in any 
one of two ways. One is by a congressional res- 
olution, and the other is by a treaty. A treaty be- 
comes a law of the land in the same way that a 
congressional joint resolution becomes law of the 
land. So that we can operate in either of two 
ways, either under the treaty form, which is the 
case of Europe, or the joint resolution form, which 
is that adopted in the case of the Middle East. 

Q. Gould I just ask you to explain why the 
United States, after suggesting the formation of 
the Baghdad Pact, subsequently withdrew from it? 



Baghdad Pact 

A. Well, it would be hardly accurate to say we 
witlidrew from it because we were never a member 
of the Baghdad Pact. We did suggest the desir- 
ability of an organization for secm-ity purposes 
of what I call the nortliern-tier countries. I made 
that suggestion after having been out there the 
first year I was Secretary of State some 4 years 
ago. We were very glad to see the Baghdad Pact 
formed. We are associated with it in many re- 
spects, and I hope will become even more closely 
associated with it without necessarily becoming a 
formal member of the treaty organization. 

Q. Mr. Dulles, in your opening address to the 
Council and those of the other Ministers, there was 
reference to the primary requirement of insuring 
the security of countries in South and Southeast 
Asia. Could you tell us how SEATO proposes to 
apply that to the Kashmir prohlem? 

A. Well, I am not sure that Seato will interest 
itself in the Kashmir problem. I don't think that 
is a problem for Seato. You will recall perhaps 
that the United States, at least in adhering to the 
Seato treatj', said that the aggression with which 
we concerned ourselves was Communist aggres- 
sion, and we limited our participation to that kind 
of aggression. 

Q. Would that he direct aggression, sir, or 
Commjunist-inspired aggression? 

A. I think that the actual language of the treaty 
is "Communist aggi-ession." 

Q. Mr. Dulles, you are reported to have told the 
United States Congress on January £5 that an 
American soldier called upon to fight in the Middle 
East could "feel a lot safer" if he did not have 
British and French troops alongside him. WJiat 
do you mean hy that? 

A. I was referring to the fact that some of the 
Senators were suggesting that, if there were mili- 
tary operations in the area, they should be under- 
taken jointly with the British and the French. On 
the other hand, the United Nations had just called 
upon the British and the French to withdraw and 
had created the United Nations Emergency Force 
without participation by the Britisli and the 
French. It did not seem to me under the circum- 
stances it would be desirable for us to try to bring 
back the British and French forces into the area 
from which they had just retired as a result of 
the recommendations of the United Nations. 



534 



Department of State Bulletin 



Q. Mr. Dulles, is the United States jmtting ojf 
naming an American amhassculor to the Philip- 
pines until after the elections there and, as a con- 
sequence, putting ojf the bases talks? 

A. No, I hope that we will be able to ask the 
agrcment, as it is called, of the Philippine Gov- 
ernment for the appointment of an ambassador 
shortly. 

Q. And who is that? 

A. We will have to tell the Government that 
first. 

Possibility of Sudden Communist Attack 

Q. Mr. Dulles, would you feel that things are 
just as delicate in the Southeast Asia area as in 
the Middle East? 

A. I would say that there exists here about the 
same danger of Communist attack as there does in 
the Middle East. I spoke to that point somewhat 
this morning at the conference, pointing out the 
fact that the danger of attack from Communist- 
controlled countries can never be foreseen with 
any confidence. When it comes, if it comes, it will 
be because in the Communist type of dictatorship 
they can make their preparations in entire se- 
crecy. There is no 2:)arliamentary situation to con- 
cern them, no public relations situation to concern 
them ; there is no free press to concern them, and 
they can always act and, if they wish, strike in a 
way which will take us by surprise. Therefore, 
we must always be prepared and ready as long as 
they have the kind of military potential which 
they do have, and as long as they have the ex- 
pansionist ambitions which they do have. 

Q. Mr. Dulles, what are you hoping will he the 
outcome of the Bermuda talks? 

A. Well, these talks are the kind of talks which 
we have periodically with the heads of other gov- 
ernments with whom we have many relations. 
There are always a series of these talks throughout 
each year, and there are a number of matters of 
common concern to the British and ourselves that 
we will talk over, and I think we will come to a 
better understanding between ourselves. 

Q. Is the United States concerned about the 
presence of Russians in Antarctica, and is the 
United States prepared to do anything about 

them? 



A. We are concerned about their presence there. 
In fact, we are concei'ned about their presence 
almost anywhere. I have had talks on that sub- 
ject with your Prime Minister and your Foreign 
Minister. I think we. want to be very careful that 
the Soviets, under the guise of the Geophysical 
Year, don't engage in activities which are not 
contemplated by the scientists who outlined that 
year. 

Q. Mr. Dulles, in view of what you just said 
about the danger of sudden Communist attach it 
ivould be possible legally for tlie United States to 
act immediately under the SEATO treaty if that 
attack occurred in this region? 

A. Yes, it would be. 

Q. Mr. Dulles, has the Australian viewpoint on 
Dutch New Guinea been put to you, and, if so, have 
you had any reaction to it? 

A. About New Guinea, no, we have not had any 
particular talks about that. I think the problem 
comes up annually at the United Nations. It 
came up again this year. I forget what the dispo- 
sition was. But our position in that matter is 
well known. There is nothing new to develop on 
that. 

■Middle East 

Q. Mr. Dulles, do you feel that the United 
Nations should take a stronger line with Egypt, 
as it took with Israel? 

A. I think that we should try to stand for the 
principles of the charter, the principle that dis- 
putes should be settled by peaceful means and in 
conformity with the principles of justice and in- 
ternational law. That is the first article of the 
charter. We have tried to make that prevail as 
against Israel, and I believe we should also try to 
make it prevail as against Egypt. 

Q. lias the United States of America ever re- 
gretted its decision to cancel the loan to Egypt for 
the Astoan Dam? 

A. No, I think if anything events have con- 
firmed that fact that it would not have been a 
wise operation for us to have tried to conduct to- 
gether. That was a gigantic proposition wlrich 
involved expenditures of probably a billion and 
a half dollars, by far the largest operation of the 
kind ever known in the history of the world. It 



April 1, 1957 



535 



would have taken about 15 years of close associa- 
tion ; it would have involved an austerity progi-am 
on the part of Egj-pt which I think the people 
would have come to resent and would have blamed 
the foreigners who were the partners in the enter- 
prise. The more we studied it, the more we came 
to the conclusion that it was not a suitable project 
for the United States and the United Kingdom, 
because they were in it also, to try to conduct with 
Egjpt. 

Q. Do you think it hastened the seizure of the 
canal company iy Egypt? 

A. Well, it is hard to say whether that hastened 
it or not. We now know from statements made 
by President Xasser and also made by President 
Tito that there had been plans to seize the Uni- 
versal Canal Company made approximately 2 
years before. The plans wei'e all ready and this 
may have provided the occasion, but, if there had 
not been this occasion, I am quite sirre another one 
would have been found. 

Q. Mr. Dulles, was it the hope of yowr Govern- 
ment when the United Nations first moved into 
the Gaza Strip that they would remain for some 
considerable time? 

A. We believe that it would be desirable to have 
the United Nations Emergency Force function as 
a barrier between Israel and the neighboring Arab 
countries. That has been difficult to work out, 
partly because Israel has not wanted to have any 
elements of the United Nations Force on the 
Israeli side of the boundary and Egypt has not 
wanted to have them exclusively on the Egyptian 
or Gaza Strip of the boundary. But I still hope 
something can be worked out there to give greater 
stability and tranquillity to the area and to put 
a stop to the raiding back and forth. 

Q. Did the Israeli Government agree to with- 
draic its forces on the assumption of the United 
Nations barrier? 

A. No, I would hardly say that, because Israel 
itself has been the principal obstacle to creating 
that ban-ier. As I pointed out, they have not 
wanted to have the United Nations forces actually 
on the boundary line. 

Q. Mr. Dulles, since the Philippines loill not 
yield on this question of jurisdiction, wiill the 
United States eventually meet the Philippine 
demands? 



A. I don't believe the issue is quite as sharp as 
your question suggests, and I am confident of this, 
that two countries which have as much in com- 
mon as the Philippine Republic and the United 
States have are going to find a mutually satisfac- 
tory answer to this problem. It is unthinkable 
that our whole problem of mutual security, which 
is so important to both of us, should collapse on 
this issue. I am sure it will not collapse because 
I have faith in the reasonableness and concilia- 
tory nature of both parties. 

Q. Could you give us some information on the 
ideas of the United States thinking of the present 
infernal strife in Indonesia? 

A. Well, it is always difficult and a little bit 
dangerous to try to diagnose what is essentially, 
I think, an internal development within In- 
donesia. But from the information that I have it 
would seem as though this was largely a problem J 
of the degree of autonomy to be accorded to the " 
different islands. It is a question of, you might 
say, the balance of power between the Federal 
Government and the various island communities. 
I do not believe that in its present manifestation 
it has any international aspects of significance. 

Communist China 

Q. What assurances, undertakings, and actions 
would the United States reguire of Communist 
China hefoi'e it would consider recognition of the 
Comm/unist regime? 

A. Well, as I said in my statement, the United 
States looks at it from the standpoint of doing or 
not doing what will serve the best interests of the 
United States. Now when you have a regime 
which is avowedly hostile to us and all that we 
stand for, to my mind it doesn't make much sense 
that we should take action to make it stronger and 
enhance its influence and prestige in the world. 
The reason for our action is what basicallj' I de- 
scribed and, if that reason disappeared, then I 
suppose we would have to reconsider the situation, 
but basically a nation conducts its foreign policy 
in such a way as to protect itself and recognition 
is something that is a privilege, not a right. No 
government has a right to have recognition. It 
is a privilege that is accorded, and we accord it 
when we think it will fit in with our national in- 
terest, and if it doesn't, we don't accord it. 

Q. Mr. Dulles, have you had talks today or talks 



536 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



at (HI hei'e with Lord Home and Mr. Menzles on 
the sititatwn in the Middle East, specifically the 
Gaza Strip? 

A. Well, we have not discussed it except in the 
most casual way because, as I have said, I have 
not here in Canberra tried to keep in touch with 
that situation. That is being dealt with, from 
the standpoint of the United States, in Washing- 
ton. And while we have alluded to it casually as 
we have met together on various topics, we have 
not had any serious talks about the matter because 
I have said to them the same thing that I have 
said to you here — I am not handling that phase of 
the matter for the Government of the United 
States. At the present time it is being handled by 
the Acting Secretary of State in Washington. 

Q. Can you express your views on the jwbu/re 
form of administration of the Suez Canal? 

A. Well, the views that we hold are those that 
were expressed first at the conference in London 
where the 18 nations, including the United States, 
adopted certain proposals and the matter was fur- 
ther discussed in the Security Council of the 
United Nations and there the United States, as 
a member of the Security Council of the United 
Nations, voted for the so-called six principles. 
Then there were private discussions on the ap- 
plication of those six principles which were con- 
ducted by the Secretary-General as between the 
Foreigii Secretaries of the United Kingdom, 
France, and Egypt, and those were expressed and 
embodied in a letter which the Secretary-General 
made public to the members of the United Na- 
tions. That all advanced the matter quite a long 
way toward what we think is an acceptable so- 
lution, and if that could be brought to a conclu- 
sion, as was forecast at that time, I think it would 
be generally acceptable. 

Q. Mr. Dulles, referring again to atomic xoeap- 
ons, would the United States forces in the Pa- 
cific have quick access to them, in an emergency? 

A. The United States forces, yes indeed. Our 
forces almost everywhere nowadays have atomic 
weapons as almost a normal part of their equip- 
ment. Now we don't take them everywhere, but 
so far as they are on American soil and under 
American jurisdiction or on American ships, 
American planes, they have immediate access to 
atomic capabilities. 



Q. Folloiving that, Mr. Dulles, the Commander 
in Chief of NATO said on his appointment that 
he would use, on hehalf of NATO, he would make 
the fullest use of all atomic weapons. Does that 
policy also apply to the combined forces of 
SEATO? 

A. Well, of course we don't have quite the 
same military setup. There is no commander of 
a joint operation in Seato as is the case with 
Nato, where there is a Saceur, the Supreme Com- 
mander of Europe, who has the operational re- 
sponsibility for forces of a number of different 
nationalities. But the United States forces which 
are committed to the defense of Seato would have 
the same atomic capability as the United States 
forces do in Nato. 

Q. Does the United States envisage ever using 
the Woomera rocket range for rocket testing? 

A. Now you are out of my depth. I don't know. 
That is a matter that the Defense people would 
Imow about, but I don't know. 

Q. There was some speculation that Mr. Menzies 
loould he asking you for a clear definition of 
United States policy on the Middle East during 
your visit here. I guess it was only speculation, 
but I loonder if you had been asked for that. 

A. No, I wasn't asked for that. I think our 
position is fairly clear. I will take one more ques- 
tion, and I have to get ready for dinner with Lord 
Home. 

Q. Have you a clear view of United States pol- 
icy on the Middle East? 

A. Have I a clear Adew of it ? I think so, yes. 



Working Group on German Reunifica- 
tion Completes Report 

Press release 149 dated March 15 

The Working Group, consisting of representa- 
tives of the United States, the United Kingdom, 
France, and the Federal Republic of Germany, 
which has been meeting at Washington to review 
the problem of German reunification in relation 
to European security, has now completed a report 
for the consideration of the four governments.^ 



' For an announcement of the meeting, which began on 
Mar. 6, and the names of the chief representatives of the 
four governments, see Bdxletin of Mar. 25, 1957, p. 491. 



AptW 7, 7957 



537 



German Minister for Atomic Affairs 
To Visit the United States 

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the 
Department of State announced on March 12 
(press release 136) that Siegfried Balke, German 
Federal Minister for Atomic Affairs, would arrive 
March 13, aboard the S.S. United States. He will 
be in the United States about 10 days. 

In response to an invitation from the Depart- 
ment of State and Lewis L. Strauss, Chairman of 
the Atomic Energy Commission, Dr. Balke will 
proceed to Washington for talks with officials of 
the Department of State and the Atomic Energy 
Commission. Afterward, the Minister will visit 
the first full-scale nuclear power plant mider con- 
struction at Shippingport, Pa., and the Commis- 
sion's National Laboratories at Lemont, 111., and 
Oak Ridge, Tenn. Before returning to Germany, 
Dr. Balke will visit Canada. 



Mr. Stassen To Represent U.S. 
at London Disarmament Meetings 

Press release 139 dated March 13 

Harold E. Stassen, Special Assistant to the 
President, will represent the U.S. Government at 
the forthcoming meetings of the Disarmament 
Subcommittee of the United Nations Disarma- 
ment Commission, which are expected to convene 
at London on March 18, 1957. 

Amos J. Peaslee, formerly American Ambas- 
sador to Australia, will be the Deputy U.S. 
Representative. 

The United Nations Disarmament Commission 
was established by the General Assembly in 1952 
and is concerned with preparing proposals on all 
aspects of the regulation of armed forces and 
armaments, including nuclear weapons. The 
Commission is composed of the 11 members of the 
United Nations Security Council and Canada. 
In 1953, on recommendation of the General As- 
sembly, the Disarmament Commission set up a 
Subcommittee of Five — Canada, France, the 
United Kingdom, the United States, and the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics — to seek in 
private an acceptable solution of the disarmament 
problem. This Subcommittee met most recently 
at Ijondon in the spring of 1956. It has now been 



reconvened to continue its efforts in accordance 
with a United Nations General Assembly reso- 
lution which passed 76-0 on February 15, 1957.^ 



Hungary's National Holiday 

Statement hy President Eisenhower 

White House press release dated March 15 

March 15th is a day of special significance to 
the Hungarian people. As a traditional Hun- 
garian national holiday commemorating the Hun- 
garian people's struggle of 1848-49 against for- 
eign domination, it symbolizes their enduring 
aspirations for freedom and national independ- 
ence. 

It is most fitting at this time, when the world 
has again witnessed the courageous sacrifice of the 
Hungarian people for these cherished ideals, that 
we should affirm our understanding of the mean- 
ing which this day has in the hearts and minds 
of Hungarians everywhere. 

The struggle for human freedom has been a 
vital force in the history and progress of civilized 
mankind. In our highly interdependent modern 
society this struggle, wherever waged, has neces- 
sarily become the common concern of all human- 
ity. Today, as in the time of Louis Kossuth, the 
American people deeply sympathize with the just 
demands of the Himgarian people for freedom and 
independence. 

The suffering which the Hungarian people have 
undergone for the sake of these principles has 
forged an vmbreakable bond with the free-world 
community. The Hungarian people have in their 
lifeblood written anew the message that an alien 
and unwelcome ideology cannot forcibly be im- 
posed on a free-spirited people. Wlien attempted, 
the inevitable result is the complete rejection of 
that ideology and hatred of those who seek to im- 
pose such tyranny upon others. In recognition 
of this truth which the Hungarian people have 
demonstrated, we can do no less than express our 
confident hope and our profound belief that the 
processes of enlightemnent and justice among men 
and nations will triumph in the end in Hungary 
and in all other oppressed nations. 



^ For backgi-oiind, see Bdi,i.etin of Feb. 11, 1957, p. 225, 
and Mar. 11, 1957, p. 423. 



538 



Department of State Bulletin 



Department Announcement Regarding 
Canadian Ambassador to Egypt 

Press release 152 dated March 16 

The Canadian Embassy has had discussions 
■with the Department of State with regard to state- 
ments concerning E. H. Norman, now Canadian 
Ambassador to Egypt, made on March 14 during 
hearings of the Senate Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee. 

The Department of State notes that comments 
were made in the committee hearings which could 
be interpreted as assigning to Mr. Norman certain 
questionable political affiliations. It should be 
pointed out that the investigation being under- 
taken by the committee lies entirely within the 
conti'ol of the committee. Allegations which may 
have been made regarding Mr. Norman in the 
course of the hearing do not represent opinions of 
the U.S. Government. 

The United States maintains the friendliest re- 
lations with Canada and has every confidence in 
the Canadian Government's judgment in the selec- 
tion of its official representatives. 



Tenth Anniversary of 
Greek-Turkish Aid Program 

Following are the texts of messages sent hy 
President Eisenhoioer on March 12 to King Paul 
of Greece and President Celal Bayar of Turkey 
on the 10th anniversary of the Greeh-Turkish Aid 
Program. 

Message to King of Greece 

White House press release dated March 12 

YoTjR Maji:sty: I am delighted to convey to 
you my greetings on the occasion of the anniver- 
sary of a decade of Greek-American coopera- 
tion in the interest of security and economic 
progress. 

Ten years ago, Greece was fighting bravely for 
its very existence against the onslaught of com- 
munist imperialism. I acclaim Greek achieve- 
ment in winning that struggle and then repairing 
the devastation it had caused, and in continuing to 
play an important part in the defense of the free 
world. 

I am proud that Greece and the United States 



have stood together during this difficult period. 
The partnership of our countries is a striking ex- 
ample of the way in which free nations working 
together can contribute to the peace and security 
of the international community. 
Most respectfully, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

Message to President of Turkey 

White House press release dated March 12 

Dear Mr. President: On the occasion of the 
anniversary of a decade of Turkish-American co- 
operation in the interest of security and economic 
progress, I am delighted to convey to you my 
greetings. I acclaim the accomplishments of Tur- 
key during the past ten years in strengthening its 
position of enlightened leadership, and in taking 
an important part in the defense of the free world. 

I am proud that Turkey and the United States 
have stood together during this difficult period. 
The partnersliip of our countries is a striking ex- 
ample of the way in which free nations working 
together can contribute to the peace and security 
of the international community. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



Pan American Games 

Press release 142 dated March 13 

In view' of extensive 'press inquiries regarding 
the appropriation for the Pan American games 
scheduled to he held at Cleveland in 1959, Roy R. 
Rubottom, Jr., Acting Assistant Secretary for 
Inter-Amencan Affairs, and I. W. Carpenter, Jr., 
Assistant Secretary-Controller, made the follow- 
ing statements on March 13: 



STATEMENT BY MR. RUBOTTOM 

The Pan American games were inaugurated 
after World War II by the Pan American Sports 
Congress, an organization composed of 29 nations 
of the Western Hemisphere. They are patterned 
after the Olympic games and are to be held every 
4 years, the first having been held in Buenos Aires 
in 1951 and the second in Mexico City in 1955. It 
is my understanding that representatives of the 



AptW 7, 7957 



539 



city of Cleveland issued an invitation to this group 
to hold the 1959 games in their city, and on March 
11, 1955, this invitation was accepted by the Pan 
American Sports Congress and Cleveland was 
designated as the site for the 1959 games. 

Wlien the legislation was proposed, the Depart- 
ment commented as follows : 

This occasion will provide our country with an oppor- 
tunity to further promote pan-American friendship 
through the effective media of amateur sportsmanship. 
Our facilities, our hospitality and our treatment of the 
many visitors from abroad, both participants in the 
games and spectators, will be compared with that which 
was provided by Argentina and Mexico. It is important 
that this comparison not be to our discredit. Not only 
foreigners coming to Cleveland, but the millions who will 
follow the games abroad by press, radio and television 
will be apprised of the importance and attention our coun- 
try gives these games. They can make a long-term con- 
tribution to our foreign policy objectives by creating a 
broader understanding of our country and people and our 
recognition of the importance of our good neighbors of 
this hemisphere. 

It is the position of the Department that this under- 
taking by the city of Cleveland to be host to the Pan- 
American Games in 1959 merits appropriate support from 
the Federal Government. It may be appropriate to point 
out that the National Governments of both Argentina and 
Mexico provided substantial financial support in the 
organization of the games In their capitals. 

On July 30, 1956, a joint resolution of Congress 
was approved as Public Law 833 and reads as 
follows : 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States of America in Congress as- 
sembled. That there is hereby authorized to be appropri- 
ated out of moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appro- 
priated tie sum of $5,000,000 for III Pan American Games 
(1959). The said appropriation shall be available for 
the purpose of promoting and insuring the success of the 
Pan American games to be held in Cleveland, Ohio, in 
1959 and shall be expended in the discretion of the organi- 
zation sponsoring said games, subject to such audit as 
may be prescribed by the Comptroller General of the 
United States. 



STATEMENT BY MR. CARPENTER 

The Department of State is in no way responsi- 
ble for the issuance of the invitation for the games 
to be held in Cleveland. The Department's inter- 
est is based on its desire that the games be held in 



circumstances and in an atmosphere which will 
promote friendly relations among the nations of 
this hemisphere. Since an American city is the 
host, it is particularly important that our foreign 
guests depart with a feeling that they have been 
among sincere friends. 

An appropriation has been included in the De- 
partment's budget for fiscal year 1958. The De- 
partment is not in a position to speak to the de- 
tails for which these funds are required. Officials 
of the city of Cleveland and of the Pan American 
Games Foundation are familiar with that. 

The Department has no substantive responsi- 
bility for these games. Neither will it have a 
voice with regard to the manner in which these 
funds will be spent. It would seem appropriate, 
therefore, that justification for these funds should 
be advanced by the representatives of the Cleve- 
land Pan American Games Foundation, which 
organization would have the responsibility rather 
than the Department. 

The Department believes that the inclusion of 
this type of estimate in the State Department 
appropriation stinicture is vmdesirable since the 
State Department does not customarily engage 
in actually spending funds for activities of this 
kind within the United States. The Department 
will have no objection if this item were to be re- 
moved from its appropriation chapter. 



Letters of Credence 

Haiti 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Haiti, 
Dantes Bellegarde, presented his credentials to 
President Eisenhower on March 11. For the 
texts of the Ambassador's remarks and the Presi- 
dent's reply, see Department of State press release 
127. 

Chile 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Chile, 
Mariano Puga, presented his credentials to Presi- 
dent Eisenhower on March 12. For the texts of 
the Ambassador's remarks and the President's re- 
ply, see Department of State press release 133. 



540 



Departmenf of Stafe Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ' 

Adjourned During March 1957 

U.N. General Assembly: 11th Session New York Nov. 12, 1956-Mar. 

9, 1957. 

U.N. ECOSOC Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and New York Feb. 18-Mar. 15 

Protection of Minorities: 9th Session. 

ICAO Technical Panel on Teletypewriter Montreal Feb. 19-Mar. 8 

U.N. ECE Working Party on Gas Problems: 2d Session Geneva Feb. 25-Mar. 1 

U.N. ECOSOC Population Commission: 9th Session New York Feb. 25-Mar. 8 

ILO Governing Body: 134th Session (and Committees) Geneva Feb. 25-Mar. 9 

International Sugar Council: Statistical Committee London Mar. 4 (1 day) 

U.N. ECOSOC Committee on Nongovernmental Organizations . . New York Mar. 4-6 

SEATO Engineering Workshop Study Group Rawalpindi, Pakistan . . . Mar. 4-7 

International Sugar Council: Executive Committee London Mar. 5 (1 day) 

International Sugar Council: 12th Session London Mar. 6-7 

FAO Committee on Relations with International Organizations . Rome Mar. 7-8 

U.N. ECAFEIndustrv and Trade Committee: 9th Session .... Bangkok Mar. 7-17 

SEATO Council: 3d Meeting Canberra Mar. 11-13 

Technical Advisory Council of Inter-American Institute of Agri- Turrialba, Costa Rica . . . Mar. 11-14 

cultural Sciences: 2d Meeting. 

FAO Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Meeting on Wheat and Coarse Rome Mar. 11-15 

Grains. 

International North Pacific Fisheries Commission: Ad Hoc Com- Tokyo Mar. 11-17 

mittee for Study of Reports Submitted Under Article III 1 (a) of 

the International North Pacific Fisheries Convention. 

9th Pakistan Science Conference Peshawar, West Pakistan . . Mar. 11-18 

ILO Inland Transport Committee: 6th Session Hamburg Mar. 11-23 

International North Pacific Fisheries Commission: Standing Com- Tokyo Mar. 18-23 

mission on Biology and Research. 

U.N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: 13th Ses- Bangkok Mar. 18-28 

sion. 

FAO Committee on Commodity Problems: 28th Session .... Rome Mar. 18-29 

International Tin Study Group and Management Committee: 9th London Mar. 19-20 

Meeting. 

WMO Working Group on Networks of the Commission for Synoptic DeBilt, Netherlands .... Mar. 19-30 

Meteorology. .,, , >,».»» 

U.S.-U.K. Bermuda Meeting Bermuda Mar. 21-23 

in Session as of March 31, 1957 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: Standing Committee on Petitions. . . New York Feb. 18- 
U.N. Arf //oc Committee on Establishment of Special U.N. Fund for New York Mar. 11- 

Economic Development (SUNFED). ,, „ 

ICAO Aerodromes, Air Routes, and Ground Aids Division: 6th Montreal Mar. 12- 

Session. ..t -.r , i>i , . 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 19th Session New York Mar. 14- 

U.N. Disarmament Commission: Subcommittee of Five London Mar. 18- 

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Status of Women: 11th Session . New York Mar. 18- 

ICEM Executive Committee: 7th Session Geneva Mar. 28- 

Scheduied April 1-June 30, 1957 

FAO Cocoa Studv Group: Statistical Subcommittee Rome Apr. 1- 

UPU Executive and Liaison Committee Lausanne Apr. 1- 



* Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, Mar. 1.5. 1957. Asterisks Indicate tentative dates and places. 
Following is a list of abbreviations: U.N., United Nations; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council: ICAO, International 
Civil Aviation Organization ; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe ; ILO, International Labor Organization ; SEATO, 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization : FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization ; ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia 
and the Far East • WMO, World Meteorological Organization ; ICEM, Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion- UPU Universal Postal Union: UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; 
UNICEP United Nations Children's Fund : GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ; ITU, International Tele- 
commimication Union ; NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization ; WHO, World Health Organization ; UNREF, United 
Nations Refugee Fund ; PAIGH, Pan American Institute of Geography and History ; PASO, Pan American Sanitary 
Organization. 

April I, 7957 541 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 

Scheduled April 1-June 30, 1957 — Continued 

ILO Advisory Committee on Salaried Employees and Professional Geneva Apr. 1- 

Workers: 4th Session. 

UNESCO Intergovernmental Advisory Committee on the Major Paris Apr. 1- 

Project on Mutual Appreciation of Asian and Western Cultural 

Values: 1st Meeting. 

FAO European Commission for Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease: Rome Apr. 2- 

4th Session. 

FAO Special Committee on Observer Status Rome Apr. 2- 

FAO Cocoa Study Group: Executive Committee Rome Apr. 4- 

ICEM Subcommittee on Coordination of Transport Geneva Apr. 5- 

ICEM Council: 6th Session Geneva Apr. 8- 

U.N. Scientific Committee on the Eflfects of Atomic Radiation: 3d Geneva Apr. 8- 

Meeting. 

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights: 13th Session . . . Geneva Apr. 8- 

U.N. ECAFE: 5th Regional Conference of Asian Statisticians . . . Bangkok Apr. 8- 

UNICEF Executive Board and Program Committee New York Apr. 8- 

ILO Tripartite Working Party on Wages, Hours of Work, and Geneva Apr. 11- 

Manning on Board Ship. 

United States World Trade Fair New York Apr. 14- 

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 23d Session New York Apr. 16- 

Inter- American Commission of Women: Technical Experts and Mexico, D. F Apr. 20- 

Administrative Heads of Women's Labor Bureaus. 

FAO International Poplar Commission: 9th Session Paris Apr. 22- 

International Poplar Congress Paris Apr. 22- 

ICAO Legal Committee: Subcommittee on Hire, Charter, and Madrid Apr. 24- 

Interchange of Aircraft. 

2d European Civil Aviation Conference Madrid Apr. 24- 

9th ILO International Conference of Labor Statisticians .... Geneva Apr. 24- 

U.N. ECE Steel Committee and Working Parties Geneva Apr. 24- 

Inter-American Committee of Presidential Representatives: 3d Washington Apr. 29- 

Meeting. 

ITU Administrative Council: 12th Session Geneva Apr. 29- 

U.N. ECOSOC Narcotic Drugs Commission: 12th Session . . . . New York Apr. 29- 

U.N. Economic Commission for Europe: 12th Session Geneva Apr. 29- 

South Pacific Commission: Conference on Review of the Commis- Canberra Apr. 30- 

sion. 

International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage: 3d Congress. San Francisco May 1- 

10th International Cannes Film Festival Cannes May 2- 

NATO Council: Ministerial Meeting Bonn May 2- 

ILO Mptal Trades Committpe: 6th Si'ssion Geneva May 6- 

FAO Technical Meeting on Soil Fertility for Latin America .... Turrialba, Costa Rica . . . May 6- 

U.N. ECE Seminar on Industrial Statistics Athens May 6- 

U.N. ECOSOC Social Commission: 11th Session New York May 6- 

FAO European Forestrv Commission: 9th Session Rome May 7- 

WHO: 10th World Hpalth Assembly Geneva May 7- 

International Hydrographic Bureau: 7th Congress Monte Carlo May 7- 

Inter- American Travel Congresses: Permanent Executive Com- Washington May 10- 

mittee. 

FAO Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council: 7th Session Bandung May 13- 

U.N. ECAFE Highway Subcommittee: Seminar on Highway Tokyo Mav 13- 

Safety. 

U.N. Economic Commission for Latin America: 7th Session ... La Paz May 15- 

International Conference for Uses of Radar in Marine Navigation . Genoa May 16- 

International Cotton Advisory Committee: 16th Plenary Meeting . Istanbul May 20- 

Intf'rnational Commission for Northwest Atlantic Fisheries: 7th Lisbon May 20- 

Meeting. 

Customs Cooperation Council: 10th Session Brussels May 27- 

WHO Executive Board: 20th Session Geneva May 27- 

ILO Governing Body: 135th Session Geneva May 27- 

U.N. ECE Housing Committee: 14th Session and Working Parties . Geneva May 27- 

UNREF Standing Program Subcommittee: 5th Meeting Geneva May 27- 

UNESCO Executive Board: 48th Session Paris May 27- 

PAIGH Directing Council: 2d Meeting Rio de Janeiro May* 

Inter-Ameriean Commission of Women: 12th General Assembly . . Washington June 1- 

FAO Council: 26th Session Madrid June 3- 

UNREF Executive Committee: 5th Session G?neva June 3- 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Small-Scale Industries and Handi- India June 3- 

craft Marketing: 5th Meeting. 

World Power Conference : International Executive Council .... Belgrade June 4- 

World Power Conference: Sectional Meeting Belgrade June 5- 

International Labor Conference: 40th Session Geneva June 5- 

FAO Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission: 4th Session Bandung June 8- 

542 Deparfment of Sfafe BuUefin 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 



Scheduled April 1-June 30, 1957 — Continued 

GATT Balance-of-Payments Consultations 

U.N. ECE Inland Transport Committee: Working Party on Trans- 
port of Dangerous Goods. 

PASO Executive Committee: 31st Meeting 

ICAO Panel on Future Requirements for Turbo-jet Aircraft: 3d 
Meeting. 

WMO Commission for Aerology: 2d Session 

WMO Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation: 
2d Session. 

7th International Film Festival 

FAO Technical Advisory Committee on Desert Locust Control: 7th 
Meeting. 

International Rubber Study Group: 13th Meeting 

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea: 45th Meeting . 

International Whaling Commission: 9th Meeting 

U.N. ECAFE Iron and Steel Subcommittee: 7th Session 

FAO Desert Locust Control Committee: 4th Session 

U.N. ECOSOC Coordination Committee 

International Wheat Council: 22d Session 



Geneva June 10- 

Geneva June 11- 

Washington June 12- 

Montreal June 17- 

Paris June 18- 

Paris June 18- 

Berlin June 21- 

Morocco* June 23*- 

Djakarta June 24- 

London June 24- 

London June 24- 

Bangkok . . June 24- 

Morocco* June 2.5*- 

Geneva June 25- 

London June 



Compliance With U.N. Resolution Calling for Withdrawal of Israel 
From Egyptian Territory 



FoUoioing is the text of a statement made hy 
Henry Cabot Lodge, U.S. Representative to the 
General Assembly, on March 8, together with a 
statement made by Secretary-General Dag Ham- 
marskjold in the plenary session of February 22 
and a report by the Secretary-General on March 8. 



STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR LODGE, MARCH 8 

U.S. delegation press release 2640 

Today marks compliance with our first resolu- 
tion of February 2 ^ for the withdrawal of Israel 
from Egypt. The way now lies open to cari-y out 
our second resolution, which aims at acliieving 
peaceful conditions after withdrawal. 

This is an event in the history of the United 
Nations which is full of deep meaning for all 
people in the world — wherever they may be— who 
wish to be saved from the scourge of war. 

It is an event which reflects credit on Israel, a 
nation which heeded the call of world opinion. 

It is an event which reflects credit on those mem- 
bers, notably Egypt, who by patience and forbear- 



ance demonstrated their steadfast faith in the 
United Nations. 

It is an event which reflects credit on the skill, 
wisdom, and devotion to duty of the Secretary- 
General. 

It is an event which proves again the value of 
the United Nations as an organization which plays 
an indispensable part in causing the world, as in 
this case, to take a turn away from war. 

The United States welcomes the report of the 
Secretary-General and pledges its support to as- 
sure that what has now been achieved will be used 
as a foundation on which to build a good future 
for the people of the Near East free from the dan- 
ger of conflict. 

As is fitting, the report dwells on the construc- 
tive purposes of our second resolution of February 
2} This resolution stated that after full with- 
drawal of Israel from the Sharm el-Sheikh and 
Gaza areas the scrupulous maintenance of the 
Armistice Agreement required the placing of 
Unef on the Egyptian-Israel demarcation line and 
the implementation of other measures proposed in 
the Secretary-General's report of 24 January ^ to 



' Bulletin of Feb. 25, 1957, p. 327. 



' Ihid., Feb. 18, 1957, p. 275. 



April ?, 1957 



543 



assist in achieving a situation conducive to the 
maintenance of peaceful conditions in the area. 

The steady worsening of conditions along the 
armistice line which culminated in the hostilities 
of last October demonstrated how fear of aggres- 
sion on one side begets fear on the other. Out of 
this fear comes the danger for the future. 

It was to head off this danger that the Assembly 
endorsed the deployment of the United Nations 
Emergency Force on the armistice line and at the 
Straits of Tiran. It was with this danger in 
mind that I pointed out on January 28 ^ that the 
deployment of the United Nations Emergency 
Force must be such as to assure a separation of the 
armed forces of both sides as required by the 
Armistice Agreement. 

Now that we approach this new stage in the de- 
ployment of the Unef, the United States appeals 
to all concerned to cooperate in giving effect to 
the practical and sensible measures which are set 
out in the reports by the Secretary-General of 
January 24, February 22, and March 8, and which 
are called for by the second resolution of Febru- 
ary 2. The United States in particular is con- 
vinced that the continued deployment of the 
United Nations Emergency Force in accordance 
with the second resolution of February 2 affords 
the best hope of allaying the fear which has ani- 
mated both sides and, thus, of establishing a basis 
for further progress toward peace and tranquillity 
in that part of the world. 

We have made a wonderful beginning. We 
have nursed the patient through several crises. 
Now let us give him a chance to put some flesh on 
his bones, and build up an immunity to future 
illness. 



STATEMENT BY SECRETARY-GENERAL, FEB- 
RUARY 22 

United Nations press release dated February 22 

On February 11th I submitted the report (A/3527),' in 
pursuance of the resolution of the General Assembly of 2 
February (A/Res/461). Events since then have not 
called for .i further report and I have presented none. 

It is well-known, however, that discussions have been 
carried on outside this house in the continuing resolve to 
attain the goals defined in the several resolutions of the 



'Ibid., p. 270. 

'Ibid., Mar. 11, 1057, p. 394. 



General Assembly. I have maintained close contact with 
these activities and have been kept well-informed on them. 
These serious efforts to break through the unfortunate 
Impasse and to unlock the door to constructive endeavour 
are deserving of warm appreciation. 

Insofar as United Nations activities and positions are 
concerned, developments in the interim have given no 
reason to revise any of the substance of the previous re- 
port. However, in the light of some subsequent discus- 
sions in which I have engaged, I may make the following 
statement in the nature of a supplement to that report. 

"The Secretary-General states with confidence that it is 
the desire of the Government of Egypt that the take-over 
of Gaza from the military and civilian control of Israel — 
which, as has been the case, in the first instance would be 
exclusively by UNEF — will be orderly and safe, as it has 
been elsewhere. It may be added with equal confidence 
that the Government of Egypt, recognizing the present 
special problems and complexities of the Gaza area and 
the long-standing major responsibility of the United Na- 
tions there for the assistance of the Arab refugees, and 
having in mind also the objectives and obligations of the 
Armistice Agreement, has the willingness and readiness 
to make special and helpful arrangements with the United 
Nations and some of its auxiliary bodies, such as UNEWA 
and UNEF. For example, the arrangement for the use of 
UNEF in the area should ensure its deployment on the 
Armistice line at the Gaza Strip and the effective inter- 
position of the Force between the armed forces of Egypt 
and Israel. Similarly, the assistance of the United Na- 
tions and its appropriate auxiliary bodies would be en- 
rolled toward putting a definite end to all incursions and 
raids across the border from either side. Furthermore, 
with reference to the period of transition, such other ar- 
rangements with the United Nations may be made as will 
contribute towards safeguarding life and property in the 
area by providing eflicient and effective police protection; 
as will guarantee good civilian administration ; as will 
assure maximum assistance to the U.N. refugee pro- 
gramme; and as will protect and foster the economic 
development of the territory and its people." 



REPORT OF SECRETARY-GENERAL, MARCH 8 

U.N. doe. A/.3568 

I 

1. The General Assembly, on 2 February 1957, adopted 
a resolution (A/Res/460) in which, after recalling its 
previous resolutions on the same subject, the Assembly 
called upon Israel to complete its withdrawal behind the 
Armistice Demarcation Line without further delay. 

2. The Foreign Minister of Israel, on 1 March, an- 
nounced in the General .\ssembly the decision of the Gov- 
ernment of Israel to act in compliance with the re<iuest 
in this resolution. The same day the Secretary-General 
instructed the Commander of the United Nations Emer- 
gency Force, as a matter of the utmost urgency, to arrange 
for a meeting with the Israel Conniiander-iu-Chief, in 
order to agree with him on arrangements for the com- 



544 



Department of State Bulletin 



plete and unconditional withdrawal of Israel in accord- 
ance with the decision of the General Assembly. 

3. On 4 March, the Foreign Aliuister of Israel conflrnied 
to the General Assembly the Government of Israel's 
declaration of 1 March. The same day the Commander 
of the United Nations Emergency Force met at Lydda 
with the Israel Commander-in-Chief. Technical arrange- 
ments were agreed upon for the withdrawal of Israel and 
the entry of the United Nations Emergency Force in the 
Gaza Strip during the hours of curfew on the night of 
6/7 March. Arrangements were made for a similar take- 
over of the Sharm-al-Shaik area on 8 March. 

4. On 6 March, General Burns reported that the "United 
Nations Emergency Force troops are now in position in 
all camps and centres of population in Gaza Strip". At 
that stage the operation had been carried out according 
to plan and without incidents. At 0400 GMT 7 March 
all Israelis had withdrawn from the Gaza Strip with 
the exception of an Israel troop unit at Rafah camp. By 
agreement, that last Israel element was to be withdrawn 
by 1600 GMT 8 March. Full withdrawal from the Sharm- 
al-Shaik area would be effected by the same time. 

5. On 7 March, the Commander of the United Nations 
Emergency Force notified the population of Gaza that "the 
United Nations Emergency Force, acting in fulfilment of 
its functions as determined by the General Assembly of 
the United Nations with the consent of the Government 
of Egypt, is being deployed in this area for the purpose 
of maintaining quiet during and after the withdrawal of 
the Israeli defense forces. Until further arrangements 
are made, the United Nations Emergency Force has as- 
sumed responsibility for civil affairs in the Gaza Strip. 
. . . UNRWA will continue to carry out its resjMnsibility 
and will continue to provide food and other services as 
in the past. UNEF and UNRWA will do their best to 
relieve pressing needs which may arise from the present 
situation". 

6. The Secretary-General, thus, is now in a position to 
report full compliance with General Assembly resolution 
I of 2 February 1957 (A/Res/460). 

II 

7. On 2 February, the General Assembly adopted a sec- 
ond resolution (A/Res/461) "recognizing that with- 
drawal by Israel must be followed by action which would 
assure progress towards the creation of i)eaceful con- 
ditiou.s" in the area. Under the terms of this resolution, 
the completion of withdrawal puts its operative para- 
graphs into full effect. 

S. In the resolution on action to foUow a withdrawal, 
the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General, in 
consultation with the parties concerned, to carry out 
measures referred to in the resolution and to report as 
appropriate to the General Assembly. The Secretary- 
General will now devote his attention to this task. The 
stand of the General Assembly in the resolution is to be 
interpreted in the light of the report of the Secretary- 
General of 24 January (A/3512), which the Assembly 
noted "with appreciation". 

9. Specifically, the General Assembly called upon the 
Governments of Egypt and Israel scrupulously to observe 
the provisions of the General Armistice Agreement be- 



tween Egypt and Israel of 24 February 1949 and stated 
that it considered that, after full withdrawal of Israel 
from the Sharm-al-Shaik and Gaza areas, the scrupulous 
maintenance of the Armistice Agreement "requires a plac- 
ing of the United Nations Emergency Force on the Egypt- 
Israel Armistice Demarcation Line". 

10. The Assembly further stated that it considered that 
the maintenance of the Armistice Agreement requires the 
implementation of "other measures as proposed in the 
Secretary-General's report", with due regard to the con- 
siderations set out therein, with a view to assist in 
achieving situations conducive to the maintenance of 
peaceful conditions in the area. This statement, as it 
was formulated, read together with the request to the 
Secretary-General to consult with the parties, indicates 
that the General Assembly wished to leave the choice of 
these "other measures" to be decided in the light of 
further study and consultations. 

Ill 

11. Arrangements made by the Commander of the 
United Nations Emergency Force provided for an initial 
take-over in Gaza by the Force. This was in accordance 
with the statement of the Secretary-General to the General 
Assembly on 22 February, that "the take-over of Gaza 
from the military and civilian control of Israel ... in 
the first instance would be exclusively by UNEF". In- 
structions from the Secretary-General to the Commander 
of the United Nations Emergency Force reflected the 
position thus reported to the General Assembly. The 
notification by the Commander quoted in section I above 
indicates the basis for this initial take-over as well as its 
extent. The same statement indicates the importance of 
the role that UNRWA can play in the initial take-over. 

12. In accordance with decisions of the General Assem- 
bly, UNRWA has important functions in relation to the 
refugees in Gaza, which constitute the major part of the 
population of the area. Because of these normal functions 
and of the additional contributions which that agency 
can make in aiding the non-refugee population, UNRWA 
is of essential assistance to the United Nations Emergency 
Force in its present operation. Therefore, and on the as- 
sumption that this course is in accordance with the Gen- 
eral Assembly's wishes, the Director of UNRWA has 
agreed with the Secretary-General in this phase of the 
development to extend its immediate assistance beyond 
its normal functions. This would be done in fields which 
are related to those functions and in which a sharing of 
responsibilities devolving on the United Nations Emer- 
gency Force at the initial take-over seems indicated. The 
Secretary-General wishes to express his appreciation 
for this assistance, of which he feels he can avail himself 
within the terms established for the United Nations Emer- 
gency Force as they have to be applied in the present phase 
of its activities. To the extent that UNRWA in this con- 
text is incurring additional costs, the reason for which 
is within the sphere of the responsibilities of the United 
Nations Emergency Force, a question of compensation will 
arise for later consideration. 

13. The United Nations may also incur other additional 
costs than those caused by the assistance rendered by 



April 1, 1957 



545 



DNRWA. The Emergency Force may be in need of ex- 
pert advice that can properly be provided by the Secre- 
tariat. If members of the Secretariat are taken over by 
the United Nations Emergency Force on a secondment 
basis, the cost obviously will be finally provided for as 
UNEP expenditures under the relevant resolutions of 
the General Assembly. In other cases costs should be 
carried by the Secretariat in the normal veay. 

14. The Secretary-General finally wishes to inform the 
General Assembly that arrangements will be made 
through which, without any change of the legal structure 
or status of the United Nations Truce Supervision Or- 
ganization, functions of UNTSO in the Gaza area will be 
placed under the operational control of the Force. A 
close co-operation between UNTSO and UNEF will be 
maintained. 

U.S. Delegations to 
International Conferences 

Inland Transport Committee of ILO 

The Department of State announced on March 
11 (press release 129) that the United States 
would be represented by the following tripartite 
delegation at the sixth session of the Inland Trans- 
port Committee of the International Labor Or- 
ganization, convening at Hamburg, Federal 
Republic of Germany, from March 11 to 23: 

Representinq the Govebnment op the United States 

Delegates 

Kenneth H. Tuggle, Commissioner, Interstate Commerce 
Commission 

Leon Greenberg, Chief, Division of Productivity and Tech- 
nological Development, Bureau of Labor Statistics, De- 
partment of Labor 

Adviser 

George Tobias, Labor Attach^, American Consulate Gen- 
eral, Geneva, Switzerland 

Representing the Employees op the United States 

Delegate 

Ernest W. Harlan, Bruce Motor Freight, Des Moines, 
Iowa 

Representing the Workers op the United States 

Delegates 

Rudolph Faupl, International Representative, Interna- 
tional Association of Machinists, AFL-CIO, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Harold Ulrlch, General Chairman, Brotherhood of Rail- 
way and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express 
and Station Employees, Boston, Mass. 

The Inland Transport Committee, one of eight 
industrial committees established by the Ilo in 
1945, is composed of government, worker, and 
employer representatives from specific industries. 



These committees examine labor problems in their 
particular industries. 

The agenda of the sixth session of the Inland 
Transport Committee, as fixed by the Governing 
Body at its 127th session (Eome, November 1954), 
includes reports concerning labor inspection in 
road transport; methods of improving organiza- 
tion of work and output in ports; and a general 
report, dealing particularly with (a) action taken 
in the various countries in light of the conclusions 
adopted at previous sessions of the Committee; 
(i) steps taken by the International Labor Office 
to follow up the studies and inquiries proposed by 
the Committee ; and (c) recent events and develop- 
ments in inland transport. 

The 26 countries which have been invited to send 
tripartite delegates to this meeting are: Argen- 
tina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, 
Colombia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, the 
Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, India, 
Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, 
Pakistan. Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Tur- 
key, the United Kingdom, and the United States. 

UNESCO Executive Board 

The Department of State announced on March 
11 (press release 130) the United States delegation 
to the 47th session of the Executive Board of the 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul- 
tural Organization (Unesco), which will meet at 
Paris on March 18. Prior to the convening of this 
session, an ad hoc committee will meet from 
March 11 to 15. 

Athelstan F. Spilhaus, Dean of the Institute of 
Technology, University of Minnesota, is the U.S. 
representative on the Executive Board of Unesco. 
Dr. Spilhaus will be assisted by the following ad- 
visers : Henry J. Kellermann, Counsel for Unesco 
Affairs, American Embassy, Paris; Guy Lee, 
Unesco Relations Staff, Department of State; and 
Byron Snyder, Office of International Administra- 
tion, Department of State. 

In addition to considering the report of the ad 
hoc committee on the reorganization of the Execu- 
tive Board and the schedule of meetings for the 
next 2 years, the 47th session will also consider 
necessary readjustments in Unesco's program and 
budget for 1957-58 to implement the decisions 
reached at the Ninth General Conference held at 
New Delhi in November 1956. 

It is expected that the Executive Board's 47th 
session will adjourn on March 28. 



546 



DeparlmenI of Slate Bulletin 



TREATY INFORMATION 



U.S. Signs Agreement With France on 
Defense Use of Technology 

Press release 135 dated March 12 

The Department of State announced on March 
12 the signing of an agreement with France to 
facilitate the exchange of patent rights and tech- 
nical information for defense purposes. The 
agreement was signed at Paris on March 12, 1957, 
by Christian Pineau, French Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, and Charles W. Yost, U.S. Charge d'Af- 
faires. The agreement with France entered into 
force on the date of signature. 

The agreement is expected to foster the ex- 
change of technology for defense purposes be- 
tween the two Governments and between the pri- 
vate industries of the two countries. Thus, it 
should be of reciprocal benefit in providing for 
national defense and in contributing to the mutual 
defense of the North Atlantic Treaty area. 

The agi-eement with France is the latest to be 
signed of a series negotiated with the Xato coun- 
tries and other countries with which the United 
States has mutual defense ties. Similar agree- 
ments have been signed with Italy, the United 
Kingdom, Belgium, Norway, the Netherlands, 
Greece, the Federal Eepublic of Germany, Turkey, 
and Japan. 

These agi-eements recognize that, whenever 
practicable, privately owned technology should 
generally be exchanged through commercial agree- 
ments between owners and users. They also note 
that rights of private owners of patents and tech- 
nical information should be fully recognized and 
protected in accordance with laws applicable to 
such rights. The agreements are also intended to 
assure fair treatment of private owners when they 
deal directly with a foreign government. In addi- 
tion, the agreements provide for the protection of 
technical information communicated through gov- 
ernment channels and for the establishment of 
arrangements by which owners of patentable in- 
ventions placed under secrecy by one government 
may obtain comparable protection in the other 
country. The agreements further provide that, 
as a general rule, when government-owned inven- 

Aprit 1, 1957 



tions are interchanged for defense purposes, this 
interchange will take place on a royalty-free basis. 

Each of the agreements provides for the estab- 
lishment of a Technical Property Committee to be 
composed of a representative of each government. 
These committees are charged with general respon- 
sibility for considering and making recommenda- 
tions on any matters relating to the agreements 
brought before them by either government, either 
on their own behalf or on behalf of their nationals. 
One of the specific functions of the committee is 
to make recommendations to the governments, 
either in particular cases or in general, concern- 
ing disparities in their laws affecting the compen- 
sation of owners of patents and technical informa- 
tion. 

The U.S. representative to the Technical Prop- 
erty Committees in Europe is assigned to the 
staff of the Defense Adviser, United States Mis- 
sion to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
and European Regional Organizations (Usro), 2 
Rue St. Florentin, Paris. 

Policy guidance for the U.S. representatives on 
the Technical Property Committees is provided 
by the Interagency Technical Property Commit- 
tee for Defense, which is chaired by the Depart- 
ment of Defense and includes representatives of 
the Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, 
the International Cooperation Administration, 
and the Government Patents Board. This com- 
mittee is assisted by an industry advisory group 
representing major sectors of American industry 
concerned with defense production. 

Educational Exchange Agreement 
With Ireland 

Press release 151 dated March 16 

An educational exchange agreement was signed 
at Dublin on March 16 between Ireland and the 
United States in connection with the use of the 
American grant counterpart fimd. The agree- 
ment was signed by Liam Cosgrove, Minister for 
External Affairs, on behalf of Ireland, and "Wil- 
liam Howard Taft III, American Ambassador, 
on behalf of the United States. 

The agreement provides that a sum of 500,000 
pounds sterling out of the grant counterpart fund 
(which totals approximately 6,142,000 pounds 
sterling) is to be allotted, in the words of the 
agreement, "to promote further mutual under- 

547 



standins: between the peoples of Ireland and the 
United States of America by wider exchange of 
knowledge tlirough educational contacts." 

The terms of the agreement provide that ap- 
proximately 25,000 pounds sterling shall be ex- 
pended annually for the purpose of financing 
studies, research, instruction, teaching, lecturing, 
and other educational activities on the part of 
Irish citizens in American schools, universities, 
and other institutions of higher learning on the 
one hand, and of American citizens in like educa- 
tional institutions in Ireland on the other. The 
funds available under the agreement may be used 
to finance transportation, tuition, maintenance, 
and other expenses for such educational activities. 

The scholarship exchange program will be ad- 
ministered by a joint Irish-American board in 
Dublin. The agreement will come into force when 
the Government of Ireland has notified the U.S. 
Government that the necessary legislative steps 
have been taken to implement the agreement.' 
Further details as to the operation of the agree- 
ment, and as to the manner in which applications 
for scholarship benefits under it are to be applied 
for, will be announced at a later date. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Aviation 

Agreement on joint financing of certain air navigation 

services in Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Done at 

Geneva September 25, 1956." 

Signatures : Sweden, November 15, 1956; Belgium, Can- 
ada, Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, and Italy, 
November 28, 1956. 

Acceptances deposited: Canada, January 18, 1957 ; Ice- 
land, February 18, 1957. 
Agreement on joint financing of certain air navigation 

services in Iceland. Done at Geneva September 25, 

1956.' 

Signatures: Sweden, November 15, 1956; Belgium, Can- 
ada, Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, and Italy. 
November 28, 1956. 

Acceptances deposited: Canada, January 18, 1957; Ice- 
land, February 18, 1957. 

Copyright 

Universal copyright convention. Done at Geneva Septem- 
ber 6, 19,52. Entered into force September 16, 1955. 
TIAS .3324. 
Accession deposited: Ecuador, March 5, 1957. 

Protocol 1 concerning application of the convention to the 
works of stateless persona and refugees. Done at 



Geneva September 6, 19.52. Entered into force Sep- 
tember 16, 1955. TIAS 3324. 
Accession deposited: Ecuador, March 5, 1957. 
Protocol 2 concerning application of the convention to 
the works of certain international organizations. Done 
at Geneva September 6, 1952. Entered into force Sep- 
tember 16, 1955. TIAS 3324. 
Accession deposited: Ecuador, March 5, 1957. 

Slave Trade 

Convention to suppress the slave trade and slavery. 
Signed at Geneva September 25, 1926. Entered into 
force March 9, 1927. 46 Stat. 2183. 
Accession deposited: Libya, February 14, 19.57. 

Trade and Commerce 

International convention to facilitate the importation of 
commercial samples and advertising material. Dated 
at Geneva November 7, 1952. Entered into force 
November 20, 1955." 

Notification iij United Kingdom of extension to: Aden, 
Barbados, British Guiana, British Honduras, Cyprus, 
Falkland Islands, Fiji, Gambia, Gibraltar, Gold 
Coast, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Kenya ', Leeward Islands 
(Antigua, Montserrat, St. Christopher, Nevis, An- 
guilla, and British Virgin Islands), Federation of 
Malaya, Malta," Mauritius, North Borneo, Federation 
of Nigeria, St. Helena, Sarawak, Seychelles, Sierra 
Leone, Singapore, Somaliland Protectorate, Tan- 
ganyika," Trinidad and Tobago," Uganda," the Wind- 
ward Islands (Tonga, Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia, 
and St. Vincent), and Zanzibar, February 5, 1957. 



BILATERAL 

El Salvador 

Treaty of friendship, commerce and consular rights. 
Signed at San Salvador February 22, 1926. Entered 
Into force September 5, 1930. 46 Stat. 2817. 
Notification hy the United States of elimination of arti- 
cle VI: February 8, 1957. 

Mexico 

Air transport agreement. Effected by exchange of notes 
at Mexico March 7, 1957. Enters into force June 5, 
1957. 

Sweden 

Agreement amending the agreement of .January 18, 1956 
(TIAS 3477) for cooperation concerning civil uses of 
atomic energy. Signed at Washington August 3, 1956. 
Entered into force: March 12, 1957 (date on which each 
Government received from the other written notifica- 
tion that it has complied with statutory and constitu- 
tional requirements). 

Thailand 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (68 Stat. 454, 4.55; 69 Stat. 44, 721). 
Signed at Bangkok March 4, 1957. Entered into force 
March 4, 1957. 

United Kingdom 

Agreement amending sections 5 and 6 of the financial 
agreement of December 6. 3945 (TIAS 1545) by provid- 
ing for the conditions under which annual installments 
may be deferred. Signed at Washington March 6, 1957. 
Enters into force when each Government notifies the 
other that it has approved the agreement. 



' Not in force. 
548 



■ Not in force for the United States. 
" With reservation. 



Department of State Bulletin 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Foreign Service Examination 

Press release 125 dated March 8 

The Department of State announced on Marclv 
8 that the semiannual Foreign Service officer ex- 
amination will be given on June 24, 1957, at more 
than 65 centers throughout the United States. 
This examination is open to all who meet the age 
and citizenship requirements outlined below. 

Officials of the Department of State estimate 
that several hundred new Foreign Service officers 
will be required during the next year to fill posi- 
tions overseas and in Washington, D.C. After 
completing 3 months of training at the Foreign 
Service Institute in Washington, some of the new 
officers will take up duties at the 270 American 
embassies, legations, and consulates around the 
world. At these posts, which range in size from 
the large missions such as Paris and London to 
the one-man posts such as Perth, Australia, the 
new officer may expect to do a variety of tasks, in- 
cluding administrative work ; political, economic, 
commercial, and labor reporting; consular duties; 
and assisting and protecting Americans and pro- 
tecting U.S. property abroad. Other new officers 
will be assigned to the Department's headquarters 
at Washington, where they will engage in research 
or other substantive work, or in the many adminis- 
trative tasks which are essential to the day-to-day 
conduct of foreign affairs. 

To explain fully these opportunities in the 
Foreign Service which await the qualified young 
men and women of the United States, Foreign 
Service officers will visit a large number of col- 
leges and universities this spring. In order to 
make known the diversified needs of the Depart- 
ment of State and Foreign Service, these officers 
will talk not only with promising students of his- 
tory, political science, and international relations 
but also with those who are specializing in eco- 
nomics, foreign languages, and business and public 
administration. 

Those successful in the 1-day written examina- 
tion, which tests the candidate's facility in Eng- 
lish expression, general ability, and background, 
as well as his proficiency in a modern foreign 



language, will subsequently be given an oral ex- 
amination by panels which will meet in regional 
centers throughout the United States. Those can- 
didates who pass the oral test will then be given 
a physical examination and a security investiga- 
tion. Upon completion of these phases, the candi- 
date will be nominated by the President as a 
Foreign Service officer of class 8, vice consul, and 
secretary in the diplomatip service. 

To be eligible to take the examination, candi- 
dates must be at least 20 years of age and under 31, 
as of May 1, 1957, and must also be American citi- 
zens of at least 9 years' standing. Although a 
candidate's spouse need not be a citizen on the 
date of the examination, citizenship must have 
been obtained prior to the date of the officer's 
appointment. 

Starting salaries for successful candidates range 
from $4,750 to $5,350 per year, depending upon 
the age, experience, and family status of the indi- 
vidual. In addition, insurance, medical, educa- 
tional, and retirement benefits are granted, as well 
as annual and sick leave. 

Application forms may be obtained by writing 
to the Board of Examiners for the Foreign Serv- 
ice, Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 
The closing date for filing the application is May 
1, 1957. 



Confirmations 

The Senate on March 14 confirmed David K. E. Bruce 
to be Ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany. 
(For biographic details, see press release 89 dated Feb- 
ruary 25.) 

The Senate on March 14 confirmed C. Douglas Dillon 
to be a Deputy Under Secretary of State. (For bio- 
graphic details, see press release 22 dated January 14.) 

The Senate on March 14 confirmed Elbridge Durbrow 
to be Ambassador to Viet-Nam. (For biographic details, 
see press release 104 dated March 1.) 

The Senate on March 14 confirmed Amory Houghton 
to be Ambassador to France. (For biographic details, 
see press release 88 dated February 25. ) 

The Senate on March 14 confirmed Thorsten V. Kali- 
jarvl to be an Assistant Secretary of State. (For bio- 
graphic details, see press release 98 dated February 28.) 

The Senate on March 14 confirmed G. Frederick Rein- 
hardt to be Counselor of the Department of State. (For 
biographic details, see press release 56 dated February 7.) 

The Senate on March 14 confirmed William J. Sebald 
to be Ambassador to Australia. (For biographic details, 
see press release 90 dated February 25.) 



April 1, 1957 



549 



Resignations 

Herman Phleger as Legal Adviser, effective about April 
1. ( For text of Mr. Plileger's letter to the President and 
the President's reply, see White House press release dated 
March 13.) 



PUBLICATIONS 



Foreign Relations Volume 

Press release 107 dated March 4 

The Department of State on March 16 released 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1939, 
Volume II, General, The British Commonwealth, 
and Europe. All the other volumes of the five 
for 1939 have previously been published except 
Volume- V, The American Republics, -which is in 
process of preparation. 

The first 212 pages of this volume contain 
papers on various general subjects: Antarctic 
claims and exploration, assistance to refugees, 
fisheries off the coast of Alaska, and a number of 
technical and economic pi'oblems. 

Documentation on relations with the British 
Commonwealth (pages 213-364) includes sections 
on the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and 
India. Problems of relations between the United 
States as a neutral and the British as belligerents 
are covei'ed, as well as other usual matters of di- 
plomacy. Among the war subjects treated is the 
sinking of the S. S. Athenia with loss of American 
lives. It was only after the war that it was fully 
established that this was an act of a German 
submarine. 

The remaining 534 pages of documentation 
cover relations with individual continental Euro- 
pean countries. The Soviet Union is omitted, 
since the record for that country has already been 
published in Foreign Relations of the United 
States, The Soviet Union, 1933-1939. As would 
be expected for a year in which the general Euro- 
pean war began, subjects of diplomacy included 
normal peacetime diplomatic relations as well as 
subjects connected with the crises leading to war 
and into the war itself. "Wliile the coming of the 
war is primarily treated in volume I, this volume 
contains the record on the absorption of Albania 
by Italy, problems arising from the annexation of 
Austria by Germany, and the Spanish Civil War. 



In the section on Italy are recorded suggestions by 
President Roosevelt regarding the opportunity 
for Mussolini to contribute to the maintenance of 
peace. The appointment of Myron C. Taylor as 
the President's personal representative to Pope 
Pius XII is documented in a section on the 
Vatican. 

Copies of volume II (vii, 911 pp.) may be ob- 
tained from the Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D.C., for $4 each. 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: March 11-17 

Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 
Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 

Press releases issued prior to March 11 which 
appear in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 107 
of March 4 and 125 of March 8. 

Subject 

Haiti credentials (rewrite). 

Dulles: SEATO Council, March 11. 

Delegation to ILO Inland Transport 
Committee (rewrite). 

Delegation to UNESCO Executive 
Board (rewrite). 

U.S. reply to Soviet note on Middle 
East. 

Ambassador Richards : departure 
statement. 

Chile credentials (rewrite). 

Herter : death of Admiral Byrd. 

U.S.-French agreement on defense use 
of technology. 

Visit of German Minister for Atomic 
Affairs. 

Statement on accident Involving Yugo- 
slav U.N. representative. 

Dulles: SEATO Council, March 12. 

Delegation to Disarmament Subcom- 
mittee meetings. 

Dulles: SB.\TO Council, March 13. 

SEATO communique. 

Statement on Pan American games. 

Lightner : statement ou amendments 
to Smith-Mundt Act. 

Dulles : press conference, Canberra, 
March 13. 

Murphy : "The U.S. Looks at the Mid- 
dle East." 

Folger nominated Ambassador to 
Belgium. 

Kalijarvi: statement on amending 
Anglo-American financial agreement 
of 1945. 

Christie retirement. 

Working Group on German reunifica- 
tion completes report. 

U.S. note to Dominican Government 
on disappearance of Gerald Murphy. 

Educational exchange agreement with 
Ireland. 

Announcement on Canadian Ambassa- 
dor to Egypt. 

♦Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


127 
128 
129 


3/11 
3/11 
3/11 


130 


3/11 


131 


3/11 


132 


3/11 


133 

*134 

135 


3/12 

3/12 
3/12 


136 


3/12 


*137 


3/i;j 


138 
139 


3/13 
3/13 


140 

141 

142 

tl43 


3/13 
3/13 
3/13 
3/13 


144 


3/14 


145 


3/14 


*146 


3/14 


tl47 


3/15 


*148 
149 


3/15 
3/15 


tloO 


3/16 


151 


3/16 


152 


3/16 



550 



Department of State Bulletin 



April 1, 1957 I n d 

American Republics. Pan American Games . . 539 

Asia. Third Meeting of the Council of tlie South- 
east Asia Treaty Organization (Dulles, text of 
communique) 527 

Atomic Energy. German Minister for Atomic Af- 
fairs To Visit the United States 538 

Australia. Confirmations (Sebald) 549 

Canada. Department Announcement Regarding 

Canadian Ambassador to Egypt 539 

Chile. Letters of Credence (Puga) 540 

China, Communist. Third Meeting of the Council 
of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
(Dulles) 527 

Communism. Third Meeting of the Council of the 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (UuUes, text 
of communique) 527 

Congress, The. Department Announcement Re- 
garding Canadian Ambassador to Egypt . . . 539 

Department and Foreign Service 

Confirmations (Bruce, Dillon, Durbrow, Houghton, 
Kalijarvi, Reinhardt, Sebald) 549 

Foreign Service Examination 549 

Resignations (Phleger) 550 

Disarmament. Mr. Stassen To Represent U.S. at 

London Disarmament Meetings 53S 

Economic Affairs. Inland Transport Committee of 
ILO (delegation) 546 

Educational Exchange. Educational Exchange 
Agreement With Ireland 547 

Egypt. Compliance With U.N. Resolution Calling 
for Withdrawal of Israel From Egyptian Terri- 
tory (Lodge, Hammarskjold) 543 

Europe. Foreign Relations Volume 550 

France 

Confirmations (Houghton) 549 

U.S. Signs Agreement With France on Defense Use 
of Technology 547 

Germany 

Confirmations (Bruce) 549 

German Minister for Atomic Affairs To Visit the 

United States 538 

Working Group on German Reunifiication Completes 

Report 537 

Greece. Tenth Anniversary of Greek-Turkish Aid 

Program (Eisenhower) 539 

Haiti. Letters of Credence (Bellegarde) . . . 540 

Hungary. Hungary's National Holiday (Eisen- 
hower) 538 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of Meetings 541 

Inland Transport Committee of ILO (delegation) . 546 
Mr. Stassen To Represent U.S. at London Disarma- 
ment Meetings 538 

UNESCO Executive Board (delegation) .... 546 

Ireland. Educational Exchange Agreement With 

Ireland 547 



e X Vol. XXXVI, No. 927 

Israel. Compliance With U.N. Resolution Calling 
for Withdrawal of Israel From Egyptian Terri- 
tory (Lodge, Hammarskjold) 543 

Middle East 

Ambassador Richards Leaves for Middle East . . 526 

Compliance With U.N. Resolution Calling for With- 
drawal of Israel From Egyptian Territory 

(Lodge, Hammarskjold) 543 

The United States Looks at the Middle East 

(Murphy) 515 

United States Replies to Soviet Proposal for Dec- 
laration on Middle East (te.xts of U.S. and 

Soviet notes) 523 

Mutual Security. U.S. Signs Agreement With 

France on Defense Use of Technology .... 547 

Presidential Documents 

Hungary's National Holiday 538 

Tenth Anniversary of Greek-Turkish Aid Program . 539 

Publications. Foreign Relations Volume . . . 550 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 548 

Educational Exchange Agreement With Ireland . 547 
U.S. Signs Agreement With France on Defense Use 

of Technology 547 

Turkey. Tenth Anniversary of Greek-Turkish Aid 

Program 539 

U.S.S.R. United States Replies to Soviet Proposal 
for Declaration on Middle East (texts of U.S. and 

Soviet notes) 523 

United Kingdom. Foreign Relations Volume . . 550 

United Nations 

Compliance with U.N. Resolution Calling for With- 
drawal of Israel From Egyptian Territory 

(Lodge, Hammarskjold) 543 

Inland Transport Committee of ILO (delega- 
tion) 546 

UNESCO Executive Board (delegation) .... 546 

The United States Looks at the Middle East 

(Murphy) 515 

Viet-Nam. Confirmations (Durbrow) .... 549 

Name Index 

Balke, Siegfried 538 

Bellegarde, Dantes 540 

Bruce, David K.E 549 

Carpenter, I.W., Jr 540 

Dillon, C. Douglas 549 

Dulles. Secretary 529 

Durbrow, Elbridge 549 

Eisenhower, President 538, 5.S9 

Hamm.Trskjold, Dag 544 

Houghton, Amory 549 

Kalijarvi, Thorsten V 549 

Lodge, Henry Cabot 543 

Murphy, Robert 515 

Norman, E. H 539 

Phleger, Herman 550 

Puga, Mariano 540 

Reinhardt, G. Frederick 549 

Richards. James P 526 

Rubottom. Roy R.. .Tr 539 

Sebald, William J 549 

Stassen, Harold E 538 



V. S. fiOVERHHENT PR1NTIN6 OFFICE, 1917 



LvjU-UUVy 



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STATISTICAL DEPARTMENT 
COPLEY SQUARE 
G BOSTON 17, MASS 




United States 
Government Printing Office 

DIVISION OF PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

Washington 25, D. C. 



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of 
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Encloaed find: 



(eaah, check, or 
money order). 



OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



Foreign Relations of the United States 

The basic source of information on 
U. S. diplomatic history 

1939, Volume II 

General, The British Commonwealth, and Europe 



The first 212 pages of this volume contain papers on various general 
subjects: Antarctic claims and exploration, assistarice to refugees, fisheries 
off the coast of Alaska, and a number of technical economic problems. 

Documentation on relations with the British Commonwealth (pp. 213- 
364) includes sections on the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and 
India. Problems of relations between the United States as a neutral and 
the British as belligerents are covered, as well as other usual matters of 
diplomacy. Among the war subjects treated is the sinking of the S.S. 
Athenia with loss of American lives. It was only after the war that it was 
fully established that this was an act of a German submarine. 

The remaining 534 pages of documentation cover relations with 
individual continental European countries. The Soviet Union is omitted, 
since the record for that country has already been published in Foreign 
Relations of the United States, The Soviet Union, 1933-1939. As would 
be expected for a year in which the general European war began, subjects 
of diplomacy included normal peacetime diplomatic relations as well as 
subjects connected with the crises leading to war and into the war itself. 
While the coming of the war is primarily treated in volume I, this volume 
contains the record on the absorption of Albania by Italy, problems arising 
from the annexation of Austria by Germany, and the Spanish Civil War. 
In the section on Italy are recorded suggestions by President Koosevelt 
regarding the opportunity for Mussolini to contribute to the maintenance 
of peace. The appointment of Myron C. Taylor as the President's per- 
sonal representative to Pope Pius XII is documented in a section on the 
Vatican. 

Copies of this publication may be purchased from the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing OiEce, Washington 25, D. C, for 
$4 each. 



Please send me copies of Foreign Relations of tfie United States, 1939, 

Volume II, General, Tlie Britisfi Commonwealtli, and Europe, 

Name: 

Street Address: 

City, Zone, and State: 



FHE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



iPOCJTORY 




Vol. XXXVI, No. 928 



April 8, 



ICIAL 

:kly record 
ted states 

!EiGN POLICY 



UNITED STATES AND UNITED KINGDOM EXCHANGE 
VIEWS AT BERMUDA MEETING • Text of Joint 

Communique 561 

THE UNITED NATIONS AND PUBLIC UNDERSTAND- 

ING • by Assistant Secretary Wilcox 555 

AMENDING THE U.S. INFORMATION AND EDUCA- 
TIONAL EXCHANGE ACT OF 1948 • Statement by 
E. Allan Lightner, Jr 566 

AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENT BETWEEN UNITED 

STATES AND MEXICO • Department Announcement 
and Text of Agreement 575 

NOTICE OF INTENTION TO ENTER INTO LIMITED 
TRADE AGREEMENT NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE 
UNITED KINGDOM AND BELGIUM 581 

THE COLD WAR AND THE UNIVERSITIES • Article 

by Frederick Cable Oechsner 571 

For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




:,ry 
:Tionts 



APR 2 2 1957 



Vol. XXXVI, No. 928 • Publication 6473 
April 8, 1957 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

62 issues, domestic $7.50, foreign $10.25 
Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 19, 1955). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Dep.vrtment 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government ivith information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currett tly. 



The United Nations and Public Understanding 



J)y Francis 0. Wilcox 

Assistant Secretary for International Organization Ajfairs^ 



I am glad to have the opportunity to discuss 
some aspects of critical issues before the United 
Nations. The intense glare of publicity that has 
attended the negotiations on Hungary and on the 
Middle East has not always been illuminating. 
It has at times highlighted the unessential, even 
the nonexistent, and at other times cast into deep 
shadow the main lines of policy and action. I 
should like to try to set in focus the role of the 
United States and the United Nations in dealing 
with world problems, especially aggression and 
threats to the peace. 

Set in simple terms, it is United States policy 
to support the United Nations and to work 
through it to establish and maintain peace and 
well-being among nations. We believe it holds 
the best hope for the security and well-being of 
the American people. 

We attempt to conduct our relations with other 
nations in conformity with the purposes and prin- 
:iples of the United Nations Charter. We avoid 
the use of force as a means of settling disputes 
between ourselves and other states. If a problem 
irises which properly belongs in the United Na- 
tions, we use our influence to bring it there. If, 
in our opinion, it is not a United Nations mat- 
ter, we urge its settlement by other means. 

The United Nations is a political organization 
which has its proper uses and its limitations. It 
is not a remedy for all the world's ills. Misunder- 
standing on this score is, I think, the basis of 



^ Adilress made before the National Council of Jewish 
Women at Washington, D.C., on Mar. 19 (press release 
160). 



most criticism of both the United States role in 
the United Nations and the role of the United Na- 
tions when attempting to deal with world crises. 

Limitations of the United Nations 

This past year has been a year of grave tests 
for the United Nations and a time of peril for 
world peace. The situations that arose in Egypt 
and in Hungary provided both the peril to man- 
kind and the tests for the United Nations. These 
issues have in common the fact that military force 
w-as used by one nation against another. This 
is the ultimate issue the United Nations was de- 
signed to meet and solve. The degree of success 
achieved by the United Nations in restoring peace 
with justice is a gage of its capabilities and its 
limitations as a peace-enforcing institution. Even 
more important, it is a measure of the extent to 
which member states will permit it to perform its 
peacemaking f imctions. 

The criticism has been leveled at the United 
Nations that it has proved weak and ineffective. 
This was charged not only in the case of Hungary, 
because of the Assembly's inability to get the 
Soviet Union to withdraw its forces, but also in 
the Middle East when compliance with the recom- 
mendations of the General Assembly lagged. 

We must face the fact that, with great-power 
disunity reflected in the Security Council, the 
United Nations is handicapped in preventing 
breaches of the peace and bringing about restora- 
tion of peace. The role of the General Assembly 
is largely one of discussion and recommendation. 

This does not mean, however, that the United 
Nations is without power to influence the conduct 



i^prW 8, 1957 



555 



of nations. In some ways it may be likened to 
the role of the policeman in a community. In a 
well-ordered community he is a symbol of law and 
order, an arbiter, created by the community for 
its own protection. Called in on a dispute, he 
is not set upon by the mob. He is permitted to 
exercise a power which he docs not, in himself, 
possess. But this means that the community must 
be back of him. 

The world, unfortunately, is not yet wholly 
made up of such communities. The General As- 
sembly must still play a limited role based largely 
on the constructive power of world public opinion. 
This state of affairs has not been fully appreciated 
in the two great issues with which the United 
Nations is still seized. 

The United States, because of the leading role 
it has played in this General Assembly, has shared 
to a considerable degree both the public approval 
of the United Nations successes and the criticisms 
of its failures. 

In this connection, may I remind you that the 
United Nations can only do what its members want 
and permit it to do. We should not make the mis- 
take of blaming the organization for the doubts, 
the uncertainties, and shortcomings displayed by 
its members. 

The Crises in Egypt and Hungary 

The problems presented to the United Nations 
by the crises in Egypt and Hungary are well 
known. There was a fundamental difference in 
the nature of these problems, however. In Hun- 
gary Soviet troops, ostensibly there to protect 
Hungarian territory from outside aggression, 
turned their guns inward against the defenseless 
Hungarian people. In Egypt, on the other hand, 
the clash was between the armed forces of the 
states involved. 

Moreover, the Israeli attack occurred after a 
long series of serious provocations and violations 
of the Armistice Agreement. There was no such 
conceivable excuse in the case of the Soviet use of 
armed force against Hungary. 

Events so turned out that the United States 
found itself taking the lead in United Nations ac- 
tion in the case of both Egypt and Hungary. In 
neither instance did we really have any choice of 
the role we were to play. Both were instances 
of the use of force against the territorial integrity 
of another state. 



556 



In the former case, it was our grievous task to 
bring the charge of violation of the United Na- 
tions Charter against our friends and allies ; in the 
latter, against a government and a system which 
is the implacable foe of freedom. 

We pride ourselves on being a nation of laws, 
not of men. The charter likewise provides that 
nations conduct their relations on the basis of 
international law and justice. We had to say 
to ourselves that, if we ever hope to get anywhere 
with the peaceful settlement of disputes, we must 
constantly take a stand against recourse to mili- 
tary force, as a matter of principle and in the in- 
terest of our own Nation as well as world peace. 
Speaking to the Nation on the Middle East situa- 
tion on February 20,^ President Eisenhower said : 
"It is an issue which can be solved if only we will 
apply the principles of the United Nations." 

Our reason for going to the United Nations, 
then, was to defend this fundamental principle — 
not because we were pro- Arab or pro-Israel or 
anti-Russian or because we were for or against 
any state or group of states. 

I think there was no lack of public support 
in this country for the decisions taken by the 
United Nations on both areas of conflict. There 
was, however, great public impatience with the 
delay in the Middle East and the flat refusal 
in Hungary to comply with the resolutions 
adopted by the General Assembly. It was quickly 
forgotten that in both cases what the United Na- 
tions was trying to do was dependent on the volun- 
tary cooperation of the offending states and the 
states offended against. The reason for this, of 
course, is that only the Security Council may take 
decisions of a compulsory character in such in- 
stances. With the power of the Security Council 
weakened by the veto, the United Nations has had 
to fall back on the General Assembly, which has 
only the power to recommend. 

Given these circumstances, we should be en- 
couraged by what the United Nations has so 
far accomplished in the Middle East. It has 
shown that the conscience and the moral consensus 
of the vast majority of United Nations members, 
when the chips are down, favor peaceful settle- 
ment of disputes and adherence to commitments 
assumed under the charter, even when such course 



' Bulletin of Mnr. 11, 1957, p. 387. 

Department of Slate Bulletin 



seems to run counter to individual national 
interest s. 

In the case of Hungary, the United Nations' 
inability to secure compliance with its repeated 
recommendations has caused deep concern not 
only among the American people but among free 
peoples everywhere. In the circumstances, it has 
been natural for segments of public opinion to 
oversimplify the problem in seeking to place the 
blame. It has been charged that the United Na- 
tions is weak and futile; it has been urged tliat 
Hungary and the Soviet Union be tlirown out of 
the United Nations for their defiance ; it has been 
argued that the United Nations and the United 
States have applied a "double standard" — one for 
the weak and one for the strong. 

I would like to attempt some clarification of 
this latter point. In his broadcast to the Ameri- 
can people on October 31st ^ President Eisen- 
hower said : "There can be no peace without law. 
And there can be no law if we were to invoke 
one code of international conduct for those who 
oppose us and another for our friends." 

Though he was speaking about the attack on 
Egj'pt, the record shows that the United States 
and the United Nations consistently adhered to 
this principle. The standard applied to the use 
of force in Egypt was likewise applied in Hun- 
garj\ The essential difference was that the coun- 
tries directly concerned in the Middle East crisis 
responded to offers of United Nations assistance 
to bring about a peaceful settlement. In Hun- 
gai-y, such assistance was refused. Had the re- 
sponse been the reverse, there would now be no 
United Nations Emergency Force in the Middle 
East, with a deterioration of the situation there 
which I leave to your imagination. 

The Hungarian Situation 

The crux of the problem of Hungary was, what 
can the United Nations do when one of the major 
powers refuses to cooperate with the General 
Assembly ? 

The answers are fairly simple but not very satis- 
factory. We could attempt to expel it from the 
United Nations. This is obviously not a practical 
solution since the concurrence of the permanent 
members of the Security Council is required. 



^Ibid., Nov. 12, 1956, p. 743. 
April 8, 7957 



The General Assembly could recommend cer- 
tain political measures, such as breaking diplo- 
matic relations. Unless it could persuade a large 
proportion of United Nations members to cooper- 
ate, this would not be a very effective sanction 
and in the case of the United States would cut 
us off from a useful diplomatic contact. 

The General Assembly could also recommend 
economic sanctions. Again, unless a large num- 
ber of nations could be persuaded to join in such 
sanctions, the pressure exerted would be rela- 
tively slight. This is especially the case with the 
U.S.S.R. and its satellites, whose total resources 
are great and whose economic relations with the 
West are already on a very small scale. 

There is, of course, the possibility of attempt- 
ing to introduce United Nations observers, but 
their entrance would require the consent of the 
state concerned. 

The final recourse would be to recommend the 
use of military forces. There is not the remotest 
likelihood, with the dangers involved in the atomic 
age, that the United Nations would vote for such 
action. 

Depressing as this picture may be, it reflects the 
situation in which the world finds itself today. 
This does not mean, however, that, because out- 
laws exist in the world community, the rule of 
law should not be applied wherever possible. 

May I add a word about the so-called "double 
standard." This is nothing new. In effect, the 
double standard was built into the charter when 
the veto provision was inserted. This gave the 
great powers a privileged position in the organ- 
ization. 

But I think that we seriously misread recent 
history if we believe United Nations resolutions 
on Hungary failed to have a harmful impact on 
the Soviet Union and its satellite system. These 
resolutions put the Soviet Union's barbarous mis- 
deeds squarely under the white light of world 
opinion. They did more to expose the diabolical 
nature of international communism than almost 
anything that has happened since World War II. 
Perhaps more important, the inherent weakness of 
a system that has to rely on force alone to im- 
pose its will on the majority was shockingly re- 
vealed. 

The Secretary of State at Canberra last week 
said, "Throughout the satellite area, there is a 
revulsion against the brutal colonialism and ex- 



557 



ploitation of Soviet imperialism." It is my opin- 
ion that this revulsion, as a result of the facts 
revealed in General Assembly debate, has ex- 
tended to the corners of the free world. 

The Middle East 

There was a great deal of public controversy 
over the possibility of the United Nations' impos- 
ing sanctions against Israel. Now it is true that 
at one time it appeared that a majority of United 
Nations members might have tried to impose sanc- 
tions if other methods had failed to bring about 
Israel troop withdrawal from Egj'pt and the Gaza 
Strip. As a member of the United Nations, the 
United States would have had to take its stand 
on such an issue should it have arisen. 

We believed it essential that Israel should with- 
draw in its own best interests. This we felt was 
a necessary prelude to a solution of other jjrob- 
lems in the Middle East. 

I think it significant that the use of traditional 
bilateral diplomacy to supplement United Nations 
action in the Middle East was of major im- 
portance in preventing the matter of sanctions 
from becoming a divisive issue in the United Na- 
tions. In this connection, I would like to quote a 
statement of the delegate of Ceylon made after 
Israel had annomaced its intention to withdraw : 

I, as a humble representative of a small nation, would 
like to pay my tribute to the Government of the United 
States of America for creating a set of circumstances which 
enabled the withdrawal of Israel troops. It is, in my 
opinion, a very useful act in the solution of the troubles 
before us. 

United States Position on Gaza and Sharm el-Sheikh 

The United States position on the Middle East 
problem has been made clear in various public 
documents beginning with the February 11 aide 
memoire.^ During the long weeks in which the 
Assembly has been occupied with the Middle East, 
we have sought a solution which would be based 
on justice and which would take account of the 
legitimate interests of all parties. On March 1 
Israel announced that it had decided to make full 
and prompt withdrawal behind the armistice lines 
in accordance with the General Assembly's reso- 
lution of February 2, 1957. 

In the course of this announcement, the Foreign 



Minister of Israel made certain declarations which, 
for the most part, constituted restatements of 
what had been said in the General Assembly or by 
the Secretary-General in his reports, or hopes and 
expectations which seemed to the United States 
not unreasonable in the light of prior actions of 
the Assembly. 

On March 1, Ambassador Lodge, speaking for 
the United States in the General Assembly,* took 
note of the statement of the Secretary -General of 
February 22d in which he reported Egypt's readi- 
ness and willingness to make special and helpful 
arrangements in Gaza with the United Nations 
and some of its auxiliary bodies. In this connec- 
tion, Ambassador Lodge said : 

Obviously these matters are not for the United States 
alone to decide, but the United States can, I think, prop- 
erly entertain the hope that such a useful role for the 
United Nations and its appropriate subsidiary bodies as 
the Secretary-General has described could usefully con- 
tinue until there is a definitive settlement respecting the 
Gaza Strip or some final general agreement between the 
parties. 

With respect to the area along the Gulf of 
Aqaba and the Straits of Tiran, the United States 
position remains as stated in Ambassador Lodge's 
speech : 

It is essential that units of the United Nations Emer- 
gency Force be stationed at the Straits of Tiran in order 
to achieve there the separation of Eg.vptian and Israeli 
land and sea forces. This separation is essential until it 
is clear that the nonesercise of any claimed belligerent 
rights has established in practice the peaceful conditions 
which must govern navigation in waters having such an 
international interest. All of this would, of course, be 
without prejudice to any ultimate determination which 
may be made of any legal questions concerning the Gulf 
of Aqaba. 

Since then developments in Gaza have moved 
rapidly. We have kept in close touch with Sec- 
retary-General Hammarskjold and with various 
members of the United Nations. Just yester- 
day Mrs. Meir, Foreign Minister of Israel, called 
at the Department of State to express her "deep 
concern at the return of Egypt to Gaza, the re- 
establishment of its control therein and the reduc- 
tion of the responsibilities of the United Nations 
in the Gaza area." " Mrs. Meir pointed out that 
Israel viewed this situation as contrary to the as- 
sumptions and expectations expressed by her and 



* Ibid., Mar. 11, 1957, p. 392. 
558 



' Ibitl., Mar. 18, 1957, p. 431. 
' See p. 562. 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



others in the United Nations on March 1 and sub- 
sequently. She also expressed her anxiety at re- 
ports and statements envisaging restrictions 
against Israeli shipping in the Suez Canal and the 
Gulf of Aqaba and tlie maintenance of belliger- 
ency by Egypt. 

Secretary Dulles reaffirmed that the United 
States policy continued to be as expressed in 
the speech of Ambassador Lodge in the General 
Assembly on Marcli 1 and in the President's 
letter of March 2 to Prime Mhiister Ben-Gurion.' 
The Secretary reaffirmed "that the United States 
would continue to use its influence in seeking 
the objectives of peace and tranquillity and the 
avoidance of any situation which would negate 
the great ell'orts whicli had been made by the 
world community to settle the current disputes 
in accordance with the principles of the United 
Nations Charter." The United States stands 
firmly by the hopes and expectations it had ex- 
pressed with respect to (1) the exercise of the 
responsibility of the United Nations in Gaza, (2) 
the free and innocent passage of the Straits of 
Tiran by the ships of all nations in accordance 
with international law, and (3) the settlement of 
the Suez Canal problem in accordance with the six 
principles adopted by the Security Council and 
accepted by Egypt.* 

This Government will use its influence in every 
appropriate way to assist the Secretary-General 
and the parties concerned to carry out the recom- 
mendations of the Assembly and to create peace- 
ful conditions in the area. 

Very critical times remain with us. We have 
made progress along the road toward our objec- 
tives in the Middle East, but the road ahead is 
long and difficult. 

Our objectives have not changed. Through the 
United Nations there have been accomplished a 
cease-fire and the withdrawal of forces, and the 
clearance of the Suez Canal has almost been com- 
pleted. Immediately before us is the necessity for 
agreeing on interim arrangements for use of the 
canal and moving on to solution of the basic 
problems which gave rise to the present crisis. It 
is not sufficient to put out the fire ; we must prevent 
it from breaking out again. 

Getting at and removing the root causes is a 
formidable task. It is more than enough to 



' Bulletin of Mar. 18, 1957, p. 433. 
' Ibid., Nov. 12, 1956, p. 754. 



challenge the patience of a Job and the wisdom of 
a Solomon. But can anyone seriously believe that 
a lasting peace will be possible so long as the 
boundaries between Israel and her neighbors re- 
main unsettled and a feeling of insecurity pervades 
the entire area? Can we hope to avoid serious 
difficulties in the future unless real progress is 
made toward the solution of the refugee problem 
and the development of the area's natural re- 
sources ? 

The solutions to these problems are as difficult as 
they are necessary. To find them, the United 
States is determined to continue to use every ap- 
propriate means both within and without the 
United Nations. In the process, we shall be serv- 
ing the cause of peace with justice everywhere. 

Enlarged United Nations Membership 

I would like now to turn briefly to a develop- 
ment in the United Nations of great public inter- 
est. That is the recent rapid increase in the size 
of United Nations membership — especially from 
Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. This reflects 
one of the great phenomena of the postwar period. 
In 12 years some 600 million people from this area 
have gained self-government or independence. 

The United Nations is open for membership to 
all peace-loving countries able and willing to carry 
out the obligations of the charter. The United 
States favoi-s, within this definition, a United Na- 
tions as broadly representative as possible. 

A United Nations that has grown in less than 2 
years from 60 to 81 members and in which the 
Afro- Asian states now constitute more than a 
third of the total presents new problems and, I 
think, new opportunities. I do not believe that it 
is necessarily cause for alarm. 

Those who are concerned point to the fact that 
the Assembly rather than the Security Council 
has become the voice of the United Nations and 
its most influential body. The relative strength 
of the Latin American States has been reduced. 
The conflict over so-called colonial problems has 
been sharpened. With the recent increase in 
membership the Afro-Asian nations alone, if they 
stood together, could no doubt prevent the pas- 
sage of any important resolution. 

This situation requires careful consideration. 
In actuality, aside from the U.S.S.R. and its 
satellites, these blocs do not often vote as an entity. 
We think of Afro- Asia as a unit. In fact, it is 



April 8, 1957 



559 



extremely diverse and contains subblocs of an 
ethnic, religious, or political nature. 

On certain fundamental issues the Afro- Asian 
nations do stand very solidly together. I refer 
particularly to colonialism and economic develop- 
ment. On these issues they are often joined by 
the so-called Latin American bloc. 

The fact is that the people of the world, regard- 
less of their military or economic strength, want 
an increasing voice in world affairs. In the 
United Nations, and especially in the Assembly, 
they find this voice. The traditionally great 
powers of the West, whose greater economic 
and militaiy strength gives them a preponderance 
of authority and responsibility, must heed this 
voice if they desire wide support for their policies 
and actions. They do not have to heed it, of 
course, and the Assembly cannot enforce its recom- 
mendations on other members. 

In my opinion, what is required of United 
Nations members in the enlarged General As- 
sembly, where each state has one vote, is a special 
sense of responsibility. The smaller and under- 
developed countries do have a collective power far 
out of proportion to their economic, military, and 
political strength. If they abuse this power, the 
General Assembly can become a center of conten- 
tion and deadlock. On the other hand, the gi'eat 
powers, if their cause is just, should not lack the 
support of the majority of the General Assembly 
on important issues. 

I believe, if we examine the record, that the 
performance of the 11th General Assembly re- 
flected in general this sense of responsibility of 
which I speak. On the Algerian question, for 
example, two Asian states, Japan and Thailand, 
played a leading role in developing a procedural- 
type resolution wliich avoided exacerbating the 
situation.^ This was an excellent example of As- 
sembly moderation and restraint. On the Cyprus 



question, the General Assembly avoided preju- 
dicing any substantive solution by adopting a 
simple resolution which has helped maintain an 
atmosphere reasonably conducive to future nego- 
tiations.'" Here, too, an Asian state, India, was 
able to work out a compromise resolution gen- 
erally acceptable to those principallj' concerned. 
In conclusion, I should like to quote from an 
editorial in a recent issue of your magazine, 
Council Wotrum: 

One thing Is certain. The United Nations i.s the one 
solid hope of humanity for a peaceful and better world ; 
and the United States can and must be its strongest 
supporter. 

If the nations of the world had been compelled 
to live the past 12 years without a conmion meet- 
ing place, without basic rules by which nations 
should conduct themselves, without machinery for 
the peaceful settlement of their differences, with- 
out a place to air disputes and seek agreements — 
then it is my opinion that the world might not 
have survived those 12 years. The stresses and 
strains have been so great, the ideological conflict 
so sharp, and the destructive power of the 
weapons available so immense that without the 
unifying power of the United Nations we could 
have, by this time, destroyed ourselves. 

If the United Nations is indeed the one best 
hope we have for peace with justice, it is only 
common sense to use it as the cornerstone for a 
soimd, creative foreign policy-. This does not 
mean that the United Nations dictates foreign 
policy to us or any other country. But enlight- 
ened self-interest dictates that we bend every 
effort to make the United Nations serve with in- 
creasing effectiveness the common desires of man- 
kind for a world in which ''Life, Liberty and the 
pursuit of Happiness" are not only possible but 
attainable. 



'Ibid., Mar. 11, 1957, p. 423. 



'"Ibid., JIar. 25, 1957, p. 50S. 



560 



Department of Slate Buflelin 



United States and United Kingdom Excliange Views 
at Bermuda Meeting 



Following is the text of a joint communique 
with annexes issued at Tucker's Town^ Bermuda, 
on March 24- l>y President Eisenhower and British 
Prime Minister Harold Macmillan at the close of 
a 3-day meeting, March 21 to 2!i. {White House 
press release dated March 2 J).). 

The President of the United States and the 
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, assisted 
by the United States Secretary of State and the 
British Foreign Secretary and other advisers, have 
exchanged views during the past three days on 
many subjects of mutual concern. They have con- 
ducted their discussions with the freedom and 
frankness permitted to old friends. In a world 
of growing interdependence they recognize their 
responsibility to seek to coordinate their foreign 
policies in the interests of peace with justice. 

Among the subjects discussed in detail were 
common problems concerning the Middle East, 
Far East, Nato, European Cooperation, the re- 
unification of Germany, and Defense. 

The President and the Prime Minister are well 
satisfied with the results of this Conference, at 
which a number of decisions have been taken. 
They intend to continue the exchange of views 
so well begun. 

The agreements and conclusions reached on the 
main subjects discussed at the Conference are 
annexed. 



ANNEX I 

1. Eecognition of the value of collective security 
pacts within the framework of the United Na- 
tions, and the special importance of Nato for both 
covmtries as the cornerstone of their policy in the 
West. 



2. Reaffirmation of common interest in the de- 
velopment of European unity within the Atlantic 
Community. 

3. Agreement on the importance of closer asso- 
ciation of the United Kingdom with Europe. 

4. Agreement on the benefits likely to accrue 
for European and world trade from the plans for 
the common market and the Free Trade Area, pro- 
vided they do not lead to a high tariff bloc ; and on 
the desirability that all countries should pursue 
liberal trade policies. 

5. AVillinguess of the United States, under au- 
thority of the recent Middle East joint resolution, 
to participate actively in the work of the Military 
Committee of the Baghdad Pact. 

6. Eeaffirmation of intention to support the 
right of the German people to early reunification 
in peace and freedom. 

7. Sympathy for the people of Hungary ; con- 
demnation of repressive Soviet policies towards 
the peoples of Eastern Europe, and of Soviet de- 
fiance of relevant United Nations resolutions. 

8. Agreement on the need for the speedy im- 
plementation of recent resolutions of the United 
Nations General Assembly dealing with the Gaza 
Strip and the Gulf of Aqaba. 

9. Agreement on the importance of compliance 
both in letter and in spirit with the Security Coun- 
cil Resolution of October 13 concerning the Suez 
Canal, and on support for the efforts of the Secre- 
tary-General to bring about a settlement in ac- 
cordance with its provisions. 

10. Joint declaration on policy regarding 
nuclear tests (See Annex II). 

11. Agreement in principle that, in the interest 
of mutual defense and mutual economy, certain 
guided missiles will be made available by the 
United States for use by British forces. 



Apr/7 8, 7957 



561 



ANNEX II 

1. For a long time our two Governments have 
been attempting to negotiate with the Soviet Union 
under the auspices of the United Nations Dis- 
armament Commission an effective agreement for 
comprehensive disarmament. We are continuing 
to seek sucli an agreement in the current disarma- 
ment discussions in London. In the absence of 
such an agreement the security of tlie free world 
must continue to depend to a marked degree upon 
the nuclear deterrent. To maintain this effec- 
tively, continued nuclear testing is required, cer- 
tainly for the present. 

2. We recognize, however, that there is sincere 
concern that continued nuclear testing may in- 
crease world radiation to levels which might be 
harmful. Studies by independent scientific organ- 
izations confirm our belief that this will not hap- 
pen so long as testing is continued with due 
restraint. Moreover, the testing program has dem- 
onstrated the feasibility of greatly reducing world- 
wide fallout from large nuclear explosions. 

3. Over the past months our Governments have 
considered various jDroposed methods of limiting 
tests. We have now concluded together that in 
the absence of more general nuclear control agree- 
ments of the kind which we have been and are 
seeking, a test limitation agreement could not to- 
day be effectively enforced for technical reasons; 
nor could breaches of it be surely detected. We 
believe nevertheless that even before a general 
agreement is reached self-imposed restraint can 
and should be exercised by nations which conduct 
tests. 

4. Therefore, on behalf of our two Governments, 
we declare our intention to continue to conduct 
nuclear tests only in such manner as will keep 
world radiation from rising to more than a small 
fraction of the levels that might be hazardous. 
We look to the Soviet Union to exercise a similar 
restraint. 

5. We shall continue our general practice of 
publicly announcing our test series well in ad- 
vance of their occurrence with information as to 
their location and general timing. We would be 
willing to register with the United Nations ad- 
vance notice of our intention to conduct future nu- 
clear tests and to permit limited international ob- 
servation of such tests if the Soviet Union M'ould 
do the same. 



562 



Meeting Between Secretary Dulles 
and Israeli Foreign Minister 

Following is the text of an agreed statement 
released on March 18 (press release 155) folloio- 
ing a meeting ietween Secretary Dulles and Israeli 
Foreign Minister Golda Meir. 

Israeli Foreign Minister Meir discussed with 
Secretary Dulles today various aspects of the 
present situation in the Middle East, particularly 
developments in the Gaza Strip following Israeli 
withdrawal in accordance with the United Nations 
resolutions. 

SIi-s. Meir expressed her deep concern at the 
return of Egypt to Gaza, the re-establishment of 
its conti'ol therein and the reduction of the re- 
sponsibilities of the United Nations in the Gaza 
area. The Foreign Minister of Israel pointed out 
the gravity with which Israel viewed this situation 
and emphasized that it was contrary to the as- 
sumption and expectations expressed by her and 
others in the United Nations on March 1 and 
subsequently. She also expressed her anxiety at 
reports and statements envisaging restrictions 
against Israeli shipping in the Suez Canal and 
the Gulf of Aqaba, and the maintenance of bel- 
ligerency by Egypt. 

Secretary Dulles reaffirmed that the U.S. policy 
with respect to these matters continued to be as 
publicly expressed, notably in the speech of Am- 
bassador Lodge in the United Nations General 
Assembly on March 1 and in the President's letter 
of March 2 to Prime Minister Ben-Giu-ion.^ The 
Secretary said that the United States was con- 
cerned with current developments and was in 
close touch with U.N. Secretary General Ham- 
marskjold and other members of the U.N. He 
said that the United States would continue to use 
its influence in seeking the objectives t>i peace 
and tranquillity and the avoidance of any situa- 
tion which would negate the great efforts which 
had been made by the world conununity to settle 
the current disputes in accordance with the princi- 
ples of the United Nations Charter. The United 
States, the Secretary said, stood firmlj' by the 
hopes and expectations it had expressed with re- 
gard to the situation which should prevail in the 
area with i-espect to the exercise of the responsi- 



' Bulletin of Blar. IS, 105V, p. 431. 

Department of State Bulletin 



bility of the United Nations in Gaza, the free and 
innocent passage of the Straits of Tiran bj' the 
ships of all nations in accordance with interna- 
tional law, and the settlement of the Suez Canal 
problem in accordance with the Six Principles 
adopted by the Security Council and accepted by 
Egypt.^ 

A common readiness was expressed for con- 
tinued consultation on these matters. 

Death of President Magsaysay 
of the Philippines 

statement by President Eisenhower 

White House (on board the U.S.S. Canherra) press release dated 
March 17. 

In the tragic death of President Magsaysay, the 
people of the Philippine Republic, as well as those 
of the United States and the entire free world, 
have lost a valiant champion of freedom.^ I had 
been looking forward to meeting with President 
Magsaysay in Washington, to reaffirm the close 
and affectionate ties all Americans have with his 
people. 

A stanch advocate of independence for his peo- 
ple, President Magsaysay was also an active and 
determined fighter against communism. He will 
be greatly missed. 

Mrs. Eisenhower and I extend to his family not 
only our personal sympathies but also the heart- 
felt sj'mpathies of all Americans, who have lost a 
good friend. 

Statement by Secretary Dulles 

Press release 154 dated March 18 

The tragedy that claimed the life of President 
Magsaysay came as a grievous shock. I am sure 
all Americans join me in extending to our close 
friends of the Philippines our heartfelt condo- 
lences in the loss of their beloved President. 

President Magsaysay was a great Philippine 
leader and an enlightened champion of the welfare 
of his people. He also provided a glorious ex- 
ample to the whole of Asia, and indeed to the 
world, of wisdom, courage, and success in over- 
coming the Communist menace. 



■IhUl., Oct. 22, 1956, p. 616. 

' President Ramon Magsaysny was killed in the crash 
of an airliner on Cebu Island on Mar. 17. 



In the death of President Magsaysay there has 
been lost to the Philippine people a noble leader, 
to the American people a true friend, and to the 
world a stalwai-t champion and exponent of the 
right of peoples to govei"nments of their own 
choosing and to basic human freedoms. 

Anniversary of Establishment 
of Pakistan as Republic 

Press release 172 dated March 23 

Following is the text of a message sent by Presi- 
dent Eisenhower to the President of Pakistan on 
March 23 on the occasion of the first anniversary 
of the establishment of Pakistan as a Republic. 

His Excellency 

ISKANDER MiRZA 

President of Pakistan 
Karachi 

I take great pleasure in extending to you and 
to the people of Pakistan warmest greetings and 
best wishes from the people of the United States 
on the first anniversary of the establishment of 
Pakistan as a Republic. 

Pakistan has proved to the world again that a 
free people, with resolute faith and enduring 
coiu'age, working together in a common cause, can 
sui-mount the many difficulties that inevitably face 
a new nation. You have made conmiendable 
progress since independence. I am confident that 
even gi-eater achievements lie aliead. 

The United States values its close and cordial 
ties with Pakistan. This anniversary affords me 
a welcome opportunity to reaffirm the importance 
I attach to the warm friendship between our two 
coimtries. I have every reason to believe that as 
free, independent democracies dedicated to the 
basic principles of peace and justice our two coun- 
tries can look forward to ever closer friendship 
in the years ahead. 

DwiGiiT D. Eisenhower 

New U. S. Member Assumes Duties 
on Iraq Development Board 

Press release 167 dated March 21 

The U.S. member of the Iraq Development 
Board, Clifford Willson, has arrived at Bagh- 
dad to take up his duties on the board. He suc- 



Aptil 8, 7957 



563 



ceeds Wesley K. Nelson, who served for 4 years 
as the U.S. member. 

Mr. Willson's arrival at Baghdad will make it 
possible for him to participate in the observance 
of Iraq Development Week, which begins on 
March 23. 

In providing a member for the Development 
Board, the United States has taken note of the 
vigorous strides which Iraq is making toward im- 
provement of the living standards of all its people. 
Iraq's farsighted economic development program, 
supported by wise and intelligent use of revenues 
from its own resources, stands as an inspiration 
to other newly developing countries. It has been 
a source of gratification to the Government of the 
United States to be associated with Iraq in co- 
operative efforts to make the most effective use of 
available resources in redeveloping the historic 
lands of the Tigris and Euphrates. The several 
major projects to be dedicated during Develop- 
ment Week testify to the very real benefits to the 
people of Iraq of this progressive program and of 
the cooperative spirit which animates it. 



I liter- American Highway 
Nearing Completion 

Press release 156 dated March 18 

The awarding on March 15 of a contract for 
grading a 17-mile impassable section of the Inter- 
American Highway between Concepcion, Panama, 
and the Costa Rican border initiated the first step 
in closing the last remaining roadway gap between 
the United States and the Canal Zone. The event 
marks the near approach to completion of an un- 
dertaking of the United States in cooperation with 
Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica, and Panama begun in 1934. 

Impetus was given the Inter- American High- 
way program in 1955 when President Eisenhower 
recommended that sufficient funds be provided for 
financial and technical assistance to complete the 
project at the earliest possible date.^ As a result, 



' For text of the President's letters to the Congress 
dated Apr. 1, 195.5, on the need for accelerating completion 
of the highway, together with a map of the Inter-Ameri- 
can Highway, see Bulletin of Apr. 11, 1955, p. 595. 



Congress, in the summer of 1955, appropriated 
$62,980,000. Rapid progress has been made since 
that time. The original agreements with the re- 
spective governments were negotiated by the De- 
partment of State, and engineering supervision 
and fiscal accountability for U.S. funds have been 
provided by the Bureau of Public Roads of the 
Department of Commerce. The United States is 
paying two-thirds of the cost of projects, and one- 
third is paid by the country in which the work is 
located. 

Of the 1,600 miles of the highway lying between 
the southern border of Mexico and the Panama 
Canal, there remained, as of July 1955, 1,080 miles 
upon which improvement of some type was re- 
quired to bring the highway to an acceptable 
standard for normal year-round travel. Within 
this unimproved mileage, there was a total of 173 
miles where no passable highway existed. This 
total was made up of 25 miles just south of the 
Mexican border in Guatemala, 131 miles in 
southern Costa Rica, and the 17-mile section in 
northern Panama now to be begun. Awarding of 
a contract for this section in Panama places all 
impassable sections under construction. In addi- 
tion, 490 miles of low-standard road are being im- 
proved. Much work remains to be done, includ- 
ing necessary improvements on an additional 370 
miles. Many bridges are yet to be built, and some 
1,000 miles of road will require final asphalt 
pavement. 

The present dry season which began in Decem- 
ber will see the greatest construction activity on 
the highway since its start. The last of the im- 
passable sections is now under contract, and some 
time in 1957 it should be ^wssible to drive over all- 
weather or paved roads from the United States to 
San Isidro, Costa Rica, a distance of 2,725 miles. 
By the end of 1958 it may be possible to drive over 
the entire length of the highway to the Panama 
Canal. 

Tourist travel over the Inter- American High- 
way has already brought great benefits to the econ- 
omy of Mexico. By 1959 other Central American 
countries should benefit also. Feeder roads con- 
necting now inaccessible areas with the main 
artery are expected to develop rapidly with a 
marked increase in domestic and foreign trade. 



564 



Department of State Bulletin 



U.S. Contribution To Help Fight 
Malaria in American Republics 

Press release 119 dated March 7 

Milton S. Eisenliower, President Eisenhower's 
representative on the Inter- American Committee 
of Presidential Eepresentatives, presented a check 
for $1,500,000 on March 7 to Dr. Fred L. Soper, 
Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, 
as a contribution from the U.S. Government 
toward malaria eradication in the other American 
Republics. 

The ceremony took place in the Pan American 
Union building in the office of Jose A. Mora, Sec- 
retary General of the Organization of American 
States. Jolin B. Hollister, Director of the Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration ; Dr. LeRoy 
E. Burney, Surgeon General of the U.S. Public 
Health Service, Department of Health, Educa- 
tion, and Welfare; and Jolm C. Dreier, Ambassa- 
dor of the United States to the Organization of 
Amei'ican States, were among those attending the 
ceremony. Following are the texts of remarks 
made by Dr. Eisenliower, Dr. Mora, and Dr. 
Soper. 

Remarks by Dr. Eisenhower 

Mr. Secretary General, Dr. Soper, and Gentle- 
men : I am very happy to be able to participate in 
this ceremony this morning. We have gathered 
in the Pan American Union in recognition of the 
vital role that the Organization of American 
States is playing in efforts to advance human well- 
being and. social progress in this hemisphere. 

Historically, malaria has been a major foe of 
economic and social progress for the American 
Republics. It is still a scourge in many areas, 
affecting either directly or indirectly evei-y indi- 
vidual on the continent. Experience indicates 
that malaria can be conquered with new weapons 
which are now available. The Pan American 
Sanitary Organization has played a leading part 
in their development and use. Malaria has been 
eradicated from several countries, including the 
United States. We all share an eagerness that 
it be eradicated with all possible speed from coim- 
tries where it still exists. 

Great interest has been expressed by the Inter- 
American Committee of Presidential Representa- 
tives in the role of the Organization of American 



States in supporting programs for the eradication 
of disease from the continent. It was my privi- 
lege to announce to the members of this Committee 
at its first meeting last September that the United 
States was going to make a special contribution 
to the malaria eradication fund of the Pan Ameri- 
can Sanitary Organization. This offer was sub- 
sequently made formally by the acting United 
States representative at a meeting of the Directing 
Council of the Sanitary Organization and is now 
being implemented by a grant from the Interna- 
tional Cooperation Administration. In present- 
ing this check for $1,500,000, 1 hope that tliis ex- 
pression of United States interest and the splendid 
efforts which are being made by so many countries 
will hasten the attainment of this great humani- 
tarian goal of malaria eradication. 

Remarks by Dr. Mora 

I wish to express on behalf of the Organization 
of American States and of the people of the 
American Republics the most profound apprecia- 
tion for this most generous contribution of the 
Government of the United States to the solution 
of what has been characterized as the most urgent 
health problem in the Americas, the eradication 
of malai-ia. 

Dr. Eisenhower, may I express to you and 
through you to the Government of the United 
States our deepest appreciation for this renewed 
demonstration of support for inter-American pro- 
grams which contribute to the advancement of 
human welfare of all the people of the Americas. 

I now turn this contribution over to Dr. Soper, 
Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, 
our inter- American specialized organization in the 
field of public health. 

Remarks by Dr. Soper 

Mr. Secretary General, Dr. Eisenhower, and 
Gentlemen : It is with a sense of profound grati- 
tude that I accept on behalf of the Pan American 
Sanitary Organization this contribution by the 
United States Government to the campaign to 
eradicate malaria from this hemisphere. 

Malaria is still a leading cause of death in many 
parts of the world, including some areas in the 
Americas. Its continued existence anywhere in 
this hemisphere threatens reinfection in all areas 
where malaria has been eradicated. 



April 8, 1957 



565 



Science has given us a powerful new weapon in 
the residual insecticides such as DDT, which make 
the eradication of malaria possible and practicable 
throughout the Americas. But there is also a 
deadline we must meet, since mosquitoes eventu- 
ally develop resistance to these insecticides. If 
we move too slowly, the job becomes vastly more 
difficult and costly. This is why we have given 
first priority to the malaria eradication program. 
The Pan American Sanitary Organization is urg- 
ing governments to expand and accelerate their 
national eradication programs. 

There has been an excellent response, and many 
governments are expecting our Bureau to give 
them greater administrative and professional col- 



laboration in furtherance of their eradication 
programs. These demands have far exceeded our 
means, and we have been forced to seek additional 
resources. 

And that is why, Dr. Eisenhower, we appreciate 
so much this timely contribution from the United 
States Government. It will enable us to move 
ahead more rapidly in all the territories of the 
Americas where malaria continues to exist. 

On behalf of the Pan American Sanitary Or- 
ganization I express our heartfelt appreciation 
for this generous contribution. It is an added 
demonstration of solidarity in our campaign to 
eliminate malaria from our shores. 



Amending the U.S. Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 



Statement hy E. Allan Lightner, Jr. 

Acting Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs ^ 



It is a privilege to appear before this committee 
in support of certain amendments to the United 
States Information and Educational Exchange 
Act of 1948, sometimes referred to as the Smith- 
Mundt Act. 

Role of Office of Public Affairs 

AVhen this act was passed in 1948, all of its 
functions were placed in the Department of State 
under the general direction of the Office of Public 
Alfaii-s. With the establishment of the United 
States Information Agency, and the transfer of 
information activities to that Agency, the Depart- 
ment retained two important functions in con- 
nection with this act : 

(1) the supervision of the noninformation 
functions authorized by the Smith-Mundt Act; 
and 



' Made before the Subtommittee on State Department 
Organization and Foi-ei^rn Operations of the House Com- 
mittee on Foreign Affairs on Mar. 13 (press release 143). 



(2) foreign-policy guidance to the United 
States Information Agency. 

The principal noninformation function pro- 
vided by this act is the educational exchange pro- 
gram conducted by the International Educational 
Exchange Service of the Department under the 
general supervision of the Assistant Secretary for 
Public Affairs. The Secretary of State is also re- 
sponsible for certain exchanges of personnel car- 
ried out by the International Cooperation Ad- 
ministration in connection with its technical 
assistance program. 

My comments are principally concerned witli 
the amendments pertaining to the responsibilities 
of the Department of State in conducting the edu- 
cational exchange program. I can also assure you 
that the Department favors the amendments deal- 
ing with the information program. 

When this act was originally passed, the House 
Foreign Affairs Committee was literally pioneer- 
ing in a new field. It is really quite remarkable 



566 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



that during the intervening years no major 
amendments have been required in the act. This 
certainly illustrates the care and foresight of those 
who sponsored and enacted the original legisla- 
tion. 

Only recently has it become apparent, as a result 
of the cumulative experience in administering this 
increasingly complicated program over the years, 
that certain amendments to this act of 1948 are 
needed. 

Before explaining these changes, a brief review 
of the scope of the International Educational Ex- 
change Program and the relationship between the 
Smith-Mundt and Fulbright parts of it may be 
of interest. 

Scope of Educational Exchange Activities 

The authority for the annual appropriations for 
all of the activities of the International Educa- 
tional Exchange Service of the Department is de- 
rived from the Smith-Mundt Act. This act is also 
the authority under which the Department re- 
quests the appropriated foreign currencies pro- 
vided for under the Fulbright Act (Public Law 
584, 79th Congress) . Included in the authorized 
activities are the following: 

( 1 ) the operation of the various educational ex- 
change programs, including the exchange of per- 
sons, their orientation and f ollowup ; 

(2) the program of assistance to American- 
sponsored schools in Latin America; 

(3) the approval and facilitation of hundreds 
of privately sponsored exchange pi-ograms desig- 
nated as exchange- visitor programs and involving 
the bringing of thousands of persons to the United 
States ; 

(4) assistance to other private programs involv- 
ing the exchange of persons between the United 
States and other countries ; 

( 5 ) the responsibilities of the Secretary of State 
for participation in cultural conventions and other 
cultural activities between the United States and 
other countries and the backstopping of such in- 
ternational cultural activities as those conducted 
by the Cultural Coimcil of the Organization of 
American States, North Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
zation, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, etc. ; 
and 

(6) the coordination of these exchange and cul- 
tural activities into a combined effort to insure 



their maximum effectiveness in our foreign rela- 
tions programs. 

Relationship Between the Smith-Mundt and Ful- 
bright Programs 

TIio Smith-Mundt Act authorizes dollar appro- 
priations for reciprocal exchanges on a worldwide 
basis. For example, in 1958 we plan to conduct 
programs under this act with 87 countries. Pro- 
grams under the Fulbright Act, on the other hand, 
are restricted to countries with which we have 
specitic Executive agreements that make available 
nonconvertible foreign currencies for this purpose. 
It is anticipated we will have such agreements 
with some 33 coimtries in 1958. Another limita- 
tion on Fulbright funds is their use in connection 
with schools and institutions of higher learning 
Iiere and abroad. They could not be used to bring 
foreign leaders here on short visits or for other 
programs that are not strictly in the educational 
field. The fact that the Fulbright funds are avail- 
able only in nonconvertible foreign currencies is 
another limitation. They can be used only for ex- 
penses within the participating foreign countries 
and for international travel. 

In practice, tliis means that the program under 
the Fulbright Act has to have a certain amount 
of dollar support to supplement the foreign cur- 
rencies provided. This works out at the ratio of 
about $1 in U.S. currency for every $2 in foreign 
currencies. The dollar currencies are used for ex- 
penses of foreign participants while they are in 
the United States and for the dollar costs of the 
stateside and overseas services requii'ed to carry 
out the program. I refer liere to appropriated 
dollars. In addition to these cash outlays, max- 
imum use is made of private scholarships and as- 
sistance from other private sources. The total 
value of such private financial support is a major 
factor in the success of the Fulbright program, as 
it approximates the amount of foreign currency 
expended each year. 

I believe you will see from the foregoing that 
a joint operation of these two types of programs 
in countries where both are authorized is a neces- 
sity. We are constantly seeking to effect a closer 
integration, and, in fact, one of the amendments 
we are now proposing (section 5) is designed to 
"bring about still further coordination between 
these two programs. 



April 8, 1957 



567 



Estimated Cost of Amendments 

The estimated annual cost to the Department of 
all these amendments will be approximately 
$320,000. However, in our judgment, the im- 
provement in program effectiveness will more 
than offset this amount. The Department will not 
request additional funds for fiscal year 1958 for 
these purposes but will reprogram its regular 
funds to cover any additional costs. 

Changes Between Present Bill and S.3638 Considered 
Last Year 

The bill you are now considering differs in 
some respects from the one the committee consid- 
ered last year. Some of the changes are editorial 
in nature; others represent changes in substance 
or the adding of safeguarding provisions in com- 
pliance with comments or suggestions of the com- 
mittee during the hearings last year. These will 
be noted as the particular provisions are discussed. 

Development of Projects 

Section 1 is for the purpose of authorizing our 
assistance to such projects as chairs of American 
studies at institutions abroad and the holding of 
short seminars or workshops on various branches 
of American studies. 

The chairs in American studies would be filled 
by American professors or American-trained pro- 
fessors. We have found that projects of this na- 
ture engender binational support and produce a 
greater cumulative effect than can be gained from 
single isolated exchanges. 

This provision would also permit us to arrange 
for special seminars and workshops abroad. Such 
meetings would bring together groups of Ameri- 
can lecturers and researchers, already abroad 
under this program or the Fulbright program, 
for the purpose of presenting an intensive course 
on particular phases of American life and 
institutions. 

These special seminars or conferences would be 
attended by foreign nationals who had been ex- 
change visitors under the program, as well as some 
foreign nationals who had not had such an ex- 
perience. For the former, this would be a "re- 
fresher" or "followup" session that would keep 
alive and fresh in their minds their American ex- 
perience and would update or expand their knowl- 
edge of our country. Such sessions should also 
make a real impact on participants who have never 



been to the United States, giving them an in- 
sight into American studies and American educa- 
tional techniques. For example, a group of for- 
eign high school teachers of American history or 
English could attend such sessions, even though 
they might not be able to come to this country 
under this program. The cost, of course, would 
be much less than if we brought them to this 
comitry. 

Orientation for N on-V .S .-Government Students 

Section 2 (a) authorizes orientation courses and 
materials for exchangees who are not financed 
under the Government program. "VVe now give 
orientation to our own grantees. This would en- 
able us to do the same, on a very selective basis, 
for exchangees in nongovernmental programs sim- 
ilar to ours. 

We have in mind particularly the orientation of 
foreign students participating in privately spon- 
sored programs conducted by the Institute of 
International Education. The standards used in 
selecting these students are basically the same as 
those for Government grantees, with our embassies 
abroad assisting in the screening and selection. 

Orientation usually consists of a 6-week aca- 
demic program at selected colleges and universi- 
ties, or a 4-week visit in the homes of individual 
American families under a program supervised by 
the Experiment in International Living. 

The wording of this provision as compared 
with that submitted last year has been tightened 
up to assure that the orientation will be limited to 
the types of programs the Government operates 
and to those instances where we can determine 
that such orientation will better equip the ex- 
changee to further the objectives of this act. 

Third-Country Exchanges 

Section 2 {h) would permit nationals of a co- 
operating country to attend selected institutions 
in other cooperating countries and to participate in 
meetings held in such other countries. Grants 
under this provision would be awarded solely for 
the purpose of studying subjects pertaining to the 
United States and then only when it is determined 
that urgent foreign-relations objectives will be 
served. 

Authority now exists in the Fulbright Act for 
sending nationals of countries participating in 
tliat program to American institutions abroad, 
such as Robert College m Turkey. As already 



568 



Department of State Bulletin 



mentioned, the Fulbright program is limited to 
about 30 countries and therefore does not meet all 
the urgent needs in this field. 

We have in mind, for example, projects for 
bringing together nationals of Tvebanon and sur- 
rounding countries to take courses under Ameri- 
can professors at the American University in 
Beiiiit. Also nationals of Asiatic countries could 
be brought to the Univei-sity of the Philippines or 
the University of Taiwan to take intensive coui-ses 
in American literature, American history, etc., 
under American professors and American-trained 
professors. Such arrangements would also 
broaden the audience, especially in terms of reach- 
ing different nationality groups, for American 
professors already assigned to certain of these 
countries and thus add to their effectiveness. 

Two slight changes in the previous language 
have been made in the wording of this provision. 
The first would permit the participation in meet- 
ings held in places other than selected institutions 
and places of study. It could include an audi- 
torium or other such public place. The other 
change makes it clear that this activity will not be 
undertaken in any country controlled by interna- 
tional communism. I can assure you also that in- 
stitutions will be selected solely on the basis of our 
assurance of their desire and ability to promote 
ideas and principles in keeping with our basic 
foreign-policy objectives. 

Advisory Cormnission Membership 

The first item of Section 3 will make officers of 
State imiversities and land-grant colleges eligible 
to serve on the U.S. Advisory Commission on 
Educational Exchange. The present wording of 
the act makes the holder of any compensated Fed- 
eral or State office ineligible. It is our under- 
standing that this was not intended to disqualify 
officers of educational institutions, but it has this 
effect in some States. We believe that all such 
persons should be eligible for consideration for 
membei-ship on this commission. 

Annual Report by U.S. Advisory Commission to 
Congress 

Section k amends the present law to require re- 
portmg by the U.S. Advisory Commission on 
Educational Exchange to Congress on an annual 
rather than a semiannual basis. More frequent 
reporting was desirable in the earlier days of the 

kptW 8, 1957 

421092 — 57 3 



pi'ogram, but the commission and we believe that 
an annual report will not only be sufficient but also 
that it will be more meaningful to the Congress. 
The exchange program is planned and operated on 
an annual basis. Thus, an annual report will 
cover a logical program period. Should any sit- 
uation arise which would make an interim report 
desirable, such a report could be prasented on the 
initiative of the commission, or at our request, or 
at the request of the Congress. 

Use of Binational Convmissions 

Section 6 authorizes the use of existing bina- 
tional commissions and foundations abroad in the 
administration of the program. These commis- 
sions are created imder the Fulbright Act for the 
purpose of administering that program in each 
country. Their use in connection with the Smith- 
Alundt program will add a binational element that 
has proved most effective in the Fulbright pro- 
gram and will facilitate the joint administi"ation 
of the combined programs. 

No dollars are now available for these commis- 
sions. Under the proposed arrangement a very 
limited amount of dollars would be made avail- 
able, primarily for payment of a portion of the 
salary of the key American officer. 

This provision differs from the proposal of last 
year in that no authority is requested to create 
additional commissions. We plan to use only 
those established mider the Fulbright Act, since 
one of the prmcipal purposes is to coordinate the 
two programs. 

Advice From Private Groups 

Section 6 amends section 801(6) of the act in 
two respects: 

First, it authorizes the calling of meetings to ob- 
tain advice and assistance of private and public 
educational institutions and other similar organ- 
izations. This would permit better cooperation 
between governmental and nongovernmental ex- 
change programs so that the effectiveness of both 
would be increased. Persons attending such meet- 
ings at the invitation of the Government would not 
require full field investigations of the kind con- 
ducted for persons employed or assigned to duty. 
Such investigations are not considered necessary 
since the persons attending would serve in ad- 
visory capacities only and would not have access 
to classified material. 

569 



There is general authority now (section 15 of 
the act of August 2, 1946, 5 U.S.C. 55a) under 
which individuals may be appohited and brought 
in for consultation and advice, but speciiic author- 
ity as a part of this act would be extremely helpful 
in attracting the type of individuals needed for 
this program. 

There is authority now for creating advisory 
committees. The meetings contemplated under 
this additional authority, however, will be gen- 
erally on a short-term basis, and we do not believe 
we should formally create a committee just for 
these purposes. 

An editorial change has been made in this pro- 
vision to eliminate unnecessary language. 

$15.00 Per Diem for Commission Members 

Second, Section 6 authorizes an increase from 
$10.00 to $15.00 in the per-diem rates payable to 
members of advisory commissions and committees. 
Such persons serve without compensation. The 
$15.00 rate conforms to the general rate now pre- 
scribed for consultants and others serving without 
compensation. The authority requested would 
bring these commission and committee members 
under the general legislation prescribing rates of 
per diem for experts and consultants serving the 
Government without compensation. 

Emergency Medical Expenses 

Section 7 includes an item (identified as subsec- 
tion 5) which authorizes the payment of emer- 
gency medical expenses for persons selected to 
participate in the program. The lack of authority 
to pay such expenses in emergency cases has given 
rise to serious problems. Foreign participants 
are really guests of this Government while in this 
country, and the inability of the Government to 
meet their emergency hospital and medical ex- 
penses, which the individuals often are imable to 
meet, places them and the Government in an em- 
barrassing position. Similar problems arise in 
the case of American participants abroad. Au- 
thority is requested also to pay the expense of 
travel incurred by reason of illness. In a number 
of instances participants in the program have suf- 
fered mental or physical disordei-s that require 
their return home accompanied by an attendant. 
The proposed provision would permit payment 
of travel costs incurred under such circumstances. 
This authority is urgently needed to meet emer- 



gency situations as they arise. The number of 
such emergencies, fortunately, has been very small. 

Facilitating Exchanges of International Organr- 
izations 

Section 8 amends section 902 of the act to per- 
mit the acceptance of funds from international 
organizations for operation of programs author- 
ized by the act. Authority now exists for the 
acceptance of such funds from foreign govern- 
ments. The additional authority is needed to per- 
mit this Goverimient to accept funds for use in ad- 
ministering some of the fellowship programs of 
the United Nations. The funds would be ac- 
cepted and used for only those specific projects 
for which they are made available by such or- 
ganizations. Our Govermnent is dedicated to a 
policy of cooperation with the United Nations. 
Lack of authority to accept funds ofi'ered by this 
organization for the training of foreign nationals 
in the United States under its programs has proved 
a source of embarrassment to our Government. 
This amendment would permit the desired co- 
operation. 

The section diti'ers from the one proposed last 
year in a matter of language only. There is no 
change in its substance. 

Annual Report hy Secretary of State 

Section 9 proposes a change in section 1008 
which would permit the Secretary of State to 
report to the Congress on the educational exchange 
program amiually. He is now required to report 
semiannually. Since a year is required to meet 
a complete cycle of the exchange program, re- 
ports presented on that basis would be more com- 
plete and more meanmgful. 

Settlement of Tort Claims 

Section 10 includes authority to settle tort claims 
arising abroad by both the Department and the 
U.S. Information Agency. The expeditious 
settlement of equitable claims will aid immeas- 
urably in maintaining and promoting friendly 
relations abroad. 

This will enable the Department and the U.S. 
Information Agency to settle all claims arising 
out of their overseas operations on a basis simi- 
lar to that used by the armed services. A uni- 
form basis for settlement of such claims is highly 
desirable. 



570 



Deparfmenf of Sfofe BuUeHn 



Effectiveness of Educational and Cultural Exchange 
Programs 

Mr. Chairman, I appreciate the attention the 
committee has given to tliis rather detaiknl ex- 
phuiation. We are convinced that these amend- 
ments to the act of 1948 will enable the Depart- 



ment to improve the administration of the edu- 
cational exchange program. That program has 
become such a valuable instrument in the pur- 
suance of our foreign-policy goals that I am 
sui'e you will look with favor on anything we 
can do to make it still more effective. 



The Cold War and the Universities 



iy Frederick Cable Oechsner 



American universities are helping this country 
with ideas and personnel to fight communism on 
every cold-war battlefi'ont in the world. Even if 
the cold war as we know it today should last for 
50 years or more, the miiversities are directly con- 
tributing to shaping a world of the future where 
we may enjoy genuine peaceful coexistence instead 
of the uncertain substitute for it with which we 
are struggling today. Hungary and Egypt, and 
before them Korea, Formosa, and Indochina, have 
shown us how far we still have to go. 

One encouraging thought to sustain us, in the 
midst of disturbing news from satellite Europe 
and the Middle East, is that, while man in his 
million-year history has had many periods of irra- 
tional and antisocial behavior, there has never 
been a time when he made such an intense, 
methodical, and intelligent attempt to under- 
stand and improve his behavior as at present. 

Never before have we had the instruments that 
we have today for studying man in the matrix of 
his particular culture — whether he be American, 
Russian, Egyptian, or Israeli— and the way in 
which his behavior and culture relate to other in- 
dividuals and groups in the world. And never be- 
fore, incidentally, have we had the very real in- 
centive of possible annihilation to spur us on. 

In discussing the role of universities in the cold 
war, I use the latter term to describe the period 
since the end of World War II, a period of intense 
political, economic, and psychological as well as 



military pressures, a period in which we find lit- 
erally dozens of gi-eat cultural groups, each with 
its own cherished pattern of behavior, locked in 
a struggle for power and prestige. 

Almost nothing seems more important to me in 
the working out of our cold-war problems than 
the actual movement of persons to one another's 
countries. I refer not only to the coming of dele- 
gates to the United Nations and other interna- 
tional conferences but also to the interchange of 
experience involved in the visits of educators, lec- 
turers, labor leaders, doctors, lawyers, engineers, 
students, scientists, and artists and also of groups 
like orchestras, theater companies, and athletic 
teams. I was greatly surprised, a year or two ago, 
to see a young American girl broadcasting in 
Serbo-Croat from the Zagreb radio station tx) 
Yugoslav young people. She had studied the lan- 
guage at Smith College and had been sent overseas 
under the Department of State's international 
educational exchange program. 

Six thousand others like her this year, both 



• Mr. Oechsner is principal officer of the 
U.S. consulate at Monterrey, Mexico. His 
article is hosed on an address which he made 
at Tulane University, New Orleans, La., on 
November 10, 1956, during a temporary 
assignment in the United States. 



April 8, 1957 



571 



American and foreign, will cross the oceans to 
and from United States universities under this 
program, at a cost of $20 million. Another 30,000 
persons will be assisted by private industry, by 
the great foundations like Ford, Rockefeller, and 
Carnegie, and by hospitals and medical schools, 
to study, teach, or do research at univei-sities here 
and in 70 countries abroad. 

A basketball clinic for coaches will be held 
in Japan ; in Belgium the work of the first Center 
for lie-education of Cerebral Palsied Children 
will go on, as will that of a similar center in 
Norway; a school of journalism will operate at 
the University of Thammasat in Thailand, 
another at Nagpur University in India. All these 
programs have been made possible through the 
exchange of skills and sympathetic understanding 
between Americans and people abroad. 

Inter-University Projects 

In many instances the U.S. educational ex- 
change program has been the means of establishing 
direct cooperation between American and foreign 
universities. In the field of such inter-university 
work, there is also another excellent progi'am 
financed by the International Cooperation Admin- 
istration in Washington. Under this program 53 
American universities have contracts with Ica, 
totaling $53.6 million, for partnerships with uni- 
versities in 38 countries abroad. (In some con- 
tracts, private foundations like Ford and Rocke- 
feller have taken over the financing when Ica's 
term was through.) These contracts are in the 
area of technical cooperation, and their yield to 
the United States in this cold-war period can 
hardly be exaggerated. 

Tulane has one of these contracts for coopera- 
tion with the University of Colombia in develop- 
ing medical education. A Tulane doctor has gone 
to Bogota to make the primary survey; repre- 
sentatives of the University of Colombia will then 
come to Tulane for training, work will be done 
on such things as curricula and bibliogi-aphy for 
the library, and a close joint eiiort will continue 
throughout the life of the contract. The Delgado 
Central Trades School in New Orleans has a con- 
tract for cooperation with the School of Arts and 
Crafts at Beirut, Lebanon, and another with the 
Kampala Technical Institute in the Protectorate 
of Uganda, Africa. 

On every continent American universities are 



helping to develop sound, stable societies through 
unremitting effort in the very practical fields of 
agriculture, education, engineering, public ad- 
ministration, public health, housing, vocational 
training, industrial development, home economics, 
sanitation, and other areas critical in the struggle 
to extend democracy. 

The University of Michigan, for example, has 
done an outstanding job with the University of the 
Philippines in setting up an Institute of Public 
Administration. Oklahoma A. and M. has helped 
Ethiopia to establish an agricultural college. 
North Carolina is in Peru, Minnesota in Korea, 
Columbia in Afghanistan; Illinois, Ohio State, 
Tennessee, Wisconsin, Rensselaer, and Kansas are 
in India. Oregon is in Nepal. Others are in Iran, 
Iraq, Jordan, Pakistan, Turkey, Libya, Indonesia, 
Thailand, Viet-Nam, and Japan. 

In Ethiopia, where a school was established with 
American university assistance, 437 boys applied 
for enrollment but only 79 could be accepted at 
first. One lad trekked 800 miles to Addis Ababa 
on foot, selling most of his clothes en route. With- 
out food for the last 2 days, he arrived at the U.S. 
Operations Mission so weak that he had to be taken 
to a hospital — but not before he told why he had 
come: to attend that new school the Americans 
were helping to get started. He was accepted, I 
may add. 

In Iran 73 schools have been set up for children 
of nomadic tribes, and the schools travel with the 
tribes as they migrate. The same sort of thing is 
being done for the Bedouins in Jordan. Tribal 
chieftains were so enthusiastic over this first edu- 
cational program ever attempted for these nomads 
that they wanted to hold school 8 hours a day, 7 
days a week. 

Needless to say, most of these places are front- 
line battlegrounds in the cold war and American 
universities are there fighting communism tooth 
and nail. Let me tell you what a distinguished 
scholar wrote to his dean when sent abroad 
recently to survey the need of a contract between 
his university and a foreign institution : 

This job will require men with a certain missionary 
spirit, but such men can exert an influence that might 
have tremendous significance in this forming nation. The 
easy recommendation would be to stay out and avoid all 
the headaches, and even possible failure. I cannot make 
that recommendation. I say this because I do not care 
to contemplate the alternative : to stay out and see this 
nation slip into chaos and comnianism while we make no 
eflfort to save it. 



572 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



study of World's Cultures 

I remember, as a young newspaperman in New 
Orleans, interviewing the gifted Irish poet, James 
Stephens, who wrote "The Crock of Gold" and 
many other poems. Discussing the political for- 
tunes of Ireland in the midtwenties, I asked 
Stephens what he thought Ireland's best defenses 
were. "Well," he replied, "we can always retreat 
into the Gaelic language. Nobody will ever find 
us there." 

I submit that today it is impossible for the 
Irish, or any other sizable group in the world, to 
retreat into its own culture. The reason is that 
our country, principally through its universities, 
is now engaged in a remarkably complete study 
of the different cultures of the world. 

This research consists largely of what are called 
"area study programs." To find out about them, 
I went to the State Department's External Re- 
search Staff, a unit of the Office of Intelligence 
Research, which devotes full time to keeping 
abreast of university research dealing with foreign 
area and foreign policy problems. There I was 
given details of literally thousands of inquiries 
into the problems of particular geographical re- 
gions, often a single country or a subgroup within 
a country. These research projects are being 
carried out by most of the country's universities 
or individual scholars, with 40 institutions carry- 
ing the major load of 81 full-scale programs. 

The area study programs were taken up seri- 
ously during and just after World War II to meet 
the needs of Government policymakers and of 
American business concerns for information on 
economic, political, and social conditions abroad. 
Since then, and especially in the last 5 years, the 
area studies have expanded and intensified enor- 
mously. Today they are financed not only by the 
universities and by individuals but also by the 
great private foundations like Ford, Rockefeller, 
and Carnegie, and also, of course, by the Govern- 
ment, which continues to be one of the great users 
of this intelligence developed in the universities. 

Tulane has at least two important area-study 
projects: the Latin American Studies Program 
and a special project on the penetration of West- 
ern ideas into the political processes of West Afri- 
can societies. The Latin American program has 
yielded richly in completed studies, including 
those on Guatemala, Cuba, the Dominican Repub- 
lic, Mexico, and many others on current problems. 



Harvard, under a contract with the Air Force, 
has made microscopic studies of Soviet culture and 
behavior. (The External Research Staff lists 
well over 500 titles of research projects concen- 
trated on Soviet Russia.) Through its Russian 
Research Center, Harvard also helps in the spe- 
cial language-and-area training given selected 
Foreign Service officers who will work in Moscow 
or satellite areas. Other universities prominent 
in this training program, coordinated with the 
Foreign Service Institute, are Columbia, Cornell, 
Yale, Princeton, and Stanford. 

At Yale a series of handbooks on 50 foreign 
countries is being prepared for the Army for the 
purpose of preparing personnel going ovei'seas to 
make the adjustment to their new environment. 

At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
the Center of International Studies, concentrating 
on international communications, economics, and 
U.S. relations with the Communist bloc, is produc- 
ing work widely used in the Government. Mem- 
bers of the faculty at the M.I.T. Center are con- 
sultants to the Armed Forces and to the U.S. In- 
formation Agency. 

Other studies of utmost importance are those 
in basic individual and gi-oup behavior dynamics ; 
in intergroup tensions and the problems of co- 
operation ; in our own American behavior and cul- 
ture; in what the rest of the world thinks of us, 
and why. 

Fields for Further Expansion 

I would like to point out a few ways in which 
the Department of State feels that universities 
might expand their activities if possible : (1) the 
gi'anting of scholarships to qualified foreign stu- 
dents; (2) stipends for foreign lecturers or re- 
search scholars ; (3) establishing further ties with 
particular foreign universities in fields of mutual 
interest (you may recall that, at Baylor Univer- 
sity not long ago. President Eisenhower imder- 
scored the challenge to American universities and 
graduates in "this great two-way avenue of con- 
tacts") ; ' (4) encouraging well-qualified Ameri- 
can students to apply for scholarships, government 
or ijrivate, for study overseas; (5) encouraging 
faculty members to apply for lecturing or research 
positions abroad; (6) stressing the critical im- 
portance of foreign-language study in our trade 



' BuLLHOTN of June 4, 1956, p. 915. 



April 8, 1957 



573 



and cultural relations with other countries. Not 
only in the field of languages but in all others the 
Government looks to the universities to develop 
manpower for the Foreign Service. 

Indeed, I can think of no more important func- 
tion of the universities in the cold-vrar period than 
the continued education of young people, and of 
the entire adult population of the country, to un- 
derstand themselves and the problems of their 
age. They must learn to understand the culture 
in which they were raised, including its weak- 
nesses and faults, as well as the cultures of other 
people. 

I submit that, up to now, we have also used only 
a fractional part of our social potential as nations 
in learning to get along together rationally rather 
than emotionally. I do not know that we will see 
a "breakthrough" in our lifetime, and I am sure 
that there will always be pathological individuals 
like Hitler who identify the motivations of large 
cultural groups with their own. But never, it 
appears to me, has the light of knowledge and of 
conscience been focused on these problems of be- 
havior so sharply as today. I have tried to show 
how the work of the American university fits into 
this great struggle for the rational survival of 
mankind. 



U.S.-Dominican Agreement 
on LORAN Station 

Press release 161 dated March 19 

The Governments of the United States and of 
the Dominican Republic entered into an agreement 
on March 19 by which the U.S. Government ac- 
quires the right to establish a Long Eange Radio 
Aid to Navigation (Loran) Station at Cape 
Frances Viejo on the northern coast of the Domini- 
can Republic. 

This station, one of a series constituting a net- 



work in various countries of the Caribbean and 
other areas, will benefit air and sea navigation in 
this increasingly congested area. It will be 
manned by personnel of the U.S. Coast Guard. 



United States and Japan Sign 
Income-Tax Protocol 

Press release 173 dated March 23 

On March 23, 1957, the American Ambassador 
to Japan, Douglas MacArthur II, and the Jap- 
anese Minister of Foreign Affairs, Nobusuke 
Kishi, signed at Tokyo a protocol supplementing 
the income-tax convention of April 16, 1954, 
between the United States and Japan. 

The 1954 convention with Japan,^ like income- 
tax conventions in force between the United States 
and 18 other countries, contains provisions for the 
avoidance of double taxation and the prevention 
of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income. 
The protocol, upon entry into force, will supple- 
ment the convention by providing that the Export- 
Import Bank of Wasliington shall be exempt from 
Japanese tax with respect to interest on loans or 
investments received by such bank from sources 
within Japan. Reciprocally, the Export-Import 
Bank of Japan shall be exempt from United States 
tax with respect to interest on loans or investments 
received from sources within the United States. 

The protocol, according to its terms, will con- 
tinue in force concurrently with the 1954 conven- 
tion unless terminated earlier by a 6 months' 
written notice of termination given by either Gov- 
ernment to the other Government. 

The jirotocol will be transmitted to the Senate 
for advice and consent to ratification. The text 
of the protocol will be available in printed form 
upon publication of the Senate Executive 
document. 



' Treaties and Other International Acts Series 3176. 



574 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Air Transport Agreement Between United States and Mexico 



Press release 122 dated March 7 
DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Francis White, United States Ambassador to 
Mexico, and Licenciado Luis Padilla Nervo, Sec- 
retary of Foreign Eelations for Mexico, concluded 
on March 7 at Mexico City an exchange of notes 
providing for an air transport agreement between 
the two countries. 

Tlie exchange of notes, incorporating the un- 
derstanding between the two countries, establishes 
the routes to be served by United States and Mexi- 
can flag airlines and contains the principles under 
which these routes will be operated. 

The understanding between the two Govern- 
ments also provides that the agi'eement shall be- 
come effective 90 days after the signature of the 
exchange and that it shall expire on June 30, 1959. 
At the request of either Government, made prior 
to May 30, 1959, conversations may be initiated 
looking to agreement concerning subsequent regu- 
lation of air transport between the two countries. 



TEXT OF AGREEMENT 



Mexico, D.F., Ma/rch 7, 1957 

His Excellency 

Sr. Lie. Louis Padilla Nervo, 
Secretary of Foreign BelatioTis, 
Mexico, D.F. 

No. 942 

Excellency : I have the honor to acknowledge 
the receipt of Your Excellency's note No. 501404 
of today's date, together with the attached Memo- 
randum of Understanding and Annex, which read 
in translation as follows: 

Mb. Ambassador : I have the honor to advise Your Ex- 
cellency that the Government of Mexico, in a desire to 
conti-ibute to the improvement of air transport between 
oui- two countries, is prepared to execute a provisional 



arrangement regarding civil aviation with the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America in the terms of 
the Memorandum of Understanding and its Annex which 
I attach to the present note. 

If, as I understand is the case, the Government of the 
United States of America is also willing to conclude 
such an arrangement on this basis, the present note and 
the note in reply from Your Excellency communicating 
your Government's acceptance of the Memorandum of 
Understanding and its Annex above-mentioned shall con- 
stitute a provisional arrangement regarding civil avia- 
tion between the two Governments. 

I take this occasion to renew to Y'our Excellency the 
assurances of my highest consideration. 

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING 

1. The aeronautical authorities of the Government of 
Mexico shall grant permits to airlines designated by the 
Government of the United States of America to operate air 
services on the air routes specified below, via intermediate 
points, in both directions, and to make regular stops 
at the points listed in this paragraph : 

A. New York, Washington-Mexico City. 

B. Chicago, Dallas, San .\ntonio-Mexico City, via inter- 
mediate points in the United States. 

C. Los Angeles-Mexico City, via intermediate points 
in the United States. 

D. New Orleans-Mexico City. 

E. New Orleans-M6rida, and beyond, to Guatemala, 
and beyond. 

F. Miami-M^rida, and beyond, to Guatemala, and 
beyond. 

G. Houston, Brownsville-Tajnpico, Mexico City, Tapa- 
cluila, and beyond, to Guatemala, and beyond. 

The aeronautical authorities of the Government of the 
United States of America shall grant permits to airlines 
designated by the Government of Mexico to operate air 
services on each one of the air routes specified below, 
via intermediate points, in both directions, and to make 
regular stops at the points listed in this paragraph : 

A. Mexico City-Washington, New York. 

B. Mexico City-Chicago, via intermediate points in 
Mexico. 

C. Mexico City-Los Angeles, via intermediate points in 
Mexico. 

D. Mexico City-New Orleans, via intermediate points 
in Mexico. 

E. Mexico City-Miami, and beyond, via intermediate 
points in Mexico. 



April 8, 1957 



575 



F. Mexico City-San Antonio, via intermediate points In 
Mexico. 

G. (Pending). 

2. Both parties agree not to designate, for the present, 
more than one airline for each route. 

3. An airline designated by either country may, at its 
discretion, omit stops on any of the routes specified on any 
or all flights. 

4. The aeronautical operations of the designated lines 
shall be governed by the principles set forth in the 
Annex to the present Memorandum of Understanding. 

5. The present Provisional Arrangement shall enter 
in force ninety days after the date of the exchange of 
notes. 

6. The arrangement shall terminate June 30, 1959. 

7. Upon request of either Government, prior to May 
30, 1959, talks may be initiated to reach an agreement 
concerning a system to regulate air transport subsequent 
to June 30, 1959, between the two countries. 

Annex 



(A) The term "aeronautical authorities" means In the 
ease of the United States of America, the Civil Aero- 
nautics Board or any person or agency authorized to 
perform the functions exercised at the jjresent time by the 
Civil Aeronautics Board and, in the case of the United 
Mexican States, the Ministry of Communications and 
Public Works or any person or agency authorized to 
perform the functions exercised at present by the said 
Ministry of Communications and Public Works. 

(B) The term "designated airline" means an airline 
that one party has notified to the other party, in writ- 
ing, to be the airline which will operate a specific route 
or routes listed in the Memorandum of Understanding. 

(C) The term "territory" in relation to a State means 
the land areas and territorial waters adjacent thereto 
under the sovereignty, suzerainty, protection, mandate 
or trusteeship of that State. 

(D) The term "air service" means scheduled air 
service performed by aircraft for the public transport 
of passengers, mail or cargo. 

(B) The term "international air service" means an air 
service which flies over the territory of more than one 
State. 

(P) The term "stop for non-traflic purposes" means a 
landing for any purpose other than taking on or discharg- 
ing passengers, cargo or mail. 

II 

Each party grants to the other party rights neces- 
sary for the conduct of air services by the designated 
airlines, as follows: the rights of transit, of stops for 
non-traflic puriioses, and of commercial entry and de- 
parture for international traflic in passengers, cargo, and 
mail at the points in its territory named on each of the 
routes specified in the Memorandum of Understanding. 
The fact that such rights may not be exercised im- 
mediately .shall not preclude the subsequent inauguration 
of air services by the airlines of the party to whom such 



rights are granted over the routes specified in the Mem- 
orandum of Understanding. 

Ill 

Air service on a specified route may be inaugurated 
immediately or at a later date at the option of the party 
to whom the rights are granted by an airline or airlines 
of such party at any time after that party has desig- 
nated such airline or airlines for the route and the other 
party has given the appropriate operating permission. 
Such other party shall, subject to Section IV, be bound 
to give this permission provided that the designated air- 
line or airlines may be required to qualify before the 
competent aeronautical authorities of that party, under 
the laws and regulations normally applied by these au- 
thorities, before being permitted to engage in the opera- 
tions contemplated by the Memorandum of Understand- 
ing and this Annex. 

IV 

Each party reseiTes the right to withhold or revoke 
the operating permission provided for in Section III of 
this Annex from an airline designated by the other party 
in the event that it is not satisfied that substantial own- 
ership and effective control of such airline are vested 
in nationals of the other party or in case of failure by 
such airline to comply with the laws and regulations 
referred to in Section V of the present Annex, or in case 
of the failure of the airline or the Government desig- 
nating it to fulfill the conditions under which the rights 
are granted in accordance with the Provisional Arrange- 
ment. 

V 

(A) The laws and regulations of one party relating to 
the admission to or departure from its territory of air- 
craft engaged in international air navigation, or to the 
operation and navigation of such aircraft while within 
its territory, shall be applied to the aircraft of the air- 
line or airlines designated by the other party and shall 
be complied with by such aircraft upon entering or de- 
parting from, and while within the territory of the first 
party. 

(B) The laws and regulations of one party relating 
to the admission to or departure from its territory of 
passengers, crew, or cargo of aircraft, such as regulations 
relating to entry, clearance, immigration, passports, cus- 
toms, and quarantine shall be complied with by or on 
behalf of such passengers, crew or cargo of the other 
party upon entrance into or departure from, and while 
within the territory of the first party. 

VI 

Certificates of airworthiness, certificates of competency 
and licenses issued or rendered valid by one party, and 
still in force, shall be recognized as valid by the other 
party for the purpose of operating the routes and serv- 
ices provided for in the Memorandum of Understanding 
and in the present Annex, provided that the requirements 
under which such certificates or licenses were issued or 
rendered valid are equal to or above the minimum stand- 
ards which may be established pursuant to the Conven- 
tion on International Civil Aviation. Each party reserves 



576 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



the right, however, to refuse to recognize, for the pur- 
pose of flight above its own territory, certiflcates of 
competency and licenses granted to its own nationals by 
anotlier State. 

VII 

In order to prevent discriminatory practices and to 
assure equality of treatment, both parties agree further 
to observe the following principles : 

(a) Kach of the parties may impose or permit to be 
imposed just and reasonable charges for the use of pub- 
lic airports and other facilities under its control. Each 
of the parties agrees, however, that these charaes shall 
not be higher than would be paid for the use of such air- 
ports and facilities by its national aircraft engaged in 
similar international services. 

(b) Fuel, lubricating oils, consumable technical sup- 
plies, spare parts, regular equipment, and stores intro- 
duced into the territory of one party by the other party 
or its nationals, and intended solely for use by aircraft of 
such party shall he exempt on a basis of reciprocity from 
customs duties, inspection fees and other national duties 
or charges. 

(c) Fuel, lubricating oils, other consumable technical 
supplies, spare parts, regular equipment, and stores re- 
tained on board aircraft of the airlines of one party 
authorized to operate the routes and services provided for 
in the Memorandum of Understanding and in this Annex 
shall, upon arriving in or leaving the territory of the 
other part.v, be exempt on a basis of reciprocity from 
customs duties, inspection fees and other national duties 
or charges, even though such supplies be used or con- 
sumed by such aircraft on flights in that territory. 

(d) Fuel, lubricating oils, other consumable technical 
supplies, spare parts, regular equipment, and stores taken 
on board aircraft of the airlines of one party in the terri- 
tory of the other and used in international services shall 
be exempt on a basis of reciprocity from customs duties, 
excise taxes, inspection fees and other national duties or 
charges. 

VIII 

There shall be a fair and equal opportunity for the 
airlines of each party to operate on the routes listed in 
the Memorandum of Understanding. 

IX 

In the operation by the airlines of either party of the 
trunk services described in the Memorandum of Under- 
standing the interest of the airlines of the other party 
shall be taken into consideration so as not to affect un- 
duly the services which the latter provide on all or part of 
the same routes. 

X 

The services made available to the public by the air- 
lines operating under the Provisional Arrangement shall 
bear a close relationship to the requirements of the public 
for such services. 

It is understood that services provided by a designated 
airline under the Memorandum of Understanding and the 
present Annex shall retain as their primary objective the 
provision of capacity adequate to the traffic demands be- 



tween the country of which such airline is a national 
and the countries of ultimate destination of the traflSc. 
The right to embark or disembark on such services inter- 
national traffic destined for and coming from third coun- 
tries at a point or points on the routes specified in the 
Memorandum of Understanding shall be applied in ac- 
cordance with the general principles of orderly develop- 
ment to which both parties suliscribe and shall be subject 
to the general principle that capacity should be related: 

(a) to traffic requirements between the country of 
origin and the countries of ultimate destination of the 
traffic ; 

(b) to the requirements of through airline operation; 
and, 

(c) to the traffic requirements of the area through 
which the airline passes after taking account of local and 
regional services. 

Both parties agree to recognize that the fifth freedom 
traffic is complementary to the traffic requirements on 
the routes between the territories of the parties, and at 
the same time is subsidiary in relation to the traffic re- 
quirements of the third and fourth freedoms between the 
territory of the other party and a country on the route. 

In this connection both parties recognize that the de- 
velopment of local and regional services is a legitimate 
right of each of their countries. Tliey agree therefore to 
consult periodically on the manner in which the standards 
mentioned in this section are being complied with by their 
respective airlines, in order to assure tliat their respec- 
tive interests in the local and regional services as well as 
through .services are not being prejudiced. 

Every change of gauge justifiable for reasons of econ- 
omy of operation, shall he permitted at any stop on the 
designated routes. Nevertheless, no change of gauge may 
be made in the territory of one or the other party when 
it modifies the characteristics of the operation of a through 
airline service or if it is incompatible with the principles 
enunciated in the present Annex. 

"When one of the parties after a period of observation of 
not less than ninety days considers that an increase in 
capacity or frequency offered by an airline of the other 
party is unjustified or prejudicial to the services of its 
respective airline it shall notify the other party of its 
objection to the end that consultation be initiated between 
the appropriate aeronautical authorities and decision on 
the objection be made by mutual agreement within a 
period which may not be more than ninety days beginning 
on the date of such notification. For this purpose the 
operating companies shall supply all traffic statistics that 
may be necessary and required of them. 

XI 

Rates to be charged on the routes provided for in the 
Memorandum of Understanding shall be reasonable, due 
regard being paid to all relevant factors, such as cost of 
operation, reasonable profit, and the rates charged by any 
other carriers, as well as the characteristics of each serv- 
ice, and shall be determined in accordance with the follow- 
ing paragraphs : 

(A) The rates to be charged by the airlines of either 
party between points in the territory of the United States 



April 8, 1957 



577 



of America and points in the territory of tlie United 
Mexican States referred to in the Memorandum of Under- 
standing shall, consistent with the provisions of the pres- 
ent Annex, be subject to the approval of the aeronautical 
authorities of the parties, who shall act in accordance 
with their oblisations under the Provisional Arrange- 
ment, within the limits of their legal powers. 

(B) Any rate proposed by an airline of either party 
shall be filed with the aeronautical authorities of both 
parties at least thirty (30) days before the proposed date 
of introduction; provided that this period of thirty (30) 
days may be reduced in particular cases if so agreed by 
the aeronautical authorities of both parties. 

(C) During any period for which the Civil Aero- 
nautics Board of the United States of America has 
approved the traffic conference procedures of the Inter- 
national Air Transport Association (hereinafter called 
lATA), any rate agreements concluded through these pro- 
cedures and involving United States airlines will be 
subject to approval of the Board. Likewise, agreements 
concluded through this machinery may also be required 
to be subject to the approval of the aeronautical author- 
ities of the United Mexican States pursuant to the prin- 
ciples enunciated in paragraph (A) above. 

(D) The procedure described in paragraphs (E), (F) 
and (G) of this Section shall apply: 

1. If, during the period of the approval by both parties 
of the lATA traffic conference procedure, either, any 
specific rate agreement is not approved within a reason- 
able time by either party, or, a conference of lATA is 
unable to agree on a rate, 

or 

2. At any time no lATA procedure is applicable, or 

3. If either party at any time withdraws or fails to 
renew its approval of that part of the lATA traffic con- 
ference procedure relevant to this Section. 

(E) In the event that power is conferred by law upon 
the aeronautical authorities of the United States of Amer- 
ica to fix fair and economic rates for the transport of 
persons and property by air on international services and 
to suspend proposed rates in a manner comparable to that 
in which the Civil Aeronautics Board at present is em- 
powered to act with respect to such rates for the transport 
of persons and property by air within the United States 
of America, each of the parties shall thereafter exercise 
its authority in such manner as to prevent any rate or 
rates proposed by one of its airlines for services from the 
territory of one party to a point or points in the territory 
of the other party from becoming effective, if in the 
judgment of the aeronautical authorities of the party 
whose airline or airlines is or are proposing such rate, that 
rate is unfair or uneconomic. If one of the parties on 
receipt of the notification referred to in paragraph (B) 
above is dissatisfied with the rate proposed by the airline 
or airlines of tlie other party, it shall so notify the other 
party prior to the expiry of the first fifteen (15) of the 
thirty (30) days referred to, and the parties shall endeavor 
to reach agreement on the appropriate rate. 

In the event that such agreement is reached, each party 
will exercise its best efforts to put such rate into effect 
as regards its airline or airlines. 



If agreement has not been reached at the end of the 
thirty (30) day period referred to in paragraph (B) 
above, the proposed rate may, unless the aeronautical 
authorities of the country of the air carrier concerned see 
fit to suspend its application, go into effect provisionally 
pending the settlement of any dispute in accordance with 
the procedure outlined in paragraph (G) below. 

(P) Prior to the time when such power may be con- 
ferred upon the aeronautical authorities of the United 
States of America, if one of the parties is dissatisfied 
with any rate proposed by the airline or airlines of either 
party for services from the territory of one party to a 
point or points in the territory of the other party, it shall 
so notify the other party prior to the expiry of the first 
fifteen (15) of the thirty (30) day period referred to in 
paragraph (B) above, and the parties shall endeavor to 
reach agreement on the appropriate rate. 

In the event that such agreement is reached, each party 
will use its best efforts to cause such agreed rate to be put 
into effect by its airline or airlines. 

If no agreement can be reached prior to the expiry of 
such thirty (30) days, the party raising the objection to 
the rate may take such steps as it may consider necessary 
to prevent the inauguration or continuation of the service 
in question at the rate complained of. 

(G) When in any case under paragraphs (E) or (P) 
of this Section the aeronautical authorities of the two 
parties cannot agree within a reasonable time upon the 
appropriate rate after consultation initiated by the com- 
plaint of one party concerning a proposed rate or an 
existing rate of the airline or airlines of the other party, 
upon the request of either, the terms of Section XIII of 
this Annex shall apply. 

XII 

Consultation between the competent authorities of both 
parties may be requested at any time by either party for 
the purpose of discussing the interpretation, application, 
or amendment of the Provisional Arrangement or Route 
Schedule (Point 1 of the Memorandum of Understanding). 
Such consultation shall begin within a period of sixty 
(60) days from the date of the receipt of the request by 
the Department of State of the United States of America 
or the Ministry of Foreign Relations of the United Mexi- 
can States as the case may be. Should agreement be 
reached on amendment of the Provisional Arrangement 
or Schedule of Routes, such amendment will come into 
effect upon confirmation by a further exchange of diplo- 
matic notes. 

XIII 

Except as otherwise provided, any dispute between the 
parties relative to the interpretation or application of the 
Provisional Arrangement which cannot be settled through 
consultation shall be submitted for an advisory report 
to a tribunal of three arbitrators, one to be named by 
each party, and the third to be agreed upon by the two 
arbitrators so chosen, provided that such a third arbi- 
trator shall not be a national of either party. Each of the 
parties shall designate an arbitrator within two months 
of the date of delivery by either party to tlie other party 
of a diplomatic note requesting arbitration of a dispute; 
and the third arbitrator shall lie agreed upon within one 
month after such period of two months. 



578 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



If t'ither of the parties fails to designate its own arbi- 
trator within two months, or if the third arbitrator is 
not agreed uixm within the time limit indicated, either 
party may request the President of the International 
Court of Justice to make the necessary appointment or 
appointments by choosing the arbitrator or arbitrators. 

The parties will use their best efforts under the powers 
available to them to put into effect the opinion expressed 
in any such advisory report. A moiety of the expenses 
of the arbitral tribunal shall be borne by each party. 

XIV 

The Provisional Arrangement, all amendments thereto, 
and contracts connected therewith shall be registered 
with the International Civil Aviation Organization. 

XV 

If a general multilateral air transport Convention ac- 
cepted by both parties enters into force, the Provisional 
Arrangement shall be amended so as to conform with the 
provisions of such Convention. 

XVI 

Either of the two parties may at any time notify the 
other party of its intention to terminate the Provisional 
Arrangement. Such notice shall be sent simultaneously 
to the International Civil Aviation Organization. In case 
such notification should be given the arrangement would 
terminate six months after the date on which the notice 
of termination may have been received, unless the com- 
munication under reference is annulled before the end 
of this period by agreement between both parties. Should 
the other party not acknowledge receipt it shall be con- 
sidered that the notification was received by it 14 days 
subsequent to the date on which it is received by the In- 
ternational Civil Aviation Organization. 

XVII 

Upon entry into effect of the Provisional Arrangement 
the aeronautical authorities of the two parties must com- 
municate to each other as soon as possible the informa- 
tion relating to authorizations given to the airline or air- 
lines designated by them to operate the routes mentioned 
in the Memorandum of Understanding. 

XVIII 

The aeronautical authorities of both parties shall re- 
spectively advise each other eight days before the actual 
placing in operation of their respective permits the fol- 
lowing data : schedules, frequencies, tariffs and tyi)es of 
aircraft normally utilized in their services. Any modifi- 
cation of the data under reference shall similarly be 
communicated. 

In reply, I have the honor to advise Your Ex- 
cellency that the Government of the United States 
of America is prepared to conclude a provisional 
arrangement on the basis proposed in Your Ex- 
cellency's note, Memorandum of Understanding 
and Annex under reference, and accept your pro- 
posal to regard that note, the Memorandum of 



Understanding and Annex and the present reply 
as constituting a provisional arrangement regard- 
ing civil aviation between our two Governments. 
Please accept, Excellency, the renewed assur- 
ances of my highest consideration. 

Francis White 



U.S. and Netherlands Resume 
Air Transport Negotiations 

Following is a Department announcernent con- 
cerning the reswmption on March 19 of negotia- 
tions on the U.S. -Netherlands air transport agree- 
ment, together with an exchange of letters betimen 
President Eisenhoioer and Dr. Willem Drees, 
Prime Minister of the Netherlands. 

DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 163 dated March 19 

Delegations of the Governments of the United 
States and the Kingdom of the Netherlands re- 
sumed negotiations on March 19 for the conclu- 
sion of a bilateral air transport agreement. The 
negotiations were suspended last May. 

The chairman of the Netherlands delegation is 
E. H. van der Beugel, State Secretary for Foreign 
Affairs. The vice chairman is H. J. Spanjaard, 
director of the Department of Civil Aviation, 
Ministry of Transport and Waterways. The other 
members of the delegation are Baron S. G. M. van 
Voorst tot Voorst, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary at the Netherlands Em- 
bassy in Washington ; J. C. Nieuwenhuijsen, Min- 
istry of Foreign Affairs ; E. D. Baiz, representa- 
tive of the Government of the Netherlands An- 
tilles; F. J. Barend, representative of the Govern- 
ment of Surinam; L. H. Slotemaker, managing 
director of KLM, Royal Dutch Airlines; and 
S. C. van Nispen, commercial secretary at the 
Netlierlands Embassy in Washington. 

The U.S. delegation is headed by Thorsten V. 
Kalijarvi, Assistant Secretary of State for Eco- 
nomic Affairs ; vice chairman is G. Joseph Minetti, 
member. Civil Aeronautics Board. Other mem- 
bers of the delegation are H. Alberta Colclaser, 
Hendrik van Oss, and John P. Walsh, Department 
of State; Raymond Sawyer and Joseph C. Wat- 
son, Civil Aeronautics Board. Bradley D. Nash, 
Deputy Under Secretary of Commerce for Trans- 



AprW 8, 1957 



579 



portation, will be an adviser to the U.S. delega- 
tion, and Paul Reiber, representing the Air Trans- 
port Association of America, will attend as an 
observer. 

EXCHANGE OF LETTERS 

Press release 16G dated March 21 

The Prime Minister's Letter 

The Hague, 28th February 1957 

Dear Mr. President: Your many responsi- 
bilities in American and world affairs will un- 
doubtedly make it impossible for you to follow 
closely all questions pertaining to the bilateral 
relationship of the United States of America and 
the Netherlands, however united our coimtries are 
in the cause of the free world. I have therefore 
hesitated before writing you this personal letter 
to ask yoiu" special attention for the negotiations 
on an air transport agreement between the Nether- 
lands and the United States, which are to begin 
in Washington on March 19th next. 

These negotiations probably are of minor im- 
portance as compared to the many problems which 
the world at the present moment is facing, but 
Her Majesty's Government, the Parliament and 
the people of the Netherlands consider their out- 
come to be vital to the economy of my country. 

The special geographic and demographic situa- 
tion of my country, its limited natural resources, 
require that the Netherlands maintain its historic 
position as a world carrier, if it is to pull its weight 
as a sound member of the Western Alliance. 

It is for this reason that I am taking the ex- 
ceptional step of writing you to draw your atten- 
tion to these negotiations, which naturally will be 
followed very closely by the Government and the 
people of the Netherlands. 

The traditional friendship between your great 
nation and the Netherlands encourages me to feel 



confident that you may see your way to giving this 
matter some personal thought. I am convinced 
that tliis would be extremely helpful in bringing 
about a favorable outcome of these discussions. 

Wliile thanking you in advance for anything 
which you may be able to do in this respect, I avail 
myself of this opportunity to send you the as- 
surances of my highest esteem and of my feelings 
of sincere friendship. 

W. Drees 

The President's Letter 

March 18, 1957 
Dear Mr. Prime Minister: I was very pleased 
to receive from the Ambassador of The Nether- 
lands your letter of February 28 concerning the 
significance which the Government and people of 
The Netherlands attach to the forthcoming civil 
air negotiations between our two countries. I am 
glad that you did not hesitate to write me directly 
about a matter which affects so vitally the relations 
between the United States and The Netherlands. 
Both of our countries, which have joined with 
other like-minded nations to achieve certain mu- 
tual objectives in Nato, have as a common purpose 
the healthy expansion of our free economies, so 
necessary for the maintenance of the Western 
Alliance. 

I place, as do the people of the United States, 
a very high value on maintaining and strengthen- 
ing our close relations with The Netherlands. 
Such a relationship not only permits, but re- 
quires the frank exchange of views on problems 
of mutual concern. I have instructed the United 
States Delegation for the forthcoming civil air 
negotiations to give the most serious consideration 
to the factors described in your letter. 
Sincerely yours, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



580 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



Notice of Intention To Enter Into Limited Trade Agreement Negotiations 
With the United Kingdom and Belgium^ 



The Interdepartmental Committee on Trade 
Agreements on March IS issued notice of the in- 
tention of the U.S. Government, under the au- 
thority of the Trade Agreements Act as amended 
and extended, to enter into limited trade agree- 
ment negotiations with certain contracting par- 
ties to tlie General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade. 

These negotiations are being held in connection 
with requests for compensatory tariff concessions 
by the United Kingdom and Belgium on the basis 
of the increase last year of the U.S. rate of duty 
on certain linen toweling. The increase from 10 
percent to 40 percent ad valorem in the rate of 
duty on linen toweling became effective on July 
26, 1956.^ 

The action to increase the duty was taken under 
the escape-clause provision of the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade after a finding by the 
U.S. Tariff Commission that domestic industry was 
being seriously injured as a result of increased im- 
ports caused at least in part by a tariff conces- 
sion which was initially negotiated with the United 
Kingdom in the agreement. 

In accordance with the escape-clause provision, 
the United States has consulted with the countries 
having a substantial interest as exporters of linen 
toweling. The United Kingdom and Belgium, 
both of which have exported substantial quantities 
of linen toweling to the United States, have re- 
quested compensation for the U.S. action, which 
thej' consider an impairment of the concession. 
Japan, a small supplier of toweling, has indicated 
that it would expect to benefit from compensation 
granted to the other supplying countries. Ordi- 



' This material is also available as Department of State 
publication 6470 and may be obtained from the Division 
of Public Services, Department of State, Washington 25, 
D.C. See also 22 Fed. Reg. 1878. 

' Bulletin of July 16, 1956, p. 115. 



narily the country using some procedure imder the 
general agreement to increase a duty which is the 
subject of a concession grants compensatory con- 
cessions to the countries adversely affected. 
Sliould agreement on such compensatory conces- 
sions not be reached provision is usually made for 
the affected country to suspend equivalent 
concessions. 

Tariff concessions by the United States will be 
considered within the limitation of authority 
available to the President imder the Trade Agree- 
ments Act as amended. The Trade Agreements 
Extension Act of 1955 provides that rates may be 
reduced 15 percent below the January 1, 1955, 
rates by stages of 5 percent a 5'ear over a 3-year 
period but that no stage or reduction may be made 
effective after June 30, 1958. Consequently there 
remains authority to reduce rates to as much as 10 
percent below the January 1, 1955, rate, in two an- 
nual stages of 5 percent each. 

In accordance with past practice and the re- 
quirements of trade agreements legislation, the 
committee's notice sets in motion preparations for 
the negotiations, including opportunity for pre- 
sentation by interested persons of both written 
and oral views on jDOSsible concessions which may 
be granted and the determination of "peril points" 
by the U.S. Tariff Commission on jiroducts on 
which the United States will consider granting 
concessions. 

Included with the committee's notice is a list of 
products, some of which might be offered as com- 
pensatory concessions. 

The Committee for Reciprocity Information 
announces that its hearings to receive the views of 
interested persons concerning the proposed negoti- 
ations will open on April 24, 1957. Domestic pro- 
ducers, importers, and other interested persons 
are invited to present to the committee views and 
all pertinent information about products on the 



April 8, 1957 



581 



published list or any other aspect of the negotia- 
tions. All views and information will be care- 
fully considered in deciding whether or not a con- 
cession should be offered by the United States. 
Consideration will also be given to all relevant 
information submitted to the Committee for 
Reciprocity Information in connection with its 
hearings in October 1955 and January 1956 in 
preparation for the Geneva tariff negotiations. 
Accordmgly, persons who presented information 
and views at those hearings regarding products on 
the attached list and who do not desire to modify 
or supplement such material, need not — but may 
if they wish — repeat their written or oral 
submissions. 

Applications for oral presentation of views and 
information should be presented to the Committee 
for Reciprocity Information not later than the 
close of business April 17, 1957. Persons desiring 
to be heard should also submit written briefs or 
statements to the committee by April 17, 1957. 
Only those persons will be heard who have pre- 
sented written briefs or statements and have filed 
applications to be heard by the dates indicated. 
Communications are to be addressed to "Com- 
mittee for Reciprocity Information, Tariff Com- 
mission Building, Washington 25, D.C." Fur- 
ther details concerning the submission of briefs 
and applications to be heard are contained in the 
committee's notice. 

The membership of the Committee on Trade 
Agreements and of the Committee for Reciprocity 
Information is identical, consisting of representa- 
tives of the Departments of State, Treasury, De- 
fense, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, and In- 
terior, and the International Cooperation Admin- 
istration, as well as a member of the U.S. Tariff 
Commission. The Department of State member 
is the chairman of the Committee on Trade Agree- 
ments, while the Tariff Commission member is the 
chairman of the Committee for Reciprocity 
Information. 

The U.S. Tariff Commission also announced on 
March 18 that it will hold public hearings begin- 
ning April 24, 1957, in connection with its "peril 
point" investigation, as required by section 3(a) 
of the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951, 
on the extent to which U.S. concessions on listed 
products may be made in tlie negotiations without 
causing or threatening serious injury to a domestic 
industry producing like or directly competitive 



products. Copies of the notice may be obtained 
from the Commission. Views and information 
received by the Tariff Commission on its hearings 
referred to above will be made available to the 
Committer for Reciprocity Information for con- 
sideration by the Interdepartmental Committee on 
Trade Agreements. Persons who appear before 
the Tariff" Commission need not — but may if they 
wish — also appear before the Committee for Reci- 
procity Information, if they apply in accordance 
with the procedures of that committee as outlined 
above. 



INTERDEPARTMENTAL COMMITTEE ON TRADE 
AGREEMENTS 

Trade agreement negotiations with governments which 
are contracting parties to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade regarding compensation for escape 
clause action. 

Pursuant to Section 4 of the Ti-ade Agreements Act, 
approved June 12, 1934, as amended (48 Stat. 945, ch. 474; 
65 Stat. 7?>, ch. 141) and to paragraph 4 of Executive 
Order 10082 of October 5, 1949 (3 CFR, 1949 Supp., p. 126) , 
and In view of certain "escape clause" action with respect 
to toweling of flax, hemp, or ramie taken by the President 
on June 25, 1956 (Proclamation 3143, 3 CFR, 1956 Supp., 
p. 33) under the authority of section 350 of the Tariff 
Act of 1930, as amended (48 Stat. 943, ch. 474) and Section 
7(c) of the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1051 (65 
Stat. 74, ch. 141), notice is hereby given by the Interde- 
partmental Committee on Trade Agreements of Intention 
to enter into trade agreement negotiations under Article 
XIX of the General Agi-eement regarding compensation to 
contracting parties to the Agreement that have a sub- 
stantial Interest as exporters for such escape clause action. 
Since the purpose of the negotiations is the granting of 
compensatory concessions by the United States, It Is not 
anticipated that they will result in any concessions by 
other countries for the benefit of United States exports. 
The results of these negotiations would be embodied in 
Schedule XX to the General Agreement. 

There is annexed hereto a list of articles imported into 
the United States to be considered for possible modification 
of duties and other Import restrictions, or specific con- 
tinuance of existing customs or excise treatment In the 
negotiations of which notice is given above. 

The articles proposed for consideration in the negotia- 
tions are identified in the annexed list by specifyin.g the 
numbers of the pjiragraphs in tariff sclicdules of Title I 
of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, in which they are 
provided for together with the language used in such 
tariff paragraphs to provide for such articles, except that 
where necessary the statutory language has been modified 
by the omission of words or the addition of new language 
In order to narrow the scope of the original language. 

No article will he considered in the negotiations for 



582 



Department of State Bulletin 



possible modification of duties or other import restrictions, 
imposition of additional import restrictions, or specific 
continuance of existing customs or excise treatment unless 
it is included, specifically or by reference, in the annexed 
list or unless it is subsequently included in a supjile- 
mentary public list. Only duties on the articles listed 
Imposed under the paragraphs of the Tariff Act of 1930 
specified with regard to such articles will be considered 
for a possible decrease, but additional or separate ordinary 
duties or import taxes on such articles imposed under any 
other provisions of law may be bound against increase as 
an assurance that the concession under the listed para- 
graph will not be nullified. In the event that an article 
which as of March 1, 1957 was regarded as classifiable 
under a description included in the list is excluded there- 
from by judicial decision or otherwise prior to the con- 
clusion of the trade agreement negotiations, the list will 
nevertheless be considered as including such article. 

Pursuant to Section 4 of the Trade Agreements Act, as 
amended, and paragraph 5 of Executive Order 10082 of 
October 5, 1949, information and views as to any aspect 
of the proposals announced in this notice may be sub- 
mitted to the Committee for Reciprocity Information in 
accordance with the announcement of this date issued by 
that Committee. Any matters appropriate to be con- 
sidered in connection with the negotiations proposed above 
may be presented. 

Public hearings in connection with "peril point" investi- 
gation of the United States Tariff Commission in connec- 
tion with the articles included in the annexed list pursuant 
to Section 3 of the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 
1951, as amended, are the subject of an announcement of 
this date issued by that Commission. 

By direction of the Interdepartmental Committee on 
Trade Agreements this 18th day of March 1957. 

Carl D. Corse 
Chairman 

Interdepartmental Committee 
on Trade Agreements 

List of Articles Imported Into the United States 
Proposed for Consideration in Trade Agreement 
Negotiations 



Par. 



Par. 



52 

93 
218(a) 



Tariff Act of 1930, Title I— Dutiable List 



All chemical elements, all chemical salts and 
compounds, and all combinations and mix- 
tures of any of the foregoing, all the foregoing 
obtained naturally or artificially and not 
specially provided for: 
Sodium alginate. 

Sperm oil, refined or otherwise processed; 
spermaceti wax. 

Zinc cWoride; zinc sulphate. 

Biological, chemical, metallurgical, pharma- 
ceutical, and surgical articles and utensils 
of all kinds, including all scientific articles 
and utensils, whether used for experimental 
purposes in hospitals, laboratories, schools or 
universities, colleges, or otherwise, all the 
foregoing, finished or unfinished, wholly or in 
chief value of fused quartz or fused silica. 



372 



90G 



907 



921 



1009(c) 



1010 



1410 



Tariff Act of 1930, Title I— Dutiable List 



Textile machinery, finished or unfinished, not 
specially provided for: 

Machinery for manufacturing or processing 
vegetable fibers other than cotton or 
jute prior to the making of fabrics or 
crocheted, knit, woven, or felt articles 
not made from fabrics (except beaming, 
slashing, warping, or winding machinery 
or combinations thereof, and except 
bleaching, printing, dyeing, or finishing 
machinery). 
Cloth, in chief value of cotton, containing wool. 
[Note: Paragraph 1122, Tariff' Act of 1930, 
limits the wool content of cloth classifiable 
under paragraph 90G to less than 17 per- 
cent in weight.) 
Tracing cloth; waterproof cloth, wholly or in 
chief value of cotton or other vegetable fiber, 
but not in part of India rubber. 
All other floor coverings, including carpets, 
carpeting, mats, and rugs, wholly or in chief 
value of cotton: 

Imitation oriental rugs. 
Woven fabrics, in the piece or otherwise, wholly 
or in chief value of vegetable fiber, except 
cotton, filled, coated, or otherwise prepared 
for use as artists' canvas. 
Woven fabrics, not including articles finished or 
unfinished, of flax, hemp, ramie, or other 
vegetable fiber, except cotton or jute, or of 
which these substances or any of them is the 
component material of chief value, not 
specially provided for (except toweling, i. e., 
fabrics chiefly used for making towels, of 
flax, hemp, or ramie, or of which these sub- 
stances or any of them is the component 
material of chief value). 
Unbound books of all kinds, bound books of all 
kinds except those bound wholly or in part in 
leather, sheets or printed pages of books bound 
wholly or in part in leather, all the foregoing 
not specially provided for, if other than of 
bona fide foreign authorship (not including 
diaries, music in books, pamphlets, prayer 
books, sheets or printed pages of prayer books 
bound wholly or in part in leather, or tourist 
literature containing geograpliic, historical, 
hotel, timetable, travel, or similar informa- 
tion, chiefly with respect to places or travel 
facilities outside the continental United 
States) . 



COMMITTEE FOR RECIPROCITY INFORMATION 

Trade Agreement Negotiations with Governments which 
are contracting parties to the General Agreement on 



April 8, 1957 



583 



Tariffs and Trade regarding compensation for escape 
clause action. 

Submission of information to tlie Committee for Reci- 
procity Information. 

Closing date for applications to appear at hearing April 
17, 1957. 

Closing date for submission of briefs April 17, 19S7. 

Public hearings open April 24, 1957. 

The Interdepartmental Committee on Trade Agreements 
has issued on this day a notice of intention to participate 
in trade agreement negotiations under Article XIX of 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade regarding 
compensation to contracting parties to the Agreement that 
have a substantial interest as exporters for the escape 
clause action with respect to toweling of flax, hemp, or 
ramie taken by the President on June 25, 1956. Annexed 
to the notice of the Interdepartmental Committee on 
Trade Agreements is a list of articles imported into the 
United States to be considered for possible concessions in 
the negotiations. Since the purpose of the negotiations 
is the granting of compensatory concessions by the United 
States, it is not anticipated that they will result in any 
concessions by other countries for the benefit of United 
States exports. 

The Committee for Reciprocity Information hereby gives 
notice that all applications for oral presentation of views 
in regard to the proposed renegotiations shall be submitted 
to the Committee for Reciprocity Information not later 
than April 17, 1957. The application must indicate the 
product or products on which the individual or groups 
desire to be heard and an estimate of the time required 
for oral presentation. Written statements shall be sub- 
mitted not later than April 17, 1057. Such communica- 
tions shall be addressed to "Committee for Reciprocity 
Information, Tariff Commission Building, Washington 25, 
D. C." Fifteen copies of written statements, either typed, 
printed, or duplicated shall be submitted, of which one 
copy shall be sworn to. 

Written statements submitted to the Committee, except 
information and business data proffered in confidence, 
shall be open to inspection by interested persons. In- 
formation and business data proffered in confidence .shall 
be submitted on separate pages clearly marked For Of- 
ficial Use Only of Committee for Reciprocity Information. 

Public hearings will be held before the Committee for 
Reciprocity Information, at which oral statements will be 
heard, beginning at 2:00 p. m. on April 24, 1957 in the 
hearing room in the Tariff Commission Building, Eighth 
and E Streets N. W., Washington, D. C. Witnesses who 
make application to be heard will be advised regarding 
the time and place of their individual appearances. Ap- 
pearances at hearings before the Committee may be made 
only by or on liehalf of those persons who have filed written 
statements and who have within the time prescribed made 
written application for oral presentation of views. State- 
ments made at the public hearings shall be under oath. 

Persons may present their views regarding any matter 
appropriate to l>e considered in coimection with the pro- 
posed negotiations, although, as indicated above, it is not 



anticipated that they will result in any concessions by 
other countries for the benefit of United States exports. 
Copies of the list attached to the notice of intention to 
negotiate may be obtained from the Committee for Reci- 
procity Information at the address designated above and 
may be inspected at the field oflBces of the Department of 
Commerce. 

The United States Tariff Commission has today an- 
nounced public hearings on the import items appearing 
in the list annexed to the notice of intention to negotiate 
to run concurrently with the hearings of the Committee 
for Reciprocity Information. Oral testimony and written 
information submitted to the Tariff Commission will be 
made available to and will be considered by the Inter- 
departmental Committee on Trade Agreements. Con.se- 
quently, those whose interests relate only to import prod- 
ucts included in the foregoing list, and who appear before 
the Tariff Commission, need not, but may if they wish, 
appear also before the Committee for Reciprocity In- 
formation. 

By direction of the Committee for Reciprocity Informa- 
tion this 18th day of March 1957. 

Edward Yaedlet 

Secretary, 

Committee for Reciprocity Information 



President Asks Study of Tariff Quota 
on Alsilte Clover Seed 

White House press release dated March 14 

The President on March 14 requested the Tariff 
Commission to determine whether and to what ex- 
tent the present tariff quota on alsike clover seed 
will remain necessary after June 30, 1957. 

In an escape-clause proceeding under section 7 
of the Trade Agreements Extension Act, the Pres- 
ident adopted on June 30, 1954, a Tariff Commis- 
sion recommendation for a tariff quota providing 
a duty of 2 cents per pound up to 1,500,000 pounds 
and 6 cents per pound for imports in excess of tliat 
amount.^ The tariff quota was established for 1 
year. At the President's request the Commission 
submitted a supplemental report, and on June 29, 
1955, the President liberalized the tariff quota and 
extended it for 2 j-ears.^ The present tariff is 6 
cents per poimd on imjjorts exceeding 2,500,000 
pounds and 2 cents per pound iq> to that amount. 
It expires on June 30, 1957. 



• Bulletin of .\ug. 2, 1954, p. 167. 
" /6«d., July 18, 1955. p. IIG. 



584 



Department of State Bulletin 



President Decides Against Study 
of Tariff on Hatters' Fur 

White Ilouse press release dated March 14 

The President on March 14 concurred with the 
Tariff Commission's recent finding that no formal 
investigation should be instituted at this time to 
determine whether the tariff should be reduced on 
imports of hatters' fur. The President found, 
with the Tariff Commission, that there is no suf- 
ficient reason at this time to reopen the escape- 
clause action which resulted in an increase of the 
duty on imports of hatters' fur. The President's 
decision means that the increased rate of duty, 
established in 1952^ as a result of escape-clause 
action, -will continue to apply without reduction 
or other modification. 

The President's action was taken after the views 
of all interested departments and agencies of the 
executive branch had been received and studied. 
The Tariff Commission's report was made pursu- 
ant to Executive Order 10401, wliich requires 
periodic review of actions taken under the escape 
clause. It was transmitted to the President on 
February 4, 1957. 

The tariff on hatters' fur was reduced as the re- 
sult of trade agreement negotiations in 1935 and 
again in 1948. Effective February 9, 1952, the 
tariff on imports of hatters' fur was increased as 
the result of an escape- clause action to its present 
rate of 47^ cents per pomid, but not less than 15 
percent nor more than 35 percent ad valorem. 

The Tariff' Commission's report constitutes its 
fourth periodic review of the escape-clause action 
taken on this product.^ 



President Orders Investigation 
of Effects of Tung Oil imports 

White House press release dated March 22 

The President has requested the U.S. Tariff 
Commission to make an inmiediate investigation of 
the effects of imports of tung oil on the domestic 
price-support program for tung nuts and tung oil 
and on the amount of products processed in the 
United States from tmig nuts or tung oil. The 
President's action was taken in response to a rec- 
ommendation from the Secretary of Agriculture. 



The Commission's investigation will be made pur- 
suant to section 22 of the Agricultural Adjustment 
Act, as amended. 

President's Letter to Chairman of Tariff Commission 

Dkak Mk. Chairman: I have been advised by 
the Secretary of Agriculture that there is reason 
to believe that tung oil is being and is practically 
certain to continue to be imported into the United 
States imder such conditions and in such quantities 
as to render or tend to render ineffective or to ma- 
terially interfere with the price support program 
for tung nuts and tung oil undertaken by the De- 
partment of Agriculture, pursuant to Section 201 
of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1949, as 
amended, or to reduce substantially the amount 
of products processed in the United States from 
domestic tung nuts and tung oil. A copy of the 
Secretai-y's letter is enclosed.^ 

The Tariff Commission is requested to make an 
immediate investigation under Section 22 of the 
Agricultural Adjustment Act, as amended, to de- 
termine if there is a need for restrictions on tung 
oil imports. The Conmiission's findings should 
be completed as promptly as practicable. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 
AND CONFERENCES 



^ Bulletin of Jan. 21, 1952, p. 96. 

- Copies of the report may be obtained from the U.S. 
Tariff Commission, Washington 25, D.C. 



U.N. Relief and Worlds Agency 
for Palestine Refugees 

Following are the texts of two statements made 
in the Special Political Committee hy Mrs. Oswald 
B. Lord, U.S. Representative to the General As- 
se7nbly, together with a U.S. -sponsored 7'esolu- 
tion adopted in plenary session on February 28. 

STATEMENT OF FEBRUARY 18 

U.S. delegation press release 2620 

I am very much impressed with the compre- 
hensive reports of the Director of the United 



' Not printed. 



AptU 8, 1957 



585 



Nations Relief and Works Agency.^ After hear- 
ing his own excellent statement of last week, I wish 
first of all to pay tribute to Mr. [Henry E.] La- 
bouisse and to the many faithful members of his 
agency. They have really done a most competent 
job under stringent limitations and unusually dif- 
ficult circumstances in taking care of the welfare 
of the Arab refugees. 

My Government has the widest sympathy and 
understanding for the plight of these refugees. I 
am personally concerned, for, Mr. Chairman, I 
have seen refugees all over the world — in Ger- 
many, Pakistan, India, Viet-Nam, Formosa — but 
the refugee camps I visited in the Middle East — 
Lebanon and Jordan are the most depressing be- 
cause of the fact that these refugees have been 
there so long and seem to have so little to hope for. 

This in itself is depressing enough, but it is 
even more depressing and unfortunate that, al- 
though we have considered their plight here year 
after year, the situation is not improving. Not 
only is it not improving — it is not being solved. 
"VAHiy ? To my Government and to me there are 
three major elements that seem to stand out, and I 
want to elaborate on all three — but to sum them 
up: 

First, a decision was made over 8 years ago that 
refugees would have the right to decide whether 
they should be repatriated or whether they should 
be compensated. Second, let's face the fact there 
has been some deterioration of relations between 
the agency and some of the host governments. 
Third, and most important, a good deal of lack of 
progress is due to the question of contributions. 

Let's take the first point, that the refugees con- 
tinue to live in the faith of the promise made to 
them 8 years ago that they will be repatriated to 
Israel or compensated. This has not been put into 
effect. The United States Government believes 
that with the minimvmi of good faith and willful 
understanding of particular and emotional prob- 
lems involved we should find a way to settle this 
problem. 

Let's take a look at the second problem — the 
deterioration of relations between the agency and 
some of the host governments. I don't have to 
remind the delegates of some of the unjustified 
instances of noncooperation on the part of some 
of the host governments that Mr. Labouisee has 
cited in his report. This type of noncooperation 

■ IJ.N. docs. A/3212 and Add. 1. 
586 



between a host government and the Director and 
his responsible officials, fellow delegates, is incon- 
sistent with the obligations as outlined in articles 
104 and 105 of the charter. 

This is really a matter of concern because, if any 
United Nations agency finds that host governments 
do not respect their charter obligations, the Direc- 
tor of that particular agency would have the right 
to suspend, curtail, or terminate its activities. I 
am sure that all would agree with the United 
States Government that, whether it is with the 
United Nations Eelief and Works Agency or any 
other agency, the Director, if unable to carry out 
his assigned functions under the protection of the 
resolution which governs his activities and under 
the two articles of the charter, could well terminate 
his activities. 

However, I am sure you would all agree with the 
United States delegation that host governments 
are entitled to protect and exercise their sovereign 
rights within their territories, and very possibly 
by exercising such sovereign rights honest differ- 
ences can arise. 

We are most desirous to minimize the chances of 
such a conflict, and we want to see each host gov- 
ernment given a regard for its sovereignty — which 
any free nation is entitled to exercise. 

Together, however, with this legitimate desire 
of the host governments to exercise fully their 
sovereign rights, we must consider the fact that 
the mandate of the United Nations Eelief and 
Works Agency has a little more than 3 years to 
run. My Government believes that this body 
should now commence assisting the agency and 
the governments as best it can in preparing against 
the eventual termination of the United Nations 
Eelief and Works Agency's activities in orderly 
planning and in fairness to the host governments 
and the welfare of the refugees. We believe that 
the Director of the agency should, after consulta- 
tions with the host governments, prepare for sub- 
mission to the 12th General Assembly specific pro- 
I^osals — witliout jDrejudice, of course, to the refu- 
gees' right of repatriation or compensation — for 
future implementation of the various responsibili- 
ties with which the agency is now charged. 

The third and most important problem that I 
have referred to is contributions. I think most 
of the speakers here have agreed with Mr. 
Labouisse in his desire to undertake improve- 
ments — a desire he has expressed in all his reports. 
My delegation is in complete accord, but we do 

Department of State Bulletin 



not think that only a few governments and par- 
ticularly the United States can and should assume 
full financial responsibility for insuring the wel- 
fare of the refugees. 

We will always stand ready to match generosity, 
but we have all agreed over and over again here at 
the TJnited Nations when we have discussed other 
contributions — United Nations Children's Fund, 
technical assistance, etc. — that the very health and 
moral fiber of the United Nations is not served by 
contributions from a limited number of nations. 
One reason why there is so much interest, so much 
support, in the United Nations Children's Fund 
and technical assistance programs is because, in 
1956, 79 countries completed their contributions 
to the United Nations Children's Fund and, in 
195C, 61 countries pledged to the Technical As- 
sistance Program. 

Let's put all our efforts in a wider basis for 
pledging of contributions and, if possible, larger 
contributions. By contributions from more coun- 
tries, by increased contributions, we can then fore- 
see better standards of relief as requested by the 
Director. If, on the other hand, contributions 
fall short of the budget requirements, then the 
Director will have no choice — and it will be a tragic 
and unfortunate choice — but to reduce the alread5 
meager services to the refugees. If tliis tragedy 
should happen and services have to be reduced, we 
wish that food and clothing be the very last to 
suffer. 

Mr. Chairman, now let us turn to the question 
of the rehabilitation fund. In the past my Gov- 
ei'nment has always actively supported substantial 
rehabilitation programs. By this we mean pro- 
grams that would improve the welfare of the 
refugee, provide him with a sense of security and 
a sense of belonging among his Arab brethren, but 
at the same time not prejudice his right to repatri- 
ation or compensation. Many diligent efforts 
have been made — such as those devoted to the de- 
velopment of the Jordan Valley, made by my 
Government. Unfortunately, agreements for 
these projects have not materialized although, as 
the Director has indicated, they have proved feas- 
ible and technically somid. We are still hopeful 
that projects will be agreed upon which will ac- 
complish economic benefits to both the govern- 
ments involved and to the refugees. 

Therefore, we would like to suggest that the 
Director's discretion with regard to use of reha- 
bilitation funds be broadened to the extent that 



he may in his discretion disburse moneys from 
the rehabilitation fund for general economic de- 
velopment projects, subject only to agreement by 
the recipient government that within a fixed pe- 
riod it will assume financial responsibility for an 
agreed number of refugees. We think, Mr. Chair- 
man, in making such a suggestion that the projects 
which may be agreed upon can really benefit the 
economies of the Arab world and will also con- 
tribute to the welfare of the refugees. In line 
with our interest in maintaining the rehabilita- 
tion fund, I can assure this Committee that my 
Government is presently making plans for a fur- 
ther contribution to the rehabilitation fund. 

Mr. Chairman, I want to again express our 
admiration for the work which the Director of 
the United Nations Eelief and Works Agency has 
done. If one smgle example is needed to demon- 
strate the efficiency and capacity of the Director 
and the agency, it can be found in the special 
report of the Director concemiing the agency's ac- 
tivities in the Gaza Strip between November 1st 
and mid-December of last year.- Despite military 
operations and the deplorable damage and loss of 
life, my Government feels that it can truly say 
"well done" to the brilliant performance of the 
agency. 

May I again appeal to all countries to remember 
that in this problem we are not dealing with a 
political situation as such. We are dealing with 
human beings who deserve more of our sympathy 
and consideration than they have received in the 
past. 



STATEMENT OF FEBRUARY 22 

U.S. delegation press release 2628 

This Committee now has before it a draft resolu- 
tion which has the cosponsorship and support of 
the United States. Much of its language is fa- 
miliar to us since the problem has been long before 
us and, regrettably, will be before us probably for 
some years to come. I say regrettably because 
human beings and their sufferings are involved. 
It is in a continued and renewed effort to assist in 
the alleviation of this mass misery that the United 
States hopes that this resolution will receive the 
large majority support it warrants. 

Mr. Chairman, as we see it, this resolution faces 



' U.N. doc. A/3212 Add. 1. 



April 8, 7957 



587 



facts, many of which are regi'ettable, particularly 
in the fourth, fifth, and sixth preambular para- 
graphs, whicli relate to the inadequacy of contri- 
butions, to the fact that the hope of repatriation 
or compensation has not been fulfilled, and that, 
as the Director had to point out most unliappily 
in his report, cooperation between certain host 
governments and the agency has been inadequate. 
We believe it necessary that there be improvement 
on all of these points in the coming year or else 
the agency cannot hoi^e to carry out its mandate. 

The first operative paragraph also faces facts in 
that it should be an earnest effort on the part of 
the Director and the governments concerned to 
plan ahead in such a manner that the relationships 
between the agency and the host governments are 
so adjusted that the responsibilities with which 
the agency is now charged may carry on into the 
future in a manner best designed to insure the 
future welfare of the refugees and face the fact 
that the mandate of the agency by Resolution 818 
(IX) is ended on June 30, 1960. In urging this 
step we want to stress that what we are asking the 
Director to do is in no way prejudicing the rights 
of the refugees or prejudging the solution of this 
problem. We fully appreciate the difficulties 
which the host governments may be forced to face, 
and this body should in the future be prepared to 
consider what those difficulties may be and what it 
can do about them. It is for this reason that we 
believe the Director should report to the next Gen- 
eral Assembly along the lines indicated in the first 
operative paragraph. For our part, the United 
States stands ready to be of such assistance as may 
be indicated. The second operative paragraph is 
a reminder to all of us that the agency has certain 
rights and privileges which we must all respect if 
it is to function as expected of it. Accordingly, we 
believe it appropriate to request of the host gov- 
ernments the necessary cooperation with the 
agency and with its personnel and to extend to 
them every appropriate assistance in carrying out 
their functions. 

The third operative paragraph is traditional 
in resolutions on this problem in that it directs 
the agency to pursue its programs, bearing in mind 
the limitations imposed u,pon it by the contri- 
butions. 

The fourth operative paragraph indicates our 
continued interest and concern that rehabilitation 
projects capable of supporting a substantial num- 
ber of refugees be sought and carried out. The 



United States has given much thought to this mat- 
ter and still believes that it is in the interests of 
the Arab peoples themselves that projects be found 
which will not only benefit the refugees but can 
have a profoundly beneficial effect on the Arab 
governments. For this reason, we are proposing 
in operative paragraph 5 that the Director's au- 
thority be broadened from what it has been to per- 
mit him to use rehabilitation funds, as they may be 
available, to arrange with individual host govern- 
ments for general economic development projects. 
We believe that such arrangements should involve 
agreement on the part of any host government 
that within a fixed period of time it will assume 
financial responsibility for an agreed number of 
refugees. Certainly it is in the interests of all con- 
cerned that every effort be made to reduce the refu- 
gee .problem as rapidly as possible. We are hope- 
ful that this broader discretion will be of gx-eat 
assistance. 

The remaining operative paragraphs are famil- 
iar in that they request the agency to continue its 
consultations with the Palestine Conciliation Com- 
mission. It reiterates its appeal to private organi- 
zations and governments to assist in meeting the 
serious needs of other claimants for relief in the 
area. It requests the Negotiating Committee for 
Extrabudgetary Funds to continue to seek the fi- 
nancial assistance needed and, most important of 
all, urges all governments to increase their contri- 
butions to the extent necessary to carry through 
the agency's programs. 

The tenth operative paragraph takes cogni- 
zance of the fearless and courageous work of faith- 
ful international servants who continue to carry 
out tlie program for the refugees in the Gaza Strip 
following the recent hostilities. The Director and 
the agency ought to be commended for this initia- 
tive. 

Finally, it expresses the General Assembly's 
thanks to the Director and the staff of the agency 
for their continued faithful efforts. Thanks are 
also always due to the many private organizations 
which have for so long continued their valuable 
work in assisting the refugees. 

In conclusion, Mr. Chairman, may I say that it 
is our hope that the passage of this resolution will 
lend new vitality to the efforts of all of us in help- 
ing to assist and solve the Arab refugee problem. 
It is the conviction of my Government that failui-o 
to act in the affirmative way which we propose 
can have most unfortunate results for the refugees. 



588 



Deparlmenf of State Bulletin 



and they should come first in the minds of all of 
us here. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION ^ 

The General Assembly, 

Recalling its resolutions 194 (III) of 11 December 1948, 
302 (IV) of 8 December 1949, 393 (V) of 2 December 
1950, 513 (VI) of 26 January 1952, 614 (VII) of 6 No- 
vember 1952, 720 (VIII) of 27 November 1953, 818 (IX) 
of 4 December 1954 and 916 (X) of 3 December 1955, 

Noting the annual report and the special report of the 
Director of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency 
for Palestine Refugees in the Near East and the report 
of the Advisory Commission of the Agency,* 

Having reviewed the budget for relief and rehabilita- 
tion prepared by the Director of the Agency, 

Noting with concern that contributions thereto are not 
yet sufficient. 

Noting that repatriation or compensation of the refu- 
gees, as provided for in paragraph 11 of resolution 194 
(III), has not been effected, that no substantial progress 
has been made in the programme endorsed in paragraph 
2 of resolution 513 ( VI ) for the reintegration of refugees 
and that therefore the situation of the refugees continues 
to be a matter of serious concern. 

Noting that the host Governments have expressed the 
wish that the Agency continue to carry out its mandate 
in their respective countries or territories and have ex- 
pressed their wish to co-operate fully with the Agency 
and to extend to it every appropriate assistance in carry- 
ing out its functions, in accordance with the provisions of 
Articles 104 and 105 of the Charter of the United Nations, 
the terms of the Convention of Privileges and Immuni- 
ties, the contents of paragraph 17 of its resolution 302 
(IV) of 8 December 1949 and the terms of the agreements 
with the host Governments, 

1. Direets the United Nations Relief and Works Agency 
for Palestine Refugees in the Near East to pursue its 
programmes for the relief and rehabilitation of refugees, 
bearing in mind the limitation imposed upon it by the 
extent of the contributions for the fiscal year; 

2. Requests the host Governments to co-operate fully 
with the Agency and with its personnel and to extend to 
it every appropriate assistance in carrying out its 
functions ; 

3. Requests the Governments of the area, without prej- 
udice to paragraph 11 of resolution 194 (III), in co- 
operation with the Director of the Agency, to plan and 
carry out projects capable of supporting substantial num- 
bers of refugees ; 

4. Requests the Agency to continue its consultation with 
the United Nations Conciliation Commission for Pales- 



' U.N. doe. A/Res/524 ; adopted by the Special Political 
Committee on Feb. 23 (A/SPC/L.13/Rev. 2) by a vote 
of 66 to with 1 abstention (Iraq) and by the General 
Assembly on Feb. 28 by a vote of 68 to with 1 abstention 
(Iraq). 

' U.N. doc. A/349S. 



tine in the best interest of their respective tasks, with 
particular reference to paragraph 11 of resolution 194 
(III); 

5. Decides to retain the rehabilitation fund and au- 
thorizes the Director in his discretion to disburse such 
monies, as may be available, to the individual host Gov- 
ernments for general economic development projects, 
subject to agreement by any such Government that within 
a fixed period of time it will assume financial resiMJusibil- 
ity for an agreed number of refugees, such number to 
be commensurate with the cost of the project without 
prejudice to paragraph 11 of resolution 104 (III) ; 

0. Reiterates its appeal to private organizations and 
Governments to assist in meeting the serious needs of 
other claimants for relief as referred to in paragraph 5 
of resolution 916 (X) ; 

7. Requests the Negotiating Committee for Extra Budg- 
etary Funds, after receipt of the requests for contribu- 
tions from the Director of the Agency, to seek the financial 
assistance needed from the United Nations Members; 

8. Urges all Governments to contribute or to increase 
their contributions to the extent necessary to carry 
through to fulfilment the Agency's relief and rehabilita- 
tion programmes ; 

9. Notes with approval the action of the Agency in 
continuing to carry out its programme for the refugees 
in the Gaza Strip; 

10. Expresses its thanks to the Director and the staff 
of the Agency for continued faithful efforts to carry out 
its mandate, and to the specialized agencies and the many 
private organizations for their valuable and continuing 
work in assisting the refugees ; 

11. Notes that the Agency is changing its financial period 
from a fiscal to a calendar year basis and that conse- 
quently the current budgets cover an IS-month period 
from 1 July 1956 to 31 December 1957, and that special ar- 
rangements for the audit of funds in this period are being 
made with the United Nations Board of Auditors ; 

12. Requests the Director of the Agency to continue 
to submit the reports referred to in paragraph 21 of reso- 
lution 302 (IV) as modified by paragraph 11 above. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 

MULTILATERAL 
Customs Tariffs 

Protocol modifying the convention signed at Brussels July 
5, 1890 (26 Stat. 1518), creating an international union 
for the publication of customs tariffs. Done at Brassels 
December 16, 1949. Entered into force May 5, 1950.' 
Adherence deposited: Rumania, February 13, 1957. 



' Not in force for the United States. 



April 8, 7957 



589 



Trade and Commerce 

Agreement on Organization for Trade Cooperation. Done 

at Geneva March 10, 1955.^ 

Notification deposited {recognising signature as bind- 
ing) : Austria, February 11, 1957. 
Protocol of rectification to French text of the General 

Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva June 

15, 1955. Entered into force October 24, 1956, for those 

provisions vphich relate to parts II and III of the 

General Agreement. TIAS 3677. 

Notification deposited (recognizing signature as bind- 
ing): Austria, February 11, 1957. 
Sixth protocol of supplementary concessions to the General 

Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva 

Mav li3, 1956. Entered into force June 30, 1956. TIAS 

3591. 

Schedules of concessions enter into force: Dominican 
Republic, April 10, 1957. 

Wheat 

International wheat agreement, 1956. Open for signature 
at Washington through May 18, 1956. Entered into 
force July 16, 1956, for parts 1, 3, 4, and 5, and August 
1, 1956, for part 2. TIAS 3709. 
Acceptance deposited: Lebanon, March 20, 1957. 

BILATERAL 

Dominican Republic 

Agreement for establishment of a long range radio aid to 
navigation station at Cape Frances Viejo. Signed at 
Washington March 19, 1957. Entered into force March 
19, 1957. 

France 

Agreement to facilitate interchange of patent rights and 
technical information for defense purposes. Signed at 
Paris March 12, 1957. Entered into force March 12, 
1957. 

Greece 

Agreement further amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of August 8, 1956, as amended January 21, 
1957 (TIAS 3633, 3741), by providing for the purchase 
of additional wheat. Effected by exchange of notes at 
Athens March 1 and 4, 1957. Entered into force March 
4, 1957. 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of August 8, 1956 (TIAS 3633), by providing for 
the purchase of wheat with funds allotted for the pur- 
chase of lard. Effected by exchange of notes at Atliens 
February 13 and 23, 1957. Entered into force February 
23, 1957. 

Jordan 

Agreement amending the agreement of May 1 and June 29, 
1954 (TIAS 3145), relating to duty-free entry and de- 
frayment of inland transportation charges for relief 
supplies and packages. Effected by exchange of notes 
at Amman July 6, September 28, and October 15, 1955. 
Entered into force September 28, 19.55. (Substitution 
for exchange of notes of March 15 and 24, 1955, listed 
in Bulletin of May 9, 1955. ) 

Switzerland 

Exchange of notes at Washington March 1 and 4, 1957, 
approving the agreed minute of February G, 1957, re- 
lating to interpretation of the air transport agreement 
of August 3, 1945, as amended (TIAS 1576, 1929). 
Entered into force March 4, 1957. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Designations 

Norman B. Hannah as Special Assistant to the Deputy 
Under Secretary for Administration, effective March 11. 

Charles Whitehouse as Special Assistant to the Deputy 
Under Secretary for Economic Affairs, effective March 11. 

Max V. Krebs as Special Assistant to the Under Secre- 
tary, effective March 24. 



' Not in force. 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: Marcli 18-24 

Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 
Department of State, Washington 25, D. 0. 

Press releases issued prior to March 18 which ai> 
pear in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 119 and 
122 of March 7 and 143 of March 13. 

Subject 

Educational exchange. 

Dulles : death of President Magsaysay. 

Meeting of Secretary Dulles and Mrs. 
Meir. 

Progress on Inter-American Highway. 

Phillips : statement on plant protection 
convention. 

Drew nominated Ambassador to Haiti 
(biographic details). 

Bonsai nominated Ambassador to Bo- 
livia (biographic details). 

Wilcox : "The United Nations and Pub- 
lic Understanding." 

Agreement with Dominican Republic 
for LORAN station. 

Young nominated Ambassador to Neth- 
erlands (biographic details). 

U.S.-Netherlands air transport nego- 
tiations. 

Educational exchange. 

Polish coal mining officials visit U.S. 

Exchange of letters with the Nether- 
lands on civil air negotiations. 

New U.S. member of Iraq Development 
Board. 

Educational exchange. 

Bohlen nominated Ambassador to Phil- 
ippines (biographic details). 

Fifth anniversary of Escapee Program. 

Russell nominated Ambassador to New 
Zealand (biographic details). 

Eisenhower : anniverssary of IPakistan 
Republic. 

Signing of income-tax protocol with 
Japan. 

*Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


*153 
154 
1.55 


3/18 
.3/18 
3/lS 


156 
tl57 


3/18 
3/19 


*1.58 


3/18 


*159 


3/18 


160 


3/19 


161 


3/19 


*l(i2 


3/19 


163 


3/19 


*164 

tlC5 

166 


3/20 
3/21 
3/21 


167 


3/21 


*16S 
*169 


3/21 
3/22 


tl70 
*171 


3/22 
3/22 


172 


3/23 


173 


3/23 



590 



Depar/menf of Sfafe Bulletin 



April 8, 1957 



Index 



Vol. XXXVI, No. 928 



American Republics 

Intcr-Americau Highway Nearin;; Conipletiun . . 564 
U.S. Contribution To Help Fight Malaria in 
American Republics (Milton Eisenhower, Mora, 
Soper) 565 

Atomic Energy. United States and United King- 
dom Exchange Views at Bermuda Meeting (text 
of joint communique) 561 

Aviation 

Air Transport Agreement Between United States 

and Mexico (text) 575 

U.S. and Netherlands Resume Air Transport Nego- 
tiations (Eisenhower, Drees) 579 

Belgium. Notice of Intention To Enter Into 
Limited Trade Agreement Negotiations With the 
United Kingdom and Belgium 581 

Communism. The Cold War and the Universities 

(Oechsner) 571 

Congress, Tlie. Amending the U.S. Information 

and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 ( Lightner ) . 566 

Department and Foreign Service. Designations 

(Hannah, Whitehouse, Krebs) 590 

Dominican Republic. U.S.-Dominican Agreement 

on LORAN Station 574 

Economic Affairs 

Inter-American Highway Nearing Completion . . 564 

New U.S. Member Assumes Duties on Iraq Develop- 
ment Board 563 

Notice of Intention To Enter Into Limited Trade 
Agreement Negotiations With the United King- 
dom and Belgium 581 

President Asks Study of Tariff Quota on Alsike 

Clover Seed 584 

President Decides Against Study of Tariff on 

Hatters' Fur 585 

President Orders Investigation of EITects of Tung 
Oil Imports 585 

United States and Japan Sign Income-Tax Protocol . 574 

Educational Exchange. Amending the U.S. Infor- 
mation and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 
(Lightner) 566 

Europe. United States and United Kingdom Ex- 
change Views at Bermuda Meeting (text of joint 
communique) 561 

Health, Education, and Welfare 

The Cold War and the Universities (Oechsner) . . 571 
U.S. Contribution To Help Fight Malaria in Ameri- 
can Republics (Milton Ei-senhower, Mora, Soper). 565 

Hungary. The United Nations and Public Under- 
standing (Wilcox) 555 

Iraq. New U.S. Member Assumes Duties on Iraq 
Development Board 563 

Israel. Meeting Between Secretary Dulles and 

Israeli Foreign Minister (text of statement) . . 562 

Japan. United States and Japan Sign Income-Tax 

Protocol 574 

Mexico. Air Transport Agreement Between United 

States and Mexico (text) 575 

Middle East 

Meeting Between Secretary DuUes and Israeli For- 
eign Minister (text of statement) 562 



The United Nations and Public Understanding 

(Wilcox) 555 

U.N. Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refu- 
gees (Lord) 585 

United States and United Kingdom Exchange Views 

at Bermuda Meeting (text of joint communique). 561 

Mutual Security. United States and United King- 
dom Exchange Views at Bermuda Meeting (text 
of joint communique) 561 

Netherlands. U.S. and Netherlands Resume Air 

Transport Negotiations (Elsenhower, Drees) . . 579 

Pakistan. Anniversary of Establishment of Paki- 
stan as Republic (Eisenhower) 563 

Philippines. Death of President Magsaysay of the 

Philippines (Eisenhower, Dulles) 563 

Presidential Documents 

Anniversary of Establishment of Pakistan as 

Republic 563 

Death of President Magsaysay of the Philippines . 563 

President Orders Investigation of ElfCects of Tung 

Oil Imports 585 

U.S. and Netherlands Resume Air Transport Nego- 
tiations (Eisenhower, Drees) 579 

Refugees. U.N. Relief and Works Agency for 

Palestine Refugees (Lord) 585 

Treaty Information 

Air Transport Agreement Between United States 

and Mexico 575 

Current Actions 589 

United States and Japan Sign Income-Tax Protocol . 574 
U.S. and Netherlands Resume Air Transport Nego- 
tiations (Eisenhower, Drees) 579 

U.S.-Dominican Agreement on LORAN Station . . 574 

United Kingdom 

Notice of Intention To Enter Into Limited Trade 
Agreement Negotiations With the United King- 
dom and Belgium 581 

United States and United Kingdom Exchange Views 
at Bermuda Meeting (text of joint communique). 561 

United Nations 

The United Nations and Public Understanding 

(Wilcox) 555 

U.N. Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refu- 
gees (Lord) 585 

United States and United Kingdom Exchange Views 
at Bermuda Meeting (text of joint communique) . 561 

Name Index 

Drees, Willem 580 

Dulles, Secretary 562,563 

Eisenhower, Milton S 565 

Eisenhower, President 561, 563, 580, 585 

Hannah, Norman B 590 

Krebs, Max V 590 

Lightner, E. Allan, Jr 566 

Lord, Mrs. Oswald B 585 

Macmillan, Harold 561 

Magsaysay, Ramon 563 

Meir, Golda 562 

Mora, Jos6 A 565 

Dechsner, Frederick Cable 571 

Soper, Fred L 565 

Whitehouse, Charles 590 

Wilcox, Francis O 5.55 

Willscm, Clifford 563 



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OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



Foreign Relations of the United States 

The basic source of information on 
U. S. diplomatic history 

1939, Volume II 

General, The British Commonwealth, and Europe 



The first 212 pages of this volume contain papers on various general 
subjects: Antarctic claims and exploration, assistance to refugees, fisheries 
oil' the coast of Alaska, and a number of technical economic problems. 

Documentation on relations with the British Commonwealth (pp. 213- 
364) includes sections on the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and 
India. Problems of relations between the United States as a neutral and 
the British as belligerents are covered, as well as other usual matters of 
diplomacy. Among the war subjects treated is the sinking of the S.S. 
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The remaining 534 pages of documentation cover relations with 
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While the coming of the war is primarily treated in volume I, this volume 
contains the record on the absorption of Albania by Italy, problems arising 
from the annexation of Austria by Germany, and the Spanish Civil War. 
In the section on Italy are recorded suggestions by President Roosevelt 
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of peace. The appointment of Myron C. Taylor as the President's per- 
sonal representative to Pope Pius XII is documented in a section on the 
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"736^3. / 1^20 







IE 

FFICIAL 

EEKLY RECORD 



Vol. XXXVI, No. 929 AprU 15, 1957 

SECRETARY DULLES' NEWS CONFERENCE OF 

MARCH 26 595 

STATUTE OF INTERNATIONAL ATO!MIC ENERGY 
AGENCY TRANSMITTED TO SENATE 

President's Message of Transmittal 615 

Report by Secretary Dulles 616 

Summary of Statute 618 

THE SOVIET-OCCUPIED ZONE OF qERMANY: 
A CASE STUDY IN COMMUNIST CONTROL • by 

Eleanor DulU's 605 

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN CLIMATOLOGY 

• Article by Helmut E. Landsberg 612 



MITED STATES 
)REIGN POLICY 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE a 




Boston Public Library 
Super'n*""'' ■"* of Documents 

MAY 6 - 1957 



Vol. XXXVI, No. 929 • Publication 6476 
April 15, 1957 



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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
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special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a parly and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



Secretary Dulles' News Conference of March 26 



Press release 175 dated March 26 

Secretary Dulles: Since I last met with you, I 
have been to two important international confer- 
ences. The first was the conference of the South- 
east Asia Treaty Council, which was held in Can- 
berra, Australia, and then more recently, the 
Bermuda conference with the Prime Minister and 
the Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom. 
Both of those conferences have been important, 
useful, and I think one can use the word "success- 
ful" conferences. I would be glad to answer ques- 
tions about those conferences or any other matters 
that you want to question me about. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, as a result of the talks with 
the Prime Minister at Bermuda, do you expect a 
closer joint effort in the intelligence and planning 
fields ietween the United States and Britain? 

A. We do not plan to have any substantive 
change in that respect. We have, of course, for a 
long time had an association with the United 
Kingdom and Canada and with the Nato organi- 
zation, particularly in relation to such matters as 
an alert if there should seem to be a danger of a 
Soviet attack. The Nato alert arrangement re- 
lates primarily to an attack, you might say, from 
the East, and the Canadian and U.K. arrangement 
to a possible attack from the polar area, from the 
north. There was some discussion about review- 
ing and perfecting some of these alert arrange- 
ments, but that is the only understanding on the 
matter that took place. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is it correct that your under- 
standings or conclusions or agreements, ivhatever 
the proper word may ie, were set down on paper 
and initialed at Bermuda? 

A. There was no understanding put down on 
paper at Bermuda except a procedural one for re- 
furbishing, you might say, or reviewing the intelli- 
gence arrangements which we have concerning 
alerts. 



Q. That is, there were no understandings, for 
example, on what policies the two Governments 
might pursue in the Middle East under various 
contingencies depending on the Hammarshjold 
inission in Cairo? 

A. No, although in the course of the long, exten- 
sive talks which we had and particularly some in- 
formal talks that took place, particularly in the 
dinner and evening sessions, we talked about a 
great variety of subjects, and I believe those things 
were touched upon, but they did not lead to any 
agreement. 

Q. That is, to written agreements? Nothing 
that teas committed? 

A. No. I would stick by my original language. 

Q. In other words, each Government has its own 
position and not the same position on what it will 
do under these various possible contingencies? 

A. I would say that the exchanges of views that 
took place were useful, I think, in making it 
likely that there would be a common policy. But 
the contingencies tliat we had to deal with were so 
varied and so unpredictable that it seemed to be 
rather unprofitable to try to reach a formal agree- 
ment as to what we would do in any one of a score, 
perhai)s, of possible variations of future develop- 
ment. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, has this Government been re- 
ceiving any interim repoi'ts from Mr. Hammar- 
skjold, and, if so, could you characterize them? 

A. We have received no interim reports from 
Mr. Ilanunarskjold. We liave through Ambas- 
sador Hare had some contacts with him and with 
the Egyptian Government, through which we have 
gotten some inkling, I woultl say, as to the nature 
of the talks, but we are still quite in the dark this 
morning, for example, as to what has taken place 
during the recent discussions. Tliose discussions 
are not yet concluded. There was one last night, 



April 75, 1957 



595 



which I think probably was an important one. 
We have no report as yet. I understand Mr. 
Hammarskjold will shortly be returning, at which 
time he will probably make a report, which will be 
available to us and to others. 

Q. Yau could not say now as to lohether you are 
hopeful or not of the progress of his talks? 

A. Well, I used in the background conference 
which I had at Bermuda the phrase "cautious 
optimism," and I think that that is a phrase which 
can be safely taken out of the wraps of the back- 
ground conference and even permitted publicly. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, what is your understanding 
as to Mr. Hammarskjold'' s impending report? To 
whom toould it he made? To the Advisory Com- 
mittee, or what? 

A. He would make it presumably to the Advis- 
ory Committee, at least. It might be made public. 
I don't know what his intentions are. 

Q. Yes. But I was wondering as to whom if 
would he addressed in the first place. 

A. Yes. 

Q. I notice annex II of the Bermuda comtnu- 
nique ^ dealt with a joint policy of the two coun- 
tries toward testing of nuclear weapons. Did that 
come ahont as a result of the protests on the part 
of Japan? 

A. No. It did not come about as a result of 
those protests, except as you can say that those pre- 
occupations held by Japan were a part of the sum 
total of the concern which prompted us to make 
some statement on the subject. But it was not 
specifically ascribable to any one cause. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, at yesterday's White House 
hriefing of the congressional leaders on the Ber- 
mmda conference, to what extent was the possihilify 
or the prospect of the United States^ providing 
guided missiles for France discussed? 

A. Well, it was discussed only in a very casual 
way. A question was asked as to whether there 
was a possibility that guided missiles might be 
supplied to countries other than the United King- 
dom, and the reply made was that we were not 
actually giving any consideration to that because 
the whole project was still in an experimental 
stage. These missiles are not actually (lying yet, 

' For text, see Bulletin of Ai»r. 8, l'J57, p. 501. 



and we can't predict with absolute certainty as to 
when they can be made available even for the 
United Kingdom. It seemed that the United 
Kingdom was the first place to start in this busi- 
ness of deploying these missiles to areas from 



Deployment of Ballistic Missiles 
in United Kingdom 

statement by James C. llugertu 
Press Secretary to the President 

White House press release dated March 25 

The project for the deployment of inteiiuedlate- 
range ballistic missiles in the United Kingdom is 
an initial project which itself is yet to be fully de- 
veloped, both from the standpoint of the weapons 
themselves and the precise conditions for deploy- 
ment. This is the logical place of beginning. Sub- 
sequent deployments will, of course, remain to be 
considered but are not under active consideration. 



which they could, if need be, serve most effectively 
as a deterrent, and this seemed to be the best way 
to start. Now, in principle, there is no reason 
to limit it to the United Kingdom, except that as 
a practical matter it would be premature to start 
considering it on a broader basis when we still 
have quite a ways to go before this particular 
United Kingdom project can be realized. 

Egypt and the UNEF 

Q. Mr. Secretary, does the United States he- 
lieve that Egypt should make a pledge of nonhel- 

ligereney to Israel? 

A. We believe that under the Armistice Agree- 
ments there is not a right to exercise belligerent 
rights. We believe that is evidenced by the fact 
that that was the basis for the Security Council 
decision of 1951 with reference to the right of 
passage of cargo for Israel throngli the Suez 
Canal. And the basis for that decision was that 
under the Armistice Agreement Egypt did not 
possess belligerent rights. We voted for that reso- 
lution at the time, and we adhere to the view 
which was then held. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do xre helieve that the United 
Nations Emergency Force should he stationed on 
hofh sides of the armistice line? 

A. We believe that it would conduce to the tran- 



596 



Department of State Bulletin 



quillity of the area if the United Nations Emer- 
gency Force was able to station itself astride, you 
might say, of the armistice line. That would in- 
volve some slight positioning of troops on the 
Israeli side as well as upon the non-Israeli side 
of the armistice lines, and that seems to have been 
called for by the United Nations resolution of 
February 2, 1 think it wag, calling for the station- 
ing of Unef forces "on"' the armistice line.- Since 
the armistice line is a line of no measurable width, 
but you might say an invisible line, it is not pos- 
sible for human beings to stand "on" it without 
being a little bit on one side and on the other. 

Q. Mr. Sec7'etary, did you discuns this with Mrs. 
Meir ichen she ivas here and ask that she accept 
this/ 

A. Yes, we did discuss it, 

Q. Would yov, teU us her answer? 

A. No, I don't think I would be wise in doing 
that. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, on that point, is the Ameri- 
can position that UNEF has in e-ffect completed 
its task in the post-Suez-invasion period and you 
are noio trying to turn it, or would like to see it 
turned, into an organization which would back 
up the armistice which was settled, agreed upon, 
prior to this — in other words, into a long-term, af- 
fair, having nothing to do with the events siiice 
la.st fall? 

A. "Well, that is one way of putting it; perhaps 
it puts it a little bit more jjositively than I would 
put it. I think it must be recognized that there is 
a chance of hostilities breaking out again in the 
event that restraints are not exercised by both 
sides. But I would not say that the initial role 
of the United Nations Emergency Force was 
exhausted until there is more assurance than there 
is today that belligerent rights may not be exer- 
cised if it should wholly withdraw. And, while 
it is true that the initial hostilities have come to 
a close and the initial forces of invasion have been 
totally withdrawn, I do not think that there is 
assurance of tranquillity which would indicate 
that the initial mission was wholly accomplished. 
That depends, of course, upon how one interprets 
the original terms of reference. But I think that 



-Ibid., Feb. 25, 1957, p. 327. 
April 15, 1957 



the original terms of i-eference are broad enough 
to cover the prospective activities of the Unef. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, it seems to be the position of 
some powers that UNEF is there at the sufferance 
of Egypt and must leave when Egypt decides that 
it viust go. Can you tell us what the United States 
position on that is? 

A. The generally accepted view in the United 
Nations is that the General Assembly has no right 
to imj^ose upon any nation the presence of any 
observers or i-epresentatives or forces of the United 
Nations and that, in order for them to enter upon 
the territory of another state, they have to have 
the consent of that state. Now once the consent 
has been given, then I think a good argument can 
be made that the consent cannot be arbitrarily 
withdrawn, frustrating the original project, 
because other people change their positions in 
reliance of the original consent, forces are set in 
motion, a chain of events has occurred. And we 
would question, certainly, whether Egypt has the 
right arbitrarily to alter and change a consent once 
given until the purpose of that consent has been 
accomplished. 

Alternate Routes for Oil 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would you give us yov/r views, 
sir, about the advisahility of having altei-nate 
routes to bnng in the oil to the West, such ai pipe- 
lines and super tankers, in case Mr. Nasser gets 
balky over his canal again? 

A. There are already in process of formation 
plans for alternatives or supplements to the Suez 
Canal, particularly in relation to the transporta- 
tion of oil. Those consist primarily of projects for 
new pipelines and also for the construction of 
larger tankers. Now those plans are, as I put it, 
in process of formation, primarily by private con- 
cerns who are doing so uniler the impulse of ordi- 
nary commercial considerations. There is going 
to be, presumably, an increased demand for oil. 
The facilities of the Suez Canal, even if they 
remain fully available, are not going to be ade- 
quate. Consequently, private concerns which are 
interested in the transportation of oil are them- 
selves considering the possibilities of additional 
pipelines and of additional large tankers. Now 
those projects are under way, and they are under 
way entirely under wliat I refer to as a commercial 
impetus to meet demands. They are being met 

597 



primarily by companies whose business it is to 
anticipate and meet public demands for commer- 
cial reasons. These big tankers are being built. 
Today there are, I understand, being built by an 
American concern 100,000-ton tankers in Japan. 
And companies interested in the oil are meeting, 
I think in London— have been meeting— to con- 
sider a new pipeline project. 

Now these are going to go ahead, I think, in 
any event because of the inadequacy of the canal 
to meet the anticipated future need. They will 
go ahead at what you might call a normal com- 
mercial rate if we think that the canal is going to 
be a dependable reliance of the West. If it is felt 
that the canal will not be a reliable dependence 
of the West, then probably there will be added 
to the commercial factor a political factor which 
would accelerate these developments. That is 
about the situation. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., the Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee yesterday put out a report saying that 
tecause of its concentration on the world crises 
the United States is in danger of overlooking the 
interests of Central America and the Caribhean. 
The report also says that '■''in this area, rightly or 
virongly, the United, States is vietoed as neglect- 
ful of its friends in the Western Hemisphere.'''' I 
wonder if you care to comment on that? 

A. I would question very much the accuracy of 
that estimate of the situation. I believe that 
never before in history has the United States paid 
as much attention to its relations with the other 
Republics of the Organization of American 
States as has been the case during recent years, 
and I think that there is an appreciation of that 
fact by these governments. Just to illustrate: 
For the first time now we meet regularly with the 
representatives of the Organization of American 
States to discuss with them world problems in 
which they are interested — and I have met with 
them before the summit conference, after the 
summit conference, the subsequent Meeting of 
Foreign Ministers, the Suez Canal crisis — things 
which they are vitally interested in, because they 
know that, if a war occurs, a general war occurs, 
they are going to be in it. Then, of course, there 
was the Panama meeting and the outgrowths of 
that meeting. I believe that we are giving very 
great attention, in fact an unusual amount of at- 
tention, to our relations with all the Latin Ameri- 
can States. 



Q. Mr. Secretary, I would like to check hack on 
an answer you gave a moment ago. Do I under- 
stand it is the position of the United States that 
the Egyptian Government does not have the 
foioer, legally speaking, under present circwm- 
stances to compel United Nations forces to ivith- 
draw from its territory? 

A. The problem I don't think permits of a 
categorical answer. Now there was one question 
put to me here that suggested that the United 
Nations had accomplished its original mission, to 
which the consent of Egypt had been given, and 
that therefore its continuance there in effect was 
for a new purpose. If that's the case, and to the 
extent that's the case, then the original consent 
given by Egypt may have exhausted its purpose. 
If that has not been the case, then I think the 
consent given by Egypt cannot be arbitrarily 
withdrawn. I don't say it can't ever be with- 
drawn, but I say it can't be "arbitrarily" with- 
drawn without giving countries who have relied 
upon it an opportunity to turn around and re- 
appraise their position in the light of the new 
situation. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is it ymir view then that the 
mission of UNEF has not been completed as yet? 

A. Well, I indicated, I think, my views : I felt 
that under a liberal construction of the original 
mandate to the Unef, in the light of the present 
situation and the fact that there is no clear as- 
surance that hostilities — that belligerency — may 
not reoccur, it is not correct to conclude that the 
original mandate has been exhausted. 

Q. Does the right of Egypt — or the question of 
Egypfs right to withdraw its consent — is that af- 
fected in any tvay hy the fact that Israel has so far 
refused to alloio the UNEF to station its troops 
on its side of the border? 

A. Well, that is one of a number of factors that 
enter into one's conclusions about this thing. That 
is not an isolated and a single factor. 

Seeking Advisory Opinion of World Court 

Q. Mr. Secretary, does it remain this Govern- 
menfs intention to attempt, together with other 
poivers, to establish the principle of free or inno- 
cent passage thi^ough the Gulf of Aqaba; and, if 
so, can you give us an idea at whut time that will 
he made? 



598 



Department of State Bulletin 



A. It is our intention to do that. Tlint intention 
was made clear I think by the aide memoire which 
we gave to the Government of Israel and published 
last February.^ Now the question of how it takes 
place is not yet determined. I think that it is the 
fact that a certain amoiuit of shipping is or shortly 
will be in fact passing through the straits, al- 
though I also thinlv that it is important to get a 
decision by the International Court of Justice as 
to what the legal rights of the parties are. Wc 
indicated, indeed, in that aide memoire that that 
would be a factor ; that we felt that the preponder- 
ance of legal authority was so strong in favor of 
the right of passage that we felt that we were en- 
titled to insist upon a right of passage unless and 
until there was a contrary decision by the World 
Court. And you may recall that the report of the 
Secretary-General ^ said that he did not think that 
belligerent rights should be exercised in relation to 
the Sharm el-Sheikh area and the Straits of Tiran, 
because he also shared the view that the preponder- 
ance of legal authority was that there was no right 
to exercise belligerent rights and to stop innocent 
passage through there. But it would be very help- 
ful, I think, and it would be helpful also from the 
Egyptian standpoint, to get a decision on that 
matter. And consideration is now being given to 
ways and means of seeking an advisory opinion on 
that matter from the International Court of 
Justice. 

Q. Must each of the countries involved agree to 
the competence of the Court 'before it can judge 
the matter? 

A. Well, the United Nations, acting either 
through the Security Council or through the Gen- 
eral Assembly, can request an advisory opinion 
from the Court, and that is the procedure which is 
presently being envisaged. Now, if you go to the 
Court in what you might call an adversary pro- 
ceeding, where one of the parties brings a case 
against another, then that would require the ac- 
ceptance by both parties of the jurisdiction of the 
Court. That is not so surely obtainable, and there 
would not be a case there unless and until there 
was an effort to obstruct, and we don't want that to 
happen. So we think the preferable procedure 
is to try to get an advisory opinion. That, of 
course, would take a qualified vote by the Security 



'/Ji/rf., Mar. 11, 1957, p. 392. 

- Ibid.. Feb. 18, 1957, p. 271 and p. 275. 

April 15, 1957 



Council or a two-thirds vote by the General As- 
sembly, but we hope that that would be obtainable. 

Q. Well, Mr. Secretary, what is the effect of 
an advisory opinion? Does that become then res 
.ndjudicata and, subsequently, an adversary would 
merely apply to the Court for enforcement of an 
injunction or the equivalent of an advisory 
opinion? 

A. Well, I think that's getting me a bit out of 
my depth. That is a pretty complicated legal 
problem which I wouldn't want to answer off- 
hand. I used to take a good many days, and get 
a good many dollars, for answering questions like 
that. (Laughter) 

Aid to Poland 

Q. Mr. Secretary, 5 Tnonths ago yesterday, if my 
dates are correct, you offered ecorwndc aid to 
Poland out of our abundance. The negotiations 
are still going on unfrwitfully. Can you tell us 
whether this delay is explained by a change of pol- 
icy here, or, if not, wlrnt is the cau^e of the delay? 

A. I must confess that I am not as fully versed 
about that topic as I should be. It is being han- 
dled primarily by Mr. Dillon, and the recent de- 
velo[)ments have oocuntid wliilo I havo b^jen in 
Canberra or Bermuda, or getting ready for Ber- 
muda. I don't have a full, up-to-date report about 
that. My understanding is that at least up to the 
time when I went away to Canberra, and I think 
I reported it at my last press conference, there 
had been going on merely a study of information 
about the economic situation in Poland and the 
ascertainment of what the needs might be. It had 
not yet gotten down to a concrete negotiation. I 
think probably I had better confine myself to 
saying that I am not really up to date on the recent 
developments, which are being handled by Mr. 
Dillon. 

Q. Can you say whether there has or has not 
been any change in the attitude of this Govern- 
ment toward extending aid? 

» 

A. There has been no change. At the time when 
the negotiations were begun, the view was taken 
that it was appropriate to consider that the pres- 
ent Government of Poland was not so completely 
dominated by the Government of the Soviet 
Union, or by what is called in the legislation "in- 

599 



ternational communism," as wholly to preclude 
the possibility of that aid. That was obviously a 
pretty close decision that we came to, and at the 
time we came to it it was decided we would keep 
the situation under review because actions taken, 
or omissions of action, might lead us to change our 
judgment in that respect. I do not understand 
that there is any recommendation to me to change 
the opinion which I gave before I went away 
in that respect. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, on the Middle East pipeline 
question, would you explain to us the thesis which 
was apparently developed at Bernmda of giving 
these pipelines, either existing or proposed, some 
new international status? 

A. The idea is the same idea which is applied 
in this country to pipelines of an interstate charac- 
ter, which to a very considerable extent are under 
the jurisdiction and control of the Federal Gov- 
ernment in order to give stability to the opera- 
tion. Now in essence a pipeline is no different 
from an international canal. They are both ways 
of getting through land. You have the Treaty of 
Constantinople of 1888, which gives international 
status to the Suez Canal, and it seemed to be ap- 
propriate to consider at least giving an interna- 
tional status to a pipeline so that it could not be 
arbitrarily interfered with by states through 
whose territory the pipeline passed. 

We have the experience of the pipeline, the so- 
called I. P. C. [Iraq Petroleum Company] pipe- 
line, which goes from Iraq through Syria, which 
is subject to a pretty arbitrary action by the 
Syrian Government and no country has any treaty 
status to complain about. It is purely, or very 
largely, a matter between the companies concerned 
and the foreign government, and, while every gov- 
ernment has a right to try to promote and pro- 
tect the private interests of its citizens abroad, that 
is quite different from the situation of a pipeline 
governed by an international treaty. Thei'efoi'e, 
consideration is being given to having a treaty 
arrangement with the countries through which the 
new pipeline would go. That, of course, presup- 
poses that such a treaty arrangement is acceptable 
to the countries concerned. You can't impose it 
upon them. 

This j^ipeline, if it goes through the north — 
through Turkey, for example — is a pretty big oper- 



ation and would cost a good deal more than the 
Suez Canal originally cost. The cost may be 
measured in terms of hundreds of millions of 
dollars, and there is a reluctance, and a natural 
and understandable reluctance, on the part of 
investors to put that much money into it unless it 
can get some kind of treaty protection. 

Q. It does not apply to existing pipelines? 

A. No. 



Communist China 

Q. At the Canberra meeting the final commumi- 
que that was issued ^ spoke about a lessening of the 
possibility of war in Asia. Would yo%i. attnbute 
that to the growing strength of the free nations 
through SEATO or beamse of a weakening of 
the strength internally of Communist China? 

A. I would ascribe it more to the development 
of strength and unity of the countries around 
Communist China, notably through the Seato 
treaty and the other treaties which the United 
States has, treaties with Korea, Japan, the Re- 
public of China, the Philippines, and so forth, 
which I think make it inexpedient for the Chinese 
Communists to use methods of violence. They 
started out by using primarily methods of violence. 
They used those methods in North Korea, they used 
them in Tibet, they used them in northern Viet- 
Nam, and they started using them in relation to 
Taiwan, the Straits of Formosa. Now I think the 
growing strength and unity and demonstrated will 
of the affected free nations to resist, and to resist 
with a measure of unity, has made it seem inexpe- 
dient to the Chinese Communists to use those 
methods. But I attribute it more to that than to 
an internal weakness within China because, while 
undoubtedly there are many internal weaknesses, 
those weaknesses do not primarily relate to a 
weakening of their military power, which has 
actually been developing, and their system of stra- 
tegic air fields, railroads, and air power generally 
has been increasing. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, have you had opportunity 
since your return to give any further attention to 
the admitting of American correspmxdents to Red 
China? What is the status? 



' Ibiil., Apr. 1, l!),-)!, p. 527. 



600 



Department of State Bulletin 



A. I have given a little thought to it as I have 
had time to think and scribble down some ideas on 
my plane trips recently. But I have not had an 
opportunity to exchange my own thoughts with the 
other officers of the Department who are primarily 
concerned. I expect to be doing that within the 
next few days, and it may or may not lead to some 
positive conclusions. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., the President said a couple 
of weeks ago that he was going to discuss the sub- 
ject with \jou. Have you talked about this par- 
ticular thing of the admission of Am^iican cor- 
respondents into Red China? 

A. I chat with the President frequently about 
this thing. Whether I have talked about it with 
him since that press conference I am not sure, but 
I am in close touch with the President about that 
subject. 

Resuming Traffic in Suez Canal 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could you give your evalua- 
tion of the prospects of resuming traffic in the 
Suez Canal? 

A. I know no more than what is public knowl- 
edge. It loolvs as though the canal would be open 
for most vessels \Titliin perhaps a couple of weeks. 
It is increasingly open to vessels of light draft. 
It is not possible to say at any one moment whether 
it is "open" or not because it all depends upon 
"open to what ?'". Small vessels are going through 
now, a little bit bigger vessels will be going 
through tomorrow, bigger vessels the day after 
that. It all depends upon what the draft is of 
the vessels you are talking about. It will not be 
open for the largest vessels probably for a some- 
what longer period of time because I think there 
is silt that has to be dug out and so forth. It will 
probably be open increasingly from now on, and 
most of the vessels, perhaps up to 10,000 tons, at 
least, will be going through within a week or 10 
days. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in this period ichat are these 
vessels doing about paying tolls for the use of the 
canal? 

A. I believe that, insofar as any that have gone 
through, they have paid tolls to the Suez Canal 
Authority, but the number of vessels that have 
gone through is not significant enough to estab- 
lish any pattern. 



Q. Do the vessels of the United States have any 
instructions on this point? 

A. No. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in the Bermuda com-munique, 
when you discussed the nuclear testing, you set 
forth the two stipulations, one that Russia give 
prior announ-cetnent and the other that it admit 
international observers to its tests. If the Rus- 
sians were to surprise the world and accept these 
two stipulatio-ns, hoio would that neiv situation 
meet the objections of Japan and India and. other 
powers? In other words, the testings would still 
go on, would they not? 

A. Yes, the testings would still go on. But 
there would be a sounder basis than now exists for 
bringing them under international control, and 
some approach at least would have been made to 
an international dealing with the matter. I don't 
say that the acceptance of these two requirements 
by the Soviet Union would solve the problem, but, 
once you start down a certain path, it is easier 
to go on down that path and that would be a be- 
ginning and not an effective end. 

Before we break u[3 — and I see it is beginning 
to get late — I want to say that the last time we 
met we ended up on a somewhat wondering note 
about the status of romance. Mrs. Dulles and I 
are sending a telegram today to Mr. and Mrs. 
Harold Connolly at Prague extending to them our 
congratulations. 



Secretary Dulles Writes Foreword 
for New Editions of "War or Peace" 



IPress rplp;ise 17!) dated llarcli 20 
DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Secretary Dulles made public on March 29 a 
foreword he has written for new editions of his 
book War or Peace, originally published in the 
first part of 1950. 

The new editions are in foreign languages — 
Japanese, 25,000 volumes; Turkish, 20,000 vol- 
umes; and Arabic, 5,000 volumes — and a paper- 
backed reprint in English by the Macmillan Com- 
pany in 50,000 volumes for overseas sale at 15 
cents per copy, or less. Royalties have been waived 
on all these editions. 



April 15, J 957 



601 



Secretary Dulles wrote the foreword because in 
the 7 years since the book was first published cer- 
tain intervening events have occurred which call 
for comment. 



TEXT OF FOREWORD 

It is a matter of gratification to me that War 
or Peace continues to be published in various 
languages. Tliis book was written in the early 
weeks of 1950. It sought to portray the danger 
of war and to describe the political policies and 
spiritual attitudes which would be needed to win 
the peace. As I write this new preface, seven 
years later, I find little then said tliat now requires 
to be unsaid. But certain intervening events have 
occurred which call for comment. 

Chapter Two, entitled "Know Your Enemy," 
is largely documented from the writings of Stalin, 
notably his Problems of Leninism. Stalin has 
fallen into some disfavor with the Soviet bloc at 
the time of this writing. However, Soviet Com- 
munism continues to adhere to the Stalin doctrine 
which is cited. 

ChajDter Six discusses the action of the United 
Nations to create the Republic of Korea. It is 
pointed out that, up to the time of writing, i. e. 
early 1950, the influence of world opinion, focused 
through the United Nations Assembly, had effec- 
tively inhibited Communist invasion from the 
North. But, I said, "It would, of course, be rash 
to predict that this situation will continue indefi- 
nitely."' It did not in fact continue indetinitely. 
In June 1950 the Communists, in defiance of the 
United Nations, struck with armed force against 
the Republic of Korea. 

The reaction of the United Nations is now a 
matter of well known history. It marks a major 
chapter in the evolution of world organization. 
For whatever may have been the reasons which 
encouraged the Communists to feel that they could 
attack with impunity and without opposition, the 
fact is that there was opposition, that it was 
effective opposition and that the aggressors were 
thrown back to and behind their point of begin- 
ning. This is the first time in history that aggres- 
sion has been met and punished by tlie power of a 
previously organized world society. 

However, this episode thi-ows additional light 
on tile problem of world organization, dealt with 



in Chapter Sixteen. The quick response of the 
United Nations to the Korean aggression was 
jjossible only because at that particular moment 
the Soviet Union was "boycotting" the United 
Nations Security Council, and thus failed to ex- 
ercise its veto power. 

The lesson drawn from this event has led to a 
marked development of the system of regional 
associations, described in Chapters Eight and Six- 
teen. At the beginning of 1950, the only collective 
defense arrangements were those created by the 
Rio Treaty of 1947 and the North Atlantic Treaty 
of 1949. Since then the North Atlantic Treaty 
itself has been enlarged by the added member- 
ship of Greece, Turkey, and the Federal Repub- 
lic of Germany. There have also come into being 
several security treaties in relation to Asia. There 
are the United States-Philippine Treaty of Au- 
gust 30, 1951; the United States-Australia-New 
Zealand Treaty of September 1, 1951 (Anzus) ; 
the United States-Japan Security Treaty of Sep- 
tember 8, 1951; the United States-Republic of 
Korea Treaty of October 1, 1953; the Southeast 
Asia Security Treaty made on September 8, 1954, 
by Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, 
the Philippines, Thailand, the United Kingdom 
and the United States (Seato) which also covers, 
by protocol, the territory of Cambodia, Laos, aiid 
the Republic of A^ietnam ; and the United States- 
Republic of China Security Treaty of December 
2, 1954. 

The United States is now joined with 42 other 
nations in collective security pacts pursuant to 
Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. 

The imexpectedly rapid development of such 
pacts, so that they now protect most of the world, 
is a direct consequence of the Connnunist armed 
aggression against the Republic of Korea, and 
the fear that should another such aggression oc- 
cur there could not be an effective United Nations 
response because of the Soviet veto power. 

Such pacts are not, however, the only alterna- 
tive to veto in the Seciu'ity Council. The United 
(Nations General Assembly acted in the fall of 
1950 to adopt resolutions and rules so that it 
could quickly react in the event of an armed at- 
tack with which the Security Council cannot deal 
by reason of veto by permanent members. This 
General Assembly action was taken under the 
title "Uniting for Peace," and was invoked in 
the case of armed action in the Middle East in 



602 



Department of State Bulletin 



October-November 1956. Thereby the United 
Nations General Assembly assumed a new stature. 

Chajiter Twelve, denlino; with the "Five- Year 
Score," ends on a somewhat pessimistic note. 
There is quoted the Izvestia editorial of January 
1, 1950, listing tlie countries which had been 
brought under the rule of Soviet Communism, 
and it is noted that the editorial concludes, "Com- 
munism will triumph ! A Happy New Year, Com- 
rades, a very Happy New Year!"' 

It is, however, to be obsei-ved that since that 
boastful editorial was written, there have been 
only negligible additions to what Izvestia called 
"the camp of democracy and socialism." Tibet 
was taken over by the Chinese Communists; and 
Vietnam was infiltrated from North to South by 
Communism. But the Communist elements have 
been eradicated from the South of Vietnam where 
the Eepublic of Vietnam seems firmly established, 
even though the North is dominated by the so- 
called "People's Republic.'' Broadly speaking, 
the collective measures taken by the free nations 
have served to check the onrush of Communism 
which was foreseen by Izvestia on January 1, 1950. 
And in Guatemala, Iran and Austria, Soviet Com- 
munist power lias been largely eradicated. 

Part IV deals with "What Needs To Be Done." 
Some of this has been done, and the fact that it 
has been done has preserved freedom in much of 
the world and gained it in parts of the world. 
World organization has to some extent been de- 
veloped as advocated in Chapter Sixteen. The 
United Nations has greatly gained in universality, 
the membersliip being now 81. 

In the first edition of War or Peace, I suggested 
the desirability of developing some system of 
weighted voting. The subsequent growth in 
membership only serves to accentuate the inade- 
quacy of the voting methods, both in the Assembly 
and the Security Council. In the circumstances, 
reconsideration of voting rights has become even 
more needed. 

The General Assembly has agreed in principle 
to the idea of convening a Charter Eeview Con- 
ference, as urged in Chapter Sixteen, but the ac- 
tual holding of that conference remains in doubt. 

It remains my conviction that a Charter Review 
Conference will serve a useful purpose. The 
world climate, at the time the conference is con- 
vened, may permit formal amendments to bring 
the Charter more in line with the needs of the 



atomic age. In any event it will be helpful to 
examine the progress the United Nations has made 
and determine how it might be developed into a 
more ell'ective instrumentality for world peace. 

In Chapter Sixteen reference is made to the pos- 
sibility of tlie Communist Government of Cliina 
being admitted to the United Nations in order to 
achieve greater "universality." It is pointed out, 
however, that "A regime that claims to have be- 
come the government of a country through civil 
war should not be recognized until it has been 
tested over a reasonable period of time." 

This testing has indicated the ability, so far, 
of the Communist regime to maintain itself in 
power, althougli by ruthless, police-state methods. 
However, it is equally demonstrated that that 
regime does not possess the qualities which en- 
title it to speak for China in the United Nations, 
either in the Assembly or, much less, in the 
Security Council, which is empowered by all the 
members to have "the primary responsibility for 
the maintenance of international peace and 
security." 

Since War or Peace was written, there have 
occurred a number of significant actions by the 
Chine-se Communist regime. It participated in 
the armed aggression against Korea. The United 
Nations has specifically condemned the Chinese 
Commmiist regime on tliis account, and has called 
for economic sanctions against that regime. This 
Assembly action has not, at this writing, been 
revoked. The Cliinese Communist regime remains 
in military possession of the northern part of 
Korea in defiance of United Nations action. It has 
forcibly subjugated Tibet. It actively promoted 
the Indochina War. It threatened to take Taiwan 
by force and has declined to renounce the use of 
force in this area in accordance with the Charter 
Principle calling upon all members to refrain from 
the use of force other than in accordance with the 
Principles of the Charter. It encroached, with 
its armed forces, upon Burma. It violated the 
Korean Armistice by holding in captivity military 
personnel of the United Nations; and in violation 
of its own formal assurances, it has held in prison 
United States civilians. 

So long as the United Nations Charter applies 
a qualitative test to participation in the United 
Nations (See Articles 4, 5, and 6), and so long 
as the Chinese Communist regime shows the char- 
acteristics which have been described, it ought not 



Apri] 15, 1957 



603 



to be given representation in the United Nations. 

In conclusion, I would reemphasize the basic 
thesis of War or Peace that peace will only be won 
if there is constant effort to win it. Any relaxation 
in this effort brings with it peril. 

Quincy Wright, in his Sttuli/ of War, lists 278 
wars fought between 1480 and 1941. This is an 
average of 3 wars every 5 years. Several of these 
wars, including World War II, were fought after 
the League of Nations was formed and after the 
Pact of Paris had pledged all the nations to abolish 
war. Also several wars have been fought since 
the United Nations was formed in 1945. These 
include the Korean War, the Indochina War, and 
the Israeli-Arab wars. There have also been the 
military acts of Britain and France in Egypt. 
Wars are today a threatening possibility in several 
parts of the world. 

The fact is that war will be an ever present 
danger until there are better developed institu- 
tions for peace, such as an adequate body of inter- 
national law, an international police force, and a 
reduction of national armaments. Today we live, 
and I fear for long shall live, under the shadow 
of war. Only if we are vividly conscious of this 
fact will we make the exertions needed to prevent 
war. 

Let us recognize that war is not prevented 
merely by hating war and loving peace. Since 
the beginning, the peoples of the world have 
hated war and longed for peace. But that has not 
gained them peace. Even a sincere effort like the 
Pact of Paris showed the futility of attempting 
to abolish war without creating adequate and 
effective compensating institutions to replace it. 

The fact is that love of peace, by itself, has never 
been sufficient to deter war. 

One of the great advances of our time is recog- 
nition that one of the ways to prevent war is to 
deter it by having the will and the capacity to 
use force to punish an aggressor. This involves 
an effort, within the society of nations, to apply 
the principle used to deter violence within a com- 
munity. There, laws are adopted which define 
crimes and their punishment. A police force is 



established, and a judicial system. Thus there 
is created a powerful deterrent to crimes of vio 
lence. This principle of deterrence does not op 
erate 100 percent even in the best ordered com- 
munities. But the principle is conceded to be 
effective, and it can usefully be extended into the 
society of nations. That, as we have seen, has 
actually occurred in an impressive measure. 

Another aspect of the problem is that there can 
never, in the long run, be real peace unless there 
is justice and law. Even as I write there are 
grave injustices such as the servitude of the Soviet 
satellites and the division of Germany, Korea and 
Vietnam. But even if these injustices could be 
eradicated, the resultant condition would not be 
one to be perpetuated forever. Change is the 
law of life. New conditions are constantly aris- 
ing which call for change lest there be injustice. 
Such injustices tend ultimately to lead to resort 
to force unless other means of change exist. 

Those who love and want peace must recognize 
that unless they exert themselves as vigorously 
for peace as they do for victory, and as vigorously 
for justice as they do for peace, they are not apt 
to have either peace or justice. Peace is a coin 
which has two sides. One side is the renunciation 
of force, the other side is the according of justice. 
Peace and justice are inseparable. This is recog- 
nized by Article 1 of the United Nations Charter. 

The task of winning peace and its necessary 
component, justice, is one which demands our fin- 
est effort. There must be a contribution from 
every nation, as we strive to institutionalize peace. 
Peace also depends on the effort of individuals as 
they help to mold their nation's j^olicies and as 
they may themselves directly contribute to one 
or more of the many aspects of international 
endeavor. 

There has been, heretofore, the lack of sus- 
tained and sacrificial individual and national ef- 
forts needed to save the world from war. Surely 
that is a lack which ought now to be made good, 
as war becomes a catastrophe too awful to be 
contemplated. 

John Fostkr Dctxes 






604 



Department of State Bulletin 



The Soviet-Occupied Zone of Germany: A Case Study in Communist Control 



hy Eleanor Dulles 

Special AssisUx/nt to the Director, Office of German Afftdi'fi 



Education with whicli you as a group are con- 
cerned is in considerable measure the formulat- 
ing of significant questions and then the attempt 
to find answere. It is concerned with the manner 
in which past experience can aflect the nature of 
man and his actions. There are presmned to be 
goals toward which the human race is pressing. 

One of our main goals is seen in our present 
struggle to assure the largest possible degree of 
freedom for the development of man's highest 
potential. In all our efforts directed to this end 
we are inevitably concerned with those who are 
in bondage, partial or complete. We must from 
time to time appraise our situation and recognize 
those important questions which relate to our 
programs and to Soviet methods of controlling 
subject peoples. 

Moscow, with the announced intention of ex- 
tending the borders of international communism, 
has ajiparently developed its capabilities to a 
high degree but has reached discernible limits 
which will set the boundaries of its future effort. 
It is useful to ascertain not only how and where 
they have extended their power but also where 
their progress is checked. One such line of fail- 
ure and area of defeat has been found already 
in Germany. Here success has been stopped far 
short of the Kremlin's goal, and failure at a num- 
ber of points is e\ndent. The major aspect of its 
gams and losses in tliis important countiy merit 
consideration at this time when Gemian issues 
are recognized as of primary importance. 



^Address made before the Buffalo Federation of 
■Women's Clubs at Buffalo, N.Y., on Mar. 27 (press release 
174 dated Mar. 26). 



Three questions relating to Soviet control, which 
will affect not only the fate of Germany but of 
the entire world, are very much on our minds 
these days. They are complementary aspects of 
Moscow's capacity to manage the peoples and 
territories which they wish to hold in their Com- 
mimist empire. One is their ability to develop 
a unity and cohesion between different nations 
and different races. A second is their capacity 
to industrialize and exploit the economic poten- 
tial of the territories they dominate at a pace com- 
parable to expansion in the free world. The third 
is their ability to develop tlu'ough training, edu- 
cation, and indoctrination the human resources 
of the millions under their rule. 

It is especially interesting to watch their per- 
formance in Germany, where the line of their con- 
trol cuts the country into two widely different 
areas. In the West their failure to gain influence 
or to develop exchanges of goods and ideas has 
been conspicuous. In the East Zone of occupa- 
tion the matter is more complex and warrants 
careful examination. 

At the present time no final answer can be 
given as to Soviet accomplishments and defeats 
in East Germany. It is evident, however, that 
the consequences of Soviet action there have had 
a profound influence not only on the Germans 
but also on others throughout the world. The 
unwillingness of the people to be absorbed into 
the Connnunist system is impressive. This is of 
special significance after the recent events in Po- 
land and Hungary. The limits to Soviet effec- 
tiveness in Germany are noteworthy. In respect 
to the questions we are considering, the balance 
between the political, economic, and psychological 



April 15, 1957 



605 



gains and losses suggests the possibility of Soviet 
failure to hold their present alarming farflung 
power here or elsewhere. A firm belief now that 
the Soviet-occupied zone will sometime be free 
can strengthen understanding and action. 

The judgment of the degree of Soviet strength 
and weakness and the probable duration of their 
rule, which we are considering here, would clearly 
differ from counti7 to country. Generalizations 
to apply to all of them are not justified in the 
light of the wide variation to be found in differ- 
ent cases. The example of East Germany derives 
its special interest not only because of its peculiar 
importance in Western strategy but also because 
of the large volume of information which is avail- 
able to us and that throws light on Soviet be- 
havior eveiywhere. It has a direct bearing not 
only on the solution of German problems but on 
world security problems. 

Crucial Role of Berlin 

In strengthening of resistance and in its sources 
of information the city of Berlin continues to 
play a crucial role. The zone, a large and impor- 
tant territory with 17 million Germans now more 
than a decade under Soviet domination, is to some 
extent open to study and inspection. More facts 
are available from the East in and through Ber- 
lin and are subject to check for their validity than 
from other Communist-ruled areas. The varied 
means of communication, the travel back and 
forth, and the interchange of letters and personal 
contacts of all types are gi-eater in volume and 
significance than for any other European satellite. 

Here, in the center of the zone, the direct con- 
tacts between people in the West and in the East 
affect practically every resident of the Soviet- 
occupied area of Germany. More than 3 million 
persons and perhaps more than 5 million come to 
West Berlin and to West Germany every year. 
In some months the estimates of visitors have 
been in excess of 700,000. Some of the visits are 
short — people coming to West Berlin for a look at 
the industrial fair, for the annual agricultural 
show held during the Green Week, for the cul- 
tural or film festivals. Others are longer visits 
to relatives and friends and visits by students 
and businessmen. Some come as strangers seek- 
ing new friends and new ways to learn of the 
West. 

The results of these visits to Berlin and the 



Federal Republic, and also of thousands of trips 
from the West to the East, are a considerable mass 
of information, many impressions and reports of 
events and policies. For example, when statistics 
of agricultural production are published, they 
can be tested against common knowledge as to 
the potato harvest, grain yield, crop conditions, 
and food rationing. In this area, perhaps better 
than anywhere else, the Iron Curtain is only an 
open grill — the view of what is going on is thei'e 
for all to see. 

Because we can learn much from this, we are 
impelled to examine the facts and appraise ihe 
nature of Soviet management and control. The 
results of this study can contribute in a significant 
manner to the understanding of where the Soviets 
stand in relation to the satellites and what direc- 
tions they may decide to take in the future. The 
conclusions reached may not be encouraging, but 
at least they can help to outline the course of 
future action for the West. In any case, to the 
extent that they approximate a true appraisal, 
such a review is bound to be useful. 

Although for political and administrative pur- 
poses East Berlin is incorporated into the zone, it 
has special problems and characteristics. Since 
it is still part of the city, half slave and half free, 
it places in sharp contrast Soviet management 
and control. This situation must be considered 
separately from the zone. 

The city. East and West, technically speaking 
is still a four-power occupied area. West Berlin 
is not a part of the Federal Republic in a legal 
sense although psychologically and economically 
it is almost like an eleventh Land or pi-ovince of 
the western sovereign state of Germany. 

In the Pankow district of East Berlin, closely 
integrated with East Germany, is the seat of the 
puppet government, a government called by the 
Soviets free of their control. Actually, it is 
rigidly held under Russian armed force through 
Communist German agents. It is separated from 
West Berlin by only a thin line of occasional bor- 
der watchei-s and a few large signs and notices 
indicating changes in jurisdiction. 

In spite of the many close relations between the 
different parts of the city, the political differences 
as one crosses the narrow line of demarcation are 
as great as those between Hungary and Austria. 
Over this 37-mile sector border across the town 
l)ass as many as 100,000 persons each day. Few 



606 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



ai'e stopped or questioned. Approximately 45,000 
are regular workers, border crossers who live in 
one political area and work in another, going 
freely to and fro. Only occasionally are they 
questioned — usually the reason is that they carry 
a package or brief case. In rare instances they 
are searched by the Eastern police for Western 
deutschemarks, the money which they are not sup- 
posed to have on their persons. More often the 
large numbers of students, casual visitors, mer- 
chants, relatives of West or East Berliners, visi- 
tors to concerts and museums, moviegoers or 
persons seeking to buy a pound of butter or a pair 
of shoes in the West move unhindered. In the 
case of those going to the East there are also no 
barriers. There are visitors to relatives or friends 
or even occasionally persons in search of antiques 
or special objects like cameras offered for sale in 
the East. 

There is a sense of almost physical pressure of 
one system on the other. Soviet prestige suffers 
from this traffic, but it would suH'er also if it were 
stopped by force. 

Contrast Between East and West 

As a result of this movement back and forth, 
the contrast between East and West and the great 
difference in the standard of living is always evi- 
dent to everyone. Moreover, the presence of the 
Allied occupation forces and their support of the 
city is visible and daily apparent. This makes 
it virtually impossible for the Soviets to take the 
risk of severing the city. Berlin cannot be ab- 
sorbed into the bloc. 

In spite of the ring of Communist might around 
the East sector of Berlin there is no sense of 
cohesion with the Kremlin. The rejection of its 
occupiers in the minds of the people is almost com- 
plete. The attempts of Moscow to shift respon- 
sibility and prestige to the Pankow government 
installed in East Berlin, surrounded and protected 
as it is by the 22 military divisions stationed in 
the iimnediately adjacent areas, has not been con- 
vincing to the Germans anywhere, either in the 
East or in the W^est. One can conclude that their 
administration of the East sector of the city and 
its economic and political potential has been only 
superficially successful. 

It is reliably reported by the foremost German 
experts on the subject that the puppets of the 



Soviets holding their brief authority by bribes, 
threats, and blood money are more hated bj' the 
Germans than are the Russians, who are acting on 
the basis of a more recognizable set of power ob- 
jectives. Thus under present conditions normal 
relations are not possible between the East Ger- 
man instruments of the Soviet r>der and their 
oppressed subjects. Similarly, the East German 
authorities in Berlin have little official contact 
with the Western World. 

The principal financial advantages to the Rus- 
sians of holding East Berlin are negligible. In 
the light of conditions in East Berlin one can 
question whether economic resources of the city 
have been used efficiently or benefit significantly 
the economic interest of the East Zone. The ste- 
rility of the Soviet occupation is evident, ^^(lually 
apparent is the significance for Communist aims 
of denjnng the city to the West. Even though it 
can be assumed that the cost of holding the Soviet 
sector by force since the time of the blockade and 
the split of the city outweighs any direct benefit 
derived from its production or trade, the purely 
strategic and prestige reasons remain predomi- 
nant, but the performance of the Soviets has not 
been impressive. 

The residents of the eastern part of the city are 
in a peculiar position. They have the advantages 
of constant refreslmient in the western sector of 
the city and opportunities to buy the many essen- 
tial conmiodities, including food and clothing. 
While living under the Communist regime they 
gain the stimulus of the free air and the dynamic 
activity of the western part of the city, busily 
restoring its physical plant and its cultural life. 
Thus they are not totally subject to the rule or 
the living standards of the satellites or of Russia. 
They can stay on from day to day knowing escape 
is always jjossible. 

Berlin is thus a major reason for and an out- 
standing example of the failure to integrate East 
Germany into the Soviet bloc. The city makes this 
part of Soviet conquest and control different from 
other areas but in some ways even more signifi- 
cant. The management of the zone demonstrates, 
for example, the oppressive nature of the effort 
10 bring conditions into line with Moscow. It 
shows how much force is needed to keep the reins 
tight in a sitiuition where there ai-e steady and 
dependable channels of communication when peo- 
ple under one system remain in close contact with 
people under vastly different political and philo- 



April 15, J 957 



607 



sophic systems. It is somewhat paradoxical that 
the veiy conditions that increase the resistance 
potential also lessen the danger of violent ex- 
plosion. This danger is generally conceded to be 
less than in several of the more enclosed areas. 
This is the current forecast even though the Ger- 
man spirit of resistance in the East is constantly 
nourished and clearly manifest in many vrays. 

Exploitation of Potential Assets 

Perhaps more rewarding, however, is the at- 
tempt to examine the wider extent and the naore 
comprehensive efforts of the Communists in the 
considerable territory of 41,000 square miles with 
the 17 million people who live in the East Zone. 
Here there are substantial assets to exploit. Here 
are the large uranium deposits. These are now 
being used exclusively for the benefit of the So- 
viet atomic program. Here are the substantial 
soft -coal mines, henry and light industries, uni- 
versities, and highly urbanized areas of Leipzig, 
Dresden, Weimar, Magdeburg, and other centers. 
Here is a tradition of effective management and 
productive labor. The question is, how have the 
Soviets used these potential assets and to what 
extent have East Zone resources helped them in 
their objectives? 

From the point of view of political interna- 
tional relationships little has been accomplished. 
They have built up an uneasy and limited set of 
contacts with the bloc and a few nonsatellite na- 
tions. The few links between the Commimist- 
created East German government and nations 
outside the Soviet bloc are uncertain, insecure, 
and relatively unproductive. There is little like- 
lihood that the concerted drive to increase the 
number and scope of trade and other treaties since 
the Soviet declaration of East German "inde- 
pendence" on September 20, 1955, will have any 
real success. A major reason for the inability of 
the Communist regime in East Germany to de- 
velop diplomatic relations has been the vigilance 
and strength of the Federal Republic in Bonn. 

For one thing the zone has now too little to 
offer in the way of exports. For another there 
are many apparent pitfalls in the waj' of alli- 
ances between a puppet government and free na- 
tions. As long as the Communists use force to 
maintain their position in FaisI Germany, those 
who make ties with their chosen instruments of 
Commimist policy will be anxious for fear the 



authorities will be changed or liquidated and the 
agreements collapse. The strong democratic na- 
tions of the non-Commimist world are bound to 
hesitate before making pacts with those who are 
not able to act independently of Moscow. 

If trade treaties on an ad hoc basis are con- 
cluded, as the}' have been in nine cases, they will 
be almost inevitably on the basis of short-run 
economic considerations with an eye always to 
the uncertain future. If the trade is not produc- 
tive, there will be little reason to attempt to work 
out mutual adjustments. Agreements based on 
the expectation of long and dependable inter- 
change cannot be reached easily where there is 
no tradition and no political philosophy to indi- 
cate a future interchange of goods on a basis of 
sound reciprocity. 

"Where uncertainty exists as to the nature of 
the leadei-ship of future governments and the 
status of relations with Moscow, the links can- 
not bind closely and the relationships are fragile. 
Thus the nine agreements as of early 1957 between 
the German Democratic Republic and nonsatellite 
governments constitute, both in scope and num- 
ber, a feeble accomplishment in the light of the 
effort and intention. 

Lag of East Zone Economy 

In the case of East Germany the economic ex- 
ploitation by the Soviets falls far short of their 
plans and leaves the people at a lower standard 
of living than any other comparably industrial- 
ized area. Even by their own reports the 5-yeat 
goals have not been reached. The Soviets have 
not demonstrated there any significant capacity 
to exploit the resources by force or to take advan- 
tage of the opportunities by a doctrine and a 
method acceptable to the workei-s and managers 
in the zone. There is no sign that the Conmiu- 
nist appi'oach has led to productivity or inven- 
tiveness. 

The Soviet rulers have had 12 years in which 
to develop momentum. Capital-goods production 
is behind scliedule. Consumer goods are in short 
supply. There one finds clearly another indica- 
tion of the difficulties which face the Kremlin in 
managing alien lands. 

The reconstruction of the East German econ- 
omy after the war would not have been easy in 
any case. It was made more difficult because at 
the outset there were the crippling removals of 



608 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



equipment and raw materials by Russia. Fac- 
tories were stripped of machinery. Rolling stock, 
trucks, and capital assets of a wide variety of 
types were taken from the country. The trains 
moving eastward were loaded witli machine tools 
and heavy equipment. Electrical machinery and 
other valuable as.sets were taken away which were 
to be sorely missed when the time for rebuilding 
the economy came. Estimates of the amount of 
material wealth removed indicate that it was in 
excess of 15 billion dollars' worth at the time it 
was taken away. Little is known of the manner 
in which equipment was reinstalled or of the use 
made of those capital instruments by the Rus- 
sians. Much can be said about the damage these 
removals caused to the East German economy. 

The more significant, if perhaps not so clearly 
apparent, reason for the lag of the East Zone econ- 
omy behind comparable areas in general and be- 
hind West Germany in particular is the lack of 
contractual arrangements. Under this system 
there is no effective business responsibility or mo- 
tive to produce. Here we see an economy which 
has reached an advanced state of professional pro- 
ficiency, with a highly skilled labor force and rea- 
sonably good natural resources, forced ruthlessly 
into the Communist mold. 

Approximately 70 percent of the industry is 
said to have been conununized already. A much 
smaller segment of the agricultural land is in the 
so-called cooperatives. New private ventures are 
virtually ruled out. All the industry which re- 
mains outside state control is starved for the lack 
of capital and is in a disadvantageous position as 
regards maintenance and access to adequate labor 
supply. 

The question arises naturally in the minds of 
workers and supervisors of labor — for whom are 
they working? The answer is bound to be "for 
the Soviets." Cooperative effort to build up state 
enterprises could only be exi^ected to stimulate 
vigorous effort on the part of labor and capital if 
the authorities themselves have goals which are 
acceptable. In the lack of such incentives and 
loyalties, productive effort is balanced constantly 
against the immediate cost and man is apt to limit 
his effort to work "for bread alone." 

This sense of futility has in fact prevailed 
throughout the zone. As far as one can discern, 
Soviet armed force and dire need of the people 
are the bases for economic effort. Few of the 
usual motives appear to be operative. The short- 



run considerations which determine the kind of 
work and the amount of energy that goes into 
the assigned tasks are those which relate to sur- 
vival and not those which develop from the hope 
of a large-scale and impressive building of a sound 
and dependable economic system. 

Refugees "Vote With Their Feet" 

The most striking evidence of the failure of the 
regime to give the people the elemental satisfac- 
tions which the Communists have continuously 
promised to the masses has been the tmending 
stream of refugees from the Soviet-occupied ter- 
ritory to the AVest. The steady flow of workers 
and professional men. of farmers and laborers, 
from the workshops, the farms, and the mines of 
East Germany is the kind of public-opinion poll 
that no one can ignore. It has been said that 
close to 2 million refugees have voted "with their 
feet." This large number of voluntary exiles 
have staked their hopes and their lives on the 
belief that they can live and work according to 
their standards and principles only in the West. 
They have rejected the methods and the aims of 
the Communist regime which they have come to 
know so well. 

It is not easy to be a refugee. Almost every 
man of feeling is attached to the place which he 
calls home. The very shape of the hills, the smell 
of the meadows and the woods, the curve of the 
rivers, which he has known from his earliest cliild- 
hood, are part of his well-loved birthright. To 
leave all this for unknown cities and an mifamiliar 
countryside, to be separated from liis neighbors 
and his friends, and to seek new dwellings and 
new employment is not easy. One caimot take 
lightly the meaning of this large-scale and con- 
tinuing migration. 

Wliile the Kremlin may not understand the 
meaning of this migiation, for those who hear the 
story at the various Berlin and Federal Republic 
reception centers there is an unforgettable im- 
pression of the profound disappointment in the 
cultural life and conditions of work which they 
have fomid in the last 12 years. It is not so much 
the lack of food and clothing, though conditions 
in this respect still leave much to be desired, but 
more the climate of hmnan relations and pressures 
applied in all their work, the lack of choice, the 
inability to seek one's own place in the system 
and shape one's life in a spirit of hope and free- 
dom which lead to despair. These motives and 



April IS, 1957 

4218-i9— 57 3 



609 



the protests against the Communist regime indi- 
cate the core of the Communist dilemma. 

Time factors plague the Communists in their 
administration of the Soviet-occupied zone of 
Germany. The improvement so far achieved in 
economic affairs has been much slower than else- 
where in Europe. The political developments in 
the zone have failed to establish the authorities 
there on a firm basis. The cringing dependence 
on the Soviet authorities of all the high officials 
and their inability to speak except as instructed 
have been evident not only to all Germans but 
also to the world at large. INIeanwhile, the re- 
jection of Russian comnuniism has been so com- 
plete that there is danger of serious depopulation. 
Already almost 1.5 percent of the population has 
left as voluntary expatriates from their homes. 
The labor shortage is severe and hampers eco- 
nomic progress. 

Thus the three questions which are significant 
indications of the Soviets' capacity to rule the 
area can be given tentative answers. The slow 
gains at some points are more than offset by 
losses at others which hamper improvements in 
the standard of living and prevent East German 
acceptance of tiie i-egime. The individual de- 
prived of his legal and political rights is fearful, 
uncooperative, and hostile to the occupying 
powers. If the 400,000 soldiers were withdrawn, 
the Communist facade would collapse overnight. 
The area is stanchly German and relatively un- 
affected by alien doctrines to which it has been 
exposed. Russia has developed no alliance here, 
but it has added to the number of potential 
enemies at a cost which is likely to increase in 
goods and effort if they are to keep the potential 
resistance under control. 

There are time factors which disturb the West- 
ern allies as they consider conditions in the East 
Zone. There is inevitably some erosion of the 
spirit as pressure on the individual continues from 
month to month. There is bound to be disillu- 
sionment over the inability of the Federal Repub- 
lic and the "Western World to win their freedom. 
Institutions, even though unpopular and oppres- 
sive, have a tendency to become a part of the 
day-to-day fabi-ic. 

Thus, in some measure even the failures of the 
Russians in this area complicate the problems for 
tiie Western World. The Communist dilemma 
of more oppression or costly aid is to some extent 



paralleled by the urgent problems of the free 
world. Our efforts to manifest our underetand- 
ing, aid to visitors from the East, assistance to 
refugees, are of the greatest importance. 

Above all, the development of the North At- 
lantic Treaty alliance and closer European eco- 
nomic cooperation through the common market 
and EuBATOM can create the conditions of strength 
from which eventual German reunification will 
come. The moment of opportunity lies ahead. 
It will come the sooner because the Russians know 
that those who live in the East Zone have not ac- 
cepted their system. It is the more certain be- 
cause of the millions who, despite almost over- 
whelming inducement, have kept the faith and 
stood firm. "Wlio can say what would be the cir- 
cumstances in East Germany in ^0 years if the 
Russians were to remain^ It would be a bold 
and not a wise man who would venture to predict 
the results of long-continued occupation. As of 
the present, however, there is no I'ecord of suc- 
cess. No achievement in the economic field, no 
winning over of the people, no brilliant diplo- 
matic accomplishments can encourage the Krem- 
lin in its shaping of future policy toward 
Germany. 



U.S. Asks Dominican Government 
To Reopen Gerald Murphy Case 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Department of State announced on March 
16 (press release 150) that it had instructed the 
Embassy at Ciudad Trujiilo to deliver a note to 
the Dominican Government in reply to a communi- 
cation from that Government submitting various 
documents and other evidence concerning the dis- 
appearance in December 1956, in the Dominic4\n 
Republic, of Gerald I^ester Murphy, a U.S. civil- 
ian aviator.' 

The documents submitted with the Dominican 
note included an official report by the Attorney 
(General of the Dominican Republic that Mr. Mur- 
phy had been killed by Octavio de la Maza, a 



' For background, see Bulletin of Feb. 11, 1957, p. 221, 
and Mar. 4, 1957, p. 349. 



610 



Department of State Bulletin 



Dominican airline pilot. A suicide note, attrib- 
uted to Mr. de la Maza and containing a state- 
ment that he had killed himself in remorse over 
the death of Mr. Murphy, was included in the 
Dominican documentation. 



TEXT OF U.S. NOTE 

No. 382 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Department of 
State for Foreign Affairs and Worsliip and has 
the honor to acknowledge its Note No. 3.'i51 of 
February 9, 1957 transmitting the following docu- 
ments in connection with the disajipearance of 
Gerald Lester Murphy : 

1. Report by the Attorney General of the 
Dominican Republic. 

2. Photostats of the suicide note attributed to 
Octavio de la Maza accompanied by photo- 
stats of known specimens of his handwi-iting. 

3. Analysis of de la Maza suicide note by Pro- 
fessor Manuel Ferrandis Torres of the Uni- 
versity of Madrid concluding that the de la 
Maza suicide note is authentic. 

4. Final disposition of the Murphy case by the 
examining magistrate concluding that he was 
murdered by de la Maza and must be pre- 
sumed dead. 

5. Final disposition of the de la Maza case by 
the examining magistrate concluding that he 
committed suicide after liaving murdered 
Murphy. 

6. Interrogations by the examining magistrate 
in connection with the Murphy and de la 
Maza cases. 

7. Miscellaneous reports related to the Murphy 
and de la Maza cases inchiding medico-legal 
and autopsy repoi'ts on de la Maza. 

From examination of these documents and 
other evidence, this Government has concluded 
that if the specimens of handwriting submitted 
by the Dominican authorities as being of de la 
Maza are actually his, then the suicide note was 
not written by de la Maza. 

Furthermore, this examination reveals a con- 
tradiction between the report of the Dominican 
Attorney General which states that Murphy's 
"political influence" in the Dominican Republic 



was tlie "object of investigation without anything 
serious being produced to justify it" and other 
available information. Our investigations indi- 
cate that Murphy was well acquainted with high 
Dominican officials, among them the late Colonel 
Salvador Cobiiin and Brig. General Arturo K 
Espaillat. 

It would also appear that Murphy's income 
while in the Dominican Republic must not have 
been limited to the $350 per month salary which 
the Dominican Attorney General states he earned 
as a co-jjilot for the Dominican Aviation Com- 
pany (Cda). Our investigations have confirmed 
statements made by several American Cd.\ pilots 
to the Dominican authorities that Murphy, in the 
words of one of them, "had more money than the 
rest of us" and that he owned two cars, one in 
Miami and one in Ciudad Trujillo. As far as is 
known. Murphy had no income of record in the 
United States during the period of his employ- 
ment in the Dominican Republic. The Govern- 
ment of the United States is gravely concerned 
about the disappearance of one of its citizens in 
the Dominican Republic. It assumes that this 
concern is shared by the Dominican Govermnent. 

In view of the foi'egoing observations and other 
evidence which it has developed within its do- 
mestic jurisdiction, the Government of the United 
States considers the case of Gerald Lester Mui'phy 
as unsolved. The Dominican Government is ur- 
gently requested to reopen and vigorously pursue 
its investigation of the disappearance of this citi- 
zen of tlie United States. 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
avails itself of this opportunity to renew to the 
Department of State for Foreign Affairs and 
Worship the assurances of its highest considera- 
tion. 

Ciudad Trujillo, D.R., 
March 16, 1957. 



Polish Coal Mining Officials 
Visit United States 

Press release 165 dated March 21 

On March 22 a delegation of eight Polish coal 
mining officials will arrive in the United States 
for a 3-week tour of principal mining facilities 
in the coal-producing States east of the Missis- 



Apn\ 15, 1957 



611 



sippi. The tour has been arranged and will be 
conducted by the National Coal Association. 

The Polish visit is in accordance with an agree- 
ment between the Department of State and the 



Polish Embassy for the exchange of delegations 
of coal mining experts. It is anticipated that a 
reciprocal U.S. delegation will visit Poland later 
this year. 



International Cooperation in Climatology 



SECOND SESSION OF COMMISSION FOR CLIMATOLOGY 
OF WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION 



l)y Helmvt E. Landsherg 



From January 14 to 25, 1957, the Government 
of the United States acted as host to the Commis- 
sion for Climatology (CCl) of the World 
Meteorological Organization (Wmo) at Washing- 
ton, D.C. The Wmo is one of the specialized 
agencies of the United Nations. Much of its work 
is accomplished by technical conmaissions, of which 
CCl is one. 

The history of formal international cooperation 
in climatology goes back to 1872, when the Inter- 
national Meteorological Coirmiittee, an early 
predecessor of Wmo, met at Leipzig and placed on 
its agenda several items dealing with standard- 
ization of climatic practices. In 1929 the 
International Meteorological Organization, the 
immediate antecedent of Wmo, created the Com- 
mission for Climatology, which has met at regular 
intervals except for the World War II interrup- 
tion. This was its second session since the Wmo 
took over the functions of these earlier groups. 

For the past 7 years the Commission has had, as 
president, C. W. Thornthwaite of the United 
States, a world-renowned research worker in the 



• Dr. Landsherg., author of the above article, 
is Director of the Office of Climatology of 
the U.S. Weather Bureau. He served as 
principal U.S. delegate at the second session 
of the WMO Commission for Climatology. 



field of climatology and director of the Laboratory 
of Climatology of the Drexel Institute of Tech- 
nology, Centerton, N.J. Under his chairmanship 
the first plenary session of the current meeting 
was addressed by Francis O. Wilcox, Assistant 
Secretary of State for International Organization 
Affairs. Mr. Wilcox welcomed the delegates to 
Washmgton and stressed the importance of the 
work the specialized United Nations agencies are 
doing for the promotion of constructive inter- 
national cooperation and for the creation of better 
standards of living everywhere.' Further wel- 
come was extended by F. W. Eeichelderfer, Chief 
of the U.S. Weather Bureau and fonner president 
of the Wmo. Dr. Eeichelderfer, who is the per- 
manent U.S. representative to the Wmo and a 
member of its Executive Committee, called at- 
tention to some of the important tasks before 
the Commission, among which are the problems of 
water supplies, drought, and long-range climatic 
trends. 

Delegates and Activities at Second Session 

The following 24 member nations of Wmo sent 
delegates to the second session : 



Australia 

Belgium 

Brazil 



Byelorussian S.S.R. 

Canada 

Cuba 



' For text of Mr. Wilcox's remarks, see Bulletin of 
Feb. 4, 1957, p. 197. 



612 



Department of State BuUetin 



Dominican Republic Poland 

France Sweden 
Germany, Federal Republic Thailand 

of Ukrainian S.S.R. 

Ireland Union of Soviet Socialist 
Israel Republics 

Korea United Kingdom 

Mexico United States 

Netherlands Uruguay 



Norway 



Venezuela 



Two nonmember nations, Albania and Liberia, 
sent observers. 

There were also observers from the Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Organization (Icao), the 
Food and Agriculture Organization (Fag), the 
World Health Organization (Who), the United 
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization (Unesco) and from six other inter- 
national technical organizations. A group of 11 
invited experts, associated with universities and 
research institutions, joined the deliberations on 
technical problems. 

The official U.S. delegation was composed of 
H. E. Landsberg and H. C. S. Thom of the U.S. 
Weather Bureau and Woodrow C. Jacobs of the 
Air Weather Service, U.S. Air Force. They were 
aided by nine advisers from the Office of Clima- 
tology of the Weather Bureau, the Directorate of 
Climatology of the Air Weather Service, and the 
Aerology Branch of the Navy.- Secretariat serv- 
ices were handled by the Office of International 
Conferences of the Department of State. The 
Wmo secretariat was represented by K. Langlo 
and O. M. Ashford from the headquarters of the 
organization at Geneva. Their technical assist- 
ance throughout the conference contributed 
greatly to the success of the session. 

Most of the woric of the Commission was 
handled in two committees. The first committee 
dealt with climatological regulations, require- 
ments, rules, and practices, while the second con- 
cerned itself with research problems and applied 
climatology. A lengthy agenda of 6 administra- 
tive and 15 major technical items was handled. 
The heavy work schedule, which often required 
late working hours, was relieved by an interesting 
program of social and scientific events. Among 
the technical attractions was a tour of Weather 
Bureau facilities in the Washington, D.C., area, 
including a visit to the weather center in Suit- 



^ For a Department announcement of the U.S. delegation 
to the second session, see ihid., Jan. 28, 1957, p. 153. 



land, Md., where a large electronic computer has 
become one of the great modern aids in weather 
forecasting. An exliibit of weather instrmnents 
and equipment which had been arranged in the 
lobby of the U.S. Department of Commerce build- 
ing formed another feature of interest to the 
delegates. 

The president of the Commission had arranged 
for six scientific lectures by delegates and invited 
experts. These were presented during two after- 
noon sessions and dealt with some of the latest 
technical advances and problems. Many of the 
delegates also attended an evening meeting of the 
District of Columbia Branch of the American 
Meteorological Society and the national meeting 
of this society at New York City after the close 
of the session. In addition, the Weather Bureau 
arranged for an inspection trip to the National 
AVeather Records Center in Asheville, N.C., after 
the session. This is the greatest depository and 
processing center of climatological data in the 
world, with a library comprising 300 million 
weather observations. Twenty-two foreign dele- 
gates spent 2 days inspecting this facility and its 
newest electronic equipment. 

Worldwide Inventory of Climatic Conditions 

The final results of the meeting were contained 
in 10 resolutions and 9 recommendations to the 
Executive Committee of the Wmo. The primary 
results, when implemented, will be moderniza- 
tion and modification of international practices in 
climatology. These will be of considerable practi- 
cal benefit. Uniform procedures are a virtual 
necessity in the mapi>ing of weather elements, 
which obviously have no regard for national 
boundaries. A worldwide effort toward an in- 
ventory of the climatic conditions in the form of 
a climatic atlas is also to be undertaken under a 
unified system of standards. Such an atlas should 
contribute significajotly to economic betterment 
since temporarily or permanently adverse aspects 
of climate underlie much of the world's trouble. 
Floods, droughts, and hurricanes are among the 
prime causes of human disaster. Adequate statis- 
tics on these as well as the less frightening but 
equally important elements of temperature and 
rainfall have to be compiled. They are basic 
material for agricultural planning, for major 
projects of reforestation, and for irrigation and 
hydroelectric schemes. 



April IS, 1957 



613 



Of basic importance is a continuous -watch on 
trends in the climatic elements, both from natural 
and, perhaps, artificial causes. Among the last 
are the possible climatic changes induced by large- 
scale river basin developments. One of the ques- 
tions before the Commission was whether such 
changes might be adverse. It was the considered 
opinion that such developments would have only 
minor local effects and that these would probably 
be beneficial rather than detrimental. In view 
of the widespread international interest in such 
questions, the Wmo secretariat was urged to pub- 
lish a technical note for general information, 
based on the experience of various member nations. 

In recognition of the fact that water resources 
are among the most critical problems confronting 
many nations or areas, a number of discussions 
centered around hydrological questions. In par- 
ticular, the procedures to measure water income in 
form of snow and water loss by evaporation came 
under scrutiny. Recommended procedures re- 
sulted in draft, chapters for the ''Guide to Clima- 
tological Practices." This will be a book contain- 
ing advice on the best techmques at present 
available to climatologists. Considerable draft 
material for this text was accumulated and re- 
viewed during the session. The final drafting 
and editing will be in the hands of a small working 
group of the Commission. 

The climate of the upper air, especially over the 
oceans, is of vital interest to international air 
traffic. Specifically, the frequency ot encounters 
with hazards such as icing and severe turbulence 
is of concern to every airline. Inflight weather 
reports are regularly filed witli the meteorological 
services, but there has been a need for statistical 
studies to handle and analyze this infonnation. 
These studies will be initiated under a recommen- 
dation of the Commission. 

Just before World War II a telecommunication 
exchange of monthly temperature and rainfall 
values was begun. It was thought that this infor- 
mation, if collected on a worldwide scale, would 
help long-range weather forecasting. After an 
interruption by the war, this project was resumed 
with the cooperation of many nations. Currently 
the data thus gathered are published by the U.S. 
Weather Bureau under Wmo sponsorship in a 
bulletin entitled Monthly Climatic Data for the 
World, which has proved to be of considerable 
economic value. Such quastions as "Are frosts 



damaging the Brazilian coffee crop?", "Is a 
drought developing in Australia?", or "Did the 
monsoon bring normal amounts of rainfall to 
India?" can be readily answered. The present 
session of the Commission reviewed the proce- 
dures for both the radio messages and publication 
of the data. A scheme for a better network of 
stations was prepared, and a plea for univei'sal 
cooperation was made. In view of the general 
desire for this uniform collection of climatological 
information, a further expansion of the scheme to 
all member nations of the Wmo can now be 
expected. 

The exchange of views on scientific matters at 
the session was particularly helpful. Latest de- 
velopments in the various countries were reviewed. 
Some of them were presented in the scientific 
lectures which became part of the session's docu- 
mentation and will therefore be available to all 
member nations. Others were presented in the 
form of national progress reports. These will be 
condensed by (he secretariat of the Wmo into a 
technical note. 

Among the final actions of the Commission was 
the election of officers for the next 4-year period. 
Dr. Thornthwaite, who under the rules could not 
be reelected, was succeeded as president by R. G. 
Veryard of the United Kingdom. C. C. Boughner 
of Canada was elected vice president. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 



Economic and Social Council 

Development of International Travel, Its Pre.sent Increas- 
ing Voliune and Future Prospects. Addendum to the 
note by the Secretary-General. B/2933/Add.3, January 
17, 1957. 7 pp. mimeo. 

Consideration of the Provisional Agenda for the Twenty- 
Fourth Session. Note by the Secretary-General. 
E/2949, January 18, 1957. 9 pp. mimeo. 

Commission on Human Rights. Periodic Reports on Hu- 
man Rights and Studies of Specific Rights or Groups 
of Rights. Note by the Secretary-General. E/CN.4/- 
7.'!4, January 24, 19,^7. 4 i)p. mimeo. 

Commission on the Status of Women. Advisory Services 
in the Field of Human Rights. Report by the Secretary- 
General. E/CN.6/294, January 24, 1957. 4 pp. mimeo. 

Commission on the Status of Women. Bride-Price, Polyg- 
amy and Rights of the Mother with Respect to her 
Children. E/CN.6/295, January 34, 1967. 47 pp. 
mimeo. 

Commission on the Status of Women. Practical Methods 
for the Implementation of Ekjual Pay for Equal Work. 
B/CN.6/296, January 24, 1957. 35 pp. mimeo. 



614 



Department of State Bulletin 



statute of International Atomic Energy Agency Transmitted to Senate ' 



PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE OF TRANSMITTAL 

The White House, March 21, 1957. 

To the Seriate of the United States: 

Witli a view to receiving the advice and consent 
of tlie Senate to ratification, I am attaching liere- 
with a certified copy of the Statute of the Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Agency.- I also transmit 
for the information of the Senate a report ad- 
dressed to me by the Secretary of State in regard 
to the statute, together with certain related papers. 

When the Statute of the International Atomic 
Energy Agency was open for signature at United 
Nations Headquarters in New York for 3 months, 
from October 26, 1956, to January 24, 1957, it was 
signed in behalf of the United States of America 
and by 79 other nations. It is the product of al- 
most 3 years of negotiations, beginning with my 
address to the United Nations on December 8, 
1953.^ There I expressed the profound hope of 
the American people, a hope shared by people 
throughout the world, that means could be found 
to harness the atom to the labors of peace. 

Today, in the grim necessity of preserving the 
peace, the free world must turn to the deadly 
power of the atom as a guardian of freedom and 
a prime deterrent to aggression. Yet the true 
promise of the atom is not for destructive purposes 
but for constructive purposes. And, in America, 
M-e can already see in atomic energy an enormous 
potential for human benefit : electric power, treat- 
ment of disease, and extraordinary service to agi-i- 
culture, industry, and science itself. And this is 
but the beginning. There is every indication that 
we can look forward to even greater values of 
atomic energy in America. 



' Keprinted from S. Exec. I, 8oth Cong., 1st sess. 
' Not iirinted here ; for text, see Bxtixetin of Nov. 19. 
195G, p. 820. 

= IMd., Dec. 21, 1953, i>. 847. 



Tlie peoples of other nations also see great hope 
in the atom for the development of their economies 
and advancement of their welfare. They devoutly 
wisli for ways and means of directing the atom to 
peaceful uses. There is widespread appreciation 
of the role the United States has already played in 
the great atoms-for-peace program to help many 
of these nations start their own atomic energy 
programs. 

Now, in our proposal to the United Nations for 
the establishment of an International Atomic En- 
ergy iVgency, we have answered the basic desire 
of many nations for an international body to which 
all may belong — a body in which all may safely 
pool their knowledge and skill for the advance- 
ment of all; from which all may draw knowledge, 
advice, and nuclear fuels to aid their individual 
efforts in developing the atom for peaceful em- 
ployment. 

This promise of increased well-being for the 
people of the world offered by the International 
Atomic f^nergy Agency is a major purpose of our 
proposal. Another is the extension of our fixed 
and unending determination to open and widen 
all possible avenues toward a just and enduring 
world joeace. In promoting these purposes, the 
International Atomic Energy Agency would pro- 
vide a practical meeting place — a common gi'ound 
of cooperative effort among nations. Thus, 
through shared \\o\yQ and work, the world would 
come to realize the innnense possibilities of the 
atom for the benefit of all. 

The statute and the Agency which it will estab- 
lish hold promise of important progress in that 
direction. They constitute both a practical ap- 
proach and a symbol of all that people of good 
will hope to see accomplished through the use of 
atomic energy. They offer the luiderdeveloped 
nations in particular an earlier availability of the 
benefits flowing from the constructive uses of the 
atom, and afford all countries the prospect of 



April IS, 1957 



615 



mutually stimulated scientific advance dedicated 
to the welfare of mankind. 

To achieve the confidence essential to coopera- 
tion among membei"s of the International Atomic 
Energy Agency, great care has been exercised to 
insure that fissionable material will be safe- 
guarded to prevent its diversion to any military 
purpose. A comprehensive safeguard system is 
provided by the statute. This will apply to all 
aspects of the Agency's activity involving nuclear 
materials. A key part of this system is a plan 
of thorough international inspection. The United 
States will provide fissionable materials for 
Agency projects only as this safeguard system is 
put into effect. I am satisfied that the security of 
the United States will not be endangered by ma- 
terials made available to or through this Agency. 
I should add that the United States is under no 
obligation to disclose secret information to this 
Agency. 

Authority for directing the Agency will rest 
primarily in a Board of Governors. The method 
of choosing these Governors was considered with 
particular care. The formula finally agreed upon 
balances geographic considerations with the capac- 
ity of the cooperating nations to supjily technical 
or material support to agency projects. This 
formula assures the protection of the interests of 
America and the free world. There is also reason- 
able assurance against entry into the Agency of 
nations which are excluded from the United 
Nations, and which were excluded from the Con- 
ference and from Agency membership by over- 
whelming vote on a number of occasions. 

This statute is the work of many. It reflects the 
experience of those concerned with our Nation's 
efforts since World War II to relieve the burdens 
of armament for all people. It is consistent with 
the policies of our present Atomic Energy Act. It 
has profited by the addition of suggestions from 
bipartisan congressional hearings. 

It is my firm belief that this statute, and the 
International Atomic Energy Agency provided 
by it, are in the present and future interest of our 
country. They have my wholehearted support. 
I urge early consent to the ratification of the 
statute, so that the United States which proposed 
the establishment of this new instrument of peace- 
ful progress may be among the first to give it 
final approval. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

Department of State, 
Washington., February 21, 1957. 
The President, 

The White House: 

I have the honor to submit to you, with a view 
to transmission to the Senate for advice and con- 
sent to ratification, a certified copy of the Statute 
of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 
which was open for signature at United Nations 
Headquarters in New York from October 26, 
1956, to January 24, 1957, and during that period 
was signed in behalf of the United States of 
America and 79 other nations. 

The purpose of this treaty is to establish an 
International Atomic Energy Agency pursuant 
to the atoms-for-peace proposal made by you in 
your historic address before the General Assembly 
of the United Nations on December 8, 1953. In 
that address you outlined your plan for an inter- 
national agency, to be established under the aegis 
of the United Nations, with responsibility for find- 
ing methods to apply atomic materials to the 
abundant production of power and to the needs of 
agriculture, medicine, and other peaceful pursuits 
of mankind. 

In the months following your proposal, discus- 
sions were undertaken among those nations hav- 
ing either developed resources of nuclear raw 
materials or advanced atomic energy programs. 
An eight-nation group, composed of representa- 
tives of the United States, Australia, Belgium, 
Canada, France, Portugal, the Union of South 
Africa, and the United Kingdom, worked early in 
1954 to prepare a first draft of a statute for the 
proposed agency. The subject was thoroughly 
debated at the Ninth General Assembly in 1954. 
On December 4, 1954, the General Assembly of the 
United Nations by unanimous vote endoi-sed the 
proposal to create an International Atomic Energy 
Agency.* 

A report on the progress of the negotiation of 
the statute was made to members of t\\& Joint Com- 
mittee on Atomic Energy in July 1955 and appro- 
priate revisions were made in the draft statute 
on the basis of their comments. 

On August 22, 1955, a draft statute ^ was cir- 



* For text of the General Assembly resolution, see 
ibid., Dec. 13, 1954, p. 919. 
" For text, see ibid., Oct. 24, 1955, p. 666. 



616 



Department of State Bulletin 



ciliated to get the views of all membei-s of the 
United Nations or of the specialized agencies, a 
total at that time of 84 states. The subject was 
again debated at the Tenth General Assembly in 
1955, and a resolution endorsing the efforts of the 
negotiating group was unanimously adopted." 

On February 27, 1956, the working gi-oup, now 
expanded to 12 nations by the inclusion of Brazil, 
Czechoslovakia, India, and the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, met in "Washington at the in- 
vitation of the United States. This group worked 
to revise the draft statute. It considered, and 
often adopted, ideas and suggestions not only of 
the members of the drafting group but of other 
nations the world over from which comments had 
been received. The resulting draft,' adopted on 
April 18 by the working group reflected to a great 
degree the balance of views of a large number of 
states. 

In June 1956 a further report on the progress 
of negotiations was made to members of the Joint 
Committee on Atomic Energy. 

The document negotiated by the group of 12 
nations was presented to the delegates of 81 na- 
tions at the opening of the Conference on the 
Statute of the International Atomic Energy 
Agency, which convened at United Nations Head- 
quarters in New York on September 20, 1956. 
The United States delegation to that Conference 
was under the chairmanship of Ambassador James 
J. "Wadsworth, deputy representative of the 
United States to the United Nations and United 
States representative for International Atomic 
Energy Agency Negotiations. It included con- 
gressional advisers, designated by the President of 
the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, as well as advisei-s from the Depart- 
ment of State and the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion. The Conference was presided over by Am- 
bassador Joilo Carlos Muniz of Brazil. 

The Conference, at whicli the largest number of 
nations in history were gathered together, was 
distinguished by earnestness of purpose and 
understanding. Notwithstanding the complexity 
of the subject, and the newness of the field in 
whicli it was working, the Conference found it 
possible, at the end of 36 days of fruitful dis- 
cussion and negotiation, to arrive at agreement 



"For text, see ibid., Nov. H, 19.")r>. p. SOI. 
' For text, see ibid., May 21, 1956, p. 852. 



on the setting up of the International Atomic 
Energy Agency and its statute. The statute was 
opened for signature on October 26, 1956, and was 
signed on that date by plenipotentiaries of 70 of 
the 81 nations represented at the Conference. 
During the 9()-day period during which, by its 
tenns, the statute remained open for signature, it 
was signed in behalf of 10 other nations. 

The statute provides for the establishment of an 
organization to assist the nations of the world in 
entering tlie atomic era. Created under the aegis 
of the United Nations, the International Atomic 
Energy Agency will function as an autonomous 
international organization and will establish an 
ajipropriate relationshii) with the United Nations 
consistent with the Agency's statute. The pur- 
pose of the Agency is to supply a means tlirough 
wiiich the promise of nuclear energy will be open 
to the benefit of all, to be utilized as an instrument 
of progress and peace. 

To achieve its goal, the Agency will take ad- 
vantage of the means that will be voluntarily 
placed at its disposal by member states. It will 
extend aid in the form of fissionable materials, 
source materials, special equipment, and technical 
assistance. The Agency's assistance will be based 
on agreements freely negotiated between govern- 
ments and the Agency. Provision is made for 
controls and safeguards to ensure that fissionable 
materials made available through the Agency will 
not be diverted to nonpeaceful purposes and will 
not endanger the health of populations or in- 
dividuals. The controls and safeguards are in- 
tended to guarantee the peaceful and safe utiliza- 
tion of materials supplied by the Agency, or used 
in Agency-sponsored projects, and of fissionable 
byproducts derived therefrom. 

Tliere is transmitted herewith a summary of the 
statute directed to its specific provisions. There 
is also transmitted a copy of the report submitted 
to the Secretary of State by the chairman of the 
United States delegation to the Conference, on the 
statute. In addition, a copy of the communica- 
tion dated October 25, 1956, to which reference is 
made in the statement accompanying the Vene- 
zuelan signatures to the .statute, is included, to- 
gether with a translation thereof. 

It is planned that a draft Participation Act to 
provide for appointment of representatives of the 
United States to the Agency, and to make pro- 
vision with respect to United States participation 



Apr/7 15, 1957 



617 



in the Agency, will be submitted to the Congress 
early in the present session. 

It is earnestly hoped that the Senate will give 
prompt consideration to the Statute of the Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Agency and that the 
Congress will enact without delay the proposed 
Participation Act. Under your personal initia- 
tive the United States has been the principal ad- 
vocate of an international organization designed 
to turn the mighty force of the atom from the 
devastation of war to the constructive avenues of 
peace. It is hoped that the United States may be 
among the (irst to ratify the Statute of the Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Agency and, by our 
leadership and support, help to ensure the suc- 
cess of that Agency from its inception. 

Kespectfully submitted. 

John Foster Dulles. 

(Enclosures: (1) Certified copy of the Statute of the 
International Atomic Enersy Agency;' (2) summary; 

(3) report by chairman of United States delegation;' 

(4) Venezuelan communication dated October 25, 1956, 
and translation.") 



SUMMARY OF THE STATUTE 

ARTICLES I AND n 

The statute upon its entry into force will 
establish the International Atomic Energy 
Agency, the basic objective of which is to seek 
to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of 
atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity 
throughout the world without at the same time 
furthering any military purpose. 

ARTICLE ni 

The functions of the Agency set forth in article 
III of the statute are (a) to encourage and assist 
research on, and development and practical appli- 
cation of, atomic energy for peaceful purposes 
throughout the world ; {b) to make provision for 
materials, .services, equipment, and facilities 
needed to carry out the foregoing purpose; (c) to 
foster the exchange of scientific and technical in- 
formation on, and the exchange and training of 
scientists and experts in, the peaceful uses of 
atomic energy; {d) to establish and administer 
safeguards to ensure that fissionable or other 



materials, services, equipment, facilities, and in- 
formation with which the Agency deals are not 
used to further any military purpose; (e) to par- 
ticipate in the establishment, adoption, and appli- 
cation of standards of safety for the protection of 
health and the minimization of danger to life and 
property from activities in the field of atomic 
energy; and (/) to acquire or establish any facili- 
ties, plant, and equipment useful in carrying out 
its authorized functions. 

In carrying out its functions, the Agency is re- 
quired by the statute (a) to conduct its activities 
in accordance with the purposes and principles of 
the United Nations and, in particular, in con- 
formity with United Nations policies furthering 
the establishment of a safeguarded worldwide dis- 
armament; (6) to control the use of such fission- 
able materials as are received by the Agency so as 
to ensure that they are used only for peaceful 
purposes; (c) to allocate its resources so as to 
secure efficient utilization and wide distribution of 
their benefits throughout the world, bearing in 
mind the special needs of the underdeveloped 
areas; (d) to submit annual reports on its activi- 
ties to the General Assembly of the United Na- 
tions; (e) when appropriate, to submit reports 
and information to the Security Council, Eco- 
nomic and Social Council, and other organs of 
the United Nations; (/) to refuse to give assist- 
ance to member countries under political, eco- 
nomic, military, or other conditions that are in- 
consistent with the statute; and {(/) subject to the 
terms of any agreements that may be made be- 
tween a state or group of states and the Agency, 
to give due observance to the sovereign rights of 
states. 

ARTICLE IV 

Initial members of the Agency are to be states 
members of the United Nations or of any of the 
specialized agencies which signed the statute 
within 90 days after it was opened for signature 
and which deposit instruments of ratification. 
The following 80 states signied the statute during 
the period it was open for signature: 



' Not printed here. 

"English translation only printed here. 



Afslianistan 

Albania 

Ar.sontina 

Australia 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Bulgaria 



Burma 

Byelorussian Soviet So- 
cialist Republic 
Cambodia 
Canada 
Ceylon 
Cbilo 
China 
Colombia 



618 



Department of State Bulletin 



Costa Rica 

Cuba 

(Czechoslovakia 

Denmarlj 

Dominican Republic 

Ecuador 

Egypt 

El Salvador 

Ethiopia 

France 

Federal Republic- of 

Germany 
Greece 
Guatemala 
Haiti 
Honduras 
Hungary 
Iceland 
India 
Indonesia 
Iran 
Iraq 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Laos 
Lebanon 
Liberia 
Libya 

Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Monaco 
Morocco 
Netherlands 



New Zealand 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Pakistan 

rauania 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Philippine Republic 

Poland 

Portugal 

Rumania 

Spain 

Sudan 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Syria 

Thailand 

Tunisia 

Turkey 

Ukrainian Soviet So- 
cialist Republic 

Union of South Africa 

Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics 

United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland 

United States of Amer- 
ica 

Uruguay 

Vatican City 

Venezuela 

Viet-Nam 

Yugoslavia 



Otlier states may become members of the Agency 
if their membership is approved by the General 
Conference upon recommendation of the Board 
of Governors. In making their recommendations 
and approvals, the Board of Governors and the 
General Conference are directed to — 

determine that the State is able and willing to carry out 
the obligations of membership in the Agency, giving due 
consideration to its ability and willingness to act in ac- 
cordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter 
of the United Nations. 

ARTICLE v 

The General Conference of the Agency is to be 
composed of representatives of all the members 
of the Agency, each member having one vote 
therein. The General Conference is to meet an- 
nually and in such special sessions as are called 
by the Director General at the request of the Board 
of Governors or a majority of the members of the 
Agency. Each member is to be represented at 
the sessions of the General Conference by one dele- 
gate who may be accompanied by alternates and 
advisers. 

The General Conference is to have powers of 
discussion and recommendation on any matters 
within the scope of the statute. In addition, it is 
to elect 10 members of the Board of Governors. 



approve states for memborsliip, suspend members 
for persistent violations of the provisions of the 
statute (art. XIX), and consider the annual re- 
port of tlie Board of Governors. The General 
Conference is also to be responsible for approving, 
or recommending changes in, the budget submitted 
to it by the Board of Governors; approving re- 
ports to be submitted to the United Nations except 
reports to the Security Council of noncompliance 
witli Agency safeguards (art. XII (C)) ; approv- 
ing, or recommending changes in, agreements be- 
tween the Agency and the United Nations or other 
organizations; approving rules regarding the ex- 
ercise of the borrowing power, acceptance of vol- 
untai-y contributions, and use of the general fund 
(art. XIV (F)): approving amendments to the 
statute; and approving the appointment of the 
Director General. The General Conference may 
make decisions on any matter referred to it for 
that purpose by the Board of Governors and may 
propose matters for consideration by the Board 
or request reports from the P>oard on any matters 
relating to the functions of the Agency. 

ARTICLE VI 

The Board of Governors is to have primary 
responsibility for carrying out the functions of 
the Agency. In pai-ticular, it is to have responsi- 
bility for determining tlie quantities of source ma- 
terials, as defined in article XX, and other ma- 
terials the Agency will accept and the use of such 
source and special fissionable materials as are made 
available to the Agency (art. IX) ; for ap^jroving 
projects for the peaceful use of atomic energy 
(art. XI) ; for imposing sanctions against mem- 
bers which do not comply with Agency safeguards 
(ai't. XII) ; for submitting to the General Con- 
ference an annual report (art. VI) and tlie annual 
budget estimates, apportioning administrative ex- 
penses among members in accordance with a scale 
to be fixed by the General Conference, and estab- 
lishing periodically a scale of charges, for ma- 
terials, services, equipment and facilities fur- 
nished to members by the Agency (art. XIV) ; for 
negotiating agreements establishing the relation- 
sliip of the Agency to tlie United Nations and 
other organizations (art. XVI) ; for requesting, 
when necessary, special sessions of the General 
Conference (art. V) ; for designating nonelected 
members to the succeeding Board and for estab- 
lishing necessary committees (art. VI) ; for ap- 



April 15, 1957 



619 



pointing with consent of the General Conference 
the Director General (art. VII) ; and for prepar- 
ing such reports as the Agency is required to make 
to the United Nations or other organizations (art. 

VI). 

In forming the composition of the Board, the 
outgoing Board (or in the case of the firet Board, 
the Preparatory Commission referred to in the 
annex to the statute) designates (a) the 5 mem- 
bers most advanced in the technology of atomic 
energy including the production of source ma- 
terials; (b) the member most advanced in the 
technology of atomic energy including the pro- 
duction of source materials from each of the fol- 
lowing areas not represented by the aforesaid 5 : 
North America, Latin America, Western Europe, 
Eastern Europe, Africa and the Middle East, 
South Asia, South East Asia and the Pacific and 
the Far East; (c) 2 members from the following 
producers of source materials : Belgium, Czecho- 
slovakia, Poland, and Portugal; (d) 1 other 
member as a supplier of technical assistance; in 
addition, the General Conference elects (e) 10 
members, having due regard to the equitable rep- 
resentation on the Board of those areas listed above 
(category (&)) so that the Board at all times in- 
cludes in this category a member from each of 
those areas except North America. Members des- 
ignated under categories (d) and (e) (except for 
5 members elected to the first Board) are ineligible 
for redesignation or reelection in the same cate- 
gory the following year. Each member of the 
Board has one vote, and decisions are taken by a 
majority of those present and voting, except for 
decisions on the Agency's budget which require a 
two-thirds majority of those present and voting. 

ARTICLE VII 

The staif of the Agency is to be headed by a 
Director General appointed for 4 years by the 
Board of Governors with the approval of the 
General Conference. He is to be responsible for 
the appointment, organization, and functioning 
of the staif, subject to the control of the Board of 
Govemoi-s and in accordance with regulations 
they adopt. The Agency staff is to be kept to a 
minimum. In recruiting the staff and determin- 
ing the conditions of service, the paramount con- 
sideration is to be to secure em])loyees of the 
higliest standards of efficiency, technical com- 
petence, and integrity. Subject to that considera- 



tion, due regard is to be paid to members' con- 
tributions to the Agency and to tlie importance of 
recruiting staff on as wide a geographical basis 
as possible. 

The Director General and the staff are forbid- 
den to disclose any industrial secret or other con- 
fidential information coming to their knowledge 
by reason of their official duties for the Agency. 
Tlie international character of the responsibilities 
of the Director General and the staff' are recog- 
nized. 

ARTICLE VIII 

Article VIII of the statute contains provisions 
for the exchange and dissemination of informa- 
tion relating to the nature and peacefid uses of 
atomic energy. It provides that each member 
should make available such information as would, 
in the judgment of the member, be helpful to the 
Agency, and requires each member to make avail- 
able all scientific information acquired as a result 
of assistance extended by the Agency. The 
Agency ia to make information thus acquired 
available in accessible form and to encourage the 
exchange of information among its members. The 
statute in no way requires a government to trans- 
mit classified information. 

ARTICLE IX 

Provisions governing the supply of special fis- 
sionable, source, and otlier materials by members 
to the Agency are detailed in article IX. Mem- 
bers are required to notify the Agency annually of 
the quantities, form, and composition of the ma- 
terials that they will voluntarily make available 
to the Agency during the succeeding calendar 
year. The materials are to be supplied on terms 
agreed to between the Agency and the members 
supplying them. The Boai'd of Governors is to 
determine the use to be made of materials supplied 
by members, and no member has the right to re- 
quire the Agency to keep separate the materials 
that it supplies or to designate the specific project 
in which they may be used. The materials sup- 
plied may, in the discretion of the member sup- 
plying them, be stored by that member or by the 
Agency. The Agency is to be resjionsible for 
storing and protecting the materials in its pos- 
session, and, to that end, the Agency is required 
to establish or acquire such facilities (storage, 
laboratories, housing, etc.) , safeguards, and health 
and safety measures as are necessary. 



620 



Department of State Bulletin 



ARTICLE X 

In addition to special fissionable, source, and 
otlier materials, members may make available to 
tiie Agency services, equipment, and facilities that 
may be of assistance in carrying out the Agency's 
projects. 

ARTICLE XI 

Agency participation in pi-ojects for peaceful 
uses of atomic energy may be requested by any 
member or group of members. Agency participa- 
tion takes the form of supplying, or arranging for 
the supply of, necessary materials, services, equip- 
ment, and facilities, as well as assisting in securing 
financial support from outside sources. A mem- 
ber or group of members requesting the assistance 
of the Agency is required to submit an explana- 
tion of the purpose and extent of the project and, 
in considering the request, the Agency may send 
qualified persons into the territory of the member 
or members making the request to examine the 
l^roject. The Statute states specific criteria that 
are to be considered by the Board of Governors 
before approving a project: (1) usefulness and 
technical feasibility ; (2) probability of successf id 
completion; (3) adequacy of safeguards; (4) need 
for Agency assistance; (5) equitable distribution 
of materials and other resources available to the 
Agency; (6) special needs of the underdeveloped 
areas. In addition the Board is directed to con- 
sider "such other matters as may be relevant." 

If the Board approves a project, an implement- 
ing agreement is concluded between the Agency 
and the member or group of members submitting 
the project. The statute requires that the agree- 
ment shall include provisions covering the follow- 
ing topics: (1) allocation of required special fis- 
sionable or other materials to the project; (2) 
transfer of such materials, under appropriate safe- 
guards, to the member or group of members sub- 
mitting the project; (3) terms and conditions on 
which any materials, services, equipment, and fa- 
cilities are provided to the member or members 
submitting the project; (4) an undertaking that 
the assistance provided will not be used to further 
any military purpose; (5) the relevant safeguards 
applicable under article XII of the statute; (6) 
rights and interests of the Agency and of the 
member or members concerned in any invention or 
discoveries arising from the project; (7) settle- 
ment of disputes ; and (S) such other provisions as 
the Board of Governors considers appropriate. 



ARTICLE XII 

Article XII, dealing witli safeguards, is crucial 
to the acliievement of the Agency's objectives. It 
was debated at great length in tlie Conference tliat 
drafted the statute. By incorporating article 
XII in the statute, the Conference gave recog- 
nition to tiie need for .safeguards designed to pre- 
vent source and fissionable material used or pro- 
duced in Agency-sponsored projects from being 
diverted to use for militai-y purposes. 

The safeguards are applicable only "to the ex- 
tent relevant to the project or arrangement" in 
question. For example, if the Agency were to 
supply radioisotopes for medical diagnosis, there 
would be neither occasion nor need for any safe- 
guards other than those relating to the protec- 
tion of health and safety. The first safeguard 
specified in article XII (A) gives the Agency the 
right and the responsibility to — ■ 

examine the design of specialized equipment and facilities, 
incluclini: luielear reactors, and to approve it only from 
tlie viewpoint of assuring tliat it will not further any 
military purpose, that it complies with applicable health 
and safety standards, and that it will permit elTective 
application of the safeguards provided for in this article. 

Approval or disapproval of a design on the basis 
of criteria that are not relevant to the problem of 
safeguards would be improper under article XII, 
altliough it should be pointed out that questions of 
scientific and technical feasibility, etc., are to be 
considered by the Board of Governors in approv- 
ing the project as a whole (art. XI). 

The second listed safeguard, requiring observ- 
ance of health and safety measures prescribed by 
the Agency, is aimed at the protection of life and 
property. 

The third and fourth listed safeguards, dealing 
with the making of operating records and prog- 
ress reports in order to insure accountability for 
source and special fissionable materials used or 
produced in Agency products, are necessary to 
prevent diversion to military purposes as well as 
to achieve sound management and administration. 

The fifth listed safeguard provides that the 
means used for chemical processing of materials 
irradiated in an Agency-sponsored project must 
be approved by the Agency. It is necessary that 
the Agency have this right, for the dangers to 
health and safety and the possibility of diversion 
to military purposes during the chemical pro- 
cessing are great. The Agency is also given the 
right to require that any special fissionable ma- 



April ?5, 7957 



621 



terials recovered or produced as a byproduct of 
an Agency-sponsored project be used for peace- 
ful purposes under continuing Agency safe- 
guards or, if such byproducts are in excess of 
current needs for peaceful purposes, to require 
that they be deposited with the Agency until such 
time as the member or members concerned can 
put them to peaceful uses. These requirements 
provide the basis for preventing the accumulation 
by members of stockpiles of special fissionable 
materials from Agency projects. Such provisions 
are essential, since a stockpile honestly intended 
for future peaceful use is indistinguishable from 
one intended for future military use and could, 
in fact, be turned to military uses. However, the 
fact that a nation producing byproduct fissionable 
materials in an Agency-sponsored project cannot 
stockpile them itself does not mean that it cannot 
make full use of them for peaceful purposes at 
some future time, for the Statute expressly pro- 
vides that such materials deposited with the 
Agency shall "at the request of the member or 
members concerned ... be returned promptly 
. . . for use under" continuing Agency safe- 
guards. 

The sixth listed safeguard is inspection. After 
consultation with the state or states concerned, the 
Agency has the right to send into recipient states 
inspectors selected in accordance with the stand- 
ards set foi-th in article VII. They are to be given 
access at all times to all places and data and to any 
person who by reason of his occupation deals with 
materials, equipment, or facilities which are 
required by the statute to be safeguarded, as 
necessary to account for source and fissionable 
materials and to verify compliance with the ap- 
plicable health and safety measures, witli the 
undertaking against use in furtherance of any 
military purpose, and with any other conditions 
prescribed in the agreement between the Agency 
and the state or states concerned. 

The inspectors ai-e also charged with the respon- 
sibility (art. XII (B)) for examining all opera- 
tions conducted by the Agency itself in order to 
insure that the Agency's activities, equally with 
those of the recipient countries, comply with the 
appropriate health and safety measures and <^hat 
adequate measures are taken to prevent source 
and special fissionable materials in the custody of 
the Agency or used or produced in its operations 
from being used in furtherance of any military 
purpose. 



Subparagraph C of article XII spells out the 
procedures by which sanctions are brought to bear 
in the event of noncompliance with the applicable 
safeguards and undertakings. The inspectors re- 
port noncompliance to the Director General, who 
in turn transmits the report to the Board of 
Governors. The Board is required to report the 
noncompliance to all members of the Agency and 
to the Security Council and General Assembly of 
the United Nations. If the recipient state or 
states fail to take corrective action within a reason- 
able time, the Board may curtail or suspend 
Agency assistance and call for the return of ma- 
terials and equipment made available to the state 
or states concerned. In accordance with article 
XIX, the Agency may also suspend any non- 
complying member from the exercise of the privi- 
leges and rights of membei"shii3. 

ARTICLE xm 

Article XIII provides that, unless otherwise 
agreed upon between the Board of Governors and 
the member furnishing to the Agency materials, 
services, equipment, or facilities, the Board shall 
enter into an agreement with such member pro- 
viding for reimbursement for the items furnished. 

ARTICLE xrv 

Provisions regarding finance are set forth in ar- 
ticle XIV. Annual budget estimates for Agency 
expenses are to be prepared initially by the Di- 
rector General and submitted by the Board of 
Governors to the General Conference for approval. 
If the General Conference does not approve the 
estimates, it may make recommendations to the 
Board so that the latter may submit further esti- 
mates. 

Administrative expenses of the Agency will in- 
clude costs of administrative staff, costs of meet- 
ings, expenses of preparing Agency projects and 
distributing information, together with such costs 
of implementing safeguards and of handling and 
storing special fissionable material as are not other- 
wise recoverable. The scale to be used in appor- 
tioning administrative expenses among the mem- 
ber states is to be fixed by the General Conference, 
which is to be guided by the principles followed 
in assessing contributions of member states to the 
United Nations budget. 

The cost of materials, facilities, plants and equip- 
ment furnished by tlie Agency and expenses (other 
than administrative expenses) incurred in connec- 



622 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



tion therewith are to be financed through charges. 
The scale of charges is to be worked out periodi- 
cally by the Board of Governors. In addition, 
voluntary contributions received by the Agency 
may be applied, at the discretion of the Board of 
Governors, to meet such expenses. A separate 
fund is to be set up to receive the proceeds of the 
operational charges assessed against members. 
Out of this fund, members furnishing materials, 
services, equipment, or facilities are to be reim- 
bursed and operational expenses of the Agency 
in connection with these items are to be met. 

If the revenues of this type exceed operational 
expenses and costs, the excess is to be placed in a 
general fund, together with any unobligated vol- 
untary contributions received by the Agency. The 
general fund may be used as detei'mined by the 
Board of Governors, with the approval of the 
General Conference. 

The statute provides also for borrowing powere 
on the part of the Agency. It makes clear, how- 
ever, that members of the Agency ai-e not legally 
or financially liable for lepayment of the money 
borrowed. 

A two-thirds majority of those present and vot- 
ing is required for decisions of the General Con- 
ference on financial questions and of the Board of 
Governors on the amount of the Agency's budget. 



AKTICLE XV 



Article XV concerns legal capacity, privileges, 
and immunities to be enjoyed by the Agency in 
the territory of each member, and the privileges 
and immunities to be enjoyed by delegates, alter- 
nates, advisers, the Director General, and the 
Agency staff in exercising their official functions. 
Provision is made for special agreements on this 
subject between the Agency and its members. 

It is anticipated that such privileges and im- 
munities as may be granted in the United States 
will be. pursuant to the International Organiza- 
tions Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 288 et seq.). 

ARTICLE XVI 

Establislunent by special agreement of the re- 
lationship between the Agency and the United 
N'ations is provided for by article XVI, with 
special reference to submission of reports to the 
United Nations and consideration of United 
Nations resolutions. The article also anticipates 
the establishment by special agi-eement of an ap- 



propriate relationship between the Agency and 
other organizations wilh lelalod interests. 

ARTICLE XVII 

Article XVII calls for reference to the Inter- 
national (yourt of Justice of disputes concerning 
interpretation or application of the statute, unless 
the parties concerned agree on another mode of 
.settlement. In addition, the General Conference 
and the Board of (lovernors are separately em- 
powered, subject to autliorization from the United 
Nations General Assembly, to request the Inter- 
national Court of Justice to give an advisoiy 
opinion on any legal question arising within tlie 
scope of the Agency's activities. 

ARTICLE XVIII 

Amendments to the statute are [jrovided for in 
article XVIII. Proposals for amendment may 
be made by any member and will be communi- 
cated to all members at least ninety days before 
being considered by the General Conference. 
Amendments come into force for all membei-s 
when they have been approved by the General 
Conference by a two-thirds majority of those 
present and voting and have been accepted by two- 
thirds of all the members in accordance with their 
respective constitutional processes. 

If a member is unwilling to accept an amend- 
ment to the statute, it may withdraw from the 
Agency by notice in writing to the depositary 
government. In addition, a member may with- 
draw for any reason at any time after 5 years from 
the date the statute takes effect. Withdrawal 
does not relieve a member of its contractual obli- 
gations with regard to assistance received from 
the Agency, or budgetary obligations for the year 
in which it withdraws. 

This article also provides that the question of 
a general review of the statute is to be placed on 
the agenda of the fifth annual session of the Gen- 
eral Conference. If approved by a majority of 
members present and voting, the review is to take 
place at the next General Conference. There- 
after, a proposal for general review may be sub- 
mitted at any General Conference session. 

ARTICLE XIX 

If a member of the Agency becomes in arrears 
in its financial contributions to the Agency in an 
amount totaling 2 years' contributions, it is to lose 
its vote in the Agency unless the General Con- 



April 15, 1957 



623 



ference is satistiod that failuiv to pay is due to 
conditions bevond the member's control (art, 
XIX). 

Persistent violation of the statute or of any 
airreeinent made under it may result in suspension 
of tlie otlenilinir member from privilesres and 
riirhts of membership. Decisions on suspension 
are to be made, upon recommendation of the Board 
of Governors, by a two-thirds majority of niem- 
l)ei's present and voting in the General Gonfer- 
ence. 

ARTICLE XX 

Article XX defines the terms "special fissionable 
material." "uranium enriched in the isotopes 235 
or 2'.M." and "source material." 

.\RT1CLE XXI 

In accordance with article XXI, the statute was 
opened for signature on October 26, lOoG, by states 
meml>ei-s of the Ignited Nations or of any of the 
specialized airencies and remained open for 90 
days. KatiHcation bv signal orv states is called 
for. 

The United States is named depositary Gov- 
ernment for receipt of instruments of notification 
by signatory states and instruments of acceptance 
by states approved for membership in conformity 
with the statute. It is specified that ratification 
or acceptance by states is to be efi'ected in accord- 
ance with constitutional proi-esses. 

The statute, apart from its annex, conies into 
force on deposit of instnunents of ratification by 
18 states, including 3 of the following: Ganada, 
France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
the United Kingdom, and the United States. 
The annex, by the terms of article XXI, came into 
force Octolier 26, lt>56, the day on which the 
statute was opened for signature. 

.\RTICLE XXII 

Article XXIl provides for registration of the 
statute pursuant to article 102 of the United Na- 
tions Gharter. In addition, agreements between 
the Agency ami any member or membei-s, agree- 
ments between the Agency and any other org-ani- 
zation or organizations, and agreements between 
members subject to the approval of the Agency 
are to be i-egistered with the Agency and, if re- 
quired by article 102 of the United Nations Ghar- 
ter, are also to be registered with the United 
Nations. 



ARTICLE xxm 

Article XXIIl provides for equal authenticity 
of the five langiuvge texts in which the statute is 
drawn up and for transmittal of certified copies 
of the statute to the governments concerned. 

AXXEX I 

The annex to the statute establishes a Prepara- 
tory Gommission, which is composed of 1 repre- 
sentative each of Australia, Belgium, Brazil, 
Ganada, Gzechoslovakia, France, India, Portugal, 
Union of South Africa, Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics, the United Kingdom, and the United 
States, and 1 representative each of 6 other states 
which were chosen by the International Gonfer- 
ence on the Statute of the International Atomic 
Energy- Agency (Argentina, Egypt, Indonesia, 
Japan, Pakistan, and Peru). The Preparatory 
Gommission is to remain in existence until the 
first General Gonference of the Agency is con- 
vened and a Board of (lovernoi-s has Ihhmi selected 
in accordance with article VI of the statute. The 
Gonunission elects its own officers, adopts its own 
rules of privedure, establishes such committees as 
it deems necessttry, and determines its place of 
meeting. It has appointed an Executive Secre- 
tary and a small stall in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the annex. The expenses of the Com- 
mission are being met by a loan negotiated by the 
Gonunission with the United Nations. The loan 
is ultimately to be repaid by the Agency. If the 
funds from this source should prove insufficient, 
the Gommission is empowered to accept advances 
from governments; if such advances are made, 
they may be set otf against contributions of the 
governments concerned to the Agency. 

The functions of the Preparatory Gonunission 
are (a) to make arrangements foi' the first session 
of the General Gonference of the Agency, includ- 
ing the preparation of a provisional agenda and 
draft rules of procedure; (h) to designate certain 
members of the first Board of Governors of the 
Agency in accordajiee with subparagraphs A-1 
and A-2 and paragraph B of article VI of the 
statute; (c-) to make studies, reports, and recom- 
mendations for tJie first session of the General 
Gonference and for the Board of Governors on 
subjects requiring immediate attention, including 
financing, prognwus and budget, technical prob- 
lems relevant to planning Agency operations, 
establishment of a permanent stall' of the Agency, 
and location of permanent headquartere for the 



624 



Department of State Bulletin 



Agency; {d) to make recommendations for the 
first meetinf^ of the ]ioar«i of (iovemois concern- 
ing the provisions of a headquarters agreement; 
(e) to negotiate with the United Nations regard- 
ing a draft agi-eement to define the relationship 
between the United Nations and the Agency; and 
(/) to make recommendations wjncerning tlie 
relationship of the Agency to other international 
organizations. 



LETTER FROM CHAIRMAN OF VENEZUELAN 
DELEGATION 

Republic of Venezuela 
delega'non to tjie united nations 

New Yohk, M October 1956 
Sir, I have the honour to inform you that in ac- 
cordance with instructions I have received from 
the Venezuelan Government my delegation has 
been authorized to sign the Statute of the Inter- 
national Atomic Energy iVgency, subject to the 
terms of the following declaration: 

"The Delegation of Venezuela signs the pres- 
ent Statute a/1 refererulum and on the under- 
standing that : 

1) As regards article XVII, the signing or 
ratification of this Instrument b}- Venezuela 
does not imply Venezuela's acceptance of the 
jurisdiction of the International Court of 
Justice without its express consent in each in- 
dividual case: 

2) No amendment to this Instrument under 
paragraph C of article XVIII shall be re- 
garded by Venezuela as operative until its 
constitutional provisions concerning the rati- 
fication and def)Osit of public treaties have 
been complied with." 

I also have the honour to confirm that the fol- 
lowing members of my delegation ha%-e been au- 
thorized to sign the aforesaid Statute : the under- 
signed. Dr. FrancLsco Alfonzo Ravard and Dr. 
Marcel Granier. 

I have the honour to Ije, Sir, etc., 

(signed) Hu3Ibebto Feenaxdez-Moran 
Chairman of the Venezuelan Delegation to the 

Conference on the Statute of the Interruitiorud 

Atomic Energy Agency. 

His Excellency Mr. Joao Carlos Muniz, 
Preiident of tlce Conference on the Statute of the 
International Atomic Energy Agency. 



Amendment to Anglo-American 
Financial Agreement of 1945 

Statcnumt hy 'J'/iorHten V. KoJijurvi ' 

It is a pleasant duty to n\)\)f,u- fjcfon- this com- 
mittee to speak in support of Senate Joint Reso- 
lution 72 to approve tlie signature )<y tin; Sc/rre- 
tary of the Treasury of the agreement of March C, 
19.'i7, amending the Anglo-American Financial 
Agreement of 104.0.^ 

Secretary Humphrey has explained the sub- 
stance and financial significance of the amenda- 
tory agre(;ment and the tw;lmical proljU-ms that 
led to its negotiation, and I assume that you do 
not wish me to cover the same ground. I would, 
however, like to add a fwjtnote on the financial 
side. 

A\lien the financial agreement was concluded in 
V.)i.}, the United States and the Unite^l Kingdom 
alsfj agreed on a joint statement on the settle- 
ment for lend-lease and reciprocal aid, surj>lus 
war property, and claims. Paragraph 4 of the 
joint statement provides: "The total liability 
found U> be due to the Government of the United 
States will be disf,liarged on the same terms as 
those specified in the Financial Agrftement. . . ." 
Accordingly, the provisions of the amendatory 
agreement now before this committee will, when 
approved, automatically apply to Uriti.sh pay- 
ments on the lend-lease and suq>lu.s-property 
obligations. 

The total liability of the I'liited Kingdom un- 
der the settlement was determined U> Ije $022 
million, requiring payments of interest and prin- 
cipal, combine<l, of %V.i million a year. The United 
States has received almf^st §70 million on the prin- 
cipal and %:)H million in interest on this a/:count. 
These amounts represent payments in full of in- 
stallments due in V.):)\ through V.):>:> and the pay- 
ment of principal due in lO.vO. Interest of alxjut 
$11 million due in 19.56 was withheld [sending tlie 
outcome of the liriti.sh claim for a waiver of 
interest. These figures are indudwl in the t/jtaLs 
jast given to the committee by Secretary 
Humphrey. 



' Made before the Senate Banking and Currency Com- 
mittee on Mar. l-'J rpreKs release 147). Mr. Kalijarri was 
testifyinsr a« Acting Deputy Under Secretary for Eco- 
nomic Affairs. 

' For text of amendatory agreement and Prerf'lerit'H 
mei».sage of tranamittal, see liCLiXTi."! of Mar. ^-I, I'J'il, 
p. 492. 



April 15, 7 957 



625 



Paragraph 6 of the joint statement provides 
for drawings by the United States of up to $50 
million in sterling against the total British lia- 
bility. These funds may be used to finance the 
Fulbright educational exchange program and the 
United States foreign buildings program. Un- 
der the original understanding, this facility was 
to terminate on December 31, 1951, but the termi- 
nation date was later changed by agreement to 
December 31, 1958. Since the termination date 
is not far off and since it appeared that a sub- 
stantial part of the $50 million would not be drawn 
by 1958, the Department of State took the oppor- 
tunity afforded by the recent discussions to sug- 
gest that the termination date be deferred for a 
further period. The British Govermnent has in- 
dicated that it is willing to eliminate the terminal 
date entirely, thus giving the United States the 
right to draw sterling against the remainder of 
the $50 million for the duration of the agreement. 
This change will insure that sterling funds will 
be available to continue for a number of years 
the educational and buildings programs aiithor- 
ized by the Congress. 

Importance of U.S.-U.K. Relations 

Now we may turn to some broader questions. I 
do not believe that the Department of State can 
speak in support of the measure before the com- 
mittee without again referring to the importance 
to the United States of our relations with the 
United Kingdom. The United States and the 
United Kingdom stand together as friends in pro- 
moting, with other countries of the fi'ee world, 
our common, fmidamental ideals of justice and 
freedom for people and nations. Without this 
firm association, the security of the two countries 
and of other free and independent nations would 
be weakened. We in the United States put a high 
value on the close relationships between the United 
States and the United Kingdom ; the United King- 
dom does also, and so do other nations of the free 
world. 

Nations, like people, keep their friendsliips in 
good repair by forestalling potential sources of 
friction and by resolving differences fairly and 
amicably, and as quickly as possible, when they 
arise. In this conception lies the plain virtue of 
the amendatory agreement that the Piesident has 
sent to the Congress for its approval. The new 
arrangement provides an answer to a difficult ques- 



tion that arose in the ordinary course of the rela- 
tions between the United States and the United 
Kingdom and, despite good will on both sides, 
remained unsettled for several years. The answer, 
which we see before us, is a fair one. Taken as 
a whole, the new arrangement retains the balance 
that was embodied in the original agi-eement of 
1945 and does not confer on either side unreason- 
able advantages or place upon them unreasonable 
burdens. As Secretary Humphrey has shown, the 
arrangement is workable and happily simple. For 
these reasons, the Department of State regards 
the amendatory agreement as a good agreement — 
good for the United States and good for the United 
Kingdom. 

Need for Amending Financial Agreement 

Before concluding this statement, I wish to un- 
derscore one matter that the Secretary of the 
Treasury discussed, that is, the fundamental need 
for amending the original text of the financial 
agreement. Wlien the 1945 agreement was nego- 
tiated, the two Governments, looking ahead to 55 
years of an uncertain future, agreed on the reason- 
ableness of a waiver provision. The right to a 
■waiver in specified circumstances was made an 
integral part of the balance of the agreement — in 
plain words, part of the bargain. Unfortunately, 
when the time came for using the tests enumerated 
in the waiver formula, it was found practically 
impossible to apply some of them to existing con- 
ditions. 

It became clear that, if this problem remained 
unresolved, an important feature of the agreement 
would be effectively nullified. This result was 
certainly not contemplated when the agreement 
was negotiated in 1945. In the circumstances, 
considerations of good business, constructive 
foreign policy, and fair play dictated that the two 
Governments jointly find a solution — in particu- 
lar, a solution that would carry out the spirit of 
tlie agreement by restoring to it a reasonable 
counterpart of the balance that the two Govern- 
ments had agreed upon in 1945. The Department 
of State believes that a fair, simple, and common- 
sense solution has been found to achieve this ob- 
jective. The very fact that such a sohilion has 
been found through amicable negotiations slmuld 
strengthen the bonds of friendship and respect 
tliat hold the United States and the United King- 
dom together. 



626 



Deparlmenf of State Bulletin 



Question of U.S. Approval 

of Plant Protection Convention 

Statement hy Christofher H. Phillips ' 

1 am appearing here today as a representative 
of the Department of State to support approval 
of the International Plant Protection Convention, 
transmitted to the Senate by the President on 
January 12, 1956.- Tlie convention is designed to 
provide for international cooperation in control- 
ling pests and diseases of phmts and plant prod- 
ucts and in preventing their introduction and 
spread across international boundaries. This De- 
partment strongly supports the objectives and 
procedures prescribed in the convention and re- 
quests that favorable action on it be taken bj' this 
committee. Some historical background concern- 
ing the development of the convention may be of 
assistance to the committee. 

The first draft of the International Plant Pro- 
tection Convention was drawn up at an Interna- 
tional Pliytopathological Conference held on the 
invitation of the Government of the Netherlands, 
April 26 to May 3, 1950. This Conference had on 
its agenda, among others, a consideration of cer- 
tain phases of international relationships in the 
field of plant protection, in particular, (1) the 
abrogation of the Phylloxera Convention of 1881 ; 
(2) the drafting of a revision of the International 
Plant Protection Convention of 1929; (3) the 
discussion of a constitution for a European Plant 
Protection Conference, then in the process of for- 
mation. 

The inclusion of these items in the agenda re- 
sulted from recommendations of the fifth session 
of the Conference of the Food and Agriculture 
Organization (Fag) held in "Washington in 1949, 
Avhich approved a previous proposal by the Direc- 
tor-General that Fao organize a worldwide plant- 
pest reporting service. This action covered both 
Fao's responsibility for facilitating action by gov- 
ernments to eradicate and control plant diseases 
and assistance to member countries in the forma- 
tion of an international network to report on the 
incidence of plant diseases and insect pests of 
international interest. The United States was 



'Made before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee 
on Mar. 19 (press release 157). Mr. Phillips is Deputy 
Assistant Secretary for International Organization 
Affairs. 

' S. Exec. D, 84th Cong., 2d sess. ; also printed in Bul- 
letin of Feb. 20, 1956, p. 311. 



represented at the Conference at The Hague and 
in the subsequent consultations at which the lan- 
guage of the convention was perfected. The re- 
sulting draft was presented to the Fao Conference, 
sixth session, meeting in Rome in November 1951. 
Tlie Fao Conference apjjroved the convention at 
tliat time and recommended that it be opened to 
signature and ratification by member governments. 
The convention was signed on belialf of the United 
States of America and 36 otlier states in tlie period 
between December 6, 1951, to May 1, 1952. The 
United States signed ad referendnm. The con- 
vention, in accordance with article XIV, came into 
force on April 3, 1952. It is now in force with 
respect to 37 countries wliich have completed the 
ratification or adiierence procedure. 

Previous Conventions 

Tlie Phylloxera Convention of Bern of 1881, 
which was ratified and adhered to by 16 European 
countries, represented the first international action 
for coordination in plant protection by means of 
quarantine measures. In 1929 an International 
Plant Protection Convontion was dmwn up and 
agreed to at a meeting sponsored by the Interna- 
tional Institute of Agriculture in Rome. The 
United States was not a party to either of these 
conventions, as the Department of Agriculture 
considered that they were not satisfactory from 
the point of view of United States interests and 
legislation. However, the United States has al- 
ways recognized the value of international co- 
operation in regard to the international control 
of plant pests and diseases and, tliercfore, wel- 
comed the new approach to this problem through 
the Fao. 

FAO's Functions in Regard to International Con- 
ventions 

Under its constitution, the Conference of the 
Fao is authorized to "submit to Member Nations 
conventions or agreements concerning questions 
relating to food and agriculture. . . . Conven- 
tions or agreements approved by the Conference 
or Council shall come into force for each Member 
Nation only after acceptance by it in accordance 
with its constitutional procedure." ' 

The Rules of Procedure wliich govern the de- 
velopment of conventions by Fao provide for cer- 



' FAO Constitution, art. XIV. 



AprW 15, 1957 



627 



tain specific consiiltations with member fjovern- 
ments pi-ior to approval of the convention for sub- 
mission to governments and, in addition, provide 
that "Any convention or agreement submitted to 
Member Nations by the Conference or the Coun- 
cil . . . shall come into force as the convention, 
agreement, regulations, or supi)lementary agi-ee- 
ments may prescribe, provided that no Nation 
shall be bound unless such Nation has accepted it 
in accordance with its constitutional procedure."' ■* 
As far as the objectives and provisions of the 
International Plant Protection Convention are 
concerned, they deal only with broad international 
relationships in the field of plant protection. The 
convention does not disturb the responsibility of 
the Secretary of Agriculture under the Plant 
Quarantine Act of 1912, as amended, to decide on 
pest-prevention measures to protect American 
agriculture. Nor does it attempt to take over any 
of the responsibility of individual governments 
for final decision on needed plant quarantine 
measiires. The convention does not require that 
the judgment of the contracting governments be 
superseded by decisions of an international body. 

Effective Regional Action Developed Under Inter- 
national Plant Protection Convention 

The International Plant Protection Convention 
has been an effective influence in stimulating the 
development of supplementary regional plant \ivo- 
tection agreements, under article III of the con- 
vention. Two such agreements are now in effect, 

(1) European Plant Protection Agreement and 

(2) Plant Protection Agreement for Southeast 
Asia and the Pacific Region. The United States 
Government is not and does not intend to become 
a part}' to either of these agreements, since they 
are concerned with plant protection measures to 
be taken entirely within the respective regions. 
However, the U.S. appi-oves of the objectives of 
these regional conventions. Effective action 
taken by goAernments within these regions for the 
control and prevention of the spread of specific 
plant-pest and quarantine problems cannot help 
but contribute to the welfare of U.S. agriculture, 
since tlie dangers of infestation in the U.S. from 
these sources will thereby be reduced. 

In conclusion, I should like to call attention to 
the inipoi-tanco of becoming party to this conven- 
tion as an evidence of our wholeliearted support of 

*P'AO Uules of Proeeduio, rule XXI, pur. 4. 



the objectives and work of the Fao. This is the 
first and most important convention developed by 
the Fao, an important specialized agency of the 
United Nations, of wliich the U.S. has been a mem- 
ber since its inception in 1945. The objective of 
the Fao is to promote international cooperation in 
the improvement of food and agi-icultural produc- 
tion, marketing, and trade, with a view to raising 
the levels of living of rural populations and im- 
proving nutritional standards generally. These 
objectives are especially important to the two- 
thirds or more of the world's population who 
depend on agi-iculture, forestry, or fishing for sub- 
sistence, but who often still live in conditions of 
extreme poverty and malnutrition. 

The U.S., through its bilateral program of eco- 
nomic aid and cooperative technical assistance, is 
helping people in many of the free countries in 
underdeveloped areas of Latin xlmerica, Asia, 
Africa, and the Near East to raise their agi-icul- 
tural and nutritional levels. We have a consider- 
able investment in their welfare. Also, through 
Fao, the U.S. is cooperating with 71 other govern- 
ments to bring about the better exchange of agi'i- 
cultural technical knowledge and techniques which 
will help governments in all parts of the world to 
improve food and agricultural production to meet 
the needs of the world's growing population. The 
International Plant Protection Convention is one 
way by which all signatory governments are 
undeitaking to work together to reduce the danger 
of the international spread of plant pests and dis- 
eases. Effective action taken by participating gov- 
ernments along the lines recommended by this 
convention should, over a period of time, con- 
tribute materially toward the control of devastat- 
ing plant pests and diseases, thereby permitting 
a continued progress in food and agricultural de- 
velopment. Inasmuch as the convention is now 
in force for 37 countries, we believe that favorable 
action by the United States Government will be 
warndy welcomed by the 37 countries which are 
already parties to the convention, and by the Di- 
rector-General of Fao, who has certain responsi- 
bilities under the convention for its successful 
operation, and by the 11 govei'uments in wliich 
ratification is currently pending. I, theroi'ore, 
hope that, both as a means of promoting our 
friendly relationships witli I'ountries membere of 
Fao and also because ajiproval of the convention 
is deemed to be in the national interest, you will 
recommend favorable action. 



628 



Department of State Bulletin 



I should now like to ask the representative of 
the DeiJartnient of Agriculture to discuss with 
you the details of the International Plant Pro- 
tection Convention, particularly as (hey apply to 
the responsibilities of the Secretary of Agriculture 
under existing legislation and to the interests of 
United States agriculture generally. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

85th Congress, 1st Session 

The Objectives of United States Economic Assistance 
Programs. A study prepared at the request of the Sen- 
ate Special Committee To Study the Foreign Aid Pro- 
gram by the Center for International Studies, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology (pursuant to S. Res. 

285, 84th Cong.). No. 1, January ia")7. 73 pp. [Com- 
mittee print.] 

Control and Reduction of Armaments. Hearings before a 
subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Foreign Re- 
lations pursuant to S. Res. 03, S. Res. 1K5, and S. Res. 

286. Part 12, January 10-17. 1957, Washington, D.C. 
147 pp. 

Economic Report of tlie President. January 23, 1057. 
200 pp. 

First Annual Report on the Operation of the Trade Agree- 
ments Program. H. Doc. 93. Febniary 11, 1957. 248 pp. 

Economic Aid and Technical Assistance in Africa. Re- 
port of Senator Theodore Francis Green on a study mis- 
sion jiursuant to S. Res. 102, 84th Congre.ss. February 
21, 19.^)7. 34 pp. [Committee print.] 

Twelfth Rei>ort of United States Advisory Commission on 
Information. H. Doc. 98, February 22, 1957. 19 pp. 

Improvement of Procedures for the Development of 
Foreign Air (I'ommerce. Report to accompany S. 1423. 
S. Rept. 119, Febniary 27, 1957. IS pp. 

Greece, Turkey, and Iran. Report on Unitetl States 
foreign assistance programs prepared at the request of 
the Senate Special Committee To Study the Foreign Aid 
Program by Former Ambas.sador Norman Armour (pur- 
suant to s". Res. 285, S4th Cong, and S. Res. 35, 85tJi 
Cong.). Survey No. 1, February 19.57. 53 pp. [Com- 
mittee print.] 

Lebanon, Jordan, and Iraq. Report on United States 
foreign assistance programs prepared at the request of 
the Senate Siwcial Committee To Study the Foreign 
Aid Program by Hamilton Fish Armstrong, editor. 
Foreign Affairs (pursuant to S. Re.s. 285, S4th Cong, and 
S. Res. 35, S.otb Cong. ) . Survey No. 2, February 1957. 
28 pp. [Committee print.] 

Personnel for the Mutual Security Program. A study 
prepared at the re<iuest of the Senate Special Committee 
To Study the Foreign Aid Program by Louis J. Kroeger 
and Associates. No. 2, February 1957. 68 pp. [Com- 
mittee print.] 

American Private Enterprise, Foreign Economic Develop- 
ment, and the Aid I'rograms. A study prepared at the 
request of the Senate Special Committee To Study 
the Foreign Aid Program by the American Enterprise 
Association, Inc. (pursuant to S. Res. 2S.5, 84th C<ing., 
and S. Res. 35, .S"tli Cong.). No. 7, February 1957. 
68 pp. [Committee print.] 

Trading With the Enemy Act. Report of the Senate Com- 
mittee on the Judiciary made by its Subcommittee To 
Examine and Review the Administration of the Trading 
With the Enemy Act, pursuant to S. Res. 171, S4th 
Cong., 2d sess., as extended by S. Res. 84, 85th Con- 
gress. S. Rept. 120, JIarch 1, 1957. 23 pp. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Atoms-for-Peace Agreement With Iran 

On March 6 the U.S. Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion and the Department of State (press release 
116) announced that representatives of Iran and 
the United States on March 5 signed a proposed 
agreement for cooperation in research in the 
peaceful uses of atomic energy. The signing was 
announced in Iran by His Imperial Majesty, the 
Shah, at the opening ceremony of the U.S. atoms- 
for-peace exhibit at Tehran on March 6. 

The agreement was signed by Ali Amini, the 
Iranian Ambassador to the United States, I^ewis 
L. Strauss, Chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy 
Commission, and William M. Eountree, Assistant 
Secretary of State. 

Under the proposed agreement, the Govern- 
ment of Iran will receive information as to the 
design, con.struction, and operation of research 
reactors and their use as research development 
and engineering tools. It is contemplated that 
private American citizens and organizations 
would be authorized to supply to the Government 
of Iran, or to authorized private persons under its 
jurisdiction, appropriate equipment and service. 

The proposed agreement further provides that 
the U.S. xVtomic Energy Commission will lease 
to the Government of Iran for use in research 
reactors up to 6 kilograms (1.^.2 ))0unds) of con- 
tained U-235 in uranium enriched up to a maxi- 
mum of 20 percent U-235. Iran assumes respon- 
sibility for using and safeguarding the fissionable 
material in accordance with the terms of the pro- 
posed agreement. The agreement provides for 
the exchange of unclassified information in the 
research reactor field, related health and safety 
problems, and the use of radioactive isotopes in 
physical and biological research, medical therapy, 
agrii'iilture, and industry. 

Ijooking to the future, the agreement expresses 
the hope and expectation of the parties that this 
initial agreement for cooperation will lead to con- 
sideration of further cooperation at some future 
date in an agreement in the field of nuclear power. 

This proposed cooperative agreement will en- 



April 75, 1957 



629 



able the Iranians to enhance their own country's 
training and experience in nuclear science and 
engineering for the development of peaceful uses 
of atomic energy within the framework of the 
atoms-for-peace program. Students from Iran 
have been among the enrollees from many nations 
attending the reactor technology courses at the In- 
ternational School for Nuclear Science and Engi- 
neering operated for the U.S. Atomic Energy 
Commission by the Argonne National Laboratory 
in cooperation with Pennsylvania State Uni- 
versity and North Carolina State College. 

Under the provisions of the U.S. Atomic En- 
ergy Act of 1954, certain procedural steps must 
be taken by the executive and legislative branches 
of the U.S. Government before the agreement 
may enter into force. The agreement must also 
be ratified by the Iranian Parliament. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Postal Services 

Universal postal convention, with final protocol, annex, 
re'-rulations of execution, anO i)rovisions regardins air- 
mail and final protocol thereto. Signed at Brussels 
Julv 11, 10.52. Entered into force July 1, 1953. TIAS 
2800. 
Ratification deposited: Ethiopia, February 22, 1957. 

United Nations 

Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the Inter- 
national Court of .Justice. Signed at San Franci-sco 
.Tune 26. 1945. Entered into force October 24, 1945. 
!59 Stat. 1031. 
Admission to membership: Ghana, March 8, 1957. 



at Dublin March 16, 19.57. Enters into force on date 
of i-eceipt of notification by Ireland that implementing 
procedures have been completed. 

Japan 

Protocol supplementing the convention for avoidance of 
double taxation and prevention of fiscal evasion with 
respect to taxes on income of April 16, 1954 (TIAS 
3176). Signed at Tokyo March 23, 1957. Enters into 
force on date of exchange of written notifications of 
ratification or approval. 

Netherlands 

Agreement extending the agreement relating to American 
war graves in the Netherlands of April 11, 1947 (TIAS 
1777). Effected by exchange of notes at The Hague 
January 14 and August 29, 1955, and March 9, 1956. 
Entrii into force: March IS, 19.57. 

Thailand 

Agreement amending agreement for cooperation concern- 
ing civil uses of atomic energy of March 13, 1956 (TIAS 
3-522). Signed at Washington March 27. 1957. Enters 
into force on date on which each Government receives 
from the other written notification that it has complied 
with statutory and constitutional requirements. 

United Kingdom 

Agreement amending agreement for sale of tobacco to the 
United Kingdom and the construction of military hous- 
ing and community facilities for use of the United 
States Air Force of June 5, 1956 (TIAS 358S) . Effected 
by exchange of notes at London March 13, 1957. En- 
tered into force March 13, 1957. 

Yugoslavia 

Ai;reenient amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of November 3, 19.56 (TIAS 368'^). Effected by 
exchange of notes at Washington March 22, 1957. En- 
tered into force March 22, 1957. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



BILATERAL 

Chile 

Agreement for the establishment and operation of rawin- 
sonde ob.servation stations at .\ntofagasta, Quintero, 
and Puerto Montt, Chile. Effected by exchange of 
notes at Santiago March 1, 1957. Enters into force 
on date of signature of an arrangement embodying the 
technical details. 

Iceland 

A 

iz 

Key 

ruary 23, 1957 

Ireland 

Agreement for an educational exchange program. 



Hand 

Tcement for a program of educational exchanges author- 
ized by the Fulbright Act (60 Stat. 7.54). Signed at 
Heykjax ik February 23, 1957. Entered into force Feb- 



Signed 



Confirimatioris 

The Senate on March 22 (legi.slative day of March 21) 
confirmed Andrew H. Berding to be an Assistant Secre- 
tary of State. (For biographic details, see press release 
101 dated March 1.) 

The Senate on March 28 confirmed Philip W. Bonsai 
to be Ambassador to Bolivia. (For biographic details, 
see press release 159 dated March IS.) 

The Senate on March 28 confirmed John Clifford Folger 
to be Ambassador to Belgium. (For biographic details, 
see press release 146 dated Mai'ch 14.) 

The Senate on March 2S coiifinned Philip Young to be 
-\mba.ssador to the Netherlands. (For biographic de- 
tails, see press release 162 dated March 19.) 



630 



Department of State Bulletin 



April 15, 1957 



Index 



Vol. XXXVI, No. 929 



Agriculture. Question of V.S. Ajutnival of Tlaut 

I'rotettion (, ouveution (PliillipsJ 627 

American Republics. Secretary Dulles' News Con- 

fereute oi March 26 595 

Atomic Energy 

Atoius-for-Peace Agreement With Irau .... 629 
Secretary Dulles' News Conference of March 26 . 595 
Statute of International Atomic Energy Agency 
Transmitted to Senate (Eisenhower, Dulles, 
FernanUez-Moran, summary of statute) .... 61.") 

Belgium. Folger confirmed as ambassadoi- . . . 630 

Bolivia. Bonsai confirmed as ambassador .... 6i;u 

China, Communist 

Secretary L)ulles' News Conference of March 26 . . .595 
Secretary Dulles Writes Foreword for New Editions 

of War or Peace GOl 

Communism. Secretary Dulles Writes Foreword 

for New Editions of War or Peace 601 

Congress, The 

Amendment to Anclo-American Financial Agree- 
ment of 1945 (Kalijarvi) 625 

Congressional Documents Relating to Foreign 

Policy 629 

Question of U.S. Approval of Plant Protection Con- 
vention (Phillips) 627 

Statute of International Atomic Energy Agency 
Transmitted to Senate ( Ei.senhower, Dulles, 
Ferniindez-Moran, summary of statute) .... 615 

Department and Foreig^n Service. Confirmations 

(Herding, Donsal, Folger, Young) 6.'?0 

Dominican Republic. U.S. Asks Dominican Gov- 
ernment To Reopen Gsrald Murphy Case . . . 610 

Economic Affairs. Amendment to Anglo-American 

Financial Agreement of 1945 (Kalijarvi) . . . 625 

Educational Exchange. Polish Coal Mining Officials 

Visit United States 611 

Egypt. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 

March 26 595 

Germany, East. The Soviet-Occupied Zone of Ger- 
many : A Case Study in Communist Control 
(Eleanor Dulles) 605 

International Organizations and Conferences 

International Cooperation in Climatology (Lands- 
berg) 612 

Statute of International Atomic Energy .\gency 
Transmitted to Senate ( Eisenhower, Dulles, 
Fern;lndez-Moran, summary of statute) . . . 615 

Iran. Atoms-for-Peaee Agreement With Iran . . 629 

Israel. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 

Jlarch 26 .595 

Korea. Secretary Dulles Writes Foreword for New 

Editions of War or Peace 601 

Middle East. Secretary Dulles' News Conference 

of March 26 595 

Military Affairs 

Deployment of Ballistic Missiles In United King- 
dom (Hagerty) 596 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of March 26 . 595 

Mutual Security. Secretary Dulles Writes Fore- 
word for New Editions of War or Peace . . . 601 

Netherlands. Young confirmed as ambassador . . 6.30 

Poland 

Polish Coal Mining Officials Visit United States . 611 
Secretary Dulles' News Conference of March 26 . 595 

Presidential Documents. Statute of International 

Atomic Energy Agency Transmitted to Senate . 615 



Science. International Cooperation in Climatology 

(Laudslierg) 612 

Treaty Information 

Amendment to Anglo-.\mericau Financial Agree- 
ment of 1045 (Kalijarvi) 625 

Atoms-t'or-1'eace Agreement With Iran 629 

Current Actions 630 

Question of U.S. Approval of Plant Protection Con- 
vention (Phillips) 627 

Statute of International Atomic Energy Agency 
Transmitled to Senate (Eisenhower, Dulles, 
Fernandez-Morfin, summary of statute) .... 615 

U.S.S.R. The Soviet-Occupied Zone of Germany : 
A Case Study in Communist Control (Eleanor 
Dulles) 605 

United Kingdom 

Amendment to .\nglo-American Financial Agree- 
ment of 1945 (Kalijarvi) 625 

Deployment of Ballistic Missiles in United King- 
dom (Hagerty) 596 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of March 26 . 595 

United Nations 

C'urrent U.N. Documents 614 

International Cooperation in Climatology (Lands- 
berg) 612 

Secretary Dulles Writes Foreword for New Editions 
of War or Peace 601 

Statute o( International Atomic Energy Agency 
Transmitted to Senate (Eisenhower, Dulles, 
Fernandez-Moran, summary of statute) .... 615 

Venezuela. Statute of International Atomic Energy 
.^Liency Transmitted to Senate (Eisenhower, 
Dulles, Fernandez-Moran, summary of statute) . 615 

Xante Index 

Berding, Andrew 11 630 

Bonsai, Philip W 630 

Dulles, F.leanor 605 

Dulles, Secretary 595, 601, 616 

Eisenhower, President 615 

Pernandez-Morrm, Ilumberto 625 

Folger, John Clifford 630 

Hagerty, .lames C 59(5 

Kalijarvi, Thorsten V 625 

Landsherg, Helmut E 612 

Murphy, Gerald Lester 610 

Phillii)S, Christopher U 627 

Young, Philip 630 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: March 25^31 

Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 
Departnjent of State, Washington 25, D. C. 

I'ress releases issued prior to March 25 which 
appear in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 116 
of .March 6, 147 of March ]5, 150 of March 16, 157 
of March 10, and 165 of JIarch 21. 

No. Date Subject 

174 3/26 Eleanor Dulles: "The Soviet Occupied 
Zone of Germany." 
175 .3/26 r)ulles : news conference. 
tl76 3/28 Communique on U.S.-Iranian talks. 
tl77 3/28 Delegation to ICEM Council (re- 
write). 
tl78 3 28 Murder of Americans in Iran. 
179 3/29 Dulles : foreword for new editions 
of War or Peace. 



illeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



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OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



NATO — Its Development and Significance 



The growth and accomplishments of the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization from the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 
April 4, 1949, to the present time are described in this 61-page 
pamphlet, a recent publication of the Department of State. 

The topics discussed include : 

America's Interest in the North Atlantic Treaty 
Origin of the North Atlantic Treaty 
Purposes and Activities of Nato 
Organization of Nato 
U.S. Contributions to Nato 
Nato Accomplishments 
The Future of Nato 

Two appendixes carry the text of the Repoit of the Committee 
of Tliree on Non-Military Cooperation in Nato and the text of 
the North Atlantic Treaty. 

Copies of NATO — Its Development and /Significance may be 
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., for 30 cents each. 



Publication 6467 



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money order). 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 






Vol. XXXVI, No. 930 



AprU 22, 1957 



HE 



THE EMERGENCE OF AFRICA • Report to President 

Eisenhower by Vice President Nixon 635 

SECRETARY DULLES' NEWS CONFERENCE OF 

APRIL 2 641 

BUILDING FOR PEACE • by Deputy Under Secretary 

Murphy 647 

ADVANTAGES TO THE UNITED STATES OF MEM- 
BERSHIP IN PROPOSED ORGANIZATION FOR 

TRADE COOPERATION • Message of President 
Eisenhower to the Congress 657 

PRINCIPLES OF U.S. FOREIGN ECONOMIC POLICY • 

Statement by Thorsten V. Kalijarvi 659 

LIMITATIONS ON TRAVEL OF AMERICAN CITIZENS 
ABROAD AND ON CULTURAL EXCHANGES • 

Statements by Deputy Under Secretary Murphy and Robert 

F. Cartwright 663 



■ 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol.. XXXVI, No. 930 • Publication 6480 
AprU 22, 1957 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington M, D.C. 

Pbicb: 

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approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
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be reprinted Citation of the Dkpaktuent 
OF Statb Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
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issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
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which tlic United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
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The Emergence of Africa 



REPORT TO PRESIDENT EISENHOWER BY VICE PRESIDENT NIXON 



On the basis of my visits to Morocco, Ghana, 
Liberia, Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan, Libya, Italy, 
and Tunisia, from February 28 to March 21, 
1 submit the following observations and 
recommendations : 



IMPORTANCE OF AFRICA 

No one can travel in Africa, even as briefly as 
I did, without realizing the tremendous potentiali- 
ties of this great continent. Africa is the most 
rapidly changing area in the world today. The 
course of its development, as its people continue to 
emerge from a colonial status and assume the re- 
sponsibilities of independence and self-govern- 
ment, could well prove to be the decisive factor in 
the conflict between the forces of freedom and in- 
ternational communism. 

The leaders and peoples of the coimtries I 
visited in Africa have many things in common. 
They cherish their independence, which most of 
them have only recently acquired, and are deter- 
mined to protect it against any form of foreign 
domination. They rightfully expect recognition 
from us and others of their dignity and equality 
as individuals and peoples in the family of na- 
tions. They Mant economic progress for their un- 
developed economies. 

The great question which is presented to the 
leaders of Africa is whether they can attain these 



' Issued by the White House for release on Apr. 7. For 
backgrouud, see Bulletin of Mar. 4, 1957, p. 34S, and Mar. 
18, 1957, p. 436. 



justifiable objectives and at the same time main- 
tain and develop governmental institutions which 
are based on principles of freedom and democracy. 
I believe they all are convinced that they can, and 
that the Free World has a vital interest in assist- 
ing them to do so. For the success or failure of 
these new members of the family of nations to 
realize their aspirations in this manner will have 
profound effects upon the development of Africa 
and on the world in the years to come. 

Herein lies the wider significance of the emer- 
gence of the new nation of Ghana. The eyes of the 
peoples of Africa south of the Sahara, and of 
Western Europe particularly, will be upon this 
new state to see whether the orderly transition 
which has taken place from dependent to inde- 
pendent status, and whether the retention of close 
ties on a basis of equality with the British Com- 
monwealth, will continue to work successfully and 
thereby present a fonnula of possible application 
in other cases. By the same token, inimical forces 
will be closely following the situation to see 
whether any openings present themselves for ex- 
ploitation in a manner which would enable them 
to disrupt and destroy the independence which 
Ghana seeks to achieve. 

Nor is this a situation peculiar to Ghana. The 
same factors are present everywhere among the 
independent states which I visited. Africa is 
emerging as one of the great forces in the world 
today. In a world in which, because of advances 
in technology, the influence of ideas and principles 
is becoming increasingly important in the battle 
for men's minds, we in the United States must 



April 22, 1957 



635 



come to know, to understand and to find common 
ground with the peoples of this great continent. 
It is in this context that the recommendations in 
this report, together with others previously made 
to the appropriate government agencies, are 
presented. 

Appraisal of African Leadersliip 

Africa is producing gxeat leaders, dedicated to 
the principles of independence, world responsi- 
bility and the welfare of their peoples. Such men 
as the Sultan of Morocco, Prime Minister Nkru- 
mah of Ghana, President Tubman of Liberia, the 
Emperor of Ethiopia, and Prime Ministers Ab- 
dullah Khalil of the Sudan, Ben Halim of Libya 
and Habib Bourguiba of Tunisia, certainly com- 
pare most favorably with the gi'eat leaders of the 
world. Nor should one omit King Idris of Libya, 
whom I unfortunately missed seeing on this trip 
because of an engine failure, but whose wisdom 
and statesmanship I remember most vividly from 
my previous trip to that country in. 1953. These 
are all men who command respect beyond the bor- 
ders of their own country. They are backed up by 
other equally dedicated leaders who have much to 
contribute both to the problems of their own coun- 
tries and to those which plague the world today. 

Recommendation 

The United States must come to know these 
leaders better, to miderstand their hopes and as- 
pirations and to support them in their plans and 
progi-ams for strengthening their own nations and 
contributing to world peace and stability. To this 
end, we must encourage the greatest possible inter- 
change of persons and ideas with the leaders and 
peoples of these countries. We must assure the 
strongest possible dii)lomatic and consular repre- 
sentation to those countries and stand ready to 
consult these countries on all matters affecting 
their interests and ours. 

Attitudes Toward tlie United States 

There is no area in the world today in wliich 
the prestige of the United States is more uni- 
formly high than in the countries which I visited 
on this trip. The President is respected as the 
acknowledged leader of the Free World. There 
is a most encouraging understanding of our pro- 
grams and policies. These countries know that 
we have no ambitions to dominate and that the 



cornerstone of our foreign policy is to assist coun- 
tries in resisting domination by others. They 
understand that the United States stands on prin- 
ciple and that this was the motivating force, for 
example, which led us to act as we did in the re- 
cent Suez crisis. They approve the stand which 
we took at that time and look confidently to us to 
act consistently with that stand in the future. 
They understand that the American Doctrine for 
the Middle East is dedicated to the principle of 
assisting the states of the Middle East to main- 
tain their independence. They know that the 
United States stands for the evolution of depend- 
ent peoples toward self-government and independ- 
ence, as they become able to discharge the responsi- 
bilities involved. 

Recommendation 

This understanding of the principles for which 
we stand as a nation is a tremendous asset to us in 
this area. The maintenance of the present liigh 
prestige we are fortunate to have in Africa will 
depend upon whether the people of the Continent 
continue to understand our dedication to the prin- 
ciples of independence, equality and economic 
progress to which thej^ are so deeply devoted. We 
must staff our diplomatic and information estab- 
lisliments in these countries with men and women 
capable of interpreting and explaining our poli- 
cies and actions in a way which will guarantee that 
they are so understood. 

Effect of Discrimination in U.S. on African Attitudes 

As a result of skillful propaganda primarily 
inspired by the enemies of freedom, a consistently 
distorted jjicture of the treatment of minority 
races in the United States is being effectively pre- 
sented in the countries I visited. Every instance 
of prejudice in this country is blown up in such 
a manner as to create a completely false impres- 
sion of the attitudes and practices of the great 
majority of the American people. The result is 
irreparable damage to the cause of freedom Avhich 
is at stake. 

Recommendation 

We must continue to strike at the roots of this 
problem. We cannot talk equality to the peoples 
of Africa and Asia and practice inequality in the 
United States. In the national interest, as well as 
for the moral issues involved, we must support 



636 



Department of State Bulletin 



the necessary steps which will assure orderly prog- 
ress toward the elimination of discrimination in 
the United States. And we should do a far more 
effective job than we are presently doing in telling 
the true story of the real progress that is being 
made toward realizing this objective so that the 
people of Africa will have a true picture of con- 
ditions as they really are in the United States. 

Economic Assistance 

All of the African states which I visited are 
underdeveloped. Most of them have great eco- 
nomic potential. Their leaders are anxious to 
strengthen the economies of their countries in 
order to assure for their peoples a larger share of 
the advantages of our modern civilization. They 
seek economic as well as political independence 
insofar as this is possible in the world of today. 

Their needs are great in terms of education and 
public health. They require roads and other com- 
munications in order to open inaccessible parts of 
their territory to economic development. They 
need agricultural development to sustain their ex- 
panding populations. They want assistance in 
developing their great mineral and forest re- 
sources. They foresee great opportunities for de- 
veloping small industrial enterprises. In most 
cases, these developmental needs are beyond their 
capacity to finance. 

All of the leaders with whom I talked expressed 
preference for developing their economies through 
encouraging the investment of private capital and 
through loans from international agencies such as 
the World Bank where feasible rather than 
through government-to-government grants. It 
can truly be said that the welcome sign is out for 
investment of foreign private capital in Africa. 
African leaders are aware of the great role that 
such private capital can play in the development 
of their countries and many of them have adopted, 
or are in the process of adopting, special legisla- 
tion designed to create an atmosphere conducive to 
expanded foreign investment. 

Recommendation 

Consistent with the desires of African leaders, 
the United States Government through its agen- 
cies should, as appropriate, draw the attention of 
private American capital to opportunities for in- 
vestment in those areas where the conditions for 
such investment are propitious. Strengthening 
the economic sections of American Embassies in 



this area is needed if this objective is to be carried 
out. 

We should support applications before the ap- 
propriate international agencies for financing 
sound economic development projects in the 
area. 

To the extent that our resources and the de- 
mands of other areas permit, we should extend 
economic and technical assistance to the countries 
of Africa in helping them to further their eco- 
nomic development. 

In this connection, I think it is appropriate to 
place in proper context the United States eco- 
nomic assistance programs. These programs 
should be approved only when they are in the 
mutual interests of the United States and the re- 
cipient country. They should be administered as 
efficiently as possible. 

But while these progi'ams should be constantly 
re-examined and improved so that they can better 
serve the national interest, shotgim attacks on our 
foreign assistance programs as such cannot be 
justified. 

In this connection, I believe a comment on what 
has happened in Italy is pertinent. Wliile my 
visit to Italy was not on an official basis, I did have 
the opportunity to discuss economic and political 
problems with President Gronchi, Prime Minister 
Segni and other Italian officials. It was signifi- 
cant to me that at the time I arrived in Italy, the 
last American aid office was being closed. I re- 
called that ten years before when I visited Italy 
as a member of the Herter Committee on Foreign 
Aid, the most dire predictions were being made as 
to the future of the Italian economy. It was said 
that American assistance would be thrown down 
a rat hole, that the Italian people should live with- 
in their own means, that they should work harder, 
and that in any event, once the economic program 
began, we would never see the end of it. The fact 
that Italy today has one of the soundest, most 
productive economies in Europe is eloquent proof 
of the validity of economic assistance properly ad- 
ministered and properly used by the recipient 
country. 

Wliile the economic problems of Italy were ob- 
viously different from those Africa now faces, I 
am confident that in the African countries I 
visited, we shall have similar success as we work 
in cooperation with the enlightened leaders of 
these nations towards the development of their 
great natural and human resources. 



April 22, J 957 



637 



Special Relations With Other Countries 

Africa and Europe have much in common. To 
a large extent, their economies are complemen- 
tary. Certain of the independent states on the 
African continent maintain close ties of an his- 
torical, cultural and economic nature with the 
states of Europe. The maintenance of these rela- 
tionships, on a basis of equality, can greatly bene- 
fit botla Africa and Europe. 

Recominendation 

We should encourage the continuance of tliese 
special ties where they are considered mutually 
advantageous by tlie states concerned. "We should 
take them in account in formulating our own 
policies to the extent compatible with the funda- 
mental requirement of conducting our own rela- 
tions with those states on a fully equal and inde- 
pendent basis. 

Tlie task of providing the economic assistance 
whicli is needed by the newly independent coun- 
tries of Africa cannot be done by the United States 
alone. We should make it clear that we desire no 
exclusive position in any country in that area and 
that we want to work with otlier Free World na- 
tions in providing the assistance which will build 
strong, free, and independent nations in this area 
of the world. 

Communism 

Africa is a priority target for the international 
communist movement. I gathered the distinct 
impression that the communist leaders consider 
Africa today to be as important to their designs 
for world conquest as they considered China to 
be twenty-five years ago. Consequently, they are 
mounting a diplomatic propaganda and economic 
offensive in all parts of the continent. They are 
trying desperately to convince the peoples of 
Africa that they support more strongly than we 
do their natural aspirations for independence, 
equality and economic progress. 

Fortunately, their efforts thus far have not been 
generally successful and, for the present, com- 
munist domination in the states of the area is not 
a present danger. All of the African leaders to 
whom I talked are determined to maintain their 
indoi)endence against communism or any other 
form of foreign domination. They have taken 
steps to bring under control tlie problem of com- 
munist subversion of their political, economic and 



social life. It would be a great mistake, however, 
to be complacent about this situation because the 
Communists are without question putting their 
top men in the fields of diplomacy, intrigue, and 
subversion into the African area to probe for open- 
ings wliich they can exploit for their own selfish 
and disruptive ends. 

Recommendation 

The communist threat underlines the wisdom 
and necessity of our assisting the countries of 
Africa to maintain their indej^endence and to 
alleviate the conditions of want and instability 
on which communism breeds. The importance of 
Africa to the strength and stability of the Free 
World is too great for us to underestimate or to 
become complacent about this danger without tak- 
ing every step within our power to assist the coun- 
tries of this area to maintain their effective inde- 
pendence in the face of this danger. 

Trade Unionism 

In every instance where my schedule permitted, 
I made it a point to talk to the leading labor lead- 
ers of the countries I visited. I was encouraged 
to find that the free trade union movement is 
making great advances in Africa, particular^ in 
Ghana, Morocco, and Tunisia. The leaders of 
these countries have recognized the importance 
of providing an alternative to communist dom- 
inated unions and they, thereby, are keeping the 
Communists from getting a foothold in one of their 
favorite areas of exploitation. In this connec- 
tion, I wish to pay tribute to the effective support 
that is being given by trade unions in the United 
States to the free trade union movement in the 
countries which I visited. These close and mutu- 
ally advantageous relationships are in the national 
interest as well as in the interest of developing a 
strong labor movement. 

Recommendation 

It is vitally important that the United States 
Government follow closely trade union develop- 
ments in the Continent of Africa and that our dip- 
lomatic and consular representatives should come 
to know on an intimate basis the trade union 
leaders in these countries. I believe, too, that 
American labor unions should continue to main- 
tain close fraternal relationships with tlie African 
free trade union movement in order that each may 



638 



Department of State Bulletin 



derive the greatest possible advantage of the wis- 
dom and experience of the other. 

Nile Development 

The Nile is one of the world's greatest inter- 
national rivers. Perhaps in no other part of the 
world are the economies of so many states tied to a 
particular waterway. The river is so located 
geographically that whatever projects are under- 
taken on it within the territorial domains of one 
state are boxnid to have their effect on the econo- 
mies of other states. 

Recommendation 

The United States must take into account the 
common interests of the riparian states in the de- 
velopment of this great river and, at such time as 
political conditions permit, should support a co- 
operative approach to its development which 
would accord with the common interests of all the 
states involved. 

Operation of United States Programs 

Specific recommendations as to the operation of 
American programs in the countries I visited have 
been made on a classified basis to the various in- 
terested agencies. In general, I found that our 
political, economic and information programs in 
the countries which I visited, are being adminis- 
tered in accordance with our obligations to the 
United States taxpayer. There is, however, al- 
ways room for improvement and, in the spirit of 
constructive criticism, I wish to make the follow- 
ing public recommendations. 

Recommendations 

On the political side, I believe that our diplo- 
matic and consular missions are generally under- 
staffed. We must assure that these establishments 
have sufficient personnel to enable them to inter- 
pret our policies, to consult fully with the local 
governments on matters of mutual interest and to 
report on developments of importance to the 
United States. We must assure that our diplo- 
matic and consular offices have sufficient funds to 
enable them to travel about the vast territories 
within their jurisdiction for the purposes of re- 
porting on developments outside the major centers 
of population and of forming contacts with the 
peoples of those areas. We must recognize that 
the posts in this area are, in many instances, un- 



healthful and trying climatically to those who are 
raised in a temperate zone. We must, therefore, 
endeavor to ameliorate hardship conditions for our 
personnel in order to enable them more effectively 
to perform their tasks. We must recognize that 
the importance of the African area and the difficult 
living conditions there necessitate our assigning 
officials of the highest possible competence and 
stability. The emphasis should be on youth, vigor 
and enthusiasm. 

Insofar as our economic programs are con- 
cerned, I believe that our technicians in the field 
are doing an excellent job in working alongside 
the African and teaching him to perform the 
various fimctions of social and economic develop- 
ment for himself. Obviously, the maintenance and 
support of these tecluiicians in the field require 
a headquarters staff in the country capitals. From 
my own observations, I believe these headquarters 
staffs sometimes tend to become inflated and I, 
therefore, recommend that they be carefully re- 
viewed to see whether economies in personnel could 
not be effected. I believe also that there is some- 
times a tendency to scatter programs over a 
number of fields of economic and social develop- 
ment, whereas greater concentration on a few 
key projects would bring more lasting returns to 
the country concerned. Our programs should con- 
stantly be reviewed from this point of view. The 
same comments which I made with respect to the 
calibre of our diplomatic and consular representa- 
tion apply as well to our economic and informa- 
tion personnel. 

On the informational side, I believe that the 
most worthwhile projects are the libraries and 
reading rooms which we have established in a 
number of centers overseas and the exchange of 
persons programs. The funds available for these 
programs in the African area should be substan- 
tially increased over the present level. 

To the extent that the Africans become familiar 
with the culture and technology, the ideals and 
aspirations and the traditions and institutions 
which combine to make up the American charac- 
ter, we shall have made great advances in com- 
mon understanding. This can be done through 
books and periodicals, through student exchanges 
and through the leader grant program for bring- 
ing outstanding Africans to the United States for 
study and travel. We should also assist as we 
can in the development of indigenous educational 



April 22, ?957 



639 



facilities in Africa. In this way, we can get to 
know them and they to know us. 

I believe that the information output from our 
radio and news programs in the African area have 
in the past not been as effective as they should be 
if we are adequately to counter the propaganda 
being disseminated by the Communists. In the 
studies which are currently being made of these 
progTams by the Usia, I believe it is important 
that the highest priority be assigned to this area 
both as to improving the quality of personnel in 
the field and in more adequately providing infor- 
mation which is particularly suited to the special 
problems of Africa. 



M. Rene Mayer 

To Visit Wasliington 

Press release 180 dated April 1 

The President of the High Authority of the 
European Commimity for Coal and Steel, Rene 
Mayer, who is in this country for the conclusion 
of negotiations for a loan to be issued by the Com- 
mmiity on the United States financial market, will 
pay a brief informal visit to Washington on April 
2 and 3. During his stay he will call on the Secre- 
tary of State, the Secretary of Commerce, and 
other members of this Government. 



CONCLUSION 

For too many years, Afi-ica in the minds of 
many Americans has been regarded as a remote 
and mysterious continent which was the special 
province of big-game hunters, explorers and mo- 
tion picture makers. For such an attitude to exist 
among the public at large could greatly prejudice 
the maintenance of our own independence and 
freedom because the emergence of a free and in- 
dependent Africa is as important to us in the long 
run as it is to the people of that continent. 

It is for this reason that I strongly support the 
creation within the Department of State of a new 
Bureau of African Affairs which will place this 
continent on the same footing as the other great 
area gi-oupings of the world. I recommend simi- 
lar action by the Ica and Usia. These bureaus, 
properly staffed and with sufficient funds, will 
better equip us to handle our relationships with 
the countries of Africa. But this in itself will 
not be enough. There must be a corresponding 
realization throughout the executive branches of 
the Government, throughout the Congress and 
throughout the nation, of the growing importance 
of Africa to the future of the United States and 
the Free World and the necessity of assigning 
higher priority to our relations with that area. 



Eiglith Anniversary of NATO 

Statement by President Eisenhower 

White House press release dated April 4 

Today is the eighth anniversary of the signing 
on April 4, 1949, here m Washington of the 
North Atlantic Treaty. 

Since the mception of Nato, the member coun- 
tries, by dedicated cooperative effort, have de- 
veloped a strong defensive shield which has been 
a major factor in maintaining the peace in 
Europe. 

The cooperative efforts of the Nato nations 
have now been extended beyond the field of mili- 
tary activity. The feeling has steadily grown 
among the governments and people of the Nato 
countries that increased unity among them is both 
natural and desirable. In the face of an un- 
changing challenge to their traditions and indeed 
their very freedom, they have agreed to work 
together on an ever-widening range of problems. 
Thus, the Atlantic Community will continue to 
grow in unity and in strength. Personally and 
officially I shall do everything in my power to 
assist in this further development. 



640 



DeparfmenI of Sfofe Bulletin 



Secretary Dulles' News Conference of April 2 



Press release 184 dated April 2 

Secretary Dulles: I am available to answer 
questions. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, has the United States given 
any gxuiranties to Chiang Kai-shek that it will 
help defend Qiiemoy and Matsu in the event of 
attack? 

A. No. The only commitments of the United 
States are as authorized in the act of Congress 
which calls for the defense of Formosa (Taiwan) 
and the Pescadores (Penghu) area, and of other 
related areas if their defense is connected with the 
defense of Taiwan and Penghu. ^ That decision 
will be made by the President, when the circum- 
stances call for it. 

Q. Was there ever a secret letter sent to Chiang 
Kai-sheh which might have raised some question 
on this point? 

A. Well, I wouldn't want to say there had never 
been any private communication between the Pres- 
ident and the heads of other governments. He has 
quite an extensive correspondence of that kind, 
and that is a matter which is within his jurisdic- 
tion and on which I won't comment. 

Q. Well, Mr. Secretary, do you know anything 
abaut a personal assurance from President Eisen- 
hower on this point that might have satisfied 
Chiang Kai-shek that the United States would de- 
fend those two islands? 

A. I'm quite coiifident that there is nothing be- 
yond what I have described. Obviously, that de- 
scription which I have given implies that under 
certam conditions we would go to the defense of 
the offshore islands; that is, if their defense 
seemed related to the defense of Taiwan and 
Pengliu. 



^ For text of H. J. Res. 159, 84th Cong., 1st sess., see 
Bui-LETIN of Feb. 7, 1955, p. 213. 

April 22, J 957 



Q. Mr. Secretary, is it fair to say then, on the 
basis of lohat you have told us, that there is no 
American commitment of any kind implicit or ex- 
plicit, stated or implied, to defend these islands 
beyond the actual language of the congressional 
resolution? 

A. That is correct. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would you comment on the 
statement of your most recent biographer to the 
effect that the withdrawal of the Aswan Dam offer 
to Mr. Nasser was a truly major gambit in the cold 
war? 

A. I don't care to comment on articles written 
about me. If there are any subjects that, as a re- 
sult of such writing, seem to merit your question- 
ing me, I'm glad to answer your questions on their 
merits but not in terms of what may have been 
written about me. 

Canceling OHer of Aid on Aswan Dam 

Q. Mr. Secretary, let us put it this way: Did 
you make a decision to cancel the offer of aid on 
the Aswan Dam in order to force a showdown with 
the Soviet Union in the Middle East? 

A. I think that question could be answered in 
the negative. There were, of course, a number of 
reasons which dictated our declining to go ahead 
with the Aswan proposal. 

There was, perhaps first of all and most impera- 
tive, the fact that the Appropriations Committee 
of tlie Senate had unanimously passed a resolu- 
tion providing that none of the 1957 funds could 
be used for the Aswan Dam. 

There was the fact that we had come to the feel- 
ing in our own mind that it was very dubious 
whether a project of tlris magnitude could be 
carried through with mutual advantage. It is a 
tremendous project, involving an estimated bil- 
lion and a half dollars— probably it would cost 

641 



more than that. And the Egyptian component 
of that, in terms of domestic currency and effort, 
would involve a gigantic effort and call for an 
austerity program over a period of 12 to 15 years. 
Undoubtedly, that would be a burden and cause 
of complaint on the part of the Egyptian people, 
and probably the responsibility for that would be 
placed upon the foreign lenders and they would 
end up by being disliked instead of liked. 

Then there was the further fact that the Egyp- 
tians had during the immediately preceding 
period been developing ever closer relations with 
the Soviet-bloc countries. Only a few days before 
I was asked for a definitive answer by the Egyp- 
tians, they had recognized Communist China — 
being the first Arab nation to do so. And, indeed, 
it became, I think, the first nation in the world to 
do so since the attack on Korea. 

And in that way the Egyptians, in a sense, 
forced upon us an issue to which I think there was 
only one proper response. That issue was, do 
nations which play both sides get better treatment 
than nations which are stalwart and work with us ? 
That question was posed by the manner in which 
the Egyptians presented their final request to us, 
and stalwart allies were watching very carefully 
to see what the answer would be — stalwart allies 
which included some in the same area. 

Under all the circumstances I think there was 
no doubt whatsoever as to the propriety of the 
answer given. It was given in a courteous manner, 
as j'ou will find if you will go back and reread the 
statement which was given out at the time, which 
reaffirmed our friendship for the Egyptian people 
and indicated our willingness in other ways to try 
to assist the Egyptian economy.^ 

Current Negotiations on Canal 

Q. Mr. Secretary, to bring this discussion up to 
date, what can you, tell us about the status of the 
negotiations over the canal — lohether there has 
been any response to our response to the Egyptian 
memorandum,^ and what you consider to be the 
outlook for a settlement based on the six principles 
of the United Nations? 

A. We presented our views on Simday [March 
31], I think it was, indicating what we thought 
was necessary in order to bring the so-called draft 

' Ihid., July .".0, 195G, p. 1S8. 
'Not printed. 



memorandum into line with the Security Council 
action. The Security Council had, last October, 
said that any settlement ought to meet certain 
specified requirements, and then it listed six re- 
quirements of any settlement. It seemed to us that 
the so-called draft memorandum fell short of 
meeting those requirements. We pointed out to 
the Government of Egypt the respects in which it 
did, in our opinion, so fall short and ways by 
which that shortfall might perhaps be remedied. 
We have had no response, as yet, from the Egyp- 
tian Government. 

Q. Can you tell us any of those points, especially 
how if one of the shortfalls, in fact the question of 
the binding nature of this document — how you 
would propose to make it an international obliga- 
tion on all countries involved? 

A. WeU, one of the weaknesses is the fact that, 
even though perhaps the Egyptians intended this 
to constitute an international obligation, our law- 
yers are not at all sure that they did in fact produce 
that result but that it may be merely a unilateral 
statement subject to unilateral change at any time, 
without any right on anybody's part to prevent 
that. 

Now we believe that it can, with some rather 
minor word changes, be converted into a multi- 
lateral obligation by perhaps some such measure 
as filing it with the United Nations and providing 
that any nation which files an acceptance of it shall 
thereby gain rights under it. There are various 
ways in which I think that could be done; I am 
not at all sure that the Egyptians did not by their 
original draft intend some such result. But, if so, 
I do not think they made their intent adequate 
from the legal standpoint. 

Use of Canal by Israel 

Q. Mr. Secretary, has Israel informed this 
Government that it will try to send a ship through 
the Suez Canal, and, if it does make this attempt, 
can you tell us what the American Govemment''8 
attitude ivill be? 

A. I am not aware of our being officially advised 
in the sense that you mentioned, although it is pos- 
sible that in the course of conversations with some 
of my associates such an intent may have been in- 
dicated. I just don't know about that. I would 
point out that, at the time of the withdrawal of 



642 



Department of State Bulletin 



Israeli forces and at the time of the discussions 
which preceded that, tlie empliasis of the Govern- 
ment of Israel in their communications with the 
United States was upon the situation of the Gulf 
of Aqaba and the situation in the Gaza Strip. 
Prime Minister Ben-Gurion's letter to President 
Eisenhower did not mention the Suez Canal. 
Nevertheless, they and we do believe that every 
country has a right to send its ships and cargoes 
through the Suez Canal. Our belief was reflected 
by the Security Council decision of '51, where the 
United States voted in that sense as a member of 
the Security Council, and we continue to adliere to 
that view. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you have any indication at 
all from sources in Egypt that Egypt may soon 
renounce its belligerency against Israel and permit 
her ships to go through the canal? 

A. No, we have no evidence of that sort. I 
believe that that matter is perhaps still under 
consideration as a result of the mission of Mr. 
Hammarskjold to the area. His public report 
did not cover, I think, all of the matters which 
he discussed. It does include a report, of course, 
on the Gaza Strip, and I want to say that the 
United States shares the sentiments of satisfaction 
expressed yesterday by his Advisory Committee 
consisting of seven important countries. He made 
at least some progi'ess in assuring the tranquillity 
of the Gaza area and that it will not be a base of 
hostile activities — fedayeen activities and the like. 

Also, of course, that Committee expressed the 
opinion that if, in fact, the measures taken did 
not prove adequate in that respect, then the matter 
would have to be further considered and request 
made for further action. That, however, did not 
deal with the belligerency aspect of the matter, 
which I think is still in abeyance. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, what bargaining powers, if 
a7iy, do we still retain in negotiations with Egypt 
over Suez and the relations loith Israel? For 
instance, you mentioned that some of these changes 
in your opinion might he minor. What if Eqypt 
chose n-ot to go along with even a minor change? 
What if she chose to ignore our invocation of 
moral principles in the area? What do we do 
then? 

A. When I said the changes might be minor, 
I did not intend to imply that they would be minor 
in their significance. I think they might be minor 



in terms of the actual changes in phraseology 
that would be required, and, as I say, it may be 
that those changes would be in accord with what 
Egypt's actual intentions were. 

Now, on the question of what pressures we have 
to bring to bear, I think the situation basically is 
what I described last week when I said that the 
problem is one which confronts Egypt itself with 
a choice between whether it wishes to try to rees- 
tablish the confidence of the world in the depend- 
ability of the canal and its availability for use on 
the terms contemplated by the 1888 convention or 
not. Upon the choice that Egypt makes a great 
deal will depend, and a great deal of the future 
of Egypt itself will depend upon that. We are 
anxious — I think most countries are anxious — to 
see developments which will improve and uplift 
the economy of Egypt and its Arab neighbors; 
and we think it is in the mutual interest that the 
interdependence of this area with other areas 
should be promoted by sound Egyptian policies. 

The United States has no pressures to bring to 
bear in terms of military threats or boycotts of 
the canal or the like. I think I said that back last 
October, September. That remains true today, 
and indeed it has been demonstrated, I think, that 
nonuse of the canal is not a very profitable opera- 
tion from the standpoint of the users. But we 
still feel able to entertam hopes, at least, that this 
jDroblem will be worked out in a way which we 
think is clearly in the interest not only of the 
nations which use the canal but in the interest 
of Egypt itself. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, does one infer correctly from 
what you just said that ive toould not participate 
in any kind of economic sanctions against Egypt 
if the situation deteriorated? 

A. I would not say that we would never par- 
ticipate in economic sanctions against Egypt. 
However, the word "sanctions" is, as I think we 
developed in the course of some of om- talks about 
Israel, a word of a great many connotations. Tlie 
so-called boycotting of the canal, if that is a sanc- 
tion, is a matter primarily for the coimtries to de- 
cide whose economies depend upon the canal. 
United States economy does not depend in any 
appreciable degree upon the canal. Other coun- 
tries do have a great deal of dependence, and I 
think that any initiative in that respect should 
come from them and not from us. 



April 22, 1957 



643 



Use of Canal by American Ships 

Q. Mi'. Secretary, if American, ships were to 
enter the canal zoithin the next few days, would 
the Government have any objections if they 
turned over in dollars toll payments to the Egyp- 
tian Government on Egyptian terms such as they 
exist now? 

A. Well, the United States ships were, of course, 
paying in that way before the canal was closed and 
I think have always paid in that way. In that 
respect their practice is different from that of the 
British and the French. We always paid, so to 
speak, on the barrelhead at the canal. 

Now, since the Suez Canal Company has been 
seized, the persons who pay are subject to double 
jeopardy in the sense that, whereas undoubtedly 
the seizure would be recognized as valid in Egypt, 
it may not be recognized as valid by the courts of 
other countries. Therefore, the Suez Canal Com- 
pany may have a right to sue for those tolls in 
other jurisdictions than in Egypt. Now to pro- 
tect against that risk was one of the reasons why 
we froze Egyptian Government funds here. And 
until there is a settlement, we would probably look 
to those funds as a source to indemnify American 
ships who went through the canal and paid mider 
conditions which may not be held as valid and 
adequate by the courts of the United States. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, to answer the question, would 
we have any objections if any American ships did 
go in in the next feio days and paid on the 'barrel- 
head as they did before the blowup? 

A. I would prefer not to answer that question 
until I know a little bit more of the outcome of 

these negotiations. 

Q. How do these negotiations provide for what 
you once defined as a major purpose of all negotia- 
tions with Egypt over the canal, that is, the insu- 
lating of the canal in its day-to-day operations 
against the whims and cham,ges of Egyptian 
politics? 

A. That is one of the aspects of the matter which 
is very difficult to deal with but which we believe 
could be dealt with if there is what was referred 
to by the Secretary-General in his summary of the 
October negotiations as "organized cooperation" 
between the Egyptian Government and the users 
and if there were adequate riglits of arbitration 
and so forth. I believe that that could be pro- 
vided for, and indeed the draft memorandum 



filed by the Egyptian Government does suggest 
certain rights of arbitration. 'Wliether they are 
adequate or not is a question. 

Question of Users Association 

Q. The draft memorandum, sir, does not give 
much recognition — / don''t believe it gives any rec- 
ognition to the rights of the users as a group. 
Would the establishment of such rights for the 
users be an objective of the United States? 

A. It would be, because that is implicit in the 
six requirements of the Security Council. They 
provide, for example, that the tolls should be a 
matter of agreement between Egypt and the users. 
That implies, I think, very clearly an organiza- 
tion of the users, and that was the implication 
that was accepted by the Egyptian, British, and 
French Governments in the talks which took place 
concurrently with the Security Council meeting at 
New York. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would you like to see the for- 
mation of a council of users which uwuld have 
some authority in developing canal policy, operat- 
ing policy? 

A. Well, the conditions which we would like to 
see are those which were portrayed in the pro- 
posals that were made by the 18 countries and 
were carried to Egypt by Prime Minister Menzies.* 
Now those were not the only way of accomplish- 
ing the purposes in mind. But if you want to ask 
what our optimum desiderata are, you would have 
to go back to that. 

Q. What I would like to get at is, what have 
you proposed to Egypt in your latest note? 

A. I don't want to disclose that note beyond 
saying, as I have said, that we are suggesting 
changes in the memorandum which in our opin- 
ion will bring it in conformity with the six re- 
quirements, and those six requirements, in turn, 
seemed to us to contemplate some organization of 
the users to deal with Egypt. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in view of all that has hap- 
pened in the Middle East since October, is inter- 
natiorud operation of the canal a practical pos- 
sibility, or must the Western countries be content 
with some sort of advisory role to the Egyptian 
Government, which actually operates the canal? 

A. Well, again I would prefer not to answer 
' HuuJSTiN of Sept. 24, 1956, p. 467. 



644 



Department of Stale Butletin 



that question at this staijo because it might have 
an undesirable impact upon the negotiations. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, your statement last week that 
we are giving so rmich attention to Latin America 
certainly gratified a good many diplomats in 
totim. However, they are mystif,ed why the ad- 
ministration hasnH appointed an Assistant Secre- 
tary for Inter-American Affairs, lohich has been 
vacant since last August, and why at a thiie when 
there is so much activity in the Latin American 
field the two principal positions in the Depart- 
ment are noxo on the shoulders of Mr. Ruhottom as 
Acting Assistant Secretary and Deputy Assistant 
Secretary. 

A. Well, the position is filled by an Acting As- 
sistant Secretary. There is no de facto vacancy 
in the position. I have not heard any complaints 
of substance with respect to our handling of Latin 
American affairs, and I think that personnel mat- 
ters probably couldn't be advantageously dis- 
cussed here. 

Q. Could yoxu tell us if an appointment is im- 
minent, sir? 

A. No. 

Q. Was there agreement at Bermuda, Mr. Sec- 
retary, on the withdrawal of British troops from 
Malaya, and, if so, what would the United States 
do to fill the vacuum? 

A. There was no precise statement made by the 
United Kingdom as to its intentions with regard 
to Malaya. That general topic was discussed, as 
I think perhaps I indicated, at the Canberra con- 
ference, the Seato Council. But the situation had 
not developed as yet into a sufficiently concrete 
form so that it was appropriate or advantageous 
to consider concrete measures, if any, to deal with 
it. Of course Malaya will become an independent 
state sometime next August, and the problem of 
the future of Malaya — whether it will enter the 
pact and what its arrangements will be with the 
other countries — will then have to be decided by 
the independent Government of Malaya. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, at the time you decided to 
unthdram the Aswan Dam offer, did you expect 
Colonel Nasser to react by seizing the canal? 

A. No. We did not expect that to happen, al- 
though we now know that the seizure of the Canal 
Company had been planned by President Nasser 
for some time. I don't recall that I recently men- 



tioned it, but President Tito in a speech of his 
last November said that President Nasser had told 
him at their first meeting [February 1955] that it 
was his intention to seize the Suez Canal Company 
because Egypt as an independent nation could not 
tolerate this exercise of authority on Egyptian 
soil by foreigners. That was while the Aswan 
Dam matter was, I think, being discussed by the 
World Bank. But it was a year or more before 
our decision not to go ahead with the dam. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, since your retu/rn from Ber- 
muda, have you acquainted yourself with the 
work of the Milton Eisenhower committee? 

A. I am familiar with it in general. I have 
had several reports made to me about it. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, yesterday on Capitol Hill, 
Dr. Hannah, President of Michigan State Uni- 
versity and former AssiMant Secretary of De- 
fense, urged the United States to consider the Ko- 
rean armistice, the armistice in North Korea, void 
and that we ship modern arms to Korea and 
atomic weapons to out own divisions in Korea. 
What is your opinion of that, sir? 

A. We do not think it is wise to treat the armis- 
tice as void. It is quite true that we are convinced 
of rather serious violations of the armistice by 
the other side and it may be that those violations 
give us a greater freedom of action in the respects 
in which it has been violated by the Communists, 
but, as far as relates to treating the entire armis- 
tice as void and in effect resuming a state of active 
belligerency, that is not something we favor. 

Q. Will the Richards mission go to Egypt and 
Syria, assuming that either or both Governments 
invite it to come? 

A. No decision has yet been made on that point. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in listing the reasons for 
withdrawing from the financing of the Aswan 
High Dam., you mentioned that the strain of re- 
payment might tend to turn the Egyptian people 
against us. Is it your feeling that foreign eco- 
nomic aid to any country ^vhere repayment might 
be a strain roould work against the United States? 

A. It's always a question of degree, and cer- 
tainly I would not think that would always be 
the case or even usually be the case. But remem- 
ber, tliis was a very unusual case. There has never 
been in the whole history of the world an irriga- 
tion project of comparable magnitude. 



AptW 22, 7957 



645 



Q. Mr. Secretary^ has there been any change in 
the administration's position barring travel by 
American reporters to Red Chinaf 

A. No. There has been no change in our posi- 
tion in tliat respect. We are continuing to study 
the matter and have been in fact doing this ac- 
tively over the past week or two. But I'm not in 
a position to announce it or forecast any change. 

Aid to Poland 

Q. There have been reports, Mr. Secretary, that 
the administration is thinking in terms of a $75 
million aid contribution to Poland. First of all, 
is this figure roughly correct, and, if so, do you 
feel that that is suffident to encourage Poland and 
other Communist satellites to veer away front 
Moscow? Because there have been reports that 
Poland does not think that that would be a suffi- 
cient sum. 

A. Well, I don't think that the question of 
whether or not Poland veers away from Moscow 
is quite as simple as saying, can it be bought for 
$60 million or $70 million or $100 million. This 
is all part and parcel of a very complicated and 
perhaps not very rapid process of evolution where 
some of the satellite comitries are seeking to exer- 
cise a greater degree of independence. We are 
anxious to encourage that trend toward inde- 
pendence. We don't think we are going to buy 
anything spectacular just by putting up a certain 
number of dollars. And as to the figures you 
mentioned, I don't feel I can discuss them here 
because they are the subject of negotiations which 
are at the moment going on and it would perhaps 
prejudice those negotiations if I got into the num- 
bers racket. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, if Egypt should continue to 
maintain her belligerency, in your opinion would 
this indicate on Egypt's part a loch of decent re- 
spect for the opinions of mankind? 

A. That is a little difficult to answer, I think, 
in the abstract. The question of belligerency is 
pretty difficult to answer I think, except in terms 
of certain specifics. You might say, for example, 
that the United States, despite the Korean armi- 
stice, exei'cises certain aspects of belligerency as 
regards Communist China — the provisions of the 
Trading With the Enemy Act, for example, are 
still in force. If, without regard to the general 



question of belligerency you ask whether the Gaza 
Strip should be used as a base of fedayeen activi- 
ties, if you ask whether or not ships should be al- 
lowed to pass through the Straits of Tiran, and if 
you ask whether or not Israeli ships should be 
allowed to pass through the Suez Canal, then I 
can answer those three questions. I think I have 
answered them. But I don't want to get into ab- 
stractions which are pretty difficult to deal with. 

Q. Well, putting it on those specifics, those last 
three that you mentioned, if Egypt insisted on 
belligerency in those three points, would you then 
in your opinion think she would be showing a dis- 
regard for the decent opinions of mankind? 

A. Well, I can't speak for all of mankind. 
(Laughter) How the rest of mankind would feel 
about it, I don't want to say ; but, I think, as far 
as the public opinion of the United States is con- 
cerned, it would support the views which I have 
expressed here. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, it seems that the negotiations 
on aviation matters between the Netherlands and 
the United States have ar-rived at a complete dead- 
lock. Would you mind telling us what, according 
to you, is the position now? 

A. Well, that again is one of these matters 
which, being in the course of unresolved negotia- 
tions, isn't aided by a discussion at a press con- 
ference. I would say that there has been an ex- 
change of views. There has not yet been a reso- 
lution of certain differences which have arisen. 
We are not without hope that the differences still 
will be resolved. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, on the Suez Canal matter, 
time appears to be running out in the sense that the 
canal is about ready to resuine full-scale oper- 
ations. How long would you expect that these 
negotiations with Egypt would continue before 
some kind of decision loould have to be reached or 
ought to be reached? 

A. Well, measuring the length of negotiations 
is a good bit like saying, how long is a piece of 
string? And sometimes the estimates prove not 
to be well founded. I would say that we ought 
to know, I would think, within the next 2-1 or 48 
hours whether there is a likelihood of serious ne- 
gotiations along lines which hold out promise. 
Now, if those negotiations develop, they in turn 



646 



Department of State BuUetin 



mifijht take some little time. On the other hand, 
it could be that the Egyptian attitude, as expressed 
during the next day or two, ^yould indicate so little 
likelihood of a successful outcome that there would 
be no detailed negotiation. 



Q. At this tijne, Mr. Secretary, do you have any 
information on which way you think it might go? 

A. None at all. 

Q. Thank you, Mr. Secretary. 



Building for Peace 



hy Deputy Under Secm^etary Murphy ' 



The world is now entering upon the second 
decade since the end of World War II. We have 
learned a lot in the past 10 years. Striking 
changes have taken place in Eui'ope, in Asia, and in 
Africa. Our foreign relations have gone through 
at least three basic stages : in 1947 with the Mar- 
shall plan; in 1949-1950 with the Berlin air- 
lift, the Communist attack in Korea, and the 
creation of Nato; and in 1953 with the decision 
that our national energy must be geared to the 
"long haul" in our contest with international 
communism. 

In our planning for the next decade we must 
identify and understand the basic forces and 
trends at worlc. Then we must insure that our 
policies are calculated to use our means to the best 
advantage for shaping these forces. We must 
recognize that our means are not sufficient to halt 
or reverse these basic forces, and our aim must be 
to channel, deflect, and manage these forces in 
ways compatible with our interests. 

At least tliree of these forces and trends are of 
overshadowing significance — hostile Soxdet power, 
developing military technology, and the rise of the 
nations of Asia and Africa. These forces will 
merit our closest attention in the years to come. 

The greatest threat to our security and that of 
the free nations is found in the hostility and 
strength of international communism. Our basic 



' Address made at the Conference on World Affairs at 
the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., on Apr. 4 (press 
release 186 dated Apr. 3). 



endeavor is to meet that threat without destroying 
fundamental American values and institutions or 
damaging our own economy. 

The Communist bloc has a well-balanced mili- 
tary array, ranging from very large armed forces 
to a considerable arsenal of nuclear weapons and 
modern delivery systems. Its ideology is un- 
compromisingly hostile. Absolute political 
power is concentrated in the hands of a few. It 
continues to devote a large proportion of its re- 
soui'ces to development of military strength and 
heavy industry. 

At the same time the Soviet rulers are con- 
fronted with strong pressures for change and for 
relaxation of rigid controls, both domestic and 
foreign. The de-Stalinization progi-am, the fer- 
ment among Soviet academic and cultural groups, 
and the events in the satellites all reflect these 
pressures and the efforts of the Soviet leadership 
to adjust to them. 

The astonishing growth of military technology 
can be pointed up by a few hard facts. Experts 
have made a thorough study of the increase of de- 
structive power beginning with the age of gun- 
powder. What they call the "explosive index" 
has increased from a factor of one in the Middle 
Ages to eight on the eve of Hiroshima. The 
ratio jumped virtually overnight to 10,000. With 
the development of the H-bomb, the ratio went to 
10 million. Compared with pre-Hiroshima 1945, 
therefore, the destructive power of war has multi- 
plied over one million times. With the develop- 



April 22, J 957 



647 



ment of guided missiles, the ability to deliver this 
awesome destructive power is also on the verge of 
astonishing growth. 

The rise of the new nations of Asia and Africa 
is a promising trend ni postwar developments. 
Since the end of the war, 19 new nations with pop- 
ulations of about 700 million people have achieved 
independence. There will be a number more in 
the next few years. These nations are imbued 
with patriotism and with a desire for economic 
progress. They want to transform their countries 
into modern states by the most rapid means. The 
economic obstacles they face are indeed formi- 
dable, since the new nations have on an average 
about one-tenth of the per capita gross national 
product of the advanced nations. Communists 
from IMoscow and Peiping seek to play on and 
distort the aspirations of the new nations and to 
stimulate their suspicions of the so-called colonial 
powers. 

Our Fundamental Objectives 

The requirements for our national effort in the 
decade ahead will in some respect differ markedly 
from those of the last 10 years. But in their basic 
aspects they will continue to pose the same funda- 
mental set of objectives : 

First, we must maintain our own strength, for 
our strength is essential to the free world ; 

Second, we must keep our alliances strong and 
vigorous, for reasons which deeply involve both 
the spiritual purposes of our nation and the stra- 
tegic requirements of this technological age; 

And finally, we must work for the close associa- 
tion and cooperation of the uncommitted states 
and the emerging new nations with the active 
community of the free world, in order that the 
area of freedom may expand rather than contract. 

These three fundamental tasks have been the 
constants of United States purpose since the end 
of "World War II. They have been the unifying 
elements of the history of our exertions over the 
decade since the brief period of high hopes for 
honorable collaboration with the Soviet Union 
broke against the aggressive expansionism of 
Stalinist ambition. They characterized the pe- 
riod of the gathering cold war — the program to 
strengthen Greece, the foreign aid progi-am, and 
the establishment of Nato. They marked tlie 
period of the hot wars in Korea and Indochina 



and the recurrent crises of the Far East. They 
underlay the further development of the gi"eat 
systems of collective security and the purpose of 
our negotiations with the post-Stalinist leaders of 
the Communist world. 

In the light of the requirements of our national 
strategy to influence the forces and trends at work 
in the world, a look at the main regions of the 
world may be profitable. 

U.S. Support for Western Europe 

Europe is the area with which we have histori- 
cally had the closest ties. Most of our basic con- 
cepts are products of European thought. Our 
social institutions, our predominant religions, and 
our cultural heritage were brought here by the 
people of Europe, whose descendants now largely 
populate our countiy. 

If anything, the United States is now more 
closely involved in Europe than ever before in 
time of peace. American troops are standing with 
our allies in defense of free Europe. Our com- 
mercial relations with Western Europe are at lev- 
els which represent an alltime high. Political 
consultation with our European friends has been 
more active in the past few years than ever before 
in history. The successful conference just con- 
cluded at Bermuda is a good example of our con- 
sultation with one of our most important allies. - 
The North Atlantic Council, following a recent 
decision, is now one of the most important centers 
of political consultation for its 15 members as well 
as being a prime example of collective defense 
effort. It is the intention of the United States, 
together with its allies, to continue to strengthen 
Nato as a forum for productive international 
discussion. 

In Western Europe steps have been taken and 
agreements reached which as little as 10 years ago 
would have been dismissed as fantastic. One of 
these is the development of Franco-German co- 
operation. These two coimtries work together in 
the Coal and Steel Community, cooperate in their 
common defense as members of Nato, and have 
succeeded in settling amicably the very difficidt 
question of the Saar. INIore recently, they have 
joined with other nations in the agreements on 
EuRATOM and the Common Market. 



- For text of joint communique issued at close of Ber- 
muda mooting on Mar. 24, see Bulletin of Apr. S, 1957, 
p. .^01. 



648 



Deparlment of Sfa/e Bulletin 



I would like to take a minute to discuss these two 
agreenaents, which have been much in the news 
lately. 

The term "common market" refers to an agi-ee- 
ment just concluded between Belgimn, France, the 
German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, 
and the Netherlands. It involves the elimination 
of substantially all of the barriers to trade among 
those countries and the establisliment of a common 
external tariif toward outside countries. The 
United Kingdom has expressed a desire to associ- 
ate itself with the Common Market in a free trade 
area. 

United States support of European proposals 
for a common market and free trade area is based 
on two traditional policies : our consistent support 
of moves to further the political and economic 
strength and cohesion of "Western Europe withm 
an expanding Atlantic Community and our long- 
standing devotion to progress toward freer non- 
discriminatory, multilateral trade and converti- 
bility of currencies. 

The Atomic Energy Community (Eukatom) is 
intended to mobilize in Europe the teclinical and 
industrial resources required to develop atomic 
power to meet that area's growing need for energy. 
It would also provide a political entity competent 
to afford adequate safeguards and to enter into 
comprehensive and practical engagements with 
the United States Government. 

The United States Government welcomes this 
initiative for a bold and imaginative application 
of nuclear energy, and we anticipate active associ- 
ation with the European Atomic Energy Com- 
munity. 

The Satellites in Eastern Europe 

Moving to Eastern Europe, tiie events of the 
past year have been spectacular. 

There can be no doubt that the developments in 
Hungary last October and November presented 
grave problems to the Kremlin. The Soviet 
rulei-s were faced with the choice of keeping faith 
with their own promises or of brutally maintain- 
ing their colonial empire. They chose the latter 
course. Reinforcements were rushed into Hun- 
gary, and in a month of bloody fighting the Hun- 
garians were again ground into submission with 
the connivance of a puppet government he^aded by 
Janos Kadar. Communist ideology and methods 
were thus discredited all over the world. The 

April 22, 1957 

422775—57 3 



Soviet charge of "a Fascist counterrevolution in- 
spired by U.S. and other Western agents" fooled 
no one outside the Communist orbit and probably 
very few inside. 

Have the events in Hungary resulted in a re- 
newal of the Soviet hard policy? This question 
cannot be answered as yet with any certainty. 
There have, however, been some straws in the 
wind. One of these is the threat of atomic retalia- 
tion against Great Britain, Noi-way, and Denmark. 
Another is the angry admonitions issued to 
Sweden and Finland on how they must behave if 
they expect to avoid Soviet enmity. A third has 
been the denunciation by the Soviets and satellites 
of the theory of "many roads to socialism." More 
and more we are told that there is only one road, 
that there is no such thing as "national conunu- 
nism," and that all communism must be "under the 
great leadership of the Soviet Union." And 
finally, we have the increasingly repressive meas- 
ures in Hmigary and indeed in all Soviet-occupied 
countries. Yugoslavia, the father of "national 
communism," again appears to be on the verge of 
excommunication as a heretic. 

Gomulka in Poland is pursuing a very delicate 
balancing act which may illustrate his aim to offset 
experimental measures by the right amount of 
Communist orthodoxy. Poland's economic situa- 
tion is unfavorable, and the Polish Govermnent is 
trying to alleviate it by negotiations with several 
Western countries. 

President Eisenhower has stated the position of 
the United States : ^ 

We honor the a.«pirations of those nations which, now 
captive, long for freedom. We seek neither their mili- 
tary alliance nor any artificial imitation of our society. 
And they can know the warmth of the welcome that 
awaits them when, as must be, they join again the ranks 
of freedom. 

We honor, no less in this diviiled world than in a less 
tormented time, the people of Russia. We do not dread — 
rather do we welcome — their progress in education and 
industry. We wish them success in their demands for 
more intellectual freedom, greater security before their 
own laws, fuller enjoyment of the rewards of their own 
toil. For as such things may come to pass, the more cer- 
tain will be the coming of that day when our peoples may 
freely meet in friendship. 

Any discussion of Soviet-occupied territory 
must give special attention to Germany. In the 
Eastern Zone, 17 million Germans are still held in 
imwilling bondage by the Soviet Army and a pup- 



'/6id., Feb. 11, 1957, p. 212. 



649 



pet regime, manipulated from Moscow. Like the 
Hungarians, these Germans have had bitter ex- 
perience with Soviet tanks and weapons. They 
and their compatriots in the Federal Eepublic 
want a free, reunited Germany based on free 
elections. 

For years the United States has urged that this 
opportvmity be given them. The United States, 
together with the other nations directly concerned, 
will maintain its eti'orts to advance the cause of 
German reunification. It is our belief that this 
is one of the cornerstones on which the peace in 
Europe must be built. 

Unresolved Issues in Middle East 

Another area where there is cause for grave 
concern is the Middle East. Although consider- 
able progi-ess has been made through the United 
Nations in removing the dangers to world peace 
which resulted from the military action of last 
fall, less headway has been made in tackluag the 
basic causes which led to the outbreak of hos- 
tilities. 

The two unresolved issues which led to the ex- 
plosion last October and November were the Arab- 
Israel issue and the problem of the Suez Canal. 

The history of the Arab-Israel problem in the 
7 years between 1949 and 1956 is a son-y record of 
disregard of United Nations resolutions and of 
violations on both sides of the Armistice Agree- 
ment. The Arabs felt angry and betrayed, par- 
ticularly because some 900,000 of their fellow 
Arabs had been deprived of their homes and prop- 
erty and were leading a miserable existence as 
refugees huddled in camps around the border of 
the new state of Israel. The Israelis, on the other 
hand, felt frustrated and desperate because they 
were not able to achieve recognition of their vei-y 
existence from their neighbors or to establish the 
kind of trade and intercourse with the neighboring 
states which could alone guarantee them a secure 
future. 

The events of last October and November pi-o- 
duced a determination on the part of the United 
Nations members to come to grips with the basic 
issues which prevented a solution of this problem. 
This feeling undoubtedly came somewhat from a 
sense of not having fully recognized the potential 
danger to world peace in this explosive situation 
and not having insisted more firmly upon com- 
pliance with U.N. resolutions. 



Similarly the problem of the Suez Canal had 
been brought to the United Nations in October 
after a discouraging history of provocation and 
counterprovocation which had dimmed the pros- 
pects of finding a solution. Under the aegis of the 
United Nations, the Security Council succeeded on 
October 13 in agreeing upon six principles, which 
the British, French, and Egyptians, as the parties 
most directly concerned, worked out as the basis 
of an equitable solution.^ The events of Novem- 
ber disrupted this attempt at orderly progress as 
well, but at present the situation has been restored 
to a point where we think this problem, too, can 
again be approached through the preferable chan- 
nel of negotiation. 

In the course of the months immediately follow- 
ing the upheaval of October-November, it became 
evident that still another problem exists in re- 
gard to the area as a whole. The irresponsible 
and reckless behavior of the Soviet Union in 
threatening unilateral intervention in this dispute 
for the sake of achieving supposed political ad- 
vantages made it quite clear that, unless some kind 
of a protective shield could be thrown around the 
area as a whole, the disruptive and subversive ac- 
tivities of the Soviet Union might vitiate attempts 
to progress toward stability and tranquillity in the 
area. 

Since the United Nations was not equipped to 
deal with this last problem, the United States Gov- 
ernment formulated a doctrine for the Middle 
East, which was proposed to Congress by the 
President on January 5 of this year.^ Its objec- 
tive is to provide economic and military assistance 
to those countries in the area desiring to cooperate 
with us in resisting Soviet encroachments, and thus 
to help develop the economic stability and internal 
security plus adequate national self-defense which 
could lead to a greater degi'ee of self-confidence 
and feeling of security on the part of the states in 
the area. 

The United States Government placed the Sov- 
iet Union and the world on notice that we would 
use our military power to deter or defeat overt 
aggression against any of the states in the area 
that desired our help. This program is being 
launched by a U.S. mission xmder the able direc- 
tion of Ambassador Richards, former Congress- 
man from South Carolina and chairman of the 



• For text, see ibid., Oct. 22, 1950, p. 616. 
' Ibiil., Jan. 21, 10.^7, p. 83. 



650 



Department of State Bulletin 



House. Foreign Affairs Committee, who is now 
visiting the countries in the area." He is making 
good progi'ess in encouraging the stability and 
tranquillity which we believe are essential to guar- 
antee peace. 

In a further effort to protect the area of the Mid- 
dle East agamst possible attack, the United 
States recently announced its willingness to par- 
ticipate actively in the work of the Military Com- 
mittee of the five-nation Baghdad Pact.' This 
action was taken mider the authority of the joint 
resolution approved on March 9.* 

Collective Defense in the Far East 

Our experience in the Far East has given us fur- 
ther confidence in collective security as an effective 
deterrent against aggression and war. Under the 
spur of outright aggi'ession by the Chinese Com- 
munists, supported by the Soviet Union, collective- 
defense machinery in tliat area has developed 
rapidly and effectively. 

The recent conference of the Southeast Asia 
Treaty Organization Council in Canberra was in 
a sense the coming of age of collective defense in 
the Far East.* The eight nations gathered there 
were in unanimous agreement that their banding 
together to resist Commimist aggression had 
proved effective as a deterrent and as a positive 
force for peace and security in the area. On the 
positive side, for example, the Council noted the 
national development of new Asian states, such as 
the Republic of Viet-Nam and the approach of 
their objectives. 

As Secretary Dulles reported, the growing 
strength, unity, and demonstrated will to resist 
has made it seem inexpedient to the Chinese Com- 
munists to continue to use methods of force to gain 
their objectives. 

Wliile we find room for hope from the success of 
Seato and our other collective-security arrange- 
ments such as Anzus (with which we are allied to 
Australia and New Zealand) and our bilateral 
treaties with the Eepublic of Korea, Japan, the 
Republic of China, and the Philippines, there cer- 
tainly is no room for complacency. Chinese Com- 
munist support for Soviet action in Hungary and 
their continued defiance of the United Nations 



' /6M., Mar. 25, 1957, p. 481. 
'Hid., Apr. 8, 1957, p. 561. 
' For text, see ibid.. Mar. 25, 1957, p. 481. 
° For text of final communique and statements by Sec- 
retary Dulles, see ibid., Apr. 1, 1957, p. 527. 



carry serious implications for the free nations of 
Asia. The threat of overt aggression continues to 
cast a shadow in the Far East, and the free nations 
have no choice except to maintain their military 
strength, individually and collectively. 

There is no question that the Communists con- 
tinue to regard control of all Asia as one of their 
foremost goals on the road to woi'ld conquest, and 
they continue to push ahead on all fronts with a 
combination of subversion, offers of trade and aid, 
cultural exchange, and threats. 

As always, they cut the garment to fit the cloth. 
"While continuing their military buildup in North 
Korea in violation of their armistice pledges, they 
advance toward Japan with smiling countenance 
and outstretched hand, knowing Japan's urgent 
need to expand its trade and sources of supply. 
'Wliile strengthening the military forces of the 
Viet Minh in North Viet-Nam and supporting the 
Pathet Lao defiance of the Royal Government of 
Laos, they offer aid and technical assistance to 
neighboring Cambodia. "While threatening re- 
peatedly to take Formosa by force if necessary, 
they smugly talk of peace and friendship. 

Our national security depends upon our remain- 
ing alert to all of these tactics, wherever they 
appear, and above all in remaining miited and 
strong. "We assist or plan to assist those nations 
of Asia who wish such help in strengthening their 
own resources and stability so that they can ward 
off the thrust of commimism and add to the total 
deterrent force of the free world. 

It is plain that the nations of Asia and Africa 
are going through a period of revolutionary 
change. The aspiration for economic develop- 
ment and a better life is widespread and power- 
ful. Although many elements will affect the fu- 
tm-e of these nations, the extent to which their 
desire for economic development seems on the 
way to fulfillment will be one of the determining 
factois of their stability and continued freedom. 

There can be no doubt, however, that a useful 
employment of American resources in further- 
ing our national interest is to promote economic 
growth among nations needing it. I might point 
to India as a prominent example and one whose 
race against Red China for economic development 
has important implications for us. 

"We can provide an incentive for sound devel- 
opment if we will increase the continuity and 
flexibility of whatever funds are made available. 



April 22, 1957 



651 



If it is possible to be more selective in the proj- 
ects we support, and steadier in supporting the 
best ones, we can cause the applicants for aid to 
try to devise tlie best projects possible. In addi- 
tion, we can assist recipients in developing better 
projects and in encouraging private investment, 
if we will render technical assistance not only 
in the carrying out of programs but in the de- 
signing of them. 

"We fully realize that the Congress is taking 
a hard look at foreign aid this spring. This is 
a good thing, and we hope that the studies now 
in progress will improve our policies on aid. The 
recent report by the President's committee under 
Benjamin Fairless^" gave strong support to the 
view that our general programs of foreign as- 
sistance are necessary and useful. 

Inter-American System, a Bulwark of Freedom 

In our own Western Hemisphere, which is vital 
to our security and well-being, the American Re- 
publics aflford the rest of the world a model ex- 
ample of international cooperation. The regional 
strength and fellowship of the Organization of 
American States, which consists of the United 
States and the 20 neighboring Republics, is not 
only a hemisphere but a global force. The sup- 
port given by the American peoples and their 
governments to the free world is, in hard fact, an 
inalienable and indispensable bulwark of freedom. 

The Oas is the framework of our inter- Ameri- 
can system. Through it, and within the larger 
frame of the United Nations, the American Re- 
publics seek to promote their common interests. 
In the words of the Declaration of Panama, issued 
jointly by the Presidents of the American Repub- 
lics at their historic meeting last July, it is the 
purpose of the American peoples "to create a 
civilization that will give tangible meaning to 
the concept of human liberty." " One of the 
immediate consequences of the Panama meeting 
was creation of the Inter-American Committee 
of Presidential Representatives, which is imder- 
taking to study methods of combating poverty, 
disease, and ignorance throughout the hemi- 
sphere and to make recommendations to the Oas 

'° Report to the President by the President's Citisen 
Advisers on the Mutual Security Program, March 1, 1957. 
Copies may be obtained from the Superintendent of Doc- 
uments, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, 
D. C, at 50 cents ijer copy. 

" BuixETiN of Aug. 6, 1956, p. 220. 



in economic, financial, social, and technical fields. 

Geography, history, and economics have made 
the individually independent peoples of this hem- 
isphere collectively interdependent. Our 21 Re- 
publics have a total population of upwards of 380 
millions in a total area of approximately 11 mil- 
lion square miles. Latin America, it may be 
noted, has the world's most rapidly increasing 
population growth : 2.5 percent annually as com- 
pared with the global average rate of 1 percent. 

Obviously, our economic relationship with this 
region, so enormous both in area and in popula- 
tion, is necessarily a prime factor in our economy, 
as it is in theirs. About one-fifth of our total 
exports go to Latin America, and we obtain from 
Latin America about one-fifth of our total im- 
ports. We supply the Latin American Republics 
with approximately 47 percent of their imports 
and take 43 percent of their exports. In other 
words, around 44 percent of Latin America's total 
trade is with us. United States private enter- 
prise currently proves its faith in Latin America's 
future by direct investment of approximately $7 
billion there. The eifects of this great influx of 
private capital are reflected in the overall picture 
of hemisphere development — in lugher living 
standards, improved conditions of public health 
and public education, diversified agriculture, in- 
creased industrialization, and in ever-broaden- 
ing horizons of opportunity. 

Role of the United Nations 

Recent months have given dramatic evidence 
of the value of the United Nations as a mecha- 
nism for fostering the rule of law in relations 
among nations. We have witnessed the great 
influence for peace which can be exerted when 
states heed and support the opinions of the United 
Nations, particularly when there is an overwhelm- 
ing consensus in favor of constructive action. It 
is the policy of this Government to strengthen 
the legitimate role of the United Nations in ad- 
vancing world peace with justice. 

The recent emergency sessions of the General 
Assembly and the regular Eleventh Session have 
revealed new dimensions and new resources 
within the United Nations. In the Middle East a 
cease-fire and withdrawal of foi'ces from the area 
of hostility were achieved. An unprecedented 
step was taken in the creation and deployment 
of the United Nations Emergency Force. 

The speedy and efficient cleai-ance of the Suez 



652 



Department of State Bulletin 



Canal, now virtually completed, was effected by 
the United Nations under contract with a private 
consortium. This vital task, an essential step in 
restoring some measure of economic and political 
stability in the Middle East, could not have been 
accomplished, under the conditions existing, with- 
out the intercession of the United Nations. 

The office of the Secretary-General has played a 
powerful part in the handling of the Middle East 
crises. Mr. Hammarskjold was given broad re- 
sponsibility to act in behalf of the Assembly in 
bringing the Unef into being, in arranging for 
clearance of the canal, and in negotiating with the 
several parties to the dispute. 

On the other hand, the inability of the United 
Nations to secure compliance with its urgent reso- 
lution, and in particular to secure the withdrawal 
of Soviet forces from Hungary, is a source of deep 
disappointment among many peoples of the world. 
The blame for this failure lies squarely at the door 
of the Soviet Union, which cruelly massacred 
thousands of Hungarians who sought freedom 
from Soviet tyranny. Nevertheless, the United 
Nations has succeeded in focusing and maintain- 
ing the pressure of world opinion on these Soviet 
outrages. Its resolutions were a cogent reminder 
to all lovers of freedom of the callous threat which 
Soviet communism represents in the world today. 
The General Assembly climaxed its deliberations 
at the Eleventh Session with a specific condemna- 
tion of the U.S.S.R. — a condemnation which re- 
flected the revulsion of European, Latin Ameri- 
can, African, and Asian states, as well as our own, 
with the inhumane actions of Soviet communism. 

The critical political and security issues with 
which the United Nations has been concerned, and 
their attendant publicity, tend to overshadow the 
steady advance that is being made through the 
organization on problems of vast concern for 
peoples throughout the world. Important prog- 
ress, for example, is being made in establishing an 
International Atomic Energy Agency and bring- 
ing it into association with the United Nations as 
a new specialized agency. The statute for this 
agency was unanimously approved by the United 
Nations last fall and has just recently been sent by 
President Eisenhower to the Senate for its 
concurrence. ^^ 

New proposals on disarmament were advanced 
in the Eleventh General Assembly by both the 
Soviet Union and the United States. The Dis- 



' Ihid.. Apr. 15, 1957, p. 615. 



armament Subcoimnittee is now meeting in Lon- 
don in a determined effort to find common ground 
on which the beginnings of effective safeguarded 
disarmament and reduction of armed forces can be 
built. Our Government has some optimism that 
the first steps toward agreement may be taken in 
such critical fields as inspection, reduction of 
forces, registration and international observation 
of future nuclear testing, and bringing the nuclear 
threat under control. 

I do not think it too much to say that, in the 
difficult and continuing task of maintaining peace 
in the world and striving toward the weU-being 
and security of mankind, the United Nations is 
playing an indispensable role. It is a vital mech- 
anism for advancing the common interests of the 
free world. 

I have outlined some of the major forces at 
work in the world today, as well as the funda- 
mental elements of our policy. I have also tried 
to give a brief picture of the important problems 
in the various regions of the world as we see 
them. In conclusion I should lake to summarize 
a few of the major aspects of U.S. policies. 

A fundamental aim of our foreign policy is to 
promote the well-being and security of the Amer- 
ican people. Safeguarding the peace through 
development of our own strength and through 
collective security is a principal obligation in the 
world today. We must maintain the capacity to 
respond to any overt attack by the Communist 
powers. We must be prepared to respond with 
certainty, and we must retain flexibility in our 
choice of instruments if we are attacked. At the 
same time we must seek to reduce the risk of con- 
flicts and to promote a retraction of Soviet power. 
We should continue to blunt those forces hostile 
to the free world and work to bring the strong 
forces of nationalism into cooperation with the 
free world. 

It is obvious that this is not a program for a 
single year, or even for a decade. We are living 
in what President Eisenhower once termed "not 
a moment but an age of danger." And we must 
remember that our resources are not endless, our 
power not infinite. We must use our strength to 
make the changing forces proceed in an orderly 
way and in directions compatible with our na- 
tional interests. This is the purpose of your Gov- 
ernment. It is the task of all of us to make the 
best effort of which we are capable. In this way 
we can truly build for peace. 



April 22, ?957 



653 



U.S. Lifts Restrictions on Travel 
to Four Middle East Countries 

Press release 181 dated April 1 

The Department of State on April 1 lifted re- 
strictions placed on travel of U.S. citizens to 
Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Israel. These restric- 
tions were instituted on October 31 and Novem- 
ber 2, 1956,^ in view of the outbreak of hostilities 
in the Middle East. 

Authorization has also been granted for return 
of evacuated U.S. official personnel and their de- 
pendents to posts in the four countries. 

Holders of passports which bear endorsements 
invalidating them for travel in Egypt, Syria, Jor- 
dan, and Israel or authorizing travel in one or 
more of these countries for a limited period may 
present them in person or by mail to the Passport 
Office of the Department of State at Washington, 
D. C, or to the passport agencies at Boston, New 
York, Chicago, New Orleans, Los Angeles, or San 
Francisco to have these endorsements voided. 
Persons abroad may present their passports to 
American Foreign Service offices. 



Murder of U.S. Technicians 
in Iran 

Press release 178 dated March 28 

The Department of State has learned with great 
sorrow and concern of the murder in Iran of Kevin 
Carroll, an official of the International Coopera- 
tion Administration, and Brewster Wilson, of the 
Near East Foundation, and the presumed abduc- 
tion of Mrs. Carroll, apparently by bandits. 

The Iranian Government, through the Iranian 
Ambassador at Washington, Ali iVmini, and 
through the U.S. Embassy at Tehran, has ex- 
pressed the deep regrets of His Majesty the Shah, 
the Prime Minister, and the Government of Iran 
and has given firm assurances that every effort 
is being made to apprehend the bandits and to 
secure the release of Mrs. Carroll. 

The Iranian Government has ordered full mo- 
bilization of police facilities, including aircraft, 
and has dispatched Maj. Gen. Ali Qoli Golpira, 
Chief of the Iranian Gendarmerie, to Zahedan to 
direct the pursuit. Facilities and personnel of 
American official missions in Iran have likewise 



' BuiXETiN of Nov. 12, 1956, p. 756. 
654 



been made available to cooperate with the Iranian 
Government. 

Secretary Dulles and Ica Director John B. Hol- 
lister have written to the families of Mr. Carroll 
and Mr. Wilson to express their condolences. The 
Department of State is keeping in close touch 
with the family of Mrs. Carroll concerning de- 
velopments as the search goes on. 

Kevin Carroll and Brewster Wilson died while 
serving the best interests of their Government and 
their country. The Department of State pays 
tribute to their distinguished service, while 
mourning the tragic sacrifice it has exacted from 
them and their families. 



U.S. Reaffirms Continuation 
of Aid to Iran 

Press release 1S5 dated April 2 

The Department of State on April 2 reaffirmed 
that there has been no suspension of technical and 
economic assistance to Iran following the recent 
tragic deaths of Mr. and Mrs. Kevin Carroll and 
Brewster Wilson. Steps have been taken to re- 
strict the travel of personnel in the area where 
the tragedy occurred. This was an administra- 
tive action to protect the safety of members, both 
Iranian and American, of the U.S. Operations 
Mission in that particular area. 

The Department has expressed its appreciation 
for the great efforts of His Majesty the Shah, the 
Prime Minister, and the Government of Iran to 
locate and free Mrs. Carroll before her death was 
confirmed, and for their continuing efforts to ap- 
prehend and punish the bandit murderers. 



Current Developments in Hungary 

Pross release l>s,S dated April .'> 

In a joint declaration with the Soviet Govern- 
ment at Moscow on March 28 the Kadar regime 
lias again denied the competence of the United 
Nations in the problem of Hungary. It has again 
falsified the record by alleging that the Hungarian 
uprising of October-November was a Fascist 
counterrevolution unleashed by the United States. 

But the record is clear. The uprising was 
spontaneous. It was supported by the entire na- 
tion. It was crushed only by the intervention of 
Soviet armed forces. In these circumstances, the 

Department of Slate Bulletin 



continued presence of Soviet forces in Hungary 
and the systematic repression of the Hungarian 
people constitute an open confession by the Kadar 
regime that it does not have the confidence of the 
people and cannot exist without the protection of 
Soviet troops. 

The Kadar regime has vengefully sought to 
identify, seize, and punish those wlio took any part 
in the uprising of October-November. It has 
carried out arrests of Hungarian citizens on a 
mass scale. It has reinstituted by decree the 
cruel practice of banishment. It has ordered all 
residents of Hungary to report to the police for 
a check of identity cards. It has made clear in 
public statements that Soviet troops will remain 
in Hungary indefuiitely for the purpose of pro- 
tecting the regime and intimidating the Hun- 
garian people. 

These events can only be regarded as further 
steps toward the complete suppression of all hu- 
man rights and liberties in Hungaiy. They 
mark a reversion to some of the worst practices 
of the Stalinist terror in that country and stand 
in ironic contrast to the celebration by Commun- 
ists on April 4 of the "liberation"' of Hungary by 
Soviet armed forces in 1945. 

We believe that these developments will be of 
concern to the Special Committee established by 
the United Nations General Assembly on January 
10 to investigate the problem of Hungary.^ The 
Conunittee will report its findings to the General 
Assembly, which remains seized of the problem 
of Himgary. 



Escapee Program Marks 
Fifth Anniversary 

Press release 170 dated March 22 

The United States Escapee Program marked its 
5th amiiversary on March 22. 

Now located in the Office of Refugee and Mi- 
gration Affairs, Department of State, headed by 
Robert S. McCoUum, the Escapee Program has 
returned to the Department, where it first oper- 
ated after its creation in 1952. It was established 
under the Mutual Security Act and has been con- 
tinued by annual appropriations. The program 
was transferred in 1956 f I'om the International Co- 
operation Administration to the newly created Of- 

' BirLLETiN of .Ian. 28, 1957, p. 138. 



fice of Refugee and Migration Affairs in the Bu- 
reau of Security and Consular Affairs.^ 

Mr. McCollum, now on a survey of the escapee 
situation in Europe and the Near East, pointed 
out in a departure statement on Mai'ch 15 that 
a highlight of the Escapee Program's achievements 
came with the care, maintenance, transportation, 
and resettlement assistance it provided during the 
recent outpouring of escapees as a result of the 
Hungarian revolt. 

Assistance by the Escapee Program supplements 
programs of local governments of asylum and of 
international and voluntary organizations engaged 
in refugee service. Resettlement of escapees 
aided by the program may be in any country where 
anti-Communist refugees are welcome to reestab- 
lish themselves as self-sufficient citizens of the 
free world. 

Of approximately 255,000 escapees from Iron 
Curtain countries — including Hungarians — 160,- 
000 have had some of the services of the Escapee 
Program. These services range from welcoming 
kits containing items for personal comfort, clean- 
liness, and convenience for those newly arrived in 
the free world, on through further care, mainte- 
nance, and transportation, to full reestablishment, 
in many cases, in countries of destination. 

The Escapee Program has played a major role 
in resettling about half the nearly 88,000 escapees 
who have gone to the United States, Canada, Aus- 
tralia, and to certain countries in South America 
and participated with other organizations in as- 
sisting the other half. The progi-am has also had 
part in the resettlement of 54,000 in Western Eu- 
rope. Some 113,000 have not been permanently 
resettled in any one spot. They are m temjjorary 
locations pending final destination. 

Of the Office of Refugee and Migration Af- 
fairs, Mr. McCollum has said : "I hope in this area 
we may bring into focus for constructive consid- 
eration and action the many aspects of America's 
interests in escapees, refugees, and general migra- 
tion problems. 

"The United States must continue to exert lead- 
ership in the humanitarian as well as the economic 
and military fields. To justify our position and 
reputation in the free world, we must not fail to 
recognize that men and women everywhere are 
entitled to live in freedom, with dignity and with 
opportunities to improve their stations in life." 

' Bulletin of Apr. 16, 1956, p. 651. 



April 22, 1957 



655 



He asserted that the worldwide problem of refu- 
gees cannot be dealt with adequately by short- 
term planning, adding that "as long as oppressive 
dictatorships exist, as long as basic individual 
freedoms are denied, there will be people who flee 
to seek better lives and, thereby, create new refugee 
problems. 

"Pleased as we may be about our country's part 
in accepting Hungarian escapees, we must combat 
any tendency to talk in terms of Hungarians only," 
Mr. McCollum cautioned. "The whole picture de- 
serves constant emphasis. What of the millions 
of refugees from other countries?" 

Pointing out that the United States has played 
leading roles in refugee problems from 1938 on, he 
stated that "Congress is now facing the continuing 
challenge of further action." Citing President 
Eisenhower's recent recommendation to Congress 
for "permanent legislation so that administrative 
authorities are in a position to act promptly . . . 
in facing [escapee] emergencies which may arise 
in the future," ^ Mr. McCollum said : 

"Our record of the past joins the issue of today. 
We have performed with credit. There can be 
no letting down. We must keep trying to alleviate 
the plight of the longtime refugee. We are bend- 
ing every effort, with available legislation, to help 
in resettlement and integration. This continues 
a world challenge and a challenge to the United 
States to continue its leadership. Most of all we 
must value a long-range policy, flexible to meet 
any contingency, at the same time affording con- 
tinuity of planning." 



U.S. Delegations to 
International Conferences 

Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion 

The Department of State announced on March 
28 (press release 177) that Scott McLeod, Ad- 
ministrator of the Bureau of Security and Con- 
sular Affairs, will head a 14-man U.S. delegation 
to the meeting of the sixth session of the Council 
of the Intergovernmental Committee for Euro- 

' Ibid., Feb. 18, 1957, p. 247. 



pean Migration (Icem) to be held at Geneva, 
Switzerland, April 8-13, 1957. The Council 
meeting will be preceded by a week's meeting of 
the 9-member Executive Committee, convening 
on March 28. 

Francis E. Walter and Kenneth B. Keating, 
U. S. House of Representatives, will serve as al- 
ternate delegates to Mr. McLeod. 

Public members who will serve as advisers are : 
Harold J. Gallagher, New York City, attorney; 
Mrs. Edwin I. Hilson, New York City; Judge 
Charles Rosenbaum, Denver, Colo., attorney; 
Nick I. Stepanovich, East Chicago, Ind., attor- 
ney ; and Maj. Frederick SuUens, editor, Jackson, 
Miss., Daily News. 

Other advisers to the Council meeting are: 
Robert S. McCollum, Deputy Administrator, 
Office of Refugee and Migration Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State; Walter M. Besterman, legal as- 
sistant. House Judiciary Committee; William F. 
Heimlich, consultant. Senate Judiciary Commit- 
tee ; and Pierce J. Gerety, consultant. Department 
of State. 

George L. Warren, Adviser on Refugees and 
Migration, Department of State, will serve as 
acting U.S. representative to the Executive Com- 
mittee meeting and as principal adviser to Mr. 
McLeod at the Coimcil meeting. Elmer M. Falk, 
Office of International Administration, Depart- 
ment of State, will also act as adviser at both 
meetings. 

Icem, with funds supplied by 27 member gov- 
ernments, is continuing the extensive program 
undertaken in 1956 of transporting Hungarian 
refugees from Austria to countries of temporary 
or permanent asylum. 

On the initiative of the United States, Icem 
was established in 1951 to help relocate Europe's 
surplus manpower and refugees. The principal 
places of relocation providing new homelands 
and jobs are in Australia, Canada, and various 
South American countries. 

Agenda items for the forthcoming meetings 
include a report by the director of Icem on the 
work undertaken in 1956, a revised plan of opera- 
tions, and budget and planning of expenditures 
for 1957. Another item on the agenda is the 
problem of moving Hungarian refugees from 
Yugoslavia and Austria. 



656 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Advantages to the United States of Membership 
in Proposed Organization for Trade Cooperation 



MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS' 



To THE COXGEESS OF THE UnITED StATES : 

The Secretary of Commerce is submitting for 
consideration by the Congress legislation to au- 
thorize United States membership in the Organi- 
zation for Trade Cooperation.- 

I urge its favorable consideration. 

The advantages to the United States of mem- 
bership in the Organization for Trade Coopera- 
tion are compelling. It would open the way to 
major benefits for American trade by providing 
day to day review and consultation on administra- 
tion of our trade agreements. It would provide 
machinery for closer supervision and protection 
of the assurances contained in those agreements 
against discriminatory treatment of American 
exports, and thus increase the benefits we receive 
from those agreements. It would enable us more 
effectively to encourage the opening of new op- 
portunities for our exports to compete in the 
Avorld market on their commercial merit. 

Foreign trade is a major economic activity in 
the United States. In 1956 our merchandise ex- 
ports, excluding goods shipped under military as- 
sistance programs, amounted to over 17 billion 
dollars. They constituted a greater proportion of 
our gross national product than the value of all 
non-farm residential construction last year. In 
the field of agriculture alone exports provide the 
market for the product of about 40 million acres 
of land. 



' White House press release dated Apr. 3 ; transmitted 
on Apr. 3 (H. Doe. 14C, 8.5th Cong., 1st sess.). 

^ For text of OTC agreement, see Bulletin of Apr. 4, 
1955, p. 579. 



Because exports take only part of the produc- 
tion of most of our industries and farms, and be- 
cause they move through so many stages of proc- 
essing and handling on their way to foreign 
markets, we frequently overlook their importance. 
But they are vital to the welfare of our agricul- 
ture, labor and industry. 

America's foreign trade has grown rapidly 
under our Reciprocal Trade Agreements Program. 
This program has been in effect for more than 
20 years, but since 1946 its principal vehicle has 
been a multilateral agreement known as the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, signed by 
all the major trading nations of the world. 

That agreement gives to the United States im- 
portant tariff and other concessions, but some of 
the benefits of these concessions to our export 
trade have been offset by such measures as quotas, 
licenses, and exchange restrictions. These meas- 
ures have imder various circumstances had the 
effect of discriminating against United States ex- 
ports, and limiting the benefits of tariff conces- 
sions which we received under the General 
Agreement. 

The General Agreement provides for the 
orderly elimination of this discrimination against 
our trade, but, because of inadequate machinery 
for administration, these provisions have not 
been fully effective. 

The Organization for Trade Cooperation, by 
making possible more business-like administra- 
tion of those provisions of the General Agree- 
ment, will help to make our trade agreements 
more fully effective and assist us in expanding 



April 22, 1957 



657 



our markets abroad for United States products. 
At the preseiit time, administration of the Gen- 
eral Agreement is limited by the fact that the 
signatories meet only intermittently. 

In my Message of April 14, 1955,^ I reviewed 
the evolution of the General Agreement and the 
developments whicli led to the proposal for an 
Organization for Trade Cooperation. That 
Message was followed by exhaustive hearings be- 
fore the Committee on Ways and Means of the 
House of Kepresentatives * and in April 1956 
that Committee approved a bill to authorize 
United States membership in the proposed 
Organization. 

In reporting last year's biU the Committee on 
Ways and Means inserted a number of construc- 
tive amendments to assure that participation by 
the United States in the Organization for Trade 
Cooperation would relate solely to matters per- 
taining to international trade and that safe- 
guards for domestic producers contained in our 
present trade legislation would be maintained 
unimpaired. These amendments have been 
strengthened and included in this year's bill. 

The proposal being submitted by the Secretary 
of Commerce contains two new features not 
found in the bill approved by the Committee on 
Ways and Means last year. These are designed 
to provide further safeguards to insure that 
United States participation in the proposed Or- 
ganization will be responsive to the problems and 
needs of American agriculture, labor and in- 
dustry. The first is a provision to create an ad- 
visory committee consisting of representatives of 
American labor, industry, agriculture and the 
public to advise and consult with the United 
States chief representative on matters coming be- 
fore the Organization. The second is a provision 
under which the United States chief representa- 
tive would make an annual report to the Presi- 
dent for transmittal to the Congress concerning 



' lUd., Apr. 25, 1955, p. 678. 

' For statements by Secretary Dulles and Secretary 
o( Commerce Sinclair Weeks, see ibid., Mar. 19, 195C, 
p. 472. 



the effect of the activities of the Organization for 
Trade Cooperation on American labor, industry 
and agriculture. 

In addition, the proposal contains provisions 
further clarifying the substantive safeguards al- 
ready endorsed by the Committee on Ways and 
Means by explicitly stating that its enactment 
will not authorize, directly or indirectly, any fur- 
ther tariff reduction or other tariff concession by 
the United States not elsewhere authorized by 
the Congress. 

The recent development of proposals for a com- 
mon market and free trade area place Western 
Europe on the threshold of a great new move- 
ment toward economic integration. The Otc 
will help to assure that this movement will de- 
velop in ways beneficial to our trade and that of 
other free countries, avoiding the danger that 
regional trade arrangement will lead to new bar- 
riers and discriminations against our exports. 

To achieve our objectives, it is essential that the 
United States chief representative to the Organ- 
ization for Trade Cooperation be a person of 
wide experience in practical business matters, and 
that the members of the Advisory Committee 
likewise have had practical experience in their 
respective fields. I intend to appoint the Secre- 
tary of Commerce as Chairman of the Advisory 
Committee. 

Tlie foreign trade policies of the United States 
are based upon our reciprocal trade legislation 
and the agreements that have been negotiated 
under it. Until we establish the best possible 
machinery for administration of these agree- 
ments, we are needlessly failing to obtain their 
maximum possible benefits for American labor, 
industry, and agriculture. With membership in 
tlie proposed Otc we will be in the strongest 
possible position to achieve the full benefits that 
these agreements afford. 

I recommend the early enactment of this 
proposal. 

DwiGHT D. ElSENH0\VER 

TirE White House, 
April 3, 1957. 



658 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Principles of U.S. Foreign Economic Policy 



Statement hy Thorsten Y. Kalijari'l 
Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs ^ 



I am appearing today in response to the com- 
mittee's request for the Department of State to 
present its views on aspects of our foreign eco- 
nomic policy which serve to build a world of free 
peoples. Other officials of the Department have 
previously appeared to discuss the Soviet eco- 
nomic system. 

My statement will describe for you how the 
United States, through its economic policies, is 
contributing to a strong community of free- world 
nations based upon the system of free private 
enterprise, a free flow of capital and exchange of 
industrial and other techniques, and a mutually 
profitable and expanding trade among the na- 
tions of the free world. There is a marlied con- 
trast between the Soviet system and ours which 
will be developed in this statement. Our major 
free-world partners, such as the United King- 
dom, are of course also vitally interested in a 
strong free world and are working to this end. 
However, I wisli today to limit myself primarily 
to our own economic policies. 

First, to contrast these systems in general. As 
has been pointed out in earlier testimony, the eco- 
nomic diplomacy of the U.S.S.E. has as its aim 
furtherance of Soviet-brand communism. Its 
immediate objectives are to weaken the cohesion 
of the free world, to intensify neutralism, and to 
encourage countries to look to the Soviets for aid 
and leadership. Its long-range objective is to 
subvert and communize any nation which appears 
to be a likely political target. Its dream of an 

' Made before the Subcommittee on International Or- 
ganizations and Movements of the House Committee on 
Foreign Affairs on Apr. 3 (press release 187). 



ideal world is a politico-economic system planned 
and controlled from the Kremlin. 

The aim of the United States in the conduct 
of our foreign economic policy has been to work 
not for enslavement of other j^eoples but for their 
freedom. Our immediate aims are to work with 
free peoples everywhere in helping to improve 
standards of living and to provide people with 
greater opportunities to develop their abilities 
and enrich their contributions to human life. 
Our long-range objective is to help make it pos- 
sible for people throughout the world to choose 
the course of freedom independent of foreign 
domination or ideological slavery. Our aim is a 
world community of free and prosperous nations 
bound together by peaceful ties of trade, of mu- 
tual helpfulness, and of common ideals of human 
dignity. Thus conceived, the foreign economic 
policy of the United States has as its aim the 
"building of a world of free peoples." 

Let us turn to three major aspects of our 
foreign economic policy that contribute to this 
overall aim, namely: (1) the encouragement of 
free competitive enterprise abroad; (2) the en- 
couragement of the flow of capital and technical 
assistance abroad; and (3) the promotion of an 
expanding world trade. 

Encouraging Free Competitive Enterprise Abroad 

First let us consider our policy of encouraging 
competitive enterprise in the free world. 

As the committee is aware, there is no place 
for free enterprise in the Soviet economy. The 
monolithic Soviet state owns all the land, all the 



kptW 22, 7957 



659 



factories, and all the mines. Economic decisions 
are made by the Government, taking into account 
first the requirements of the Soviet state and giv- 
ing only secondary consideration to the needs of 
the individual. Government ministries and agen- 
cies have absolute control over the entire economy. 
Both managers and worlvers are subject to the 
fullest kind of regimentation. Coercion is one of 
the principal means employed to obtain maxi- 
mum effort from tlie Soviet worker. 

Before proceeding to a description of the free- 
enterprise system, it is useful to point out that 
our economy has not developed in the way which 
Karl Marx envisaged as the inevitable course for 
a capitalist society. He did not conceive of the 
kind of evolutionary development which has 
taken place. The violent explosions and up- 
heavals which he prophesied have not occurred. 
The free-enterprise system was supposed to be 
predatory but instead has provided a higher 
standard of living for all members of our so- 
ciety than at any time in the history of mankind. 

In contrast with the Soviet economic system, 
the free competitive enterprise system is a reflec- 
tion of the basic philosophy of democratic gov- 
ernment. The foundation of such a system is the 
sanctity of private property, whether it be a fac- 
tory or a farm. Competitive enterprise in a 
democracy is thoroughly responsive to the needs 
and interests of all citizens. It is a vigorous and 
dynamic system which stimulates changes and 
progress. This system encourages initiative, in- 
ventiveness, and greater productivity by the in- 
dividual through affording him better opportuni- 
ties to utilize his talents and to improve his per- 
sonal status and well-being. Personal motivation 
to do a good job is inherent in the free com- 
petitive enterprise system because both the em- 
ployer and the employee know their compensa- 
tion is determined by the play of economic forces, 
not by arbitrary decisions of the state. The re- 
sult is a maximum of production from a given 
set of resources and a high standard of living. 

The essential characteristics of this system 
which produce these results are the following: 
first, ingenuity and risk-taking by management, 
which results in the development of new indus- 
tries, the introduction of new products, and the 
use of improved methods of production; second, 
competition in the market place, which serves as 
a major stimulus to efficient production, lower 



costs, and lower prices; and, third, protection of 
workers' rights through their participation in 
free independent labor unions. 

Let me now mention some of the significant 
activities within tlie free nations of the world 
which serve to promote a system of competitive 
enterprise and which it is the policy of the United 
States to encourage. Of considerable significance 
are the European Coal and Steel Commimity and 
the proposed European Common Market, both 
of which have as their principal economic goal 
the elimination of both public and private bar- 
riers to trade among the six member countries as 
a means of stimulating more efficient production 
and improving standards of living. Worthy of 
mention is the fact that several Western European 
countries, within the framework of the Organiza- 
tion for European Economic Cooperation, have 
established national programs to improve indus- 
trial efficiency and increase productivity. A num- 
ber of these same countries have enacted anticartel 
legislation designed to remove private restraints 
on production and trade. Particularly note- 
worthy is recent legislation adopted by the United 
Kingdom which promises to be one of the most 
effective anticartel laws yet enacted in Western 
Europe. Also of importance are the efforts being 
undei'taken to develop free labor unions and con- 
structive management-labor relations. 

It should be emphasized that in our encourage- 
ment of free enterprise abroad the United States 
fidly recognizes the riglit of other countries to 
determine their own forms of economic organiza- 
tion. Wlaat we want is for other peoples to have 
confidence in their innate capacities for economic 
progress through free institutions of their own. 

The problem of encouraging competitive free 
enterprise in liighly developed economies must of 
necessity differ substantially from the problem of 
encouraging it in countries with less developed 
economies. Productivity in these latter countries 
is generally very low. As a rule, it is inhibited 
by a shortage of administrative and managerial 
skills, by a shortage of capital for investment, and 
by a complex of public and private attitudes to- 
ward economic life which sometimes results in 
restrictive, high-cost production. One of the ma- 
jor problems, therefore, is producing changes in 
basic attitudes which will in time lead to changes 
in economic and business practices. A number 
of the less developed countries have attempted 



660 



Departmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



to meet their problems by socialist devices, that is, 
government ownership or close control of basic 
industries or portions of them. This is not nec- 
essarily a manifestation of an ideology approach- 
ing commmiism. These governments apparently 
have determmed that such action is necessitated 
by the economic facts of life with which they are 
confronted and that only thus can economic de- 
velopment be guided and achieved. It is impor- 
tant for us to understand these motivations in 
order to work effectively with these countries. 

Expanding the Flow of Capital 

Let us next take up the second main aspect of 
our foreign economic policy which contributes to 
the objective of building a world of free peoples, 
namely, the encouragement of the flow of capital 
and tecluiical assistance abroad. The need for 
expanding the flow of capital to the free nations 
will be considered first. 

As the conunittee knows, developing economies 
need capital. Literally many countries, particu- 
larly the less developed ones, are capital starved. 
Recognizing this fact late in 1955, the U.S.S.R. 
began to exploit this situation by making attrac- 
tive offers of credits to these countries. Substan- 
tial credits have now been granted to a number 
of carefully selected "political targets" outside 
the Soviet bloc. 

The United States also has been aware of the 
needs of other free nations for capital and, as a 
matter of fact, was doing something to meet these 
needs long before the Soviets. Thus, the United 
States has undertaken many measures to encour- 
age private investment abroad on a basis which 
contributes to efficient growth of the industries 
of otlier free countries. "We are negotiatmg 
"friendship, comnierce and navigation" treaties to 
establish an environment favorable to interna- 
tional investment and tax treaties for the avoid- 
ance of double taxation; we are offering govern- 
ment guaranties to private investors against the 
hazards of inconvertibility, expropriation, and 
war ; we continue to provide a variety of informa- 
tion services to facilitate private foreign invest- 
ment. We have taken the initiative in the estab- 
lishment of the International Finance Corpora- 
tion, which has been organized as an affiliate of 
the International Bank. The purpose of the Cor- 
poration is to encourage the growth of productive 
private enterprise, especially in the less developed 



countries. To do this, the Corporation will in- 
vest in private undertakings in association with 
private investors and will revolve its investments 
by selling them to other private investors. 

At this stage, however, private-enterprise capi- 
tal can do only a part of the job. In the newly 
emerged countries of Asia and Africa the primary 
need is for basic development projects: power, 
communications, irrigation, and transportation — ■ 
fields to which private capital is not likely to be 
attracted in sufficient quantities. Public funds 
are therefore necessary. This Government con- 
tinues to invest public funds through the Exim- 
BANK in meritorious development projects abroad 
for which private funds are not available. We 
give full support to the development lending of 
the International Bank. Through the mutual 
security program the United States is providing 
commodities and services to help friendly coun- 
tries maintain adequate defense establishments. 
In addition, we are providing capital for devel- 
opment assistance in the form of loans repayable 
in local currency and, where necessary, as grants 
to those countries whose economic strength cannot 
be built up with adequate speed wholly by the 
normal processes of trade and investment. 

Our surplus foods and fibers are being used to 
relieve distress abroad arising from famine or 
other urgent difficulties. We are also lending 
back to the nations buying our surplus agricul- 
tural commodities a substantial portion of the 
proceeds of the sales for the purpose of investment 
in economic development projects. 

Technical Assistance 

In addition to encouraging the flow of capital 
abroad, we must also give technical assistance to 
the nations of the free world. This is particu- 
larly true of the underdeveloped countries, which 
are in great need of know-how and managerial 
skills. 

Teclmical assistance is a relatively new field for 
the Soviets, but they are expanding it rapidly in 
anticipation of a future payoff in political bene- 
fits. In this field also the Soviets are concentrat- 
ing their efforts in the less developed countries. 
At this time the Soviets probably hope to reduce 
or eliminate our influence in certain areas of the 
free world and at the same time build up a reser- 
voir of good will for the U.S.S.R. 

Our teclmical-assistance activities are a very 



April 22, 7957 



661 



important complement to the economic aid pro- 
gram. Big dividends have accrued from the 
relatively small investment in technical assistance. 
Through bilateral arrangements vrith our free 
partners the United States has established agri- 
cultural, health, education, and other types of 
projects in virtually every free nation m the 
world. The United States also participates in 
multilateral programs of sharing teclmical skills. 
Among the most important of these is the United 
Nations Expanded Program of Teclmical Assist- 
ance. Experts have been recruited from 77 coun- 
tries to help provide technical education in vari- 
ous forms. 

In addition, the United States has supported the 
establislmient of an International Atomic Energy 
Agency to make nuclear technology widely avail- 
able in all its peaceful aspects and to allocate 
fissionable materials for benign uses. We are 
providing technical assistance in nuclear science, 
and we have given financial support for the in- 
stallation abroad of reactors suitable for research 
in tlie peaceful uses of atomic energy. American 
industry is also playing an important role in the 
technical-assistance program by sharing its latest 
techniques and processes with other free 
countries. 

Promoting World Trade 

Now let us turn to the third main aspect of our 
foreign economic policy which contributes to the 
aim of building a world of free peoples — the pro- 
motion of world trade. In no place is there 
a sharper contrast between the policies and prac- 
tices of the U.S.S.R. and the United States than 
in the trade field. This contrast is, in a sense, a 
reflection of the two economic systems. 

There is, of course, no place for the private 
trader in the foreign trade of the Soviet Union. 
All Soviet foreign trade is completely regimented 
and carried on through a state trading apparatus. 
As a result, in this field as in every otlier field of 
Soviet foreign economic policy, political motives 
are predominant in tliat the Soviet leaders select 
countries to trade with wliich they feel they can 
influence by economic deals. For example, bulk 
purchases from free-world countries are often 
timed for maximum political effect. In their ef- 
forts to expand trade with the free world, the 
Soviets have depended primarily on bilateral 
trade agreements and specific barter deals. 



By way of contrast, the nature of our com- 
petitive enterprise system determines in large 
part the manner in which we conduct our foreign 
trade. Most of our foreign trade is carried on 
by private traders. Their decisions are based 
largely on considerations of the market place, not 
on political motivations. 

As a matter of governmental trade policy the 
United States has sought to achieve an expanding 
world trade through international cooperation as 
a stimulant to our own economic growth and 
security as well as that of other free nations. Its 
objective is to minimize government controls 
over trade so that the influence of the market 
place may have its maximum impact. 

The United States is doing this in recognition 
of the basic mutual benefits which flow from 
trade among coimtries. Through the process of 
international specialization, the countries of the 
free world are interdependent for sources of ma- 
terials and goods and for markets for the goods 
which they produce. Through international 
trade, countries in effect increase their produc- 
tivity by marketing those things which they pro- 
duce in surplus and buying those things which 
they cannot produce efficiently. A country may 
be able to achieve a considerable amount of self- 
sufficiency through severe restrictions to trade, 
but no country is so blessed with resources that 
it could do so without sacrificing a degree of eco- 
nomic well-being and economic development. 

In addition, with ample opportunities for trad- 
ing witli tlie United States and with each other, 
the countries of the free world can better resist 
the pressures, both from tlieir own commercial in- 
terests and increasingly from the Soviet Union, 
to become dependent on trade with the countries 
of the Communist bloc. This issue is particu- 
larly crucial in the underdeveloped areas of the 
free world, which are feeling tlie brunt of the 
Soviet economic offensive. Some of these coun- 
tries in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East now 
have very substantial trade with the Soviet bloc. 

As a means of developing mutually beneficial 
trade, the United States pioneered in promoting 
cooperative action in the trade field when it 
adopted the reciprocal trade agreements program 
in 1934. By 1945 the United States had signed 
bilateral trade agreements with 29 countries. 
Bilateralism in trade relations gave way to multi- 
lateralism after World War II because experi- 



662 



Deparfmenf of Stale Bulletin 



ence had shown that the complex problems of 
international trade could not be dealt with ef- 
fectively on a bilateral basis. The product of 
this experience was the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade, to which there are 35 sig- 
natories, including the major trading nations of 
the free world. 

By the establishment of accepted principles of 
trade policy and procedures for resolving trade 
disputes, a measure of stability in world trade lias 
been created which has contributed significantly 
to its overall expansion. 

In conclusion, I think it is clear that the vari- 
ous aspects of our foi'eign economic policy which 



have been discussed here will help the nations of 
the free world the better to resist the Communist 
challenge. However, it is important to stress the 
fact that this Government has a deep-seated and 
enduring interest in the economic growtli and de- 
velopment of other free nations, quite apart from 
the important political problem of resisting the 
spread of communism. In other words, we are 
seeking to better the economic status of the people 
of all free nations, not just to be in opposition to 
something but because we sincerely believe it is a 
positive good. If we are successful in these ef- 
forts, I believe that this nation will have made a 
significant contribution to the building of a world 
of free peoples. 



Limitations on Travel of American Citizens Abroad and on Cultural Exchanges 



STATEMENT BY DEPUTY UNDER SECRETARY 
MURPHY' 

It is a privilege to have this opportunity to ap- 
pear before you and to review with you the ques- 
tion of the limitations imposed by the Depax'tment 
of State on the travel of American citizens abroad 
and certain related matters bearing on the ex- 
change of persons between the United States and 
other countries. 

Also at your express wish, Mr. Chairman, I 
shall review the question of the ban on travel to 
Communist China of American newsmen and ad- 
dress myself to the policy aspects of limitations 
on overseas travel of Americans and on cultural 
exchanges generally. 

There is an accumulation of tradition as to ex- 
actly what a passport is and what rights citizens 
bearing passports have. The basic passport law 
dates back to 1856, although passports have been 
issued by the Secretary of State since the found- 
ing of the country. In fact, Congress enacted 
legislation in 1803 and in 1815 which specifically 



' Made before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee 
on Apr. 2 (press release 182). 



took cognizance of the fact that the Secretary 
issued passports under his general authority to 
conduct foreign relations. 

In 1856 the Congress also recognized that the 
President was i-esponsible for the protection of 
American citizens abroad. This responsibility 
was later specifically assigned to the President by 
an act of Congress on July 27, 1868, by which 
the President was authorized to take measures 
"not amounting to acts of war" to insure the re- 
lease of any American citizen "mijustly deprived 
of his liberty by or under the authority of any 
foreign government." 

Although the Congress recognizes the Presi- 
dent's obligation to protect American citizens 
abroad and to secure their release when unjustly 
held by foreign governments. Congress has tradi- 
tionally recognized the Secretary of State's au- 
thority to issue passports. This was most recently 
reflected by an act of Congress of July 3, 1926. 
This act states that the Secretary or his designated 
representative may grant and issue passports 
"under such rules as the President shall designate 
and prescribe for and on behalf of the United 
States." 



April 22, 1957 



663 



Discretionary Control Over Issuance and Validation 
of Passports 

The Secretary of State historically has decided 
which citizens should receive passports and for 
what countries their passports should be vali- 
dated. =^ Under section 51.135 of the Department 
of State Regulations, as amended January 10, 
1956, passports are denied to members of the Com- 
munist Party and to certain other citizens who 
support the Communist movement. In addition, 
section 51.136 proscribes the issuance of passports 
to certain other individuals. This regulation 
states : 

In order to promote and safeguard the interests of the 
United States, passport facilities, except for direct and 
immediate return to the United States, will be refused 
to a person when it appears to the satisfaction of the 
Secretary of State that the person's activities abroad 
would: (1) violate the laws of the United States; (2) be 
prejudicial to the orderly conduct of foreign relations; 
or (3) otherwise be prejudicial to the interests of the 
United States. 

In addition to his discretionary control over 
which individual citizens are issued passports, the 
Secretary of State may also decide which coun- 
tries they may visit. This takes the form of a vali- 
dation stamp in each passport, stating which coun- 
tries may or may not be visited. Policy decisions 
as to which countries are intended in the ban are 
continually reviewed in the light of current de- 
velopments. During wartime, passports are vali- 
dated for relatively few coimtries and close check 
is kept on which areas are safe for American 
travel. During World War II, for example, 
American passports were only good for 6 months 
and were taken up at the frontiers when citizens 
returned to the United States. 

Generally speaking, the United States will not 
validate passports for travel to countries with 
which we do not have diplomatic relations. 
Americans traveling to such countries cannot be 
extended the usual protection offered American 
citizens and property abroad by our embassies 
and consulates abroad. At the present time, the 
following inscription is printed in every United 
States passport : 

This passport is not valid for travel to the following 
areas under control of authorities with which the United 
States does not have diplomatic relations: Albania, Bul- 
garia, and those portions of China, Korea and Vietnam 
under Communist control. 



" For text of passport regulations, see 22 Code of Federal 
Uegulations 51.135 through 51.143. 



In addition to not validating passports for coun- 
tries with which we have no diplomatic relations, 
the Secretary of State may, from time to time, de- 
cide that the safety of American citizens cannot 
be fully protected in certain countries. Tliis is 
one of the reasons for the present ban on travel to 
Hmigary ^ and the recent ban on travel to the four 
nations in the Middle East — Israel, Egypt, Jor- 
dan, and Syria. The Secretai-y of State, while 
considering it advisable not to validate passports 
for Hungary, for example, nevertheless retains 
the right to except certain groups, whose travel to 
those areas would be in the interests of the United 
States. Groups often excepted in such cases are 
Eed Cross and relief workers, priests and mis- 
sionaries, and the press. 

When the Secretary believes that the current 
situation in any particular country is stable once 
more, he then may lift the ban on travel there 
either for particular groups or for all citizens. 
Yesterday, as the most recent case in point, the 
situation in the Middle East was considered to 
have stabilized sufficiently for the four-country 
ban to be removed.* 

One reason for not allowing citizens to travel to 
certain countries, in addition to the safety of the 
individuals involved, is the psychological pres- 
sure which can be brought to bear on a country by 
not allowing Americans to enter it. For example, 
the United States cut off travel to Czechoslovakia 
after United States newpaperman William Oatis 
was imprisoned. The unfavorable publicity re- 
ceived by the Czechs abroad and their desire to 
have American newsmen and tourists visit Czech- 
oslovakia undoubtedly contributed to the release 
of Mr. Oatis.^ Such pressure would have been im- 
possible had the Secretary not had the authority to 
stop travel to Czechoslovakia. 

Ban on Travel to Communist China 

As a specific case history, the committee may 
wish to have a brief analysis of the policy reasons 
why Americans are not permitted to travel to 
Communist China, beyond the reasons that we 

'' For text of U.S. note to Hungary concerning reinstitu- 
tiou of passport validation requirements, see Bulletin of 
Feb. 13, 1956, p. 246. 

' See p. 654. 

"For Department statement on prohibition of travel 
to Czechoslovakia, see Bulletin of .June 11, 1051, p. 932 ; 
for Department announcement on release of William N. 
Oatis, see ibid., June 1, 1953, p. 785. 



664 



Department of State Bulletin 



have no diplomatic relations with it. Public at- 
tention has been focused on the refusal to author- 
ize travel by newsmen, but I sliould make it clear 
that this applies to all other citizens as well. 

Many other categories of travelers — mission- 
aries, scholars, educators, public officials, relatives 
of imprisoned Americans — have been refused 
passports to Communist China. Let me put it this 
way : the special advantages or disadvantages of 
allowing any one group to travel there were not 
the governing factor. The decision, and the rea- 
sons behind it, applied equally to all Americans. 

And let me make one other point clear before 
giving those reasons: the skill and impartiality 
of American correspondents were never a point 
at issue. The vital importance of a full flow of 
information about conditions in mainland China 
has been recognized throughout. 

The reasons, stemming from fundamental 
United States foreign policy, may be summarized 
as follows: 

(1) A state of unresolved conflict exists be- 
tween the United States and the United Nations 
on the one hand and Communist Cliina on the 
other. The armistice, signed in 1953, was to con- 
tinue until a political settlement was reached. No 
such settlement has ever taken place, owing to 
the refusal of the Chinese Communists to consider 
any terms acceptable to the United Nations. The 
national emergency, proclaimed by the President 
at the time of the original Communist attack in 
Korea, is still in effect. All trade and financial 
transaction with Communist China are prohibited 
by United States laws and regulations. In time 
of war, travel in enemy territory is denied to 
United States citizens. In tiie present state of na- 
tional emergency, travel to Commvmist China is 
similarly denied. 

(2) The Communist Chinese threat against the 
Republic of China, with whom the United States 
has a treaty of mutual defense, remains clear and 
present. The Chinese Communist buildup on the 
mainland opposite Formosa continues. They have 
specifically refused to enter into any agreement 
renouncing the use of force in the Formosa area. 
Under such conditions the United States believes 
that mainland travel by its citizens is unwise. 

(3) Since, as I have said, the United States does 
not recognize the Chinese Commmiist regime, 
normal diplomatic and consular protection for 
United States travelers there cannot be extended. 
This situation is highlighted by the fact that the 



Chinese Communists have taken, and are still 
holding, political hostages. Here is strong evi- 
dence of the need for such protection. Even if 
the citizen applying for a passport would waive 
his right to such protection, the Government must 
extend it to the limit of its capabilities. 

(4) The Chinese Communist regime, which 
came to power by armed insurrection, has consoli- 
dated that power by a series of lawless acts. These 
include invasion of North Korea and attack on 
United Nations forces there, and illegal imprison- 
ment of American citizens without trial. It also 
includes flagrant violation of the Korean Armi- 
stice Agreement by the introduction of new 
weapons and aircraft in North Korea, and, as we 
have seen, it includes the continuing buildup of 
forces on the mainland opposite Formosa. In all 
these instances, the opinion of the rest of the 
world has been cynically disregarded. Now Com- 
munist China seems to feel the need for respecta- 
bility and acceptance into the family of nations. 
One of the requisites of such respectability is the 
establishment of trade relations and cultural ex- 
changes with the United States. The prerequi- 
site thus is a relaxation of United States travel 
restrictions. 

A Form of Blackmail 

The wish of the Chinese Communists for greater 
respectability has been confirmed in the series of 
meetings at Geneva between United States Am- 
bassador U. Alexis Johnson and Communist 
Chinese Ambassador Wang Ping-nan, which be- 
gan on August 1, 1955. It was there that the Chi- 
nese Communists agreed that all American citi- 
zens in their counti'y so desiring should be allowed 
to return to the United States and undertook to 
facilitate that return. Despite this unequivocal 
commitment of September 10, 1955, eight United 
States citizens are still held prisoners.*' Ambassa- 
dor Johnson has taken the firm position that the 
cultural exchanges and visits by newspapermen 
now desired by the Chinese Communists could not 
be considered while United States citizens were 
still held prisoner. To do so might well destroy 
their last chance for freedom and would most 
certainly be giving in to a form of blackmail. 

It is also necessary, of course, to consider the 
effect upon our friends and allies should 

° For background, see ibid., Feb. 18, 1957, p. 261. Two of 
the imprisoned Americans, the Rev. Fulgence Gross and 
Paul Mackinsen, were released in March 1957. 



April 22, 1957 



665 



the United States yield under such pressure. Con- 
fidence in our determination to resist the aggres- 
sive designs of communism would be weakened. 
The position of leadership which we have ac- 
cepted would be seriously undermined. It would 
be most difficult for us to urge others, many of 
whom must depend in part on our strength, to 
stand unafraid and unflinching before the Com- 
munist threat. It is well known that this threat 
often takes the form of economic and cultural 
penetration. 

As Secretary Dulles has recently said in his 
press conference,^ this whole question of the visits 
by newspapermen to mainland China is under con- 
tinuing review. If a formula can be found to per- 
mit their coverage of conditions there without 
affecting American lives and indulging in a form 
of appeasement by yielding to blackmail, we 
would all be greatly relieved. 

Cultural Exchanges With Communist Countries 

Now in this kindred matter of cultural ex- 
changes with other Communist countries, and the 
limitations thereon, I would like to make certain 
points clear : first of all, we have no exchanges of 
any kind with countries which we do not recog- 
nize — Bulgaria, East Germany, Albania, North 
Viet-Nam, and North Korea, as well as Com- 
munist China. 

At the present time, such exchanges, either 
official or private, are suspended with Hungary. 
American passports are not valid for travel to 
Hungary except, as we have seen, for certain 
special categories. 

For some time now, the Department has taken 
no initiative in the matter of officially sponsored 
exchanges with the U.S.S.R. There lias been con- 
siderable exchange activity, however, with Poland 
and, to a lesser extent, with Czechoslovakia and 
Eumania. At the present time a Polish coal dele- 
gation is in this country, as well as their mission 
on economic aid. An unofficial United States 
housing delegation expects to go to Poland in 
June in reciprocity for a Polish visit to the United 
States last November. Three Rumanian observers, 
you will remember, covered our election last No- 
vember, and it is hoped that some kind of re- 
ciprocal visit to Rumania by American political 
experts and scholars will take place shortly. 

The refusal of Communist countries to abide by 

' Ibid., Mar. 25, 1957, p. 482. 



our visa requirements and allow their nationals to 
be fingerprinted has severely limited exchanges in 
the cultural field. Obviously, we cannot regard a 
troupe of entertainers as Government officials. 
So a kind of impasse exists. Unless the finger- 
printing requirement for nonofficial visas is legally 
removed, it is to be expected that the Soviet bloc 
will continue to use it as an excuse for propaganda 
to the effect that we have erected our own Iron 
Curtain. And it further gives them the op- 
portunity to deny visits of American cultural 
groups because of our seeming failure to apply 
reciprocity. 

Exchange Program With Free-World Countries 

This small trickle of exchanges with certain of 
the Communist countries, is, we hope, temporary. 
The Secretary of State is currently studying this 
problem with a possible expansion in mind. We 
believe in the kind of miderstanding and good will 
that exchanges of people in many professions and 
walks of life engender. Our own International 
Educational Exchange Program with the world 
outside the Iron and Bamboo Curtains is a flour- 
ishing and successful one which we feel has in- 
creased American miderstanding of our allies and 
of other countries of the free world and, we have 
every reason to believe, helped tell the American 
story abroad. 

A current example of how this free- world pro- 
gram works is the sharp increase in planned ex- 
changes with Africa. The trend toward inde- 
pendent status for colonial areas and trust terri- 
tories, as they become ready for the responsibilities 
of self-government, has been a continuing one. 
The contemplated increase in our program for 
fiscal year 1958 is particularly oriented toward the 
development of African educational facilities and 
toward an expansion of the leader progi'am and 
the specialist program there. For example, the 
number of exchange gi-ants contemplated for the 
newly independent nation of Ghana will bo in- 
creased, it is hoped, from 13 to 40. 

If any argument were needed, over and above 
the compelling one of increased two-way under- 
standing, it could be pointed out that there has 
been a marked interest on the part of the Com- 
munists in these newly emergent coinitries and 
that it has taken the form of providing educa- 
tional facilities for African leaders and potential 
leaders. And their interest in other countries re- 



666 



Department of State Bulletin 



mains constant as well. Vice President Nixon, foi' 
example, on his return from his recent African 
tour emphasized to us the importance attacliing 
to exchanges with African countries as well as 
other efforts in the cultural and economic fields. 
If we believe, as we all do, that our way of life is 
the true one and the Communist way is the false, 
it seems to me that a thriving exchange program, 
which conveys the story of the American way and 
the way of the free world, is a rnust in the continu- 
ing battle for the minds of men. 



STATEMENT BY ROBERT F. CARTWRIGHT^ 

We are happy to appear before your subcom- 
mittee this morning in response to the request 
made in the chairman's letter dated March 22, 
1957, to furnish whatever information we can re- 
garding current State Department issuance policy, 
procedure, regulations, and practices. 

The Department of State representatives pres- 
ent have been made available to assist the sub- 
committee in its study. We hope to be able to 
furnish answers to your questions. In the event 
there is any information which is not immediately 
at hand, we shall be glad to furnish it later for 
the record, consistent with the committee's 
wishes. 

It may be helj^ful at this point if some general 
statements might be made to demonstrate the De- 
partment's position in relation to its responsibili- 
ties in the passport field. With that in mind I 
would like to quote for the record at this time cer- 
tain portions of the statement made by Deputy 
Under Secretary Eobert D. Murphy, before the 
Senate Foreign Eelations Committee on April 2, 
1957. Copies of Mr. Murphy's statement are avail- 
able for the record if the committee wishes them, 
but I would like to quote here certain paragraphs 
which I feel deal directly with the immediate in- 
terests of this subcommittee. 



'Made before the Subcommittee on Constitutional 
Rights of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary on Apr. 
4 (press release 190). Mr. Cartwright was Acting Ad- 
ministrator of the Bureau of Security and Consular Af- 
fairs. 



[At this iwint, Mr. Cartwright read from Mr. Mur- 
phy's statement, the third through the eleventh para- 
graphs.] 

In addition to the bases for denial of passports 
cited in the quoted portions of Mr. Murphy's state- 
ment, the passport regulations of the Department 
of State provide that persons denied passports be 
advised in writing of the tentative refusal and 
of the reasons on which it is based, as specifically 
as, in the judgment of the Department of State, 
security considerations permit. Upon request and 
before refusal becomes final, the applicant is en- 
titled to present his case and all relevant informa- 
tion to the Passport Office on an informal basis. 
At this time he is entitled to appear in person be- 
fore a hearing officer and to be represented by 
counsel. Upon request he will confirm his oral 
statements in an affidavit for the record. There- 
after the Passport Office must review the record 
and after consultation with other interested of- 
fices will advise the applicant of the decision. If 
the decision is adverse, the applicant must be ad- 
vised in writing and the letter must contain the 
reasons on which the decision is based as specifi- 
cally as the Department of State security limi- 
tations permit. The letter shall also advise the 
applicant of his right to appeal the decision. 

The administrative body handling appeals of 
this type is composed of not less than three officers 
of the Department of State, designated by the 
Secretary of State. The Board [of Passport Ap- 
peals] is required to adopt and has adopted and 
publicized its rules of procedure, including recog- 
nition of the applicant's right to a hearing, right 
to representation by counsel, and providing for the 
applicant's opportunity to inspect the transcript 
of his testimony. Likewise, other witnesses must 
have the right to inspect their testimony if they 
wish. 

The Board has the duty of advising the Secre- 
tary of State of the action it finds necessary and 
proper to the disposition of the case, and to this 
end the Board may call for further clarification 
of the record, additional investigation, or other 
action consistent with its duties. 

Copies of the passport regulations of the De- 
partment of State are available for the com- 
mittee. 



April 22, J 957 



667 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Educational Exchange Agreement 
With Paraguay 

Press release 191 dated April 4 

The Governments of Paraguay and the United 
States on April 4 signed an agreement putting 
into operation a program of educational exchanges 
authorized by the Fulbright Act. The signing 
took place at Asuncion with Raul Sapena Pastor, 
Paraguayan Minister of Foreign Affairs, repre- 
senting his Government and Ambassador Arthur 
A. Ageton representing the Government of the 
United States. 

The agi-eenient provides for the expenditure, 
over a period of 3 years, of Paraguayan currency 
equivalent to $150,000 received from the sale of 
surplus agricultural products in Paraguay to fi- 
nance exchanges of persons between the two coun- 
tries to study, do research, teach, or engage in 
other educational activities. The purpose of the 
program is to further the mutual understanding 
between the peoples of Paraguay and the United 
States by means of these exchanges. 

Under the terms of the agreement a Commission 
for Educational Exchange Between the United 
States of America and the Republic of Paraguay 
will be established in the latter country to facil- 
itate the administration of the program. The 
Commission's board of directors will consist of 
eight members with equal representation as to 
Paraguayan and U.S. citizens in addition to the 
U.S. Ambassador, who will serve as honorary 
chairman. All recipients of awards under the 
program authorized by the Fulbright Act are 
selected by the Board of Foreign Scholarships, 
whose members are appointed by the President of 
the United States. The Board maintains a sec- 
retariat in the Department of State. 

With the signing of this agreement, Paraguay 
becomes the 37th country to participate in the 
educational exchange program initiated 10 years 
ago under authority of tl>e Fulbright Act. Edu- 
cational exchanges between Paraguay and the 
United States have been carried out for a number 
of years under the Act for Cooperation Between 
the American Republics, the Smith-Mundt Act, 



and other legislation. This agreement will con- 
siderably augment the present number of ex- 
changes. 

After the members of the Commission have been 
appointed and a program has been formulated, 
information about specific opportunities to par- 
ticipate in the exchange activities will be re- 
leased. 



Brazilian Copyright Proclamation 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 183 dated April 2 

A copyright proclamation issued on April 2 
by President Eisenhower in conjunction with an 
exchange of diplomatic notes between the United 
States and Brazil served to establish a supple- 
mentary copyright arrangement between the 
United States and Brazil. The notes were ex- 
changed between C. Douglas Dillon, Deputy 
Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, 
and Ernani do Amaral Peixoto, Brazilian Am- 
bassador to the United States. This arrange- 
ment reaffirms the continued existence of recipro- 
cal copyright relations, based upon the Buenos 
Aires Convention on Literary and Artistic Copy- 
right of 1910,^ and for the first time provides for 
the protection in the United States of works of 
Brazilian nationals in musical recordings. 

The United States and Brazil have enjoyed 
reciprocal copyright relations since 1915 on the 
basis of the Buenos Aires Convention of 1910. 
However, a decision of the United States Court 
of Appeals in New York held that the 1910 
convention did not entitle Brazilian nationals to 
protection imder the United States copyright law 
for their recorded musical works. In that case, 
the owners of the Brazilian copyright in the 
popular song "Tico-Tico" attempted, without suc- 
cess, to bring an infringement action against 
various United States music publishers and 
broadcasters for unauthorized performance of the 
musical composition by means of phonograph 
recoixls. 

The April 2 action, affording Brazilian and 
United States nationals complete reciprocal pro- 
tection for their literary and artistic works, will 
bo of significant importance in encouraging and 

'38 Stat. 1785. 



668 



Departmenf of Stale Bulletin 



assisting the increasing exchange of Brazilian and 
United States works, particularly in the musical 
field. 



PROCLAMATION 3175 ' 

Whereas section 1 of title 17 of tlie United States 
Code, entitled "Copyrights", as codified and enacted into 
positive law by the act of Congress approved July 30, 
1947, Gl Stat. 652, provides in part as follows : 

Any person entitled thereto, upon counjlylng with the provi- 
sions of this title, shall have the exclusive right : 

(e) To perform the copyrighted work publicly for profit if It 
be a musical composition ; . . . Provided, That the provisions 
of this title, so far as they secure copyright controlling the 
parts of Instruments serviug to reproduce mechanically the 
musical work, shall include only compositions published and 
copyrighted after July 1, 1909, and shall not include the works 
of a foreign author or composer unless the foreign state or nation 
of which such author or composer is a citizen or subject grants, 
either by treaty, convention, agreement, or law, to citizens of 
the United States similar rights. 

and 

Whereas section 9 of the said title 17 provides in 
part that the copyright secured by such title shall ex- 
tend to the work of an author or proprietor who is a 
citizen or subject of a foreign state or nation; 

(b) When the foreign state or nation of which such author 
or proprietor Is a citizen or subject grants, either by treaty, 
convention, agreement, or law, to citizens of the United States 
the benefit of copyriglit on substantially the same basis as to its 
own citizens, or copyright protection, substantially equal to the 
protection secured to such foreign author under this title or by 
treaty ; or when such foreign state or nation Is a party to an 
international agreement which provides for reciprocity In the 
granting of copyright, by the terms of which agreement the 
United States may, at its pleasure, become a party thereto. 

and 
Whereas section 9 of the said title 17 further provides : 

The existence of the reciprocal conditions aforesaid shall be 
determined by the President of the United States, by proclama- 
tion made fiom time to time, as the purposes of this title may 
require . . . 

and 

Whereas the Government of the United States of 
America and the Government of the United States of 
Brazil are parties to the Convention on Literary and 
Artistic Copyright, signed at Buenos Aires on August 11, 
1910 ; and 

Whereas satisfactory official assurances have been re- 
ceived that under provisions of Brazilian law and by the 
terms of the above-mentioned Convention of Buenos Aires 
citizens of the United States of America are entitled to 
obtain copyright in the United States of Brazil for their 
works on substantially the same basis as citizens of the 
United States of Brazil, including rights similar to those 
provided by section 1 (e) of title 17 of the United States 
Code: 

Now, therefore, I, DwiGHT D. Eisenhower, President 
of the United States of America, do declare and proclaim : 



= 22 Fed. Reg. 2305. 



That there exist with respect to the United States of 
Brazil the reciprocal conditions specified in sections 1 (e) 
and 9 (b) of the said title 17 and that citizens of tlie 
United States of Brazil are entitled to all the benefits of 
the said title 17 : 

Provided, that the provisions of section 1 (e) of the 
said title 17, so far as they secure copyright controlling 
parts of instruments serving to reproduce mechanically 
the musical work, shall apply only to compositions pub- 
lished and copyrighted after the date of this proclama- 
tion which have not been reproduced in the United States 
prior to the date hereof on any contrivance by means of 
which the work may be mechanically performed. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and caused the Seal of the United States of America to 
be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this second day of 

April in the year of our Lord nineteen hundi'ed 

[SE.VL] and fifty-seven, and of the Independence of the 

United States of America the one hundred and 

eighty-first. 

By the President : 

John Foster Duixes, 
Secretary of State. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Atomic Energy 

Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency. 
Done at New York October 20, 195G.' 
Ratification deposited: Guatemala, March 29, 1957. 

Copyright 

Universal copyright convention. Done at Geneva Sep- 
tember 6, 1952. Entered into force September 16, 1955. 
TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Cuba, March 18, 1957. 

Protocol 1 concerning application of the convention to 
the works of stateless persons and refugees. Done at 
Geneva September 6, 1952. Entered into force Sep- 
tember IG, 1955. TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Cuba, March 18, 1957. 

Protocol 2 concerning application of the convention to 
the works of certain international organizations. 
Done at Geneva September 6, 1952. Entered into 
force September 16, 1955. TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Cuba, March 18, 1957. 

Finance 

Memorandum of understanding regarding German as- 
sets in Italy. Signed at Rome March 29, 1957. En- 
tered into force March 29, 1957. 

Signatures: France, Italy, United Kingdom, and 
United States. 

' Not in force. 



AprW 22, 1957 



669 



Fisheries 

Protocol amending the international convention for the 
northwest Atlantic fisheries of February 8, 1949 (TIAS 
2089). Done at Washington June 25, 1950.' 
Ratification deposited: Canada, March 27, 1957; 
United Kingdom, April 2, 1957. 

War 

Geneva convention relative to treatment of prisoners of 

war; 
Geneva convention for amelioration of condition of 

wounded and sick in armed forces in the field ; 
Geneva convention for amelioration of condition of 
wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of armed 
forces at sea ; 
Geneva convention relative to protection of civilian per- 
sons in time of war. 

Dated at Geneva August 12, 1949. Entered into force 
October 21, 1950; for the United States Febru- 
ary 2, 1956. TIAS 3364, 3362, 3363, and 3365, 
respectively. 
Ratification deposited: Iran, February 20, 1957. 

Wheat 

International wheat agreement, 1956. Open for sig- 
nature at Washington through May 18, 1956. Entered 
into force July 16, 1956, for parts 1, 3, 4, and 5, and 
August 1, 1956, for part 2. TIAS 3709. 
Acceptance deposited: Netherlands, March 27, 1957. 



BILATERAL 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Resignations 

Horace A. Hildreth as Ambassador to Pakistan, effec- 
tive about May 1. (For text of Mr. Hildretli's letter to 
the President and the President's reply, see White House 
press release dated April 1.) 



Designations 

Robert E. Ward, Jr., as Director, Ofl5ce of Munitions 
Control, effective December 2, 1956. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Brazil 

Agreement providing for reciprocal copyright protection 
of literary, artistic, and scientific works. Effected 
by exchange of notes at Washington April 2, 1957. En- 
tered into force April 2, 1957. 

Italy 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of October 30, 1956, as amended (TIAS 3702, 
3760, and 3762) . Effected by exchange of notes at Rome 
March 26, 1957. Entered into force March 26, 1957. 

Memorandum of understanding regarding war damage 
claims. Signed at Rome March 29, 1957. Enters into 
force upon notification by each Government to the other 
that the formalities required by their respective laws 
have been complied with. 

Portugal 

Agreement extending the agreement for use of facilities 
in the Azores of September 6, 1951 (TIAS 3087). Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at Lisbon December 31, 
1956, and February 2, 1957. 

Spain 

Agreement relating to the loan of certain naval vessels 
or small craft by the United States to Spain, and an- 
nex. Effected by exchange of notes at Madrid March 
9, 1957. Entered into force March 9, 1957. 

Tunisia 

Economic and technical assistance agreement. Effected 
by exchange of notes at Tunis March 26, 1957. En- 
tered into force March 26, 1957. 



* Not in force. 



Recent Releases 

For sale ly the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Oov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. G. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may be ob- 
tained from the Department of State. 

The National Interest and Foreign Lan^ages. Pub. 
6389. Interuatioual Organization and Conference Series 
IV, UNESCO 30. 133 pp. 650. 

A discussion outline and work paper sponsored by the 
U.S. National Commission for UNESCO for the purpose 
of discussing whether or not the national interest would 
be served by increased study of modern foreign languages 
in the United States. 

The Price of Peace. Pub. 6415. General Foreign Policy 
Series 114. 9 pp. Limited distribution. 

Text of the second inaugural address of President Eisen- 
hower, January 21, 1957. 

The American Agricultural Attache. Pub. 6422. Depart- 
ment and Foreign Service Series 61. 23 pp. 150. 

A pamphlet describing the duties and responsibilities 
of the American agricultural attach^. 

The Situation in the Middle East. Pub. 6461. Near and 
Middle Eastern Series 23. 14 pp. Limited distribution. 

A pamphlet containing the text of a radio and television 
address to the American people made by President Eisen- 
hower on February 20, 1957. 



670 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



April 22, 1957 



Ind 



ex 



Vol. XXXVI, No. 930 



Africa. The Emergence of Africa (Nixon) . . . 635 

American Republics. Building for Peace 

(Murphy) 647 

Asia. Building for Peace (Murphy) (547 

Brazil. Brazilian Copyright Proclamation (Eisen- 
hower) 668 

China. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 

April 2 641 

Congress, The 

Advantages to the United States of Membership in 
Proposed Organization for Trade Cooperation 
(Eisenhower) 657 

Limitations on Travel of American Citizens Abroad 
and on Cultural Exchanges (Murphy, Cart- 
wright) 663 

Principles of U.S. Foreign Economic Policy (Kali- 

jarvi) 659 

Department and Foreign Service 

Designations (Ward) 670 

Resignations (Hildreth) 670 

Economic Affairs 

Advantages to the United States of Membership in 
Proposed Organization for Trade Cooperation 

(Eisenhower) 657 

Brazilian Copyright Proclamation (Eisenhower) . 668 
Limitations on Travel of American Citizens Abroad 
and on Cultural Exchanges (Murphy, Cart- 
wright) 663 

Principles of U.S. Foreign Economic Policy (Kali- 

jarvi) 659 

M. Ren6 Mayer To Visit Washington 640 

U.S. Lifts Restrictions on Travel to Four Middle 

East Countries 654 

Educational Exchange 

Educational Exchange Agreement With Paraguay . 66S 
Limitations on Travel of American Citizens Abroad 
and on Cultural Exchanges (Murphy, Cart- 
wright) 663 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: April 1-7 

Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 
Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Releases issued prior to April 1 which appear in 
this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 170 of March 
22 and 177 and 178 of March 2S. 
No. Date Subject 

180 4/1 Visit of Ren6 Mayer. 

181 4/1 Travel restrictions to Middle East lifted. 

182 4/2 Murphy : travel of Americans abroad. 

183 4/2 Brazilian copyright proclamation. 

184 4/2 Dulles : news conference. 

185 4/2 Technical and economic aid to Iran. 

186 4/3 Murphy : "Building for Peace." 

187 4/3 Kalijarvi : foreign economic policy. 

188 4/3 Current developments in Hungary. 
tl89 4/3 U.S.-Netherlands air transport agree- 
ment. 

190 4/4 Cartwright : passport policy. 

191 4/4 U.S.-Paraguay educational exchange 

agreement. 
tl92 4/5 U.S.-Canadian negotiations on potato 

tariffs. 
tl93 4/5 Joint communique on U.S.-Afghan talks. 



tHeld for a later issue of the Bxtlletin. 



Egypt. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 
April 2 641 

Europe 

Building for Peace (Murphy) 647 

M. Ren6 Mayer To Visit Washington 640 

Hungary. Current Developments in Hungary . . 654 

International Organizations and Conferences. In- 
tergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion (delegation) 656 

Iran 

Murder of U.S. Technicians in Iran 654 

U.S. Reaffirms Continuation of Aid to Iran . . . 654 

Israel. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 

April 2 641 

Middle East 

Building for Peace (Murphy) 647 

U.S. Lilts Restrictions on Travel to Four Middle 

East Countries 654 

Mutual Security 

Building for Peace (Murphy) 647 

U.S. Reaffirms Continuation of Aid to Iran . . . 654 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Eighth Anni- 
versary of NATO (Eisenhower) 640 

Pakistan. Resignations (Hildreth) 670 

Paraguay. Educational Exchange Agreement With 
Paraguay 668 

Poland. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 

April 2 641 

Presidential Documents 

Advantages to the United States of Membership in 

Proposed Organization for Trade Cooperation . 657 

Brazilian Copyright Proclamation 668 

Eighth Anniversary of NATO 640 

Protection of Nationals 

Limitations on Travel of American Citizens Abroad 
and on Cultural Exchanges (Murphy, Cart- 
wright) 663 

Murder of U.S. Technicians in Iran 654 

U.S. Reaffirms Continuation of Aid to Iran . . . 654 

Publications. Recent Releases 670 

Refugees 

Escapee Program Marks Fifth Anniversary . . . 655 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion (delegation) 656 

Treaty Information 

Brazilian Copyright Proclamation (Eisenhower) . 668 

Current Actions 669 

Educational Exchange Agreement With Paraguay . 668 

U.S.S.R. Principles of U.S. Foreign Economic 

Policy (Kalijarvi) 659 

United Nations. Building for Peace (Murphy) . 647 

Name Index 

Carroll, Kevin 654 

C'artwright, Robert F 667 

Dulles, Secretary 641 

Eisenhower, President 640,657,669 

Hildreth, Horace A 670 

Kalijarvi, Thorsten V 659 

Mayer, Ren6 640 

McCollum, Robert S 655 

Murphy, Robert 647, 663 

Nixon, Richard M 635 

Ward, Robert E., Jr 670 

Wilson, Brewster 654 



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NATO — Its Development and Significance 



The growth and accomplislmients of the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization from the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 
April 4, 1949, to the ijresent time are described in this 61-page 
pamphlet, a recent publication of the Department of State. 

The topics discussed include : 

America's Interest in the North Atlantic Treaty 
Origin of the North Atlantic Treaty 
Purposes and Activities of Nato 
Organization of Nato 
U.S. Contributions to Nato 
Nato Accomplislmients 
The Future of Nato 

Two appendixes carry the text of the Eeport of the Committee 
of Three on Non-Military Cooperation in Nato and the text of 
the North Atlantic Treaty. 

Copies of NATO— Its Development and Significance may be 
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., for 30 cents each. 



Publication 6467 



30 cents 



Please send me copies of NATO— Its Development and 

^^^ Significance. 

Order Form ■^ 

To: Supt. of Documents Name: 

Govt. Printing 0£5ce 

Washington 25, D.C. Street Address: 

City, Zone, and State: 

Enclosed find: 



(cash, check, or 
money order). 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XXXVI, No. 931 



AprU 29, 1957 



i 




■M 



'IV prrnpD 



PROPOSALS FOR SUBSTANTIVE CHANGES IN 
MUTUAL SECURITY LEGISLATION • Statement 

by Secretary Dulles 675 

REPORT TO THE FOUNDER ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS 

9 by Assistant Secretary Robertson 682 

THE UNITED NATIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES 

FOR THE FUTURE • by Assistant Secretary Wilcox . 688 

UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON THE STATUS 

OF WOMEN • Statements by Mrs. Lorena B. Hahn ... 704 

MUNITIONS CONTROL AND THE ELECTRONICS 

INDUSTRY • by Leonard H. Pomeroy 697 



ED STATES 
OREIGN POLICY 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XXXVI, No. 931 • Publication 6486 
April 29, 1957 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.O. 

Price: 

62 Issues, domestic $7.60, foreign $10 25 
Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 19, 106S). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
bo reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or ST4TE Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral internatioruil interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



Proposals for Substantive Changes 
in Mutual Security Legislation 



/Statement by Secretary Dulles ^ 



I am glad to respond to your comroittee's re- 
quest that I discuss with you certain aspects of 
the mutual security program. 

Before dealing with specific issues I should like 
to consider the basic purposes which, I believe, 
the legislation is designed to serve. These pur- 
poses provide the best guidelines for determining 
the form which the legislation should take. 

Supporting Considerations 



The security and prosperity of the United States 
are bound up with the continued security and 
pi'osperity of other free nations. Trends in inter- 
national political affairs, economic life, and most 
of all in military technology link our fate ever 
more closely with that of other members of the 
free-world community. 

Our national policy must reflect this funda- 
mental fact. Unless it does so, we shall face a peril 
the like of which we have never known. 

The measures which we have been taking to 
avoid that peril are many; they are interlocking 
and mutually reinforcing. Perhaps because of this 
fact these measures have become somewhat con- 
fusing. 

Congress can be expected to sustain a continuing 
program for creating security, strength, and op- 
portimity abroad only if this is responsive to basic 
sentiments of the American people. Legislation 



' Made before the Senate Special Committee To Study 
the Foreign Aid Program on Apr. S (press release 194). 



as vital as this is to the welfare of the American 
people should be in a form which will enable them 
to imderstand it and to sponsor it with conviction. 

II. 

Of all the purposes served by government, the 
first is to provide its citizens with security. That 
is one aspect, a major aspect, of our international 
policy. We seek to create as between the free 
nations a common defense which will give greater 
security than could be obtained by any one alone. 

The concept of "common defense"' is not new to 
our people. Our Nation was founded primarily 
to create a common defense, and our Constitution 
specifies that as one of its major purposes. The 
same considerations which in 1787 led our States to 
accept the necessity for a common defense, today 
require the nations of the free world to seek a com- 
mon defense. 

International communism today controls man- 
power which is about five times as large as that 
of the United States. It has great capacity to 
create the most modern instruments of mass de- 
struction. It controls territories which provide 
staging areas for attack far more diversified and 
of much greater total strategic value than do ter- 
ritories under the sovereignty of the United States. 

Under these circumstances it would be folly not 
to strive for a common defense with other free na- 
tions. That folly would permit ever more man- 
power, ever more natural resources, and ever more 
strategic areas to fall imder the domination of 
those who are bitterly hostile to us and our free 
institutions. 



April 29, 1957 



675 



We have many treaties and congi-essional reso- 
lutions whicli proclaim that it would be dangerous 
to the peace and safety of the United States if 
other free nations succumbed to the aggression of 
international communism. "We have collective de- 
fense treaties with 42 other nations, and the recent 
Middle East resolution authorizes a further exten- 
sion of the area of common defense. 

Upon these political foundations, we erect mili- 
tary defenses. Others contribute much to those 
defenses. But we, too, must contribute if the 
totality is to be adequate. For many nations can- 
not support the military establishments which, in 
the common interest, should be on their soil. 

The collective defense which the United States 
shares with other nations benefits them, but it 
equally benefits us. In this connection, I recall the 
testimony of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of 
Staff: 

. . . the military aid program is part and parcel of the 
U.S. Defense Department program. The expenditares 
abroad in support of our alliances do not differ in purpose, 
scope, or objective from our own military expenditures. 

It is the considered judgment of the President 
and his military advisers that the system of com- 
mon defense, for which our military assistance is 
essential, is also the most effective way to provide 
for United States defense. To weaken that sys- 
tem by cutting our contribution to it would not 
involve a saving to the United States. On the 
contrary, it would require a far more costly de- 
fense program here at home. Even then, we 
would be less secure. 

Our Nation accepts military burdens, not as an 
expression of our national aspirations but as an 
elemental necessity. I do not doubt that the 
American people will continue to support the de- 
fense aspects of mutual security because of that 
necessity. 

III. 

Programs of military defense alone, however, 
cannot assure that the free world will be main- 
tained intact. There is also a threat to future 
independence and freedom where moderate lead- 
ers despair of being able to lift their nation out 
of hopeless poverty and stagnation. 

As President Eisenhower said in his second 
inaugural address : ^ 

In too much of the earth there is want, discord, danger. 
New forces and new nations stir and strive across the 



" Bulletin of Feb. 11, 1957, p. 211. 



earth, with power to bring, by their fate, great good or 
great evil to the free world's future. From the deserts of 
North Africa to the islands of the South Pacific, one-third 
of all mankind has entered upon an historic struggle for 
a new freedom : freedom from grinding poverty. Across 
all continents nearly a billion people seek, sometimes al- 
most in desperation, for the skills and knowledge and as- 
sistance by which they may satisfy, from their own re- 
sources, the material wants common to all mankind. 

It is in our direct self-interest that these new 
nations should succeed in the historic struggle of 
which the President spoke. 

Our concern also stems from the historic con- 
ception of the American people as to the role of 
their nation in the world. The American people 
believe in a moral law and that men and nations 
are bound by that law. As George Washington 
said in his Farewell Address, "religion and moral- 
ity are indispensable supports'' of our free gov- 
ernment. And of moral and religious precepts, 
one of the most basic is the concept of the brother- 
hood of man. That is why our people have never 
even tried to make their nation into an oasis of 
prosperity in a world desert of human misery. 

Another aspect of our faith is belief in the dig- 
nity and worth of the human individual every- 
where. All men, our Declaration of Independence 
said, are endowed with inalienable rights to life, 
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. 

That is why we hate a system which treats men 
as mere bits of matter to be made into the grinding 
cogs of some superstate machine. That is why 
we crave liberty for all men everywhere ; and we 
want to protect liberty where it is and to see it 
restored where it is lost. 

Our founders did not see their experiment as a 
purely selfish enterprise. They had the courage 
to launch their principles into the world. What 
they did became known throughout the world as 
"The Great American Experiment." Abraham 
Lincoln said of our Declaration of Independence 
that it meant 

. . . liberty not alone to the people of this country but 
hope to all the world for all future time. It was that 
which gave promise that in due time the weights would 
be lifted from the shoulders of all men. 

Because we still retain that sense of mission we 
are eager that other lands and other people should 
know the blessings of liberty. 

IV. 

We can, I think, see that what is now called the 
mutual security program is the expression, under 



676 



Department of State Bvlletin 



modern conditions, of two needs: (1) our need 
for a common defense with other free nations 
willing to share with us the burdens and benefits 
of that relationship; and (2) the need to manifest 
realistically the faith with which our Nation has 
been imbued from its beginning, a faith which has 
made our Nation great in the best sense of that 
often-abused word. 

And let me add that to suppress or to belittle 
the manifestation of that faith would serve us ill. 
No society can long survive without a faith which 
is dynamic and creative and which reaches out to 
others. If the day ever comes when our Nation 
is not responsive to the lifegiving qualities that 
are reflected in the developmental aspects of our 
program, then that will mark the beginning of 
our end. 

Applications 

I. 

I turn now to the question of what substantive 
changes should be made in the form of the legisla- 
tion to make it more responsive to the sentiments 
which support its dual purpose. 

It seems to us that confusion has come at least 
in part from lumping together, as "defense sup- 
port," all kinds of economic assistance given to 
countries whose military programs we are sup- 
porting. Such confusion can be, and should be, 
ended. 

Our support to these countries takes three prin- 
cipal forms: (1) aid in terms of actual military 
goods, so-called "end items"; (2) support of the 
economies to the extent required to enable these 
countries to carry the economic burden of armed 
forces which we and they agi-ee are necessary for 
the common defense; and then (3) the economic 
development progi'ams, including technical assist- 
ance, which we might be engaged in irrespective of 
our military ties. 

It is our view that the so-called defense sup- 
port should hereafter comprise only the assist- 
ance required to meet so much of the economic bur- 
den of militar3' defense as the country cannot it- 
self afford. Appropriations for military assist- 
ance and for this redefined category of defense 
support would then be authorized on a continuing 
basis and hereafter appropriated annually to the 
President in appropriations for the Department 
of Defense. 

"We believe that this way of treating military as- 



sistance, which also is recommended by many of 
the recent studies on the subject, would avoid a 
wide degree of misunderstanding abroad and at 
home by making apparent the degree in which we 
wish our aid to serve military defense. 

II. 

I turn now to the economic development aspect 
of the program. 

We believe that all economic development, in- 
cluding that which goes to countries with which 
we have common defense, should be considered to- 
gether. We also believe that more emphasis 
should be placed on long-term development 
assistance. 

It is true that our economic aid cannot be more 
than a marginal addition to any country's de- 
velopment efforts. This addition can, however, be 
significant and even detennining. It can break 
foreign-exchange bottlenecks, and it can be a key 
factor in stimulating a country to a more effective 
development program of its own. If our develop- 
ment aid is to have this effect, however, we must do 
two things: (1) break away from the cycle of an- 
nual authorizations and appropriations; and 
(2) eliminate advance allocations by countries. 

Economic development is a continuing process, 
not an annual event. Present annual appropria- 
tions have resulted in procedures which do not 
allow either us or the receiving countries to make 
the most efficient use of the resources which we are 
providing. 

The best way to achieve this greater efficiency is, 
we believe, the establishment of an economic de- 
velopment fund to provide assistance through 
loans on terms more favorable than are possible 
through existing institutions. To be effective, 
such a fund would need continuing authority and 
a capital authorization sufficient for sevex-al years, 
to be renewed when needed. 

Such a fund could extend aid for specific pro- 
grams or i^rojects submitted by applicant coun- 
tries. Each request for a loan from the fund 
should meet certain criteria, including a showing 
(1) that financing cannot be obtained from other 
sources; (2) that the project is technically feas- 
ible; (3) that it gives reasonable promise of direct 
or indirect contribution to a nation's increased 
productivity. 

The fund could usefully join with such institu- 
tions as the World Bank or the Export-Import 
Bank in financing particular projects. Its aid 



Apr\\ 29, J 957 



677 



might thus enable tliese banks to expand their 
operations by assisting projects which conld not 
qualify in their entirety for loans which these 
institutions are authorized to make. In order not 
to displace other sources of credit, loans from the 
development fund should be repayable on a basis 
subordinate to the claims of the World Bank, the 
Export-Import Bank, and private lending agen- 
cies. 

To make development aid most effective and 
economical, we must provide it in a businesslike 
way. I believe that the procedures outlined above 
win have that effect. 

III. 

In addition to need for foreign-aid military 
programs and loans for economic development, 
there will undoubtedly be some need for foreign 
financial aid on a grant basis. 

International communism is waging against us 
what is sometimes called a "cold war." It can 
move, without budget controls or parliamentary 
action, to take advantage of opportunities such as 
those created by its own subversive efforts, by the 
infirmities of free governments not yet solidly 
based, or by the misfortunes of nature. 

It is therefore necessary that our Government 
also have limited discretionary funds so that we, 
and not international communism alone, will be 
able to move decisively in relation to such situa- 
tions. Without that, we would be conceding to 
despotism an advantage which could enable it to 
register great gains. 

Already we have a special Presidential fund 
provided by section 401 of the act to meet emergen- 
cies and contingencies. A fund for such purposes 
should be continued. 

IV. 

Technical assistance is a tested and extremely 
effective way of enabling other countries to de- 
velop their own resources. It is our thought that 
technical assistance, both direct and through the 
United Nations technical assistance program, 
should be continued on much the present basis. 

V. 

As to the administration of the revised program, 
we have in mind that military end-item aid would 
continue to be administered by the Department 
of Defense and that each of the types of economic 
aid that I have described would continue to be 



administered by the International Cooperation 
Administration. 

We do not believe that it would be wise to trans- 
fer the administration of defense support to the 
Defense Department. This would require a waste- 
ful duplication within the Defense Department of 
Ica's well-established economic organization. And 
it would divide between two agencies the respon- 
sibility for administering economic programs 
which must, for the sake of efficiency and good 
management, be closely coordinated. 

We believe that the International Cooperation 
Administration should be continued and that it 
should be continued as it now is, namely, a semi- 
autonomous agency. 

We believe that all aspects of our mutual secu- 
rity progi'am should be under the effective foreign- 
policy guidance of the President and the Secretary 
of State. This can be done by the exercise by 
the President of his inherent power to direct the 
executive branch of government. To achieve this 
result does not require throwing into the Depart- 
ment of State heavy operating responsibilities. 

VI. 

I turn now to the question of the order of mag- 
nitude of our programs. 

( 1 ) Assuming that the international climate re- 
mains as at present, I would estimate that grant- 
aid expenditures for military purposes would need 
to continue for some years at a level close to the 
present. In some instances the size of the local 
forces that mutual security helps to support may, 
perhaps, be reduced without undue political and 
inilitai-y risks. That would suggest declining 
costs for us. On the other hand, it may be neces- 
sary to reorganize and equip our allies with more 
modern types of weapons. This suggests increas- 
ing costs. Perhaps these two factors will roughly 
balance each other. 

(2) On the assumption that economic develop- 
ment is hereafter made through loans and not 
through grants, this would, I surmise, require a 
development fund able to make loans which, not 
for fiscal year 1958 but over the future, might 
come to reach $750 million a year. The procedures 
we suggest should permit substantial savings in 
terms of lesser administrative costs and an ability 
to accomplish more with less expenditure. On the 
other hand, the needs may become more com- 
pelling. 



678 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



(3) In addition, there is the continuing lim- 
ited requirement, to which I have referred, for 
grant aid to meet contingencies and imperative 
needs which cannot realistically be met by loans. 
Also, of course, there are the technical assistance 
programs now running at about $150 million a 
year. 

Vll. 

In conclusion, I recall the report of the For- 
eign Relations Committee of last June in relation 
to the mutual security program. The committee 
report said : 

. . . the next few years may be more diflBcult in some 
respects than the last few. The problems are becoming 
subtler and more complex. The Mutual Security Pro- 
gram must be adapted to meet the new circumstances. 

We believe that the proposals I have outlined 
this morning are "adapted to meet the new cir- 
cumstances." They are based upon the high-qual- 
ity studies you have commissioned and those made 
by and for the executive branch. Many of these 
agree to a remarkable extent not only on the value 
to us of our military and economic aid to others 
but also on changes in the form of our mutual se- 
curity program which would make it more effec- 
tive in promoting our national interests. 

We accept responsibility for our proposals but 
do not claim sole credit for them. We regard 
them as being derived equally from the work of 
the Congress and from the efforts of the execu- 
tive branch. We belisve that their broad outline 
is sound. We recognize that there are various 
ways by which this outline can be carried out. 
We invite and welcome your comments and fur- 
ther consultation on the best means to develop 
these proposals into the most effective instrument 
of national policy. 



World Trade Week, 1957 



A PROCLAMATION' 

Whb:eea8 exports and imports are important to our 
economic strength and to the well-being of our people; 
and 

Whereas international commerce in all its aspects — 
trade, travel and investment — is beneficial to the com- 
munity of nations and conducive to the establishment of 
a just and lasting peace in the world ; and 



' No. 3177 ; 22 Fed. Reg. 2401. 



Whereas our national trade policy, which seeks to pro- 
mote the continued growth of mutually profitable world 
trade, contributes both to our prosperity and to our 
national security : 

Now, THEREFORE, I, DwiGHT D. BiSENHOWEE, President 
of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim the 
week beginning May 19, 1957, as World Trade Week; and 
I request the appropriate officials of the Federal Govern- 
ment and of the several States, Territories, possessions, 
and municipalities of the United States to cooperate in 
the observance of that week. 

I also urge business, labor, agricultural, educational, 
and civic groups, as well as the people of the United States 
generally, to observe World Trade Week with gatherings, 
discussions, exhibits, ceremonies, and other activities 
designed to promote a greater awareness of the importance 
of world trade to our domestic economy and to the 
strength of the free world. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington this eighth day of 

April in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred 

[seal] and fifty-seven, and of the Independence of the 

United States of America the one hundred and 

eighty-first. 

/(_) c-«-s-^ /1-tXy CAiC-u- A<*c>^ 

By the President : 

John Foster Dulles 
Secretary o/ State 



Anniversary of Fall of Bataan 

Following are the texts of messages exchanged 
on April 9 hy President Eisenhoioer and President 
Carlos P. Garcia of the Philippines. 

White House press release dated April 9 

Message From President Eisenhower 

On behalf of the people of the United States, I 
send Bataan Day greetings to our friends in the 
Philippines. Bataan Day is a solemn day for both 
nations, for it is a time when we pause to remember 
the price, and consider the meaning of freedom. 

To try to recapture in words the deeds of the 
men of Bataan is not possible. By their action 
they expressed the true spirit of freedom better 
than words could ever do. That spirit is what we 
commemorate today. 

We also commemorate the comradeship which 
has bound our two nations together so strongly 
in the past, and which continues to be so vital in 
the anxious present. 



April 29, 7957 



679 



The dangers which now confront us are in a 
sense just as real as those that were faced on 
Bataan fifteen years ago. So we continue to draw 
upon the spirit of devotion, of comradeship and 
of courage which is the noble legacy of Bataan. 
DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



Message From the President of the Philippines 

On this April 9 we are commemorating the 
fifteenth anniversary of the Fall of Bataan. On 
behalf of the jjeople of the Philippines I send 
our best wishes to you and to the people of the 
United States. 

Bataan will always stand in our history as a 
symbol of a heartrending struggle by the peoples 
of two nations fighting side by side for the com- 
mon goal of liberty, freedom, and democracy. 

We are pledged that the spirit of Bataan shall 
not perish and that those gallant American and 
Filipino heroes wlio died for democracy shall not 
have died in vain. 

Today our two peoples are fighting the mor^ 
subtle enemy, Communism, which is trying to 
subvert tlie ideals we fought for on Bataan. 

The Filipino people know well the benefits of 
liberty and freedom and will continue to fight 
with the great spirit exemplified on Bataan to 
preserve those ideals. 

Carlos P. Garcia 



U.S. and Saudi Arabia Confirm 
Agreement on Cooperation 

DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 195 dated April 8 

During the recent visit of King Saud, the Presi- 
dent reached agreement with him on the need for 
continued cooperation between Saudi Arabia and 
the United States.^ Notes confirming this agree- 
ment were signed by the Deputy Under Secretary 
of State and the Ambassador of Saudi Arabia on 
April 2, 1957. Projects to be implemented under 
the agreement are to be worked out jointly in 
subsequent technical discussions in Saudi Arabia. 



The notes also provide for a renewal of the 
Dhahran Airfield Agreement of June 18, 1951,^ 
for 5 years from this date [April 2]. 

Under the 1951 arrangement relating to the 
Dhahran Airfield, the United States agreed to 
assist in the technical operation of the airport at 
Dhahran, to train certain air force personnel, and 
to provide a military advisory group for the army. 
The new agreement represents a refinement and 
expansion of those previous United States ar- 
rangements with Saudi Arabia. The United 
States will provide, during the next 5 years, the 
personnel, training equipment, and some of the 
construction required for an air-force training 
program, an augmented army advisory program, 
and a limited program for the training of naval 
personnel. In addition, there will be certaiii ad- 
ditional construction designed to improve civil 
aviation facilities at Dhaliran Airfield and an 
improvement of the port of Dammam. 

The United States has also agreed to continue 
to sell military equipment in accordance with the 
exchange of notes between the Governments of 
Saudi Arabia and the United States of June 18, 
1951. 



EXCHANGE OF NOTES 

Press release lOG dated April 8 

Text of U.S. Note 



April 2, 1957 



^ For text of joint couiinuniquo issued on Feb. 8 follow- 
ing discussions held by President Eisenhower and King 
Saud, see Bulletin of Feb. 25, 1957, p. 308. 



His Excellency 

Sheikh Abdull^vh Al-Kiiattal, 
Ambassador of Saiuli Arabia. 

Excellency: I have the honor to refer to the 
discussions which have taken place between His 
Majesty King Saud and President Eisenhower 
and representatives of our two Governments be- 
tween January 30 and February 8, 1957, concern- 
ing the relations between the two countries and 
their common interest in promoting and consoli- 
dating their cooperation. The Government of the 
United States is now pleased to confirm its under- 
standing of the general agi'eement reached during 
these discussions. 

1. The United States Government acknowledges 
the comments of His Majesty King Saud to Pres- 
ident P^isenhower and recognizes that Saudi 



'■lUd., July 23, li)r>l, p. 150. 



680 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Arabia has a need to strengthen its armed forces 
for the purposes of the defense of the Kingdom, 
including the defense of the Dhahran Airfield. 

2. In this connection, the United States Gov- 
ernment will, within its constitutional processes, 
continue its cooperation with the Kingdom of 
Saudi Arabia by providing military equipment on 
a reimbursable basis in accordance with the ex- 
change of notes between the two Governments of 
June 18, 1951, which provides that the equipment 
shall be used to "foster international peace and 
security within the framework of the Charter of 
the United Nations." Equipment to be provided 
will be in accordance with understandings reached 
during the foregoing mentioned discussions. The 
two Governments further agree that the equip- 
ment to be pi'ovided will be used by Saudi Arabia 
for the purpose of defending the independence 
and territorial integrity of Saudi Arabia and for 
the maintenance of internal security. It is under- 
stood that the two Governments will arrange ap- 
propriate terms of payment for such equipment. 

3. The United States Government agrees to pro- 
vide at no cost to the Saudi Arabian Government 
certain additional construction at Dhahran Air- 
field designed to improve civil aviation facilities. 
The United States Government agrees also to pro- 
vide a program of training for the Saudi Arabian 
Air Force, to augment the present advisory train- 
ing program for the Saudi Arabian Army and to 
train Naval persomiel. Details of these services 
will be as agreed. 

4. In the same spirit and re-asserting the close 
cooperation between the two countries, the United 
States Government is pleased to be able to con- 
tinue the use of the facilities granted at the 
Dhahran Airfield in accordance with the Agi-ee- 
ment of June 18, 1951 which is extended for a 
period of five years from the date of this exchange. 

5. To facilitate and improve the implementa- 
tion of the Dhahran Airfield Agreement and re- 
lated agreements, the two Governments agree to 
hold further discussions in Saudi Arabia looking 
toward possible additional understandings. 

6. The United States Government, in consider- 



ing the economic needs of Saudi Arabia, is pre- 
pared to assist in mutually agreed projects. In 
this connection, the expansion of the Dammam 
port will receive primary consideration. It also 
agrees to the provision of some engineering and 
technical assistance, as well as lending its good 
offices to assist in establishing credit arrangements 
for economic projects. These matters will be dis- 
cussed between the competent representatives of 
the two Governments and confirmed by subse- 
quent understandings. 

7. These foregoing measures will be undertaken 
in accordance with due legislative processes of 
both countries. 

If the foregoing is acceptable to the Govern- 
ment of Saudi Arabia, the Government of the 
United States agrees that this note and Your 
Excellency's reply concurring in its content will 
constitute firm agreement between the two Gov- 
ernments. 

Accept, Excellency, the assurances of my highest 
consideration. 

For the Secretary of State : 

KoBERT Murphy 

Deputy Under Secretary of State 

Text of Saudi Arabian Note 

Washington D. C. Ramadan 2, 1376H. 

Corresponding to April 2, 1967 A. D. 

The Honorable 
John Foster Dulles 
Secretary of State 

Excellency : I have the honor to inform Your 
Excellency that I have received your note dated 
today, the text of which is as follows : 

[Here is repeated the text of Deputy Under Secretary 
Murphy's note of April 2, 1957.] 

I have been authorized to inform Your Ex- 
cellency that my Government accepts the contents 
of Your Excellency's foregoing note. 

Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of 
my highest consideration. 

Abdullah Al-Khayyal 
Ambassador of Saudi Arabia 



April 29, 1957 



681 



Report to the Founder on Foreign Affairs 



hy Walter S. Robertson 

Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs ^ 



There was in Japan in the past a tradition hon- 
ored by the heads of government which, for me, 
has a special appeal. The practice was for those 
responsible for the government of the country to 
repair periodically to their sacred shrines and 
there report on the state of affairs to the nation's 
illustrious dead. The custom was thought to pro- 
vide continuity in the conduct of government and 
to keep fresh in the minds of officials a sense of 
what the nation stood for. The officials of our 
own Government might well benefit from a sim- 
ilar practice. Perhaps it should be a duty of our 
officials to visit periodically one of the great 
shrines of the American past — as I am doing to- 
day — to be reminded of the spirit in which the 
extraordinary experiment called the United States 
was conceived. 

Were it not that I feel so deeply the force of 
what Thomas Jefferson stood for, were it not that 
I wished particularly to speak with reference to 
what he stood for, I shoidd not have felt it right 
for me to accept the outstanding honor of an in- 
vitation to talk to you at this place and on this 
day. As it is, perhaps, you will consider what I 
shall say this morning as a report respectfully ad- 
dressed to your founder as well as to you, on the 
situation in which, as I see it, the Nation finds 
itself in the world today. 

I might begin with one of the lesser reasons why 
I feel so strongly drawn to Mr. Jefferson. He 
also did time in the Department of State. He 
served, of course, as Secretary of State under 
President Washington. I like to recall the words 
with which, among others, the President overcame 
Jefferson's very great reluctance to take that of- 

' Address made at tlie University of Virginia, Char- 
lottesville, Va., on Founder's Day, Apr. 13 (press release 
209 dated Apr. 12). 



fice : "Its duties," the President wrote, "will prob- 
ably be not quite so arduous and complicated in 
their execution as you may have been led at the 
first moment to imagine." I doubt if Washing- 
ton's record of never having told an untruth was 
ever in greater jeopardy than wlien he gave that 
reassurance. As head of the Department of State, 
Jefferson had, it should be noted, the support of a 
truly impressive staff consisting of five copying 
clerks, three at $500 a year and two at $800. Nev- 
ertheless, after 4 years of it he resigned the office. 
In response to the President's further appeal for 
him to remain, he said of his decision : "In this 
I am now immovable by any consideration what- 
ever." 

It is not hard to know how he felt. When he 
had accepted appointment as Secretary of State, 
in which office he was to be rewarded with calumny 
and misrepresentation, he had already devoted 20 
years to public service. Looking back upon it at 
the time, he wrote : "Public employment contrib- 
utes neither to advantage nor to happiness. It is 
but honorable exile from one's family and affairs." 
Having for 4 years myself been a daily witness of 
the burdens upon the Secretary of State, I believe 
I can understand something of the spiritual and 
physical exhaustion with which Jefferson put 
down those burdens. 

To me, it is above all as a revolutionary tliat 
Jeffei-son stands out as a man of everlasting sig- 
nificance for his Nation and for mankind. True 
revolutionaries are not common. Few men have 
the hardihood of soul to be one. Those whom we 
tend to think of as revolutionaries — doctrinaire 
fanatics of stormy character whose bigotry reveals 
their essential inhumanity — are not revolution- 
aries in the true sense at all, but quite the contrai-y. 
I like to compare with those types tlie picture of 



682 



Department of State Bulletin 



Jefferson at Philadelphia on July 4th, 1776. 
While the Congress furiously debated his immor- 
tal handiwork, the Declaration of Independence — 
one of the most portentous events in the history 
of human liberty — Jefferson was engaged in tak- 
ing periodic readings on a thermometer he had 
purchased the day befoi-e for £3.15. A biographer 
notes that he coolly recorded : "July 4th, 6 :00 AM, 
68°; 9:00 AM, 7214°; 1:00 PM, 76°; 9:00 PM, 
731/2°." In this picture, we see the Jefferson who, 
without raising his voice, was to work a quiet 
revolution in Virginia, eliminating the special 
privileges of a towering and entrenched aristoc- 
racy — the Jefferson who, in 1800, was to destroy 
the Federalists with their Alien and Sedition Acts 
and their violent antipathy to democracy, while 
residing quietly at Monticello. We also see the 
Jefferson who, in his restless and ever-youthful 
passion for learning, for the truth, did not con- 
sider an interest in the workings of a thermometer 
unworthy to be indulged at a turning point in 
human history. It is instructive to try to imagine 
a Hitler or a Stalin similarly engaged while their 
prospects of power and a place in history were at 
stake. 

The history of mankind is the history of free- 
dom, Benedetto Croce declared. The issue — the 
perennial, fundamental issue in human affairs — 
was well understood by Jefferson. "Mankind by 
their constitution," he wrote, "are naturally di- 
vided into two parties, one, those who fear and 
distrust the people and wish to draw all powers 
from them into the hands of the higher classes. 
And two, those who identify themselves with the 
people, have confidence in them, cherish and con- 
sider them as the most honest and safe although 
not the most wise depository of public interests." 

There was never any question as to which side 
Jefferson was on. "Sometimes it is said that man 
can not be trusted with the government of liim- 
self," he declared in his first inaugural address 
and asked: "Can he, then, be triLsted with the 
government of others ? Or have we found angels 
in the forms of kings to govern him ?" Many fine 
and striking sentiments have been uttered by ora- 
tors on democracy and the rights of the people. 
In what Jefferson wrote and in his own life is 
revealed a depth of awareness that gives the words 
and example that have come down to us from him 
a force that is very nearly unique. I give you as a 
witness of the honesty and understanding on which 
his political philosophy rested a simple observa- 



tion he introduced casually in a letter — but an 
observation that we might well pray could sink 
deep into the hearts of men everywhere : "I have 
been [unable] to conceive how any rational being 
could propose happiness to himself from the exer- 
cise of power over others." 

Jefferson, Enemy of the "System" 

Jefferson was the enemy of what we might call 
the "System." There is one in every society and in 
every age: a conspiracy to corner power, to de- 
prive the generality of men of their birthright, to 
withhold information and deny currency to any 
but the official version of the truth. To be against 
such a system is the hallmark of the true revolu- 
tionary. To seek to replace someone else's system 
with a system of one's own is a commonplace, and 
most of those who claim the title of revolutionary 
have only this object in mind. To seek the end of 
all special systems and of all restrictions upon the 
freedom of men to speak their minds and decide 
their fate for themselves is much rarer than it 
might seem. This was, however, Jefferson's 
honest aim. He flayed the conspiracy of mon- 
archy that then seemed to threaten the future of 
mankind much as totalitarianism does today. He 
flayed the conspiracy of special interests — "stock- 
jobbers," he called them — who regarded the anti- 
democratic oligarchy of contemporary Britain as 
a model system of government. He opposed the 
conspiracy against the exercise of freedom rep- 
resented by tradition, by the tyranny of the past, 
deriding the doctrine that maintained that "pre- 
ceding generations held the earth more freely 
than we do; had a right to impose laws on us, 
unalterable by ourselves and that we, in like man- 
ner, can make laws and impose burdens on future 
generations which they will have no right to alter; 
in fine, that the earth belongs to the dead and not 
to the living." He was not afraid, either, to take 
on what he saw as the conspiracy of the clergy 
when they attacked his candidacy with such vi- 
ciousness in the campaign of 1800. Today we may 
thank the clergy for having done so, for the clash 
gave us one of the most memorable declarations 
in the history of freedom, the one enshrined on 
Jefferson's monument in Washington: "I have 
sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility 
against every form of tyranny over the mind of 
man." 

Jefferson well knew the significance for the 



April 29, J 957 



683 



world of the American revolution against the sys- 
tem that then prevailed over the rest of mankind. 
"We are not," he said, "acting for ourselves alone 
but for the whole human race. The event of our 
experiment is to see whether man can be trusted 
with self-government. The eyes of suffering hu- 
manity are fixed on us with anxiety as their only 
hope. ..." 

I trust it is not vainglorious to suggest that the 
eyes of humanity have been fixed upon us ever 
since, always with hope, sometimes — let us ad- 
mit — in disappointment, depending as we are 
faithful or not to our early example. They are 
fixed upon us today. The issues that preoccupied 
the minds of Jefferson and his contemporaries 
were never more vibrantly alive than they are 
today. The paradox of our strife-torn age is 
that, while the cause of freedom has made un- 
exampled strides aromid the world and is the 
currency of men's hopes everywhere, it has never 
stood in greater peril. Ours has been an age of 
revolution and counterrevolution. "\Ye might re- 
call that Jefferson, familiar enough with the phe- 
nomenon of counterrevolution, was also familiar 
with the term. "A perfect counter-revolutioner" 
is what he called PTamilton when the latter put on 
mourning upon the death of King Louis XVI. 
But counterrevolution today, uniting the abso- 
lutism of the darkest past with the techniques 
and weapons of the most advanced science, has 
assumed protean forms that Jefferson never 
dreamed of. 

But perhaps I am overstating the case in sug- 
gesting that he never dreamed of them. Napoleon 
Bonaparte, the totalitarian of that time, was only 
too well known to Jefferson, and what he wrote 
about Bonaparte might well serve as an accurate 
indictment, particular by particular, of the totali- 
tarians of our own time. "He wanted totally the 
sense of right and wrong," said Jeff'ei-son. "If he 
could consider the millions of human lives which 
he had destroyed or caused to be destroyed, the 
desolations of countries by plunderings, burnings, 
and famine, the destitutions of lawful rulers of 
the world without the consent of their constitu- 
ents . . . , the cutting up of establislied societies 
of men and jumbling tliem discordantly together 
again at his caprice, the demolition of the fairest 
hopes of mankind for tlie recovery of their rights 
and amelioration of their conditions, and all the 
numberless train of his other enormities ; the man, 



I say, who could consider all these as no crime, 
must have been a moral monster, against whom 
every hand should have been lifted to slay him." 

The Conflict With Totalitarianism 

For 15 yeai-s and more, now, our counti-y with 
its allies has been combating by every practical 
means the aggressive purposes of successive totali- 
tarianisms — first the totalitarianisms of fascism 
and nazism, and now the crusading, fanatical, 
worldwide totalitarianism of international com- 
munism. To this end we have fought all aroimd 
the globe and American dead lie today in countries 
most of our coimtrymen scarcely had heard of 
30 years ago. Over a much gi-eater area still, the 
products of American industry and agricultiu*e 
have been poured out to strengthen other peoples 
against the ambitions of foreign absolutisms. For 
absolutism has threatened them and, in its most 
virulent form, continues to threaten them today 
with every kind of weajxjn, from conventional 
military forces to cancerous agencies that work 
from within, exploiting a weakness of tissue to 
proliferate and infect the entire body of the nation. 

Our success in combating totalitarianism has 
been mixed. 

Since, reluctantly, we accepted the responsibil- 
ity of a leading world power at the start of World 
War II, aggressive totalitarianism has been 
thwarted in its aims on a worldwide front. In 
1942 Hitler can have had little doubt that Europe 
was his and that with it the world balance of 
power must move inevitably in his favor; the 
Japanese imperialists can have had little doubt 
that East Asia and the Western Pacific were 
theirs. In 1946 the Soviet Union can have had 
little doubt that the Connnunist parties would 
arise triumphant in a wrecked, despairing, and 
disillusioned Europe and that the revolts then 
brewing against European rule would turn in- 
evitably, in accordance with doctrine, to the So- 
viet advantage. All these expectations were dis- 
appointed. The period through which we have 
been i)assing has been made memorable also by 
the granting of independence by the colonial 
jiowers to a dozen or more countries comprising 
over lialf a billion souls. This has been an his- 
torically unparalleled development. 

On the other hand, we nmst record that an 
equally impressive roster of states, long i)roud of 
their independence, have been enslaved by the 



684 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



forces of international communism. If it is pos- 
sible to travel from Morocco and Tunisia across 
the Arab East through Pakistan and India to the 
new nations of Southeast Asia and find scarcely 
a country in which the principle of self-rule for 
which we fought in 1776 has not made signal or 
sweeping strides, it is also true that there is no- 
where between Eastern Germany and central Ko- 
rea an acre of land where the principles of our 
revolution — of revolution itself — have not been 
ruthlessly suppressed. 

The end of the contest between freedom and 
absolutism is, moreover, by no means in sight. 
Wliile stretching indefijiitely ahead of us in time, 
it seems also to have no limits in extent. The free 
peoples are cliallenged in every field. The con- 
test is not one of military power alone. It is a 
contest of economic strength. It is a contest of 
technological ability and of education. It is a 
contest to determine which way of life, all in all, 
is better equipped for survival, which will seem 
to offer the greater promise to the vast masses of 
mankind who are only now emerging from the 
passivity of a tribal or tradition-bound past to 
the dazzling and bewildering promise of the 20th 
century. 

Misunderstandings About U.S. Policy 

It should be clear to us that in the conflict with 
totalitarianism we are not trying to force our kind 
of government on any other peoples. Indeed, it 
is precisely the principle that no nation should 
try to force its kind of government on another 
that we are striving to establish, and any inliibi- 
tion we ask others to accept we are prepared to 
accept ourselves. Our goal is a world in which 
no state will be able to impose its will or its 
ideology on any other. 

Another thing we are not seeking is any special 
advantage for ourselves or our friends. We as- 
pire to no colonies or territorial expansion. "If 
there be one principle more deeply rooted than 
any other in the mind of every American," Jef- 
ferson declared, "it is that we should have nothing 
to do with conquest." Despite our having had 
such opportunities for aggrandizement as can 
seldom have confronted a nation, we have been 
faithful to Jefferson's precept. Despite the un- 
conditional victories we have won with our allies 
in two world wars, the territory under our flag 
today is substantially smaller than it was in 



1914 — and, surely, we would have it no other way. 

The spectacle of a great power which has sacri- 
ficed hundreds of thousands of its young men and 
has drawn unsparingly upon its resources for the 
relief of other people's needs, while seeking no 
selfish advantage, has been regarded with scep- 
ticism. And why not? To untold millions of 
men any government at alli — their own and cer- 
tainly any foreign government — has always been 
an instrument of exaction and oppression. The 
idea that a mighty world power could genuinely 
consider that its interests were parallel with tliose 
of an undernourished, ill-clothed village in Asia 
or Africa has proved entirely too novel to some 
of those who have suffered under alien rule. 
Many of our actions have been misconstrued as 
evidence of ulterior motives. It is not easy to 
give up a habit of mind, even if it stands in the 
way of hope. 

The Communists are quick to exploit this sus- 
picion of our motives. Their propaganda cease- 
lessly portrays the entire fabric of our conduct 
as one vast, diabolically conceived stratagem of 
imperialism. They represent our aid programs 
as being aimed at the subversion of others. They 
represent that the bases we maintain abroad, at 
quite an appalling cost to the American taxpayer, 
are for the purposes of aggressive war. 

We have to expect misunderstanding fi'om 
others, and it should not too greatly disturb us. 
What should disturb us, however, are any signs 
that some among us ourselves may misunderstand 
what we are about. One encounters sometimes 
the point of view that any device that would give 
us an advantage over the Communists is quite 
proper for us to employ, however morally out- 
raged we might be if it were employed against us. 
When I encounter such individuals, I cannot help 
wondering if they picture the Almighty as one 
who is concerned not that right and truth and 
decency shall prevail but that the state of which 
they happen to be a citizen shall triumph over 
others. 

The danger in any protracted contest is that we 
are apt to lose sight of what the contest is about. 
We are apt to forget the issue that gave rise to 
it — in this case the defense of freedom against 
oppression, of decency against immorality — and 
come to see it as a battle of the we's against the 
they's in which the only important consideration 
is that the we's win. 



AprW 29, J 957 



685 



A few months ago on a crucial issue in the 
United Nations we found ourselves on the opposite 
side from two of our oldest allies. There was 
considerable outcry in a number of organs of pub- 
lic opinion in the United States which held that 
we were wrong in the decision we had made. 
That the situation was tragic I would be the last 
to deny, but to say that what we did was wrong 
is to misconstrue entirely the nature of the con- 
flict that has so largely preoccupied us during the 
past decade. We have not fought and toiled to 
establish the rule of any particular set of na- 
tions in the world; we have done so to establish 
the rule of certain principles embodied in the 
charter of the United Nations which we believe 
are entitled to universal respect. Any state that 
honors and defends these principles — the chief of 
which is that no nation should attack another — 
is our ally. Any state violating them, even under 
painful provocation, will find us in opposition 
concerning these issues regardless of how long 
and how close our association has been. 

If we uphold those principles that commend 
themselves to men of good will, we shall never lack 
for allies. We shall have a banner to which the 
overwhelming majority of the human race is des- 
perately eager to repair. If, on the contrary, we 
make expediency the criterion of our policy and 
demand that others accept our primacy, we shall 
have taken a long step toward fulfilling the role in 
which Communist propagandists ever seek to por- 
tray us. 

The problems we face, the tasks we must per- 
form, are complicated and formidable, and it will 
be the next generation rather than this one, I sus- 
pect, that will see the end of them — if the world 
does not blow up in our faces in the meantime. 
We shall have to deal with a Communist bloc that 
will have both the psychological and the physical 
capability of launching, without warning, an at- 
tack of tremendous force upon any part of the 
free world. At the same time, we shall be having 
to deal with a Communist bloc quite capable of 
acting indefinitely as a paragon of peaceful intent, 
challenging us to throw down our arms and lull- 
ing into a false sense of security the peoples who 
will have to endure painful sacrifices if military 
establishments are to be maintained. In refusing 
to leave ourselves militarily defenseless against 
Communist attack we shall have to reconcile our- 
selves to being branded by the credulous and the 



short of memory as warmongers abroad and as 
spendthrifts at home. 

That will not be the end of our dilemma. As 
Americans we shall find that it will depend upon 
us, more than upon anyone else, to keep alive in 
the world the spirit of revolution— the spirit that 
will never make peace with authority or with any 
form of tyramiy over men's minds. At the same 
time, it will depend upon us more than upon any- 
one else to stem the forces of disorder and poten- 
tial chaos in the free world that the Communists 
are in a position recklessly to abet. We shall not 
be able to look on with indifference while the insti- 
tutions that hold societies together go down before 
rising seas of discontent. 

There will be no prospect of human betterment 
or the enhancement of freedom in a world given 
over to turmoil. It is not the revolutionary spirit 
or democracy that is the heir of chaos ; it is totali- 
tarianism. We shall find ourselves inevitably 
linked with regimes with political standards dif- 
ferent from our own. We are so linked today. 
Let me point out, however, that these regimes are 
apt to be what they are because they have had 
scant chance to be otherwise ; they have come into 
being under the threat of extinction. They are, 
however, no threat to the independence of their 
neighbors. That, I would beg you to bear in 
mind, is an important distinction. In this con- 
nection, we might take heed of something Jeffer- 
son said : "There is a snail-paced gait for the ad- 
vance of new ideas upon the general mind under 
which we must acquiesce. . . . you must give 
[the people] time for every step you take." 

Freedom vs. Communism 

If — and again I make this exception — the world 
can avoid nuclear war, which we believe the inter- 
national Communists are now scarcely more likely 
to welcome than we are, then it should be possible 
to distinguish in some degree the kind of world in 
which the example of freedom and the precepts of 
communism will contend in the future. The arena 
is likely to be primarily in these underdeveloped 
countries I touched on earlier in my remarks, 
whose inhabitants, nmnbering in the hundreds of 
millions, are only now being aroused out of narrow 
traditional patterns of existence by the explosive 
impact of modern ideas. Jefferson foresaw the 
changes that were bound to come witli the spread 
of the light of knowledge — or, as he identified it, 



686 



Department of State Bulletin 



of the art of printing. "As yet,"' he wrote, "that 
light has dawned on the middling classes only of 
the men in Europe. The liings and the rabble, of 
equal ignorance, have not yet received its rays; 
but it continues to spread, and while printing is 
pre.served it can no more recede than the sun re- 
turn on his course." 

Throughout the underdeveloped world — and 
this includes by far the largest part of it — the 
"middling classes," as Jefferson called them, are 
growing in numbers and importance as a result of 
the increasing commerce in goods and ideas with 
the more advanced countries of Europe and 
xVmerica. Composed of those who are neither 
conspicuously possessed of property nor conspicu- 
ously dispossessed of it — professional men, tech- 
nologists, government officials, factory managers, 
labor leaders, writers and publicists, and military 
officers — these classes are gradually displacing 
from the center of the stage "the kings and the 
rabble" of which Jefferson spoke. This is a proc- 
ess that has been taking place in our own country, 
where it is already far advanced. The extremes 
of society that Jefferson mistrusted — the specially 
privileged and the totally disinherited — ^have all 
but disappeared among us, absorbed into the 
growing "middling classes." In the lands which 
heretofore have lain outside the scope of 20th-cen- 
tury civilization, these "middling classes" will be 
the arbiters of the future. And they will be cast- 
ing about for an answer to their problems — cast- 
ing about fairly desperately probably, in view of 
the condition in which most of them will find their 
countries. I have little doubt that what we shall 
have to say to them will be far more meaningful 
and far more promising than anything emanating 
from Moscow or Peiping, provided we remember 
what it is that America is all about. It is because 
of that belief that I have devoted so much of my 
talk to your founder. It is in the direction of his 
ideas, I am convinced, that the most powerfid 
current of mankind's aspirations lie. 

If we are steeped in those ideas, we shall not 



mistake ourselves. We shall not appear before 
the world in the guise of any system or any au- 
thority. Sometimes it seems that bewildered man- 
kind seeks to submit itself to an authority, to have 
a dogma handed down to it, but in the end men 
turn against those who make slaves or children of 
them and fight for the opportunity to be them- 
selves, to find their own solutions. It should be 
our purpose to help bring about the kind of world 
in wliich that opportmiity will be theirs. 

Events in East Germany, in Poland, in Hun- 
gary have shown that the most rigorous oppres- 
sion, the most preclusive totalitarian indoctrina- 
tion cannot still the hunger for freedom. Indeed, 
it is the youth of those countries, who have known 
nothing but Communist rule, who are in the van- 
guard of rebellion. Despite savage suppression 
the latent forces for change throughout the Com- 
munist world will continue to grow. In the 
U.S.S R. itself slowly but surely the role of the 
"middling classes" will be steadily enlarged. The 
tone of society in countries now enslaved by the 
international Communists will be set less and less, 
I think, by all-powerful oligarchs and a dehu- 
manized peasantry and proletariat and increas- 
ingly by the professional men, the engineers, the 
middle-ranking government workers, artists and 
writers, and a better-educated populace who will 
more and more demand a portion of the things 
that make life worth living. 

The change has already begun, and we are be- 
ginning to see the effects of it. The Hungarian 
youth brutally slaughtered by Soviet tanks in 
the streets of Budapest have not died in vain. 
"The light that has been shed on mankind . . . 
continues to spread." Perhaps only one thing 
could be expected to set it back. "We exist," said 
Jefferson, "and are quoted, as standing proofs 
that a government, so modeled as to rest contin- 
ually on the will of the whole society, is a prac- 
ticable government. Were we to break to pieces, 
it would damp the hopes and the efforts of the 
good, and give triumph to those of the bad through 
the whole enslaved world." 



April 29, 7957 



687 



The United Nations and Responsibilities for tiie Future 



iy Francis 0. Wilcox 

Assistant Secretary for International Organization Affairs '■ 



I should like to direct attention to the changing 
composition and role of the General Assembly of 
the United Nations. It is not surprising that our 
main focus should be on the General Assembly. 
A quick look at the events of the past decade leaves 
us with the impression that the United Nations 
today is a somewhat different organization from 
that conceived at San Francisco. 

In 1945 the Security Council was hopefully ex- 
pected to maintain and restore peace. In this 
Council power and responsibility were neatly com- 
bined. However, the 10 years of cold war, of 
sharp differences between the Soviet orbit and the 
free world, and, in particular, of repeated abuses 
of the veto by the U.S.S.R. have pushed the Coun- 
cil into a secondary role. The Council today, 
while still available, tends to be most useful pri- 
marily in situations where there is a possibility 
of East and West finding a common ground. In 
other situations it has been faced with increasing 
disuse. 

In contrast, the role of the General Assembly 
has outstripped the expectations of the framers of 
the charter. The General Assembly was designed 
to be the less powerful organ. It was scheduled to 
meet in regular annual sessions. It could not 
make decisions as could the Security Council — 
only recommendations. Its main weapon was dis- 
cussion and debate. Power and responsibility 
were not realistically reflected in it — the vote of a 
small state equaled that of a large iwwer. If 
increasing disuse has characterized the Security 

'Address made before the Seventh Annual Public 
Forum on World Affairs of tlie Pittsburgh Foreign Policy 
Association at Pittsl)urgh, Pa., on Apr. 12 (press release 
203 dated Apr. 11). 



688 



Council, quite the opposite is true of the 

Assembly. 

The Role of the General Assembly 

If "past is prologue," then it would seem helpful 
to consider the implications for the future of the 
enlarged General Assembly and the greater re- 
sponsibilities that have been assumed in the past 
few years by this body. These are changes which 
give new dimensions to the United Nations and 
which therefore pose for its members new prob- 
lems and, I think, new opportunities. 

In the last year and a half the United Nations 
has grown from 60 to 81 members. A preponder- 
ance of tlie increase, it is interesting to note, repre- 
sents newly sovereign states in Africa, the Near 
East, and the Far East — commonlj' referred to as 
Afro-Asia. 

In the last 6 months the General Assembly has 
assumed and discharged unprecedented responsi- 
bilities under the Uniting-for-Peace resolution 
which was adopted in 1950 following the Com- 
munist aggi-ession in Korea." The machinery pro- 
vided by this resolution was used for the first time 
when the Security Council was prevented by nega- 
tive votes of some of its permanent members from 
dealing with the crisis in the Middle East and 
Hungary. 

The increasingly important role played by the 
General Assembly and its greatly enlarged mem- 
bership, taken together, are causing concern to 
some membei's of the United Nations and to some 
able students and critics of world affairs. Some 



' For text, see Bulletin of Nov. 20, 1050, p. 823. 

Department of State Bulletin 



of our stanch allies are wondering whether the 
Assemblj' can ell'ectively face up to critical issues 
wliicli tlireiiten or break the peace. 

1 think it would be useful to review briefly some 
of these fears and warnings. Perhaps in the 
process we can form a judgment as to whether the 
Assembly is in fact in danger of becoming a 
Frankenstein monster about ready to destroy it- 
self as some would have us believe. 

First, the General Assembly, it is contended, is 
becoming more and more addicted to bloc voting, 
with loyalty to bloc taking precedence over any 
real attempt to meet issues objectively and on their 
merits. This is regarded as an irresponsible, even 
dangerous, development when a coalition vote of 
over one-third can be mustered by tlie Afro-Asian 
bloc alone. 

Second, it is charged that there is an increasing 
tendency to water down resolutions in order to get 
a two-thirds supporting vote where important is- 
sues are under consideration. This tendency, it is 
contended, is producing diluted resolutions of lit- 
tle force or effect. 

Third, the principle of sovereign equality, un- 
der whicli each state has one vote, has come in for 
renewed criticism as giving an unreal and dis- 
torted reflection of the relative power and influ- 
ence of the several states in international affairs. 
Is it right, it is asked, for a small, economically 
and politically weak state to weigh equally in the 
balance with a large and strong state when the 
votes are counted? Does not this encourage a 
tendency to "gang up" on the larger state? 

Fourth, it is argued that the General Assembly 
has a double standard of justice and morality — 
one for states which abide by its recommendations, 
another for states that defy them. This also raises 
the question as to whether we are at fault in re- 
sorting to the United Nations on issues which it is 
powerless to resolve and which, therefore, may 
result in a sense of frustration or loss of faith in 
the organization itself. 

A Look at the Record 

These charges are serious ones and deserve our 
careful consideration. I believe a look at the rec- 
ord of the 11th General Assembly will help us de- 
termine their validity. With regard to all of 
them I would like to make the general observation 
that they imply a greater authority and power 

April 29, 7957 

423590—57 3 



than the General Assembly actually has. The 
composition and role of the General Assembly 
may be changing, but its duties as set forth in the 
charter remain unchanged. It is a recommenda- 
tory body, whose influence depends on the volun- 
tary cooperation of its members. 

Bloc Voting 

Let us take the matter of bloc voting. The only 
really consistent bloc voting in the General Assem- 
bly — and it is carried on with monotonous regu- 
larity — is done by the U.S.S.R. and its satellite 
states. This is a pattern long established ; it is not 
a new phenomenon. The fears currently ex- 
l^ressed are that the Afro-Asian group of nations 
may, as a matter of agreed policy, vote together 
and control Assembly action on impoi-tant matters 
in a manner contrary to our interests. This, in 
my opinion, is more a mathematical possibility 
than a logical exiJectation or certainty. The 
mathematical facts are as follows. 

As presently constituted, when all 81 members 
are voting, 54 votes are needed for the Assembly 
to act on matters requiring a two-thirds majority. 
If all the Afro- Asian states were to combine, they 
would have a blocking minority of 28 votes, suffi- 
cient to block action on matters requiring a two- 
thirds vote and enough to give them a major voice 
in deciding all important issues. By contrast, in 
the "new"Assembly, the Latin American States 
now have but 24 percent of the vote, non-Commu- 
nist Europe 19 percent, the Soviet bloc 11 percent, 
and the old British Conunonwealth countries 5 
percent. 

In practice, however, the Afro-Asian gi-oup 
does not regularly vote as a bloc, and, when it 
does, it is apt to be on issues for which there is 
overwhelming support from states outside the 
Afro- Asian area. Again, I think we should look 
at the recoi'd of the last General Assembly. 

Take first the vote on the principal resolutions 
relating to the Middle East crisis. Here, cer- 
tainly, one might expect to see Afro-Asian soli- 
darity. Yet out of 11 important resolutions ap- 
proved between November 1, 1956, and February 
2, 1957. this bloc voted as an entity on only 2, and 
in both these cases the resolutions received total 
votes of 74 in favor, 2 against, and 2 abstentions. 
Indeed, the general observation may be made that 
the Afro-Asian group displayed considerable 



689 



unanimity in casting affirmative votes on the reso- 
lutions which were adopted by impressive or over- 
whelming majorities. In other words, they did 
not act as an irresponsible splinter group in oppo- 
sition to the will of the majority. 

The voting record on the Hungarian situation 
demonstrated less unanimity, although there was 
an increasing tendency for all United Nations 
members, including those from Africa and Asia, 
to be more sharply critical of brutal Soviet actions 
as they became revealed. On this issue, it might 
be observed, we would have welcomed a solid 
Afro-Asian bloc vote. But on only 3 out of 10 
resolutions were more than 20 Afro- Asian votes 
cast affirmatively, and these dealt with the less 
contentious issues of relief for the Hungarian 
refugees. The vote on the remaining 7 resolu- 
tions reflected wide splits within the bloc. The 
point I want to emphasize is this : the Afro- Asian 
group does not constitute a monolithic bloc. 

Of course, there is a tendency for states with 
common interests and problems to vote together 
when they think this will serve those interests. 
These tendencies, wherever they exist, present 
problems to all who wish to see international 
issues dealt with on their merits. At the same 
time, we should not exaggerate the extent to which 
such bloc voting prevails nor should we exaggerate 
the practical consequences. 

"Watered Down" Resolutions 

Let us consider the record on the "watering 
down" of resolutions. Now it is true that a resolu- 
tion is seldom approved in committee in the form 
in which it was first submitted. This would be a 
remarkable thing not only for the General Assem- 
bly but for any political deliberative body. We 
have only to consider, for example, the tortuous 
course of a piece of legislation, or a simple resolu- 
tion, in our own Congress. 

This process of compromise is certainly a demo- 
cratic process. It is an attempt to find common 
ground and secure the widest possible area of 
support. It is an essential step if the General 
Assembly is to comply with the charter injunc- 
tion to liarmonize the action of nations. It exer- 
cises a moderating influence on the action of 
states and places a premium on reasonable policies 
reflecting broad rather than narrow interests. 

A good example of the wisdom and effectiveness 
of this process is the General Assembly's handling 



of the Algerian problem. You will recall that 
France a year ago withdrew her delegation when 
Algeria was inscribed on the agenda. This year, 
in the 11th General Assembly, France, while deny- 
ing the Assembly's competence, did not oppose in- 
scription. Wlien the matter came up before the 
Political Committee in February 1957, a strong 
resolution drafted by IS Afro-Asian states was in- 
troduced. While this resolution no doubt ex- 
pressed the convictions of the drafters, it was 
obvious from the beginning that it could never 
receive the two-thirds vote necessary for adoption. 
Actually no vote was ever taken on this resolution 
as a whole. 

On February 11, in an effort to reach a measure 
of agreement, a milder resolution was introduced 
by Japan, the Philippines, and Thailand. The 
following day a number of other powers tried their 
hand at drafting an acceptable resolution. Both 
these resolutions came to a vote in committee and 
were adopted. Neither, however, received a two- 
thirds majority. 

On February 15 the General Assembly in ple- 
nary session heard the Political Committee report 
failure to secure two-thirds support for any resol- 
ution on Algeria. At this juncture the powers 
which had fathered the two resolutions that re- 
ceived a simple majority in committee introduced 
in plenary a moderate compromise resolution. 
This resolution, expressing the hope that a peace- 
ful, democratic, and just solution to the Algerian 
problem would be found in conformity with the 
principles of the charter, was adopted by a unan- 
imous vote.^ France refrained from voting, in 
keeping with its position that the General Assem- 
bly is not competent to deal with the Algerian 
situation. 

This result could be called, I suppose, an exam- 
ple of a "watered down" resolution. I believe it 
more accurate to describe it as a practical com- 
promise arrived at after exhaustive debate in 
which all sides had an opportunity to express their 
views. The debate cleared the air, and substantive 
action by the Assembly which would have ham- 
pered rather than promoted a solution was 
avoided. It is clear from the unanimous vote that 
during this debate the states principally con- 
cerned had achieved understanding, if not ap- 
proval, of each other's attitudes and interests. All 

• Ibid., Mar. 11, 1957, p. 421. 



690 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



members faced the fact squarely that the General 
Assembly on its own could not provide a solution 
to the Algerian problem. Progress, however, was 
possible, and progress was made because the As- 
sembly acted responsibly in maintaining an at- 
mosphere conducive to a practicable solution in 
the future by the parties directly concerned. 

General Assembly consideration of the question 
of Cyprus followed very much the same pattern. 

I believe that the Assembly's record on the dis- 
armament question was also an example of respon- 
sible action. Assembly members recognized fully 
that before disarmament can be achieved the 
principal powers must reach agi-eement through 
quiet negotiations. The Assembly was aware that 
the 81-nation forum is not the right place to try to 
reach agreement on highly technical details in- 
volving the security of many peoples and many 
countries. For these reasons it voted unanimously 
to refer all the disarmament proposals before it 
to the Disarmament Commission and its Sub- 
committee for prompt, quiet, and detailed con- 
sideration.* This is an excellent example of the 
Assembly's realizing what it should or should not 
do in a given situation. 

Of course, not all compromise resolutions passed 
by the Assembly are generally regarded as the best 
result that might have been achieved. For exam- 
ple, a good many delegations considered the As- 
sembly's last resolution on the deployment of the 
United Nations Emergency Force in Egypt* as 
something less than satisfactory. It would ob- 
viously have been preferable if the Assembly had 
been more precise in defining Unef's role in the 
Gaza Strip or at the entrance to the Gulf of Aqaba. 
But here, as in other cases, the outcome was 
determined by tlie prevailing balance of interests 
in the Assembly, in this case by those who favored 
less precision. Nevertheless, the result, while not 
ideal, did make possible the effective interposition 
of the Unef between Israeli and Egyptian forces. 

Now I realize that such halfway measures will 
never satisfy those who expect the United Nations 
to make quick, clear-cut, and enforceable decisions 
based on agreed concepts of right and wrong in a 
given issue. Nevertheless, such precise and com- 
plete solutions to problems are not always possible. 
International issues today often are susceptible of 
only modest solutions. The Assembly's willing- 



' Ibid.. Feb. 11, 1957, p. 225, and Mar. 11, 1957, p. 423. 
• Ihid., Nov. 19. 1956, p. 793. 



ness to face up to its limitations as well as its ca- 
pacities in concrete instances represents a forward 
step toward even greater responsible action in the 
Assembly. 

The Voting Formula 

One of the very first actions that a newly sov- 
ereign state takes in the international field is to 
apply for admission to the United Nations. 
Membership in this body is looked upon as the 
final stamp of approval by the international com- 
munity. Once admitted, the new state is anxious 
to demonstrate its ability to contribute to the ob- 
jectives of the charter and equally desirous, I 
think, to assert and maintain its new-found inde- 
pendence and sovereignty. The new state tends 
to avoid actions which would make it appear that 
its vote is "in someone else's pocket." 

I believe that, by and large, these new states, 
and the so-called small or weak states, have acted 
responsibly and in the common interest. There 
are occasions, of course, when a state or group of 
states advances proposals which are impossible or 
extremely difficult for the United Nations to carry 
out and which place the major powers in a difficult 
predicament. On such occasions, in particular, 
we may feel that the one-state, one-vote foimula is, 
in fact, an inequity and perhaps some consider- 
ation should be given to weighted voting devices. 

But it is hard to blame these states for using the 
General Assembly, on occasion, as an opportunity 
to make the major powers sit up and take notice. 
Sometimes, when the latter are at loggerheads, 
such action may serve a decisively constructive 
purpose. 

The General Assembly is as near as the world 
has come toward the creation of a parliament of 
nations. As an international institution it tends 
to reflect accurately the underlying political, eco- 
nomic, and social conditions in the world. It 
should draw upon, as does a democracy, the energy 
and intellectual resources of all its members. The 
atmosphere of equality which prevails encourages 
it to do this. We should also recall that the As- 
sembly, as a recommendatory body, has built-in 
safeguards against the imposition of the will of 
the majority on an opposing minority, even if this 
is a minority of one. Its recommendations may be 
disregarded. 

However, where the majority is overwhelming 
and the justice or good sense of a proposal is 



April 29, 1957 



691 



abundantly evident, opposition or noncompliance 
by one or more of the great nations will be at the 
peril of turnino; world public opinion against 
them. As the General Assembly has grown, this 
has been revealed as one of its great unwritten 
powers. No nation can lightly accept a position 
of defiance to its limited authority. 

The Double Standard 

I would like to say a word now about the so- 
called "double standard." The failure of the 
General Assembly to bring about the withdrawal 
of Soviet forces from Hmigary, as contrasted with 
its success in the Middle East crisis, has become a 
cause of concern. 

The record of Assembly action on these two 
issues does not support the charges made against 
it. The resolutions invoked against the Soviet 
Union and the Hungarian Communist regime 
were more strongly worded than in the case of 
the action in the Middle East. The Assembly 
climaxed its action with outright condemnation of 
the U.S.S.R. — a step which has blasted the under- 
pinnings from the Soviet propaganda campaigns 
of the past years." Frustrating United Nations 
action has cost the Soviet Union dearly. 

We must face the fact that the possibility for 
such frustration of United Nations action was 
written into the charter when great-power 
unanimity was required for Security Council de- 
cisions. It was hoped, of course, that unanimity 
on questions of aggression or threats of aggi'ession 
would prevail, but we were as insistent as any 
other power in including this provision. It is 
true that the Uniting-for-Peace resolution em- 
powers the General Assembly to act in cases where 
the Security Council fails to act. But this was a 
resolution, not an amendment to the charter. The 
fundamental responsibilities and authority of the 
Security Council and the General Assembly re- 
main unchanged. 

There are and there will remain those within 
the community, the state, and world who attempt 
to defy the law. In the absence of enforcement 
power or a "decent respect to the opinions of man- 
kuid," they may — at least in the short run — get 
away with it. It is true that this is a threat to the 
rule of law, but it is not its abrogation. 

The Soviet Union remains charged by mankind 



with a brutal and flagrant violation of the charter 
in the case of Hungary. With regard to General 
Assembly action, I believe the cause of freedom 
was served within the capacity of that body to do 
so in the circumstances and that the cause of Soviet 
communism was dealt a serious and irreparable 
blow. 

I think we underestimate the telling and lasting 
effect on governments and people throughout the 
world of the long days and nights of incisive de- 
bate and investigation of the Hungarian issue by 
the General Assembly. As the details of Com- 
munist ruthlessness, cynicism, and falsehood were 
revealed, the eyes of many were opened for the 
first time to the true meaning of Soviet imperial- 
ism. This was particularly true among the repre- 
sentatives of states who, for a variety of reasons, 
have tended to take a noncommital or detached 
stand, particularly on issues with cold-war over- 
tones. 

By way of illustration, I would like to refer to 
an episode in the 11th General Assembly when the 
Hungarian matter had been under debate for 
nearly a month. A resolution of condemnation 
of the Soviet Union was before the Assembly. 
The delegate from Burma asked for the platform 
and spoke as follows : 

"We have hoped," he said, "that the truly modest 
steps proposed by this General Assembly . . . 
would have been unanimously adopted. We ab- 
stained and waited during the week of 2 December, 
under the expectation that surely the Secretary- 
General of the United Nations would be agreeably 
received in any member country at any time. We 
abstained and waited, while the Secretary-General 
told us that there was a chance that he would be 
received in Hungary at a stipulated date within 
the next few days." Then, in telling the Assembly 
that he was now prepared to vote condemnation of 
the U.S.S.R., the Burmese delegate said, "We do 
this to keep our self-respect. After all responsible 
waiting for action has passed, we can do no less. 
There," he said, "speaking of Hungary, but for 
the Grace of God go we." ' 

At the conclusion of this debate, Burma joined 
14 other Afro- Asian nations in condemning So- 
viet violation of the charter. In my opinion, this 
exposure and condemnation of Communist im- 
perialism has served to strengthen the bonds of 



'For text of the General Assembly's resolution, see 
iUd., Dec. 24 and 31, 1956, p. 979. 

692 



' U.N. (ioc. A/rV. 617 dated Dec. 12. 

Department of State Bulletin 



the free world. It may well turn out to be one of 
the greatest blows suffered by the Soviet Union 
and the satellite system in the past decade. In 
any consideration of a "double standard" it must 
be weighed on the positive side of General Assem- 
bly accomplishment. For any measure that re- 
veals the methods of despotism and suppression 
of freedom serves the cause both of the oppressed 
and of the free who wish to remain free. 

Problems for the Future 

Tn discussing the changing composition and 
role of the General Assembly I have attempted to 
place the problems encountered in the light of our 
experience to date. We will continue to have these 
problems, and new ones will evolve as the re- 
sources within the General Assembly are devel- 
oped. 

In summation, I would like to suggest some 
guidelines for the future. 

We should not assume that there will be solid 
bloc voting or mechanical majorities in the Gen- 
eral Assembly except for the Soviet Union and its 

satellites. 

We must remember that states generally act in 
what they conceive to be their own best interests. 
There are varying gi-adations of interests on vari- 
ous problems. There is much in international in- 
tercourse that tends to imify— and as much which 
causes disunity. 

We should keep in mmd that, when a two-thirds 
vote is required, it is often necessary to negotiate 
among the regional groups or blocs making up the 
Assembly. If, however, we continue to demon- 
strate constructive leadership and do our utmost 
to identify our interests with the interests of 
world peace and of progress, then I believe the 
General Assembly is not a body to be feared, now 
or in the future. 

In discussing earlier the question of weighted 
voting, I did not mean to close or dispose of the 
issue. For it may well be true that the General 
Assembly docs have a voting system which tends 
to give a distorted reflection of the power and in- 
fluence in the world of the various members. 
However, as I indicated earlier, there is evidence 
of a responsible restraint exercised by members 
of the Assembly. This is due, in large part, to an 
awareness that a General Assembly resolution, 
when passed, is still only a recommendation and 
that its effectiveness depends upon the degree to 

April 29, 1957 



which it is followed— particularly by the stronger 
and more influential powers. 

The mere fact that a bloc of powers can muster 
a two-thirds vote on an important issue does not 
necessarily mean that they will do so. I cite as 
a case in point the reaction at the General Assem- 
bly to the question of the invoking of sanctions 
against Israel for failure to withdraw her forces. 
One of the Middle Eastern states had actually 
introduced such a sanctions resolution. It was 
very possible at the time that such a resolution 
could have passed by a two-thirds majority. But 
this potential majority exercised a commendable 
restraint and caution; they waited to learn, in 
particular, what the position of certain powers 
would be whose support might be decisive. As 
it turned out, the resolution was never brought to 
a vote and Israeli forces were eventually 
withdrawn. 

Such responsible action is an example of the 
General Assembly's being used as an instrument 
through which our interdependent world realizes 
and accepts its interdependence. 

The more influential states must recognize that 
power and responsibility go hand in hand and that 
their positions of leadership cannot be taken for 
<n-anted. The less influential states should take 
care not to impair or destroy by their actions the 
usefulness of the organization that protects them 
and gives them an equal voice in the councils of 
nations. 

The United Nations should be recognized for 
what it is, an aid to progress toward a more peace- 
ful world. It is complementary to traditional 
diplomacy, not a substitute for it or for responsible 
international conduct. It is not a political Univac, 
where you feed the problems in one side and take 
the answers out the other. 

In this connection we have often recognized that 
there are certain international problems that can 
be more effectively handled outside the context of 
the United Nations. We have also recognized that 
we can never use the United Nations as a substitute 
for bold, imaginative, and realistic foreign policies 
and programs of our own— that we must continue 
to pursue many of our national interests and ob- 
jectives through various regional arrangements 
and bilateral relationships. 

I think there is no doubt that the United Na- 
tions must develop more effective pressures to get 
members to abide by its decisions and recom- 

693 



mendations where threats to the peace are in- 
volved. In this connection, I believe the creation 
and use of the United Nations Emergency Force 
is an important step in the evolution of voluntary 
peace-enforcing devices. The experience gained 
through this current experiment may prove in- 
valuable in the future. 

I look to the future of the United Nations, and 
of the role of the General Assembly in it, with 
optimism. It has recently faced crucial issues and 
has emerged a stronger and in some ways a more 
mature organization. We and the other member 
states will be called upon to assess its limitations 
and exploit its resources if it is to discharge well 
the purposes for which it was founded. The 
United States will continue to contribute its full 
measure of support to this end. 



U.S. Replies to Canadian Note 
Regarding E. H. Norman 

Press release 201 dated AprU 10 

FoUowing is an exchange of notes between the 
Can/idian Embassy and the Department of State 
concerning references made to E. H. Norman^ the 
late Canadian Ambassador to Egypt, dwimg the 
hearings of the Senate Internal Security 
Subconvmittee} 

Text of U.S. Note 

April 10, 1957 

Excellency : I have the honor to refer to your 
note No. 155 of March 18, 1957 protesting, on be- 
half of the Canadian Government, against certain 
references to Mr. E. H. Norman, the late Canadian 
Ambassador to Egypt, which were made during 
hearings of the Senate Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee and which were later made public. 

I should like, at the outset, to express to the 
Canadian Government and to Mrs. Norman my 
sincere condolences and those of my colleagues 
over the death of Ambassador Norman in Cairo. 

As for the substance of your note, I wish to as- 
sure you that any derogatory information de- 
veloped during hearings of the Subcommittee was 
introduced into the record by the Subcommittee 



' For a Department announcement concerning earlier 
discussions between tlie Canadian Embassy and the De- 
partment, see Bulletin of Apr. 1, 1957, p. 539. 



on its own responsibility. As you are aware, un- 
der our system of government, the Executive 
Branch has no jurisdiction over views or opinions 
expressed by Members or Committees of the 
United States Congress. The investigation being 
undertaken by the Subcommittee lies entirely 
within the control of the Subcommittee. 

It is the earnest desire of my government to 
continue to maintain the friendliest relations with 
the Government of Canada and it deplores any 
development from any sources either American 
or Canadian which might adversely affect those 
relations. 

Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of 
my highest consideration. 

Christian A. Herter 

Acting Secretary of State 
of the United States of America 

His Excellency 
A. D. P. Heeney, 

Ambassador of Canada. 

Text of Canadian Note 

No. 155 Washington, D. C, March 18, 1957. 

Sir, I am instructed by my Government to bring 
to the attention of the United States Government 
the allegations of disloyalty which have been made 
in the United States against Mr. E. H. Norman, 
the Canadian Ambassador to Egypt, a high and 
trusted representative of the Canadian Govern- 
ment. The irresponsible allegations to which I 
refer, and which in any event would concern mat- 
ters to be dealt with by the Canadian Government 
and not by a Subcommittee of the United States 
Senate, were contained in the textual record of 
the Internal Security Subcommittee, of the Sen- 
ate Committee on the Judiciary, which was offi- 
cially released by that body to the press in Wash- 
ington, D. C, at 4 :30 p. m. on March 14. 

I am instructed to protest in the strongest terms 
the action taken by an official body of the Ivegis- 
lative Branch of the United States Government 
in making and publishing allegations about a 
Canadian official. This procedure is both surpris- 
ing and disturbing because it was done without 
the United States Government consulting or even 
informing the Canadian Goverimient and with- 
out taking account of relevant public statements 
made earlier by the Canadian Government. 

The Canadian Government examined similar 



694 



Department of State Bulletin 



allegations as long ago as 1951, and as the result of 
an exhaustive security enquiry the full contidence 
of tlie Canadian Government in Mr. Norman's 
loyalty and integrity has been contirmed in all 
respects. The conclusions of the Canadian Gov- 
ernment were made public at that time and must 
have been known to the Subconnnittee particularly 
as the State Department was requested at the time 
and again on December 11, 1952 to draw them to 
their attention. T am attaching the texts of two 
statements made by the Canadian Government on 
this matter in 1951. 

The repetition of such irresponsible allegations 
in the Subcommittee and the publication on the 
authority of this official body of a record contain- 
ing such allegations is the kind of action which is 
inconsistent with the long-standing and friendly 
cooperation characterizing relations between our 
two countries. 

Accept, Sir, the renewed assurances of my high- 
est consideration. 

A. D. P. Heeney 

The Honourable John Foster Dulles, 
Secretaty of State of the United States, 
Washington, B.C. 

Annex 1 

Following is text of press release issued by the 
Department of External Affairs on August 9, 
1951: 

"Mr. Norman was subject to the normal security in- 
vestigation by the appropriate authorities of the Ca- 
nadian Government, according to rules laid down which 
apply to all members of the Department of External 
Affairs. 

"Subsequently, reports reached the Department which 
reflected on Mr. Norman's loyalty and alleged previous 
association with the Communist Party. These reports 
were very carefully and fully investigated by the security 
authorities of the Government, as a result of which Mr. 
Norman was given a clean bill of health, and he therefore 
remains a trusted and valuable official of the Department." 

Annex H 
Following is the text of a statement made in 
Ottawa on August 16, 1951 by the Secretary of 
State for External Affairs, Mr. Pearson : 

"Immediately on receipt of a news report on Thursday 
last, confirmed shortly afterwards by our Embassy in 
Washington, that the name of a Canadian official had 
been mentioned in the hearings of a U.S. Sub-Committee 
on Internal Security, the verbatim record of those hear- 
ings was requested. It was impossible to get that ver- 
batim record until Monday afternoon. After examining 
this record, a message was immediately sent to our Em- 

t<pt\\ 29, 1957 



bassy in Washington requesting them to inform the State 
Department of our surprise that the name of a highly 
respected and trusted senior official of the Canadian Gov- 
ernment had lieen mentioned in a way which could not fail 
to prejudice his iwsltion. 

"We emphasized our complete confidence in Mr. Norman 
and requested that the Congressional Sub-Committee be 
informed of this fact, and of our regret and annoyance 
that his name had been dragged into their hearings by 
tlieir Coun.sel on the basis of an unimpressive and un- 
substantiated allegation by a former Communist. 

"We expressed the hope that the Committee would in- 
struct their Counsel to act differently in future in matters 
which concerned officials of this Government, adding that 
we expect that if in investigations by committees of this 
liind in Washington, names of Canadian officials appeared, 
that these names should not be made public but that the 
normal practice should be followed of sending them to 
the Canadian Government through normal diplomatic 
channels. The allegations made could then be investi- 
gated here and the results of the investigation given to 
all those concerned. 

"We have our own methods of security investigation in 
Dttawa, which may not be the same as those employed 
in Washington, but which we consider to be both fair 
and effective." 



U.S.-Canada Joint Commission 
Holds Executive Session 

The International Joint Commission (U.S.- 
Canada) announced at Washington on April 5 
the completion of a 3-day executive meeting. The 
Commission, which was created to implement the 
Boimdary Waters Treaty of 1909, consists of three 
Commissioners from the United States and three 
from Canada. The present chairmen are Len 
Jordan for the United States and Gen. A. G. L. 
McNaughton for Canada. The Commission deals 
with problems mvolving the use of waters which 
flow along or across the U.S.-Canadian boundary, 
the longest in the world, and other questions which 
the Governments of the two comitries refer to it 
for joint study and report. 

At this meeting the Commission received prog- 
ress reports from the various international engi- 
neering boards and technical advisory boards 
which it has established to advise it on specific 
matters and mapped the course of its future oper- 
ations. 

The remedial works at Niagara Falls, designed 
and constructed under the supervision of the Com- 
mission, will likely be completed within the next 2 
or 3 months. The remedial works will preserve 

695 



and enhance the beauty of the falls, the crest of 
which has been erodmg at an alarming rate for 
many years, and will at the same time permit the 
generation of increased amounts of hydro power 
on both sides of the river. It was learned also 
that the final cost of the works will be substan- 
tially less than the original estimate of some $17 
million which was announced 4 years ago. An in- 
ternational ceremony to mark completion of the 
project will be held at Niagara Falls in Septem- 
ber.^ 

In its report of 1954 to the Governments of Can- 
ada and the United States concerning hydroelec- 
tric developments in the Saint John Kiver Basin, 
the Commission recommended that for greater ef- 
ficiency the New Brunswick Electric Power Com- 
mission system and the Maine Public Service Com- 
pany's system should be interconnected. Under 
the provisions of the Fernald Act the export of 
hj'droelectric power from the State of Maine was 
prohibited. This law has now been repealed by 
the Legislature of that State, and the Canadian 
authorities have reciprocated by authorizing the 
construction of the necessary transmission facili- 
ties and the exportation of surplus New Bruns- 
wick power to the State of Maine, thus clearing 
the way for interconnection of the two systems, as 
recommended by the Ijc. 

Investigation of the international tidal power 
potential of Passamaquoddy Bay, on the Maine- 
New Brunswick border, is proceeding on schedule 
and field operations will begin in earnest in a few 
days as the necessary equipment arrives on the 
scene.^ A comprehensive investigation to deter- 
mine the eifect which the project would have on 
the important fishing industry of the area is being 
carried out simultaneously by fisheries experts of 
both countries. The Commission will visit the 
area at the end of June. 

Maj. Gen. Emerson C. Itschner, Chief of Engi- 
neers, United States Army Corps of Engineers, 
and U.S. chairman of the International Columbia 
River Engineering Board, presented that Board's 
26th progress report to the Ijc. Engineering 
aspects of the Board's final report, which is now 
nearing completion, were discussed with the Com- 
mission. The chairman of the U.S. Section of 



' For text of agreement on payment of expenditures on 
remedial works at Niagara Falls, see Bulletin of Oct. 18, 
ID.'H, p. 588. 

' For background, see ibid., Auk. 20, 1956, p. 322. 



the Commission presented a chronology of the 
U.S. Government's two applications for the con- 
struction of a dam and reservoir on the Kootenai 
River ^ near Libby, Mont., and mquired as to the 
status of Canadian studies on possible diversion of 
part of the river's flow to the Columbia River at 
Canal Flats, British Columbia. He pointed out 
the urgent need for flood control on this river and 
the other benefits which would accrue from this 
project and requested that definitive action be 
taken with respect to the present application at an 
early date. The chairman of the Canadian Sec- 
tion advised that studies on the use of waters of 
the Kootenay and Columbia in Canada, including 
the diversion of these waters, are now well ad- 
vanced and that the conclusions reached by the 
authorities concerned would be announced when 
available. He said, meanwhile, consideration 
would be given to observations made by the chair- 
man of the U.S. Section and a reply would be 
presented shortly. 

Following presentation of the progress reports 
of the International Souris-Red Rivers Enguieer- 
ing Board and Souris River Board of Control, 
alternative proposals for the apportionment of the 
waters of the Souris River, as between the Prov- 
inces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba and the State 
of North Dakota, were discussed by the Com- 
mission. 

The Technical Advisory Board's report to the 
Commission indicated that steady progi'ess is 
being made by municipalities and mdustries along 
the connecting chamiels of the Great Lakes in the 
campaign to eliminate pollution of these waters. 
With a view to overcoming the problem of pollu- 
tion discharged from ships plying these waters, 
the Commission plans to hold a public hearing in 
the fall, at which the shipping interests and all 
afl'ected parties will be given an opportunity to be 
heard. 

The Technical Advisory Board on Air Pollution 
reported continued improvement in the smoke 
emission performance of ships plying the Detroit 
River during 1956. The Commission authorized 
the continuation of its voluntary control program 
for the abatement of vessel smoke on the Detroit 
River for the 1957 navigation season. The 
Board's final report to the Commission is now in 
the course of preparation and tentative findings 

" Spelled Kootenai in tlie United States, Kootenay in 
Canada. For backKrouuU, see ibid., .Tune 7, 195-1, p. 878, 
and Dee. 12, 1955, p. 980. 



696 



DeparfmenI of State Bulletin 



and recommendations were discussed -witli the 
Conmiission. 

The International Lake Ontario Board of En- 
gineers and the International St. Lawrence Board 
of Control submitted reports on the progress of 
studies on the regulation of the levels of Lake 
Ontario. Gail Hathaway, former special assist- 
ant to the Chief of Engineers, submitted his res- 
ignation as U.S. member of the International 
Lake Ontario Board of Engineers. The Com- 
mission expressed its gratitude to Mr. Hathaway 



for his valuable and devoted services since the in- 
ception of the Board. 

The Commission considered the terms of a sup- 
plementary order which it will issue with respei;t 
to regulation of the levels of the Namakan Chain 
of Lakes on the Minnesota-Ontario boundary. A 
public hearing was held at International Falls, 
Minn., last year, at which interested parties were 
heard regarding the recommendations of the In- 
ternational Eainy Lake Board of Control in this 
i-espect. 



Munitions Control and the Electronics Industry 



hy Leonard H. Pomeroy 

Chief, Compliance Branch, Office of Munitions Control ^ 



Today I would like to tell you something about 
the State Department's responsibility for exercis- 
ing control over the traffic in arms with specific 
reference to the field of electronics. 

For many years the control over the interna- 
tional traffic in arms has, in one form or another, 
been a function of the Department of State. It 
has been applied, of course, in an effort to further 
both world peace and national security. 'Wlien 
we deal with arms and implements of war, we are 
not dealing with ordinary commodities that figure 
in world trade, such as cotton, wheat, automobiles, 
and the like. Instead we are dealing with lethal 
items designed primarily to kill or incapacitate. 
Thus the need to exercise close supervision over the 
international movement of arms becomes readily 
apparent. 

There is nothing recent about the traffic in arms 
as an international problem. It presented a prob- 
lem to the American colonists when they were 
fighting the Indians— Indians armed with foreign- 
made gims. It presented a problem when the 

' Address made before the Radio-Electronics-Television 
Manufacturers Association at Washington, D. C, on Mar. 
13. 



pirates of the Barbary states were defying the 
great powers of Europe in the Mediterranean Sea. 
But it is only in the 20th century that the traffic-in- 
arms problem has really become a control problem, 
and that is largely because of our modern mass- 
production techniques, the development of new 
weapons of warfare, more rapid means of trans- 
portation and communication, and our present- 
day, complex international political institutions. 
The development of new weapons of warfare and 
new techniques of warfare in the 20th century has 
made arms-traffic control a really important ele- 
ment in considerations which are demanding the 
attention of the Department of State in the con- 
duct of our foreign relations. 

Beginning in 1905, a policy of applying restric- 
tions on arms exports, so as to strengthen recog- 
nized governments, discourage revolutions, and 
maintain order and stability in Latin America and 
elsewhere in the world, was adopted by the United 
States Government. This policy was applied 
again and again near the beginning of the century 
in the cases of Mexico, Cuba, Honduras, Nica- 
ragua, and Brazil and was the basis for the action 
taken in cooperation with other world powers in 



April 29, 1957 



697 



the case of China in 1919. The Government did 
not exercise a formal licensing control in those 
days, but restrictions were imposed by a Presiden- 
tial proclamation whenever the outbreak of civil 
strife seemed to warrant such action. In that early 
period the only statutory sanction was the Joint 
Eesolution of Congress of April 22, 1898, a Span- 
ish-American War measure to prevent the ship- 
ment of coal and contraband to Spain. 

The United States cooperated with the other 
major powers of the world after the First World 
War in seeking to prevent the vast surpluses of 
arms left over after that war from being sold to 
revolutionists. It participated in the conventions 
of St. Germain of 1919 = and of Geneva of 1925.= 
Those conventions developed a code for the inter- 
national supervision of the traffic in arms. 

In the 1930's this country took a leading part in 
promoting international disarmament and arms- 
traffic control measures, and a formal national ex- 
port and import licensing system was incorpo- 
rated in the Neutrality Act of 1935. 

The Second World War brought about a repeti- 
tion on a larger scale of the surplus problem which 
characterized the period following World War I 
and also brought with it a complex series of new 
situations. During the war a further vast ad- 
vance in technological developments had taken 
place which, of course, added to the complexity of 
the control problem. Following the war there 
was a series of uprisings in various parts of the 
world, particularly against colonial authorities. 
Also in the period following World War II, the so- 
called cold war between the Communist bloc and 
the Western nations lias given rise to a new polit- 
ical situation and has resulted in an embargo on 
trading with the Soviet bloc in militarily strategic 
commodities, as well as in United States Munitions 
List articles. All of these factors have made the 
control problem of today more complex and more 
important to our national security. 

In 1954 the most recent export control law was 
included in the Mutual Security Act of that year. 
Section 414 of that act states that the President is 
authorized to control, in furtherance of world 



' Convention for the Control of the Trade In Arms and 
Ammunition, signed Sept. 10, 1919; for text, see Foreign 
Relations of the United States, 1920, vol. I, p. 180. 

' Convention for the Supervision of the International 
Trade in Arms and Ammunition and in Implements of 
War, signed June 17, 1925; for text, see ibid., 1925, vol. 
I, p. 01. 



peace and the security and foreign policy of the 
United States, the import and export of arms, 
ammunition, and implements of war — a function 
which the President, by Executive order, has dele- 
gated to the Department of State. The jurisdic- 
tion of the Department of State in this field is fur- 
ther defined by the United States Munitions List, 
which designates those articles which are covered 
by the term "arms, ammunition, and implements 
of war." The Departments of State and Defense, 
incidentally, have concurrent jurisdiction in carry- 
ing out tlie function of designating articles for in- 
clusion on that list. 

Electronics Equipment on U.S. Munitions List 

There are some eight types of articles on the 
United States Munitions List which come under 
the general description of electronics equipment 
and which I will briefly review : 

1. Control mechanisms and control systems for 
guided missiles and pilotless aircraft. This is a 
category of items which shows the modern mili- 
tary adaptations of electronics equipment. 

2. Fire-control and gun-tracking equipment. 
Up-to-date fire-control equipment is most impor- 
tant in the operational use of both land- and ship- 
based artillery. Gun-tracking equipment is usu- 
ally a piece of radar equipment which controls 
antiaircraft guns and keeps them continuously 
pointed at a target. 

3. Radar of all types, including guidance sys- 
tems and airborne or ground equipment therefor. 
The "master and slave station" technique which 
is employed in the case of guidance systems pro- 
vides for the remote control of aircraft, missiles, 
vehicles, or watercraft by the use of the electronic 
beam. 

4. Electronic countermeasure and janaming 
equipment. The importance of this type of equip- 
ment in thwarting free-world broadcasts to the 
East is well known. 

5. Military underwater sound equipment. 
Sonar and all types of marine radar are considered 
militarily important, and therefore such articles 
are under the State Department's export and im- 
port licensing jurisdiction. 

6. Electronic navigational aids specially de- 
signed for military use, such as radio direction- 
finding equipment. 

7. Radio distance-measuring systems, such as 
Shoran, and hyperbolic grid systems, such as 



698 



Department of State Bulletin 



Raydist, Loran. and Decca, providing a "master 
and slave station'' technique in transmitting and 
receiving electronic impulses, enable aircraft to 
navigate over water with a good deal of accuracy 
and have other inijjortant military uses. 

8. Any military communications electronics 
e(}uipment specially designed for military use is, 
of course, also included under the category of mili- 
tary electronics. 

AVitli regard to components and parts, the De- 
partment of State is given jurisdiction in the fol- 
lowing cases: 

1. If the components or parts are specially de- 
signed for military use and are used primarily for 
military purposes; 

2. If the components or parts are specially de- 
signed for or intended for use with airborne 
equipment. 

On the other hand, if the component or part, 
though originally designed for military equip- 
ment, has lost its distinctively military character, 
it may be transferred from State Department to 
Commerce Department jurisdiction. Such a case 
is that of cathode ray tubes, used in television sets. 

Control of Technical Data 

The development of new techniques of arms 
production and intensive intelligence collection 
and espionage efforts on the part of potential 
enemy powers has broadened the concept of muni- 
tions controls to embrace the control of the expor- 
tation of militarily significant technical know- 
how. The Department of State has had a leading 
role in the formulation of governmental policies 
on militaiy information control, particularly since 
the passage of the Espionage Act of 1917. provid- 
ing in part for the control of military secrets. 
Through an interagency coordinating committee 
the Departments of State and Defense have co- 
operated in the formulation of policies govern- 
ing the disclosure of such information to certain 
foreign governments. 

As a result of the ever-increasing momentum in 
American inventive and manufacturing genius, 
the technological aspect of munitions control is 
becoming increasingly more vital. Technical data 
relating to munitions and all materials bearing a 
security classification are specifically included in 
the United States Munitions List. Under the 
provisions of section 414 of the Mutual Security 



Act and the implementing regulations, a license 
issued by the Secretary of State is required in all 
cases for the export of unclassified technical data 
relating to articles on the United States Munitions 
List when they are destined for the Sino-Soviet 
bloc countries. A license is also required for the 
export of such data to all other destinations ex- 
cept when otherwise exempted by the Depart- 
ment's regulations. Exemptions are provided for 
technical-data exports to non-Communist coun- 
tries in the following four instances: 

1. \A1ien in published form; 

2. When available by subscription or purchase 
to any individual without restriction; 

3. Wlien granted a second-class mailing privi- 
lege by the United States Government ; 

4. "Wlien freely available at public libraries. 

When a license is required, a flexible system of 
control has been devised in this field which is 
specially adaptable to varying industrial situa- 
tions. Special clearance procedures have been de- 
veloped, for instance, in the case of applications 
for licenses to export technical data with applica- 
tions for foreign patents to enable the foreign 
filing of patents within the convention year, a 
convention year being the permissible lapse of 
time by international convention within which an 
applicant for a United States patent may obtain 
prior rights abroad by filing in the foreign country. 

In the regulatory process in this field, as well 
as in the formulation of procedural rules and 
policy criteria, exchanges of views with industry 
have been practiced to foster an appreciation on 
the part of both industry and Government of mu- 
tual problems and to develop a mechanism of con- 
trol which is fair to industry, workable, and within 
the intent of the law. 

Division of Administrative Responsibilities 

Perhaps it would be helpful if I reviewed some 
of the mechanical aspects of licensing controls. 
In a sense, there is a dichotomy of responsibility in 
the administration of the law because the Office 
of Munitions Control merely passes on the ques- 
tion of whether arms shipments shall or shall not 
be imported or exported and, depending on that 
decision, issues or refuses to issue licenses to im- 
port or export arms shipments. Customs officers 
stationed at the ports of entry or exit police the 
matter by checking the shipments against the au- 



April 29, 1957 



699 



thorizations set forth in licenses issued by the De- 
partment. In the sense, therefore, that the De- 
partment of State determines the question of the 
exportability or the importability of shipments 
and the collectors of customs enforce the decision 
at the border point, there is a division in the ad- 
ministration of controls between the Bureau of 
Customs and the Office of Munitions Control. 

Furthermore, there are also two readily dis- 
tinguishable aspects in the enforcement fimction 
exercised by the Bureau of Customs which are dis- 
charged by separate branches of that bureau, i. e., 
the collectors of customs on the one hand and the 
Customs Agency Service on the other. The cus- 
toms collectors, with their staffs of customs inspec- 
tors and other personnel, exercise strict super- 
vision of all outgoing and incommg shipments to 
insure compliance with the rules and regulations 
of the Secretary of State. The staffs attached to 
the Customs Agency Service investigate reported 
violations to ascertain all the facts, and customs 
investigators prepare detailed reports and analyses 
of such reported violations. They lay the basis 
for legal action against violators when that is indi- 
cated and assist in procuring any documentation 
and depositions which may be needed in subse- 
quent legal proceedings. 

Current internal administration of the licensing 
system by the Office of Munitions Control is based 
upon the principle of functional specialization, 
separating the responsibilities connected with 
intelligence and information collecting, investi- 
gation, enforcement, and prosecution from the 
responsibilities connected with the determinatioji 
and application of policy criteria. In the admin- 
istration of the munitions control function, this 
functional specialization permits more effective co- 
ordination of the license issuance responsibilities 
with the policy and security determination phases 
of review. Consequently, a more direct and much 
more efficient application of overall policy objec- 
tives to particular shipments of munitions is pos- 
sible. The need for correlation with national pol- 
icy is, of course, more vital in the munitions field, 
where the items being shipped have important im- 
l^lications for national security and international 
peace, and in this respect it differs from the li- 
censing function as applied to shipments of non- 
munitions articles, both as to administrative 
methods employed and policy objectives sought. 

Wliile a large number of proposed shipments 



are of routine character, many clearly involve com- 
plex policy questions containing elements of sig- 
nificance to the security interests of the United 
States and other aspects of United States foreign 
policy. In the evaluation process, one of the prin- 
cipal criteria for determining the degree of con- 
trol to be exercised over articles licensed for export 
by the Secretary of State is the war jjotential of 
the articles proposed to be exported. The expor- 
tation of articles having insignificant war po- 
tential is authorized with practically no delay, 
whereas the exportation of articles possessed of 
high military potential, such as guns, tanks, mili- 
tary aircraft, and vessels of war, is subject to the 
most careful scrutiny to assure that the shipment 
is in conformity with current policies. 

International Cooperation in Arms-Traffic Control 

It has long been established by students of the 
problem that no effective control of the interna- 
tional traffic m arms can be achieved except by 
international agreement. I have mentioned as 
early efforts in this direction the convention of St. 
Germain of 1919 and tlie Geneva convention of 
1925. Since the Second World "War the nations of 
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization have co- 
operated in embargoing to the Sino-Soviet bloc 
military items on the United States Munitions 
List, as well as certain groups of strategic items 
not on that list. Since most of the governments 
of Western nations feel tlie same way about arms 
smuggling and since the members of Nato include 
the principal arms-producing countries, it has 
been possible to enlist informal cooperation on the 
part of those countries. Members of the Seato 
and Anzus alliances can also be relied on to co- 
operate in this field and take parallel action in 
arms-traffic cases. The Anzus treaty links Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand, and the United States; and 
the Seato treaty links Australia, France, Great 
Britain, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, 
Thailand, and the United States in defensive 
alliances. 

The United States, of course, is also obligated 
under the charter of the United Nations to help 
establish and maintain international peace and 
security in the words of the charter, "with the 
least diversion for armaments of the world's hu- 
man and economic resources." As a member of 
the United Nations, the United States is obligated 
to control the exportation of munitions to any 



700 



Department of State Bulletin 



state against which the United Nations is taking 
preventive or enforcement action. 

The United States has also cooperated with the 
Council of the Organization of American States 
and other signatory nations under the Rio Pact 
to thwart the threat of Communist infiltration and 
tlie forcible overthrow of constituted governments 
in Latin American states. Thus the munitions 
control activities of the Department of State were, 
in part, responsible for bringing the Communist 
threat in Guatemala of a few years ago to public 
attention. 

Many of the objectives of munitions control are 
directly related to those of world disarmament, 
and the techniques developed to aid in the admin- 
istration of munitions control can be expected 
eventually to serve as the guideposts for interna- 
tional disarmament control at such time as an 
accord is reached on that important project. 

Now in conclusion let me make the following 
observations by way of summary. 

As a result of the technological developments 
of recent years, military electronics is assuming an 
increasingly more important role in the weapons 
arsenals of modern military establishments. The 
United States Munitions List covers those articles 
in this field which contribute to the effectiveness 
of military equipment. It is the policy of this 
Govermnent to exercise control over the exporta- 
tion and importation of such equipment and over 
the exportation of technical data relating thereto 
in the light of our national security and foreign 
policy interests. The Department of State, which 
is charged Avith the administration of the law, 
seeks the loyal cooperation of American industiy 
and citizenry as a most essential element in the 
successful administration of the law, and it tries 
in every way to adjust its procedures to take into 
account commercial considerations consistent, of 
course, with the realization of our national policy 
objectives to further world peace and the security 
and foreign policy of the United States. 



President Requests Further Data 
on Imports of Safety Pins 

Wliite House press release dated March 29 

The President on March 29 asked the U.S. 
Tariff Commission for further information on 
several questions relating to the Commission's re- 



April 29, 1957 



cent investigation of the effect of imports on the 
domestic safety-pin industry. With the addi- 
tional information, the President stated that he 
would be "in a better position to make a decision" 
on the recommendations of the Commission. 

On January 30, 1957, the Commission had re- 
ported to the President its 4^2 decision recom- 
mending an increase in the tariff on imported 

safety pins. 

Senator Harry Flood Byrd, Chairman of the 
Senate Committee on Finance, and Representative 
Jere Cooper, Chairman of the House Committee 
on Ways and Means, were advised by the Presi- 
dent of his action. 

President's Letter to Edgar B. Brossard, Chairman 
of Tariff Commission 

March 29, 1957 

Dear Mr. Chairman : I have carefully studied 
the Commission's report of January 30, 1957 on 
its investigation under Section 7 of the Trade 
Agreements Extension Act of 1951, as amended, 
regarding safety pins. 

Additional information on a number of points 
raised by the Commission's report would be help- 
ful to me in reaching a decision in tliis case. 

It would be very useful to have the production, 
sales, employment, and profit data on the two 
safety pin producers not presently included in the 
Commission's report as would similar data on the 
industry's operations on uncapped pin wires. In 
addition, I would like to have data on the other 
products made on safety pin machines and on the 
firms producing plastic-capped safety pins. 

Supplemental information on the industry's 
profit experience would also assist me : annual data 
for safety pin operations and for the total oper- 
ations of the plants involved for 1935-39 and for 
1946-50; the basis for the industry's allocation of 
costs, particularly administrative and selling costs, 
to its safety pin operations; and the impact upon 
the industry figures of the one firm which reported 
losses in four years since 1950 and whether that 
firm's operations have been materially affected by 
factors other than imports. Finally, clarification 
of the nature and source of the industry's over- 
capacity, referred to in the Commission's report, 
would be desirable. 

I would appreciate the Commission's supplying 
this additional information. It may, to the ex- 

701 



tent necessary to avoid improper disclosures, be 
submitted in confidence. With these points clari- 
fied, I would be in a better position to make a 
decision. 

Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



President Decides Against Increase 
in Tariff on Straight Pins 

White House press release dated March 29 

The President on March 29 declined to accept 
the recommendation of the U.S. Tariff Commis- 
sion for an increased duty on straight (dress- 
makers' or common) pins. 

On January 30, 1957, the Tariff Conunission had 
reported to the President tlie results of its investi- 
gation on straight pins under section 7 of the 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951, as 
amended. ' Although the Commission found 
imanimously that imports have caused no serious 
injury to the domestic straight-pin industry, the 
Commission concluded, in a 4-2 decision, that im- 
ports threatened such injury in the future. Ac- 
cordingly, the majority of the Commission recom- 
mended that the duty on imported straight pins be 
increased. 

In identical letters to Senator Harry Flood 
Byrd, Chairman of the Senate Committee on 
Finance, and Representative Jere Cooper, Chair- 
man of the House Committee on Ways and Means, 
the President noted that the domestic industry's 
sales, prices, and profits have increased since 1952. 
The President also noted that wage rates in the 
industry have increased steadily and that there 
was no imemployment in the industry. The Presi- 
dent did not find that the evidence in this case was 
"of such a character as to leave no doubt that 
actual injury is imminent." 

President's Letter to Senator Byrd and Representa- 
tive Cooper 

March 29, 1957 

Dear Mr. Chairman : The United States Tariff 
Commission submitted to me on January 30, 1957 
a report of its investigation on straight (dress- 

•CJopies of the report may be obtained from the U.S. 
Tariff Commission, Washington 25, D. C. 



makers' or common) pins under Section 7 of the 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951, as 
amended. Although the Commission found 
imanimously that imports have caused no serious 
injury to the domestic straight pin industry, the 
Commission concluded, in a four to two decision, 
that imports threatened such injury in the future. 
Accordingly, the majority of the Commission rec- 
ommended that the duty on imported straight pins 
be increased. 

As the Commission's report shows, imports of 
straight pins have increased since 1948. Domestic 
production and sales have apparently declined 
from the peak post-war years and from the pre- 
war average. Profits and employment are less 
than they were in the highest post-war years. 
The consumption of straight pins, however, has 
also declined. 

Aside from the comparison with a few peak post- 
war yeare, the sales, employment, and profits of 
the domestic industry do not appear to have been 
endangered. Hourly wage rates of workers in 
the industry have increased steadily and there is 
no unemployment. In fact, the record suggests a 
shortage of experienced operators of pin-making 
machines. 

Sales of the domestic industry have moved 
fairly steadily upward since 1952 and, in the face 
of increasing imports, their prices have increased 
considerably more than the wholesale price index 
generally and more than the index for fabricated 
non-structural metal products. 

Tlie profits of the domestic industry have in- 
creased fairly steadily since 1952. The tariff con- 
cession was already well in effect during 1950 and 
1951, the only post-war years in which profits sub- 
stantially exceeded those of 1955, the last full year 
for which the Commission's report presents sta- 
tistics. For 1955 and for the portion of 1956 for 
which the facts were given, furtliermore, the rate 
of profit, as a percentage of sales, on straight pins 
exceeded for the first time the producers' rate of 
profits on tlie total output of their phints manu- 
facturing, among other things, straight pins. 

When the threat of injury, rather than present 
injury, is the ground of decision, I believe, as I 
have said before, tliat the evidence bi'ought for- 
ward to substantiate the judgment of threat must 
be of such a character as to leave no doubt that 
actual injury is imminent. I am not persuaded 
that the evidence in this case is of such a character. 



702 



Department of State Bulletin 



I am not, therefore, authorizing an increase in 
the existing import duties on straight pins. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

President Decides Against Increase 
in Tariff on Violins and Violas 

White House press release dated March 30 

The President has declined to accept the recom- 
mendations of the U.S. Tariff Commission for an 
increased dtity on imports of violins and violas 
valued at not more than $25. 

On January 29, 1957, the Tariff Commission had 
reported the results of its investigation under sec- 
tion 7 of the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 
1951, as amended, regarding violins and violas 
valued at not more than $25 each. ^ The Commis- 
sion, by a 3-2 vote with one Commissioner absent, 
found that the domestic industry was being seri- 
ously injured. 

In identical letters to Senator Harry Flood 
Byrd, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Fi- 
nance, and Representative Jere Cooper, Chairman 
of the House Committee on Ways and Means, the 
President stated that this was an unusual case be- 
cause "imports, in general, do not undersell the 
domestic product." The President said that al- 
though he was "sympathetic with the problems of 
the domestic manufacturer," he was not persuaded, 
on the basis of the clear facts "that his case satis- 
fies the statutory test." Nor did the President 
believe that "an increase in duties, which would 
raise the cost of music instruction for young peo- 
ple throughout the country, holds much promise of 
solving the difficulties of the domestic manu- 
facturer." 



President's Letter to Senator Byrd and Representa- 
tive Cooper 

March 29, 1957 
Dear Mr. Chairman: I have carefully re- 
viewed the United States Tariff Commission's 
report of January 29, 1957 on its investigation 
under Section 7 of the Trade Agreements Exten- 
sion Act of 1951, as amended, regarding violins 
and violas valued at not more than $25 each. The 
Commission, by a three to two vote with one Com- 

' Copies of the report may be obtained from the U.S. 
Tariff Commission, Washington 25, D. C. 

April 29, 1957 



missioner absent, found that the domestic industry 
was being seriously injured and recommended that 
the rate of duty on violins and violas valued at 
not more than $25 be increased. 

Violins and violas of this type are manufac- 
tured in the United States by one company with 
about thirty production employees. This com- 
pany as the Tariff Commission report points out, 
is in difficulties, and imports, although still con- 
siderably lower than in the pre-war period, have 
increased since the tariff concessions of 1948 and 
1951. As a prerequisite to escape clause relief, 
however, the law requires that the difficulties of 
the domestic producer be substantially attribut- 
able to increased imports, resulting at least in part 
from a tariff concession, of like or directly com- 
petitive products. 

It should be made clear that this is an unusual 
case. The imports, in general, do not undersell 
the domestic product. The price of nearly all of 
the imports exceeds the price of the great bulk of 
the domestic product. The school market, the 
most important market for violins and violas in 
the United States, has preferred the higher priced 
imports. The imported product meets the stand- 
ards of quality which have been established for 
the school market. These standards, while not 
binding, are widely followed by the schools. The 
bulk of the domestic production, the manufac- 
turer acknowledged, does not meet these stand- 
ards. The domestic industry's product is largely 
sold in the folk music market. 

A small portion of the domestic output does 
purport to meet the school standards. This part 
of the domestic production is higher priced than 
most of the imports, but the domestic manufac- 
turer has acknowledged that even his better prod- 
uct meets consumer resistance in the school market 
for reasons quite apart from price. 

Although I am sympathetic with the problems 
of the domestic manufacturer, I am not persuaded 
that his case satisfies the statutory test. Nor do 
I believe that an increase in duties, which would 
raise the cost of music instruction for young 
people throughout the country, holds much prom- 
ise of solving the difficulties of the domestic 
manufacturer. 

I have decided, therefore, that escape clause 
action would be inappropriate in this case. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



703 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 
AND CONFERENCES 



United Nations Commission 
on the Status of Women 

Folloiving are two statements made at the 11th 
session of the U.N. Commission on the Status of 
Women hy Mrs. Lorena B. Hahn^ U.S. represent- 
ative. 



STATEMENT OF MARCH 21 ON ACCESS OF 
WOMEN TO EDUCATION 

U.S./U.N. press release 2647 

To assure educational opportunity for girls, 
three steps appear necessaiy: (1) enough school 
facilities for all, (2) compulsory school attend- 
ance, and (3) enforcement of school laws. 

Provision of Enough Schools for Ail 

I say all, rather than all girls, because I am 
sure we believe every boy should have an educa- 
tion, just as every girl should have an education, 
and, where there are not enough schools to go 
round, the problem is more schools for boys and 
girls alike. Tliis matter of enough schools is an 
endless task in all countries. Schools wear out 
and have to be replaced; new towns and cities 
grow up and new schools must be provided where 
the children live; standards of what constitutes 
adequate school facilities are constantly rising, 
so that each community wants to have the finest 
in classrooms, teachers, textbooks, and play spaces. 

But at the moment we are concerned particu- 
larly for girls who have no schools at all, or at 
best only a few grades of education. A few years 
ago the International Conference on Public Ed- 
ucation suggested that, where school buildings 
had been provided for boys but not for girls, 
students might be placed on a double shift, with 
the boys attending in the morning and the girls 
in the afternoon, or vice versa. In the United 
States, where scliools have been provided for all 
for many years, there is often a district in which 
school buildings must be used on double shift 



while new schools are being built or because the 
number of children in a particular grade exceeds 
expectation. Tliis situation is easier where co- 
education is acceptable and girls and boys can 
attend classes together. It is always a tempta- 
tion to feel that new schools can be postponed, or 
at least that the school for girls can be postponed. 
But children cannot wait — they need to be edu- 
cated now. A girl who cannot go to school as a 
child has missed that opportunity forever and 
must catch up, if at all, only at the expense of 
time and energy needed for other things in her 
mature years. 

Compulsory School Attendance 

Since compulsoi-y education laws apply equally 
to girls and boys, our Commission has adopted 
resolutions at several sessions urging the impor- 
tance of legislation of this type. 

Reports from Unesco confirm that in countries 
having compulsory education the proportion of 
girls in school tends to be greater than elsewhere. 
Compulsory education is especially helpful in 
areas where it has not been usual to send little 
girls to school and parents may therefore hesitate 
unless they are required to do so. A gi-eat many 
countries have already adopted school attendance 
laws covering at least elementary education. The 
report before us^ makes it clear that we should 
be especially vigilant where such laws do not exist. 
However, as we all know, laws in themselves are 
of little value unless there is adequate machinery 
for law enforcement. I come thei-efore to my 
third point. 

Law Enforcement 

"V^Hien we begin to think about enforcing com- 
pulsory education, for girls as well as boys, we 
come back at once to the problem of more schools. 
We cannot expect effective law enforcement until 
there are enough schools for all. But we should 
think of law enforcement as more than a threat. 
Often the reason a child is not in school is illness 
in the family, or lack of suitable clothes, or diffi- 
culty in transportation, or some other problem in 
which social services are needed. This is one of 
the areas in which technical assistance can be of 
great value, in the field of health as well as edu- 
cation. 



• U.N. doc. E/CN.6/291. 



704 



Department of State Bulletin 



Course of Study for Girls 

In this brief analysis I have not touched on 
courses of study which should be provided for 
girls. This is another field to which we may want 
to give attention, perhaps in some future meeting. 
Our view in the United States is that girls and 
boys should have access to the same courses 
throughout, even though we can expect that their 
natural choices will result in a larger proportion 
of girls choosing such subjects as domestic sci- 
ence. Wliat is of fundamental importance, for 
girls as well as boys, is that they be provided 
with a broad and thorough understanding of the 
great ideas of our world, of the humanities and 
the sciences, so that they can be possessors of cul- 
ture and can enjoy and appreciate the arts. It is 
not enough to think of education as leading only 
to a vocation or profession, though such training 
should be available in equal measure. Neither 
is it enough to think of education for girls merely 
in terms of homemaking, though all agree that 
an intelligent and educated mother can contribute 
far more to her family and to her country because 
she has had years in school. The purpose of edu- 
cation, for girls as well as boys, is the develop- 
ment of the whole person to his or her greatest 
capacity. That is the goal, not a cramping into 
particular patterns or preparation for particular 
tasks. In the words of the Universal Declara- 
tion of Human Rights, 

Education shall be directed to the full development 
of the human personality and to the strengthening of 
respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. 

The UNESCO report in E/CN.6/291 summarizes 
a variety of activities in the Unesco program 
bearincr on the access of women to education. 
This report makes it possible for the Commission 
to understand and evaluate the Unesco program 
as it relates to the status of women. Similar re- 
ports of this type will be useful in future Com- 
mission meetings. 

While some sections of the report indicate 
progress, the information on exchange of persons 
is disturbing in that the proportion of women 
receiving foreign grants is small. For instance, 
^omen received only 4 out of 35 regional grants 
5 out of 35 youth grants, 6 out of 65 gi-oup travel 
grants, and 2 out of 125 worker grants The 
problem does not appear to be a lack of fellow- 
ships, since a considerable number are available 
to both sexes and a reasonable proportion are open 
to women only. The number of women interested 

April 29, 1957 



in international study may be less than men, but 
the disproportion in fellowships granted appears 
unduly great. It is probable that tradition, fa- 
voring men, as well as the much smaller relative 
numl^r of women qualified to apply for fellow- 
ships, also plays a role. 

Nongovernmental organizations might be en- 
couraged to bring additional information about 
fellowships to the attention of women. The 
UNESCO publication. Study Abroad, lists such op- 
portunities with important details. National or- 
ganizations can help their members by publishing 
the listings available to their members. I mider- 
stand the American Association of University 
Women provides information on international 
fellowships in their Quarterly Journal. 

The UNESCO report in E/CN.6/301 shows that 
women are being used as teachers in almost all 
countries in considerable numbers, particularly 
in primary schools. However, in countries where 
there have not been many schools, the need for 
more teachers may be very great. Wliile the 
proportion of women teachers in these countries 
may be encouraging, the entire number of teachers 
may actually be very small. We should there- 
fore be alert to help girls in these areas prepare 
for teaching. 

The report points out that conditions for women 
in the teaching profession are not always equal 
and training opportunities are often limited. 
UNESCO proposes a survey which would involve 
a direct inquiry to governments. Since this sur- 
vey would help in considering measures to redress 
inequality and attract women to the teaching pro- 
fession, the United States favors further work by 
UNESCO along this line. 

The United States has had some experience m 
training mature women for teaching to meet a 
shortage of teachers in the lower grades. Many 
more children are entering school at this time 
because our birth rate has gone up the last 5 or 
6 years. We are finding that married women 
whose children are grown and no longer in the 
home are now willing to undertake new work or 
to go back to teaching which they may have given 
up^soon after marriage. Our Women's Bureau 
has worked closely with the United States Office 
of Education in encouraging study courses to 
prepare these women for teaching, in some cases 
refreshing earlier skills and in others supplying 
a basic understanding of educational principles 
all teachers need. 

705 



STATEMENT OF MARCH 25 ON EQUAL PAY FOR 
WOMEN 

D.S./D.N. press release 2649 

The United States delegation -welcomes this op- 
portunity to express its appreciation for the valu- 
able reports prepared this year by the Secretary- 
General and the Ilo.^ This is the third consecu- 
tive year in which the Secretary-General has fur- 
nished us with information from nongovern- 
mental organizations on the practical methods 
which are being used to put the equal-pay princi- 
ple into effect. 

The Ilo report also provides useful informa- 
tion on implementation of equal pay. We wish to 
express our appreciation for the inclusion in the 
Ilo report of information on equal-pay exper- 
ience in the United States. This information was 
supplied by the United States Government in re- 
sponse to the Ilo questionnaire on application of 
the equal remuneration principle, as stated in 
convention 100 and recommendation 90. It shows 
that, as of the date on which the United States 
transmitted its reply, substantial progress has 
been made in the United States toward the effec- 
tive implementation of equal pay. 

Since that date, President Eisenhower, in his 
state-of-the-Union message early in 1956, called 
for the elimination of remaining wage differen- 
tials against women as a matter of simple justice. 
The President reiterated this view in both his 
economic report and his budget message this year. 

Tlie reports before the Commission this year 
were prepared in response to the Commission res- 
olution which called particular attention to pro- 
cedures for implementation of equal pay in col- 
lective bargaining agreements. The reports also 
discuss other methods of implementation, includ- 
ing the enforcement of equal-pay legislation. In 
the United States we rely on both collective bar- 
gaining and legislation to give practical effect to 
the equal-pay principle. We would accordingly 
like to comment on equal progress in both fields. 

Equal Pay Progress Through Collective Bargaining 

Both the Secretary-General and the Ilo reports 
show significant progress in implementation of the 
equal-pay principle through collective bargain- 
ing procedures. The Ilo report states, for ex- 
ample, that in France none of the collective bar- 
gaining agreements in force at the present time 

• U.N. docs. E/CN.O/296 and E/CN.6/300. 



establish wage differentials for men and women 
in identical occupations. Moreover, the relative 
average level of women's wages has been raised 
57 percent, the highest percentage gain in women's 
wage levels reported by any country. 

In the United Kingdom a new agreement in a 
major industry provides for the achievement of 
equal pay in six successive annual adjustments, 
illustrating the usefulness of a step-by-step ap- 
proach. In Australia the Australian Congress of 
Trade Unions convened a 1-day meeting at- 
tended by 65 Federal unions in which it was agreed 
to organize a national petition supporting equal 
pay. In Belgium the Government has initiated a 
constructive program whereby unions are re- 
quested to report on the progress made toward the 
elimination of discriminatory rates in collective 
bargaining agreements. In the Philippines the 
Government is encouraging trade union organiza- 
tion among women as a means for creating a favor- 
able climate on equal pay. In Portugal the 
Government has approved regulations establish- 
ing women's sections inside a number of national 
unions. 

Wom^n Union Membership: In the United 
States women workers are estimated to constitute 
about one-sixth of the membership of unions. 
Union organization among women is particularly 
strong in the manufacturing industries employing 
large numbers of women. Of 199 unions that re- 
plied to a Bureau of Labor Statistics questionnaire 
on union membership in 1954, the vast majority 
reported that they had women members. Six 
unions reported having more than 100,000 women 
members each. They were: 

International Ladles' Garment Workers' Union, with 

330,r)00 
Araalframated Clothing Workers of America, with 

279,100 
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, with 

189,000 
Communications Worlvers of America, with 180,000 
Retail Clerks International Association, with 132,500 
Textile Workers Union of America, with 117,000 

Uni^n Eqiuil-Pay Policy: A recent development 
of major significance was the formal endorsement 
in June 1956 of Federal equal-pay legislation by 
the top Executive Committee of the combined 
AFL-CIO unions. Prior to the merger of these 
two great organizations, both the AFL and the 
CIO had repeatedly expressed support for the 
equal-pay principle, but the AFL for many years 



706 



Department of State Bulletin 



opposed implementation of the principle through 
Federal legislation. The decision of the combined 
unions to work for implementation of equal pay 
through two major methods — legislation and col- 
lective bargaining — has been interpreted as both a 
definite gain for the equal-pay movement and a 
tacit recognition of the increasing importance of 
women as union members. 

Unions are also continuing to press for equal- 
pay clauses in the negotiation of contracts. The 
increasing importance of such clauses is demon- 
strated by two United States Labor Department 
studies made at an interval of 5 years. The first 
study, made by the United States Bureau of Labor 
Statistics in 1951, showed that about 24 percent of 
the agreements had equal-pay clauses. The second 
such study, made by the United States Women's 
Bureau in 1956, showed that almost 40 percent of 
the agreements had such clauses. 

A comparison of the incidence of equal-pay 
clauses in contracts for the same industry in the 
two periods shows the same results. Thus, in the 
electrical machinery industry, equal-pay clauses 
in union contracts increased from 42 percent in 
1951 to 53 percent in 1956 ; in textiles from 35 per- 
cent to 42 percent ; in food industries from 24 per- 
cent to 35 percent; in fabricated metals from 22 
percent to 29 percent ; and in transportation equip- 
ment from 29 percent in 1951 to 40 percent in 
1956. 

The fact that 40 percent of the agreements con- 
tained equal-pay clauses does not necessarily in- 
dicate the existence of discriminatory wage rates 
in the other 60 percent. Many unions have estab- 
lished rates for the job through participating with 
management in the development of a sound and 
objective rate structure based on job content. The 
significance of such clauses is that the equal-pay 
principle is expressed in concrete terms. 



which had been adopted prior to 1920. Beginning 
with 1942, and continuing to the present period, 
14 additional States and Alaska have adopted 
such laws. 

Since the field is so new, many innovations in 
approach and language have been tried. Some of 
these have proved difficult to enforce. Others 
have proved exceptionally effective. In one State, 
for example, the law prohibits payment of a lower 
wage rate to a woman who replaces a man, thus 
discouraging an employer from discharging a male 
employee in order to hire a woman at a lower rate. 

Amendments to these laws are gradually being 
adopted as experience indicates the need for them. 
In one State, for example, where the original law 
provided for equal pay for the same work, the 
law was amended to provide for equal pay for 
comparable work. This wording permits minor 
variations in the work between a man and woman, 
without depriving the woman of equal pay. 

We have one further comment on the legislative 
aspects of the report, namely, the value of mini- 
mum-wage laws as a step toward implementation 
of equal pay. Minimum-wage laws in the United 
States set the same rates for men and women 
workers. No differentials in legal minimum wages 
are in effect under the Federal law or such State 
laws as apply to both sexes. Nevertheless, our 
experience has shown that minimum-wage laws 
have only a limited usefulness in removing wage 
discrimination against women. As a practical 
matter, women workers are sometimes paid exactly 
the minimum wage and men are paid at a higher 
rate for the same work. The value of minimum- 
wage laws consists primarily of raising the stand- 
ard of living by eliminating substandard wages; 
they do not, however, insure that a woman worker 
will receive the same rate as a man for the same 
job. 



Equal Pay Progress Through Legislation 

The Secretary-General's report calls attention 
to the importance of adequate wording in equal- 
pay legislation and the relationship between such 
wording and effective enforcement of such laws. 
This has been demonstrated by experience with 
State equal-pay laws in the United States. 

The State legislatures in the United States have 
often been referred to as a laboratory for experi- 
mentation in social legislation. Until about 1942 
only two equal-pay laws were in effect, both of 



Next Steps That Should Be Considered 

There has been considerable discussion in the 
past few days of the importance of continuity in 
the Commission's work. We are in full agreement 
with this point of view. It seems to us very impor- 
tant to try to build on what has gone before so 
that each year we can continue to show significant 
results from our work. 

The progress we have made to date is reflected 
in the series of equal-pay reports prepared by the 
Secretary-General and the Ilo. These reports rep- 



Apr// 29, 1957 



707 



resent an achievement, not only for the officials 
who i^repared them but for the Commission as 
well. They show that we as members of the Com- 
mission are coming to grips with the problem of 
removing wage discriminations against women. 
We no longer address ourselves only to the estab- 
lishment of the equal-pay principle; we also con- 
sider the practical methods by which the principle 
can be effectively applied. 

Consideration of these reports at our annual 
sessions has greatly increased our knowledge of 
effective methods for implementation of equal 
pay. However, wider public understanding of 
the whole equal-pay issue is essential if we are to 
succeed in removing the remaining wage differ- 
entials against women. 

We think the time has come, therefore, for the 
Commission to develop a new promotional pro- 
gram. This can best be done through preparation 
of a sales pamphlet directed to promoting wide- 
spread acceptance and application of the equal-pay 
principle. Such a pamphlet was proposed in the 
resolution adopted at last year's session,^ but in the 
final discussion of program it was relegated to 
the low-priority category. We believe the pam- 
phlet should be made available without further 
delay. 

Such a pamphlet should be broad in scope. It 
should explain what the equal-pay principle is, 
why it is important, and how it can be applied. 
One of its purposes should be to clarify prevailing 
misconceptions. It should explain, for example, 
that equal pay is important not only to the women 
workers directly affected but to men workers and 
their families. Men's wage levels and the standard 
of living of their families are potentially threat- 
ened whenever women can be employed at lower 
rates for the same work. It should point out the 
importance of equal pay in encouraging women 
to obtain the necessary training for higher-skilled 
jobs, thus enabling them to make their best con- 
tribution to the economy as a whole. 

We would like to see this pamphlet prepared at 
the earliest possible time. To be most useful, it 
should draw on the wealth of information avail- 
able from the nongovernmental organizations in 
the Secretary-General's report this year as well 
as in previous reports of the Secretary-General 
and discussions at plenary sessions. In addition to 

'For a report of the 10th session by Mrs. Ilahn, see 
BuiXETiN of June 18, 1956, p. ia33. 



its immediate purpose, publication of this type of 
sales pamphlet would help to promote women's 
status and opportunities in the whole economic 
field. 



U.S. Extends Invitation to WHO 
for Eleventh Assembly 

Press release 206 dated April 11 

The Department of State announced on April 
11 that it has extended the invitation of the U.S. 
Government to the World Health Organization to 
convene the 11th World Health Assembly in this 
countiy in May of 1958. The invitation was ex- 
tended pursuant to the authorization contained in 
Public Law 832, 84th Congi-ess. 

The World Health Organization, with perma- 
nent headquarters at Geneva, Switzerland, is an 
association of 88 member countries for the purpose 
of promoting international cooperation in the field 
of health. It is one of the 10 specialized agencies 
of the United Nations system. 

The World Health Assembly is the supreme 
governing body of the World Health Organiza- 
tion. The World Health Assembly meets annu- 
ally to determine the policies of the World Health 
Organization and, in 1958, will celebrate the 10th 
anniversary of the founding of that body. The 
United States has been an active member of the 
World Health Organization since its inception. 



U.N. invited To Hold Atomic Energy 
Conference at Chicago 

U.S. /U.N. press release 2655 

FoUoxoing is the text of a note transinitted hy 
the Acting Representative of the United States 
of America to the Secretary-General of the 
United Nations on April 3. 

The Acting Representative of the United States 
of America to the United Nations presents his 
compliments to the Secretary General of the 
United Nations and has the honor to refer to the 
Resolution on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic 
Energy approved by the General Assembly on 
December .3, 1955, providing, "that a second in- 
ternational conference for the exchange of tech- 
nical information regarding the peaceful uses of 



708 



Department of State Bulletin 



atomic energy should be held under the auspices 
of the United Nations." ' 

In this connection the Acting Representative 
would like to take tliis opportunity to present 
on behalf of the city of Chicago its invitation 
to the United Nations to hold the Second Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Conference in that city. 
Chicago would consider it a great honor to be 
permitted to play host to this great international 
event. 

The Mayor of Chicago advises that all the facil- 
ities needed for the successful conduct of the con- 
ference will be provided l:iy the city of Chicago. 
It is further understood that representatives of 
the city of Chicago will make themselves available 
to discuss with the Secretary General of the United 
Nations the question of the facilities that would 
be needed to hold the international conference in 
Chicago. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 

Economic and Social Council 

Development of International Travel, Its Present In- 
creasing Volume and Future Prospects. Addendum to 
the note by the Secretary-General. E/2933/Add.4, 
January 25, 1957. 5 pp. mimeo. 

Social Commission. Recommendations of the First 
United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime 
and the Treatment of Offenders. E/CN.5/322, January 
28, 1957. 5 pp. mimeo. 

Commission on Human Rights. Provisional Agenda for 
the Thirteenth Session of the Commission on Human 
Rights. E/CN.4/733, January 30, 1957. 5 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the Committee on the Tenth Anniversary of 
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. E/CN.4/- 
735, Februai-y 11, 1957. 9 pp. mimeo. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Agricultural Surplus Commodity 
Agreement With Iceland 

Press release 204 dated April 11 

A surplus commodity agreement between the 
Government of the United States and the Govern- 
ment of Iceland was signed at Washington on 
April 11 by Thorsten V. Kalijarvi, Assistant Sec- 
retary of State for Economic Affairs, on behalf 



of the United States, and Vilhjalmur Thor, Di- 
rector of the National Bank of Iceland, on behalf 
of Iceland. The agreement provides for financing 
the sale of $2,785,000 worth of surplus agricultural 
commodities (including certain ocean transporta- 
tion costs) for kronur, the Icelandic unit of 
currency. 

The agreement was negotiated under title I of 
the Agricultural Trade Development and Assist- 
ance Act of 1954 (Public Law 480). The com- 
modity composition of the agreement follows : 



Commodity 


Approximate quantity 


Marliet value 
in tliousands 
of dollars 


Wheat fl^our 


6,000 metric tons 

8,600 metric tons 

7,300 metric tons 

270 metric tons 

750 metric tons 

400 metric tons 

200,000 lbs 


700 


Barley 


410 




450 


R,ice 


40 


Cottonseed/soybean 

oil 


300 
130 




160 


Fruit - - 


(no quantity speci- 
fied) 
500 bales. _- 


200 


Ootton 


75 


Ocean transportation. 


(estimated 50 per- 
cent) 


320 



Sales under this program will be made by pri- 
vate United States traders. It is expected that 
purchase authorizations will be issued in the near 
future. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Atomic Energy 

Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Done 
at New York October 26, 1956.' 

Ratifications deposited: Switzerland, April 5, 1957; 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, April 8, 1957. 

Aviation 

International air services transit agreement. Signed at 
Chicago December 7, 1944. Entered into force for the 
United States February 8, 1945. 59 Stat. 1693. 
Acceptance deposited: Finland, April 9, 19.57. 

Copyright 

Universal copyright convention. Done at Geneva Septem- 
ber 6, 1952. Entered into force September 16, 1955. 
TIAS 3.324. 
Ratification deposited: Austria, April 2, 1957. 

Protocol 1 concerning application of the convention to 
the works of stateless persons and refugees. Done at 
Geneva September 6, 1952. Entered into force Septem- 
ber 16, 1955. TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Austria, April 2, 1957. 



' Bulletin of Nov. 14, 1955, p. 801. 



' Not in force. 



April 29, 1957 



709 



Protocol 2 concerning application of the convention to the 
works of certain international organizations. Done at 
Geneva September 6, 1952. Entered into force Septem- 
ber 16, 19.55. TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Austria, April 2, 1957. 

Protocol 3 concerning tlae effective date of instruments of 
ratification or acceptance of or accession to the con- 
vention. Done at Geneva September 6, 1952. Entered 
into force August 19, 1954. TIAS 3324. 
Ratifloation deposited: Austria, April 2, 1957. 

Narcotic Drugs 

Protocol for limiting and regulating the cultivation of the 
poppy plant, the production of, international and whole- 
sale trade in, and use of opium. Dated at New York 
June 23, 1953." 
Ratification deposited: Cambodia, March 22, 1957. 

Postal Services 

Convention of the Postal Union of the Americas and 
Spain, final protocol, and regulations of execution. 
Signed at Bogotd November 9, 1955. Entered into force 
March 1, 1956. TIAS 3653. 
Ratification deposited: ArgenHna, February 15, 1957. 

Agreement relative to money orders and final protocol of 
the Postal Union of the Americas and Spain. Signed 
at Bogota November 9, 1955. Entered into force March 
1, 1956. TIAS 3655. 
Ratification deposited: Argentina, February 15, 1957. 

Agreement relative to parcel post, final protocol, and regu- 
lations of execution of the Postal Union of the Americas 
and Spain. Signed at Bogota November 9, 1955. En- 
tered into force March 1, 1956. TIAS 3654. 
RatificatiiM deposited: Argentina, February 15, 1957- 

Trade and Commerce 

Sixth protocol of supplementary concessions to the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva 
May 23, 1956. Entered into force June 30, 1956 (TIAS 
3591). 

Schedule of concessions enters into force: Federal Re- 
jjublic of Germany, May 4, 1957. 

Whaling 

Protocol amending the international whaling convention 
of 1946 (TIAS 1S49). Done in Washington Novem- 
ber 19, 1956.' 
Ratification deposited: Australia, April S, 1957. 

BILATERAL 
Chile 

Agreement for the establishment and operation of raw- 
insonde observation stations at Antofagasta, Quintero 
and Puerto Montt, Chile. Effected by exchange of notes 
at Santiago March 1, 1957. 

Entered into force: March 25, 1957 (date of signature 
of arrangement embodying the technical details). 

Iceland 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (68 Stat. 454, 455; 69 Stat. 44, 721). 
Signed at Washington April 11, 1957. Entered into 
force April 11, 1957. 

Italy 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of October 30, 1956, as amended (TIAS 3702, 3760, 

' Not in force. 



3762, and 3788). Effected by exchange of notes at 
Borne April 2, 1957. Entered into force April 2, 1957. 

Netherlands 

Air Transport Agreement. Signed at Washington April 3, 
1957. Provisionally ojjerative April 3, 1957. Enters 
into force definitively on date of receipt by the United 
States of notification of constitutional approval by the 
Netherlands. 

Saudi Arabia 

Agreement extending United States rights at the Dhahran 
Airfield and providing for related military and economic 
matters. Effected by exchange of notes at Washington 
April 2, 1957. Entered into force April 2, 1957. 

Spain 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of October 23, 1956, as amended (TIAS 36S5 and 
3770). Effected by exchange of notes at Madrid March 
26, 1957. Entered into force March 26, 1957. 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: April 8-14 

Releases may be obtained from the News Divi- 
sion, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Subject 

Dulles : testimony on mutual security 
legislation. 

Exchange of notes with Saudi Arabia. 

Texts of U.S. and Saudi Arabian notes. 

Joint communique on U.S.-Iraqi talks. 

Miss Willis nominated Ambassador to 
Norway (biographic details). 

McLeod nominated Ambassador to Ire- 
land (biographic details). 

O'Connor designated Administrator, 
Bureau of Security and Consular Af- 
fairs (biographic details). 

U.S.-Canadian notes on Mr. Norman. 

Rubottom : "Economic Interdepend- 
ence in the Americas." 

Wilcox : "The United Nations and Re- 
sponsibilities for the Future." 

Surplus commodity agreement with 
Iceland signed. 

Educational exchange. 

WHO invited to convene 11th World 
Health Assembly in U.S. 

Joint communique on U.S.-Saudi 
Arabian talks. 

Illinois student wins NATO scholar- 
ship. 

Robertson : "Report to the Founder on 
Foreign Affairs." 

Hill: "The Two Halves of Progi-ess." 

Taylor nominated Ambassador to 
Switzerland (biographic details). 

U.S. policy for assisting Hungarian 
refugees. 



* Not printed. 

t Held for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


194 


4/8 


195 

196 

tl97 

*198 


4/8 
4/8 
4/9 
4/9 J 


*199 


4/9 


*200 


4/9 


201 
t202 


4/10 
4/11 


2(Xi 


4/11 


204 


4/11 


*205 
206 


4/11 
4/11 


t207 


4/12 


t208 


4/12 


209 


4/12 


t210 
*211 


4/12 
4/12 


t212 


4/13 



710 



Department of State Bulletin 



\ptil 29, 1957 



Index 



Vol. XXXVI, No. 931 



\griculture. Agricultural Surplus Commodity 

, Agreement With Iceland 

j^merican Principles. Report to the Founder on 

Foreign Affairs (Robertson) 

ktomic Energy. U.N. Invited To Hold Atomic En- 
I ergy Conference at Chicago (text of note) . . . 

Canada 

U.S.-Canada Joint Commission Holds Executive 
Session 

U.S. Replies to Canadian Note Regarding E. H. Nor- 
man (texts of notes) 

Communism. Report to the Founder on Foreign 
Affairs (Robertson) 

Congress, The 

President Decides Against Increase in Tariff on 

Straight Pins 

President Decides Against Increase in Tariff on 

Violins and Violas 

Economic Affairs 

Agricultural Surplus Commodity Agreement With 
Iceland 

Munitions Control and the Electronics Industry 
(Pomeroy) 

President Decides Against Increase in Tariff on 
Straight Pins 

President Decides Against Increase in Tariff on 
Violins and Violas 

President Requests Further Data on Imports of 
Safety Pins 

Proposals for Substantive Changes in Mutual Secu- 
rity Legislation (Dulles) 

U.S.-Canada Joint Commission Holds Executive 
Session 

World Trade Week, 1957 

Health, Education, and Welfare 

United Nations Commission on the Status of Women 
(Hahn) 

U.S. Extends Invitation to WHO for Eleventh As- 
sembly 

Iceland. Agricultural Surplus Commodity Agree- 
ment With Iceland 

International Organizations and Conferences 

United Nations Commission on the Status of Women 
(Hahn) 

U.N. Invited To Hold Atomic Energy Conference 
at Chicago (text of note) 

U.S. Extends Invitation to WHO for Eleventh As- 
sembly 



709 
682 
708 

695 
694 
682 

702 
703 

709 

697 

702 

703 

701 

675 

695 
679 

704 
708 
709 

704 
708 
708 



Military AGTairs 

Munitions Control and the Electronics Industry 

(Pomeroy) 697 

Proposals for Substantive Changes in Mutual Secu- 
rity Legislation (Dulles) 675 

U.S. and Saudi Arabia Confirm Agreement on Coop- 
eration (texts of notes) 680 

Mutual Security 

Munitions Control and the Electronics Industry 

(Pomeroy) 697 

Proposals for Substantive Changes in Mutual Secu- 
rity Legislation (Dulles) 675 

Philippines. Anniversary of Fall of Bataan (Eisen- 
hower, Garcia) 679 

Presidential Documents 

Anniversary of Fall of Bataan 679 

President Decides Against Increase in Tariff on 

Straight Pins 702 

President Decides Against Increase in Tariff on 

Violins and Violas 703 

President Requests Further Data on Imports of 

Safety Pins 701 

World Trade Week, 1957 679 

Saudi Arabia. U.S. and Saudi Arabia Confirm 
Agreement on Cooperation (texts of notes) . . 680 

Treaty Information 

Agricultural Surplus Commodity Agreement With 
Iceland 709 

Current Actions 709 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 709 

The United Nations and Responsibilities for the 

Future (Wilcox) 688 

United Nations Commission on the Status of Women 

(Hahn) 7(H 

U.N. Invited To Hold Atomic Energy Conference 
at Chicago (text of note) 708 

U.S. Extends Invitation to WHO for Eleventh As- 
sembly 708 

Name Index 

Al-Khayyal, Abdullah 681 

Dulles, Secretary 675 

Eisenhower, President 679, 701, 702, 703 

Garcia, Carlos P 680 

Hahn, Lorena B 704 

Heeney, A. D. P 694 

Herter, Christian A 694 

Murphy, Robert 680 

Pomeroy, Leonard H 697 

Robertson, Walter S 682 

Wilcox, Francis O 688 



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FHE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 





Vol. XXXVI, No. 932 



May 6, 1957 



ICIAL 

:KLY RECORD 

TED STATES 
EIGN POLICY 



DYNAMIC PEACE • Address by Secretary Dulles 715 

AMBASSADOR RICHARDS' MISSION TO MIDDLE 

BIAST • Department Announcement of Interim Report and 
Texts of Joint Communiques '24 

ECONOMIC INTERDEPENDENCE IN THE 

AMERICAS • by Assistant Secretary Rubottom 732 

THE TWO HALVES OF PROGRESS • by Assistant 

Secretary Hill 736 

UNITED STATES-NETHERLANDS AIR TRANSPORT 

AGREEMENT • Department Announcement and Text of 
Agreement IW 

IMMIGRATION POTENTIALS UNDER THE BASIC 

IIVIMIGRATION LAW • by Eliot B. Coulter 722 

MEETING THE CHALLENGE OF MOVING HUN- 
GARIAN REFUGEES • Article by George L. Warren . . 743 

For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol.. XXXVI, No. 932 • Publication 6490 
May 6, 1957 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

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Washington 25, D.C. 

Price; 

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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
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bynamic Peace 



Address by Secretary Dulles ^ 



I recall pleasurably your annual luncheon of a 
year ago. It is a compliment that you have asked 
me to come again. Since this is my first speech of 
the second Eisenliower term, it may be appropri- 
ate to set forth the basic concepts which guide our 
foreign policy. It is important that both friend 
and foe should know the principles by which we 
chart our course. 

At the close of World War II, the statesmen of 
the world met at San Francisco to plan a better 
future for a war-scourged world. They wrote 
the United Nations Charter, and in its first article 
they laid down three basic and interlocking prin- 
ciples. There must be peace ; there must be justice; 
and there must be liberty for nations and for 
persons. 

Peace, justice, and liberty— these same three 
concepts underlie the foreign policies of the United 
States. Our task is to realize these concepts in a 
world of rapid and accelerating change. 

Two decades ago I wrote that world peace de- 
pended, not on preserving the statm quo, but on 
finding ways of peaceful change. Today, this re- 
quirement is more than ever imperative. Our 
foreign policy accepts change as the law of life. 
We seek to assure that change will be benign, and 
not destructive, so that it will promote not merely 
survival but freedom and well-being. 

Deterrents to Aggressive War 

A first requirement is that the door be firmly 
closed to change by violent aggression. 

Of all the tasks of government the most basic is 
to protect its citizens against violence. Such pro- 



'Made before the annual luncheon of the Associated 
Press at New York, N. Y., on Apr. 22 (press release 229 
dated Apr. 21) and broadcast to the Nation by radio and 
television. 



tection can only be effective if provided by a col- 
lective effort. So in every civilized community 
the members contribute toward the maintenance of 
a police force as an arm of law and order. 

Only the society of nations has failed to apply 
this rudimentary principle of civilized life. 

An effort was made through the United Nations 
to create an armed force for use by the Security 
Council to maintain international order. But the 
Soviet Union vetoed that. 

However, the member nations still had the pos- 
sibility of cooperating against aggression. For 
the charter, with foresight, had proclaimed that 
all nations had the inlierent right of collective 
self-defense. 

The free nations have largely exercised that 
right. The United States has made collective de- 
fense treaties with 42 other nations. And the area 
of common defense may now be enlarged pursuant 
to the recent Middle East resolution. 

This collective security system is subject to as- 
saults from without and to infii-mities within. 

The Soviet rulers understandably prefer that 
the free nations should be weak and divided, as 
when the men in the Kremlin stole, one by one, the 
independence of a dozen nations. So, at each en- 
largement of the area of collective defense, the 
Soviet rulers pour out abuse against so-called 
"militaristic groupings." And as the free nations 
move to strengthen their common defense, the 
Soviet rulers emit threats. But we can, I think, 
be confident that such Soviet assaults will not dis- 
inteOTate the free world. Collective measures are 
here to stay. 

The greater danger comes from internal hazards. 
A collective defense system, in which each mem- 
ber nation is completely sovereign, requires a high 
degree of voluntary cooperation and agreement. 



tAoY 6, 1957 



715 



Happily, we have tliat. For example, it is 
agreed that the primary task is to deter war. 
Alodern weapons have such vast destructive power 
that there could be no real "victor" were general 
war ever to occur. 

It is also agreed that the prmcipal deterrent 
to aggressive war is mobile retaliatory power. 
This retaliatory power must be vast in terms of its 
potential. But the extent to which it would be 
used would, of course, depend on circumstances. 
The essential is that a would-be aggressor should 
realize that he cannot make armed aggression a 
paying proposition. 

It is also agreed that it would be imprudent to 
risk everything on one single aspect of military 
power. There must be land, sea, and air forces 
for local action and for a defense which will give 
mobile striking power the chance to do its work. 

Thus the general design of common defense is 
widely agreed. Of course, its detailed application 
presents recurrent difficulties. Also, the sharing of 
the burden raises problems. 

Modern weapons are extremely expensive. Im- 
mense sums must be spent in research and develop- 
ment and in making weapons which may become 
outmoded almost before they are in production. 
The United States is the only free-world country 
able to sustain the cost of developing a capacity 
for retaliation adequate to deter a potential 
aggressor who himself has great and growing 
aggressive power. In addition, the United States 
supplies military equipment to others and, in 
some cases, helps to stabilize the economies of 
allies which cannot otherwise play their proper 
part in the scheme of common defense. 

The President faces no more difficult task than 
the crucial one of deciding, in this defense field, 
how much to spend, where to spend it, and how to 
bring the cost into a budget which pi-ovides for 
other needed tasks and does the whole without 
monetary inflation or excessive taxation. 

There are some who, in a zeal to economize, 
would slash that part of our budget which is often 
miscalled "foreign aid" — as though it did not aid 
us. That would not be economy but extravagance. 
If the forces and facilities which others provide 
were subtracted from the common defense, the 
United States defense budget would have to be 
expanded vastly from what it now is. That is 
the considered judgment of the President and his 
military advisers. 

716 



The free-world collective-defense arrangements 
are not ideal. There is nothing automatic about 
them, and they require a continuing conscious ef- 
fort by many nations to cooperate and to forgo the 
petty selfishness and the extremes of nationalism 
which could poison the relationships. But the re- 
lationship is predominantly one of good will and 
trust. It marks a significant step in the long- 
overdue progress of international society from 
anarchy to order. To maintain and develop this 
progress is a basic principle of our foreign policy. 

But we do not believe that the only way to se- 
curity is through ever-mounting armaments. "We 
consider that controls and reduction of arms are 
possible, desirable, and, in the last reckoning, 
indispensable. It is not essential that controls 
should encompass everything at once. In fact, 
progress is likely to come by steps carefully meas- 
ured and carefully taken. Thus far it has not been 
possible to assure the inspection and other safe- 
guards that would make it prudent for us to re- 
duce our effective power. But we shall continue 
to seek that goal. 

Armaments are nothing that we crave. Their 
possession is forced on us by the aggressive and 
devious designs of international communism. An 
arms race is costly, sterile, and dangerous. "We 
shall not cease our striving to bring it to a de- 
pendable end. 

The Blessings of Liberty 

Any police system is essentially negative. It is 
designed to repress violence and give a sense of 
security. But the sense of security is illusory 
unless, behind its shield, there is growth and de- 
velopment. Military collaboration to sustain 
peace will collapse unless we also collaborate to 
spread the blessings of liberty. 

Trade, from the earliest days, has been one of 
the great up-builders of economic well-being. 
Therefore, this Government advocates trade pol- 
icies which promote the interchange of goods to 
mutual advantage. 

Also, the United States, as the most productive 
and prosperous nation, assists other nations which 
are at an early stage of self-development. It is 
sobering to recall that about two-thirds of all the 
people who resist Communist rule exist in a con- 
dition of stagnant poverty. Communism boasts 
that it could change all that and points to indus- 
trial developments wrought in Russia at a cruel. 

Department of State Bulletin 



i 



but largely concealed, cost in terms of human 
slavery and human misery. The question is 
whether free but undeveloped countries can end 
stagnation for their people without paying such 
a dreadful price. Friendly nations expect that 
those who have abundantly found tlie blessings of 
liberty should help those who still await those 
blessings. 

Of course, each country must itself make the 
principal effort to improve its lot. But others can 
provide an impetus and the margin between hope 
and despair — and perhaps between success and 
failure. They can do this by showing interest and 
concern, by giving technical guidance, and by pro- 
viding capital for development. Much of this is 
done under private auspices, and we wish it could 
all be done that way. But sometimes the hazards 
are greater than private capital will assume. So 
our Government supplies some funds for economic 
development purposes. 

The sharing of markets and of development 
capital is not a giveaway operation. It assures 
that the free world, of which we are part, will be 
a vigorous, hopefiil community. That corre- 
sponds to our interests and to our ideals. 

Our mutual security program can and should 
make our policies more clear and more stable. 
Two weeks ago I outlined proposals to this end 
before a special committee of the Senate. ^ With 
the help of the Congress, and with the support of 
the American people, our trade and economic de- 
velopment policies can serve mightily to demon- 
strate that the peace of free men is not the doomed 
peace of human stagnation but a peace of such 
vitality that it will endure. 

A Decade of Political Change 

Just as our policy concerns itself with economic 
development, so, too, our policy concerns itself 
with political change. 

During the past decade, there have come into 
being, within the free world, 19 new nations with 
700 million people. In addition, many nations 
whose sovereignty was incomplete have had that 
sovereignty fully completed. Within this brief 
span nearly one-third of the entire human race has 
had this exciting, and sometimes intoxicating, ex- 
perience of gaining full independence. 

The United States believes that all peoples 



' Bulletin of Apr. 29, 1957, p. 675. 
Moy 6, J 957 



should have self-government and independence if 
they desire it and show the capacity to sustain it. 
We rejoice that there is progress toward this goal. 
But liberty requires more than the mere break- 
ing of old political ties that have become unwel- 
come. Those patriots who won for us our inde- 
pendence knew and proclaimed that our free 
institutions could be sustained and our independ- 
ence made durable only if our Nation accepted the 
disciplines which religion and education enjoin. 
That is indispensable to assure responsible leader- 
ship able to guide a young nation through the 
dangers which beset it. 

Today, nations born to independence are born 
into a world one part of which is ruled by des- 
potism and the other part of which stays free by 
accepting the concept of interdependence. There 
is no safe middle ground. 

International communism is on the prowl to 
capture those nations whose leaders feel that newly 
acquired sovereign rights have to be displayed by 
flouting other independent nations. That kind 
of sovereignty is suicidal sovereignty. 

The United States stands as the faithful and 
vigorous champion of the principles of our Dec- 
laration of Independence. And we want the new 
independence of others to be something better 
than a brief twilight preceding the blackout of 
Communist despotism. 

The Captive Nations 

Xowhere is the pressure for change greater than 
within the Soviet orbit. For there the most basic 
human aspirations are the most repressed. 

A year ago Khrushchev boasted before the 20th 
Congress of the Soviet Communist Party that com- 
munism was on its way to triumph everywhere, 
on its merits, as a system of thought and govern- 
ment. But in October, how many Communists 
could be found in supposedly Communist Hun- 
gary ? A few hundreds of secret policemen, hope- 
lessly implicated in the crimes of the regime, and 
a handful of traitors willing to govern by grace 
of Soviet tanks. 

Communism in practice has proved to be op- 
pressive, reactionary, unimaginative. Its despo- 
tism, far from being revolutionary, is as old as 
history. Those subject to it, in vast majority, hate 
the system and yearn for a free society. 

The question of how the United States should 
deal with this matter is not easily answered. Our 

717 



history, however, offers us a guide. The United 
States came into being -when much of the world 
Was ruled by alien despots. That was a fact we 
hoped to change. We wanted our example to 
stimulate liberating forces throughout the world 
and create a climate in which despotism would 
shrink. In fact, we did just that. 

I believe that that early conception can usefully 
guide us now. 

Let us provide an example which demonstrates 
the blessings of liberty. Let us spread knowledge 
of that around the world. Let us see to it that the 
divided or captive nations know that they are not 
forgotten; that we shall never make a political 
settlement at their expense; and that a heartfelt 
welcome and new opportunity await them as they 
gain more freedom. 

Let us also make apparent to the Soviet rulers 
our real purpose. We condemn and oppose their 
imperialism. We seek the liberation of the cap- 
tive nations. We seek this, however, not in order 
to encircle Russia with hostile forces but because 
peace is in jeopardy and freedom a word of mock- 
ery until the divided nations are reunited and the 
captive nations are set free. 

We revere and honor those who as martyrs gave 
their blood for freedom. But we do not ourselves 
incite violent revolt. Eather we encourage an 
evolution to freedom. 

The Voice of America, our information pro- 
grams, and cultural exchanges spread throughout 
the world knowledge of what freedom is and does. 
Wlien Himgary was invaded and freedom crushed, 
we sponsored a United Nations condemnation of 
the Soviet Union. And when some steps are made 
toward independence, as recently in the case of 
Poland, we show a readiness to respond with 
friendly acts. 

Events of the past year indicate that the pres- 
sures of liberty are rising. 

Within the Soviet Union there is increasmg de- 
mand for greater personal security, for greater 
intellectual freedom, and for greater enjoyment of 
the fruits of labor. 

International communism has become beset with 
doctrinal difficulties. And the cruel performance 
of Soviet communism in Hungary led many to 
desert Communist parties throughout the world. 

The satellite countries no longer provide a sub- 
missive source of added Soviet strength. Indeed, 
Soviet strength, both military and economic, has 



now to be expended to repress those who openly 
sliow their revulsion against Soviet rule. 

And the Soviet Government pays a heavy price 
in terms of moral isolation. 

Soviet rulers are supposed to be hardlieaded. 
For how long, we may ask, will they expend tlieir 
resources in combating historic forces for national 
unity and freedom which are boimd ultimately to 
prevail ? 

Principles of tlie U.N. Charter 

Let me speak now of the United Nations. Its 
charter couples peace with justice and provides 
the most significant body of international law yet 
known. 

The United States has agreed to those principles 
and seeks to conform to them ; and we expect other 
signatories to do the same. On occasions we invoke 
the processes of the United Nations to help to 
make effective the principles embodied in the 
charter. We are not ashamed, as a powerful 
nation, to pay the same decent respect for the 
opinions of mankind that we thought proper when, 
young and weak, we sought our independence. 

That is no abdication of foreign policy. It is 
the exercise of foreign policy and its exercise in 
the way wliich represents the best hope for 
humanity. 

Our dedication to the principles of the United 
Nations Charter was severely tested by the recent 
Middle East crisis. We were then faced with a 
distressing and unprecedented conflict of loyalties. 
Historic ties would have led us to acquiesce in the 
forcible action that was begun. But this would 
have involved disloyalty to the United Nations 
undertaking that all members renounce the use 
of force except in defense against armed attack. 
That same pledge is also embodied in all our 
treaties of alliance. We decided to be loyal to 
that commitment. 

This was a hard decision, although to those 
directly affected it was not an unexpected decision. 
It was not, I suppose, a popular decision. Yet it 
was imperative if tlie world was not to go as it 
went when the League Covenant was disregarded. 

But, as we liave seen, the charter prescribes not 
merely jjeaceful settlement but settlement in con- 
formity with justice and international law. 

We must, and do, seek also to advance that goal. 
For example, we arc now striving to bring about 
conditions in the Middle East better than those 



718 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



rovocative and dangerous conditions out of which 

he recent violence was born. 

I This cannot be done quickly or all at once. 

fVTiere emotions run high and a sense of grievance 

Is deep, those most directly involved are more 

iager to gain partisans for their cause than to 

leed impartial counsel. 

I Wherever such situations occur, they are always 

svorsened by Soviet intrigue. The Kremlin likes 

troubled waters in which to fish. 

We know, in domestic affairs, that it is hard to 
apply just solutions when racial or class passions 
run high. The task is equally hard in interna- 
tional affairs, and sometimes war seems to offer 
a shortcut to the desired end. But that seeming 
is an illusion. The only durable solution is one 
which comes by patiently, resolutely, and resource- 
fully seeking justice and the rule of law. That, at 
least, is the faith and the dedication of your 
Government. 

The Task of Waging Peace 

I have tried to describe principles which guide 
United States foreign policy. But while guiding 
principles are essential, they are not enough. 
They must be reinforced by daily action as, 
throughout the world, our views are sought and 
our influence is made felt. 

This is the task sometimes called waging peace. 
It is a hard task. It is seldom dramatic. The 
many who take part in it may never be known as 
heroes. Yet they make efforts, and in some cases 
sacrifices, like those required in war to win a war. 
By so doing, they spare us the infinitely greater 
sacrifice of war itself. 

Surely the stakes justify that effort. As I am 
briefed on the capacity of modern weapons for 
destruction, I recognize the impossibility of grasp- 
ing the full, and indeed awful, significance of the 
words and figures used. Yet we would be reckless 
not to recognize that this calamity is a possibility. 
Indeed history suggests that a conflict as basic as 
that dividing the world of freedom and the world 
of international communism ultimately erupts in 

war. 

That suggestion we reject. But to reject in 
terms of words or of hopes is not enough. We 
must also exert ourselves to the full to prevent it. 
To this task, the American people must unswerv- 
ingly dedicate their hearts and minds through- 
out the years ahead. 

May 6, J957 



That is not too much to expect. Americans are 
a people of faith. They have always had a sense 
of mission and willingness to sacrifice to achieve 
great goals. Surely, our Nation did not reach a 
new peak of power and responsibility merely to 
partake of the greatest, and perhaps the last, of 
all human disasters. 

If only we are faithful to our past, we shall not 
have to fear our future. The cause of peace, jus- 
tice, and liberty need not fail and must not fail. 



Letters of Credence 

Switzerlarid 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Switzer- 
land, Henry de Torrente, presented his credentials 
to President Eisenhower on April 17. For the 
texts of the Ambassador's remarks and the Presi- 
dent's reply, see Department of State press release 
216. 



Visit of Chancellor Adenauer 

The Department of State announced on April 
19 (press release 223) that Chancellor Konrad 
Adenauer of the Federal Kepublic of Germany is 
expected to arrive in New York on May 24. He 
will come to Washington on May 27, at which 
time he will be joined by Foreign Minister Hein- 
rich von Brentano. The Chancellor plans to 
depart for Germany on May 29. 

During his stay in Washington, the Chancellor 
is expected to have discussions with the President, 
the Secretary of State, and other officials of the 
Government. 



U.S. Requests Departure 
of Soviet Embassy Employee 

Press release 21S dated AprU 17 

Department Announcement 

The Department of State announced on April 
17 that it had requested the departure of Gennadi 
F. Mashkantsev, an employee of the Soviet Em- 
bassy. Sergei R. Striganov, Counselor of the 
Soviet Embassy in the United States, was in- 
formed that information available to the United 

719 



States Government indicated that Mashkantsev 
had engaged in highly improper activities directed 
toward inducing the return to the Soviet Union of 
persons who have sought asylum in the United 
States. 

Text of U.S. Note' 

The Department of State informs the Embassy 
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics that 
the Government of the United States has ascer- 
tained that Gennadi F. Mashkantsev, an employee 
of the Embassy of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics, has engaged in higlily improper 
activities. 

Mashkantsev's continued presence in the United 
States is no longer considered acceptable and the 
Embassy is requested to arrange for his immediate 
departure. 



NATO Scholarship Awarded 
to American Student 

The Department of State announced on April 
12 (press release 208) that it has been informed 
that Carl Fredric Salans of Chicago Heights, 111., 
is among the winners of the scholarships awarded 
annually by the North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization. 

Mr. Salans, who is now working toward a doc- 
torate degree in jurisprudence at the University 
of Chicago, will study at Cambridge University 
during the 1957-58 academic year. He will con- 
tinue his studies in international law with special 
emphasis on the conflict of laws where different 
legal systems are involved and the status of inter- 
national organizations under international law. 

The objective of the Nato fellowship and 
scholarship program is "to encourage the study 
and research of such historical, political, constitu- 
tional, legal, social, cultural, linguistic, economic, 
scientific, and strategic problems as reveal the 
common traditions and historical experience of the 
North Atlantic area considered as a Conmiunity, 
and give insight into its present needs and future 
development." 

Candidates for the scholarships were selected by 
a committee under the chairmanship of Ambassa- 



' Handed to the Soviet Counselor on Apr. 17. 
720 



dor L. D. Wilgress, Permanent Representative of 
Canada to the North Atlantic Council. Others 
serving on the committee were James C. Dunn, 
former U. S. Ambassador to Italy; Professor 
Robert Majolin of the University of Nancy, for- 
mer Secretary-General of the Organization for 
European Economic Cooperation; Alberto Tar- 
chiani, former Italian Ambassador to the United 
States; and H. U. Willink, Master of Magdalene 
College, Cambridge University, and former vice 
chancellor of Cambridge University. 

The Nato fellowship and scholarship program, 
now in its second year, is carried out under article 
2 of the North Atlantic Treaty, which states in 
part: "The Parties will contribute toward the 
further development of peaceful and friendly in- 
ternational relations by strengthening their free 
institutions, by bringing about a better under- 
standing of the principles upon which these insti- 
tutions are founded, and by promoting conditions 
of stability and well-being." The program was 
furthered by the Report of the Committee of 
Three on Nonmilitary Cooperation in Nato, ap- 
proved last December, which asked the member 
governments to broaden their support of these 
activities.^ 

The announcement of the winners of this year's 
awards was made on April 4, the eighth anniver- 
sary of the signing of the treaty. 



United States Assistance 
to Hungarian Refugees 

DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT OF APRIL 13 

Press release 212 dated AprU 13 

The U.S. Government is continuing to assist the 
people of Hungary who fled from Communist op- 
pression in their homeland and under this policy 
will continue to bring limited numbers of refugees 
into the country within the next few months. 

The number of refugees to be admitted to the 
United States will, of course, be on a diminishing 
basis in the future because of the lessening of the 
emergency. 

Those to bo brought to the United States both 
from Austria and countries of second asylum will 

' Bulletin of Jan. 7, 1957, p. 18. 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



be refugees selected on the basis of hardship cases 
such as those involving broken families and spe- 
cial-interest cases such as scientists, engineers, 
etc., whose skills will enable them to be integrated 
readily into the American economy. 

The United States has already accepted more 
than 31,000 Hungarian refugees, which is nearly 
20 percent of all who escaped the Communist op- 
pression in their homeland. It has also assisted 
in resettling more than 100,000 of tliem in other 
countries and intends to continue this assistance. 

Austria has indicated it can integrate between 
20,000 and 30,000 into its own economy, and the 
U. S. Government hopes that, with the acceptance 
of additional refugees by the other countries 
whicli have been assisting in the emergency, all of 
the refugees will have been provided for within 
the near future. 

The program as a whole reflects the recognition 
by the American people of the plight and the 
heroism of these oppressed peoples and their de- 
termination, along with the other peoples of the 
free world, to assist these refugees in finding new 
homes where they may live in freedom. The role 
of the United States in giving leadership to the 
compassionate acceptance and resettlement of 
these heroic people has been a gratifying one to 
every citizen. 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT OF APRIL 16 

Press release 21-i dated April 16 

Assistance to Hungarian escapees by the people 
of the United States and their Government 
reaches beyond the welcoming to this country of 
more than 31,000 men, women, and children since 
the October 1956 revolt against Communist 
tyranny. 

Commenting on the April 13 announcement that 
the United States will continue its welcome to 
escapees, Robert S. McCollum, Deputy Adminis- 
trator for Refugee Programs and head of the Of- 
fice of Refugee and Migration Affairs, on April 
16 highlighted this country's dollars-and-cents aid 
to benefit escapees. He said : 

In addition to receiving in this country more than 31,- 
000 Hungarian escapees, this Government expended large 
sums for emergency care of escapees in Austria during 
the mass exodus from Hungary and has subsequently di- 
rectly and indirectly helped to resettle thousands of these 



people in countries of the free world other than the United 
States. 

Involved in this gigantic undertaliing has been the 
task of making available to escapees transportation, hous- 
ing, jobs, and educational opportunities, and reorienta- 
tion guidance and counseling for life in the free world. 

Total sums so far allocated by the Government for all 
types of assistance to Hungarian escapees have been ap- 
proximately $30 million. In addition to this the Ameri- 
can people have generously contributed more than $18 
million through voluntary welfare agencies and private 
charitable organizations. 

Some of the assistance given by the United States Gov- 
ernment has been in the form of grants to the several 
international organizations concerned with the Hungar- 
ian emergency, while other types of assistance have been 
carried out directly by governmental programs. 

These assistance channels were cited : 

—The United States Escapee Program, which 
expended several millions to finance emergency 
care and maintenance and aid in preparing Hun- 
garians to resettle in countries other than the 
United States. 

— The United Nations High Commissioner for 
Refugees, to whose office the United States pro- 
vided $5 million, much of which financed emer- 
gency assistance programs in Austria. 

— The Intergovermnental Committee for Euro- 
pean Migration (Icem), to which the United 
States makes regular contributions and to which 
it also made emergency contributions to help in 
arrangements for escapees' transportation from 
Austria to countries other than the United States.^ 

— Another program of assistance is the recent 
$3 million contribution of the United States to a 
plan for moving 10,000 Hungarian escapees now 
in Yugoslavia and 5,000 from countries of second 
asylum to overseas countries other than the United 
States. The project is being carried out by Icem 
and the United Nations High Commissioner for 
Refugees. 

Mr. McCollum added that an objective of the 
United States, in its efforts to help relieve the con- 
gestion of escapees in Austria during early months 
after the revolt, was to help insure the Austrian 
economy against the impact of thousands of un- 
expected, needy visitors. Commodity reserves 
from the United States played a prominent part 
in this effort to sustain the economy, at the same 
time providing useful foodstuffs. 



' For an article on the ICEM, see p. 743. 



Ma/ 6, 1957 



721 



Immigration Potentials Under 
the Basic Immigration Law 

hy Eliot B. Coulter 

Assistant Director, Visa Ofjiice ^ 

If there were no restrictions of any kind, either 
on departures from foreign countries or on entries 
into the United States, we would have a great 
stream of immigration into tliis comitry. The 
greatest sources of such immigration would be 
the countries of population pressures in Europe, 
the West Indies, and the Far East, where over- 
population in relation to available work has led 
to unemployment or to partial employment to 
spread work opportunities. 

Persons who wish to migrate are motivated pri- 
marily by a desire to seek a new home in lands 
offering an opportunity for full-time work and 
a higher standard of living. Others desire to 
join relatives or friends who have the same back- 
ground. Some respond to an alluring picture of 
American life depicted in American movies and 
glowing magazine advertisements. Still others 
who are dissatisfied with political and other con- 
trols seek the American atmosphere of liberty 
and respect for the individual. These are rea- 
sons for migrating. 

There are other persons who postpone or cancel 
plans to leave when improved economic condi- 
tions at home offer greater rewards and full-time 
work. Others prefer the culture and atmosphere 
to which they have become accustomed and wliich 
they are loathe to leave. This is particularly 
true of older persons who are not prepared to face 
uncertainties of the future in new surroundings. 

The effect of improved economic conditions at 
home is illustrated by the quota situation in Ger- 
many. When consular offices in Germany were 
authorized to register prospective immigrants on 
the waiting list, over 200,000 persons registered 
within a few days. Within the past year, the 
German quota became current, indicating tliat, 
when it came to the point of applying for visas, 
many persons decided to remain in Germany, 
where tlie improved economic conditions pro- 
vided opportmiities for full-time work. 

It frequently happens, also, that persons regis- 



' Address made before the NntioniU Council on Nat- 
uralization and Citizenship at New Yorlc, N. Y., on 
Mar. 15. 



ter on a waiting list in order to keep open a 
possibility of migrating if need should arise. 
This was particularly true before World War 
II, when many persons saw trouble ahead. 

The point of these comments is that figures of 
registered demand or estimates of potential immi- 
grants do not always give a true picture of the 
number of persons who will apply for visas when 
offered an opportunity to do so. Nevertheless, 
with all due allowance for a contradiction in the 
estimates, it is reasonable to believe that, if peo- 
ples were freely able to migrate at will, there 
would be a potential volume of immigrants, pos- 
sibly running to several millions. 

It is not possible to give any very realistic 
estimates. Several years ago it was said that over 
12 million persons would emigrate from Italy 
alone if they could. Among other countries in 
Europe which have furnished large numbers of 
immigrants in the past are Czechoslovakia, Ger- 
many, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, Rus- 
sia, and Yugoslavia. In the Western Hemisphere, 
Jamaica, other West Indian islands, and Mexico 
have a considerable volume of potential immi- 
grants. In the Far East, China, Japan, and pos- 
sibly other countries in the area would be sources 
of large numbers of immigrants. 

On a practical basis, immigration potentials 
must, of course, be related to the provisions of 
the Nationality Act, which continues numerical 
restrictions first imposed by the Act of May 19, 
1921. The present act exempts from quota re- 
strictions various classes of persons, including 
spouses and unmarried minor children of United 
States citizens, and persons born in Canada and 
independent countries of the Western Hemisphere. 

Coming down to figures, it may be of interest 
to note that tlie annual quotas for all countries 
total 154,657. During the fiscal year 1956, con- 
suls issued 88.5 thousand quota visas. To this fig- 
ure must be added 8 thousand numbers charged 
to that year's quotas under the provisions of the 
Displaced Persons Act of 1948 for mortgaging 
quotas for future years up to 50 percent of each 
year's quota. There must also be added one thou- 
sand quota nmnbei's used during 1956 for adjust- 
ments of status of aliens in the United States from 
a temporary to a permanent classification. The 
total of the quota numbers used or cliarged to the 
year 1956 came to 97.5 thousand. 



722 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



The underissiie of the quotas for fiscal 1956 
amounted to 57 thousand numbers. This was 
accoimted for by underissues of 42 thousand foi' 
Great Britain, 11 thousand for Ireland, 1,300 for 
Sweden, and 2,800 for various other countries with 
minimum quotas. 

In addition to the quota issuances of 97.5 thou- 
sand during fiscal 1956, there were issued 162 
thousand nonquota visas. This figure includes 
30 thousand for Canada and 65 thousand for Mex- 
ico. In addition special nonquota visas issued 
under the provisions of the Refugee Relief Act 
amounted to 84 thousand. 

The grand total of inunigi'ants issued visas 
during the year, or previously issued visas charged 
to 1956, came to 332.5 thousand. During the post- 
war period from July 1, 1946, to June 30, 1956— 
10 years — tlie immigration came to 2,337,417. 

Speaking of quotas mortgaged up to 50 percent 
for future years, it is of interest to note that 20 
quotas were so mortgaged, 8 of them to the year 
2000 or beyond, including Greece to 2018, Latvia 
to 2275, Poland to 2000, and Yugoslavia to 2015. 

Now coming to estimates of demands, I have the 
following figures as of last November : The num- 
ber of qualified applicants ready to be given visas 
as numbers become available, 9 thousand. I may 
explain here that applicants are not examined too 
long ahead of the expected issuance of visas. Un- 
qualified demand comprising persons not yet ex- 
amined includes: Austria 15 thousand, Germany 
20 thousand, Greece 104 thousand, Italy 130 thou- 
sand, Jamaica 30 thousand, Netherlands 27 thou- 
sand, Poland 80 thousand, Portugal 25 thousand, 
Spain 12 thousand, and Yugoslavia 141 thousand. 

The law provides that available quota nimibers 
shall be used for qualified applicants within the 
first three preference classes before they may be 
used for other persons. These classes are (1) 
skilled workers or technicians; (2) parents of 
United States citizens ; (3) spouses and unmarried 
minor children of alien permanent residents. It 
is only when these three classes do not use all of 
the quota that the surplus may be used, one-fourth 
for the fourth preference class, comprismg the 
brothers and sisters and adult sons and daughters 
of United States citizens, and three-fourths for 
nonpreference applicants. 



Under the quotas for many countries the de- 
mand for visas for preference relatives greatly 
exceeds the available supply for some years. This 
is true for second preference, parents of citizens 
under the quotas for Australia, China, Greece, 
Hungary, Jamaica, Japan, Philippines, Rumania, 
Spain, and Turkey. Third-preference spouses 
and children of resident aliens face a long wait 
if charged to the quotas of the countries mentioned 
and if charged to those for Israel, Italy, Lebanon, 
Palestine, and Yugoslavia. Fourth-preference 
brothers and sisters and sons and daughters of 
citizens chargeable to any of these quotas and 
additionally, to the quotas for Austria, countries 
in the West Indies, Lithuania, Portugal, and 
Syria face long waits of many years. 

To sum up, we have a huge reservoir of poten- 
tial immigrants to this country mainly from Eu- 
rope, the West Indies and Mexico, and the Far 
East. Under our immigration laws the flow of 
immigrants is restricted by the quotas totaling 
154,657, but these were underissued mainly for 
Great Britain, Ireland, and Sweden during 1956. 
With nonquota visas, the total for that year came 
to about one-tliird of a million, including the ref- 
ugee-relief issuances, and during the past 10 years 
roughly two and a third million immigrants have 
come. Finally, luider many quotas there is an 
indicated wait of at least several years for rela- 
tives of persons in the United States accorded 
preferences under the law. 

The United States is still a gi-eat immigrant- 
receiving nation. With a quarter to a third of a 
million a year permitted to come for permanent 
residence with a right to work and enjoy all the 
benefits of American life and to assmne on an 
equal basis the responsibilities inherent in a de- 
mocracy, the United States presents a good record 
among the nations of the world. The President 
has recommended certain changes in our immigra- 
tion laws, including an increase in the total of 
the quotas and a plan for the utilization of un- 
used quota numbers.^ Our nation is made up of 
immigrants who currently come to join immi- 
gi-ants who preceded them and the descendants 
of former immigrants. 



- BuLUETiN of Feb. 18, 1957, p. 247. 



May 6, 1957 



723 



Ambassador Richards' Mission to Middle East 



Following is a Department announcement re- 
garding an interim report on the mission to the 
Middle East of Ambassador Ja?nes P. Richards, 
together with the texts of joint commv/niques is- 
sued after the Amiassador^s visits to Lebanon, 
Libya, Turhey, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, 
and Saudi Arabia, and two press statements on the 
Baghdad Pact. 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 226 dated April 19 

On April 18, 1957, the Department of State for- 
warded to the appropriate committees of Congress 
an interim rej)ort on the mission to the Middle 
East of Ambassador James P. Ricliards in imple- 
mentation of Public Law 85-7, March 9, 1957.^ 
The report covered the visits to the countries of 
Lebanon, Libya, Tui-key, Iran, Pakistan, Afghani- 
stan, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia. 

The report briefly summarized the procedures 
followed by Ambassador Eichards in each of the 
countries he has visited. The mission has been 
making clear that the basic purpose of the joint 
resolution on the Middle East is to help the states 
of the Middle East maintain their national inde- 
pendence against the encroachments of commu- 
nism. In each case, on the basis of the explana- 
tions oifered, the country concerned decided 
whether it wished to participate in the program. 
On the basis of such participation. Ambassador 
Richards, in consultation with other United States 
agencies in the country concerned, determined 
what kinds of assistance can help in implementing 
the desired cooperation. Upon leaving each 



' H. J. Res. 117, as nmended ; for text, see Bulletin of 
Mar. 25, 1957, p. 481. For background on Ambassador 
Richards' nii.ssion, see ibid., Mar. 25, 1957, p. 480, and Apr. 
1, li)r.7, p. 52G. 



country, a joint communique has been issued cov- 
ering the general area of agreement and setting 
forth a statement of common purpose. 

The results of the mission to date are impressive. 
As the public joint communiques demonstrate, the 
governments covered by the interim report have 
declared their desire to associate themselves with 
the President's program for the Middle East. It 
is particularly gratifying that so many of the 
countries have made known their opposition to 
international communism. 

In the case of four Baghdad Pact coimtries — 
Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, and Iraq — Ambassador 
Richards made two special commitments. One of 
these, conveyed initially to the Prime Minister of 
Turkey and later to the others, was a declaration 
that the United States, if formally invited to do so, 
is prepared to join the Military Committee of the 
Baghdad Pact. The other was the assurance 
given to each of the four countries that the United 
States is prepared to assist in the development of 
certain regional programs under consideration in 
the Economic Committee of the Baghdad Pact. 
At a Baghdad press conference Ambassador Rich- 
ards announced that a sum of $12,570,000 might be 
made available for this purpose through arrange- 
ments to cover the shares of the four countries in 
the overall projects. 

The communique issued jointly with the Leb- 
anese Government on March 16 pointed out that 
the two countries "consider that international 
communism is incompatible with national inde- 
pendence and constitutes a cause of permanent 
trouble for world peace and security." In the 
Libyan communique issued on March 20 the two 
Governments agreed "that the aggi-essive inten- 
tions of international communism offer the great- 
est present threat to national independence and 
the peace and security of the world community." 
The Turkish communique issued on March 22 
stated: "The reactionary creed of international 



724 



Department of State Bulletin 



communism, it was noted, is set by its very nature 
in fundamental opposition to the aspirations of 
the Middle Eastern peoples for political independ- 
ence and spiritual, cultural, and social freedom." 
The Iranian communique issued on March 27 
noted that : "Should international communism 
succeed in its imperialistic aims, the security, free- 
dom, integrity and independence of all peoples 
throughout the free world would face extinction." 
In the joint communique issued after the visit to 
Pakistan on March 31, Ambassador Richards, 
among other things, "re-emphasized that the pur- 
pose of the American Doctrine is to enable inde- 
pendent nations of the Middle East region to 
defend themselves against this direct and indirect 
threat by international communism." In the 
communique issued in Kabul after Ambassador 
Eichards' visit to Afghanistan on April 2, the 
two Governments agreed that "they are deter- 
mined to defend the political independence and 
territorial integrity of their respective nations 
and the right of each to choose its own form of 
government and to develop its own social and cul- 
tural life." The joint communique issued at 
Baghdad, Iraq, on April 8 stressed the "coopera- 
tion between the United States Government and 
countries of the Middle East to protect their na- 
tional independence and integrity against the 
threat of international communism." In the com- 
munique issued in Saudi Arabia on April 11 the 
two Governments reaffirmed that they would "con- 
tinue to oppose Communist activities, other forms 
of imperialism and any other dangers that 
threaten peace and stability in the area." 

In addition to other matters of common inter- 
est, the communiques have generally stressed the 
identity of interests between the United States and 
the countries of the area in maintaining and 
strengthening their independence. 

Ambassador Eichards' mission is now in As- 
mara, Eritrea. He will fly to Khartoum, capital 
of the Sudan, April 20 and will remain there until 
April 22, when he plans to return for a brief 
rest at Asmara. The remainder of his itinerary 
will be announced in the next few days. 

The interim report was submitted to the fol- 
lowing committees: Senate Foreign Eelations, 
Senate Armed Services, Senate Appropriations, 
House Foreign Affairs, House Armed Services, 
House Appropriations. 



COMMUNIQUES AND PRESS STATEMENTS 

Lebanon Joint Communique 

Beirut, Lebanon 

March 16, 1957 

On his visit to Ivcbanon from 14 to 16 March 
1957 as Special Assistant to President Eisenhower, 
Ambassador James P. Eichards discussed with the 
Government of Lebanon President Eisenhower's 
proposals for the Middle East and the application 
of these proposals to Lebanon. This exchange 
of views has shown that the Governments of 
Lebanon and the United States share the follow- 
ing purposes : 

1. In their relations with each other and with 
other nations, they are guided by the purposes and 
principles of the Charter of the United Nations 
and by respect for the sovereign equality, rights 
and legitimate interests of all nations. They are 
interested in the establishment of a cooperative 
relationship between themselves based on trust 
and confidence and on complete respect for each 
other's independence and sovereignty and without 
any interference in each other's internal affairs. 

2. They are determined to defend the political 
independence and territorial integrity of their 
respective nations and the right of each to choose 
its own form of government and to develop in 
freedom its own social and cultural life. 

3. They oppose any form of intervention or 
interference in the internal affairs of one state 
by another. 

4. They consider that international communism 
is incompatible with national independence and 
constitutes a cause of permanent trouble for world 
peace and security. 

5. They are dedicated to the social and economic 
progress of their peoples and to this end welcome 
opportunities to enter into mutually beneficial and 
cultural relationships, on the basis of complete 
resi^ect for each other's sovereignty and inde- 
pendence. 

6. They are of the opinion that both nations 
should work, through the United Nations and by 
all other peaceful means, toward just solutions of 
the various problems which create tension within 
the area. The Government of Lebanon considers 
that the proposals of the President of the United 
States are helpful in furthering the purposes set 



May 6, 1957 



725 



forth above and has so informed Ambassador 
Richards, who has welcomed on behalf of the 
President of the United States this understand- 
ing of the broad identity of interest which exists 
between the two nations. The Government of 
Lebanon and the si^ecial Mission of Ambassador 
Eichards have examined various activities that 
might be undertaken in accordance with the pro- 
posals of the President of the United States. They 
have decided in principle that projects in the 
fields of workers' housing, rural electrification, 
village water supply, irrigation, flood control, 
highway construction and airport development 
would best contribute to the needs of Lebanon. 
These will be in addition to other United States 
aid projects already in effect or currently planned. 
Ambassador Eichards has agreed further in prin- 
ciple that the United States Government shall 
provide the Government of Lebanon certain equip- 
ment needed to strengthen the Lebanese armed 
forces. This is in addition to a recent grant of 
military equipment for the same purpose. 

The two Governments will immediately initiate 
such legal and technical steps as may be required 
to give effect to these projects. The two states 
intend further to develop cooperation between 
themselves to serve their common interests. 



Libya Joint Communique 

Tripoli, Libya 
March 20, 1957 
On his visit to Libya from March 17 to 20, the 
Special Assistant to President Eisenhower, Am- 
bassador James P. Eichards, has conferred with 
the Prime Minister and the Government of Libya. 
They have reached agreement on the meaning and 
purpose of President Eisenhower's proposals for 
the Middle East. This exchange of views revealed 
an identity of interests of the two nations and 
agreement to work together for the successful 
application of the Middle East plan, which pro- 
vides: (1) if requested, defense against any 
armed aggression by forces of international 
communism which may be directed at any nation 
of the Middle East; (2) assistance in devel- 
oping the security forces of countries of the 
Middle East which request help for the pur- 
pose of protecting their freedom and inde- 
pendence; (3) aid in strengthening the eco- 



nomic systems of Middle East countries as the best 
defense against the threat of subversion. The 
Government of Libya and the special Mission of 
Ambassador Eichards agreed that the aggressive 
intentions of international communism offer the 
greatest present threat to national independence 
and the peace and security of the world commu- 
nity. They also confirmed that it is the general 
cry of both countries to oppose any aggression 
from any source. The Government of Libya re- 
ceived with approval Ambassador Eichards' as- 
surance that the United States Middle East policy 
does not seek to establish spheres of influence or 
special positions of power in the Middle East but 
is devoted to strengthening the nations of the area 
so that they may be masters of their own destinies. 
In support of the principles enunciated above, it j 
was agreed that additional economic aid to Libya 
is needed and will be forthcoming from the United 
States. 



Turltey Joint Communique 

Ankara, Turkey 

March 22, 1957 
His Excellency Prime Minister Adnan Men- 
deres, and other Ministers of the Government 
of Turkey and Ambassador James P. Eichards, 
Special Assistant to the President of the United 
States, have discussed the proposals of the Presi- 
dent of the United States for strengthening the 
national independence and insuring the territorial 
integrity of states in the general area of the Mid- 
dle East against international communism. 
Prime Minister Menderes has reiterated his Gov- 
ernment's endorsement of these proposals. 

During these discussions, Ambassador Eichards 
recalled President Eisenhower's assertion that the 
firm and fixed purpose of the United States was 
to build peace with justice in a world where moral 
law prevails. The American Doctrine is an ex- 
pression of this philosophy. It is based on recog- 
nition of the community of interest of the Ameri- 
can people and the peoples of the Middle Eastern 
area in the security of the Middle East against 
international communism. The reactionary creed 
of international communism, it was noted, is set by 
its very nature in fundamental opposition to the 
aspirations of the Middle Eastern peoples for po- 
litical independence and spiritual, cultural, and 
social freedom. Should international commu- 



726 



Department of State Bulletin 



nism succeed in perverting or thwarting these as- 
pirations in the Middle East, the security of all 
free peoples everywhere would be threatened. 

The purpose of the American Doctrine, as stated 
by Ambassador Richards, is to assist independent 
nations in the general area of the Middle East to 
strengthen their ability to deal with the possibility 
of direct or indirect aggression by international 
communism. The two Governments have agreed 
to continue their cooperation in seeking to attain 
the above objectives. 

The Government of Turkey learned with ap- 
proval of United States efforts to assist in attain- 
ing these objectives by the following : 

1. Establishing a deterrent to armed attack on 
any nation in the area by a country under the con- 
trol of international communism. The President 
of the United States and the American Govern- 
ment and people have made clear their determina- 
tion to use, if necessary, the armed forces of the 
United States in the event of such attack, but only 
upon the request of the state or states attacked. 

2. Providing military assistance to strengthen 
internal security and legitimate self-defense 
against communist aggression. 

3. Providing economic aid to promote the de- 
velopment of states in the area and also to prevent 
communism capitalizing on economic distress. 

The Government of Turkey and the United 
States in accordance with their long-established 
policies continue to oppose any form of interven- 
tion or interference in the internal affairs of one 
state by another. They consider international 
communism a threat to national independence and 
to world peace and security and are determined to 
cooperate together in conformity with the Charter 
of the United Nations, in protective measures 
against this threat. 

The Government of Turkey and the special Mis- 
sion of Ambassador Richards have agreed on ways 
in which the development of economic and mili- 
tary aid to Turkey would advance the cooperative 
efforts of the two Governments to attain the aims 
and purposes of the Middle East proposals. 

Ambassador Richards further states that the 
United States was prepared to offer financial as- 
sistance toward several jomt projects of a regional 
nature which have been considered by the Eco- 
nomic Committee of the Baghdad Pact. 



Iran Joint Communique 



Press release 176 dated March 28 



Tehran, Iran 
March £7, 1957 



His Excellency Prime Minister Hussein Ala 
and members of his Cabinet, and Ambassador 
James P. Richards, Special Representative of 
President Dwight D. Eisenhower, have met in 
common cause and interest to discuss the purposes 
and aims of the American Doctrine, proposed by 
President Eisenhower and decisively adopted by 
the American Congress. 

During these discussions Prime Minister Ala 
reaffirmed his Government's endorsement of the 
purposes of the new American policy to strengthen 
the national independence and defend the terri- 
torial integrity of the countries in the general area 
of the Middle East against international commu- 
nism and its imperialistic aims. 

Ambassador Richards outlined the philosophy 
of President Eisenhower's policy, emphasizing 
that the foremost hope and purpose of the United 
States was, in company with its likeminded 
friends, to build peace with justice. He pointed 
out that the peoples of the Middle Eastern area 
and the people of America have a common inter- 
est in their joint efforts to preserve liberty and 
freedom through the maintenance of security 
against encroachments by international commu- 
nism in the Middle East. International com- 
munism is incompatible with the aspirations of 
the people of the Middle East for political inde- 
pendence, national integrity, religious, cultural 
and social freedom. It is likewise incompatible 
with the freedom heritage of the American people. 
Should international communism succeed in its 
imperialistic aims, the security, freedom, integrity 
and independence of all peoples throughout the 
free world would face extinction. 

The two Governments intend to continue their 
close cooperation to attain their mutual objectives. 

Ambassador Richards explained that the Presi- 
dent of the United States and the American Gov- 
ernment and people have declared it their policy 
to use, if necessary and appropriate and if re- 
quested, the armed forces of the United States in 
support of any country in the area of the Middle 
East which is attacked by a country under the 
control of international communism. 



May 6, 7957 



727 



He emphasized that the United States, in ac- 
cordance with its historical traditions, has no ter- 
ritorial designs in the area, nor is it desirous of 
creating a so-called sphere of influence. Its desires 
are solely to assist the nations in the Middle East- 
ern area to achieve security and economic well- 
being. It is not seeking to fill a power vacuum. 
If one exists, the United States believes it should 
be filled by the increasing strength of the Middle 
Eastern nations themselves. 

The Governments of Iran and the United States, 
in accordance with their long established policies, 
continue to oppose any form of intervention or 
interference in the internal affairs of one state by 
another. They are determined, in conformity with 
the United Nations Charter, to cooperate together 
in protective measures against the threat of 
aggression from any source. 

Substantial American aid in the form of eco- 
nomic, technical and military assistance is continu- 
ing. Because of past experience and Iran's own 
increasing capabilities, it is anticipated that 
American aid will accelerate progress in Iran's 
economic development program and toward the 
Government's goal of a better standard of living, 
with full national security, for its people. 

The representatives of the Government of Iran 
and the special Mission of Ambassador Eichards 
have agreed on procedures in which the develop- 
ment of economic and military aid to Iran can 
serve best to achieve the aims and purposes of the 
Middle East proposals. 

Ambassador Richards stated that the United 
States was prepared to offer assistance toward 
several joint regional projects which have been or 
may be approved by the Economic Committee of 
the Baghdad Pact. These would be in addition to 
the large economic aid programs already in prog- 
ress in Iran. As further evidence of America's 
deep interest and belief in the defensive objectives 
of the countries of the Baghdad Pact, the United 
States has expressed a willingness to join the Mili- 
tary Committee of the Pact, if invited to do so. 

Ambassador Richards agreed that the United 
States would provide increased financing for an 
already planned large military construction pro- 
gram to meet the needs of the imperial Iranian 
armed forces and would also provide cei'tain addi- 
tional items of military equipment to those forces. 



Pakistan Joint Communique 

Karachi, Pakistan 

March 31, 1957 

At the invitation of the Government of Pakistan, 
Ambassador James P. Richards, who as Special 
Representative of the President of the United 
States is touring the countries of the Middle East 
region, has visited Karachi to explain the Ameri- 
can Doctrine as propounded by President Eisen- 
hower on January 5, 1957. 

The President, assisted by the Prime Minister, 
the Foreign Minister and the Finance Minister, 
has met Ambassador Richards, who has explained 
the purposes and aims of the American Doctrine. 
It was emphasized by Ambassador Richards that 
United States Middle East policy does not wish 
to establish any sphere of influence in the Middle 
East. It does not seek to fill any power vacuum in 
the region nor does it aim at securing military 
bases. United States policy is solely designed to 
strengthen the nations of the area so that they 
can maintain their indei^endence and territorial 
integrity. 

It was noted that communist imperialism, 
tlu'ough overt aggression or internal subversion, 
constitutes a direct threat to the national aspira- 
tions of the peoples of the Middle East, which if 
allowed to develop would jeopardize the independ- 
ence and freedom of peoples everywhere. Ambas- 
sador Richards re-emphasized that the purpose 
of the American Doctrine is to enable independent 
nations of the Middle East region to defend them- 
selves against this direct and indirect threat by 
international communism. 

In reiterating their endorsement of the Amer- 
ican Doctrine, the Government of Pakistan have 
expressed their willingness to cooperate with the 
United States Government in securing the peace 
of the Middle East, to which Pakistan is already 
committed as a member of the Baghdad Pact. 
They were pleased to learn of the United States 
decision to join the Military Committee of the 
Baghdad Pact, if invited to do so. They have 
also welcomed American efforts to assist in the 
objective of securing the peace of the area not 
only by providing military and economic assist- 
ance to the countries of the Middle East region, 
but also by the employment of United States 
forces, whenever deemed necessary, and if re- 
quested by any state or states of the Middle East 



728 



Department of State Bulletin 



region in the event of armed attack by forces of 
international communism. 

The determination of both Governments to 
oppose aggression from any quarter was re- 
affirmed. 

The Government of Pakistan have suggested to 
Ambassador Richards certain economic and mili- 
tary projects as worthy of aid imder the American 
Doctrine, and he has agreed to provide assistance 
in both iields. In particular, the United States 
will lend funds to assist in soon starting construc- 
tion of fertilizer factories. The Government of 
Pakistan are glad to learn that the United States 
are also prepared to finance several joint projects 
of a regional nature which are already under the 
consideration of the Economic Committee of the 
Baghdad Pact. 

Afghanistan Joint Communique 

Kabul, Afghanistan 

ApTil 2, J957 

Press release 103 dated April 5 

At the invitation of the Royal Afghan Govern- 
ment, Ambassador James P. Richards, Special 
Representative of President Eisenhower, has paid 
a three-day visit to Afghanistan. Ambassador 
Richards and companions arrived in Kabul in ac- 
cordance with their program of visit to the Middle 
East on the eleventh of Hanial, 1376, correspond- 
ing to the thirty-first of March, 1957 and lield 
meetings with Sardar Mohammed Saoud, the 
Prime Minister of Afghanistan. 

The meetings and conversations took place in an 
atmosphere of cordiality in accord with the close 
and friendly relations existing between Afghani- 
stan and the United States of America. 

In the course of these meetings Ambassador 
Richards explained the purpose of the visit to 
Afghanistan and other Middle Eastern countries. 
He outlined the purposes and principles of the 
Middle Eastern policy recently announced by the 
President of the United States. He explained the 
aims of the United States Government's assistance 
and cooperation in the development of Middle 
East countries for the preservation of their full 
independence and sovereignty and for the pre- 
vention of aggression from any source, and the 
maintenance of peace and security m the area. 
Ambassador Richards emphasized that the United 
States, in accordance with her historical tradi- 

May 6, 1957 

424353—57 3 



tions, does not in any way have any territorial de- 
signs in the area. He stated that the United States 
aim was to see that the countries of the Middle 
East achieve economic development and well- 
being for the maintenance of peace and security. 

The Prime Minister explained Afghanistan's 
traditional independent policy of neutrality and 
the intention of the Government and the people 
of Afghanistan to maintain this policy for the 
purpose of preserving good relations with all 
friendly states and all the peoples and nations of 
the world, and to develop the economic, social and 
cultural aspects of the country under the aegis of 
world peace and security. The Prime Minister 
reiterated the unswerving determination of the 
Government and the people of Afghanistan to 
maintain the national independence which 
emanates from the immortal will and the histori- 
cal strtiggles of the Afghan nation. 

The Prime Minister of Afghanistan welcomed 
the determination of the United States Govern- 
ment to assist and to cooperate with the countries 
of the Middle East for the purpose of strengthen- 
ing their economies and raising the standard of 
living of the peoples of the area for the preserva- 
tion of their national independence. The Prime 
Minister explained and reiterated Afghanistan's 
natural interest in the amelioration of conditions 
and the maintenance of peace and security in the 
Middle East. 

The Prime Minister and Ambassador Richards 
concluded that the Governments of Afghanistan 
and the United States agree that : 

1. In their relations with one another and with 
other nations, they are guided by the purposes and 
principles of the Charter of the United Nations 
and by respect for the sovereign equality of all 
nations. 

2. They are determined to defend the political 
independence and territorial integrity of their re- 
spective nations and the right of each to choose its 
own form of government and to develop its own 
social and cultural life. 

3. They are dedicated to the social and economic 
progress of their peoples and to this end welcome 
opportunities to enter into mutually beneficial 
economic and cultural relationships which will al- 
ways reflect their respect for the sovereign equality 
of all nations and opposition to foreign interven- 
tion or interference in internal affairs. 

729 



4. They hiirbour no aggressive intentions 
against any nation and will always seek to live in 
peace with their neighbors. 

5. They recognize that promotion of the eco- 
nomic, social and cultural aspects of the countries 
of the Middle East and the elimination of the 
mutual differences between these countries is one 
of the most eliective means of maintaining peace 
and security in the area. 

6. The existing economic and cultural coopera- 
tion between Afghanistan and the United States 
shall be continued without any jiolitical conditions 
or restrictions as heretofore. It was agreed that 
the economic and cultural relations between the 
two countries have proved to be mutually ad- 
vantageous. Ambassador Eichards discussed cer- 
tain additional selected economic projects benefi- 
cial to Afghanistan, in which the United States is 
prepared to be of assistance. 

Iraq Joint Communique 

B.\GnDAD, Iraq 

April 8, 1957 

Press release 107 dated April il 

Ambassador Eichards, Special Eepresentative 
of the President of the United States, who came 
to IJaghdad at the invitation of the Government 
of Iraq, has met with the Prime Minister of Iraq 
and members of tlie Iraqi Government. They have 
had fruitful talks during the past two days. 

They discussed the proposals enunciated by the 
President of the United States for cooperation be- 
tween the United States Government and coun- 
tries of the Middle East to protect their national 
independence and integrity against the threat of 
international communism. 

The discussions have confirmed the identity of 
views between the United States and the Govern- 
ment of Iraq and the nature of this threat and the 
necessity to cooperate to defend themselves against 
it. They also confirmed the agreement of the two 
Governments on their opposition to aggression or 
subversion from any source. 

Ambassador Eichards noted with satisfaction 
the success of the efforts the Iraqi Government is 
making to develop the resources of the country to 
improve the welfare of the Iraqi people, which 
also contributes to their ability to preserve their 
independence and freedom. 

The Prime Minister and Ambassador Eichards 
reaffirmed the dedication of their Governments to 



the principles of the United Nations for the main- 
tenance of international peace and security. 

The Prime Minister welcomed the decision of 
the United States Government to participate in 
the Military Committee of the Baghdad Pact if 
invited to do so. 

Various activities for the furtherance of the 
l)roposals of the President of the United States 
were discussed. 

Ambassador Eichnrds explained that the United 
States was seeking no bases and did not desire to 
establish any sphere of influence in this area, wish- 
ing only to help the nations of the Middle East 
to maintain their own independence. He agreed 
tliat certain additional military assistance should 
be provided Iraq. He also agreed that the United 
States Government would furnish assistance in 
support of the internal security forces of Iraq 
and, within the framework of the Baghdad Pact, 
to develop Iraq's telecommunications network. 
Some assistance will also be given toward the de- 
velopment of Iraq's domestic railroad require- 
ments. 

Press Statements on Bagiidad Pact 

Baghdad, Ir.\q 

April 8, 1957 

Statement by Ambusmdor Richards 

Having completed my visits to the Baghdail 
Pact capitals of Turkey, Iran, Pakistan and Iraq 
and having liad the opportunity today to consult 
with Mr. Awni Khalidy, Secretary General of the 
Baghdad Pact, I am happy to make the following 
announcement : 

The Ignited States Government is prepared in 
principle to initiate the necessary procedural and 
legal steps to make available through the Secre- 
tary General of the Baghdad Pact up to $1 million 
to cover the cost of certain railroad, highway and 
telecommunications surveys as recommended by 
the economic experts of the Baghdad Pact Eco- 
nomic Conunittee. 

Further the United States is prepared in prin- 
ciple to initiate the necessary procedural and legal 
steps to furnish $ 11, .->< '0,000 - of grant assistance to 
the four member nations of the Hagluliul Tart 
cited above to cover the cost of certain consultant 
and engineering studies and equipment in support 
of the foregoing projects. 

"The iiri'cisc fii;iirt' is .'i;il..j70,00(). 



730 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



I am sure the Baghdad Pact Governments will 
approve as early as possible the recommendations 
of the economic experts of the Baghdad Pact in 
order that implementation of the projects may be 
initiated with minimum delay. 

Implementation of the projects will follow the 
conclusion of bilateral agreements between the 
United States and each member Government con- 
cerned. 

Statement by Secrcta/ry General Khalidy 

Mr. Khalidy discussed with Ambassador Rich- 
ards the progress of the Baghdad Pact and its 
plans for contributing to the integrated economic 
development of the countries of the Pact region. 
Ambassador Eichards expressed to the Secretary 
General the strong support of the United States 
for the Baghdad Pact. Ke informed the Secre- 
tary General that in support of the economic pro- 
gram of the Baghdad Pact the United States was 
prepared to make available an amount up to $12,- 
500,000 for the advancement of certain Baghdad 
Pact regional projects in the telecommunications, 
railroad and highway development fields recom- 
mended for priority consideration by the economic 
experts of the Baghdad Pact Economic Conmiittee 
at their recent meeting in Baghdad. Of this 
amount up to $1 million Mould be devoted to eco- 
nomic surveys to be undertaken in the immediate 
future through arrangements to be made under 
the auspices of the Secretary General. 

The Secretary General on behalf of the Bagh- 
dad Pact thanked Ambassador Eichards for his 
expressions of United States suppoi-t for the 
Baghdad Pact and in particular for his generous 
otier of United States financial assistance for 
Baghdad Pact economic projects. Ambassador 
Eichards and the Secretary General agreed that 
the work should proceed with the utmost speed. 

Saudi Arabia Joint Communique 

EiTADH, Saudi Arabia 

Apnl 11, 1957 

Press release 207 dated April 12 

His Majesty's Government welcomed His Excel- 
lency, Ambassador James P. Eichards, Special 
Eepresentative of the President of the United 
States to Eiyadh on Tuesday, ninth of Eamadan, 
1376, corresponding to the ninth of April, 1957. 

His Excellency was received in audience by His 
Majesty King Saud of Saudi Arabia. He ex- 
May 6, 1957 



plained to His Majesty the purposes of the Presi- 
dent's Middle East proposals, which are designed 
to strengthen the countries of the area and to 
enable them to maintain their independence and 
national security. He restated his Government's 
policy of opposing aggression from any source. 
He listened to PTis Majesty's views and ideas in 
this connection, and promised to convey these 
views to His Excellency, the President of the 
United States. 

His Excellency also met with His Eoyal High- 
ness the Prime Minister and with members of the 
Saudi Government. As the result of these dis- 
cussions, both parties found themselves agreed on 
reaffirming the policy which has been set forth in 
the joint communique issued in "Washington on 
the eighth of February, 1957, by His Majesty the 
King of Saudi Arabia and His Excellency the 
President of the United States.^ They will con- 
tinue to oppose Communist activities, other forms 
of imperialism and any other dangers that 
threaten peace and stability in the area. 



Agricultural Commodity Sales 
Agreement With Colombia 

Press releiise 217 dated April 17 

The United States and Colombia on April 16 
signed an agreement authorizing the sale to Co- 
lombia, through private U.S. traders, of wheat, 
wheat products, cotton, and edible oils. The ex- 
port market value of this transaction, including 
part of the ocean transport, is $20.4 million. 
These sales are being made under authority and 
provisions of the Agricultui'al Trade Develop- 
ment and Assistance Act of 1954, as amended, in 
conjunction with agreed dollar purchases. The 
agreement was signed at Bogota by the Foreign 
Minister of Colombia, Jose Manuel Eivas Sac- 
coni, and the U.S. Ambassador, Philip Bonsai. 

This is the third agricultural sales agreement 
concluded with Colombia.^ It provides that pay- 
ment under the sales program shall be made partly 
in U.S. dollars and partly in Colombian cuiTency. 
A substantial part of the Colombian pesos accru- 



' For test, see Bulletin of Feb. 25, 1957, p. 308. 

' For Department announcements of previous agree- 
ments, see Bulletin of Jan. 2, 1956, p. 27, and July 11, 
19.j5, p. 85. 

731 



ing under this agreement will be earmarked for 
loans designed to contribute to Colombia's eco- 
nomic development and will be repayable in 
dollars or pesos under the terms of a supplemental 



loan agreement which is to be concluded at a 
later date. The balance of the Colombian pesos 
accruing will be reserved for the use of the United 
States in Colombia. 



Economic Interdependence in tlie Americas 



iy Roy R. Riibottom, Jr. 

Acting Assistant ^ecretwnj for Inter- American Affairs ' 



Thank you for inviting me to speak to you 
today concerning our relations with our sister 
American Republics. It is particularly fitting 
to do so now while the entire hemisphere is ob- 
serving Pan American Week in celebration of 
the 67th anniversary of our inter-American sys- 
tem, embodied in the Organization of American 
States. 

The objectives of Rotary are so much in line 
with the purposes of the Organization of Ameri- 
can States as set forth definitively in the charter 
of Bogota, which established its present form, 
that it is interesting to examine them together. 
Rotaiy's stated objectives are to encourage and 
foster the ideal of service as a basis of worthy 
enterprise — in particular, to promote the devel- 
opment of acquaintance as an opportunity to serv- 
ice; to uphold the ethical standards and dignity 
of business and professional life; to make tlie 
ideal of service a personal ideal for every Ro- 
tarian; and to further the advancement of inter- 
national understanding, good will, and peace 
through a world fellowship of business and pro- 
fessional men united in the ideal of service. 

Every one of these objectives upheld by Rotary 
is in harmony with the great inter- American pur- 
pose of solidarity as outlined in the charter of 
the Organization of American States. This pur- 
pose is for our American Republics to achieve an 
order of peace and justice; to promote their soli- 
darity; to strengthen their cooperation one witli 

1 Address made before the Rotary Club of New York 
at New York, N. Y., on Apr. \\ (press release 202). 



another; and to defend their sovereignty, terri- 
torial integrity, and independence. 

May we not say that just as Rotary has made 
"service" its watchword, "cooperation" is a key- 
word of the Organization of American States; 
and, for eacli, international understanding and 
good will are both ends and means. 

I would like, in my talk today, to sketch for 
you, in as much detail as the time will allow, the 
total picture of our economic relations with Latin 
America. It is a picture which, I am sure, you 
will find encouraging, particularly when viewed 
in relation to the worldwide economic scene. 

First of all, let us realize that in Latin America 
we are dealing with the peoples of 20 other Re- 
publics who cherish the same ideals and principles 
which guide us in the conduct of our national 
affairs, whose historic development contains many 
striking similarities to our own, who look to the 
future with the same determination to build for 
their children a more secure and fruitful life. We 
are, in a true sense, a family of states, seeking 
common goals along a common path. 

Sources of Dollar Income 

To understand better our economic relations 
with Latin America, and their importance to us, 
let me make a few comparisons. First, our trade 
with the 20 other American Republics is greater 
tlian that which we have with any other area of 
the world. Thirty percent of our imports come 
from Latin America, and we sell there one-quarter 
of our total exports. This two-way trade be- 



732 



Oeparfmenf of Sfafe Bullelin 



tween the United States and Latin America is now 
at a level of $7.5 billion per annum. 

In the field of private investment more than 
one-third of United States direct private invest- 
ment abroad is located in Latin America, that is, 
over $7 billion. This investment is increasing at 
the rate of over $500 million per year. 

Another part of the picture is tourism. An 
estimated $330 million was spent by American 
tourists in Latin America in 1955. The $260 
million income which Mexico received from our 
tourists in 1955 was that country's largest single 
source of dollars. 

The above items — trade, private investment, and 
tourism — are the principal nongovernment sources 
of dollar income received by Latin America from 
the United States. Let us now look briefly at the 
government sources. In the last year loans of the 
Export-Import Bank to Latin America were $409 
million. During the past 4 years the total was 
$1.1 billion. It is the Export-Import Bank's 
policy that no economically sound developmental 
project in Latin America shall fail for lack of 
access to capital from other sources to cover its 
dollar needs. The only limits on such sound loans 
which the bank is willing to make in Latin 
America are the limit of the bank's capacity and 
the borrower's ability to repay in dollars. 

Another similar source of funds is the Inter- 
national Bank for Eeconstruction and Develop- 
ment, which, in the fiscal year 1956, made loans 
of $75.1 million in Latin America. The Inter- 
national Finance Corporation, an affiliate of the 
Ibrd, promises soon to be a valuable source of 
additional capital for private-enterprise ventures 
in Latin America. 

A new source of capital, in this case local cur- 
rencies rather than dollars, has been created 
under surplus agricultural commodity agreements 
which our Government has entered into with 
seven of the Latin American countries. Under 
the sales agreements for these surplus commodities 
the bulk of the local currency proceeds is reserved 
for loans to the local government and to private 
industry for use in economic development. In the 
past 2 years sales for the equivalent in local cur- 
rencies of nearly $300 million have been nego- 
tiated in Latin America. 

A further, and important, component of our 
economic relations with Latin Ajnerica is in the 
field of teclmical cooperation. During the past 4 
years our contribution toward these cooperative 



programs has been at an annual level of about $28 
million. 

The final important source of income to Latin 
xVmerica from a U.S. Government source is non- 
military grant aid. Consistent with their proud 
tradition as proud peoples, the Latin American 
Republics prefer not to receive grant aid from us. 
As sources of dollars, they prefer trade, invest- 
ment, sound loans, and technical cooperation. 
However, in the past several years temporary 
emergency conditions in three countries — Guate- 
mala, Bolivia, and Haiti — have been such that 
grant aid became essential. In each country the 
objective was the prevention of hunger and the 
reestablishment of a self-reliant economy. 

In the case of Guatemala, the emergency re- 
sulted from the bankrupt treasury and stagnant 
economy which the present government was faced 
with on ousting the Communist-dominated Arbenz 
government in 1954. With our cooperation the 
Guatemalan Government has since made great 
strides toward putting the country's economy on 
a stable and progressive basis. In Bolivia the 
problem has been to assist in terminating its de- 
pendence on a single export, tin, and the more 
effective development of the country's varied re- 
sources for the benefit of the entire population. 
Haiti's problems stemmed from the devastation 
wrought by Hurricane Hazel, particularly with 
respect to the country's principal export crop, 
coffee. In the past 3 years our grant aid to Latin 
America has been at the level of about $40 million 
each year. 

Having enumerated the principal sources of 
dollar income which Latin America receives from 
the United States, let me try to evaluate it in terms 
of our economic relations with the area. 

It is in our national self-interest that Latin 
America have a continuing and adequate source 
of dollar income, not only to purchase our exports 
but to contribute to tlie development of sturdy 
self-reliant economies in each of the Republics. 
With the most rapidly increasing population of 
any comparable area it is essential that the econo- 
mies of these nations develop rapidly, but ration- 
ally, if they are to meet the aspirations of future 
generations for a better standard of living. The 
present estimated population is increasing an- 
nually at the rate of approximately 2.5 percent. 
The other 20 American Republics now have an 
estimated population of 170 million. Looking into 
the future, based on its present rate of growth, 



May 6. 1957 



733 



we can anticipate a Latin American population of 
500 million by the j'ear 2000, or about double that 
of the United States and Canada together at that 
time and at the present rate of increase. 

Primary Importance of Trade 

Of these sources of dollars, trade is undoubtedly 
of primary importance io Latin America. It re- 
news itself year after year and is self-perpetuating. 
Trade is most easily ex{)anded through the efforts 
and ingenuity of individuals, provided govern- 
ments do not intervene unduly to create obstacles. 
Efforts to increase trade, or to eliminate barriers 
to trade, can most effectively contribute to the 
further improvement of our economic relations. 
This $7.5 billion trade so beneticial to both the 
United States and I.iatin America can be increased 
substantially over the years, as it has been increas- 
ing in the past, to our nuitual advantage. 

There is much that can be done by private citi- 
zens and by governments both in Latin America 
and the United States to increase this trade. 

Some of Latin America's exports enjoy a mo- 
nopoly or near monopoly on the United States 
market. How nmch could the markets for these 
products be expanded if a really intensive long- 
term camjjaign were imdertaken by the traders 
in these products^ For instance, does this coun- 
try really satisfy its "coll'ee hunger"? 

Many Latin American exports, however, nuist 
be sold in the United States in competition with 
our domestic production of the same product. 
In this situation there are conflicting interests 
which must be reconciled in the national interest. 
On the one hand, we must recognize that, if eco- 
nomic and political stability is to exist in Latin 
America, we must protect its existing access to 
the United States market. At the same time, 
domestic producers, understandably, press for 
protection against competitive foreign products. 
Your Government seeks carefully to resolve these 
situations in teiTns of our national interest, which 
includes encouragement to the healthy economic 
growth of our neighbors. In doing so, it must be 
borne in mind that to restrict access to our mar- 
kets to Latin Amei-ican exporters means that we 
are restricting in turn the Latin American mar- 
kets of our own exporters of agricultural and 
manufactured products. Our Latin American 
customers must earn their dollars in our markets 
i f they arc to continue buying from us. 



llic expansion of this inter-American trade 
is important to each of us. The 25 percent of 
our total exports we sell to Latin America means 
a great many jobs to our labor force. It con- 
tributes greatly to the strength of the hemisphere 
and to our own security by making its basic con- 
tributions to the development of stable free-en- 
terprise economies in Latin America. 

Private Investment 

Second in importance to trade as a source of 
dollars for Latin America is private investment. 
Since profits must be earned before there is any 
remittance, private equity investment is prefer- 
able from the point of view of the capital-import- 
ing coinitry to loans on which interest must be 
paid — whether or not the loan is profitably em- 
ployed. Our private investment already has an 
enviable record in contributing to the economic 
development of Latin America. A recent survey 
of the Department of Commerce has undertaken 
to assay the role of United States investment in 
the Latin American economy.- This study shows, 
in a way that Mas heretofore not generally known, 
the mutually beneficial results of this investment. 
Some of tlie facts revealed are particularly 
noteworthy : 

— United States companies in Latin America 
in 1955 paid salaries of a billion dollars to 609.000 
employees, only 9,000 of whom were brought from 
the LTnited States. This is an average wage of 
$1,600 per year. 

— In that year these companies paid over $1 
billion in taxes. 

— These United States tuiancial oijerations pro- 
duced in Latin America in 1955 goods and serv- 
ices valued at $4.8 billion. More than $2 billion 
of these goods and services were sold abroad for 
dollars, while $2.5 billion were sold in local mar- 
kets — most of them I'eplacimr goods which other- 
wise might have to be imported. 

— To support these operations in 1955 these 
companies used $650 million to import raw mate- 
rials and capital equipment and remitted $555 
million in earnings, at the same time making a net 



"For an ai'tiole based on this survey, see "The Role of 
t\S. Investments in the I.ntin American Economy," by 
.Sauniel Pi/.i'r and Frederick Cutler, Siirrrji of Current 
Biixmofs, .Tanuary 19.')", for sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, Government Printing OfiBce, Washington 
25, D. C, 30 cents. 



734 



Department of State Bulletin 



new investment of $100 million in Latin America. 

— The net contribution of United States com- 
panies to the Latin American economies during 
1955 is conse(iuently estimated at $i5.5 billion. 

— The net gain to Lathi America from the oi)e ra- 
tions of United States direct investments was $3.5 
billion in 1955. 

Tourism 

The thinl imiiortant source of dollars I have 
mentioned is that of tourism. Like trade and jiri- 
vate investment, it is generated, fundamentally, by 
])rivate initiative rather than government. And, 
like those two sources, it is capable of steady and 
lucrative expansion, not based on government 
appropriation of funds. Latin America has a 
vast potential source of income in its multiple 
tourist attractions which has so far been only 
partially exploited. 

The completion of the Inter- American Highway 
to the Panama Canal and the improvement of 
travel and hotel facilities will undoubtedly at- 
tract in the future a greater portion of the millions 
of Americans who annually travel abroad. At the 
present time, 36.2 percent of our 1,284,000,000 
tourist dollai'S go to Europe each year, while only 
around 25 percent, or $380,000,000, go to Latin 
America. Competition in this field is keen, and 
the interested countries must "sell" their attrac- 
tions. 

The fields in which private enterprise and 
initiative can expand and develop the inter- 
American economic opportunities are indeed 
challenging to the people of this hemisphere, and 
the importance of these economic relations to the 
people of our country and of the other American 
Republics would be difficult to overstate. "While 
the governments of the hemisphere can make cer- 
tain contributions toward this development, or can 
retard it, the course which our countries will 
follow in this mutually beneficial undertaking 
will be determined, essentially, by the efforts of 
our people. 

AVith resjiect to the role of the governments of 
the hemisphere in the improvement of the living 
standards of our peoples, I would like to call your 
attention to efforts which are now being made to 
strengthen the Organization of American States 
in the economic, financial, social, and technical 
fields. 



When the Presidents of the .Vmerican Repub- 
lics met in Panama during July of last year,^ 
there was enthusiastic response to President 
Eisenhowers proposal that each of the 21 Presi- 
dents name a personal re])resentative to meet to- 
gether and make practical suggestions which the 
Organization of American States could appro- 
priately adopt to strengthen its cooperative efforts 
in those fields which atTect the welfare of the in- 
dividual. President Eisenhower named his 
brother. Dr. Milton Eisenhower, to be the United 
States representative. These representatives, 
who have come to be called the Inter-American 
Committee of Presidential Representatives, met 
formally last September and again in January^ 
of this year. They plan a final meeting later this 
month to put in final form the reports which they 
will make to the respective Presidents. 

"Wliile it would te premature to speculate on the 
detailed form this report will take, I can assure 
you that the members of this special connnittee 
representing all the American Republics, their 
staffs, and the secretariats of the Oas have devoted 
a great deal of earnest effort toward developing 
realistic proposals to strengthen and expand the 
cooperative activities of the Organization of 
American States in such fields as public health, 
the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in various 
fields, educational exchange, agricultural research, 
and public education. These governmental activi- 
ties will make an essential contribution toward 
providing the individual with the "tools" of good 
health, literacy, and technical know-how so essen- 
tial in the development of the hemisphere's natural 
resources for the benefit of its peoples. 

I have tried to summarize for you the activities 
of the peoples and the govermnents of the 21 
Republics which make for the economic interde- 
pendence of the Americas. This interdependence 
which has contributed so much of mutual benefits 
to our peoples already holds great promise for the 
future. This promise has achieved increasing 
reality through our joint efforts to develop in a 
dynamic fashion the economies of all of the coun- 
tries which make up our great inter-American 
community. 



' Bulletin of Aug. (5, 1956, ]). 221. 

' Ihxd., Oct. 1. lO.'ti. p. Till, and Mar. 25, lfl.")7. p. 47!t. 



Aloy 6, J 957 



735 



The Two Halves of Progress 



by Robert C. Hill 

Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations ^ 



For nearly a century and a half the United 
States has been forging hemispheric ties of 
greater and greater solemnity and intimacy. In 
my lifetime we have become aware that, when we 
speak of the "American way," we intuitively or 
subconsciously mean the "All-American way." 
This is the spirit infusing the whole history and 
tradition of growth in our hemisphere. 

For many years — if my youth may speak in 
terms of many years — I have been excited by the 
potential of cooperation that presents itself to 
the northern and southern halves of the New 
World. Some years ago I was the employee of 
an American company which has pioneered, and 
I hope with a feeling of satisfaction on the part 
of its Latin American associates, in the develop- 
ment of economic relations between the United 
States and Latin American nations. Later I was 
associated with the Senate Committee on Bank- 
ing and Currency at the time when Senator Homer 
Capehart first talked with me about a Senate 
mission to Latin America. Still later I served 
on two different occasions as United States Am- 
bassador to Central American countries — Costa 
Rica and El Salvador — whose economies are close- 
ly and profitably related to the United States. 

In the future we hope there will be opportu- 
nities to foster even closer relationships between 
countries whose relationships have been instruc- 
tively intertwined for many decades. In an 
earlier generation there were times, of course, 
when great difficulties had to be surmounted ; there 
were times in which the tests of accommodation 



' Aililress made at the Pan Amorican Day banquet hon- 
(iriiiK the Council of the Organization of American States 
at Los Anpeles, Calif., on Apr. 14 (press release 210 dated 
Apr. 12). 



and of mutual respect and mutual helpfulness 
had to be tried in the fiercest fires. 

Happily, these precarious times are past. In 
the United States today, as in what were the 
most ancient of the Spanish viceroyalties, the 
long testing and evolution of relationships has 
finally reached a point where mutual understand- 
ing and cooperation were never greater. 

In this respect almost anything that can be said 
about one American country can be said with 
equal truth about any nation in the Americas. 
That truism has a vital political significance for 
the world. It is significant because, in a world 
of so many unknowns, mankind builds on what 
it knows. The fact that the United States knows 
and respects Latin America and Latin America 
knows and respects the United States is there- 
fore a portent for growth that cannot be 
exaggerated. 

Pan-American Unity 

We in the United States are not ignorant of 
our debt to Latin America. In all the talk about 
underdeveloped nation s — whatever economic 
meaning that expression may have — we are not 
unaware that Latin America has long been in the 
A'anguard of civilization in its concept of the 
dignity of man and his relationship to the 
universe. 

We do not forget that the rights of man em- 
bodied in our Declaration of Independence had 
strong spiritual suppoi-t from the noble Padre 
Las Casas, administrator of the Council of the 
Indies, pleading the cause of the enslaved Indian 
at the court of Spain. In the United States Capi- 
tol building itself, one is reminded of that; as you 
come down one of the important stairways, there 



736 



DepartmenI of State Bulletin 



in front of you in a famous mural is the portrait 
of Las Casas, the first man in the Western Hemi- 
sphere to enunciate the inviolable rights of 
mankind. 

We do not forget that the first idea of pan- 
American unity came from Latin America — from 
Bolivar— nor that the first concept of a United 
Nations was born in the Bolivarian concept, nor 
that the first pan- American conference was called 
in Panama — again by Bolivar. 

But, while it is well to recognize these riches 
in our heritage, it is still the better part of wisdom 
to look ahead rather than backward. In the past 
the dignity of the human spirit was a subject of 
intense preoccupation in Latin America because 
progress in other directions was grievously in- 
hibited. Progress was slow because nature had 
locked up the resources of Latin America in dif- 
ficult geographical and chemical formulas. Until 
the commg of the airplane, until the age of abun- 
dance in power and machinery, until the miracu- 
lous discoveries of modern science and medicine 
enormous wealth was hidden away in the remoter 
jungles and mountain fastnesses. 

Today we are engaged in a great scientific effort 
to unlock the storehouses of the world's hidden 
riches. We want to accelerate the volume of pro- 
duction, to provide easy access to the remotest 
wilderness, to uplift the standards of living in 
regions where natural resources have been too 
long hidden from use. In response to this chal- 
lenge the generosity and imagination of the 
people of the United States are exploring the 
problems of underdeveloped nations all through 
the world. 

For myself I am confident that in this effort the 
people of the Government of the United States are 
not going to lose sight of the historical priorities. 
And believe me, there are priorities, even though 
we recognize the interdependence of freedom- 
loving men everywhere. 

The priorities are partly spiritual, residing in 
our common faith in the dignity of the individual ; 
they are partly historic, residing in the constant 
evolution of such institutions as the Organization 
of American States ; and they are partly economic, 
residing in tlie fact that we occupy an economic 
plateau which is measurably higher than those in 
many parts of Africa and Asia and the Communist 
orbit. 

We in the Western Hemisphere are the world's 
greatest bastion against the totalitarian invasion. 



We are capable of defending civilization in a spirit 
of unity because as a whole we are further along 
in the process of development. I sincerely mean 
that; I am not indulging merely in rhetorical 
overstatement. A region such as Latin America, 
with 150 years of experience in self-government, 
in cultural diversity, and in economic develop- 
ment, is far more likely a candidate for progres- 
sive growth than a similar area where there is no 
long tradition of political self-discipline, no long 
kinship with 20th-century scientific advancement, 
no present source of skilled labor, and in some cases 
fewer of the spiritual values that create the in- 
centive for progress. 

Copper and iron and petroleum are chemically 
the same everywhere. Food is much the same no 
matter what the longitude and latitude in which it 
gi-ows. But for the United States, products can 
have "plus" values. So far as American policy is 
concerned, iron ore in nearby Latin American 
countries belonging to people who share our eco- 
nomic and cultural values is, in my opinion, a 
higher grade of iron ore than in some other parts 
of the world. 



U.S. Capital Investment in Latin America 

The essence and reality of the Western Hemi- 
sphere alliance can easily be demonstrated statis- 
tically. The United States relishes in many ways 
its close ties with Latin America. To prove that, 
you need look no further than the figures on 
foreign investment. Private individuals and cor- 
porations in the United States have put more than 
$7 billion worth of their capital to work in Latin 
America. 

Moreover, a recent economic analysis has clearly 
refuted one of the favorite arguments of dema- 
gogs — the argument that United States capital 
bleeds and exploits Latin America. Here are the 
facts: Every year United States companies in 
Latin America produce nearly $5 billion worth of 
goods and services. They provide 30 percent of 
all the goods exported from Latin America. Every 
year 600,000 Latin American workers receive 
nearly a billion dollars in wages and salaries from 
United States companies. Every year the Gov- 
ernments of Latin America receive over a billion 
dollars in taxes from these same companies. And 
in contrast to this enormous increment of new 
wealth for Latin America, remittances of profits 
are barely one-tenth as much as total production — 



May 6, J 957 



737 



some $600 million a year — and the flow of new 
investment and reinvestment in productive enter- 
prise is actually greater than the remittance of 
profits. 

As we look to the future, however, it is not 
enough merely to say that United States capital 
has contributed to the Latin American pattern of 
growth. New economic pressures are emerging 
in many parts of the world — in Asia, in the Middle 
East, and most notably and most recently in 
Africa. All the countries where economic devel- 
opment has been slow are now clamoring for a 
swift acceleration in the tempo of expansion. In 
many of these areas there are rich opportunities 
for capital investment, for socially desirable serv- 
ices, and for legitimate profits. Latin America 
must now compete with all these burgeoning 
economies for money and facilities and know-how. 

During the period when Conmiunist intrigues 
and nationalist pride were trying to frighten in- 
ternational capital into hiding, it was politically 
fashionable for leaders in some countries to debate 
whether foreign capital ought to be made welcome. 
Today the issue is no longer debatable. Every 
fact of modem life insists that international 
capital must be obtained if the pace of develop- 
ment in Latin America is to be maintained. 

A Job for Private Enterprise 

The only remaining issue is : Wlio will provide 
the capital and on what terms ? 

Already part of the answer is visible. Already 
we know who is not going to provide the capital. 
By tacit agreement neither the United States tax- 
payer nor the Latin American taxpayer is going 
to pay for creating the means of production. It is 
clear that Latin America is fundamentally in tune 
with the United States concept of production : that 
the manufacture of goods for private consump- 
tion should not be financed with governmental 
funds but that instead this is a job primarily for 
private enterprise. 

Such an understanding is a long step forward. 
In certain other parts of the world, where the 
rate of capital formation is slow, economists and 
statesmen have been saying that private initiative 
cannot answer urgent social needs. They have 
been saying there must be "mixed economies," 
made up in part from public and in part from 
private funds. This type of argument is being 
propounded even in cases where the government 

738 



has no resources of its own and where govern 
ment revenues are so slender as to provide no real 
foundation for public credit. 

It is significant and heartwarming that Latin 
America as a whole has steered clear of this. 
From the Rio Grande to Tierra del Fuego, busi- 
nessmen and government leaders alike have put 
their faith primarily in private enterprise. At 
times, and often without mincing words, they have 
criticized United States capital and American 
corporations; but it is certainly notable that they 
have not closed their doors to investors, they have 
not invented discriminatory and confiscatory 
taxes, they have not pretended they can "go it 
alone" and provide food and clothing for their 
people with mimeographed speeches on patriotism. 
In short, there already exist in this hemisphere 
the bricks and mortar with which to build a 
harmonious, productive economic structure. 

Our assets are clearly visible. We have a com- 
mon respect for the individual and his place in 
the economic system whether he be owner, man- 
ager, or worker. We have interrelated economies 
with some areas producing raw materials, others 
producing food and fibers, others developing com- 
plementary processing facilities. We have a 
multibillion-dollar system of production already 
in operation. We have trade valued in billions 
of dollars flowing steadily in multilateral pat- 
terns throughout the hemisphere. 

Not to be overlooked by any means is the exist- 
ence of our regional Organization of American 
States, in which the LTnited States has been proud 
to play a part. In the community of nations 
there has been no secret of the fact that the United 
States takes a special neighborly interest in its 
sister Republics of the Americas, and that the 
policy of the United States will always be to lend 
the fullest measure of help in promoting hemi- 
spheric welfare. You can be sure that today, with 
disi'uption of historic trade patterns in the Middle 
East and with the emergence of highly competi- 
tive economies elsewhere in the underdeveloped 
areas, the United States is not the less sensible of 
its historic friendships in this hemisphere and is 
not at all inclined to minimize the importance of 
Latin American development. 

Speeding New Patterns of Growth 

It is not enough, however, to pay tribute to what 
has been accomplished and to restate old loyalties. 

Department of Stale Bulletin 






What is more important at this stage is to devise 
what means we can to speed the new patterns of 
growth. It is time to be specific and to consider 
concrete solutions. 

Enough surveys have been conducted and 
enough analyses have been made to show that 
development in Latin America should logically 
follow two distinct but parallel lines. On the 
one hand, there is a need for certain government- 
to-government financing, using public funds. The 
need here is for major public improvements — for 
such non-revenue-producing utilities as roads, 
harbors, bridges, tunnels, dams, schools, and new 
sources of mechanical power. The problem is to 
prime the economic pump — to create power and 
the means of mobility before human skills and 
productive energies can be effectively marshaled. 

At the same time there is a need for new and 
vastly gi'eater sources of credit through private 
channels if individual businessmen are going to 
be able to provide the merchandise that people 
want for their comfort and happiness. The pri- 
vate banking system is being challenged to mod- 
ernize itself. Recently, one noted United States 
industrialist pointed out that the largest commer- 
cial bank in the United States today can make 
no loan of more than $50 million. He urged the 
creation of a banking system capable of meeting 
credit requirements of considerably gi'eater mag- 
nitude. He proposed the creation of at least a 
dozen of what might by present standards be 
called "super banks," each one with capital and 
surplus exceeding a billion dollars and each ca- 
pable of lending as much as $100 million to a single 
borrower. 

So far there has been no specific response to 
this bold and imaginative proposal. It can 
hardly be doubted, however, that the financial 
community will eventually begin to think in terms 
of that magnitude. All of us can see the need for 
creating new production facilities; all agree that 
construction on the necessaiy scale cannot be paid 
for in cash. This means that big industry has 
got to invent new methods of buying time, of pay- 
ing on the installment plan. 

Wlien the credit structure is ultimately mod- 
ernized, we can be fairly sure of two things : first, 
that United States bankers will be in the vanguard 
of the movement because they want to help sell 
United States goods and services, and second, that 



Latin America will be ready to cooperate because 
the people and governments of this hemisphere 
agree that private capital ought to finance private 
development. 

By way of summary, then, let us say that some 
increase in governmental loans can be expected in 
the realm of public works, either through the 
Export-Import Bank, or the "World Bank, or other 
facilities. This trend is logical because it is no 
longer generally feasible for private bond buyers 
to finance governments. But, parallel to the use 
of public funds for such improvements, we can 
expect to see new facilities for channeling private 
funds into the hands of private businessmen and 
industrialists. 



A Task in Partnership 

All this now becomes a task in partnership. We 
are fully aware that every country has its own 
traditions and the forms of government that par- 
ticularly fit the genius of its people. We do not 
expect that the concept of democracy be the same 
in evei-y country from the Arctic Circle to Cape 
Horn any more than we expect that every house 
on an American street be the same. But a common 
devotion to the principles of freedom and the 
dignity of man was shared by Las Casas and 
Thomas Jefferson, and it is that common bond that 
we in this generation want to bring to its logical 
maturity, economic as well as political. 

In our common struggle for a good life — and 
as time goes on for a better life, we may all hope — 
the international Communist movement is engaged 
in an unceasing effort to undermine progress and 
thwart our orderly development. But by this time 
we know enough about the anatomy of commu- 
nism, however, to be able to keep its hostility in 
perspective. We know that communism is not the 
only danger. We know that poverty and disease 
and the endless, grueling frustration of the human 
spirit can be just as dangerous to our peace and 
prosperity. 

Wliat holds us together in the quest for a new 
measure of well-being is that we know not only 
what we are against but also what we are in favor 
of. So long as we know where we are going — and 
we do! — then we can and will move toward the 
future with the same high courage and purpose as 
the pioneers who built our Western civilization. 



May 6, 1957 



739 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ' 

Adjourned During April 1957 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: Standing Committee on Petitions . . New York Feb. 18-Apr. 30* 

ICAO Aerodromes, Air Routes and Ground Aids Division: 6th Montreal Mar. 12-Apr. 15 

Session. 

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Status of Women: 11th Session . . New York Mar. 18-Apr. 5 

ICEM Executive Committee: 7th Session Geneva Mar. 28-Apr. 6 

FAO Cocoa Study Group: Statistical Subcommittee Rome Apr 1-3 

UNESCO Intergovernmental Advisory Committee on the Major Paris Apr. 1-10 

Project on Mutual Appreciation of Eastern and Western Cultural 

Values: 1st Meeting. 

U.N. ECE /Id Hoc Working Party on Standardization of Conditions Geneva Apr. 1-12 

of Sale for Cereals. 

ILO Advisory Committee on Salaried Employees and Professional Geneva Apr. 1-13 

Workers: 4th Session. 

UPU Executive and Liaison Committee Lausanne Apr. 1-13 

U.N. ECOSOC Human Rights Commission: 13th Session .... Geneva Apr. 1-26 

FAO European Commission for Control of Foot-and-Mouth Dis- Rome Apr. 2-3 

ease: 4th Session. 

FAO Special Committee on Observer Status Rome Apr. 2-3 

FAO/ILO Conference on Rural Life in Europe Bad Godesberg Apr. 2-12 

FAO Cocoa Study Group: Executive Committee Rome Apr. 4-5 

FAO Committee on Relations With International Organizations . . Rome Apr. 5-6 

ICEM Subcommittee on Coordination of Transport Geneva Apr. 5 (1 day) 

ICEM Council: 6th Session Geneva Apr. 8-12 

UNICEF Executive Board and Program Committee New York Apr. 8-15 

U.N. Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation: Geneva Apr. 8-18 

3d Meeting. 

U.N. ECAFB: 5th Regional Conference of Asian Statisticians . . Bangkok Apr. 8-20 

ILO Tripartite Preparatory Technical Maritime Conference: Geneva Apr. 11-19 

Working Party on Wages, Hours of Work, and Manning on 

Board Ship. 

United States World Trade Fair New York Apr. 14-27 

IAEA Preparatory Commission: 15th Meeting New York Apr. 16 (1 dayj 

Inter-Parliamentary Union Council Nice Apr. 23-28 

GATT Intersessional Committee Geneva Apr. 24-27* 

In Session as of April 30, 1957 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 19th Session New York Mar. 14- 

U.N. Disarmament Commission: Subcommittee on Disarmament. London Mar. 18- 

Economic and Social Council: 23d Session New York Apr. 16- 

Inter-American Commission of Wom^n: Technical Experts and M6xico, D.F Apr. 20- 

Administrative Heads of Women's Labor Bureaus. 

FAO International Poplar Commission: 9th Session Paris Apr. 22- 

International Poplar Congress P.aris Apr. 22- 

2d European Civil Aviation Conference Madrid Apr. 24- 

ICAO Legal Committee: Subcommittee on Hire, Charter, and Madrid Apr. 24- 

Interchange of Aircraft. 

9th ILO International Conference of Labor Statisticians Geneva Apr. 24- 

lAEA Committer of the Whole: 2d Session New York Apr. 25- 

U.N. Economic Commission for Europe: 12th Session Geneva Apr. 20- 

U.N. ECOSOC Narcotic Drugs Commission: 12th Session . . . New York Apr. 20- 



' Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, Apr. 16, 1957. Asterisks indicate tentative dates and places. 
Following is a list of abbreviations: U.N., United Nations; ICAO, International Civil Aviation Organization; ECOSOC, 
Economic and Social Council; ICEM, Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration; F.\0, Food an<l Agriculture 
Organization; UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; ECE, Economic Commission 
for Europe; ILO, International Labor Organization; UPU, Universal Postal Ihiion; UNICEF, United Nations Children's 
Fund; ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far Enst; IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency; G.\TT, 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; ITU, International Telecommunication Union; NATO. North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization; WHO, World Health Organization; UNREF, United Nations Refugee Fund; PAIGH, Pan American 
Institute of Geography and History; PASO, Pan American Sanitary Organization; WMO, World Meteorological Organiza- 
tion; PIANC, Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses; IBE, International Bureau of Education. ' 

740 DeparlmenI of State Bulletin 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 



n Session as of April 30, 1957 — Continued 

nter-American Presidential Representatives: 3d Meeting . . . Washington Apr. 29- 

TU Administrative Council: 12th Session Geneva Apr. 29- 

louth P.icific Commission: Conference on the Review of the Com- Canberra Apr. 30- 

mission. 



Scheduled May 1-July 31, 1957 



international Commission on Irrigation and Drainage: 3d Congress. 

Oth International Cannes Film Festival 

■^ATO Council: Ministerial Meeting 

ii'AO Technical Meeting on Soil Fertility for Latin America .... 

J.N. Advisory Committee on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy: 6th 
Session. 

J.N. ECE Conference of European Statisticians: Seminar on In- 
dustrial Statistics. 

J.N. ECOSOC Social Commission: 11th Session 

[LO Metal Trades Committee: 6th Session 

?A0 European Forestrv Commission : 9th Session 

;VHO: 10th World Health Assembly 

international Hydrographic Bureau: 7th Congress 

inter- American Travel Congresses: Permanent Executive Com- 
mittee. 

?A0 Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council: 7th Session 

J.N. ECAFE Highway Subcommittee: Seminar on Highway 
Safety. 

[J. N. Economic Commission for Latin America: 7th Session . . . . 

international Conference for Uses of Radar in Marine Navigation . 

international Cotton Advisory Committee: 16th Plenary Meeting. 

international Commission for Northwest Atlantic Fisheries: 7th 
Meeting. 

J.N. Trusteeship Council: 20th Session 

i^aribbean Commission: 24th Meeting 

iilustoms Cooperation Council: 10th Session 

ii'AO Study Group on Grains: 1st Meeting 

LO Governing iBody: 135th Session 

;VHO Executive Board: 20th Session 

JNESCO Executive Board: 48th Session 

J.N. ECE Housing Committee: 14th Session and Working Parties . 

JNREiF Standing Program Subcommittee: 5th Session 

J.N. Trusteeship Council: Committee on Administrative Unions . 

nter-American Commission of Women: 12th General Assembly. . 

^AO Council: 26th Session 

'AIGH Directing Council: 2d Meeting 

J.N. ECE Working Party on Transport of Perishable Foodstuffs . 

JNREF Executive Committee: 5th Session 

J.N. ECE Committee on Development of Trade: Working Party 
on Arbitration. 

iCAO Panel on Vertical Separation of Aircraft: 2d Meeting . . . 

J.N. ECAFE Working Party on Small-Scale Industries and Handi- 
craft Marketing: 5th Meeting. 

Diplomatic Conference Relating to International Registration of 
Trademarks. 

iV'orld Power Conference: International Executive Council. . . . 

international Labor Conference: 40th Session 

iV'orld Power Conference: Sectional Meeting 

ii'AO Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission: 4th Session 

iJATT Balance of Payments Consultations and Intersessional Com- 
mittee Meeting. 

J.N. ECE Inland Transport Committee: Working Party on Trans- 
port of Dangerous Goods. 

J.N. ECE Steel Committee and Working Parties 

PASO Executive Committee: 31st Meeting 

iLO "Art and Labor" Exhibition 

[CAO Panel on Future Requirements for Turbo-jet Aircraft: 3d 
Meeting. 

[nternational Commission for Criminal Police: 26th Session of the 
General Assembly. 

J.N. ECE: 5th Conference of European Statisticians 

WMO Commission for Aerology: 2d Session 

tVMO Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation: 
2d Session. 

FAO Desert Locust Control: Technical Advisory Committee . . . 

rth Berlin International Film Festival 



San Francisco May 1- 

Cannes May 2- 

Bonn May 4- 

Turrialba, Costa Rica . . . May 6- 

Geneva May 6- 

Athens May 6- 

New York. May 6- 

Geneva May 6- 

Rome May 7- 

Geneva May 7- 

Monaco May 7- 

Washington May 10- 

Bandung May 13- 

Tokyo May 13- 

La Paz, Bolivia May 15- 

Genoa May 16- 

Istanbul May 20- 

Lisbon May 20- 

New York May 20- 

St. Thomas, V. I May 22- 

Brussels May 27- 

Rome May 27- 

Geneva May 27- 

Geneva May 27- 

Paris May 27- 

Geneva May 27- 

Geneva May 31- 

NewYork May* 

Washington June 1- 

Madrid June 3- 

Rio de Janeiro June 3- 

Geneva June 3- 

Geneva June 3- 

Geneva June 3- 

Montreal June 3- 

India June 3- 



Nice 



June 4- 



Belgrade June 4- 

Geneva June .5- 

Belgrade June 5- 

Bandung June 8- 

Geneva June 10- 

Geneva June 11- 

Geneva June 11- 

Washington June 12- 

Geneva June 15- 

Montreal June 17- 

Lisbon June 17- 

Geneva June 17- 

Paris June 18- 

Paris June 18- 

Morocco June 19*- 

Berlin June 21- 



May 6, 1957 



741 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 



Scheduled May 1-July 31, 1957— Conlinued 

International Rubber Study Group: 13th Meeting 

International Council for tlie Exploration of the Sea: 45th meeting . 

U.N. ECOSOC Coordination Committee 

U.N. ECAFE Committee on Industry and Trade: Subcommittee on 
Iron and Steel. 

International Whaling Commission: 9th Meeting 

International Wheat Council: 22d Session 

FAO Desert Locust Control Committee: 4th Session 

ILO Governing Body: 136th Session 

IAEA Preparatory Commission 

International Sugar Council: 13th Session 

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 24th Session 

Permanent International Commission of Navigation Congresses: 
Annual Meeting. 

PIANC: 19th International Congress 

UNESCO/IBE: 20th International Conference on Public Education'. 

Consultative Committee for Economic Development in South and 
Southeast Asia (Colombo Plan): Working Group on Asian Re- 
gional Nuclear Center. 

International Union of Crystallography: 4th General Assembly 
and International Congress. 

16th International Congress of Pure and Applied Chemistry . . . 

19th Conference of International Union of Pure and Applied Chem- 
istry. 

U.N. Committee on Information from Non-Self-Governing Terri- 
tories: 8th Session. 

Caribbean Commission: Conference on Demographic Problems of 
Caribbean Area. 

FAO Latin American Forestry Commission: 6th Session .... 

American International Institute for the Protection of Childhood: 
Directing Council. 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Housing and Building Materials: 
5th Meeting. 

U.N. ECOSOC Technical Assistance Committee 



Djakarta June 24- 

London June 24- 

Geneva June 24- 

Indonesia June 24- 

London June 24- 

London June 24- 

Morocoo* June 25* 

Geneva June 28*- 

New York June 

London July 2- 

Geneva July 2- 

London July 8- 

London July 8- 

Geneva July 8- 

Washington July 8*- 

Montreal July 10- 

Paris July 16- 

Paris July 16- 

New York July 22- 

Trinidad July 25- 

Guatemala July 30- 

Montevideo July 

Bangkok July 

Geneva Julv 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 

Security Council 

Decisions Taken and Resolutions Adopted by the Security 

Council During the Tear 1956. S/INP/11, April 4, 

1957. 16 pp. mimeo. 
Letter Dated 5 April from the Representative of Israel 

Addressed to the President of the Security Council. 

S/3810, April 8, 1957. 2 pp. mimeo. 

General Assembly 

Addenda to the Report of the United Nations High Com- 
missioner for Refugees. OflBcial Records : Eleventh Ses- 
sion. Supplement 11A(A/3123/Rev. 1/Add. 1 and Add. 
2), New York, 1957. 23 pp. printed. 

UNREF Executive Committee. UNREF Progress Report 
at 30 September 1956. Submitted by the Office of the 
High Commissioner. A/ AC. 79/48, December 11, 1956. 
102 pp. mimeo. 

UNREF Executive Committee. The Problem of Hungar- 
ian Refugees in Austria. An assessment of the needs 
and recommendations for future action. A/AC. 79/49, 
January 17, 1957. 40 pp. mimeo. 

UNREF Executive Committee. Analysis of Implementa- 
tion of the UNUEF Plan of Operations for 1955 and of 
the Hevised Plan of Operations (1956) (Revised Plan 
of Operations (l'J57) Part I) A/AC. 70/45/ Add. 1, 
.Tanuary 22, 1957. 5 pp. mimeo. 

UNREF Executive Committee. Corrigendum No. 1 to the 

742 



UNREF Progress Report. A/AC. 79/48/Corr. 1, Janu- 
ary 22, 1957. 1 p. mimeo. 

UNREF Executive Committee. Corrigendum No. 2 to the 
UNREF Progress Report. A/AC. 79/48/Corr. 2, Janu- 
ary 23, 1957. 1 p. mimeo. 

UNREF Executive Committee. Report on Action by the 
League of Red Cross Societies in Favour of Hungarian 
Refugees in Austria. (Submitted by the League of 
Red Cross Societies). A/ AC. 79/52, January 25, 1957. 
4 pp. mimeo. 

UNREF Executive Committee. The Problem of Hungar- 
ian Refugees in Yugoslavia. An assessment of the needs 
and recommendations for future action. Submitted by 
the High Commissioner. A/AC. 79/54, January 30, 
1957. 23 pp. mimeo. 

UNREF Executive Committee. The Situation of Refugees 
Who Have Recently Left Egypt. A/AC. 79/58, January 
31, 1957. 1 p. mimeo. 

UNREF Executive Committee. Report on the Fourth 
Session of the UNREF Executive Committee. A/AC. 
79/60, February 11, 1957. 36 pp. mimeo. 

UNREF Excutive Committee. Financial Rules for Volim- 
tary Funds. A/AC. 70/10/Rev. 2, February 12, 1957. 
8 pp. mimeo. 



Disarmament Commission 

Letter Dated IS March 1957 Addressed to the Secretary- 
General by the Permanent Representative of Japan 
Transmitting the Text of a Resohition of the House of 
Councillors of Japan on the Prohibition of Atom and 
Hydrogen Bombs, Togetlier with a Letter from the 
I'rime Jlinister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of 
Japan. DC/109, March 25, 1957. 3 pp. mimeo. 



Deparfmenf of Stafe Bullefin 



Meeting the Challenge of Moving Hungarian Refugees 



FIFTH SESSION OF COUNCIL AND EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SIXTH (SPECIAL) SESSION OF 
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE FOR EUROPEAN MIGRATION 



hy George L. Warren 



The Intergovernmental Committee for Euro- 
pean Migration (Icem), organized on United 
States initiative in 1961 to facilitate emigration 
from Europe, met the unusual challenge of mov- 
ing 88,657 Hungarian refugees out of Austria in 
1956, while at the same time maintaining its nor- 
mal program at the peak level of 129,597 migrants 
moved out of Europe. 

The Migration Committee financed the move- 
ment of 40,597 Hmigarian refugees, whereas the 
costs of the movement of the other 48,060 were 
borne directly by the governments which received 
the refugees. However, the Migration Committee 
was responsible for the organization and dispatch- 
ing of all movements and assisted those govern- 
ments which supplied transportation in scheduling 
planes and trains and in processing the refugees 
for embarkation. By the end of the year, 29,915 
of the Hungarian refugees had been moved over- 
seas. The European countries received the ma- 
jority — 58,742 — some for a temporary period pend- 
ing their eventual resettlement in overseas coun- 
tries. 

These facts emerged from the discussions and 
actions taken at the fifth session of the Icem Coun- 
cil and Executive Committee (September 20 to 



• Mr. Warreii, author of the above article, is 
Adviser on Refugees and Displaced Persons, 
Department of State. He served as altemxite 
U.S. delegate to the fifth session of the 
ICEM Coimcil and accompanied the U.S. 
representative to the sixth (special) session 
of the Executive Committee. 



October 6, 1956), the meeting of the Working 
Party (January 8-14, 1957), and the sixth (spe- 
cial) session of the Executive Committee (January 
14^18, 1957). 1 

Fifth Session of Council 

The Union of South Africa joined the Migra- 
tion Committee at the fifth session, bringing the 
total membership to 27 governments. Spain had 
joined at the previous session. The questions of 
the provision of migration services and of the de- 
velopment of land-settlement projects in Latin 
America preoccupied the Council at the fifth 
session. 

The discussion on the Director's progress report 
demonstrated the concern of Italy and the Latin 
American countries over the disappointingly low 
numbers of workers currently moving to the Latin 
American countries and the continuing interest of 
the European coimtries in securing the maximmn 
possible movement of refugees, under the United 
Nations High Commissioner's mandate, out of 



' The Department of State announced on Sept. 13, 1956 
(press release 483), that Scott McLeod, Administrator of 
the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs, would head 
an 11-man delegation to the fifth session of the ICEM. 
Representative Francis E. Walter, Representative Ken- 
neth B. Keating, and Mr. Warren were named alternate 
delegates, and the following puWic members were desig- 
nated advisers: Maurice G. Bellows, Walter M. Bester- 
man, Walter Bieringer, Oliver Emmerich, George Fuller, 
John Mulford, and Frank Waldrop. For an announce- 
ment of the delegation to the sixth (special) session of 
the Executive Committee, see Bulletin of Jan. 21, 1957, 
p. 109. For an article by Mr. Warren on the third and 
fourth sessions of the Council and Executive Committee, 
see ihiih. June 4. 1956, p. 944. 



May 6, J 957 



743 



Europe. The U.S. representative, Scott McLeod, 
pointed out that the full exploitation of the oper- 
ations of the processing centers in Austria, made 
possible by the U.S. special contribution of 
$250,000 in July 1956, would provide an experi- 
mental demonstration of those migration services 
which should appropriately be provided by the 
governments of emigration, those which should 
be provided by the governments of immigration, 
and finally those which will need inevitably to be 
supplied by Icem. 

The discussion on the Director's report on mi- 
gration services disclosed virtually unanimous 
support of services closely related to immediate 
movement but only qualified support of other 
technical services more related to the promotion 
of migration in the future and improvement in 
the qualifications of migrants. Italy, Spain, 
Greece, and the Latin American countries insisted 
on the necessity for expanding the latter type of 
services in order that the migrants moved to Latin 
America might be better qualified to fit into the 
requirements of that area. Australia and Canada 
argued that such services should be supplied di- 
rectly by the governments concerned. There was, 
however, a measure of agreement that Icem's 
efforts to assist Latin American countries to de- 
velop their specific immigration requirements in 
terms of numbers, trade skills, and areas of place- 
ment could be useful and that further efforts 
should be made to place migrants after arrival in 
jobs suited to their capacities. 

Financing Land-Settlement Projects 

The Director's report on land settlement stated, 
in effect, that Icem's technical assistance in this 
area would only be productive insofar as interested 
governments were themselves prepared to deter- 
mine basic policies and to prepare specific projects 
of land settlement which might require partial 
financing from external sources. Representative 
Francis E. Walter of the U.S. delegation stated 
that Congress had supplied certain funds under 
the Smathers amendment to the Mutual Security 
Act which might be applied in the financing of 
land-settlement projects but that the initiative 
in presenting sound bankable projects rested solely 
with the Latin American countries. The repre- 
sentatives of Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, and 
the Latin American countries expressed their 
appreciation of the new potential source of financ- 



ing for land-settlement projects and their deter- 
mination to work out bilateral arrangements be- 
tween emigration and immigration countries 
which would facilitate the development of soimd 
projects. 

Worlting Party on Financing 

A lively discussion was precipitated by the ob- 
servations of the Australian and U.S. representa- 
tives that the recommendations of the Working 
Party of 1955 had never been fully implemented 
in that per capita contributions still failed to 
meet the total costs of transport and related serv- 
ices, some governments receiving migrants had 
failed to make the minimum contribution of $1 ' 
per migrant moved to or from their country, and 
the contributions to the free funds of the Com- 
mittee were still inadequate to cover the expendi- 
tures for migration services and the movement of 
refugees. The U.S. representative suggested the 
necessity of resolving these problems of financing 
before the fall session of the Council in 1957 in 
order that goverimients might make firm pledges 
at that time for 1958 on a more satisfactory plan 
of financing. The Council finally resolved to set 
up a Working Party composed of the representa- 
tives of Australia, Brazil, Italy, the Netherlands, 
and the United States with broad terms of refer- 
ence to report recommendations to the Executive 
Committee. 

The Working Party met in Geneva in January. 
Before attacking its main task of reviewing the 
operations of the Committee and of finding im- 
proved methods of financing, the Working Party 
considered the effect which the heavy movement of 
Hungarian refugees in November-December 1956 
had had on the organizational structure and nor- 
mal operations of the Committee. Assisted by 
representatives of practically all of the other 
member governments, who attended as observers 
because of the high interest in Hungarian 
refugees, the Working Party concluded that the 
Migration Committee had not only been able to 
expand its services to meet satisfactorily the emer- 
gency presented by the Hungarian refugees but 
had actually gained new interest and support from 
governments in the process. 

The Working Party otherwise reported that the 
main immediate objective of the Migration Com- 
mittee should be to secure higher per capita con- 
tributions from member governments, based on 
movements to or from their respective countries, in 



744 



Department of State Bulletin 



order that the total of such contributions would 
meet the total of costs of transportation and of 
the essential migration services closely related to 
the actual dispatch and reception of migrants. 
A furtlier recommendation was that a special sec- 
tion of the budget should be established to include 
all expenditures for promotional migration serv- 
ices, grants to voluntary agencies for cooperative 
services, and costs for the movement of refugees. 
The assumption was that governments particu- 
larly interested in these programs would contrib- 
ute more adequately to their support if these 
particular items of expenditure were clearly iso- 
lated from the larger expenditures for the move- 
ment of indigenous migrants. 

Because the Migration Committee faced the 
necessity of moving larger numbers of Hungarian 
refugees overseas in 1957, not only from Austria 
but from the Western European countries, a spe- 
cial meeting of the Executive Committee was con- 
vened in January 1957. The Executive Commit- 
tee found that 129,597 migrants had been moved 
out of Europe during 1956 under the normal pro- 
gram, the highest movement achieved in any single 
year. In 1956, $3,334,493 had been spent on mov- 
ing an additional 40,597 Hungarian refugees out 
of Austria, of whom 11,947 had gone overseas.^ 
The estimated income of the Migration Committee 
for 1956 totaled $2,769,607 for administration and 
$43,103,907 for operations. 

Program for 1957 

After reviewing the estimates presented by the 
administration, the Executive Committee adopted 
a program for 1957 calling for the movement over- 
seas out of Europe of 108,030 under normal opera- 
tions and of an additional 35,450 Hungarian 
refugees — 24,000 from Austria and 11,450 from the 
Western European countries. During the year, 
30,000 Hungarian refugees were also to be assisted 
to move from Austria to other European countries 
in replacement of those moved overseas from these 
countries and in a further effort to reduce the 
refugee population in Austria. Financial require- 
ments to meet this program were estimated at 
$2,734,003 for administration and $49,368,822 for 
operations. 

■ For tiackgrounci on the Hungarian refugee problem 
contained in a report made to President Eisenhower by 
Vice President Nixon on Jan. 1, 1957, see ibid., Jan. 21, 
1957, p. 94. 



In adopting this budget the Executive Com- 
mittee found it necessary to send an immediate 
telegraphic appeal to member governments for 
$7,586,589 in additional contributions, particu- 
larly to insure the continuing movement of Hun- 
garian refugees. The governments were reminded 
in the telegram that a one-time contribution to 
transport costs would substantially reduce the 
continuing costs of $2,000,000 monthly in main- 
taining 70,000 Hungarian refugees remaining in 
Austria at the time. 

Apart from the Hungarian movement, the esti- 
mates of expenditures of the Committee were in- 
creased for 1957 to meet additional costs to be 
incurred because of the necessity for shipping 
migi-ants and refugees to Australasia by the Cape 
route rather than through the Suez Canal. These 
problems of the budget for 1957 j^recluded any 
consideration by the Executive Committee of the 
report of the Working Party at the special session. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Atomic Energy 

Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency. 
Done at New York October 26, 1956.' 
Ratification deposited: Rumania, April 12, 1957. 

Automotive Traffic 

Convention on road traffic with annexes. Done at Geneva 
September 19, 1949. Entered into force March 26, 1952. 
TIAS 2487. 
Ratification deposited: Norway, April 11, 1957. 

Postal Services 

Universal postal convention, with final protocol, annex, 
regulations of execution, and provisions regarding air- 
mail and final protocol thereto. Signed at Brussels 
July 11, 1952. Entered into force July 1, 1953. TIAS 
2S00. 

Ratification deposited: Dominican Republic, March 16, 
1957. 

Slave Trade 

Protocol amending the slavery convention signed at 
Geneva September 25, 1926 (40 Stat. 2183), and annex. 
Done at New York December 7, 1953. Protocol entered 
into force December 7, 1953. Annex entered into force 
July ", 1955. TIAS H:<:i2. 
Ratification deposited: Norway, April 11, 1957. 



'Not in force. 



May 6, 7957 



745 



Whaling 

Protocol amending the international whaling convention 
of 1946 (TIAS 1849). Done in Washington November 
19, 1956." « 

Ratification deposited: Norway, April 15, 1957. 

BILATERAL 

Burma 

Elconomic cooperation agreement. Signed at Rangoon 
March 21, 19D7. Enters into force upon notification by 
Burma that necessary legal requirements have been 
fulfilled. 

Canada 

Agreement relating to navigation improvements in waters 
of the St. Marys River and the St. Clair Kiver sections 
of the Great Lakes connecting channels. Effected by 
exchange of notes at Ottawa November 30, 1956, and 
April 8 and 9, 1957. Entered into force April 9, 1957. 

Chile 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of March 13, 1956 (TIAS 3583). Effected by ex- 
change of notes at Washington April 15, 1957. Entered 
into force April 15, 1957. 

Israel 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of November 10, 1955, as amended (TIAS 3429, 
3489, and 3497). Effected by exchange of notes at 
Washington April 9 and 10, 1957. Entered into force 
April 10, 1957. TIAS 3798. 

Japan 

Agreement relating to the reciprocal waiver of nonimmi- 



grant passport visa fees. Effected by exchange of notes 
at Tokyo March 5 and 22, 1957. Entered into force 
AprU 21, 1957. 

Libya 

Development assistance agreement with Libya. Effected 
by exchange of notes at Tripoli April 4 and 6, 1957. 
Entered into force April 6, 1957. 

Morocco 

Agreement providing for economic, technical, and related 
assistance to Morocco. Effected by exchange of notes 
at Rabat April 2, 1957. Entered into force April 2, 
1957. 

Paraguay 

Agreement providing for duty-free entry into Paraguay 
and exemption from Internal taxation of relief supplies 
and packages. Effected by exchange of notes at 
Asuncion April 4, 1957. Entered into force April 4, 
1957. 

Agreement for financing educational exchange programs. 
Signed at Asuncion April 4, 1957. Enters into force on 
date of notification by Paraguay of ratification of agree- 
ment in accordance with its constitutional process. 

Peru 

Agreement relating to the waiver of nonimmigrant pass- 
port visas and visa fees. Effected by exchange of notes 
at Lima April 6 and September 26, 1956, and related 
note of October 9, 1956. Entered into force September 
26, 1956. 

Agreement supplementing the agreement of April 6 and 
September 26, 1956, relating to passport visas and visa 
fees. Effected by exchange of notes at Lima January 
4 and 7, 1957. Entered into force January 7, 1957. 



United States-Netherlands Air Transport Agreement 



Press release 189 dated April 3 
DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Delegations of the United States and the King- 
dom of the Nethei'lands, which have been meeting 
in Wasliington since March 19, conckided an air 
transport agreement on April 3, 1957.^ Under 
Secretary of State Christian Herter signed on be- 
half of the U.S. Government, and E. H. van der 
Beugel, Under Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs, signed for the Government of the King- 
dom of the Netherlands. The agreement de- 
scribes the routes to be served by the flag carriers 
of both countries and contains the principles re- 

' Not in force. 

' For an announcement of the resumption of negotiations 
on Mar. 19, togetlier with an exchange of letters between 
President Eisenhower and Netherlands Prime Minister 
Willem Drees, see Bulletin of Apr. 8, 1957, p. 579. 



lating to the operation of air transport services 
which are embodied in the standard Bermuda- 
type agreement. 

Under the new agreement, the Netherlands car- 
riers are authorized to serve New York and Hous- 
ton and to operate services from the Netherlands 
Antilles to Miami via intermediate points and di- 
rect to New York. The U.S. carriers are given 
broad operating rights to and beyond the Nether- 
lands, Surinam, and the Netherlands Antilles. 

The agreement is provisionally operative from 
the date of its signature and will enter into force 
definitively on the date of receipt by the U.S. Gov- 
ernment of appropriate notification that the ap- 
proval constitutionally required in the Kingdom 
of the Netherlands has been obtained. Ivettei-s 
have been exchanged on the subject of the right to 
operate air services to Jjos Angeles. 



I 



746 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



EXCHANGE OF LETTERS 



TEXT OF AGREEMENT 



April 3, 1957 
Dear Mr. Secretary : On behalf of the Govern- 
nent of the Kingdom of tlie Netlierhmds I express 
Tiy disappointment that, in concluding the air 
.ransport agreement, it has not been possible at the 
present moment to include the right to operate air 
services from the Netherlands to Los Angeles and 
?ice versa by an airline designated by the afore- 
said Government. 

I want to convey to you the intention of the 
Grovernment of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 
to open as soon as possible consultations on the 
sasis of the provisions contained in article XII of 
the Agreement in order to include the above men- 
tioned route in the schedule of the Agreement. 

Please accept, Mr. Secretary, the assurances of 
my highest consideration. 
Sincerely yours, 

E. H. VAN DER BeUGEL 

Under Secretary of State 
for Foreign Affairs 

The Secretaet of State, 
Washington, D. C. 



April 3, 1957 
Dear Mr. van der Beugel : The Department has 
noted the disappointment expressed in your letter 
of April 3, 1957, at the present inability of the 
United States to grant traffic rights at Los Angeles 
to the Dutch airline and has noted your intention 
of requesting at a future date that the United 
States grant such rights. 

As you are aware, the consultation provisions 
contained in Article 12 of the Agreement are, 
amongst other things, designed to provide a 
mechanism by means of which route pattern ad- 
justments may be reviewed on the request of either 
party to ensure that the agreement, as far as pos- 
sible, will be mutually satisfactory. 
Sincerely yours. 

Christian A. Herter 

Under Secretary of State 

His Excellency 

E. H. van der Beugel, 

Under Secretary of State for 

Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands. 



AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE 
GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE 
KINGDOM OP THE NETHERLANDS 

The Government of the United States of America and 
the Government of the Kingdom of The Netherlands, 

Desiring to conclude an Agreement for the purpose o£ 
promoting air communications between their respective 
territories, 

Have accordingly appointed authorized representatives 
for this purpose, who have agreed as follows : 

Abticle 1 
For the purposes of the present Agreement: 

(A) The term "aeronautical authorities" shall mean 
in the case of the United States of America, the Civil 
Aeronautics Board and any person or agency authorized 
to perform the functions exercised at the present time 
by the Civil Aeronautics Board and, in the case of the 
Kingdom of The Netherlands, any person or agency des- 
ignated as such by the Government of the Kingdom of 
The Netherlands. 

(B) The term "designated airline" shall mean an air- 
line that one contracting party has notified the other 
contracting party, in writing, to be the airline which will 
operate a specific route or routes listed In the Schedule 
of this Agreement. 

(C) The term "territory" in relation to a State shall 
mean the land areas and territorial waters adjacent 
thereto under the sovereignty, suzerainty, protection, 
mandate or trusteeship of that State. 

(D) The term "air service" shall mean any scheduled 
air service performed by aircraft for the public transport 
of passengers, mail or cargo. 

(E) The term "international air service" shall mean 
an air service which passes through the air space over 
the territory of more than one State. 

(F) The term "stop for non-traffic purposes" shall 
mean a landing for any purpose other than taking on or 
discharging passengers, cargo or mail. 

Article 2 

Each contracting party grants to the other contract- 
ing party rights necessary for the conduct of air services 
by the designated airlines, as follows: the rights of 
transit, of stops for non-traffic purposes, and of commer- 
cial entry and departure for international traffic in pas- 
sengers, cargo, and mall at the points in its territory 
named on each of the routes specified In the appropriate 
paragraph of the Schedule annexed to the present 
Agreement. 

Aeticle 3 

Air service on a specified route may be inaugurated by 
an airline or airlines of one contracting party at any 
time after that contracting party has designated such 
airline or airlines for that route and the other contract- 
ing party has given the appropriate operating permission. 



May 6, 1957 



747 



Such other party shall, subject to Article 4, be bound 
to give this permission without undue delay, provided 
that the designated airline or airlines may be required 
to qualify before the competent aeronautical authorities 
of that party, under the laws and regulations normally 
applied by these authorities, before being permitted to 
engage in the operations contemplated by this Agreement. 

Aeticle 4 

Each contracting party reserves the right to withhold 
or revoke the privilege of exercising the rights provided 
for in Article 3 of this Agreement from an airline desig- 
nated by the other contracting party in the event that 
it is not satisfied that substantial ownership and effective 
control of such airline are vested in nationals of the 
other contracting party, or in case of failure by "such 
airline to comply with the laws and regulations referred 
to in Article 5 hereof, or in case of the failure of the 
airline or the government designating it otherwise to 
perform its obligations hereunder, or to fulfill the con- 
ditions under which the rights are granted in accord- 
ance with this Agreement. 

Article 5 

(A) The laws and regulations of one contracting party 
relating to the admission to or departure from its terri- 
tory of aircraft engaged in international air navigation, 
or to the operation and navigation of such aircraft while 
within its territory, shall be applied to the aircraft of the 
airline or airlines designated by the other contracting 
party, and shall be complied with by such aircraft upon 
entering or departing from and while within the territory 
of the first contracting party. 

(B) The laws and regulations of one contracting party 
relating to the admission to or departure from its terri- 
tory of passengers, crew, or cargo of aircraft, such as 
regulations relating to entry, clearance, immigration, 
passports, customs, and quarantine shall be complied 
with by or on behalf of such passengers, crew or cargo 
of the other contracting party upon entrance into or 
departure from, and while within the territory of the 
first contracting party. 

Akticle 6 

Certificates of airworthiness, certificates of competency 
and licenses issued or rendered valid by one contracting 
party, and still in force, shall be recognized as valid by 
the other contracting party for the purpose of operating 
the routes and .services provided for in this Agreement, 
provided that the requirements under which such cer- 
tificates or licenses were issued or rendered valid are 
equal to or above the minimum standards which may be 
established pursuant to the Convention on International 
Civil Aviation. Each contracting party reserves the 
right, however, to refuse to recognize, for the purpose 
of flight above its own territory, certificates of compe- 
tency and licenses granted to its own nationals by another 
State. 

Article 7 

In order to prevent discriminatory practices and to 
assure equality of treatment, both contracting parties 
agree that : 



(a) Each of the contracting parties may impose or 
permit to be imposed just and reasonable charges for the 
use of public airports and other facilities under its con- 
trol. Each of the contracting parties agrees, however, 
that these charges shall not be higher than would be i 
paid for the use of such airports and facilities by its na- i 
tional aircraft engaged in similar international services, i 

(b) Fuel, lubricating oils, other consumable technical 
supplies, spare parts, regular equipment, and stores in- 
troduced into the territory of one contracting party by 
or on behalf of the airline or airlines of the other con- 
tracting party or its nationals and intended solely for 
use by aircraft of such contracting party in international 
services shall be exempt on a basis of reciprocity from 
customs duties, excise taxes, inspection fees and other 
similar national duties, taxes or charges, even though 
such supplies be used or consumed by such aircraft on 
flights in that territory. Articles so introduced into the 
territory of a contracting party shall be kept under cus- 
toms supervision until required for the use provided for 
in this paragraph or for re-exportation. 

(c) Fuel, lubricating oils, other consumable technical 
supplies, spare parts, regular equipment, and stores re- 
tained on board aircraft of the airlines of one contracting 
party authorized to operate the routes and services pro- 
vided for in this Agreement shall, upon arriving in or 
leaving the territory of the other contracting party, be 
exempt on a basis of reciprocity from customs duties, 
inspection fees and other similar national duties or 
charges, even though such supplies be used or consumed 
by such aircraft on flights in international services in 
that territory. 

(d) Fuel, lubricating oils, other consumable technical 
supplies, spare parts, regular equipment, and stores taken 
on board aircraft of the airlines of one contracting party 
in the territory of the other and used in international 
services shall be exempt on a basis of reciprocity from 
customs duties, excise taxes, inspection fees and other 
similar national duties, taxes or charges, even though 
such supplies be used or consumed by such aircraft on 
flights in that territory. 

Aeticle 8 

There shall be a fair and equal opportunity for the air- 
lines of each contracting party to operate on any route 
covered by this Agreement. I 

Aeticle 9 I 

In the operation by the airlines of either contracting 
party of the air services described in this .Vgreement, the 
interest of the airlines of the other contracting party 
shall be taken into consideration so as not to affect un- 
duly the services which the latter provides on all or 
part of the same routes. 

AETICLE 10 1 

The air services made available to the public by the 
airlines operating under this Agreement shall bear a 
close relationship to the requirements of the public for 
such services. 

It is the understanding of both contracting parties 
that services provided by a designated airline under the 
present Agreement shall retain as their primary objective 



748 



Department of State Bulletin 



tie provision of capacity adequate to the traflBc demands 
etween the couutry of which such airline is a national 
nd the countries of ultimate destination of the traffic. 
;?he right to embarl; or disembarlv on such services inter- 
kational traffic destined for and coming from third coun- 
ries at a point or points on the routes specified in this 
Agreement shall be applied in accordance with the gen- 
iral principles of orderly development to which both con- 
racting parties subscribe and shall be subject to the 
jeneral principle that capacity should be related: 

(a) to traffic requirements between the country of ori- 
fin and the countries of ultimate destination of the 
traffic ; 

(b) to the requirements of through airline operation; 
ind, 

(c) to the traffic requirements of the area through 
ivhich the airline passes after talking account of local and 
regional services. 

Abticle 11 

Rates to be charged on the routes provided for in this 
Agreement shall be reasonable, due regard being paid 
to all relevant factors, such as cost of operation, reason- 
able profit, and the rates charged by any other carriers, 
as well as the characteristics of each service, and shall 
be determined in accordance with the following para- 
graphs : 

(A) The rates to be charged by the airlines of either 
contracting party between points in the territory of the 
United States and points in Uie territory of the Kingdom 
of The Netherlands referred to in the annexed Schedule 
shall, consistent with the provisions of the present Agree- 
ment, be subject to the approval of the aeronautical au- 
thorities of the contracting parties, who shall act in ac- 
cordance with their obligations under this Agreement, 
within the limits of their legal powers. 

(B) Any rate proposed by an airline of either contract- 
ing party shall be filed with the aeronautical authorities 
of both contracting parties at least thirty (30) days before 
the proposed date of introduction ; provided that this 
period of thirty (30) days may be reduced in particular 
cases if so agreed by the aeronautical authorities of each 
contracting party. 

(C) During any period for which the Civil Aeronautics 
Board of the United States has approved the traffic con- 
ference procedures of the International Air Transport 
Association (hereinafter called lATA), any rate agree- 
ments concluded through these procedures and involving 
United States airlines will be subject to approval of the 
Board. Rate agreements concluded through this ma- 
chinery may also be required to be subject to the approval 
of the aeronautical authorities of the Kingdom of The 
Netherlands pursuant to the principles enunciated in 
paragraph (A) above. 

(D) The contracting parties agree that the procedure 
described in paragraphs (E), (F) and (G) of this Article 
shall apply : 

1. If, during the period of the approval by both con- 
tracting parties of the lATA traffic conference procedure, 
either, any specific rate agreement is not approved within 
a reasonable time by either contracting party, or, a con- 
ference of lATA is unable to agree on a rate, or 



2. At any time no lATA procedure is applicable, or 

3. If either contracting party at any time withdraws 
or fails to renew its approval of that part of the lATA 
traffic conference procedure relevant to this Article. 

(E) In the event that power is conferred by law upon 
the aeronautical authorities of the United States to fis 
fair and economic rates for the transport of persons and 
property by air on international services and to suspend 
proposed rates in a manner comparable to that in which 
the Civil Aeronautics Board at present is empowered to 
act with respect to such rates for the transport of persons 
and property by air within the United States, each of the 
contracting parties shall thereafter exercise its authority 
in such manner as to prevent any rate or rates proposed 
by one of its airlines for services from the territory of 
one contracting party to a point or points in tlie territory 
of the other contracting party from becoming effective, 
if in the judgment of the aeronautical authorities of the 
contracting party whose airline or airlines is or are pro- 
posing such rate, that rate is unfair or uneconomic. If 
one of the contracting parties on receipt of the notifica- 
tion referred to in paragraph (B) above is dissatisfied 
with the rate proposed by the airline or airlines of the 
other contracting party, it shall so notify the other con- 
tracting party prior to the expiry of the first fifteen (15) 
of the thirty (30) days referred to, and the contracting 
parties shall endeavor to reach agreement on the appro- 
priate rate. 

In the event that such agreement is reached, each con- 
tracting party will exercise its best efforts to put such 
rate into effect as regards its airline or airlines. 

If agreement has not been reached at the end of the 
thirty (30) day ijeriod referred to in paragraph (B) 
above, the proposed rate may, unless the aeronautical 
authorities of the country of the air carrier concerned 
see tit to suspend its application, go into effect provision- 
ally pending the settlement of any dispute in accordance 
with the procedure outlined in paragraph (G) below. 

(F) Prior to the time when such power may be con- 
ferred upon the aeronautical authorities of the United 
States, if one of the contracting parties is dissatisfied 
with any rate proposed by the airline or airlines of either 
contracting party for services from the territory of one 
contracting party to a point or points in the territory of 
the other contracting party, it shall so notify the other 
prior to the expiry of the first fifteen (15) of the thirty 
(30) day period referred to in paragraph (B) above, 
and the contracting parties shall endeavor to reach 
agreement on the appropriate rate. 

In the event tliat such agreement is reached, each con- 
tracting party will use its best efforts to cause such 
agreed rate to be put into effect by its airline or airlines. 

It is recognized that if no such agreement can be 
reached prior to the expiry of such thirty (30) days, the 
contracting party raising the objection to the rate may 
talve such steps as it may consider necessary to prevent 
the inauguration or continuation of the service in question 
at the rate complained of. 

(G) When in any case under paragraphs (E) or (F) 
of this Article the aeronautical authorities of the two 
contracting parties cannot agree within a reasonable time 
upon the appropriate rate after consultation initiated by 
the complaint of one contracting party concerning the 



May 6, 1957 



749 



proposed rate or an existing rate of the airline or air- 
lines of the other contracting party, upon the request of 
either, the terms of Article 13 of this Agreement shall 
apply. 

Abticle 12 

Consultation between the competent authorities of both 
contracting parties may be requested at any time by either 
contracting party for the purpose of discussing the in- 
terpretation, application, or amendment of the Agreement 
or Schedule. Such consultation shall begin within a pe- 
riod of sixty (60) days from the date of the receipt of 
the request by the Department of State of the United 
States of America or the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of 
the Kingdom of The Netherlands as the case may be. 
Should agreement be reached on amendment of the Agree- 
ment or its route schedule, such amendment will come into 
effect upon confirmation by an exchange of diplomatic 
notes. 

ABTICI.E 13 

Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, any 
dispute between the contracting parties relative to the 
interpretation or application of this Agreement which 
cannot be settled through consultation shall be submitted 
for an advisory report to a tribunal of three arbitrators, 
one to be named by each contracting party, and the third 
to be agreed upon by the two arbitrators so chosen, pro- 
vided that such third arbitrator shall not be a national 
of either contracting party. Each of the contracting 
parties shall designate an arbitrator within two months 
of the date of delivery by either party to the other party 
of a diplomatic note requesting arbitration of a dispute ; 
and the third arbitrator shall be agreed upon within one 
month after such period of two months. 

If either of the contracting jiarties fails to designate 
its own arbitrator within two months, or if the third ar- 
bitrator is not agreed upon within the time limit indi- 
cated, either party may request the President of the In- 
ternational Court of Justice to make the necessary ap- 
pointment or appointments by choosing the arbitrator or 
arbitrators. 

The contracting parties will use their best efforts under 
the powers available to them to put into effect the opin- 
ion expressed in any such advisory report. A moiety of 
the exi)enses of the arbitral tribunal shall be borne by 
each party. 

Akticlb 14 

This Agreement, all amendments thereto, and con- 
tracts connected therewith shall be registered with the 
International Civil Aviation Organization. 

Akticle 15 
If a general multilateral air transport Convention ac- 
cepted by both contracting parties enters into force, the 
present Agi-eement shall be amended so as to conform with 
the provisions of such Convention. 

Artioi.e 16 
Either of the contracting parties may at any time notify 
the other of its intention to terminate the present Agree- 
ment. Such a notice shall be sent simultaneously to the 
International Civil Aviation Organization. In the event 
such communication is made, this Agreement shall termi- 



nate one year after the date of its receipt, unless by 
agreement between the contracting parties the notice of 
intention to terminate is withdrawn before the expira- 
tion of that time. If the other contracting party faUs 
to acknowledge receipt, notice shall be deemed as having 
been received fourteen days after its receipt by the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization. 

Abticle 17 

The present agreement shall be provisionally operative 
from the date of its signature. After the approval con- 
stitutionally required in the Kingdom of The Netherlands 
has been obtained, the Agreement shall enter into force 
definitively on the date of receipt by the Government of 
the United States of America of an appropriate notifica- 
tion from the Government of the Kingdom of The 
Netherlands. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned, being duly author- 
ized by their respective Governments, have signed the 
present Agreement. 

Done in duplicate at Washington this 3rd day of April, 
1957. 

For the Government of 

the United States of America : 

Christian A. Hebtek 

For the Government of the 
Kingdom of The Netherlands : 

E. H. VAN DER BeUGEL 

SCHEDULE 

1. An airline or airlines designated by the Government of 
the United States shall be entitled to operate air services 
on each of the air routes specified via intermediate points, 
in both directions, to make scheduled landings in the 
Kingdom of The Netherlands at the points specified in this 
paragraph : 

a. From the United States via intermediate points to 
Amsterdam and beyond. 

b. From the United States and/or an airport serving 
the Canal Zone via intermediate points to Aruba, 
Curacao, St. Maartens, and Paramaribo and be- 
yond. 

2. An airline or airlines designated by the Government 
of the Kingdom of The Netherlands shall be entitled to 
operate air services on each of the air routes specified via 
intermediate points, in both directions, and to make sched- 
uled landings in the United States at the points specified 
in this paragraph : 

a. The Netherlands via intermediate points in the 
UK, Ireland, Newfoundland and the Azores to 
New York. 

b. The Netherlands via intermediate points in the 
UK, Ireland, Iceland, Greenland, Newfoundland, 
Azores and Montreal to Houston. 

c. The Netherlands Antilles via the intermediate 
points Ciudad Trujillo, Port au Prince, Kingston, 
Montego Bay, Camaguey, Havana, to Miami. | 

d. The Netherlands Antilles to New York. 

3. Points on any of the specified routes may at the option 
of the designated airlines be omitted on any or all flights. 



750 



Department of State Bulletin 



lay 6, 1957 Index 



Vol. XXXVI, No. 932 



Lfghanistan. Ambassador Richards' Mission to 
Middle East (texts of communiques and press 
statements) 724 

Lgriculture. Agricultural Commodity Sales Agree- 
ment With Colombia 731 

American Principles. Dynamic Peace (Dulles) . 715 

American Republics 

Economic Interdependence in the Americas (Rubot- 

I tom) 732 

The Two Halves of Progress (Hill) 736 

Aviation. United States-Netherlands Air Trans- 
port Agreement (text) 746 

Colombia. Agricultural Commodity Sales Agree- 
ment With Colombia 731 

jEconomic Affairs 

[Economic Interdependence in the Americas (Rubot- 

tom) 732 

TheTwoHalvesof Progress (Hill) 736 

Germany. Visit of Chancellor Adenauer .... 719 

Hungary 

IMeeting the Challenge of Moving Hungarian Refu- 
gees (Warren) 743 

U.S. Assistance to Hungarian Refugees 720 

Immigration and Naturalization. Immigration 
Potentials Under the Basic Immigration Law 
(Coulter) 722 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of Meetings 740 

Meeting the Challenge of Moving Hungarian Refu- 
gees (Warren) 743 

Iran. Ambassador Richards' Mission to Middle 
East (texts of communiques and press state- 
ments) 724 

Iraq. Ambassador Richards' Mission to Middle 
East (tests of communiques and press state- 
ments) 724 

Lebanon. Ambassador Richards' Mission to Middle 
East (texts of communiques and press state- 
ments) 724 

Libya. Ambassador Richards' Mission to Middle 
East (texts of communiques and press state- 
ments) 724 

Middle East. Ambassador Richards' Mission to 
Middle East (texts of communiques and press 
statements) 724 

Mutual Security. Dynamic Peace (Dulles) . . . 715 

Netherlands. United States-Netherlands Air 
Transport Agreement (text) 746 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. NATO Schol- 
arship Awarded to American Student 720 

Pakistan. Ambassador Richards' Slission to Middle 
East (texts of communiques and press state- 
ments) 724 

Refugees. U.S. Assistance to Hungarian Refugees . 720 

Saudi Arabia. Ambassador Richards' Mission to 
Middle East (texts of communiques and press 
statements) 724 



Switzerland. Letters of Credence (de Torrents ) . 719 

Treaty Information 

Agricultural Commodity Sales Agreement With 

Colombia 731 

Current Actions 745 

United States-Netherlands Air Transport Agree- 
ment (text) 746 

Turkey. Ambassador Richards' Mission to Middle 
East (texts of communiques and i)ress state- 
ments) 724 

U.S.S.R. U.S. Requests Departure of Soviet Em- 
bassy Employee 719 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 742 

Dynamic Peace (Dulles) 715 

Name Index 

Adenauer, Konrad 719 

Coulter, Eliot B 722 

de Torrents, Henry 719 

Dulles, Secretary 715 

Hill, Robert C 736 

Mashkantsev, Gennadi F 719 

Richards, James P 724 

Rubottom, Roy R., Jr 732 

Warren, George L 743 

von Brentano, Heinrich 719 



Check List of Department of State 


Press Releases: April 15-21 


Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 


Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 


Press releases issued prior to April 15 which ap- 


pear 


in this 


issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 176 of 


March 28, 189 of April 3, 193 of April 5, 197 of April 


9, 202 of April 11, 207, 208, and 210 of April 12, and 


212 of April 13. 


No. 


Date 


Subject 


•213 


4/16 


Hill : "The Importance of Patriotism." 


214 


4/16 


Emergency financial aid to Hungarian 
escapees. 


*215 


4/16 


Rubottom nomination (biographic de- 
tails). 


216 


4/17 


Switzerland credentials (rewrite). 


217 


4/17 


Surplus commodity agreement with 
Colombia. 


218 


4/17 


Departure of Soviet Embassy employee 
requested. 


*219 


4/18 


Educational exchange. 


*220 


4/18 


Educational exchange. 


♦221 


4/18 


Educational exchange. 


*222 


4/18 


Educational exchange. 


223 


4/19 


Visit of Chancellor Adenauer (re- 
write). 


*224 


4/19 


Interim reply to Canadian note. 


*225 


4/19 


Cabot nomination (biographic details). 


226 


4/19 


Interim report on Richards mission. 


•227 


4/19 


Hill nomination (biographic details). 


•228 


4/19 


White nomination (biographic de- 
taUs). 


229 


4/21 


Dulles : "Dynamic Peace." 
ted. 


♦Not prin 



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A new release in the popular BACKGROUND series . . . 

Highlights of 

Foreign Policy Developments — 1956 



Prepared as a readily accessible source for reference to some of 
the major events and pronouncements affecting United States 
foreign policy during 1956, this pamphlet encompasses events in 
each of the major geographic areas of the world. Sections are 
included on developments in the Soviet Union, the satellites, the 
Middle East and Africa, Europe, Latin America, and the Far East. 

Other topics are disarmament, mutual security, atomic energy, 
trade policy, information abroad. East- West exchanges, and edu- 
cational exchange and cultural programs. 

The material is compiled from previously published official 
sources. Illustrations include photographs and maps. 

Copies of this publication may be purchased from the Superin- 
tendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington 25, D.C., for 15 cents each. 



Publication 6451 



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Vol. XXXVI, No. 933 May 13, 1957 

VB. P. L 

SECRETARY DULLES' NEWS CONFERENCE OF 

APRIL 23 765 

THE MIDDLE EASTERN POLICY OF THE UNITED 

STATES • by Assislant Secretary Rountree 755 

IRAN : AN APPRECIATION • by Ambassador Selden Chapin . 759 

THE U.N. ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND 

THE FAR EAST • Statements by Walter M. Kotschnig . 780 

SECURITY COUNCIL RESUMES CONSIDERATION OF 
ITEM ON SUEZ CANAL 

Statement by Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge ....... 775 

Letter From the Egyptian Foreign Minister Transmitting 

Egyptian Declaration 776 



1 

4 



For index see inside back cov