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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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INDEX 



VOLUME XXXVII: Numbers 940-966 



fE 

iCiAL 
EKLY RECORD 

ITED STATES 
lEIGN POLICY 



July 1-December 30, 1957 



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I PUBLIC-^ 



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CTuVy -Sec. 

Boston Public Library 
Superintond'nt of Documents 

-SEP 1 9 1958 



Correction for Volume XXXVII 

The Editor of the Bulletin wishes to call 
attention to an error in volume XXXVII : 

December 16, page 965, footnote 5 : The statement 
by Ambassador Lodge dated November 19 (U.S. 
delegation press release 2818) was released follow- 
ing the vote on the resolution enlarging the mem- 
bership of the Disarmament Commission, not 
following the vote on the 24-power resolution on 
fundamental principles. 



INDEX 

Volume XXXVII, Numbers 940-966, July 1-December 30, 1957 



Adenauer. Konrad, 50, 233 

Advertising material and commercial samples, interna- 
tional convention (1952) to facilitate importation of, 
129, 509, 5S7, 626, 662, 734, 813 
Adviser to the Government of Panama, agreement extend- 
ing 1942 agreement with Panama relating to 
assignment of, 696 
Advisory Committee on the Arts, appointment of 

members, 747 
Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and Develop- 
ment of NATO, meeting, letter (Eisenhower), 951 
Aerial inspection. See Disarmament 
Aerial photography, agreement with Venezuela for joint 

program of, 696 
Afghanistan : 
Economic assistance, agreement with U.S. under 

American Doctrine, 341 
Helmand Valley reclamation project, progress of, 315 
IFC, articles of agreement, 942 
Africa (see also individual countries) : 

Nationalism, growth in, article (Dulles), 576 

Rising influence of, address (Wilcox), 179 

Sub-Sahara Africa, problems and prospects of, article 

(Palmer), 930 
Visit of Julius 0. Holmes to, itinerary, 650 
Aggression, question of defining, statement (Klutznick) 

and General Assembly resolution, 890 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of : 
Convention (1944) on the, 478 

Proposed expansion of activities, address (Rubottom), 
925 
Agricultural surpluses, U.S., use in overseas programs : 
Agreements with — 

Bolivia, 86, 129, 549; Brazil, 334; Burma, 129; Co- 
lombia, 662, 734, 1039; Ecuador, 770; Israel, 942; 
Korea, Republic of, 906 ; Mexico, 814 ; Pakistan, 
980 ; Peru, 478 ; Philippines, 172, 298 ; Poland, 405, 
444 ; Turkey, 734 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act: 
Administration of, announcement and Executive 

order, 1044 
President's 6th semiannual report to Congress (Jan. 
1-June30, 1957), 281 
Assistance to Colombo Plan countries, 757 
Discussions with Poland, 803 

Effect on balance of payments with Latin America, 81 
Effect on Canadian economy, discussions regarding, 

683, 684 
Emergency relief aid to Colombia, 1042 
Foreign currency receipts from, proposed use of, 
address (Nixon), 706 

index, July fo December 1957 

469637 — 58 1 



Agricultural surpluses — Continued 
Mutual security program, statement (HoUistei/, 415 
Report to 12th session of GATT contracting parties, 1007 
Statement (Mann), 848 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act. See 

under Agricultural surpluses 
Agriculture (see also Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion) : 
Colombo Plan countries, development in, communi- 
que, 900 
Domestic agriculture, relationship to foreign trade 

policy, address (Beale),874 
Irrigation project in Japan, International Bank loan 

for, 355 
Latin America, agricultural development in, 926 
Plant protection convention (1951), international, 218 
Soviet agriculture, problems of, address (Allen Dulles), 

641 
World agricultural production, growth of, statement 
(Jacoby),498 
Aguinaldo, Gen. Emilio, 60 
Aid to foreign countries. See Economic and technical aid, 

Military assistance, and Mutual security 
Air transport. See Aviation 
Aircraft. See Aviation 

Alaska International Rail and Highway Commission, ap- 
pointment of U.S. members, 76, 981 
Albania : 

Independence day, 1000 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 444 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 173 
Slavery convention (1926), 366 
WMO, convention, 334 
Algerian question : 

General Assembly resolution, 1047 

U.S.-Moroccan views, joint statement (Dulles, Mohamed 

V),956 
U.S. position, statements: Dulles, 14, 142; Lodge, 1046 
Aliens, acquisition of permanent residence status, 1033 
Aliens, nonimmigrant, waiver of U.S. fingerprinting re- 
quirements for, address (Auerbach), announcement, 
and text of regulation, 682, 1034 
Almonds, shelled or prepared, tariff quota on, letter (Eisen- 
hower), announcement, and proclamation, 210, 852 
Alsike clover seed, extension of tariff quota on, announce- 
ment and proclamation, 210 
American Committee on Italian Migration, 65 

1055 



American Doctrine, U.S. economic and military assistance 
to the Middle East as a means of combatting com- 
munism: 
Addresses and statement : Dulles, 232, 532, 559 ; Kretz- 

mann, 352 ; Richards, 17 
Application to Syria, question of, statements (Dulles), 

527, 528, 529 
President's 1st report to Congress (Mar. 9-June 30, 

1957), 339 
Belationship to overall U.S. policy in area, statement 

(Dulles), 714 
Soviet views on, statement (White) and texts of notes, 
525, 602, 603 
American Republics. See Latin America and individual 

countries 
Amity, economic relations, and consular rights treaty with 

Iran, 129 
Anderson, Robert B., 463, 476, 683 
Angulo, Lt. Sigfredo, 70, 73 
Anschuetz, Norbert L., 174 
Antidumping Act (1921), proposed revision, statement of 

Department's vievps (Birch), 436 
Antilles, Netherlands : 
Triendship, commerce, and navigation treaty with 

Belgium, extension to, 860 
Road traffic convention (1949), extension to, 42 
Antitrust legislation, national, and international cartels, 

GATT consideration of, 1008 
ANZUS Council, meeting and delegations, 646 
Aqaba, Gulf of : 

International status of, U.S. position, statement 

(Dulles), 232 
•Procedures for passage of ships into, 112 
Arab-Israeli dispute (see also Arms supply and Suez 
Canal problem) : 
Israeli dispute with EgjT)t : 
General Assembly actions regarding, address (Her- 

ter), 225, 226 
Gulf of Aqaba, 112, 232 
Palestine refugees, problem of, addresses and state- 
ments : Dulles, 96, 102 ; Ludlow, 996, 998 ; Wilcox, 
106, 563, 564, 794 
Soviet efforts to exploit problem, addresses : Ludlow, 

994 ; Murphy, 485 
U. S. position, statement (Dulles), 232, 234 
Arab States, U.S. policy toward, statement (Lodge), 781 
Aramburu, Gen. Pedro Eugenio, 929 
Arbitration, Permanent Court of, designation of U.S. 

members, 196 
Arctic aerial inspection, statement (Dulles), 10 
Argentina : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 343 
Aviation Week, messages (Aramburu, Eisenhower), 929 
Desire for increased U.S. economic aid, statement 

(Dulles), 97 
International Bank, membership in, 317, 601 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 861 
Duties and rights of states in event of civil strife, 

protocol to 1928 convention, 662 
Nationality of women, convention (1933) on, 770 



Argentina — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Political rights of women, inter-American convention 

(1948) on, 770 
Technical cooperation, agreement with U.S., 42 
Universal copyright convention ( 19.52 ) , 942 
Armaments («ee also Arms supply. Atomic energy: Nu- 
clear weapons. Disarmament, MLssiles, and. Outer- 
space projectiles) : 
Combat materiel, illegal introduction into Korea by 

Chinese Communists, 394, 395, 968, 971 
NATO armaments, question of manufacture by Euro- 
pean countries, statement (Dulles), 1029 
Reduction of : 

Conventional weapons, address (Dulles), 269, 270, 271 
Economic desirability of, statements : Jacoby, 324, 

502 ; Lodge, 963 
4-power (U.S., Canada, France, U.K.) proposals, 
statements: Eisenhower, 455; Lodge, 632, 671; 
working paper, 451 
General Assembly resolution regarding, 962 
U.S.-Japanese views, joint communique ( Eisenhower, 
Kishi), 52 
Replacement of old weapons by U.N. Command (Korea), 

announcement and statement, 58 
Soviet emphasis on development of, address (Allen 

Dulles), 645 
Trade in. Western proposal for international control, 454 
U.S. armaments, status of, address (Eisenhower), 820 
Armed forces : 

Air defense forces (U.S.-Canadian), integration of, 

joint statement (Wilson, Pearkes), 306 
British and French, withdrawal from Suez Canal zone 

in response to U.N. appeal, 376 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners of 

war and wounded and sick, 86, 173, 405, 861 
Prisoners of war, South Korean and U.S. troops in 
Communist hands, statements (Judd), 969, 970, 974 
Reduction of : 

4-power (U.S., Canada, France, U.K.) proposals, state- 
ments : Eisenhower, 455 ; Lodge, 632, 635, 668, 671 ; 
working paper, 451 
General Assembly resolution regarding, 962 
U.S. and Soviet positions, addresses : Dulles, 269, 271, 
556 ; Wilcox, 565 
Soviet forces in Hungary. See Hungarian question 
Status-of-forces agreements. See Status-of-forces 
D.N. Emergency Force. See United Nations Emergency 
Force 
Armed Forces, U.S. : 
Aid to German ship Pamir, letter of appreciation (Von 

Brentano),6Sl 
Budgetary reduction of, effect on London disarmament 

negotiations, statement (Dulles), 348 
In Germany, agreement with Federal Republic for con- 
tribution to costs of maintenance, 42, 129 
In Japan, reduction of, joint communique (Eisenhower, 

Kishi) and statements (Dulles), 52, 97, 98 
In Morocco, joint statement (Dulles, Mohamed V) re- 
garding, 956 
Military missions, U.S., abroad. See Military missions 
Need for increased pay for, address (Eisenhower), 869 



1056 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Armed Forces, U.S. — Continued 
Persounel serving abroad, letter from President Eisen- 
hower for inclusion in passports of, 275 
Supernational authority over, question of, statement 

(Dulles), 790 
Use in the Middle East, question of. See American 
Doctrine 
Arms supply to the Middle East : 

Egypt, purchase of Soviet submarines, address and 

statement : Dulles, 100 ; Wilcox, 106 
Control of, prospects for, statements (Dulles), 710, 714 
Israel, D.S. policy regarding, statements (Dulles), 101, 

527 
Soviet deliveries, article (Dulles), 570 
Syria, Soviet-bloc shipments to, address and state- 
ments : Dulles, 529, 558 ; Lodge, 778 
Tunisia, U.S. deliveries to, announcement and state- 
ments (Dulles), 882, 918, 920, 921, 922, 1028 
U.S. policy (see also American Doctrine), statements 
(Dulles), 232, 526, 528, 529, 532 
Armstrong, Willis C, 321 
Arneson, R. Gordon, 174 
Arts, Advisory Committee on the, appointment of 

members, 747 
Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia (see also Far East 
aiid individtial countries) : 
Asian Regional Conference (ILO), 4th, U.S. delegation, 

940 
Asian regional nuclear center. See Asian regional 
Collective security. See Collective security and South- 
east Asia Treaty Organization 
Communist subversion in. See under Communism 
Cultural and economic aspirations of, address (Herter), 

831, 834 
Economic development (see also Colombo Plan) of free 
Asian countries, U.S.-Japanese discussions, 52, 53 
Nationalism, growth in, 576 
Rising influence of, address (Wilcox), 179 
South Pacific Commission : 
Alternate U.S. commissioner, appointment, 990 
The First Ten Years, article (Keesing), 423 
U.N. members, question of Security Council seats for, 

address (Wilcox), 567 
U.S. mutual security program, article (Dulles), 575 
Asian regional nuclear center : 
Establishment at Manila, proposed, 149 
Worliing group, 1st meeting, announcement, address 
(Hollister), and texts of communique and final 
report, 308 
Atlantic alliance, transcript of radio interview (Dulles, 

Serpen ) regarding, 987 
Atlantic Community (see also North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization), addresses and remarks: Dulles, 419; 
Elbriek, 947 ; Herter, 135 
Atomic energy, nuclear weapons : 
Estimate of Communist China's ability to produce, 

statement (Dulles), 141 
International control of : 
4-power (U.S., Canada, France, U.K.) proposals, 
statements : Eisenhower, 455 ; Lodge, 631, 633, 634, 
635, 668, 671, 961, 964 ; working paper, 452 
General Assembly resolution regarding, 962 



Atomic energy, nuclear weapons — Continued 
International control of — Continued 

U.S. and Soviet positions, addresses, article, and 
statements : Dulles, 99, 100, 269, 270, 555, 556, 573 ; 
Eisenhower, 418; Wilcox, 564, 798 
U.S.-Japane.se discussions, joint communique (Eisen- 
hower, Kishi), 52, 53 
NATO stockpile, proposed, statements (Dulles), 233, 

234, 825, 916, 919 
Testing of, proposed suspension : 

4-power (U.S., Canada, France, U.K.) proposals, 
statements: Dulles, 556; Eisenhower, 455; Lodge, 
632, 633, 634, 668, 669, 671, 672, 961, 964; working 
paper, 452 
General Assembly resolution regarding, 962 
U.S. and Soviet views, addresses, article, and state- 
ments : Dulles, 96, 99, 100, 270, 348, 572 ; Eisenhower, 
418 ; Lodge, 632 ; Wilcox, 258, 564, 565, 798 
U.S.-Japanese views, joint communique and messages 
(Eisenhower, Klshi), 53, 635 
Use in event of attack on allies, U.S. policy and allied 
views, statements (Dulles), 920 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses (see also Asian regional nu- 
clear center. Atomic Energy Agency, and Atomic 
Energy Community) : 
Agreements with — 

Brazil, 334, 356; Cuba, 696; Ecuador, 41; France, 
147, 173, 445; Germany, Federal Republic of, 129, 
147, 149, 173, 3.34, 366, 404; Iraq, 41; Italy, 147, 
173 ; Netherlands, 173, 366 ; Nicaragua, 41, 42 ; Nor- 
way, 42 ; Peru, 260, 261 ; Portugal, 42, 587 ; Spain, 
403, 405; Thailand, 86; Union of South Africa, 
215, 218, 445 
Article, remarks, and statements : Dulles, 575, 576 ; 
Eisenhower, 146; Herter, 148; McKinney, 857; 
Strauss, 147, 148 
Inter-American Nuclear Energy Commission, establish- 
ment, 925, 976 
Nuclear energy materials : 

EURATOM treaty provision for common market in, 

1005 
Uranium resources, agreement extending agreement 
with Brazil for cooperative program of reconnais- 
sance, 366 
Uranium 235, U.S. releases of, remarks and state- 
ments : Eisenhower, 146 ; Strauss, 147, 638 
Nuclear power station in Italy, World Bank sponsor- 
ship of study for, 357 
Atomic energy, radiation effects on human health, U.S. 
efforts for safeguarding against, addres.s, article, 
message, and statements : Dulles, 557, 572, 573 ; Eisen- 
hower, 636 ; Hagerty, 185 ; Lodge, 669 
Atomic Energy Agency, International: 

Establishment of, addresses, remarks, and statement: 
Dulles, 555; Eisenhower, 307; Wadsworth, 238; 
Wilcox, 798 
Extension of the International Organizations Immunities 

Act to, announcement and Executive order, 547 
Functions and progress of, remarks (McKinney), 857 
General Conference, 1st : 
Remarks and message : Eisenhower, 638 ; Strauss, 637 
U.S. delegation, 618 



Index, July to December 1957 



1057 



Atomic Energy Agency, International — Continued 
Proposal of W. Sterling Cole as director, U.S. aide 

memoire, 50.1 
Relationship to disarmament, address (Wilcox ) , 565 
Role of Brazil in formation of, 356 
Statute, current actions, 42, 86, 218, 260, 3.34, 365, 444, 

478, 509, 549, 586, 626, 662, 696, 734, 769, 861, 942 
U.S. representative on Board of Governors, 586 
Atomic Energy Conmiunity, European : 

Functions, announcement and statements (Herter, 

Strauss), 147, 148 
Relationship to GATT, 1005 
Significance of, statement (Zellerbach), 610 
Atomic information : 

U.S. views on exchange of, remarks (McKinney), 858 
U.S.-Australian agreement for exchange of atomic in- 
formation for mutual defense purposes, 215, 216 
(text), 218, 405 
U.S.-British cooperation regarding, declaration and 
joint statement, 740, 741 
Attorney General, legislative authority regarding im- 
migration and nationality, 10,32, 1033, 1034 
Anerbaeh, Frank L., 1030 
Australia : 

Air transport negotiations with U.S., 21, 879 
Participation in collective security arrangements, 390 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, agreement amending 1946 agreement 

with U.S., 402, 405 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 334 
Atomic information for mutual defense purposes, 
agreement with U.S. for cooperation regarding ex- 
change of, 215, 216 ( text ) , 218, 405 
GATT, amending protocol. 850 

Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 
amending, 770 
Austria : 

Balance-of -payments con.sultations under GATT, 153 

International Bank loan, 685 

Tariff concessions to U.S., GATT, renegotiation of, 581, 

851 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Austrian dollar bonds, agreement and protocol with 

U.S. regarding, 173, 297, 532, 549, 662 
D()Ul)le taxation of income, convention with U.S. for 

avoidance, 405, 722, 814 
GATT, amending protocol, 850 

Military equipment, materials, and .services, agree- 
ment with U.S. relating to purchase of, 405 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 366 
Auto travel, international. See Travel 
Aviation : 

Aerial inspection proposals of President Eisenhower. 

See Disarmament 
Aeronautical Research and Development, meeting of 
NATO Advisory Group for, letter (Eisenhower), 
951 
Air defense forces, U.S. and Canadian integration of, 
joint statement (Wilson, Pearkes), 306 



Aviation — Continued 

Air transport talks, with — 

Australia, 21 ; Belgium, 280 ; Brazil, 579 ; France, 754, 
1037 ; Scandinavian countries, 846 
Air transportation, development in Latin America, 926 
Air transportation policy, international, address 

(Dillon), 877 
Aircraft, Soviet, permission for flight to U.S., announce- 
ment and note, 470 
Aircraft, U.S., claims for destruction. See under Claims 
Aviation Week, Argentine, messages (Aramburu, 

Eisenhower), 929 
Helicopters, U.S., provision to Pakistan for emergency 

transportation purposes, 187 
International Civil Aviation Organization. See Inter- 
national Civil Aviation 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aerial photography, agreement with Venezuela for 

joint program of, 696 
Air navigation services in Faroe Islands, Greenland, 
and Iceland, agreements for joint financing, 42, 906 
Air services transit agreement (1944), international, 

478, 942 
Air transport agreements, with — 

Australia, 402, 405; Cuba, 626; Egypt, 354, 405 
Aircraft, imported, agreements relating to certificates 
of airworthiness, with — 
Belgium, 1049 ; Spain, 662 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules 
relating to, 1018 
Civil aviation convention (1944), international, and 
protocol amending, 42, .509, 942 
Azores, defense facilities in, supplementary agreement 
with Portugal, joint statement and text, 905 

Baghdad Pact : 
Member countries, U.S. economic assistance under 

American Doctrine, 341 
Military Committee, U.S. participation in, 277, 278 
Ministerial Council, 3d meeting, statements (Hender- 
son) and text of final communique, 276 
Working Party reiwrt on proposed establishment of 
free trade area, text of final communique, 684 
Balance of payments : 

Consultations under GATT, 153, 1005 
U.S.-Latiu America, article (Lederer, Culliertson), 79 
Ballistic missiles. See Missiles 
Baltic States, Soviet assurances prior to incorporation, 

377 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development. See Inter- 
national Bank 
Barbados, agreement supplementing 1956 agreement with 
U.K. regarding establishment of oceanographic re- 
search station in, 861 
Barbour, Robert E., 334 
Barco, James W., 626 
Bartlett, Frederic P., 478 
Bases, U.S., overseas. See Military bases 
Beale, Wilson Thomas Moore, Jr., 662, 803, 871 



1058 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



Beam, Jacob D., 130 
Benulao, Willard L., 647 
Becker. Loftus E., IG, 42, 884 
Belgian Congo : 
Belgian tax convention with U.S., application to, 477, 

025 
International Bank loan, 1010 
Belgium : 

Air transport consultations with U.S., 280 
Brussels Exhibition. See Brussels Universal 
Import restrictions, elimination of, 1006 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Aircraft, imported, replacement of 1932 arrangement 
with U.S. relating to certificates of airworthiness, 
1049 
Commercial samples and advertising material, con- 
vention (19.")2) to facilitate Importation, 626 
Double taxation on income, supplementary convention 

with U.S., 445, 477, 625 (text) 
GATT, 6th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, .509 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 

amending, 770 
Trade agreement with U.S. (on behalf of Benelux), 
supplementary to GATT, 129, 200 
Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union, GATT supple- 
mentary trade agreement on behalf of, 129, 200 
Benelux. See Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union 
Benson, Ezra Taft, 683 
Berding, Andrew H., 835 
Berlin : 

Congress Hall, opening, 431 
East Berlin uprising, 4th anniversary, 50 
Increase in refugees entering, 26 
Mayor Otto Suhr, tribute to, address (Murphy), 483 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses, U.S. agreement with the 
Federal Republic on behalf of city, 129, 149, 173, 
334 
Motion picture films, U.S. agreement with Federal 
Republic regarding importation and exhibition of, 
extension to Land Berlin, 906 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, application to Land 
Berlin of international convention and protocol 
for, 942 
Plant protection convention (1951), international, 
extension to Land Berlin, 218 
Berlin Declaration, 4-power (U.S., U.K., France, Federal 

Republic) statement on German reunification, 304 
Bicycles, U.S. tariff policy regarding, 722 
Bills of lading, international convention (1924) for uni- 
fication of rules relating to, and protocol of signature, 
906 
Birch, John A., 436 
Black, Eugene R., 357 
Bohlen, Charles E., 60 
Bolivia, agricultural commodities agreements with U.S., 

86, 129, 549 
Bonds of Austrian issue denominated in dollars, agreement 
and protocol with Austria regarding, 173, 297, 532, 
549, 662 



Bonin Islands, return of administrative control to Japan, 
U.S.-Japauese discussions regarding, joint communi- 
que (Eisenhower, Kishi), 52 
Boundary waters, U.S.-Canadlan cooperation in manage- 
ment of, 720, 721 
Bovey, John A., Jr., 478 

Bow resolution regarding criminal jurisdiction over U.S. 
forces abroad, memorandum and letters (Eisenhower, 
Herter), 198, 296 
Brazil : 

Air transport consultations with U.S., 579 
Tariff adjustments under GATT, 1006 
TarifC negotiations with U.S., notice of preliminary hear- 
ings, 804 
Taxes inconsistent with GATT, removal of, 1008 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural surpluses, agreement correcting 1956 

agreement with U.S., 334 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S., 334, 

356 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 334 
Duties and rights of states in event of armed con- 
flict, protocol to 1928 convention on, 366 
Educational exchange, agreement with U.S. for fi- 
nancing, 860, 861 
Uranium reconnaissance, agreement extending 1955 
agreement with U.S., 366 
U.S. consulate at Curitiba, opening, 445 
British Guiana, agreement with U.S. for exchange of in- 
ternational money orders, 1018 
Broadcasting. See Telecommunications 
Brookhaven National Laboratory, 308, 312 
Brucker, Wilber M., 718 

Brussels Universal and International Exhibition for 1958 : 
Deputy U.S. Commissioner General, appointment, 119 
State Department administration of U.S. participation, 
announcement and Executive order, 150 
Bulgaria : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 444 
Destruction of Israeli aircraft (1955), application by 
U.S. to ICJ regarding damage claims for deaths 
of American passengers, texts of diplomatic cor- 
respondence, 882 
Nikola Petkov, 10th anniversary of execution, 567 
Burgess, W. Randolph, 218, 951 
Burma : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 129 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 769 
Civil aviation, international, protocol amending con- 
vention on, 509 
Economic cooperation, agreement with U.S., 861 
GATT, protocol amending, 850 
Butterfat articles, import restrictions on, announcement 

and proclamation, 357 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (See also Soviet 
Union), convention (1936) fixing minimum age for 
employment at sea, 42 
Byington, Homer Morrison, Jr., 662 

Cabot, John M., 1038 

Calendar of international meetings, 38, 246, 398, 583, 729, 



Index, July to December 1957 



1059 



Calhoun, John A., 770 
Cambodia : 

ICJ, declaration recognizing compulsory jurisdiction de- 
posited, 734 
Mutual mapping assistance, agreement with U.S. re- 
lating to, 814 
Cameroons, French, establishment of U.S. consulate at 

Yaounde, 261 
Canada : 
Air defenise forces, integration with U.S. forces, joint 

statement (Wilson, Pearkes) , 306 
Atomic missile bases, U.S., question of establishment in, 

statement (Dulles), 917 
Continental defense system, cooperation with U.S., ad- 
dress (Eisenhower), 821 
Disarmament. See Disarmament and London disarma- 
ment talks 
Election to Security Council, statement (Lodge), 661 
International Joint Commission. See International 

Joint Commission 
Joint U.S.-Canadian Committee on Trade and Economic 
Affairs, 3d meeting, announcement and joint com- 
munique, 381, 474, 683 
Prime Minister, meeting with Secretary Dulles, 272 
Security information, texts of U.S. and Canadian notes 

regarding exchange and handling of, 384 
Tariff concessions, GATT, renegotiation of, 581, 850 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Knergy Agency, International, statute, 334 
Double taxation of income, convention modifying and 
supplementing 1942 convention with U.S. for avoid- 
ance of, 405, 612, 626, 734 
GATT, protocol amending, 850 
GATT, 6th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 509 
North Pacific fur seals, interim convention on conser- 
vation, 586 
Sockeye salmon fisheries in the Fraser River sys- 
tem, protocol to 1930 convention with U.S. for 
protection, preservation, and extension of, 129, 
218, 366 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 

amending, 770 
Whaling convention (1946), International, protocol 
amending, 86 
U.S. relations with, address and remarks : 

Brucker, 718 ; Jones, 380 
U.S. tariff quotas on potatoes, revision of, 154 
Candau, M.G., 1000, 1003 
Capital, private, investment abroad. See Investment of 

private capital abroad 
CARE, emergency relief aid to Colombia, 1042 
Cargo, William I., 510 
Cartas Castillo, Tiburcio, 717 

Caribbean Commission, U.S. delgation to 7th session of 
West Indian Conference and 25th meeting of Com- 
mission, 903 
Carnahan, Rep. A. S. J., 443, 652, 974 
Carpenter, Francis W., 462 
Cartels, international, and national antitrust legislation, 

GATT consideration of, 1008 
Castillo Armas, Carlos, 273 



Central America (see also Inter- America, Latin America, 
and Pan American), itinerary for visit by As.sistant 
Secretary for Inter-American Affairs, 84 
Central Intelligence Agency, relationship of coordinating 

functions to foreign policymaking, 432 
Ceylon : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 444 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 444 
Tariff concessions to U.S., GATT, renegotiation of, 

581, 850, 852 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation and statement (Dul- 
les), 218, 345 
Chapin, Vinton, 218 
Chapman, Daniel Ahmling, 1029 
Charter of the United Nations. See United Nations 

Charter 
Chemistry, International Union of Pure and Applied, 

U.S. delegation to 19th conference, 213 
Chile : 

Closing of U.S. consulate and opening of consular 

agency at Valparaiso, 062 
ILO, instrument (1953) for amending of constitution, 

478 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, con- 
vention, 478 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 

and final protocol, 86 
Uraniimi resources, agreement with U.S. for coopera- 
tive program relating to, 734 
Visit to U.S. by President, announcement, 343 
China, Communist : 
Atomic weapons, estimate of ability to produce, state- 
ment (Dulles), 141 
Cultural exchanges with U.S., question of, address and 

statement (Dulles), 93, 229 
Detention and release of U.S. civilians, 390, 420, 1000 
Disarmament agreement, proposed, question of inclu- 
sion of Communist China, statement (Dulles), 140 
Education in, address (Eleanor Dulles), 25, 26 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners of 

war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 861 
Internal problems of, address, article, and statements: 

Dulles, 139, 143, 144, 570 ; Murphy, 484 
International Red Cross conference, walkout of Chinese 

Communist delegates, statement (Reap), 904 
Mao Tse-tung"s speech, statements (Dulles) regarding 

101, 139 
Olympic Games, question of participation in, statement 

(Dulles), 530 
Subversive policy in the Far East, addresses : Jones, 

842; Murphy, 484 
Thought-control policy in, address (Allen Dulles), 643 
Trade with, question of controls on, addresses and state- 
ments : Dulles, 14, 15, 93, 145 ; Sebald, 392 
Travel to : 

Correspondents, U.S. : 
Authorization and statements (Dulles), 420, 459, 

460, 461 
Question of reciprocal admission to U.S. and Com- 
munist China, statement (Johnson) aud proposal, 
533 



1060 



Department of State Bulletin 



China, Communist — Continued 
Travel to — Continued 

Passports, issuance to relatives of imprisoned U.S. 

citizens, 999 
U.S. policy, address (O'Connor), announcement, and 
message (Herter), 392, 607 
U.N. representation, question of, addresses and state- 
ments : Dulles, 93 ; Lodge, 658 ; Sebald, 391 ; Wilcox, 
566, 794 
U.S. policy of nonrecognition, addresses and statements : 
Dulles, 91, 139, 144 ; Sebald, 389, 390 
China, Republic of: 
Exclusion from International Red Cross Conference, 

Communist attempt at, statement (Reap), 904 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 549 
Educational exchange program, agreement amending 
and extending 1947 agreement with U.S., 1017, 1049 
Parcel post, insured, agreement with U.S. concerning 

exchange, 549, 906 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 297 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 
amending, 770 
U.N. membership, address and statements : Dulles, 93 

Lodge, 659 
U.S. mutual security aid, statements : Dulles, 412 

Hollister, 416 
U.S. policy toward, addresses: Dulles, 92; Jones, 843 
Sebald, 390 
Churchill, Gordon, 683 
CIA. See Central Intelligence Agency 
Citizen's Responsibility in International Affairs, address 

(Wilcox), 103 
Citizenship and education, relationship to NATO objec- 
tives, address (Norstad), 952 
Citrus fruit, agreement with U.K. relating to sale for 

sterling, 587 
Civil Aeronautics Board, role in negotiation of air trans- 
port agreements, 878 
Civil aviation. See Aviation 

Civil Aviation Organization, International. See Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
Civilian persons, Geneva convention (1949) relative to 

treatment in time of war, 86, 173, 405, 861 
Civilians, U.S. See United States citizens 
Claims : 

Federal Republic of Germany, modification of law 

for external restitution, 581 
German war assets, proposed return of, 230, 306 
Owners of seagoing ships, text of international con- 
vention on limitation of liability, 759 
Pacific Islands Trust Territory, settlement of claims in, 

251 
Tripartite Commission on German assets in Japan, no- 
tice regarding claims, 30 
U.S. claims against — 

Bulgaria, for deaths of American citizens resulting 
from destruction of Israeli aircraft, texts of dip- 
lomatic correspondence, 882 
Soviet Union for destruction of aircraft over Sea of 

Japan, notes regarding submission to ICJ, 470 
Soviet Union for destruction of B-29 over Hokkaido, 
announcement and U.S. note, 68 

Index, July to December 1957 



Claims — Continued 

War damage claims, memorandum of understanding 
with Italy regarding, 814 
Clothespins, spring, import duty on : 

Announcement, letter (Eisenhower), and proclama- 
tion, 958 
Complaint by Denmark and Sweden at 12th session of 
GATT, 1008 
Clothing and food industries, U.S., observation by Polish 

officials, 748 
Clough, Ralph N., 42 

Clover seed, alsike, extension of tariff quota on, an- 
nouncement and proclamation, 210 
Coal and Steel Community, European. See European 

Coal and Steel Community 
Cole, Rep. W. Sterling, 505, 798 
Coleman, John S., 8n 

Collective security (see also Atlantic Community, De- 
fense, Mutual defense. Mutual security, and Na- 
tional defense) : 
Allied defense policy, statements (Dulles), 786, 788, 789 
Asia (see also Southeast Asia Treaty Organization) : 
ANZUS Council, meeting and delegates, 646 
Australian participation in, 390 
U.S. participation in, 842 

U.S.-Pakistani views regarding, joint communique 
(Eisenhower, Suhrawardy), 186 
Concept of, statements (Dulles), 12, 790 
Economic aspects of, report by Office of the President, 

724 
Europe. See European security and North Atlantic 

Treaty Organization 
Near and Middle East. See American Doctrine and 

Baghdad Pact 
Regional organizations for, question of further integra- 
tion, statement (Dulles), 988 
Relationship to inter-American economic development, 

statement (Anderson), 465 
Relationship to trade policy, address (Beale), 872 
U.S. and free-world policy of, address and article (Dul- 
les), 557, 571 
U.S.-British policy, declaration (Eisenhower, Macmil- 
lan), 740, 471 
Collisions at sea, regulations (1948) for preventing, 734 
Colombia : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements amending 1957 
memorandum of understanding with U.S., 662, 734 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 674 
Cooperative health program, agreement extending 1950 

agreement with U.S., 662 
U.S.-Colombian cooperation, address (Cabot), 1038 
Colombo Plan : 
Asian regional nuclear center. See Asian regional 
Consultative Committee : 
6th annual report, release of, 1044 
9th meeting, U.S. delegation, communique, and ex- 
tract from annual report, 695, 899 
10th meeting to be held in U.S., announcement, 775 
Economic development of member states, U.S. role in, 

address (Reinhardt), 755 
International Bank loans to member countries, 901, 1045 

1061 



Commemorative stamp honoring Pliilippine President Mag- 
saysay, remarks and statement (Dulles, Eisenhower), 
472 
Commerce. See Trade 

Commerce, navigation, and friendship, treaties with — 
Korea, Republic of, 405, 510, 685, 696, 942 ; Netherlands, 
SCO, SCI, 942 
Commerce Department, administration of U.S. participa- 
tion in trade fairs abroad, announcement and Execu- 
tive order, 151 
Commercial convention (1852) with Netherlands, termina- 
tion, 942 
Commercial relations, U.S. and other countries. See Eco- 
nomic policy and relations, U.S. ; Tariff policy, U.S. ; 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on ; Trade ; and 
Trade agreements 
Commercial samples and advertising material, interna- 
tional convention (1952) to facilitate importation of, 
129, 509, 5S7, 626, 662, 734, 813 
Commercial treaties. See Trade : Treaties ; and Trade 

agreements 
Committee for Reciprocity Information, Interdepart- 
mental, 581, 686, 805, 850 
Committee of Presidential Representatives, proposals re- 
garding OAS, address (Rubottom), 925 
Commodity agreements, inter-American, proposed, U.S. 

position, address (Rubottom), 678 
Commodity Credit Corporation. See Agricultural Sur- 
pluses : Agricultural Trade Development and Assist- 
ance Act 
Common Market, European. See European Economic 

Community 
Common markets, Latin American, proposed, U.S. posi- 
tion, address (Rubottom), 680 
Communications. See Telecommunications 
Communism («ee also China, Communist; Soviet Union; 
and Soviet-bloc countries) : 
Communist Party : 
Membership in, grounds for denial of U.S. passport, 

address ( O'Connor ) , 606 
Relationship to Soviet Government, statement 
(Dulles), 827 
Cultural diplomacy, use for subversive purposes, ad- 
dress (Herter),832 
Economic penetration policies. See Less developed 

countries : Economic penetration 
Education, Communist, address (Eleanor Dulles), 25 
Effect of Soviet actions in Hungary on, 64, 193, 237 
Internal problems faced by, addresses and article: 

Dulles, 570 ; Allen Dulles, 639 ; Jones, 844 
International communism, problem of : 

Addresses, article, and remarks: Brucker, 720; 

Dulles, 577 ; Eisenhower, 867 ; Murphy, 484 
U.S.-Japanese views, joint communique (Eisenhower, 
Kishi),51 
Miscalculation of U.S. Intentions by, statements 

(Dulles), 530 
Subversive activities in — 
Africa, article (Palmer), 933 



Commxmism — Continued 

Subversive activities in — Continued 
Asia : 
Addresses and statements: Dulles, 487, 488, 530; 

Kishi, 53 ; Jones, 841 
SEATO seminar on, U.S. participants and final 
communique, 978, 993 
Baghdad Pact countries, statements (Henderson) 

and communique, 277, 278, 279, 280 
Indonesia, statement (Dulles), 1027 
Laos and Korea, statement (Washington), 854, 855 
Latin America, statement (Dulles), 826 
Less developed countries, addresses : Allen Dulles, 

644 ; Nixon, 703 ; Wilcox, 108 
Near and Middle East, joint communique and state- 
ment : Eisenhower, Suhrawardy, 186 ; Kretzmann, 
351, 354 
Syria, address and statements : Dulles, 487, 527, 528, 
531; Murphy, 485 
U.S. and free-world efforts to combat (see also Ameri- 
can Doctrine) : 
Addresses, article, and statements: Dillon, 880; 
Dulles, 411, 569; Elbriek, 947; Herter, 48; Hol- 
lister, 414; Jones, 843; Murphy, 486; Radford, 
413 ; Wilcox, 180 ; Zellerbach, 611 
Joint declaration (Eisenhower, Macmillan), 740 
Conferences and organizations, international {see also 
subject), calendar of meetings, 38, 246, 398, 583, 729, 
888 
Congo, Belgian : 
Belgian tax convention with U.S., application to, 477, 

625 
International Bank loan, 1010 
Congress, U.S. : 
Addresses by : Prime Minister of Japan, 53 ; Prime 

Minister of Pakistan, 187, 189 
Documents relating to foreign policy, lists of, 85, 152, 

200, 24.1, 297, 322, 397, 437, 476, 493, 582, 807 
Legislation : 

American Doctrine for the Middle East, statement 

(Richards), 17 
Cotton, long staple, sale from U.S. stockpile, state- 
ment (Eisenhower), 209 
Development Loan Fund, addresses and statements: 
Dillon, 32, 115, 117, 913, 915 ; Dulles, 5, 412 ; Hol- 
lister, 416; Jacoby, 503; Nixon, 706 
Immigration and Nationality Act, amendment, ad- 
dres.ses and statement: Auerbach, 1030; Eisen- 
hower, 543 ; McCollum, 66 
Implementation of 1955 treaty with Panama, 477 
Legislation, proposed : 

Antidumping Act (1921), revision of, statement 

(Birch), 436 
Lead and zinc imiwrts, excise taxes on, letters and 
statement : Armstrong, 321 ; Eisenhower, Cooper, 
490 
Mutual security program, statements : Dulles, 3, 411, 
458, 459 ; Eisenhower, 371 ; Hagerty, 373 ; Hollis- 
ter, 414 ; Radford, 413 ; Richards, 19 
OTC, U.S. membership, address (Dillon), 915 



1062 



Department of State Bulletin 



Congross, U.S. — Continued 

Legislation, proposed — Continued 

liogionnl liroadcasting agreements. Mexican and 

Xortli American, statement (Sattertliwaite), 242 
Status-of-forces agreements, revision of, letters, 
memorandum, and statements : Eisenliower, 296 ; 
Herter, 198 ; Murphy, 317 
Trade agreements legislation : 

Addresses and statements: Beale, 871, 872, 873; 

Dillon, 913; Mann, 847; Nixon, 706 
Administration proposals, 1042 
U.S. reserve fleet ships, sale abroad, statement (Kali- 
jarvi) and letter (Hill), 77 
Presidential messages, reports, etc. See Eisenhower : 
Messages, reports, and letters to Congress 
Conover, Harry, 734 
Consular rights, amity, and economic relations, treaty 

with Iran, 129 
Consular service, U.S. See Foreign Service 
Consultative Committee for Economic Development in 

South and Southeast Asia. See Colombo Plan 
Cooper, Rep. Jere, 491 
Cope, Arthur C, 214 
Copyright : 
Intergovernmental Copyright Committee, 2d session, 694 
Royalties, avoidance of double taxation on income 
from, protocol supplementing 1945 convention veith 
IT.K.. 444 
Universal copyright convention (1952), 86, 173, 694, 
813, 942 
Corette, John E., 586 
CorresiMndents, news : 
Attendance at Secretary Dulles' conferences, question 
of identification of, statements (Dulles, White), 
824 
Journalists from NATO countries, itinerary for visit 

to U.S., 651 
U.S. correspondents, question of travel to Communist 
China. Sec under Communist China 
Costa Rica, protocol to 1928 convention on duties and 

rights of states in event of armed conflict, 366 
Cotton, long staple, sale from U.S. stockpile, statement 

(Eisenhower), 209 
Crowe, Philip K., 862 

Crude oil, establishment of special committee to investi- 
gate U.S. imports of, 209 
Cuba: 
Internal situation, statement (Dulles), 349 
Tariff adjustments under GATT, 1006 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air transport, agreement amending annex to 1953 

agreement with U.S., 626 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S., 696 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 662 
Duties and rights of states in event of armed conflict, 

protocol to 1928 convention on, 662 
GATT, amending protocol, 850 

GATT, 8th protocol of supplementary concessions, 129 
IFC, articles of agreement, 586 



Cuba — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Investment receipts, agreement with U.S. providing 

guaranties against inconvertibility of, 1018 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 

amending, 770 
Trade agreement with U.S., supplementary to GATT, 
157 
U.S. tariff concession to, announcement and proclama- 
tion, 154, 156 
Culbertson, Nancy F., 79 

Cultural property, convention (1954) for protection in 
event of armed conflict, and regulations of execution 
and protocol, 334, 906 
Cultural relations (see also East-West contacts. Educa- 
tional exchange, and Exchange of persons) : 
Advisory Committee on the Arts, appointment of mem- 
bers, 747 
Cooperation in science, culture, and education, state- 
ment ( Jleany ) , 764 
Cultural diplomacy, growth and importance of, address 

(Herter), 831 
Cultural exchange program, administration of, an- 
nouncement and Executive order, 150 
Cultural exchanges with Communist China, question 

of, address and statement (Dulles), 93, 229 
Inter-American convention (1954) for promotion of, 

404, 586, 696, 861 
U.S. cooperation with Colombia, address (Cabot), 1041 
USIA activities in, address (Berding), 838 
Curasao, agreement with Netherlands for establishment 
and operation of rawinsonde observation station, 549 
Customs (seenZsoTariff policy, U.S.) : 
Customs tariffs, protocol modifying 1890 convention for 
creation of international union for publication of, 
365, 626, 662, 696, 042 
Private road vehicles, convention (1954) on temiwrary 

importation of. 86, 173, 626, 734, 813, 906 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning facilities for, 
86, 173, 218, 365, 549, 626, 813 
Customs Simplification Act of 1956, 436, 437 
Czechoslovakia : 
Eilucation in, address (Eleanor Dulles), 25, 26 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 218 
Civil aviation convention (1954), international, pro- 
tocol amending, 42 
GATT, amending protocol, 850 

GATT, 6th protocol of rectifications and modifica- 
tions to schedules, 814 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 
amending, 770 

Dairy products, U.S. tariff policy regarding : 
Announcement, letter (Eisenhower), and proclamation, 

33, 475 
Complaint by Netherlands at 12th session of GATT, 
1008 
Dates, President decides against import restrictions on, 

397, 960 
David, Nelson B., 545 



Index, July fo December 1957 



1063 



Defense (see also Mutual defense, Mutual security, and 
National defense) : 
Agreement supplementing 1951 agreement with Portu- 
gal, 905, 942 
Facilities assistance program, agreements with France 

regarding, 696 
Naval vessels or small craft, agreement with Greece 

relating to loan of, 478 
Practice bombing range at Cuxhaven (Sandbank), Ger- 
many, agreement supplementing 1954 arrangement 
with the Federal Republic for use of, 478 
Defense, Secretary of, functions in administration of 

Ryukyu Islands, Executive order, 55, 57 
Defense Department, transfer of funds for military por- 
tion of mutual security program to, 115 
Defense support. See Mutual security 
De KaufCmann, Henrik, 846 
Denmark : 

Air transport talks with U.S., 846 
Balance-of-payments consultations under GATT, 153 
Complaint against U.S. increase in duty on spring 

clothespins, GATT consideration of, 1008 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 260 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules 
relating to, 1018 
GATT, protocol amending, 850 

Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 
amending, 334 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 130 
Development Loan Fund : 
Administration of, announcements and Executive order, 

990 
Appointment of Manager, 1018 
Functions, addresses : Dillon, 881 ; Reinhardt, 756 
Legislation regarding, addresses and statements : Dil- 
lon, 32, 115, 117, 913, 915 ; Dulles, 5, 412 ; HoUister, 
416; Jacoby,503; Nixon, 706 
DEW. See Distant early warning system 
Diefenbaker, John, 272 
Diem, Ngo Dinh, 61 
Dillon, C. Douglas : 
Addresses and statements : 

Economic Conference of the OAS, 539 

Encouraging Economic Growth in Less Developed 

Countries of the Free World, 31 
International Air Transportation Policy ; the Mutual 

Security Program, 877 
International Trade and Development — The Year 

Ahead, 911 
Our Mutual Security Programs, 114 
Progress in International Financing, 597 
Coordination of mutual security programs, 991, 993 
Trade Agreements Act, proposed extension, 1042 
U.S.-Yugoslav economic talks, 646 
Dlnsmore, Lee, 174 
Diplomacy {see also Foreign Service) : 

Diplomatic recognition, character and criteria for 

granting, address (Dulles), 93 
New dimensions in, address (Herter), 831 



Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Law, U.S. delegation 
and texts of conventions regarding liability of ship- 
owners and stowaways, 759 
Diplomatic representatives, U.S., abroad. See under 

Foreign Service 
Diplomatic representatives in the U.S. : 

Presentation of credentials : Argentina, 343 ; Colom- 
bia, 674; Ghana, 1029; Honduras, 717; Jordan, 
315; Malaya, Thailand, 717; Turkey, 533 
Syrian Ambassador and Second Secretary declared 
persona non grata, 388 
Disarmament {see also Armaments; Armed forces; 
Atomic energy: Nuclear weapons; Disarmament 
Commission; Missiles; and Outer-space projectiles) : 
Communist China, question of inclusion in prospective 

agreement, statement (Dulles), 140 
General Assembly consideration of 4-power (U.S., 
Canada, France, U.K.) proposals: 
Address and statements : Dulles, 555 ; Lodge, 667, 961 
Resolutions, 962, 963 
Internal pressure on Soviet leaders for acceptance of, 

643 
London disarmament talks. See London disarmament 
Military expenditures, reports to international arms 

control organization. Western proposal, 452 
Relationship to German reunification, 4-power (U.S., 
Federal Republic, France, U.K.) declaration and 
statement (Dulles), 233, 305 
Relationship to IAEA, address (Wilcox), 565 
U.S. and Soviet positions, address, article, and state- 
ments: Dulles, 96, 267, 574; Lodge, 631; Murphy, 
485; Wilcox, 797 
U.S.-Canadian views, statement (Dulles), 272 
U.S.-Pakistani views regarding, joint communique 

(Eisenhower, Suhrawardy), 186 
U.S.-U.K. policy, joint declaration (Elsenhower, Mac- 
millan ) , 740 
Disarmament Commission, U.N. : 
Current documents, listed, 661 
Enlargement of, question of, statements (Lodge) 962, 

965 
General Assembly resolutions regarding, 962, 963, 965 
Soviet withdrawal from, question of, statements: 

Dulles, 824, 825 ; Lodge, 963 
Subcommittee meetings in London. See London dis- 
armament talks 
Displaced persons. See Refugees and displaced persons 
Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945 {The 
War Years, June 23-August SI, 1940), series D, voL 
X, published, 405 
Dollar bonds of Austrian issue, agreement and protocol 

with Austria regarding, 173, 297, 532, 549, 662 
Dominican Republic : 

Inauguration of President-elect, U.S. delegation, 396 
Reply to U.S. request for waiver of judicial immunity 
in Murphy-Galindez case, statement (Dulles), 144 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 218 
Duties and rights of states in event of civil strife, 

protocol to 1928 convention on, 662 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
(1955) and agreement relative to parcel post, 734 



1064 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



i 



Dominican Republic — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Road traffic, convention (1949), and protocol regard- 
ing, 549 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 
amending, 770 
Dorman, John, 478 

Double taxation on estates and inheritances, supple- 
mentary convention with France for avoidance of, 16, 
42 
Double taxation on income, conventions for avoidance of, 
with — 
Austria, 405, 722, 814; Belgium, 445, 477, 625; Canada, 
405, 612, 626, 734 ; France, 16, 42 ; Japan, 405, 534, 
626; Pakistan, 172, 173, 359; Peru, proposed, 84; 
U.K., 444, 445, 622 
Dreier, John C, 976 

Drought relief, agreement with Peru relating to, 298 
Drugs, narcotic : 
Manufacture and distribution, protocol broadening 

scope of 1931 convention on, 297 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, 
and use of, 297, 813, 1049 
Due process of law, American doctrine of, application to 
international judicial assistance, article (McCusker), 
811 
Dulles, Allen W., 639 
Dulles, Eleanor. 25 
Dulles, John Foster : 
Addresses, article, statements, etc. : 
Adlai Stevenson, role in State Department, 917, 1026 
Algerian question, 14, 142 
Allied defense policy, 786, 788, 789 
Ambassadors, U.S., considerations governing ap- 
pointment of, 345 
American Doctrine for the Middle East, 232, 527, 528, 

529, 532, 714 
Arab-Israeli dispute, U.S. position, 232, 234 
Arctic area, aerial inspection of, 10 
Argentina, question of increased U.S. aid to, 97 
Atlantic alliance, 987 

Atomic and nuclear weapons, 96, 99, 100, 233, 234, 920 
Challenge and Response in U.S. Foreign Policy, 569 
China, Communist : 
Atomic weapons, estimate of ability to produce, 141 
Communism in, passing phase of, 139, 143 
Cultural exchanges with U.S., question of, 93, 229 
Disarmament agreement proposed, question of in- 
clusion of, 140 
Liberalization of government, prospects for, 139, 

144, 570 
Mao Tse-tung's speech, 101, 139 
Olympic games, question of participation in, 530 
Passports, Communist, question of acceptance by 

U.S., 461 
Trade with, question of embargo on, 14, 15, 93, 145 
U.S. newsmen, proposed visit to, 420, 459, 460, 461 
U.S. policy toward, 91, 139, 144 
China, Republic of, U.S. policy toward, 92, 93 
Collective security, 12, 557, 571, 788, 790, 988 
Communism, miscalculation of U.S. intentions by, 530 

Index, July fo December 1957 



Dulles, John Foster — Continued 
Addresses, article, statements, etc. — Continued 

Correspondents at news conferences, question of Iden- 
tification of, 824 
Cuba, political situation In, 349 
Defense policy, U.S., 710 
Disarmament, 9, 11, 96, 98, 99, 100, 101, 140, 230, 

267, 304, 346, 348, 531, 555, 574 
Dominican Republic, reply to U.S. request respecting 

Murphy-Galindez case, 144 
Eisenhower-Macmillan accords, effect on U.S. defense 

spending, 788 
Foreign policy, bipartisan formulation of, 1029 
Foreign trade and tariff policy, 1029 
German Foreign Minister, plans for discussions with, 

918, 919 
German reunification, relation to European disarma- 
ment inspection zone, 233 
German war assets, proposed return, 230 
Germany, Federal Republic of: 

Elections in, 460 

Industrial production of, 1029 
Gifts to U.S. officials, question of, 787 
Girard case, 918 

Gulf of Aqaba, international status of, 232 
Imam of Oman, appeal to U.S. in dispute with U.K., 

344 
India, question of U.S. aid to, 529 
Indonesia, situation in, 1027 
Inter-American Economic Conference, 530 
Inter-American partnership, 715 
Interdependence, principle of, 1024 
Israel, arms supply to, U.S. iwUcy, 527 
Japan, reduction of U.S. forces in, 97, 98 
Japanese Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 12, 96, 99, 

101, 459 
Jordan, U.S. economic and military aid to, 141, 526, 

528, 529 
Khrushchev-Tito meeting, 345 
Korea, prospects for international conference on 

unification, 142 
Latin America : 

Communist infiltration of, 826 

U.S. economic policy and relations, 12, 532 
Lead and zinc imports, question of restrictions on, 

349 
Limited wars, possibility of, 1023 
Malaria eradication, U.S. contributions, 1002 
Marshal Tito, question of visit to U.S., 234 
Near and Middle East : 

American Doctrine. See American Doctrine, supra 

Arms supply policy, 232, 526, 528, 529, 532, 710, 714 

Development plan, proposed, 1026 

Refugee problem, 96, 102 

Situation in, 714 

U.S. and Soviet poUcies, 100, 487, 526, 528, 529, 
709, 785 

Visit by Deputy Under Secretary Henderson, 459, 
461, 487 
Missile bases, U.S., question of establishment, 916, 

919, 1023, 1024 
Missiles, U.S. and Soviet development of, 708, 830 
Mohamed V of Morocco, visit to U.S., 956 

1065 



Dulles, John Foster — Continued 

Addresses, article, statements, etc. — Continued 

Mutual security programs, U.S., 3, 411, 458, 459, 791 
National defense and security, budgetary considera- 
tions, 713 
NATO, 419, 825, 827, 828, 920, 987, 1027, 1028 
NATO Heads of Government meeting, 789, 1023, 1026, 

1027, 1029 
OAS, importance of, quoted, 925 
Oliinawa, U.S. role in, 145 
Outer space, question of control over, 326 
Peace, 531 
Philippine elections, effect on renegotiation of base 

agreement with U.S., 918 
-Queen Elizabetli II, visit to U.S., 711, 745 
Radio and television programs, proposed exchanges 

with Soviet Union, 13, 14 
School integration Lssue, effect on U.S. foreign 

policy, 528 
Scientific cooperation, U.S.-U.K., question of increas- 
ing, 709, 710 
SEATO, 3d anniversary, 487 
Senator George, tribute to, 344 

Southeast Asia, Communist electoral gains in, 530 
Soviet Union : 
ICBM, reported firing of, 457 
ImperialisrS, contrast with colonialism, 990 
Internal policies and problems, 144, 228, 229, 231, 

783, 790, 826 
Negotiations with, question of value of, 711, 989 
Satellites, Soviet, significance of, 708, 710, 825 
Subversive activity abroad, 712 
Technological achievements, challenge to U.S., 710, 

829 
Threat to free world, efforts to combat, 988 
U.S.-Soviet relations, 635 

Withdrawal from U.N. disarmament negotiations, 
824, 825 
State legislation concerning Japanese imports to U.S., 

question of repeal, 100 
Suez Canal operation, status of negotiations with 

Egypt, 13 
Syria, poUtical situation in, 458, 461, 487, 527, 528, 

531, 532 
Tunisia, U.S. arms shipments to, 918, 920, 921, 922 
Turkey, Soviet efforts to dominate, 709, 712, 713, 714 
U.K. Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 741 
United Nations, issues confronting, 274, 555 
U.S. Armed Forces, question of supernational author- 
ity over, 790 
U.S. overseas bases, 348, 828 

U.S. stamp commemorating Philippine President, 473 
U.S. economic policy, 922 

Vice President, proposed visit to Europe, 712 
Visas, question of U.S. issuance to foreign Com- 
munists, 462 
Visit by Secretary to Eastern Europe, question of, 230 
War, continuing threat of, 713, 829 
West New Guinea, U.S. policy regarding, 918 
Discussions and meetings {see also subject) : 
ANZUS Council, 646 
Canadian Prime Minister, 272 
Yugoslav-U.S. economic talks, 646 

1066 



Dulles, John Foster — Continued 
Administrative actions : 
Delegations of authority regarding administration of 
mutual security program and Development Loan 
Fund, 991 
Fingerprinting requirement, waiver of, 682 
Attendance at Foreign Service Institute graduation 

ceremonies, 549 
Correspondence, messages, etc. : 

East Berlin uprising, 4th anniversary, 50 

Guatemalan President, death of, 273 

Malayan independence, congratulations to Prime 

Minister, 474 
Olympic Games participants, U.S. waiver of finger- 
printing requirement, 579 
Philippine-American Day, 881 
SEATO, 1st Secretary General, 488 
News conferences, 9, 96, 139, 228, 344, 457, 526, 708, 

783, 824, 916, 921, 1023 
Tribute to, address (Merchant), 379 
Dunne, Irene, 444, 895 
Duties and rights of states in event of civil strife, protocol 

to 1928 convention on, 365, 662 
Dwellings in Hungary, denationalization of, 196 

East Berlin {see also Berlin), 4th anniversary of up- 
rising, 50 
East- West contacts {see also Cultural relations and Ex- 
change of persons) : 
Danger of free contacts to Soviet dictatorship, address 

(Allen Dulles), 642 
Polish ofiicials, observation of U.S. food and clothing 

industries, 748 
Radio and television broadcasts, proposed exchanges 
with Soviet Union, statements (Dulles) and texts 
of aide memoire, 13, 14, 119, 386 
Technical, scientific, and cultural exchanges, U.S.- 
Soviet discussions, announcement and statements 
(Lacy, Zarubin), 800 
Eberly, Mrs. Marian S., 506, 507 
Economic and Social Council, U.N. : 

Documents, lists of, 401, 476, 661, 695, 733, 905, 1049 
Executive Board, 48th and 49th sessions, U.S. delega- 
tions, 40, 860 
24th session, statements : Jacoby, 323, 496 ; Kotschnig, 

438 
U.S. representative, confirmation, 213 
World social situation, evaluation of preliminary report 
on, statements: Hottel, 166; Meany, 688 
Economic and technical aid to foreign countries {see also 
Agricultural surpluses, American Doctrine, Colombo 
Plan, Development Loan Fund, Export-Import Bank, 
International Bank, International Cooperation Ad- 
ministration, Mutual security, and United Nations: 
Technical assistance program) : 
Addresses and article: Dulles, 574; Reinhardt, 755; 

Wilcox, 108, 181; Zellerbach, 608 
Aid to : Afghanistan, 315 ; Argentina, 42, 97 ; Baghdad 
Pact countries, 277, 279; Colombia, 662, 1039; 
Colombo Plan countries, 1045 ; Europe, Western, 
948; Far East, 843; Ghana, 42, 111; India, 260; 
Jordan, 141, 146, 260; Latin America, 81, 469; 
Mexico, 626 ; Peru, 298 ; Philippines, 129 ; Somalia, 
1047 ; Sudan, proposed, 999 ; Tunisia, 240, 298 

Department of State Bulletin 



Economic and technical aid to foreign countries — Con. 
Soviet program of. See Less develoi)ed countries : 

Economic penetration 
U.S. policy, report by OflSce of the President, 725, 726 
Economic and Trade Affairs, Joint U.S.-Canadian Com- 
mittee on : 
Address (Jones), 381 

3d meeting, announcement and joint communique, 474, 
683 
Economic Commission for Europe, U. N : 
Electric Power, Committee on, U.S. delegate to 15th 

session, 586 
Housing Committee, U.S. delegate to 15th session, 903 
Steel Committee, U.S. delegate to 19th session, 941 
Economic Community, European. See European Eco- 
nomic Community 
Economic conditions in non-self-governing territories, re- 

poTt on, statement (Dunne), 895 
Economic conference of the OAS (Buenos Aires) : 
Accomplishments, addresses and statements : Dillon, 
539 ; Dulles, 530 ; Eisenhower, 539 ; Rubottom, 537, 
676, 680, 926 
Economic declaration, 540 

Statement at 1st plenary session (Anderson), 463 
U.S. delegation, 12, 363 
Economic cooperation, agreement with Burma, 861 
Economic development (sec also Colombo Plan, Develop- 
ment Loan Fund, Less developed countries, and indi- 
vidual coxmtries) : 
Basic requisites of, address (Beaulac), 648 
Europe, addresses : Dillon, 911 ; Elbrick, 948 
Financing of, address and statement: Jacoby, 502; 

Wilcox, 752 
Latin America, addresses (Rubottom), 677, 925 
Middle East development plan, proposed, statement 

(Dulles), 1026 
Relationship to social progress, statement (Meany), 688 
South Pacific Commission, program of, article (Kee- 

sing),429 
Sub-Sahara region, problems in development of, article 
(Palmer), 932 
Economic Development Institute : 
Establishment and functions, 601 
Importance of, statement ( Dillon) , 598 
Economic integration, European. See European Coal and 
Steel Community, European Economic Community, 
and European free trade area 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. (see also individual 
countries) : 
Aid to foreign countries. See Economic and technical 

aid 
Domestic economy, statements: Dulles, 922; Jacoby, 

327 
Foreign economic policy : 
Contrast with Soviet policy, remarks (Dulles), 717 
Iron and steel scrap, problems relating to export of, 

statement (Kalijarvi), 120 
Relationship to collective security, joint declaration 
( Eisenhower, Macmillan) , 740 
Relationship to trade agreements program, report by 
Office of the President, 723 



Economic policy and relations, U.S. — Continued 
Foreign economic policy — Continued 

Tax treaties, relationship to foreign trade and invest- 
ment, statement (Kalijarvi), 359 
U.S. cooperation in international economic affairs, 
address ( Beaulac) , 647 
OTC. See Organization for Trade Cooperation 
Tariff policy. See Tariff policy, U.S. 
Trade. See Trade 
Economic relations, consular rights, and amity, treaty 

with Iran, 129 
Economic situation, world, review of, address and state- 
ments : Dillon, 911 ; Jacoby, 323 ; Mann, 848 
BCOSOC. See Economic and Social Council, U.N. 
Ecuador : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1957 

agreement with U.S., 770 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S., 41 
International Bank loan, 650 

Nonimmigrant visa applicants, agreement with U.S. 
for reciprocal waiver of fingerprinting require- 
ments, 936 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and agree- 
ments on parcel post and money orders, 587 
Education (see also Educational exchange) : 
American-sponsored schools, libraries, and community 
centers, use of funds from surplus agricultural 
commodities, 291 
College graduates, responsibility in world affairs, ad- 
dress (Murphy), 74 
Development in Latin America, address (Rubottom), 

928 
Education — Communist Style, American Style, address 

(Eleanor Dulles), 25 
Education, science, and culture, cooperation in, state- 
ment (Meany), 764 
Education, the Citizen, and NATO, address (Norstad), 

952 
ICA program of university contracts, address (Herd- 
ing), 838 
NATO fellowship and scholarship program, 580 
Opportunities for women, efforts of Inter-American 

Commission of Women for, article (Lee), 508 
Public education, U.S. delegation to 20th international 

conference on, 171 
Relationship to U.S. foreign policy, address, (Wilcox), 

179 
School attendance, world growth of, statements: 

Jacoby, 498; Hottel, 167 
School integration issue, U.S., effect on foreign policy, 

statements : Dulles, 528 ; Meany, 692 
Scientific education in U.S., problem of, address (Elsen- 
hower), 821 
SEATO research fellowship program, annouricement, 

354 
Soviet progress in, addresses : Allen Dulles, 643 ; 

Eisenhower, 870 
UNESCO efforts in less developed countries, address 
(Wilcox), 753 



Index, July fo December 1957 



1067 



Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, U.N. : 
Education, UNESCO efforts in, addresses: Herter, 

834; Wilcox, 753 
UNESCO: One Road to Peace, address (Berding), 835 
Educational exchange program, international (see also 
Education) : 
Agreements with — ■ 

Brazil, 860, 861; China, Republic of, 1017, 1049; 
Colombia, 1041; Iran, 979, 980; Pakistan, 734; 
Paraguay, 218 ; Peru, 260 
Financing of, through sales of surplus agricultural 

commodities, 290 
Grantees, arrival in U.S., 613 
Indonesian parliamentarians, visit to U.S., 61 
Journalists from NATO countries, visit to U.S., itin- 
erary, 651 
People-to-people program, remarks (Eisenhower), 747 
Scope of program, statement (Meany), 766 
The Widening Circle, published, 696 
U.S. activities, relationship to UNESCO, address 
(Berding), 837 
Egypt: 
Arab-Israeli dispute. See Arab-Israeli dispute 
Refugees from, U.S. aid to, 239 
Soviet submarines, purchase of, statement and address : 

Dulles, 100; Wilcox, 106 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air transport, agreement amending 1946 agreement 

with U.S., 354, 405 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 509 
ICJ, declaration recognizing compulsory jurisdiction, 

445 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes and 
protocol, 128 
Eisenhower, Dwight D. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses, U.S. release of additional 

U-235, 146 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, U.S. ratifica- 
tion of statute, 307 
Earth satellite program, U.S., 673 
Economic conference of OAS, 539 
Foreign relations and world trade, 8 
Guatemalan President, death of, 273 
Immigration legislation, 543, 1036 
Inter-American partnership, 715 
International financing, progress in, 595 
International Geophysical Tear (1957-1958) , 145 
Islamic center In Washington, remarks at dedication 

of, 102 
Japanese Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 51 
Long-staple cotton, sale from U.S. stockpile, 209 
Mohamed V of Morocco, visit to U.S., 956 
Mutual security legislation, 371 
Nuclear weapons tests, U.S. proposal for suspension, 

418 
Our Future Security, 867 
Pakistani Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 186 
Panama, implementation of treaty with, 477 
People-to-people program, 747 
Queen Elizabeth II, visit to U.S., 742, 745 

1068 



Eisenhower, Dwight D. — Continued 
Addressee, statements, etc. — Continued 
Science in national security, 819 
U.K. Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 707, 739 
U.S. commemorative stamp honoring Philippine 

President, 742 
Women in public ofiice, quoted, 508 
Correspondence and messages : 

Almond imports, request for investigation of, 210 

Argentine Aviation Week, 929 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, 1st conferencw, 

638 
Dairy products, request for investigation on imports 

of, 33 
Date imports, request for investigation of, 397 
Fabrics, woolen and worsted, tariff quota on, 85 
Fig imports, request for investigation of, 242 
GATT, 10th anniversary, 846 
Ghana, independence of. 111 
Morocco : National holiday, 934 ; visit of Sultan to 

U.S., 19 
NATO Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research 

and Development, meeting, 951 
Nuclear tests, exchange of views with Japanese 

Prime Minister, 635 
Spring clothespins, approval of increased import 

duty, 960 
Tunisia, 1st anniversary of independence, 76 
U.S. pa.ssports, letters for inclusion in, 275 
Viet-Nam, visit of President to U.S., 61 
Executive orders. See Executive orders 
Messages, letters, and reports to Congress : 

Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, 

6th semiannual report (Jan. 1-June 30, 1957), 281 

American Doctrine for the Middle East, 1st report on 

operations (Mar. 9-June 30, 1957), 339 
Atomic information for mutual defense purposes, 
agreement with Australia for cooperation regard- 
ing, 217 
Lead and zinc imports, proix)sed U.S. excise taxes 

on, 490 
Mutual security program, 12th semiannual report 

(Jan. 1-June 30, 1957), letter of transmittal, 862 
Status-of-forces agreements, opposition to legislative 
revision of, 296 
Proclamations. See Proclamations 
Eisenhower, Maj. John, 273n 
Eisenhower, Milton, 273, 977 
Elsenhower Doctrine. See American Doctrine 
Elbrick, C. Burke, 489, 947 
Electric Power, ECE Committee on, U.S. delegate to 15th 

session, 586 
Elizabeth II, 16, 711, 742 
El Salvador : 

Air Force mission, agreement with U.S. relating to, 

510, 979 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 942 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 510 
Employment at sea, convention (1936) fixing minimum 

age for children, 42 
Engleman, Finis E., 171 

Department of State Bulletin 



Engineering, developmental, agreement modifying and ex- 
tending 1954 agreement with Mexico, 626 
Escapee program, U.S., allotment of visas under Immi- 
gration and Naturalization Act of 195T, 1031 
Estates and inheritances, supplementary convention vrith 

France for avoidance of double taxation on, 16, 42 
Estonia, Soviet assurances prior to incorporation, 377 
Ethiopia : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 662 
Economic assistance, agreement vrith U.S. under Ameri- 
can Doctrine, 341 
EURATOM. See Atomic Energy Community, European 
Europe (see also individual countries) : 
Atlantic Community, addresses and remarks: Dulles, 

419; Elbrick, 947; Herter, 135 
Collective security. See European security and North 

Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Eastern Europe, question of visit by Secretary Dulles, 

230 
Economic growth and policies, address (Dillon), 911 
Foreign Relatione of the United States, 1940, Vol. II, 

Oeneral and Europe, published, 174 
Refugees. See Refugees and Intergovernmental Com- 
mittee for European Migration 
Relationship to Africa, article (Palmer), 931 
U.N. Economic Commission for. See Economic Commis- 
sion for Europe 
U.N. members, question of Security Council seats for, 

address ( Wilcox ) , 567 
U.S. mutual security program, article (Dulles), 565 
Visit of Vice President Nixon, deferral of, 713 
Western Europe, economic progress in, statement 
(Jacoby),326 
European Atomic Energy Community. See Atomic 

Energy Commxmity 
European Coal and Steel Commimity : 
Iron and steel scrap purchases from U.S., statement 

(Kalijarvi) and text of aide memoire, 120, 127 
Report to 12th session of GATT contracting parties, 
1007 
European Common Market. See European Economic Com- 
mimity 
European Economic Community : 
Establishment and relationship to U.S. foreign trade 

policy, 874, 914, 1043 
Importance of, address and statement : Jacoby, 326 ; 

Zellerbach, 608 
Relationship to GATT, 849, 1004 
European free trade area, proposed, relationship to EEC 

and OEEC, 1005 
European Migration, Intergovernmental Committee for. 

See Intergovernmental Committee 
European security (see also North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization) : 
Atlantic Community, addresses and remarks: Dulles, 

419 ; Elbrick, 947 ; Herter, 135 
Missile bases and stockpiles, U.S., question of estab- 
lishment, statements (Dulles), 916, 919, 1023, 1024 
Relationship to German reunification, 4-power (U.S., 
France, Federal Republic, U.K.) declaration re- 
garding, 304, 305 
Exchange of information. See Information, exchange of 

Index, July to December 1957 

469637—58 3 



Exchange of persons (see also Cultural relations, East- 
West contacts, and Educational exchange) : 
Colombia, program with, 1041 
NATO fellowship and scholarship program, 580 
People-to-people program, remarks (Eisenhower), 747 
SEATO research fellowships, announcement, 354 
U.S. program, relationship to UNESCO, address 

(Berding),837 
Executive orders : 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 

1954, administration of, 1044 
Cultural exchange and trade fair participation, admin- 
istration of, 151 
Foreign Service, delegation of authority to prescribe 

rates or tariffs of fees for official services, 261 
International Organizations Immunities Act, extension 

to IAEA and UPU, 547 
Mutual security, coordination of program and adminis- 
tration of Development Loan Fund, 991 
Ryukyu Islands, administration of, 55 
Trade Policy Committee, establishment, 957 
Export-Imjiort Bank, U.S. : 

Exemption from payment of certain Japanese taxes, 534 
Lending activities in Latin America, address, remarks, 

and statement: Anderson, 468; Dulles, 716; Ru- 

bottom, 538 
Loan administration functions under Agricultural 

Trade Development and Assistance Act, Executive 

order, 1044 
Loans to — 

Afghanistan, 315; Colombia, 1039; Iran, 315; Latin 

America, 81, 076, 678 
Relationship to U.S. Development Loan Fund, 756 
Role in financing U.S. exports, address (Beaulac), 648 
Exports, U.S. (see also Tariffs and trade, general agree- 
ment on; and Trade) : 
Agricultural exports, address (Beale) and excerpt from 

President's report to Congress, 282, 874 
Importance to domestic economy, address (Wilcox) 

and report by Office of the President, 723, 749 
Iron and steel scrap, problems relating to export of, 

statement (Kalijarvi), 120 
Latin America, increase in, article (Lederer, Culbert- 

son), 82 
Role of Export-Import Bank in financing, 648 
Salk vaccine, quota and recipient nations, 685 

Fabrics, woolen and worsted, tarifC quotas on, announce- 
ments and letter (Eisenhower), 84, 686 

Facilities assistance program, agreements with France 
regarding, 696 

FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization 

Far East (see also Asia and individual countries) : 
U.S. policy in, address (Jones), 840 
Visit by Under Secretary Herter and Ambassador Rich- 
ards, departure statement, 421 

Faricy, William T., 545, 731 

Farland, Joseph S., 396 

Farley, Philip J., 770 

Faroe Islands, agreement (1956) on joint financing of 
air navigation services in, 42, 906 

Ferguson, C. Vaughan, Jr., 42 

1069 



Fig imports, Presidential decision not to impose restric- 
tions on, 242, 853 
Films, foreign, agreement with Federal Republic of Ger- 
many regarding Importation and exhibition of, 298 
Finance Corporation, International. See International 

Finance Corporation 
Financing, international, progress in, statement: Dillon, 

597 ; Eisenhower, 595 
Fingerprinting : 
Nonimmigrant aliens, waiver of U.S. requirement, ad- 
dress (Auerbach), announcement, and text of reg- 
ulation, G82, 1034 
Nonimmigrant visa applicants, agreements with Ecua- 
dor, Liberia, and Peru for reciprocal waiver of, 936 
Olympic Games participants, waiver by U.S., letter 

(Dulles), 579 
Soviet objection to U.S. requirement, 387 
Finland : 
GATT, proems verbal and amending protocols, 509, 813, 

814, 850 
Tarife adjustments under GATT, 1006 
Tariff concessions, GATT, proposed renegotiation of, 
850, 852 
Finletter, Thomas K., 196 
Fisher, Adrian S., 196 
Fisheries : 

Northwest Atlantic fisheries, convention (1949) on, 

and amending protocol, 129, 942 
Sockeye salmon fisheries in the Fraser River system, 
protocol to 1930 convention with Canada for pro- 
tection, preservation, and extension of, 129, 218, 
366 
Fisheries Commission, International North Pacific, ap- 
pointment of U.S. Commissioner, 119 
Fisheries Commission, International Pacific Salmon, ap- 
pointment of U.S. member, 545 
Fissionable material. See Atomic energy 
Fitzgerald, Ruf us H., 747 
Fleming, Donald, 683 

Flood relief in East Pakistan, U.S. helicopters for emer- 
gency transportation, 187 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations : 
Agricultural production, achievements in raising, 752 
U.S. delegation to 9th conference, 812 
Food and clothing industries, U.S., observation by Polish 

officials, 748 
Foreign Affairs, article by Secretary Dulles in, 569 
Foreign aid, U.S. See Economic and technical aid, Mu- 
tual security, and individual countries 
Foreign economic policy, U.S. See Economic policy and 

relations, U.S. 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 

Air transport agreements, coordination with foreign 

policy objectives, address (Dillon), 878 
American Foreign Policy, 1950-1955: Basic Documents, 

Vol. I, published, 614 
Basic objective, address (Murphy), 483 
Bipartisan formulation of, statement (Dulles), 1029 
Capability and Foreign Policy, address (Hare), 22 
Citizens' responsibilities in formulating, addresses : 
Murphy, 76 ; Wilcox, 103 



Foreign policy, U.S. — Continued 

Congressional documents relating to. See under 

Congress 
Decisionmaking process, article (Hamilton), 432 
Effect of domestic school integration issue on, state- 
ment (Dulles), 528 
Implications for education, address (Wilcox), 179 
Legislation. See under Congress 
Moral element in, address (Merchant), 374 
New Dimensions in Diplomacy, address (Herter), 831 
People-to-people diplomacy, address and remarks: 

Berding, 839, 847 ; Eisenhower, 747 
Relationship to world trade, address and remarks, 
Beale, 872 ; Eisenhower, 8 
Foreign Relatimis of the United States, 1940, Vol. II, 

General and Europe, published, 174 
Foreign Service {see also State Department) : 
Ambassadors, considerations governing appointment 

of, statement (Dulles), 345 
Ambassadors and minister, appointments and con- 
firmations, 42, 130, 218, 366, 510, 662, 981, 1050 
Budapest legation staff, U.S. reply to Hungarian de- 
mand for reduction, 30 
Consular agencies at — 
Cherbourg, France, establishment, 696 
Valparaiso, Chile, oi)ening, 662 
Consular officers, role in international judicial as- 
sistance, article (McCusker), 809 
Consular service, functions and history, address 

(O'Connor), 604 
Consulates at — 

Cherbourg, France, closing, 696 

Curitiba, Brazil, opening, 445 

Hu6, Viet-Nam, establishment, 334 

Iskendenm, Turkey, opening, 261 

Kirkuk, Iraq, establishment, 174 

Mogadiscio, Somaliland : opening, 261 ; elevation to 

consulate general, 981 
Valparaiso, Chili, closing, 662 
Yaounde, French Cameroons, establishment, 261 
Consulates general at — 
Dacca, Pakistan, conversion to independent fiscal 

reporting post, 1050 
Kuala Lumpur, Malaya, elevation to embassy 
status, 298 
Delegation of authority to prescribe rates of tariffs of 

fees for oflicial services, 261 
Diplomatic travel restrictions, announcement and 

Soviet note regarding, 118 
Economic services abroad, need for strengthening of, 

address (Nixon), 706 
Embassy officials at Damascus, U.S. protest of Syrian 

actions against, 388, 389 
Examination announced, 588 
Officers, training in visa work, address (Auerbach), 

1035 
Selection Boards, 11th meeting, announcement and 

list of members, 510 
Straffing problems, article (Hamilton), 435 
Foreign Service Institute, graduation ceremonies, 549 
Foreign trade. See Trade 
Forestry Congress, 5th World, announcement, 548 



1070 



Department of State Bulletin 



Formosa. See China, Republic of 
Foulon, Robert C, 261 
France : 
Actions in the Middle East, Soviet views on, text of 

note, 602, 603 
Air transjwrt talks with U.S., text of joint commvini- 

que, 754, 1037 
Algerian question. See Algerian question 
Cameroons, French, establishment of U.S. consulate at 

Yaounde, 261 
Disarmament. See Disarmament and London dis- 
armament talks 
4-power (U.S., U.K., France, Cterman Federal Repub- 
lic) declaration on German reunification, 304 
Reaction to U.S. arms shipments to Tunisia, state- 
ments (Dulles), 918, 920, 921, 922 
Suez Canal problem. See Suee Canal problem 
Taxes inconsistent with GATT, removal of, 1008 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreements with U.S., 147, 

173, 445 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 334 
Cultural property, convention (1954) for protection 

in wartime, and regulations of execution, 334 
Double taxation on income, estates, and inheritances, 
supplementary convention with U.S. for avoidance 
of, 16, 42 
Economic relations with Saar, treaty with Federal 

Republic of Germany regarding, 1007 
Facilities assistance program, agreements with U.S. 

regarding, 696 
GATT, protocols amending, 814, 850 
OTC, agreement on, 814 

Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 
amending, 770 
U.S. consulate at Cherbourg, closing ; and consular 
agency, establishment, 696 
Fraser River salmon fisheries, protocol to 1930, conven- 
tion with Canada for protection, preservation, and 
extension of, 129, 218, 366 
Free-trade areas, proposed — 
Baghdad Pact nations, 684; Central America and 
Europe, 1005 
French Cameroons, establishment of U.S. consulate at 

Yaounde, 261 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaties with — 
Korea, Republic of, 405, 510, 685, 696, 942 ; Netherlands, 
860, 861, 942 
Fur seals, north Pacific, interim convention on conserva- 
tion of, 404, 509, 586, 734, 942 

GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 

Gay, Merrill C, 695 

General agreement on tariffs and trade (GATT). See 

Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 
General Assembly, U.N. (see also United Nations) : 
Aggression, question of defining, statement (Klutznick) 

and resolution, 890 
Arab-Israeli dispute, actions regarding, address (Lud- 
low), 995, 996, 997 
Disarmament, consideration of problem. See under 
Disarmament 



General Assembly, U.N. — Continued 

Documents, Usts of, 401, 621, 733, 905, 1017, 1049 
Hungarian question. See Hungarian question 
Importance of and voting patterns in, addresses (Wil- 
cox), 560, 793 
Korea, deliberations regarding reunification, statements 

(Judd) and resolution, 966 
Near and Middle East, actions regarding, addresses : 

Herter, 225 ; Wilcox, 105 
"Peaceful coexistence," inscription of Soviet item on 

agenda, statement (Lodge), 693 
Refugee program, revision of, statement (Meany) and 

resolution, 937 
Resolutions : 

Aggression, question of defining, 894 
Algerian question, 1047 
Disarmament, 962, 963, 965 

Financial contributions to U.N. by member states, 657 
Hungarian question, 524 
Korea, unification question, 973 
Refugee program, revision of, 939 
U.N. Emergency Force, continuation and financing of, 
976 
Syrian question, inscription on agenda, statements 

(Lodge), 775 
12th session: 
Agenda, 331, 619 

Issues before, address (Wilcox), 562 
Permission for flight of Soviet delegates to U.S. in 

Russian aircraft, announcement and note, 470 
U.S. delegates, 443, 617, 626 
Geneva ambassadorial talks (U.S.-Communist China) : 
Journalists, question of reciprocal admission to U.S. 
and Communist China, statement (Johnson) and 
proposal, 533 
Negotiations for release of U.S. civilians, 1000 
Renunciation of force, Chinese delay in acceptance of 
principle, 391 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners of 
war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 86, 173, 405, 861 
Genocide, convention (1948) on prevention and punish- 
ment of the crime of, 906 
Geophysical Year, International. See International 

Geophysical Year 
George, Sen. Walter F., 344 
Gerety, Pierce, 65 
Germany («ee also Berlin) : 
Assets in Japan, Tripartite Commission notice respect- 
ing claims to, 30 
Assets seized during World War II, question of settle- 
ment of claims, 306 
Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-19i5, {The 
War Years, June 23-August SI, 1940), series D, vol. 
X, published, 405 
Reunification : 

European disarmament inspection zone, relation to 

German unity, statement (Dulles), 233 
4-power (U.S., France, German Federal Republic, 

U.K.) declaration regarding, 304 
Joint declaration (Eisenhower, Macmillan), 741 
U. S. efforts for, address and message (Dulles), 50, 
267, 268 



Index, July to December 1957 



1071 



Germany, East : 
Communist education in, addrees (Eleanor Dulles), 25, 

26 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners of 

war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 861 
Eecognition by Yugoslavia, statement (Dulles), 789 
Germany, Federal Republic of : 
Balance-of-payments consultations under GATT, 153 
Claims. See Claims 
Elections in, statements (DuUes), 460 
Foreign Minister, plans for discussions with Secretary 

Dulles, 918, 919 
4-power (U.S., France, Federal Republic, U.K.) declara- 
tion on German reunification, 304 
Import restrictions, question of elimination of, 1006 
Industrial production, statement (Dulles), 1029 
Pamir, letter of appreciation (Von Brentano) for U.S. 

aid to, 681 
Phonograph records, reduction of Greek import duties 

on, 1008 
Relations with Yugoslavia, rupture of, statement 

(Dulles), 789 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air navigation services in Faroe Islands, Greenland, 
and Iceland, agreements for Joint financing of, 906 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreements with U.S. re- 
garding, 129, 147, 149, 173, 334, 366, 404 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 662 
Economic relations with Saar, treaty with France 

regarding, 1007 
GATT, protocol on terms of accession of Japan, 260 
GATT, proems verbal and amending protocols, 334, 

813, 814, 850 
Motion picture films, agreement with U.S. regarding 

Importation and exhibition of, 298, 906 
North Atlantic ocean stations, agreement (1954) on, 

942 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, convention (1949) and 

amending protocol, 129, 942 
OTO, agreement on, 814 
Plant protection convention (1951), international, 

218 
Practice bombing range at Cuxhaven (Sandbank), 
agreement supplementing 1954 arrangement with 
U.S. for use of, 478 
Private road vehicles, convention (1954) on tempo- 
rary importation of, 626 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 

amending, 770 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs fa- 
cilities for, 626 
U.S. forces in, agreement with U.S. regarding costs 
of support, 42, 129 
Ghana (see also Gold Coast) : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 1029 
Immigration quota established, proclamation. 111 
Independence of, exchange of communications (Eisen- 
hower, Nkrumah), 111 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
GATT, accession to, 906, 1006 
GATT, protocol amending, 850 
IMP, articles of agreement, 586 



Ghana — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

International Bank, membership, 586, 853 
Technical cooperation, agreement with U.S., 42, 111 
Universal postal convention (1952), 770 
Gifts to U.S. officials, question of, statements (Dulles), 

787 
Gilbert, DeWitt, 545 
Girard, William S., 196, 918 
Gluck, Maxwell H., 218, 345 
Gold Coast (see also Ghana), extension of international 

sugar agreement (1953) ceases to apply, 86 
Graham, Frank, 1011 
Gray, Gordon, 210 

Great Seal of the U.S., 175th anniversary, 456, 587 
Greece : 

Balance-of-payments consultations under GATT, 153 
Import duties on phonograph records, reduction of, 

1008 
Tariff concessions, GATT, proposed renegotiation of, 

581, 850, 852 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 662 
GATT, protocols amending, 814, 850 
IFO, articles of agreement, 942 
Naval vessels or small craft, agreement with U.S. 

relating to loan of, 478 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 
amending, 770 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 1050 
Greene, Joseph N., Jr., 770 
Greenland, agreement (1956) on joint financing of air 

navigation services in, 42, 906 
Gromyko, Andrei, 525, 635 
Guam, application of universal copyright convention 

(1952) to, 86 
Guatemala : 
Death of President, statement (Eisenhower) and mes- 
sages (Dulles, Rubottom), 273 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, and agreements relative to parcel 
post and money orders, 445 
Guernsey, Isle of, convention (1946) on certification of 

able seamen, 42 
Guiana, British, agreement with U.S. for exchange of 

international money orders, 1018 
Guided missiles. See under Missiles 
Gulf of Aqaba. See Aqaba 
Gutierrez Gomez, Jos^, 674 

Habomai Islands, Soviet claim of sovereignty over, 68, 

72 
Hagerty, James C, 185, 373 
Hague Conference on Private International Law, U.S. 

delegation and publications, 585 
Baikal, Yousef, 315 
Haiti : 
Military Council, recognition by U.S., 315 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 696 
Duties and rights of states in event of civil strife, 
protocol to 1928 convention on, 662 



1072 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Haiti — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
GATT, amending protocol, 850 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 

amending, 770 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 

696 
Universal postal convention (1952), 626 
Hall, Joyce C, 397 
Hall, William O., 662 
Hamilton, William C, 432 
Hammarskjold, Dag, 236, 566, 975 
Hare, Raymond A., 22 
Harkness, Douglas S., 683 
HavForth, Leland J., 150 
Heads of Government meeting (NATO) : 
Contribution of Adlai Stevenson to U.S. planning for, 

statement (Dulles), 1026 
Problems confronting and prospects of, addresses and 
statements : Dulles, 1023, 1026, 1027, 1029 ; Elbrick, 
950 ; Norstad, 955 
Question of attendance by President Eisenhower, state- 
ment (Dulles), 789 
Relationship to Eisenhovcer-Macmillan talks, interview 

(Dulles, Serpen), 987 
Return of U.S. NAG representative for consultation, 
951 
Health and sanitation : 
Cooperative health programs with Colombia, 662, 1041 
Health program of the South Pacific Commission, article 

(Keesing),428 
Malaria eradication. See Malaria eradication 
Pan American Sanitary organization, 32d meeting of 
Executive Committee and 10th meeting of Directing 
Council, 546 
World progress in, statement (Jacoby),498 
Health Assembly, World, 11th, announcement of meeting, 

171 
Health Organization, World. See World Health 

Organization 
Heath, Donald R., 981 
Hecksher, Maj. Brig. Alvaro, 579 
Helicopters, U.S., provision to Pakistan for emergency 

transportation purposes, 187 
Helmand Valley reclamation project, Afghanistan, prog- 
ress of, 315 
Henderson, Joseph S., 814, 862 
Henderson, Loy, 276, 459, 461, 487, 779 
Herter, Christian A. : 
Addresses and statements : 

Atlantic Community, durability of, 135 

Atomic energy for civil uses, development in Europe, 

148 
Malayan independence celebrations, 421 
Mutual security program as instrument of foreign 

policy, 47 
New dimensions in diplomacy, 831 
Rule of law among nations, 223 
Coordination of mutual security programs, 993 
Correspondence and messages : 
Bow resolution on criminal jurisdiction over U.S. 
forces abroad, 198 



Herter, Christian A. — Continued 
Correspondence and messages — Continued 

Travel to Communist China by U.S. citizens, 393 
Visit to Malaya, announcement, 343 
Hickey, Edward J., 981 
High Commissioner of the Ryukyu Islands, Executive 

order, 55, 57 
Highway Congress, 7th Pan American, U.S. delegation, 

333 
Hill, Lucius D., 662 
Hill, Robert C, 77 
HoUister, John B., 149, 218, 308, 414 
Holmes, Julius C, 650 
Honduras : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 717 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 218 
Boundary dispute with Nicaragua, address and state- 
ment : Rubottom, 924 ; White, 273 
Universal postal convention (1952), 734 
Hoskins, Harold B., 549 
Hottel, Althea K., 166 

Housing Committee (ECE), U.S. delegate to 15th ses- 
sion, 903 
Howard, Mrs. Katherine G., 119 
Human rights : 

U.N. efforts for, statement (Meany), 689 
Violations in Hungary, excerpt from U.N. report, 65 
Human Rights Day, 1957, U.N., proclamation and state- 
ment (Lord), 1036 
Humo, Avdo, 646 
Hungarian question : 
1st anniversary of Hungarian revolt against Communist 

rule, statement (Lodge), 882 
Refugees. See under Refugees 
U.N. actions regarding : 
Addresses and statements: Kretzmann, 353; Lodge, 
515, 768 ; Merchant, 376 ; Wadsworth, 237 ; Wilcox, 
183, 562, 794, 795 
General Assembly resolution, 524 
Inscription on agenda of 12th General Assembly, 

statements (Lodge), 616 
Report of Special Committee on the Problem of Hun- 
gary, addresses, remarks, and statements; Dulles, 
274 ; Lodge, 62, 515 ; Wadsworth, 192 ; Wilcox, 106, 
563 ; text of final chapter, 63 
Special session of General Assembly, statements: 
Carpenter, 462 ; Dulles, 349 
Hungary : 
Budapest legation staff, U.S. reply to demand for re- 
duction, 30 
Education in, address (Eleanor Dulles), 25, 26 
Hungarian Freedom Day, statements (Lodge, White 

House), 748 
Nationalized dwellings, return to former owners, 196 
St. Stephen's Day, 195'r, 431 

Soviet intervention in. See Hungarian question 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 365 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 1018 



Index, July to December 1957 



1073 



Hungary — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Commercial samples and advertising material, con- 
vention (1952) to facilitate importation of, 129 
Customs tariffs, protocol modifying 1890 convention 
for creation of international union for publication 
of, 942 
Narcotic drugs, protocol to 1931 convention regarding 

manufacture and distribution of, 297 
Private road vehicles, convention (1954) on tempo- 
rary importation of, 734 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 
amending, 770 
Huston, Harris H., 445 
Hyde, H. van Zile, 1037 
Hyde, Rosel H., 887 
Hydroelectric power : 

International Bank loans for development in — • 

Austria, 685; Philippines, 1010; Thailand, 535 
U.S.-Canadian cooperation in use of boundary veaters 
for, 718, 721 
Hydrographic Conference, 7th International, article 
(Watt) and U.S. delegation, 361 

IAEA. See Atomic Energy Agency, International 
Ibanez del Campo, Carlos, 343 

ICA. See International Cooperation Administration 
ICAO. See International Civil Aviation Organization 
ICBM. See Missiles : Intercontinental ballistic 
Iceland : 

Air navigation services in, agreement for joint financing 

of, 42, 906 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 365 
ICEM. See Intergovernmental Committee for European 

Migration 
ICJ. See International Court of Justice 
IFC. See International Finance Corporation 
IGY. See International Geophysical Year 
ILO. See International Labor Organization 
IMF. See International Monetary Fund 
Immigrant visas, U.S. issuance, tables, 493, 494 
Immigration : 

Quotas, establishment for — 

Ghana, 111 ; Malaya, 758 
Recent developments in, address (Auerbach), 1030 
Immigration and Nationality Act (1957) : 
Addresses : Auerbach, 1030 ; McCollum, 66 
Approval statement (Eisenhower), 543 
Fingerprinting requirements, revision of, 579, 682 
Refugees, first arrivals under, remarks (McCollum, 
O'Connor), 845 
Imperialism, Soviet, contrast with colonialism, statement 

(Dulles), 990 
Imports (see also Exports; Tariff poUcy, U.S.; Tariffs 
and trade; and Trade) : 
Agricultural imports, relationship to domestic price 

support program, 727 
Crude oil imports, question of threat to U.S. security, 

209 
Importance to U.S. and world economy: address (Wil- 
cox), 750; report by OflBce of the President, 724 
Latin American, increases in, 79 

1074 



Imports — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commercial samples and advertising material, con- 
vention (1952) to facilitate importation of, 129, 
509, 587, 626, 662, 734, 813 
Motion picture films, agreement with Federal Re- 
public of Germany regarding importation and ex- 
hibition of, 298 
Private road vehicles, convention (1954) on tempo- 
rary importation of, 173, 626, 734, 813, 906 
Income tax, conventions for avoidance of double taxation. 

See Double taxation 
India : 

Kashmir dispute. See Kashmir dispute. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 260 
Copyright convention (1952), universal, and related 

protocols, 813 
GATT, protocol amending, 850 
GATT, rectifications and modifications to texts of 

schedules, 6th protocol, 509 
Investment receipts, agreement with U.S. providing 

guaranties against inconvertibility, 626 
Technical cooperation, agreement extending 1952 
agreement with U.S., 260 
U.S. economic aid, question of, statement (Dulles), 529 
Views on peaceful utilization of atomic energy in Asia, 
313 
Indonesia : 

Communist subversion in, statement (Dulles), 1027 
Dispute with Netherlands regarding West New Guinea, 

U.S. views, statements (Dulles), 918, 1027 
Parliament members, visit to U.S., announcement, 61 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 365 

GATT, proefes verbal of rectification, 814 

GATT, protocols amending, 813, 814, 850 

Opium, protocol (1953) on production, trade and use 

of, 297 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 
and annexes, 549 
U.S. aid to, 843 

Views on Asian regional nuclear center, 814 
Industrial property, convention (1934) for protection of, 

86 
Information, exchange of : 
Addresses and statements: Eisenhower, 822; McKin- 

ney, 858 ; Meany, 765, 767 
Exchange with Soviet Union. See under East-West 

contacts 
Security information, texts of U.S. and Canadian notes 
regarding handling and exchange of, 384 
Information Agency, U.S., programs abroad, address 
(Berdlng), announcement, and Executive order re- 
garding, 150, 151, 838 
Informational media guaranty program, agreement 

amending 1954 agreement with Pakistan, 861 
Innocent passage into the Gulf of Aqaba : 
Procedures for passage of ships into, 112 
U.S. position, statement (Dulles), 232 
Inspection plan, mutual. See Disarmament 

Department of State Bulletin 



Intelligence activities, role in foreign policy making, ar- 
ticle (Hamilton), 433 
Inter-American Affairs, Assistant Secretary for, itinerary 

of visit to Latin America, 84 
Inter-American Commission of Women, 12th assembly, 

article (Lee), 506 
Inter-American convention (1948) on political rights of 

vFomen, 770 
Inter- American cultural relations, convention (1954) for 

promotion of, 404, 586, 696, 861 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council : 
Declaration of OAS economic conference regarding, 541 
Functions, 537 
Inter-American economic cooperation, statement (Ander- 
son), 463 
Inter-American Highway, progress in opening of, 541 
Inter- American Housing Center (OAS), BogotiV, activities 

of, 1012 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences : 
Convention (1944), 478 

Proposed expansion of activities, address (Rubottom), 
925 
Inter-American Nuclear Energy Commission, establish- 
ment by OAS, 925, 976 
Inter- American partnership, faith in, remarks (Eisen- 
hower, Dulles), 715 
Inter-American problems. See Latin America 
Inter-American radiocommunications convention (1937), 

and annexes, denunciation by Nicaragua, 509 
Inter-American Travel Congresses, meeting of Permanent 

Executive Committee, article (Kelly), 212 
Intercontinental Ballistic missiles. See under Missiles 
Interdepartmental Committee for Reciprocity Informa- 
tion, 581, 686, 805, 850 
Interdependence, principle of, statements (Dulles), 1024 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration : 
Constitution, 587 
Council and Executive Committee, meetings, article 

(Warren) and U.S. delegation, 329, 661 
Refugee relief and resettlement activities, 66, 239 
Intergovernmental Copyright Committee, 2d session, 694 
International Atomic Energy Agency. See Atomic En- 
ergy Agency, International 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
(see also International Finance Corporation and In- 
ternational Monetary Fund) : 
Articles of agreement, 366, 478, 509, 586 
Board of Governors, 12th annual meeting, statements : 
Dillon, 597; Eisenhower, 595; U.S. delegation, 599 
Economic Development Institute, establishment and 

functions, 601 
Italy, sponsorship of study for nuclear power station in, 

357 
Loans to — 
Austria, 685; Belgian Congo, 1010; Colombia, 1042 
Colombo Plan countries, 901, 1045; Ecuador, 650 
Japan, 355 ; Latin America, 678 ; Philippines, 1010 
Thailand, 535 
Relationship to U.S. development loan fund, 756 
Reports on financial activities, 316, 599, 752, 853 
U.S. Governor, confirmation, 476 



International Civil Aviation Organization : 
Communications Division, 6th session, 548 
Protocol concerning meetings of Assembly, 509 
U.S. representative, appointment, 545 
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, policy 

regarding cultural exchanges, 766 
International Cooperation Administration (see also 
Development Loan Fund, Economic and technical aid, 
and Mutual security) : 
Director, resignation (HoUister), 218; confirmation 

(Smith), 445 
University contracts program, address (Berding), 838 
International Court of Justice : 
Advisory opinion on interpretation of article 4 of U.N. 

Charter, quoted, 856 
Honduran-Nicaraguan boundary question, mediation 

by, 273, 925 
Judicial function in international law, 224 
Membership, admission of Malaya, 662 
Statute, declarations recognizing compulsory juris- 
diction, 366, 445, 734 
U.S. claims against Bulgaria and Soviet Union arising 
from destruction of aircraft; application with an- 
nexes, 882; U.S. and Soviet notes, 470 
International Finance Corporation (see also International 
Bank) : 
Articles of agreement, 445, 586, 942 
Board of Governors, 1st annual meeting, statement: 

Eisenhower, 595; U.S. delegation, 599 
Financial statement (July 24, 1956- June 30, 1957), 316 
Investment in Mexico, 396 
International Geophysical Year (1957-1958) : 
U.S. participation, remarks and statement (Elsen- 
hower), 145, 673 
Weather observations on high seas, cooperation in re- 
porting, article (McDonald), 164 
International Hydrographic Conference, 7th, article 

(Watt), and U.S. delegation, 361 
International Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada) : 
Executive meeting, text of announcement, 721 
Functions of, remarks (Brucker), 719, 720 
Significance in history of Canadian-American cooi)era- 

tion, address (Jones), 381 
U.S. applications to build Libby Dam, statement 

(Jordan), 34 
U.S. commissioner, appointment of, 239 
International Labor Organization. See Labor Organiza- 
tion 
International law (see also Maritime law) : 
Address (Herter), 223 
Gulf of Aqaba, U.S. position on international status of, 

statement (Dulles), 232 
Judicial assistance, international, U.S. practices in, 

article (McCusker), 808 
Private international law, 8th Hague conference, U.S. 

delegation and publications, 585 
Soviet closing of Peter the Great Bay, U.S. protest, 
388 
International Monetary Fund (see also International 
Bank) : 
Articles of agreement, 366, 478, 509, 586 



Index, July fo December 1957 



1075 



International Monetary Fund — Continued 
Board of Governors, 12th annual meeting, statement 

(Eisenhower) and U.S. delegation, 595, 599 
U.S. Executive Director and Governor, confirmations, 
363, 476 
International North Pacific Fisheries Commission, ap- 
pointment of U.S. commissioner, 119 
International organizations {see also subject) : 
Calendar of international meetings, 38, 246, 398, 583, 

729,888 
International Organizations : Aid to World Trade and 

Prosperity, address (Wilcox), 749 
Works of, protocol concerning application of universal 
copyright convention to, 173, 813 
International Organizations Immunities Act, extension to 
IAEA and UPU, announcement and Executive order, 
547 
International Pacific Fisheries Commission, appointment 

of U.S. member, 545 
International Red Cross Conference, walkout of Soviet 
and Chinese Communist delegations, statement 
(Reap), 904 
International Scientific Radio Union, 12th General As- 
sembly, article (Wells) and U.S. delegation, 401, 897 
International Union for the Publication of Customs Tar- 
iffs, protocol modifying 1890 convention relating to 
creation of, 365 
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, U.S. 

delegation to 19th Conference, 213 
Investment of private capital abroad : 
Addresses and statement : Beaulac, 648 ; Jacoby, 324, 

326 ; Nixon, 703 
Africa, need for investment funds by, article (Palmer), 

932, 933 
Canada, joint discussions regarding U.S. investments 

in, 684 
Colombo Plan coimtries, need for private capital in 

development of, 758, 900, 902, 1045 
Encouragement of, U.S. policy, report by Ofl3ce of the 

President, 725, 726 
Investment guaranties, agreements with — 
Cuba, 1018; India, 626; Iran, 662; Israel, 549; Italy, 
814 ; Thailand, 626 ; Viet-Nam, 861 
Latin America : 
Declaration of OAS economic conference, 541 
U.S. and Latin American efforts to promote, ad- 
dresses, remarks, and statements: Anderson, 466, 
467; Dillon, 540; Dulles, 716; Eisenhower, 539; 
Rubottom, 675, 677, 927 
U.S. Investment m, extent and importance of, address 
and article: Culbertson, Lederer, 80; Rubottom, 
536 
Less developed countries, U.S. efforts in, addresses, ar- 
ticle and statements : Dillon, 6, 33, 117 ; Dulles, 412, 
575 ; Hollister, 417 
Relationship to : 

Tax treaties, statement (Kalijarvi), 359, 360 
U.N. economic development efforts, statement 
(Jacoby), 502, 503 
Iran: 
Amity, economic relations, and consular rights, treaty 
with U.S., 129 



Iran — Continued 
Economic assistance, participation in regional program 

under American Doctrine, 341 
Educational exchange program, agreement amending 
and extending 1949 agreement with U.S. for financ- 
ing, 979, 980 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S. providing 

for, 662 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement with U.S. for dis- 
position of equipment and materials, 979 
U.S. loan for purchase of diesel locomotives, 315 
Iraq: 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S., 41 
Economic assistance, agreements with U.S. under Ameri- 
can Doctrine, 341 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement with U.S. con- 
cerning a special program of facilities assistance, 
129 
U.S. consulate at Kirkuk, establishment, 174 
Ireland : 

International air services transit agreement (1944), 

942 
International Bank : 

Articles of agreement, 366 
Capital stock subscription, 853 
International Monetary Fund, articles of agreement, 366 
Iron and Steel Committee (ILO), 6th session, U.S. dele- 
gation, 694 
Iron and steel scrap, problems relating to export of, state- 
ment (Kalijarvi), 120 
Irrigation project in Japan, International Bank loan, 

355 
Irving, Frederick, 814 
Israel : 
Arab-Israeli dispute. See Arab-Israeli dispute 
Arms supply policy. See Arms supply 
Israeli aircraft, destruction by Bulgaria (1955), appli- 
cation by U.S. to ICJ regarding damage claims for 
deaths of American passengers, texts of diplomatic 
correspondence, 882 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 942 
Air navigation services in Greenland and Faroe 

Islands, agreement on joint financing, 42 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 260 
Civil aviation convention, international, protocol 

amending, 42 
Commercial samples and advertising material, con- 
vention (1952) to facilitate importation of, 813 
Cultural property, convention (1954) for protection 
in event of armed conflict, and regulations of ex- 
ecution, 906 
Investment guaranty program, agreement amending 

1952 agreement with U.S., 549 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade 

and use of, 813 
Touring, convention (1954) on customs facilities for, 
549 
Islamic center in Washington, remarks at dedication 

(Eisenhower), 102 
Ismail bin Dato', Abdul Rahman, 717 



1076 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Italy : 
Aid to Somalia, 1047 

Balance-of-payments consultations under GATT, 153 
European Common Market, leadership in establishment 

of, 010, 611 
Nuclear power station. International Bank sponsorship 

of study for, 357 
Resettlement of Italians in U.S., activities of American 
Committee on Italian Migration, address (Me- 
CoUum), 65 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement veith U.S., 147, 

173 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 662 
Investment and war risk guaranties, agreement 

amending 1951 agreement with U.S., 814 
Opium, protocol (1953), regulating production, trade, 

and use of, 1049 
War damage claims, memorandum of understanding 
with U.S. regarding, 814 

Jacoby, Neil H., 213, 323, 496 
Jandrey, Fred W., 298 
Japan : 
Anti-Japanese legislation in southern States, question 

of repeal, statement (Dulles), 100 
Economic development, address (Dillon), 912 
Election to Security Council, statement (Lodge), 661 
Foreign Minister, visit to U.S., statement (Dulles), 459 
GATT, application to Japan, discussions at 12th ses- 
sion of contracting parties, 1006 
German assets in, Tripartite Commission notice re- 
specting claims to, 30 
Girard case, 196, 918 
Habomai Islands, Soviet claim of sovereignty over, 

68, 72 
Intergovernmental committee on security treaty, func- 
tions, 97, 101 
International Bank loan, 355 
Iron and steel scrap purchases from U.S., statement 

(Kalijarvi), 120, 124 
Nuclear tests, U.S. and Japanese views regarding, mes- 
sages (Eisenhower, Kishi), 635 
Prime Minister, visit to U. S. : 
Arrival greetings (Nixon, Kishi), address to Con- 
gress, joint communique with President, and oflS- 
cial party, 51 
Statements (Dulles), 12, 96 
Relations with U.S. and other nations, development of, 

address (Jones), 840, 844 
Residual sovereignty over Okinawa, statement (Dul- 
les), 145 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 260 
Bills of lading, international convention (1924) for 
unification of rules relating to, and protocol of 
signature, 906 
Contributions for U.S. services and supplies in Japan, 

agreement with U.S. regarding reduction, 478 
Double taxation of income, protocol supplementing 
1954 convention with U.S., 405, 534, 626 



Japan — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Fur seals, north Pacific, interim convention on con- 
servation of, 734 
GATT, procds verbal and amending protocols, 404, 

405, 850 
GATT, protocol on terms of accession of Japan, 260 
OTC, agreement on, 404 
Security treaty with U.S., 534, 696 
Sugar agreement (1953), International, protocol 
amending, 770 
U.S. armed forces in : 
Jurisdiction over, text of Supreme Court opinion 

regarding, 196 
Reduction of, joint communique (Eisenhower, Kishi) 
and statements (Dulles), 52, 97, 98 
Japanese-American Committee on Security, establish- 
ment, 350 
Jarring, Gunnar V., 1011, 1016 
Jersey, Isle of, convention (1946) on certification of able 

seamen, 42 
Johnson, U. Alexis, 533 
Joint Commission, International (U.S.-Canada). See 

International Joint Commission 
Joint U.S.-Canadian Committee on Trade and Economic 
Affairs, 3d meeting, announcement and joint com- 
munique, 381, 474, 683 
Jones, Howard P., 840 
Jones, John Wesley, 380 
Jordan : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 315 
Arms supply to, U.S. policy, statements (Dulles), 526, 

528, 529 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Cultural property, convention (1954) for protection 
in event of armed conflict, with regulations of 
execution and protocol, 906 
Customs tariffs, creation of International union for 
publication of, 1890 convention and modifying pro- 
tocol, 626, 696 
Economic assistance, agreements with U.S., 260 
U.S. economic and military aid to, statements (Dulles), 
141, 146 
Jordan, Len, 34 
Jordan, Leonard B., 315 

Jordan River Valley project, question of revival of, state- 
ment (DuUes), 142 
Journalists. See Correspondents 
Judd, Walter H., 443, 966 

Judicial assistance, international, U.S. practices in, ar- 
ticle (McCusker), 808 
Justice, International Court of. See International Court 
of Justice 



Kalijarvi, Thorsten V., 77, 359, 510 
Kashmir dispute : 

Security Council deliberations, statements (Wads- 
worth) and text of resolution, 1011 
U.S.-Pakistani views, joint communique (Eisenhower, 
Suhrawardy), 186 



Index, July /o December 1957 



1077 



Keesing, Felix M., 423 
Kellermann, Henry J., 40 
KeUy, H. H., 212 
Kennedy, Donald D., 906 
Khoman, Thanat, 717 
Khrushchev, Nikita : 
Charges against U.S. policy in the Middle East, state- 
ments : Dulles, 674 ; Lodge, 780 
Interview for U.S. television, statement (DtiUes), 14, 

15 
Meeting with Marshal Tito, statement (Dulles), 345 
Position and rivals in Soviet internal power struggle, 
address and statements : Dulles, 228, 229, 230, 826 ; 
Allen Dulles, 640, 641, 642, 643, 644, 645; Murphy, 
484 
Kilday resolution on revision of status-of-forces agree- 
ments, statements (Murphy), 317 
Killian, James R., 822 
Kishi, Nobusuke, 12, 51, 96, 99, 101, 635 
Klutznick, Philip M., 444, 890 
Korea : 
Armistice agreement : 
Communist violations of, address and statements : 
Judd, 967, 968, 970, 971; Sebald, 391; Washing- 
ton, 856 
U.N. Command. See United Nations Command 
Communist aggression in, address and statements: 

Judd, 966, 970; Sebald, 390; Washington, 855 
Reunification : 

General Assembly actions regarding, statements 

(Judd) and resolution, 966, 973 
International conference on, prospects for, statement 
(Dulles), 142 
Korea, North : 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 861 
U.N. membership, Soviet efforts for and U.S. position, 
statement (Washington), 854 
Korea, Republic of : 

Developments in, UNCURK report on, statement 

(Judd), 968 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 

agreements with U.S., 906 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 365 
Civil aviation convention (1954), international, pro- 
tocol amending, 42 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, treaty and 
protocol with U.S., 405, 510, 685, 696, 942 
U.N. membership question, statements of U.S. position : 

Lodge, 544, Washington, 856 
U.S. aid, statements : Eisenhower, 371 ; Hollister, 416 
Kotschnig, Walter M., 438 
Kretzmann, Edwin M. J., 351 
Kutin, Jozef, 748 

Labor : 
Employment : 
Women, efforts of Inter-American Commission of 

Women for employment of, 507 
Working conditions, recent improvement in U.S., 500 
Migratory labor, agreements concerning interpretation 
of 1951 agreement with Mexico regarding, 129, 549 



Labor — Continued 

Right to strike, denial to Hungarian workers by Com- 
munist regime, and deportation to U.S.S.R., 520, 521 
Trade unions : 

Contribution to world social progress, statement 

(Meany),690, 691 
Growth and character in U.S., statement (Jacoby), 
501 
Labor Organization, International : 
Activities of, statement (Kotschnig), 440 
Conferences and meetings, U.S. delegations to : 
Asian Regional Conference, 4th, 940 
General Conference, 40th session, 258n. 
Governing Body, 137th session, 812 
Iron and Steel Committee, 6tb session, 694 
Technical meeting on mines, 978 
Constitution and instrument of amendment, 86, 487 
Resolution regarding suspension of nuclear tests, state- 
ment (Wilcox), 258 
Working conditions, ILO role in worldwide improve- 
ment of, address (Wilcox), 753 
Lacy, William S. B., 800 

Lafayette bicentennial, remarks (Blbrlck), 489 
Langley, James M., 42 
Laos, Communist subversion in, statement (Washington), 

854 
Latin America {see also Inter- American, Organization of 
American States, Pan American, and individual coun- 
tries) : 
Caribbean Commission, U.S. delegation to 25th meeting, 

and 7th session of West Indian Conference, 903 
Commimism, extent of infiltration into, statement 

(Dulles), 826 
Economic conference of the OAS. See Economic con- 
ference 
Economic growth and relations with U.S. : 
Addresses and statements: Anderson, 469; Dillon, 

116, 912 ; Dulles, 532 ; Rubottom, 536, 675, 923 
Balance of payments with U.S. In 1956, article 

(Lederer, Culbertson), 79 
Investment in. See under Investment of private 

capital 
U.S. position on proposed Latin American regional 

market, address (Rubottom), 680 
U.S. technical cooperation program in, statement 
(Anderson), 469 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and agree- 
ments relating to parcel post and money orders, 
445, 586, 587, 734, 861 
Refugees, projects for resettlement in, article (War- 
ren), 330 
Significance of Latin America in the free world, ad- 
dress (Rubottom), 923 
Latvia, Soviet assurances prior to incorporation, 377 
Law, International. See International law and Maritime 

law 
Lead and zinc Imports, U. S. : 
Discussions by U.S.-Canadian Committee on Trade and 

Economic Affairs, 684 
Excise tax on, proposed; letters (Eisenhower, Cooper), 
490; statement (Armstrong), 321 



1078 



Department of State Bullefin 



Lead and zinc imports, U.S. — Continued 

Restriction, question of, statement (Dulles), 349 
Lebanon : 
Economic assistance, agreement with U.S. under Amer- 
ican Doctrine, 341 
Military assistance, agreement with U.S., 218 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol amend- 
ing, 770 
Lederer, Walther, 79 
Lee, Mrs- Prances M., 506 
Leffler, Ross L., 119 
Legislation, State, concerning Japanese Imports to U.S., 

question of repeal, statement (Dulles), 100 
Legislation, U.S. See under Congress 
LeMay, Gen. Curtis, 929 
Lend-lease silver debt, repayment of 1st installment by 

Pakistan, remarks (Meyer), 807 
Leo, Walter H., 941 

Less developed countries: (see also Development Loan 
Fund, Investment of private capital, and Special 
United Nations Fund) : 
Appeal of communism to peoples of, 644 
Economic penetration by Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc 
countries : addresses, article, and statement : Beale, 
876 ; Dillon, 32, 116, 880, 912 ; Dulles, 570 ; Herter, 
48 ; Jones, 842 ; Nixon, 703 ; Wilcox, 108 
Economic problems of, address, remarks, and state- 
ments : Dillon, 31 ; Dulles, 1026 ; Eisenhower, 596 ; 
Jacoby, 324, 325, 326 ; report by Office of the Presi- 
dent, 726 
Importance of U.S. aid to, address (Wilcox), 108 
International organizations, contribution to, address 

(WUcox), 752, 753 
Social progress in, statements : Hottel, 167 ; Jacoby, 498 
U.N. technical assistance program. See under United 

Nations 
U.S. mutual security programs for, address and state- 
ments: Dillon, 117, 880, 881; Dulles, 4, 5, 412; 
Herter, 49 ; HoUister, 417 
Letters rogatory, use in international judicial assistance, 

808 
Libby Dam on U.S.-Canadian boundary, U.S. applications 
to International Joint Commission for authorization 
to build, statement (Jordan), 34 
Liberia : 
Army mission, agreement extending 1951 agreement 

with U.S., 1049 
Fingerprinting requirements for nonimmigrant visa 
applicants, agreements with U.S. for reciprocal 
waiver, 936 
Parcel post, agreement with U.S. for exchange, with 
regulations of execution, 334 
Libya : 
Economic assistance, agreement with U.S. under Amer- 
ican Doctrine, 341 
Military assistance, agreement with U.S., 260 
Mutual defense assistance, arrangement with U.S. for 
return of equipment and material, 260 
Literary and artistic works, protection of. See Copy- 
right 
Lithuania, Soviet assurances prior to incorporation, 377 
Litzenberg, Maj. Gen. Homer L., 58 



Loans, U.N. See International Bank 
Loans, U.S. (see also Development Loan Fund and Ex- 
port-Import Bank) : 
Latin America : 
Argentina, question of increase in long-term loans to, 

statement (Dulles), 97 
Balance of payments with U.S., effect of loan receipts 
and repayments on, article (Lederer, Culbertson), 
81 
Proceeds from surplus agricultural commodities sales, 
use for loans, excerpt from President's report to 
Congress, 283, 284, 289 
Locomotives, diesel, U.S. loan to Iran for purchase, 315 
Lodge, Henry Cabot : 
Representative to 12th General Assembly, 443, 617 
Statements : 
Algerian question, U.S. position, 1046 
China, question of representation in U.N., 658 
Disarmament, Western proposals, 631, 667, 961 
Hungarian question, 62, 515, 616, 748, 882 
Oman question, inscription on Security Coimcil 

agenda, 430 
"Peaceful coexistence," inscription of Soviet item on 

General Assembly agenda, 693 
Security Council, election of new members, 661 
Syrian question, inscription on General Assembly 

agenda, 775 
United Nations, admission of new members and 12th 
anniversary, 504, 544, 768 
London disarmament talks, U.N. Disarmament Subcom- 
mittee (see also Disarmament and Disarmament 
Commission) : 
Budgetary reduction of U.S. forces, effect on U.S. nego- 
tiating position, statement (Dulles), 348 
4-power (U.S., Canada, France, U.K.) proposals, state- 
ments : Dulles, 304 ; Eisenhower, 455 
Review of negotiations, statements (Lodge), 631, 667 
Status and progress of negotiations, addresses and 
statements : Dulles, 9, 11, 98, 99, 100, 101, 230, 267, 
346, 531 ; Wilcox, 564 
Suspension of nuclear weapons tests, U.S. proposal, 

statement (Eisenhower), 418 
Working papers, texts of, 303, 451 
Lord, Mrs. Oswald B., 444, 1036, 1047 
Luce, Mrs. Clare Boothe, 431 
Ludlow, James M., 994 
Luxembourg : 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 1018 
Commercial samples and advertising material, conven- 
tion (1952) to facilitate importation, 662 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement amending annex 

B of 1950 agreement with U.S., 814 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 218 
Lychowski, Tadeusz, 803 

Macmillan, Harold, 707, 739 
Macomber, William B., Jr., 445 
Magsaysay, Ramon, 472 
Malaria eradication : 

UNICEF program in Colombia, 1041 



Index, July to December 7957 



1079 



Malaria eradication — Continued 

U.S. contributions to, announcement and statements 

(Dulles, Soper, Candau), 1000 
WHO efeorts for, address (Wilcox), 752 
Malaya : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 717 
Immigration quota for, proclamation, 758 
Independence : 
Address (Herter), 834 
Message to Prime Minister (Dulles) , 474 
Visit by Under Secretary Herter and Ambassador 
Richards, announcement and statement (Herter), 
343, 421 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
GATT, accession to, and protocol amending, 850, 906, 

1006 
ICJ, statute, 662 
U.N. Charter, 662 
U.N. membership, statement of U.S. position (Lodge), 

504 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 662 
U.S. consulate general at Kuala Lumpur, elevation to 
embassy status, 298 
Man, Isle of, convention on certification of able seamen, 

42 
Manila Air Station, agreement with the PhiUppines relat- 
ing to, 334 
Manila Pact. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Mann, Thomas C, 510, 768, 846, 1004 
Mao Tse-tung, 101, 139 
Mapping assistance, mutual, agreement with Cambodia 

relating to, 814 
Maritime law (see also International law) : 

Diplomatic conference on, U.S. delegation and texts of 

conventions relating to liability of shipowners and 

stowaways, 759 

Role of Suez Canal question in strengthening of, 226 

Maritime Meteorology, Commission for, 2d session and 

U.S. delegation, 164 
Marshall Islands, resettlement of Inhabitants displaced 

by atomic fallout, 2.52 
Marshall plan, accomplishments of : 
Addresses : Herter, 47 ; Zellerbach, 608 
Report by Office of the President, 726 
Martinez, Rodolfo, 648 
Mathews, Elbert G., 862 
Matthews, H. Freeman, 366 
McClintock, Robert, 150, 308, 312 
McCollum, Robert S., 6.5, .543, 845, 1032 
McCusker, Paul D., 808 
McDonald, W. F., 164 
McGrath, John B., 261, 981 
Mcintosh, Dempster, 1018 
McKay, Douglas, 239, 721 
McKinney, Robert M., 586, 619, 857 
McNaughton, Gen. A. G. L., 721 
Meany, George, 443, 688, 764, 937 
Merchant, Livingston T., 374 
Metallurgical Congress, 2d World, proclamation, 728 



Meteorological Organization, World : 

Commission for Maritime Meteorology, 2d session and 

U.S. delegation, 164 
Convention, 334 
Meteorology. See Weather 
Mexico : 

International Finance Corporation, investment in, 396 
Television channels, discussions with U.S. on alloca- 
tion of, 887 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 814 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 1018 
Cooperative meteorological program, agreement with 

U.S., 587 
Developmental engineering, agreement modifying 

and extending 1954 agreement with U.S., 626 
Migrant labor, agreements concerning interpretation 

of 1951 agreement with U.S., 129, 549 
Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) 

concerning temporary importation of, 86 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 

amending, 770 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs fa- 
cilities for, 86 
U.S.-Mexican broadcasting agreement, proposed, 
statement (Satterthwaite),242 
Visit by Milton Eisenhower, announcement, 273 
Meyer, Armin H., 807 

Micronesia. See Trust Territories : Pacific Islands 
Middle East. See Near and Middle East 
Migratory labor, agreements concerning interpretation of 

1951 agreement with Mexico regarding, 129, 549 
Military assistance (see also Military missions, Mutual 
defense, and Mutual security) : 
Address (Wilcox), 181 
Agreements with — 

Austria, 405 ; Jordan, 146 ; Lebanon, 218 ; Libya, 260 ; 
Philippines, 129 
Colombia, U.S. assistance to, 1041 
Near and Middle East. See American Doctrine 
Military bases, U.S., overseas : 
Aerial inspection under disarmament proposals, ques- 
tion of, statement (Dulles), 348 
Agreement with Philippines, effect of Philippine elec- 
tions on, statement (Dulles), 918 
Missile bases and stockpiles, question of establishment 
in allied countries, statements (Dulles), 916, 919, 
1023, 1024 
Threat of Soviet missiles to, question of, statement 
(Dulles), 828 
Military housing, use of foreign currencies for construc- 
tion, renting, and procurement of, 284, 288 
Military missions, U.S. : 
Air Force missions, agreements with El Salvador, 510, 

979 
Army mission, agreement with Liberia, 1049 
Military program, U.S. See Defense, Mutual defense, 

Mutual security, and National defense 
Mines, ILO technical meeting on, U.S. delegation, 978 



1080 



Department of State Bulletin 



Missiles (see also Outer-space projectiles, and Satellites, 
earth-circliug) : 
Atomic missiles, question of establishment of U.S. 
bases and stockpiles, statements (Dulles), 916, 
919, 1023, 1024 
Guided missiles, U.S. development program, addresses 
and statement: Dulles, 708; Eisenhower, 819, 820, 
868, 869 
Intercontinental ballistic missiles : 

Reported firing by Soviet Union, statement (Dulles), 

457 
U.S. and Soviet progress in development of, state- 
ments (DuUes) , 708, 919 
U.S. and Soviet development of, statements (Dulles), 

830 
U.S.-U.K. study group on problems of, establishment 
of, joint statement, 741 
Mohamed Lamine I, of Tunisia, 76 

Mohammed V of Morocco, visit to U.S., 19, 239, 846, 956 
Molotov, Vyacheslav, 377 
Monaco, ratification of statute of International Atomic 

Energy Agency, 586 
Monetary Fund, International. See International Mone- 
tary Fund 
Money orders : 
Agreement with British Guiana for exchange of, 1018 
Agreement, final protocol, and regulations of execution 
of the Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, 
445, 587, 734, 861 
Mongolia, Outer, U.N. membership, Soviet and U.S. posi- 
tions, statements : Lodge, 545 ; Washington, 854 
Monroe Doctrine, significance in U.S. foreign policy, 

address (Merchant), 378 
Moose, James S., Jr., 389 
Moral Element in Foreign Policy, address (Merchant), 

374 
Morocco : 

Good offices in Algerian question, offer by, 1046, 1047 
Mohammed V, visit to U.S., 19, 239, 846, 956 
National holiday, message (Eisenhower), 934 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air services transit agreement (1944), international, 

478 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 586 
Civil aviation, international, protocol amending con- 
vention on, 509 
Private road vehicles, convention (1954) on tem- 
porary importation of, 813 
Touring, convention (1954) on customs facilities for, 
813 
Morris, John H., 261 

Motion picture films, agreement with Federal Republic 
of Germany on importation into and screentime 
quota for showing In Germany, 298, 906 
Murphy, Gerald Lester, 144 
Murphy, Robert, 74, 317, 483 

Mutual defense (see also ANZUS Council, Baghdad Pact, 
Collective security. Defense, Mutual security. Na- 
tional defense. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 
and Southeast Asia Treaty Organization), agree- 
ment with Australia regarding exchange of atomic 
information for mutual defense purposes, 215, 216 
(text), 218, 405 



Mutual defense assistance (see also Mutual security), 

U.S. program of, address (Jones), 842 

Mutual defense assistance agreements (see also Military 

missions), with — 

Iran, for disposition of equipment and materials, 979 

Iraq, for special program of facilities assistance, 129 

Libya, for return of surplus equipment and material, 

260 
Luxembourg, amending annex B of 1950 agreement, 814 
Norway, amending 1950 agreement, 942 
Mutual security and other assistance programs (see 
also Agricultural surpluses, collective security, De- 
velopment Loan Fund, Economic and technical aid, 
Military assistance, and Mutual defense) : 
Coordination of program, accouncements and Executive 

order, 990 
Importance of, addresses and article : Dillon, 879 ; Dul- 
les, 575 ; Murphy, 486 
Mutual Security, a Common Defense of Freedom, re- 
marks (Dulles), 791 
The Mutual Security Program as an Instrument of 

Foreign Policy, address (Herter), 47 
Near and Middle East, program in. See American 
Doctrine 

1957 program, semiannual report (Jan. 1-June 30, 1957) 
to Congress, letter of transmittal (Eisenhower), 
862 

1958 program : 

Appropriations for, statements regarding proposed 
cuts in : Dulles, 411, 458, 459 ; Eisenhower, 371 ; 
Hagerty, 373 ; HoUister, 414 ; Radford, 413 
Legislative history, chart, 615 
Statement (Dulles), 3 
Our Mutual Security Programs, address (Dulles), 114 
Mutual understanding and cooperation, implementation 
of 1955 treaty with Panama, 477 

NAC. See North Atlantic Council 
Narcotic drugs. See Drugs, narcotic 
Nasser, Col. Abdel Gamal, 353 
NAT. See North Atlantic Treaty 
National Catholic Resettlement Council, 65 
National Catholic Welfare Council, 1042 
National Commission for UNESCO, U.S., functions, 836 
National defense and security (see also Defense, Collec- 
tive security, Mutual defense, and Mutual security) : 
Impairment by imports of crude oil, question of, 209 
Our Future Security, address (Eisenhower), 867 
Relationship to economic policy, remarks (Eisen- 
hower), 596 
Security functions of consular service, address (O'Con- 
nor), 604 
Science in national security, address (Eisenhower), 819 
U.S. budget, national security considerations in formu- 
lation of, statements (Dulles), 710, 713, 788 
U.S.-Canadian cooperation, address and remarks: 

Brucker, 720 ; Jones, 380 
U.S. reserve fleet ships, proposed sale abroad, state- 
ment and letter (Kalijarvi, Hill), 77 
National Olympic Day, 1957, proclamation, 473 



Index, July fo December 1957 



1081 



Nationalism, growth in Africa and Asia, articles : Dulles, 

57G ; Palmer, 930 
Nationality of women, convention (1933) on, 769 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Naval vessels or small craft, agreement with Greece re- 
lating to loan of, 478 
Navigation, commerce, and friendship, treaties with — 
Korea, Republic of, 405, 510, 085, 696, 942 ; Netherlands, 
860, 861, 942 
Near and Middle East (see also individual countries) : 
American Doctrine. See American Doctrine 
Arab States, U.S. policy toward, statement (Lodge), 

781 
Arms shipments to. See Arms supply 
Collective security (see also Baghdad Pact), joint com- 
munique (Eisenhower, Suhrawardy) regarding, 186 
Condominium by great powers, question of, statements 

(Dulles), 526, 528 
Economic development plan, proposed, statement 

(Dulles), 1026 
Gulf of Aqaba, 112, 232 
Refugee problem. See under Refugees 
Situation in, statement (Dulles), 714 
Soviet proposals for 4-power (U.S., France, U.K., 
U.S.S.R.) declarations regarding, and U.S. replies, 
texts of notes, 20, 602 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
U.N. role in settlement of disputes in, address and re- 
marks: Dulles, 274; Herter, 224; Ludlow, 994; 
Wadsworth, 238 ; Wilcox, 105, 184, 563, 795 
UNEF. See United Nations Emergency Force 
U.S. and Soviet policies regarding, addresses, article, 
and statements : Dulles, 232, 234, 487, 526, 528, 529, 
558, 559, 570, 709, 785, 829; Allen Dulles, 645; 
Kretzmann, 351 ; Lodge, 775, 777, 778, 780 ; Murphy, 
485 ; Parker, 674 
Visit of Deputy Under Secretary Henderson, state- 
ments : Dulles, 459, 461, 487 ; Lodge, 779 
Netherlands : 

Balance-of-payments consultations under GATT, 153 
Complaint against U.S. import restrictions on dairy 

products, GATT consideration of, 1008 
Di.spute with Indonesia regarding West New Guinea, 

U.S. view.s, statements (Dulles), 918, 1027 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreements with U.S., 173, 

366 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 334 
Commercial convention (1852) with U.S., supplemen- 
tary, termination, 942 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaty with 

U.S., 860, 861, 942 
GATT, rectifications and modifications to texts of 

schedules, 6th protocol, 509 
Rawinsonde observation stations, agreement extend- 
ing 1956 agreement with U.S. for establishment 
and operation in Curacao and St. Martin, 549 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, extension to 

Antilles, 42 
Sugar agreement (19.53), international, protocol 
amending, 770 



Netherlands— Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Trade agreement with U.S., supplementary to GATT, 

129, 200 
Trade-marks registration, termination of 1883 agree- 
ment with U.S. relating to, 942 
Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (Korea), re- 
port of Swedish and Swiss members on Communist 
violations of armistice, 968, 971 
New Zealand : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 549 
GATT, amending protocol, 850 
Tariff adjustments under GATT, 1007 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 
amending, 129 
News correspondents. See Correspondents 
Niagara Falls, U.S. -Canadian remedial works to preserve 

scenic beauty of, 718, 721 
Nicaragua : 

Boundary dispute with Honduras, address and state- 
ment : Rubottom, 924 ; White, 273 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S., 41 
Atomic Energy Agency, International statute, 586 
GATT, protocol amending, 850 
ILO, constitution, 86 
Inter-American radiocommunications convention 

( 1937), and annexes, 509 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 
amending, 770 
Nixon, Richard M. : 
Address and .statements : 

.Japanese Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 54 
Pakistani Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 191 
Private investment and economic challenge, 703 
Queen Elizabeth II, visit to U.S., 744 
Visit to Europe, proposed, announcement and state- 
ment (Dulles), 712, 713 
Nkrumah, Kwame, 111 

Non-self-governing territories {see also Self-determina- 
tion and Trust territories), report on economic con- 
ditions in, statement (Dunne), 895 
Norstad, Gen. Lauris, 952 

North American regional broadcasting agreement pro- 
posed, statement (Satterthwaite), 242 
North Atlantic Council, confirmation of U.S. permanent 

representative, 218 
North Atlantic ocean stations, agreement (1954) on, 942 
North Atlantic Treaty, significance in U.S. foreign policy, 

379 
North Atlantic Treaty Oi-ganization : 
Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and De- 
velopment, meeting, letter (Eisenhower), 951 
Atlantic Community, addresses: Elbrick, 947; Herter 

135 
Broadening the scope of, question of, statements 

(Dulles), 827, 828, 920, 987, 1027, 1028 
Education and citizenship, relationship to NATO ob- 
jectives, address (Norstad), 052 
Fellowship and .scholarship program, 580 
Functions of, address and remarks : Dulles, 419 ; Zeller- 
bach, 611 



1082 



Depar/menf of Sfafe Bulletin 



North Atliuitic Treaty Organizatiim — Continued 
Gerniany, ([iiestiou of membership iu event of reunifl- 

catiou, 305 
Heads of Government meeting, Paris. Sec Heads of 

Government 
Jotirnalists from NATO countries, visit to U.S., itiner- 
ary, 051 
NAC, contirniation of U.S. permanent representative, 

21S 
Scientific committee, proposed establishment, address 

(Eisenhower), 823 
Secretary General, visit to U.S., 746, 602 
Soviet propaganda charges against, statement (Lodge), 

777 
U.S. atomic missile bases and stockpiles, question of 
establishment, statements (Dulles), 233, 234, 825, 
916, 919 
U.S.-Canadian cooperation In, address (Jones), 381 
Use of nuclear weapons in event of attack on NATO 
views on U.S. policy, statements (Dulles), 920 
North Pacific Fi-sheries Commission, International, ap- 
pointment of U.S. Commissioner, 119 
North Pacific fur seals, interim convention on conserva- 
tion of, 404, 509, 586, 734, 942 
"Northern tier" pact. See Baghdad Pact 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, convention (1949) on, and 

amending protocol, 129, 942 
Norway : 

Air transport talks with U.S., 846 
Balance-of-payments consultations under GATT, 153 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Faroe Islands, agreements on joint financing, 42 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S., 42 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 42 
GATT, protocol amending, 850 
GATT, rectifications and modifications to texts of 

schedules, 6th protocol, 509 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement amending an- 
nex of 1950 agreement with U.S., 942 
OTC, agreement on, 297 
Nucker, Delmas H., 248 
Nuclear energy. See Atomic energy 
Nuiiez Arellano, Carlos, 887 
Nyasaland. See Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of 

GAS. See Organization of American States 
Ocean stations, north Atlantic, agreement (1954) on, 942 
Oceanographic research stations, agreements with U.K. 
for establLshment in Bahamas and Barbados, 814, 861 
O'Connor, Roderie L., 493, 604, 661, 845, 1032 
Office of the President, report on foreign economic policy 

and the trade agreements program, 723 
Oil, crude, establishment of special committee to investi- 
gate U.S. imports of, 209 
Okinawa, U.S. role in, statement (Dulles), 145 
Olympic games : 

Participation by Communist China, question of, state- 
ment (Dulles), 530 
Proclamation of 1957 National Olympic Day, 473 



Olympic' games — Continued 

Waiver of U.S. fingcriirinting requirement for partici- 
pants, letter (Dulles), 579 
Oman, di.spute with United Kingdom : 
Appeal by Oman for U.S. good offices, 344 
Inscription on Security Council agenda, proposed, U.S. 

position, statement (Lodge), 430 
Soviet views on, text of note to U.S., 603 
"Open Door" in China, significance of principle in U.S. 

foreign policy, address (Merchant), 379 
"Open skies" proposals of President Eisenhower. See 

Disarmament 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, and 

use of, 297, 813, 1049 
Organization of American States : 

Economic conference at Buenos Aires. See Economic 

conference 
Honduran-Nicaraguan boundary question, Council's 

role in mediation of, 274, 924 
Housing Center, Inter-American, Bogotft, activities of, 

1042 
Nuclear Energy Commission, Inter-American, establish- 
ment, statement (Dreier) and text of resolution, 976 
Significance of, address and statement : Dulles, 716 ; 

Rubottom, 923 
U.S. participation in economic strengthening of, state- 
ment (Dulles), 12 
Organization for Trade Cooperation : 
Agreement on, 297, 404, 814 

U.S. membership, question of, addresses, remarks, and 
statements: Beale, 872, 874; Dillon, 915; Eisen- 
hower, 8: Mann, 848; Nixon, 707; Wilcox, 750 
Orphans, adopted foreign-born, provisions for U.S. entry 
under Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1957, 
1032 
Osborne, Arthur S., 990 

OTC. See Organization for Trade Cooperation 
Outer Mongolia, U.N. membership, Soviet and U.S. posi- 
tions, statements: Lodge, .545; Washington, 854 
Outer-space projectiles (see also Missiles and Satellites, 
earth-circling), proposed international control of: 
Addresses and statements : Dulles, 271, 826 ; Eisen- 
hower, 674n ; Wilcox, 565 
General Assembly resolution regarding, 962 
Western proposals, addresses and statements : Dulles, 
556 ; Eisenhower, 455 ; Lodge, 632, 635, 671 ; work- 
ing paper, 453 

Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the, U.S. administra- 
tion of, statement (Nucker), 248 
Pacific Science Congress, 9th, U.S. delegation, 941 
Pact of mutual cooperation. See Baghdad Pact 
Pakistan : 

Kashmir dispute. See Kashmir dispute 

Lend-lease silver debt, repayment of 1st installment to 

U.S., remarks (Meyer), 807 
Prime Minister, visit to U.S. joint communique with 
President Eisenhower, addresses to Congress, state- 
ments (Nixon, Suhrawardy), and official party, 186 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 980 



Index, July to December 7957 



1C83 



Pakistan — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Double taxation, proposed convention with U.S. for 

avoidance of, 172, 173, 359 
Economic assistance, agreements with U.S. under 

American Doctrine, 341 
Educational exchange programs, agreement amend- 
ing 1950 agreement with U.S. for financing of, 734 
GATT, protocol amending, 850 
Genocide, convention (1948) on prevention and 

punishment of the crime of, 906 
Informational media guaranty program, agreement 

amending 1954 agreement with U.S., 861 
ICJ, declaration recognizing compulsory jurisdiction 
deposited, 366 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 42 
U.S. consulate general at Dacca, conversion to inde- 
pendent fiscal reporting post, 1050 
U.S. mutual security aid, statements : Dulles, 412 ; Hol- 
lister, 416 
Palestine (see also Arab-Israeli dispute), partition of, 

address (Ludlow), 995 
Palmer, Gardner E., 626 
Palmer, Joseph, 2d, 930 
Pamir, German ship, letter of appreciation (Von Bren- 

tano) for U.S. aid to, 681 
Pan American Highway Congress, 7th, U.S. delegation, 

333 
Pan American Railway Congress, 9th, article (Farley) 

and U.S. delegation, 545, 731 
Pan American Railway Congress Association, appoint- 
ment of U.S. member, 333 
Pan American Sanitary Organization : 

Directing Council, 10th meeting, U.S. delegation, 546 
Executive Committee, 32d meeting, U.S. delegation, 546 
U.S. contributions to malaria eradication campaign, 
statements (Dulles, Soper, Candau), 1000 
Panama : 
Election to Security Council, statement (Lodge), 661 
Transfer of U.S. property in the Canal Zone to, 804 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Adviser to Government of Panama, agreement ex- 
tending 1942 agreement with U.S. relating to as- 
signment of, 696 
Inspection of Panamanian vessels in Canal Zone, 

agreement with U.S., 405 
Mutual understanding and cooperation, implementa- 
tion of 1955 treaty with U.S., 477 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 
amending, 770 
Paraguay : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 662 
Educational exchange programs, agreement with U.S. 

for financing of, 218 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and agree- 
ments relating to money orders and parcel post, 
861 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 

218 
Universal postal convention (1952), 509 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 366 



Parcel post. See under Postal agreements 
Parker, Jameson, 674 
Passports («ee also Visas) : 

The Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs and 
the Problem of Passport Restrictions, address 
(O'Connor), 604 
Issuance for travel to Communist China. See China, 

Communist: Travel to 
Letters from President Eisenhower for inclusion in 
civilian and military passports, 275 
Pawelczak, Stanislaw, 748 
Peace : 
Addresses, remarks, and statements : Dalles, 267, 531 ; 

Murphy, 483 ; Wilcox, 564, 792, 799 
"Essentials of Peace," General Assembly resolution 

(1949), address (Dulles), 558 
"Peaceful coexistence," inscription of Soviet item on 
General Assembly agenda, statement (Lodge), 693 
UNESCO contributions to, address (Berding), 835 
Pearkes, George R., 306 
Peck, David W., 196 

Peoi>le-to-people program, remarks (Eisenhower), 747 
Permanent Court of Arbitration, designation of U.S. 

members, 196 
Persons, exchange of. See Cultural relations, Educa- 
tional exchange, a/nd Exchange of persons 
Peru: 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1957 

agreement with U.S., 478 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S., 260, 

261 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 662 
Drought relief program, agreement with U.S., 298 
Educational exchange, agreement amending 1956 agree- 
ment with U.S. for financing, 260 
Nonimmigrant visa applicants, agreement with U.S. for 
reciprocal waiver of fingerprint requirements, 936 
Road traflic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 365 
Tax convention with U.S., proposed, 84 
Peter the Great Bay, U.S. note of protest of closing by 

Soviet Union, 388 
Peterson, Val, 130 
Petkov, Nikola, 568 
Philip, Prince, 742 
Philippines : 
Elections, effect on base agreement renegotiations with 

U.S., statement (Dulles), 918 
International Bank loan, 1010 
Philippine-American Day, message (Dulles), 881 
Return of insurrection battle flag, announcement and 

remarks (Bohlen), 60 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 172, 

298 
IFC, articles of agreement, 445 
Manila Air Station, agreement with U.S. relating 

to, 334 
Mutual security, agreement supplementing and 

amending 1955 agreement with U.S., 129 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 
amending, 770 
U.S. aid, address (Jones), 843 



1084 



Department of State Bulletin 



Philippines — Continued 
U.S. stamp commemorating President Magsaysay, re- 
marks and statement : Dulles, 473 ; Eisenhower, 
472 
Phleger, Herman, 196 
Phonograph records, reduction of Greek import duties on, 

1008 
Photography, aerial, agreement with Venezuela for joint 

program of, 696 
Plant protection convention (1951), international, 218 
Ploeser, Walter C, 366 
Plowden, Edwin, 741 
Poland : 

Communist education in, address (Eleanor Dulles), 

25, 26 
Economic discussions with U.S., 803 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 405, 

444 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 334 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 
amending, 770 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 130 
U.S. food and clothing industries, observation by Polish 
officials, 748 
Poliomyelitis, world progress in eradication of, state- 
ment (Jacoby), 498 
Poliomyelitis (Salk) vaccine, U.S. export quota and re- 
cipient nations, 685 
Political rights of women, Inter-American convention 

(1W8) on, 770 
Porter, William J., 478 
Portugal : 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement amending 1955 

agreement with U.S., 41, 587 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 218 
Defense, agreement supplementing 1951 agreement 

with U.S., 905, 942 
Safety of life at sea, extension of 1948 convention to 

possessions, 366 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 

amending, 770 
Uranium allocation to IAEA, 857 
Postal agreements : 

Parcel post, agreement with Liberia for exchange of, 

with regulations of execution, 334 
Parcel post, insured, agreement with Republic of China 

for exchange of, 549, 906 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocols, regulations of execution, and 
agreements relating to money orders and parcel 
post, 445, 586, 587, 734, 861 
Universal postal convention (1952), 509, 626, 734, 770 
Postal Union, Universal, U.S. delegation to 14th Con- 
gress, 400 
Potatoes, revision of U.S. tariff quotas, announcement 

and text of proclamation, 154 
Powell, Richard, 741 
President, Office of the, report on foreign economic 

policy and the trade agreements program, 723 
Presidential Representatives, Committee of, proposals re- 
garding OAS, address (Rubottom), 925 



Prisoners of war : 
Geneva convention (1949) relative to treatment of, 86, 

173, 405, 861 
South Korean and U.S. troops in Communist hands, 
failure to account for, statement (Judd), 969, 970, 
974 
Private capital, investment abroad. See Investment of 

private capital 
Private international law, 8th Hague conference on, U.S. 

delegation and publications, 585 
Proclamations by the President: 
Almonds, shelled or prepared, tariff quota, 852 
Butterfat articles, import restrictions, 358 
Clothesi)ins, spring, increase in import duty, 959 
Clover seed, alsike, extension of import quota, 211 
Dairy products, relaxation of import quotas, 475 
GATT, 8th protocol of supplementary concessions 

(U.S.-Cuba), 161 
General Pulaski's memorial day, 568 
Immigration quota for Ghana, 111 
Immigration quota for Malaya, 758 
National Olympic Day, 1957, 473 
Potatoes, revision of tariff quotas on, 154 
Rye, imposition of import quota, 241 
Safety pins, increase in import duty on, 1009 
Theodore Roosevelt centennial year, 803 
Trade agreements with Belgium, Netherlands, and 

U.K., 207 
Tung oil import quota, 542 
United Nations Day, 1957, 110 
United Nations Human Rights Day, 1957, 1036 
World Metallurgical Congress, 2d, 728 
Property, cultural, convention (1954) for protection in 
event of armed conflict, and regulations of execu- 
tion and protocol, 334, 906 
Property, industrial, convention (1934) for protection of, 

86 
Public education, U.S. delegation to 20th international 

conference on, 171 
Publications : 

Congressional documents relating to foreign policy, lists 
of, 85, 152, 200, 245, 297, 322, 397, 437, 476, 493, 582, 
807 
Exchange of publications, U.S. program of, address 

(Berding), 839 
Hague Conference on Private International Law, 8th 

session, 586 
International Hydrographic Bureau media, listed, 362 
Need for removal of barrier to circulation a stimulus 

to cultural relations, statement (Meany), 767 
South Pacific Commission documents, published, 426 
State Department : 
American Foreign Policy, 1950-1955; Basic Docu- 
ments, vol. I, published, 614 
Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945 
{The War Years, June 23-August 31, 1940), series 
D., vol. X, published, 405 
Foreign Relations of the Vnitcd States, 1940, vol. 

II (General and Europe), published, 174 
Lists of recent releases, 174, 261, 298, 406, 445, 589, 

697, 981, 1050 
The Seal o/ the United States, published, 456 
The Widening Circle, published, 696 



Index, July to December 1957 



1085 



Publications — Continued 

Translation, publication, aud distribution of, use of 

funds from surplus agricultural commodities for, 

291 

United Nations, lists of current documents, 171, 214, 

364, 401, 476, 621, 661, 695, 73.3, 905, 1017, 1049 

Pulaski, Gen. Casiniir, memorial day, proclamation, 568 

Quarles, Donald, 741 

Queen Elizabeth II, visit to U.S., 16, 711, 742 

Racial relations problem in Africa, article (Palmer), 932 
Racial segregation, U.S. progress in eliminating, state- 
ments : Jacoby, 500 ; Meany, 692 
Radford, Adm. Arthur, 413 

Radiation, atomic. See Atomic energy, radiation effects 
Radio. See Telecommunications 

Radio Union, International Scientific, 12th General As- 
sembly, article (Wells) and U.S. delegation, 401, 897 
Rail and Highway Commission, Alaska International, 

appointment of U.S. members, 76, 981 
Railway Congress, 9th Pan American, article (Faricy) 

and U.S. delegation, .545, 731 
Railway Congress Association, Pan American, appoint- 
ment of U.S. member, 333 
Randall, Clarence B., 8n 

Rawinsonde observation stations {see also Weather), 
agreement with Netherlands for establishment and 
operation in Curasao and 'St. Martin, 549 
Reciprocity Information, Interdepartmental Committee 

for, 581, 686, 805, 850 
Reconstruction and Development, International P.ank for. 

See International Bank 
Records of the Stflte Department, text of regulations 

governing research in, 980 
Red Cross Conference, International, walkout of Soviet 
and Chinese Communist delegations, statement 
(Reap). 904 
Refugees and displaced persons (see also Intergovern- 
mental Committee for European Migration) : 
Coordinator of Special Immigration, designation, 543 
1st arrival in U.S. under amended Immigration and 
Nationality Act, remarks (McCoUum, O'Connor), 
845 
Hungarian refugees : 

ICEM assistance to, article (Warren), 329, 330, 331 
Report by special U.N. committee, 65 
U.S. aid to, address and statement: Hollister, 418; 
Wadsworth, 195 
Increase in young refugees entering Berlin, 26 
Palestine refugees, problem of, addresses and state- 
ments : Dulles, 96, 102 ; Ludlow, 990, 998 : Wilcox, 
106, 563, 564, 794 
Provisions in Immigration and Nationality Act of 1957 

regarding, address (Auerbach), 1030, 1031 
U.N. refugee program, revision of. statement (Meany) 

and General Assembly resolution, 937 
Universal copyright convention (1952), protocol 1, ap- 
plication of convention to works of stateless per- 
sons and refugees, 173. 813 
U.S. aid to refugees from Egypt, 239 
World migration problem, need for U.S. aid in solving, 
address (McCollum), 65 



Reinhardt, G. Frederick, 695, 755 

Relief and rehabilitation. See Agricultural surpluses, 
Economic and technical aid, Refugees, and individual 
countries 

Religious freedom, denial in Hungary by Communist re- 
gime, statement (Lodge), 522 

Report on the World Social Situation, evaluation of, 
statements : Hottel, 166 : Jacoby, 496 

Research Council, South Pacific Commission, 424 

Reserve fleet ships, U.S., proposed sale abroad, statement 
(Kalijarvi) and letter (Hill), 77 

Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of : 
GATT, protocol amending, 850 

GATT. 6th protocol of rectifications and modifications 
to texts of schedules, 509 

Richards, James P. (see also American Doctrine), 343, 
421 

Riddleberger, James W., 1050 

Rights and duties of states in event of civil strife, pro- 
tocol to 1928 convention on, 365, 662 

Road construction, International Bank loans to — 
Belgian Congo, 1010; Ecuador, 650 

Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, and 
protocol providing for accession of occupied terri- 
tories or countries, 42, 128, 297, 365, 444, 549, 861, 1049 

Riiad vehicles, private, convention (19.54) on temporary 
Importation of, 86. 17,3, 626, 7.34, 81.3, 906 

Roberts, Ralph S., 812 

Robertson. Walter S., 150 

Rockwell, Stuart W., 366 

Ruanda-Urundi, application of 1948 tax convention be- 
tween U.S. and Belgium to, 477, 625. 

Rubottom, Roy Richard, Jr., 84, 86, 273, 333, 536, 675 

Rule of Law Among Nation.s, address (Herter), 223 

Rumania, protocol amending 1926 slavery convention, 
1018 

Roosevelt, Theodore, centennial year, proclamation, 803 

Royalties, avoidance of double taxation on income from, 
Ijrotocol supplementing 1945 convention with U.K., 
444 

Rye, imposition of U.S. import quota, announcement and 
proclamation, 240 

Ryukyu Islands, administration of: 

Joint communique (Eisenhower, Kishi), 52 

White House announcement and Executive order, 55 

Saar, Franco-German treaty on economic relations with, 
1007 

Safety at sea, regulations (1948) for preventing ship col- 
lisions, 734 

Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 366, 404, 509 

Safety pins, announcement and proclamation increasing 
U.S. import duty on, 1009 

Saing Kun-ko, Mrs., 845 

St. Martin, agreement with the Netherlands for establish- 
ment and operation of rawinsonde observation sta- 
tion in, 549 

St. Stephen's Day in Hungar.v, 1957, 431 

Salk vaccine, U.S. export quota and recipient nations, 
685 

Salmon fisheries, sockeye, in the Fraser River system, 
protocol to 1930 convention with Canada for protec- 
tion, preservation, and extension of, 129, 318, 366 



1086 



Department of State Bulletin 



Sanitary Organization. Pan American. Sec Pan Ameri- 
can Sanitary Organization 
Sanitation. See Healtli and sanitation 
Sarasin, Pote, 488 

Satellite nations. See Soviet-bloc countries 
Satellites, earth-circling {see also Outer-space projec- 
tiles) : 
Soviet satellites : 
Effect on conduct of foreign relations, statements 

(Dulles), 708, 710 
Military significance of, address and statements : 

Dulles, 825; Eisenhower, 820; Nixon, 703 
Relationship to NATO strategy, address (Norstad), 
954, 955 
U.S. program, address, remarks, and statement (Eisen- 
hower), 145, 673, 869 
Satterthwaite, Livingston, 76, 242, 1037 
Saudi Arabia : 
Arras supply to, question of, statement (Dulles), 232 
Economic assistance, agreement with U.S. under Amer- 
ican Doctrine, 341 
IMF, articles of agreement, 478 
International Bank, membership, 478, 853 
King Saud, offer of mediation in Syrian question, 776 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 981 
Science (see also International Geophysical Tear) : 
Cooperation in science, culture, and education, state- 
ment (Meany), 764 
Science Congi-ess, 9th Pacific, U.S. delegation, 941 
Science in national security, address (Eisenhower), 

819 
Scientific information, U.S. views on exchange of, re- 
marks (McKinney), 858 
Soviet-bloc emphasis on scientific education, address 

(Eleanor Dulles), 25, 26, 27 
U.S.-U.K. cooperation regarding, declaration, joint 
statement, and statements (Dulles), 709. 710, 740, 
741 
Scrap, iron and steel, problems relating to export of, 

statement (Kalljarvi), 120 
Seal of the U.S., 175th anniversary, 4.56, 587 
Seamen, conventions on, 42 

SEATO. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Sebald, William J., 389 
Secretariat, U.N., document, 661 
Secretary of Defense, functions in administration of 

Ryukyu Islands, Executive order, 5.5, 57 
Secretary of State, conduct of foreign relations of Ryu- 
kyu Islands, Executive order, 55 
Security, Japanese- American Committee on, establish- 
ment, 350 
Security, national. See National defense and security 
Security and Consular Affairs, Bureau of : 
Problem of passport restrictions, address (O'Connor), 

604 
Regulations regarding waiver of fingerprint require- 
ment, 682 
Security Council, U.N. ; 
Arab-Israeli dispute, actions regarding, address (Lud- 
low ) , 996, 997, 998 
Documents, lists of, 364, 401, 621, 733, 1017 



Security Council, U.N. — Continued 

Kashmir dispute, deliberations regarding, statements 

(Wadsworth) and text of resolution, 1011 
Oman question, U.S. position on proposed inscription 

on agenda, statement (Lodge), 430 
Resolution on Kashmir dispute, 1016 
Seats for new U.N. members, need for, address (Wil- 
cox), 567 
Soviet abuse of veto power in, addresses, article, and 
statement: Dulles, .571; Wilcox, 560, 793; Wash- 
ington, 8.56 
Suez Canal problem, actions regarding, address 
(Herter), 224 
Security information, texts of U.S. and Canadian notes 

regarding handling and exchange of, 384 
Security treaty and administrative agreement (U.S.- 
Japan), understanding concerning interpretation of. 
696 
Selection Boards, 11th Foreign Service, meeting and list 

of members, 510 
Self-determination, U.S. and U.N. efforts for, article and 

statement ; Lord, 1047 ; Palmer, 931 
Serpen, Christopher, 987 
Service, Richard M., 734 
Ships and shipping : 

Collisions at sea, regulations (1948) for preventing, 734 
German ship Pamir, letter of appreciation (Von 

Bretano) for U.S. aid to, 681 
Gulf of Aqaba, procedures for passage into, 112 
High-seas weather observations, report of, article 

(McDonald), 164 
Maritime law, diplomatic conference on, U.S. delega- 
tion and texts of conventions, 759 
Naval vessels or small craft, agreement with Greece 

relating to loan of, 478 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 366, 404, 

509 
Seagoing ships, text of international convention on 

limitation of owners' liability, 759 
Seamen, conventions regarding, 42 
7th International Ilydrographic Conference, article 

(Watt), 361 
Stowaways, international convention on, 762 
Transportation of refugees to Australia, 330 
Vessels of Panamanian registry, inspection in Canal 

Zone, agreement with Panama, 405 
Vessels of U.S. reserve fleet, propo.sed .sale abroad, state- 
ment (Kalljarvi) and letter (Hill), 77 
Siedle, E. George, 400 

Silver, lend-lease, repayment of 1st installment by Paki- 
stan to U.S., remarks (Meyer), 807 
Skowronski, Tadeusz, 748 
Slavery convention (1926), and protocol amending, 366, 

734, 1018 
Smith, Earl T., 349 
Smith, Gerard C, 510 
Smith, James H., Jr., 445, 993 
Smith, Sidney E., 683 
Snow, William P., 86 
Snowdon, Henry T., 580, 846 

Social development program. South Pacific Commission, 
429 



Index, July to December 1957 



1087 



Social sciences, contribution to foreign policymaking, arti- 
cle (Hamilton), 436 
Social situation, world, review of, statements: Hottel, 

166 ; Jacoby, 496 ; Meany, 688 
Sonialiland, Trust Territory of : 
U.S. and Italian aid to, 1047 

U.S. consulate at Mogadiscio : establishment, 261 ; ele- 
vation to consulate general, 981 
Soper, Fred L., 1000, 1003 

South Africa, Union of. See Union of South Africa 
South America. See Latin America 
South and Southeast Asia. See Asia 
South Pacific Commission : 
Alternate U.S. commissioner, appointment, 990 
The First Ten Years, article (Keesing), 428 
Southard, Frank A., Jr., 363 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization : 
1st Secretary General, congratulatory message to 

(Dulles), 488 
Research fellowships, announcement, 3.54 
Seminar on Communist subversion, U.S. participants 

and final communique, 978, 993 
3d anniversary, remarks (Dulles), 487 
Soviet Union (see also Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Re- 
public, Communism, East-West contacts, Soviet-bloc 
countries, and Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) : 
Aggression, Soviet definition of, statement (Klutznick), 

891 
Aggressive policies of, U.N. efforts to combat, statement 

(Lodge), 781,782 
Arab-Israeli dispute, Soviet efforts to exploit, ad- 
dresses : Ludlow, 994 ; Murphy, 485 
Assurances to Baltic States prior to incorporation, 377 
Claims for destruction of U.S. aircraft against, 68, 470 
Disarmament. See Disarmament, Disarmament Com- 
mission, and London disarmament talks 
Education in, address (Eleanor Dulles), 25, 27 
Expulsion of Marshal Zhukov from Presidium and Cen- 
tral Committee, statement (White), 782 
Flight of aircraft to U.S., approval of, announcement 

and note, 470 
Foreign economic activities, contrast with U.S. policy, 

remarks (Dulles), 717 
Foreign Minister Gromyko, Department's views on 

statement by, statement (White), 525 
Habomai Islands, Soviet claim of sovereignty over, 

68,72 
Hungary, Soviet activities in. See Hungarian question 
Imperialism, contrast with colonialism, statement 

(Dulles), 990 
Internal policies and problems, statements (Dulles), 

144, 228, 229, 231, 783, 790, 826 
Khrushchev, Nikita. See Khrushchev 
Korean reunification, obstruction of, statement (Judd), 

966 
Military and political policy, threat to free world, ad- 
dresses, remarks, and statement : Dulles, 419, 988 ; 
Eisenhower, 821 ; Murphy, 485 
Missiles, Soviet development of. See under Missiles 
Near and Middle East, Soviet activities in, and U.S. 
efforts to combat. See American Doctrine, Arms 
supply, and under Near and Middle East 



Soviet Union — Continued 

Negotiations with, question of value of, statements 
(Dulles), 711, 989 

"New look" policy, addresses and article : Dulles, 570 ; 
Allen Dulles, 640 ; Murphy, 75, 484 

Nuclear weapons, Soviet views on control and testing of. 
See under Atomic energy, nuclear weapons 

"Peaceful coexistence," inscription of Soviet item on 
General Assembly agenda, statement (Lodge), 693 

Peter the Great Bay, closing of, U.S. note of protest, 388 

Relations with U.S. joint statement (Dulles, 
Gromyko), 635 

Satellite program. See under Satellites, earth-circling 

Subversive activities : 
Economic penetration policies. See under Less de- 
veloped countries 
Far East, coordination of policy with Communist 

China, address (Jones), 842 
Western Europe, address (Elbrick), 947, 948, 949 

Suez Canal problem (see also Suez Canal), Soviet posi- 
tions, 999 

Syrian question, Soviet charges against U.S. and 
Turkey, statements : Lodge, 775 ; Parker, 674 

Technological achievements, address and statements: 
Dulles, 710, 829 ; Eisenhower, 870 

Travel, diplomatic, announcement and Soviet note re- 
garding restrictions on, 118 

Travel regulations in the U.S. and U.S.S.R., revision of, 
announcement and U.S. and Soviet notes, 934 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 1018 
Fur seals, north Pacific, interim convention on con- 
servation of, 734 
Judicial assistance, 1935 agreement with U.S. cited, 

810 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 

amending, 770 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 
amending, 173 

Turkey, Soviet policy toward, and U.S. and U.K. views 
concerning, address, joint declaration, and state- 
ments : Dulles, 558, 709, 712, 713, 714 ; Eisenhower, 
MacmlUan, 741; Lodge, 775, 779; Parker, 674 

U.N. specialized agencies, Soviet policy toward, address 
(Wilcox), 753 

Uranium allocation to IAEA, 8.58 

U.S. recognition in 1933, address (Dulles), 91 

Veto in the Security Council, abuse of, addresses, article, 
and statement: Dulles, 571; Wilcox, 560, 793; 
Washington, 8.56 

Walkout of delegates from International Red Cross 
Conference, statement (Reap), 904 
Soviet-bloc countries (see also Communism, Soviet Union, 
and individual countries) : 

Arms shipments to Syria, address and statement 
(Dulles), 529, 558 

Economic penetration policies. See under Less de- 
veloped countries 

Education in, address (Eleanor Dulles), 25, 26 



1088 



Deparlment of State Bulletin 



Soviet-bloc countries — Continued 
Export of strategic materials to, question of, joint 

communique (Eisenhower, Kishi), 52 
Soviet policy toward, address (Allen Dulles), 642 
U.N. action on Hungarian question, effect on satellite 

system, address (Wilcox), 797 
Visit by Secretary Dulles, question of, 230 
Voting pattern in General Assembly, address (Wilcox), 
561 
Spaak, Paul-Henri, 602, 746 
Spain : 
Aircraft, imported, agreement with U.S. relating to 

certificates of airworthiness, 662 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement superseding 1955 

agreement with U.S., 403, 405 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 478 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
final protocol, regulations of execution, and agree- 
ments relating to parcel post and money orders, 445, 
586, 587, 734, 861 
U.S. mutual security aid, statements: Dulles, 412; 
Hollister, 416, 417 
Special assistance, mutual security programs. See Mutual 

security 
Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary, U.N. 

See under Hungarian question 
Special United Nations Fund for Economic Development, 
proposed : 
General Assembly resolution regarding, 962 
U.S. position, addresses and statements : Jacoby, 502, 
503 ; Lodge, 963 ; Wilcox, 566, 752 
Specialized agencies, U.N. {see also name of agency) : 
Cooperation of South Pacific Commission with, article 

(Keesing), 427 
Economic and social programs, review of, address and 

statement: Kotschnig, 438; Wadsworth, 238 
Importance of, address and statement: Herter, 834; 

Wilcox, 799 
Role in stimulation of world trade, address (Wilcox), 

751 
Soviet policy regarding, address (Wilcox), 753 
Spilhaus, Athelstan, 860 
Stassen, Harold E., 9, 11, 268, 531 
State Department (see also Foreign Service) : 
Administration of — 

Mutual security programs, announcement and Execu- 
tive order, 990 
Trade agreements program, address (Beale), 875 
U.S. participation in the Brussels Exhibition (1958), 
announcement and Executive order, 150 
Appointments and designations, 86, 174, 298, 366, 445, 
478, 510, 543, 626, 662, 734, 770, 814, 862, 906, 981 
Assistant Secretaries of State, appointment and con- 
firmations : Macomber, 445, Mann, 510 ; Rubottom, 
86 
Assistant Secretary for Administration, resignation 

(Carpenter), 981 
Confirmations, 42, 86, 445 

Cultural exchange functions, announcement and Ex- 
ecutive order, 150, 151 
Foreign Service examination, announced, 588 
Legal Adviser, confirmation (Becker), 42 



State Department — Continued 

Oflice of Intelligence Research and Policy Planning 
Staff, functions, article (Hamilton), 432, 433, 436 
Publications. See Publications 
Role of Adlai Stevenson in, statements (Dulles), 917, 

921 
Security and Consular Affairs, Bureau of, functions, 

address (O'Connor), 604 
■Staffing problems, article (Hamilton), 435 
Research in the records of, text of regulations govern- 
ing, 980 
Resignation, 981 
Stateless persons, protocol concerning application of uni- 
versal copyright convention (1952) to works of, 173, 
813 
Status-of-forees agreements : 
Legislative revision of, proposed, letters, memorandum, 
and statements : Eisenhower, 296 ; Herter, 198 ; 
Murphy, 317 
Supreme Court opinion in Girard case, 196 
Steel and Coal Community, European. jSfee European Coal 

and Steel Commimity 
Steel and Iron Committee (ILO), U.S. delegation to 6th 

.session, 694 
^teel and iron scrap, problems relating to export of, state- 
ment (Kalijarvi), 120 
Steel Committee (ECE), U.S. delegate to 19th session, 941 
Steeves, John M., 174 
Stevenson, Adlai, 917, 921, 1026 
Stowaways, international convention on, 762 
Strategic materials, question of controls on exports to 
Soviet-bloc countries, joint communique (Eisenhower, 
Kishi), 52 
Strauss, Lewis L., 147, 148, 618, 637, 741 
■Stretch, David A., 533 

Student-exchange program. See Educational exchange 
Students, U.S., visit to Communist China, address (O'Con- 
nor), announcement, and message (Herter), 392, 607 
Submarines, sale by Soviets to Egypt, address and state- 
ment : Dulles, 100 ; Wilcox, 106 
Sudan : 

Economic and technical assistance, negotiations with 

U.S., 999 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Geneva conventions (1949), on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 861 
IMF, articles of agreement, 509 
International Bank, membership, 509, 853 
Radio regulations (1947), with appendixes, and tele- 
graph regulations (1949) , 979 
Slavery convention (1926) , 734 

Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 

with annexes, 942 

Suez Canal problem {see also Arab-Israeli dispute: Israeli 

dispute with Egypt ; and United Nations Emergency 

Force) : 

Effect on Western European economy, statement 

(Jacoby), 326 
Operation of the canal, status of negotiations with 

Egypt, statement (Dulles), 13 
Recognition by Egypt of ICJ jurisdiction in disputes 
regarding, 445 



Index, July to December 1957 



1089 



Suez Canal problem — Continued 
Soviet position, 999 
U.N. actions regarding, addresses and statement : Her- 

ter, 224; Lodge, 768; Wilcox, 184 
U.S. efforts for solution, address (Kretzmann), 351, 

353 
Withdrawal of British and French forces from canal 
zone, address and statements: Herter, 225, 226; 
Merchant, 376 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, and protocol 

amending, 86, 404, 509, 770, 861 
Suhr, Otto, 483 

Suhrawardy, Huseyn Shaheed, 186 
SUNFED. See Special United Nations Fund 
Supreme Court, U.S., text of opinion in the Girard case, 

196 
Surplus agricultural commodities. See Agricultural sur- 
pluses 
Sweden : 

Air transport talks with U.S., 846 
Balance-of-payments consultations under GATT, 153 
Complaint against U.S. increase in duty on spring 

clothespins, GATT consideration of, 1008 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air navigation services in Greenland, Iceland, and 

Faroe Islands, agreements on joint financing, 42 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, .statute, 86 
Customs facilities for touring, convention (1954) on, 

173 
GATT, protocols amending, 445, 509, 850 
Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on 
temporary importation of, 173 
Switzerland : 

Collisions at sea, regulations (1948) for preventing, 

734 
GATT, question of accession to, 1006 
Intermediation in U.S. damage claims against Bulgaria 
for deaths of American passengers in destruction of 
Israeli aircraft (1955), 883 
Syria : 
Application of American Doctrine to, question of, 

statements (Dulles), 527, 528, 529 
Arms shipments by Soviet bloc to, address and state- 
ments: Dulles, 529, 558; Lodge, 778 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S. declared persona 

non grata, 388 
General Assembly consideration of Syrian question, 

statements (Lodge), 775 
Political situation in, address and statements: Dulles, 

45S, 461, 487, 527, 528, 531, 532; Murphy, 485 
Soviet allegations regarding U.S. policy toward, state- 
ment (Parljer), 674 

Taiwan. See China, Republic of 
Tallamy, Bertram D., 333 

Tariff policy, U.S. («ee also Customs; Tariffs and trade, 
general agreement on; and Trade agreements): 
Address and statement : Dulles, 1029 ; Jones, 382 
Almond.s, shelled or prepared, tariff quota on, 210, 852 
Alsike clover seed, extension of tariff quota on, 210 
Antidumping Act (1921), proposed revision, statement 
of Department's views (Birch), 436 



Tariff policy, U.S. — Continued 

Bicycles, continuation of 1955 import duty, 722 
Butterf.it articles, import restrictions on, 357 
Cigar tobacco, Cuban, concessions on, 157 
Clothespins, spring, increase in duty on, 958, 1008 
Dairy products, import quotas regarding, 33, 475, 1008 
Dates, President decides against import restrictions on, 

397, 960 
Fabrics, woolen and worsted, tariff quota on, 84, 686 
Figs, President decides against import restrictions on, 

242, 853 
Lead and zinc imports. See Lead 
Negotiations with Brazil, announcement of preliminary 

hearings, 804 
Potatoes, revision of quotas, 154 
Rye, import quota on, 240 
Safety pins, increase in import duty on, 1009 
Tung oil, import quota on, 541 
Watches, imported, continuation of escape-clause relief, 

651 
Tariffs, customs. See Customs 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on (see also Or- 
ganization for Trade Cooperation) : 
Accession of Ghana and Malaya, 906, 1006 
Balance-of-payments consultations under, 1.53 
Importance of, reiKirt by Office of the I'resident, 728 
Japan, protocol on terms of accession, 260 
Potatoes, revision of U.S. quotas on, announcement 

and text of proclamation, 154 
Proe&s verbal of rectification concerning the protocol 
amending part I and articles XXIX and XXX, 
protocol amending preamble and parts II and III, 
and protocol of organization amendments, 405, 814 
Protocol of organizational amendments, 405, 813 
Protocols amending, 404, 445, 813, 814, 849, 1008 
Rectifications and modifications to texts of schedules, 

5th protocol, 334 
Rectifications and modifications to texts of schedules, 

Cth protocol, .">09, 814 
Relationship to — 

European Common Market, 327 
U.S. foreign trade policy, 873 
Supplementary agreements with Belgium, Netherlands, 

and U.K., 129, 200 
Supplementary concessions, Sth protocol (U.S.-Cuba), 

120, 157 
10th anniversary, message (Eisenhower), 846 
12th session of contracting parties : 
Message and statement (Eisenhower, Mann), 846 
Review of, 1004 
U.S. delegation, 768 
U.S. participation in, address (Wilcox), 750 
U.S. tariff negotiations with certain contracting parties, 
581, 850 
Taxation : 
Agreements respecting, role in inter-American eco- 
nomic development, statement (Anderson), 468 
Double taxation, avoidance of. »SVe Double taxation 
Income and estate taxes, rise in payments as index of 

U.S. social progress, statement (Jacoby), 499 
Tax structure, need for reform as stimulus to U.S. pri- 
vate investment abroad, address (Nixon), 706 



1090 



Deparfment of Sfofe Bullefin 



Taxation — Continued 

Taxes inconsistent with GATT, removal by France and 
Hrazil, llXIS 
Technical aid to foreign countries. See Economic and 

technical aid and Mutual security 
Technical assistance, U.N. See under United Nations 
Telecommunications : 

Communications Division, ICAO, 6th session, 548 
Exchange of uncensored broadcasts and elimination of 

jamming, need for, statement (Meany), 767 
Inter-American radiocommunications convention 

( 1037), denunciation by Nicaragua, 509 
International telecommunication convention (1952), 86, 

218, 549, 69<?, 942 
Mexican and North American regional broadcasting 
agreements, proposed, statement (Satterthwaite), 
242 
Radio and telegraph regulations of the 1947 interna- 
tional teIe<'ommunication convention, 979 
Radio and television, proposed exchanges between U.S. 
and U.S.S.R., statements (Dulles) and texts of 
aide memoire, 13, 14, 119. 386 
Radio Union, International Scientific, 12th General 
Assembly, article (Welles) and U.S. delegation, 
401, 897 
Television channels, U.S.-Mexican discussions on al- 
location of, 887 
Telegraph. See Telecommunications 
Television. See Telecommunications 
Thailand : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 717 

Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 86 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 734 
International Bank loan, 535 

Investment and war risk guaranties, agreement amend- 
ing 19.54 agreement with U.S., 626 
Theodore Roosevelt centennial year, proclamation, 803 
Thompson, Llewellyn, 392 
Tito, Marshal, 2.34, 345 
Torbert, Horace 6., Jr., 734 
Tourism. See Travel, international 

Trade ( see also Agricultural surpluses ; Customs ; Eco- 
nomic policy ; European Economic Community ; Ex- 
ports ; Imports ; Tariff policy ; Tariffs and trade, gen- 
eral agreement on ; and Trade fairs) : 
Antidumping Act (1921), proposed revisicm, statement 

of Department's views (Birch), 436 
Canada, U.S. trade relations with, 382, 683 
Communist China, question of controls on trade with, 
addresses and statements : Dulles, 14, 15, 93, 145 ; 
Sebald, 392 
Consular formalities regarding, simplification of, adoi> 

tion by 12th session of GATT, 1008 
Development under U.S. mutual security programs, 

address (Dillon), 116, 118 
Foreign relations and world trade, remarks (Eisen- 
hower), 8 
Foreign trade policy, addresses and statements : Beale, 
871; Dillon, 911; Dulles, 1029; Zellerbach, 612 



Trade — Continued 

Free-trade areas, proposed— 

Baghdad Pact countries, 084 ; Central America and 
Europe, 1005 
International organizations, aid to world trade, ad- 
dress ( Wilcox ) , 749 
Japan, U.S. trade relations with, joint communique 

(Eisenhower, Kishi), 52 
Latin America, U.S. trade with : 
Addresses, article, remarks, and statements : Dillon, 
540; Dulles, 716; Eisenhower, 539; Lederer, Cul- 
bertson, 79; Rubottom, .536, 675, 678, 679, 927 
Declaration of the OAS economic conference, 540 
Latin American regional market, proposed, U.S. posi- 
tion, address (Rubottom), 680 
Liberalization of, U.S. efforts for, article (Dulles) and 

reixirt by Office of the President, 575, 725 
Relation of double-taxation treaties to, statement (Kal- 

ijarvi), 359 
Role in inter-American economic development, state- 
ment ( Anderson ) , 466 
Role of U.N. and specialized agencies in stimulation 

of, address ( Wilcox ) , 751 
South and Southeast Asia, importance to world trade, 

903 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commodity agreements, inter-American, proposed, 

U.S. position, address (Rubottom), 678 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, agreements 
with: Korea, Republic of, 405, 510, 685, 696, 942; 
Netherlands, 860, 861, 942 
Supplementary commercial convention (1852) with 

Nertheland.s, termination, iH2 
Trade agreements. See Trade agreements 
World trade, increase in, statement (Jacoby), 326 
Trade agreements program, U.S. : 
Relationship to foreign economic policy, report by Of- 
fice of the President, 723 
Role of the State Department in administration of, ad- 
dress (Beale), 875 
Trade Agreements Act : 

Establishment of polic.v committee on administration 

of, announcement and Executive order, 957 
Legislation regarding. See Congress : Legislation 
proposed : Trade agreements 
Trade agreements supplementary to GATT, with — 
Belgium (on behalf of Benelux), Netherlands, and 
U.K., current actions, announcements, analysis and 
texts of agreements, and proclamation, 129, 200 
Cuba, announcements, text and proclamation, 157 
Trade and Economic Affairs, Joint U.S.-Canadian Com- 
mittee on, 3d meeting, announcement and joint com- 
munique, 381, 474, 683 
Trade Cooperation, Organization for. See Organization 

for Trade Cooperation 
Trade fairs : 
Administration of U.S. participation, announcement 
and Executive order, 150, 151 



Index, July to December 7957 



1091 



Trade fairs — Continued 

Brussels Exhibition, appointment of Deputy U.S. Com- 
missioner General, 119 
U.S. participation In, excerpt from President's report 
to Congress, 286 
Trade-marks registration, termination of 1883 agreement 

with Netherlands relating to, 942 
Trade Policy Committee, establishment, announcement 

and Executive order, 957 
Travel, diplomatic, announcement and Soviet note re- 
garding restrictions on, 118 
Travel, international (see also Passports and Visas) : 
Communist China, U.S. policy on travel to. See under 

China, Communist 
Facilitation of, address (Auerbach), 1034 
Inter-American Highway, progress in opening of, 541 
Inter-American Travel Congresses, meeting of Perma- 
nent Executive Committee, article (Kelly), 212 
9th Pan American Railway Congress, article (Parley), 

731 
Road traffic, convention (1949), on, with annexes, and 
protocol providing for accession of occupied terri- 
tories or countries, 42, 128, 297, 365, 444, 549, 861, 
1(M9 
Road vehicles, private, convention (1954) on tempo- 
rary importation of, 86, 173, 626, 734, 813, 906 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 86, 173, 218, 365, 549, 626, 813 
Travel regulations in U.S. and U.S.S.R., revision of, 
announcement and texts of notes, 934 
Treasury Department, U.S., recommendation for revision 

of Antidumping Act (1921), 430, 437 
Treaties, agreements, etc., international {for speciflo 
treaty, see country or subject), current actions on, 
listed, 42, 86, 128, 173, 218, 260, 297, 334, 365, 404, 444, 
478, 509, 549, 586, 626, 662, 696, 734, 769, 813, 861, 906, 
942, 979, 1018, 1049 
Tribunal for Austrian Dollar Bonds, establishment and 

appointment of chairman, 532, 533 
Troops, U.S. See Armed Forces, U.S. 
Trust territories, U.N. : 

Cameroons, French, establishment of U.S. consulate at 

Yaounde, 261 
Gold Coast, extension of international sugar agree- 
ment (1953) ceases to apply, 86 
Pacific Islands, U.S. administration of, statement 

(Nucker), 248 
Ruanda-Urundi, application of Belgian tax convention 

with U.S. to , 477, 625 
Somaliland : 
U.S. and Italian aid to, 1047 

U.S. consulate at Mogadi.scio : establishment 261 ; 
elevation to consulate general, 981 
Trusteeship Council, U.N. : 

Current documents, lists of, 476, 661 
Progress in work of, address (Wilcox), 567 
Tung oil, U.S. import quota, announcement and procla- 
mation, 541 
Timisia : 

Arms supply to, announcement and statements 
(Dulles) , 882, 918, 920, 921, 922, 1028 



Tunisia — Continued 

1st anniversary of independence, messages (Eisen- 
hower, Mohamed Lamine I), 76 
Gowl offices in Algerian question, offer of, 1046, 1047 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 734 
Child-feetling program, agreement with U.S., 298 
Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 942 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 86 
Road traffic convention (1949), with annexes, and 
protocol on accession by occupied countries or 
territories, 1049 
U.S. aid, 240 

U.S. recognition of Republic, 306 
Turkey : ; 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 533 
Soviet policy toward. See under Soviet Union 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement concerning lira 

deposits under 19.56 agreements with U.S., 734 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 260 
Economic assistance, participation in regional pro- 
gram under American Doctrine, 341 
GATT, 6th protocol of rectifications and modifica- 
tions to tests of schedules, 509 
Industrial property, convention (1934) for protec- 
tion of, 86 
U.S. consulate at Iskenderun, establishment, 261 
U.S. mutual security aid, statements: Dulles, 412; 
HoUister, 416 

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic {see also Soviet 
Union), statute of the International Atomic Energy 
Agency, 334 
UNCURK. See United Nations Commission for the 

Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea 
Underdeveloped countries. See Less developed countriea 
UNEF. See United Nations Emergency Force 
UNESCO. See United Nations Educational, Scientific 

and Cultural Organization 
UNICEF. See United Nations Children's Fund 
Union of South Africa : 

Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S., mu, 

218, 445 
GATT, protocol amending, 8.50 
GATT, rectifications and modifications to texts or 

schedules, 6th protocol, 509 
ICEM, constitution, 587 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, protocol 

amending, 770 
Tariff concessions, GATT, proposed renegotiation of, 
581, 850, 852 
United Kingdom : 
Actions in the Middle East, Soviet views on, test oT 

note, 602, 603 
Disarmament. See Disarmament and London disarm- 
ament talks 
Elizabeth II, visit to U.S., 16, 711, 742 
German reunification, 4-power (U.S., France, Federal 
Republic, U.K.) declaration on, 304 



1092 



Department of State Bulletin 



United Kingdom — Continued 

Iron and steel scrap purchases from U.S., statement 

(Kalijarvi), 120 
Oman, dispute with. See Oman 
Prime Minister Macmillan, visit to U.S., 707, 739 
Scientific cooperation, with U.S., question of increas- 
ing, statements (Dulles), 709, 710 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air navigation services in Faroe Islands, Greenland, 
and Iceland, agreements for joint financing of, 906 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 334 
Certification of able seamen, convention (1946) on, 

42 
Citrus fruit, agreement with U.S. relating to sale of 

for sterling, 587 
Double taxation on income, protocol supplementing 

1945 convention with U.S., 444, 445, 622 
GATT, protocol amending, 850 

Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prison- 
ers of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 861 
Oceanographic research stations, agreements with 
U.S. for establishment in Bahamas and Barbados, 
814, 861 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 
and protocol providing for accession of occupied 
countries or territories, 861 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, and protocol 

amending, 86, 770 
Trade agreement with U.S., supplementary to GATT, 

129, 200 
Universal copyright convention (1952), and related 
protocols, 173 
United Nations : 
Addresses and remarks: 

A United States View of the United Nations (Wads- 
worth), 235 
Major Issue Before the U.N. (Dulles), 555 
Need for Public Understanding of the U.N. (Dulles), 

274 
The United Nations : Force for a Better World (Wil- 
cox), 792 
The United Nations : Its Issue and Responsibility 
(Wilcox), 560 
Admission of Malaya, 504, 662 
Canadian-American cooperation in, address (Jones), 

381 
Charter. See United Nations Charter 
Disarmament, actions regarding. See under Disarma- 
ment and also Disarmament Commission and Lon- 
don disarmament talks 
Documents, lists of, 171, 214, 364, 401, 476, 621, 661, 

695, 733, 905, 1017, 1049 
Economic and social activities, role in stimulation of 

world trade, address (Wilcox), 751 
Financial contributions by member states and reduc- 
tion of U.S. share, statements (Carnahan) and 
General Assembly resolution, 652 
Functions of, addresses : Kretzmann, 353 ; Wilcox, 105, 
183 



United Nations — Continued 
General Assembly. Sec General Assembly 
Hungarian question, consideration of. See wider Hun- 
garian question 
Membership question : 

China, representation of, addresses and statements: 
Dulles, 93; Lodge, 658; Sebald, 391; Wilcox, 566, 
794 
Korea, Viet-Nam, and Outer Mongolia, U.S. and 
Soviet positions regarding, statements (Lodge), 
544, 854 
Middle East, actions regarding. See under Near and 

Middle East 
Pakistani views regarding, address (Suhrawardy), 188 
Refugee program, revision of, statement (Meany) and 

text of General As.sembly resolution, 937 
Role of new African and Asian nations in, address 

(Wilcox), 107 
Secretariat, document, 661 
Security Council. See Security Council 
Self-determination, efforts for, statement (Lord), 1047 
Specialized agencies. See Specialized agencies and also 

name of individual agency 
Technical assistance program : 

Proposed extension of, statement (Wilcox), 566 
Social scientist training program, need for, statement 

(Jacoby), 497 
U.S. support, statement (Lord), 1048 
Trust territories. See Trust territories and Trustee- 
ship Council 
12th anniversary, statement (Lodge), 768 
United Nations Charter : 
Collective security under, article (Dulles), 571 
Development and enforcement of international law 

under the U.N., 223 
Problem of defining aggression, statement (Klutznick), 

890, 892 
Ratification by Malaya, 662 

Relationship to U.S.-Japanese security treaty and ad- 
ministrative agreement, 534, 696 
Review of, address and statement: Wadsworth, 40; 
Wilcox, 567 
United Nations Children's Fund, 1041, 1042 
United Nations Command, Korea : 

Action to restore military balance in Korea, report to 

Secretary-General, 393 
Measures to counter Communist violations of armistice 

agreement, statements (Judd), 968, 970 
Replacement of old weapons, announcement and state- 
ment, 58 
United Nations Commission for Unification and Rehabili- 
tation of Korea, report on developments in Republic 
of Korea, statement (Judd), 968 
United Nations Day, 1957, proclamation, 110 
United Nations Disarmament Commission. See Disarma- 
ment Commission 
United Nations Economic and Social Council. See Eco- 
nomic and Social Council 
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. See 
Economic Commission 



Index, July to December 1957 



1093 



United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization : 
Education, UNESCO efforts in, addresses : Herter, 834 ; 

Wilcox, 753 
UNESCO: One Road to Peace, address (Berding), 835 
United Nations Emergency Force (see also Suez Canal) : 
Financing and continuation of: 
Address and statement: Carnatian, 974; Wilcox, 794 
General Assembly resolution, 976 
Need for study of operations as guide for future emer- 
gencies, address (Wilcox), 563, 567 
Role in maintaining peace in the Middle East, ad- 
dresses : Herter, 225, 226 ; Wadsworth, 238 ; Wilcox, 
795 
U.S. assistance under American Doctrine, 342 
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization : 
Agricultural production, achievements in raising, 752 
U.S. delegation to 9th Conference, 812 
United Nations Fund for Economic Development. See 

Special United Nations Fund 
United Nations Human Rights Day, 1947, statement 

(Lord) and proclamation, 1036 
United Nations Special Committee on the problem of 

Hungary. See under Hungarian question 
United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (Pales- 
tine), 996, 997, 998 
United Nations Trusteeship Council : 
Current documents, lists of, 476, 661 
Progress in work of, address (Wilcox), 567 
United States citizens and nationals : 
Claims. See Claims 
Letters from President Eisenhower for inclusion in 

civilian and military passports, 275 
Prisoners of war. See Prisoners of war 
Protection of : 

China Communist, detention and release of U.S. civil- 
ians, 390, 420, 1000 
In Ryukyu I.slanrts, civil and criminal jurisdiction 

over. Executive order, .56, 57 
Servicemen abroad. See Status-of-forces 
United States Information Agency, programs abroad, 
address (Berding), announcement, and Executive 
order regarding, 150, 151, 838 
United States National Commission for UNESCO, func- 
tions, address (Berding), 836 
United States nationals. See United States citizens and 

nationals 
United States Supreme Court, text of opinion in Girard 

case, 196 
Universal copyright convention (19.52), 86, 173, 694, 813, 

942 
Universal postal convention (19.52), 509, 626, 734, 770 
Universal Postal Union : 
Extension of the International Organizations Immu- 
nities Act to, announcement and Executive order, 
.547 
14th Congress, U.S. delegation, 400 
UPU. See Universal Postal Union 

Uranium resources, agreements for cooperative programs 
regarding, with — 
Brazil, 366 ; Chile, 734 



Uranium 235 : 

Allocations to IAEA, 847 

U.S. release of additional quantities, 146, 638 
Urguplii, Suat Hayri, 533 
U.S.S.R. See Soviet Union 

Vaccine, Salk, U.S. export quota and recipient nations, 

685 
Vass, Laurence C, 981 
Vatican City, statute of the International Atomic Energy 

Agency, 444 
Venezuela : 

Aerial photography, agreement with U.S. for joint pro- 
gram, 696 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 444 
Vessels. See Ships and shipping 

Veto power in the Security Council, Soviet abuse of, ad- 
dres.ses, article, and statement : Dulles, 571 ; Wash- 
ington, 856; Wilcox, 560, 793 
Vieser, Milford A., 903 
Viet-Nam, North : 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 861 
U.N. membership, Soviet efforts for and U.S. opposi- 
tion, statement (Washington), 854 
Viet-Nam, Republic of : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 626 
International Bank, membership, 317, 601 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S., 861 
President Diem, close of visit to U.S., messages (Eisen- 
hower, Diem), 61 
U.N. membership, U.S. position, statements: Lodge, 

544 ; Wa.shington, 856 
U.S. aid, address and statements: Dulles, 412; Hollis- 

ter, 416 ; Jones, 843 
U.S. consulate at Hue, establishment, 334 
Visas (see o7so Passports) : 

Fingerprinting requirements. See Fingerprinting 

Issuance in fiscal year 1957, 493 

Issuance to foreign Communists, question of, statement 

(Dulles), 462 
Recent developments regarding, address (Auerbach), 
1031, 1034, 1035 
Von Brentano, Heinrich, 681, 918, 919 

Wadsworth, James J., 40, 192, 235, 444, 1011 
Walter, Francis E., 1036 
Wan Waithayakon, 563 

War assets, German, proposed return of, 230, 306 
War damage claims and war risk guaranties, memoran- 
dum of understanding and agreement amending 1951 
agreement with Italy regarding, 814 
War risk and investment guaranties, agreement amend- 
ing 1954 agreement with Thailand, 626 
War victims, protection of. See Geneva conventions 
Warren, George L., 661 

Wars, limited, possibility of, statement (Dulles), 1023 

Washington, Genoa S., 444, 8.54 

AVatt, William G., 361 

Weather (see also World Meteorological Organization): 

Cooperative program, agreement with Mexico. 587 

North Atlantic ocean stations, agreement (1954) on, 

942 



1094 



Department of State Bulletin 



Weather — Continued 

Obseivatious fi'oiu high seas, international cooperation 

in reporting, article (McDonald), 164 
Rawiusoude observation stations, agreement with 
Netherlands for establishment and ojwration in 
Cura(;ao and St. Martin, 549 
Weeks, Sinclair, 683, 1042 
Wells, Harry W., 401, 897 
Wells, Herman G., 443 
Werts, Leo R., S12 
West Indian Conference (Caribbean Commission), U.S. 

delegation to 7th session, 903 
West Xew Guinea, Netherlands-Indonesian dispute re- 
garding, U.S. views, statements (Dulles), 918, 1027 
Western Hemisphere, Western proposal regarding dis- 
armament inspection zone in, 4.53 
Whaling convention (1946), international: 
Amendments to schedule, 942 

Protocol amending, current actions, 86, 129, 173, 334, 
405, 509 
White, Lincoln, 273, 298, 525, 782, 824 
WHO. See World Health Organization 
Widening Circle, The, pamphlet concerning international 

educational exchange, published, 696 
Wilcox, Francis O., 103, 179, 560, 749, 792 
Williams, William L. S., 1050 
Willoughby, Woodbury, 770 
Wil.son, Charles E., 306 

WMO. See World Meteorological Organization 
Women : 

Conventions regarding: 
Nationality of (19.33), 769 
Political rights of (1948), 770 
Inter-American Commission of, 12th Assembly, article 
(Lee), 506 
Woolen and worsted fabrics, tariff quotas on, announce- 
ments and letter (Eisenhower), 84, 686 
World Bank. See International Bank 
World economic situation, an American view, statement 

(Jacoby), 323 
World Forestry Congress, 5th, announcement, 548 



World Health Assembly, 11th, announcement of meeting 

171 
World Health Organization: 
11th Assembly (1958), announcement of meeting, 171 
Malaria eradication campaign : 
Address (Wilcox), 752 

U.S. contributions, announcement and statements 
(Dulles, Soper, Candau), 1000 
U.S. representative to Executive Board, appointment, 
1037 
World Metallurgical Congress, 2d, proclamation, 728 
Wiirld Meteorological Organization : 
Commission for Maritime Meteorology, 2d session and 

U.S. delegation, 164 
Convention, 334 
World social situation, statements : Hottel, 166 ; Jacoby, 

496 
Worsted and woolen fabrics, tariff quotas on, announce- 
ments and letter (Ei.senhower), 84, 686 
Wounded and sick, Geneva conventions (1949) on treat- 
ment in time of war, 86, 173, 405, 861 
Wright, Thomas K., 298 

Yadarola, Maurieio Luis, 343 

Yemen, appointment of U.S. Minister, 981 

Young, Willis H., 981 

Yugoslavia : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute, 586 

Economic talks with U.S., 646 

Marshal Tito, question of visit to U.S., statement 
(Dulles), 234 

Recognition of East German regime by, statement 
(Dulles), 789 

Tito-Khrushchev meeting, statement (Dulles), 345 

Zakaria, Yassin, 389 
Zaroubin, Georgl, 800, 801 
Zeineddine, Farid, 389 
Zellerbach, James D., 608 
Zhukov, Marshal, 230, 782. 826, 829 
Zinc imports. See Lead and zinc 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

PubUcation 6648 

Released August 1958 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing OflSce 
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 30 cents 



I 




CIAL 

KLY RECORD 

FED STATES 
EJGN POLICY 




Vol. XXXVII, No. 940 July 1, 1957 

MAJOR PURPOSES OF THE MUTUAL SECURITY 

PROGRAMS • Statement by Secretary Dulles 3 

FOREIGN RELATIONS AND WORLD TRADE • 

Remarks by President Eisenhower 8 

SECRETARY DULLES' NEWS CONFERENCE OF 

JUNE 11 9 

ENCOURAGING ECONOMIC GROWTH IN LESS 
DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF THE FREE WORLD 

# by Deputy Under Secretary Dillon 31 

CAPABILITY AND FOREIGN POLICY • by Ambassador 

Raymond A. Hare 22 

THE AMERICAN DOCTRINE FOR THE IMIDDLE 

EAST • Statement by Ambassador James P. Ricliards . . 17 

EDUCATION— COMMUNIST STYLE, A:MERICAN " 

STYLE • by Eleanor Lansing Dulles 25 

For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XXXVII, No. 940 • Publication 6511 
July 1, 1957 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Qovernment Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

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The printing of this publication has been 
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the Budget (January 19, 1955). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies oj 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
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Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
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tions of the Department. Informa- 
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which the United States is or may 
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Major Purposes of the Mutual Security Programs 



Statement hy Secretary/ Dulles ^ 



You have invited me to discuss the legislation 
recommended by the President to carry out future 
mutual security programs. 

First of all, I thank this committee for its con- 
structive activities over the past year in seeking to 
clarify issues involved in this matter. The hear- 
ings conducted by your committee last fall, and 
the draft report submitted by your former chair- 
man,^ have been particularly helpful. 

The President and I were also impressed by the 
hearings conducted throughout the country by 
the subcommittee under the leadership of Con- 
gressmen Carnahan and Merrow. Those hearings 
revealed a large measure of public understanding 
of our Nation's mutual security activities and pre- 
ponderant support for them. We believe that this 
year such understanding and support can be in- 
creased by a new and clarifying formulation of 
the programs. 

I use the plural "programs" because the money 
we spend abroad under the Mutual Security Act 
is not on a single program. So-called "foreign 
aid" is a term given to several quite distinct pro- 
grams. Each of these is addressed to different 
purposes. Each employs separate means. Each 
must be considered on its own merits. 

There are, in essence, four major programs : 

First, the mutual defense assistance program. 
This is designed to provide military equipment 
for allied and friendly military forces; to assure 
needed facilities; and to provide, for these pur- 
poses, economic support. 



' Made before the House Foreign Affairs Committee oa 
June 10 (press release 351). 

- Foreign Policy and Mtttual Secxirity: Draft Report 
Suhmitted to the Bouse Committee on Foreign Affairs, 
Dec. 21,, 1956. [Committee print.] 



Second, the development assistance program. 
This is to help free countries achieve economic 
growth. 

Third, the technical assistance program. There- 
by we share our skills with these countries. 

Fourth, the special assistance programs. This 
is to meet particular needs and emergencies that 
cannot appropriately be met through the three 
preceding programs. 

Mutual Defense Assistance 

This committee is fully alive to the seriousness 
of the Sino-Soviet military threat. Despite re- 
cent emphasis on economic and cultural penetra- 
tion, the Sino-Soviet bloc unremittingly expands 
and modernizes its military force. As said in the 
draft report prepared for this committee last fall, 
at some later time "Soviet economic diplomacy 
[may] be thrown aside and communism . . . 
emerge once more in its revolutionary aspects, 
relying on external force or internal Communist 
violence to come to power." 

What checks that now is not any moral re- 
pugnance of international communism to the use of 
force. It is the deterrent of the collective security 
system we have helped to build. 

But no free country can by itself, alone, create 
this deterrent through its own resources and facili- 
ties. So we have a collective security system which 
binds us and 42 other free countries in a common 
defense against a common peril. 

Since 1950 we have provided around $17 billion 
in military equipment, plus some supporting eco- 
nomic assistance, to our allies' military programs. 
During this same period our allies have spent over 
$100 billion for defense. They have also provided 
manpower for the armed forces of the free world, 



^Juiy 1, 1957 



and they have provided sites for highly valuable 
bases for our and their forces. 

Without our assistance these military programs 
of our allies could not have been carried out. With 
these programs we are enabled to spend far less on 
our own military programs — and to achieve far 
greater security — than would otherwise be the 
case. 

Collective security is truly a case in which the 
whole is greater than the sum of the parts. And 
the instrument which creates the whole out of these 
parts is our mutual defense assistance program. 
This program consists of two elements: 

First, the provision of weapons and military 
equipment to friendly forces. 

Second, economic aid given to allied countries 
to compensate their economies for contributions 
made to the common defense. Many of the less 
developed countries, such as Korea, Taiwan, and 
Viet-Nam, cannot maintain the mutually agreed 
force levels without some outside support. 

In the past this economic aid has been called 
defense support. But the same term has also been 
used to describe assistance to some of these same 
countries for other purposes, such as economic 
development. 

This labeling has produced misimderstanding 
both at home and abroad. We believe that the 
term "defense support" should hereafter be used 
to describe aid granted solely in relation to a 
military program. 

Other forms of assistance to these same coun- 
tries, especially for economic development, should 
be dealt with separately. Thus we can clarify the 
purposes for which our resources are being used 
and the cost and nature of the different programs 
which serve these purposes. 

The draft report submitted to this committee 
last fall noted that observations presented to the 
committee during its hearings "point up the one- 
ness of our defense program. This is supported by 
the testimony of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs 
of Staff and all other military experts appearing 
before the committee, who are unanimous in stat- 
ing that foreign military aid is part and parcel 
of our own defense program. This combined evi- 
dence makes it clear that funds requested for for- 
eign military assistance should be placed in the 
defense budget and presented to the Congress on 
that basis." 

The President accepts that view and has recom- 



4 



mended that both categories of assistance — mili- 
tary equipment and defense support — should be 
recognized and treated as an essential element 
of our own worldwide national defense effort. To 
do this effectively he requests that appropriations 
for both should now be so authorized that here- 
after they may be included as a separate part of 
the regular appropriations for the Department 
of Defense.^ 

This proposal is consistent with the conclusions 
of the draft report to your committee that "the 
more logical procedure would be for military 
funds to be placed by the Executive in the defense 
budget and then for the continuing authorization 
to be handled by the Congress by the same methods 
and by the same channels now handling our own 
defense program." 

This will contribute further to the clarification 
of our different purposes which we are trying to 
bring about. It will make abundantly clear, both 
at home and abroad, that our defense assistance 
programs — both end-items and defense support — 
are designed to support the military defense ef- 
fort. 

To avoid wasteful duplication and make full 
use of existing facilities, however, defense support 
should continue to be administered by the ICA 
together with other programs of an economic na- 
ture. And both military assistance and defense 
support would continue under the foreign-policy 
guidance of the President and the Secretary of 
State. 

Following this concept the executive branch 
will later submit to the Congress an appropriation 
request for fiscal year 1958 for $1.9 billion for 
the provision of weapons a7id inilitary equipm.ent^ 
and $900 million for defense su,pport. This totals 
$2.8 billion and is approximately three-fourths 
of what we are asking the Congress to appropri- 
ate this year for all the mutual security programs. 

Let me add this postscript: We are actively seek- 
ing, through United Nations procedures, ways 
whereby armaments can be safely reduced. But 
the task is immensely complicated by the fact that 
it is not safe for us to alter and weaken the 
military dispositions which protect us merely be- 
cause of Soviet promises. There must be depend- 
able supervision and control of all promises, and 



"For text of President Eisenhower's message to the 
Congress on the mutual security program for 195S, see 
Bulletin of June 10, 1957, p. 920. 

Department of State Bulletin 



procedures to assure that we may not be victim- 
ized by promises that are ilhisory. 

Today the Soviet rulers propagandize vohibly 
about peace and disarmament. But we do not 
yet know wliether they are in fact willing to ac- 
cept the safeguards and procedures which will 
make disarmament safe for the free nations and 
make it prudent to base peace more on disarma- 
ment and less on deterrent and defensive strength 
and cohesion. 

Let us never forget these significant facts : 

International communism has seized by force or 
the thi'eat of force all or major parts of nearly a 
score of nations with aggregate populations of 
about 900 million people. No one of these seized 
nations was, at the time of seizure, protected by 
treaties of mutual security and the common de- 
fense system created thereunder. But not one na- 
tion which did share in such a common defense 
has been lost to international communism. 

Such a record shows what folly it would be 
for us to agree to dismantle our common defense 
system in reliance of unsupervised Soviet prom- 
ises. It would be equal folly to dismantle that 
system by our own action and ourselves wreck or 
weaken the collective defenses which provide a 
proved deterrent against aggression at the least 
cost. 

Economic Development 

The second main aspect of mutual security is 
that which helps less developed free countries 
aeliieve economic growth. 

The report made for this committee last fall 
recommends "a program of long-range develop- 
ment assistance based on the requirements of the 
country and without conditions other than those 
necessary to assure effective use of our aid." We 
tiiree with this reconunendation, and we further 
itiree with the committee's conclusion that "in 
the long run the United States would benefit 
}eonomically and politically if tlie underdeveloped 
countries are developed." 

Nineteen new nations have come into existence 
since World War II. These nations contain about 
I third of the world's population. Most of them 
ire close to the Soviet-Communist China bloc. 

These are nations where poverty is age-old. 
But the apathy with which they have hitherto 
iccepted that poverty is disappearing. The coni- 
ng of political mdependence has aroused hope 



and determination to achieve also economic 
growth. The people demand leadership which 
will demonstrate that fact. If there is not such 
growth under moderate democratic leadership, 
that leadership may be swept away to be replaced 
by extremist leaders who, if not themselves Com- 
munist, would be susceptible to Communist in- 
fluence. 

But there are serious initial obstacles in the way 
of starting the processes of economic growth. 
There is a shortage — sometimes an absence — of 
technicians. And with incomes at the barest sub- 
sistence levels, very little can be saved and in- 
vested. Without outside help, the prospects of 
economic growth are indeed very slim. 

It is these considerations which have in the past 
led us to conclude that it is in our national inter- 
est to assist in the economic development of the 
less developed countries. Fresh study merely con- 
firms the view that both national self-interest and 
national idealism demand that we help the people 
of these nations to remain free so that their stra- 
tegic lands should not fall under Communist con- 
trol and so that their resources should be avail- 
able to their own people and the free world as a 
whole. 

The President now recommends the establish- 
ment of a development loan fund as the most 
economical and effective way to stimulate the 
needed economic growth. 

The purpose of the fund would be to place our 
development financing on a more businesslike 
basis, comparable to that of the World Bank and 
the Export-Import Bank. It would place pri- 
mary responsibility for economic development 
where it belongs — on the receiving countries — and 
it would provide development financing in ways 
which would stimulate these countries to greater 
self-help and private investors and other financing 
sources to increased activity. 

If the fund is to do this, several changes will be 
required in present procedures. The most im- 
jDortant of these would be designed to provide the 
fund with an assurance that specified amounts 
would be available for development purposes in 
future years. 

Only with this assurance can the fund offer 
a convincing incentive to the less developed coun- 
tries to plan somid development projects or pro- 
grams which they need and can justify. Only 
with this assurance will these comitries be en- 



\»\Y I, 1957 



couraged both to work with the fund over a con- 
siderable period in evaluating and improving 
these projects and then to embark upon them with 
vigor and confidence. And, finally, only with 
this assurance will jirivate investors, the World 
Bank, and the Export-Import Bank have suffi- 
cient confidence in the future of the fund's activ- 
ity to feel safe in relating their plans to that 
activity. 

How are we to secure this assurance, without 
which the fund would be but a new name for what 
we are already doing? This could not be done by 
a general declaration in the law or even by an 
authorization for future annual appropriations. 
There would be no reasonable assurance under 
either of these procedures that an adequate 
amount would be added to the fund's capital in 
future years. 

"The heart of the problem," as your report very 
rightly observes, "lies in the annual authoriza- 
tion-appropriation cycle." We can only escape 
from that cycle through action which sets specific 
sums of money aside and which indicates the times 
at which they are to become available to the fund. 

Although this assurance of continuity is an 
essential of tlie fimd concept, we recognize that, 
because the fund is a new departure, the Con- 
gress feels a responsibility to retain control over 
it so that, if it should not progress as we all hope, 
it will be possible to bring about necessary 
changes before too great an amount of public 
funds becomes committed. We have had this very 
much in mind, and we believe we have devised 
a proposal which meets both requirements — that 
for the fund's effectiveness and that for continu- 
ing congressional control. In order to do both 
these things we are asking : 

Firsts for an appropriation of $500 million for 
fiscal year 1958 and an authorization to borrow 
from the Treasury up to $750 million in each of 
the next 2 fiscal years, thus securing the necessary 
assurance of future resources ; 

Second, that only the initial $500 million be 
available for obligation in fiscal year 1958. The 
amounts for 1959 and 1960 would not become 
available for use by the fmid before these years 
respectively. This would insure continuing con- 
gressional control over the fund's resources, for 
it would enable the Congress to amend or curtail 
the fund's activity before 1959 or 1960, if it so 



desired, with the assurance that the fund would 
not have obligated any of the resources that were 
to become available to it in these years. 

Full reports of the fund's activities would be 
made to the Congress semiannually, and each year 
during the mutual security presentation the execu- 
tive branch would review with the authorizing 
committees the fund's past activities and future 
plans. 

I would like to turn now to our ideas as to how 
the fund would work. 

First, its financing would be on a loan basis. 
But, because of the pioneering nature of the effort, 
the loan terms would be less rigid than those of 
existing institutions. Repayment, for example, 
might be in foreign currencies as well as dollars. 

Second, the fund would seek cooperation with 
private investors and established lending institu- 
tions. It could participate in joint financing with 
such investors or with the World Bank or the 
Export-Import Bank. It could not loan its funds 
where private investment or financing by existing 
agencies would be available for the same purpose. 
Thus its activity should increase rather than re- 
duce the activity of other financing sources. 

Third, the fund could be used only for specific 
development projects or jirograms which after 
thorough examination are found to be technically 
and economically sound and which could be ex- 
pected to contribute to the economic progress of 
the borrowing country. It would not be used to 
meet emergencies or other needs for short-term 
assistance. 

How should this fund be administered ? I do not 
think that we need now to give an answer for all 
time. However I do feel, and feel strongly, that 
initially the fimd should be under the policy guid- 
ance of the Department of State. The fund, at its 
inception, will represent a transition from a mixed 
system of grants and of loans which were wholly 
under the policy direction of the Department of 
State. It is now proposed to shift to a more con- 
servative type of operation. But the shift needs 
to be made without shock, and at least during the 
initial period there ought to be continued the 
policy guidance of the Department of State. To 
establish the fund initially as a purely fiscal in- 
stitute would be to deprive us of an essential in- 
strument of foreign policy. 



Department of State Bulletin 



I do not say that this will always be the case. I 
hope that after the fiind has become operative 
State Department direction could be relaxed, but 
I am convinced that to take away initially State 
Department guidance would be to subject our 
foreign relations in this field to an excessively 
abrupt change. 

"With respect to the size of the fund I observe 
that most of the studies of economic development 
assistance which were conducted this year for the 
Congress, for the executive branch, and for various 
private organizations agree that present develop- 
ment assistance programs do not provide resources 
of sufficient magnitude. Our own experience and 
our knowledge of pending projects in less de- 
veloped countries testify to this fact. 

I have served in the Congress and I understand 
and share its desire to hold Federal expenditures 
to the lowest level consistent with national safety. 
I believe the sums requested by the President for 
this fund are conservative figures. 

In this fiscal year, under our present programs, 
we will finance over $400 million of developmental 
activities, and we want to be in a position to in- 
crease moderately the present level of financing. 
The need is to be able to initiate development 
which will be sufficiently vigorous to attract funds 
from other sources and to stimulate domestic 
capital formations. 

To provide inadequate resources might be 
wasteful, for it would postpone the receiving 
comitries' achievement of a self-sustaining rate of 
growth and thus tend to perpetuate the require- 
ment for United States assistance. 

Technical Cooperation 

Closely related to economic development activi- 
ties which would be undertaken through the fund 
is our program of technical cooperation. This 
program has proved its worth as a long-term in- 
strument of United States policy, and the Presi- 
dent has therefore recommended that it should be 
authorized on a more permanent basis. 

We believe this program should continue sub- 
stantially as at present, and the President has 
reconunended an appropriation of $168,900,000 
for it next year. This figure includes, in addition 
to our regular bilateral program, our contribution 
to the technical assistance program of both the 
Organization of American States and the United 
Nations. 



Special Assistance 

The final category of our aid which I should 
like to mention is special assistance. 

There are some programs, like the malaria 
eradication program, that do not fit into any of 
the preceding categories. There will also be oc- 
casions when it will be in our national interest to 
furnish assistance which is not designed to sup- 
port our common defense effort and which could 
not properly be handled through the development 
fund or technical assistance. There are bound to 
be emergency situations which we cannot foresee, 
and there are bound to be efforts we need to sup- 
port without prospect of repayment. 

International communism is constantly probing 
to discover and exploit weak points within the 
free world. We camiot t«ll in advance where 
these weak points will develop or the amount of 
pressure which international communism will 
bring to bear. 

During the past few years there have been 
emergency situations in many places where im- 
mediate gi'ant aid was necessary. Such situations 
have arisen in relation, for example, to Iran, 
Jordan, Hmigarian refugees, and Guatemala. It 
can be soberly estimated that international com- 
mimism would have gained spectacular victories 
and that freedom would have suffered tragic de- 
feats if the President had not had flexible funds 
to use to meet impredictable emergencies. The 
fact that the President had such funds has meant 
on net balance a vast saving to the cause of 
freedom. 

Aid of this nature is designed to meet immedi- 
ate needs, not to finance long-term programs. It 
is appropriate that it should be authorized anew 
each year. 

The President has this year asked for the au- 
thorization of an appropriation of $300 million 
for this type of assistance. 

Conclusion 

The total program which I have outlined re- 
flects the results of the intensive study which has 
been given to this subject during the past year. 
Such study has been given by the executive 
branch of govermnent, by both Houses of Con- 
gress, and by special groups of qualified persons 
who have been asked by the President and by the 
Congress to study this problem. 

These studies indicate no substantial disagree- 



July 1, 1957 



ment as to the need for our mutual security pro- 
gram. There is also an unusual consensus as to 
the general order of magnitude which these pro- 
grams should assume. And there is a large meas- 
ure of agreement that our mutual security pro- 
grams can be better organized. 

The executive branch shares these views; they 
are reflected in the proposed legislation which we 
now lay before you. 



Foreign Relations and World Trade 

Remarks hy President Eisenhower'^ 

First, I should say that I agree with every word 
you have to say about OTC. It seems to me to be 
almost ridiculous that we do not promptly join 
this organization in order that there may be an 
administrative group to make certain of the pro- 
tection of our own rights as we try to advance the 
whole theory of better world trade all around the 
globe. 

I am constantly impressed, as we deal with this 
difficult subject of foreign relations, how often the 
subject of trade does intrude itself in a very 
definite, a very important way, and must be con- 
sidered in the political relationships that can be 
established with our friends, and must be main- 
tained. 

I mean it in this way: A country is having a 
hard time making a living, countries that are small 
and industrial in character — Japan, Britain^ — I 
mean small in area — both of them would be ex- 
amples. They have to perform services for some- 
body else, which means that their entire living, 
really, comes out of exports. They can export only 
if there is a readiness of others to buy. 

Now, another way they could live, of course, if 
richer countries are making a lot of money, would 
be just to keep up mutual aid and grant programs. 
We don't want to do that. It's a poor way to do it. 
They don't want to do it. 

So there must be freer trade if they are to make 
a living. There are other inhibitions. We don't 
want the Communists to get a lot of strategic goods 
in the world. So these nations have, certainly so 
far, been observing very great restrictions in the 



amount of their goods that they can manufacture 
to sell to the part of the world that is behind the 
Iron Curtain. 

Wliere and how are they going to make a living ? 
Yet if they don't make a living, the consequences 
upon us are not merely commercial, not merely 
what progress we make in the way of prosperity. 
It's in the political relationships we will be able 
to retain with these countries, whether they will 
believe fervently in the processes of free govern- 
ment, in free associations among friendly nations, 
or whether they will be forced to deal with others 
in a way that we should never accept if we can 
possibly help it. 

In other words, we would be put in an awful fix 
because in this great struggle that is being carried 
on between two forms of government in the world 
we need these people on our side and we are strug- 
gling always for more. 

So this whole question of foreign trade affects 
us, as I see it, in two ways: our economy, our 
future, and the prosperity we ourselves are going 
to enjoy, but in our political relations it is, to my 
mind, even more important. Because, finally, 
those political relationships could destroy — if 
they weren't healthy — could destroy anything else 
we might set up. 

I mention these things just briefly, but very 
simply, in order that you can see how really deeply 
I feel obligated to you for the work you do, to 
carry an enlightened view of world trade to our 
people so they can see that we are not talking 
about trying to put American people out of work 
or undersell an American manufacturer and drive 
him to the wall, or anything else. We are striving 
to make a better world for ourselves, for our 
children, that kind of world in which free men 
can live — and I think it is just that simple and 
just that important. As long as we approach it in 
that way, I thinic we shall never give up. On the 
contrary, I think we shall win. 

Again I say, thank you very much — you and 
Mr. Coleman and Mr. Randall ^- — all who are 
working on this thing. God bless you. I hope you 
have even more success everywhere, in Congress 
and abroad through the land, than you yourselves 
anticipate. 



'Made to members of the Committee for a National 
Trade Policy in the rose garden at the White House on 
June 14 (White House press release). 



"John S. Coleman, chairman of the board of the United 
States Chamber of Commerce ; Clarence B. Randall, 
special consultant to President Eisenhower on foreign 
economic policy. 



8 



Department of State Bulletin 



Secretary Dulles' News Conference of June 11 



Press release 355 dated June 11 

Secretary Dulles: We are very happy to have 
in our group today 11 correspondents from Brazil 
to take part in and witness one of our distinctive 
American institutions, a press conference. 

Now, if you have questions. 

Q. Mr. Secretary^ Mr. Stassen came horns at 
the end of last week for consultations just, I think, 
about 2 weeks after he had been here, and stayed 
longer than we had thought he would stay. Could 
you tell us what these talks are about? 

A. The problem of working out these disarma- 
ment proposals is a very difficult, complicated 
problem, and it has many delicate aspects in re- 
lation to our allies, many of whom are directly or 
indirectly concerned in these matters. And while 
in substance the position of the United States was 
decided upon by the President before Mr. Stassen 
went back the last time, there are procedural com- 
plications which have developed in relation to 
NATO which made it seem desirable for Governor 
Stassen to return and have some further talks on 
that aspect of the matter. I am seeing him this 
afternoon. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, are the differences with our 
allies substantive differences, or are they annoyed 
by the way that the negotiations are being con- 
ducted with the Russians? 

A. Well, I would not want to say or use the ex- 
pression that they are "annoyed." There are some 
very genuine problems — almost inescapable prob- 
lems — as to procedure, as to whom you talk with 
first, and who thinks his views are having the 
greatest weight. That is always one of the great 
problems of working out a matter of this sort, 
where you have allies who are very properly con- 
cerned. And I would say that the difficulties that 
have arisen are nothing that were unusual, but I 
do think that they were of a character which re- 



quired a closer review of our procedures in these 
matters, relationships to NATO, and the like. 
You see, we have complications due to the fact 
that the Federal Eepublic of Germany is not a 
member of the United Nations and that these dis- 
cussions are being carried out under the auspices 
of the United Nations ; yet Germany is very deeply 
involved. The working out of these procedures is 
a matter of some difficulty, of some delicacy, which 
I think justified having a further talk here with 
Mr. Stassen. 

Disarmament Inspection Zone 

Q. Do these questions, Mr. Secretary, center 
around the so-called European inspection-zone 
idea? Is that what the difference is about? 

A. Well, you are talking now about the sub- 
stance rather than of the procedural aspects of the 
matter. We do not yet know definitely what the 
views of our allies are about the so-called Euro- 
pean zone. At the moment, the question is the 
procedures for dealing with that matter and get- 
ting an authoritative expression of views. There 
have been some discussions with NATO, and there 
will be continuing discussions with NATO as one 
forum tlirough which the attitude of our conti- 
nental allies can be worked out, and the question 
of the European zone is one matter. As I say, 
we do not yet have any definitive expression of 
views from our continental allies as to what they 
think about a European zone. 

Q. Well, loill Mr. Stassen be able to present an 
American position at the table in London to the 
Soviets before this matter is settled with all our 
allies? 

A. I don't think that there should be an official 
presentation of a United States position until as- 
pects of it which relate to our allies have been 
clarified with them. I think I made clear here on a 
number of occasions that the question of whether 



Ju/y 7, J 957 



or not, in the first phase of the inspection and 
control wliich goes with limitation of armament — 
that whether in that first phase there should be a 
European zone is in our opinion primarily a matter 
for the Europeans themselves to express a view 
about. I think that we would feel that it was 
quite possible to get started adequately without 
a European zone. The question is whether they 
want to have a European zone in the first phase 
or whether they do not; and that is primarily a 
matter for them. I do not think any official 
United States position should include a European 
zone unless we know that the continental allies in 
particvilar, which would be affected, want it in. 
Neither should we present a position which ex- 
cludes a European zone if they want a European 
zone to be in. And it is the procedures for ironing 
out those matters which are being worked on at 
the present time. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, isnH one of the prohlem~s 
further eojnplicating the situation what might 
he called an imresolved conflict within the Ameri- 
can administration as to hoxo to proceed hasically? 
I mean hy that, a hody of thought within the 
administration with respect to wanting to go fur- 
ther with the European zone, with respect to cessa- 
tion of tests of iveapons, and that sort of thing, 
and another body of thought against that sort of 
thing. 

A. No. I think that the differences within the 
United States administration have been authori- 
tatively resolved by action which the President 
took. 

Q. Which action is that, sir? 

A. The action which he took before Governor 
Stassen went back the last time, which I an- 
nounced from the Wliite House following a meet- 
ing with the President. 

iQ. Mr. Secretary, then is it correct from what 
you say that the United States will he unable to 
propose any European zone or any proposal af- 
fecting troops, cutting troops or armaments in 
Europe, unless there is a unanimous agreement of 
all the NATO countries whose territory would 
he involved? 

A. I don't know whether the word "miable" is 
the correct word. Certainly we would not be dis- 
posed to present as an American program a pro- 
gram which involved continental Europe and 



dealt with either inspection there or the position- 
ing of forces there unless that was concurred in 
by all of the comitries that wei'e involved. 

Aerial Inspection of the Arctic 

Q. Mr. Secretary, to put it another way around, 
are we going to mahe a solid proposal on aerial 
inspection of the Arctic? 

A. That, of course, also involves the concur- 
rence of Canada and possibly of Denmark in re- 
lation to Greenland, possibly of Norway, depend- 
ing on just where the line is drawn. But subject 
to the concurrence of those countries we are pre- 
pared to make a solid proposal covering the Arc- 
tic area. 

Q. You anticipate, Mr. Secretary, that the Ca- 
nadian elections yesterday might have some effect 
upon the concurrence which you said a few weehs 
ago that the Canadian Government had given? 

A. Well, I assume that the new government, 
assuming that a new government is constituted, 
would want to take a fresh look at the matter, 
yes, and that might involve some delay. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you share personally the 
view of some people in the administration that 
an Arctic zone alone offers more protection 
against surprise attach to the United States than 
it ivould to the Soviet Union, and that part of 
any agreement — balanced agreement — between 
the United States and the U.S.S.R. would neces- 
sitate some agreeinent in Europe, where the Rus- 
sians presumably are most fearful of attach? 

A. I don't know what the Soviet view of that 
matter is. I would say this : that any inspection 
of any part of the Soviet Union offers more pro- 
tection to the United States, because we do fear 
and think we have reason to fear that under cer- 
tain circumstances the Soviet Union might at- 
tack. I don't think that the Soviet Union has 
any legitimate ground to fear any attack from 
anywhere in the United States or any of our 
bases. If you try to evaluate these diffei-ent 
areas in terms of the likelihood that one or an- 
other would attack, then I think you are using 
a veiy difficult equation. I think that to find a 
substantial area wiiere this initial step can be 
taken which will test out the procedures for 
aerial inspection and coordinated ground insi^ec- 
tion, that that is the important thing. I don't 



10 



Department of State Bulletin 



think anybody expects that we would stop with 
that. The important thing is to find some place 
to get started. Now, there are always going to 
he some reasons, I suppose, against finding any 
areas. But there seem to be more legitimate com- 
plications with respect to a European zone, tliat 
would involve many more countries and might 
involve such political matters as the reunifica- 
tion of Germany. So, it may be felt that in tlie 
interests of getting started quickly we should ex- 
plore the possibilities of an area which did not 
include continental Europe. I have no basis to 
form an opinion one way or another as to 
whether the Soviet Union is insistent upon a 
European zone. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would you 'believe these 
problems can be •loorhed out and Mr. Stassen can 
present a plan at the London conference? 

A. Well, I can't foresee how quickly they will 
act. I know that these matters are very difficult 
and they involve vei-y serious decisions. We our- 
selves have taken a good many months to debate 
the pro's and con's within our own Government. 
I do not think we can fairly expect our allies to 
make a decision in just a few days merely to suit 
our convenience or the convenience of the Soviet 
Union. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, a part of the question as to 
when Mr. Stassen can go bach to London: Do I 
correctly gather from this answer that he intends 
to remain in Washington until the positions of 
the allies are settled? 

A. Oh, no, because the question of his staying 
here is unsettled at the present time. I haven't 
seen Governor Stassen yet. We are seeing each 
other at 4 o'clock. He was yesterday at his son's 
commencement, I believe, and this morning I am 
engaged, as you see, and we are seeing each other 
this afternoon at 4 o'clock. Until we have had 
a talk then, I would not want to say, could not 
say, what the plans might be for his return. 

Q. Will other people be in on this conference, 
from Defense and Atomic Energy, as before? 

A. No. At this stage it involves matters of 
our diplomatic relations with our allies, which 
does not primarily concern any department ex- 
cept the Department of State. Perhaps Under 
Secretary Herter will be there, but it will be a 
State Department conference. 



Q. Mr. Secretary, isnH it completely likely that 
Mr. Stassen will present a proposal which in ef- 
fect omits the European zone idea until it is de- 
cided upon by our allies in terms of whether or 
not we should even propose it? 

A. Well, that prejudges the attitude of our al- 
lies, and, as I say, we do not yet have any solid 
indication from our allies as to whether they 
want or do not want a European zone in the first 
phase and the conditions which they might want 
to attach to having such a zone in the first phase. 
There is this whole problem of the political im- 
plications of any disarmament matter and the 
solution of political problems. The general at- 
titude of the Europeans, the continental Euro- 
peans, is that it may be desirable to explore at 
least the possibility of a political settlement of the 
continental problem, particularly the problem of 
German reunification, before we move in the dis- 
armament field in relation to an area which would 
include Germany. But that matter is being 
studied by them intensively at the present time, 
and I would not want by anything to imply either 
a positive or a negative response on their part to 
that question. 

Q. Well, that also implies that you expect them 
to act fairly quickly, because Mr. Stassen is sup- 
posed to present a proposal this week, isn't he? 

A. Well, let me make perfectly clear this : This 
is not a bilateral negotiation. It is not just be- 
tween the United States and the Soviet Union. 
And we are not going to throw into the discard 
the views of our allies merely in the interest of 
making progress on a bilateral basis with the 
Soviet Union. We attach first importance to our 
relations with our allies, and we shall not sacrifice 
that relationship with our allies just in order to 
make speed with the Soviet Union. 

Now I think that the Soviet Union underetands 
the situation and that the kind of procedures that 
we will work out will not involve any rupture in 
any way of the negotiations or of progress. I 
think there will be things that can be talked about 
with the Soviet Union, perhaps on an informal 
basis, which will not involve any of these major 
problems but which will still be matters which 
have to be talked about at some stage. This prob- 
lem is infinitely complicated. It has many facets, 
and there are plenty of facets about which we 
can talk with the Soviet Union which don't in- 



Ju/y 7, J 957 



11 



volve or prejudice or prejudge in any way this 
particular matter of a European zone. So I think 
that useful progress can probably be made in talks 
with the Soviet Union without in any way co- 
ercing or seeming to coerce or confronting our 
allies with a fait accompli. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, speaking of allies, Senator 
Knowland has suggested that it might he possible 
to neutralize Norway in exchange for Soviet with- 
drawal from Hungary. How do you feel about 
such a proposal? 

A. "Well, I fully share Senator Knowland's feel- 
ing that every proper effort should be made to 
get the Soviet troops out of Hungary. And I 
believe that, if we can find a way to test the sin- 
cerity of what Mr. Khrushchev said in tliat re- 
spect, we should try to find it. But I feel this 
about our mutual security — collective security — 
arrangements: These arrangements, accordmg to 
my concept, are arrangements such as are made in 
any civilized comnumity to gain security. These 
are not military aggregations; they are not al- 
liances, in the ordinary sense of that word — they 
are an effort to do within the free world the kind 
of thing that should preferably have been done 
through the United Nations. The United Na- 
tions Charter, as you recall, contemplated a sys- 
tem of collective security imder its Security Coun- 
cil, witii forces, facilities, airplanes, and so forth 
at the disposal of the Security Council. Now that 
concept was never realized because of the Soviet 
veto. Therefore, we are trying to realize it with- 
in the free world, and the mutual security ar- 
rangements which have been created as between, 
I think, 45 nations represent an effort to do that. 
And I do not think it is appropriate to suggest 
that any free-world country which wants to par- 
ticipate in collective security should witlidraw 
from it. It would be like suggesting that some 
of us here in Washington should agree that our 
own homes, houses, shoidd no longer have police 
protection. Well, that would not be a suggestion 
that would be welcomed. And I doubt whether 
it is appropriate to suggest that a nation which 
wants to share in collective security should give 
that up. 

U.S.-Japanese Relations 

Q. Mr. Secretary, Prime Minister KisM from 
Japan will he here next week. I wonder if you 

12 



could tell us, sir, what problems you feel might 
exist between the tioo countries xohich his m&it 
will help solve, and xohether you feel that this 
visit is as important as he says it is when it opens 
a new era of relations between the two countries? 

A. I consider that this visit is very important 
and comes at a formative period in the relations 
between our two countries. Japan since the war 
has been in the process, you might say, of finding 
herself again as a jjotential great power, and I 
use that term "great" not in the term of ability 
to impose your will upon others but in the ability 
to play a constructive role in world affairs and in 
the creation of collective security. And I feel that 
there is a growing feeling in Japan that a new 
stage is approaching in the relations of Japan to 
the rest of the world and I hope and believe that 
we will have a chance to talk that over construc- 
tively with Mr. Kishi when he is here. I do regard 
it as a very important meeting coming at an im- 
portant time. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, getting into the inter-Ameri- 
can field — there is going to be an econonic confer- 
ence in Buenos Aires in August. Could you tell 
us who will head the United States delegation, 
whether it will be Mr. Humphrey or Mr. Ander- 
son, and whether any neiv policy will be enunci- 
ated there? 

A. I doubt very much that it will be Secretar\ 
Humphrey. Wliether or not it will be Secretary 
Anderson or possibly Mr. Burgess, that I don'1 
know — that's a matter for them to work out. And 
I would also not want to discuss the policies be- 
cause, as you know, those conferences are pri- 
marily held under the auspices of the Treasury 
Departments, the Finance Departments, of the ! 
different countries, not under the auspices of tht 
State Department. 

Q. On a related subject, Mr. Secretary, the Rep- 
resentatives of the Presidents of the 21 Americaji 
Republics issued a report last month, which toa-s 
made public on May 25, proposing certain slept 
to strengthen the economic phase of the Organiza- 
tion of American States.'^ I wonder if you have 
seen the report and can tell us how quickly the 
United States plans to implement its part in the 
program? 



^ Botletin of June 24, 1957, p. 1014. 

Deparfment of Sfafe BulleHn 



A. Yes, I have seen the report. I think it is a 
constructive report. There are different parts 
of it which will have to come into force at differ- 
ent times, and there is no one date for everything 
that can be done there. But I see no reason why 
the United States should not carry forward its 
part in that at a rapid rate. There are no matters 
which cannot be dealt with, I think, within the 
compass of presently agreed policies. I think 
what is proposed is important. It is constructive, 
not when measured by the yardstick of dollars, 
which I think is a very fallible measuring rod for 
these matters, but in terms of getting new con- 
cepts under way, and I think we can respond 
rather quickly to the recommendations of the 
committee. 

lEast-West Exchanges 

Q. Mr. Secretary^ the Soviet Union has f reposed 
a rather large-scale resumption of cultural and 
other forms of exchange between itself and the 
United States. Could you tell us ivhether you fa- 
vor such a resumption., and along what lines? 

A. Well, I favor the resumption but not neces- 
sarily along the precise lines that the Soviet pro- 
poses. You may recall that at the meeting of the 
Foreign Ministers which came after the Summit 
Conference, that is, the meeting held in October 
and November 1955, some 18 months ago, tlie 
United States with the British and the French put 
forward a very comprehensive package of pro- 
posed exchanges — a 17-point proposal.- That in- 
cluded, for example, a proposal for reciprocal 
presentations on cuiTent affairs by radio, with 
5omeone from the United States who would have 
in opportunity to speak to the people of the 
50viet Union. I think we proposed that there 
should be an allotted time of a period of half an 
lour every month and that they, in turn, would 
rave a half hour to make a presentation to tlie 
[Jnited States of their views and policies. I was 
very glad, indeed, to see the strong endorsement of 
;hat concept by Senator Jolmson the other day. 
ffe made almost exactly the same proposal or at 
east adopted, you might say, the same proposal 
hat the United States had made at that time. 
But his reinforcement of that at this juncture is 
I very useful thing and is again a demonstration 

-Ibid., Nov. 14. 1955, p. 778. 
/o/y ?, J 957 



of the bipartisan character of our foreign policy. 
We are constantly pressing the Soviets, for ex- 
ample, for these reciprocal facilities to speak to the 
Soviet people. So far, they have been adamant 
in their refusal. I remember Molotov said that he 
would not be willing to have exchanges of that 
sort because it would present the Soviet people 
with what he called "social scum." 

Q. Mr. Secretary, since Khrushchev's television 
appearance, and since this issue has come alive 
again, has the United States made any specific pro- 
posal to the Soviet Union for reciprocal radio or 
television time, or do you propose to do so? 

A. Well, we have been pressing them con- 
sistently since the original formulation of that 
proposal 18 months ago. I can't say with positive- 
ness as to whether or not we have pressed it again 
upon them within the last day or two. But I 
know that that is one of the items which is on the 
list, which is being watched here for us in the 
State Department by Ambassador Lacy. I talked 
to him on the phone last night, and he said that it 
is constantly in his mind. I don't think a concrete 
proposal has been made within the last day or two, 
but he has been pressing and we have been press- 
ing for that kind of exchange off and on, with 
consistency, for the last 18 months. 

Q. Well, Mr. Secretary, does that mean that 
as of now the proposal, the specific proposal for 
a one-half-hour exchange each month, or in any 
penod of time you would specify, is an open pro- 
posal on the part of tlie United States to the 
Soviet Union? 

A. It is. And that has been made perfectly 
clear repeatedly to the Soviet Union. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, has any progress been inade 
in negotiations with Egypt to get a closer ad- 
herence to the United Nations'' six principles for 
operating the Sues Canal? 

A. There are no new developments along that 
line other than the bilateral talks which have been 
conducted by some nations with reference to eas- 
ing, from a fiscal standpoint, the conditions of 
transit. That is perhaps one aspect of bringing 
the Suez Canal into line with the six principles in 
that it does away with monetary restrictions which 
might be an impediment. The French are in the 
process, I think, of concluding discussions of that 



13 



sort ; possibly other governments have been having 
them. But, aside from that, I think no progi-ess 
has been made. 

Trade With Red China 

Q. Mr. Secretary., on another point, President 
Eisenhower, in discussing trade with Red China at 
his news conference last week, said that he belongs 
to the school of thought that believes that in the 
long run trade cannot he stopped between coun- 
tries and that you will either have authorized trade 
or clandestine trade? Further, he said he did not 
see as much advantage as some people in maintain- 
ing tougher trad.e controls on shipments to Red 
China than on shipments to the Soviet Hoc in 
Europe. Could you tell us how you stand on this, 
sir? 

A. Well, let me first say that you left out the 
last part of his sentence. 

Q. That he does not favor abolition. 

A. He said he did not favor the total abolition 
of the differential. 

Q. Thafs right, sir. 

A. And that is an extremely important point 
because that is the position we took at the Paris 
talks and with respect to which we had the support 
of a substantial majority of the nations that were 
represented there. An effort has been made to 
suggest that the United States stood alone in that 
matter. Actually, at this conference a substantial 
majority of the nations shared the United States 
position and not the position of the United King- 
dom, and that is the position which the President 
expressed at his last press conference when he 
said he did not favor a total abolition of the 
differential. 

The problem as I see it is this, that China has 
only a limited amount of foreign exchange with 
which to buy goods abroad, and the question is 
how high, in terms of strategic value, are the goods 
you are going to let China buy? It is, I think, 
highly doubtful that the total volume of China's 
foreign trade will be increased by a total abolition 
of the differential. It will, I think, mean that 
instead of buying commodities of less strategic 
value they will concentrate their buying upon 



' For a Department announcement on trade with Red 
China, see iUd., June 17, 1957, p. 967. 



14 



goods of higher strategic value, because their great 
effort today is to build up their war potential and 
their heavy industry that supports it. I feel that 
the views of the United States, which carries the 
primaiy responsibility for peace in the area, 
should have weight with respect to that matter. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, what is the exact position to- 
day of the United States Government regarding 
the situation in Algiers? There have been some 
rmnors in Paris that the United States Govern- 
ment would be more active in trying to promote 
a negotiated settlement of the conflict. Can you 
comment on that? 

A. The United States has no plan for inter- 
vening or interfering in that matter in any way. 
I received the suggestion, which I may have re- 
ferred to here, some little time ago, from the 
Arab ambassadors, that because the United States 
gives military assistance to France we should 
attach to it certain conditions in relation to Al- 
geria. And I asked whether they really felt that 
assistance from the United States of a military 
character or military-support character should 
have attached to it political conditions, and on 
reflection I think that they would not want that 
kind of a policy applied to them. 

Khrushchev Television Interview 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the other day at his news 
conference Mr. Eisenhower seemed to invite the 
inference that he disapproved of a broadcasting 
system inviting Mr. Khrushchev to appear on an 
American program, the inference being that some- 
how it was lopsided or that it embarrassed the 
administration. Then he went on to say that, 
whereas he himself would probably not appear in 
answer, others of the administration might. Pd 
Vike to ask you a few questions against that back- 
ground. 

First, is an appearance of this kind, by Mr. 
Khrushchev or some other foreign figure, whether 
he be Communist or not, considered by the admin- 
istration to be detrimental propaganda that you 
toould like not to see; and, second, would you 
yourself object to appearing as one of the Ameri- 
can Government figures in the exchange with 
Soviet Russia, if that is worked out? 

A. Well, I don't want to be commenting upon 
what the President said in this respect, because 
he speaks for himself and his views on these 

Department of State Butletin 



matters are naturally controlling upon the Depart- 
ment of State. And we welcome that. 

Now, on the question of appearances, I think 
this: I have considerable doubt as to the value 
of these one-shot operations so far as the Soviet 
Union is concerned. I tliink what we need to get 
and should get is a regular opportunity on a 
reciprocal basis to speak to each other's peoples. 
That was the view that we took at the Geneva 
conference. That is the view we have held ever 
since. It is the view that was expressed very elo- 
quently by Senator Jolmson, the day before yes- 
terday I think it was. 

Now, if you can get this onto a regular basis, 
I would think that leading American figures could 
be found who would appear on these programs. 
And I would not see any inherent objections to 
my doing so. Actually, of course, this press con- 
ference is being recorded on radio and television, 
and if the Soviets wanted to play this back in the 
Soviet Union, I'd be delighted. If they would 
rather have one that was siDecially geared into a 
discussion of Soviet-American relations, I'd be 
delighted to have that kind of a press conference. 
But, as I say, I think that what we should strive 
for is to have a regular system, if we can get it, 
and not just a kind of a one-shot operation, which 
I think would not have the desired impact of really 
bringing to the Soviet people an adequate under- 
standing of our policies. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., returning to the China trade 
question, do you see any "possibility of a corrwnon, 
unified approach being loorked out by the 15 na- 
tions making up the China control committee; in 
other words, is there still room, for a negotiation 
with Britain and is there a likelihood that a com- 
mon approach might be ivorked out short of total 
abolition of the China differential? 

A. Well, there is one aspect to the matter which 
is still open for negotiation and which is impor- 
tant, and that is the size of the quotas of items 
which will now be on the China number 2 list, I 
think it is called. You see, on the COCOM list, 
which applies to the Soviet Union and wliich the 
British would now apply equally to the Chinese, 
we have three categories. One is goods which are 
totally forbidden. The second is articles which 
are allowed to go within specified limits. And the 
third is the so-called watch list, where the ship- 
ments are reported but where no limitations exist 



unless and until the volume of shipments seems 
to call for further action. 

Now, in the case of the number 2 list, which is 
the quota list, the actual quotas for China have 
not yet been agreed upon and they are still subject 
to negotiation. And there is a possibility of a 
measure of agreement in that respect which would 
be helpful. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in answer to the earlier ques- 
tion on trade unth Red China you pointed out that 
a mxLJonty of the coumtries in this 15-nation group 
did support our view tliat there should be a differ- 
ential. My question was based on President 
Eisenhower''s remark that he did not person/illy 
see as much of an advantage in maintaining a 
differential at all, even though he did not favor 
complete abolition of it. My question was, do you 
share that view, and if so why did we propose a 
differential to begin with? 

A. Because, as President Eisenhower said, he 
did not favor — nor do I favor, nor does, I think, 
anyone in the American Government favor — a 
total abolislunent of the differential. And we pro- 
posed a reduced differential but not a total abolish- 
ing of the differential, which is exactly the posi- 
tion President Eisenhower took. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you have any fears or any 
evidence that the American people were taken in or 
bamboozled by Mr. Khrushchev in his appearance 
on TV? 

A. Well, I think myself that the American 
people are sufficiently versed in the vocabulary of 
communism so that they were not fooled in any 
way by that statement. I didn't see the statement 
myself or hear it, because I was, fortunately, on 
my island, where we don't go in for things of that 
sort. But, from what I hear of it, it is pretty much 
in line with what the Soviets have been saying in 
a great many ways in the last 2 or 3 months. There 
has been a plethora of propaganda notes sent out 
by the Soviet leaders. They have been writing 
notes that look almost as if they had hired a letter- 
writing bureau to do the work for them. And 
they have been pouring out notes in an unprece- 
dented rate. I got a list the other day of 15 or 
more long diatribes which had been sent to one or 
another of the free- world governments, all pretty 
much along the same lines. Those lines had all 
been printed or reported in substance in our press, 
and of course we have been hearing that kind of 



July 1, 7957 



15 



thing off and on now for a good many years. I 
don't think that the American piil)lic is fooled by 
what is the essence of repetition of that kind of 
stuff. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, at your May ll^tli news con- 
ference,^ you told us that there were sojne Su- 
preme Court decisions to hach up your policy of 
prohibiting newsmen from going to Red China. 
And you gave us a number of citations. Some of 
us have looked up those citations, and we found 
they donH really support your vieiv at all as far 
as the Supreme Court decision is conce7med. 
There was one that seemed to. And it was the 
Mickey Jelke case in the Neio York court. Can 
you clarify this for us? {Laughter) 

A. Well, I will tell you I have a new legal ad- 
viser now. You know, one of the axioms of the 
legal profession is that it is a great mistake to be 
your own lawyer. Perhaps that is a self-serving 
axiom for the legal profession. At any rate, I ap- 
ply it now. We have now a new legal adviser, 
Mr. Becker, who is begimimg to work here with 
us, taking Mr. Phleger's place. He is beginning 
to get into this, and if you want to discuss the 
impact or meaning of decisions by the Supreme 
Court and the highest courts of our States, I sug- 
gest you take it up with him. And if you can, 
have your own lawyers prepare their version of 
it. It may cost you some money, I warn you. 

Q. Tliankyou,sir. 



Tax Convention With France 
Enters Into Force 

Press release 364 dated June 14 

On June 13, 1957, the supplementary tax con- 
vention of June 22, 1956, between the United 
States and France was brought into force by the 
exchange of instruments of ratification. The ex- 
change took place in Paris. 

The convention, signed in Wasliington on June 
22, 1956,^ supplements the convention and protocol 
of July 25, 1939,= and the convention of October 18, 
1946, relating to the avoidance of double taxation, 



* /6iVr., June 3, 1957, p. 894. 

1 Bulletin of July 2, 1956, p. 9. 

° Treaty Series 988. 

' Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1982. 



as modified and supplemented by the protocol of 
May 17, 1948.^ 

The effective dates specified in the new supple- 
mentary convention vary according to the char- 
acter of the substantive provisions. 

The convention modifies in certain respects the 
conventions and protocols in force between the 
two countries in order that the treaty provisions 
may deal more effectively with current problems 
involving double taxation. It adds a new article 
relating to reductions in tax rates on interest and 
dividends. It amends the provisions relating to 
short-term movement of business and professional 
personnel from one country to tlie other. It adds 
a new article relating to stamp or similar taxes 
on the transfer of securities and on stock-exchange 
transactions. It revises the provisions under 
which France undertakes to eliminate double tax- 
ation, including application of the credit prin- 
ciple. It makes various changes in terminology to 
reflect changes made in the French income-tax 
structure. It revises the territorial-extension pro- 
visions so as to make more flexible the procedure 
by which the operation of the treaty provisions 
may be extended to territories over which either 
Government exercises jurisdiction with respect to 
international relations. 

On July 19, 1956, the Senate gave its advice and 
consent to ratification of the supplementary con- 
vention. The United States instiiiment of ratifi- 
cation was signed by the President on July 31, 
1956. 

After proclamation by the President, the text of 
the convention, in English and French, will be 
published in the Treaties and Other International 
Acts Series. Meanwhile, the English text is avail- 
able in Senate Executive J, 84th Congress, 2d 
session, together with the texts of the President's 
message of transmittal and the report by the 
Secretary of State. 



Queen Elizabetti II To Visit U.S. 

President Eisenhower announced on June 11 
that Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II has accepted 
the President's invitation to visit the United 
States. Her Majesty, accompanied by His Royal 
Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, 
will begin her visit at Jamestown, Va., on October 
16 and will then make a 3-day formal visit in 
Washington. 



16 



Qepaxim^ni of State Bulletin 



The American Doctrine for the Middle East 



Statement hy James P. Richards 
Special Assistant to the President ^ 



Wlien one has worked with a group of men 
closely over a period of years, as I have with this 
committee, it is always a pleasure to return and 
discuss matters often considered in the past. It 
is in this spirit that I am appearing before you 
today to report on my mission to the Middle East. 

The background may be covered briefly. On 
January 5, 1957, the President submitted to the 
Congress certain proposals for the Middle East.^ 
He stated that he intended to send a mission to 
the area to explain the new program, and he sub- 
sequently asked me to take on the job. By House 
Joint Kesolution 117, the Congress on March 9 
endorsed in essence the President's proposals.'' 
On March 12 I departed on a trip which took me 
to 15 countries in the general area of the Middle 
East and nearly 30,000 miles. I returned on 
May 8.* 

It would not be appropriate for jne to try to 
evaluate the results of my mission. That should 
be left to others and to time. However, there is 
one thing I can say with conviction — the Presi- 
dent by proposing and the Congress by adopting 
the joint resolution assumed on behalf of the 
United States a new responsibility to help the 
people of the Middle East at their request to 



' Made before the House Foreign Affairs Committee on 
June 13 (press release 359). For a statement by Am- 
bassador Richards before the Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee on May 27, see Bulletin of June 17, 1957, 
p. 969. 

' lua., Jan. 21, 1957, p. 83. 

' Ihid., Mar. 25, 1957, p. 480. 

'For a radio-television address by Ambassador Rich- 
ards on his return, see ihid.. May 27, 1957, p. 841. 



Ju\Y 1, 1957 



maintain their national independence and terri- 
torial integrity. 

This new departure, this entirely American 
line of action, evoked a heart-warming trust from 
the nations of the area. To me it was gratifying 
to find a great reserve of good will and respect 
for the United States. I believe most of the lead- 
ers in the area are convinced that we have no am- 
bitions to dominate but rather a genuine desire, 
in view of the common interest in peace and se- 
curity, to assist them to build tlie strength and in- 
dependence which they want and which we both 
need to resist Communist domination. The fol- 
lowing facts are the evidence: Of the 18 nations 
which may be said to lie in the general area of the 
Middle East, 15 explicitly invited my mission to 
visit them. Of these, 13 have endorsed the pur- 
poses and objectives of the joint resolution. The 
remaining two, while preferring not to give pub- 
lic approval at this time, did not reject it. 

"VVliat needs to be done now ? 

As you know, the joint resolution has two main 
features. First is the declaration of intent to use 
the Armed Forces of the United States to assist 
nations in the general area of the Middle East 
at their request to resist armed aggression by a 
nation controlled by international communism. 
This declaration in itself has a twofold effect: 
(1) It puts international communism on notice, 
thereby constituting a strong deterrent, and (2) 
it gives the countries of the area that sense of se- 
curity and confidence needed to stimulate a re- 
solve to work to help themselves. As long as 
we make sure tliat tlie forces of international 
communism do not outdistance us in the military 
field, I do not believe any further specific action 



17 



429961—57- 



with respect to this aspect of the joint declaration 
is needed at this time. 

Helping To Build Economic and Military Strength 

The second feature is the declaration of intent 
to Iielp area countries at tlieir request to build up 
tlieir economic and military strength so that they, 
themselves, can contribute more eifectively to free- 
world jirogress and security. A lot more needs 
to be done in this connection. I would like to dis- 
cuss this part of tlie joint resolution with you in 
greater detail. 

Let us start with the facts : The resolution ap- 
propriated no new money but removed certain 
restrictions contained in the Mutual Security Act 
of 1954, as amended, from the expenditure of up 
to $200 million of moneys already available. The 
resolution made clear that it was the intention of 
the Congress that these funds should be used at 
the request of area states to assist them in build- 
ing up their economic and military strength to re- 
sist international communism. The President au- 
thorized me to commit on the spot funds for this 
purpose. Any commitments, of course, would be 
in accordance witli the terms of tlie joint resolu- 
tion. I authorized assistance in the magnitude of 
$120 million. A little more than half went for 
economic aid. Iii accordance with the provisions 
of the resolution full details have been made avail- 
able to appropriate committees of the Congress. 

You may aslv liow I went about investing this 
amount of the taxpayers' money. How could I 
assure myself that I was acting wisely and pru- 
dently ? I would like to describe for you the way 
in which my mission functioned. Before leaving 
Washington, officers from the Departments of 
State and Defense and from ICA assembled all 
available data bearing upon the problems I might 
encounter in each country. Tliis included, for 
example, budget figures, balance-of -payment sta- 
tistics, anticipated industrial and agricultural 
production, and the strengths and equipment of 
the armed forces. Wliile Congress was consider- 
ing the jomt resolution, I pondered over tliis in- 
formation and had it digested into compact, read- 
ily usable foi'm. Befoi'e landing in a country I 
was able to run quiclvly over figures showing all 
American assistance previously extended, sum- 
maries of tlie country's most pressing problems, 
and projects carefully worked out in the military 
and economic fields for which further United 



States assistance might be required. I liad di- 
rected that tlie projects drawn up should be only 
essential ones and ones contributing directly to 
the pui-poses of the joint resolution. 

Upon arrival we met immediately with the 
American counti-y team, including representa- 
tives of the Embassy, U. S. Operations Mission, 
and, in countries wliere they operate, the INIilitary 
Advisory Assistance Group. We pored over ad- 
ditional material, which had been assembled 
prior to our arrival, and discussed tactics. The 
first plenai"y meeting with the top foreign offi- 
cials was taken up, of course, in large part by 
general explanations of the American Doctrine 
for tlie Middle East. However, we inevitably 
received requests for both economic and militaiy 
assistance far greater than we could me«t. After- 
ward militaiy and economic representatives from 
the foreign government met with members of my 
staff to go over in detail the various I'equests. 
Then my mission would meet again witli tlie 
country team, and I would decide which requests 
miglit be met from available funds. A final 
meeting with the foreign govermnent would 
follow. 

I must say that in many cases there was dis- 
appointment that we could not do more. In all 
cases there was pleasure that the United States 
was able to act quickly and decisively on some 
of the most pressing problems. There was a sur- 
prising amount of agreement between our people 
in Wasliington, our country teams in the field, 
and the foreign governments on which projects 
should have first priority. 

I have been asked since my return: "V^Hiy was 
it necessary for the joint resolution to include a 
section regarding economic and military assist- 
ance? I cannot overemphasize the psychological 
and practical effect of this provision. It demon- 
strated that we meant what we said about doing 
something to help. Without it, we would have 
left a trail of skeptics. The resolution removed 
restrictions in the Mutual Security Act of 1954, 
as amended, on commitment of funds after April 
30 and the required proportion of loans to grants. 
This permitted a more productive investment of 
tlie American taxpayer's money in the Middle 
East, where the critical and fluid situation had 
disrupted previous plans. 

My return has been compared to that of the 
unprodigal son. People want to know what is 



18 



Deparlmenf of State Bulletin 



going to happen to the remaining $80 million. 
Why did I not spend $200 million 'i The Depart- 
ment of State has received quite a few inquiries 
from foreign governments on this matter. The 
fact is, of course, that the joint resolution did not 
appropriate any new funds. Expenditures under 
the authority of the joint resolution meant there 
was just that much less for other programs. A^Hien 
I left, I never intended to make commitments un- 
der the joint resolution beyond the essential mini- 
mum to accomplish the objectives sought. The 
established economic and military assistance pro- 
cedures should be used whenever possible. It is 
good practice to hold on to a certain amount of 
your money for unforeseeable last-minute con- 
tingencies. I expect that by the end of the fiscal 
year almost $200 million will have been used under 
the authority of the joint resolution. 

Mutual Security Program 

I have stated that much remains to be clone in 
connection with the second feature of the joint res- 
olution pertaining to economic and military as- 
sistance. The Mutual Security Act which you 
have before you will enable the United States to 
carry on this work. The development loan fmid 
and the special assistance fund each include part 
of the $200 million President Eiseiiliower stated 
in January that he would request for fiscal year 
1958. 

You know that I have not this year had the oc- 
casion to listen to testimony regarding the sums 
required for fiscal year 1958. Therefore I am not 
in a position to comment regarding specific fig- 
ures except to state my conviction that a substan- 
tial jjrogram is essential if we are not to drop the 
new responsibility we picked up in passing the 
joint resolution. 

With respect to ways of carrying out the mutual 
security program, this is a matter to which I de- 
voted careful study last year as your chairman. 
The report which I prepared under your instruc- 
tions at that time recommended measures similar 
to those now suggested by President Eisenhower. 
In a restless, imcertain world the President should 
be entrusted with maximum flexibility and the 
difficulties of advanced plamiing lessened by con- 
tinuing authorization legislation. I also believe 
the mutual defense assistance portion of the pro- 
gram belongs in the Department of Defense. My 
experiences in starting the job mapped out by 



the joint resolution make me surer than ever that 
we will have a more effective and realistic pro- 
gram if the Congress adopts the changes now be- 
fore it. 

The mutual security program you are consider- 
ing will enable the American people to fulfill the 
responsibilities they undertook in proclaiming the 
policy represented by the joint resolution. While 
keeping faith with the peoples of the Middle East 
area, we will provide through this program 
greater security for our own country. 



Mohammed V, Sultan of Morocco, 
To Visit United States 

White House Announcement and President's Letter 

White House press release dated May 14 

The President of the United States announced 
on May H that His Majesty Mohammed V, Sul- 
tan of Morocco, has accepted the Presidenfs in- 
vitation to visit the United States. He tvill ie 
in Washington for a 3-day state visit beginning 
November 25. The President extended the invi- 
tation to the Sultan on April 29, 1957. Follow- 
ing is the text of the Presidenfs letter. 

April 29, 1957 

YouE Majesty : I received with great pleasure 
your letter of March 8 and am most grateful for 
the good wishes which you have sent to me and 
to my fellow citizens. 

I have been deeply interested in the Vice Presi- 
dent's enthusiastic report of the hospitable wel- 
come he received in your great country and of the 
wisdom and statesmanship with which you spoke 
on matters affecting the connnon interests of our 
two countries and the great issues which dominate 
our times. 

I am sure that the Vice President's talks with 
you and with the Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
whose ability and spirit of friendly cooperation 
he also greatly admii-ed, have given new impetus 
to the further strengthening of the close ties which 
we have both worked to forge. For our part, 
we have always desired that our relationship be 
based on the only defensible basis, that of equality 
between two sovereign and independent states. It 
is for this reason that we have instructed our Am- 
bassador at Eabat to inform your Majesty's Gov- 
ernment that the Government of the United 



Jo/y J, 1957 



19 



States is prepared to participate in conversations 
on the subject of our military operations in Mo- 
rocco. I am sure that we can loolv forward to 
continued collaboration in examining this and 
other questions of mutual interest to our two 
countries. 

Tlie importance of our relationship increases 
my desire to talk with you and to welcome you 
here in the United States, as I had lioped to do 
last November. I sliould therefore deem it a sig- 
nal honor if you could find it possible to visit 
Wasliington in November of this year. I know 
that my fellow citizens share my desire to receive 
you in our midst. 

I .should appreciate Your Majesty's telling me 
whether you would find it possible to accept this 
invitation, after wliicli tlie precise details of your 
visit could be worked out by the representatives 
of our two governments so tliat we can receive 
you here in a manner befitting tlie higli esteem in 
which we hold you and the people of your 
country. 

Sincerely, 

DwiGHT T>. Eisenhower 

Letter From the Sultan to President Eisenhower 

Translation 

From ; His IMajesty the Sultan of Morocco 

To : His Excellency Mr. Dwight Eisenhower, 

The President of the Republic of the United States 
of America 

After conveying to you the greetings of Peace, and 
expressing the hope that yoii are in constant good health 
and well-being, we wish to state that we have received 
your gracious and friendly letter which Mr. Nixon, the 
Vice-President of the United States of America, handed to 
us. We were deeply moved by the noble sentiments which 
your Excellency expres.sed toward our i)erson and the 
Moroccan people. Such genuine sentiments merit our deep 
thanks. We also wish to express our gratitude for the 
kind wishes which your Excellency conveyed to us on the 
occasion of the first anniversary of the independence of 
our country. 

It gives us great pleasure to seek this opportunity to ex- 
press once more how much we cherish the age-old relations 
between tlie United States of America and the Moroccan 
Kingdom. These relations have for a long time been 
based on mutual understanding and friendship. They 
have been further strengthened by the adherence of our 
two nations to noble principles and to constant efforts 
toward the safeguarding of respect for the freedom of na- 
tions and the protection of human dignity. 

As we express to your Excellency our ardent desire for 
the continuance of these relations and for the further 



strengthening of these bonds, we wish to assure you that 
we shall always hold tenaciously to the view that the 
identity of purpose between states, based on mutual 
respect and fruitful cooperation between peoples, is the 
effective means for tlie establishment of peace and the 
spreading of freedom in the world. 

We have sought the opportunity of the Vice-President's 
visit to our Kingdom to discuss with him the affairs that 
specifically concern our two countries. We have, in ad- 
dition, apprised him of our views on the different problems 
with which the world is at present preoccupied. 

Finally, we send your Excellency our warmest wishes 
for your continued good health and safet.y, and for the hap- 
piness and prosperity of the people of the United States 
of America. 

Mohammed ben Youssef 

Written at Rabat, on the 0th day of the month of Sha'ban, 
in the Hegira year 1376, i. e. on the Sth day of the month 
of March, 1957. 



U.S. Replies to Soviet Note 
on IVIiddie East 

Press release 358 dateil June 12 

The following note was delivered by U.S. 
Charge d'' Affaires Richard 11. Davis to the Acting 
Minister of Foreign Affairs of the U.S.S.R on 
June 11 in reply to a Soviet note of April 19 ^ con- 
cerning the Middle East. The British and French 
Goverrmients delivered replies on the sam>e day. 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Ministry of For- 
eign Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics and, on instructions of its Government, 
has tlie honor to transmit the following communi- 
cation in reply to the Ministry's note of April 19, 
1957, concerning the Middle East area. 

The United States Government takes note of 
the fact that the Soviet Government, in expressing 
the desire to guarantee lasting peace in the Near 
and Middle East and to strengthen the national 
independence of the countries in this area, no 
longer insists on the declaration of principles put 
forward in its note of February 11, 1957.- As the 
United States pointed out in its note of March 11, 
1957 to the Soviet Government,^ such a declaration 
would operate to limit the exercise of sovereignty 
of the states of the Middle East. 

The United States Government observes that 



' Not printed. 

' Bulletin of Apr. 1, 1957, p. 524. 

'Ibid., p. 523. 



20 



Department of State Bulletin 



the Soviet Government now proposes a declara- 
tion to be made by the United States, Great 
Britain, France and the Soviet Union condemn- 
inji' the use of force in the settlement of disputes 
in the Middle East. Opposition to the use of force 
in the settlement of disputes anywhere has been 
and continues to be a cardinal element of the for- 
eign policy of the United States. This principle 
is also embodied in the Charter of the United Na- 
tions to which the Four Powers have all adhered. 
In these circumstances, this Govermnent considers 
that a declaration such as the Soviet Government 
proposes is unnecessary. 

Rather than a repetition of existing obligations, 
what is necessary is loyal implementation of the 
principles of tlie Charter. It was this convic- 
tion — not, as the Soviet Government alleges, a 
desire to divert attention from serious solutions 
of Middle Eastern problems — which prompted the 
United States Government to refer to Hungary 
in its note of March 11. 

The United States Government notes the asser- 
tion of the Soviet Government that its concern 
about conditions in the IMiddle East arises from 
the close proximity of this area to Soviet territory. 
It may be generally observed that it is just those 
countries lying closest to the Soviet Union which 
have been most vigorously attacked in the recent 
Soviet campaign of threat and intimidation aimed 
at the legitimate eti'orts for self-defense imder- 
taken by the nations in question. Public attacks 
upon governments of these states, together with 
subvereive intervention in their domestic affairs, 
give them good cause to seek the strengthening of 
their security, as certain states in the Middle East 
are now doing in concert with each other. 

The United States Government has strongly 
supported the measures taken by the United Na- 
tions to reach peaceful and equitable adjustment 



of Middle East problems. If the Soviet Union 
sincerely desires to contribute toward the estab- 
lishment of peace and security in the Middle East, 
it could do so by working constructively within the 
United Nations for the solution of fundamental 
problems in the area, among which the Arab- 
Israeli dispute is outstanding. 



United States and Australia 
Conclude Air Transport Talks 

Press release 367 dated June 15 

Joint Statement 

Air transport talks between the United States 
and the Australian delegations were concluded in 
Washington today after approximately a month's 
negotiations.^ 

The delegations discussed in detail the operation 
of the existing United States-Australia Air 
Transport Agreement entered into in 1946, and 
concluded that as a result of the increased air 
traffic flow since 1946 and also of the changing 
pattern of air traffic that a further exchange of 
routes would be of mutual benefit to the two coun- 
tries and their travelling publics. 

The United States delegation offered to Aus- 
tralia an extension to New York and beyond to 
Europe of its present route from Sydney to San 
Francisco in return for comprehensive additional 
rights to and beyond Australia. 

As the grant of some of these routes was not 
covered by instructions to the Australian delega- 
tion from its government it was found necessary 
for it to obtain further instructions before an 
agreement could be concluded. 



' For an announcement of the members of the delega- 
tifins, see Bulletin of June 3, 1957, p. 909. 



July 1, 1957 



21 



Capability and Foreign Policy 



hy Raymond A. Hare 
Anibassador to Egypt ' 



By way of an introductory generalization, I 
would venture to suggest to you that no small 
amount of the grief and frustration encountered 
in both the framing and understanding of foreign 
policy could be avoided if foreign policy were ap- 
proached more as a science and less as a political 
rough-and-tumble with esoteric overtones. For, 
as a result of some reading on foreign affairs and 
some slight personal experience in that field, I 
have been increasingly impressed by the recur- 
rence, in greatly changing circumstances, of iden- 
tifiable phenomena which lend themselves to anal- 
ysis, classification, and the drawing of basic and 
subsidiary conclusions. "Wliether these conclu- 
sions can yet be classed as laws in the scientific 
sense is perhaps debatable, and it is not my pur- 
pose to press that particular point to conclusion 
with you today. There is no question in my mind, 
however, but that such deductions do i^rove that 
the study of foreign policy can be pursued beyond 
mere action and reaction and also beyond the 
evoking of historical precedents, immensely val- 
uable as that may be. 

Now, if we can give ourselves the benefit of the 
doubt that such a scientific or neoscientific ap- 
proach to the study of foreign policy is permis- 
sible, and if we can assume that, in preparing a 
manual on the subject, we are including a chapter 
bearing the title of tliis talk, "Capability and 
Foreign Policy," let us see how a rougli first draft 
of such a chapter might look. 

Limitations on Capability 

Just recently I was talking in Cairo with an 
Arab diplomat who had formerly been stationed 

' Address made at commencement exercises at Grinnell 
College, Grinnell, Iowa, on June (press release 347 dated 
June?). 



in Washington. In the course of our discussion 
he observed tliat one of the greatest sources of 
misunderstanding of the United States by other 
peoples is that they usually take it for granted 
that our capacity for action is without limit and 
that, such being the case, failure by us to accede 
to the desires of others is regarded as evidence of 
either lack of interest or unfriendly intent. He 
said that, from his service in Washington, he un- 
derstood that we did not have the capability com- 
monly attributed to us, but others are deluded by 
assumptions of unlimited American power and 
judge us accordingly. He might have added that 
this same failure to understand our limitations 
is not uncharacteristic of our own American pub- 
lic, which consequently tends to see adverse in- 
ternational developments largely in terms of pol- 
icy failure; it is also sometimes shared by policy- 
makers themselves when, in disregard of basic 
limiting factors, they seek solutions by the tortured 
twisting of a phrase or the concocting of some 
superficially api^ealing formula. 

It is true, of course, that our total potential as 
a nation is almost astronomical when we think 
of it in terms of our total material strength, in- 
tellectual resources, and moral forces. If all this 
were in the form of an immense reservoir on which 
we could draw to meet our international problems, 
our difficulties would be gi-eatly reduced indeed. 
But this is not the case. 

In the first place, most of our national potential 
is unavoidably earmarked for domestic purposes. 
This is true even in time of war, even in total war; 
and it is, of course, all the more true in time of 
peace, even in this peace that we call the cold war. 

Assuming, however, that we have a cert.ain x 
quantity of potential on which to draw, we still 
find use of it circumscribed in many ways. For 
instance, we may have adequate available strength 



22 



Department of State Bulletin 



and satisfactoiy implementing policies and still 
be immobilized to varying degrees by mental un- 
preparedness; e. g. the precipitate dismantling of 
our military establishment after World War II. 
Then, too, there are problems where geographical, 
ethnical, occupational, organizational, or other 
interests may predominate over what might seem 
to be the broad national interest. There also may 
be, and often are, jurisdictional conflicts between 
our executive agencies, e. g. surplus commodities 
disposal abroad ; or between the executive and the 
legislative, e. g. foreign aid. There also are often, 
very often, conflicts of interests in respect of other 
countries wliich ali'ect our liberty of action. 

In fact, this last phenomenon is so important 
and also so recurrent that I sometimes wonder if 
we fully appreciate its significance and also if we 
understand that this problem is of a type which 
increases in at least arithmetical — sometimes it 
seems geometrical — ratio to the degree of our 
emergence as a great power with all of the complex 
responsibilities inherent in such a position. To 
smaller countries may be permitted the privilege 
of concentrating on their own particular national 
issues to the virtual exclusion of other considera- 
tions, but not to us. Examples of the resulting 
problem for us are many, but several familiar ones 
might be cited, such as the effect of Arab-Israeli 
differences on our attempts to carry out a policy 
of peace and stability in the Middle East, the Al- 
gerian situation in North Africa, the Kashmir 
difficulty in the Indian subcontinent. 

So again and again we find that, as problems 
arise, it might not be too difficult to develop a 
satisfactory policy provided we had sufficiently 
unrestricted and miinhibited use of our potential 
resources. But we don't, and that is the real head- 
ache in foreign policy formulation — a headache 
which is not eased by the fact that many of our 
limitations are of a delicacy which makes full 
public explanation difficult. 

Our Basic National Interests 

I would ask your indulgence in developing our 
chapter a little further in order to examine the 
process of applying our capability, as distinct 
from assessing it. To begin with, we would have 
to assimie that we had determined (presumably 
in a previous chapter of our manual) the nature 
of our basic national interests. This is a matter 
of analysis, not capability, and, if the conclusions 



are wrong, we have only the inadequacy of our 
judgment to blame. Reduced to basic simplicity 
it would be something like this: We Americans 
have had a historical break. Under the impulse 
of a political awakening in Europe and coinciden- 
tal with the industrial revolution, stout souls from 
many lands made their way here and found a rich 
continent inviting development. They rose to the 
challenge, and present-day America is the result. 
In surveying tlais heritage we find it good and suf- 
ficient; we do not covet the lands or goods of other 
men; we merely wish to maintain what we have 
and, if improvement is required, to do so in our 
own way. 

This is our interest. As regards our basic policy 
or — to borrow a more precise military term — our 
grand strategy, that, too, is very simple and de- 
pends on two major factors. The first is that, as 
long as war and predatory communism haunt our 
planet, we must be sufficiently strong to maintain 
our military defense in association with our allies 
and friends. The second is that, as long as the 
world is afflicted by political, social, and economic 
deficiencies, we should be prepared to lend a help- 
ing hand in much the same way and for the same 
good reasons that we give attention to our own 
community and national maladjustments. In 
other words, what we especially seek is security 
for ourselves and the well-being of others. We 
seek these in our own self-interest but also in the 
reassuring knowledge that what we seek is recipro- 
cally good. 

International Forces at Play 

Having then agreed on our basic interests and 
grand lines of policy, the next step is to survey the 
various international forces at play in order to 
determine their angle of incidence with reference 
to our own desired lines of action. 

Please note the phrase "angle of incidence," 
which I used advisedly in order to emphasize the 
fact that foreign policy almost invariably takes 
the form of a compromise which in physics might 
be likened to a resultant of forces. For, as we 
analyze varying forces affecting our interests, we 
will find that they are of three types: those di- 
rected along the same lines as our own interests, 
those directed in a diametrically opposed sense, 
and those having differing degrees of variance 
from what we would desire. 

As regards the first type, the problem is pri- 



July 1, 1957 



23 



marily one of correct analysis and then of making 
sure that such favorable trends are properly facili- 
tated. This is the easiest type of foreign policy 
determination, but it is by no means an automatic 
process for the reason that favorable trends may 
sometimes be manifested in unexpected forms 
requiring careful discrimination for correct identi- 
fication; and, even then, great sensitiveness and 
imagination may be required to assure that a 
potential benefit is not inadvertently lost. Thus, 
in the early days of the Turkish Eevolution it 
required no small degree of perspicacity to iden- 
tify the movement as having elements congenial 
to American policy. However, that conclusion 
was wisely and fortunately reached, and we have 
ever since had in Turkey a stalwart friend. In the 
case of Canada, on the other hand, the community 
of our interests is so obvious that both of us have 
to exert a degree of care not to take each other too 
much for granted. 

Now we come to the second type of international 
current which, on examination, is found to be di- 
rectly against us. Here we have three options: 
let it go, meet it head-on, or attempt to deflect its 
course. 

Here is where capability clearly comes in, 
smce I believe you will find few cases where, even 
with the most carefully thought-out policies and 
with the maximmn exertion of our capabilities, we 
can meet an opposing force head-on and stop it. 
If we could do so, it really would not be much of 
a problem. Actually, what usually happens is 
that we have to direct our efforts to deflecting 
such opposing currents in such a way as to mini- 
mize their adverse impact as much as possible; 
but tlie result will still usually be somewhat, per- 
haps veiy much, short of what we would lilce. 
However, this does not necessarily mean that we 
have failed. Rather it means that, despite the 
be.st-laid policy plans, our capability was such that 
making tlie best of a bad situation was the best 
that we could do. 

Thirdly, we come to a type of political current 
where the elements of analysis and capability are 
both very important. This is the current which 
is neither directly for or against us. This is a 
most important category because most of our 
problems really fall in this area. Unfortunately, 
we often seem to overlook this fact and. in the 
spirit of an accountant with his ledger, to attempt 
to put all problems in either the debit or credit 



coluimi, overlookuig, in so doing, the necessity for 
a third type of entry which cannot appropriately 
be written in either black or red ink. 

Barring a few obvious cases — I leave it to you 
to fill in the blanks — can you say that any govern- 
ment is 100 percent for us or 100 percent against 
us ? Of course not, and surely no people is. Yet 
that is the implication when we so often pose the 
question "Whose side are they on?" and expect a 
one-word reply. Just because nationalism may 
sometimes be manifested in intemperate forms, 
are we to view all nationalism as a negative force, 
or vice versa, are we to assume that, because we 
gained our independence by revolution, all revolu- 
tions are good '{ Of course not. And yet we do 
have an imfortunate tendency to oversimplify 
sucli phenomena. To do so may be convenient 
and timesaving, but neither as a government nor 
as a people can we afford to do so. I know you 
would not tolerate such unprofessional thinking 
by the mechanic who rejDairs your car or the doctor 
who heals your body; by the same token you 
should not tolerate it m either those who are di- 
rectly responsible for foreign policy formulation 
or in yourselves because, imder our system of gov- 
ernment, it is basically the American people whose 
understanding support makes effective foreign 
jjolicy possible. 

As regards the handling of this type of com- 
plex problem, the technique is essentially the same 
as in that of directly opixjsed currents in the sense 
that we should do the best we can, by wise plan- 
ning and effective use of our capability, to maxi- 
mize the advantageous and minimize the disad- 
vantageous. Sometimes, by so domg, we may be 
so foi'tunate as to achieve a solution in essential 
identity with our desires. That is a diplomat's 
dream. But usually you will find that, even by 
exercising one's best efforts — and we should not, 
of course, be satisfied with anything less — the re- 
sult is in the nature of a compromise. If so, we 
need not be unduly despondent, \^^lat is impor- 
tant is to do our best in the knowledge that our 
capability has its limits. Defeat and victory are 
both relative terms, and we should realize that 
the counterpart to exaggeration of failure is the 
no less objectionable inclination to overestimate 
our successes. Both are eiTors of oversimplifica- 
tion. Complex questions usually have complex 
answers, and we must be sufficiently sophisticated 
to understand that this is so and why. 



24 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



What I have been attempting to say is that there 
are certain rules governing foreign policy some- 
what like those governing other sciences, espe- 
cially the social sciences; that among these rules 
is that of capability ; that, because of the limita- 
tions of capability, there are corresponding limi- 
tations on foreign policy formulation; that there 
is no excuse for failure to analyze foreign policy 
problems beyond the usual margin allowed for the 
fact that we are human; but that foreign policy 
is not in the nature of some newfangled wonder 
drug capable in itself of producing international 
miracles but is subject to practical procedures by 
which problems can be realistically and systemati- 
cally analyzed and logical conclusions reached; 
that, despite our great strength, the potential 
available for application to any specific problem 
is limited in many ways; that, just as the prob- 
lems themselves are complex, so must the solu- 
tions usuallj' be mixtures of things which we de- 



sire and things we would prefer t« have otherwise ; 
that with our increased responsibilities come 
greatly increased limitations on our actions to 
which governments of smaller countries are not 
subjected; that these limitations of capability are 
not something to be accepted with resigned fatal- 
ism but rather are factors to be studied objectively 
with a view to making the most of our planning 
skills and our capability in working toward our 
objectives. 

So, the next time that things may seem to go 
wrong and that you are inclined by conditioned 
reflex to ask "What's wrong with our policy any- 
way?" I would suggest that you take a second 
look and see to what extent your dissatisfaction 
may in fact be due to limited capability. This is 
not to excuse inept planning but rather to suggest 
that both the planner and the public have a com- 
mon interest in approaching our problems with 
a more dispassionate and analytical mind. 



Education — Communist Style, American Style 



hy Eleanor Lansing Dulles 

Special Assistant to the Director, Opce of German Affairs ^ 



I would like to give you a few comments on 
education as it is used by the Soviet Union and 
what this may mean to them and to us. It is use- 
ful to consider what we could leam from their im- 
pressive efforts in this field. It is also useful to 
consider what they are discovering as to the efi^ect 
of education on the mind. Although I do not be- 
lieve we have the full stoiy on this situation, we 
have enough information to give us some insight 
into the meanmg of recent developments. 

I wish to refer briefly to Himgai-y, Poland, 
Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Communist 
China, and the U.S.S.K. In these various satel- 
lite areas the situation varies somewhat but the 
general conclusions are similar. There is evi- 



^ Address made at commencement exercises at Western 
College, Oxford, Ohio, on June 3 (press release 333 dated 
May 31 ) . 



dence of a well-planned, serious progi'am to pro- 
duce the world's largest body of technicians and 
scientists. In all these countries, however, one 
finds the problems and difficulties which the 
Soviets are facmg are manifest in this phase of 
their development. I was reminded the other 
day of Wendell WiUkie's comment to Stalin in 
their conversation about 15 years ago. When 
Stalin boasted to Willkie with regard to the spec- 
tacular rise in literacy in the Soviet Union, Willkie 
replied, "I think, sir, that you are working your- 
self out of a job." 

From a political point of view, it is clear in the 
light of recent events that the Soviets can take 
little comfort from the fact that the students of 
today are inevitably the leaders of the future. 
Where among the satellite coimtries, or even in the 
U.S.S.R. itself, can they rest easy with respect to 
the attitude of the students and the many signs of 



July 1, 1957 



25 



their unwillin^iess to accept the oppressive, stul- 
tified atmosphere and the boredom with the worn- 
out Mai'xist doctrine with which they have usually 
surrounded their educational efforts ? 

Education in the Satellite Countries 

It is well known that the most persistent, the 
most desperate, and the most terrifying rebellion 
against Soviet rule was led by the students of Hun- 
gaiy in recent months. It is equally well known 
that the students of Poland, and particularly of 
Crakow and Warsaw Universities, have supplied 
much of the spirit and the resistance which has 
persuaded the Russian Conununists to withdraw 
the most conspicuous manifestation of the ap- 
paratus of the police state and to permit the 
Polish leaders to take over the f imctions of govern- 
ment with a substantial reduction of interference 
from the dictatorship m the Kremlin. I know 
from a number of sources that the students in 
these imiversities have expressed their desire for 
a closer association with the United States and 
have indirectly and in cautious ways indicated 
their wish not to lae cut off from the intellectual 
and cultural life beyond the Communist border. 

In Czechoslovakia, I am told, the general im- 
pression is apathy, although there have been in- 
stances of student satire of existing conditions. 
The Soviets had hoped here, as elsewhere, to edu- 
cate a body of convinced Communists. They have 
used threadbare theories from 100 years ago to 
fence around the minds of the students and pre- 
vent doubt of independence. Now they must 
wonder if this is possible. 

In East Germany conditions have paralleled 
those in the Soviet Union, except that there has 
been more variety of activity among the students 
objecting to conditions. Education there has to 
use existing German institutions. In many cases 
the students resisting alien methods have com- 
plained about the courses. In particular they ob- 
ject to being forced to study the Russian language. 
They have also objected to time spent on Soviet- 
style "social sciences." In other cases, they have 
criticized certain professors. In a few instances, 
of which there have been several in recent times, 
the professors themselves have shown some signs 
of freedom of views and have been accused of 
"deluding the minds" of the students and have 
been dismissed. 

In one such case Pi-ofessor Harich of Humboldt 



University was given a 10-year prison sentence 
after his students expressed some sympathy for 
the Hungarian students, and he was accused of 
"diversionism." In a mock trial the accusations 
were examined in speedy fashion, and without any 
opportunity for defense he was thrown into prison. 

A few weeks ago there was a demonstration by 
the students in East Berlin against conditions and 
treatment, and the students were expelled from 
the Veterinary College, while the professor dis- 
appeared as a refugee to the West. 

Most recently, in the middle of May, a Pi-ofes- 
sor Zehm of the University of Jena has been dis- 
missed from the Communist Party and apparently 
thrown out of his academic position for having 
departed in his views from the Marxist philoso- 
phy. At the same time he was accused of having 
been undei- the influence of another professor from 
Leipzig who is also stated to have "confused con- 
ceptions of the proper ideology." It was stated 
that these professors were "anti-imperialists and 
socialists" but their ideas were politically nega- 
tive and that they were having a "dangerous" 
effect on the students. The argument usually 
centers on the possibility of "several ways to 
socialism." 

At the time when these events have been taking 
place in East Germany, there has been a notable 
increase in the percentage of young people among 
the refugees fleeing into Berlin. There is every 
indication that the attempt to force the students 
to take the Communist oath and to insist on a 
party discipline leads to silent resistance, open 
revolt, or the determination to escape. 

There is no indication that the majority of the 
students in East Germany have accepted the ma- 
jor elements of the Communist pMlosophy and 
methods. Wliile some have received substantial 
inducements to remain in the area and are given 
a preferred position when they have been grad- 
uated from the university, there are a number of 
instances where groups of students have received 
elaborate scientific training and then have all de- 
fected to the West, taking with them the skills 
which they have won as a result of their SovietT 
financed education. 

In Commimist China, also, there has been an 
impressive effort to expand the nmnber of tal- 
ented technicians and scientists. The results of 
this effort have been a striking expansion of the 
enrollment in the higher educational institutions, 
accompanied almost inevitably in this stage by a 



26 



Department of State Bulletin 



siffiiificant decline in the quality of the education. 
The material basis for the schools and universities 
has been inadequate to support the enlarged en- 
i-ollnient, and the regime has had to efi'ect cut- 
backs in its program. The period of improved 
training in the lower scliools has been too short 
for effective preparation, and the number of 
teachers has been inadequate. 

It is probable that, if conditions continue more 
or less as at present, education will develop mo- 
mentum and, although there may not be the an- 
ticipated large-scale increase, the effect on the 
country will be considerable. Moreover, the in- 
tensive emphasis on education parallels a recog- 
nized development of a national sense of increas- 
ing strength, in spite of serious economic 
problems. 

In Comanunist China, as in the satellite coun- 
tries, the question will arise as to the effect of 
education, however controlled, on the mind and 
spirit of the students. Obsei-vers of the changing 
scene are bound to look for those stirrings of free- 
dom which have so often followed educational 
progress, even when hemmed in by restrictions of 
a doctrinaire or dictatorial nature. Wliile the 
recent signs of unrest among the students, as well 
as among other elements of the population, are 
occasioned in considerable measure by cutbacks in 
the economic facilities, they may be "straws in the 
wind" which have a greater significance than the 
material causes which seem to have been their 
origin. 

Education in the Soviet Union 

In the Soviet Union there have been incidents in 
several of the universities. Students at Moscow 
University, which is the outstanding institution 
from the point of view of prestige and facilities, 
assumed the right to a limited degi-ee of freedom 
of open discussion and expression of ideas before 
the recent uprisings in Poland and Hungary. 
Because of the impact of these events on the 
Kremlin leaders and because they knew that heated 
discussions had led the students in certain cases to 
"heretical conclusions," they had to reverse their 
position and renew the restrictions on those who 
wished a "socialist revolution against the pseudo- 
socialist state," which the Kremlin considered a 
challenge to their despotism. 

There is no doubt that the habit of criticism had 
gained considerable currency in the university. 



Oddly enough it was most noticed in the scientific 
circles, where there were indications that the basic 
political philosophy of the Pai'ty was being ques- 
tioned. These questionings were accompanied by 
expressions of objection to the living conditions 
and the general treatment with respect to the 
students and dormitories and mess halls. In one 
case there was actually a weeklong boycott. 

As the nature of these developments was real- 
ized at the end of last year, a number of students 
were apparently expelled and others were sub- 
jected to discipline of various sorts. There was an 
attempt to isolate those students who had begun 
to think in questioning terms from the larger body 
of the students, who had not yet expressed them- 
selves in any "deviationist" manner. 

Does the Soviet educational system produce re- 
sults which lead us to recast our own system? No 
one can answer this question doginatically at this 
time. Clearly it has some features wliich we will 
have to examine carefully. The Russians have 
seen fit to lift from the students, as far as possible, 
their jDersonal economic problems. Perhaps we 
should take another look at the economic obliga- 
tions and anxieties that compete with studies for 
the time and energy of the young people in our 
own colleges. 

To offset or balance the large payments to 
talented youth, the selected students have to work 
as if they were in a defense plant or in the most 
arduous phase of their professional life. Is this 
pressure desirable for us, or have we reached a 
stage in our own sense of responsibility which will 
produce both competent and well-rounded in- 
dividuals? We must remember that in a democ- 
racy our concern is with leadership as well as with 
technicians. 

In any case, we must look at the system not so 
much from the statistical point of view — how 
many scientists are being turned out — but from 
the point of view of techniques and overall results. 
There is little doubt that, as Howard Simons wrote 
in the Saturday Evening Post of May 25, the 
Eussians have instituted "a crash program for 
turning out scientists" as they might automobiles. 
Moreover, these students are well selected from all 
groups, although workers are favored. The stu- 
dents are well prepared and keenly interested in 
their work. We cannot, in our planning, forget 
these facts, which in various ways may prove to 
bs the most important new developments in our 
day. 



July 1, 1957 



27 



If we assume the mind is breaking free, it would 
be unduly optimistic to take for granted, even in 
respect to the East Zone of Germany, that this 
new generation of students is either pro- American, 
pro- Western, or completely anti-Communist. It 
would not be contrary to the known facts, how- 
ever, to state that there is a growing self-reliance 
among the young people, that there is a change in 
their point of view from that which was influenced 
by the early appearance of the revolutionary so- 
cialism, and that the future for the dictatorship of 
the Kremlin is seriously threatened by the very 
instruments by which they attempted to increase 
their capabilities ; that is, the development of the 
human mind. 

Half a Loaf 

If the leaders of the U.S.S.R. could express their 
educational philosophy in some relationship to the 
continuing stream of educational studies, they 
might well say that they had decided in the case 
of higher education that half a loaf is better than 
none. The half a loaf wliich they are offering to 
their young people is not to be discounted. It 
includes some of the most effective methods of 
imposing systems of knowledge and of trans- 
ferring information to those who will be the en- 
gineers, scientists, and leaders of the futui^e that 
have been developed anywhere. 

All of those who have studied the Soviet edu- 
cational system have stated that the students are 
subjected to a pressure which is considerably 
greater than that borne by our students. In say- 
ing this, I do not wish to underestimate the amount 
of drive both in the students and in the teaching 
faculties in the free- world schools. Nevertheless, 
the amount to which Soviet students are subject to 
an intensive training in their early years is almost 
unprecedented in our educational experience. The 
thorough study of mathematics in the high schools, 
the variety of practical and theoretical studies in 
the natural sciences in the universities is perhaps 
unparalleled elsewhere. There are many who be- 
lieve that this exacting educational program is 
more effective than that in the West. There are 
frequent statements that the Russians are turning 
out more scientists and better trained scientists 
than Western universities can produce. One must 
consider this possibility seriously even though it 
is impossible, at the present time, to prove the 
truth or falsehood of such statements. 



"Whether or not the Soviets think that they can 
control the education on which they have em- 
barked, they must energetically go forward with 
the program or fail in their race against the non- 
Conununist world. They have recognized that 
they must use the most efficient methods to bring 
to their youth the knowledge of the past and to 
make available the experience of other times and 
other places to those who are building their ma- 
terialistic system. They must refine and perfect 
the methods of their workmen so that their in- 
ventors and engineers can use the most delicate 
and modern instruments and procedures of ex- 
perimentation, testing, and production. At the 
same time, they endeavor to avoid, if possible, 
teaching the students to think. They must have 
come to recognize that the mental gymnastics of 
the young, although frequently dangerous from 
the point of view of the Communist system of dis- 
cipline, are still necessary as stimulus if the coun- 
try is to avoid stagnation. They still assume that 
they can cut the loaf in half and give their yoimg 
people teclmiques without spirituality. 

It has been said tliat one of their main efforts in 
the intellectual world is to enthrone the ghosts of 
the past and to prevent their overthrow by sup- 
pression of doubts and new ideas. The ghosts of 
the Coimnunist world are many. The most fa- 
miliar to us is the Marxist theory of capitalism. 
Another is their concept of imperialism, which 
embraces all forms of power not under Soviet 
control. A third is the importance of class war- 
fare and their whole concept of class in the modern 
system. 

As they face these ideas and attempt to protect 
them from the fresh winds of free thought, they 
have developed a new device. They are now in- 
sisting that all students spend a certain amount of 
time as heavy laborers in the factories, mines, or 
workshops of the Communist world. They have 
decided, apparently, in East Germany and else- 
where — including the Soviet Union — that, if tlie 
students are brought into direct contact with the 
day laborer, they will retain the identity of their 
allegiance to the solidarity of all classes with the 
socialist state and prevent the development of a 
separate caste of intellectuals within the Soviet 
regime. They have concluded that heavy work 
leads to an acceptance of the Communist doctrines 
regarding the struggle between the classes, that 
anyone who has engaged in physical labor will 



28 



Department of State Bulletin 



automatically be closer to the Marxist concept of 
capitalism. They believe that sharing in the more 
arduous, productive work will lead to a feeling that 
the capitalists have added to the burdens of labor 
and Western economic imperialists have created 
the obstacles to Soviet advancement ■which must 
be overcome with their labor and their sacrifices. 
However, a I'esult of this involuntary association 
in many cases after their period of training will 
probably be a feeling of relief and a desire to 
achieve special status. 

"\^niile greater emphasis in student participation 
in labor is one phase of their attempt to protect 
the rigidity of their educational system, they have 
more direct means which they invoke, including 
highly restricted curricula with virtually no free 
choice. Except for Marxist studies, they exclude 
historical and humanistic studies from the system 
of courses which are available. In addition to 
this, they trj' to prevent the travel of the students 
and to cut them off from contact with persons in 
other lands and with other ideas. 

Our Education — The Whole Loaf 

Western education may suffer fi'om some reluc- 
tance to impose discipline which does not limit 
the training and indoctrination of the Soviet sys- 
tems. On the other hand, it attempts to give the 
variety, the riclmess, and a knowledge of com- 
parative values which is our heritage from many 
nations and from many centuries of schooling. 
It has a deeper quality of self-discipline. Each 
student is assumed to be in a lifelong search for 
the truth. I think we can conclude, in spite of 
our concern for our weakness and the Soviet drive 
in the field of education, that the risks to leader- 
ship of the United States are small. 

In contrast to this prospect, the strange situa- 
tion which prevails behind the Iron Curtain must 
cause serious conceiln among the Commmiists. 
For one thing, we are aware to a sui"prising extent 
of our limitations and our weaknesses. Wliile 
tliis does not mean that we can overlook either our 
present needs or our past mistakes, it gives us new 
goals and new impetus to improve and to enrich 
what we have to give to our young people. 

As an important part of our current educational 
philosophy, the training of young people in the 
home and the schools must take on added respon- 
sibility in the light of the achievements of the 



Communist educational system. Even though we 
take some comfort from the nari'ow limits which 
they have chosen to impose within this education, 
we must recognize that their progress is 
impressive. 

Our aim is not only to improve our tecliniques 
and our methods with respect to the mastery of a 
large body of factual iiaformation but also to ex- 
ploit to the full those broad contacts and those 
extensions of our thinkmg which Western educa- 
tion presents. Our schools and colleges are dedi- 
cated to laying the ghosts of the past and freeing 
our thoughts from outworn doctrines. It is the 
essence of our approach to seize upon those half- 
shaped thoughts and developing concepts which 
emerge not only m those more familiar industrial 
centers but further afield among less known 
peoples on the margins of industriahzed civiliza- 
tion. These can greatly enrich our education. 

Basically our strength lies in the reverence for 
the entire body of knowledge and respect for the 
views of the other person. Moreover, we have 
recognized that the first step in any advancement 
of knowledge is the formulation of a question. 
All of those who see the unportance of a doubt 
in the search for solutions of our major problems 
are contributing by that miderstanding to the 
progress of the intellectual man. We now know 
from recent experience that questions are more 
dangerous to the Communist system than atomic 
bombs. 

As you leave the educational institution which 
has helped foiTQ yom- recent concepts, which has 
taught you to ask questions, and which has given 
you new intellectual instruments and tools, you 
must preserve the searching mind which is not 
only the source of discovery but the destruction of 
tyranny. It is also the way in which you, your- 
self, and your nation can go forward. 

Your awareness of the multitude of unsolved 
problems and the vast expanse of the horizons of 
thought can lead to a humility which makes it 
possible for you to work with your fellow man 
in understanding and harmony. This true hu- 
mility is not to be based on doubt as to your 
personal validity. It is not, therefore, a source of 
anxiety. It is, rather, a proper view of the real 
world, tlie perspective that widens before you as 
you go forward tlu-ough life and observe the mani- 
fold wonders of nature and of man. 



July 1, 1957 



29 



U.S. To Reconsider Size 

of Legation Staff in Budapest 

Press release 356 dated June 11 

The following note was delivered hy the U.S. 
Legation at Budapest to the Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs of the Hungarian PeopWs Republic on 
June 10. 

The Legation of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Ministry for For- 
eign Affairs of the Hungarian People's Republic 
and has the honor to refer to the Ministry's note 
of May 25, 1957 ^ concerning the staffing of this 
Legation. The Legation is instructed by the 
United States Government to inform the Ministry 
for Foreign Affairs as follows : 

The American and Hungarian peoples, sharing 
as they do a deep devotion to liberty and national 
independence, have traditionally enjoyed friendly 
relations. The policy of the United States Gov- 
ernment is to maintain and strengthen this friend- 
ship. Unfortunately the present Hungarian Gov- 
ernment, whose suppression of the just aspirations 
of the Hungarian people has been so sharply cen- 
sured by world opinion as expressed in the United 
Nations, appears determined to oppose this ob- 
jective. This attitude of the Hungarian Govern- 
ment is clearly reflected in its insistence that 
diplomatic and administrative personnel of the 
American Legation in Budapest be reduced by 
more than one-third and that the number of local 
employees be reduced "in proportion." The 
United States, it should be noted, has never in the 
past imposed any restriction on the number of 
personnel assigned to the Hungarian Legation in 
Washington. 

The United States Government alone is in a 
position to determine the personnel which it needs 
in its missions abroad. It therefore cannot accept 
the concept put forward in the Foreign Ministry's 
note that the Hungarian Government enjoys the 
prerogative of determining the size or composition 
of the American Diplomatic Mission in Budapest. 

In staffing the American Legation in Budapest, 
as with its other diplomatic missions throughout 
the world, the United States Government is guided 
by its estimate of the constructive purposes which 
that mission can serve. If the policies and charac- 
ter of the present Hungarian Government are such 



' Not printed. 
30 



as to render the accomplishment of these purposes 
increasingly difficult, this fact necessarily has a 
direct bearing on the staff which the United States 
can usefully maintain in Budapest. The United 
States Govermnent is taking appropriate steps on 
the basis of these considerations to make such ad- 
justments in the Legation staff as it deems 
warranted. 



Notice Regarding CBaims 
to Certain Assets in Japan 

Press release 363 dated June 14 

The Department of State has received ttie 
following notice of the Tripartite Commission 
charged with the disposition of certain Gervian 
assets in Japan, which is printed as of possible 
interest to American claimants. 

The Tripartite Commission, representing the 
Governments of France, the United Kingdom and 
the United States of America who under the pro- 
visions of Article 20 of the Treaty of Peace with 
Japan are charged with the disposition of the for- 
mer German assets in Japan which have been 
vested in the Commission, hereby gives notice that 
it will receive, as a matter of grace, claims in re- 
spect of such vested assets from persons, other 
than those specified below, who can prove that they 
have a beneficial interest m such property. 

Excluded persons are : 

( a ) German nationals who resided in Germany 
during the period 1939-1948 except persons sub- 
ject to persecutions 

(b) German nationals who resided in Japan 
during the war and who were repatriated to Ger- 
many by order of the Supreme Commander for the 
Allied Powers 

(c) German nationals who resided in countries 
other than Germany or Japan during the war and 
who either were subjected to restrictions of per- 
sonal liberty as enemy nationals or whose property 
in the comitry in which they resided has been 
vested by the government of the country 

(d) Juridical persons organized under German 
law or registered as German in any German Em- 
bassy or Consulate 

(e) Japanese juridical persons owned or con- 
trolled by (a) to (d) 

2. Claims by persons who have already sub- 
mitted claims in respect of vested assets to the 

Department of State Bulletin 



Supreme Commander for the xVllied Powers or to 
the Tripartite Commission will not be enter- 
tained unless new and cogent evidence is pro- 
duced. 

3. Claims must be submitted in English by reg- 
istered post or delivered personally to the 

Secretary-General, Tripartite Commission, 
Nilikatsu International Building, Tokyo, Japan 

within 120 days of the date of this notice, and 



must be accompanied by full documentary proof. 
For the purpose of computing the 120 days ac- 
count will be taken of the date of postmark of 
despatch, provided such despatch is made by air 
mail from comitries other than Japan. 

4. All claims will be examined and determined 
by the Tripartite Commission whose decision will 
be final. 

Dated April 8, 1957. 



Encouraging Economic Growth in Less Developed Countries 
of the Free World 



}>y Douglas Dillon 

Deputy Under Secretary for Economic Affairs ^ 



I would like to talk to you about a few of the 
general impressions which have struck me with 
particular force during the years I have been 
working for the Department of State. 

In the first place, during my years in France ' 
I was tremendously impressed by the great and 
gi'owing importance of economic and business fac- 
tors in foreign relations. Many of us have been 
habituated to thinking of foreign policy and 
diplomacy as something apart from the current 
flow of mundane matters. I found that, although 
this may have been true in the past, it certainly 
is no longer the case in the postwar world. 

I do not mean to say that business and economic 
influences are always determining in matters of 
foreign policy, because that is not the case. Politi- 
cal and military factors also have a vital bearing 
on our foreign policy and on that of other nations. 
And emotional forces, such as the strong anti- 
colonial feeling of the newly independent nations 
of Asia and Africa, are often far stronger than' 
pure economic factors. 



^ Address made before the Advertising Club of New 
Jersey at Newark, N. J., on June 4 (press release 334 
dated May 31). 

'Mi. Dillon was Ambassador to France from February 
1953 to March 1957. 



Nevertheless, I found that business relationships 
were inextricably intertwined into the warp and 
woof of foreign policy. Since the war this has 
been increasingly recognized in the administra- 
tion of our Foreign Service. A working knowl- 
edge of economics is now required for all young 
men desiring to enter the Foreign Service. Dur- 
ing the early years of their service they are re- 
quired to complete at least one tour of duty de- 
voted primarily to economic matters. This is all 
to the good, and I can assure you that the pro- 
fessional diplomat who is not conscious of the 
facts of business life has become a rare and rapidly 
disappearing phenomenon. 

There is one economic problem which has now 
become of particular importance to us all. This 
is the situation in the less developed countries of 
the free world. There are approximately a bil- 
lion people in these countries, most of whom are 
living under conditions of dire poverty and 
misery. There is nothing new about this state of 
affairs, as it has been prevalent throughout his- 
tory. The difference today is that modern means 
of communication — radio and other methods of 
disseminating news — have brought to these peoples 
the realization that there are other people who 
live in far greater comfort than they. This has 



July J, 7957 



31 



created among them an overpowering drive to 
better tlieir status. They are demanding of their 
governments that prompt and effective action be 
taken rapidly to improve their living conditions. 

Economic Growth Essential 

Fortunately these peoples are governed by free 
governments. But these governments, many of 
them newly established, are operating under tre- 
mendous pressures. They can only survive as free 
governments if they can respond in some way to 
the demands of their peoples for economic growth. 

Two things in particular are needed to achieve 
this growth — increased technological knowledge 
and a supply of capital. It is in these two fields 
that the U.S. must act if we wish to help these 
countries to remain free. 

The alternative is that they will fall under the 
control of extremist leaders. Totalitarian govern- 
ments will then seek to extract from these peoples 
by force the labor and money necessary to build 
their economies. This is the course being advo- 
cated by the Soviet Union. The Soviets say that 
only by adopting the Commimist formula can 
these less developed countries assure the rapid 
growth of their economies. There is no doubt that 
this siren song contains considerable temptation. 
To back up their ideological offensive, the Soviets 
are also beginning to offer trained technicians and 
credits on a relatively large scale, something like 
$700 million in the last 2 years. 

It is vitally important to us Americans that 
these underdeveloped countries remain free. 
Tlieir loss to the Communists would immensely 
strengthen the Soviet bloc and render it difficult, 
if not impossible, to maintain the prosperity and 
cohesion of the remaining free world. Such a 
success might well embolden the Communists to 
undertake new adventures which would threaten 
our liberties and our peace. 

This explains why it is in our own national 
self-interest for us to do all we reasonably can to 
help these countries develop the economic gi'owth 
which they must have if they are to remain free. 

It is to meet this need for technological knowl- 
edge and to help the less developed countries 
obtain the necessary core of skilled workers that 
the U.S. has been embarked on our technical 
assistance or Point Four program for the past 8 
years. This program is designed to share with 
these peoples the skills and teclmiques which have 



been developed in the Western World. It is pri- 
marily a teaching and demonstration program. 
As such it has paid great dividends in good will 
and in increased capacity for economic develop- 
ment. The cost of this progi-am to the U.S. is now 
approximately $150 million a year — less than one- 
fourth of one percent of our Federal budget. 

In addition to the need for know-how, capital 
must also be supplied to enable the underdeveloped 
countries to start their advance. Of course, by far 
the greater part of the necessary capital must come 
from these countries themselves in the form of 
local labor and local resources. However, if they 
are to avoid the Soviet Communist method by 
which the standard of living of the population is 
deliberately driven down in order to divert re- 
sources to development, these countries in the 
beginning must look to foreign sources for some 
of their capital. 

Development Loan Fund 

It is to help supply this need more effectively 
that the administration is proposing the establish- 
ment of a development loan fund. The purpose of 
this fund will be to assist the newly emerging and 
needy countries to advance to the point where they 
can obtain their capital needs through normal 
financial channels and through savings out of their 
own increasing production. The need for develop- 
ment assistance will thus not prove unending. 

As an example of what I mean, we can take the 
situation in Latin America during the past decade. 
There economic progress has been moving at a 
faster rate than in any other area of the world. 
Though a goodly portion of the capital necessary 
for this development has come from abroad, large- 
ly from the United States, it has been in the form 
of direct private investment and ordinai-y conven- 
tional dollar loans. This is possible because the 
Latin American countries have in general reached 
the stage in their development where reliance on 
such sources of capital is feasible. This is not yet 
true for many of the countries in Asia and Africa, 
or for a few of the less fortunate areas in Latin 
America. 

The proposed development loan fund wiU be 
empowered to make loans that may either be repaid 
in local currencies or in dollars over long periods 
of time and at low rates of interest. Experience 
has shown that it is far better to extend develop- 



32 



Department of State Bulletin 



ment assistance in the form of loans than as grants. 
This is true even in cases where it becomes neces- 
sary to make the loans on miusually generous 
terms. Loans increase the sense of responsibility 
of the recipient country and help to insure that the 
funds are used for really necessary projects. 

The fund should operate with the flexibility and 
continuity which anj' bank requires to do its work 
effectively. We have asked Congress to provide 
an appropriation of $500 million for the coming 
fiscal year and to authorize tlie fund to borrow 
$750 million from the U.S. Treasury m each of the 
two following fiscal years. Tims, assured of con- 
tinuity, the fund will be able to work closely with 
the Export-Import Bank and with the World 
Bank, both of whom have assured and continuing 
sources of capital. Tliis will also make it possible 
for the fund to work with the less developed coun- 
tries in the same careful and thorough manner 
that has characterized the operations of the World 
Bank and thus to insure the most effective use of 
our assistance. 

Private Investment 

It is also our view that, wherever possible, de- 
velopment should be carried on under pritvate 
auspices. We know that private development is 
apt to be more effective than that which is carried 
out through governmental channels. Therefore, 
proAnsion has been made to empower the new de- 
velopment loan fund to join with private enter- 
prise in carrying out development projects. We 
are hopeful that this will accomplish two import- 
ant objectives — stimulate American business to 
enter the foreign field in areas where the capital 
risk might have seemed too great to be carried 
alone, and also stimulate private enterprise in the 
new and developing countries, thus providing the 
soundest possible bulwark for the cause of free- 
dom. 

In order to carry out these programs effectively, 
it is essential for the Government to have the 
support and understanding of the American busi- 
ness community. One of the miique qualities of 
the United States Government during recent years 
has been its ability to call on the business com- 
munity for help. Businessmen have gone to Wasli- 
ington in large numbers to serve tours of duty in 
the Government, usually at great personal sacrifice 
to themselves. This situation is unparalleled in 
the world today. It is one of the major guaranties 



for tlie continuation of our free system of private 
enterprise. 

Many a time while I was in Paris did French- 
men, Britishers, and other Europeans comment on 
what to them was this peculiarity of the Ameri- 
can system. In every case their comments were 
couched in tones of envy and wonder as to how 
the American Government had been able to ob- 
tain such support from the business conmiunity. 



President Requests Investigation 
of Imports of Dairy Products 

White House press release dated May 21 

The President has requested the U.S. Tariff 
Commission to make an immediate investigation 
of the effects of imports of certain articles con- 
taining butterfat on the domestic price-support 
program for milk and butterfat and on the 
amount of products processed in the United States 
from milk and butterfat. The investigation will 
involve imports of articles containing butterfat, 
the butterfat content of which is commercially ex- 
tractable, or which are capable of being used for 
any edible purpose for winch products containing 
butterfat are used, except articles restricted under 
quotas established under section 22 of the Agri- 
cultural Adjustment Act, as amended, cheeses not 
restricted by section 22 quotas, evaporated and 
condensed milk, and products imported packaged 
for distribution in the retail trade and ready for 
use by the purchaser at retail for an edible pur- 
pose or in the preparation of an edible article. 

The President requested the Commission to 
complete its findings as promptly as practicable 
and indicated that he mtends to keep develop- 
ments under close scrutiny to determine the neces- 
sity for emergency interim action. 

The President's action was taken in response 
to a recommendation from the Secretary of Agri- 
culture. The Commission's investigation will be 
made pursuant to section 22 of the Agricultural 
Adjustment Act, as amended. 

President's Letter to Edgar B. Brossard, Chairman 
of Tariff Commission 

Dear ]Mr. Chairman : I have been advised by 
the Secretary of Agriculture that there is reason 
to believe that certain articles containing butterfat 
are being and are practically certain to be im- 
ported into the United States under such condi- 



July 1, 1957 



33 



tions and in such quantities as to render or tend 
to render ineffective or materially interfere with 
the price support program for milk and butterfat 
undertaken by the Department of Agriculture, 
pursuant to Section 201 of the Agricultural Act 
of 1949, as amended, or to reduce substantially the 
amount of products processed in the United States 
from domestic milk and butterfat. The imports 
in question involve articles containing butterfat, 
the butterfat content of which is commercially 
extractable, or which are capable of being used 
for any edible purpose for which products con- 
taining butterfat are used, except articles re- 
stricted under quotas established under Section 22 
of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, as amended, 
cheeses not restricted by Section 22 quotas, evapo- 
rated and condensed milk, and products imported 
packaged for distribution in the retail trade and 
ready for use by the purchaser at retail for an 
edible purpose or in the preparation of an edible 
article. A copy of the Secretary's letter is 
enclosed. 

The Tariff Commission is requested to make an 
immediate investigation under Section 22 of the 
Agricultural Adjustment Act, as amended, to de- 
termine the need for restricting imports of these 
articles. 

In view of the nature of the problem created by 
these imports, the Commission's findings should 
be completed as promptly as practicable. In the 
meantime, it is my intention to watch the situation 
closely. 

Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

U. S. Applications To Build 
Libby Dam 

Following is the text of a statement hy Len Jor- 
dan, chairman of the V.S. Section of the Inter- 
national (U.S. -Canada) Joint Commission, made 
at the semiannual meeting of the Comjmission at 
Washington on April 2, 1957.^ The statement 
presents a chronology of the U.S. Govemmenfs 
two applications for approval hy the Cotnmission 
of plans for construction of a dam atid reservoir 
on the Kootenai River neur Libhy, Mont. 

On behalf of the United States Section of the 
Commission and the Libby project applicant, I 
would like to recapitulate for the record and for 



the benefit of those present the background of the 
Libby Dam Application which is presently before 
this Commission. 

The first Libby Application was filed by the 
Government of the United States on 12 January 
1951,^ pursuant to article IV of the treaty of 11 
January 1909.^ An order of approval was sought 
for the construction and operation of a dam at 
mile 212.8 (known as the Project Document site) 
on the Kootenai Eiver near the town of Libby, 
Montana. Public hearings were held in due course, 
and the project was endorsed by the States of Ore- 
gon and Montana. The Province of British Co- 
lumbia and the Government of Canada were not 
opposed to the dam, provided certain conditions 
specified in their Statements in Response were im- 
posed by the Commission. 

As early as the summer of 1948 the field investi- 
gations and studies of the International Columbia 
River Engineering Board, which had then been 
under way more than 4 years, had advanced to 
a stage which enabled that very competent Board 
to conclude and state publicly at a hearing held by 
this Commission in Bonners Ferry, Idaho, on 28 
July 1948, that a high dam at the Libby site as 
currently proposed by the Corps of Engineers is 
a desirable initial step toward a comprehensive 
plan for development of the Kootenai River above 
Libby, Montana. The Board did not at that hear- 
ing, however, state its conclusion as to what the 
normal forebay elevation of the Libby reservoir 
should be but assured the Commission that it 
would submit data and recommendations to serve 
as a basis for such a determination. 

It should be observed also that, at the time of 
the Commission's 28 July 1948 hearing, construc- 
tion of the Libby project had not been authorized 
by the Congress of the United States. The project 
was so authorized, however, on 17 May 1950.'' 

Following the Bonners Ferry hearing, the In- 
ternational Columbia River Engineering Board 
continued its studies of the Kootenai River and 
on 1 November 1950 submitted an interim report 
to the Commission, the specific purpose of which 



* For an announcement by the Joint Commission on Apr. 
5, see Bulletin of Apr. 29, 1957, p. 695. 

^lUd.., Feb. 5, 1951, p. 230. 

" Boundary Waters Treaty (36 Stat. 2448). 

* 66 Stat. 590. 



34 



lie\>ai\m&n\ of State Bulletin 



was, the Board said, to present a plan of develop- 
ment that would be not only advantageous to both 
Canada and the United States but that also would 
be consistent with plans for development of other 
portions of the Columbia Basin. The Board 
stated further that its interim report was being 
submitted to the Commission (on 1 November 
1950) ^Hn order that the Libhy project might not 
he delayed, and that the design may conform to 
the best over-all plan of development. . . ." 

The Board's conclusions were set forth at the 
end of its interim report (page 78). I particu- 
larly invite attention to the fact that the Board 
found the Libby-BuU Kiver combination to be 
the most desirable combination for development 
for the stretch of river under consideration, and 
stated that : "The normal forebay elevation of the 
Libby pool should be at elevation 2,459 feet above 
mean sea level. . . ." 

The original proposal was supported strongly 
by the Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of 
Keclamation and also by the International Co- 
lumbia River Engineering Board. Objections to 
it were raised, however, by railroad, mining, and 
lumber interests in Montana, and the Application 
was withdrawn by the Government of the United 
States on 8 April 1953.= 

With a view to overcoming the domestic diffi- 
culties, further investigations were conducted in 
an effort to find a more acceptable site for the 
dam. 

On 27 January 1954, the chairman of the Ca- 
nadian Section announced that the Canadian Gov- 
ernment was exploring the economic feasibility of 
diverting the Kootenay* River to the Columbia 
at Canal Flats in British Columbia and stated 
that, even if the United States should file another 
Libby Application, it would be about 4 months 
before the Canadian Section could give it 
consideration. 

Second Application Filed 

Approximately 4 months thereafter, on 22 May 
1954,' the Government of the United States filed 
a second Libby Application with the Interna- 



' Bulletin of Apr. 27, 1953, p. 611. 

"Spelled Kootenai in the United States, Kootenay in 
Canada. 
' /6t(f ., June 7, 1954, p. 878. 



tional Joint Commission, an alternate damsite 
having been selected at mile 217.0 on the Kootenai 
River, above the mouth of Fisher River. 

In support of the Application, the following 
exhibits were filed : 

(a) Summary of Data on Libby Project — Pool 
Elevation 2,459 feet. 

(b) Libby Project Reservoir Map. 

(c) Libby Project Profile. 

(d) Libby Project Plan and Sections. 

As in the matter of the Consolidated Mining 
and Smelting Company of Canada with respect 
to the Waneta Dam, the Application before the 
Commission is for a specific project at a definite 
location, its physical characteristics and capabili- 
ties having been fully made known. Hence the 
Commission may consider the Libby project as it 
is presented in the Application of the United 
States, but not otherwise. 

Subsequent to the Canadian chairman's state- 
ment of 27 January 1954 with respect to investi- 
gation of a possible diversion in Canada, the 
Canadian Department of Northern Affairs and 
National Resources caused to be prepared and re- 
leased to the Commission and its engineer advisers 
"A Report [dated INIarch 1954] of the Benefits to 
Canada of Diverting [at Canal Flats] a Part of 
the Kootenay River Flow to the Columbia River." 

On 7 July 1954 the Government of Canada in 
its Response to the 22 May 1954 Application of 
the United States said : 

In response to the above-mentioned Application, the 
Government of Canada states that it is not prepared at 
present either to consent to an Order of Approval or to 
oppose the granting of such an Order. SuflScient data has 
not yet been assembled by the International Columbia 
River Engineering Board to make it possible to determine 
the most advantageous use of the waters concerned from 
the points of view of both countries. 

If in the light of such a study it is found that more 
advantageous use of the waters concerned could be 
achieved by other methods, such as a diversion of part 
of the waters of the Kootenay River into the Columbia 
River in Canada, the Canadian Government reserves the 
right to oppose the issuance of an Order of Approval in 
the present Application. 

Early in April 1955 at the regular meeting of 
the Commission in Washington, the chairman of 
the Canadian Section stated that a diversion of 
from 5,000 to 8,000 cubic feet per second of the 
mean flow of the Kootenay River to the Columbia 
River at Canal Flats, British Columbia, was under 
study and that it would be 12 or 15 months before 



My h 1957 



35 



the investigation would be completed. Two full 
years have elapsed since that statement was made. 

October 1956 Meeting 

At the October 1956 meeting of the Commission 
in Ottawa, the chairman of the Canadian Section 
stated for the record and for the information of 
tlie United States Commissioners that the study 
of development of the Columbia and Fraser Rivers 
in Canada would henceforth be carried on by a 
group which is essentially private power interests 
in British Columbia, rather than under the aus- 
pices of the Government of Canada as heretofore. 
We have no knowledge, however, of any desire of 
a private power company or a provincial agency 
to undertake a development involving such a 
diversion. 

It may be seen by reference to the Libby State- 
ment in Response of the Government of Canada 
that the purpose of that Government's investiga- 
tion of the suggested Kootenay diversion was to 
ascertain whether a plan including such a diver- 
sion would be the most desirable plan and there- 
fore in the public interest fro7n the viewpoints of 
hotJi Canada and the United States. We respect- 
fully inquire as to whether the Department of 
Northern Affairs and National Resources or any 
other competent authority has concluded that a 
project involving such a diversion should be un- 
dertaken by the Government of Canada or the 
Province of British Columbia or by private in- 
terests in British Columbia. 

It is gratifying, because conducive to mutual 
confidence, that, since the Columbia River Refer- 
ence was submitted to the Commission in March 
1944, neither the Government of Canada nor the 
Government of the United States has ever pro- 
posed any form of development within the Colum- 
bia Basin that would not be desirable and in the 
public interest from the points of view of both 
countries. 

Flood Damage 

In each of C years during the decade ended 31 
December 1956, flood damage was suffered along 
the Kootenai River in the United States ; and in 4 
of those years the damage, principally in the 
Kootenai Flats of Idaho, was heavy. The total 
damage has not been estimated, but the local 
damage as reported by the Corps of Engineers and 
the U.S. Weather Bureau was as follows : 



Year 


Acres flooded 


Damage 


1947 




$60, 000 
5, 792, 000 


1948 ... - -- 


34, 400 


1949 




1950 .. 


4,600 


1, 781, 000 


1951 


92, 000 


1952 






1953 






1954 

19.55 


7,260 


2, 421, 000 


1956 


16, 230 


5, 245, 000 


Total 


62, 490 


15, 391, 000 



The total flooding — 62,490 acres — is almost 
equivalent to twice flooding of every acre of re- 
claimed land in the Kootenai Flats on the United 
States side of the international boundary. All of 
us, I am sure, desire to put an end to such needless 
waste wherever it occurs. 

Very heavy damage also occurred in the Koote- 
nay Flats of British Colimibia in 1948, but over 
the years the damage has been much heavier, 
relatively, in Idaho, one of the principal reasons 
for this being the successive dyking off of one 
portion of the floodway after another in British 
Columbia, the combined effect of which has been 
appreciably to raise the flood level against the 
dykes in Idaho. This Commission approved 
applications for all such dyking, subject to the 
conditions prescribed in its Orders. 

Mr. R. W. Davenport, an accomplished hy- 
draulic engineer of the U.S. Geological Survey, 
estimated in 1933 that the combined effect of the 
Creston Reclamation Project and the Kootenay 
Reclamation Farm would be to raise flood heights 
slightly more than one foot over most of the dis- 
tance between the international boundary and 
Bonners Ferry. In 1936, when Mr. Peter C. 
Bruner sought the approval of the Commission 
for a third reclamation district in the British Co- 
lumbia portion of the Flats, the engineers of the 
West Kootenay Power and Light Company Lim- 
ited estimated that the combined effect of the three 
reclamation districts would be to raise flood 
heights at the boundary by 1.79 feet. 

The Duck Lake dykes were built several years 
after the three districts just mentioned were 
dyked, and hence their effect was not reflected in 
the Davenport and West Kootenay estimates. 
However, the International Columbia River 
Engineering Board, in a report dated 1 April 1947, 
estimated the incremental effect of the proposed 



36 



Department of State Bulletin 



Duck Lake dykes at from four to five inches dur- 
ing floods like those of 1903 and 191G. The 
Kootenay River floods of 1948 and 1956 were about 
of that general magnitude, but their effects at the 
boundary were less than was estimated by the 
Board because the dyked area is smaller than that 
originally contemi^lated by the applicant. 

If the flood heights against the Idaho dykes had 
been from 1.5 to 2 feet lower in 1948 and 1956, as 
they almost certainly would have been but for the 
Canadian dyking, it is believed that the losses in 
Idaho would have been small in comparison with 
those actually suffered there. 

Any person who has ever been engaged in a flood 
fight with the water at a high stage against dykes 
knows that it is the top part of the flood — the top 
couple of feet, say — that generally causes dyke 
failures. The Libby project, as indicated by 
studies of the U.S. Corps of Engineers and the In- 
ternational Columbia River Engineering Board, 
would reduce a flood like that of 1894 to about 50,- 
000 c.f.s., in the Kootenai Flats reach, and thus 
provide complete flood protection to the extremely 
valuable dyked areas in both Idaho and British 
Columbia. ]Moreover, it is our understanding that 
additional large areas of similar rich lands could 
then be reclaimed in British Columbia at relatively 
low cost. 

The Libby project is before the Commission un- 
der article IV of the treaty just as were the Corra 
Linn and Waneta Applications of Canadian in- 
terests. 

Canada's Conditions for Approval of Libby 
Application 

Immediately following the first two paragraphs 
of the Libby Statement in Response of the Govern- 
ment of Canada, quoted above, the conditions upon 
which that Government would be agreeable to 
having the Commission approve the Application 
were set forth as follows : 

If, however, it should be found that the issuance of an 
Order of Approval for the Libby Dam project would be in 
the best interests of both countries, the Canadian Gov- 
ernment submits that any Order of Approval should be on 
such conditions as to ensure : 

(a) the protection and indemnity against injury of 
all interests in Canada which may be affected by the 
construction and operation of the said dam and reservoir, 
as provided by Article VIII of the Boundary Waters 
Treaty of 1909 ; 

(b) an equitable recompense to Canada for the use 



in the project of Canadian natural resources, which will 
include an amount of power based on the increase of level 
permitted at the International Boundary and a share in 
down-stream benefits of storage in power on a basis to be 
negotiated ; 

(c) any rights to the use of storage in Canada which 
might be approved will be for the life of the present 
project as expressed in a term of years to be settled in 
accordance with sound engineering and financing practice ; 

(d) aU considerations which may be deemed relevant 
as a result of the Commission's study of all engineering 
and economic factors in the Columbia River Basin in 
general, and the Kootenay River in particular, should be 
taken into account. 

Urgent Need for Action 

In view of the urgent need for flood control in 
the Kootenay Valley on both sides of the interna- 
tional boundary and the prospective need for the 
Libby power, which would be of substantial bene- 
fit to both countries, we stress the desirability that 
the Commission be free to proceed expeditiously 
with its processing of the Libby Application, giv- 
ing careful and sympathetic consideration to each 
condition set forth in the Statement in Response 
of the Government of Canada. We make this sug- 
gestion in the light of our conviction and of the 
judgment of the International Cokunbia River 
Engineering Board that the Libby-Bull River 
combination constitutes the most desirable and 
most complete development of the water resources 
involved and therefore would be in the public in- 
terest from the points of view of both Canada and 
the United States. 

In its consideration of and action upon applica- 
tions filed with it, regardless of by whom filed, 
the Commission's record is good. The United 
States Section of this Commission has never been 
responsible for protracted delay in the considera- 
tion of an application filed by Canadian interests, 
nor, to the best of my knowledge, has any such 
application ever been denied. 

Patently, having an application of one of the 
High Contracting Parties lying before the Com- 
mission for years, without receiving the consid- 
eration which the Commission has traditionally 
heretofore given to all applications, presents an 
anomalous situation. We therefore bespeak the 
cooperation of our Canadian colleagues in the 
matter. 

We urge that the pending Libby Application be 
considered with reasonable promptness and that 
definitive action be taken thereon. 



July 7, 1957 



37 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings^ 



Adjourned During June 1957 

U.N. International Law Commission: 9th Session 

Customs Cooperation Council: 10th Session 

ILO Governing Body: 135th Session 

UNREF Standing Program Subcommittee: 5th Session 

Inter-American Commission of Women: 12th Goneral Assembly . 

lA-ECOSOC: 1st Regional Seminar on Social Affairs 

U.N. Committee To Consider Fixing Time and Place for General 
Conference on Charter Review. 

U.N. ECE Committee on Development of Trade: Working Party 
on Arbitration. 

U.N. ECE Working Party on Transport of Perishable Foodstuffs . 

UNREF Executive Committee: 5th Session 

PAIGH Directing Council: 2d Meeting 

FAO Council: 26th Session 

ICAO Panel on Vertical Separation of Aircraft: 2d Meeting . . . 

UNESCO Executive Board: 48th Session 

U.N. ECAFE Committee on Industry and Trade: 7th Session of 
Subcommittee on Iron and Steel. 

FAO Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission: 2d Session of Teak Sub- 
commission. 

World Power Conference: Sectional Meeting 

International Labor Conference: 40th Session 

FAO Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission: 4th Session 

Poznan International Fair 

GATT Balance of Payments Consultations and Intersessional Com- 
mittee Meeting. 

UNICEF Administrative Budget Committee 

U.N. ECE Inland Transport Committee: Working Party on Trans- 
port of Dangerous Goods. 

U.N. ECE Steel Committee and W^orking Parties 

ITU International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Com- 
mittee (CCIT) : Sub-Study Group 2/1 on Revision of Telegraph 
Regulations. 

FAO European Commission on Agriculture; 9th Session 

U.N. ECE: 5th Conference of European Statisticians 

International Commission for Criminal Police: 26th Session of 
the General Assemblv. 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Small-Scale Industries and 
Handicraft Marketing: 5th Meeting. 

ICAO Panel on Future Requirements for Turbo-jet Aircraft: 
3d Meeting. 

FAO Technical Advisory Committee on Desert Locust Control: 
7th Meeting. 

U.N. ECE Inland Transport Committee: Working Party on 
Tariff Problems. 

U.N. ECOSOC Coordination Committee 

International Whaling Commission: 9th Meeting 

FAO Desert Locust Control Committee: 4th Session 

International Wheat Council: 22d Session 

ILO Governing Body: 136th Session 



Geneva April 23-June 28 

Brussels May 27-June 1 

Geneva May 27-June 1 

Geneva May 31-June 1 

Washington June 1-18 

Guatemala City June 2-16 

New York June 3 (1 day) 

Geneva June 3-7 

Geneva June 3-7 

Geneva June 3-7 

Rio de Janeiro June 3-10 

Madrid. June 3-15 

Montreal June 3-17 

Paris June 3-27 

Bangkok June 3-10 

Bandung June 4-7 

Belgrade June 5-11 

Geneva June 5-27 

Bandung June 8-21 

Poznan June 9-23 

Geneva June 10-29 

New York June 10-12 

Geneva June 11-14 

Geneva June 12-14 

Geneva June 12-22 

Rome June 17-21 

Geneva June 17-21 

Lisbon June 17-22 

Madras June 17-24 

Montreal June 17-28 

Rabat June 19-23 

Geneva June 24-28 

Geneva June 24-28 

London June 24-28 

Rabat June 25-29 

London June 25-27 

Geneva June 28-30* 



' Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, June 14, 1957. Asterisks indicate tentative dates. Following 
is a list of abbreviations: U.N., United Nations; ILO, International Labor Organization; UNREF, United Nations 
Refugee Fund; lA-ECOSOC, Inter-American Economic and Social Council; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe; 
PAIGH, Pan American Institute of Geography and History; FAO, P'ood and Agriculture Organization; ICAO, Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization; UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizationj 
ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; UNICEF, 
United Nations Children's Fund; ITU, International Telecommunication Union; CCIT, Comitfi consultatif international 
t616graphique et t6l6phonique; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council; WMO, World Meteorological Organization; 
IBE, International Bureau of Education; PIANC, Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses; 
WHO, World Health Organization; PASO, Pan American Sanitary Organization. 



38 



Department of State Bulletin 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 



In Session as of June 30, 1957 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 20th Session 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: Committee on Administrative 

Unions. 

ILO "Art and Labor" Exposition 

WMO Commission for Aerology: 2d Session 

WMO Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation: 

2d Session. 

7th Berlin International Film Festival 

International Rubber Study Group: 13th Meeting 

U.N. ECOSOC Technical Assistance Committee 

Scheduled July 1-September 30, 1957 

International Sugar Council: 13th Session 

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 24th Session 

UNESCO/IBE: 20th International Conference on Public Education. 

Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses: 
Annual Meeting. 

PIANC: 19th International Congress 

International Union of Crystallography: 4th General Assembly and 
International Congress. 

16th International Congress of Pure and Applied Chemistry . . . 

19th Conference of International Union of Pure and Applied Chem- 
istry. 

FAO Experts To Finalize Program for 1960 World Census of Agri- 
culture. 

Latin American Seminar on Social Welfare Training 

U.N. Committee on Information from Non-Self-Governing Terri- 
tories: 8th Session. 

Caribbean Commission: Conference on Demographic Problems of 
the Caribbean Area. 

American International Institute for the Protection of Childhood: 
Semiannual Meeting of Directing Council. 

lA-ECOSOC; Inter-American Meeting of Traffic Experts .... 

7th Pan American Highway Congress 

International Statistical Institute: 30th Session 

4th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation 
Engineering. 

Universal Postal Union: 14th Congress 

Economic Conference of the Organization of American States . . . 

International Scientific Radio Union: 12th General Assembly . . . 

ICAO Panel on Teletypewriter Specialists: 2d Meeting 

7th British Commonwealth Forestry Conference 

9th International Congress on Cell Biology 

International Geographic Union: Regional Conference 

International Union of Public Transportation: 33d Congress . . . 

9th Pan American Railway Congress 

International Exposition of the Sea _. 

2d U.N. International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic 
Energy. 

U.N. ECAFE Workshop on Problems of Budget Reclassification: 
2d Meeting. 

International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics: 11th General 
Assembly. 

WHO Regional Committee for Western Pacific: 8th Session . . . 

UNESCO International Conference on Radioisotopes in Scientific 
Research. 

ICAO Communications Division: 6th Session 

ICAO Legal Committee: Special Subcommittee on Rule 57 of 
Standing Rules of Procedure. 

PASO Executive Committee: 32d and 33d Meetings 

Interparliamentary Union: 46th Conference 

ICAO Legal Committee: 11th Session 

PASO Directing Council: 10th Meeting 

WHO Regional Committee for the Americas: 9th Meeting. . . . 

U.N. ECAFE/FAO Working Party on Economic Development and 
Planning: 3d Meeting. 

FAO Committee on Commodity Problems: 2d Meeting of Cocoa 
Study Group. 

International Union of Pure and Applied Physics: 9th General 
Assembly. 

International Association of Quaternary Research: 5th Inter- 
national Congress. 



New York May 20- 

New York May 20- 

Geneva June 15- 

Paris June 18- 

Paris June 18- 

Berlin June 21- 

Djakarta June 24- 

Geneva June 25- 

London July 2- 

Geneva July 2- 

Geneva July 8- 

London July 8- 

London July 8- 

Montreal July 10- 

Paris July 16- 

Paris July 16- 

Rome July 17- 

Montevideo July 20 

New York July 22- 

Trinidad July 25- 

Lima July 29 

Panama City July 29- 

Panama City Aug. 1- 

Stockholm Aug. 8- 

London Aug. 12- 

Ottawa Aug. 14- 

Buenos Aires Aug. 15- 

Boulder, Colorado Aug. 22- 

Montreal Aug. 26- 

Australia and New Zealand . Aug. 26- 

St. Andrews, Scotland . . . Aug. 28- 

Nara and Kyoto Aug. 29- 

Hamburg and Berlin .... Aug. 29- 

Buenos Aires Aug. 30- 

Marseille Sept. 1- 

Geneva Sept. 1- 

Bangkok Sept. 2- 

Toronto Sept. 4— 

Hong Kong Sept. 8- 

Paris Sept. 9- 

Montreal Sept. 10- 

Tokyo Sept. 10- 

Washington Sept. 10- 

London Sept. 12- 

Tokyo Sept. 12- 

Washington Sept. 16- 

Washington Sept. 16- 

Bangkok Sept. 16- 

Ibadan, Nigeria Sept. 17- 

Rome Sept. 17- 

Barcelona and Madrid . . . Sept. 20- 



July 1, 1957 



39 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 



Scheduled July 1-September 30, 1957 — Continued 

4th FAO/WHO Conference on Nutrition Problems in Latin America . 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and 

International Monetary Fund: 12th Annual Meeting of Boards 

of Governors. 

17th International Conference of Sociology 

WMO Executive Committee: 9th Session 

FAO Near East Forestry Commission: 2d Session 

15th International Congress of Mihtary Medicine and Pharmacy . 

Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Law 

FAO Contact Group on Uses of Isotopes in Agricultural Research: 

2d Meeting. 

FAO Cocoa Study Group: Executive Committee 

FAO Cocoa Study Group: Statistical Subcommittee 

GATT Balance of Payments Consultations 

FAO International Chestnut Commission 



Guatemala City Sept. 23- 

VVashington Sept. 2.3- 

Beirut Sept. 23- 

Geneva Sept. 24- 

Baghdad Sept. 28- 

Belgrade Sept. 29- 

Brussels Sept. 30- 

Bonn September 

Ibadan, Nigeria September 

Ibadan, Nigeria September 

Geneva September 

Geneva September 



Question of Fixing Time and Place 
for U.N. Charter Review 

Statement by James J. Wadsworfh 
Deputy U.S. Representative to the V.N. ^ 

Let me express my heartiest congratulations to 
you, Mr. Chairman, on your well-merited selection 
as chairman of this Committee and to the distin- 
guished Representatives of Ecuador and Austria 
as vice chairman and rapporteur respectively. 

As this body well knows, the United States has 
long beeii interested in providing an opportmiity 
for a review of the charter in the light of develop- 
ments since 1945. Accordingly, we cosponsored 
the resolution [992 (X)] adopted at the 10th 
session of the General Assembly in which the As- 
sembly decided in principle to hold a General 
Conference to review the charter at an appropriate 
time.^ The same resolution established this Com- 
mittee with instructions to consult as to the time, 
organization, and j^rocedures for such a confer- 
ence. Under the terms of reference of this Com- 
mittee, as we understand it, Mr. Chairman, our 
tasks are limited to procedural matters. 

It is a matter of regret to my delegation that 
the distinguished Representative of the Soviet 
Union has seen fit to ignore your comment as to 
the inadmissibility of certain arguments which 
were extraneous to this matter. My own delega- 
tion will respect the opinion of the chair, except to 

^ Made on June 3 in the Committee on Arrangements 
for a General Conference for the Purpose of Reviewing 
the Charter (U.S./U.N. press release 2fiS5). 

^ Bulletin of Dec. 5, 1955, p. 949. 



say very briefly that since the Soviet position in 
this matter, particularly of Chinese representa- 
tion, is well known and needed no exposition, so 
the position of the United States is well known 
and needs no exposition. 

This Committee has the authority to recom- 
mend postponement of the decision on the time 
and place of the conference if in our opinion inter- 
national circumstances are not auspicious for a 
conference. Our consultations previous to this 
meeting with other delegations and the debates so 
far indicate general agreement among the mem- 
bers that the appropriate time referred to in the 
10th General Assembly's resolution has not yet 
arrived. Since the United States continues to feel 
that this conference should be held when circum- 
stances are auspicious, we will support the draft 
resolution ^ which recommends [to the 12th Gen- 
eral Assembly] that this Committee be kept in 
being and report back to the General Assembly 
no later than its 14th session. 



U. S. Delegations to 
International Conferences 

UNESCO Executive Board 

The Department of State announced on May 
31 (press release 329) that Henry J. Kellermann, 
Comiselor for Unesco Ailairs, American Em- 
bassy, Paris, will be the Acting Representative 
of the United States at the 48th session of the 



" U.N. doc. A/AC. Sl/L. 1, adopted by the Committee on 
June 3 by a vote of 67-0. 



40 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Executive Board of the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 
which will meet at Paris, June 3-27, 1957. The 
U.S. Representative to the Executive Board, 
Athelstan Spilhaus, will be imable to attend this 
session. 

The State Department advisers to Mr. Keller- 
mami will be Byron B. Snyder, Office of Inter- 
national Administration, and Guy Lee, Unesco 
Relations Staff. 

This session of the Executive Board will con- 
sider program and budgetary matters for 1957- 
58 and for 1959-60, as well as salary and per- 
sonnel questions. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Atoms-for-Peace Agreements Signed 
With Ecuador, Iraq, and Nicaragua 

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the 
Department of State announced on June 11 
(press release 353) that an agreement for coop- 
eration in research in the peaceful uses of atomic 
energy was signed on that day at Washington by 
representatives of Nicaragua and the United 
States. Similar agreements were signed with 
Iraq on Jmie 7 (press release 346) and with Ec- 
uador on May 31 (press release 332). The agree- 
ments were negotiated within the framework of 
President Eisenhower's atoms-for-peace program. 

Ambassador Guillermo Sevilla-Sacasa, who 
signed for Nicaragua, was accompanied by Jorge 
Alberto Montealegre, Commercial and Financial 
Coimselor of the Nicaraguan Embassy, and by 
other members of his staff. Signing the agreement 
with Nicaragua for the United States were Roy 
E. Rubottom, Jr., Acting Assistant Secretai-y for 
Inter-American Affairs, and Lewis L. Strauss, 
Chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Com- 
mission. 

The agreement with Iraq was signed by Am- 
bassador Moussa Al-Shabandar, Assistant Secre- 
tary for Near Eastern, South Asian and African 
Affairs "William M. Eountree, and W. F. Libby, 
Commissioner of the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion. 



Signing the agreement with Ecuador were Am- 
bassador Jose R. Chiriboga, Acting Assistant Sec- 
retary Rubottom, and Mr. Libby. The Ambas- 
sador was accompanied by Carlos Oquendo, a 
member of Ecuador's Atomic Energy Study Com- 
mittee and professor of physics of the Central 
University of Ecuador at Quito, and Cesar Es- 
pinosa, vice rector of the Central University. 

The agreements look toward early development 
of atomic research programs in Nicaragua, Ecua- 
dor, and Iraq. They provide for exchange of in- 
formation on reactor technology, health and 
safety measures connected with reactor operation, 
and on medical, biological, agricultural, and in- 
dustrial uses of isotopes. 

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission has 
agreed to make available to each country up to 6 
kilograms (13.2 pounds) of contained U-235 in 
uranium enriched up to a maximum of 20 percent 
for reactor fuel. Collaboration in facilitating the 
program is permitted between private enterprises 
in the United States and each of the three 
countries. 

In addition to the 6 kilograms of reactor fuel, 
each country may receive from the United States 
limited gram quantities of highly enriched U- 
235, plutonium, and U-233 for research purposes. 
Other provisions of the agreements cover safe- 
guards in connection with possession and use of 
the radioactive materials. 



Atoms-for-Peace Agreement 
With Portugal Amended 

On June 7 the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission 
and the Department of State (press release 345) 
annoimced that on that day the Governments of 
Portugal and the United States initialed a series 
of amendments to the research agreement for co- 
operation in the civilian uses of atomic energy 
which has been in effect since July 21, 1955. 

The amendments include authorization for 
Portugal to acquire from the United States gram 
quantities of uranium 235 and 233 and plutonium 
for laboratory research and bring up to date pro- 
visions regarding the transfer and use of special 
nuclear materials. 

Portugal is participating actively in the atoms- 
for-peace program. There have been Portuguese 
representatives at the seminar tour for doctors and 
at the opening class of the International School 



July 7, 1957 



41 



of Nuclear Science and Engineering, both in 1955, 
and on the tour of U.S. raw-material facilities last 
fall. Its Junta de Energia Nuclear has under way 
an active nuclear-research program which includes 
plans for installation of a research reactor. Portu- 
gal also has received one of the comprehensive 
technical nuclear-energy libraries from the United 
States. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Atomic Energy 

Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency. 
Done at New Yorlc October 26, 1956.' 
Ratification deposited: Norway, June 10, 1957. 

Automotive Traffic 

Convention on road traffic, with annexes. Done at Geneva 
September 19, 1949. Entered into force March 26, 1952. 
TIAS 2487. 

Notification by Netherlands of extension to: Nether- 
lands Antilles (excluding annexes 1 and 2), May 9, 
1957. 

Aviation 

Protocol amending articles 48 (a), 49 (e), and 61 of the 
convention on international civil aviation (TIAS 1591) 
by providing that sessions of the Assembly of the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization shall be held not 
less than once in 3 years instead of annually. Done at 
Montreal June 14, 1954. Entered into force December 
12, 1956. TIAS .3756. 

Ratifications deposited: Czechoslovakia, February 21, 
1957 ; Israel, May 13, 1957 ; Korea, May 21, 1957. 

Agreement on joint financing of certain air navigation 
services in Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Done at 
Geneva September 25, 1956.' 

Acceptances deposited: Norway and Sweden, May 10, 
1957 ; Israel, May 13, 1957. 

Agreement on joint financing of certain air navigation 
services in Iceland. Done at Geneva September 25, 
1956." 

Acceptances deposited: Norway and Sweden, May 10, 
1957 ; Israel, May 13, 1957. 

Labor 

Convention (No. 58) fixing minimum age for admission of 
children to employment at sea. Adopted by the Inter- 
national Labor Conference at Geneva October 24, 1936. 
Entered into force April 11, 1939. .54 Stat. 1705. 
Ratification registered: Byelorussian Soviet Socialist 
Republic, November 6, 1956. 
Convention (No. 74) concerning the certification of able 
seamen. Adopted by the International Labor Confer- 
ence at Seattle June 29, 1946. Entered into force July 
14, 1951. TIAS 2949. 

Declarations of acceptance registered: United Kingdom 
on behalf of the governments of the Isles of Man, 
of Jersey, and of Guern.sey, December 3, 1956. 



Signed at Buenos Aires, June 3, 1957. Entered into 
force June 3, 1957. 

France 

Convention supplementing the conventions of July 25, 
1939, and October 18, 1946, relating to avoidance of 
double taxation, as modified by protocol of May 17, 194S 
(.59 Stat. 893; 64 Stat. (3) B3; 64 Stat, (c) B28). 
Signed at Washington June 22, 1956. 
Ratifications exchanged: June 13, 1956. 
Entered into force: June 13, 1956. 

Germany 

Agreement providing for a voluntary contribution to 
costs resulting from maintenance of United States 
troops in the Federal Republic of Germany. Eifected 
by exchange of notes at Bonn June 7, 1957. Enters into 
force on the date on which the Federal Republic notifies 
the United States of approval as constitutionally re- 
quired. 

Ghana 

General agreement for a program of technical cooperation. 
Signed at Accra June 3, 1957. Entered into force June 
3, 1957. 

Nicaragua 

Research reactor agreement concerning civil uses of 
atomic energ,v. Signed at Washington June 11, 1957. 
Enters into force on date on which each Government 
receives from the other written notification that it has 
complied with statutory and constitutional require- 
ments. 

Norway 

Research reactor agreement concerning civil uses of 
atomic energy. Signed at Washington February 25, 
1957. 

Entered into force: June 10, 1957 (date on which each 
Government received from the other written notifica- 
tion that it has complied with statutory and consti- 
tutional requirements). 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Confirmations 

The Senate on June 13 confirmed the following : 
Loftus E. Becker to be legal adviser of the Department 

of State. (For biographic details, see press release 326 

dated May 29.) 

James M. Langley to be Ambassador to Pakistan. (For 

biographic details, see press release 318 dated May 27.) 



BILATERAL 

Argentina 

General agreement for a program of technical cooperation. 



' Not in force. 
42 



Designations 

C. Vaughan Ferguson, Jr., as Director, Office of Southern 
Africa Affairs, effective .Tune 9. 

Ralph N. Clough as Director, Office of Chinese Affairs, 
effective June 10. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Julv 1, 1957 



Ind 



ex 



Vol. XXXVII, No. 940 



American Principles. Capability and Foreign Policy 

(Hare) 22 

American Republics. Secretary Dulles' News Conference 

of Juno 11 9 

Atomic Energy 

Atomsfor-Peace Agreements Signed With Ecuador, Iraq, 

nnd Nicaragua 41 

Alunis-for-Peace Agreement With Portugal Amended . . 41 

Aastralia. United States and Australia Conclude Air 

Transport Talks (text of joint statement) . . , . 21 

Aviation. United States and Australia Conclude Air 

Transport TalliS (text of joint statement) .... 21 

Canada. U.S. Applications To Build Libby Dam 

(Jordan) 34 

Citina. Communist 

Eiluoation — Communist Style, American Style (Eleanor 

Iiuiles) 25 

Sim retary Dulles' News Conference of June 11 ... . 9 

Claims. Notice Regarding Claims to Certain Assets in 

Japan 30 

Congrress, The 

Tlie American Doctrine for the Middle East (Richards) . 17 

Major Purposes of the Mutual Security Programs 

(Liulles) 3 

Department and ForeigTi Service 

("ontirmations (Becker, Langle.v) 42 

Iti'signations (Ferguson, Clough) 42 

U.S. To Reconsider Size of Legation Staff In Budapest 

(text of U.S. note) 30 

Disarmament. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 

June 11 9 

Economic Affairs 

Kncouraging Economic Growth in Less Developed Coun- 
tries of the Free World (Dillon) 31 

I'onign Relations and World Trade (Eisenhower) . . 8 
President Requests Investigation of Imports of Dairy 

Products (text of letter) 33 

Tax Convention With France Enters Into Force ... 16 

U.S. Applications To Build Libby Dam (Jordan) ... 34 

Ecuador. Atoms-for-Peace Agreements Signed With Ecua- 
dor, Iraq, and Nicaragua 41 

France. Tax Convention With France Enters Into 

Force 16 

Germany, East. Education — Communist Style, American 

.style (Eleanor Dulles) 25 

Health, Education, and Welfare. Education — Communist 

Style. American Style (Eleanor Dulles) 25 

Hungary. U.S. To Reconsider Size of Legation Staff in 

Budapest (text of U.S. note) 30 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of Meetings 38 

UNESCO Executive Board (delegation) 40 

Iraq. Atoms-for-Peace Agreements Signed With Ecuador, 

Iraq, and Nicaragua 41 

Japan 

X"(ice Regarding Claims to Certain Assets in Japan . . 30 
secretary Dulles' News Conference of June 11 ... . 9 

Middle East 

The American Doctrine for the Middle East (Richards) . 17 

U.S. Replies to Soviet Note on Middle East (text of U.S. 

note) 20 

Morocco. Mohammed V, Sultan of Morocco, To Visit 

United States (Eisenhower, Mohammed ben Youssef) . 19 

Mutual Security 

The American Doctrine for the Middle East (Richards) . 17 
Encouraging Economic Growth in Less Developed Coun- 
tries of the Free World (Dillon) 31 

Major Purposes of the Mutual Security Programs 

(Dulles) . 3 

Nicaragua. Atoms-for-Peace Agreements Signed With 

Ecuador. Iraq, and Nicaragua 41 

Pal(istan. Langley confirmed as ambassador 42 

Portugal. Atoms-for-Peace Agreement With Portugal 

Amended 41 

Presidential Documents 

Foreign Relations and World Trade 8 

Mohammed V, Sultan of Morocco, To Visit United 

States 10 

President Requests Investigation of Imports of Dairy 

Products 33 



Treaty Information 

Atoms-for-Peace Agreements Signed With Ecuador, Iraq, 

and Nicaragua 41 

Atoms-for-Peace Agreement With Portugal Amended . 41 

Current Actions 42 

Tax Convention With France Enters Into Force ... 16 
United States and Australia Conclude Air Transport Talks 

(text of joint statement) 21 

U.S.S.R. 

Education — Communist Style, American Style (Eleanor 

Dulles) 25 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of June 11 ... . 9 
U.S. Replies to Soviet Note on Middle East (text of U.S. 

note) 20 

United Kingdom. Queen Elizabeth II To Visit U.S. . . 16 

United Nations 

Question of Fixing Time and Place for U.N. Charter Re- 
view (Wadsworth) 40 

UNESCO Executive Board (delegation) 40 

Name Index 

Becker, Loftus E 42 

Clough, Ralph N 42 

Dillon, Douglas 31 

Dulles, Eleanor Lansing 25 

Dulles, Secretary 3, 9 

Eisenhower, President 8, 19, 33 

Ferguson, C. Vaughan 42 

Hare, Raymond A 22 

Jordan, Len 34 

Langley, James M 42 

Mohammed ben Youssef 20 

Richards, James P 17 

Wadsworth, James J 40 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 10-16 

Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 
Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 

Press releases issued prior to June 10 which ap- 
pear in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 329, 332, 
333, and 334 of May 31, and 345, 346, and 347 of 
June 7. 

Subject 
Dulles : statement on mutual security. 
Kalijarvi : statement on sale of mer- 
chant vessels. 
Atoms-for-peace agreement with Nica- 
ragua (rewrite). 
Support-costs agreement with Ger- 
many. 
Dulles : news conference. 
Note to Hungary on U.S. Legation 

stafe. 
Return of flag to Philippine general. 
Eepl.y to Soviet note on Middle East. 
Richards : statement on mission to 

Middle East. 
Program for visit of Japanese Prime 

Minister. 
Nomination of career ministers. 
Herter : Northwestern University. 
Notice on claims to assets in Japan. 
Tax convention with France. 
Peterson nominated Ambassador to 

Denmark (biographic details). 
Visit of Indonesian parliamentarians 

(rewrite). 
Air transport talks with Australia. 

*Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


351 
t352 


6/10 
6/10 


353 


6/11 


t354 


6/11 


355 
356 


6/11 
6/11 


t357 
358 
359 


6/11 
6/12 
6/13 


t360 


6/13 


*361 

t362 

3(33 

364 

*365 


6/14 
6/14 
6/14 
6/14 
6/14 


t366 


6/14 


367 


6/15 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: t9S7 



DbB-DEC 







the 

Department 

of 

1 

State 



^...,ivitNT Printing Office 

DIVISION OF PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

Washington 25, D. C. 



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PAYMENT OF POSTAGE, S300 

(GPO) 



OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



A new release in the popular BACKGROUND series 

A LOOK AT THE MIDDLE EAST 



The United States has vital security interests in the Middle East. 
Soviet activity in the region, the need of our European allies for 
Middle Easteni oil, and the great strategic geographic importance of 
the area make it essential that the United States act with a high degree 
of responsibility and friendly impartiality in the clashes of national 
interests which are keeping the Middle East in a state of turmoil. 

A Look at the Middle East, a new Background pamphlet, ex- 
amines the origin and causes of some of the situations we face in the 
area. The pamphlet is based on a speech delivered by Deputy Under 
Secretary of State Robert Murphy at Georgetown University, Wash- 
ington, D.C., on March 14, 1957. 

Topics discussed in the publication include the emergence of 
nationalism in the Middle East, the partition of Palestine, the new 
regime in Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, the "northern tier," inde- 
pendent Libya, and major elements of U.S. policy. The 16-page 
pamphlet is illustrated with maps and photographs. 

Copies of A Look at the Middle East may be purchased from the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D.C., for 15 cents each. 



Publication 6478 



15 cents 



Order Forw. 

To: Supt. of Documents 
Govt. Printing Office 
Washington 25, D.C. 



Bncloaed find: 



Please send me copies of A Look at the Middle East. 

Name : 

Street Address: 

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money order). 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



DEPOSITORY ^ 




Vol. XXXVII, No. 941 



CIAL 

UY RECORD 

ED STATES 
IGN POLICY 



VISIT OF PRIME MINISTER NOBUSUKE KISHI OF 

JAPAN • Joint Communique, Address to Senate and House 

of Representatives, Exchange of Greetings 51 

U.N. SPECIAL COMMITTEE REPORTS ON 

HUNGARIAN UPRISING • Department Announcement, 
Statement by Ambassador Lodge, and Text of Final Chapter of 
Report 62 

THE MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM AS AN INSTRU- 
MENT OF FOREIGN POLICY • by Under Secretary 
Herter 47 

EDUCATION AND RESPONSIBILITY IN WORLD 

AFFAIRS • by Deputy Under Secretary Murphy 74 

PROPOSED SALE ABROAD OF U.S. RESERVE-FLEET 

SHIPS • Statement by Assistant Secretary Kalijarvi .... 77 

RELATION OF THE UNITED STATES TO WORLD 

MIGRATION • 6.V Robert S. McCollum 65 

UNITED STATES BALANCE OF PAYMENTS WITH 

LATIN AMERICA IN 1956 • Article by TTalther Lederer 
and Nancy F. Culbertson 79 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XXXVII, No. 941 • Publication 6513 



Boston Public Library 
Superintcn'^"''*' of Dnciimefttg 

JUL25l9b7 



July 8, 1957 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Qovemment Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.C. 

Peice: 

52 Issues, domestic $7.50, foreign $10.2S 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 19, 1955). 

l\ote: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Depaetment 
OP State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government icith information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
ujhich the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral internatioTUtl interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative nuiterial in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



The Mutual Security Program as an Instrument 
of Foreign Policy 



hy Under Secretary Herter 



! It is customary for a speaker on an occasion of 
this kind to attempt to draw upon the advantage 
he enjoys over you in terms of years of existence 
upon this planet to give you unwanted advice as 
to how^ to carry on your own lives in this world 
into which you are about to be launched. I shall 
not try that futile exercise. On the other hand, 
I shall try in a few words to give you my own im- 
pressions of the kind of world in which you are 
^ow living so that perhaps you can adapt your own 
futures to meet the very real challenges that lie 
ahead. 

It is one thing to plan one's own life for the 
future in the confident expectation that the world 
will remain at peace and that the primary prob- 
lem for one's self and for the family which one 
hopes to have will lie in the ordinary competitive 
process of peaceful pursuits. It is another prob- 
lem to try to plan in a world of very real uncer- 
tainties where the specter of another and infinitely 
devastating war may shatter all one's hopes and 
dreams. Unfortunately, it is with the latter situ- 
ation that we have to deal if we are goiner to be 
realistic with respect to the world as it now exists. 

Ten years ago the then Secretary of State, Gen- 
eral George Marshall, on an occasion similar to 
this advanced the general outlines of a plan which 
bas since borne his name. That plan contemplated 
action by the United States of an unprecedented 
nature designed to permit the war-ravaged nations 
of Europe to recover, in part at least, their own 
productivity in order that they might push back 

;j 'Address made at commencement exercises at North- 
western University, Evanston, 111., on June 17 (press 
^release 362 dated June 14). 



l/u/y 



8, 1957 



the specter of communism which was threatening 
them. 

World War II had ended only 2 years before 
with Communist Russia one of the allies on the 
winning side. The devastation, both physical and 
economic, had been great. Instruments of pro- 
duction and transportation had been destroyed; 
agricultural production was sadly inadequate. 
As a result, the standards of living of the Euro- 
pean peoples had been seriously downgraded and 
those released from military service were having 
great difficulties in finding gainful employment 
in civilian life. Everywhere the agents of com- 
munism who love to fish in troubled waters were 
spreading the religion of communism — and I use 
the word "religion" advisedly — as a tempting 
cure for the troubles of a tormented continent. 
We had just come to realize that our former ally, 
Communist Eussia, was determined to push its 
aggressive intentfons, whether by physical means 
or by subversion, in order to achieve the dreams 
its ideological forefathers had announced of en- 
compassing the whole world. The pledges taken 
at Yalta had been broken, and the satellite states 
of Eastern Europe were being held in Soviet 
bondage. The picture for Europe was indeed 
black. 

The program which developed through the co- 
operative action of the administration then in 
power, the Congress of the United States, many 
civic organizations, and the American people as a 
whole led to the so-called Marshall plan. Under 
this plan the United States, working in closest 
cooperation with the European nations, proposed 
to invest what it was estimated would amount to 



47 



17 billions of dollars in order to bring the Euro- 
pean economy a moderate measure of recovery 
and the peoples of Europe a renewed confidence 
in the free- world system. 

The program succeeded in a way which exceeded 
our greatest expectations. In a 5-year period, the 
United States contributed toward this recovery 
program some 4 billion dollars less than had been 
projected and the productivity of the European 
nations increased to more than half again its pre- 
war level. The peoples of "Western Europe gained 
new hope. The Communist movement began to 
lose strength. From that time on, those same coun- 
tries have continued to increase their productivity 
and strength until today they are not only freed 
from economic grant assistance from the United 
States but they are also able to contribute from 
their own resources annually for common defense 
an amount greater than we invested in the whole 
Marshall plan program. 

The Newly Independent Nations 

During these same 10 years, however, very big 
changes have taken place in the rest of the world. 
With the same persistence it earlier showed in 
Europe, the Soviet Government is watching these 
changes for signs of disintegration with the hope 
that it will have other troubled waters in which 
to fish. You all know about the conquest of China. 
You all know the story of Korea. You know about 
the wars in Greece and in Viet-Nam. But we 
should also remember that in this very brief span 
in history some 19 nations, including almost a third 
of the world's population, became free and inde- 
pendent. It is difficult for us to realize that 10 
years ago, and in some cases fewer years ago than 
that, there did not exist a free Korea, a free Viet- 
Nam, a free Cambodia, a free Laos, a free India, a 
free Ceylon, a free Pakistan, a free Burma, a free 
Indonesia, a free Libya, a free Tunisia, a free 
Morocco, and, even a few months ago, a free Ghana. 
This is not a complete list, nor has this historic 
development ended. Already plans are in ad- 
vanced stage for the granting of independence to 
Malaya, and other peoples are well along the road 
to eventual freedom. 

Each of these nations desperately seeks the eco- 
nomic independence which will complement and 
suppoi't its new political independence. The na- 
tions I have mentioned had each been a part of 
a colonial empire, and as each achieved its free- 



dom it developed tremendously strong nationalist 
sentiment. Anything that even resembled a return 
to colonial status was anathema to it, and, even 
though it had few of the normal assets for self- 
gOA'ernment, it nevertheless resented any inference 
on the part of any other nation that it was unable 
to retain its independence through its own efforts. 
In each of these nations, to a greater or lasser 
degree, agents of the Communist-bloc countries 
have been attempting to capitalize on this nation- 
alist sentiment in order to further their own ends. 
If military force could not further the expan- 
sionist movement, then subversive action became 
the favorite tool. 

Checking Soviet Expansion 

Today, as the leader and economically much 
the strongest member of the free world, the 
United States is faced with the major responsi- 
bility of checking that expansionist movement. It 
has utilized as one of its major tools the mutual 
security program — so-called foreign aid. 

This program embraces several quite distinct 
instruments of foreign policy. The first is de- 
signed to build up free-world military strength. 
The United States has at this time military al- 
liances with some 42 nations of the world — bi- 
lateral treaties with Korea, Free China, Japan, 
and the Philippines, and multilateral agreements 
through NATO, SEATO, the Kio Treaty, and 
ANZUS. In addition, it is a member of both 
the economic and military committees of the 
Baghdad Pact, which includes Iran and Iraq, 
two nations which are not members of any of the 
other alliances. Among those nations with which 
it has alliances are Korea, Free China, Thailand, 
Pakistan, and Turkey — all nations which abut 
the Sino-Soviet bloc. Against each of these there 
is, of course, a continuing threat of military ag- 
gression. In each of these, however, strong in- 
digenous forces have been built up with American 
assistance. Likewise in Europe our NATO allies 
have built up similar strength as a defensive 
measure. 

Actually today through the system of defen- 
sive alliances and military assistance there has 
been built up a total strength in which our own 
forces represent only about one-sixth of the foot- 
soldier strength, one-half of the combat planes 
available, and one-third of the number of naval 
craft in readiness. Were it necessary for the 



48 



Department of State Bulletin 



United States to supply an equivalent amount of 
manpower and armament, the drain on our re- 
sources both in money and men would be a great 
many times that which is now represented by 
our own armed forces and our own budget for 
defense. 

This military strength overseas could never 
have been sustained had not the United States 
contributed both supporting weapons and sup- 
plies. These in the past have been financed not 
from the regular Defense Department budget 
but from appropriations made available through 
what has come to be known as the Mutual Se- 
curity Act. 

It is through appropriations from that act also 
that we have developed the second tool of diplo- 
macy, namely economic assistance. Economic 
assistance has fallen into a number of different 
categories wliich can be quite simply divided. 
The first is assistance to those countries like 
Korea, Taiwan, and so forth, which I have just 
mentioned, which lie on the fringes of the Soviet 
orbit and which do not have the economic capacity 
to sustain the forces which we and they agree are 
necessary to our joint security. It has been es- 
sential for us to grant economic assistance or, as 
it is called in the legislation, defense support, in 
order to make the economies of those countries 
viable while at the same time keeping very large 
armed forces which they maintain in an environ- 
ment where both troops could be paid and fami- 
lies could be sustained. This part of our pro- 
gram is not "foreign aid" but an essential part 
of our own military defense. 

The second sector of economic aid is designed, 
not to sustain the military effort, but to assist the 
less developed nations to achieve a reasonable rate 
of economic growth. It applies particularly to 
the 19 newly born nations of which I speak. Each 
one of these nations has before it the problem of 
lifting its people from a very dire state of poverty. 
Just as there is a tremendous nationalist urge 
in these countries, there is a deeper urge to de- 
veloji a higher standard of living. In one of these 
nations which I single out not because it is greatly 
different from the others but because the figures 
are interesting, the present per capita earning 
power of its people comes to approximately $31 
per year. Is it any wonder that that country has 
an urge to develop its own economy ? With such 
poverty the accumulation of capital for develop- 



ment purposes is of course impossible, and it is 
only natural that the leaders in that country should 
look elsewhere for help in their own development. 

Development Financing and Teciinical Assistance 

We are today the only nation outside of the 
Soviet orbit which can afford to help in supplying 
that degi'ee of capital which would give these na- 
tions an opportunity to make a real beginning 
toward lifting their standards of living. If they 
are not successful in this effort, the moderate 
leaders of today are likely to be replaced by ex- 
tremists who will favor communism or something 
like it as the solution to their countries' problems. 
We believe that we can provide our development 
financing for these countries on a more effective 
and businesslike basis than in the past through the 
development loan fund which the President has 
asked the Congress to approve.- 

We must also recognize that in many of the 
countries there is an almost complete lack of 
trained personnel, whether as skilled laborers, as 
administrators, as executives, or technicians. It 
is for that reason that the mutual security program 
embraces a third category of assistance, namely 
technical assistance. Through technicians who in 
many cases are making a very real sacrifice we are 
training persons in far corners of the earth often 
in the most rudimentary forms of agriculture, 
public health, education, or technical skills. 

Some people who little realize what ferments 
are stirring in this world do not understand how 
vital our development financing and technical 
assistance programs are. Without these programs 
many less developed countries could not achieve 
the economic growth which will help them to 
remain free. And without these programs many 
less developed countries would inevitably tui-n to 
tlie other source from which in many instances 
they have been offered help, namely the Soviet 
bloc. Should we, by default, abandon these pro- 
grams, it would not be long before we found the 
expansion of the Soviet bloc moving at a pace 
which might well leave us isolated. It is that con- 
tinuing challenge which we are forced to meet 
now. 

If I have dwelt at some length upon the prob- 
lems which surround us beyond our borders in an 
ever-shrinking world, it is to point out that con- 



- Bulletin of June 10, 1957, p. 920. 



July 8, 1957 



49 



trast between our own domestic situation and 
those areas of the world which are in ferment. 

Meeting the Challenge of the Future 

Pleasant as it would be to ignore the world at 
large and confine ourselves to our own internal 
problems, the realities of the world situation do 
not permit of such an ostrich-like attitude. It is 
the clear responsibility of your Government to take 
every measure within its power to avoid the holo- 
caust of another war. But government, except in 
totalitarian countries, can carry out continuing 
policies only so long as those policies receive gen- 
eral public acceptance. You might easily argue 
that the business of formulating policies and the 
business of devising means to meet the ever-chang- 
ing forces in the outer world are essentially the 
responsibility of governmental experts. On the 
other hand, you yourselves will be carrying a con- 
siderable burden of that responsibility. In what- 
ever walk of life you may determine to steer your 
own future, you can, by your awareness of the 
problems facing this nation, make a very real con- 
tribution. 

The maintenance of our strength as a nation, 
both moral and material, is the very first requisite 
toward bringing the influence of this nation to bear 
decisively in the support of a free world. Wliether 
your destiny leads to a professional life, to a con- 
tribution in the field of culture, to the strengthen- 
ing of our economic fabric, remember that your 
individual contribution is an essential part of that 
totality which will keep this nation at the fore- 
front. The challenge of the future lies not in the 
hands of officials alone but in the understanding 
of the world problems and world challenges to- 
ward which each and every one of you can 
contribute. 



In his recent television interview, Mr. Nikita 
Khrushchev predicted that the grandchildren of 
this generation will be governed by a Communist 
state. Let me say that I have complete faith in 
what the answer to that prediction will be. But 
it is in your hands that the answer lies. 



Fourth Anniversary 
of East Berlin Uprising 

Press release 370 dated June 17 

FoUotoing is the text of a message from Secre- 
tary Dulles to Konrad Adenauer, Chancellor of 
the Federal Eepuilic of GeivnMy, in connection 
with the anniversary of the June 17, 1953, upris- 
ing in East Berlin. 

Four years ago today the inhabitants of the 
Soviet Zone of Germany plainly demonstrated 
their legitimate desire for freedom. Recently we 
have seen an expression of the same wish by the 
heroic Hungarian people. Unfortunately we 
have also seen these efforts brutally repressed by 
the intervention of the Soviet Union. 

The ending by peaceful means of the unnatural 
and unjust division of Germany continues to be 
a major objective of the United States of America 
in concert with its partners in the free world. 
Together with these partners we have declared 
our determination to intensify our efforts to re- 
store Germany as a free and united state. 

The desire of mankind to live in freedom and 
peace constitutes a force which cannot be re- 
sisted. My coimtrymen and I join with you in 
honoring the high cause to which you have dedi- 
cated this day. 



50 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe 6u//ef/n 



Visit of Prime Minister Nobusuite Kishi of Japan 



Nohusuke Kishi^ Pnme Minister of Japan, made 
an official visit to the United States from June 16 
to 29. Included in his itinerary were visits in 
Honolulu, San Francisco, New York, and Los 
Angeles, as well as a 3-daxj visit in AYashington, 
Juive 19 to 22, Following is the text of a joint 
cotnmunique issued by the Prime Minister and 
President Eisenhower on June 21 at the conclusion 
of tlieir talks, together loith Mr. Kishi's address 
before separate sessions of the Senate and the 
House of Representatives on June 20, greetings ex- 
changed by Vice President Nixon and the Prime 
Minister at the airport on June 19, and an an- 
nouncement of the members of the official party. 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE, JUNE 21 

White House press release 

The President of the United States and the 
Prime Minister of Japan concluded today valu- 
able discussions on topics of interest to both coun- 
tries. Their talks focused mainly on United 
States-Japanese relations but they also discussed 
international subjects of mutual concern, espe- 
cially the situation in Asia. 

During his three-day visit the Prime Minister 
and members of his party met at length with the 
Secretary of State and also met with the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Commerce, 
the Chairman of the United States Joint Chiefs 
of Staff, the President of the Export-Import Bank 
and appropriate representatives of the President 
and of the Departments of Defense and Agri- 
culture, and with leaders of the United States 
Congress. After leaving Washington, the Prime 
Minister will visit other parts of the United States 
and meet with leaders of business and otlier pri- 
vate organizations. 



I. 

The President and the Prime Minister agreed 
that, although the dangers of general war had 
somewhat receded, international communism re- 
mains a major threat. Accordingly, they agreed 
that the free nations should contmue to preserve 
their strength and their unity. It was mutually 
recognized that the deterrent power of the free 
world had, in recent years, been effective in pre- 
venting overt aggression in the Far East and the 
world. 

The President and the Prime Minister are con- 
vinced that relations between Japan and the 
United States are entering a new era firinly based 
on common interests and trust. Their discussions 
covered the many mutual advantages and benefits 
of close relations between the United States and 
Japan. The President and the Prime Minister de- 
cided, therefore, that it would be appropriate to 
affirm the following principles of cooperation be- 
tween the two countries : 

(1) Kelations between the United States and 
Japan rest on a solid foundation of sovereign 
equality, mutual interest and cooperation bene- 
ficial to both nations. In the years ahead, this 
relationship will provide a vital element in 
strengthening the Free World. 

(2) Both nations are dedicated to peace based 
on liberty and justice in accordance with the prin- 
ciples of the United Nations. They are resolved 
to work toward the establishment of conditions 
under which peace and freedom can prevail. To 
this end they will support the United Nations and 
contribute their best efforts to preserve and en- 
hance the unity of the Free World. They will 
oppose the use of force by any nation except in 
individual or collective self-defense as provided in 
the United Nations Charter. 



Ju/y 8, J 957 



51 



(3) In the interests of continued peace, the 
Free World must maintain its defensive capability 
until armaments are brought under effective con- 
trol. Meanwhile, the free nations need to intensify 
their effoi-ts to foster the conditions necessary for 
economic and social progress and for strengthen- 
ing freedom in Asia and throughout the world. 
Free Asian nations, which desire assistance, should 
be aided in carrying forward measures for eco- 
nomic development and technical training. 

(4) The United States and Japan reaffirm the 
desirability of a high level of woidd trade bene- 
ficial to free nations and of orderly trade between 
the two countries, without unnecessary and arbi- 
trary restrictions. 

(5) The two countries fully agree that an effec- 
tive international agreement for the reduction of 
armaments, both nuclear and conventional, is of 
crucial importance for the future of the world. 
They will continue in close consultation on this 
important problem. 

Within the context of these principles the Presi- 
dent and the Prime Minister reviewed the gi'eat 
changes which have taken place in Japan in recent 
years, including Japan's extensive economic re- 
covery and admission to the United Nations, both 
of which the President warmly welcomed. 

II. 

Existing security arrangements between the 
United States and Japan were discussed. It was 
agreed to establish an intergovernmental com- 
mittee to study problems arising in relation to the 
Security Treaty including consultation, when- 
ever practicable, regarding the disposition and 
employment in Japan by the United States of its 
forces. The committee will also consult to as- 
sure that any action taken under the Treaty con- 
forms to the principles of the United Nations 
Charter. The President and the Prime Minister 
affirmed their understanding that the Security 
Treaty of 1951 was designed to be transitional in 
character and not in that form to remain in per- 
petuity. The Conunittee will also consider future 
adjustments in the relationships between the 
United States and Japan in these fields adequate 
to meet the needs and aspirations of the peoples 
of both countries. 

The United States welcomed Japan's plans for 
the buildup of her defense forces and accordingly, 
in consonance with the letter and spirit of the 



Security Treaty, will substantially reduce the 
numbers of United States forces in Japan within 
the next year, including a prompt withdrawal of 
all United States ground combat forces. The 
United States plans still further reductions as the 
Japanese defense forces grow. 

The President, while recognizing that Japan 
nuist trade to live, stressed the continuing need 
for control on exports of strategic materials to 
those countries threatening the independence of 
free nations tlirough the extension of interna- 
tional communism. The Prime Minister, while 
agreeing with the need for such control in co- 
operation with other Free World governments, 
pointed out the necessity for Japan to increase its 
trade. 

The Prime JMinister emphasized the strong de- 
sire of the Japanese people for the return of 
administrative control over the Ryukyu and Bonin 
Islands to Japan. The President reaffirmed the 
United States position that Japan possesses resid- 
ual sovereignty over these islands. He pointed 
out, however, that so long as the conditions of 
threat and tension exist in the Far East the United 
States will find it necessary to continue the present 
status. He stated that the United States will con- 
tinue its policy of improving the welfare and well- 
being of tlie inhabitants of the Islands and of pro- 
moting their economic and cultural advancement. 

Economic and trade relations between the 
United States and Japan were discussed at length. 
The President and the Prime Minister mutually 
confirmed not only the desire for a high level of 
trade but also the need for close relations between 
the two countries in other economic fields. The 
Prime Minister, while expressing his deep concern 
over certain movements in the United States for 
import restrictions, explained that in considera- 
tion of the predominant importance of the United 
States market for Japanese trade Japan is taking 
measures for an orderly development of her ex- 
ports to the United States. The President con- 
firmed that the United States Government will 
maintain its traditional policy of a high level of 
trade without unnecessary and arbitrary restric- 
tions. He expressed his hopes for the removal of 
local restrictions on the sale of Japanese products. 

The Prime Minister described his recent tour of 
certain Asian countries and said that he had been 
deeply impressed with the serious efforts these 
counti'ies are making toward economic develop- 



52 



Deparimenf of State Builelin 



luent. He expressed his conviction that further 
progress in the economic developnient of these 
countries would greatly contribute to stability 
and freedom in Asia. The President expressed his 
full agreement with the Prime Minister. The 
President and the Prime Minister discussed ways 
in which free Asian countries might be further 
assisted in developing their economies. The views 
of the Prime Minister will be studied by the 
United States. 

The President and the Prime Minister discussed 
the early cessation of both the testing and the 
manufacture of nuclear weapons as part of a first 
step in a safeguarded disarmament program. The 
President told the Prime Minister that the latter's 
views are being taken into accomit in formulating 
the United States position at the current United 
Nations disarmament session in London. 

The President and the Prime Minister are con- 
vinced that their exchange of views will contribute 
much to strengthening mutual understanding and 
to agreement on fundamental interests which will 
further solidify the friendly relations between the 
two countries in the years to come. 



MR. KISHI'S ADDRESS TO SENATE AND HOUSE 
OF REPRESENTATIVES, JUNE 20 > 

Translation 

I am deeply grateful for your warm reception 
and cordial welcome. You have accorded me a 
great honor today — the honor of speaking in this 
living citadel of democracy. 

It has been a thrilling experience for me to 
drive up Capitol Hill to this time-honored hall. 
It is an inspiration to me to stand on this rostrum 
which has witnessed the evolution of the modern 
democratic process of government, thus providing 
the pattern for new democracies, including my 
own country. Today Japan is endeavoring with 
pride and resolution to consolidate the foundations 
of a truly democratic government. The whole ef- 
fort of our nation is dedicated to this task, for we 
believe in the lofty principles of democracy — in 
the liberty and dignity of the individual. 

It is because of our strong belief in democratic 
principles and ideals that Japan associates herself 
with the free nations of the world. We are ranged 



' Reprinted from Cong. Rec. of June 20, 1957, pp. 8764 and 

8821. 



on the side of liberty, justice, and equality, because 
there can be no true peace, no true security, no 
true progress nor true human happiness unless 
men and nations live by these principles. 

In all our free world relations, our association 
with the United States is to us the most important. 
We are grateful to your country for the generous 
aid we have received since the war in restoring our 
shattered economy. We believe that our friend- 
ship, our mutual respect and trust, and our bonds 
of cooperation must ever be strong, especially in 
these times when tensions persist in many parts of 
the world. 

International communism is now trying to win 
over Asia by exploiting the fervent spirit of 
nationalism of the Asian peoples and by appealing 
to their impatience to overcome poverty and priva- 
tion. The Communists are trying to demonstrate 
that their way is the quicker way to develop under- 
developed economies and to raise living standards. 

We firmly believe that they are wrong, and that 
the democratic method is the only way to serve 
the welfare and to promote the happiness of man- 
kind. We must prove that we are right. 

As the most advanced and industrialized nation 
in Asia, Japan has already shown that economic 
and social pi'ogress can be achieved without the 
Communist shortcut. We have already demon- 
strated that free enterprise serves human happi- 
ness and welfare in an honorable way with full 
respect for the dignity of man. It is my firm 
conviction that Japan, as a faithful member of 
tim free world, has a useful and constructive role 
to play, particularly in Asia, where the free world 
faces the challenge of international communism. 
We are resolved to play that role. 

I have come to this country at this time, in re- 
sponse to an invitation from your President, to 
have a frank exchange of views with the highest 
officials of your Government on a wide range of 
problems of mutual interest and concern as they 
affect our two countries and as they affect the 
world. I hope that our discussions, now in prog- 
ress, will bear good fruit. From our talks there 
will emerge, I sincerely trust, a strong and endur- 
ing partnership that will open the door to a new 
era of Japanese-American relations. 

Let me, in closing, express to you, and through 
you to the people of America, my high esteem and 
warm feelings of friendship, and my best wishes 



July 8, 1957 



53 



for the prosperity and happiness of your great 
Republic, the United States of America. 



EXCHANGE OF GREETINGS AT AIRPORT, 
JUNE 19 

Press release 375 dated June 19 
Vice President Nixon: 

Mr. Prime Minister, it is a very great honor for 
me to extend on behalf of President Eisenhower 
and the American people our welcome on the oc- 
casion of your visit to Washington, the Nation's 
Capital, as the representative of the Government 
and the people of Japan. I recall the visit that I 
paid to your country 4 years ago and the welcome 
that we received from people in all walks of life 
on that occasion. I can assure you that in the 7 
very busy days that you will spend in our country 
you will find on every side among the American 
people admiration and respect and friendship for 
the people of Japan and for your Government. 

I am confident that in the conversations and 
discussions you will have with President Eisen- 
hower, Secretary of State Dulles, and other mem- 
bers of our Government that those discussions 
will lead to better understanding between our 
people and progress toward the great objectives 
which both of our peoples and our Governments 
share, the objectives of peace and freedom for all 
the peoples of the world. 

Prime Minister Kislii: 

I deeply appreciate your cordial welcome. I 
am happy to come to Washington as a state guest 
in response to the kind invitation extended to me 
by President Eisenhower. As has been an- 
noiuiced, the purpose of my visit is to hold frank 
and friendly discussions with the President, the 
Vice President, the Secretary of State, and other 
high ofHcials of the United States Government on 
matters of common interest and concern to 
Japan and America. Our Govermnents will seek 
through our talks the ways and means by which 
we can further strengthen our ties of friendslnp 
and cooperation and work together more closely 
and hence more effectively in the cause of world 
peace and human welfare. 

I have come to lay the groundwork with your 
leaders for such Japanese-American collaboration 



and partnership. I look forward to these talks 
which begin today and continue until Friday. 
I am sure they will be vei-y helpful to both our 
countries in deepening their understanding of 
each other, and I confidently hope that my visit 
to America will help to prepare the way for a 
new era of Japanese- American relations. 



MEMBERS OF OFFICIAL PARTY 

The Department of State announced on June 13 
(press release 360) the members of the official 
party for the visit of Prime Minister Nobusuke 
Kishi of Japan, June 16-29. They are as follows : 

Nobusnke Kishl, Prime Minister of Japan 

Koichiro Asakai, Ambassador of Japan to the United States 

Hiroliide Isliida, Chief Cabinet Secretary (Ranlj of Cabinet 
Minister) 

Takizo Matsnmoto, Member of the House of Representa- 
tives 

Kingo Machimura, Member of the House of Representa- 
tives 

Takeo Fnkiida, Member of the House of Representatives 

Zenshiro Hoshina, Member of the House of Representa- 
tives 

Takeji Kobayashi, Member of the House of Councillors 

Renzo Sawada, Personal Adviser to the Prime Minister 
(former Ambassador of Japan to the United Nations)" 

Kogoro Uemura, Vice President, Federation of Economic 
Organizations ^ 

Shunichi Matsumoto, Member of the House of Representa- 
tives, Foreign Office Adviser (former Ambassador of 
Japan to London)^ 

Sunao Sonoda, Member of the House of Representatives 
(former Parliamentary Vice Minister of Foreign 
Affairs) = 

Koh Chiba, Director, American Affairs Bureau of the 
Foreign Office 

Harumi Takeuchi, Chief, Foreign Office Archives Section 
(Prime Minister's official secretary In the Foreign Office) 

Shintaro Abe, Private Secretary to the Prime Minister 

Wiley T. Buchanan, Jr., Chief of Protocol of the United 
States 

Douglas MacArthur II, American Ambassador to Japan 
(Washington and New York only) 

Clement E. Conger, Assistant Chief of Protocol, Depart- 
ment of State (Washington, New York, and Los Angeles 
only) 

Stuart P. Lillico, Press Officer, Department of State 



^ Although not members of the official party, these per- 
sons accompanied the Prime Minister as personal advisers. 
A number of other Japanese accompanied the Prime Min- 
ister as members of his unofficial party, as well as a group 
uf Japanese Journalists. 



54 



Department of State Bulletin 



Administration of Ryuityu Islands 



WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

White House press release dated June 5 

The President on June 5 issued an Executive 
order providing for the administration of the 
Eyukyu Islands. 

Pending the enactment of appropriate legisla- 
tion by the Congress, the order continues in force 
present arrangements for the exercise of admin- 
istrative, legislative, and jurisdictional powers re- 
posed in the United States by article 3 of the treaty 
of peace with Japan.^ 

Under the order the authority granted to the 
United States in the treaty of peace continues to 
be exercised by the Secretary of Defense, subject 
to the direction and control of the President. In 
addition to promoting effective and responsible 
self-government, the Secretary is to make every 
effort to improve the welfare and well-being of 
the inhabitants of the Ryukyus and to promote 
their economic and cultural advancement. The 
order continues responsibility for conduct of re- 
lations with foreign countries and international 
organizations with respect to the islands in the 
Secretary of State. 

The order defines limits of authority assigned 
respectively to United States and local govern- 
ment authorities. It establishes a structure for 
operation of both Eyukyuan and United States 
courts and sets forth the responsibilities of the 
executive and legislative branches of the Govern- 
ment of the Ryukyu Islands. 



EXECUTIVE ORDER 10713 ' 

PROVIDING FOR ADMINISTRATION OF THE 
RYUKYU ISLANDS 

WHEBEA3 under Article 3 of the Treaty of Peace with 
Japan the United States is exercising all and any powers 
of administration, legislation and jurisdiction over the 
territory, including territorial waters, and inhabitants 
of the Ryukyu Islands (the term "Ryukyu Islands," as 
used in this order, meaning Nansei Shoto south of 29° 
north latitude, excluding the islands in the Amani 



" For text, see Botletin of Aug. 27, 1951, p. 349 ; for 
background on signing of treaty, see ibid., Sept. 17, 1951, 
p. 447. 

' 22 Fed. Reg. 4007. 



Oshima group with respect to which all rights and in- 
terests of the United States under the said Article of 
the Treaty have been relinquished to Japan) : 

Now, THEREFORE, by vlrtue of the authority vested in 
me by the Constitution, and as President of the United 
States and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of 
the United States, it is ordered as follows : 

Section 1. Except as the Congress may otherwise pro- 
vide by law with respect to the government of the Ryukyu 
Islands, all administrative, legislative, and jurisdictional 
powers reposed in the United States by Article 3 of the 
Treaty of Peace with Japan shall be exercised in ac- 
cordance with this order. 

Sec. 2. The said powers shall be exercised by the 
Secretary of Defense, subject to the direction and con- 
trol of the President of the United States. In the exer- 
cise of this authority the Secretary of Defense shall en- 
courage the development of an effective and responsible 
Ryukyuan government, based on democratic principles 
and supported by a sound financial structure, shall make 
every effort to improve the welfare and well-being of the 
inhabitants of the Ryukyu Islands, and shall continue to 
promote the economic and cultural advancement of the 
inhabitants. The Secretary of Defense may delegate 
any function vested in him by this order to such officials 
or organizational entities of the Department of Defense 
as he may designate. 

Sec. 3. The Secretary of State shall be responsible for 
the conduct of relations with foreign countries and in- 
ternational organizations with respect to the Ryukyn 
Islands. 

Sec. 4. There is established, under the jurisdiction of 
the Secretary of Defense, a civil administration of the 
Ryukyu Islands, the head of which shall be known as the 
High Commissioner of the Ryukyu Islands (hereinafter 
referred to as the "High Commissioner"). The High 
Commissioner (a) shall be designated by the Secretary 
of Defense, after consultation with the Secretary of State 
and with the approval of the President, from among the 
active duty members of the armed forces of the United 
States, (b) shall have the powers and perform the duties 
assigned to him by the terms of this order, (c) may del- 
egate any function vested in him to such oflicials of the 
civil administration as he may designate, and (d) shall 
carry out any powers or duties delegated or assigned to 
him by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to this order. 

Sec. 5. There is hereby continued, subject to the pro- 
visions of this order, the now existing Ryukyuan cen- 
tral government (hereinafter referred to as the Govern- 
ment of the Ryukyu Islands). 

Sec. 6. The legislative power of the Government of the 
Ryukyu Islands, except as otherwise provided in this 
order, shall be vested in a legislative body whose mem- 
bers are directly elected by the people of the islands. 
The legislature shall consist of a single house of 29 mem- 
bers who shall be elected biennially in even numbered 
years from single representative districts. 

Sec. 7. The legislative body shall exercise legislative 
powers which extend only to all subjects of legislation of 
domestic application. The legislative body shall deter- 



Jo/y 8, J 957 



55 



mine the procedures for judging the selection and qual- 
ification of its own members and shall choose therefrom 
its officers and determine its rules and procedures. Local 
legislative bodies, the members of which shall be elected 
by the inhabitants of the respective municipalities in ac- 
cordance with procedures established by the legislative 
body of the Government of the Ryukyu Islands, shall be 
given and shall exercise appropriate municipal legisla- 
tive powers. The High Commissioner shall report to the 
Secretary of Defense all laws enacted by the legislative 
body of the Government of the Ryukyu Islands and the 
said Secretary shall report the same to the Congress of 
the United States. 

Sec. 8. The executive power of the Government of the 
Ryukyu Islands shall be vested in a Chief Executive 
who shall be a Ryukyuan, appointed by the High Com- 
missioner after consultation with representatives of the 
legislative body. The Chief Executive shall have gen- 
eral supervision and control of all executive agencies and 
instrumentalities of the Government of the Ryukyu Is- 
lands and shall faithfully execute the laws and ordi- 
nances applicable to the Ryukyu Islands. The head of 
each municipal government shall be elected by the peo- 
ple of the respective municipality in accordance with 
procedures established by the legislative body of the 
Government of the Ryukyu Islands. 

Sec. 9. Every bill passed by the legLslative body shall, 
before it becomes law, be presented to the Chief Execu- 
tive. If the Chief Executive approves a bill he shall sign 
it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections, to the 
legislative body within fifteen days after it shall have 
been presented to him. If a bill is not returned within 
the specified fifteen day period, it shall become law in 
like manner as if it had been approved by the Chief Execu- 
tive, unless the legislative body by adjournment prevents 
its return, in which case it shall be law if approved by the 
Chief Executive within forty-five days after it shall 
have been presented to him ; otherwise it shall not be 
law. Wlien a bill is returned to the legislative body with 
objections by the Chief Executive, the legislative body 
may proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsidera- 
tion two thirds of the legislative body pass it, it shall be 
sent to the High Commissioner. If the High Commis- 
sioner approves it, he shall sign it. If he does not ap- 
prove it, he shaU return it to the legislative body so 
stating, and it shall not be law. If the High Commis- 
sioner neither approves nor disapproves the bill within 
forty-five days from the date of transmittal to him by the 
legislative body, it shall become law in like manner as 
if he had signed it. If any bill approved by the legisla- 
tive body contains several items of appropriation of 
money, the Chief Executive may object to one or more 
of such items or any part or parts, portion or portions 
thereof, while approving the other items, or parts or por- 
tions of the bill. In such case the Chief Executive shall 
append to the bill, at the time of signing it, a statement 
of the items, or parts or portions thereof, objected to, 
and the items, or parts or portions thereof, so objected 
to shall not take effect. Should the legislative body seek 
to over-ride such objections of the Chief Executive, the 
procedures set forth above will apply. In computing any 



period of days for the foregoing purposes, Sundays and 
legal holidays shall be excluded. 

Sec. 10. Judicial powers in the Ryukyu Islands shall 
be exercised as follows : 

(a) A system of courts, including the civil and criminal 
courts of original jurisdiction and appellate tribunals, 
shall be maintained by the Government of the Ryukyu 
Islands. These courts shall exercise jurisdiction as 
follows : 

(1) Civil juri.sdictiou in all civil cases, subject to the 
provisions of paragraphs (b)(1) and (2), below. 

(2) Criminal jurisdiction over all persons except (a) 
members of the United States forces or the civilian com- 
ponent, (b) employees of the United States Government 
who are United States nationals even though not subject 
to trial by courts-martial under the Uniform Code of Mili- 
tary Justice (10 U. S. C. 801 et seq.), and (c) dependents 
of the foregoing, provided, nevertheless, that subject to 
paragraph (c), below, criminal jurisdiction may be ex- 
ercised liy Courts of the Government of the Ryukyu Is- 
lands over dependents who are Ryukyuans. Criminal 
jurisdiction may be withdrawn from the courts of the 
Government of the Ryukyu Islands by the High Commis- 
sioner in any case which affects the security, property, or 
interests of the United States and which is so designated 
by him. 

(b) A system of courts, including civil and criminal 
courts of original jurisdiction and appellate tribunals, 
shall be maintained by the civil administration. These 
courts shall exercise jurisdiction as follows : 

(1) Civil jurisdiction over any case or controversy 
of particular importance affecting the security, property, 
or interests of the United States, as determined by the 
High Commissioner. Such cases instituted in a court of 
the Government of the Ryukyu Islands shall be trans- 
ferred to the appropriate civil administration court upon 
order of the High Commissioner at any time in the pro- 
ceedings, including final appellate process, prior to the 
entering of final decree, order or judgment. Cases so 
transferred may be subject to trial de novo in the dis- 
cretion of the court of the civil administration. 

(2) Civil jurisdiction in eases and controversies in 
which a member of the United States forces or the 
civilian component thereof, an employee of the United 
States Government who is a United States national, or 
a dependent of one of the foregoing, unless such depend- 
ent is a Ryukyuan, is a party if upon petition of one 
of the parties to the suit the High Commissioner deems 
the case to be important in its effect, direct or indirect, 
on the security of the isl.nnds, on foreign relations or on 
the security, property or interests of the United States 
or nationals thereof and determines that the civil ad- 
ministration should assume jurisdiction over the case. 
In this event, such cases instituted in a court of the 
Government of the Ryukyu Islands shall be transferred 
to the appropriate civil administration court by order 
of the High Commissioner at any time in the proceed- 
ings, including final appellate process, prior to the enter- 



56 



Department of State Bulletin 



ing of final decree, order or judgment. Cases so trans- 
ferred may be subject to trial dc novo in the discretion of 
the court of the civil administration. 

(3) Criminal jurisdiction over United States nationals 
employed by the United States or any agency thereof who 
are not subject to trial by courts-martial under the Uni- 
form Code of Military Justice (10 U. S. C. 801 et seq.) 
and their dependents, excluding Ryukyuans. 

(i) Criminal jiirisdiction in specific cases of particu- 
lar importance affecting the security, property, or inter- 
ests of the United States, as determined by the High 
Commissioner. Such eases instituted in a court of the 
Government of the Ryukyu Islands may be transferred 
to the appropriate civil administration court upon order 
of the High Commissioner at any time in the proceedings, 
including the final appellate process, prior to the entering 
of final decree, order or judgment. Cases so transferred 
may be subject to trial de novo in the discretion of the 
court of the civil administration. 

(c) Criminal jurisdiction over persons subject to trial 
b.v courts-martial under the Uniform Code of Military 
Justice (10 U. S. C. 801 et seq.) will be exercised by 
courts other than courts-martial only when the military 
commander concerned determines not to exercise mili- 
tary jurisdiction under the Uniform Code of Military 
Justice and specifically indicates to the High Commis- 
sioner his approval of referring the case to another 
court. 

(d) The highest appellate court of the civil adminis- 
tration shall have jurisdiction to review : 

(1) Any case, civil or criminal, tried in the inferior 
courts of the civil administration, whether initiated 
therein or removed thereto, upon appeal by any party. 

(2) Any case, civil or criminal, decided by the highest 
court of the Government of the Ryukyu Islands having 
jurisdiction thereof in which is involved 

(i) a contiict of decision between the highest court of 
the Government of the Ryukyu Islands and the highest 
appellate court of the civil administration or 

(ii) a question of United States, foreign or inter- 
national law, including the interpretation of any treaty. 
Act of Congress of the United States, Executive order of 
the President of the United States, or of a proclamation, 
ordinance or order of the High Commissioner 

upon appeal by any party or, if no such appeal be taken, 
upon petition, setting forth the special grounds therefor, 
presented to the court by the Chief Legal Officer of the 
civil administration. The highest appellate court of the 
civil administration shall have power to affirm, modify, 
set aside or reverse the judgment, order or decree re- 
viewed or to remand the case with such directions for a 
new trial or for entry of judgment as may be just. 
In a criminal case, the appellate court may set aside the 
judgment of conviction, or may commute, reduce (but 
not increase) or suspend the execution of sentence. 

(e) Nothing in this section shall be construed as ex- 
tending to any court of the Government of the Ryukyu 
Islands or of the civil administration, jurisdiction over 
the United States Government or any agency thereof 



unless sijecifie authority has been conferred in the pre- 
mises by the Congress of the United States. 

(f) For the purpose of these provisions the expression 

(1) "Members of the United States Forces" shall mean 
the personnel on active duty lielonging to the land, sea 
or air armed forces of the United States of America 
whenever In the Ryukyu Islands. 

(2) "Civilian component" shall mean the civilian 
persons of United States nationality who are in the em- 
ploy of, serving with, or accompanying the United States 
Forces whenever in the Ryukyu Islands. 

(3) "Dependents" shall mean the spouse and any child 
or relative by affinity, consanguinity or adoption when 
dependent upon the principal for over one-half of his or 
her support whenever in the Ryukyu Islands. 

Sec. 11. The High Commissioner may, if such action 
is deemed necessary for the fulfillment of his mission 
under this order, promulgate laws, ordinances or regula- 
tions, with due regard to the provisions of section 2 
hereof. The High Commissioner, if such action is deemed 
by him to be important in its effect, direct or indirect, on 
the security of the Ryukyu Islands, or on relations with 
foreign countries and international organizations with 
respect to the Ryukyu Islands, or on the foreign relations 
of the United States, or on the security, property or in- 
terests of the United States or nationals thereof, may, 
in respect of Ryukyuan bills, laws, or officials, as the 
case may be, (a) veto any bill or any part or portion 
thereof, (b) annul any law or any part or portion thereof 
within 45 days after its enactment, and (c) remove any 
public official from office. The High Commissioner has 
the power of reprieve, commutation and pardon. The 
High Commissioner may assume in whole or in part, the 
exercise of full authority in the islands, if such assump- 
tion of authority appears mandatory for security reasons. 
Exercise of authority conferred on the High Commissioner 
by this section shall be promptly reported to the Secre- 
tary of Defense, who shall inform the Secretary of State. 

Sec. 12. In carrying out this order, including section 11, 
tlie High Commissioner shall preserve to persons in the 
Ryukyu Islands the basic liberties enjoyed by people in 
democratic countries, including freedom of speech, assem 
Ijly, petition, religion and press, and security from unrea 
sonable searches and seizures, and from deprivation of 
life, liberty or property without due process of law. 

Sec. 13. The Secretary of Defense may issue such fur- 
ther instructions as may be necessary for the carrying 
out of this order. 

Sec. 14. Except as they may be inconsistent herewith, 
the proclamations, ordinances, and directives heretofore 
issued by the existing civil administration and its predeces- 
sor military government agencies shall continue in force 
and effect until modified, revoked, or superseded under the 
authority of this order. No proceeding, either civil or 
criminal, pending in any court of the Government of the 
Ryukyu Islands or of the civil administration of the 
Ryukyu Islands on the date of this order shall abate by 
reason of this order ; and any such proceeding shall be 
conducted and concluded in accordance with the laws, 



Ju/y 8, 1957 



57 



ordinances, proclamations, and directives in effect imme- 
diately before the date of this order. 

Sec. 15. This order shall become effective immediately, 
but until its provisions shall severally become operative 
as herein provided, the legislative, executive and judicial 
functions now vested in tlie civil administration and the 
Government of the Ryukyu Islands, shall continue to be 
exercised as now provided by law, ordinance, proclama- 
tion or directive, and the incumbents of all offices under 
the civil administration or the Government of the Ryukyu 



Islands shall continue in office until their successors arc 
appointed or elected and have qualified, unless sooner re- 
moved by competent authority. 



^y C4.s-^ Z^-/>C/Ct-<-t*- X.^^.*^ 



The White House:, 
June 5, 11)57. 



U.N. Command in Korea Announces Intention 
To Replace Old Weapons 



Department of Defense news release dated June 21 
DEFENSE DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The United Nations Command advised the 
Military Armistice Commission in Korea on 
Jmie 21 that the United Nations Command con- 
siders that it is entitled to be relieved of obliga- 
tions imder subparagrapli 13d of the Korean 
Armistice Agreement, which limits the replace- 
ment on a piece-for-piece basis of vrorn-out or 
destroyed military equipment to items of the same 
effectiveness and type, after the date of the 
armistice, July 27, 1953.^ 

The action which the United Nations Command 
is taking in the Military Armistice Commission 
is necessitated by the flagrant and long-continued 
disregard by the Coimnunist side of its obliga- 
tions under subparagraph 13d of the armistice 
agreement. At the time the armistice agreement 
was signed, all the Communist operational air- 
craft were based north of the Yalu, and indeed all 
North Korean airfields had been bombed out and 
rendered nonoperational. Since the signing of 
the armistice, the Communist side has not re- 
ported the introduction of a single combat air- 
craft into Korea, and yet it is clear beyond dis- 
pute that the Communist side now has himdreds 
of the most modern jet types of combat aircraft 
based in North Korea. This conclusion is sup- 
ported by all types of intelligence information 



' For test of armistice agreement, see Bulletin of 
Aug. 3, 1953, p. 132. 



including the evidence of radar trackings, the 
testimony of defectors, as well as long-range 
photographs. 

In addition, the Communists have built up and 
modernized, in violation of tlieir agreement and 
undertakings in subparagraph 13d of the armis- 
tice agreement, their strength in the categories 
of armored vehicles, weapons and artillery, and 
ammunition, with the result that they have 
enormously increased the potential of the militaiy 
forces on the north side of the armistice line. 



U.N. COMMAND STATEMENT 

The following statement was presented on behalf 
of the United Nations Oommand to the meeting of 
the Militai^ Armistice Comjiiission in Panmwn- 
jom, Korea, scheduled to begin at 3 p. m. Korean 
daylight savings time, Friday, June £1, which is 
1 : SO a. m., Friday, Washington time. 

Maj. Gen. Homer L. Litzenberg, USMC, Senior 
Member, United Nations Command, Military 
Armistice Commission, presented the statement, 
which is addressed to the Korean Peoples Army 
{North Korea Communisf) and Chinese Peoples 
Volunteers, both of which groups are signatories 
to the Korean Armistice Agreement of July 27, 
1953, 

Ahnost four years have elapsed since the signing 
of the Armistice Agreement which ended the Ko- 
rean conflict. The signatories of that docmnent 



58 



Department of State Bulletin 



agreed to be bound and governed by a mutual ap- 
plication of the terms of the Agreement. 

With complete disregard for your obligations 
under sub-paragraph 13d of the Armistice Agree- 
ment, your side has continued to violate the pro- 
visions of that paragraph in the following partic- 
ulars : 

(1) You have introduced reinforcing combat 
equipment of the types referred to in sub-para- 
graph 13d in contravention of the provisions al- 
lowing only piece-for-piece replacement of 
equipment worn out and destroyed after the date 
of the armistice. 

( 2 ) You have also introduced combat equipment 
and weapons of entirely different types and capa- 
bilities from any you had in Korea at the time 
of the Armistice. 

(3) You have failed to report introductions of 
such equipment. 

(4) You have introduced such equipment at 
ports of entry other than those specified in the 
Armistice Agreement. 

The United Nations Command has again and 
again protested these violations by your side and 
has attempted in vain to have it comply with the 
provisions of the Armistice Agreement. All pro- 
cedures established by the Agreement for the 
settlement of disputes have been exhausted by 
the United Nations Command. 

The United Nations Conunand intends to main- 
tain the Armistice Agreement. However, the fla- 
gi'ant, repeated, and willful violations of that 
agreement by your side undermine the very pro- 
visions which were specifically designed to assure 
the stability of the military armistice. A cardmal 
purpose of these provisions was to insure the freez- 
ing of the military status quo by maintaining the 
relative military balance existing on July 27, 1953. 

Your side, by its repeated violations of the Ar- 
mistice Agreement, has seriously vipset the relative 
military balance by modernizing and building up 
military capability in the area vastly superior 
to that which you had at the time the Armistice 
Agreement was signed. On the other hand, the 
United Nations Command, because of its scrupu- 
lous observance of the Armistice Agi-eement, has 
not increased its combat equipment and is still 
equipped with the same type of weapons it had at 
the time the Armistice Agreement was signed. 



As a result of the long period of time since the 
Armistice went into effect, the equipment and 
weapons of the United Nations Command have 
become obsolete and outmoded, and those needing 
replacement camiot be replaced from stocks on 
hand or currently in production. This situation 
aggravates the imbalance created by your breach 
of sub-paragraph 13d. The possibility that this 
situation would arise was not foreseen at the time 
the Armistice Agreement was negotiated, and, 
indeed, it would not have arisen had your side 
proceeded to negotiate, within three months and 
in good faith a "peaceful settlement" as was con- 
templated by the Armistice Agreement. 

In view of these facts and your gross violations 
of the provisions of sub-paragraph 13d, the 
United Nations Command considers that it is 
entitled to be relieved of corresponding obligations 
under the provisions of this paragi-aph until such 
time as the relative military balance has been re- 
stored and your side, by its actions, has demon- 
strated its willingness to comply. 

The stability of the Armistice and the mainte- 
nance of the relative military balance, which it 
was the primary purpose of these provisions of 
the Armistice Agreement to insure, can now only 
be restored and maintained by the replacement by 
the United Nations Command of its old weapons 
with new items currently available. The United 
Nations Command is taking appropriate steps to 
this end. 

It should be clearly understood that: 

(1) The only purpose of the United Nations 
Command action is to restore the relative balance 
of military strength that the Armistice was in- 
tended to preserve. 

(2) The United Nations Command emphasizes 
the fact that the replacement weapons are being 
deployed for defensive purposes only. 

(3) The United Nations Conamand intends as 
it has in the past fully to observe the cease-fire 
provision of the Armistice Agreement. It intends 
also to observe all of the other provisions of the 
Armistice Agreement save to the extent to which 
it is entitled to be relieved from compliance be- 
cause of your violations of sub-paragraph 13d and 
of those covered in its statement to the Military 
Armistice Commission of May 31, 1956.^ 



' Hid., June 11, 1956, p. 967. 



July 8, 1957 



59 



Return of Philippine Battle Flag 

Press release 357 dated June 11 
Department Announcement 

Ambassador Charles E. Bohlen on June 12 re- 
turned a battle flag to Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, 
88-year-old leader of the Philippine Insurrection 
of 1898-1901. The flag, which had been captured 
in 1901 by U.S. troops, was returned at a celebra- 
tion in Kawit, Cavite, Pliilippines, honoring the 
59th anniversary of General Aguinaldo's "Decla- 
ration of Independence." 

The flag was brought back from the Philip- 
pines and later presented to the Kalamazoo Pub- 
lic Museum by the late Frank L. Riley, Company 
F, 160th Indiana Infantry. Alexis A. Praus, di- 
rector of the Kalamazoo Public Museum, and 
Eepresentative August E. Johansen of Michigan 
made arrangements through the Department of 
State for the return of the flag. 

Remarks by Ambassador Bohlen 

When I learned that one of my first official acts 
as United States Ambassador to tlie Philippines 
was to be the return of this famous battle flag to 
its distinguished owner, I realized that I should 
approach with humility this solemn task of writ- 
ing a postscript to history. 

There are many men, General, who would con- 
sider themselves fortunate merely to have wit- 
nessed as much history as you have. However, 
you have been more than a witness; you have 
played a major role in the making of much of 
your nation's history. Your rich store of experi- 
ence, tempered with the wisdom of age, has fre- 
quently proved of great value throughout the 
years. A long series of American Governors 
General, High Commissioners, and Ambassadors 
have regarded you with affection and respect and 
have relied upon you, as have many Filipino Gov- 
ernment officials, for your wise counsel. I am 
proud of the close relationsliip which exists be- 
tween your country and mine, the strong ties of 
mutual trust and respect which engendered the 
desire that this banner be returned to you. 

This standard, once proudly carried into com- 
bat by your valiant forces, was captured on the 
field of battle. To that soldier of the United 
States Army who carried it home, the flag was a 
cherished war souvenir. "V\1ien he bequeathed it 



to the Spanish-American War Veterans — the 
American counterpart of your venerable Asocia- 
cion de los Veteranos de la Kevolucion — this tat- 
tered tricolor was guarded as a priceless memento 
of military service and of comrades who had 
given their lives in the service of their country. 
To the public museum of Kalamazoo, Michigan, 
where it ultimately came to rest, the flag was a 
valued addition to its collection. 

Yet the directors of the Kalamazoo Public 
Museum i-ecognized that what was to them a 
prized article was to the Filipino people a sacred 
symbol of their long and glorious struggle for 
national independence. Therefore it was decided 
that, since those who once bore arms against each 
other are now united in the bonds of fraternal 
friendship, and since the independence movement 
which you led at the time this flag was made — 
almost 6 decades ago — has achieved its goal, the 
flag's rightful place is in your hands. 

Though carefully preserved through all the 
years, this simple banner has become threadbare in 
spots, and the legendary "Sun of Liberty" on its 
white triangle has grown dim. Its material value 
is small. In its symbolic significance lies its great 
worth. As poetically stated by Fernando Maria 
Guerrero in his "La Bandera" : 

Materially speaking, a flag has no value at all; any 
piece of bunting or cloth with a few designs may be con- 
verted into a flag. But look at ours with patriotic senti- 
ments and you will see that onr tricolored flag with its 
sun and three stars symbolizes a world of heroic deeds, 
a glorified paradise of the people. It is the incarnation 
of our country and ourselves ; because it throbs with our 
hearts, interprets our national feeling, our happiness, our 
sorrows, the songs of our struggles, our national history, 
and above all, the bloody struggles for our political liber- 
ties. 

I am sure that the same sentiments were in your 
heart 59 years ago today, when you first raised in 
this place a flag of this type. The stirring strains 
of your national anthem, first played on that date, 
certainly conveyed the same feeling and inspired 
Jose Palma when he put those feelings into words. 

We are honored to join with you in celebration 
of this anniversary. Your aspirations for inde- 
pendence, as symbolized by this flag, have been 
realized. Your nation is a respected member of 
the world community. I am confident that the 
Filipino people will always remain faithful to the 
pledge that Jose Palma wrote to your flag in your 
national anthem : "O never shall its shining field 
be dimmed by tyrants might." 



60 



Departmenf of Stafe Bulletin 



American-Vietnamese FriendsFiip 

Following are texts of messages exchanged ie- 
tween President Eisenhower and President Ngo 
Dinh Diem of Viet-Nam after the latter^s visit to 
the United States, May 8-21? 

Whlto House press release dated May 27 

President Eisenhower's Message, May 24 

I was deeply touched by your message. Your 
most welcome visit to the United States has served 
to strengthen even further the friendship between 
our two countries and to permit the people of this 
country to demonstrate their high esteem for you 
and the people of Viet-Nam. It has been a very 
great pleasure for me to have met you personally 
and to have had a frank exchange of views on 
matters of mutual interest to our countries. The 
progress of the Republic of Viet-Nam, under your 
leadership, in promoting peace, stability and the 
general welfare of the Vietnamese people augurs 
well for the future of your country. 

My warmest wishes go with you on your return 
to Viet-Nam. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

President Ngo Dinh Diem's Message, May 21 

Upon leaving the United States of America, I 
want to thank you and the American people for 
your warm hospitality and kindness during my 
visit. I am most gratified to find sucli response to 
the efforts made by the Vietnamese people and 
myself to achieve and to keep our freedom. My 
visit has also convinced me that the American peo- 
ple are as rich in moral strength and spiritual 
values as in material resources. Everywhere I 
have seen prodigious achievements, enormous pros- 
perity and almost incredibly high living standards 
due to free competition, firm initiative and organ- 
ization, painstaking efforts, solidarity and social 



'Bulletin of May 27, 1957, p. S51. 



justice. These are qualities of every great nation 
and give me still more confidence in true Democ- 
racy and in the future of our threatened free world. 

This confidence has also been strengthened by 
my meeting you and Secretary of State John 
Foster Dulles: it is certainly fortunate for our 
two countries that the foreign policy of the United 
States is being directed by men of such generosity, 
farsightedness and integrity. 

God bless you and the American people. 

Ngo Dinh Diem 



Indonesian Parliamentarians 
Visit United States 

The Department of State announced on Jmie 14 
(press release 366) that 11 members of the Parlia- 
ment of the Republic of Indonesia and its secre- 
tary would arrive at San Francisco on June 15 
for a 2-month visit in the United States. The 
group, headed by the chairman of the Indonesian 
Parliament, Mr. Sartono, was invited by tlie 
United States Govermnent to visit the United 
States under the leader program of the Depart- 
ment of State's International Educational Ex- 
cliange Service. 

The members of Parliament who make up the 
group were chosen by the Indonesian Government 
and represent a cross section of several political 
parties represented in the Indonesian legislature. 
Their visit will take them from San Francisco to 
New York and Washington before they break up 
into subgroups to follow their individual interests. 
In San Francisco and New York they will meet 
with local officials and prominent community lead- 
ers. In Washington their program calls for meet- 
ings with Members of Congress, the Supreme 
Court, the Department of State, and other Gov- 
ernmental officials and prominent persons. The 
group's program in the United States is being ar- 
ranged by the Governmental Affairs Institute. 



July 8, J 957 

4:',0701 — 57 



61 



U.N. Special Committee Reports on Hungarian Uprising 



The United Nations Special Comndttee on the 
Prohlem of Himgary on June 20 released a 391- 
page report of its findings.^ Following are a De- 
partment announcement on the report, a statement 
hy Henry Cabot Lodge, U. S. Representative to the 
United Nations, and the text of chapter XVII, the 
final chapter of the report. 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 378 dated June 20 

The United Nations Special Committee on the 
Problem of Hungary has fulfilled with integrity 
and high competence the responsibility placed 
upon it by the General Assembly.^ The report of 
the Committee, published on June 20, is an author- 
itative record of the Hungarian uprising of Oc- 
tober-November 1956 and its tragic aftermath. It 
speaks for itself. 

The United States Government welcomes this 
report and accepts its findings. 

The distinguished members of the Special Com- 
mittee, consisting of representatives of Australia, 
Ceylon, Denmark, Tunisia, and Uruguay, have 
made a signal contribution to the cause of truth 
and justice by their impartial and exhaustive in- 
vestigation of the Hungarian situation and their 
penetrating analysis of events in that coimtry. 
The facts and conclusions which they have placed 
before tlie United Nations and the entire world are 
both shocking and incontrovertible. These find- 
ings are not subject to credible challenge by the 
Soviet Government or the Kadar regime, which 

^Report of the Special Committee on the ProMem of 
Hungary, U.N. doc. A/3.592 dated June 12. Available as 
supplement 18 to the Offlcial Records of the Eleventh 
Session of the General Assembly, International Documents 
Service, Columbia University Press, 2960 Broadway, New 
York 27, N.Y. ; price, $2. 

^ For background, see Bulletin of Jan. 28, 1957, p. 138, 
and May 27, 19.57, p. 865. 



62 



refused all cooperation with the Special Commit- 
tee and withheld permission for tlie Committee's 
entry into Hungary. 

The report of the Special Committee takes on 
profound moral significance as an affirmation of 
the just nature of the Hungarian people's struggle 
for freedom and national independence and as a 
grave indictment of Soviet deeds in Hungary and 
of the policies which have been ruthlessly applied 
in that unfortunate country at Soviet direction. 

The U.S. Government believes that the report 
of the Special Conunittee on the Problem of Hun- 
gary merits the widest public attention and the 
most immediate and close study by all govern- 
ments. For its part, the U.S. Government is 
giving thorough consideration to the report. 
Obviously the cosponsors of the resolution estab- 
lishing the Committee will wish to consult as soon 
as possible to determine the most effective way of 
dealing with the Committee's report and of seek- 
ing all practical redress of the wrong that has 
been committed in violation of the principles of 
the United Nations and of the elemental require- 
ments of humanity. 



STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR LODGE' 

U.S./D.N. press release 2689 dated June 19 

Obviously this report is big news. The fact 
that it is signed unanimously is a remarkable fact 
of major importance. Its account of Soviet bru- 
tality and of Soviet lying and cheating is so de- 
tailed that the report must be carefully studied by 
all governments large and small, both as a matter 
of justice to Hungary and for their own self- 
protection against future Soviet attempts to over- 
whelm them. What the Soviets have done in one 
place they may try to do in another. 



" For release simultaneous with rejiort. 

Department of State Bulletin 



I wish to make this immediate announcement: 
that I shall call a meeting of representatives of 
the 24 nations which cosponsored the resolution 
of January 10th calling for this report at the 
earliest moment that the Govermnents of these 
2i nations have had a chance to consider the re- 
port in full. 

I hope that at this meeting we will reach deci- 
sions as to the most effective future steps.^ 



TEXT OF FINAL CHAPTER OF REPORT 

Chapter XVII: Conclxtsions 

784. The terms of reference of the Special Committee 
covered a broad field, namely to rejiort to the General 
Assembly of the United Nations after full and objective 
investigation, its findings on all aspects of the question 
of Soviet intervention in Hungary by armed force and 
by other means and the effects of such intervention on 
the political development of Hungary. The Committee's 
investigation, as has been explained, involved the study 
of copious documentation from various sources and in 
several languages, as well as the questioning of more 
than a hundred witnesses, whose testimony fills two 
thousand pages in the verbatim record. The Committee 
regrets that the attitude of the Hungarian Government 
has prevented it from basing its investigation on direct 
observation in Hungary, as required by the General As- 
sembly resolution. 

785. The Committee's findings relate to many aspects 
of the events in Hungary and are concerned with numer- 
ous points of detail that have a bearing on the origin and 
nature of those events. The report itself embodies the 
conclusions of the Committee, and these conclusions can- 
not be readily dissociated from the evidence which is 
there assembled. A summary of the Committee's findings 
on individual aspects of the situation in Hungary has 
been appended to certain of the chapters. It would, how- 
ever, seem appropriate at this stage to summarize a 



■■ On June 26 Ambassador Lodge made the following 
press statement (U.S-AJ-^'- press release 2693) : 

"The sponsors of the General Assembly resolution of 
January 10, 1957, establishing the Special Committee on 
Hungary, met on June 26 in order to consider what action, 
in their view, should be taken on the report of the Special 
Committee. 

"The sponsors were unanimous that the report should 
be considered by the General Asseml^ly as soon as it is 
practicable to do so, having regard to the interests of the 
Hungarian people and the issues involved. The sponsors 
recognize that the fixing of the date, as well as the calling 
of the session, is a matter for the President of the General 
Assembly in consultation with the Secretary-General and 
with the members of the General Committee. 

"In the meantime the sponsors expressed a unanimous 
appreciation of the report." 



number of conclusions drawn by the Committee from its 
study of the evidence as a whole. To the best of the 
Committee's belief, these conclusions represent tlie essen- 
tial facts about the Hungarian uprising which are nec- 
essary to an understanding of its nature and outcome. 
They are as follows: 

(i) What took place in Hungary in October and No- 
vember 1956 was a spontaneous national uprising, due 
to long-standing grievances which had caused resentment 
among the people. One of these grievances was the in- 
ferior status of Hungary with regard to the USSR; the 
system of Government was in part maintained by the 
weapon of terror, wielded by the AVH or political police, 
whose influence was exercised at least until the end of 
1955, through a complex network of agents and informers 
permeating the whole of Hungarian society. In other 
respects also, Soviet pressure was resented. From the 
stifling of free speech to the adoption of a Soviet-style 
uniform for the Hungarian army, an alien influence ex- 
isted in all walks of life. Hungarians felt no personal 
animosity towards the individual Soviet soldiers on 
Hungarian soil, but these armed forces were symbols 
of something which annoyed a proud ijeople and fed the 
desire to be free ; 

(ii) The thesis that the uprising was fomented by re- 
actionary circles in Hungary and that it drew its strength 
from such circles and from' Western "Imperialists" failed 
to survive the Committee's examination. From start to 
finish, the uprising was led by students, workers, soldiers 
and intellectuals, many of whom were Communists or 
former Communists. The majority of political demands 
put forward during the revolution included a stipulation 
that democratic socialism should be the basis of the 
Hungarian political structure and that such social achieve- 
ments as the land reform should be safeguarded. At no 
time was any proposal made for the return to power, or 
to the Government, of any figure associated with pre-war 
days. "Fascists" and "saboteurs", heavily armed, could 
not have succeeded in landing on Hungarian airfields 
which were under Soviet supervision, or in crossing the 
Austrian frontier, where a closed zone was shown by the 
Austrian authorities to the military attaches of France, 
the United Kingdom, the United States of America and 
the USSR; 

(iii) The uprising was not planned in advance. It was 
the universal testimony of witnes.ses examined by the 
Committee that events took participants by surprise. 
No single explanation can determine exactly why the 
outbreak occurred just when it did. Communist spokes- 
men, including Mr. KSdar and the members of his present 
Government, have recognized the bitter grievances of the 
Hungarian people before 2.3 October. They have spoken 
of a "broad, popular movement" caused by the "bitterness 
and indignation" of the masses. Two factors would seem 
to have brought this resentment to a head. The first of 
these was the news received on 19 October of a successful 
move by Poland for greater independence from the USSR. 
This news was largely instrumental in bringing the 
Hungarian students together in the meetings of 22 October. 
The second factor was the acute disappointment felt by 
the people when Erno Gerci. First Secretary of the Central 
Committee of the Hungarian Workers' (Communist) 



July 8, 1957 



63 



Party, in his speech on the evening of 23 October failed 
to meet any of the popular demands and adopted what was 
considered a truculent tone towards his hearers; 

(iv) Although no evidence exists of advance planning, 
and although the whole course of the uprising bears the 
hallmark of continuous improvisation, it would appear 
that the Soviet authorities had taken steps as early as 
20 October to make armed intervention in Hungary possi- 
ble. Evidence exists of troop movements, or projected 
troop movements, from that date on. It would appear 
that plans for action had therefore been laid some time 
before the students met to discuss their demands. The 
Committee is not in a position to say whether the Soviet 
authorities anticipated that the grievances of the Hun- 
garian people, stimulated by events in Poland, could no 
longer be contained. Signs of opposition were evident 
before the 2.3rd; the Hungarian Government had reason 
to foresee that trouble was brewing. While the evidence 
shows that Soviet troops from outside Hungary were used 
even in the first intervention, no clause of the Warsaw 
Treaty provides for intervention by armed forces of the 
Soviet Union to dictate political developments within any 
signatory's frontiers ; 

(v) The demonstrations on 23 October were at first 
entirely peaceable. None of the demonstrators appear to 
have carried arms, and no evidence has been discovered 
that any of those who voiced the political demands or 
joined the demonstrators had any intention to resort 
to force. While disappointment at Mr. Gero's speech may 
have angered the crowds, it would hardly of itself have 
sufficed to turn the demonstration into an armed uprising. 
That this happened was due to the action of the AVH in 
opening fire on the people outside the Radio Building. 
Within a few hours, Soviet tanks were in action against 
the Hungarians. This appearance of Bussian soldiers in 
their midst not as friendly allies, but as enemies in combat, 
had the effect of still further uniting the people ; 

(vi) Obscurity surrounds the invitation alleged to have 
been issued by the Hungarian Government to the Soviet 
authorities to assist in quelling the uprising by force. 
Mr. Nagy has denied, with every appearance of truth, that 
he issued this invitation or was even aware of it. Since 
Soviet tanks appeared on the streets of Budapest at about 
2 a. m. on 24 October, it would have been impossible for 
him to have addressed any official message to the Soviet 
authorities, since he held no Government post at the time 
when the tanks must have received their orders. An in- 
vitation may have been made privately by Mr. Gero, First 
Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist 
Party, or Mr. Hegediis, the Prime Minister. The Com- 
mittee, however, has had no opportunity of seeing a text 
of such an invitation, or of considering the exact circum- 
stances in which it may have been issued. Until further 
information comes to light, it would be wise to suspend 
judgement as to whether such an invitation was issued at 
all. 

Similar considerations apply to the invitation which is 
alleged to have been addressed to the Soviet authorities 
before the second intervention of 4 November. Mr. KAddr 
had remained a member of Mr. Nagy's Government when 
the latter was reconstituted on 3 November and the Com- 
mittee is unaware of his having given any recorded indi- 



64 



cation of his disapproval of Mr. Nagy's policies. Mr. 
KAddr's movements at this time are not fully known, and 
he cannot be considered to have .substantiated his own 
claim to have called, in the name of the Government 
for Soviet help. In any event, there is abundant evidence 
that Soviet preparation for a further intervention, in- 
cluding the movement of troops and armour from abroad, 
had l/een under way since the last days of October. Mr. 
Kddar and his Ministers were absent from Budapest dur- 
ing the first few days after he formed his Government, and 
administrative instructions to the people of Hungary were 
issued by the commanders of the Soviet troops. 

(vii) When Mr. Nagy became Prime Minister, he was 
not at first able to exercise the full powers of that oflBce. 
Only when the grip of the AVH was loosened by the victory 
of the insurgents was he able to take an independent stand. 
By this time, the real power in Hungary lay with the 
Revolutionary and Workers' Councils, which had sprung 
up spontaneously in different parts of the country and had 
replaced the collapsing structure of the Communist Party. 
Mr. Nagy, though himself a Communist of long standing 
who had lived for many years in the USSR, invited non- 
Communists into his new Government, and listened to the 
demands of various Revolutionary and Workers' Councils. 
It would appear that Mr. Nagy himself, like the country 
at large, was somewhat taken aback by the pace of 
developments. However, seeing that his countrymen were 
united in their desire for other forms of Government and 
the departure of Soviet troops, he threw in his lot with 
the insurgents. By this action, he obliterated the impres- 
sion which he had created while still under the domination 
of the AVH, and he became a symbolic figure in the up- 
rising, although he had not instigated it, and was never 
its actual leader ; 

(viii) The few days of freedom enjoyed by the Hun- 
garian people provided abundant evidence of the popular 
nature of the uprising. A free press and radio came to 
life all over Hungary, and the disbanding of the AVH was 
the signal for general rejoicing, which revealed the degree 
of unity achieved by the people, once the burden of fear 
had been lifted from them ; 

(ix) There were a number of lynchings and beatings 
by the crowds. These were, in almost all cases, confined 
to members of the AVH or those who were believed to 
have co-operated with them ; 

(x) Steps were taken by the Workers' Councils during 
this period to give the workers real control of national- 
ized industrial undertakings and to abolish unpopular 
institutions, such as the production norms. These were 
widely resented as being unfair to worl^ers and also a 
reflection of popularly suspected secret trade agreements 
with the USSR, which were said to make heavy demands 
on the Hungarian economy for the benefit of the Soviet 
Union. During the days of freedom, while negotiations 
continued with the Soviet authorities for the withdrawal 
of Russian troops, attempts were made to clear up the 
streets of Budapest and life was beginning to return to 
normal. The insurgents had agreed to amalgamate, 
while maintaining their identity, in a National Guard, 
which would have been responsible, with the Army and 
Police, for maintaining order ; 

(xi) In contrast to the demands for the re-establish- 

Department of State Bulletin 



ment of political rights put forward during the uprising, 
is the fact that basic human rifrhts of the Hungarian 
people were violated by the Hungarian Governments 
prior to 23 October, especially up to the autumn of 1955, 
and that such violations have been resumed since 4 No- 
vember. The Committee is convinced that the numerous 
accounts of inhuman treatment and torture by the AVH 
are to be accepted as true. On the evidence, it is also 
convinced that numbers of Hungarians, including some 
women, were deported to the Soviet Union and that some 
may not have been returned to their homes. These de- 
portations were designed to break the back of the revolu- 
tion. Action taken by the Hungarian i)eople in their 
spontaneous uprising succeeded in ridding them for a few 
days of the apparatus of police terror. This democratic 
achievement of a united people was, indeed, threatened 
by a form of "counter-revolution" and it was to this that 
it succumbed. However, the "counter-revolution" con- 
sisted in the setting up by Soviet armed forces of Mr. 
Kadar and his colleagues in opposition to a Government 
which enjoyed the overwhelming support of the people 
of Hungary ; 

(xii) Follovring the second Soviet intervention on 4 
November, there has been no evidence of popular support 
for Mr. Kddir's Government. Mr. KftdAr has succes- 
sively abandoned most of the points from the revolu- 
tionary programme which he had at first promised to 
the Hungarian people. On the central question of the 
withdrawal of Soviet troops, he has moved from com- 
plete acceptance of the nation's wishes to a refusal to 
discuss the subject in present circumstances. Against 
the workers, he has proceeded step by step to destroy 
their power and that of the Workers' Councils. Capital 
punishment is applicable to strike activities. The proc- 
esses of justice have been distorted by the institution of 
special police and special courts and by the ignoring of 
the rights of the accused. The Social Democratic Party 
has again been forcibly liquidated. General elections 
have been postponed for two years. Writers and intel- 
lectuals are subjected to repressive measures. The Hun- 
garian workers have shown no sign of support for Mr. 
Kfldfir's Government or for the prospect of continuous 
Soviet occupation. Only a small fraction of the 190,000 
Hungarians, mostly young people, who fled the country 
have accepted his invitation to return. The peasants 
have reason to be grateful to Mr. Nagy for his attitude 
towards collectivization of agriculture and forced de- 
liveries of farm produce ; 

(xiii) In the light of the extent of foreign interven- 
tion, consideration of the Hungarian question by the 
United Nations was legally proper and, moreover, it was 
requested by a legal Government of Hungary. In the 
matter of human rights, Hungary has accepted specific 
international obligations in the Treaty of Peace. Ac- 
cordingly, the Committee does not regard objections 
based on Paragraph 7 of Article 2 of the Charter as hav- 
ing validity in the present case. A massive armed in- 
tervention by one Power on the territory of another, with 
the avowed intention of interfering with the internal 
affairs of the country must, by the Soviet's own defini- 
tion of aggression, be a matter of international concern. 



Relation of the United States 
to World Migration 

hy Robert S. McCollum ^ 

I am greatly concerned about the world refu- 
gee problem — the movement of people made 
necessary by totalitarian oppression, wars, over- 
population, natural disaster — many causes. And 
I am concerned about the responsibilities of my 
country in this global problem. I know you are 
too. 

I am well aware of the objectives of the Ameri- 
can Committee on Italian Migration. Since 
1952, as a member agency of the National Catho- 
lic Resettlement Council, the committee has had 
a significant role in migration matters concerned 
with Italy. 

Although I was not active on the Washington 
scene until early this year, I know of the com- 
mittee's influence and activity in relation to the 
refugee relief program and of the splendid co- 
operation it afforded the Department of State 
in the course of the Department's administration 
of that important emergency project. You and 
your associates across the land were of tremen- 
dous assistance in gaining sponsors for the new- 
comers from Italy, in the reception of these 
people, and in the continuing responsibility to see 
that their resettlement is successful. 

So helpful was your effort in behalf of people 
wanting to come from Italy under the refugee 
act that late in December 1955, a year before the 
close of the program, the Department of State 
was obliged to announce that no new cases 
could be accepted by the American consulates in 
Italy.^ There were, at that time, some 47,000 
applicants for the remaining 23,000 visas ! 

On August 17 last year. Pierce Gerety, deputy 
administrator of the program at that time, was 
in Naples to congratulate personally the recipient 
of the 60,000th visa issued under the allocation for 
Italy. The refugee relief program was completed 
at that time, so far as Italy was concerned. For, 
you will recall. President Eisenhower's recom- 



' Address made before the American Committee on 
Italian Migration at Cheshire, Conn., on June 19 (press 
release 371). Mr. McCollum is Deputy Administrator, 
Oflice of Refugee and Migration Affairs. 

' Bulletin of Jan. 2, 1956, p. 16. 



Jo/y 8, 7957 



65 



mendation for the transfer of unused visas in 
undersubscribed countries to countries oversub- 
scribed went unheeded by those in legislative 
authority. 

Today you are undoubtedly thinking again 
about emergency legislation, or legislation to 
liberalize immigration law now in force. 

The President's Recommendations 

President Eisenhower has made his carefully 
considered recommendations to the Congress,' 
proposing changes in the basic law, the Immigra- 
tion and Nationality Act. Very slow has been 
the approach of the Congi-ess on this controversial 
subject. More than 4 months after the special 
message of the President on immigration, there is 
still no effective action. Yet I am an optimist. 
I am not without hope. 

The President's proposal for modernizing the 
quota base and for distributing quota numbers 
in proportion to actual immigration in recent 
years would help the Italian situation. His other 
proposals would further update the basic law to 
meet the problems of the day and of the future, 
whether they involve refugees, escapees, popula- 
tion pressures, or developments unforeseen. 

With an annual immigration quota of less than 
6,000 (5,645) persons for Italy under the present 
law, it is not difficult to understand your concern 
for the many who want to come to the United 
States and who would be useful persons in our 
business and industry and contribute construc- 
tively to community life. 

During the coming quarter of July, August, 
and September, only the first and second prefer- 
ences are current for Italy — affecting persons 
with needed skills and the parents of American 
citizens who are of age. In the third prefer- 
ence — wives, husbands, or children of aliens who 
are permanent residents of the United States — 
consulates are working on registrations as far 
back as early 1953. And for fourth preference — 
brothers, sisters, sons, or daughters of United 
States citizens — there is no chance for anyone in 
the foreseeable future. The same situation affects 
those in nonpreference lists. 

As you can see, much depends on what happens 
to the President's recommendations, supported by 
bills offered in the House and in the Senate, and 



»/6W., Feb. 18, 1957, p. 247. 



to the other measures for immigration legislation 
that have been introduced. 

I have seen the problems of Italy in my missions 
overseas. I appreciate the economic situation, the 
population pressures, the ties between the Italian- 
Americans, who have done so much for this coun- 
try, and the relatives and the friends who would 
like to follow them to the United States. 

I have seen, too, the manner in which Italy has 
met its obligations as a host country in the ever- 
changing picture of movements of people. I have 
visited the camps at Latina and at Salerno. 
Hungarians, Yugoslavs, many other nationalities 
have poured in. I have assisted in planning the 
work of the United States escapee program, which 
supplements the material assistance given those 
who have fled communism, and which helps move 
them to countries of the free world to begin new 
lives. For several years I have been privileged to 
attend the conferences in Geneva of the Inter- 
governmental Committee for European Migration, 
which handles the transportation of migrants. 

All these experiences convince me that the prob- 
lems of migration cannot be dealt with adequately 
by short-term planning. As long as oppressive 
dictatorships exist, as long as basic freedoms are 
denied, there will be people who flee to seek better 
lives and, thereby, create new refugee problems. 
As long as there are economic and population 
problems, too, there will be need for determining 
how other nations may best help those meriting 
assistance. 

Pleased as we may be about our own nation's 
accomplishments to date in meeting migration 
problems, we should combat any tendency to talk 
in terms of one nationality only. It is not just a 
problem of Hungarians or of Italians. The whole 
world picture deserves constant emphasis. What 
of the millions around the world — in Austria, 
other countries of Europe, China, and the Arab 
comitries? What of the Jews in Egypt, the 
Armenians in Jordan? 

The challenge is to move surplus people to less 
populous areas, where they can be absorbed and 
contribute to the economies. The Intergovern- 
mental Committee (ICEM), to which I have re- 
ferred, has moved more tlian a half million persons 
from Europe in the 5 years of its existence. Gen- 
erally speaking, about one quarter of the I'efugees 
come to the United States. Great numbers went 
to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, countries of 



66 



Department of State Bulletin 



the African continent, and to our sister republics 
in South America. 

Can the United States continue to absorb work- 
ers from overseas? Secretary of Labor Mitchell, 
reviewing the influx of Hungarian escapees, said 
recently : "In a nation like ours in which many 
industries are feeling the crimp of a skilled worker 
shortage . . . the addition to the ranks of such 
workers is welcome indeed.'' He added, signifi- 
cantly, that "the arrival of 18,000 of them out of 
tlie blue, as it were, is both a godsend and a re- 
sponsibility.*' 

Meeting Migration Crises 

Records show convincingly that the United 
States has been doing its part in helping meet the 
migration problem. Since 1938 it has participated 
in international actions meeting successive crises. 

You will recall the tremendous accomplish- 
ments of the United States over and beyond nor- 
mal immigration — nearly 400,000 admitted under 
the Displaced Persons Act of 1948, more than 
190,000 under the recently expired Refugee Re- 
lief Act of 1953. Counting those entering under 
immigration quotas, the total swells well over the 
600,000 mark since World War II. Then, of 
course, came our fast action in bringing to this 
country more than 32,000 escapees from Hungary, 
as a result of the recent revolt. Not only in num- 
bers of people brought here is the story told. Of 
great importance are the financial contributions 
made by the United States to migration needs, 
carried out in concert with other countries. Some 
$40 million in government fmids went into the 
Hmigarian project alone; and individuals' con- 
tributions to voluntary agencies working on the 
project topped another $18 million. Our escapee 
program work, it should be remembered, assists 
persons who go to many free- world countries other 
than the United States. 

Let me state with conviction my belief — and it 



is the i^olicy of the administration — that our coun- 
try must continue to exert leadership in this hu- 
manitarian field as well as in the economic and 
military. To justify our position and reputation 
in the free world we must never fail to recognize 
that men and women everywhere are entitled to 
live in freedom, with dignity, and with oppor- 
tunities to improve their stations in life. 

Our country has this fine record of credit in the 
field of migration. Your organization and other 
Italian-American groups — as well as the many 
other nationality organizations — attest the values 
that have accrued to our national life by admitting 
the cultures of the other countries. 

Without this enrichment of our human re- 
sources, who will be the Toscaninis, the Sikorskys, 
the Joseph Pulitzers, the Felix Frankfurters of 
tomorrow? Who among the Hungarian scien- 
tists who have come as a result of the 1956 revolu- 
tion will grow to fame they never could attain in 
their native land ? 

The tradition of the melting pot cannot be 
abandoned. It is endangered by the failure of 
Congress to act on the President's recommenda- 
tions. But there can be no letting down. We are 
bending every effort, with available legislation, to 
keep up our part. There continues a challenge to 
the United States to continue its leadership. 

Of greatest importance is a long-range policy, 
flexible to meet any contingency, at the same time 
affording continuity of planning. Our President 
has pointed the direction. Followup action is the 
need of the moment. 

Those who believe in what the President has 
recommended in immigration legislation should 
express themselves. Too often the positive ap- 
proach in public affairs loses out to the negative. 
Both sides, fortunately, in this country can be 
heard from in the halls of legislative action. Be 
sure you take advantage of this right to state your 
views. 



July 8, 1957 



67 



United States Asserts Claim Against U.S.S.R. 
for Destruction of B-29 on November 7, 1954 



Press release 313 dated May 23 
DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of the U.S. 
Embassy in Moscow, Richard H. Davis, on May 
23 delivered to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of 
the Soviet Government a diplomatic note asserting 
a claim against the Soviet Government for 
$756,604.09. The claim was for damages suffered 
by the U.S. Government in the destruction by 
Soviet fighter aircraft of a U.S. Air Force B-29 
over Hokkaido, Japan, on November 7, 1954. The 
facts of the incident are recited in the note and are 
based on a full investigation and review by the 
Department of Defense and the Department of 
State. The note refutes Soviet contentions that 
the incident took place as a result of firing from 
the B-29 on Soviet aircraft and that it took place 
over Soviet territory. The note asserts that the 
U.S. Government is ready to prove, in an appro- 
priate forum by evidence, that the incident was 
unprovoked and took place in international air 
space and in Japanese territorial air space over 
Hokkaido, Japan. It disposes of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment's contention that it has legal title to 
islands, properly belonging to Japan, which lie 
adjacent to the island of Hokkaido, to their con- 
tiguous territorial waters and air space, and to 
international waters and air space in that area. 
This includes the Habomai Islands, Shikotan Is- 
land, and the two southern Kurile Islands of 
Kunashiri and Etorofu. 

The note constitutes a supplement to the action 
which the U.S. Government took against the 
Soviet Government in respect to an earlier inci- 
dent in the same general area of October 7, 1952, 
in which a B-29 was shot down and destroyed by 
Soviet fighter aircraft. In the latter case the U.S. 
Government took the dispute to the International 



Court of Justice,^ but the Soviet Government sub- 
sequently refused to submit to the jurisdiction of 
the Court. 



TEXT OF U.S. NOTE 

Excellency : I have the honor to transmit to you here- 
with, upon the instruction of my Government, the fol- 
lowing communication from my Government to your 
Government : 

The Government of the United States of America 
refers again to the incident of November 7, 1954, in which 
fighter aircraft of the Government of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics attacked and destroyed a United 
States Air Force B-29 airplane engaged in legitimate 
and peaceable flight in the area of the Japanese Island 
of Hokkaido. In its most recent note on this matter to 
the Soviet Government, of November 17, 1954,^ the United 
States Government informed the Soviet Government, 
inter alia, that it reserved its rights with reference to the 
human and material losses incurred as a result of the 
Soviet action of November 7, 1954. It also stated that 
in the absence of action by the Soviet Government to 
prevent a recurrence of such attacks, the United States 
Government would be compelled to provide the necessary 
defensive protection for United States aircraft engaged 
in these legitimate and peaceful missions. The Soviet 
Government replied to this note on December 11, 1954.' 
It asserted that its allegations of fact, which are con- 
trary to the allegations of fact made by the United States 
Government, had been "established and checked." It also 
placed upon the United States Government the blame not 
only for this incident but for the risk of any other loss 
of life or property which might be occasioned by Soviet 
fighters should the United States provide defensive pro- 
tection to its aircraft in similar circumstances in the 
future. 

The incident of November 7, 1954 was not the first in 



'■ Bulletin of July 11, 1955, p. 65. 

"For text, together with texts of U.S. and Soviet notes 
dated Nov. 7, 1954, see ibid., Nov. 29, 1954, p. 811. 
" Not printed. 



68 



Department of State Bulletin 



which innocent and peaceable American aircraft had 
i)een attaclied by Soviet fighters without provocation. 
The United States Government, therefore, having in mind 
the seriousness of the implications to international peace 
raised by this further incident, then instituted, with the 
active assistance and cooperation of Japanese authorities, 
a thorough reinvestigation and review of the entire inci- 
dent of November 7, 1954. The reinvestigation and review 
confirm that the material assertions of fact in the United 
States Government's notes to the Soviet Government of 
November 7, 1954 and November 17, 1954 are correct ; 
that the material assertions of fact by the Soviet Govern- 
ment in its notes of November 7, 1954 and December 11, 
1954 are untrue ; and that the Soviet Government is liable 
to make proper compensation to the United States Gov- 
ernment for the injuries caused and to make such other 
amends as will deter it from any repetition of its wrongful 
conduct. 

The purpose of the present communication is to place 
upon the record all the relevant facts and, based thereon, 
to prefer against the Soviet Government a formal inter- 
national claim as set forth below. The United States 
Government still, as It has done with respect to similar 
prior incidents and in accordance with the policy an- 
nounced by it in the Security Council of the United 
Nations on September 10, 1954,* calls upon the Soviet 
Government to desist from acts of international violence, 
to respect international law and to follow the practices 
of international law for the peaceful settlement of inter- 
national disputes. 

I. 

The United States Government asserts, and is prepared 
to prove by evidence in an appropriate forum, the 
following : 

1. Prior to and on November 7, 19.54, the United States 
Air Force was duly authorized, by virtue of the Security 
Treaty between the United States and Japan, signed Sep- 
tember 8, 1951," to conduct flights by military aircraft 
over Japanese territory. Pursuant to this authority, on 
the morning of November 7, 1954, a United States Air 
Force B-29, bearing serial number 42-94000, and with 
the identification call sign "AF^705," was duly dis- 
patched with instructions to fly in specified areas ex- 
clusively within the territorial confines of the Island 
of Hokkaido and the adjacent international air space. 
The airplane was manned by a crew of eleven, all mem- 
bers of the United States Air Force and nationals of 
the United States, and each of them competent to per- 
form the functions assigned to him with respect to the 
mission. 

The B-29 proceeded in due course to the Island of 
Hokkaido. Commencing at approximately 1123 hours, 
the B-29 flew due east, at an altitude of approximately 
16,000 feet, along a flight line running from approxi- 
mately 144 degrees 20 minutes east longitude approxi- 
mately along the parallel of latitude of 43 degrees and 



* Bulletin of Sept. 20, 1954, p. 417. 
"IMd., Sept. 17, 1951, p. 464. 



15 minutes north, ending off the coastline between the 
villages of Konbumori and Nagafushi, south of the town 
of Nemuro and of the island of Tomoshiri, north of the 
island of Moyururi and west of Tatsumino Reef. The 
heading of the aircraft in this operation was 90 degrees 
and the operation was accomplished at approximately 
1139 hours. 

Thereupon the pilot turned right to a heading of 180 
degrees, then further right to a heading of 240 degrees. 
The instructions of the B-29 crew, given to them prior 
to their departure, required them to fly in the area of the 
Nemuro Peninsula along a parallel of latitude of ap- 
proximately 43 degrees, 18 minutes north, running 
through the island of Tomoshiri in the east and through 
the town of Shibecha in Hokkaido in the west, extend- 
ing no further east than 145 degrees, 45 minutes east 
longitude. Noticing the favorable weather conditions 
therefor, the Aircraft Commander determined to fly from 
east to west on an adjacent line running from approxi- 
mately 145 degrees 40 minutes east longitude approxi- 
mately along the parallel of latitude of 43 degrees 18 
minutes north, and therefore then executed a turn to the 
left over the international waters of the Pacific Ocean 
toward a heading of approximately 360 degrees due 
north. While flying on the due north heading, south of 
Tatsumino Reef and southwest of the tip of Nemuro 
Peninsula, crew members of the B-29 noticed to the 
east of the course of the B-29 two fighter-type aircraft 
flying toward the B-29 from its right rear. The fighters 
were not Immediately visible to the Aircraft Commander 
or other ofiicers in their positions in the nose of the B- 
29, but upon the presence of the fighter aircraft being 
called to their attention by the crew members the ofiicers 
in the nose of the B-29 succeeded in perceiving them 
at a distance which appeared to be approximately eight 
to ten miles away to the east moving in toward the B-29 
on a relative bearing of approximately 145 degrees from 
the B-29. Immediately on sighting these fighters, and 
concluding from their silhouettes that they were prob- 
ably of the MIG type, the Aircraft Commander caused 
the B-29 to turn left, by a 90 degree turn, to a heading 
of 270 degrees, intending thereby to avoid any possible 
encounter with the Soviet aircraft and, by flying farther 
inward and toward the Japanese land mass, to emphasize 
the peaceable purpose and legitimate flight of the B-29. 
The position of the B-29's turn was just south of Tat- 
sumino Reef and two to three miles west of the tip of 
Nemuro Peninsula. As the B-29 was rolling out of its 
90 degree turn and commencing a level flight due west 
on a heading of 270 degrees, the two MIG fighter air- 
craft closed in on the B-29 from the rear and opened 
fire with successive bursts in an attack deliberately de- 
signed to destroy the B-29 and its crew. The B-29 was 
hit in the tail and left wing and aileron. At the mo- 
ment of the attack the B-29 was passing from the inter- 
national air space over the waters of the Pacific Ocean, 
and was entering the territorial air space of Hokkaido, 
and the time was approximately 1148 hours. No warn- 
ing whatever had been given in any way by the MIG 
fighter aircraft to the B-29 of intention to fire, nor had 



July 8, J 957 



69 



any provocation been given by the B-29 justifying or 
reasonably calling for such hostile action. 

The Aircraft Commander, continuing on the same west- 
erly heading of 270 degrees, promptly commenced a de- 
scent in an attempt to evade further attack from the 
Soviet fighter aircraft and to reach the Hokkaido land 
mass. But the attacking Soviet fighter aircraft closed in 
from the rear in a hostile firing attitude and opened fire 
on the B-29 as it descended and flew westward. Fuel 
which had been pouring out of the left fuel tank was set 
afire. The B-29 was, as a result of the further damage 
inflicted by the Soviet fighter aircraft, becoming difficult 
to control and its pilot was unable to make any further 
evasive maneuvers. At the time of this second attack 
the position of the B-29 was over Japanese territorial 
waters east of Moyururi Island. Nevertheless, at least 
one of the Soviet fighters again proceeded to the rear of 
the B-29, again closed in and again opened fire in Jap- 
anese territorial air space as the B-29 was reaching 
Moyururi Island and again hit the B-29. Unrelenting, 
at least one of the Soviet fighters proceeded again to the 
rear of the descending, burning B-29 and again resumed 
a firing attitude, but apparently seeing the hopelessness 
of the B-29 desisted from firing. At that point, the 
B-29, aflame, had reached an altitude of 11,000 feet and 
was close to or over the shoreline of Moyururi Island at 
approximately latitude 43 degrees 13 minutes north, lon- 
gitude 14.5 degrees 37 minutes east. The Aircraft Com- 
mander was compelled to elect to abandon the airplane 
in the air. He gave his crew the order to bail out, 
which the crew obeyed, in the air space of Hokkaido west 
of the village of Konbumori. The crew all landed on the 
ground safely except Lt. Sigfredo Angulo, who was seri- 
ously injured and died. The B-29, unmanned and un- 
able to maintain the course set by the pilot before aban- 
donment because of the damage done it by the attacking 
Soviet fighters, crashed to the ground by the Village of 
Kamishunbetsu Notsukengun, completely demolishing the 
house of a Japanese national and destroying its contents 
and damaging cultivated fields and crops belonging to an- 
other Japanese national. 

2. The United States Government has concluded from 
its investigation that the actions of the Soviet fighters 
during the entire encounter, including each of the at- 
tacks, were planned, initiated, directed and continuously 
controlled by responsible authorities of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment for the purpose of accomplishing the destruction 
of the B-29 and the death of its crew ; that the attacks, 
which were unprovoked, took place in the territorial air 
space of Japan or in the contiguous international air 
space with knowledge that no provocation legally justi- 
fying such action had been offered by the B-29 ; and 
that no prior opportunity hnd been afforded to the B-29 
to avoid attack and that no warning of intention to 
attack had been given to it in any way by the Soviet 
fighter aircraft. 

II. 

The Soviet Government has, in the two notes on this 
incident above mentioned, made statements of fact with 
respect to the incident which, the United States Govern- 
ment has concluded, are in material respects untrue. 



The United States Government is buttressed in these con- 
clusions by the fact that the Soviet Government has 
again chosen to reiterate stereotype and demonstrably 
untrue allegations such as it has heretofore asserted con- 
cerning each of a number of unprovoked attacks by So- 
viet fighters on innocent United States military aircraft. 
Among these false statements of fact, as the United 
States Government is prepared to prove by evidence in 
an appropriate forum, are the following : 

1. That the B-29, at 1320 hours local time, or 1241 
hours Vladivostok time, flew over the Island of Tanfilev. 
This statement, contained in both the Soviet note of No- 
vember 7, 19.54 and the Soviet note of December 11, 1954, 
is preceded by the statement that the B-29 "violated the 
state boundary of the U.S.S.R. in the region of the Island 
of Tanfilev" and that it "continued to ijenetrate into the 
air space of the Soviet Union in the direction of this 
i.sland." It is assumed that the Soviet Government is re- 
ferring to the Habomai island of Suisho which, on No- 
vember 7, 19.54, and for some time prior thereto, Soviet 
authorities occupied. The fact is that the B-29 flew 
neither over nor near Suisho Island nor did it cross any 
frontier of the Soviet Government, or any kind of fron- 
tier known to be claimed by the Soviet Government, in 
this area. On the contrary, the flight of the B-29, to the 
time of encounter by the Soviet fighters, was, as re- 
counted above, performed entirely south of the Nemuro 
Peninsula, in the territorial air space of the Japanese 
Island of Hokkaido, or in the contiguous air space over 
the high seas of the Pacific Ocean. Assuming that the 
time of the alleged overflight, stated in the Soviet notes 
as 1320 hours local time, was 1141 hours Japan time, the 
United States Government has concluded that the posi- 
tion of the B-29 at that time was approximately 145 
degrees 43 minutes east and 43 degrees 11 minutes north, 
and not less than sixteen nautical miles from the near- 
est shoreline of Suisho Island. The B-29 was then on 
a heading of south over the coastline and waters south of 
the town of Nemuro, southwest of the east tip of Nemuro 
Peninsula and southwest of Tatsumino Reef, and it was 
headed still farther from Suisho Island and it continued 
to fly as far as approximately twenty-five nautical miles 
from the nearest .shoreline of Suisho Island prior to mak- 
ing its turn to the left from its heading of 240 degrees as 
has been described above. 

2. That the B-29 was met by two Soviet fighters while 
it was in flight above the Island of Suisho, or Tanfilev. 
The fact is that the two Soviet fighters which attacked 
the B-29 approached it from the rear, and never in any 
other attitude, at a ix)int due south of the Nemuro Pen- 
insula and over the contiguous international waters of 
the Pacific Ocean. 

3. That the Soviet fighters met the B-29 with the in- 
tention of pointing out to it that it was within the 
boundaries of the Soviet Union and of proposing that 
the B-29 immediately leave that air space. As has un- 
fortunately become usual in this stereotype allegation, 
the Soviet Government does not state precisely what 
maneuvers or conduct, if any, the Soviet fighters are 
claimed to have performed in conveying or attempting 
to convey any such communication or in preparing to do 



70 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



so. The United States Government reiterates that in 
truth the approach of neither of the two fighter aircraft 
in this case was compatible with any intelligible at- 
tempt to convey any peaceable communication. On the 
contrary, the United States Government has concluded 
that the fighter aircraft approached the B-29 first, and 
only from the rear and at a considerable distance to the 
east, for the purpose of identifying it as a United States 
aircraft and then, having reported that fact to the re- 
sponsible Soviet ground control authorities, the fighter 
aircraft were directed to proceed immediately, and did 
so proceed, from the immediate rear in exclusively hostile 
attitude to attack and destroy the B-29, although the 
B-29 was then passing from the international air space 
over the waters of the Pacific Ocean immediately con- 
tiguous to Japanese territory in the Island of Hokkaido 
and entering the territorial air space of Hokkaido ; and 
they then repeatedly again so proceeded even while 
the B-29 and the fighters were within the territorial air 
space of Hokkaido. The fighters did not evince, nor did 
they have, any intention at any time to make any peace- 
able communication, or to give any warning of any kind, 
as to their purpose ; the approach of the two fighter air- 
craft was totally incompatible with any customary 
or recognized attempt to convey any peaceable 
communication. 

4. That the B-29, on the approach of the Soviet 
fighters, opened fire against them. This stereotype al- 
legation is false. At no time, even after the initial at- 
tack by the Soviet fighters, did the B-29, or any member 
of its crew, fire upon the Soviet fighter aircraft. 

5. That the Soviet fighters were forced to open fire 
in reply. This is similarly false, particularly inasmuch 
as the B-29, when the Soviet fighter aircraft first ap- 
proached it, prior to firing, and from then on until the 
disengagement, was flying continuously in a westerly di- 
rection and farther and farther away from Soviet-held 
territory, a fact which was obvious to the pilots of the 
Soviet aircraft and to their ground controllers ; and the 
attacks of the fighters upon the B-29 were accomplished 
by overtaking the B-29 from a safe distance to the rear 
of the B-29. 

6. That only after the Soviet fighter aircraft fired 
upon the B-29 did the B-29 leave the air space of the 
U.S.S.R. and that it flew off in a southwesterly direction. 
The fact is that, on the contrary, the B-29 had taken a 
turn to a westerly heading even before the Soviet fighter 
aircraft, coming from the rear, approached close to the 
B-29 in hostile attitude. The mortal injuries were in- 
flicted by the Soviet fighters on the B-29, in successive at- 
tacks, after the B-29 had made its left turn and was on 
its flight to the westward, first passing from the interna- 
tional air space over the waters of the Pacific Ocean, and 
entering the territorial air space of Hokkaido, Japan 
and then within that territorial air space. At the moment 
of first attack the B-29, the United States Government has 
concluded, was no closer than fifteen nautical miles in a 
direct line from the shoreline of Suisho Island; the sub- 
sequent attacks were made by the Soviet fighter aircraft, 
as has been stated above, even farther from Soviet-held 
territory and within the territorial air space of Hokkaido, 
Japan. 



7. That the United States Government does not dispute 
that the fiight of the B-29 took place as stated in the 
Soviet Government's note of November 7, 1954, and it 
does not dispute that the encounter of the B-29 with 
the Soviet aircraft occurred over the Island of Tanfilev. 
On the contrary, the United States Government definitely 
disputes these allegations, and it characterizes them as 
false. 

8. That the fact that the B-29 opened fire on the ap- 
proach of the Soviet fighters has been established by 
trustworthy means, including appropriate instruments. 
The United States Government must express its doubt 
that the Soviet Government is in position to produce any 
instruments or evidence of reliable character establish- 
ing any such fact; for its own part, it is prepared to 
prove by incontrovertible evidence that none of the guns 
of the B-29 was ever fired during its flight on Novem- 
ber 7, 1954. 

III. 

The United States Government has concluded, for the 
reasons set forth below, that the Soviet Government in 
the foregoing facts was guilty of deliberate and willful 
violation of applicable rules of international law on ac- 
count of which it has become liable to the United States 
Government for damages and other amends. 

1. In the circumstances of fact described above, it was 
unlawful for the Soviet aircraft to have attacked the 
B-29 at any time or place. 

2. The Soviet Government omits, significantly, to state 
that the Soviet fighters made four concerted firing at- 
tacks on the B-29. It is, therefore, not clear whether 
the Soviet Government prefers to disregard any of these 
attacks. The United States Government asserts that 
had the B-29, contrary to the fact, directed fire on the 
Soviet fighters after any attack by the Soviet fighters 
such attack of the fighter aircraft and the subsequent 
obviously hostile approach would constitute legal justi- 
fication for fire from the B-29 as an act of self-defense. 

3. The Soviet Government states in its notes of Novem- 
ber 7, 1954 and December 11, 1954, that the two Soviet 
fighters involved in the Incident approached the B-29 
"with the purpose of pointing out that it was inside the 
boundaries of the U.S.S.R. and to propose that it im- 
mediately leave the air space of the Soviet Union." The 
United States of America denies that this was the pur- 
pose of the approach of the Soviet aircraft. It notes 
that the B-29 had not entered Soviet territory and was 
not engaging in any activity which represented a clear 
and present danger to the Soviet Union. The Soviet 
aircraft immediately upon its first approaching the B-29 
opened fire rather than giving visual signals or other- 
wise proposing that the B-29 alter its course. Since the 
B-29, upon the appearance of the Soviet fighters, turned 
in a westerly direction and proceeded farther away fx-om 
the area claimed to be territory of the Soviet Govern- 
ment, it was the duty of the Soviet authorities to refrain 
from any action not necessary for the defense of the 
Soviet Union. In the facts and circumstances described 
any fire from the Soviet aircraft was entirely un- 
warranted. 



Jo/y 8, 7957 



71 



IV. 

The Soviet Government has, in its notes on this inci- 
dent, adverted to its territorial claims to the Habomai 
Islands and to adjacent water and air space. It has, by 
implication, raised question as to the extent of such 
claims. Although as is well known the United States 
Government challenges the Soviet Government's terri- 
torial claims to these islands, it has not chosen to do so 
by any overflights of any disputed area, and specifically 
not in circumstances such as those involved in the inci- 
dent of November 7, 1954, or by any method other than 
the channels of peaceful, diplomatic negotiation and 
judicial determination. The United States Government, 
therefore, takes this opportunity to make the follovving 
declarations : 

A. With respect to the Soviet claim of sovereignty 
over the Habomai Islands : 

1. In its note of November 17, 1954, the United States 
Government stated that the United States supports the 
Japanese Government's contention that the Habomai 
group of islands is an integral part of the national terri- 
tory of Japan which the Soviet Government continues 
illegally to occupy. The Soviet Government's note of 
December 11, 1954, commenting on this statement, says 
this is "in plain contradiction to the provisions of the 
Yalta Agreement on the Kurile Islands". Tlie United 
States Government, making reference for a fuller state- 
ment of its position in this regard to the note of September 
25, 1954,' which is incorporated in the records of the In- 
ternational Court of Justice as an annex to the United 
States Government's application instituting proceedings 
against the Soviet Government on account of a similar 
incident of October 7, 19.52, reiterates that the Yalta 
Agreement regarding Japan of February 11, 1945, was 
neither intended to nor did it have the effect of conveying 
legal title in any Japanese territory to the Soviet Union ; 
that in particular neither the Yalta Agreement regarding 
Japan nor the Treaty of Peace with Japan, signed in San 
Francisco on September 8, 1951, conveyed any title in the 
Habomai Islands to the Soviet Union or diminished the 
title of Japan in those islands, and the phrase "Kurile 
Islands" in those documents does not and was not in- 
tended to include the Habomai Islands, or Shikotan, or 
the islands of Kunashiri and Etorofu which have always 
been part of Japan proper and should, therefore, in justice 
be acknowledged as under Japanese sovereignty. The 
action of the Soviet Government in purporting to appro- 
priate those islands and to exercise sovereignty over 
them is, therefore, wrongful and illegal and was wrongful 
and illegal on November 7, 1954. The United States Gov- 
ernment notes again that the Soviet Government has con- 
si.stently failed and refused to submit the validity of its 
contentions in this regard to examination by established 
judicial process in the interest of the peaceful settlement 
of international disputes and of the maintenance of in- 
ternational law and order. 

2. In the note of December 11, 1954. the Soriet Gov- 
ernment also cites as justification of its claim of title 
to the Habomai Islands, which it now denominates as 



' For text, see ibid., Oct. 18, 1954, p. 579. 



"certain Southern Kurile Islands," that these islands 
were "excluded from the sovereignty of Japan" by the 
Soviet Government's acceptance of the capitulation of 
Japanese forces "on the territory of all the Kurile Is- 
lands" "on the basis of agreements between the Allies." 
The United States Government denies that any agree- 
ments between the Allied Powers in the war against 
Japan provided any justification for the Soviet appropri- 
ation of any territory, particularly the Habomai Islands 
and Shikotan, and the islands of Kunashiri and Etorofu. 
The entry of Soviet troops on Japanese territory was 
authorized only under the document known as General 
Order No. 1, the first of the general orders to the Im- 
perial Japanese Government by the Supreme Commander 
for the Allied Powers carrying out the terms of sur- 
render to him ; it embodied an agreement made among 
the Allied Powers and was, and is, binding upon the 
Soviet Government as upon the other Allied Powers. 
That order provided only for the detailed execution of 
the terms of military surrender of Japanese forces. It 
provided that the "Kurile Islands" was among various 
areas (including Manchuria, North Korea and Karafuto) 
in which Japanese armed forces should surrender to 
"the Commander-in-Chief of Soviet Forces in the Far 
East". Other Allied commanders were designated to 
accept surrender in other specific areas. As the Soviet 
Government specifically agreed, the order provided that 
on the main islands of Japan, including the Island of 
Hokkaido "and the minor islands adjacent thereto," of 
which territory the Habomai Islands and Shikotan and 
the islands of Kunashiri and Etorofu were always, and 
still are, an integral part, Japanese armed forces should 
surrender to "the Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Army 
Forces, Pacific." The entire surrender to all Allied 
forces, including the Soviet forces, and the military occu- 
pation which ensued as a result thereof were specifically 
provided to be pursuant to the surrender to the "Supreme 
Commander for the Allied Powers," who on behalf of all 
the Allied Powers accepted Japan's surrender. 

General Order No. 1 contained no provision trans- 
ferring sovereignty from Japan to the Soviet Union or 
to any other Government in any Japanese territory. 

The Soviet Government's action in occupying the Habo- 
mai Islands, and Shikotan, and Kunashiri and Etorofu 
was not authorized by nor in accordance with General 
Order No. 1 or any agreement of the Soviet Government 
with the United States Government and other Allied 
Powers. Its subsequent action of expelling the native 
Japanese population from these islands and purporting 
to incorporate the islands as well as other Japanese 
territory into the Soviet Union without the consent or 
approval of the Allied Powers and of the Government 
of Japan constituted internationally illegal conduct as 
well as further violation of its agreements with the 
other Allied Powers, particularly as the Soviet Govern- 
ment's claim of title to such territory and the continued 
presence therein of Soviet authorities was invalid and 
illegal. 

3. In its note of December 11, 1954, the Soviet Govern- 
ment also cites in support of its claim of title a "directive 
of the staff of the Supreme Commander for the Allied 
Powers, MacArthur, of January 29, 1946" by which it 



72 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



is claimed the Hiibonml Islands "are excluded from the 
sovereignty of Julian." The United States Government 
categorically denies that this directive, or any otlier di- 
rective, had any such intention or effect. The directive 
in question, as a reading of it plainly discloses, was 
issued by the Supreme Conmiander for the Allied Powers 
to the Imperial .Japanese Government in performance of 
the military occupation functions of the Supi-enie Com- 
mander : it was specifically tentative in character and 
limited in scope ; and it contained the follo«'ing specific 
provision which the Soviet Government ignores — 

"Nothing in this directive shall be construed as an 
indication of Allied policy relating to the ultimate deter- 
mination of the minor islands referred to in Article 8 of 
the Potsdam Declaration." 

B. With respect to the Soviet claim of littoral air 
space : 

As has unfortunately been the case in other diplomatic 
exchanges concerning the Soviet Government's claims 
of violations of its boundaries, the Soviet Government 
has failed to state precisely where it claims its boundary 
runs. The United States Government is compelled to 
conclude from these experiences that the Soviet Govern- 
ment has deliberately chosen, as a matter of polic.v, to 
refuse to make its territorial claims specifically known 
to the world otherwise than by arbitrary and violent 
actions such as have characterized Soviet attacks with- 
out warning on innocent American aircraft, and the 
seizure and imprisonment of Japanese fishermen and 
fishing vessels in the area in question. Lest there be 
any uncertainty as to the United States Government's 
position on this subject, therefore, the United States 
Government takes this opportunity to declare the 
following : 

1. Even if, contrary to the fact and applicable law, 
the Soviet Government had any legal title, or other legal 
rights, to the Habomai Islands, such rights could not, 
in any event, extend on the surface or in the air beyond 
three nautical miles from the coastlines, following their 
sinuosities, of each of the land masses. The United 
States Government refers in this regard to its note of Oc- 
tober 9, 1954,' on accoiint of a similar incident of Soviet 
attack on an innocent United States military aircraft 
over the Sea of Japan. 

2. Even if, contrary to the fact and applicable law, the 
Soviet Government had any legal territorial right what- 
ever in air space or surface space outside the shores of 
the laud ma.s.ses in the Habomai Islands, such right could 
in no event be applied or exercised, and such territorial 
space could not extend, so as to deprive Japan (and the 
United States Government under the Security Treaty) of 
the long-established Japanese territorial rights in the 
waters and air space ad,iacent to the Island of Hokkaido 
and other parts of Japan, extending three nautical miles 
from these Japanese laud masses. 

3. Even if, contrary to law, the Soviet Government may 
a.ssert rights or title in derogation to Japan's in the 
waters in and air space over the Pacific Ocean, the 
Goyomai Strait, or contiguous waters and air space which, 



' Not printed. 
July 8, 7957 



prior to the Soviet Government's unilateral arrogation, 
constituted waters or air space open to international 
access, such claim is invalid as to other non-consenting 
governments and such water and air space could not law- 
fully be closed to international access by any act of the 
Soviet Government without the consent of the nations 
affected thereby. The United States Government has not 
consented and does not consent to such action Ijy the 
Soviet Government. 

Insofar, therefore, as the Soviet Government may 
claim that any of the actions of the Soviet fighter air- 
craft directed against the B-29 in the incident of Novem- 
ber 7, 19.34 took place in air space herein characterized 
by the United States Government as international air 
space or Jaiianese air space, or air space open to inter- 
national access, the United States Government reiterates 
that such action was unlawful and sub.1ects the Soviet 
Government to liability to the United States Government 
for damages and other amends. 



The United States has suffered the following items of 
damage, in direct consequence of the foregoing illegal 
acts and violations of duty, for which the Soviet Govern- 
ment is responsible, and the United States Government 
demands that the Soviet Government pay to it the fol- 
lowing sums on account thereof : 

1. The United States Air Force B-29 airjjlane, bearing 
serial number 42-94000, and its contents at the time of 
its destruction on November 7, 1954, valued in total at 
$659,559.04. 

2. Other damages to the United States Government, 
$37,045.05. 

3. Damages to the next of kin, nationals of the United 
States, for the death of the crew member, Lt. Sigfredo 
Angulo, $50,000.00. 

4. Damages to the surviving members of the crew of 
the B-29, all nationals of the United States, $10,000.00. 

Total— $756,604.09. 

There has been included in the sum of $37,045.05, above 
mentioned, the sum of $3,749.65 paid by the United States 
Government e.v gratia to Japanese nationals on account 
of injuries suffered by them from the crash of the B-29 
on their property in the Island of Hokkaido in direct con- 
sequence of the unlawful conduct of the Soviet Govern- 
ment. Should the United States Government be reim- 
bursed, its claim against the Soviet Government will be 
pro tanto reduced. 

The United States Government has not included in its 
demand for damages, specified above, any sum on account 
of the items of intangible injury deliberately and in- 
tentionally caused to the United States Government and 
the American people by the wrongful actions of the 
Soviet Government. In that regard, the United States 
Government has determined to defer to a later date the 
formulation of the kind and measure of redress or other 
action which the Soviet Government should take which 
would be appropriate in international law and practice 
to confirm the illegality of the actions directed by the 
Soviet Government against the United States Govern- 
- ment and the American people. 



73 



VI. 

The Government of the United States calls upon the 
Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
to nuike its detailed answer to the allegations and de- 
mands made in the present communication. Should the 
Soviet Government in its answer acknowledge its In- 



debtedness on account of the foregoing and agree to pay 
the damages suffered, the United States Government is 
prepared, if requested, to present detailed evidence in 
support of its calculations of damages suffered and 
alleged. 

Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of my high- 
est consideration. 



Education and Responsibility in World Affairs 



hy Deputy Under Secretary Murphy ^ 



In leaving the sheltering walls of this kindly 
university with its friendly and understanding at- 
mosphere, life will become more complex. Here 
there has been opportunity to deal with the funda- 
mentals, with reason and logic, with faith and 
morals, with loyalty and friendship. Principles 
seem very clear, perhaps more so than will be the 
case at times during the future. You know that 
this is a world of conflict and turbulence as well 
as one of happy accomplishment. It is true that, 
in such a world, too often principles give way to 
expediency and loyalty to self-interest. But the 
principles you have learned and the ideals you 
have acquired will provide a resource on which to 
draw and inspiration to guide you in the daily 
stress of an active career. 

I hope, whatever that career may be, that you 
remember to continue an interest in your Govern- 
ment's role and responsibilities in the afl'airs of 
this evolving world of ours. Your country has 
not always been a great world power. It is today. 
Inevitably that status brings to the hundreds of 
thousands of 1957 graduates responsibilities and 
opportunities which were beyond the reach of 
other generations. The success of your Govern- 
ment in coaling with present world problems will 
be a measure of your own personal success in deal- 
ing with the future. 

Fortunately, or unfortunately, our country has 
arrived at its present stage of power in the midst 



' Address made at commencement exercises at the 
Catholic University of America on June 9 (press release 
349 dated June 7). 



of a world conspiracy directed at the destruction 
of the very principles and ideals around which 
your education has been built. I say "fortu- 
nately," because I believe that out of this world 
struggle will come victory and strength for the 
principles and ideals we cherish ; "unfortunately," 
because in a gigantic struggle such as the one in 
which we live sacrifice is inevitable. 

There is a feature relating to that struggle in 
which we find ourselves as a nation and as a capi- 
talistic society which I wish to mention. It is the 
existence of individuals who for varying reasons, 
perhaps some due to temperament, seek to agitate 
and arouse the fears of our people and, inten- 
tionally or unwittingly, breed defeatism in the 
ranks of the free world. I hope you will do your 
best to combat that tendency. It takes different 
forms — a paralyzing fear that we would all be 
burnt to a crisp in nuclear warfare, dread prophe- 
cies of widespread destruction, and advice regard- 
ing the implacability of the Soviet leadership. We 
witnessed the evil effects of similar fear propa- 
ganda prior to World War II. We learned then 
that fear and apprehension do not provide pro- 
tection, and we learned that the safety and best 
interest of a nation lie in its resolute courage and 
the intelligent management by its people of its 
resources. Surely there is no room for compla- 
cency. As to fear, it was well said that all we 
have to fear is fear itself. 

Many yeai-s ago a great French visitor to this 

country. Hector St. Jean de Crevecoeur, said, 

Americans are the Western pilgrims who are carrying 
along with tliem that great mass of arts, sciences, vigor 



74 



Department of State Bulletin 



and industry wliicli began Iour since in tlie East . . . 
the American is a new man wlio acts upon new princi- 
ples ; he must therefore entertain new ideas and form 
new opinions. 

Our ancestors came to this country because they 
wished for themselves and their children that they 
might be that "new man who acts upon new prin- 
ciples." They wished to be free from the restric- 
tions and limitations of old societies. They wished 
to have the right to a govermnent of their own 
choosing. They wished freedom of religious wor- 
ship. They wished to have freedom of opportu- 
nity. And they wished to have educational oppor- 
tunities for themselves and for their children. 

Faith in Education 

One of the great phenomena that impressed all 
observers of the United States in its early years 
was the faith that the people who came to this 
country had in education. The motto of one of 
your neighboring universities, Veritas Vos 
Liberahit, could well have stood for the aspira- 
tions of these people who built this country. With 
our forefathers we earnestly believe that the trutli 
will make and keep us free. 

As the vitality and strength of the f re« people 
turned to the development of this young country, 
their freedom and initiative and enterprise al- 
lowed them to build up the great political and 
economic institutions that gi"ew hand in hand with 
the greatest educational system that the world had 
seen. This was traditionally manifest in Catholic 
communities. Across the United States there de- 
veloped the vast system of elementary and sec- 
ondary schools, colleges and universities that have 
given this country its place in world leadership. 

It was this emphasis on education that fathered 
the dynamic force that has led to the great tech- 
nical and scientific advances in United States life. 
In turn this led to the great advances in human 
welfare. But, more important, this availability 
of qualitative and quantitative education has given 
us the free and informed electorate that has kept 
our institutions alive and growing. 

Today our way of life, our spiritual values, and 
free institutions are being subjected to competition 
and attack by the totalitarian dictatorship of 
communism. As against our faith in our free 
institutions this other system places its faith in 
people turned out to a mass pattern and places its 
faith in the development of a people educated in 
identical mass beliefs. The Soviet Encyclopedia 



describes the objectives of their school system: 

To develop in children's minds the Communist morality, 
ideology, and Soviet patriotism ; to inspire unshakable 
love toward the Soviet fatherland, the Communist Party, 
and its leaders ; to propagate Bolshevik vigilance, to put 
emphasis on an atheistic understanding of the world. 

In the Soviet Union the greatest concentration 
of effort is being placed on the creation of machin- 
ery for mass education. If it is successful in 
producing new leaders for Soviet international 
policy, scientists, teclmical experts, and specialists 
in international education or — as the rest of the 
world would phrase it — external conquest, you 
members of the graduating class as well as the 
Nation face rugged competition. 

Current Soviet Line 

At the present moment we are enjoying a lull in 
the competitive relationship with the Soviet rulers. 
We are exposed to the charms of peaceful co- 
existence. The pressure of other events tends to 
relegate to the background of our minds the brutal 
Soviet military intervention suppressing the 
aspirations of the Hungarian people — among them 
an important percentage of Catholics. We hear 
alluring words on the desirability of disarmament. 
Suggestions are made that cultural exchanges are 
only restricted by our reluctance. Boasts are 
heard that soon the Soviet empire will outstrip 
this country in agricultural production, especially 
in milk and meat. This has been referred to as 
the new policy of milk shakes and meat balls. In 
fact it has been suggested that some of IMr. 
Khrushchev's estimates are a bit bullish. We are 
invited to demonstrate greater initiative in pro- 
viding technical know-how to Soviet industry. At 
the same time our bourgeois society is assured that 
it is only a question of time when it will be over- 
come by the Soviet form of socialism, that our 
grandchildren will live imder socialism, and we 
will be sorry not to have joined that camp sooner. 

The cuiTent line of the Soviet leadership is not 
without a seductive quality. Naturally we prefer 
it to the threats earlier this year of guided missiles 
aimed at Western countries and to the series of 
turbulent, hostile acts and postures wliich the 
present Soviet leadership has added to a long 
record in the several world areas. 

Perhaps the peoples of the Soviet orbit may 
somehow exercise influence on the leadership to 
provoke a continuance of the present soft line. 
We would welcome nothing more than an ex- 



J«/y 8, 7957 



75 



tended opportunity to develop contacts between 
those peoples and onr own. We know that hard 
internal problems within the orbit would be suf- 
ficient to absorb the energies and resources of the 
rulers of that empire if they were willing to aban- 
don their ambitious plans for world domination. 
Now that 40 years have passed since the 1917 revo- 
lution can we hope that maturity might bring with 
it a certain wisdom. 

Responsibilities of Citizens 

For us the hard fact remains that the system 
is essentially unaltered and that the threat to our 
civilization exists with varying degrees of in- 
tensity depending upon the party tactics of the 
moment. For that reason you of the graduating 
class and our entire people must work for the 
strongest and best foreign policy we are capable 
of devising. You will have many responsibilities 
in life, but there is one you cannot all'ord to neg- 
lect. It is your responsibility as citizens in this 
democracy to promote the best interests of your 
Government in its international relationships. 
The issues involved in those relationships govern 
war and peace. They are of intimate concern to 
you. Through the education and enlightenment 
you have gained in this great university you will 
be competent to strengthen this Republic of ours 
and see it through the vicissitudes whicli lie ahead. 
Tliis is an miavoidable responsibility ahead of you. 

Tlie occasion we are celebrating today is a com- 
mencement. It is aptly so called because it is 
from today that you commence the practical ap- 
plication of the tools of knowledge and education 
for which you have arduously worked. Let us 
learn from the failure of other peoples — in many 
other republics of ancient and modern times — to 
maintain their spirit, their will, and their fresh- 
ness of vision. Let us make very sure that we 
maintain our spirit, our will, and our freshness of 
vision. 



Mr. Satterthwaite Appointed 
to Alaska Commission 

Livingston Satterthwaite, Director of the Office 
of Transport and Commimications, was among 
those appointed by President Eisenhower on June 
17 to be members of the Alaska International Rail 
and Highway Commission. 



President Exchanges Greetings 
With King of Tunisia 

FoUo'wiiig are texts of commumcations ex- 
changed hetween President Eisenhower and the 
King of Tunisia. 

Wliite House press release dated May 29 
President Eisenhower's Message, March 20 

Your Majesty : It is with sincere pleasure that 
I take the occasion of the visit of the Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States to your country to send 
you this letter of personal greetings. 

I know that your nation, soon to celebrate the 
first anniversary of its independence, shares the 
desire of the entire Free World for international 
peace and justice and works actively to fulfill the 
role which has fallen to it as a member of the 
family of nations. I am also aware that you and 
your government are dedicated to the furtherance 
of the welfare of your people. 

I am therefore especially pleased that the Vice 
Pi-esident is able to see Tunisia at first hand and 
to talk with you and the members of your govern- 
ment concerning your nation's policies and prob- 
lems. I look forward to his return to the United 
States and his personal report to me of his visit. 

I extend to you my best wishes for your con- 
tinued health and happiness, 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

Message From the King of Tunisia, April 16 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the 
]\ferciful 

From: Mohamed Lamine (the First), King of 
Tunisia 

To: His Excellency Dwight D. Eisenhower 
President of the United States of America 

We received with great happiness and pleasure 
the message of amity and friendship which Your 
Excellency sent to Us through your Honorable 
Vice President, Mr. Nixon, on the occasion of his 
visit to Our country to attend the celebration of 
the first anniversary of Our independence. 

It is Our pleasure to avail Ourselves of this 
opportunity to record Our great satisfaction with 
the noble sentiments and good wishes of the 
friendly American people for the Tunisian people 



76 



Depattmeni of State Bulletin 



who, for a Ions; time, have not ceased to strive 
toward strengthening the bonds of amity and 
close cooperation between Our two countries. 

We avail Ourselves of this opportunity to ex- 
press to Your Excellency Our respect for your 
noble person and Our best wishes for the honor, 
prestige, and well-being of your people. 

Greetings from your friend, 

MOHAMED LaMINE 

King of Tunisia 



Proposed Sale Abroad 

of U.S. Reserve-Fleet Ships 

Following is the text of a statement made on 
June 10 hy Assistant Secretary Kalijarvi hefore 
the Suhcommittee on Merchant Marine and Fish- 
eries of the Senate Committee on Interstate and 
Foreign Commerce, together tuith the text of a 
letter from Assistant Secretary Hill to the chair- 
man of the committee, Senator Warren G. 
Magnuson. 

STATEMENT BY MR. KALIJARVI 

Press release 352 dated June 10 

My name is Thorsten V. Kalijarvi. I am As- 
sistant Secretary of State for Economic Atlairs. 
I am appearing at the invitation of the chairman 
to comment upon S. J. Res. 66, S. J. 84, S. J. 90, 
S. 1644, and S. 2038, all proposing the sale of 
vessels from the United States reserve fleet to 
foreign purchasers. 

In a letter of June 7, 1957, to the chairman, the 
Department of State stressed the view that sales 
of vessels from this fleet should not be made un- 
less the national interests of the United States 
were clearly furthered by such action. The let- 
ter also pointed out that the number and types of 
vessels in whose sale the Department of Defense 
might concur would probably be extremely limi- 
ted, and concluded with the recommendation that 
sales legislation should be of a general nature and 
should contain limitations safeguarding the in- 
terests of the American merchant marine. 

The Maritime Administration has presented for 
this committee's consideration a draft bill which 
would authorize the sale of vessels from the re- 
serve fleet for operation in the coastwise trade of 
the purchasing country. This proposal appears 



to incorporate the major principles which have 
governed the views of the Department of State. 
This Department strongly supports and urges en- 
actment of this draft bill. 

The requirements which properly should be met 
in any sale of reserve-fleet ships are: (1) that the 
operation of the vessels will not be prejudicial or 
detrimental to the operations of American vessels; 
(2) that the transfer of the specific ships is not in- 
compatible with the defense requirements of the 
United States; (3) that the sale will advance the 
interests of this Nation as well as of the purchas- 
ing country. The Department of State believes 
that the Mai'itime Administration's draft bill ade- 
quately provides for these requirements. 

The restriction of the transferred vessels to the 
coastwise trades of their respective countries fully 
protects American vessels. The Department of 
State is vitally concerned with the development of 
a strong American merchant marine and supports 
this principle. Nevertheless the Department of 
State desires to laoint out that instances may con- 
ceivably arise where the interests of the United 
States might demonstrably be furthered by the 
sale of certain vessels not limited to purely coast- 
wise operation. In such exceptional cases regional 
or other restrictions could be imposed sufficiently 
to insure that their operation would not be detri- 
mental to the interests of the American merchant 
marine. 

Should legislation be introduced proposing sales 
under those conditions and the Department be 
convinced that such sales would promote, to an 
important degree, the interests of the United 
States, it would expect to make appropriate rec- 
ommendations to the Congress. 



LETTER TO SENATOR MAGNUSON 

June 7, 1957 
Dear Senator Magnttson: This is in response 
to your letter of May 27, 1957, which invited the 
comments of the Department of State on the fol- 
lowing bills : 

S. J. Res. 66 (Senator Humphrey) to authorize 
the sale of a certain number of merchant-type ves- 
sels to the Government of India or to citizens of 
India for use in the coastwise trade of such coun- 
try (not more than 12 Liberty-type vessels, or 
equivalent) . 



Jo/y 8, 7957 



77 



S. J. Res. 8i (Senators Cotton, Bridges, Salton- 
stall, Wayne) to authorize the Secretary of Com- 
merce to sell certain vessels to certain citizens of 
the Federal Republic of Germany (not more than 
6 Liberty-type vessels) . 

S. J. 90 (Senators Smathers and Cotton) to au- 
thorize the Secretary of Commerce to sell certain 
coal-burning vessels to certain citizens of the Fed- 
eral Republic of Germany (not more than 24 
vessels). 

S. 1644 (Senator Bible) to authorize the sale 
of four merchant-type vessels to citizens of Mexico 
for use in the intercoastal trade of Mexico (ves- 
sels of the CI-IVIAVI type) . 

S. 2038 (Senator McNamara) to authorize the 
sale of ten merchant-type vessels to citizens of 
Italy for use in the intercoastal trade of Italy. 

The Department, in its letter of April 23, 1957, 
already has commented on S. J. Res. 66, to author- 
ize the sale of a certain number of merchant-type 
vessels to the Government of India or to citizens of 
India for use in the coastwise trade of such coun- 
try. In its letter the Department stated : 

The Department has received in recent years inquiries 
from a number of foreign governments regarding pos- 
sible sales of reserve fleet vessels. Some of these in- 
quiries appear to be soundly based, not only from the 
standpoint of demonstrated need, but from that of fur- 
thering the national interests of the United States with- 
out detriment to the American merchant marine. There- 
fore, the Department considers that any legislation au- 
thorizing the sales of war-built vessels should, on the one 
hand, be so limited as to their number, type, and oper- 
ational area as not to be detrimental to the interests 
of the United States, but, on the other hand, should ade- 
quately provide for such sales as are clearly In the na- 
tional interest. 

The Department believes that consideration should be 
given to the development of legislation which would 
broaden the objectives of S. J. Res. 66 by making avail- 
able to other friendly foreign countries as well as to 
India a limited number of United States vessels for op- 
erations which would not adversely affect the American 
merchant marine. 

The Department of State is aware of and ap- 
preciates tlie reasoning which led the Congress 
to enact the Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946. 
"Sterilization" of the war-built fleet remaining 
after tlie statutory period for sales effectively re- 
moved from world markets a great accumulation 
of ship tonnage (more than 29 million deadweight 
tons) which otherwise would have discouraged in- 
vestment in new ships, reduced shipbuilding activ- 



ities both in the United States and in other 
countries, and depressed world freight and 
charter rates. The Department firmly believes 
that the policy of the Ship Sales Act of 1946 is 
basically sound. Nevertheless the Department also 
realizes that, in certain cases, the interests of the 
United States in the field of foreign relations might 
be furthered by the authorization of exceptions to 
the Ship Sales Act, when such sales can be made 
without detriment to the American merchant 



marme. 



The Department of State equally appreciates 
that the laid-up fleet constitutes a reserve poten- 
tial for defense purposes and that the Department 
of Defense will be zealous in protecting it. Neces- 
sarily requests to purchase ships from this fleet 
must be considered in the light of the numbers 
and types to whose sale the Department of De- 
fense would not object, as well as to the individual 
merits of the requests. The Department of Com- 
merce will, of course, be vigilant to point out any 
proposals whose consummation would be detrimen- 
tal to the merchant marine of tlie United States. 

The Department of State believes that all of 
the foregoing factors should be adequately con- 
sidered and given proper weight as any proposal 
for the sale of ships from the reserve fleet. This 
cannot satisfactorily be done piecemeal, as is the 
case of selective sales to individual countries, but 
only by legislation which will be broad enough 
to take all elements of the problem into account. 

In addition to the bills and joint resolutions 
referred to herein, there are two bills before the 
House of Representatives for the sale of ships 
to Turkey and to Guatemala respectively and, as 
stated, the Department is in receipt of numerous 
requests for ships from other foreign govern- 
ments, which requests have not been put in the 
form of bills. These bills, joint resolutions, and 
requests may all have merit in varying degrees 
but their relative priority, in regard to a limited 
number of ships, can only be evaluated if they 
are considered as a whole. 

The Department therefore recommends that 
legislation authorizing sales to foreign purchasers 
should be general, but with limitations to safe- 
guard the American merchant marine. 
Sincerely yours. 

For tlie Secretary of State : 
Robert C. Hill 
Assistant Secretary 



78 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



United States Balance of Payments With Latin America in 1956 



hy Walther Lederer and Nancy F. Culbertson 



The outflow of funds from the United States to 
Latin America resulting from U.S. imports of 
goods and services, net donations, and net invest- 
ments was $850 million higher in 1956 than it 
was in 1955. This rise was among the highest 
year-to-year changes in the transactions between 
this counti-y and the 20 republics during the post- 
war period. U.S. receipts fi'om Latin America, 
mainly for goods, services, dividends, and inter- 
est, rose by nearly $700 million. The fact that 
U.S. payments increased more than U.S. receipts 
compensated for the opposite development during 
the preceding year, when U.S. payments declined 
slightly while U.S. receipts continued to rise. 

U.S. payments of $5,670 million exceeded U.S. 
receipts by about $140 million, in contrast with an 
excess of U.S. receipts of about $20 million in 
1955. The balance in 1956 was more in line with 
1954 and 1953, however, when U.S. payments ex- 
ceeded receipts by about $110 million and $225 
million respectively. 

In addition to net receipts of gold and dollars 
f i-om known transactions with the United States, 
the Latin American countries also had a surplus 
in their transactions with the rest of the world. 
Total gold and liquid dollar assets of the 20 i-e- 
publics rose during 1956 by about $325 million, 
or twice as fast as in 1955, and reached $4.3 bil- 
lion as of the end of the year, by far the highest 
amount ever recorded. 

Record Rise in Dollar Outflow 

The major factore contributing to the rise in 
U.S. payments to Latin America from 1955 to 
1956 were a $300 million rise in U.S. merchandise 
imports and a $430 million increase in the outflow 
of U.S. capital. Payments for services advanced 



by about $100 million, and Government nonmili- 
tary grants and private remittances by about $10 
million. 

The expansion in U.S. imports from Latin 
America in 1956 was due primarily to a rise in 
volume. Average import prices were relatively 
stable. The major exception was copper, wliich 
averaged higher in price than in 1955 but was im- 
ported in smaller volume. In contrast, cocoa im- 
ports rose in volume but because of lower prices 
fell in value. The increases were about evenly 
divided in value for coffee, sugar, petroleum, 
and metals. They affected, therefore, many of 
the major Latin American export industries. 

The gains in merchandise imports were rela- 
tively concentrated, however, with respect to the 
countries from which they came. Of the total 
increase of $300 million, $121 million came from 



• This article is the third in a series on 
the balance of payments betiveen the United 
States and the Latin American Republics. 
The first two articles, which covered the pe- 
riods 19IfO-55 and the -first half of 1966, ap- 
peared in the Bulletin of March 26, 1956, 
p. 521, and December 2^ and 31, 1956, p. 
983. The authors are members of the Bal- 
ance of Payments Division, Office of Busi- 
ness Economics, U.S. Department of Oom- 
merce. The data on luhich this article is 
based tcere prepared by the Balance of Pay- 
ments Division and published in the March 
1957 issue of the Survey of Current Busi- 
ness, the monthly peiiodical of the Office of 
Business Economics. 



July 8, 1957 



79 



Major Commodities Imported From Latin America 
BY Half Years, 1955 and 1956 



{Millions 


of dollars) 








1955 


1956 




Jan.- 
June 


July- 
Dec. 


Jan.- 
June 


Julv- 
Dec. 


Coffee 

Cane sugar 

Cocoa and cocoa beans . . . 

Copper 

Other metals and manufac- 
tures 


592 

158 

45 

109 

112 

269 

41 

396 


636 

146 

49 

129 

137 

279 

32 

338 


692 

179 

31 

142 

154 

316 

51 

414 


609 

152 

36 

139 

162 


Petroleum and products . . 
Wool, unmanufactured . . . 
Other 


340 

22 

330 






Total imports ' . . . 


1,722 


1,746 


1, 979 


1,790 



SoimcE: Bureau of the Census and Bureau of Foreign Commerce, Depart- 
ment of Commerce. 

' Total imports represent general imports adjusted to 
balance-of-payments concepts. Commodity data represent 
imports for consumption. 

Venezuela, $113 million from Bi-azil, and $35 mil- 
lion each from Cuba and Chile. There were ad- 
vances in imports from other countries, but they 
were comparatively small. Imports from Co- 
lombia declined. 

The value of merchandise received from some of 
the countries reached new peaks. In that respect, 
Peru and Venezuela were ahead of all others, with 
gains of 22 and 21 percent respectively over the 
previous peak, which for both countries was in 
1955. Guatemala's exports to the United States 
were about 10 percent higher than the previous 
high, in 1955, and Cuba's exceeded the previous 
peak in 1952 by nearly 4 percent. All other coun- 
tries, including those from which imports rose in 
1956 by relatively large amounts, did not quite 
reach the value of their sales to the United States 
in some earlier year when prices or other market 
conditions were more in their favor. 

The $100 million rise in payments for services 
was composed of $40 million for shipping, $30 
million for tourist expenditures, and $25 million 
of additional net earnings by migratory workers. 
Payments for shipping services consist of freight 
payments to Latin American ship operators, in- 
cluding companies incorporated in Panama, and 
the expenditures of U.S. -operated ships in Latin 
American ports. Tourist expenditures rose from 
$320 million in 1955 to $350 million in 1956. More 
than three-fourths of these expenditures are made 
in Mexico, and the remainder chiefly in the Carib- 
bean area and Central America. Travel to South 



America expanded but is still relatively unde- 
veloped. Net earnings by migratory workers also 
accrue primarily to Mexico. Mexico's income 
from these two sources in 1956 was about $400 
million and equaled its income from the sale of 
merchandise to the United States. 



U.S. Investments a Major Factor 

The net outflow of capital to Latin America 
through direct investments in 1956 exceeded $500 
million and thus established a new record. About 
two-thirds of this amount was invested in the pe- 
troleum industry, mainly in Venezuela and pri- 
marily for new exploration concessions. Invest- 
ments in other industries also increased by large 
amounts. This applies particularly to manufac- 
turing plants in Brazil and Mexico and to mining 
facilities in Chile and Peru. 

The extent to which the capacity to produce and 
the employment opportunities have been ex- 
panded by U.S. investments cannot be measured 
appropriately by the net outflow of capital from 
the United States. Investments are also financed 
by ploughing back a part of the current earnings, 
by reinvesting funds set aside to meet deprecia- 
tion, and in some instances by local borrowing and 
equity financing. On the basis of a recently pub- 
lished study of "The Role of U.S. Investments 
in the Latin American Economy" {Survey of Cur- 
rent Business, January 1957), in which an analy- 
sis is made of the sources of funds used for invest- 
ments by U.S. corporations in Latin America dur- 
ing 1955, it may be estimated that their gross capi- 
tal expenditures in the area in 1956 were prob- 
ably in the neighborhood of $1 billion. 

The impact of these investments on the growth 
of the Latin American economies transcends by 
far their efl^ects upon the balance of payments be- 
tween the United States and Latin America. 
Some of these investments are producing goods 
consumed outside of Latin America. Thus they 
frequently result in increased exports and imports 
of the host countries with countries other than the 
United States. Other investments, however, are 
made to produce for local markets and thus in- 
crease the output and income of the countries in 
which they are located, but the size of the inter- 
national transactions is aft'ected relatively little. 
Furthermore, investments by experienced pro- 
ducers create opportunities for local people to 



80 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



acquire the necessary skills to organize and op- 
erate business ventures and to become acquainted 
with opportimities within their own countries for 
investment of their savings in productive enter- 
prises ratlier than in real estate or foreign 
securities. 

Other private capital outflows, mostly short- 
and medium-term bank and other commercial 
credits, were about as high as in 1955. There was 
a decided shift, however, from medium- to short- 
term funds. In 1955 large medium-term bank 
loans were provided principally to Brazil in order 
to pay off short-term credits. In 1956 short-tenn 
credits rose again, mainly to Mexico and Vene- 
zuela. Since both of these countries continued to 
have a strong financial position, the rise in their 
short-term debt may be attributed to the expan- 
sion of their economies and their imports rather 
than to difficulties in meeting their obligations. 

On the other hand, countries which had expe- 
rienced such difficulties in earlier years, such as 
Brazil and Colombia, did not expand their short- 
term indebtedness. Colombia's short-term debt 
increased during the first half of 1956 but was 
reduced by about the same amount in the second 
half. Arrangements have been made by the Co- 
lombian Government under which a part of the 
debt is to be paid in the near future and the re- 
mainder over a longer period of time. 

Outflow of Government Funds Also Higher 

U.S. Government nonmilitary grants and the 
net outflow of Government capital were also some- 
what higher than in the preceding year. Almost 
half of the $75 million grant disbursements were 
made to Bolivia and Guatemala. The remainder 
was scattered among a relatively large number 
of the other republics. Nearly $10 million of the 
grants consisted of the contribution for the con- 
struction of the Inter-American Highway system ; 
$16 million was for foodstuffs for famine and 
other urgent relief, including supplies distributed 
by private agencies and the United Nations 
Children's Fmad ; approximately $50 million con- 
sisted of technical and development assistance. 

The outflow of Government long-term capital 
in 1956 was $117 million, down slightly from tlie 
$143 million in 1955. Tliese figures include in- 
vestments by Government agencies in mining and 
other productive enterprises, which increased 
slightly during this period. Disbursements for 



long-term loans dropped from $126 million in 
1955 to $90 million last year. The decline was 
more than accounted for by the transactions with 
one country, as payments for Brazil fell from $89 
million in 1955 to $42 million in 1956. Loan dis- 
bursements to the other Latin American Republics 
increased over 1955 from $37 million to $48 mil- 
lion. Several countries participated in this rise, 
particularly Peru and Mexico. 

Nearly three-fourths of the long-term loan 
disbursements were provided by the Export-Im- 
port Bank. The remainder included loans in 
local currencies obtained from the sale of agri- 
cultural products and credits on ship and military 
equipment sales. 

Although actual loan disbursements declined, 
the backlog of unutilized loan authorizations in- 
creased during the year by about $450 million and 
reached nearly $850 million at the end of 1956. 
New loans authorized during the year net of 
terminations were more than a half billion dol- 
lars. The rapid rise in the backlog may point to 
an upward trend in loan disbursements in the 
near future. 

Brazil accounted for about $310 million of the 
increase in unutilized authorizations during the 
year and for about $400 million of the amount 
unutilized at the end of 1956. About $250 million 
of the unutilized loan authorizations consisted of 
Export-Import Bank loans for the purchase of 
capital equipment in the United States and 
nearly $150 million of loans to be made in 
cruzeiros obtained from the sale of agricultural 
products. 

Another $100 million of the increase in the 
backlog was for the account of Argentina, and the 
remainder accrued mainly to Chile and Mexico. 

Eepayments of long-term Government loans by 
the Latin American Eepublics during 1956 
amounted to $114 million and thus exceeded the 
actual loan disbursements of $90 million. The 
$24 million excess of repayments over disburse- 
ments was primarily due to loan transactions with 
Brazil, which repaid $58 million but drew only 
$42 million in new funds. 

The rise from 1955 to 1956 in the net outflow of 
Government capital funds to Latin America was 
due to the accumulation of Latin American cur- 
rencies or short-term claims obtained through the 
sale of agricultural products. In 1956, sales 
against payments in local currencies were about 



July 8, J 957 



81 



$124 million, of which $19 million was utilized, 
mainly for long-term loans, and $105 million was 
accmnulated. In the preceding year sales for pay- 
ment in local currencies amounted to $25 million, 
of which $22 million remained unutilized at the 
end of the year. The accumulation in 1956 con- 
sisted mainly of the currencies of five countries : 
Brazil accounted for $38 million, Argentina for 
$22 million, Chile for $13 million, Bolivia for $13 
million, and Colombia for $11 million. Most of 
these currencies will ultimately be used in these 
comitries for long-term loans and in some cases 
for grants. 

United States Exports Expand 

The rise in total receipts by the United States 
from the Latin American Republics from about 
$4.8 billion in 1955 to about $5.5 billion in 1956 
was due mainly to higher exports by tliis country. 
U.S. income on investments in Latin America 
rose by about $80 million, or 10 percent, and 
other services transactions yielded about $50 mil- 
lion more. 



Major United States Exports to Latin America 
bt^Half Years, 1955 and 1956 



(Millions 


of dollars) 








IQSS 


1956 




Jan.- 


July- 


Jan.- 


July- 




June 


Dec. 


June 


Dec. 


Machinery 


391 


410 


460 


496 


Trucks and busses 


77 


80 


107 


121 


Iron and steel mill products 










and metal manufactures . 


132 


166 


179 


199 


Chemicals 


171 


185 


203 


198 


Passenger automobiles, new . 


82 


64 


65 


51 


Textile manufactures. . . . 


84 


82 


83 


91 


Foodstuffs 


147 


192 


213 


199 


Other 


504 


529 


556 


612 


Total exports ' . . . 


1,588 


1,708 


1,866 


1,967 



.Soukce: Bureau of the Censusand Bureau of Foreign Commerce, Depart- 
ment of Commerce. 

' The total represents general exports adjusted for 
balance-of-payments purposes and includes "special cate- 
gory" items which for security reasons are excluded from 
commodity data. 

The composition of U.S. exports changed rel- 
atively little compared with 1955. Producers' 
supplies and capital equipment comprised about 
two-thirds of total exports, foodstuffs and to- 
bacco about 12 percent, and finished consumer 
goods also about 12 percent. 



Mexico, Venezuela, and Cuba were by far the 
most important markets for the United States. 
These three countries accounted for over $2 bil- 
lion, or more than half, of our exports and for 
about the same proportion of the rise from the pre- 
vious year. Sales to Mexico were about $130 mil- 
lion above the previous peak in 1951 ; those to 
Venezuela were nearly $100 million higher than in 
1955, the previous peak year for that country. 
Other countries to which exports reached a new 
high included El Salvador, Guatemala, tlie Do- 
minican Eepublic, Bolivia, and Peiti. There was 
also a substantial i-ecovery in shipments to Argen- 
tina, Brazil, and Chile, but sales remained still 
smaller than in earlier years. 

The drop from the previous peak year was 
most pronounced in the case of Brazil, where 
sales in 1956 were just under $300 million, com- 
pai'ed with about $700 million in 1951. Howevei', 
the higher exports to Brazil in 1951 and 1952 and 
again in 1954 were in excess of that coiuitry's 
ability to pay. Brazil's purchases during the last 
2 years had to be kept low, therefore, in order to 
pay the debts incurred during the years of high 
exports. 

Special Factors Affect Latin American Reserves 

As indicated earlier, U.S. payments to Latin 
America exceeded Latm American payments to 
the United States by about $140 million. This 
net movement of dollars to Latin America con- 
trasts with net payments of $20 million to the 
United States during the preceding j^ear. It may 
be recalled, however, that the transactions which 
brought about this change included payments of 
about $250 million for concessions for oil explora- 
tion in Venezuela and a $150 million rise in U.S. 
short-term commercial claims. 

Although payments for additional concessions 
in Venezuela will probably continue through 
1957 and will be followed by expenditures for 
exploration and the installation of producing fa- 
cilities, they may be considered as special types of 
transactions partly because of their size and 
partly because they took the form of cash transfers 
to the Venezuelan Govermnent. "VVliile such cash 
transfers can — and in this case did — raise the re- 
cipient country's reserves, direct investments in 
countries in relatively early stages of mdustrial 
development usually do not have the same effect. 
Ti-ansfei-s to such countries are made frequently 



82 



Department of State Bulletin 



ill the form of capital equipment or other com- 
modities and services, whicli appear in tlie im- 
poiiB of the country in which the investment 
takes place. Even when new capital fmids are 
used for the payment of wages to local labor, the 
additional incomes result earlier or later in iiigher 
import demands. 

The rise in short-term commercial credits was 
mainly to countries with relatively strong finan- 
cial positions, but the outflow of funds tlirough 
such channels has in the past proved to be rela- 
tively unsteady. Thus, it cannot be anticipated 
that the expansion of short-term credits will nec- 
essarily be continued. 

As a result of net receipts of $140 million 
through known transactions with the United 
States and the net dollar receipts from other 
countries (or through unidentified transactions 
with the United States) , the total gold and dollar 



assets of the Latin American Kepublics rose by 
about $325 million to $4.3 billion. 

Although Venezuela's gold and dollar holdings 
increased by $390 million, the holdings of the 
other countries as a whole declined. Even within 
this group of countries substantial variations in 
liquid assets took place. Major increases over the 
year as a whole accrued to Brazil, Mexico, and 
Guatemala. On the other hand, Argentina drew 
heavily on its reserves, and so did Cuba and Uru- 
guay but to a lesser extent. 

Major Changes During Year 

Seasonally adjusted estimates of the transac- 
tions between the United States and Latin Amer- 
ica for the two halves of 1956 indicate that U.S. 
imports of goods and services advanced from the 
first to the second half of the year by about $40 
million, or almost 2 percent. This indicates a 



United States Balance of Payments With the Latin American Republics 1955 and 1956 ' 

i Millions of dollars) 





Annual 


By half years 




1965 


1966 


1955 


1956 




I 


II 


I 


II 


United States payments: 


3,468 

866 

34 

74 

141 

188 

53 


3,769 

972 

36 

85 

521 

197 

92 


1,722 
410 
16 
34 
70 
85 
35 


1,746 
456 
18 
40 
71 
103 
18 


1,979 
456 
19 
43 
128 
88 
45 


1,790 


Sprvipps including invpstment income . 


516 


Remittancps . 


17 




42 


Direct investments (net) 

Other private United States capital (net) 


393 

109 

47 






Total XT S navments 


4,824 


5,672 


2,372 
(2, 323) 


2,452 
(2,501) 


2,758 
(2, 733) 


2,914 




(2, 939) 










United States receipts: 


3,296 

801 

725 

22 


3,833 

884 

779 

33 


1,588 

370 

353 

17 


1,708 

431 

372 

6 


1,866 

412 

378 

9 


1,967 


Income on investments 

Sprvices 


472 
401 


Long-term investments in the United States 


24 


Total U S reoeiDts 


4,844 


5,529 


2,328 
(2, 379) 


2,516 

(2,465) 


2,665 

(2, 727) 


2,864 




(2,802) 










Balance (net payments by the United States) 


-20 


143 


44 
(-56) 

18 
62 


-64 

(36) 

167 
103 


93 

(6) 

77 
170 


50 

(137) 


Net gold and dollar receipts by Latin America from unrecorded 
transactions witii the United States and from transactions 
with other countries and international institutions ...._. 

Increase or decrease ( — ) in Latin American gold and liquid 


185 
165 


182 
325 


105 
155 







Source: Balance of Payments Division, Offlce of Business Economics, Department of Commerce. 

' Excluding transfers of military supplies and services under grant-aid programs. 
= Estimated by the Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System. 



July 8, 7957 



83 



slowino: down in the rate of increase. Half a year 
earlier the rise was over 3 percent and a year 
earlier well over 6 percent. The outflow of capital 
advanced faster, however, mainly hecause of the 
large payments to Venezuela. Consequently, U.S. 
payments during the second half of the year were 
about $200 million higher than in the first. 

Exports of goods and services after seasonal ad- 
justments also rose from the first to the second 
half of the year. The rise amomited to $60 mil- 
lion, or just over 2 percent, and, as in the case of 
imjxirts, was considerably smaller than in preced- 
ing periods. During the preceding half year, ex- 
ports had advanced by well over 10 percent and a 
year earlier by more than 4 percent. 

Of the $32.5 million increase in Latin American 
gold and dollar holdings, $170 million occm-red 
during the first half of the year and $155 during 
the second. Tlie rise in Venezuelan reserves alone 
was $74 million in the first lialf of the year and 
$324 million during the second. The other 19 Re- 
publics had gains of about $100 million in the first 
half of 195G but losses of nearly $170 million dm-- 
ing the second jjart of the year. JMost of these 
losses were sustained by Argentina. Changes in 
gold and dollar holdings by other countries were 
relatively small or, in part at least, due to seasonal 
developments. Except for Venezuela and Argen- 
tina, therefore, the international transactions of 
the Latin American Republics with tlie United 
States and other countries showed a sui'plus dur- 
ing the first half of 1956 but were more or less in 
balance during the second half of the year. 



Tax Convention Discussions 
Witli Peru 

Press release 372 dated June 19 

Technical discussions ai'e to be held in the near 
future between officials of the Governments of 
Peru and the United States looking toward the 
conclusion of a tax convention between the two 
countries for the avoidance of double taxation of 
income and the elimination of tax obstacles to the 
international flow of trade and investment. If 
bases for agreement are found, drafts of the pro- 
posed agreement will be prepared and submitted 
to the respective governments for consideration 
with a view to signing. 

Interested parties in the United States desiring 



84 



to present their views on the scope and content of 
the proposed agreement may submit information 
and suggestions to Dan Throop Smith, Deputy 
to tlie Secretary, Treasuiy Department, Washing- 



ton 25, D. C. 



Assistant Secretary Rubottom 
Visits Central America 

Press release 379 dated June 21 

Roy Richard Rubottom, Jr., Assistant Secretary 
for Inter-American Affairs, will depart on June 
23, 1957, for a trip to El Salvador, Nicaragua, 
Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras, and Guatemala, 
returning to the United States on July 5, 1957. 

Mr. Rubottom, who took his oath of office as 
Assistant Secretary of State on June 19, 1957, 
plans to consult with Embassy personnel at the 
capitals of the countries to be visited and to ac- 
quaint himself firsthand with the problems of those 
countries. He will be accompanied by Mrs. Ru- 
bottom on his visit to the Central American 
capitals. 

The itinerary of the trip is as follows : San Sal- 
vador, June 23-25 ; Managua, June 25-26 ; Panama 
City, June 26-28 ; San Jose, June 28-July 1 ; Te- 
gucigalpa, July 1-2 ; Guatemala, July 2-5. 



Tariff Quota on Imports 

of Woolen and Worsted Fabrics 

White House press release dated May 24 
White House Announcement 

The President lias established a tariff quota 
upon imports of most woolen and worsted fabrics 
for 1957 pursuant to liis proclamation of Sep- 
tember 28, 1956,^ invoking the so-called Geneva 
wool-fabric reservation. Under that proclahia- 
tion the ad valorem rates of duty applicable to 
most woolen and worsted fabrics entering tlie 
comitry are increased when such imports, in any 
year, exceed an amount determined by the Pres- 
ident to be not less than 5 percent of the average 
annual U.S. production of similar fabrics for the 
3 preceding calendar years. 

The President, upon the recommendation of 
the Interdepartmental Committee on Trade 



' Bulletin of Oct. 8, lOaO. p. 5.55. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Agreements, announced a "breakpoint" of 14 
million pounds for 1957. 

Until 1957 imports reach the "breakpoint,'' the 
rates of duty remain at 30 cents or 37i^ cents per 
poimd ( depending upon tlie nature of the fabric ) 
phis 20 percent or 25 percent ad valorem (again 
depending upon the nature of the fabric). Im- 
ports during 1957 in excess of tlie "breakpoint" 
will be subject to an ad valorem duty of the full 
45 percent allowed by the Geneva reservation. 
The specific duty (cents per pound) is not 
affected. 

If imports during 1957 exceed 14 million 
pounds, the higlier rates of duty will go uito 
effect for the remainder of 1957, terminating at 
the end of 1957. 

The Geneva wool-fabric reservation is a right 
that was reserved by the United States in a 1947 
multilateral trade agreement at Geneva. It was 
reserved in connection with a tariff' concession 
granted by the United States to the United King- 
dom, and it was extended to otlier countries. The 
1947 tariff concession and the Geneva reservation 
apply to woolen and worsted fabrics dutiable 
under paragraphs 1108 and 1109(a) of the Tariff 
Act of 1930, as modified. Most woolen and 
worsted fabrics entering the United States are 
dutiable under these paragraphs. The President's 
action applies only to imports of such fabrics. 

Pursuant to the proclamation of last year, the 
President has notified the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury of his decision. 

Letter to Secretary of the Treasury ' 

The White House, May 21^, 1957. 
Dear Mr. Secretary: Proclamation 3160 of 
September 28, 1956, provides for the increase to 
45 per centum ad valorem of the ad valorem part 
of tlie duty in the case of fabrics described in 
item 1108 or llG9(a) in Part I of Schedule XX 
to tlie General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
(Geneva-1947) or in item 1109(a) in Part I of 
that Schedule (Torquay-1951) entered, or with- 
drawn from warehouse, for consumption in any 
calendar year following December 31, 1956, in ex- 
cess of a quantity to be notified by the President 
to the Secretary of the Treasury. Pursuant to 
paragraph 1 of that proclamation I hereby notify 
you that for tlie calendar year 1957 the quantity of 
such fabrics on imports in excess of which the ad 



' 22 Fea. Reg. 3717. 
July 8, J 957 



valorem part of the rate will be 45 per centum ad 
valorem shall be 14,000,000 pounds. I find this 
quantity to be not less than 5 per centum of the 
average annual production in the United States 
during the three immediately preceding calendar 
years of fabrics similar to such fabrics. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

The Honorable George S. Humphrey, 

Secretary of the Treas^try, 
Washington, D.C. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

84th Congress, 2d Session 

Administration and Operation of Ciistom.s and Tariff Laws 
and the Trade Agreements Program. Hearings before 
the Subcommittee on Customs, Tariffs and Reciprocal 
Trade Agreements of the House Committee on Ways 
and Means. Part 4, digests of conferences held in 
Europe, November 26-December 13, 19.56, and in Japan, 
December 4-6, 1956, and statements and documents 
received. 373 pp. 

85th Congress, 1st Session 

Report on Audit of Export-Import Bank of Washington 
for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1956. H. Doc. 97, 
February 20. 1957. 13 pp. 

Control and Reduction of Armaments. Hearings before 
a Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Foreign 
Relations pursuant to S. Res. 93, S. Res. 185, and S. 
Res. 286, S4th Cong., and S. Res. 61, 83th Cong. Part 
13. March 7 and 13, 1957, Washington, D. C. 86 pp. 

Information and Educational Exchange Act Amendments. 
Hearings before the Subcommittee on State Depart- 
ment Organization and Foreign Operations of the 
House Committee on Foreign Affairs on draft legisla- 
tion (executive communication no. 394) to promote the 
foreign policy of the United States by amending the 
United States Information and Educational Exchange 
Act of 1948 (Public Law 402, 80th Cong.). March 14 
and 20, 1957. 83 pp. 

Extension of Public Law 480. Hearing before the Senate 
Committee on Agriculture and Forestry on S. 671, S. 
1127, and S. 1314, bills to extend the Agricultural Trade 
Development and Assistance Act of 1954, and for other 
purposes. March 20, 1957. 50 pp. 

The Foreign Aid Program. Hearings l>efore the Senate 
Special Committee To Study the Foreign Aid Program 
pursuant to S. Res. 285, 84th Cong., and S. Res. 35, 85th 
Cong. March 20-.\pril 15, 1957. 745 pp. 

Denial of Passports by Department of State to Corre- 
spondents Wishing To Visit Communist China. Hearing 
before the Subcommittee on the Far East and the Pacific 
of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. March 28, 
1957. 37 pp. 

NATO Status of Forces Agreement, Criminal Jurisdiction 
Provisions. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. 
March 28, 1957. 7 pp. [Committee print.] 

Review of the Budget Formulation and Presentation 
Practices of the International Cooiieration Administra- 
tion. Hearings before a subcommittee of the House 
Committee on Government Operations. April 4-10, 1957. 
189 pp. 

35 




Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Atomic Energy 

Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency. 
Done at New York October 26, 1956.' 
Senate advice and consent to ratification given (with an 

interpretation and understanding): June 18, 1957. 
Ratification deposited: Sweden, June 19, 1957. 

Automotive Traffic 

Convention concerning customs facilities for touring. 
Done at New Xorls June 4, 1954.' 
Ratification deposited: Mexico, June 13, 1957. 

Customs convention on the temporary importation of 
private road vehicles. Done at New York June 4, 1954." 
Ratification deposited: Mexico, June 13, 1957. 

Copyriglit 

Universal copyright convention. Done at Geneva Sep- 
tember 6, 1952. Entered into force September 16, 1955. 
TIAS 3324. 

Notification hy United States of application to: Guam, 
May 17. 1957. 

Labor 

Constitution of the International Labor Organization, as 
amended. Adopted by the International Labor Con- 
ferences October 9, 1946, and June 25, 1953. Entered 
into force April 20, 1948, and May 20, 1954 (TIAS 1868 
and 3500). 
Acceptance deposited: Nicaragua, April 9, 1957. 

Property 

Convention for the protection of industrial property. 
Signed at London June 2, 1934. 
August 1, 1938. 53 Stat. 1748. 
Adherence effective: Turkey, June 27, 1957. 



Entered into force 



Sugar 

International sugar agreement. Done at London under 
date of October 1, 1953. Entered into force May 5, 
1954. TIAS 3177. 

Notification hy United Kingdom regarding the OoM 
Coast: As from March 6, 1957," extension of the 
agreement to the Gold Coast ceases to apply. 



Telecommunications 

International telecommunication 
protocol 



convention and final 
Signed at Buenos Aires December 22, 1952. 



Entered into force January 1, 1954 (TIAS 3266). 
Ratification deposited: Chile, May 14, 1957. 

War 

Geneva convention relative to treatment of prisoners of 

war; 
Geneva convention for amelioration of condition of 

wounded and sick in armed forces in the field ; 
Geneva convention for amelioration of condition of 
wounded, sick, and shipwrecked members of armed 
forces at sea ; 
Geneva convention relative to protection of civilian 
persons in time of war. 

Dated at Geneva August 12, 1949. Entered into force 
October 21, 1950 ; for the United States February 2, 
1956. TIAS 3364, 3362, 3363, and 3365, respectively. 
Adherence deposited: Tunisia, May 4, 1957. 

Wiialing 

Protocol amending the international whaling convention 
of 1046 (TIAS 1849). Done at Washington November 
19, 1956.' 
Ratification deposited: Canada, June 14, 1957. 



BILATERAL 

Bolivia 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 
of 19!54, as amended (68 Stat. 454, 455; 69 Stat. 44, 721). 
Signed at La Paz June 7, 1957. Entered into force 
June 7, 1957. 

Thailand 

Agreement amending the agreement for cooperation con- 
cerning civil uses of atomic energy of March 13, 1956 
(TIAS 3522). Signed at Washington March 27, 1957. 
Entered into force: June 19, 1957 (date each govern- 
ment received from the other written notification that 
it had complied with statutory and constitutional 
requirements). 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



' Not in force. 

"The date on which the Gold Coast became the in- 
dependent State of Ghana. 



Confirmations 

The Senate on June 18 confirmed Roy Richard Rubottom, 
Jr., to be an Assistant Secretary of State. (For bio- 
graphic details, see press release 215 dated April 16. ) 

Designations 

William P. Snow as Deputy Assistant Secretary for 
Inter-American Affairs, effective June 16. (For bio- 
graphic details, see press release 374 dated June 19.) 



86 



Department of State Bulletin 



Julv 8, 1957 



Index 



Vol. XXXVII, No. 941 



American Principles. Education and Responsibility In 
World Affairs (Murphy) 

American Republics 

Assistant Secretary Rubottom Visits Central America . 

United States Balance of Payments With Latin America 
In 1956 (Lederer, Culbertson) 

Asia. Administration of Ryukyu Islands (text of exeontive 
order) 

Claims. United States Asserts Claim Against U.S.S.R. 
for Destruction of B-29 on November 7, 1954 (text 
of U.S. note) 

Commnnism. Education and Responsibility in World 
Affairs (Murphy) 

Congress, The 

Congressional Documents Relating to Foreign Policy . . 

Proposed Sale Abroad of U.S. Reserve-Fleet Ships 
(Kalijarvi, Hill) 

Visit of Prime Minister Nobusuke Klshl of Japan (text 
of address before Senate and House of Representatives) . 

Department and Foreign Service 

Confirmations (Rubottom) 

Designations (Snow) 

Economic Affairs 

Proposed Sale Abroad of U.S. Reserve-Fleet Ships 
(Kalijarvi, Hill) 

Tariff Quota on Imports of Woolen and Worsted Fabrics 
(Eisenhower) 

Tax Convention Discussions With Peru 

United States Balance of Payments With Latin America 
in 1956 (LedereK, Culbertson) 

Edacational Exchange. Indonesian Parliamentarians Visit 
United States 

Germany, East. Fourth Anniversary of East Berlin Up- 
rising (Dulles) 

Hungary. U.N. Special Committee Reports on Hungarian 
Uprising (Lodge) 

Indonesia. Indonesian Parliamentarians Visit United 
States 

International Organizations and Conferences. Mr. Satter- 
thwaite Appointed to Alaska Commission 

Japan, Visit of Prime Minister Nubusuke Kishi (text of 
Joint communique, address before Senate and House of 
Representatives, exchange of greetings, members of 
party) 

Korea. U.N. Command in Korea Announces Intention To 
Replace Old Weapons 

Military Affairs. U.N. Command in Korea Announces In- 
tention To Replace Old Weapons 

Mutnal Security. The Mutual Security Program as an 
Instrument of Foreign Policy (Herter) 

Peru. Tax Convention Discussions With Peru .... 

Philippines. Return of Philippine Battle Flag (Bohlen) . 

Presidential Docaments 

Administration of Ryukyu Islands 

American-Vietnamese Friendship 

President Exchanges Greetings With King of Tunisia . . 

Tariff Quota on Imports of Woolen and Worsted Fabrics . 

Visit of Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi of Japan (text of 
joint communique) 

Refugees. Relation of the United States to World Migra- 
tion (McCollum) 

Treaty Information. Current Actions 

Tunisia. President Exchanges Greetings With King of 
Tunisia (Eisenhower, Lamine) 

U.S.S.R. United States Asserts Claim Against U.S.S.R. 
for Destruction of B-29 on November 7, 1954 (text of 
U.S. note) 



74 
84 
79 
55 

68 

74 

85 

77 

51 

86 
86 

77 

84 
84 

79 
61 
50 
62 
61 
76 

51 

58 

58 

47 
84 
60 

55 
61 
76 

84 



65 
86 



68 



United Nations 

U.N. Command in Korea Announces Intention To Replace 

Old Weapons . 58 

U.N. Special Committee Reports on Hungarian Uprising 

(Lodge) 62 

Viet-Nam. American-Vietnamese Friendship (Eisenhower, 

Ngo Dinh Diem) 61 

Name Index 

Bohlen, Charles E 60 

Culbertson, Nancy F 79 

Dulles, Secretary 50 

Eisenhower, President 51, 55, 61, 76, 85 

Herter, Christian A 47 

Hill, Robert C 77 

Kalijarvi, Thorsten V 77 

Kishi, Nobusuke 51, 53, 54 

Lamine, Mohamed 76 

Lederer, Walther 79 

Lodge, Henry Cabot 62 

McCollum, Robert S 65 

Murphy, Robert 74 

Ngo Dlnh Diem 61 

Nixon, Richard M 54 

Rubottom, Roy R., Jr 84, 86 

Satterthwaite, Livingston 76 

Snow, William P 86 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 17-23 

Releases may be obtained from the News Division, 
Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Press releases issued prior to June 17 which ap- 
pear in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 31.3 of 
May 23, 349 of June 7, 352 of June 10, 357 of June 
11, 360 of June 13, and 362 and 366 of June 14. 



Subject 

Visit of NATO parliamentarians. 
Beam nominated Ambassador to 

Poland (biographic details). 
Dulles ; message to Adenauer on anni- 
versary of East Berlin uprising. 
McCollum : "Relation of U.S. to World 

Migration." 
Tax convention discussions with Peru. 
Matthews nominated Ambassador to 

Austria (biographic details). 
Snow designated Deputy Asistant 

Secretary (rewrite ) . 
Nixon-Kishi exchange of greetings. 
Supplemental trade agreement with 

Cuba. 
Educational exchange. 
Report of U.N. Special Committee on 

Hungary. 
Rubottom itinerary. 
Educational exchange. 
Kalijarvi : statement before House 

Select Committee ou Small Business. 
Soviet note on diplomatic travel. 



Not printed. 
■ Held for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


*36S 
*369 


6/17 
6/17 


370 


6/17 


371 


6/19 


372 
*373 


6/19 
6/19 


*374 


6/19 


375 
t376 


6/19 
6/20 


*377 
378 


6/20 
6/20 


379 
*380 
f3Sl 


6/21 
6/21 
6/21 


t382 


6/22 



D. E. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1957 




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CEYLON — 1957 



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Ceylon, a pear-shaped tropical island off the southeastern tip of 
India, has been a connecting link in East- West trade as long as ships 
have plied the Indian Ocean. Colombo, located on the west coast, 
is the capital, largest city, and chief port. Since World War II it 
has become an international meeting ground for Asian countries and 
has given its name to the Commonwealth program known as the 
Colombo Plan. 

The year 1956 marked the inauguration of a program of American 
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Ceylon — 1957 describes this important nation which attained full 
dominion status in 1948. The most recent in the seiies of Background 
publications, this 16-page pamphlet is illustrated with photographs 
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The Land 

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Political Ceylon 

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The United States and Ceylon 

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fFIClAL 
EEKLY RECORD 
F 

CITED STATES 
REIGN POLICY 



Vol. XXXVII, No. 942 July 15, 1957 

OUR POLICIES TOWARD COMMUNISM IN CHINA 

• Address by Secretary Dulles 91 

SECRETARY DULLES' NEWS CONFERENCE OF 

JUNE 25 96 

OUR MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAMS • by Deputy 

Under Secretary Dillon 114 

THE CITIZEN'S RESPONSIBILITIES IN INTER- 
NATIONAL AFFAIRS • by Assistant Secretary Wilcox . 103 

PROBLEMS RELATING TO EXPORT OF IRON AND 

STEEL SCRAP • Statement by Assistant Secretary 
Kalijarvi 120 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Boston Public Library 
Superinton-^-M of Documents 

AUG 2 9 1957 



Vol. XXXVII, No. 942 • Publication 6521 
July 15, 1957 



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U.S. Govermnent Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

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the Budget (January 19, 1955). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government tcith information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
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special articles on various phases of 
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which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
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Publications of the Department, 
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Our Policies Toward Communism in China 



Address hy Secretary Dulles ^ 



It is appropriate that in this great city of San 
Francisco, which faces the Far East, we should 
consider our policies toward communism in 
China. 

The Situation Today 

On the China mainland 600 million people are 
ruled by the Chinese Communist Party. That 
party came to power by violence and, so far, has 
lived by violence. 

It retains power not by will of the Chinese 
people but by massive, forcible repi'ession. It 
fought the United Nations in Korea ; it supported 
the Communist war in Indochina; it took Tibet 
by force. It fomented the Communist Huk rebel- 
lion m the Philippines and the Communists' in- 
surrection in Malaya. It does not disguise its 
expansionist ambitions. It is bitterly hateful of 
the United States, which it considers a principal 
obstacle in the way of its path of conquest. 

In the face of this condition the United States 
has supported, morally and materially, the free 
nations of the Western Pacific and Southeast 
Asia. Our security treaties make clear that the 
violation of these nations by international com- 
munism would be considered as endangering our 
own peace and safety and that we would act ac- 
cordingly. 

Together we constitute a goodly company and 
a stout bidwark against aggression. 

As regards China, we have abstained from any 
act to encourage the Communist regime — mor- 
ally, politically, or materially. Thus : 

^Ye have not extended diplomatic recognition to 
the Chinese Communist regime; 



' Made before the international convention of Lions In- 
ternational at San Francisco, Calif., on June 28 (press 
release 393). 



We have ojDposed its seating in the United Na- 
tions ; 

We have not traded with Communist China or 
sanctioned cultural interchanges with it. 

These have been, and are, our policies. Like 
all our policies, they are under periodic review. 

The Precedent of Russia 

As we review our China policy, we naturally 
and properly recall our recognition policy as re- 
gards Communist F.ussia. 

Tlie Bolsheviks seized power from Kerensky in 
1917. Nevertheless, we continued for 16 years to 
treat the Kerensky representatives in exile as rep- 
resenting the lawful government of Russia. By 
1933 it seemed that the Communist regime might 
be considered as a peaceful member of society. 
For more than a decade it had committed no act 
of armed aggression. It had accepted the inde- 
pendence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and 
of Poland. It was not demonstrably maltreating 
American citizens. It promised to cease subver- 
sive activities in the United States, to respect 
American rights in Russia, and to settle Russia's 
public and private debts to the United States. 

Also, by 1933, we desired to encourage the 
Soviet regime to resist Japanese aggressive poli- 
cies in the Far East. The Republic of China, in- 
spired by this same notion, had recognized the 
Soviet Government in December 1932, and we 
shortly followed suit. 

We need not question that act of I'ecognition 
under the circumstances which then prevailed. 
Recognition seemed indicated by many tests, and 
we did not read the future. 

However, it can, I think, be said with confidence 
tliat recognition would not have been accorded to 
the Soviet Union even in 1933 had there been 
clear warning that the Soviet promises given in 



Ju/y 75, 1957 



91 



that connection were totally unreliable, that ag- 
gressive war would soon become an instrumental- 
ity of Soviet policy, and that it would be neutral 
toward Japanese aggression in Asia. 

In the case of Communist China we are fore- 
warned. That regime fails to pass even those tests 
which, after 16 years, the Soviet regime seemed 
to pass. 

(1) Soviet Russia, in 1933, had had a decade of 
peaceful and nonaggressive relations with neigh- 
boring states; Communist China's past record is 
one of armed aggression. 

(2) The Soviet regime seemed to want peace 
for the future. In the case of Communist China 
the situation is quite the reverse. Mr. Chou 
En-lai, at the time of the Bandung conference, 
said that "the Chinese people do not want to have 
war with the United States and are willing to 
settle international disputes by peaceful means." 
But when the United States took him up and 
sought explicit reciprocal renunciations of force, 
his ambassador, after presenting various evasive 
formulas, finally stated frankly that his regime 
did intend to use armed force to take Taiwan 
(Formosa) unless they could get it in some other 
way. 

(3) The Soviet Union in 1933 was not flagrantly 
violating its international engagements. The 
Chinese Communist regime is violating the 1953 
Korean armistice and the 1954 Indochina armis- 
tice. 

(4) There was reason to hope that the Soviet 
regime would treat our nationals with respect. 
The Chinese Communist regime violates the per- 
sons of our citizens in defiance of the elementary 
code of international decency, and it breaches its 
1955 pledge to release them.^ 

(5) It seemed, m 1933, that the Soviet regime 
and the United States had parallel interests in 
resisting Japanese aggression in the Far East. 
Today the political purposes of Communist China 
clash everywhere with our own. 

The Consequences of Recognition 

United States diplomatic recognition of Com- 
munist Cliina would have the following conse- 
quences : 

(1) The many mainland Chinese, who by Mao 



' Btjixetin of Sept 19, 1955, p. 456. 



Tse-tung's own recent admission seek to change 
the nature of their government, would be im- 
mensely discouraged. 

(2) The millions of overseas Chinese would 
feel that they had no Free China to which to look. 
Today increasing numbers of these overseas Chi- 
nese go to Free China to study. Six years ago 
there were less than 100 Chinese students from 
Southeast Asia and Hong Kong studying in Tai- 
wan. NoAV there are nearly 5,000. 

The number of Cliinese students from overseas 
communities coming to Free China has increased 
year by year; the number going to Communist 
China has declined, and hundreds of disillusioned 
students have made their way out of mainland 
China in the past 2 years. 

If the United States recognized the Chinese 
Conununist regime, many of the millions of over- 
seas Chinese in free Asian countries would, reluc- 
tantly, turn to acceptance of the guiding direc- 
tion of the Communist regime. This would be a 
tragedy for them; and it would imperil friendly 
governments already menaced by Chinese Com- 
munist subversion. 

(3) The Republic of China, now on Taiwan, 
would feel betrayed by its friend. That Govern- 
ment was our ally in the Second World War and 
for long bore alone the main burden of the Far 
Eastern war. It had many tempting opportuni- 
ties to compromise with the Japanese on terms 
which would have been gi-avely detrimental to the 
United States. It never did so. We condemn the 
Soviets for having dishonored their 20-year treaty 
pledge of 1945 to support the Chinese National 
Government as the central government of China. 
We are lionorbound to give our ally, to whom we 
are pledged by a mutual defense treaty, a full 
measure of loyalty. 

(4) The free Asian governments of the Pa- 
cific and Southeast Asia would be gravely per- 
plexed. They are not only close to the vast Chi- 
nese land mass, but geographically and, to some 
extent, politically, they are separated as among 
themselves. The unifying and fortifying influ- 
ence is, above all, the spirit and resolution of the 
United States. If we seemed to waver and to 
compromise with communism in China, that 
would in turn weaken free Asia resistance to the 
Chinese Communist regime and assist interna- 
tional communism to score a great success in its 
program to encircle us. 



92 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



China and the United Nations 

United States recognition of Commnnist Cliina 
would make it probable that the Communist re- 
gime would obtain the seat of China in the United 
Nations. That would not be in the interest either 
of the United States or of the United Nations. 

The United Nations is not a reformatory for 
bad governments. It is supposedly an association 
of those who are already "peace-loving" and who 
are "able and willing to carry out" the charter 
obligations. The basic obligation is not to use 
force, except in defense against armed attack. 

The Chinese Communist regime has a record of 
successive armed aggressions, including war 
against the United Nations itself, a war not yet 
Ijolitically settled but discontinued by an amiis- 
tice. The regime asserts not only its right but 
its purpose to use force if need be to bring Taiwan 
under its rule. 

The Republic of China, is entitled to a perma- 
nent seat and veto power in the Security Council. 
Should a regime which in 7 years has promoted 
five foreign or civil wars — Korea, Indochina, 
Tibet, the Philippines, and Malaya; which itself 
has fought the United Nations and which today 
stands condemned by the United Nations as an 
aggi'essor; which defies the United Nations' de- 
cision to reunify Korea; and which openly pro- 
claims its continuing purpose to use force — should 
that regime be given a permanent seat, with veto 
power, in the body which under the chai-ter has 
"primary responsibility for the maintenance of 
international peace and security"? 

Conununist Russia, with its veto power, already 
seriously limits the ability of the United Nations 
to serve its intended purposes. "Were Communist 
China also to become a permanent, veto-wielding 
member of the Security Council, that would, I 
fear, implant in the United Nations the seeds of 
its own destruction. 

Trade and Cultural Relations With Communist 
China 

Let me turn now to the matter of trade and 
cultural relations, wliich could exist, to a limited 
degree, without recognition. 

Normal peacetime trade with China, from 
which the American and Chinese peoples would 
benefit, could be in the common interest. But it 
seems that that kind of trade is not to be had in 
any appreciable volume. 



Trade with Commmiist China is not a normal 
trade. It does not provide one country with 
what its people want but cannot well produce for 
themselves, in exchange for what other people 
want but cannot well produce for themselves. 
Trade with Communist China is wholly con- 
trolled by an official apparatus, and its limited 
amounts of foreign exchange are used to develop 
as rapidly as possible a formidable military estab- 
lishment and a heavy industry to support it. The 
primary desire of that regime is for machine 
tools, electronic equipment, and, in general, what 
will help it produce tanks, trucks, planes, 
ammunition, and such military items. 

Whatever others may do, surely the United 
States, which has heavy security commitments 
in the China area, ought not build up the military 
power of its potential enemy. 

We also doubt the value of cultural exchanges, 
which the Chinese Communists are eager to de- 
velop. They want this relationship with the 
United States primarily because, once that exam- 
ple were given, it would be difficult for China's 
close neighbors not to follow it. These free na- 
tions, already exposed to intense Communist 
subversive activities, could not have the cultural 
exchanges that the Communists want without 
adding greatly to their danger. 

These are the considerations which argue for a 
continuance of our present policies. Wliat are 
the arguments on the other side ? 

The "De Facto" Argument 

There ai'e some who say that we should accord 
diplomatic recognition to the Commimist regime 
because it has now been in power so long that 
it has won the right to that. 

That is not sound international law. Diplo- 
matic recognition is always a privilege, never a 
right. 

Of course, the United States knows that the 
Chinese Communist i-egime exists. We know that 
very well, for it has fought us in Korea. Also, 
we admit of dealing with the Chinese Commu- 
nists in particular cases where that may serve our 
interests. We have dealt with it in relation to the 
Korean and Indochina armistices. For nearly 
2 years we have been, and still are, dealing with 
it in an effort to free our citizens and to obtain 
reciprocal renunciations of force. 

But diplomatic recognition gives the recognized 



Jw/y J 5, 7957 



93 



regime valuable rights and privileges, and, in the 
world of today, recognition by the United States 
gives the recipient much added prestige and in- 
fluence at home and abroad. 

Of course, diplomatic recognition is not to be 
withheld capriciously. In this matter, as others, 
the United States seeks to act in accordance with 
principles which contribute to a world society of 
order under law. 

A test often applied is the ability of a regime 
actually to govern. But that is by no means a con- 
trolling factor. Nations often maintain diplo- 
matic relations with governments-in-exile. And 
they frequently deny recognition to those in actual 
power. 

Other customary tests are whether, as Thomas 
Jefferson put it, the recognized government re- 
flects "the will of the nation, substantially de- 
clared" ; whether the government conforms to the 
code of civilized nations, lives peacefully, and 
honors its international obligations. 

Always, however, recognition is admitted to be 
an instrument of national policy, to serve en- 
lightened self-interest. 

One thing is established beyond a doubt. There 
is nothing automatic about recognition. It is 
never compelled by the mere lapse of time. 

The "Inevitability" Argument 

Another argument begimiing to be heard is 
that diplomatic recognition is inevitable, so whj' 
not now ? 

First, let me say emphatically that the United 
States need never succumb to the argument of 
"inevitability." We, with our friends, can fashion 
our own destiny. We do not accept the mastery 
of Communist forces. 

And let me go on to say: Communist-type 
despotisms are not so immutable as they some- 
times appear. Time and circumstances work also 
upon them. 

There is often an optical illusion which results 
from the fact that police states, suppressing dif- 
ferences, give an external appearance of hard 
permanency, whereas the democracies, with their 
opposition parties and often speaking through 
different and discordant voices, seem the unstable, 
pliable members of the world society. 

The reality is that a governmental system which 
tolerates diversity has a long life expectancy, 
whereas a system which seeks to impose conform- 



ity is always in clanger. That results from the 
basic nature of human beings. Of all the argu- 
ments advanced for recognition of the Commu- 
nist regime in China, the least cogent is the argu- 
ment of "inevitability." 

China Versus Russia 

There are some who suggest that, if we assist 
the Chinese Communists to wax strong, then they 
will eventually break with Soviet Eussia and that 
that is our best hope for the future. 

No doubt there are basic power rivalries be- 
tween Russia and China in Asia. But also the 
Russian and Chinese Communist parties are 
bound together by close ideological ties. 

Perhaps, if the ambitions of the Chinese Com- 
munists are inflated by successes, they might 
eventually clash with Soviet Russia. Perhaps, 
too, if the Axis Powers had won the Second World 
War, they would have fallen out among them- 
selves. But no one suggested that we should tol- 
erate and even assist an Axis victory because in 
the end they Avould quarrel over the booty — of 
which we would be part. 

Conclusion 

We seek to appraise our China policies with an 
open mind and without emotion, except for a cer- 
tain indignation at the prolonged and cruel abuse 
of American citizens in China. We have no feel- 
ing whatsoever that change is to be avoided 
merely in the interest of consistency or because 
change might be interpreted as admitting past 
error. 

We always take into account the possibility of 
influencing the Communist regime to better ways 
if we had diplomatic relations with it, or if, with- 
out that, we had commercial and cultural contacts 
with it. But the experience of those who now 
recognize and deal with the Chinese Communist 
regime convinces us that, under present condi- 
tions, neither recognition, nor trade, nor cultural 
relations, nor all three, would favorably influence 
the evolution of affairs in China. Tlie probable 
result, internally, would be the opposite of what 
we hope for. 

Internationally the Chinese Communist regime 
does not conform to the practices of civilized na- 
tions; does not live up to its international obliga- 
tions ; has not been peaceful in the past and gives 
no evidence of being peaceful in the future. Its 



94 



Department of State Bulletin 



foreign policies are hostile to us and our Asian al- 
lies. Under these circumstances it would be folly 
for us to establish relations with the Chinese Com- 
munists which would enhance their ability to hurt 
us and our friends. 

You may ask, "What of the future?" Are our 
policies merely negative? Do we see any pros- 
pect of resuming the many friendly tics which, 
for many generations, the American people liave 
hud with the Chinese people and which we want 
to have again? Do we see any chance tliat the 
potentially great Chinese nation, with its rich and 
ancient culture and wisdom, will again be able to 
play a constructive part in the councils of the 
nations ? 

We confidently answer these questions in the 
affirmative. Our confidence is based on certain 
fimdamental beliefs. One is a belief in the future 
of human freedom. We know that the materialis- 
tic rule of international communism will never 
permanently serve the aspirations with which 
human beings are endowed by their Creator. 

Within the Soviet Union the rulers have had to 
disavow Stalin's brand of communism. Within 
the Soviet satellites even 12 years of indoctrina- 
tion do not persuade the people that the Soviet 
system satisfies either their national or their in- 
dividual desires. 

Communism is repugnant to the Chinese peo- 
ple. They are, above all, individualists. We read 
the recent brave words uttei'ed within Eed China 
by the university lecturer: "To overthrow you 
cannot be called unpatriotic, because you Com- 
munists no longer serve the people." 

We can confidently assume that international 
communism's rule of strict conformity is, in Cliina 
as elsewhere, a passing and not a perpetual phase. 
We owe it to ourselves, our allies, and the Chinese 
people to do all that we can to contribute to that 
passing. 

If we believed that this passing would be pro- 
moted by trade and cultural relations, then we 
would have such relations. 

If we believed that this passing would be 



promoted by our having diplomatic relations 
with the present regime, then we would have such 
relations. 

If we believed that this passing would be pro- 
moted by some participation of the present re- 
gime in the activities of the United Nations, then 
we would not oppose that. 

We should be, and we are, constantly testing our 
policies, to be as certain as we can be that, in the 
light of conditions as they from time to time are, 
our policies shall serve the great purposes to which 
our Nation has been dedicated since its founda- 
tion — the cause of peace, justice, and human 
liberty. 

Our policies are readily adjustable to meet the 
requirements of changing conditions. But there 
are occasions when not we but othei-s should pro- 
vide the change. Nothing could be more danger- 
ous than for the United States to operate on the 
tlieory that, if hostile and evil foi'ces do not 
quickly or readily change, then it is we who must 
change to meet them. 

The United States exerts an immense influence 
in the world today, not only because it is powerful 
but because we stand for peace, for national in- 
dependence, and pei-sonal liberty. Many free na- 
tions seek to coordinate their foreign policies 
with ours. Such coordination is indeed indispen- 
sable if the free world is to have the cohesion 
needed to make it safe. But United States policies 
will never serve as rallying points for free peoples 
if the impression is created that our policies are 
subject to change to meet Communist wishes for 
no reason other than that communism does not 
want to change. If communism is stubborn for 
the wrong, let us be steadfast for the right. 

Tlie capacity to change is an indispensable ca- 
pacity. Equally indispensable is the capacity to 
hold fast that which is good. Given those quali- 
ties, we can hopefully look forward to the day 
when those in Asia who are yet free can confi- 
dently remain free and when the people of China 
and the people of America can resmne their long 
history of cooperative friendship. 



July 15, 1957 



95 



Secretary Dulles' News Conference of June 25 



Press release 38S dated June 25 

Secretary Dulles : I will be glad to receive your 
questions. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the Soviet Union has been 
casting doubt on American sincerity in dis- 
armament negotiations. I helieve the latest state- 
ment in this connection was made this morning 
hy Foreign Minister Gromyho on General Nor- 
stad''s statement. What is your view about the 
Soviet statements in this regard? 

A. It is obviously a propaganda statement. I 
don't clearly diagnose the reasons why it was made 
at this particular junction. Of course, the state- 
ment that was made by General Norstad was a 
statement which made it explicitly clear that the 
United States and NATO had no intention what- 
soever of starting a war. He said, if there is a 
general war, only the Soviet Union will start it. 
Then he said, I do not think that they will start 
it because of the consequences to them if they 
should start it. In other words, it was a state- 
ment designed to emphasize the peaceful purposes 
that we had; that our power was a deterrent to 
war and not designed in any way for any aggres- 
sive purposes. Wliy it should have been mis- 
interpreted in this way at this time I cannot 
judge. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., have there been any changes 
in the instructions given Mr. Stassen on ow will- 
ingness to agree to a suspension of nuclear testing 
under certain conditions., 'particularly in view of 
the scientists'' testimony of that group that called 
on the President yesterday? 

A. No, there have been no changes in his in- 
structions with reference to a possible suspension 
of nuclear testing. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there is a report that the 
United States is considering, together with other 
friendly governments, a new international move- 



ment to solve the Arab refugee problem. Would 
you care to comment on that? 

A. There is no such new movement under way 
that I am aware of. The United States position 
on that subject continues to be what it was as de- 
scribed in my speech of August 1955.^ Unhap- 
l^ily, it has not seemed practical to move along 
those lines, and I am not aware of any present 
plans in that respect. 

Q. Well, this is not with Arab or Israel coun- 
tries but with other friendly nations who were in- 
terested in peace in the Middle East. And there 
was a report that Mr. Lodge had been discussing 
this subject with these other friendly nations in 
the hope that they might make a plan tuhich would 
be satisfactory to both Arab countries and Israel. 

A. Well, I'm not aware of anything concrete 
along those lines. Naturally, that is a great hu- 
manitarian problem which we would like to see 
solved. And we regret very much that at this 
jmicture Egyptian propaganda should put out a 
completely false story which seems to have no 
purpose other than to make it more difficult to 
solve the problem. 

Visit of Prime Minister Kishi 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would you give your ap- 
praisal of the accomplishments of Mr. Kishi's 
talks here and also the section that deals with re- 
vision of the security treaty, under item II, I be- 
lieve it is, that sets up a joint committee to look 
into all matters of this kind? - 

A. I think that the visit of Mr. Kishi here 
served a very important purpose and perhaps did 



' Bulletin of Sept. 5, 1955, p. 378. 

' For text of joint comumnique issued at the conclu.sion 
of talks between President Eisenhower and Prime Min- 
ister Nobusul£e Kishi of J'apan, see ibid., July 8, 1957, 
p. 51. 



96 



Deparimeni of State Bulletin 



more than most of such visits in actually estab- 
lishing a new basis for future relations. I feel 
that it opened up a new era in our relations with 
Japan, an era which will be much more on a basis 
of cooperation than of the exercise by the United 
States of unilateral rights. I would say that that 
result flows perhaps more from imponderables 
than from actual words foimd in the commmiique 
itself. But there was, I think, introduced into 
our relationship a new spirit, and I believe that 
events from now on will confirm the judgment 
which I now give. I think I said at the airport 
when he left that I thought that future historians 
would mark this as a highly significant visit, and 
I am really quite confident that that judgment will 
be made. 

Now, you asked a more particular question 
about the intergoverimiental committee which 
would study the workings of the security treaty. 
That is primarily designed to move toward put- 
ting our relations more on a bilateral basis with- 
out any formal amendment of the security treaty, 
which would hardly be practical at the present 
time and which was not indeed sought by either 
of us. But it was felt that the workings of the 
treaty could be put on a bilateral basis of cooper- 
ation in a i^ractical way, and to that end this com- 
mittee was set up. If the committee should later 
on feel that some actual change in the treaty re- 
lationship were required, it would, of course, be 
free to recommend that. 

Q. Mr. Secretary^ how much did the Girard 
case^ or the human prohlem that it represents, 
spur the decision on phased troop reduction on 
our part in Japan as to timing/ and, whether it 
did or not, does this decision on troop reduction 
reflect a possibility/ of other reductions in other 
parts of the loorld where toe have troops? 

A. I have pointed out previously here that the 
United States is constantly studying, and for some 
tune has been intensively studying, the possibili- 
ties of adjusting our forces abroad with a view to 
minunizing tensions and making lesser demands 
upon the land facilities, housing, and so forth, of 
comitries where our forces are located. Now that 
relates to our so-called bases all over the world. 
I would say that this particular troop reduction 
in Japan is, however, distmctive and has no par- 
ticular parallel elsewhere. 



^ For background, see ibid., June 24, 1957, p. 1000. 
ixily 15, 1957 



The decision taken there was taken partly be- 
cause of the desire to minimize friction, wliich 
always comes when foreign troops are quartered 
for a long time in substantial numbei-s in a for- 
eign counti-y. But it was also in line with the 
security treaty itself, the preamble of which says 
that the United States is prepared temporarily to 
maintain forces in Japan for its security in ex- 
pectation that Japan will build up its own forces. 
Now those forces are, in a way, being built up to 
a degree which both of us agreed made it prudent 
and consistent with the security of Japan and the 
general position in the Japan area to withdraw 
our ground combat forces at this time. And 
probably other forces may be withdrawn too, as 
the Japanese are able to take over their 
responsibilities. 

Howevei-, I would not want to have it inferred 
from what is happening in Japan that there is 
any plan for pulling our forces out of NATO 
or out of Germany. That is not our purpose. 
Our position there has been made quite clear, by 
statements which we have made on various oc- 
casions, that we are prepared to continue to carry 
our fair share of that responsibility. While I 
have indicated that, in line with our policy every- 
where, there will be some streamlining and ad- 
justing of our divisions, there is no purpose to 
reduce our force in NATO. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in a recent interview Presi- 
dent Aramburu of Argentina voiced some regret 
over the fact thut the economic aid — which I think 
amounts to some $160 million — his government 
has received is not in proportion to their need to 
rebuild the economy after some 12 years of the 
regime he claims left the cowntry bankrupt. In 
the same interview he voiced confidence that, as 
relations grow closer between the two cou/ntries, 
toe will increase aid through long-term loans. 
Will you give us your views on this statement? 

A. Well, that is a problem which is being 
studied, of course, by the Export-Import Bank, 
which is the major instriunentality of assistance 
in that field. 

One of the problems there is the fact that Ar- 
gentina's economic relations are primarily with 
European countries, and it does not have the re- 
lations with the United States which readily per- 
mitted it to develop dollar exchange for the re- 
payment of interest or principal of loans. And 
we hope that to a considerable extent they might 



97 



be able to obtain credit in tlie other countries with 
which they ti'ade more hxrgely. But we are, o^ 
course, sympathetic with helping to strengthen 
the new regime. We recognize that it was left 
in a deplorable condition by Peron. But the de- 
tails of what can wisely and properly be done are 
being studied primarily by the Export-Import 
Bank. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., in the previous ansioer on the 
question of cutting forces in Japa7i, you affirmed 
what you had said about 3 weeks ago: that there 
will he some streamlining of our divisions every- 
where., is the way I think you put it. What will 
be the practical result of this? The practical re- 
sult of the decision on Japan is that one or two 
divisions will he removed^ from Japan. What will 
be the practical result of streamlining divisions? 
Will it be that the United States tvill release a 
certain amount of ten^itory and bring home a cer- 
tain numher of troops? 

A. Well, you see, we only maintain divisional 
strength abroad in a few places — in Japan, in 
Korea, in continental Europe. And those are the 
only areas where there would be some effect of our 
so-called streamlining of our divisions every- 
where, which involves some rather modest re- 
duction in the numbers to make them more 
mobile; it involves an increase in their fire power 
so that the net result is a gain in strength. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., is there any substance to re- 
ports that the deliveries of new weapons to South 
Korea * have been held up on account of so-called 
political reasons? 

A. No, I'm not aware that they are being held 
up. 

Disarmament Talks in London 

Q. Mr. Secretary., to return to the disarma- 
ment matter a minute, last Wednesday or Thurs- 
day the Senate leadership appeared to he 
convinced that you had asked them to send a 
number of Senators to London over the past week- 
end to sit in on the disarmament talks this week. 
Yet your letter that was read on the Senate floor 
last Friday = said such a trip would be premature. 
Can you explain this, sir? 



' For liackgronnd. see ihld., July 8, 1957, p. 58. 
° Cong. Reo. of June 21, 1957, p. 8961. 



A. I think that there was, perhaps, a misunder- 
standing, for which I blame no one, as to the 
importance that was attached to going to London. 
I myself have attached relatively little importance 
to the question of whether or not Senators went 
to London, and that has consistently been my 
attitude. I do feel that it would be useful if by 
going to London they could get the atmosphere 
of tlie negotiations. But the fact of the matter 
is that the negotiations are being directed here at 
Washington by the President and by myself, and, 
in order to maintain close contact with the guiding 
instiiictions and the policies that are concerned, 
the best place to do that is Washington and not 
in London. London is on the receiving end; 
Washington is the formative end when it comes 
to the making of these policy decisions. And, 
as I say, I think there was a little misunder- 
standing there, for reasons which I needn't go 
into liere in detail bxit for which I blame no one. 

I want to make clear that I believe that there 
has been good cooperation in this matter between 
the State Department and the congressional lead- 
ership. Tliese matters are complicated and diffi- 
cult to work out on both sides. 

In the case of the Senate, you have a good many 
committees which are all interested in one or 
another phase of this matter, and the question of 
selection becomes difficult. From our standpoint 
the question of how many people you can advan- 
tageously deal with, and particularly how many 
people miglit go to London, is a difficult problem. 
But I have no consciousness of any lack of co- 
operation, and I think that I have myself tried 
to extend an invitation which is broad in scope. I 
think it is important that there should be at this 
juncture a greater i^articipation by the most in- 
terested Senators in numbers that can practically 
be dealt with as this program of disarmament de- 
velops and as our policies crystallize and take 
shape. It is entirely acceptable to me to work 
with the Special Committee on Disarmament, of 
which Senator Hubert Humphrey is chairman. I 
am seeing him tliis afternoon to develop a pro- 
gram on which we can work. Of course, that 
committee under its present mandate exjDires I 
think next week, on the 30th of June. But I 
believe that steps are in contemplation today in 
the Senate which may extend its life, and, if so, 
that becomes a very useful agency witli which 
to deal. 



98 



Deparfmenf of Sta\e Bulletin 



Q. Due to the mixup, or misunderstanding, is 
it correct that no fart was 'played by any de- 
velopment in the substance of the negotiations 
either in London or hi our position here? 

A. I would only say this: that there was a little 
slippajie in the time schedule -which we had con- 
templated for the developments in London, and 
the matters did not move quite as rapidly as we 
had thought that they might. The slippage is 
not significant and does not indicate in my opinion 
any serious interruption in the flow of the nego- 
tiations but involves the time which it naturally 
takes to discuss these very serious matters with 
our allies and for them to come along with 
conclusions. 

And, of course, another thing that I think needs 
to be emphasized is that it would be quite un- 
profitable for anyone, Senators or anybody else, 
to go to London and to feel that they could get 
anything worthwhile out of it without a pretty 
thorough study and briefing before they went, and 
that would have to take place, I think, before 
there could be any useful participation or ob- 
servation by Senators in the proceedings in 
London. 

Q. Do you. foresee any possibility , sir, on the 
basis of where this negotiation is noiv, of an agr'ee- 
ment ivhile this Congress is in session, assuming 
the session goes on to approximately Labor Day? 

A. I think it is highly unlikely that there would 
be any treaty formulated for submission to the 
Senate at this session. I think it would at best 
be a matter to take up next January. Now that 
isn't because I want it to be slow or that we are 
trying to make it slow. As a matter of fact, we 
are trying to move as rapidly as it is possible, but 
the complications of a treaty are infinitely gi-eat. 
You take on this question of the supervision : The 
Soviets have indicated for the first time within the 
last few days that they would accept supervision 
with respect to a suspension of testing. But the 
nature of that supervision has not even been dis- 
cussed with them yet, and whether or not their 
idea of supervision coincides with ours, I don't 
know, and it would be quite a business to work 
that out. Then you have got the question of the 
possible suspension of the use of fissionable mate- 
rial for weapons purposes, which, again, would 
require a high degree of supervision and checking. 
So far the Soviets have not indicated that they 



would accept even the principle of a cutoff of the 
use of fissionable material for weapons purposes, 
mucJi less accept a supervision in connection 
with it. 

Now, to develop all of these things in adequate 
detail is still a task of immense difficulty, and un- 
less these things are worked out in great detail 
they are not reliable. I sometimes recall that 
about the only one of the early postwar agree- 
ments which worked reasonably well was that for 
the joint occupation of the city of Vienna. That 
was worked out in meticulous detail, and, on the 
whole, that worked pretty well. But the other 
agreements, which were less meticulously worked 
out and did not deal with all the details, proved 
to be mere vehicles for evasion and avoidance. 
And when you deal with anything as vital to the 
very life of the free world as this would be, one 
has to be sure that the operation of it — super- 
vision of it — is established in sufficient detail so 
that we can place a large measure of confidence 
in it and so that there is no room for technical 
evasions. 

Question of Cutoff in Nuclear Weapons Production 

Q. Mr. Secretary, on the question of a cutoff of 
production, some confusion arose last week, after 
the Presidenfs conference, a.s to whether we 
thought a cutoff in nuclear weapons production 
ivas to be tied to any first-stage agreement an. the 
suspension of tests. It has been our understand- 
ing that we felt that the two went hand in hand. 
Could you tell us approximately what our position 
is on this? 

A. Yes. The confusion I think came about 
quite naturally because of the fact that, while 
there is a connection in the sense that imder our 
plan an agreement to suspend testing would be 
tied into an agreement for a cutoff, the actual 
suspension of the testing might precede the actual 
cutoff because of the fact, among other things, 
that the supervisory machinery required in con- 
nection with testing might be simpler and take 
less time to establish, we believe, than in the case 
of the other. So that it is correct to say that the 
suspension of testing is not dependent upon a 
coincident cutoff. It is dependent upon a co- 
incident agreement for a futui'e cutoff. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the Kishi-Eisenhoioer coin- 
munique stated that the United States Govem- 



July 15, 1957 



99 



ment toould attempt to do soTnething about the 
anti- Japanese sign jjosts and laws that some 
southern States have. Does tlie Government have 
any plans about xvlmt might he done about these 
posting laws? 

A. We had some discussion of that witli the 
Prime Minister and made quite clear tliat we be- 
lieved that those laws were in contradiction with 
the most-favored-nation treaty whicli we have 
with Japan, which calls broadly for an avoidance 
of any discrimination. Considerable efforts are 
being made and are under way to bring about the 
repeal of those laws, and also to prevent the enact- 
ment of any similar laws in other States. So far 
those efforts have been successful in preventing 
the enacting of those laws elsewhere where they 
have been proposed. So far we have not yet 
brought about their actual repeal, but we have not 
yet given up hope that there will be such a repeal. 
If there should not be such a repeal and if, in fact, 
the laws remain in force — of course, they could 
become just a dead letter — then there would be 
the question of a possible legal action which we 
would consider at that time. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, on any cutoff or any suspen- 
sion of testing of nuclear ujeapons combined with 
an agreement on a cutoff, under our policy wotild 
that have to be part of a first-step disarmament 
agreement? 

A. Yes. That is our proposal. 

Q. It could not be separate? 

A. It is part of it. We do not under our plan 
separate the suspension of testing from an agree- 
ment to have a cutoff on the use of fissionable 
material for weapons purposes. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is that also tied in with the 
overall first-step disarmament agreement we are 

seeking? 

A. Yes. We contemplate that as part of an 
arrangement which would also cover certain in- 
spection zones which have some significance, at 
least from the standpoint of demonstrating how 
to work inspection, so that it could be spread later 
on — and probably some reductions in conventional 
weapons. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would we be ready under this 
agreement to take a tie-in of the cutoff and the 

100 



suspension of tests and sign an agreement to that 
effect without taking in these other matters you 
just mentioned, like inspection of weapons? 

A. Our first-phase program covers the broader 
aspects which I mentioned. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, toould the cutoff also be re- 
lated to a beginning of the transfers of nuclear 
weapons, to transfers of nuclear materials into 
materials for peaceful purposes? 

A. Yes. We contemplate that coincidentally 
with the effective date of tlie cutoff there should 
begin to be transfers out of tlie war stocks into 
the peacetime pool that the President originally 
suggested in his speech to the United Nations in 
1953. 

Q. Mr, Secretary, coidd you discuss a period for 
an initial suspension of nuclear tests? A period 
in time? There have been various reports that 
we have been thinking of 10 months or a year, or 
possibly longer. 

A. We do suggest a time period, and a time 
period which will be sufficiently short so that it 
would not involve a bi'eakup of our entire scien- 
tific and technical group. If it should turn out 
that the inspection system was not working or 
that the cutoff inspection system was not being 
adequately established, then we would not have 
lost the opportvmity to resume testing and enabled 
the Soviet Union in that way to get a very con- 
siderable advantage over us. 

Soviet Movements in Middle East 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could you tell us %ohat the 
reaction is to recent Soviet movements in the 
Middle East and the reported sale of submarines 
to Egypt? 

A. Well, we deplore this sale of submarmes to 
Egypt, quite apart from the question of wliether 
or not that is a violation of the United Nations 
resolution " which calls for the suspension of any 
arms deliveries to the area of Middle East hostili- 
ties. Quite apart from tliat, it seems to us to be 
part and parcel of the Soviet effort, a studied ef- 
fort by the Soviet Union to maintain tension and 
danger of war in the area by the delivery there of 



• Bulletin of Nov. 12, 19.j6, p. 754. 

Deparimenf of Stale Bullelin 



abnormal quantities and abnormal kinds of mili- 
tary weapons. 

Q. Would the U.S. be corisidering to of set this 
policy hy delivering arms to Israel? 

A. Well, we have not even considered as yet 
whether there was an imbalance there which 
would make that necessary or appropriate. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, when you were speaking of 
the Kishi visit, did I understand you correctly to 
say that the committee which was to he established 
in Tokyo in connection with the security treaty 
will not concern itself with the actual revision of 
the administrative agreement? Is that correct, 
sir? 

A. No, it does not have any particular function 
in relation to the administrative agreement. It is 
designed, rather, to deal witli such matters as the 
location of troops in Japan, tlieir disposition. 
You see, the treaty itself gives the United States 
rather broad rights to decide for itself, without 
regard to the Government of Japan, as to wliere 
it will put troops, and matters of that sort. We 
want to bring that more onto a bilateral, coop- 
erative basis. That is a prunary fmiction of this 
committee. And also, the committee would be em- 
powered to study the whole working of the se- 
curity treaty and as to whether it should be mod- 
ified in any respects or replaced in any respects. 
But tlie revision of the administrative agreement 
is not one of its primary functions. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, have you had a chance to read 
and analyze the Mao Tse-tung speech on the the- 
sis of letting 100 flotcers bloom; and, if so, do you 
have any vieics on its meaning? 

A. I have read the speech. I have read it a 
couple of times. Speeches of tliat kind take a 
good deal of reading, and even then one can't be 
quite sure of what they mean. On its face, it 
suggests that there is a disposition to be some- 
what tolerant of differences of opinion within 
carefully controlled limits. I see, however, it is 
suggested in some quarters that the purpose of the 
speech was merely to allow some of these different 
flowers to stick their heads above groimd so that 
they could then be cut off. (Laughter) And I 
think that we will have to watch to see what the 
event is, as to whether this was a means of en- 
trapment or whether it genuinely indicates a de- 



a willingness- 



-to have a little more toler- 



sir 

ance of opinion. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there has been some criticism 
in the Congress or fear expressed that the disar- 
inament talks inight be building up too 7nuch op- 
timism in public opinion. Do you feel that this 
is happening, or do you feel that it is out of per- 
spective, or do you feel disturbed? 

A. I do not feel discouraged, but I do not feel 
optimistic either. Now, I don't know whether too 
much optimism is bemg built. I don't know. I 
can't appraise very accurately the mood of the 
country or of the Congress in these respects. I 
would say that optimism can be based upon the 
fact that the Soviets seem to be desirous of arriv- 
mg at some agreement and to be using the actual 
forum of the disarmament talks less as a place of 
propaganda than has been the case heretofore. 
And that judgment, which is itself perhaps some- 
what superficial, is reinforced by the fact that we 
believe that there are and must be strong economic 
and financial pressures upon the Soviet Union 
which would lead it to desire to lighten somewhat 
the burden of armament on a reciprocal basis. As 
against that, we have the almost morbid fear of 
the Soviet Communist system to any intrusion 
from without, to any adequacy of inspection and 
control. Until tliose matters are gone into in much 
more detail than has been possible up to this point, 
I do not know whether or not one can expect a 
positive conclusion. I think that we can only 
wait and see as far as that critical phase is con- 
cerned. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, I would like to ask you a clar- 
ifying question about disaTmament. Earlier you 
were asked about the possibility of a treaty going 
to the Senate at this session, and you said that you 
thought not. You said that you thought that it 
might be better to wait until January. You indi- 
cated that there might be something solid about 
that anyway. 

A. I didn't intend to imply that. All I meant 
to say was that, if any treaty comes out of these 
talks, I do not see that it could emerge in time for 
this session of Congress or much before the end 
of the calendar year. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, to return to the question of 



July IS, 1957 



101 



Arab refugees for a motnent, some of v^s have been 
given to understand thai Mr. Lodge and Mr. Ham- 
marshjold have been discussing informally with 
Western cotmtries mainly to determine whether 
the time is ripe to make a new effort to solve thin 
longstanding problem., and it is our understanding 
that neither the Amb countries nor Israel have 
been brought into the phase of the discussions at 
this point and that our renewed, informal atten- 
tion to this stem's partly from the recommenda- 
tions that Vice President Nixon made after his 
African trip — namely, that a netc and redoubled 
effort be mad.e to attach this problem. Novj, is it 
correct to infer from your answer that you know 
nothing at all about any such informal talks which 
'might be going on in New York? 

A. No, I do not know of such discussions, al- 
though that does not preckide their having taken 
place. It would be quite in line with our standing 
policy to explore that proposition at any time. 
That is a very unliappy and serious problem. I 
had a talk here, I guess it was on Friday, with 
Mr. [Henry K.] Labouisse [Jr.], who is the United 
Nations representative in charge of these refugees, 
and it is really a tragic problem. It is our stand- 
ing policy to take advantage of any opportunity 
to solve it. So tliat if Ambassador Lodge did 
have talks with Mr. Hammarskjold about this, 
that would be quite within our policy, but I do 
not myself happen to know anything about such 
talks. 

Q. Thank you, sir. 



Opening of Islamic Center 

Remarks by President Eisenhower ^ 

It is a privilege to take part in this ceremony 
of dedication. Meeting with you now, in front 
of one of the newest and most beautiful build- 
ings in Washington, it is fitting tliat we rededi- 
cate ourselves to the peaceful progress of all men 
under one God. 

And I should like to assure you, my Islamic 
friends, that under tlie American Constitution, 
under American tradition, and in American 



' Made at ceremonies opening the Islamic Center at 
Washington, D. C, on June 28 (White House press 
release). 



hearts, this Center, tliis place of worship, is just 
as welcome as could be a similar edifice of any 
other religion. Indeed, America would fight 
with her whole strength for your riglit to have 
liere your own cliurcli and worsliip according to 
your own conscience. 

This concept is indeed a part of America, and 
without that concept we would be something else 
tlian wliat we are. 

The countries which have sponsored and built 
tliis Islamic Center have for centuries contribu- 
ted to the building of civilization. With their 
traditions of learning and rich culture, the coun- 
tries of Islam liave added mucli to the advance- 
ment of mankind. Inspired by a sense of broth- 
erhood, common to our innermost beliefs, we can 
here togetlier reaffirm our determination to se- 
cure the foundation of a just and lasting peace. 

Our country has long enjoyed a strong bond 
of friendsliip with tlie Islamic nations and, like 
all healthy relationships, this relationship must 
be mutually beneficial. 

Civilization owes to the Islamic world some of 
its most important tools and achievements. From 
fvmdamental discoveries in medicine to tlie high- 
est planes of astronomy, the Muslim genius has 
added much to the cidture of all peoples. That 
genius has been a wellspring of science, commerce, 
and the arts, and has provided for all of us many 
lessons in courage and in hospitality. 

This fruitful relationsliip between peoples, go- 
ing far back into history, becomes more important 
each year. Today tliousands of Americans, both 
private individuals and governmental officials, live 
and work — and grow in understanding — among 
the peoples of Islam. 

At the same time, in our country, many from 
the Muslim lands — students, businessmen, and 
representatives of states — are enjoying the bene- 
fits of experience among the people of this coun- 
try. From these many personal contacts, here and 
abroad, I firmly believe that there will be a 
broader understanding and a deeper respect for 
the worth of all men, and a stronger resolution 
to work together for the good of mankind. 

As I stand beneatli these graceful arches, sur- 
rounded on every side by friends from far and 
near, I am convinced that our coimnon goals are 
both right and promising. Faithful to the de- 
mands of justice and of brotherhood, each work- 
ing according to the lights of his own conscience, 



102 



Deparfmen/ of State Bulletin 



our world must advance alon^ the paths of peace. 
Guided by this hope, I consider it a great per- 
sonal and official honor to open the Islamic Cen- 



ter, and I offer my congratulations to its sponsors 
and my best wishes to all who enter into its use. 
Thank you very much. 



The Citizen's Responsibilities in International Affairs 



hy Francis 0. Wilcox 

Assistant Secretary for International Organization Affairs '■ 



In speaking to you this afternoon on the citi- 
zen's responsibilities in world affairs, I shall be 
commenting upon problems to which you give a 
great deal of attention, individually and as an 
organization. As graduates of American colleges 
and miiversities, you have been educated for lead- 
ership in a free society. Those of you here from 
foreign universities represent no less the training 
for a life of reason, tolerance, and underetanding 
in societies dedicated to the well-being of the in- 
dividual rather than the glorification of the state. 

The interdependence of the modern world has 
made internationalists of us all. The world has 
shrunk so much that we do not have much of a 
choice in the matter. "We must all hang to- 
gether, or assuredly we shall all hang separately." 
Out of our political, religious, cultural, and his- 
torical divereity we seek, and I believe we are 
finding, a common denominator of values. 

Xearly half a century ago Theodore Roosevelt 
remai'ked that "the United States of America has 
not the option as to whether it will or will not play 
a great part in the world. It must play a great 
part. All that it can decide is whether it will play 
that part well or badly." 

Today the choice before us is dictated by the 
need for human survival. With the threat of 
nuclear war hanging over our heads we have no 
alternative but to play our part wisely and well. 
The best insurance that we will do this is a well- 



'^ Address made before the biennial convention of the 
American Association of University Women at Boston, 
Mass.. on .June 27 (press release 392). 



informed public opinion carefully following the 
course of world events. 

America's Role of Leadership 

I venture to say that the most remarkable de- 
velopment of this century is the assumption over 
the last 17 years by the United States of its present 
role of responsibility and leadership in world 
affairs. This is a role we did not play during the 
previous 150 years of our existence as a sovereign 
state. 

Indeed, the United States has been going 
through a revolutionary period since 1941 in our 
relations to other countries. In this brief period 
we have moved from relative isolationism to inter- 
nationalism, from a policy of no entangling alli- 
ances to a system of complex political, economic, 
and security alliai^ces with more than 40 nations. 
We have only to recall our extreme reluctance to 
participate in some of the meetings of the League 
of Nations, even in the modest role of observers, 
to realize how times have changed. 

Clearly this dramatic shift has been impelled 
by considerations of the national interest. It 
is often forgotten that every important move m 
foreign policy is based on one overriding con- 
sideration — whether it will advance the well-being 
and security of the American people. The effec- 
tiveness of our jjolicies must be judged on how 
well they accomplish this end. 

In no country is foreign policy more constantly 
under review than in the United States. In no 
country do the people have a greater voice in 



Jo/y 15, J 957 



103 



foreign affairs. Our budgetary process alone as- 
sures such annual review. To be sure, this proc- 
ess often dismays our friends and allies, who may 
not understand our system of checks and balances. 
Yet it has the great virtue of insuring that our 
policies, once arrived at, are backed by a majority 
of the informed leadership in the Congress, in 
the executive branch, and among the public. This 
again insures that they will be carried out with 
vigor and confidence. It also insures, and I think 
this is of vital importance, that our policy is 
morally defensible, for our people will tolerate 
no other. 

I should like to say a word here about the 
unique nature of American leadership in inter- 
national affairs. Through the centuries other 
countries have grown in influence, expanded their 
borders, and carved out empires because of per- 
sonal ambitions of leaders, for religious reasons, 
for the advancement of trade and the accumula- 
tion of riches, or because of some other compel- 
ling sense of mission. Most who succeeded, at 
least temporarily, in carrying out such policies 
were able to count on the compliance of disciplined 
citizens, either because the governments were au- 
tocratic or because their people were also imbued 
with some particular sense of mission in the 
world. In the process some of tliem have brought 
blessings along with oppression and have plant«d 
the seeds of future self-government and inde- 
pendence. 

The new American leadership, on the other 
hand, was not sought but was largely thrust upon 
us by a sick and frightened world. Its objective 
is neither conquest nor territorial aggrandizement 
but the preservation of freedom. It identifies the 
well-being of the world community, imder free- 
dom, with the security and welfare of the Ameri- 
can people. In essence, it seeks for other peoples 
the blessings we enjoy at home. The vast re- 
sources that we have poured into other countries 
in support of these convictions are sometimes 
mistaken as generosity of the "do good" variety— 
or a belief that all problems are susceptible to 
economic solutions. This is to misinterpret the 
deep wellsprings of our belief, tested since the 
day of our independence, that men are created 
equal and that life, liberty, and the pursuit of 
happiness apply to mankind, not just to the peo- 
ple of one land, if we are all to prosper in 
peace. 



Public, support for United States leadership 
has been strong and consistent for a period of 
years now, despite surface fluctuations. Support 
has been especially strong for the United Nations, 
which was born of American initiative and con- 
tinues to receive the approval of the overwhelm- 
ing majority of our people in both political 
parties and in all sections of the country. It is 
based on the increased awareness of the American 
people that the United Nations has served the 
interests of the free men everywhere. It has 
served the cause of peace, security, and well-being 
for mankind. 

I think we all have a responsibility to help 
preserve the imique quality, high purpose, and 
practical application of the American concept of 
leadership lest it deteriorate into a new isolation- 
ism or be tempted to control where it cannot per- 
suade. 

Responsibilities of the Citizen 

I hope you will not think I am flattering you 
if I say that the quantity and quality of under- 
standing of our foreign-policy goals at home and 
abroad depend to a great degree on national or- 
ganizations such as yours. You represent the 
educated elite of a liighly educated society. A 
college degree is within the reach of a vastly 
greater proportion of our people than it was when 
most of us graduated. As our members increase, 
so does our responsibility. We must understand 
better America's new position in the world, how 
we got there, where we are going, and why. The 
university graduates in their public and private 
life are the parents of ideas and leaders of opin- 
ion. For this reason they have a unique respon- 
sibility. 

I am told that the women of America, in the 
aggregate, control most of the wealth of this coim- 
try. If so, I think it is in good hands. But there 
is a greater resource at your disposal. You are 
also the cotrustees — for I think men must be ac- 
corded this responsibility also — of the concepts 
of democracy which made our country great. 
You are the recipients of an education designed 
t« fit you for life in a free society. These are 
assets which should be used to enrich not only 
our national life and culture but to support an 
informed and enlightened foreign policy as well. 

This is a continuing responsibility since foreign 
relations are in a constant state of flux and poli- 



104 



Department of State Bulletin 



cies requiiv I'egular review. The attitudes of the 
American people and of the Congress intimately 
a fleet these reviews. 

I am reminded of the recent observations of one 
of the top oliicers of the Department of State. 
He pointed out to a group of his colleagues that 
every day lie was obliged to make decisions of 
major or minor import to our foreign relations. 
He found it particularly hard, lie said, to make 
these decisions in the absence of the opinions and 
views, often conflicting, of those around him. 
These provided him with the perspective and al- 
ternatives necessary to form judgments which 
were soundly based. 

His observation, I think, applies equally well 
to the policy-forming process on the national 
scene. "WHiile the President and the Secretary of 
State formulate and carry out American foreign 
policy, the Congress provides, or it may refuse 
to provide, the required legislation and funds. 
When we don't get the funds or legislation, it is 
my feeling that we have failed in one of two ways. 
Either we have failed to secure public under- 
standing of our policies, or the public miderstands 
them but is unwilling to support them. There is, 
of course, a third possibility — apathy and lack 
of concern on the part of leadership groups. 
This, in my opinion, is the most distressing of 
all. 

I am often asked by organizations such as yours 
whether their formal resolutions and petitions on 
foreign-policy matters have much influence. I 
can assure you that they do, both on the legisla- 
tive and executive departments of our Govern- 
ment. A^liile they may not always be translated 
into the specific actions you recommend, they are 
an indispensable part of the policy-forming proc- 
ess in a democracy. 

Our role of leadership in world affairs is not 
and cannot be an easy one. International rela- 
tions today have become increasingly complex. 
The task of understanding the many facets of for- 
eign policy, therefore, requires effort — eli'ort 
which can in the long run make the difference be- 
tween a good and a bad policy. In addition, cer- 
tain misconceptions have crept into our thinking 
about foreign relations based largely, in my opin- 
ion, on misinformation or misreading of the facts. 
I would like to examine some of these misconcep- 
tions by way of illustration. 

July 75, 1957 

431.171—57 3 



The United Nations 

1 have said that there is wide support for the 
United Nations among the American people. 
This is so. But ([uite a lot of my attention and 
that of my colleagues in the Department of State 
is taken up with defending the United Nations 
against charges which are based on a misconcep- 
tioji of its responsibilities and powers. 

Some people tend to blame it whenever any- 
thing goes wrong in the world, as though the mere 
existence of an international organization could 
put an end to disagreement and disorder. Others 
condemn it because it has not settled in short or- 
der the major problems in the Middle East. It 
is often berated for not enforcing its will on Hun- 
gary. And it is criticized because the atomic arms 
race between the free world and the Soviet Union 
continues unabated. 

Nothing could be more fallacious than to con- 
demn the United Nations for the weaknesses of 
its member states. We would do well to remember 
its limitations as well as its capacities. It is not 
a supergovernment. It is not a world government. 
It is made up of 81 sovereign, independent nations. 
It can only do what its members are willing to 
have it do at any given time. 

We should not expect the United Nations to 
solve all our world problems any more than we 
expect the Congress to solve our domestic prob- 
lems. Every year or so Congress passes new laws 
dealing with housing, education, labor problems, 
health, and other important matters. But the 
problems themselves are rarely disposed of finally 
and completely. They are ameliorated or brought 
within manageable terms, but no one would argue 
that they are solved. 

The Middle East 

So it is with the United Nations. Surely we 
should be no less patient with the processes of this 
complex body than we are with our own Congress. 
Yet this is sometimes the case. The Suez crisis 
is a case in point. Some of those who applauded 
the General Assembly's immediate action in se- 
curing a cease-fire were somewhat dismayed when 
succeeding steps to supervise the cease-fire and to 
maintain a peaceful atmosphere were slower in 
coming. 

These were modest steps, to be sure, but let us 



105 



not underestimate their importance. A cease-fire, 
the withdrawal of foreign forces from Egypt, the 
establishment of a United Nations Emergency 
Force, the speedy clearance of the Suez Canal, the 
deployment of UNEF in Gaza and Sharm el- 
Sheikh — these were remarkable steps forward 
taken in the matter of a few months. Those critics 
who might have felt that these steps were too slow 
in coming perhaps overestimated the authority of 
the General Assembly. 

The Assembly cannot dictate terms. Its proc- 
esses many times must be slow and even cumber- 
some. But the results that it has achieved in the 
past few months in the Middle East attest clearly 
to the strength of world opinion. The mobilizing 
of world opinion combined with patient diplo- 
macy under the banner of the United Nations 
accomplished all of these steps. To be sure, the 
long-range aspects of the Middle Eastern problem 
are not solved. But what might have been a major 
war has been averted, and a basis for peace is 
slowly being rebuilt. 

This is no time for us to have a smug feeling 
about the limited successes achieved in the Middle 
East. The shooting is over, but the basic causes 
that gave rise to the shooting must be dealt with 
if peace is to prevail. 

Here again the critics may argue that we should 
move ahead with greater speed before the situation 
deteriorates. One important element of peace in 
the Middle East is the early solution of the prob- 
lem of the more than 900,000 Palestine refugees 
who rely on United Nations help for subsistence 
and housing. Admittedly, the matter is an urgent 
one. But the Palestine refugee problem is so com- 
plex and so explosive politically that possible steps 
must be considered carefully if they are to improve 
rather than worsen the situation. Nor can the 
boundaries between Israel and her neighbors — a 
sore which has been festering for a decade — be 
satisfactorily adjusted overnight. 

The Middle East remains a tinderbox where 
rash and ill-considered action could have serious 
results. We can take it for granted that the 
Soviet Union will continue to fish in troubled 
waters. The recent sale of Soviet submarines to 
Egypt is but another in a long series of incidents 
obviously designed to increase tensions in that 
area. 

There continues to be a pall of fear hanging 
over the heads of the Arab and Israeli people 



alike. We must therefore push ahead with a pa- 
tient vigor. We must do everything possible to 
develop a will to peace in the Middle East. With- 
out tuch a will a settlement of the long-rajige 
problems cannot be achieved. 

The Case of Hungary 

The Hungarian revolt is another case in point. 
Now I am the first to deplore the refusal of the 
U.S.S.R. and the Hungarian regime to comply 
with the General Assembly resolutions calling for 
the immediate withdrawal of Soviet forces from 
Hungary.- But I do not agree with those who 
lay the blame at the doorstep of the United Na- 
tions. To do so is to misread history, the political 
facts of present-day international relations, and 
the United Nations Charter itself. 

It was foreseen that without great-power una- 
nimity in the Security Council the United Nations 
could be powerless to stop aggression. It has now 
become clear that, if either the U.S.S.R. or the 
United States defies the United Nations, neither 
can be forced to comply without the use of armed 
might. In this nuclear age it is most unlikely that 
the Assembly would ever use its limited authority 
in such a way as to provoke a general war. 

In the case of Hungary, let us place the blame 
where it belongs — not on the United Nations but 
squarely on the shoulders of the men in the Krem- 
lin who decided to use force in order to prevent 
the Soviet satellite system from falling to pieces 
about them. 

History may well demonstrate that the revolt in 
Hmigary was one of the most significant single 
developments since the close of World AVar II. It 
did irreparable damage to the Soviet satellite sys- 
tem. It demonstrated, even more than the free 
world dared to believe, how much the people of 
Soviet-occupied lands resent the rule of their 
Communist masters. 

The report of the United Nations Special Com- 
mittee [on the Problem of Hungary] was made 
public just last week.^ The committee's report 
speaks eloquently for itself. It is an incontro- 
vertible, objective indictment of Soviet tyranny 
and repression. Its point-by-point analysis re- 
futes decisively the Soviet version of events in 



= Bulletin of Nov. 19. 19.56, pp. 803 and 806. 
' For a Department announcement and an excerpt from 
the report, see ibid., July 8, 19.57, p. 62. 



106 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bullefin 



Hungary. After extensive hearings of witnesses 
and thorough examination of pertinent documen- 
tary materials, including Soviet-controlled 
sources, the committee confirmed beyond any 
shadow of doubt the diabolical purpose of Soviet 
actions in Hungary. This purpose was to sup- 
press the legitimate demand of the Hungarian 
people for freedom and national independence. 
In brief, the report completely demolishes the 
fabrications which the Soviet regime has used to 
explain away its cruel and barbarous crimes 
against the Hungarian people. 

The committee found no evidence of interven- 
tion from abroad in the uprising. Tims Soviet 
charges of American intervention were exposed 
as the complete falsehoods they were. Moreover, 
the committee found no evidence to suggest that 
any political personality associated with the pre- 
war regime in Hungary exerted any influence on 
events. To the contrary, its report clearly reveals 
the spontaneous character of the demonstrations 
in Budapest. It emphasizes the enthusiastic and 
widespread response of the masses of the people 
in a movement against the repressive system of a 
Soviet police state. 

In disposing of the Soviet contention that the 
events in Hungary involved matters solely of 
Hungarian concern, the committee found tliat the 
United Nations acted properly in dealing with the 
situation. It pointed out that massive armed in- 
tervention by one power in the internal affairs 
of another must, even by the Soviet Union's own 
definition of aggression, be a matter of interna- 
tional concern. 

The report clearly exposes the Soviet Union as 
ruthlessly seeking its own ends in Hungary with- 
out any more regard for the wishes of the Hun- 
garian people than for its obligations under the 
charter. 

The United Nations can take full credit for 
once again exposing the true nature of Soviet im- 
perialism, which cloaks itself in Communist dog- 
ma. The United Nations forum has again proved 
itself a most useful means to answer Soviet 
claims immediately, clearly, and forcefully. Be- 
ing able to meet and expose this type of propa- 
ganda in the United Nations is a source of vital 
strength and support for the free-world cause. 

In the face of this serious indictment we must 
ask ourselves what further action the General As- 
sembly can take. Clearly, this matter is of tran- 

July IS, 1957 



scendent importance to the United Nations. I can 
assure you that the connnittee's report will not be 
allowed to languish in the files. Already the Con- 
gress has unanimously voted for speedy action in 
the Assembly. This reflects the deep feeling and 
sympathy of the American people for the terrible 
plight of the Hungarian people. The United 
States Government favors Assembly considera- 
tion of the committee's report at an early practi- 
cable date, and we are actively consulting with 
other United Nations members to this end. 

Enlarged Membership of the United Nations 

I have said that some people charge that the 
United Nations is a superstate or world govern- 
ment. They see cause for alarm in the large num- 
ber of new nations in Africa and Asia that have 
recently become members of the United Nations. 
They fear apparently that they will vote as a solid 
bloc against the United States on important issues 
and impose their will o!^ the Western World. This 
is far from being the case. 

In the first place we ought never to forget that 
the 28 sovereign countries that represent Africa 
and Asia have widely divergent traditions and 
cultures. In many ways their differences out- 
weigh their similarities. 

Furthermore, these countries have not voted as 
a bloc. On the Suez issue, of course, there was 
wide agreement, but even then there was not 
unanimity among them. With respect to Hun- 
gary, their votes were very much divided to begin 
with, but the later resolutions condemning Soviet 
action received substantial backing from Asian 
and African countries. On the Algerian and the 
Cyprus issues at the last General Assembly,^ Asian 
initiatives resulted in compromise resolutions 
which received broad support. It is important 
to note that in all these cases they were voting with 
the United States. 

Finally, it should be remembered that the Gen- 
eral Assembly can only make recommendations; 
it cannot impose its wishes even by majority vote. 
I fail to see, therefore, how the new strength of 
the African and Asian states in the United Na- 
tions is a threat to us. In fact, it provides a chal- 
lenge and a new opportunity for American 
leadership. 

The Government of the United States and the 



* Hid., Mar. 11, 1957, p. 422, and Mar. 25, 1957, p. 508. 

107 



great majority of the American people have 
wholelieartedly welcomed these states into the 
United Nations. We sincerely believe in tlie self- 
determination of peoples. We have welcomed 
their independence. 

Now that they are members, we must try to 
understand their points of view, even as we expect 
them to understand ours. The people of the emer- 
gent nations of Asia and Africa want three things. 
They want freedom and independence ; they want 
recognition as first-class citizens in the world com- 
munity ; tliey want to develop their countries and 
improve their lot in life. 

We can all recognize these as American con- 
cepts. They are ideas that we can all support. 
If the people of this vast and populous area are 
given sufficient help and encouragement in at- 
taining tliese goals, we can count on their re- 
maining on the side of freedom. 

Above all, let us not jump to tlie conclusion in 
the United Nations that, merely because some 
states don't always reach the same conclusions we 
do, they are against us. This would result in 
giving only lip service to tlie concept of independ- 
ence which we hold so dear. There is plenty of 
room in tlie United Nations for honest differences 
of opinion. 

Foreign Aid 

Turning to anotlier field, there also exist some 
serious misconceptions in our thinking about our 
foreign aid programs. 

Most commonly it is argued tliat in extending 
assistance to foreign countries we are engaged in 
a great giveaway program, that we are coddling 
a group of ungrateful allies, and that we are im- 
posing an unnecessary burden upon the American 
taxpayer. Let us look briefly at what you might 
call the "anatomy" of our so-called foreign aid. 

In the first place, the term "aid" is extremely 
unfortunate. As the President said in an address 
to the Nation on May 21, "The common label of 
'foreign aid' is gravely misleading for it inspires 
a picture of bounty for foreign countries at the 
expense of our own. No misconception could be 
further from reality. These pi'ograms serve our 
own basic national and personal interests." ^ The 
money we spend abroad for economic and defense 
assistance is basically an investment designed to 
pay dividends in greater political, economic, 



° Ihid., June 10, 1957, p. 915. 



and military security for the United States. 

Second, the assistance is mutual or cooperative. 
In most cases, it requires large outlays of funds, 
services, and manpower by the recipient country. 
Some countries with narrow economies literally 
have to resist American aid because they cannot 
afford it. 

Let us be clear then on one fundamental point. 
American aid is no one-way street. The United 
States needs its allies just as much as they need us. 
They provide us with bases essential to the effec- 
tive employment of our strategic air power. They 
maintain their own military forces for the joint 
defense of the free world. Without them, many 
thousands of American soldiers would have to be 
stationed overseas — and at an annual cost to us of 
from 7 to 35 times what it requires to maintain a 
foreign soldier. 

On the economic side, our economy would hobble 
along in low gear if deprived of the strategic 
materials — tin, rubber, industrial diamonds, man- 
ganese, and many more — which our assistance 
helps to keep flowing to our shores. 

Aid to Uncommitted Countries 

There is a misconception that stems from a 
misunderstanding of the real purpose of mutual 
assistance. This misconception is based upon the 
contention that the so-called neutral nations 
should be called upon to cast their lot solidly with 
the free world now or else suffer the loss of 
American aid. They should not be allowed to sit 
on the fence, the argument runs; tliey are either 
for us or against us. 

Let us take the case of those states which have 
a policy of nonalinement. International com- 
munism is constantly seeking to convince the peo- 
ple and governments of such uncommitted coun- 
tries that communism is the cheap and quick way 
for the underdeveloped peoples to secure high 
living standards and positions of political and 
economic influence. They are, in many cases, 
backing up this propaganda with loans and grants 
and other forms of material assistance. 

Our assistance to these newly developing coun- 
tries, in particular those bordering on the Sino- 
Soviet bloc, is of tlie utmost importance. It can- 
not be sporadic. If it is to be most effective in 
helping the governments of these countries to 
maintain their independence, there must be 
assurance of responsible continuity. 



108 



Department of State Bulletin 



The results of the competitive struggle between 
the free and Communist world are being watched 
carefully by the uncommitted peoples. Accom- 
plishments in a country such as India, for ex- 
ample, which is committed to the liberal social 
and political ideals of the free world, are being 
compared with those under the ruthless dictator- 
ship existing on tlie Chinese Communist main- 
land. The relative degree of prosperity which is 
achieved over a period of years by tlie peoples 
of these two areas may determine the clioice be- 
tween communism and free representative govern- 
ment in countries in the whole of Asia and Africa. 
Clearly, American and free-world assistance to 
India and other countries in a like situation can 
weigh heavily in the balance whicli may determine 
this choice. 

INIoreover, the assistance which the United 
States has extended to Yugoslavia during the past 
few critical years has been of inestimable value 
to the free world. It has helped that strategic 
country maintain its independence from outside 
domination from any soiirce. 

I believe we are also imder something of a mis- 
conception that other countries we aid are doing 
relatively little to help themselves or to help each 
other. Yet we know that many states have rigor- 
ous controls over consumer goods, far beyond any- 
thing we are accustomed to, to be able to exjiort 
moi'e goods and thus earn dollar income to help 
stabilize their economies. Many spend large 
amounts amiually for the support and welfare of 
dependent territories under their care. And all 
states members of the United Nations contriljute 
according to their means to the support of the 
specialized agencies of which they are members. 
Others give generously to the various voluntary 
pi"ogi'ams of the United Nations. 

We should also keep in mind that every dollar 
we send abroad mider our bilateral program is 
matched by the recipient country, which puts up 
an equal amount in local currency. These local- 
currency proceeds thus do double duty in improv- 
ing the economic strength and the military 
positions of the countries receiving assistance. 

Generosity is a relative thing. A dollar from a 
poor man may be liberal. Ten from a rich one 
may be stingy. Now the United States is ricli, 
and we are not stingy. Biit I believe the portrait 
of tlie wealtliy uncle handing out largess to his 
indigent neighbors is by no means an accurate one. 



It is enlightening, for instance, to note tlie figures 
for contributions to the United Nations Expanded 
Technical Assistance Program. Tlie United 
States ranks fifth in per capita contributions. 
We are exceeded in generosity by Canada, Den- 
mark, Norway, and Sweden, in tliat order. 

Lastly, I would observe that through our aid 
programs we should not expect to buy gratitude 
or unquestioning compliance with our wishes. 
Loyalty, from a man or a country, that is for sale 
is not worth much. It is well known that recipi- 
ents of cliaritj^ are inclined to harbor some resent- 
ment against their benefactors. I believe it was 
Mark Twain who said, "I don't know why that 
man should dislike me. I never did him a favor !" 

The basic purpose of our foreign-assistance pro- 
gram is to strengthen the free world. We are 
tlierefore partners in a common enterprise to 
which all contribute and from wliich all should 
benefit. 

Concluding Comments 

I have examined a few of the misconceptions 
or fallacies which complicate our thinking on for- 
eign policy. Tliere are many others. It is our 
duty as educated women and men to do what we 
can to remove these barriers to a sound under- 
standing of America's role of leadership in inter- 
national affairs. We have assumed a big and con- 
tinuing commitment, and we must measure up to 
the responsibility. 

We are an impatient, pragmatic people. We 
want to meet all problems head on and solve them. 
This may be possible in personal or national life. 
It is not always possible in international affairs. 
We must take account of the legitimate and com- 
plex interests and rights of other countries whose 
cooperation, understanding, and resources we 
need. Eeal leadership does not mean imposing 
your will but winning support for your posi- 
tion. It is sometimes said facetiously that diplo- 
macy is "the art of letting the other fellow have 
yoxir way." 

We face a continuing threat in the unswerving 
determination of the Communists to reform the 
world in their own image. Their leaders have 
left no doubt that they are ready for a long 
struggle on the economic, political, and propa- 
ganda levels. It is not sufficient to recognize this 
threat to defeat it. We must understand its spuri- 
ous appeal to some. We must avoid shortcomings 



Jo/y 75, 7957 



109 



in our own society and in our own diplomacy 
which may play into Communist hands. In the 
atomic age we must make our intentions unmis- 
takably clear: Our strength is a shield, not a 
sjiear; our dedication is to peace, not war. Mis- 
calculation by the Communists on this score might 
lead to disaster beyond repair for both the free 
and Communist world. 

The citizen's responsibilities in international 
affairs are first of all personal. This is a matter 
of interest, attitudes, and understanding. If each 
of us would make a determined effort to keep 
abreast of world developments and take appro- 
priate action either individually or through the 
various organizations to which we belong, our 
foreign policy would be greatly benefited. 

Tlie American Association of University 
Women is in the forefront of organizations which 
recognize this responsibility and do something 
about it — individually, locally, and on the national 
level. 

In the mid-20th century we no longer liave a 
choice about our position in the free world. It is 
merely a question of liow effectively and how well 
we lead. This depends in no small degree on the 
insight which you who are trained for leadership 
bring to bear on tlie pressing issues of our times. 

To sum up — 

If we will understand the long-range nature of 
the Communist threat and do our best to meet it; 

If we will continue to support the United Na- 
tions and the cause for which it stands; 

If we will work closely with our allies and con- 
tinue to avoid going it alone ; 

If we will demonstrate to the uncommitted na- 
tions of the world the enduring qualities of de- 
mocracy and freedom; 

If we will take our stand always as a nation on 
high moral grounds^ 

Then we can face the future with confidence that 
the cause of free men will prevail. 



United Nations Day, 1957 

A PROCLAMATION' 

Wheueas the United States of America is one of the 
fouuflei's of the United Nations and has consistently sup- 
ported it in its unceasing quest for a durable peace based 
upon freedom and justice ; and 



Whbeeas the devotion of the people of the United 
States to the principles of the United Nations Charter is 
the expression of a faith deeply rooted in American cul- 
tural, political, and spiritual convictions; and 

Wherea.s the United States considers tliat further der 
velopment of the proces.ses of the United Nations will 
enable it to promote justice under international law with 
increased effectiveness ; and 

Whereas world opinion in support of international 
morality, law, and order has helped to make the United 
Nations a constructive force for the development of a 
stable, prosperous, and peaceful world ; and 

Wheeeas the United Nations has Ijeen instrumental in 
preventing open conflict between nations by offering its 
machinery for conciliation, negotiation, and pacific set- 
tlement; and 

Whereas the United Nations, in cooperation with the 
Specialized Agencies, has been helping to create the 
basic conditions for peace by encouraging greater produc- 
tion of food, better health, higher standards of living, 
and greater educational opportunities : and 

Wherb:as the General Assembly of the United Nations 
has resolved that October 24, the anniversary of the com- 
ing into force of the United Nations Charter, should be 
dedicated each year to making known the purposes, prin- 
ciples, and accomplishments of the United Nations : 

Now, therefore, I, DwiGHT D. Eisenhower, President 
of the United States of America, do hereby urge the 
citizens of this Nation to observe Thursday, October 24, 
1957, as United Nations Day by means of community 
programs which will demonstrate their faith in, and sup- 
port of. the United Nations and will contribute to a bet- 
ter understanding of its accomplishments and of the hopes 
that inspired its founders. 

I also call upon the officials of the Federal and State 
Governments and upon local officials to encourage citizen 
groups and agencies of the press, radio, television, and 
motion pictures, as well as all citizens, to engage in ap- 
propriate observance of United Nations Day throughout 
our country In cooperation with the United States Com- 
mittee for the United Nations. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this 26th day of June 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and 
[seal] fifty-seven and of the Independence of the United 
States of America the one hundred and eighty- 
first. 

By the President : 

John Foster Dulles 
Secretary of State 



'No 3188; 22 Fed. Reg. 4629. 



no 



Department of State Bulletin 



Exchange of Communications 
With Prime Minister of Ghana 

Following are texts of communications ex- 
changed between President Eisenhower and Prime 
Minister Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. 



May I avail myself of the opportunity to wish 
you, Sir, long life and all success. 
Yours sincerely, 

Kwame Nkrumah 
Prime Minister 



Wblte House press release dated June 8 
President Eisenhower's Message, March 6 

It is with warm pleasure that I extend in my own 
name and on behalf of the American people most 
cordial greetings and felicitations to you and 
your countrymen upon the occasion of the inde- 
pendence of Ghana. This event is a cause of 
pride and satisfaction to the United States as it 
must be to all free nations. Ghana, which has 
demonstrated its devotion to peace and the main- 
tenance of democratic political institutions and 
its dedication to the social and economic ad- 
vancement of its people, is a welcome addition to 
the family of nations. 

The Government of the United States looks 
forward to close and friendly relations with the 
Government of Ghana and to an early exchange 
of Ambassadors. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



Letter From Prime Minister Nl<rumah, April 27 

Dear Mr. President : It gives me great pleasure 
to be able to reply to your message of good wishes 
which you kindly sent to me through Vice Presi- 
dent Kichard Nixon on Ghana's attainment of 
independence. 

I would like to record our great joy at the 
manner in which the Government and people of 
the United States of America received the news 
of Ghana's independence and in which they made 
their pleasure laiown. We would like to recipro- 
cate this spontaneous demonstration of friendship 
by assuring you of our friendship and good-will 
now and for the future. 

We are confident that the bonds which unite 
our two countries will always be strengthened by 
our common insistence on the principles of de- 
mocracy, freedom and justice, by the constant 
stream of men and women who leave this country 
to study in the United States, and by our desire 
to promote trade between our two countries. 



Technical Cooperation Agreement 
Signed With Ghana 

The International Cooperation Administration 
announced on June 7 that a technical coopera- 
tion agreement has been signed with Ghana. The 
bilateral agreement provides a framework for 
U.S. technical assistance in such fields as agri- 
culture, technical education, and community de- 
velopment. The agreement was signed June 3 at 
Accra by Prime Minister Kwame Nkrumah and 
U.S. Charge d'Affaires Peter Rutter. 

An ICA liaison officer will leave shortly for 
Accra to provide a local point of contact for dis- 
cussions on the type of technical cooperation 
projects which the Government of Ghana may 
request. 

One of the first technical cooperation projects 
under the new agreement will provide a 2,000- 
volume technical library previously announced 
by Vice President Richard M. Nixon at Ghana's 
independence day ceremonies as an independence 
gift from the United States. The library is ex- 
pected to be attached to the Kumasi Teclmical 
Institute at Kumasi but will be maintained as a 
separate collection. The books to be selected for 
the library will be principally in the fields of 
agriculture and vocational education, including 
technical engineering. 



Immigration Quota for Ghana 

A PROCLAMATION' 

Whereas under the provisions of section 202 (a) of 
the Immigration and Nationality Act, each independent 
country, self-governing dominion, mandated territory, 
and territory under the international trusteeship system 
of the United Nations, other than independent countries 
of North, Central, and South America, is entitled to be 



'No. 31S8A; 22 Fed. Reg. 4629. 



July 15, 1957 



111 



treated as a separate quota area when approved by the 
Secretary of State ; and 

Whereas under the provisions of section 201 (b) of 
the Immigration and Nationality Act, the Secretary of 
State, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Attorney 
General, jointly, are required to determine the annual 
quota of any quota area established pursuant to the provi- 
sions of section 202 (a) of the said Act, and to report to 
the President the quota of each quota area so determined ; 
and 

Whereas the State of Ghana came into existence on 
March 6, 1957, when the former British West African 
Colony of the Gold Coast was granted independence by 
the Government of the United Kingdom within the Brit- 
ish Commonwealth of Nations, and at the same time the 
United Nations Trust Territory of British Togoland be- 
came an integral part of the State of Ghana ; and 

Whereas the Secretary of State, the Secretary of 
Commerce, and the Attorney General have reported to 
the President that, in accordance with the duty im- 
posed and the authority conferred upon them by section 
201(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, they 
jointly have made the determination provided for and 
computed under the provisions of section 201(a) of the 
said Act, and have fixed, in accordance therewith, an 
immigration quota for Ghana as hereinafter set forth : 

Now, therefore, I, DwiGHT D. Eisenhower, Presi- 
dent of the United States of America, acting under and 
by virtue of the authority vested in me by the afore- 
said act of Congress, do hereby proclaim and make 
known that the annual quota of the quota area herein- 
after designated has been determined in accordance with 
the law to be, and shall be, as follows : 



Area No. 


Quota Area 


Quota 


88 


Ghana 


100 



The establishment of an immigration quota for any 
ciuota area is solely for the purpose of compliance with 
the pertinent provisions of the Immigration and Nation- 
ality Act and is not to be considered as having any 
significance extraneous to such purpose. 

Proclamation No. 2980 of June 30, 1952,^ entitled "Im- 
migration Quotas", is amended by the abolishment of 
the annual immigration quota of one hundred estab- 
lished for the United Nations Trust Territory of British 
Togoland, and by the addition of the immigration quota 
for Ghana as set forth in this proclamation. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and caused the Seal of the United States of America 
to be afiixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this twent.v-sixth day 
of June in the year of our Lord nineteen 



' Bulletin of July 14, 1052, p. 83. 



[SEALl hundred and fifty-seven, and of the Independ- 
ence of the United States of America the one 
hundred and eighty-first. 

By the President : 

John Foster Dulles 
Secretary of State 



Shippers Notified of Procedures 
for Passage Into Gulf of Aqaba 

Following is the text of a circular sent hy the 
Department of State on June 5 to Clarence G. 
Morse^ Maritime Administrator, Department of 
Convmerce, and Ralph E. Casey, American Mer- 
chant Marine Institute, New York, N. Y. The 
circular, with its attachjnents, was read to news 
correspondents on June 24. hy Lincoln White, Act- 
ing Chief of the News Division. 



DEPARTMENT CIRCULAR 

The Department of State calls to the attention 
of United States shipping comiianies and ship- 
masters of vessels mider United States registry 
"Notice to Mariners No. 44" issued by the United 
States Navy Hydrographic Office, October 29, 
1955, which is based upon "Ports and Lighthouses 
Administration Circular to Shi^Dping No. 4 of 
1955", issued by the Government of Egypt. These 
notices relate to passage through the Strait of 
Tiran into the Gulf of Aqaba. 

The United States position is that the Gulf of 
Aqaha comprehends international waters and that 
no nation has the right to prevent free and inno- 
cent passage in the Gulf and through the Straits 
giving access thereto. A denial of free and inno- 
cent passage through those waters to vessels of 
United States registry should be reported to the 
nearest available United States diplomatic or con- 
sular officer. The most readily accessible officers 
in the area are stationed at Port Said, Alexandria, 
Asmara, Jidda, and Aden. If this procedure is 
inconvenient, a report may be made to the owners 



112 



Department of State Bulletin 



or agents, wlio in turn should inform the Depart- 
ment of State, Washington, D.C. 

Copies of ''Notice to Mariners No. 44", issued 
by the United States Navy Hydrographic Office, 
October 29, 1955, and of "Ports and Lighthouses 
Administration Circuhxr to Shipping No. 4 of 
1955", issued by the Government of Egypt are 
attached. 



NOTICE TO MARINERS 

Notice to Mariners No. 44, issued weekly, October 29, 
1955 

U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office 

(5046) Red Sea— Gulf of Aqalia— Strait of Tiran— In- 
formation 

1. Vessels calling at Port Said or Suez, bound for the 
Gulf of Aqaba, should contact the Customs Administra- 
tion regarding their destination. 

2. Ships heading northward in the Red Sea bound for 
the Gulf of Aqaba should notify the Regional Boycotting 
Otfice for Israel, Bulkeley Ramleh, Alexandria (Telephone 
No. (i2927) at least 72 hours prior to entry in the Gulf 
of Aqaba. The cable should contain the following in- 
formation : 

(a) Name of vessel 

(b) Nationality 

(c) Tyi)e (cargo or passenger) 

(d) International code signal letters indicating ves- 
sel's name 

(e) Expected time of entering Gulf of Aqaba (state 
date and time) 

(f) Port of destination in the Gulf of Aqaba 

,"?. Ships should hoist their signal letters and reduce 
speed when 3 miles off the Naval Signal Station 
(27°59'56" N) (34°25'.'55"). Vessels shall be permit- 
ted to proceed if the Signal Station has been previously 
notified or ordered to stop for inspection by the Customs 
Authorities. 

4. The permit to proceed will be valid for 48 hours. 

5. Should any vessel he unalile to pass within the per- 
mitted time, the shipping companies, agents or masters 
shoula renew the applications to pass, giving new ex- 
pected time of ijassage. 



EGYPTIAN CIRCULAR 

Regarding Standing Orders to Vessels Heading Towards 
the Gulf of Aqaba 

In accordance with the Orders, dated 7th of July 1955, 



issued by the Minister of War and the Commander-in- 
Chief of the Armed Forces, the Regional Boycotting Of- 
fice for Israel is appointed to be the only authority for 
issuing permission to vessels to pass through the Egyp- 
tian Territorial Waters in the Gulf of Aqaba. 

Therefore, all Shipping Companies, Agents and Master 
Mariners, whose ship or ships will call at either Port 
Said or Suez, are requested to contact the Customs Ad- 
ministration at either ports regarding vessels heading 
towards the Gulf of Aqaba. 

In case of vessels heading Northward from the Red 
Sea towards the Gulf of Aqaba, notification should be 
communicated directly to the Regional Boycotting Of- 
fice for Israel at the undermentioned address : 

Bulkeley Ramleh-Alexandria 
(Telephone No. 62927) 

In both cases, notification should be given early enough 
at least 72 (Seventy two) hours prior to the entry of the 
vessel through the gulf. 

The notification should include the following 
information : 

1. Name of vessel 

2. Nationality 

3. Type (cargo or passenger) 

4. International code signal letters indicating her 
name 

5. The expected time of entering the Gulf of Aqaba 
(state date and time) 

6. Port of destination in the Gulf of Aqaba 

All Master Mariners should pay close attention to the 
Naval Signal Station at Ras-Nosrani in the strait of 
Tiran (Lat. 27°59'56" N) (Long. 34°25'55" E). 

Furthermore, all vessels should hoist their Inter- 
national Code Signal Letters indicating their names, and 
reduce speed — Three Miles off the Signal Station — to 
facilitate recognition of signals. Vessels shall be permit- 
ted to proceed if previous notification had been com- 
municated to the Signal Station or ordered to stop for 
inspection by the Custom Authorities. 

The permission granted to any vessel for passing 
through the Egyptian Territorial Waters in the Gulf of 
Aqaba will be valid for 48 (forty eight) hours starting 
from the expected time of passage. 

Should any vessel be unable to pass within the per- 
mitted time above-mentioned, the shipping Companies 
Agents and JIaster Mariners concerned should renew the 
application for permission to pass, giving the new ex- 
pected time of passage. 
Alexandria, 5th September 1955 

Rear Admiral Toussep Ham mad 

Director General 

Ports and Lighthouses Administration 



July 15, 1957 



113 



Our IViutual Security Programs 



hy Douglas Dillon 

Deputy Under Secretary for Economic Affairs ^ 



I should like to talk to you today about one 
aspect of our foreign affairs, the mutual security 
program — so-called foreign aid. Time after time 
in the last 10 years this program has averted dis- 
asters from which we could not have remained 
aloof. 

In 1947 our program of aid to Greece and 
Turkey helped save these two countries from en- 
slavement through Communist armed aggression. 
In the following years, the Marshall plan restored 
the havoc of World War II and preserved the 
Western European nations from the danger of 
Communist revolution. Later, by svipplying arms 
to our allies in the North Atlantic alliance, we 
helped to create the NATO shield, which holds 
the Soviets in check in Western Europe. The 
success of this NATO effort can be judged both by 
the increased confidence of the free nations of 
Europe and by the fact that the destruction of the 
North Atlantic alliance is now a major obje<:tive 
of Soviet policy. After 1950 our mutual security 
programs helped to prevent or halt Communist 
aggression in the Far East — against Korea, 
against Formosa, and against the new countrj' 
of Viet-Nam. 

These achievements of our mutual security pro- 
grams are clear. But my purpose today is not to 
discuss the past. I want rather to talk about the 
future. During the last year there has been a 
serious reevaluation of our whole mutual security 
program. Studies have been carried out by two 
Presidential commissions, by a special Senate com- 
mittee, by the House Foreign Affairs Committee, 



by the executive agencies of the Government, and 
by several private organizations. Out of all these 
studies have come three clear conclusions, which 
are of vital import to your peace and your wel- 
fare. I should like to discuss each of these con- 
clusions with you, in turn. 

Importance of Continuing Mutual Security 

The first and most fundamental conclusion on 
which these studies agreed is that the mutual se- 
curity program has served us well and should be 
continued. This conclusion was stated very 
clearly by the President's Citizen Advisers on Mu- 
tual Security, headed by Benjamin Fairless, 



former chairman of the board of the U.S. 
Corporation. Their report states : 



Steel 



The United States must resolve to stay the course, and 
must abandon the false hope that collective security costs 
are temporary. Any show of indecision or lack of per- 
severance would make the task more difiScult. . . . We 
are convinced that the best security for Americans is col- 
lective security, and that the best hope for diminishing 
the burden is economic development. We recognize that 
perseverance and patience are required. Our policies 
are proving their worth, and we should hold firmly to 
them. They will secure the ultimate triumph of freedom. 

This conclusion was reaffirmed in the report of 
the Senate Special Committee To Study the For- 
eign Aid Program, which is certainly the most 
thorough study yet made of this subject.' This 
report states : 

In summary, the committee believes that there are valid 
reasons for the United States to continue various types 



' Address made before the New Orleans Foreign Policy 
Association at New Orleans, La., on June 26 (press re- 
lease 385 dated June 24) . 



'Foreign Aid: Report of the Special Committee To 
Study the Foreign Aid Program. S. Kept. 300, May 13, 
1957. 



114 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



of fori'i^Mi aifl. Such aid, if clearlj- cnnceived and prop- 
erly admiuistered, may be expected to serve the interests 
of the United States by promoting its defense, by con- 
tributing to its economic growth and spiritual strength, 
;uid liy helping to develop a world environment of free- 
dom in which the American people may live in peace. 

This report represented the unanimous findings 
of a committee on which were included Senators 
from all parts of our country. Those from the 
South included Senator Fulbright of Arkansas, 
Senator Sparkman of Alabama, Senator Russell 
of Georgia, and Louisiana's own Senator Eussell 
Long. 

Clarifying tlie Purposes of the Program 

The second general conclusion of these studies 
was that the purposes of the mutual security pro- 
gram should be clarified. As the Senate Special 
Committee put it : 

The objectives of the various foreign aid programs 
should be separated, refined, and restated. . . . The pur- 
pose of each type of aid should be clearly demarcated. 
. . . Unless this is done, it will not be possible for the 
people of the United States or the Congress to understand 
either the distinct objectives or the magnitude of the 
various programs. 

To clarify the purjioses of our programs, the 
President made a number of related proposals to 
the Congress this year.^ The essential elements 
of these proposals have recently been approved by 
a substantial majority of the U.S. Senate. 

The President's first proposal was to separate 
the military aspects of the mutual security pro- 
gram from those parts of the program devoted 
to economic progress. The President has pointed 
out that the military portion of so-called foreign 
aid — both tlie weapons we send our allies and the 
economic help necessary to enable them to support 
agreed military forces — are part and parcel of 
the cost of defending the United States. He has 
therefore urged that in the future this defense as- 
sistance, wliich now amounts to about three- 
fourths of the cost of the entire mutual security 
program, sliould be included in the budget of the 
Department of Defense. 

Until now, as you well Iviiow, defense assistance 
has been presented to the Congress in a foreign 
aid bill separate and apart from the rest of the 
defense budget. This has meant that foreign mili- 



' Bulletin of June 10, 1957, p. 920. 
July 15, 1957 



tary assistance has been considered by different 
congressional committees and at different times 
than the rest of our national defense needs. Such 
a procedure naturally increases the difficulty of 
reaching a sound judgment on the program of 
military assistance to our allies. Putting these 
funds in the budget of the Department of Defense 
will henceforth make it possible for the Congress 
to examine and evaluate in one place and at one 
time our whole defense program — both its domes- 
tic and its foreign segments. In this way the 
American people will obtain the best possible 
assurance that the sums to be expended for their 
defense will be used to the best advantage. 

The President has also recommended measures 
to clarify the purposes of the remaining one- 
fourth of the mutual security program, the sums 
set aside primarily for economic purposes. He 
has proposed to the Congress that this part of 
the program be broken down into three quite 
distinct categories, each devoted to a clear and 
separate goal : 

First, there is technical assistance, by which we 
share our know-how and our skills with peoples 
in the less developed areas. The President has 
recommended that this program be continued sub- 
stantially as at present. 

Second, the President has recommended the 
creation of a development loan fund to provide 
capital on a loan basis for economic development 
in the less developed areas of the world. 

Third, there is the category of special assist- 
ance, which contains the funds for unforeseen 
emergencies, such as Hungarian refugee relief, 
and for those needs which camiot be covered from 
other parts of the program. 

In presenting to the American people a mutual 
security program plainly broken down between 
its four purjDoses — military defense, technical co- 
operation, economic development, and emergency 
aid — we believe that we will have effectively sep- 
arated and clarified its different parts and its dif- 
ferent goals. 

Emphasis on Long-Term Economic Development 

Now let me turn to the third recommendation 
on which most of the groups that studied the 
mutual security program last year agi-eed: that 
more emphasis should be placed on assistance for 
long-term economic development and that this as- 



115 



sistance should be provided through more effective 
methods. 

Let me begin by telling you why we agree with 
these studies that more emphasis should be placed 
on economic development. 

About a billion people now live in the less de- 
veloped areas of tlie free world — in Asia, Africa, 
and i^arts of Latin America. Some 700 million 
of these people live in 19 newly independent na- 
tions which have come into being in Asia and 
Africa since the end of World War II. The 
people of these new nations differ in race, religion, 
and culture, but age-old poverty is common to 
them all. Thanks to modern means of communi- 
cation, such as radio and newspapers, they have 
become aware tliat in other parts of the world 
there are people wlio live far better than they do. 
Tliey are no longer resigned to their pitifully low 
living standards. Political freedom has stimu- 
lated their desire for economic progress. Tliey 
are now insisting that their lot be bettered. 

The present moderate leaders of these countries 
are striving to give their peoples the progress they 
demand. If they do not succeed, tliey will surely 
be swept aside and replaced by extremists who will 
be inclined to turn toward international com- 
munism as their model. 

In his second inaugural address,' President 
Eisenhower referred to this growing demand for 
change in the less developed areas. He said : 

. . . one-third of all mankind has entered upon an his- 
toric struggle for a new freedom : freedom from grinding 
poverty . . . wherever in the world a people knows des- 
perate want, there must appear at least the spark of 
hope — the hope of progress — or there will surely rise 
at last the flames of conflict. 

In these ringing words the President put the 
case for effective action by the U.S. to help these 
countries in their struggle for economic progress. 

The Soviet Union has recognized that the fu- 
ture of the world is bound up in the decision that 
will be taken by these peoples. The Soviet lead- 
ers are making an all-out effort to sell the idea 
that only through communism can economic 
growth be achieved with the necessary speed. 
They have begun to back up their ideological 
drive in the less developed areas of the free world 
by large-scale programs of technical and financial 
assistance. In the past few years Soviet credits 



' Ibid., Feb. 11, 1957, p. 211. 
116 



for economic development in these areas have 
amounted to over one billion dollars, a tremendous 
effort on their part. 

It is fair to say that these less developed areas 
are now the central battlefield in the struggle be- 
tween freedom and international communism. If 
our American liberties are to be preserved, it is 
essential that we win this battle. 

Let there be no mistake: The United States 
could not exist as an island of liberty in a totali- 
tarian world. Yet, if we cannot show the peoples 
of Asia and Africa that progress can be achieved 
in freedom, they will inevitably look to totali- 
tarianism for the solution of their problems. 

Our economic assistance program also makes 
sense from a business point of view. Your own 
city's progress testifies to this fact. In the last 
15 years the Latin American countries have made 
giant economic strides. You have contributed to 
that growth, and you have benefited from it. A 
visit to this bustling city should dispel any un- 
certainty as to whether economic development 
abroad helps or harms the South. 

VaEue of Expanding Market for American Producers 

Let me talk frankly about this point. I have 
spent most of my life in private business, and I 
know that fears are sometimes expressed that de- 
velopment in foreign countries will injure our own 
industry or agriculture. Let me tell you quite 
plainly that everything in economic experience to 
date goes against this fear. On the record so far 
our international trade increases, rather than de- 
clines, as economic development abroad moves 
forward. 

Economic development means more purchasing 
power. And the greater the rest of the world's 
purchasing power, the greater are the opportuni- 
ties for our businessmen and our farmers to sell 
our goods abroad. 

Economic growth in the Latin American coun- 
tries has meant more — not fewer — export oppor- 
tunities for American producers. And I believe 
that this experience will be repeated as other areas 
also go forward. 

Of course, if tlie TTnited States were the only 
country in the world that could produce the goods 
that move in foreign trade, it would have no com- 
petitors. But neither would it have any custom- 
ers. In the recent past your efficient southern 
farms and factories were able to earn a fair share 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



of the growing American market, despite expand- 
ing production in other parts of the country. The 
growing market and the expanding production 
were two sides of the same coin. You could not 
have had the one without the other. And we can 
all agree that the combination was helpful to the 
South. 

I believe that you will benefit in the same way 
as demand and production increase abroad. Your 
unrivaled economic progress in the last few dec- 
ades was made possible by an expanding American 
market. I am confident that your future progress 
will also be sustained by an expanding interna- 
tional market. 

Supplying Skills and Capital 

If greater economic development is to be 
achieved abroad, two things will be required: 
skills and capital. Our programs make provision 
for both of these requirements. 

The technical assistance program, at a cost of 
approximately $150 million a year — less than one- 
fourth of one percent of our national budget — 
makes the skills of the U.S. available to the 
peoples of the less developed areas. This pro- 
gram, which was first suggested by President Tiii- 
man in his famous point 4 message in 1948, has 
increased production abroad and has brought the 
United States great dividends in friendship and 
good will. It has rightly gained the widespread 
support of the American people. 

In addition to know-how, capital is required 
by the less developed peoples. It is the very es- 
sence of economic development that an important 
part of the necessary capital must, in the first 
place, come from abroad. Such was the history 
of our own coimtiy. 

The new development loan fund is designed 
to provide this kind of financing on a sound busi- 
nesslike basis which will move the receiving 
country to greater self-help and move other fi- 
nancing sources to greater activity. The fund's 
assistance will be furnished only upon firm com- 
mitment for repayment and reasonable expecta- 
tion that repayment can actually be made. Until 
now part of our development assistance has been 
on a grant basis. In moving to a loan basis, the 
receiving countries will naturally tend to become 
more careful in screening their requests for aid 
and more diligent in seeing that the aid is effec- 
tively used. 



The terms of the fund's loans will be less strict 
than those of the Export-Import Bank and the 
World Bank. This should help to insure that its 
financing complements, rather than substitutes for, 
the financing available from these other sources. 
We would also expect the fund to work closely 
with private investors in ways which would 
increase their activity. Private investors bring 
hoth skills and capital to the less developed areas. 
Thus their contribution is often more productive 
than government-to-government financing. One 
of the most important goals of the fund will be 
to stimulate and assist private investment. 

The fund cannot achieve its basic purposes, 
however, unless it has some assurances that ade- 
quate resources will be available to it in future 
years. This assurance is the essential characteris- 
tic of any financial institution and particularly of 
one which is set up to help a long-term process 
like economic development. Without this assur- 
ance, the receiving countries, private investors, 
and existing public banking institutions would be 
as reluctant to work with the fmid on a long-term 
basis as you and I woidd be to deal with a bank 
if we did not know from one year to another what 
its resources were going to be. And without this 
assurance, the fund could not plan for effective 
long-term uses of its resources, as any soimd en- 
terprise should. 

If the fund were only started with enoiigh 
money for one year, we would be back where we 
are now — financing economic development out of 
annual appropriations. Most recent studies have 
concluded — and rightly — that this is a wasteful 
and ineffective method of tackling a long-term 
task like economic development. 

For this reason we are asking the Congress not 
only for an appropriation for next year but also 
for authority to borrow specified amounts from 
the Treasury during the 2 succeeding years. In 
the past most governmental lending agencies, for 
example, the Export-Impoi-t Bank, have been 
capitalized through such borrowing authority. 

Congressional control over the f mid's resources 
would be maintained. Unlike the Export-Import 
Bank, the fund could not use the money author- 
ized for 1959 and 1960 until those years came 
around. If the Congress decided to end or limit 
the fund's activity before 1959 or 1960, it could do 
so — and the money would still be on hand. 

During the present fiscal year, which ends this 



iuly 75, 1957 



117 



coming Sunday, our mutual security program will 
have expended over $400 million for the economic 
development purposes which the new loan fund 
is designed to serve. Experience to date suggests 
that somewhat more development financing is 
needed if our objectives are to be achieved. The 
President has, therefore, proposed to increase 
moderately the present level of such financing. 
He has also reconnnended that this increase be 
gradual — to $500 million in fiscal year 1958 and 
to not more than $750 million in each of the 2 
following years. This gradual rate of increase 
should help to insure that the added resources can 
be wisely spent and effectively absorbed. 

I do not believe that a cut in the amounts wliich 
we have requested for the fund would be a true 
saving. 

Getting economic development started is some- 
thing like getting an airplane off the ground : You 
need a certain minimum speed to take off. A 
slower rate of speed may be less expensive at the 
moment but can be far more wasteful in the long 
run. 

Many Latin American countries are already 
going forward so rapidly that they can finance 
their development largely from their own produc- 
tion and from normal financing sources. We 
hope, through the more effective financing which 
will become possible with the establishment of the 
new development loan fund, to help other coun- 
tries in Asia and Africa to achieve this same stage. 
Thus, the more successful we are with the develop- 
ment loan fund, the sooner will it put itself out of 
business. 

In this, as in so many fields of endeavor, there is 
no sense in sending a boy to do a man's job. We 
should either not tackle this problem at all or 
tackle it with sufficient resources to fulfill our 
purpose. 



in Europe and Asia have been enabled to escape 
from submergence under the Communist tide. 
This assistance has been, and continues to be, es- 
sential in keeping the free world free. 

Through our economic assistance, the peace and 
security of tlie United States is greatly strength- 
ened. If the peoples of the less developed areas 
should turn to communism as a short cut to eco- 
nomic progress, we would be in grave danger. 
The Communist leaders might then be tempted 
to press their advantage through aggressive ad- 
ventures, and we would face an increased risk of 
war. 

Nor should we overlook the program's other 
benefits: Our foreign trade, seriously reduced 
after the war, has been greatly stimulated by this 
program. Over the past 8 years, $500 million 
worth of tobacco, nearly $500 million wortli of 
fats and oils, more than half a billion dollars' 
worth of coarse grain, and about $1.7 billion 
worth of bread grains were bought and shipped 
abroad under the mutual security program. $2.5 
billion worth of cotton sales — or almost one-third 
of all United States cotton exports — were financed 
with mutual security fimds. Because of the im- 
portance of exports in the marketing of cotton, 
this has meant that more than one out of every 
ten dollars in the southern cotton farmer's pocket 
has come from the-se mutual security sales. 

Foreign aid may be foreign to our shores, but 
it is not foreign to our interest. It is specifically 
directed toward enabling us and our children 
to live, to work, and to trade in peace and security. 
Thus far it has achieved its purpose witli remark- 
able success. We are confident that, clarified and 
more efficient, it will continue to serve our in- 
terests and our welfare in the future. 



Foreign Aid and National Interest 

This, then, is the mutual security program 
which we are presenting to the Congress. It is 
more clearly defined in purpose, and it is im- 
proved in method over the past. It is still based 
on the principle that foreign aid is only justified 
because it serves our own national interest. This 
is as true of its economic component as it is of the 
far larger military component. 

Through our economic assistance programs, 
hundreds of millions of people and whole nations 



Soviet Note on Diplomatic Travel 
Ignores U.S. Offer for Relaxation 

Press release 382 dated June 22 

Department Announcement 

The Department has received a Soviet note re- 
garding diplomatic travel which fails to mention 
the American offer for mutual relaxation of travel 
restrictions on foreign nationals contained in the 



118 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



note of the U.S. Embassy to the Soviet Foreign 
Ministry dated May 13, 1957.^ The Soviet note 
was received by the American Embassy at Moscow 
on June 15, 1957. 

Tliis means in effect that the Soviet Government 
lias decided again to reject the longstanding 
American proposal for the mutual relaxation of 
these regulations. The Soviet action was taken 
despite a statement by First Secretary Nikita 
Khrushchev before an American television audi- 
ence on June 2, 1957, that the Soviet Government 
would agree to abolish travel restrictions on a 
reciprocal basis. 

The Soviet note, furthermore, did not answer 
the specific complaints of the American Embassy 
regarding Soviet interference with the travel of 
American diplomats in the U.S.S.R. The United 
States protested in its note of May 13 against the 
frequent closure of officially open areas in the 
Soviet Union. This note also pointed out that 
Soviet police interference and other administrative 
harassments have continued to make travel by 
American diplomats in open areas most diflicult. 
The Soviet note merely replied that such actions 
were dictated by "circumstances of a temporary 
character." The U.S. Government considers this 
explanation unsatisfactory. 

Text of Soviet Note of June 15 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Keiniblics presents its compliments to the Em- 
bassy of the United States of America and in connection 
with the Embassy's note No. 914 of May 13, 1957, has the 
honor to state the following. 

Occasional instances of a refusal to members of the 
Embassy of the United States of America to register 
trips in areas of the U.S.S.R. open to visits by foreigners 
did not signify any change whatsoever in the regulations 
of movement of foreigners in the territory of the Soviet 
Union set forth in the Foreign Ministry's Notes No. 
295/PR June 22 and No. 400/04 November 12, 1953 ' and 
were caused by circumstances of a temporary character. 

In this connection, it is noted that, as is admitted in the 
Embassy's note, in a number of instances American au- 
thorities have similarly refu.sed to Soviet officials to regis- 
ter trips in open areas of the United States of America. 



• Bulletin of June 17, 1957, p. 985. 
'Ibid., Jan. 31, 1955, p. 193. 



UnSted States Proposes Exchanging 
Radio-TV Broadcasts With U.S.S.R. 

Press release 384 dated June 24 

Follovnng is the text of an aide memoire handed 
to the Soviet A7nba8sado7' on June 2Ji. hy Ambas- 
sador William S. B. Lacy, Special Assistant to 
the Secretary for East-West Exchange. 

The Department proposes that the Soviet and 
the United States Government reach an agree- 
ment in principle at an early date for the regular 
exchange of uncensored radio and television 
broadcasts. The two Governments could later 
settle through diplomatic channels such detailed 
problems as how often and over what stations 
these broadcasts would be presented, as well as 
how certain technical problems could be resolved. 

The purpose of these broadcasts would be to 
promote a freer exchange of information and 
ideas on important world developments. 
Department of St.\te, 

Washington, June 24, 1957. 



Deputy U.S. Commissioner General 
Named for Brussels Exhibition 

The White House announced on June 13 that 
President Eisenhower had appointed Mrs. Kather- 
iiie G. Howard to be Deputy U.S. Commissioner 
General of the Brussels Universal and Inter- 
national Exhibition for 1958. 



Appointment to International 
North Pacific Fisheries Commission 

President Eisenhower on June 13 appointed 
Ross L. LefHer, Assistant Secretary for Fish and 
Wildlife, Department of the Interior, to be Com- 
missioner of the U. S. Section of the International 
North Pacific Fisheries Commission, vice John L. 
Farley, resigned. 



Jo/y T5, 7957 



119 



Problems Relating to Export of Iron and Steel Scrap 



Statement iy Thorsten V. Ealijarvi 
Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs ' 



I appear today in response to the chairman's 
request for tlie Department's views concerning 
two major problems under consideration by the 
committee relative to the expoi't of iron and steel 
scrap. Consequently, my statement will cover 
(1) the discussions with foreign governments 
dealing with the limitations on the scrap they 
plan to take from the United States and (2) the 
Department's policy pertaining to the scrap-im- 
porting arrangements of the European Coal and 
Steel Community and Japan. 

I. Discussions Witli Major Foreign Importers of 
United States Scrap 

The Department of State is involved in the 
ferrous-scrap export problem because of the need 
to balance conservation of essential supplies of 
this material at home with the essential require- 
ments of friendly countries, which represents a 
legitimate foreign-policy consideration. The 
principal importing areas — Japan, the European 
Coal and Steel Community, and the United 
Kingdom — are heavily dependent on us for the 
scrap supplies which are essential to the health 
of their economies and to their defense positions. 
These considerations are important to the se- 
curity interests of the United States. 

Accordingly, the Department has been actively 
engaged in the consideration of the scrap prob- 
lem since 1955. It has recognized that, in at- 
tempting to insure a continuing flow of mini- 
mum essential requirements to the major im- 
porters, we cannot indefinitely continue to make 



' Made before the House Select Committee on Small 
Business on June 21 (press release 381). 



ever-mcreasing supplies of scrap available to 
them. We have, on the contrary, emphasized 
the need for moderation and have encouraged 
the importing areas to achieve a balance in their 
metallics supply which will bring such depend- 
ence on us to an end. We have also, through 
our missions abroad, surveyed the scrap reser- 
voirs of other countries on a worldwide basis in 
an effort to ascertain if tliere are any untapped 
or insufficiently tapped sources of the material 
the exploitation of which miglit reduce the de- 
mand on tlie United States as a M-orld supplier. 
These latter efforts have not produced any par- 
ticularly fruitful results. 

However, we are hopeful that the years fol- 
lowing 1957 will see a progressive lessening of 
the demand upon us. The European Coal and 
Steel Community will have heavy requirements 
in 1958 and substantial ones in 1959 but assures 
us that by 1960 its demands on us will be neg- 
ligible. It advises that at the present time it is 
using only 39 percent of scrap in its melt (as 
compared with about 50 percent in the United 
States and still higher in Japan) but that by 
1960 the scrap component may be reduced to as 
low as 21 percent. The Community states that 
this reduction will be the result of an investment 
program by means of which it is planned near- 
ly to double blast-furnace capacity between 1956 
and 1960. ISIoreover, the High Authority of the 
Community has established an incentive system 
entailing payment of a premium to producers 
for scrap saved through increased consumption 
of pig iron. 

Japan has a steel industry less developed than 
that of the Coal and Steel Community and en- 



120 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



visages some continuing dependence on us. 
However, it plans to increase its 417,000 metric- 
ton 1955 capacity in converter steel (which uses 
very little scrap) to 750,000 tons in 1957 and to 
a tentative 3,800,000 tons by 1960. Pig-iron 
production, at 5,256,000 metric tons in 1955, is to 
be raised to 6,560,000 tons in 1957 and to a ten- 
tative 9,163,000 tons in 1960. 

Now, with your permission, I should like to re- 
view the steps taken with a view to limiting the 
quantities of scrap shipped abroad. The expor- 
tation of scrap from the United States in quan- 
tity, largely a phenomenon of the recent postwar 
years, attracted attention when in 1954 ship- 
ments began to rise sharply. In the case of the 
European Coal and Steel Community the rise 
was precipitous, and in mid-1955 this trend was 
discussed informally with the High Authority, 
which undertook to level off the Community tak- 
ings at the rate of 150,000 metric tons per month 
during the second half of the year. 

At the beginning of 1956 it was determined 
that shipments to Japan and the United King- 
dom might also be reaching too high a level, and 
the Departments of State and Commerce con- 
sulted with the three major importing areas to 
urge voluntary restraint as a means of avoiding 
the possible necessity of restrictive action. We 
were informed that the Coal and Steel Com- 
munity, Japan, and the United Kingdom would 
require minimums of 1,980,000, 1,320,000, and 
550,000 sliort tons respectively. At this time we 
did not seek commitments from the importers 
but expressed to them our hope that their imports 
for the year would not exceed these essential 
quantities. 

Wlien at the middle of the year export licens^ 
ing was riuuaing somewhat ahead of the indi- 
cated requirements, the three major importers 
were again urged to exercise moderation. The 
Coal and Steel Community gave assurance that 
its 1,980,000-ton limit would be respected while 
the United Kingdom indicated that any taking 
on its part over the 550,000 tons would be neg- 
ligible. However, Japan expressed the view that 
the figure quoted in its original estimate had 
been inadequate and that nearly 2,000,000 short 
tons (1,800,000 metric tons) would be needed. 
In response to this unexpected development we 
noted that an increase of this magnitude might 
make mandatory limitations unavoidable and 



again urged Japan to hold imports to a 
minimum. 

During the closing months of the year Japan's 
imports continued heavy, and several times our 
Embassy in Tokyo made oral representation of 
the subject. The increase in Japanese imports 
also created an indirect problem in the sense that 
our urging of moderation to the other major im- 
porters in the face of this increase could be inter- 
preted by them as discriminatory in favor of Ja- 
pan. However, in enacting the extension of the 
Export Control Act of 1949, Congress had in- 
structed the Department of Commerce to make 
a survey of scrap availabilities in the United 
States. Until tliis survey — under preparation by 
the Battelle Memorial Institute — and its evalua- 
tion by the Department of Commerce were com- 
pleted, we were without concrete information 
as to whether or not a scrap shortage was immi- 
nent. However, the problem of excessive exports 
was raised in tlie Council on Foreign Economic 
Policy, where it was determined not to apply 
quotas but to seek a solution to the problem 
tlirough further discussions with tlie importing 
areas. 

Toward the end of the year the Coal and Steel 
Community expressed the hope that its imports 
from us might be increased by about 55,000 short 
tons per month. We asked the Community to 
adhere to its original limitation, and it agreed to 
do so for the balance of the year but warned that 
during 1957 additional quantities would be re- 
quired. However, we indicated our belief that 
the 1957 level of shipments should not be 
permitted to exceed that of 1956. 

At the beginning of February 1957 the Depart- 
ment of Commerce survey was published and 
showed that, although there was no shortage or 
prospect of shortage in lighter grades of scrap, 
there was a likelihood of shortages developing 
in the heavy melting grades, which ordinarily 
constitute approximately two-thirds of our ex- 
ports. At the same time a mission representing 
the Japanese steel industry arrived in Washing- 
ton to discuss scrap requirements with the De- 
partment of Commerce and stated that over 2,- 
700,000 tons would be needed during 1957. The 
Japanese were told that the matter would be 
studied, but it was indicated to them that the 
1956 level of shipments should not be exceeded. 

Subsequently the data presented by the Japa- 



Jo/y 75, J 957 



121 



nese scrap mission were reviewed in the Depart- 
ments of State and Commerce. Althongh the 
United Kingdom and the Coal and Steel Com- 
munity were on notice tliat moderation was still 
required, further discussions with them were not 
undertaken at the time. It was felt tliat Japan 
represented the most pressing problem both be- 
cause of the increase in its imports and of the 
relative extent of its dependence on us as a source 
of supply, which has been brought about by the 
industry's rapid postwar growth. 

On concluding review of Japan's requirements 
in the light of the Department of Commerce 
survey we decided tliat, in view of the fact that 
only heavy melting material appeared to be in 
danger of depletion, we should ask Japan to limit 
its imports of ]iea\^ melting scrap to the amount 
shipped in 1956 but that exports of ligliter grades 
should be unrestricted. Similar proposals were 
then made to the Coal and Steel Community and 
to tlie United Kingdom. 

All three importing areas agreed to study these 
suggestions, but Japan and the Coal and Steel 
Community indicated that acceptance of tlie terms 
would have serious effects on steel production. 
Subsequently Japan returned with a counter- 
proposal involving quantities somewhat greater 
than last year's but less than those previously re- 
quested. It was determined that the Japanese 
figure struck an acceptable balance between that 
country's dependence on us in scrap and our 
need to conserve the material. The proposal was 
accepted by us, and the Government of Japan 
states that tlie Japanese steel industry will be 
advised not to import during 1957 in excess of 
the agreed figure. Understandings based on tlie 
same formula have recently been readied with 
both the Coal and Steel Community and United 
Kingdom. Pursuant to these understandings the 
three major importers will limit their imports of 
premium material to tonnages about 13 percent 
higher than those of last year, but no limits will 
be placed on movement of the lighter grades of 
scrap. 

II. Foreign Scrap-Importing Arrangements 

Let us now discuss the second problem, namely, 
the foreign business arrangements for the impor- 
tation of U.S. generated scrap. It is my under- 
standing that lengthy testimony has been pre- 
sented to the committee setting forth in detail 



the manner in whicli scrap-importing arrange- 
ments in the European Coal and Steel Commu- 
nity and Japan allegedly have interfei'ed with 
the exports of certain U.S. scrap firms. Several 
witnesses have referred to "protests" or represen- 
tations by the Department of State in this con- 
nection. The committee has indicated that it 
would appreciate the Department's comments 
concerning these representations and our present 
policy with respect to this problem. 

First, it should be pointed out that the actions 
which the Department lias taken are in conformity 
with and in furtherance of the basic United States 
foreign economic policy calling for the encourage- 
ment of free competitive enterprise in the free- 
world nations and for the elimination of 
restrictive business practices in international 
trade. Under this policy the United States seeks 
to encourage competitive enterprise and to elimi- 
nate restrictive practices as a means of contrib- 
uting to tlie economic sti'ength of the free world. 
Free economic institutions offer greater promise 
of more favorable conditions than economies bur- 
dened by monopolies, restrictive business prac- 
tices, and excessive government regulations. In 
response to the request of the chairman we have 
prepared for the information of this committee 
a more detailed presentation of our foreign eco- 
nomic policy in this field. It is attached to the 
copies of my statement. [See attachment A.] 

European Coal and Steel Comrnunity 

Before discussing the Department's policy to- 
ward the scrap-importing arrangements of the 
European Coal and Steel Community (sometimes 
referred to as the CSC) , it may be helpful for the 
committee to have some background information 
about the Community and about these an-ange- 
ments. 

Since 1948 the United States has supported 
projects designed to fui'ther the economic inte- 
gi-ation of Western Europe. One of the more 
important is the six-nation Coal and Steel Com- 
munity, which came into existence in July 1952 
after the basic treaty had been ratified by the na- 
tional parliaments of France, the Federal Re- 
public of Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, 
and the Netherlands. I^ss than a year later the 
common markets for coal, iron ore, scrap, and 
steel had been established. With the creation 
of these common markets, national barriers to 



122 



Department of State Bulletin 



trade, such as tariffs, quantitative restrictions, 
and discriminatory pricin<; were abolished within 
the Community. The object of these unprece- 
dented steps was to bring the coal and steel in- 
dustries of the six CSC countries into competition 
with one another in one vast common market 
comprising 150 million consumers. 

The CSC treaty also envisaged the elimination 
of i^rivate agreements restricting the production 
and marketing of these commodities. Articles 
65 and 66 of the treaty, directed against cartels 
and monopolies, were accurately characterized 
as "Europe's firet major antitrust law." These 
provisions were completely unprecedented out- 
side of the United States. 

In any consideration of the Coal and Steel Com- 
munity it is important to note that the six mem- 
ber states have relinquished to the Community by 
treaty most of their powers over their coal and 
steel industries. The principal organ of the 
Community is the executive body known as the 
High Authority. This body has the major re- 
sponsibility for administering the CSC treaty, 
subject to certain checks and balances by the other 
Comminiity institutions such as the Common As- 
sembly and the Court of Justice. 

As regards CSC scrap-importing arrange- 
ments, the private scrap organization in Brussels 
known as the OCCF ( Office commun des consom- 
mateiirs de ferraiUe), or the Joint Office of Scrap 
Consumers, was set up in the spring of 1953. This 
organization is responsible for CSC scrap im- 
ports and was established to cope with special 
problems arising out of shortages of scrap in the 
Community. Payments are made from a com- 
mon fund to purchasers of scrap imported 
through the OCCF to equalize the higher deliv- 
ered cost of imported scrap with that of domestic 
scrap. The creation of the OCCF was authorized 
by the High Authority under article 65 of the 
CSC treaty. Article 65 prohibits all restrictive 
agreements which would tend in any manner to 
impede the normal operation of competition 
within the common market. However, agree- 
ments for specialization of production or joint 
selling or buying may be authorized by the High 
Authority under certain specified conditions. 

Early in 1955 we became aware of the fact that 
the OCCF had concluded an exclusive contract 
with a group of three U.S. scrap dealers headed 
by Luria Brothers, Inc. In March of that year 



the acting U.S. representative to the CSC in- 
formed the High Authority that the United 
States questioned the compatibility of this ex- 
clusive arrangement with the CSC objectives of 
establishing and maintaining competitive condi- 
tions in the Community. This action was stimu- 
lated in part by protests from other U.S. scrap 
dealers who were precluded by the arrangements 
from exporting to the Community. Later, on 
May 4, 1955, the acting U.S. representative sub- 
mitted to the High Authority a letter recapitulat- 
ing the views of the United States Govermnent on 
this exclusive arrangement. Since the commit- 
tee has expressed a specific interest in the nature 
of the Department's approach to the High Au- 
thority on tlris problem, I shall be glad to submit 
the text of this letter for insertion in the record 
if the committee so desires. 

The exclusive purchasing arrangement with the 
Luria group was terminated by the High Author- 
ity effective December 1, 1955. A public an- 
nouncement of this decision was made in Novem- 
ber of that year in the form of a press release is- 
sued by the High Authority. It was announced 
that in the future the OCCF "will not enter into 
agreements containing exclusive provisions, nor 
relating to a fixed percentage of the Community's 
needs" as regards scrap imports from the United 
States. Further, the release stated that the 
OCCF "in the future will examine the offers of 
suppliers in third countries in accordance with 
customary commercial criteria, such as prices, 
quality, delivery terms, etc." I should like to sub- 
mit the text of this press release for insertion in 
the record. [See attachment B.] 

Although exclusive purchasing in the United 
States has been terminated, centralized purchas- 
ing by the OCCF has been continued. Beginning 
about July 1956 and continuing down to the pres- 
ent, various U.S. scrap exporters have complained 
to the Department and our CSC Mission in Lux- 
embourg about OCCF purchasing methods. 
These complaints have been presented in detail to 
the committee. 

One point should be emphasized with respect to 
these charges by U.S. scrap exporters. Neither 
the Department nor our CSC Mission has been in 
a position to evaluate them. The Mission has 
been instructed to present the nature of these com- 
plaints to the High Authority or to members of 
the High Authority staff and to discuss with them 



Jo/y 75, 7957 



123 



the practices being pursued by the OCCF and 
their conformity with the criteria stated in the 
High Authority press release. Until recently re- 
sponses which we received from the High Author- 
ity with respect to the specific complaints concern- 
ing the purchasing methods of the OCCF indi- 
cated that the High Authority was inclined to 
leave such matters to the OCCF, which they con- 
sidered in the nature of day-to-day commercial 
transactions. 

The Department still wished to bring about an 
improvement in the situation and to this end in- 
structed our CSC Mission to continue its discus- 
sions of the matter with the High Authority. 
On June 18 the High Authority delivered to 
our Mission in Luxembourg an aide memoire 
on the Community's scrap-import purchasing ar- 
rangements and the High Authority's policy con- 
cerning tliese arrangements. Copies of this aide 
memoire are attaclied to my statement. [See at- 
tachment B.] The essence of this statement is as 
follows : 

. . . the High Authority has decided that steps should 
be talven to avoid any possibility of misunderstanding, 
either in the United States or the Community, of the pol- 
icies of the High Authority or of its determination to 
enforce those policies. It has, therefore, . . . under- 
taken to formulate detailed criteria and procedures to 
be followed by the OCCF in purchasing scrap in the 
United States. These criteria and procedures will be de- 
signed to eliminate any discriminatory or restrictive prac- 
tices or any practices in any other way contrary to the 
purposes of the Community. 

We feel that this is a significant step by the 
Higli Authority, and we are hopeful that it will 
produce a substantial improvement in the sit- 
uation. 

Japan 

Now let us consider the situation with respect 
to importation of scrap by Japan. As in the case 
Avith the Coal and Steel Community, Japan pur- 
chases virtually all of its imported scrap through 
a central buying organization known as the Scrap 
Coordinating Committee. This committee, which 
is composed of representatives of the leading Jap- 
anese steel mills, is a private group operating in 
close liaison with the Ministry of International 
Trade and Industry. 

Tlie first complaint relating to Japanese scrap- 
importing arrangements was made to the Depart- 



ment in August 1956. It was charged that the 
Scrap Coordinating Committee was about to con- 
clude an exclusive contract with one U.S. firm. 
The Embassy in Tokyo looked into this matter 
and determined that the committee had given the 
U.S. firm, Luria, a fourth-quarter contract for 
335,000 tons. Altliough tliis was not an exclusive 
contract in form, it had the effect of virtually cut- 
ting off scrap exports to Japan during that quar- 
ter by all other U.S. suppliers. The Department 
subsequently received complaints from other sup- 
pliers which were sent to tlie Embassy for discus- 
sion with appropriate Japanese officials. 

AVhen the Scrap Coordinating Committee be- 
gan negotiating contracts for 1957, the Depart- 
ment learned that the committee had decided to 
apportion their requirements among four U.S. 
dealers. The Embassy was again instructed to 
intercede, but, although the number of dealers 
was raised to six, this intercession was unsuccess- 
ful in obtaining a restoration of competitive 
conditions. 

Throughout our dealings with botli the Jap- 
anese Government and the Coal and Steel Com- 
munity on this problem, we have consistently 
maintained the position that all U.S. suppliers 
should have an equal opportunity to compete for 
the business. Of course, if one firm obtained a 
majority or all of the business, there could be no 
objection provided free and open competition had 
prevailed. It should also be emphasized that we 
have not, and camiot, intercede in the interest of 
any one supplier or group of suppliers. The basic 
principle which we have been attempting to estab- 
lish is a nondiscriminatory purcliasing policy. 

In conclusion, Mr. Chairman, permit me to 
point out that with respect to discussions with 
foreign governments on scrap imports from the 
United States we have sought to reach a balance 
which will preserve and promote the national in- 
terests of the United States. We have tried to 
give adequate consideration to our domestic in- 
dustry and to meet, as far as possible, the require- 
ments of friendly importing nations. As to the 
scrap-importing arrangements in foreign coun- 
tries, we have followed a policy designed to give 
all U.S. firms an equal opportunity to compete 
for foreign scrap business. This is in accordance 
with our foreign economic policy of encouraging 
free competitive enterjjrise abroad. 



124 



Department of State Bulletin 



ATTACHMENT A 

U.S. FOREIGN ECONOMIC POLICY WITH RESPECT 
TO RESTRICTIVE BUSINESS PRACTICES 

This memorandum sets forth the recent historical de- 
velopment of United States foreign economic policy with 
respect to the encouragement of free competitive enter- 
prise abroad and the elimination of restrictive business 
practices, the means by vrhich this policy is carried out, 
and the progress which has so far been made. 

General Historical Development 

The United States has long recognized the adverse 
effects of restrictive practices in international trade on 
its own economy. Our own antitrust laws, for example, 
have always applied to restrictions on our foreign as well 
as domestic commerce. In addition, the effects of foreign 
cartel activity have been repeatedly felt both by American 
business and the United States Government. Foreign 
cartels have resulted in barring American firms from 
Investment and trade opportunities abroad and in dis- 
criminatory treatment of, or high prices to, American 
industries dependent on foreign sources of supply. The 
activities of foreign cartels in frustrating economic de- 
velopment in the United States were brought home with 
particular vividness in the last war with the revelations 
of their effects in such vital fields as synthetic rubber. 

United States foreign economic policy with regard to 
restrictive business practices necessarily developed after 
World War II as an integral part of our overall policy 
and programs to attack and reverse a serious interna- 
tional trend toward restrictionism. Before the war, a 
variety of factors including the rise of nationalism and 
the effects of the depression had caused a greatly in- 
creased use of protectionist devices and other restrictive 
measures in trade between states, and use of economic 
planning and controls within national boundaries. In 
this period the official policies of foreign governments 
increasingly favored the cartel system as a form of sta- 
bilization, some countries even adopting compulsory car- 
telization statutes. In the international field likewise 
little attention was given to the strangling effects on 
international trade of private restrictive agreements. 

In deciding what course to pursue in its postwar for- 
eign economic policy, the United States was thus faced 
with the prevalence abroad of a restrictive philosophy 
extending throughout governmental planning and ap- 
proaches on the national and international levels and 
with regard to both governmental and business activi- 
ties. It became clear that this trend must be reversed if 
the nations which had been devastated by the war were 
to revive. It was natural that at first primary emphasis 
should be directed to international trade to develop the 
basis for an expanding international economy. In the 
cartel field, various proposals for multilateral coopera- 
tion on international cartel practices were advanced. 
However, none has yet proven practicable for generalized 
adoption. 

As a specialized aspect of this policy of expanding in- 
ternational trade, the United States became particularly 
interested in promoting trade liberalization within Eu- 



rope as a major force in European economic cooperation. 
The adverse effects of restrictive practices on this pro- 
gram were recognized in Europe as well as in the United 
States. The Organization for European Economic Coop- 
eration declared in 1950 that private restraints in Europe 
"may well restrict competition more than foreign trade 
controls and taritt's alone. . . . The risk is that, as offi- 
cial restrictions were removed, these restrictive practices 
created within the business world itself may tend to ex- 
pand in their stead." 

Our concern with this problem led to the inclusion in 
the bilateral ECA Agreements with the European gov- 
ernments of a commitment to take appropriate action 
with respect to restrictive practices international in scope 
which were found to interfere with the recovery effort. 

The problem of restrictive practices in tlie European 
Recovei-y Program was, however, not limited purely to 
the question of international trade. It was soon recog- 
nized that such practices on a national level were a major 
impediment to the expansion of European production and 
the achievement of higher living standards, both vitally 
necessary to economic recovery and popular resistance 
to the lure of communism. Arrangements of a restric- 
tive nature among business enterprises have been widely 
prevalent in many countries, particularly in Western 
Europe. These cartel activities, typically carried out 
through domestic trade associations, have as one of their 
principal purposes the fixing of prices throughout entire 
industries. Many also establish production quotas, re- 
ceive and allocate orders among enterprises, set up ex- 
clusive areas of sale, and control the entry of new firms. 
By removing much of the incentive for more efficient 
methods of production, they have been a significant fac- 
tor in Western Europe's lag in productivity behind both 
the United States and the U.S.S.R. They have tended 
to inhibit Europe's ability to compete in world markets 
and thus have contributed to balance of payments prob- 
lems. They have held down new investment and there- 
fore basic economic expansion. In connection with the 
mutual defense effort, it became apparent that a sub- 
stantially added cost could result from the operation of 
cartel arrangements. 

The Congress gave recognition to the importance of this 
problem in 1951 by the adoption of an amendment to 
the Mutual Security Act explicitly stating a policy of 
encouraging free enterprise and competitive activity in 
countries receiving United States aid. This policy has 
been reaffirmed in subsequent amendments of the Act. 
In its present form, known as the Thye Amendment, 
the amendment reads as follows : 

"The Congress recognizes the vital role of free enter- 
prise in achieving rising levels of production and stand- 
ards of living essential to the economic progress and 
defensive strength of the free world. Accordingly, it is 
declared to be the policy of the United States to en- 
courage the efforts of other free nations to increase the 
flow of international trade, to foster private initiative 
and competition, to discourage monopolistic practices, to 
improve the technical efficiency of their industry, agri- 
culture and commerce, and to strengthen free labor 
unions ; and to encourage the contribution of United 



i»\Y 75, 7957 



125 



states enterprise toward economic strength of other free 
nations, through private trade and investment abroad, 
private participation in the programs carried out under 
this Act (including the use of private trade channels to 
the maximum extent practicable in carrying out such 
programs), and exchange of ideas and technical infor- 
mation on the matters covered by this section." 

President Eisenhovper also gave attention to the sub- 
ject when he stated in his 1955 Economic Report to the 

Congress : 

"It is to the advantage of each nation to attend to the 
barriers that have caused international trade and invest- 
ment to lag behind the growth in production and in- 
comes. Our own interest clearly calls for a policy that 
will in time extend into the international field those 
])rinciples of competitive enterprise which have brought 
our people great prosperity with freedom."' 

Considerable Interest in and concern over this problem 
has also been expressed by United States business repre- 
sentatives. For example, Mr. Ernest Breech of the Ford 
Motor Company aptly described the situation as follows : 

"Some Europeans are still skeptical of many United 
States industrial policies that have led to greater pro- 
ductivity and hisher living standards in this country. 
The.v have an ingrained fear of competition and prefer 
to divide the existing market through cartels and other 
voluntary agreements, rather than through free 
competition for ever-expanding markets. 

"These and other similar attitudes are a challenge to 
the American businessman. They are, in a sense, psycho- 
logical roadblocks to the maximum expansion of free 
world economies. Anything we can do to persuade them 
to change will, in my opinion, be a major contribution 
to free-world strength." 

Implementation of Policy 

The measures which can be taken to implement our 
policy of discouraging restrictive business arrangements 
and encouraging competitive enterprise are subject to 
two important limitations. First, rapid and dramatic 
results cannot be expected in this field, because we are 
dealing with methods of doing business and a whole 
pattern of thinking that has become engrained over 
scores of years. The process of change can therefore 
only be gradual. Second, we cannot interfere in the 
internal affairs of other sovereign nations, and it would 
certainly defeat our aims to do so. We can only 
encourage and assist where this is desired. 

With these caveats in mind, the United States has 
been able to pursue the following activities : 

1) One of the basic requisites of progress in this field 
is the adoption of effective anti-cartel legislation in 
other countries. Accordingly, emijhasis has been placed 
on this objective. Foreign governments have been as- 
sisted in a variety of ways in the preparation or ad- 
ministration of anti-cartel legislation by enabling them to 
draw on United States antitrust experience where it can 
appropriately be applied to their own problems and 
needs. Of particular importance have been a number 



of missions from foreign governments brought to the 
United States to study in detail our antitrust laws and 
related statutes and their administration. These have 
included teams from the United Kingdom, France, the 
Federal Republic of Germany, and Belgium. 

2) Related to this but somewhat broader in scope, 
this Government has placed considerable emphasis in 
the programs for increased productivity on the necessity 
of encouraging comjietitive activity. These program.s 
have been centered on the training of employees and 
management in more efficient technical and business meth- 
ods. It became apparent that the benefits of this tech- 
nical training could not be maximized unless accompanied 
by increased competition. Accordingly, the productivity 
programs were planned with this factor in mind, and 
many foreign officials and businessmen have been brought 
to this country to observe the operation of our competitive 
system at first hand. The constitution of the Euroi)ean 
Productivity Agency, established several years ago to co- 
ordinate European national efforts in this field, reflects 
this emphasis. The EPA now has a continuing long- 
range program on the subject, adopted under United 
States stimulus, which includes regular meetings of Euro- 
pean government specialists on restrictive business prac- 
tices, the preparation of basic studies, and the exchange 
of ideas and experiences with American specialists. The 
cross-fertilization of ideas and experience thus taking 
place among government officials in Western Europe in a 
position to guide the policies of their governments on 
this subject is proving highly productive. 

3) The United States has adopted the policy of making 
Eximbnnk and other public loans in a manner to avoid 
strengthening international cartel arrangements or con- 
tributing to monopoly situations. 

4) In the program for offshore procurement of defense 
materials. United States procurement officers have been 
instructed to use channels of procurement which would 
reduce risk of prices being inflated, deliveries hamjiered, 
or production impeded by restrictive business practices. 
Competitive bidding is employed where circumstances per- 
mit. In one case alone, the refusal to accept a collusively 
fixed price resulted in a saving of four million dollars 
for the United States. In addition, our NATO allies 
have agreed to employ international competitive bidding 
on most projects lieing jointl.v financed by the members 
of NATO. 

5) We have included in our recent bilateral treaties 
of friendship, commerce and navigation a provision under 
which the two governments agree to consult with regard 
to restrictive business practices harmful to trade between 
them and to take such action as may be deemed appro- 
priate. There are currently treaties in force containing 
this provision with the Federal Repulilic of Germany, 
Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, and Japan. Five others 
have been negotiated. 

6) The Government has, wherever possible, assiste<l 
American business concerns to overcome foreign cartel 
restraints on their activities. In some cases, this as- 
sistance has taken the form of diplomatic representations, 
in others more informal action ; in either case it is de- 
signed to remove discriminations by private cartels and 



126 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



business associations. Such discriminations may in- 
volve, for example, denying an American firm tlie right 
to invest or do business in a foreign country, cutting off 
its supply of raw materials, or attempting to force it into 
arrangements for price fixing or divisions of markets. 
In a few cases more direct assistance has proven prac- 
tical. For example, an American firm was encouraged to 
develop a source of industrial diamonds free of control 
of the diamond cartel and was given financial assistance 
under the program for acquisition of strategic materials. 

Proffi-css 1o Date 

As noted above, before the war, governments often sup- 
ported and encourageil cartels and little action was taken 
against them. Now there is a significant body of foreign 
legislation pointing in the direction of free competitive 
enterprise and a considerably wider body of vocal public 
opinion is in support of this course. The.se changes are 
truly significant when viewed in light of the fact that 
progress in this field must of necessity consist of gradual 
change. 

There is no concrete way of assessing the degree (o 
which United States policy and programs have influ- 
enced these developments. It is safe to say, however, that 
these activities plus the example of our own vigorous 
antitrust policy have been significant factors. 

Laws to regulate restrictive practices of varying ef- 
fectiveness are now in force in a growing number of 
foreign countries. In Western Europe alone. Austria, 
Fi-ance, the Netherlands, the Scandinavian countries, 
and the United Kingdom have already adopted laws. 
The present United Kingdom statute, adopted this past 
year, promises to be one of the most effective yet en- 
acted. The Federal Republic of Germany is actively 
working on an anti-cartel law of its own to replace the 
Allied occupation statutes in this field. 

The movement toward Western European integration 
has likewise produced significant developments in the 
anti-cartel field. In marked contrast to the operations 
of the prewar international steel cartel, the Treaty es- 
tablishing the European Coal and Steel Community con- 
tains strong provisions forbidding private arrangements 
in restraint of competition in the Community and con- 
trolling the degree of economic concentration in the 
Community coal and steel industry. The recently nego- 
tiated Treaty for a European Common Market, which 
when ratified will embrace the same six countries as the 
Coal and Steel Community, contains provisions to pro- 
hibit restrictive agreements among the member coim- 
tries. These were inserted in specific recognition of the 
fact that it would he useless to remove governmental 
barriers to trade, such as tariffs and quotas, and then 
permit private restrictive agreements to take their place. 
While it is too early to assess the effectiveness of these 
provisions, they are highly significant as the first at- 
tempt at multilateral cooperation to control cartel 
agreements. In addition, if successful, this internation- 
al activity will inevitably lead to the strengthening of 
national legislation in the area. 

Many evidences of Europe's determination to move in 
the direction of free competitive enterprise are con- 



tained in public statements of ke,v government officials. 
For example, German Economics Minister Erhard, in 
commenting on the remarkable economic recovery of 
Germany, asked his countrymen why they would want 
"to go back to regulations and restrictions," when "we 
have demonstrated what competition and free prices can 
do." 

The enhancement of the comjietitive system in West- 
ern Europe which is taking place is of direct significance 
and benefit to the United States. Not only will it aid 
American businessmen to operate more freely and effi- 
ciently in the areas, but the greater economic strength 
thus achieved will contribute to the security of the free 
world in general and to our own national security. 



ATTACK IVIENT B 

TEXT OF HIGH AUTHORITY AIDE-MEMOIRE ON 
SCRAP IMPORT PURCHASING ARRANGEMENTS 

June 18, 1957 

Arrangements AIade bt Enterprises of the European 
Coal and Steel Community for the Purchase of 
Ferrous Scrap in the United States. 

The High Authority of the European Coal and Steel 
Community desires to submit this Aide-Memoire in re- 
sponse to the request of the United States Mission to the 
High Authority for information with respect to the 
practices relating to ferrous scrap purchases on behalf 
of enterprises of the Community and the policy of the 
High Authority in this regard. 

The Community is an institution with sovereign 
powers, delegated to it by the six countries that estab- 
lished it by treaty, and separate from the coal and steel 
enterprises subject to its jurisdiction. The High Au- 
thority, as the executive branch of the Coal and Steel 
Community, has the responsibility for seeing that the 
Common Market for coal, steel and iron, created under 
the Treaty, operates free of restrictions and discrimina- 
tions and that competitive conditions are maintained 
within the Community. 

In carrying out this responsibility, the High Authority 
has taken note of the special situation created by the 
shortage of ferrous scrap. Prior to the establishment 
of the Common Market, each of the member countries of 
the Community maintained quota or other restrictions 
to deal with the problems created by this shortage. 
With the establishment of the Common Market those re- 
strictions were abolished. In order to prevent economic 
dislocations the High Authority approved a system 
whereby the additional cost of scrap imported from non- 
member countries is apportioned equitably among all 
users of scrap within the Community. It is contem- 
plated that this system will be needed so long as the 
acute scrap shortage continues. 

So as to provide the machinery through which this 
system could be operated, the High Authority in 1953 
authorized the enterprises of the Couununity that use 
scrap to create an independent association. This asso- 



Jufy 15, 1957 



127 



ciation, known as the O.C.C.F., acts as a common clear- 
ing house for the purchases of scrap from sources 
outside of the Community and serves as a mechanism 
for apportioning the additional cost of imported scrap 
among its member enterprises. 

The O.C.C.F. maintains an office in Brussels. It does 
not itself purchase scrap but locates potential sources 
and negotiates purchase agreements on behalf of mem- 
ber enterprises. In this way the O.C.C.F. assures that 
the claims made for compensation under the apportion- 
ment arrangements are not excessive. 

In addition to this function in relation to the ap- 
portionment arrangements, the O.C.C.F. has since its 
establishment served as a mechanism through which the 
High Authority has been able to limit scrap import 
from the United States, in compliance with voluntary 
limitations imposed by the High Authority after discus- 
sion with the U.S. Government. 

In authorizing the creation of O.C.C.F. the High Au- 
thority made the findings required by the provisions of 
Article 65 of the Treaty establishing the Coal and Steel 
Community. It found that the operations of the O.C.C.F. 
would contribute to a substantial improvement in the 
distribution of scrap : that the association was essential 
to achieve those results and was not more restrictive than 
necessary and that the O.C.C.F. was not capable of giving 
the member enterprises the power to determine prices, 
or to control or limit the introduction or selling of a sub- 
stantial part of scrap within the Community market, or 
of protecting those enterprises from effective competition 
by other enterprises within the Community market. 

Under the provisions of Article 65, the High Authority 
must revoke or modify its authorization of the agreement 
creating the O.C.C.F. if it should find that as a result of 
a change in circumstances the O.C.C.F. no longer fulfills 
the conditions found at the time of its establishment or 
that the actual results of its operations are contrary to 
those conditions. 

By a letter of May 4, 1955, Mr. Robert Eisenberg, the 
then Acting U.S. Representative to the High Authority, 
called the attention of the High Authority to the fact 
that certain exclusive scrap purchasing arrangements, 
which existed between the O.C.C.F. and a group of Ameri- 
can scrap dealers, might not be compatible with the ob- 
jectives of establishing and maintaining competitive 
conditions in the European Coal and Steel industry. 

Upon the receipt of this letter, the then President of the 
High Authority, M. Jean Monnet, communicated with Mr. 
F. A. Goergen, the then President of the O.C.C.F., in order 
to ascertain the facts and to take steps to correct any 
practice that might be contrary to the Community's pur- 
poses. After conversations between officials of the High 
Authority and of the O.C.C.F., the O.C.C.F. terminated 
all exclusive agreements then in effect for the purchase 
of scrap in the United States. Following this action, on 
November 10, 1955 the High Authority issued a press 
communique in which it announced : 

"In accordance with the position previously taken by 
the High Authority, it has been agreed that in the future 
the O.C.C.F. in importing from the United States will not 



enter into agreements containing exclusive provisions, 
nor relating to a fixed percentage of the Community's 
needs. 

"Consequently, the O.C.C.F. in the future will examine 
the offers of suppliers in third countries in accordance 
with customary commercial criteria, such as prices, 
quality, delivery terms, etc." 

During the year 1956 following the termination of its 
exclusive purchase arrangements, the O.C.C.F. purchased 
scrap in the United States through about a dozen scrap 
dealers. 

In spite of the elimination of these exclusive arrange- 
ments it has now come to the attention of the High 
Authorit.v, that in testimony before the Small Business 
Committee of the United States House of Representa- 
tives, certain United States scrap dealers have charged 
that the buying practices of the O.C.C.F. continue to dis- 
criminate against them in favour of the group of Ameri- 
can scrap dealers with whom the O.C.C.F. previously had 
exclusive arrangements. The High Authority is under- 
taking a thorough investigation to ascertain the facts as 
to the validity of these charges. Whether or not these 
charges prove to be well founded, however, the High Au- 
thority has decided that steps should be taken to avoid 
any possibility of misunderstanding, either in the United 
States or the Community, of the policies of the High Au- 
thority or of its determination to enforce those policies. 
It has, therefore, also undertaken to formulate detailed 
criteria and procedures to be followed by the O.C.C.F. in 
purchasing .scrap in the United States. These criteria 
and procedures will be designed to eliminate any discrim- 
inatory or restrictive practices or any practices in any 
other way contrary to the purposes of the Community. 

It is contemplated that the formulation of these criteria 
and procedures, together with control arrangements nec- 
essary to assure that they will be followed, will be com- 
pleted and adopted after consideration at the next meet- 
ing of the O.C.C.F. When adopted these arrangements 
will be made available to the State Department and en- 
forced by the High Authority. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 

MULTILATERAL 

Automotive Traffic 

Convention on road traffic, with annexes. Done at 
Geneva September 19, 1949. Entered into force March 
26, 1952. TIAS 2487. 
Ratification deposited: Egypt, May 28, 1957. 

Protocol providing for accession to the convention on 



128 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



road traffic by occupied countries or territories. Done 
at Geneva September 19, 1049. TIAS 2487. 
Ratiflcatim deposited: Egypt, May 28, 1957. 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries 

International convention for the Northwest Atlantic 
Fisheries. Dated at Washington February 8, 1949. 
Entered into force July 3, 1950. TIAS 2089. 
Adherence deposited: Federal Republic of Germany, 
June 27, 1957. 

Protocol amending the international convention for the 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries of February 8, 1949 

(TIAS 2089). Done at Washington June 25, 1956.' 

Adherence deposited: Federal Republic of Germany, 

June 27, 1957. 

Trade and Commerce 

International convention to facilitate the importation of 
commercial samples and advertising material. Done 
at Geneva November 7, 1952. Entered into force 
November 20, 1955.^ 
Accession deposited: Hungary, June 3, 1957. 

Agreement supplementar.v to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade, with tariff schedule and related 
exchanges of notes. Signed at Washington by the 
United States, Belgium, on behalf of the Belgo-Luxem- 
bourg Economic Union, and the Netherlands June 27, 
1957. Schedule applicable on and after June 29, 1957. 

Eighth protocol of supplementary concessions to the 
General Agreement on Tariff's and Trade ( Cuba and the 
United States). Done at Habana June 20, 1957. 
Entered into force June 29, 1957. 

Whaling 

Protocol amending the international whaling convention 
of 1946 (TIAS 1849). Done at Washington November 
19, 1956.' 
Ratification deposited: New Zealand, June 21, 1957. 



BILATERAL 

Bolivia 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of June 7, 1957 (TIAS 3841). Effected by ex- 
change of notes at La Paz June 17 and 21, 1957. 
Entered into force June 21, 1957. 

Burma 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of February 8, 19.56, as amended (TIAS 3498, 
3628, and 3707). Effected by exchange of notes at 
Rangoon June 14, 1957. Entered into force June 14, 

19.57. 

Canada 

Protocol to the convention for the protection, preservation 
and extension of the sockeye salmon fisheries in the 
Eraser River system of May 26, 1930 (50 Stat. 1355). 
Signed at Ottawa December 28, 1956.' 
Ratified by the President: June 18, 1957. 

Germany 

Research reactor agreement for cooperation concerning 
civil uses of atomic energy with the Federal Republic 
of Germany on behalf of Berlin. Signed at Washington 
June 28, 1957. Enters into force on date on which each 
Government receives from the other written notifi- 
cation that it has complied with statutory and 
constitutional requirements. 



' Not in force. 

' Not in force for the United States. 



Iran 

Treaty of amity, economic relations, and consular rights. 
Signed at Tehran August 15, 1955. Entered into force 
June 16, 1957. 
Proclaimed hy the President: June 27, 1957. 

Iraq 

Agreement concerning a special program of facilities 
assistance. Effected by exchange of notes at Baghdad 
June 16, 1957. Entered into force June 16, 1957. 

Mexico 

Agreement concerning the joint interpretation of article 7 
of the Migrant Labor Agreement of August 11, 1951 
(TIAS 2.331), as amended and extended. Effected by 
exchange of notes at Washington June 17, 1957. 
Entered into force June 17, 1957. 

Philippines 

Agreement supplementing and amending the agreement of 
April 27, 195.5, as amended (TIAS 3231, 3551), by 
providing additional financial assistance for certain 
military construction. Effected by exchange of notes 
at Manila June 14, 19.57. Entered into force June 14, 
19.57. 

United Kingdom 

Agreement supplementary to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade. Done at Washington June 27, 
1957. Entered into force June 27, 1957. 



Support Costs Agreement 
With German Federal Republic 

Press release 354 dated June 11 

The texts of the notes exchanged on June 7 at 
Bonn l)y the United States and the Federal Re- 
public of Germany concerviing the payment by 
the Federal Republic of DM 326 million {$77 
million) toward the maintenance of United States 
troops in Germany are as follows. 

First German Note 

June 7, 1957 
Excellency: In the course of the discussions 
which have taken place between representatives 
of our two Governments concerning the question 
of mutual aid in the spirit of Article 3 of the 
North Atlantic Treaty, the Government of the 
Federal Kepublic has examined the measui'es 
which it might take in pursuance of the aims of 
Article 3 in addition to its own defense efforts 
which are progressively developing. In tlie pres- 
ent circumstances of the two countries, the Fed- 
eral Government has declared its willingness to 
make, without prejudice to the future, a volun- 
tary contribution to the defense efforts of the 
United States and has the honor to propose to the 
Government of the United States the following 
agreement. 



iuly 75, 7957 



129 



1. The Federal Government will make a volmi- 
tary contribution of DM 325 million to the addi- 
tional costs resulting to the United States from 
the maintenance of United States troops in the 
Federal Republic. 

2. The above-mentioned sum will be made 
available to the Government of the United States 
in the form of an account with the Bank Deut- 
scher Laender on the day of coming into force of 
this agreement for use within the Deutschemark 
(West) currency area. 

3. Should this agreement not have entered into 
force by June 1, 1957, the Federal Government 
will at the request of the Govermnent of the 
United States and subject to the approval of the 
competent committees of the German Bundestag 
make an advance payment up to an amount of 
DM 175 million against the sum mentioned in 
paragraph 1 into the previously referred to ac- 
count. 

4. On the German side this agreement requires 
the approval of the legislative bodies. The agree- 
ment shall enter into force on the day on which 
the Federal Government notifies the Government 
of the United States that their approval as 
constitutionally required has been given. 

5. I have the honor to propose that if the 
Government of the United States declares its ac- 
ceptance of the proposal contained in paragraphs 
1 to 5 above, this note together with your reply 
shall constitute an agreement between the two 
Governments. 

U.S. Reply to German Note 

June 7, 1957 
Excellency : I have the honor to refer to your 
note of this date reading as follows : 

[At this point tlie U.S. note repeats the German note 
as given above.] 

The United States Government appreciates the 
spirit motivating the offer of the Federal Re- 
public contained in your note. Tlie United States 
Government accepts the amount mentioned in the 
above text as a contribution to the maintenance of 
United States forces in tlie Federal Republic. At 
the same time, the United States Government 
feels constrained to point out that the sum offered 
will cover only a fraction of the costs in 
Deutschemarks required for the maintenance of 
United States forces in the Federal Republic as- 
signed to NATO and an even smaller proportion 



of the total costs to the United States of the main- 
tenance of these forces. In agreeing to the pro- 
posal of the Federal Republic, the Government of 
the United States, therefore, reserves the riglit to 
raise with the Federal Republic the question of 
additional aid for these forces. It proposes that 
the agreement should be subject to review by the 
two governments during the last quarter of this 
year if the Government of the United States so 
requests. I should appreciate Your Excellency's 
confirmation that this proposal is acceptable to 
your Government. 

Second German Note 

June 7, 1957 

Excellency : I have the honor to refer to your 
note of today which acknowledges the German 
note of Jmae 7, 1957 and then contmues: 

[At this point the German note repeats the last paragraph 
of the U.S. note as given above.] 

The Federal Government interprets Article 3 
of the North Atlantic Treaty tlius, that the pos- 
sibility is given every treaty partner to take up 
at any time with another treaty partner a dis- 
cussion as to whetlier and if so to what extent 
assistance within the meaning of this article 
should be considered. It is, therefore, ready 
for a discvission concerning this matter if the 
Government of the United States so requests. 
Any eventual arrangement which might follow 
the examination of the aforementioned question 
on the basis of the then-existing situation would 
again require the aj^proval of the German 
Bundestag. 



DEPARTiVIENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Confirmations 

The Senate on June 26 (legislative day, June 24), 1957, 
confirmed the following : 

Jacob D. Beam to be Ambassador to Poland. (For 
biographic details, see press release 309 dated June 17.) 

Val Peterson to be Ambassador to Denmark. (For 
biographic details, see press release 36.5 dated June 
14.) 



130 



Department of State Bulletin 



Jiilv 15, 1957 



Ind 



e X 



Vol. XXXVII, No. 942 



Arab States. Opening of Islamic Center (Elsenhower) . 102 
China, Communist. Our Policies Toward Communism in 

CUina (Dulles) 91 

Congress, The. Problems Relating to Export of Iron and 

Steel Scrap (Kalijarvi) 120 

Department and Foreigm Service. Confirmations (Beam, 

Peterson) 130 

Denmark. Confirmations (Peterson) IHO 

Disarmament. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 

.lime 2,-. 96 

Economic Affairs 

Appointment to International North Pacific Fisheries 

Commission 119 

Deputy U.S. Commissioner General Named for Brussels 

Exhibition 119 

Our -Mutual Security Programs (Dillon) 114 

Problems Relating to Export of Iron and Steel Scrap 

(Kalijarvi) 120 

Shiiipers Notified of Procedures for Passage Into Gulf 

of Aqaba 112 

Egypt. Shippers Notified of Procedures for Passage Into 

Gulf of Aqaba 112 

Europe. Problems Relating to Export of Iron and Steel 

Scrap (Kalijarvi) 120 

Germany. Support Costs Agreement With German Federal 129 

Republic (texts of notes) 129 

Ghana 

Exchange of Communications With Prime Minister of 

Ghana (Eisenhower, Nkrumah) Ill 

Immigration Quota for Ghana ( text of proclamation) . . Ill 
Technical Cooperation Agreement Signed With Ghana . . Ill 
Hungary. The Citizen's Responsibilities in International 

Affairs (Wilcox) 103 

Immigration and Naturalization. Immigration Quota for 

Ghana (text of proclamation)! Ill 

International Information 

Deiiuty U.S. Commissioner General Named for Brussels 

Exhibition 119 

United States Proposes Exchanging Radio-TV Broadcasts 

With U.S.S.R. (text of U.S. aide memolre) .... 119 
International Organizations and Conferences. Appointment 

to International North Pacific Fisheries Commission . 119 
Japan 
Problems Relating to Export of Iron and Steel Scrap 

(Kalijarvi) 120 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of June 25 ... . 96 

Middle East 

The Citizen's Responsibilities in International Affairs 

(Wilcox) 103 

Shippers Notified of Procedures for Passage Into Gulf 

of Aqaba 112 

Military Affairs 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of June 25 ... . 9(.l 

Support Costs Agreement With German E"ederal Republic 

(texts of notes) 129 

Mutual Security 

The Citizen's Responsibilities in International Affairs 

(Wilcox) 103 

Our Mutual Security Programs (Dillon) 114 

Technical Cooperation Agreement Signed With Ghana . Ill 

Poland. Confirmations (Beam) 130 

Presidential Documents 

Exchange of Communications With Prime Minister of 

Ghana Ill 

Immigration Quota for Ghana Ill 

Opening of Islamic Center 102 

United Nations Day, 1957 110 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 128 



Support Costs Agreement With German Federal Republic 

(texts of notes) 129 

United Nations 

The Citizen's Responsibilities in International Affairs 

(Wilcox) 103 

United Nations Day, 1957 (text of proclamation) . . . 110 

U.S.S.R. 

Our Policies Toward Communism in China (Dulles) . . 91 
Soviet Note on Diplomatic Travel Ignores U.S. Offer for 

Relaxation (text of note) 118 

United States Proposes Exchanging Radlo-T"V Broadcasts 

With U.S.S.R. (text of U.S. aide memolre) .... 119 

Name Index 

Beam, Jacob D 130 

Dillon, Douglas 114 

Dulles, Secretary 91,96 

Eisenhower, President 102, 110, 111 

Howard, Katherine G 119 

Kalijarvi, Thorsten V 120 

Lefller, Ross L 119 

Nkrumah, Kwame Ill 

Peterson, Val 130 

Wilcox, Francis O 103 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 24-30 

Relea.ses may be obtainetl from the News Divi- 
sion, Department of State, Wa.sliin.?ton 25, D. C. 

Press releases issued prior to June 2i which ap- 
pear In this issue of the Bulletin are Xos. 354 of 
June 11, 381 of June 21, and 382 of June 22. 

Subject 

Chapin nominated Amba.ssador to Lux- 
embourg (biograpliie details). 

Exchange of radio-TV broadcasts with 
U.S.S.R. 

Dillon : "Our Mutual Security Pro- 
grams." 

Mrs. Howard sworn in (biographic 
details). 

Jacoby nominate<l U.S. representative 
on ECOSCDC (biographic details). 

Dulles : news conference. 

Surplus agricultural commodity agree- 
ment with Philippines. 

Burgess nominated U.S. representative 
on NATO Council (biographic de- 
tails ) . 

Gluck nominated Ambassador to Cey- 
lon (biographic details). 

Wilcox : "The Citizen's Responsibili- 
ties in International Affairs." 

Dulles : "Our Policies Toward Com- 
munism in China." 

Trade agreen)euts with Belgium, Neth- 
erlands, and U.K. 

Asian Regional Nuclear Center. 

Atoms-for-peace agreement with Ger- 
many. 

Foreign Relations volume. 

Herter : Princeton U. conference on 
NATO. 

Military assistance to Jordan. 

*Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 
*383 


Date 

6/24 


38-t 


6/24 


385 


6/24 


*386 


6/25 


*387 


6/25 


388 
t3S9 


6/25 
6/25 



*390 6/26 



*.391 


6/26 


392 


6/27 


393 


6/28 


t394 


6/27 


t395 
t396 


6/27 
6/28 


t397 
t398 


6/28 
6/28 


t399 


6/29 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I9S7 




he 



United States 
Government Printing Office 

DIVISION OF PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

Washington 25, D. C. 



PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE TO AVOID 

PAYMENT OF POSTAGE, $300 

(GPO) 



OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



A new release in the popular BACKGROUND series 



CEYLON — 1957 



Department 

of 
State 



Order Form 



Ceylon, a pear-shaped tropical island off the southeastern tip ot 
India, has been a connecting link in East- West trade as long as ships 
have plied the Indian Ocean. Colombo, located on the west coast, 
is the capital, largest city, and chief port. Since World War II it 
has become an international meeting ground for Asian countries and 
has given its name to the Commonwealth program known as the 
Colombo Plan. 

The year 1956 marked the inauguration of a program of American 
economic development assistance to Ceylon and with it a strengthening 
of the always friendly ties between the two nations. 

Ceylon — 1957 describes this important nation which attained full 
dominion status in 1948. The most recent in the series of Background 
publications, this 16-page pamplilet is illustrated with photographs 
and maps. Topics included in the discussion are : 

The Land 

The People 

Political Ceylon 

Organization of the Government 

The Economy 

The United States and Ceylon 

Copies of this publication may be purchased from the Superin- 
tendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D.C., at 15 cents each. 



Publication 6474 



15 cents 



To: Supt. of Documents 
Govt. Printing Office 
Washington 25, D.C. Please send me copies of Ceylon— 1957. 

Name: 

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{cash, check, or City, Zone, and State: 

money order). j 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



Jt^ 



I3O /A^o 





HE 

IFFICiAL 
VEEKLY RECORD 
JF 
JNITEO STATES 

OREIGN POLICY 



Vol. XXXVII, No. 943 



July 22, 1957 



THE DURABILITY OF THE ATLANTIC COMMUNITY 

• by Under Secretary Uerter 135 

SECRETARY DULLES' NEWS CONFERENCE OF 

JULY 2 139 

SUPPLEMENTAL TRADE AGREEMENT WITH CUBA 

• White House and Department Announcements and Texts 

of Agreement and Proclamation 15 • 

EVALUATION OF REPORT ON WORLD SOCIAL 

SITUATION • Statement by Althea K. Hotlel 166 

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN REPORTING 
WEATHER OBSERVATIONS FROM THE HIGH 

SEAS • Article by W. F. McDonald 164 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XXXVri, No. 943 • Publication 6522 
July 22, 1957 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Phice: 

52 Issues, domestic $7.50, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 19, 1955). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bdlletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



_he Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and otlier 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and internatioruil agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



The Durability of the Atlantic Community 



hy Under Secretary Herter ' 



I was asked to speak to you here this morning 
on a question for which in reality you have to pro- 
vide the answers. If anyone in the countries of 
the Atlantic Community wants to explore the 
durability of the Community, his questions should 
be directed to you, for the answers must neces- 
sarily be the result of your studies. They must 
be the synthesis of all the factors which you have 
considered here these past 2 weeks: the political 
structure, the economic cooperation, the military 
strategy, and the social and cultural interrelation- 
ship. 

It remains for me, therefore, to try to point out 
how the United States sees these factors and their 
relationship to each other, to point to the weak- 
nesses as well as tlie strengths of this Community, 
and to portray to you the guideposts which as a 
result of these strengths and weaknesses are used 
in the formulation of U.S. policy. I trust that 
our view of these factors will not be tod different 
from those which have already entered your de- 
liberation so that our conclusions may be based 
substantially on the same assumptions. 

The M-Factor 

To begin this examination of the durability of 
the Atlantic Community, I should like to borrow 
a device developed by scientists and exploited by 
advertising men: I will try to demonstrate the 
strength of the M-f actor. "M" stands for mutu- 
ality of interest, for the things we have in common, 
for those facts in the lives of our nations that 
make us a community. 

Wliat makes up this M-f actor ? There is, first 

^Address made before the Princeton University con- 
ference on NATO at Princeton, N. J., on June 29 (press 
release 398 dated June 28). 

Jo/y 22, ?957 



of all, the common cultural heritage that under- 
lies all our nations. We have grown out of the 
Greco-Eoman culture. We have adopted the be- 
lief in certain basic moral principles embodied 
in our Holy Scriptures — be they Christian, Jew- 
ish, or Islamic — and these principles have con- 
tinued through the decline and fall of empires, 
through the Dark Ages, the Renaissance, the Re- 
formation, the Industrial Revolution, and even in 
face of the advent of "modern thought." They 
bind lis more than any other fact because they 
are based on one basic belief: the dignity of the 
individual. In this belief all other areas of 
mutuality are rooted. 

In the second place, we have developed es- 
sentially similar economic systems. The methods 
are, of course, not identical. But each system is 
designed to insure the welfare of the individual 
and not the aggrandizement of the state and to 
assure that the individual shall have a just share 
of the product of his labors. 

Tliird, our system of education, our methods of 
social care for our citizens, our appreciation of 
the value of the hours of leisure, all stem from 
this basic recognition of the dignity of the 
individual — the M-f actor of the Atlantic Com- 
munity. 

Let me say here parenthetically that there are 
many other countries, not part of the community 
of which we now speak, which recognize the same 
values. I do not exclude them in any way. They 
merely lack one attribute that excludes them from 
this discussion: their geographic location. Nor 
do I wish to exclude the peoples of Eastern 
Europe. Truly they are very closely akin, too, 
with the same traditions and aspirations as any 
of us. But the governments imposed on them 
currently deny those traditions and, more im- 



135 



portantly, deny to the people these very rights of 
individual dignity. 

Against these traditions of our Community 
there stand the forces that seek to imdermine and 
destroy it: the forces of the totalitarian state as 
embodied in the threat of the Soviet Union. This 
threat, as I need not remind you, is twofold : the 
threat of an ideology, Leninism-Stalinism (and, if 
you like, Khrushchevism) , which rejects the rights 
of the individual and substitutes the allegedly 
higher interest of the all-powerful state, and, 
secondly, the threat of a regime with imperialistic 
ambitions seeking to dominate the world. This 
combination makes the current threat to our Com- 
munity all the more sobering, for it would sub- 
vert the foundations on wliich our society rests. 
Under such alien rule our basic political system, 
based on the rule of law, would disappear. Our 
economic system would no longer benefit the in- 
dividual. Our system of education would no 
longer be able to bring to liglit the maximum 
capabilities of our young people but would be de- 
signed solely to assure that the needs of the 
state are met. Surely, in the long run, our cul- 
ture itself would disappear. 

Unity of Purpose 

Is it any wonder then that, in the face of so 
massive a threat, we have sought tliat method of 
meeting it which peoples have used since time im- 
memorial: unity? The unity which has grown 
among the peoples of the Atlantic Community 
since 1945 far surpasses any previously estab- 
lished. You have studied the institutional mani- 
festations of that unity: the Western European 
Union, the Organization for European Economic 
Cooperation, the Coal and Steel Community, the 
agreement for a European Atomic Community, a 
Common Market and the proposed free trade area, 
as well as the one institution tliat stretches across 
the Atlantic, NATO. You are familiar with 
their origins, their aims, their methods, their 
achievements and shortcomings. 

Some institutions are more successful than 
others. But I believe that the underlying de- 
cision for unity, spurred by the threat of a loss 
of all we hold sacred, is greater than these in- 
stitutions and organizations. If there had been 
no WEU, no OEEC, or no NATO, there would 
have been other groupings seeking to acliieve the 
same goal. Surely NATO, when it was created. 



136 



was no deus ex machina to save us from all our 
troubles; it was the result of the deliberations of 
a group of farsiglited leaders who met to give 
expression to the unity of purpose which all of 
us felt at that time. The authors of tlie recently 
issued report of the Committee of Three on Non- 
Military Co-operation ^ gave clear expression to 
tliis when they wrote : 

There was a feeling among the governments and peo- 
ples concerned, that this closer unity was both natural 
and desirable; that the common cultural traditions, free 
institutions and democratic concepts which were being 
challenged, and were marked for destruction by those 
who challenged them, were things which should also 
bring the NATO nations closer together, not only for 
their defence but for their development. There was, in 
short, a sense of Atlantic Community, alongside the real- 
isation of an immediate common danger. 

This is the thought whicli I hope will be the 
surest basis of your report: that the question of 
the desirability of a durable Atlantic Community 
no longer needs to be answered; it is already an 
incontrovertible fact of life among us. Some of 
you may criticize one or another of the institu- 
tions which have resulted — NATO is no more im- 
mune to that than any of the others — but no po- 
litical sentiment other than the Communist has 
in the postwar period challenged the unity of 
purpose underlying the Atlantic Community it- 
self. 

If this is the case, must we not ask ourselves 
if the Community will continue to have this 
strength? Wliat of this question of durability? 

To my mind, this question can only be an- 
swered by an examination of the forces which 
might destroy the unity we have already achieved. 
At the outset we should clearly recognize that the 
principal danger to this unity would be the fail- 
ure to appreciate that there exists a community 
interest that transcends the individual interests 
of its members. 

Specifically, however, it seems to me tliat tliere 
are essentially tliree factors which might weaken 
the Community : first, differences in the appraisal 
of the threat which faces us; secondly, differences 
in the steps needed to cope with that threat; and 
thirdly, differences in policy on problems in other 
areas of such magnitude as to affect our ability 
to work together. 

There is now no difference among the NATO 
nations as regards the basic reality of the threat 



' Bulletin of Jan. 7, 1957, p. 18. 

Department of State Bulletin 



■which faces us. Not all of the NATO partners 
have been in entire agreement as to the nature 
and immediacy of the threat. For a while, last 
spring and summer, the Soviet facade of smiles 
seemed to some to be the expression of a true 
cliange of heart. Some of us nearly let our 
wishes, rather than our experience, guide us. But 
the Soviet rulers themselves decided to show us 
their true face : The ruthless murder of thousands 
of Himgarians brought us back to reality. 

If, then, we know the danger, we must seek to 
make certain that we have found a mutually 
agreed method of dealing with it. 

NATO's Sword and Shield 

Our military strategists, guided by our civilian 
representatives, have developed our first line of 
defense: a collective security system based on 
NATO's sword and shield. I call the latter two 
our first line of defense because they are as in- 
separable as two sides of a coin. Because we 
believe that man must be productive beyond his 
service in the armed forces, tlie democratic na- 
tions of the Atlantic Community cannot raise a 
force in peacetime of sufficient size to meet the 
Red Army's 175 divisions, man for man. We have 
therefore found it necessary to rely, in part, on the 
possession of atomic capabilities in our NATO 
strategy. The primary purpose of this strategy 
is deterrence. Our forces in Eui'ope — the shield — 
are part of this deterrent and also are an earnest 
of our intent to stand and protect NATO terri- 
tory in event of attack. In addition, they would 
enable our nuclear power to become operative in 
time. The strategic air force — the sword — repre- 
sents the main aspect of the deterrent. In the 
event of attack, it would also enable us to retaliate 
effectively against the sources of enemy military 
power. As clear as this policy is, it is a policy 
that has brought great hardships to many of us. 
It requires of this country not only a budget suffi- 
ciently large to maintain and perfect the air arm 
but one which can also support our present five 
divisions in Europe, naval forces strong enough 
to protect the connecting sea lanes, and additional 
military aid to our allies. 

It requires others to make equal budgetary sac- 
rifices. Recently the United Kingdom announced 
that it felt the necessity to reduce some of its 
troops on the Continent. We were concerned by 
this decision but heartened by the agreement of 



Her Majesty's Government to phase this with- 
drawal over a period long enough to give Ger- 
many additional time to build up her forces. 
That buildup, while long in getting under way, 
is now moving forward, and we hope that the 
German Govermnent will be able to reach the 
goals it has set, both in time and strength. 

This military strategy requires some NATO 
soldiers to serve on foreign soil, far from their 
families and friends. It requires civilian popu- 
lations to deal patiently and understandingly with 
the problems which the garrisoning of foreign 
troops inevitably provokes. It requires the avail- 
ability of the most modern weapons to those 
troops for use in protecting those civilians. It 
requires that fertile farms be turned into air 
fields, mountain tops into radar stations, and civil- 
ians into soldiers, sailors, and airmen. Yet, con- 
sidering the threat, is the price too dear? Can 
we shortchange our security, our freedom, our- 
selves? I say that in our doubts over tlie meth- 
ods of meeting the threat, in our hesitancy over 
the need to make one further sacrifice, we must 
not lose sight of the reasons for this policy or of 
the danger we face. 

The other danger to our unity comes from di- 
vergence of basic policies. No matter how clearly 
we see the threat to our own future, our coliesive- 
ness could be sorely impaired unless there is 
mutual understanding on such problems as dis- 
armament, the future of the underdeveloped 
world, and the more distant goals of our society. 
In keeping with the report of the Committee of 
Three, which I quoted earlier, we must recognize 
that the influence and interest of the NATO mem- 
bers are not confined to tlie area covered by the 
treaty. We therefore acknowledge the need for 
consultation among the members regarding poli- 
cies in other areas. 

Last fall, the crisis in the Middle East badly 
disturbed the unity of the Western World. In 
spite of the differences which arose, there was 
never any danger that the Atlantic Community 
woidd not continue. Since the Suez crisis, we 
have gone a long way toward repairing the unity 
of the alliance, and there is a greater measure of 
agreement on policies for furthering the political 
and economic interests and the security of the 
area. As you know, we are currently engaged in 
an effort to develop with continuing consultation 
a policy of disannament which we hope might 



iM\y 22, 1957 



137 



bring us at least some small step closer to the end 
of the arms race in which we are engaged. These 
are examples of tlie type of action, labeled "politi- 
cal consultation" by the NATO Wise Men, which 
are designed to bring about greater strength in 
the Community by permitting all the members to 
participate in the development of all major poli- 
cies. By these means, the danger of disunity can 
be considerably reduced; it would be foolish to 
assume that among free nations differences of 
approach can ever be completely eliminated. 

I believe that it has now become quite clear that 
the concept of the Atlantic Community will be 
able to withstand the removal of the direct threat 
or any other changes in policy. It has become 
part of the basic strength of the free world which 
is necessary not only to meet an imminent danger 
but also as a force in changing the future relation- 
ship between nations. 

The Future of the Community 

Having examined the common characteristics of 
the Community, the threats from outside which 
have caused its members to draw closer together, 
and the stresses within it which might impair its 
unity were it not for the active efforts of its mem- 
bers to hold it together, it remains for me to dis- 
cuss with you the policy of my Government 
with respect to the future of the Community. 

Let me first of all remind you that this coun- 
try's ties to Europe are such that Europe natur- 
ally occupies a predominant place in the minds 
and hearts of most Americans. We speak a Euro- 
pean tongue. The majority of our peoples had 
their ancestral homes there. Most of our trade, 
most of our foreign travel, is with the European 
countries of the Atlantic Community. Add to 
this the fact that the American people have elected 
and reelected a President whose reputation was 
directly linked with a European alliance and 
whose personal feeling on the need to maintain 
this alliance is exceedingly strong. In his second 
inaugural address,^ President Eisenhower stated 

'Ibid., Feb. 11, 19.57, p. 211. 



his views on the interdependence of nations as 
follows : 

No people can live to Itself alone. The unity of all who 
dwell in freedom is their only sure defense. The economic 
need of all nations, in mutual dependence, makes isola- 
tion an impossibility ; not even America's prosperity 
could long survive if other nations did not also prosper. 
No nation can longer be a fortress, lone and strong and 
safe. And any people seeking such shelter for them- 
selves can now build only their prison. 

It is this policy which guides our relationship 
with Europe today. 

In spite of all of this it must be recognized 
that this country has responsibilities, embodied in 
solemn treaty obligations, on a worldwide scale. 
We have collective security arrangements with 42 
nations, and we shall honor our obligations with 
the non-European nations, should this ever be- 
come necessary, as quickly and thoroughly as we 
would honor those with Europe. There can be no 
first-class and second-class alliances any more than 
the freedom of an individual in Korea could be 
considered to be worth less than that of an in- 
dividual in France or Germany. 

We are determined, then, to seek ways and 
means, together with our allies, of safeguarding 
the basic M-f actor: the dignity and freedom of 
the individual. We recognize the magnitude of 
the task, tlie great responsibilities that fall on us 
because we have suddenly been thrust into a posi- 
tion of world leadership. Americans did not seek 
and do not relish that role. We are determined 
not to carry it alone. All the nations of the At- 
lantic Community, where democracy was born and 
where it has flourished, must continue to exercise 
initiative and to cooperate closely in the common 
interest as they have in the past if NATO is to 
live and thrive. 

I would like to close on a note of faith ; the du- 
rability of the NATO concept has already sur- 
vived grave tests in which apathy and cost and a 
false senFC of security have all figured. In sur- 
viving, it has gained new vitality. I believe that 
this great partnership of free men will continue 
to grow in depth and in strength. 



138 



Department of State Bulletin 



Secretary Dulles' News Conference of July 2 



Press release 405 dated July 2 

Secretary Dulles: I am ready for questions. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., in your San Francisco speech 
on the China policy^ if I read it correctly, your 
position seemed to he hased on the premise which 
you stated in these words, '■'•International com- 
munisni's r^ile of strict conformity is, in China as 
elsewhere, a passing and not a perpetual phase.''"' 
Can you spell out a little hit what you mean hy 
that? Do you mean communism itself in Chirm 
is a passing phase, or this type of communism? 

A. I meant primarily the type of communism 
that is now reflected by what we call international 
communism. I do not think that it is by any 
means safe to predict that in every countiy in the 
world there may not be some form of socialism, 
because Communist regimes practice what they 
call socialism, really. They do not claim in Rus- 
sia to practice communism; they practice social- 
ism. They say the time for commimism has not 
arrived yet as a practicing doctrine. One cannot 
predict for all the world that there may not be 
different forms of socialism. But I do believe that 
the type of rule which is reflected by the doctrine 
of strict conformity and the elimination of any 
difference of opinion — and that does not neces- 
sarily go with socialism or communism and it may 
go with a type of Fascist dictatorship equally — I 
do not believe that that kind of govermnent or 
regime will anywhere prevail in the long run. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is it your helief, then, that 
the Peiping regime acts in strict conformity with 
Moscow today? 

A. When I talk about strict conformity, I am 
talking about a regime which requires strict con- 
formity on the part of those who are subject to it. 

Q. You are talking of political rather than eco- 
nomic terms — internally? 

' BtJLi.ETiN of July 15, 1957, p. 91. 



A. I am talking about a regime which tries to 
control the thoughts and the beliefs of people so 
as to make them into a single pattern. I do not 
think that is practical, given, as I said, the nature 
of human beings. 

Q. Well, do you, feel, sir, that Mao Tse-tung''s 
speech, or other information that has been com- 
i7ig out of China lately, indicates some change, or 
signs of changes, in this respect? 

A. I think I said last week ^ that one could not 
yet judge whether Mao Tse-tung's speech about the 
hundred flowers was something which represented 
a beginning of liberalism or was a method of en- 
trapment. Since then it is, I think, quite ap- 
parent that it was a method of entrapment. An 
article in the Peiping People's Daily, I think it is, 
that I was told about this morning — I put it in 
my pocket here — said, "Only by letting the poison- 
ous weeds" — they are now called poisonous weeds 
and not flowers (Laughter) — "Only by letting the 
poisonous weeds show themselves above ground 
can they be uprooted. The reactionary class ene- 
mies have enmeshed themselves in the trap that 
was spread for them." 

Q. Mr. Secretary, to go hach to this, in relation 
to your speech, is it correct to assume, then, that 
your position, the Govemmenfs position, will re- 
main unchanged until there is some liheralisation, 
if that comes, politically within China, and that 
you do not exclude the possibility of that coming 
under what is called the Communist regime, al- 
though you do not now see that? 

A. Our Government's dealing with other gov- 
ernments depends primarily upon their conduct 
in the realm of foreign affairs. Wliile we have 
our own beliefs and our own faiths with respect 
to the treatment of human beings, the natui-e of 
human beings and their right to freedom of speech 



' Ibid., July 15, 1957, p. 101. 



July 22, J 957 



139 



and expression, and so forth, we do not primarily 
base our foreign relations upon that but rather 
upon how these nations conduct themselves in the 
sphere of foreign affairs. I would say that, if 
any regime conducts itself respectably in the field 
of foreign affairs, then our attitude would be re- 
sponsive to that. It would be without regard, 
necessarily, to their own domestic policies. So 
long as their domestic policies are wholly do- 
mestic, we do not take them into account in de- 
ciding how we deal with them in the realm of in- 
ternational affairs. 

Q. Well, Mr. Secretary, your s-pcech on Friday 
and your expansion on it this Tnoming invite pos- 
sibly another inference, and I wonder if you would 
clari^fy it. What you might call the classic Ameri- 
can posture toward communism, both from the 
standpoint of our Government policy and our pub- 
lic thinMng, is that it has been one international 
conspiracy, that it is alxoays part of a whole, op- 
erated from Moscow, and that this was the begin- 
ning and the end of communism. Are you saying 
by what you said in the speech, and particularly 
by your last ansiter, that that is no longer likely, 
that it isnH a global conspiracy but it is becoming 
little constellations of communism and socialism 
in various countries? 

A. No, I didn't intend to infer that. Wliat I 
did mean to infer was that it is possible to have^ 
for example, in Yugoslavia — a government which 
is commimistic but which is not, in our judgment, 
part and parcel of what we call the international 
Communist conspiracy. As far as we can judge, 
the nations which are within the Sino-Soviet bloc 
are all dominated by what can fairly be called in- 
ternational communism, a single group which pro- 
vides a guiding force. Now one does seem to 
detect at times differences between the Chinese 
ideology and the Soviet ideology, and President 
Tito indicated he thought there was a difference 
and that the Chinese ideology was tending more 
to a nationalistic form. However, I would not 
think that our estimate conformed to President 
Tito's in that respect. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could you tell us why you 
chose this particular time and that particular 
forum for so extensive a discussion of the China 
issue? 

A. There has been no formal presentation of 
the administration's viewpoint on that subject for 



several years, and the President and I thought it 
was appropriate that there should be such a state- 
ment, because there seemed to be in some quarters 
the implication that silence on the subject in- 
dicated that our basic views were changing, which 
was not, in fact, the case. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you find that our allies 
accept the American point of view relative to 
China without a single quibble? 

A. Without quibble? 

Q. Yes. Do they accept it as the United States 
presents it? 

A. Some of our allies agree with it and some of 
them don't. 

Q. To what degree can dlsagreetnent on the part 
of our allies be negatory of our own policies? 

A. Well, it can obviously mean that our policy 
is not as effective as though everybody were in 
accord with it. Of course, as we know, the United 
Kingdom recognized the Chinese Communist re- 
gime rather promptly some 5 or 6 [7] years ago. 
I don't know whether that has had any particular 
effect on the situation, because actually veiy little 
in the way of diplomatic intercourse has come out 
of it. But naturally, in our opinion, it would be 
better if everybody agi-eed with us. 

Disarmament 

Q. Mr. Secretary, how do you equate your poli- 
cies with the present disarmament conference 
going on? Can you have disarmament without 
including Red China? 

A. Yes, I think one can have a disarmament 
agreement without including Red China. Of 
course, if it were not possible to have it without 
including Red China, then it might be possible to 
have undertakings from Red China. We already 
have such undertakings in the form of agreements 
to limit armament and agreements for inspection, 
in relation to both North Korea and Viet-Nam, 
and that does not involve any diplomatic 
recognition. 

Q. Those are military arrangements, Mr. Secre- 
tary. What would be the consideration in the 
case of stoppage of nuclear production loithin an 
agreement by countries which are not nuelear 
powers to avoid obtaining nuclear weapons if Red 
China was not included? Would the assumption 



140 



Department of State Bulletin 



of the United States "be that Red China would 
voluntarily abide by such an agreement? 

A. Our assumption, I think, would be that it is 
extremely unlikely that the Chinese Communist 
regime would get assistance in that area from the 
Soviet Union, and, indeed, the provisions of the 
disarmament agreement would probably preclude 
that. Of couree, that doesn't of itself mean that 
they would be lived up to, but probably evasions 
of that sort — violations of that sort — would be- 
come known, and if they became known, if they 
happened and became known, then that would be 
an occasion for calling off the whole agreement. 
It is quite possible, you see, to have an agreement 
which stands on certain presuppositions. Some 
of those presuppositions might relate to Com- 
munist China without it being a party to the agree- 
ment. Tlien if those presuppositions proved un- 
founded, the agreement would be called off. It 
might very well be that pressure of that sort, 
particularly from the Soviet Union, if it wanted 
the agi-eements to continue in force, would have 
the result that the Chinese Communists would, in 
fact, conform without being a party to the 
agreement. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., is it your view that the 
Chinese Coinmunists unaided cannot produce 
atomic-hydrogen weapons? Is that correct? 

A. I doubt very much whether they would go 
into that production on their own. I don't say 
that it could not be done, but it would be a very 
expensive operation. It would be an operation 
which probably could not be done without de- 
tection, and, as I say, the terms of our arrange- 
ment could be such, probably would be such, that, 
if it was found that that was going on, then our 
restraints could be shed. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is it not our assumption that 
in a cutoff production agreement there would be 
an effective inspection system in the three present 
nuclear powers and that for other countries the 
peaceful agencies would amount to an inspection 
system to prevent the developm,ent of weapons? 
If that is correct, then we loould have, if this 
worked out, an inspection system for all the 
countries of the world, with the exception of the 
Chinese Communists and those European satel- 
lites that we don't recognize. Is that sufficient? 
Do we consider that sufficiently adequate? 

A. I think we believe that a system can be 



devised, without necessarily tlie Chinese Com- 
munist regime being a contractual party to it, 
which would state certain terms and conditions, 
and certain presuppositions, certain assumptions 
as regards countries which were not parties. And, 
of course, it is not only Communist China which 
may not be a party, but there are probably quite 
a few other countries that won't be parties. We 
can't make an agreement here which is contingent 
upon every nation of the world being a party to 
it. And you can say that to that extent there is 
always a risk that somebody might engage in 
this business of making atomic weapons. But 
the arrangement would have to be of such charac- 
ter that in the first place that probably could be 
detected, which I think can be made the case 
even without contractual arrangements for in- 
spection, and also that, if that happened, then 
the limitations wliich otlier countries had assumed 
could, if they desired, be shed. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, I don't believe you mentioned 
the question of newsmen in Red China in your 
San Francisco address? TFas this an oversight, 
or does it perhaps mean that there is something 
coming which is around the corner on this issue? 

A. Wlien you talk about "just around the 
corner," it makes me think back in the days of 
the depression, you remember, where the end 
of the depression was "just around the corner." 
(Laughter) No, I deliberately did not attempt 
to deal with that problem, and I don't think that 
anything that I said forecloses treatment of it as 
a special matter, if that seems appropriate, and 
I am still studying that matter. 

Aid to Jordan 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is any of the economic aid 
being given to Jordan ^ to be used for the River 
Jordan project? 

A. I don't think I can answer the question as 
to whether it could be used for it. I doubt that 
it will be because I think that the occasion for 
the financial assistance, economic and military, 
is needs which are more urgent and more press- 
ing than that water project, so that whether or 
not the economic funds could be used directly or 
indirectly for that purpose, I don't know. I think 
that it is unlikely that they will be. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, does the administration in- 
' See p. 146. 



July 22, 1957 



141 



tend at any time in the near future a revival of 
the Johnston plan for the economic development 
of the Middle East, for the Jordan River Valley 
project? 

A. Well, we would, of course, like to see a re- 
vival of a plan for putting the waters of the 
Jordan to use both in Israel and in Jordan. 
Wliether or not the time is ripe for that yet, I 
don't know. In some respects conditions seem 
to be ameliorating, and we would hope that con- 
structive developments could take place. There 
is no concrete plan that I am aware of for further 
negotiation about that at the moment. In other 
words, no concrete plans are in process. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, on the question of Jordan, 
within the past 6 weeks or so we have made avail- 
able to King Hussein's government a total of $30 
million in economic and military aid. Noto this 
amount is almost exactly the amount that Britain 
used to give to Jordan in the way of an annual 
subsidy for a variety of purposes. Does it follow 
from the fact that we have given $30 million to 
Jordan that we intend or have some thought of re- 
placing or succeeding Britain as a main financial 
source for Jordan? 

A. There are no inferences of that sort that 
sliould be drawn from the fact that those sums do 
approximately coincide. We would hope that Jor- 
dan would be able to get an increased measure of 
financial assistance from Arab neighbors, and of 
course we also hope that the Jordanian economy 
will improve to a point where it can more nearly 
meet the expenses of its own government. There 
had been, as you know, assurances given to Jor- 
dan by Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Syria. Egypt 
and Syria have defaulted on their undertakings 
to Jordan, and it was primarily tliat fact which 
led the United States to move into the breach. In 
other words, I would say we were moving into 
the breach created by the default of Egypt and 
Syria rather than moving into the position that 
the United Kingdom had had. 

Q. But do toe have future plan^ for continued 
aid to Jordan, sir? 

A. No, there are no such plans. That does not 
exclude the possibility that we might give some 
future aid, but there is no commitment. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, can you say what the pros- 



142 



pects are for an international conference on wni- 
fication of Korea? 

A. Well, I don't think that the prospects are 
good, because there is no indication at all yet that 
the puppet regime there or the Chinese Com- 
munists will accept the terms which have been 
laid down by the United Nations and which were 
endorsed by the group which met at the Korean 
conference at Geneva in 1954, to the effect that 
there should be elections under the auspices of the 
United Nations.* You will recall that the Gov- 
ernment of South Korea resiilted from elections 
held under tlie auspices of the United Nations, and 
the United Nations had intended that tliose elec- 
tions should be held in all of Korea. The rep- 
resentatives of the United Nations were denied 
admission to North Korea, so that such elections 
could not be held. The United Nations believes, 
and tlie representatives of those of the free na- 
tions that met at Geneva have adhered to the view, 
that the basis for the reimification of Korea is to 
have free elections there under the auspices of the 
United Nations. At any time that those in control 
of North Korea will admit of that fact, then 
there could be the reunification of Korea. But 
they have never been willing to meet that test and 
have demanded, as a condition for unification, 
terms which would in fact afford an opportunity 
for the minority Communist regime of North Ko- 
rea to penetrate into South Korea and have a good 
chance of overthrowing the government through 
subversive activities. That we do not accept. 

Algeria 

Q. Mr. Secretary, a couple of Senators plan to 
push for a resolution in the Senate which would 
ash the adjninistration to move to an attempt to 
get for Algeria independent personality either 
through NATO or loorking through Morocco and 
Tunisia. Are you aware of those plans, and if so, 
can you tell us how you would feel about a Senate 
resolution urging that kind of action? 

A. Well, I had heard that there might be a 
proposal of that sort made, perhaps today. I do 
not know of it in detail. I would, however, say 
this : I think that there is no doubt, should be no 
doubt, in any quarter that the United States is 
very mindful of its own colonial origins and that 



' Bulletin of June 28, 1954, p. 973. 

Department of State Bulletin 



it is vei-y sympathetic to the aspirations of peo- 
ple to have a government of their own choosing. 
On the other hand, it must, I think, be recognized 
that the problem of Algeria is one of exceptional 
difficulty and of complications because of the fact 
that there is present there a very large European 
element — about a million and a half people, as I 
recall — and that the people of Algeria themselves 
are very largely divided and it is difficult to find 
responsible persons to deal with who are adequate- 
ly representative of all the people. 

'\^1ien one tries to judge the conduct of France, 
I think it must be recalled that France has a rec- 
ord of having completed the independence of five 
nations within the last 3 or 4 years — Viet-Nam, 
Laos, Cambodia, Tunisia, and Morocco — and 
therefore I do not think it can fairly be assumed 
that the French are reactionary in these matters. 

I think also it needs to be considered as to 
whether the United States can be helpful through 
overt interposition into this situation or by mak- 
ing it known, as it is known, that its help and as- 
sistance is always available when desired. We 
have, perhaps, been slightly helpful with respect 
to the five cases that I have spoken of, or certainly 
some of them. And our position in tliat respect 
is well known, and I am inclined to think that we 
can be more helpful that way than by trying our- 
selves to assimie the responsibility for the solution 
of that extremely difficult problem, which is not 
primarily ours, I am thankful to say. And I 
would be very sony to see it made ours, because of 
the great difficulty and complexity of the problem. 

I also believe, if anyone is interested in going 
after colonialism, there are a lot better places to 
go after it than the case of France in Algeria. 
There is a lot of colonialism in the world — ^Latvia, 
Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, East Germany, Ru- 
mania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and I could go 
on with a long list. And if one is really interested 
in going after the most evil manifestations of 
colonialism, the denial to people of the oppor- 
tunity to have governments of their own choosing, 
one could perhaps find a better place to start than 
Algeria. 

Q. I judge then that you don''t think a Senate 
resolution to this ejfect would he very helpful. 
{Laughter) 

A. I have not seen the resolution. Perhaps, if 



you have seen it, you can apply to it the criteria 
that I have suggested. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you think that Chancel- 
lor Adenauer^s acceptance of including West Ger- 
many in the European inspection zone will make 
the establishment of such a zone more likely and 
easier, inasmuch as this would solve one of the 
political problems in establishing the zone which 
you have talked about earlier? 

A. I have not seen the text of what Chancellor 
Adenauer said. As I have said myself here sev- 
eral times, it is the view of the United States that 
the problem of an inspection zone in Europe is 
primarily a problem to be dealt with by the con- 
tinental countries themselves. They are dealing 
with it very actively, both in talks which these 
countries are having directly with the four pow- 
ers — the four Western Powers — in London and 
also through the meetings of NATO. I think 
that there is no objection in principle, that I am 
aware of, on the part of these countries to such a 
zone, and the report from Chancellor Adenauer 
seems to confirm that, as far as the Federal Re- 
public is concerned. But there are of course very 
great difficulties in practice, and whether or not 
those are solvable I don't know. 

Evolutionary Change 

Q. Mr. Secretary, it is undouiitedly due to my 
own density, but I am still confused as to the pro- 
jection of your comment about the passing phase 
of communism in China. Does it presuppose some 
kind, of invasion such as you speculated about and 
about which Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek still 
actively speculates? Does it presuppose, instead 
of that, some kind of uprising on the mainland 
of China, or a change in the regime in China more 
toward the 2'ito-like regime, or what? 

A. What it presupposes is this, that we accept, 
as a working hypothesis, the view that that type 
of despotism will never prevail and that the kind 
of a government which is responsive to the will of 
the people, which admits of diversity and freedom 
of thought and expression, is the government which 
has the future ahead of it. 

Now that, as I say, is a working hypothesis that 
we assume. It underlies all our actions, all our 
conduct in these matters. I say it's a working hy- 
pothesis, but I don't know how it's going to work 
out. These matters work out in an infinite variety 



Ju/y 22, ?957 



143 



of ways. All that I mean is that we do not assume 
tliat that type of despotism represents the wave of 
the future in China or anywhere else. American 
policy is conducted on the assumption, as a work- 
ing hypothesis, that free governments in the long 
run are going to prevail and despotic governments 
in the long run are going to go under. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you apply the same ivorJc- 
ing hypothesis to the Soviet Union? 

A. Yes. We believe that it is almost certain 
that there will be an evolutionary change — prob- 
ably evolutionary. Conceivably it could be revo- 
lutionary, but it does not seem likely. And in- 
deed, already there is a trend in the Soviet Union 
to somewhat greater personal freedom, somewhat 
greater freedom of expression, somewhat greater 
enjoyment by people of the fruits of their labor. 

One can see evidence of that already. And I 
believe that that kind of trend is going to prevail, 
and I think that the United States should accept, 
as I say, as a working hy|3othesis underlying its 
policies, the assumption that that kind of trend is 
going to prevail. I don't put any dates on these 
things. I don't say what is going to happen in 1 
year, 5 years, 10 years, but I am confident that 
that is a basic truth. Certainly it's an assump- 
tion that I think must be made by anybody who 
believes in the American tradition. It was in that 
belief that our Nation was founded. It's ex- 
pressed in The Federalist papers. It is expressed 
by Abraham Lincoln in a sentence I often quote. 
He said our Declaration of Independence meant 
liberty not alone for the people of this country 
but hope for all the world for all future time. It 
means in due course the weight should be lifted 
from the shoulders of all men. That is a basic 
American belief, and it is also the working hypoth- 
esis on which we conduct our foreign policy. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you mean Khrushchev's 
grandchildren will he free, then? 

A. Well, I didn't put a date on this, but I will 
say this, if he goes on having children and they 
have children's children, his posterity will be free. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in the case of Russia, you said 
it was prohdbly more likely that this change would 
he evolutionary. Now, you haven't expressed any 
view as to whether you thought this change in 
Com/rnunist China more likely would be evolution- 
ary or revolutionary. Could you express some 
view on that? 



A. There are more revolutionary elements 
present in China at the present time than seem to 
be present within the Soviet Union, but I wouldn't 
want that to be interpreted as a prediction that 
there was going to be a revolution in China. I 
don't know how it is going to work out. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, a week ago the Dominican 
Government handed a note to our Embassy in 
Ciudad Trujillo extensively replying to our re- 
quest that Generalissimo Trujillo waive immunity 
to judicial procedwre here in connection with the 
Murphy -Galindez case? Coidd you tell us tuhat 
the contents of that note said, what our attitude is 
now? 

A. Well, my recollection is that the note said, in 
effect, that it would not be appropriate to have a 
cabmet officer leave Santo Domingo to come to 
another country for the purposes of judicial in- 
quiries there. And I believe that the situation is 
being studied to see what, in the light of that, we 
can appropriately do. 

Tests for Recognition 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in your discussion about Com- 
inunist China you talked about this assumption of 
some kind of change. But at an earlier stage, in 
answering a question, you spoke about the measure 
of 7'ecognition being the respectability of the con- 
duct of a power. Is there an implication in the 
relationship of those two ideas that U.S. recog- 
nition or attitude on recognition toward Com- 
tnunist China is not determined entirely or pri- 
marily by whether this change internally comes 
about? And if that is true, what are the measure- 
ments of respectability lohich would be applied? 

A. It is true, as I said, that, when it comes to 
having diplomatic and official relations with a 
regime, we do not make as a primary test how 
it conducts itself at home but rather how it con- 
ducts itself in the international field. And it 
is only on that basis that we have diplomatic re- 
lations with many comitries with which we now 
have such relations. 

Now, as regards the tests, I think you can find 
those are indicated in the speech which I made. 
I indicated there a number of historic tests that 
have been made. The treatment of American 
citizens is one test to which we attach very great 
importance and which always has been treated as 

'■ For background, see iUd., June 24, 1957, p. 1025. 



144 



Depariment of Slafe Bulletin 



a matter of great importance. The willingness 
and ability to live up to its international obliga- 
tions, the disposition of a regime to live peace- 
fully and abstain from international acts of ag- 
gression — those are all elements which are 
weighed in the scales, and I think you will find 
all those suggested or dealt with in my speech. 
Q. Mr. Secretary, the President said at a recent 
press conference that he didn't feel nearly as 
strongly as some other people about the value of 
a total trade einbargo against Red China. Were 
the various interpretations of this statement one 
of the factors that led you and the President to 
decide that a new statement on this subject was 
advisable at this time? And also, how do you 
reconcile that statement, his statement, that is, 
with the policy of the administration? 

A. That reference that you speak of to the 
President's press conference was not the occasion 
for tliis speech. And I might say, wliich I think 
can always be assumed in a speech of that char- 
acter, that it was thoroughly approved by the 
President before I made it. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, lohat is your concept of our 
future in Okinawa? 

A. As was said at the Japanese peace con- 
ference, the residual sovereignty in Okinawa 
rests with Japan. And we are there primarily in 
the interest of peace and security in tlie area. 
And that is not merely a matter whicli concerns 
the United States, but it also concerns other covm- 
tries that were parties to that treaty. Of course, 
Japan itself has an interest, but other countries 
also. 

As I pointed out at San Francisco when I ex- 
pounded the peace treaty, there were quite a few 
of our Allies that wanted the United States to 
annex Okinawa outright so that the American 
flag would surely wave forever at that point. 
Tliey wanted to see it planted there without the 
possibility of any change. I explained that in the 
face of that opinion and of the other opinions, 
however, we had decided that the best solution 
was to leave the residual sovereignty in Japan 
but to give the United States the rights of con- 
trol and administration for as long at it felt it 
was appropriate. That, in turn, I can say, is 
directly connected with the judgment that we 
have as to how long that is useful to serve the 
interests of peace and security in the area. 

Q. Thanh you, sir. 



Beginning of the 
International Geophysical Year 

Remarks by President Eisenhower ^ 

July 1st marks the beginning of one of the great 
scientific adventures of our time — the Inter- 
national Geophysical Year. During this period, 
which will actually be 18 months long, the scien- 
tists of the United States will join their effoits 
with those of the scientists of some 60 other na- 
tions to make the most intensive study ever imder- 
taken of our planet.^ 

All over the world elaborate preparations for 
this event have been under way for the last 5 years. 
You have been reading in the daily press of 
the expeditions to the Antarctic which have been 
paving the way for a concentrated study by some 
12 nations of the last unknown continent. Two 
years ago it was annoimced that the United States 
would launch an earth-circling satellite during the 
International Geophysical Year in order to ob- 
tain information about the sun and the earth's 
enviroimaent from outside the barrier of the earth's 
atmosphere. During the years of preparation 
meteorological and other observing stations aU 
over the globe have been readied. Hundreds of 
new stations have been established in order that 
many types of geophysical phenomena might be 
viewed and measured from every possible vantage 
point. 

The scientists tell us that they cannot possibly 
anticipate all of the valuable scientific knowl- 
edge that will result from their efforts. They 
believe that many of the facts thus acquired will 
give us new understanding and new power over 
the forces of nature. 

As I see it, however, the most important result 
of the International Geophysical Year is the 
demonstration of the ability of peoples of all 
nations to work together harmoniously for the 
common good. I hope this can become common 
practice in other fields of human endeavor. 

The United States is proud to have a part in 
this great scientific undertaking. I should like 
to congratulate all who have helped to make our 
program possible and particularly the National 
Academy of Sciences. Through its National 
Committee for the International Geophysical 

'- Recorded for radio and television broadcast on June 
30 (White House press release). 

' For bacljground, see Bulletin of Dec. 3, 1956, p. 880. 



July 22, J 957 



145 



Year, the Academy lias worked tirelessly to plan 
and coordinate the program in cooperation with 
other nations. 

I extend congratulations also to the interna- 
tional body whose vision and imagination have 
not only made the project possible but have woven 
all the multiple strands together. That body is 
the International Council of Scientific Unions, 
representing the major scientific bodies of the 
world. Through its Special Committee for the 
International Geophysical Year, the Council has 
provided brilliant leadership for this enterprise. 

We wish the scientists of all nations Godspeed 
and good luck as the International Geophysical 
Year begins. 



Aid to Jordan 

Military Assistance 

Press release 399 dated June 29 

In response to the request of the Government of 
Jordan for military assistance, the U.S. Govern- 
ment via an exchange of notes on June 29, 1957,^ 
has agreed to provide such aid by procuring for the 
Kingdom of Jordan military goods and services 
to the amount of $10 million. 

Economic Aid 

Press release 402 dated July 1 

In conformance with its previously expressed 
readiness to consider the economic needs of Jor- 
dan, the U.S. Government has, at the request of 
the Jordan Government, agreed to extend to that 
Government an additional $10 million in economic 
assistance. The exchange of notes to this effect 
took place in Amman on June 29.^ 

Availability of Additional Quantities 
of Uranium 235 

White House press release dated July 3 

STATEMENT BY PRESIDENT EISENHOWER 

In my statement on February 22, 1956, announc- 
ing the designation of 40,000 kilograms of ura- 
nium 235 for research and development purposes 



and for fueling nuclear power reactors at home 
and abroad, I stated that the Atomic Energy 
Commission would recommend that more supplies 
be made available for sale or lease as necessary 
in the future for additional nuclear power 
projects.^ 

At the recommendation of the Chairman of 
the Atomic Energy Commission, in which th; 
Secretaries of State and Defense concur, I have 
determined under Section 41b of the Atomic 
Energy Act of 1954 that 59,800 kilograms of 
uranium 235, in addition to previous allocations, 
may be made available for peaceful uses at home 
and abroad under conditions prescribed by the 
United States Government. 

The additional quantities of uranium 235 which 
will be made available for distribution over a 
period of years are : 

(a) 30,000 kilograms in the United States, 
through lease for all licensed civilian purposes, 
principally for power reactors. 

(b) 29,800 kilograms outside the United States, 
through sale or lease, to Governments of individ- 
ual nations or to groups of nations with which 
the United States concludes Agreements for 
Cooperation. 

Distribution of special nuclear material will 
be subject to prudent safeguards against diver- 
sion of the materials to non-peaceful purposes. 

Added to the 40,000 kilograms of uranium 235 
designated on February 22, 1956, and the 200 
kilograms designated earlier, this designation 
brings to 100,000 kilograms the total amount of 
this material to be made available as required 
for jDeaceful purposes, divided equally between 
domestic and foreign uses. 

At current prices, established by the Atomic 
Energy Commission last November,^ the value of 
100,000 kilograms of uranium 235 to be sold or 
leased is about $1.7 billion. 

I am gratified that the advance toward power 
and knowledge from the atom is proceeding at 
a pace which requires provision of additional sup- 
plies of the basic atomic fuel. 

Further details concerning the new determi- 
nations of availability of uranium 235 are set 
forth in the attached statement by the Chairman 
of the Atomic Energy Commission. 



' Not printed. 
146 



' Bulletin of Mar. 19, 1956, p. 469. 
= Ibid., Dec. 10, 1956, p. 926. 



Department of State Bulletin 



STATEMENT BY LEWIS L. STRAUSS 
CHAIRMAN, ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION 

In accordance with the President's statement 
on February 22, 1956, announcing the availability 
of 40,000 kilograms of uranium 235 for distribu- 
tion at home and abroad for research and develop- 
ment purposes and for fueling nuclear power 
reactore, the Atomic Energy Commission has 
recommended to the President that substantial 
additional supplies of uranium 235 be designated 
at this time for distribution for peaceful uses. 
The President has approved this recommendation. 

The Commission's recommendation is due to 
the progress of nuclear power development. The 
point has been reached where licenses granted or 
under consideration by the Commission for nu- 
clear power plants in the United States require 
more than the initial 20,000 kilograms of uranium 
235 made available for domestic use by the Presi- 
dent's determination of February 22, 1956. The 
growing nuclear power programs in friendly na- 
tions also require additional supplies of atomic 
fuel. 

The President's current action therefore is an- 
other important step in furthering both domestic 
and foreign applications of atomic energy for 
jieaceful purposes. 

The present and previous determinations by 
the President make the uranium 235 available in 
equal amounts for domestic and foreign distri- 
bution. This does not necessarily create a pat- 
tern for any subsequent designations that may 
be recommended. 

Each allocation of uranium 235 to atomic power 
projects in the United States must cover the ini- 
tial fuel-loading, the estimated amomit that will 
be burned by the reactor during the period for 
which reactor operation is licensed, and the esti- 
mated "pipeline" requirements, that is, the 
uranium 235 that will be committed in the man- 
ufacture of fuel elements, the cooling of irradi- 
ated fuel, and the reprocessing of the used fuel 
to recover the imfissioned uranium 235. Under 
the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, the Atomic 
Energy Commission may issue licenses to domestic 
reactor operators for fixed periods. Allocations 
under such licenses now approximate 17,000 kilo- 
grams. The new Presidential determination 
makes a total of 50,000 kilograms available as re- 
quired for such domestic allocations. The physi- 



cal transfers of material will be spread over the 
periods of the licenses. 

Plans of those nations which have concluded 
or which are now negotiating power agreements 
with the United States indicate that their needs 
also will exceed the 20,000 kilograms of uranium 
235 previously made available for such use. Their 
needs are calculated on a basis that includes the 
initial fuel-loading, "pipeline" requirements, and 
consumption during the term of the agreement 
for cooperation. The new Presidential determi- 
nation makes a total of 60,000 kilograms available 
as required for distribution abroad. 

Seven agreements for cooperation with friendly 
nations in various parts of the world providing 
for power reactors are now in effect, seven more 
are about to be concluded, and a number of others 
are mider negotiation. Twenty-nine agreements 
for cooperation providing for research reactors 
are now in effect. Negotiations have been com- 
pleted on eight additional research agreements, 
and it is expected that they wiU become effective 
within the next year. 

The terms of distribution are similar to those 
in previous determinations. No agreements tor 
cooperation under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 
are made by the United States with the Soviet 
Union or its satellites. 



Nuclear Power Agreements Signed 
With France, Germany, and Italy 

The following is a Department announcement 
of the signing of nuclear poioer agreements with 
Germany and Italy and an amendment to the 
agreement with France^ together with texts of 
statements made hy Acting Secretary Herter and 
Lewis L. Strauss, Chainnan of the U.S. Atomic 
Energy Commission, following the signing of 
the agreements. 



I'ress release 408 dated Jxily 3 
DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Nuclear power agreements for cooperation with 
Germany and Italy as well as an amendment to 
the existing agreement for cooperation with 
France were signed on July 3. Acting Secre- 



Jiily 22, 7957 



147 



tary Herter and Lewis L. Strauss, Chairman of 
the Atomic Energy Commission, signed the three 
agreements for the United States. Ambassador 
Brosio signed for the Italian Government, Am- 
bassador Krekeler for Germany, and Ambassador 
Alphand for France. 

These agreements are similar to other nuclear 
power agreements and provide the legal frame- 
work mider which the United States may transfer 
special nuclear material to fuel the demonstra- 
tion and power-reactor projects which the three 
coimtries intend to undertake. The agreements 
also provide for the exchange of unclassified in- 
formation in the broad field of nuclear power 
technology. 

Provisions in the agreements provide a means 
whereby the rights and obligations of the agree- 
ments can be transferred to the European atomic 
energy community (EUEATOM) at such time 
as the community comes into being and after ap- 
propriate negotiations with the United States. 

These agreements will not be brought into ef- 
fect until the parties complete their respective 
statutory requirements. In the case of the United 
States, agreements for cooperation must lie be- 
fore the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy for 
30 days prior to coming into effect. 



STATEMENT BY ACTING SECRETARY HERTER 

A consistent and major objective of American 
policy has been to encourage and aid the growth 
and strengthening of the economies of the West- 
em European countries. With expanding pop- 
ulations and the rapid growth of industry. West- 
ern Europe has been confronted by the urgent 
need for constantly larger amounts of electrical 
energy to meet their industrial demands. The 
problem for Europe is that the fuel required to 
produce this energy exceeds indigenous coal and 
oil resources. 

Confronted by this situation it is logical for 
Europe to look to the bright hope of atomic 
energy as a means of satisfying their new and 
momiting energy requirements. The treaty es- 
tablishing a European atomic energy community 
(EUEATOM), which is now before the parlia- 
ments of the six member countries, would provide 
a framework to encourage and assist in the 
development of this new art. 



France, Germany, and Italy are already actively 
engaged in exploring and exploiting atomic ener- 
gy. The bilateral power agreements for coopera- 
tion signed today with the three countries will 
permit them to move ahead and enlarge the base 
of their atomic energy programs pending the 
ratification of the treaty and the establishment 
of the institutions of the community. The United 
States sees these interim agreements as another 
important step in atomic energy development in 
Europe and as a further expression of the interest 
of this country in European economic develop- 
ment. 



STATEMENT BY ADMIRAL STRAUSS 

Your Excellencies: My colleagues and I on the 
Atomic Energy Commission welcome this step 
which is being taken today and which enlarges 
the mutually beneficial cooperation in peaceful ap- 
plications of atomic energy with the friendly 
countries which you represents — France, Germany, 
and Italy. 

In the many discussions and information ex- 
changes that have been in progress, we have been 
greatly impressed by the vision, enthusiasm, and 
ability of the leaders of your nuclear energy 
programs. This is exemplified i^articularly in 
your participation in the bold plans for commu- 
nity development of nuclear power as a source of 
urgently needed energy in Europe. I refer, of 
course, to EURATOM. The program in nuclear 
power which has been proposed for EURATOM 
should be of gi'eat benefit not only to the partici- 
pating nations but to universal progress in the 
new art. And from this progress we of the United 
States will also derive benefit. 

Here in the United States, because we have 
large conventional fuel resources, the economics 
of power generation makes it possible for us to 
pursue a wide-ranging program of research and 
the construction and operation of many kinds of 
prototype reactors. The economies of your coun- 
tries will draw advantages from our success in 
this field, where United States industry is partici- 
pating fully and is pioneering in the building of 
full-scale atomic power plants. 

We are confident, as our coimtries move for- 
ward in close cooperation in the development of 
the peaceful atom, that great progress will be 



148 



Department of State Bulletin 



made in developing atomic energy to serve the in- 
creasing needs of a world at peace. 



The agreement will enter into force following 
completion of the necessary statutory and con- 
stitutional requirements of both Govermnents. 



Atoms-for-Peace Agreement 
With Germany for City of Berlin 

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the 
Department of State announced on June 28 
(press release 396) that an agreement for co- 
operation in tlie peaceful uses of atomic energy 
was signed on that day by rejjresentatives of the 
Federal Republic of Germany, on behalf of Ber- 
lin, and representatives of the United States. 
The Ambassador of the Federal Republic of 
Germany, Heinz L. Krekeler, signed tlie agree- 
ment on behalf of the city of Berlin. Commis- 
sioner Lewis L. Strauss of the Atomic Energy 
Commission and C. Burke Elbrick, Assistant 
Secretary of State for European Affairs, signed 
for the United States. 

The agreement provides for an exchange of 
information on the design, construction, opera- 
tion, and use of research reactors, health and 
safety measures connected with research reactor 
operation, and on medical, biological, agricul- 
tural, and industrial uses of isotopes. There is 
great interest in nuclear research on tlie part of 
the scientific community in Berlin, as well as in 
the Berlin city govermnent and among leading 
industrialists. An Institute for Atomic Research 
has been established with the active cooperation 
of the Free University and the Technical Uni- 
versity. The Institute will bring together the 
research and training facilities of the two uni- 
versities in the field and will operate a research 
reactor when it is obtained. The signing of the 
research agreement is another example of con- 
tinuing United States confidence in and support 
of Free Berlin. 

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission has 
agreed to make available to the Senat of Berlin 
6 kilograms (13.2 lbs.) of U-235 contained in 
uranium enriched up to a maximmn of 20 per- 
cent for reactor fuel. Berlin may also receive 
from the United States limited gram quantities 
of highly enriched U-235, plutonium, and U-233 
for research purposes. The Senat of Berlin as- 
sumes responsibility for using and safeguarding 
the fissionable material in accordance with the 
terms of the proposed agreement. 

July 22, 1957 

432327—57 3 



Worl<ing Group To Consider 
Asian Regional Nuclear Center 

Press release 395 dated June 27 

Invitations have been issued by the United 
States to the other 16 nations wliich are mem- 
bers of the Colombo Plan Consultative Commit- 
tee to send representatives to a working group 
meeting at Washington on July 8 to consider 
the establishment of an Asian Regional Nuclear 
Center at Manila. 

The proposed center would be part of the 
atoms-for-peace program which President Eisen- 
hower announced before the U.N. General As- 
sembly on December 8, 1953. The President 
pledged the determination of the United States 
to find the way by which this inventiveness of 
man could be adapted to peaceful uses to bring 
vast improvements in living standards, health, 
and happiness. 

First proposed in October 1955 by ICA Direc- 
tor John B. Hollister, acting as U.S. represent- 
ative at the Colombo Plan meeting at Singa- 
pore,^ the research center would be an effort 
to bring the benefits of atomic energy to the peo- 
ples of the Asian Colombo Plan nations on a 
cooperative basis. It was pointed out at that 
time that the proposed center could supplement 
existing facilities for the basic training of en- 
gineers, chemists, and physicists at the college 
level. It could also offer facilities for research 
in tlie fields of medicine, agriculture, and indus- 
try. The center would make available at a sin- 
gle site laboratories and major equipment 
required for training and research. One func- 
tion envisioned for tlie center would be to pro- 
vide training for instructors and teachers in 
nuclear science for other Asian educational 
institutions. 

Mr. Hollister said, 

... if such an institution is to come into vigorous 
life and to serve well the needs of the Asian world in 
this new field, it must J:est firmly on Asia's interest and 



' Bulletin of Nov. 7, 1955, p. 747. 



149 



support. The center as we see it would be established 
for students of the region, staffed largely by scientists 
from the region, supervised by administrators from the 
region, and supported by governments of the region. 
The burden of setting up the center and carrying it for- 
ward, and the obligation of staffing it, would rest with 
the Asian members of the Colombo Plan. The fruits 
of the effort would also belong to Asia. 

In 1956 ICA engaged the Brookliaven National 
Laboratory to send a group of eminent Ameri- 
can scientists throughout the Far East and South 
and Southeast Asia to study the possibilities and 
potentialities for the center. In its report, made 
in November 1956, the Brookhaven Laboratory 
declared that, while there are a number of major 
problems in such an undertaking, "the establish- 
ment of an Asian Regional Nuclear Center is 
considered to be entirely feasible, and capable of 
contributing significantly to the scientific and 
technological development of the region." The 
report also indicated that initially the Colombo 
Plan nations may not liave available the required 
number of experienced scientific and administra- 
tive personnel at the center and concluded that 
special attention would have to be given to meet- 
ing top-level staff requirements. 

Walter S. Eobertson, Assistant Secretary of 
State for Far Eastern Affairs, at the Colombo 
Plan Consultative Committee meeting at Welling- 
ton, New Zealand, in December 1956 said that 
the United States was prepared to contribute 
approximately $20 million to the establishment 
of the center provided that mutually satisfactory 
arrangements could be worked out with the other 
participating countries.^ The $20 million would 
come from the $100 million President's Fund for 
Asian Economic Development which the Con- 
gress made available in fiscal year 1956 to the 
President for such multicountry projects. The 
ICA was designated by the President to admin- 
ister the fund. 

Assistant Seci-etary Robertson in his Welling- 
ton speech reiterated the necessity of Asia's inter- 
est and support for the proposed center and 
concluded : 

My Government feels that this cooperative plan for 
developing in Asia the peaceful use of atomic energy 
holds limitless potential. We envision this first nuclear 
training center in Asia as a pioneer among educational 
institutions in the most far-reaching, frontier-opening 
technical science so far known to man. 



' Ibid., Dec. 17, 1956, p. 957. 



If it can accomplish its high purpose, the center will 
be a crowning achievement of the Colombo Plan. It will 
demonstrate to the world in bold and positive terms the 
spirit in which the plan was born and through which 
it has increasingly flourished : the spirit of mutual ef- 
fort for the common good. 

At its meeting in July, which is expected to 
continue from 10 days to 2 weeks, the working 
group will discuss the problems raised by the 
Brookhaven report and make specific recommen- 
dations to the respective governments for their 
solution. 

Robert McClintock, former Ambassador to 
Cambodia, will be the U.S. delegate. Senior 
scientific adviser will be Leland J. Haworth, di- 
rector of Brookhaven National Laboratory. 

Nations which have been invited to send rep- 
resentatives to the meeting are Australia, Bur- 
ma, Cambodia, Canada, Ceylon, India, Indo- 
nesia, Japan, Laos, Nepal, New Zealand, 
Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, the United 
Kingdom, and Viet-Nam. 



Administration of Cultural Exchange 
and Trade Fair Participation Act 



White House press release dated June 18 
WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

The President on June 17 issued an Executive 
order providing for the administration of the 
International Cultural Exchange and Trade Fair 
Participation Act of 1956. 

The principal assignments of activities made by 
the order are as follows : 

(1) The United States Information Agency 
will be responsible for (a) allocating to the ap- 
propriate Government agencies the funds made 
available for carrying out the act, (b) advising 
and keeping the President informed with respect 
to the functions provided for in the act, and (c) 
coordinating those functions. 

(2) The Department of State will administer 
United States participation in the Brussels Uni- 
versal and International Exhibition, to be held at 
Brussels, Belgimn, in 1958. The State Depart- 
ment will also administer the cultural exchange 
program, which consists of (a) tours abroad by 
United States artists and athletes, individually 
and in groups, who represent any field of the arts, 



150 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



sports, or any other form of cultural attainment, 
and (b) United States representation in artistic, 
dramatic, musical, sports, and other cultural festi- 
vals, competitions, and like exhibitions abroad. 
The USIA is also authorized to participate in the 
administration of such representation. 

(3) The Department of Commerce will admin- 
ister functions relating to United States participa- 
tion in international fairs and expositions abroad, 
including trade and industrial fairs and other pub- 
lic or private demonstrations of United States ac- 
complishments and cultural attainments, but ex- 
clusive of the Brussels exhibition. 

The assignments of responsibilities to agencies 
effected by the order, as outlined above, accoi-d 
generally with the assignments heretofore existing 
on a less formalized basis. 

The statute provides : "The purpose of this act 
is to strengthen the ties which unite us with other 
nations by demonstrating the cultural interests, de- 
velopments, and achievements of the people of the 
United States, and the contributions being made 
by the United States economic and social system 
toward a peaceful and more fruitful life for its 
own people and other people throughout the 
world; and thus to assist in the development of 
friendly, sympathetic, and peaceful relations be- 
tween the United States and the other countries 
of the world." 



EXECUTIVE ORDER 10716 < 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL 
CULTURAL EXCHANGE AND TRADE PAIR 
PARTICIPATION ACT OF 1956 
By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Interna- 
tional Cultural Exchange and Trade Fair Participation 
Act of 1956 (70 Stat. 778), by section 301 of title 3 of the 
United States Code, and as President of the United States, 
it is hereby ordered as follows : 

Section 1. United States Information Agency, (a) Ex- 
cept in respect of the functions delegated by section 2(c), 
or reserved by section 4, of this order, the Director of the 
United States Information Agency shall coordinate the 
functions provided for in the International Cultural Ex- 
change and Trade Fair Participation Act of 1956 (herein- 
after referred to as the Act) and shall be responsible for 
advising the President and keeping him informed with 
respect to the said functions : 

(b) The following-designated functions conferred upon 
the President by the Act are hereby delegated to the Direc- 
tor of the United States Information Agency : 

(1) The functions so conferred by the provisions of 



' 22 Fed. Reg. 4345. 



section 3(2) of the Act (the provisions of section 2(b) of 
this order notwithstanding). 

(2) The functions so conferred by .section 3(4) of the 
Act (the provisions of sections 2(d) and 3(b) of this 
order notwithstanding). 

(3) The functions so conferred by section 11 of the 
Act, except to the extent that such functions are delegated 
by section 2(c) of this order. 

(4) The functions so conferred by sections 4, 6, and 7 
of the Act to the extent that they pertain to the functions 
delegated by the foregoing provisions of this section. 

(c) The Director of the United States Information 
Agency, with such assistance of the Department of State 
and the Department of Commerce as may be appropriate, 
shall prepare and transmit to the President the reports 
which the President is required to transmit to the Con- 
gress by section 9 of the Act. 

(d) The Director of the United States Information 
Agency shall consult with the Secretary of State or 
the Secretary of Commerce, or both, in connection with 
the establishment of any interagency committees under the 
authority delegated by .section 1(b) (3) of this order the 
activities of which will pertain to functions delegated by 
section 2 or section 3 of this order, or both, respectively. 

(e) Funds appropriated or otherwise made available 
to the President to carry out the purposes of the Act 
shall be allocated by the Director of the United States In- 
formation Agency to the Department of State as may be 
necessary to carry out the functions delegated under sec- 
tion 2 of this order ; to the Department of Commerce as 
may be necessary to carry out the functions delegated 
under section 3 of this order; and to such other depart- 
ments or agencies of the Government as may be deemed 
necessary to carry out the purposes of the Act. The agen- 
cies to which funds are so allocated shall obtain apportion- 
ments thereof directly from the Bureau of the Budget. 

Sec. 2. Department of State. Subject to the provisions 
of sections 1 (a) and 4 of this order, the following-desig- 
nated functions conferred upon the President by the Act 
are hereby delegated to the Secretary of State : 

(a) The functions so conferred by sections 3 (1), 10 
(b), and 10 (c) (3) of the Act. 

(b) The functions so conferred by section 3 (2) of 
the Act (the provisions of section 1 (b) (1) of this order 
notwithstanding). 

(c) The functions so conferred by section 3 (3) of the 
Act to the extent that they pertain to the Universal and 
International Exhibition of Brussels, 1958, together with 
the functions so conferred by section 11 of the Act to the 
extent that they pertain to the said Exhibition. 

(d) The functions so conferred by sections 3 (4), 4, 6, 
and 7 of the Act to the extent that they pertain to the 
functions delegated by the foregoing provisions of this 
section. 

Sec. 3. Department of Commerce. Subject to the pro- 
visions of sections 1(a) and 4 of this order, the following- 
designated functions conferred upon the President by the 
Act are hereby delegated to the Secretary of Commerce : 

(a) The functions so conferred by section 3 (3) of the 
Act, exclusive of functions pertaining to the Universal 
and International Exhibition of Brussels, 1958. 

(b) The functions so conferred by sections 3 (4), 4, 6, 



July 22, 1 957 



151 



and 7 of the Act to the extent that they pertain to the 
functions delegated by the foregoing provisions of this 
section. 

Sec. 4. Functions reserved to the President. There are 
hereby excluded from the functions delegated by the 
provisions of this order the functions conferred upon the 
President (a) with respect to the appointment of officers 
authorized to be appointed by the first proviso of section 
3 (3) of the Act, (b) with respect to the transmittal of 
periodic reports to the Congress under section 9 of the 
Act, and (c) with respect to the waiver of provisions of 
law or limitations of authority under section 8 of the 
Act. 

Seo. 5. Procedures for coordination abroad. The pro- 
visions of Part II of Executive Order No. 10575 of No- 
vember 6, 1954 (19 P. R. 7249), 2 are hereby extended and 
made applicable to the functions provided for in the 
Act and to United States agencies and personnel con- 
cerned with the administration abroad of the said 
functions. 

Seo. 6. Definition. As used in this order, the word 
"functions" embraces duties, powers, responsibilities, au- 
thority, and discretion. 

Sec. 7. Prior directives and actions. This order super- 
sedes the provisions of the letters of the President to 
the Director of the United States Information Agency 
dated August 16, 1955, and August 21. 1056, and the letter 
of the President to the Secretary of State dated Decem- 
ber 27, 1956 (22 F. R. 101-103) ; provided that this order 
shall not operate to terminate any authority to perform 
functions without regard to the provisions of law and 
limitations of authority specifled in those letters. Except 
to the extent that they may be inconsistent with law or 
with this order, other directives, regulations, and actions 
relating to the functions delegated by this order and in 
force immediately prior to the issuance of this order 
shall remain in effect until amended, modified, or re- 
voked by appropriate authority. 

Sec. 8. Effective date. Without prejudice to anything 
done under proper authority with respect to any function 
under the Act at any time subsequent to the approval of 
the Act and prior to the issuance of this order, the effec- 
tive date of this order shall be deemed to be the date on 
which the Act was approved. 

The White House, 
June 11, 1957. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

85th Congress, 1st Session 

Personnel Practices of the Department of State. Hearings 
before the Subcommittee on State Department Organi- 
zation and Foreign Operations of the House Committee 
on Foreign Affairs. April 4 and 10, 1957. Ill pp. 



' Bulletin of Dec. 13, 1954, p. 914. 



Building a World of Free Peoples. Hearings before the 
Subcommittee on International Organizations and Move- 
ments of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs at 
Laconia, N.H. April 5, 1957. 121 pp. 
Operation of Article VII, NATO Status of Forces Treaty. 
Hearing before a subcommittee of the Senate Committee 
on Armed Services to review for the period December 1, 
1955, to November 30, 1956, the operation of article VII 
of the agreement between the parties of the North 
Atlantic Treaty regarding the status of their forces. 
April 9, 1957. 45 pp. 
National Science Foundation, Report on International 
Geophysical Year. Hearings before the Subcommittee 
of the House Committee on Appropriations. May 1, 1957. 
126 pp. 
Authorizing the Sale or Loan of Vessels to Friendly For- 
eign Nations. Report to accompany H. R. 6952. H. Rept. 
387, May 6, 1957. 10 pp. 
Study of Raw Materials of Soviet Union and Certain 
Eastern Hemisphere Countries. Report to accompany 
S. Res. 78. S. Rept. 288, May 8, 1957. 2 pp. 
Protocol Amending the International Sugar Agreement of 
1953, Dated at London, December 1, 1956. Message from 
the President transmitting a certified copy of the proto- 
col. S. Exec. L, May 8, 1957. 15 pp. 
Amending the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as Amended. 
Report to accompany S. 2051. S. Rept. 296, May 9, 1957. 
34 pp. 
Amending the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as Amended. 
Report to accompany H. R. 7383. H. Rept. 435, May 9, 
1957. 40 pp. 
Extension of Public Law 480. Report to accompany H. R. 

6974. H. Rept. 432, May 9, 1957. 18 pp. 
Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency. 
Hearings before the Senate Committee on Foreign Re- 
lations and Senate members of the Joint Committee on 
Atomic Energy on S. Exec. I. May 10-20, 1957. 258 pp. 
Control and Reduction of Armaments. Disarmament and 
Security in Latin America. Staff Study No. 7, Sub- 
committee on Disarmament of the Senate Committee on 
Foreign Relations. May 12, 1957. 29 pp. [Committee 
print.] 
Foreign Aid. Report of the Senate Special Committee 
To Study the Foreign Aid Program, pursuant to S. Res. 
285, 84th Cong., and S. Res. 35, 85th Cong. S. Rept. 300, 
May 13, 1957. 38 pp. 
Enabling Act To Provide for the Implementation of the 
Pink Salmon Treaty Between United States and Canada, 
Signed at Ottawa, Canada, December 28, 1956. Report 
to accompany S. 1806. S. Rept. 302, May 13, 1957. 12 pp. 
Seventeenth Semiannual Report on Educational Exchange 
Activities. July 1-December 31, 1956, by the U. S. Ad- 
visory Commission on Educational Exchange. H. Doc. 
176, May 13, 1957. 6 pp. 
Review of the Budget Formulation and Presentation Prac- 
tices of the International Cooperation Administration. 
Fifth Report by the House Committee on Government 
Operations. H. Rept. 449, May 15, 1957. 19 pp. 
Extension of Export-Import Bank Act of 1945. Report to 
accompany H. R. 4136. S. Rept. 331, May 16, 1957. 
5 pp. 
Report of the Special Study Mission to Europe on Policy 
Toward the Satellite Nations of the House Committee 
on Foreign Affairs. May 16, 1957. 25 pp. [Committee 
print.] 
Inventory Report on Real Property Lea.sed to the United 
States Throughout the World as of July 1, 1956, pre- 
pared by the Genera! Services Administration at the 
request of the Senate Committee on Appropriations. 
S. Doc. 41, May 20, 1957. 69 pp. 
Mutual Security Programs. Message from the President 
transmitting proposals relative to our mutual security 
programs. H. Doc. 182, May 21, 1957. 9 pp. 
Clarifying the General Powers, Increasing the Borrowing 
Authority, and Authorizing the Deferment of Interest 
Payments on Borrowings, of the St. Lawrence Seaway 
Development Corporation. Report to accompany H. R. 
5728. H. Rept. 473, May 22, 1957. 15 pp. 



152 



Department of State Bulletin 



Mutual Security Act of 1957. Hearings beforp the House 
Committee on Foreign Affairs on the executive branch 
Iiroposed draft bill to amend the Mutual Security Act 
of 1954. Part I, May 22-24, 1957, 109 pp. ; Part II, May 
28-June 5. 1957, 171 pp. 

Extending to January 31, 1958, the Authority of the Sen- 
ate Special Committee To Study the Foreign Aid Pro- 
gram. Report to accompany S. Res. 141. S. Rept. 373, 
May 23, 1957. 3 pp. 

Pink Salmon Protocol. Report to accompany Exec. C, 
S5th Cong., 1st sess. S. Exec. Rept. 2, May 23, 1957. 
4 pp. 

International Health. Report of the House Committee 
on Interstate and Foreign Commerce on the organiza- 
tion and financing of, and the participation of, the 
United States in international health programs, pur- 
suant to sec. 136 of the Legislative Reorganization Act 
of 1946, Public Law 601, 79th Cong., and H. Res. 99, 
8oth Coug. H. Rept. 474, May 23, 1957. 73 pp. 

Reports from the Senate Special Committee To Study the 
Foreign Aid Program. Report to accompany S. Con. 
Res. 30. S. Rept. 390, May 29, 1957. 3 pp. 



First Balance-of-Payments 
Consultations Under GATT 

Press release 403 dated July 1 

The Department of State announced on July 1 
the conclusion of the first stage of balance-of- 
payments consultations m Greneva under the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
(GATT). 

These consultations, which took place over a 
3-week period in Geneva, were held with Den- 
mark, Norway, Sweden, Italy, the Netherlands, 
Greece, Austria, and Germany. Under the 
GATT, countries maintaining restrictions on 
trade for balance-of -payments reasons have agreed 
to consult upon request regarding their need for 
continuing such restrictions and the manner in 
which they apply them. At last fall's regular 
session of the GATT, a U.S. proposal that such 
consultations be held this year was adopted. ^ 

Two Western EurojDean countries announced 
the removal of import restrictions on an impor- 
tant range of goods from the United States and 
otlier dollar countries. Tliese new measures of 
dollar-trade liberalization were announced by 
Sweden and Italy at the recently concluded con- 
sultations on import restrictions maintained be- 
cause of shortages of foreign exchange. In ad- 
dition, Austria and Gei-many annomiced that they 
would take liberalization steps in the near future. 

With regard to the Federal Republic of (Ger- 
many, it was noted that the strong foreign- 

' Bulletin of Dec. 3, 1956, p. 893. 
July 22, 1957 



exchange position of that country no longer justi- 
fied the maintenance of restrictions for balance- 
of -payments reasons under the general agreement. 
The Government of the Federal Eepublic ex- 
pressed its firm intention to consider the meas- 
ures to be adopted in tlie liglit of this situation 
and announced that further liberalization steps 
would be taken in the near future. In particular, 
the German Government stated that differences 
now existing between three quota-free lists appli- 
cable to various currency areas would be reduced 
gradually. 

In addition to the new liberalization measures 
made public at the meetings, a number of tlie con- 
sulting countries reported other recently adopted 
measures which reduce restrictions against dollar 
imports, thereby placing them on a more equal 
competitive basis with similar goods coming from 
nondollar areas. Under Norway's import quotas, 
for example, dollar goods are normally treated as 
favorably as any other goods. The Netherlands 
and Greece reported that, for almost all practical 
purposes, dollar and nondollar goods are treated 
equally by their import control authorities and 
that their remaining quantitative import restric- 
tions are negligible. 

All consulting countries reported that, as their 
financial position improves, they intend to ease 
their remaining restrictions on dollar imports. 
Some noted, however, that domestic problems, 
notably in the agricultural field, will require the 
maintenance of import restrictions on a few prod- 
ucts for some time. 

Other countries maintaining import restrictions 
for balance-of-payments reasons will consult 
imder the same GATT provision in September and 
October. These include France, Turkey, Finland, 
Japan, United Kingdom, Rhodesia and Nyasa- 
land, Australia, Ceylon, New Zealand, Pakistan, 
Union of South Africa, and India. 

Details of tlie new liberalization measures an- 
nounced at the meeting will, as usual, be repoited 
in the Department of Commerce's publication 
Foreign Conwnerce Weekly and in the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture's Foreign Agriculture. 

Tlie consultations — the first of their kind held 
under GATT auspices — afforded an opportimity 
for a frank and full exchange of views regarding 
the continued need for quantitative restrictions 
and the desirability of eliminating them as soon 
as conditions permit. 



153 



Revision of Tariff Quotas on Potatoes 



White House press release dated May 16 
WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

The President on May 16 issued a proclamation 
decreasing the quantity of potatoes dutiable at 
371/^ cents per 100 pounds under the seed and 
table-stock potato tariff quotas set forth in the 
United States schedule to the General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade. The revised tariff quotas 
will become effective on September 15, 1957, the 
beginning of the next quota year. 

In giving effect to the reductions of the tariff 
quotas negotiated with Canada,^ the proclamation 
makes two supplementary adjustments in rates for 
certain potatoes pursuant to prior agreements. In 
order to prevent an increase in the margin of duty 
preference accorded Cuban table-stock potatoes 
beyond that permitted by article I, paragraph 4, 
of the general agreement, the proclamation fixes 
an appropriate rate for non-Cuban table-stock 
potatoes withdrawn from the prior tariff quota 
and imported during December, January, or Feb- 
ruary. In addition, the proclamation fixes a pref- 
erential rate for table-stock potatoes withdrawn 
from the prior quota, if they are the product of 
Cuba and are imported from March through No- 
vember. This preference is provided for in the 
1947 exclusive trade agreement with Cuba. 

Beginning on September 15, 1957, the following 
rates of duty will be applicable to imports of seed 
and table-stock potatoes (other than the product 
of the Philippines or Soviet-bloc countries) : 

1. Seed jDotatoes within the new tariff quota of 
1,900,000 bushels (formerly 2,500,000 bushels) will 
remain dutiable at 37i/2 cents per 100 pounds, and 
all imports in excess of the quota, whether or not 
the product of Cuba, will become subject to the 
full duty of 75 cents. 

2. Imports of table-stock potatoes not in excess 
of the new tariff quota of 600,000 bushels (subject 
to increase if estimated U. S. production falls be- 
low 350,000,000 bushels) will remain dutiable at 
371/2 cents per 100 pounds except that the rate 
applicable to Cuban potatoes during the winter 
montlis of December, January, and February will 
continue to be 30 cents. 

3. Imports of non-Cuban table-stock potatoes 

'■ Bulletin of May 13, 1957, p. 773. 



in excess of the new tariff quota, but not in excess 
of the old tariff quota of 1,000,000 bushels (sub- 
ject to a similar increase), will become dutiable at 
75 cents per 100 pounds except that the rate will 
become 60 cents during the specified winter 
months; such imports which are the product of 
Cuba will become dutiable at 671/2 cents except 
that the rate will remain 30 cents during the speci- 
fied winter months. 

4. Imports of table-stock potatoes in excess of 
the old tariff quota will remain dutiable at 75 cents 
per 100 pounds, whether or not the product of 
Cuba, except that those which are the product of 
Cuba will remain dutiable at 30 cents during the 
specified winter months. 



PROCLAMATION 3184 2 

TERMINATING IN PART PROCLAMATION NO. 2761A 
OF DECEMBER 16, 1947, WITH RESPECT TO CER- 
TAIN POTATOES, AND MAKING RELATED AD- 
JUSTMENTS 

1. Whereas, pursuant to the authority vested in him 
by the Constitution and the statutes, including section 
350 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (48 Stat. (pt. 
1) 943, ch. 474, 57 Stat. (pt. 1) 12.5, ch. 118, 59 Stat. (pt. 
1) 410, ch. 209), the President on October 30, 1947, en- 
tered into a trade agreement with certain foreign coun- 
tries, which trade agreement consists of the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the Protocol of 
Provisional Application of the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade, together with a Final Act (Gl Stat. 
(pts. 5 and 6) A7, All, and A2050) ; 

2. Whereas by Proclamation No. 2761A of December 
16, 1947 (61 Stat. (pt. 2) 1103), the President pro- 
claimed such modifications of existing duties and other 
import restrictions of the United States of America and 
such continuance of existing customs or excise treat- 
ment of articles imported into the United States of 
America as were then found to be required or appropri- 
ate to carry out the said trade agreement specified in 
the first recital of this proclamation on and after Janu- 
ary 1, 1948, which proclamation has been supplemented 
by the other proclamations listed in the third recital 
of Proclamation No. 3140 of June 13, 1956 (3 CFR, 1956 
Supp., p. 24), by the said proclamation of June 13, 1956, 
by Proclamation No. 3143 of June 25, 1956 (3 CFR, 1956 
Supp., p. 33), by Proclamation No. 3146, of June 29, 1956 
(3 CFR, 1956 Supp., p. 35), and by Proclamation No. 3160 
of September 28, 1956 (3 CFR, 1956 Supp., p. 44) ; 

3. Whereas items 771 [first] and 771 [second], and 
the appropriate headings, in Part I of Schedule XX an- 
nexed to the said General Agreement on Tana's and Trade, 
which items were given effect by the said proclamation of 
December 16, 1947, read as follows: 



' 22 Fed. Reg. 3531. 



154 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Description of products 



White or Irish seed potatoes, certi- 
fied by a responsible officer or 
agency of a foreign government in 
accordance with the official rules 
and regulations of that govern- 
ment to have been grown and ap- 
proved especially for use as seed, 
in containers marked with the for- 
eign government's official certi- 
fied seed potato tags 



Provided, That the quantity of such 
potatoes entitled to entry at such 
rate of duty shall not exceed — 
for the period from January 1 to 
September 14, inclusive, in 
1948, 2,500,000 bushels of 60 
pounds each, less the quan- 
tity of such potatoes entered 
and subject to duty at a tariff- 
quota rate during the period 
from September 15 to De- 
cember 31, inclusive, in 1947, 
or 
for any 12- month period begin- 
ning" on September 15 in 1948 
or any subsequent year, 2,- 
500,000 bushels of 60 pounds 
each; 
and anj' such potatoes not subject 
to that rate of duty shall be 
dutiable at 



White or Irish potatoes, other than 
certified seed potatoes, as defined 
in the preceding item 



Rate of 

duty 



Provided, That the quantity of such 
potatoes entitled to entry at such 
rate of duty shall not exceed — 
for the period from January 1 to 
September 14, inclusive, in 
1948, 1,000,000 bushels of 60 
pounds each, less the quantity 
of such potatoes entered and 
subject to duty at a tariff- 
quota rate during the period 
from September 15 to Decem- 
ber 31, inclusive, in 1947, or 
for any 12-month period begin- 
ning" on September 15 in 1948 
or any subsequent year, 1,- 
000,000 bushels of 60 pounds 
each; 
and any such potatoes not subject 
to that rate of duty shall be 
dutiable at 



Provided further, That if for any cal- 
endar year the production of white 
or Irish potatoes, including seed 
potatoes, in the United States, ac- 
cording to the estimate made as of 
September 1 by the United States 
Department of Agriculture, is less 
than 350,000,000 bushels of 60 
pounds each, an additional quan- 
tity of such potatoes, other than 
certified seed potatoes, equal to the 



amount by which such estimated 
production is less than 350,000,000 
bushels may be entered during the 
12-month period beginning on 
September 15 of that year at . . 

Provided further, That in computing 
the quantities of imports specified 
in the two foregoing provisos white 
or Irish potatoes produced in the 
Republic of Cuba shall not be in- 
cluded. 



37K«S per 
100 lb. 



37H|S per 
100 lb. 



4. Whereas agreement for the partial withdrawal of 
the said items 771 [first] and 771 [second], so that they 
would be applied as though they read as follows, has been 
reached as compensatory adjustment, under paragraph 1 
of Article XXVIII of the said General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade, for a modification thereunder by 
Canada of its tariff concession on potatoes in the said 
General Agreement on Tarififs and Trade: 



Tariff 
Act of 
1930, 
para- 
graph 



771 



75(i per 
100 lb. 



37H?S per 
100 lb. 



771 



75^ per 
100 lb. 



Description of products 



White or Irish seed potatoes, certified 
by a responsible officer or agency 
of a foreign government in ac- 
cordance with the official rules and 
regulations of that government to 
have been grown and approved 
especially for use as seed, in con- 
tainers marked with the foreign 
government's official certified seed 
potato tags 



Provided, That not more than 1,900,- 
000 bushels of 60 pounds each of 
such potatoes entered during any 
12-month period beginning on 
September 15 in any year shall be 
dutiable at 37^ cents per 100 
pounds ; and any such potatoes en- 
tered during any such 12-month 
period in excess of 2,500,000 
bushels of 60 pounds each shall 
be dutiable at 



White or Irish potatoes, other than 
certified seed potatoes as defined 
in the preceding item 



Provided, That not more than 600,- 
000 bushels of 60 pounds each of 
such potatoes entered during any 
12-month period beginning on 
September 15 in any year shall be 
dutiable at 37H cents per 100 
pounds ; and any such potatoes en- 
tered during any such 12-month 
period in excess of 1,000,000 
bushels of 60 pounds each shall be 
dutiable at 

Provided further. That if for any cal- 
endar year the production of white 
or Irish potatoes, including seed 
potatoes, in the United States, ac- 



Rate of 
duty 



37K(i per 
100 lb. 



75^ per 
100 lb. 



37H«i per 
100 lb. 



75^ per 
100 lb. 



July 22, 1957 



155 



cording to the estimate made as of 
September 1 by the United States 
Department of Agriculture, is less 
than 350,000,000 bushels of 60 
pounds each, an additional quan- 
tity of such potatoes, other than 
certified seed potatoes, equal to 
the amount by which such estima- 
ted production is less than 350,- 
000,000 bushels shall be added to 
each of the quantities specified in 
the preceding proviso in this item 
for the purpose of determining the 
application of the rates provided 
for in this item during the 12- 
month period beginning on Sep- 
tember 15 of that calendar year; 
and 
Provided further, That in computing 
the quantity of imports specified 
in the foregoing provisos to this 
item white or Irish potatoes pro- 
duced in the Republic of Cuba 
shall not be included. 



5. Whereas, in view of the partial termination of the 
Bald proclamation of December 16, 1947, pursuant to the 
agreement referred to in the fourth recital of this procla- 
mation, provided for in Part I of this proclamation, I de- 
termine that it is required or appropriate to carry out the 
said trade agreement specified in the first recital of this 
proclamation that the following new item be inserted, fol- 
lowing item 765, in the list set forth in the sixteenth recital 
of the said proclamation of June 13, 1956, as amended by 
the said proclamation of September 28, 1956: 



Tariff 
Act of 
1930, 
para- 
graph 



Description of products 



771 



White or Irish potatoes, other than 
certified seed potatoes as defined 
in item 771 [first] in Part I of 
Schedule XX to the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade (Gene- 
va — 1947), as modified, entered 
during the period from IDecember 
1, in any year, to the last day of 
the following February, inclusive, 
if at the time such potatoes are en- 
tered the quantity of such potatoes 
(other than the product of Cuba) 
which had theretofore been en- 
tered after the preceding Septem- 
ber 14 exceeds 600,000 bushels of 
60 pounds each, but does not ex- 
ceed 1,000,000 bushels of 60 
pounds each 



Provided, That if for any calendar 
year the production of white or 
Irish potatoes, including seed po- 
tatoes, in the United States, ac- 
cording to the estimate made as of 
September 1 by the United States 
Department of Agriculture, is less 
than 350,000,000 bushels of 60 
pounds each, an additional quan- 



Rate of 
duty 



60«'. per 
100 lb. 



tity of such potatoes, other than 
certified seed potatoes, equal to the 
amount by which such estimated 
production is less than 350,000,000 
bushels shall be added to each of 
the quantities specified in this 
item for the purpose of determin- 
ing the application of the rate pro- 
vided for in this item during the 
following months of December, 
January, and February. 



6. Whereas, pursuant to the authority vested in him 
by the Constitution and the statutes, including the said 
section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, the 
President on October 30, 1947, entered into an exclusive 
trade agreement with the Government of the Republic 
of Cuba (61 Stat. (pt. 4) 3699), which exclusive trade 
agreement includes certain portions of other documents 
made a part thereof and provides for the treatment in 
respect of ordinary customs duties of products of the 
Republic of Cuba imported into the United States of 
America ; 

7. Whereas by Proclamation No. 2764 of January 1, 
1948 (62 Stat. (pt. 2) 1465), the President proclaimed 
such modifications of existing duties and other import 
restrictions of the United States of America and such 
continuance of existing customs or excise treatment of 
articles imported into the United States of America as 
were then found to be required or appropriate to carry 
out the said agreement specified in the sixth recital of 
this proclamation on and after January 1, 1948, which 
proclamation has been supplemented by Proclamation No. 
3105, of July 22, 19.55 (69 Stat. C44), by the other proc- 
lamations listed in the thirteenth recital of the said 
proclamation of June 13, 1956, and by the said proc- 
lamation of June 13, 1956 ; and 

8. Whereas, in view of the partial termination of the 
said proclamation of December 16, 1947, pursuant to 
the agreement referred to in the fourth recital of this 
proclamation, provided for in Part I of this proclamation, 
I determine that it is required or appropriate to carry out 
the said exclusive trade agreement specified in the sixth 
recital of this proclamation that the following new item 
be inserted, in nmnerical order, in the list set forth in 
the sixteenth recital of the said proclamation of July 22, 
1955, as amended by the said proclamation of June 13, 
1956 : 



Tariff 
Act of 
1930, 
para- 
graph 



771 



Description of products 



White or Irish potatoes, other than 
certified seed potatoes as defined 
in item 771 [first] in Part I of 
Schedule XX to the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade 
(Geneva — 1947), as modified, en- 
tered at any time, other than 
during the period December 1 to 



Rate of 
duty 



156 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



the last day of the following 
February, inclusive, if at the time 
such potatoes are entered the 
quantity of such potatoes (other 
than the product of Cuba) which 
had theretofore been entered after 
the preceding September 14 ex- 
ceeds 600,000 bushels of 60 pounds 
each, but does not exceed 1,000,000 
bushels of 60 pounds each . . . . 

Provided, That if for any calendar 
year the production of white or 
Irish potatoes, including seed 
potatoes, in the United States, 
according to the estimate made as 
of September 1 by the United 
States Department of Agriculture, 
is less than 350,000,000 bushels of 
60 pounds each, an additional 
quantity of such potatoes, other 
than certified seed potatoes, equal 
to the amount by which such 
estimated production is less than 
350,000,000 bushels shall be added 
to each of the quantities specified 
in this item for the purpose of 
determining the application of 
the rate provided for in this item 
during that part of the 12-month 
period, beginning on September 15 
of that year, to which this item is 
applicable. 



67M)! per 
lb.» 



Now, THEREFORE, I, DwiGHT D. EISENHOWER, Presi- 
dent of the United States of America, acting under and 
by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitu- 
tion and the statutes, including the said section 350 of 
the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, do proclaim, effec- 
tive on and after September 15, 1957, as follows: 

Part I 
In accordance with the agreement specified in the 
fourth recital of this proclamation, the said items 771 
[first] and 771 [second] set forth in the third recital of 
this proclamation are withdrawn in part and the said 
proclamation of December 16, 1947, is terminated in part 
so far as it relates to potatoes provided for in such items 
but not provided for in the same items as set forth in the 
fourth recital of this proclamation, with the result that the 
said proclamation of December 16, 1947, shall be applied as 
though the said items 771 [first] and 771 [second] read 
as set forth in the fourth recital of this proclamation. 

Part II 
To the end that the trade agreement specified in the first 
recital of this proclamation may be carried out, the list 
set forth in the thirteenth recital ' of the said proclama- 
tion of June 13, 1956, as amended, shall be further 
amended by the insertion therein of the new item as set 
forth In the fifth recital of this proclamation. 

Part III 
To the end that the exclusive trade agreement specified 
in the sixth recital of this proclamation may be carried 
out, the list set forth in the thirteenth recital ' of the said 



' For correction, see p. 163. 



proclamation of July 22, 1955, as amended, shall be further 
amended by the insertion therein of the new item as set 
forth in the eighth recital of this proclamation. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 
aflixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this sixteenth day of 

May in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and 

[seal] fifty-seven, and of the Independence of the 

United States of America the one hundred and 

eighty-first. 

By the President : 

John Foster Dttlles 
Secretary of State 



Supplemental Trade Agreement 
With Cuba 

The United States and Cuba signed a supple- 
mentary trade agreement on June 20. Following 
is a Department announcement, together loith the 
text of the agreement, released on the day of the 
signing {press release 376) , followed by a White 
House announcement and the text of a Presiden- 
tial proclaviation giving effect to the concessions 
negotiated with Cuba {White House press release 
dated June 28) . 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT, JUNE 20 

The Governments of the United States and Cuba 
on June 20 signed a supplementary trade agree- 
ment as a result of negotiations conducted at Ha- 
bana under the auspices of the Contracting Parties 
to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. 
The agreement provides for U.S. tariff conces- 
sions to Cuba on five types of cigar tobacco in re- 
turn for tariff concessions by Cuba to the United 
States on tinplate and tinned sheets, artificial col- 
ors, and motors. 

As shown in the accompanying tables, existing 
rates of duty are to be reduced by 10 percent in 
two annual stages for both the United States and 
Cuban concessions. In both countries the first 



Juty 22, 1957 



157 



Cuban Tariff Concessions to the United States 





Description 


Rate of duty 


U. S. ex- 


Cuban tariff 
item no. 


Present 


Supplemental agreement 


ports to 

Cuba 1955 

($1,000) 




1st stage 


2d stage 




37-C 

85-A ex 
217 


Rolled sheets: 

Tinned and in tinplate, 
unmarked, not litho- 
graphed. 
Artificial colors: 

In powder or lumps, except 

metallic blues (indigo) 

in balls or squares. 

Motors of all kinds, fixed or 

not, including windmills, 

and the loose parts and 

accessories for the same, 

not specifically classified. 

Total 


0.075 pesos per 100 
kgs. 

0.40 pesos per 100 
kgs. 

5% ad valorem 


0.07125 pesos per 
100 kgs. 

0.38 pesos per 100 

kgs. 

4.75% ad valorem. . . 


0.0675 pesos per 100 
kgs. 

0.36 pesos per 100 
kgs. 

4.50% ad valorem. . . 


4,824 

882 
3,098 

8, 804 















U. S. Tariff Concessions to Cuba and Changes in Most-Favored-Nation Rates Applicable to Products of Other Countries 





Schedule A 
No. 


Schedule A commodity description 


Rate of duty 


U.S. im- 


Tarifl 

para- 
graph 


Applicable to 
products of: 


Present 


Supplemental agreement 


ports for 
consump- 
tion 1956 




1st stage 


2d stage 


($1,000) 


601 


2601. 000 

2601. 100 

2603. 000 

2604. 000 
2609. 000 


Tobacco, unmanufactured 
Leaf for cigar wrappers : 

Unstemmed . . 


Cuba 
Other 

Cuba 

Other 

Cuba 
Other 
Cuba 
Other 
Cuba 
Other 


91fS per lb. 

$1.00 per 

lb. 
$1.72 per lb. 
$1. 72 per lb. 

140 per lb. 
17.50 per lb. 
200 per lb. 
250 per lb. 
140 per lb. 
17.50 per lb. 


86.450 per 

lb. 
95.450 per 

lb. 
$1,634 per lb. 
$1,634 per lb. 

13.30 per lb. 
16.80 per lb. 
190 per lb. 
240 per lb. 
13.30 per lb. 
16.80 per lb. 


81.90 per lb. 

90.90 per lb. 

$1,548 per lb. 
$1,548 per lb. 

12.60 per lb. 
16. 10 per lb. 
180 per lb. 
230 per lb. 
12.60 per lb. 
16.10 per lb. 


2, 340 




Stemmed 

Cigar leaf (filler) : 

Unstemmed 


784 




1 
4,316 


603 


Stemmed 


103 

13, 035 

144 

5,907 




Totals: 

Cuba 


1,482 
25, 598 




Other 










2, 514 

















stage will become effective on June 29, 1957, and 
the second stage would normally become effective 
a year later. 

The U.S. tariff concessions on tobacco are ex- 
pected to benefit U.S. cigar manufacturers, whose 
requirements for Cuban cigar tobacco led last year 
to imports valued at $25.6 million of the five types 
of tobacco for which the tariff treatment is being 
modified. Tobacco which is the product of Cuba 
benefits, on four of these five types of tobacco, by 
preferential rates which are lower tlian those ap- 
plicable to tobacco produced in other countries. 



When the tariff reductions applicable to Cuba are 
made effective, there will at the same time be equal 
decreases in the rates applicable to other countries 
in order to avoid widening the margins of prefer- 
ence on the four types of tobacco and creating a 
margin of preference on the fifth type. An increase 
in the margins of preference would be contrai-y to 
the longstanding policy of the United States Gov- 
ernment directed toward the elimination of dis- 
criminatory treatment in international trade and 
contrary to the applicable procedures imder the 
general agreement. 



158 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



The accompanying tabulation of the U.S. con- 
cessions to Cuba also shows the rates of duty now 
applicable to countries other than Cuba and the 
rates which will be applied to keep margins of 
preference unchanged. 

The concessions granted to the United States by 
Cuba are expected to benefit United States export- 
ers of the specified items — tinplate and tinned 
sheets, artificial colors, and motors. Exports of 
these items from the United States to Cuba in 
1955 were valued at nearly $9 million. 



TEXT OF AGREEMENT 

EKiHTH PROTOCOL OF SUPPLEMENTARY CON- 
CESSIONS TO THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON 
TARIFFS AND TRADE 
(CUBA AND UNITED STATES OF AMERICA) 

The governments which are contracting parties to the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Ti-ade (hereinafter 
referred to as "the contracting parties" and "the Gen- 
eral Agreement" respectively), having agreed upon pro- 
cedures for the conduct of tariff negotiations by two or 
more contracting parties under the General Agreement 
and for putting into effect under the Agreement the results 
of such negotiations, 

The Governments nf the Republic of Cuba and of the 
United States of America which are contracting parties 
to the General Agreement (hereinafter referred to as 
"negotiating contracting parties") having carried out 
tariff negotiations under these procedures and being de- 
sirous of so giving effect to the results of these nego- 
tiations, 

It is agreed : 

1. On the thirtieth day following the day upon which 
this Protocol shall have been signed by a negotiating con- 
tracting party or on June 29, 19.57, whichever Is the earlier, 
the schedule relating to that contracting party annexed 
hereto shall enter into force and shall be regarded as a 
schedule to the General Agreement relating to that con- 
tracting party. 

2. In each case in which Article II of the General 
Agreement refers to the date of that Agreement, the appli- 
cable date in respect of the schedules annexed to this 
Protocol shall be the date of this Protocol. 

3. (a) The original text of this Protocol, together 
with the annex thereto, shall be deposited with the Execu- 
tive Secretary to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to the 
General Agreement. It shall be open for signature by 
contracting parties at the close of the negotiations and 
thereafter at the headquarters of the CONTRACTING 
PARTIES until six months following the date of the 
Protocol. 

(b) The Executive Secretary shall promptly furnish 
a certified copy of this Protocol, and a notification of each 
signature to this Protocol, to each contracting party. 



4. The date of this Protocol shall be June 20, 19.'>T. 

Done at La Habana in a single copy in the English and 
French languages, both texts authentic except as other- 
wise specified in schedules annexed hereto. 

For the Republic of Cuba : 

GUKT.T, ' 

For the United States of America : 
Vinton Chapin 

Annex 

SCHEDULE IX— CUBA 

(This Schedule is authentic only in the English language) 

Part I 

Most-Favored-Nation Tariff 

Nil 

Part II 

Preferential Tariff 



Cuban 








Taria Item 


Description of Products 


Rate of Duty 




Number 












(Specific duty in Cuban 


37 


Rolled sheets : 


pesos) 




37-C 


Tinned and in tinplate, 


(a) 0.07125 per 


100 




unmarked, not litho- 


Kgs. 






graphed. 


(b) 0.0675 per 
Kgs. 


100 


85 


Artificial colors: 






85-A ex 


In powder or lumps, ex- 


(a) 0.38 per 


100 




cept metallic blues (in- 


Kgs. 






digo) in balls or squares. 


(b) 0.36 per 

Kgs. 
(a) 4.75% ad 


100 


217 


Motors of all kinds, fixed 


va- 




or not, including wind- 


lorem 






mills, and the loose 


(b) 4.50% ad 


va- 




parts and accessories 


lorem 






for the same, not spe- 








cifically classified. 







General Notes 

I. The provisions of this supplemental Schedule are 
subject to the pertinent Notes appearing at the end of 
Part II of Schedule IX (Geneva — 1947 as amended). 

II. Subject to the provisions of the Eighth Protocol of 
Supplementary Concessions to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade, to the pertinent provisions of the said 
General Agreement, and to the pertinent provisions of 
Cuba's internal legislation, the rate specified in the rate- 
column in this supplemental Schedule will become effec- 
tive as follows : Rates preceded by letter (a) will become 
initially effective on the date the concessions on the prod- 
uct or products concerned enter into force pursuant to 
the provisions of the said Eighth Protocol of Supple- 
mentary Concessions; and rates preceded by letter (b) 
will become initially effective in each case upon the ex- 
piration of a full period of one year after the related rates 
preceded by letter (a) become initially effective. 



' Gonzalo Guell y Morales de los Rlos. 



July 22, 1957 



159 



SCHEDULE XX— UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

This Schedule is authentic only in the English language 

CUSTOMS TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES 

Pabt I 

Most-Favored-Nation Tariff 

(See general notes at the end of this Schedule) 



Tarlfl 
Act of 
1930, 
para- 
graph 



Description of Products 



Rates of Duty 



601 

601 
603 



Wrapper tobacco, and filler tobacco when mixed or packed with more 
than 35 per centum of wrapper tobacco: 

Unstemmed 

Stemmed 

Filler tobacco not specially provided for (except cigarette leaf tobacco) : 

Unstemmed 

Stemmed 

Scrap tobacco 



95.45^ per lb , 
$1,634 per lb 



16.8^ per lb 
24fi per lb . 
16.8{i per lb 



90.9»i per lb. 
$1,548 per lb. 

16.1^ per lb. 
23jS per lb. 
16.1^ per lb. 



Part II 

Preferential Tariff Applicable to Products of Cuba 

(See general notes at the end of this Schedule) 



Tariff 
Act of 
1930, 
para- 
graph 



Description of Products 



Kates of Duty 



601 
601 

603 



Wrapper tobacco, and filler tobacco when mixed or packed together 

with more than 35 per centum of wrapper tobacco, if unstemmed. 
Filler tobacco not specially provided for (except cigarette leaf 
tobacco) : 

Unstemmed 

Stemmed 

Scrap tobacco 



86.45^ per lb 



13.3f{ per lb 
19?S per lb . 
13.3jS per lb 



81.9^ per lb. 



12. 6# per lb. 
18(i per lb. 
12.6^ per lb. 



General Notes 

1. The provisions of this supplemental schedule are 
subject to the pertinent notes appearing at the end of 
Schedule XX (Geneva, 1947), as authenticated on Oc- 
tober 30, 1947. 

2. Subject to the provisions of the Eighth Protocol of 
Supplementary Concessions to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade (Cuba and United States of America), 
to the pertinent provisions of the said General Agree- 
ment, and to the provisions of section 350 (a) (3) (C) of 
the Tariff Act of 1030, the rates specified in the rate- 
columns in this supplemental schedule will become effec- 
tive as follows : 

(a) Rates in column A will become initially effective on 
June 29, 1957 ; and rates in column B will become initially 
effective in each case upon the expiration of a full ijeriod 
of one year after the related rates in column A became 
Initially effective. 

(b) For the purposes of subparagraph (a) above, the 
phrase "full period of one year" means a period or periods 
aggregating one year, exclusive of the time, after a rate 
becomes Initially effective, when, by reason of legislation 
of the United States or action thereunder, a higher rate 
of duty is being applied. 



3. Except as provided in note 4, in the case of any dif- 
ference between the treatment prescribed for a product 
described in this supplemental schedule and the treatment 
prescribed for the same products in any prior Schedule 
XX to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the 
treatment prescribed in this supplemental schedule shall 
represent the prevailing obligation of the United States 
for the purposes of Article II of the said General 
Agreement. 

4. If the concession provided for in Part II of this 
supplemental schedule, in respect of any product described 
In both Part I and Part II hereof, is withdrawn, the rate 
provided for such product in Part I of this supplemental 
schedule will thereupon cease to apply or will be sus- 
pended for such time as such withdrawal is effective. If 
the concession provided for in Part II of this supplemental 
schedule in respect of any such product is modified, the 
rate provided for such product in Part I of this supple- 
mental schedule will thereupon be increased by the same 
amount as the rate provided for in Part II of this sup- 
plemental schedule is increased and for the same period, 
subject to any obligations then existing by reason of the 
inclusion of such product in Part I of any other Schedule 
XX. 



160 



Department of State Bulletin 



WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT, JUNE 28 

The President has issued a proclamation giving 
effect to the United States tobacco concessions ne- 
gotiated with Cuba under tlie General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade and embodied in a trade 
agreement signed at Habana on June 20, 1957. 

That agreement provides for United States 
tariff concessions to Cuba on five types of cigar 
tobacco in return for tariff concessions by Cuba 
to the United States on tinplate and tinned sheets, 
artificial colors, and motors. Existing rates of 
duties on these products are to be reduced by 10 
percent over two annual stages. In both coun- 
tries the first-stage reduction of 5 percent becomes 
effective on Jime 29, 1957, and the second stage 
will, under ordinary circumstances, become effec- 
tive 1 year later. 

Four of these five types of Cuban tobacco en- 
joy preferential rates which are lower than the 
rates applicable to similar tobaccos imported from 
other countries. In order to avoid a widening of 
the Cuban margin of preference on the four types 
of tobacco or a creation of a Cuban margin of 
preference on the fifth type, the proclamation also 
provides for an equivalent reduction in the rates 
applicable to such tobaccos from other countries 
entitled to trade agreement benefits. 

The United States tariff concessions are ex- 
pected to benefit domestic cigar manufacturers, 
whose imports of these tobaccos last year were 
valued at $25.6 million. United States exporters 
are expected to benefit from the Cuban con- 
cessions. 



PROCLAMATION 3190 > 

CARRYING OUT THE EIGHTH PROTOCOL OF SUP- 
PLEMENTARY CONCESSIONS TO THE GENERAL 
AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE, AND FOR 
OTHER PURPOSES 

1. Whereas, pursuant to the authority vested in him 
by the Constitution and the statutes, including section 
350 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as then amended (48 Stat. 
(pt. 1) 943, ch. 474, 57 Stat. (pt. 1) 125, ch. 118, 59 Stat. 
(pt. 1) 410, ch. 269), the President on October 30, 1947, 
entered into a trade agreement with certain foreign coun- 
tries, which trade agreement consists of the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (hereinafter referred 
to as "the General Agreement"), including a schedule of 
United States concessions (hereinafter referred to as 



"Schedule XX ( Geneva— 1947 )") , and the Protocol of 
Provisional Application of the General Agreement, to- 
gether with a Final Act (61 Stat. (pts. 5 and 6) A7, All, 
and A2051) ; 

2. Whereas by Proclamation No. 2761A of December 
16, 1947 (61 Stat. (pt. 2) 1103), the President proclaimed 
such modifications of existing duties and other import 
restrictions of the United States of America and such 
continuance of existing customs or excise treatment of 
articles imported into the United States of America as 
were then found to be required or appropriate to carry 
out the said trade agreement specified in the first recital 
of this proclamation on and after January 1, 1948, 
which proclamation has been supplemented by the other 
proclamations listed in the third recital of Proclamation 
No. 3140 of June 13, 1956 (3 CPR, 19.56 Supp., p. 24), by 
the said proclamation of June 13, 1956, by Proclamation 
No. 3143 of June 25, 1956 (3 CFR, 19.56 Supp., p. 33), by 
Proclamation No. 3146 of June 29, 1956 (3 CFR, 1956 
Supp., p. 35), by Proclamation No. 3160 of September 28, 
1956 (3 CPR, 1956 Supp., p. 44), and by Proclamation No. 
3184' of May 16, 1957 (22 F. R. 3531) ; 

3. Whereas I have found as a fact that certain exist- 
ing duties and other import restrictions of the United 
States of America and of the Republic of Cuba, both 
being contracting parties to the General Agreement, are 
unduly burdening and restricting the foreign trade of the 
United States of America and that the purposes declared 
in section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as now amended 
(48 Stat. (pt. 1) 943, ch. 474, 57 Stat. (pt. 1) 125, ch. 118, 
59 Stat. (pt. 1) 410, ch. 269, 63 Stat. (pt. 1) 698, ch. 585, 
69 Stat. 162, ch. 169), will be promoted by the negotiation 
between these two Governments of a trade agreement 
supplementing the General Agreement ; 

4. Whereas, pursuant to section 3 (a) of the Trade 
Agreements Extension Act of 1951 (65 Stat. 72, ch. 141), 
I transmitted to the United States Tariff Commission for 
investigation and report a list of all articles imported 
into the United States of America to be considered for 
possible modification of duties and other import restric- 
tions, imposition of additional import restrictions, or con- 
tinuance of existing customs or excise treatment in the 
trade agreement negotiations with the Government of the 
Republic of Cuba referred to in the third recital of 
this proclamation, and the Tariff Commission made an 
investigation in accordance with section 3 of the said 
Trade Agreements Extension Act and thereafter reported 
to me its determinations made pursuant to the said 
section within the time period specified therein ; 

5. Whereas reasonable public notice of the intention 
to conduct trade agreement negotiations with the Re- 
public of Cuba was given,' the views presented by persons 
interested in such negotiations were received and con- 
sidered, and information and advice with respect to such 
negotiations was sought and obtained from the Depart- 
ments of State, Agriculture, Commerce, and Defense, and 
from other sources ; 

6. Whereas, the period for the exercise of the au- 
thority of the President to enter into foreign trade 



' 22 Fed. Reg. 4705. 
July 22, 1957 



" See p. 154. 

* Bulletin of Oct. 22, 1956, p. 646. 



161 



agreements under the said section 350, as now amended, 
having been extended by section 2 of the Trade Agree- 
ments Extension Act of 1955 (69 Stat. 162, ch. 169) 
from June 12, 1955, until the close of June 30, 1958, 
on June 20, 1957, as a result of the findings set forth 
in the third recital of this proclamation, I entered, 
through my duly authorized representative, into a trade 
agreement providing for the application of the relevant 
provisions of the General Agreement to additional 
schedules of tariff concessions relating to the United 
States of America and to the Republic of Cuba, vrhich 
trade agreement consists of the Eighth Protocol of Sup- 
plementary Concessions to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade, dated June 20, 1957, including a 
schedule of United States concessions (hereinafter re- 
ferred to as "Schedule XX (Havana — 1957)"), which 
trade agreement is authentic in the English and French 
languages as indicated therein, and a copy of which is 
annexed to this proclamation ; 

7. Whereas the supplementary trade agreement speci- 
fied in the sixth recital of this proclamation provides 
that the schedule annexed thereto relating to a negotiat- 
ing contracting party shall be regarded as a schedule 
to the General Agreement relating to that contracting 
party on the thirtieth day following the day on which 
the protocol shall have been signed by such contracting 
party or on June 29, 19.'57, whichever is the earlier, 
and such protocol was not signed on behalf of the United 
States prior to May 30, 1957 ; 

8. Whereas I find that each modification of existing 
duties or other import restrictions of the United States of 
America and each continuance of existing customs or 
excise treatment of articles imported into the United 
States of America which is proclaimed in Part I of 
this proclamation will be required or appropriate, on 
and after the dates specified in the said Part I, to 
carry out the trade agreement specified in the sixth 
recital of this proclamation ; 

9. Whereas, pursuant to the authority vested in him 
by the Constitution and the statutes, including the said 
section 350, as then amended, the President on October 
30, 1947, entered into an exclusive trade agreement with 
the Government of the Republic of Cuba (61 Stat. (pt. 4) 
3699), which exclusive trade agreement includes certain 
portions of other documents made a part thereof and 
provides for the treatment in respect of ordinary customs 
duties of products of the Republic of Cuba imported into 
the United States of America ; 

10. Whereas by Proclamation No. 2764 of January 1, 
1948 (62 Stat. (pt. 2) 1465), the President proclaimed 
such modifications of existing duties and other import 
restrictions of the United States of America and such 
continuance of existing customs or excise treatment of 
articles imported into the United States of America as 
were then found to be required or appropriate to carry 
out the said exclusive trade agreement specified in the 
ninth recital of this proclamation on and after Janu- 
ary 1, 1948, which proclamation has been supplemented 
by the other proclamations listed in the thirteenth recital 
of the said proclamation of June 13, 1956, by the said 
proclamation of June 13, 1956, and by the said 
proclamation of May 16, 1957 ; 



11. Whereas Part II of Schedule XX (Geneva— 1947), 
which was made a part of the exclusive trade agreement 
specified in the ninth recital of this proclamation, is 
supplemented by Part II of Schedule XX ( Havana — 1957 ) , 
and I find that it is required or appropriate, on and 
after the dates specified in the said Part II, to carry 
out the said exclusive trade agreement that the said 
Part II of Schedule XX ( Geneva— 1947 ) be applied as 
supplemented by the said Part II of Schedule XX 
(Havana — 1957) ; 

12. Whereas by the said proclamation of June 13, 
1956. the President proclaimed such modifications of 
existing duties and other import restrictions of the 
United States and such continuance of existing customs 
or excise treatment of articles imported into the United 
States as were then found to be required or appropriate 
to carry out the Sixth Protocol of Supplementary Con- 
cessions to the General Agreement (TIAS 3591), includ- 
ing a schedule of United States concessions (hereinafter 
referred to as "Schedule XX (Geneva— 1956)") ; 

13. Whereas the third sub-classification of the de- 
scription in item 1.513 [second] in Part I of Schedule XX 
(Geneva — 1956) erroneously reads "Figures or images 
of animate objects not specified above in this item" in 
place of "Figures or images of animate objects wholly or 
in chief value of metal and not specified above in this 
item" ; and 

14. Whereas in the said proclamation of May 16, 1957, 
the rate of duty in the item set forth in the eighth recital 
should be 67V2<f per 100 lb." in place of the rate of 
"67%(' per lb.",'' the reference in Part II should be to 
the "sixteenth recital" of the said proclamation of June 
13, 1956, in place of the reference to the "thirteenth 
recital" of that proclamation,' and the reference In 
Part III should be to the "sixteenth recital" of Procla- 
mation No. 3105 of July 22, 1955 (69 Stat. C44) in place 
of the reference to the "thirteenth recital" of that 
proclamation : ' 

Now. therb:fore, I, Dwight D. Eisenhower, President 
of the United States of America, acting under and by 
virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution 
and the statutes, including the said section 350, as now 
amended, do proclaim as follows : 

Part I 

To the end that the trade agreement specified in the 
sixth recital of this proclamation ma.v be carried out : 

(a) Such modifications of existing duties and other 
import restrictions of the United States of America and 
such continuance of existing customs or excise treat- 
ment of articles imported into the United States as are 
specified or provided for in paragraphs 1 to 4, inclusive, 
of the said Protocol of Supplementary Concessions speci- 
fied therein, and in Part I of Schedule XX (Havana — 
1957), shall, subject to the provisions of subdivision 
(b) of this part, be effective as follows : 

(1) The rates of duty specified in column A at the 
right of the respective descriptions of products in Part 
I of Schedule XX (Havana — 1957), on and after June 
29, 1957. 



' See p. 157. 



162 



Department of State Bulletin 



(2) The rates of duty specified in column B at the 
right of the said respective descriptions of products, on 
and after the appropriate date or dates determined in 
accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2 of the 
General Notes at the end of Schedule XX (Havana — 
1057). 

(b) The application of the provisions of subdivision 
(a) of this part and of subdivision (a) of Part II of 
this proclamation shall be subject (1) to the applicable 
terms, conditions, and qualifications set forth in para- 
graphs 1 to 4, inclusive, of the said Protocol of Supple- 
mentary Concessions, in Schedule XX (Havana — 1957), 
including the General Notes thereto, in Parts I, II, and 
III of the General Agreement, including any applicable 
amendments and rectifications thereof, and in the Pro- 
tocol of Provisional Application specified in the first re- 
cital of this proclamation, and (2) to the exception that 
no rate of duty shall be applied to a particular article 
by virtue of this proclamation if, when the article is 
entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consump- 
tion, more favorable customs treatment is prescribed for 
the article by any of the following then in effect: 

( i ) A proclamation pursuant to section 350 of the Tariff 
Act of 1930, but the application of such more favorable 
treatment shall be subject to the qualifications set forth 
in paragraph 3 of the General Notes in Schedule XX 
(Havana— 1957), 

(ii) Any other proclamation, a statute, or an execu- 
tive order, which proclamation, statute, or order either 
provides for an exemption from duty or import tax or 
became effective subsequent to June 20, 1957. 

Part II 

To the end that the exclusive trade agreement with 
the Republic of Cuba specified in the ninth recital of 
this proclamation may be carried out, such modifications 
of existing duties and other import restrictions of the 
United States of America in respect of products of the 
Republic of Cuba and such continuance of existing cus- 
toms or excise treatment of products of the Republic of 
Cuba imported into the United States as are specified 
or provided for in paragraphs 1 to 4, inclusive, of the 
Protocol of Supplementary Concessions specified in the 
sixth recital of this proclamation, and in Part II of 
Schedule XX (Havana — 1957), shall, subject to the pro- 
visions of subdivision (b) of Part I of this proclamation 
and of the said exclusive trade agreement be effective as 
follows : 



(1) The rates of duty specified in column A at the 
right of the respective description!* of products in Part 
II of Schedule XX (Havana— 1957), on and after June 
29, 1957, 

(2) The rates of duty specified in column B at the 
right of the said respective descriptions of products, on 
and after the appropriate date or dates determined in 
accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2 of the 
General Notes at the end of Schedule XX (Havana — 
1957). 

Part III 

The said proclamation of June 13, 1956, shall be ap- 
plied as though the third sub-classification of the de- 
scription in item 1513 [second] in Part I of Schedule 
XX (Geneva — 1956) read "Figures or images of ani- 
mate objects wholly or in chief value of metal and not 
specified aDove in this item". 

Part IV 

The said proclamation of May 16, 1957, is rectified by 
the insertion (a) in the item set forth in the eighth re- 
cital of the rate of "67 V^^ per 100 lb." in place of the 
rate of "GlK<t per lb.",' (b) in Part II of a reference to 
the "sixteenth recital" of the said proclamation of June 
13, 1956, in place of the reference to the "thirteenth re- 
cital" of the proclamation,' and (c) in Part III of a 
reference to the "sixteenth recital" of the said proclama- 
tion of July 22, 1955, in place of the reference to the 
"thirteenth recital" of that proclamation.' 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this twenty-eighth day 
of June in the year of our Lord nineteen hun- 

[seal] dred and fifty-seven, and of the Independence 
of the United States of America the one 
hundred and eighty-first. 



^y Cjcs-t" ^^/C/C^-ie-c*- A*K*^ 



By the President : 

John Posteb Dulles 
secretary of State 



' See p. 157. 



July 22, 7957 



163 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



International Cooperation in Reporting Weatlier Observations 
From tlie High Seas 

SECOND SESSION OF COMMISSION FOR MARITIME METEOROLOGY OF WORLD METEOROLOGICAL 
ORGANIZATION, HAMBURG, GERMANY, OCTOBER 16-31, 1956 



ly TF. F. McDonald 



During the half century of its existence, the 
Commission for Maritime Meteorology under the 
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and 
its predecessor, the International Meteorological 
Organization, has promoted cooperation among 
ships of all nations in furnishing weatlier observa- 
tions from the high seas. The vast expanse of 
the oceans makes the collection of ships' weather 
reports essential to fill the gaps between con- 
tinental weather observation networks, not only 
for the daily weather forecasts and warnings of 
meteorological services which are important aids to 
sea and air navigation but also for climatological 
and research purposes as well. 

The session of the Commission for Maritime 
Meteorology held at Hamburg, Germany, October 
16-31, 1956, was the second meeting convened 
under the World Meteorological Organization, 
wliich was established in 1951. Representatives 
from 29 of the 49 member countries attended. 
Six international organizations, namely, the Food 
and Agriculture Organization of the United Na- 
tions, the United Nations Educational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organization, the International 



• TT. F. McDonald^ author of the above 
article^ is a consultant to the U.S. Weather 
Bureau and a former assistant chief for ad- 
■ministfation. He was chairman of the U.S. 
delegation to the second session of the Cotn- 
mission for Maritime Meteorology. 



Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, the Interna- 
tional Hydrographic Bureau, the Permanent In- 
ternational Association of Navigation Congresses, 
and the British Chamber of Shipping, sent ob- 
servers. Three members of the WMO Secretary- 
General's staff also assisted at the session. 

The United States was represented by W. F. Mc- 
Donald, United States Weather Bureau, wlio 
served as chairman of the delegation ; Capt. P. R. 
Drouilhet, United States Navy Aerology Branch ; 
N. A. Lieurance and A. E. Sik, United States 
Weather Bureau ; and J. J. Schule, United States 
Navy Hydrographic Office. 

Comdr. C. E. N. Frankcom (U.K.), President 
of the Commission, presided at all meetings. He 
was ably assisted by the Vice President, Vice 
Adm. J. W. Termijtelen (Netherlands). To cope 
with the extensive agenda, three Working Com- 
mittees were established. All organizational and 
operational subjects were studied by a group 
headed by J. A. van Duijnen-Montijn (Nether- 
lands), while a second committee that dealt with 
technical questions was chaired by W. F. Mc- 
Donald (U.S.A.). A third group considered 
agenda items relating to sea ice and was led by 
Helge Thomsen (Denmark). 

As of July 1, 1956, the number of "selected," 
"supplementary," and "auxiliary" reporting ships 
of all nations approximated 2,800. With the In- 
ternational Geophysical Year (IGY) program 
scheduled to commence officially on July 1, 1957, 
the commission made an effort to strengthen the 
network of observations over oceans, especially in 



164 



Department of State Bulletin 



ocean areas of the Soutliern Hemisphere between 
latitudes 35°S. and 55°S., from which few reports 
from ships are being received. The conference 
not only urged members to establish and equip ad- 
ditional selected and supplementary ships as prac- 
ticable, but also to recruit additional auxiliary 
ships wherever possible to record and furnisli 
weather messages in an abbreviated code wlien 
tliey traverse ocean areas where reports are now 
scarce. 

For the guidance of members in arranging with 
additional auxiliary sliips to furnish reports dur- 
ing the IGY, the conference drew up a set of prin- 
ciples to be followed relative to the recruiting of 
such vessels, the checking and calibration of ships' 
barometers, thermometers, and other instruments, 
and codes for transmission of messages, and also 
provided an up-to-date chart indicating ocean 
areas where reports are scarce. The conference 
recommended that the guidance material be incor- 
porated in an IGY brochure to be issued by the 
WMO. 

On the subject of codes for ships' weather re- 
ports, there was general agreement that no ma- 
jor clianges are at present needed in any ship code 
forms. In this connection, however, the con- 
ference noted a number of cases where instruc- 
tions to ships' officers relative to the rej^orting and 
coding of waves, dew-point temperatures, and 
wind speeds, to mention a few, need amplification 
and reiteration in order to improve the accuracy 
and completeness of reporting these data within 
the provisions of existing codes. Eevised instruc- 
tions as needed were drafted at the session and 
recommended for incorporation in the WMO 
technical manual entitled "Meteorological Instru- 
ments and Observing Practices," chapter 10. This 
is the section which deals solely with the subject 
of marine observations. 

The Commission also devised and recom- 
mended for adoption a system of universal codes 
for reporting marine ice by aircraft, shijDS, and 
land stations. As a guide to ice observing and re- 
porting practices, the conference agreed to compile 
a photographically illustrated International Ice 
Nomenclature for publication. At the session a 
total of 76 ice photos were selected for use with 
the adopted nomenclature, and each was anno- 
tated in four languages, English, French, Rus- 
sian, and Spanish. The task of completing this 
illustrated nomenclature was assigned to a small 
working group. 



Many members reported that they had in oper- 
ation experimental programs for developing ship- 
board meteorological instruments and observa- 
tional techniques with a view to improving the 
accuracy of data recorded at sea on air and sea- 
water temperatures, rainfall, waves, and other 
subjects. The conference urged meteorological 
services to furnish to the WMO Secretary-Gen- 
eral reports of data collected and analyzed in such 
developments for distribution to other members 
engaged in comparable studies. 

The conference noted with much interest the 
progress made by the United States in developing 
a program of upper-air observations aboard its 
merchant ships. As the session opened, five 
United States vessels in the North Atlantic and 
four in North Pacific waters were making and I'e- 
porting by radio upper-air observations as they 
were under way at sea. Because of the paucity of 
such data from ocean areas, the conference recom- 
mended that meteorological services generally un- 
dertake to develop similar programs aboard their 
merchant ships. 

An important teclinical paper on "The Prob- 
lems of Cargo Ventilation" was also approved by 
the conference, after 4 years of preparatory work. 
This study was made by a working group headed 
by W. F. McDonald (U.S.A.). It involved con- 
siderable exjierimentation aboard ships under 
way at sea to determine the best methods to be em- 
ployed in the ventilation of ships' holds for pre- 
venting damage to cargo. Comments and sugges- 
tions on first and second draft papers had, 
previous to the conference, been obtained from tlie 
maritime industry in many countries as well as 
from experts in the field of maritime meteorology. 
The consensus of many comments received from 
the marine industry showed that the Commission 
had made a valuable contribution to the applica- 
tion of the science of meteorology in protecting 
cargo on shipboard. The conference decided that 
this study should be recommended for publication 
by the WMO as a Teclinical Note, in their series 
under that title. 

Much attention was also given by the conference 
to the need for expanding weather services to 
high-seas fishing fleets. For one thing, the month- 
by-month averages of climatological and hydro- 
graphical factors are found to be highly impor- 
tant for planning fishing operations in new ocean 
areas. While a number of meteorological services 
are now providing specialized weather forecasting 



July 22, J 957 



165 



services to fishing fleets and also compiling marine 
climatological atlases needed by fisliei-y organiza- 
tions, there was unanimous agreement on the im- 
portance of establishing closer coordination of 
these programs between the ^VMO and interna- 
tional fishei-y organizations. To accomplish this 
objective, the conference decided to establish a 
working group to study this problem and recom- 
mend special measures of assistance. A represent- 
ative of the Food and Agriculture Organization 
was invited by the Maritime Commission to serve 
on this group. 

Wliile the session was in progress, a seminar on 
the general subject of "Meteorology as Applied to 
Sea Navigation" was held. Those participating 
in presenting papers were Comdr. C. E. N. Frank- 
com (U.K.), N. A. Lieurance and J. J. Schule 
(U.S.A.), and T. Bergeron (Sweden). 

Commander Frankcom discussed the problems 
of "Application of Meteorology to Sea Naviga- 
tion" while Mr. Lieurance and Mr. Schule talked 
on the subjects of "Operational Weather for the 
Mariner" and "Least Time Tracks for Ships." 
Professor Bergeron's paper was entitled "Special 
Cloud Observations Aboai-d Merchant Ships." 

At the Commission's final meeting, Helge 
Thomsen (Denmark) and K. T. McLeod (Can- 
ada) were elected unanimously as President and 
Vice President, respectively, for the 4-year term 
which will end at the close of the next CMM con- 
ference. Commander Frankcom, the retiring 
Commission President, after announcing elections 
of the new President and Vice President, was the 
recipient of grateful thanks from many members 
who spoke of his untiring efforts and able leader- 
ship during his two terms of office. The confer- 
ence then proceeded to establish working groups 
to deal with problems arising until the third ses- 
sion, as follows: (a) Organizational and Opera- 
tional Matters of the Selected Ship Plan, (b) 
Technical Problems Eelating to Observations 
Aboard Ship, (c) Marine Climatology, (d) Ma- 
rine Cloud Album, and (e) Sea Ice. 

The foregoing is a summary of the major ac- 
complishments of the session held in Hamburg, 
Germany. All decisions of the conference were 
embodied in 6 resolutions and 33 recommenda- 
tions. The recommendations, however, will re- 
quire approval by the WMO Executive Committee 
before coming into force. Also included in the 
recommendations were a number of other deci- 



sions made at the conference relative to changes 
in WMO technical regulations, weather charts for 
use on shipboard, awards to cooperating ships, 
marine climatology, and other details relating to 
the selected-ship program. 



Evaluation of Report 

on World Social Situation 

Statement hy Althea K. Hottel * 

Five years ago, when the Preliminary Refort 
on the World Social Situation was before the So- 
cial Commission, my Government, along with 
others, recognized that study as one of the most 
important documents presented to the Commis- 
sion up to that time. Since then we have pro- 
gressed ill many areas. Understanding of the 
processes of econoniics and social development is 
broader and deeper, and awareness of problems 
sharper and more specific. There has been more 
experience with programs such as community de- 
velopment; more attempts are being made to in- 
tegrate economics and social planning. Through 
the LTnited Nations and its specialized agencies, 
technical assistance has been given through gov- 
ernments to many of the peoples of the world. 
This assistance lias meant improved health and ed- 
ucation, increased agricultural and industrial out- 
put, expanded social-welfare services, and more 
trained young men and women to carry forward 
the plans and programs into the future. I am 
proud of the fact that my country has had an 
opportunity to contribute directly to this great 
effort. 

In setting up a schedule of periodic reports on 
the world social situation, the General Assembly 
in effect has recognized the recurring need of 
an overall review and assessment of where our 
separate and combined efforts have brought us. 
In our united efforts how far have we moved to- 
ward the goals of individual and social welfare? 
What are the major obstacles that have held back 
progress? Where should our efforts be concen- 
trated in the next few years? 

It would be quite unrealistic to expect any sur- 



' Made before the Social Commission of the U.N. Eco- 
nomic and Social Council on May 13 (U.S./U.N. press re- 
lease 2672). Dr. Hottel is U.S. Representative on the 
Commission. 



166 



Department of State Bulletin 



vey to answer all of these questions for us. Some 
involve value judgments on which there is not and 
perhaps never should be complete agreement. 
Others call for much more Imowledge than is yet 
available. Information on social conditions must 
be analyzed carefully. And the areas of the 
world where progress and change are most rapid 
and most critical are also the areas for which in- 
formation is most lacking. 

In evaluating this Report on the World Social 
Situation,^ it is important to see it in the con- 
text of the general program of the Social Com- 
mission and of the United Nations as a whole. 
This 5-}'ear review of developments has some im- 
mediate suggestions for us. It presents informa- 
tion and analyses that should be useful as back- 
ground data for social and economic planning by 
individual countries and by tlie United Nations 
and its specialized agencies. We should recog- 
nize, however, that successive reports will have a 
cmnulative value as they can draw on more data, 
a longer time for observations of trends, and bet- 
ter developed categories of analysis. I want to 
suggest later some steps that might be taken to 
assure that the potential values of successive re- 
ports are realized. 

Major Conclusions of Report 

First, however, I would like to comment on a 
few of the major conclusions this report suggests. 
There are gi-atifying overall improvements in 
such important aspects of welfare as health, food 
consumption, and education; and great variations 
in the extent of progress in different parts of the 
world are evident. With the growing awareness 
of peoples throughout the world of improvements 
that could become possible in their situations, the 
gap between what is and what is desired may 
even be greater than ever before. Indeed, because 
more information is available for countries with 
higher standards of living than for under- 
developed countries, the report probably gives 
an overoptimistic picture of what is. This would 
seem to be true, for instance, with respect to health 
conditions. The report appears to underestimate 
the continuing massive dimensions of the problem 
of major communicable diseases, particularly 
malaria. 

Certain communicable diseases, either in epi- 



' U.N. doc. E/CN.5/324 and Add. 1. 
Jo/y 22, ?957 



demic or endemic form, continue to be a serious 
health problem in many countries, particularly 
the less developed ones. The supply of medical 
personnel and hospital beds in relation to the pop- 
ulation is still grossly insufficient in numerous of 
the latter countries, with a continuing maldistri- 
bution as between rural and urban areas. Statis- 
tical data on the state of health, important causes 
of death, health facilities, etc., imfortunately are 
still lacking for many of the backward regions. 
The fight against cancer and heart disease, which 
dominate the medical picture in developed coun- 
tries, has not yet produced striking resvdts in mor- 
tality reduction. 

In the health field, as in others, the evidence of 
progress achieved gives hope for the future but 
no justification for any relaxation of programs 
now under way. In some less developed coun- 
tries population growth has outrun increases in 
the production of food and thereby prevented at- 
tainment of prewar levels of per capita food pro- 
duction. Indeed, the story of population growth 
makes it clear that the need for improved and 
expanded health, education, and welfare services 
is increasing in magnitude and importance. 
Moreover, employment opportunities must be con- 
tinuously expanded to keep pace with the growth 
in population of working age. 

In a number of countries problems of chronic 
malnutrition are not yet solved. There is little 
indication that some of the fundamental long- 
term problems of world food and agriculture have 
come appreciably nearer to solution. Patterns of 
food production, while less unbalanced than 
earlier, still remain too rigid. 

"Wliile the report notes that a significantly 
greater proportion of the world's children of 
school age are now attending school and that lit- 
eracy is in general advancing up through the age 
groups, the rate of progress has been uneven m 
different countries, with one-half of the world's 
children still not in school. Popular demands for 
education and needs for specialized personnel have 
increased faster than school capacity, and the 
shortage of trained teachers as well as of class- 
room space continues. 

It is a matter of regret to my Government that 
this report contains so little information relating 
to social security and social services. We recog- 
nize the problems which faced the Secretariat in 
assembling current information on this and other 

167 



aspects of living conditions. The report as a 
whole shows evidence of considerable skill and 
ingenuity in the use of fragments of information 
to arrive at what would seem to be reasonably 
valid general estimates or conclusions. We recog- 
nize also that social-security program develop- 
ments — national and international — are more ap- 
propriately discussed in the International Sur- 
vey of Programmes of Social Development. It 
seems to us important, however, that the effect of 
such programs on levels of living should be con- 
sidered along with the other components of levels 
of living covered in the Report on the World So- 
cial Situation. We would urge that special at- 
tention be given to this question in connection with 
the preparation of the third report. The increas- 
ing number of technical assistance programs re- 
lating to welfare services should begin to provide 
some of the information that would be needed. 

This Report on the World Social Situation 
again brings out the intertwined relations of eco- 
nomic and social factors in the life and develop- 
ment of any community or nation. It thus sup- 
ports the emphasis which the Social Commission 
and the Economic and Social Council have placed 
on coordinated planning and suggests that further 
attention should be given to the problem of bal- 
anced economic and social development. I shall 
refer to this matter again when we take up the 
Secretary-General's work program in the social 
field. The report also supports the coordinated 
approach to economic and social policy described 
in the expert report on Mainteriance of Family 
Levels of Living. 

Problems Ahead 

If jDart I of this Report on the World Social 
Situation gives an idea of the general directions 
in which the world has moved in the search for 
better conditions of Iiuman life, part II throws 
a vivid light on problems ahead. For some time 
the Social Commission and other organs of the 
United Nations have been aware of tlie increasing 
movements of population from rural to urban 
communities in countries in various stages of eco- 
nomic development. We have known also that 
there are many social problems associated with 
such movements. The very great value of part II 
of this report is the focus which it gives to the 
many different aspects of the problem of urban- 
ization. The clear distinction that is drawn be- 



tween urbanization and industrialization is help- 
ful. The report brings out the multiple causes 
that are responsible for people moving to cities. 
It shows to what an extent sucli movement may 
represent an escape from rural poverty rather 
than any realizable liope of a better level of living 
in the urban area. There is full recognition in 
the report of the profound social and cultural 
change that may be involved in the shift from 
rural to urban life and of the consequent disloca- 
tion of family life and older patterns of security. 

Several conclusions emerge from the analysis of 
the social problems of urbanization as presented in 
the report. One is the importance of continued 
attention to tlie jiroblems of rural as well as urban 
populations in societies undergoing rapid urban- 
ization. Improvement of living conditions in 
rural areas may ease some of the pressure for 
movement to cities. Increased agricultural out- 
put and the development of small-scale industries 
can help provide a base for industrialization 
and expanding productivity. Technical training 
through community development or other pro- 
grams may help those who do move to achieve a 
higher economic status in the city. It is clear that 
with the growth of towns and cities the tempo of 
cultural diffusion, both technological and ideo- 
logical, is increased. We may need to give more 
attention to tlie ways in which rural peoples re- 
act and adjust to the influence of urban ways of 
life as known through relatives and friends who 
have made the slaift. 

Wliatever is done in rural communities, migra- 
tion will continue to pose major problems that can 
only be solved in the cities. The information and 
analysis given to us in this report point clearly to 
the need for a major expansion of all types of so- 
cial services in the urban centers of most countries 
of the world. The problems of organizing ade- 
quate health services, adequate education services, 
sufficient housing, and practicable social security 
programs are compovmded many times in com- 
munities that are undergoing rapid growth and 
change. Tliis is true in my own country; tlie 
problem is obviously much greater in under- 
developed countries. Truly heroic effoi'ts will be 
required in many countries to expand the basic 
social services rapidly enough to meet even the 
minimum needs of those wlio are migrating to the 
cities. 

What types of service should be set up to help 



168 



Department of State Bulletin 



newcomers and those persons who are living in 
mushrooming shanty towns on the edges of so 
many big cities is a question that deserves the 
attention of the Commission. An adequate de- 
velopment of tlie basic community services might 
best meet the needs of these groups rather than 
special services. On the other hand, if lack of 
funds and trained personnel prevents the expan- 
sion of such services rapidly enough, some other 
expedient may be called for to help ease the prob- 
lems of transition and adjustment. 

We strongly endorse the proposal made by the 
Secretary-General that the second International 
Survey of Programmes of Social Development 
give special attention to measures affecting peoples 
undergoing rapid transition through urbaniza- 
tion. I think the Social Commission should give 
support, also, to the proposed U.N.-UNESCO 
seminars on urbanization and encourage the Sec- 
retary-General to work with the specialized 
agencies and with nongovernmental organizations 
as appropriate in keeping attention focused on 
the social problems of urbanization and the im- 
portance of concerted study and action in this 
field. 

Improving Usefulness of Future Reports 

Mr. Chairman, I indicated earlier the great 
importance which we attach to having a periodic 
review of changes in the world social situation. 
I think it is desirable that the Social Commission 
give some attention to steps that might be taken 
to improve the usefulness of future reports. 

One of the major difficulties that we all recog- 
nize is the lack of adequate statistical and otlier 
information for many areas of the world. Con- 
tinued encouragement and assistance should be 
given to individual countries to develop and to 
make available the basic information needed for 
study and measurement of social conditions and 
social change. In many countries a necessary 
preliminary step is the training of more statis- 
ticians and social scientists. It seems to me im- 
portant for the Social Commission to add its voice 
to those of the Statistical Commission and the 
Population Commission in urging attention to 
these needs in the teclinical assistance program of 
the United Nations, with the special note that 
social data should be given appropriate emphasis 
in the overall statistical programs. 

The specific suggestions made by the Secretary- 



General in document E/CN.5/L.212 for improve- 
ment of information on social conditions sliould 
in our judgment be supported by the Commission. 
The suggestion that the Secretariat in cooperation 
with UNESCO establish contact with research 
centers in underdeveloped areas and assist in 
building up local social research institutes opens 
up the prospect of useful and highly significant 
advances. We believe the Secretary-General 
should be encouraged to further develop this plan 
and start to carry it forward as rapidly as possi- 
ble. The other part of the program outlined in 
the Secretary-General's paper is somewhat vague. 
We certainly agree there is need for definition of 
the types of information required for guiding 
social policy and a formulation of methods of 
obtaining such information. The first report on 
International Definition and MeaHurement of 
Standards and Levels of Living made a very im- 
portant contribution to the development of com- 
mon understanding in this field. We would sup- 
port need for further work in tliis area. Tlie 
method by which this can be accomplislied needs 
to be clarified, however. I shall refer to this 
point a little later. 

In any event we would recommend the Secre- 
tary-General should be requested to present to the 
next meeting of the Social Commission a pre- 
liminary analysis of the major gaps in the infor- 
mation needed for a meaningful evaluation of the 
world social situation and suggestions as to 
specific steps that might be taken to remedy them, 
including possible referral of defined questions 
or areas of inquiry to expert groups. This report 
could be closely related to the progress report on 
International Definition and Measurement of 
Standards and Levels of Living that will also be 
presented to the 12th session of the Commission. 
Tliis suggested report on major gaps should also 
serve to amplify the suggestions in the Secretary- 
General's paper on improvement of information 
on social conditions. 

Further attention should be given also to the 
possibility of sample surveys of family living 
conditions. Such analyses are needed to supple- 
ment the aggregate data and national averages 
derived from periodic censuses of agency reports. 
Limited sample surveys may also fill in gaps in 
knowledge during the long period that may be 
required to develop the basic statistical system 
of a country. 



i»\Y 22, J 957 



169 



In view of the rapidity of social change that 
is evident throughout the world and the increas- 
ing need to relate specific problems and programs 
to an understanding of the major trends of de- 
velopment, we are convinced that the Report on 
the World Social Situation should have a higher 
priority in terms of staff time devoted to its 
preparation than has been possible in the past. 
We think also that a special effort should be 
made to broaden the coverage of the third report 
and to establish a framework for successive 
reports. 

Question of Postponing Third Report 

We have noted with interest the suggestion 
made by the representative of the Secretary- 
General that the third Report on the World Social 
Situation be postponed until the 14th session of 
the Social Commission in 1963. This proposal 
has certain advantages which the Commission 
will wish to consider seriously. The change pro- 
posed would make possible tlie utilization in the 
third report of at least preliminary data from 
the 1960 World Census of Population. As you 
know, some 80 coimtries are now planning to take 
censuses of population in or around the year 1960, 
collecting information on at least a basic list of 
items and in many cases much more. The in- 
dividual countries will publish and use their own 
data. It is planned also to include comparative 
tables from these censuses in the Demographic 
Yearbook. The Report on the World Social Situ- 
ation should be one of the most important docu- 
ments in which analytic use is made of the mate- 
rial for comparative pvirposes. Sufficient data 
from the census would not be available in time for 
a 1961 report; it would be unfortunate to delay 
such use of the data until 1965. With careful 
planning it should be possible to make effective 
use of basic information from most of the census 
in a report for the 1963 session of the Commission. 
While the world population census will not pro- 
vide more than a fraction of the information 
needed for a study of social conditions, it will 
for the first time in the history of the world make 
available so much basic data for the majority 
of the world's population that it will inevitably 
serve as a benchmark for future studies. 

Postponement of the third Report on the World 
Social Situation until 1963 would almost neces- 
sarily involve a postponement of the third Inter- 



national Survey of Programmes of Social De- 
velopment until 1965, and we would so recom- 
mend. It would not seem either necessary or 
wise, however, to take any decision at this time 
as to what the regular time interval for these 
two reports should be thereafter. 

If the third Report on the World Social Situ- 
ation is postponed until 1963, the intervening 
time should be used to lay a basis for improve- 
ments in this and successive reports. The sup- 
port for individual countries attempting to im- 
prove their statistical knowledge and the report 
on major gaps would contribute to this 
improvement. 

We would also propose that the Secretary- 
General be requested to undertake a review of 
the general scope, organization and analytical 
framework, and the major types of data that 
should be included in successive reports on the 
world social situation. It seems desirable that 
certain indices be presented regularly to assure 
some continuity and basis for study of long-term 
trends. On the other hand, the major problems 
that need to be emphasized to give a valid picture 
of social conditions will change over time. Per- 
haps the report should combine a section of sta- 
tistical tables accompanied by brief interpretive 
comments and a section presenting an integrated 
analysis of world social conditions from a special 
point of view. Such ideas as we have at this 
time are highly tentative. The subject is worth 
careful consideration. Before final decisions are 
made, there will need to be some consultation 
with the interested specialized agencies and care- 
ful consideration of the staff resources needed to 
carry out any program adopted. It might be 
very useful, also, to have the advice of consultants 
or an expert group with special competence in 
social research. 

We would suggest that the Secretary-General 
submit a report and his recommendations as to the 
future scope of the Report of the World Social 
Situation to the 13th session of the Social Com- 
mission in 1961. Since the Commission would 
not have before it either a world report or an in- 
ternational survey at that session, it could give 
some time to a consideration of this special report. 
The Secretary-General should also be invited to 
make preliminary comments on this subject to 
the 12th session of the Commission and to include 
in his work program for 1960-61 provision for 



170 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



such special study or expert consultations as he 
thinks desirable. 

Finally, let me say again that I am persuaded 
the Report on the World Social Situation can be 
one of the important instruments we have for 
keeping attention focused on the social aspects and 
the social objectives of economic development. 
We appreciate the difficulty of the task which is 
involved in this kind of overall review. The 
Secretary-General and his staff are to be com- 
mended for the carrying out of this task and in 
particular for the excellence of the second part 
of the report, dealing with the social problems of 
urbanization. The report should be made widely 
available to all who are concerned with economic 
and social development and with progress toward 
improved conditions of life for people evei'y where. 



1958 World Health Assembly 
To Be Held at Minneapolis 

Press release 409 dated July 5. 

The Department of State announced on July 5 
that the Director General of the World Health 
Organization at Geneva has accepted the proposal 
that the 11th World Health Assembly be held at 
Minneapolis, Minn., in late May and early June 
of 1958. 

The invitation of the U.S. Government to the 
World Health Organization to convene its 11th 
Assembly in the United States was extended by 
the Department of State to the 10th World Health 
Assembly meeting at Geneva, Switzerland, in May 
of this year. ' The invitation, extended pursuant 
to the authorization contained in Public Law 832, 
84th Congress, was accepted unanimously by the 
10th Assembly. The date and site of the meeting 
in the United States were left for subsequent 
determination. 

The World Health Organization, with perma- 
nent headquarters at Geneva, Switzerland, is an 
association of 88 member countries engaged in 
promoting international cooperation in the field 
of health. It is one of the 11 specialized agencies 
of the United Nations. 

The World Health Assembly is the supreme 
governing body of the World Health Organiza- 
tion. It meets annually to determine the policies 
of the World Health Organization and, in 1958, 



' Bulletin of May 20, 1957, p. 823. 
July 22, 7957 



will celebrate the 10th anniversary of the found- 
ing of that body. The United States has been 
an active member of the World Health 
Organization since its inception. 

U.S. Delegations to 
International Conferences 

International Conference on Public Education 

The Department of State announced on July 3 
(press release 407) that the U.S. Government wiU 
be represented by the following delegation at the 
20th International Conference on Public Educa- 
tion, sponsored jointly by the United Nations Ed- 
ucational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
(UNESCO) and the International Bureau of 
Education (IBE), to be held at Geneva, Switzer- 
land, July 8-17, 1957 : 

Finis E. Engleman, chairman, Executive Secretary, 
American Association of School Administrators, Na- 
tional Education Association 

Ray L. Hamon, Chief, School Housing Section, OflBce of 
Education, Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare 

Francis Kepi)el, Dean, Faculty of Education, Harvard 
University 

John W. McLeod, McLeod and Ferrara, Architects, 
Washington, D. C. 

Fredrika M. Tandler, Specialist in International Edu- 
cational Relations, Office of Education, Department of 
Health, Education, and Welfare 

The subjects for discussion at the 1957 con- 
ference, as approved by the joint committee of 
UNESCO and IBE, include (1) the expansion of 
school building, (2) the training of primary- 
teacher training staffs, and (3) reports on the 
progress of education during the school year 
1956-57 presented by the Ministries of Education. 

The 19th International Conference on Public 
Education was attended in 1956 by 74 countries. 



Current U. N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 

Economic and Social Council 

Commission on Human Rights. Advisory Services in the 

Field of Human Rights. E/CN.4/736, February 8, 1957. 

5 pp. mimeo. 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. Report 

of the Food and Agriculture Organization. E/CN.ll/- 

445, February 11, 1957. 30 pp. mimeo. 



171 



Commission on the Status of Women. Nationality of 
Harried Women. Memoranilum liy the Secretary-Gen- 
eral. E/CN.6/254/Add.3, February 12, 1957. 4 pp. 
mlmeo. 

Commission on the Status of Women. Occupational Out- 
look for Women. E/CN.6/302, February 12, 1957. 15 pp. 
mimeo. 

Population Commission. Preliminary Report ou Possi- 
bilities for International Co-operation in the Study of 
Internal Migration. E/CN.9/141, February 12, 1957. 
32 pp. mimeo. 

Commission on the Status of Women. Tax Legislation 
Affecting Married Women Who Work. E/CN.6/297, 
February 15, 1957. 40 pp. mimeo. 

Commission on the Status of Women. Opportunities for 
Women in Handicrafts and Cottage Industries. Second 
Progress Report prepared by the International Labor 
Offic-e for the Commission on the Status of Women. 
E/CN.6/303, February 19, 1957. 59 pp. mimeo. 

Commission on the Status of Women. Access of Women 
to the Teaching Profession. Preliminary Report pre- 
pared by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and 
Cultura"! Organization. E/CN.6/301, February 15, 1957. 
14 pp. mimeo. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



United States and Pakistan 
Sign Income-Tax Convention 

Press release 400 dated July 1 

Secretary Dulles, in behalf of the United States, 
and Ambassador Mohammed Ali and Finance 
Minister Syed Amjad Ali of Pakistan, in behalf 
of Pakistan, on July 1 signed a convention be- 
tween the United States and Pakistan relating to 
double taxation of income. 

The convention follows in general the pattern 
of conventions now in force between the United 
States and numerous other countries for the avoid- 
ance of double taxation with respect to taxes on 
mcome. It is designed to eliminate obstacles to 
the international flow of trade and investment. 
It contains provisions relating to business, invest- 
ment, and personal-service income, official salaries, 
pensions and annuities, remuneration of teach- 
ers, remittances to students and apprentices, and 
interest received by the State Bank of Pakistan 
and the Federal Reserve Banks of the United 
States. It also contains, as is customary, pro- 
visions regarding administrative procedures, in- 
cluding exchange of information, for giving ef- 
fect to the convention. 



The convention contains certain provisions, un- 
like those in income-tax conventions with other 
countries, under which the United States would 
take an important step toward avoiding nulli- 
fication of the etl'orts of a foreign country to en- 
courage industrial development through its tax 
laws. Under the income-tax law of Pakistan a 
business qualifj'ing as a new enterprise may ob- 
tain tax exemption for a 5-yeiir period on profits 
up to 5 percent of invested capital, and dividends 
paid from such profits may be tax exempt. At 
present an American corporation qualifying for 
such treatment under Pakistan law may find that 
U.S. taxes will be increased and thus offset the 
effects of the Pakistan tax law. Under the pro- 
posed convention this situation would be remedied 
within limits and on certain conditions by treat- 
ing as though paid for foreign-tax-credit purposes 
the amount of income tax and supertax by which 
the American taxpayer's Pakistan tax is reduced. 

The convention applies, so far as United States 
taxes are concerned, to the Federal income taxes, 
including surtaxes. It does not apply to the im- 
jjosition or collection of taxes by the several States, 
the District of Columbia, or the Territories or 
Possessions of the United States, although it con- 
tains a broad national-treatment provision similar 
to a provision customarily found in treaties of 
friendship, commerce, and navigation. In Pakis- 
tan the convention would be applicable to the in- 
come tax, supertax, and business-profits tax. 

The convention would be brought into force by 
the exchange of instruments of ratification and 
would be effective in the United States for taxable 
years beginning on or after January 1 of the year 
in which such exchange takes place. It would 
be efl'ective in Pakistan for "previous years" or 
"chargeable accounting periods," as defined in 
Pakistan law, beginning on or after January 1 of 
the year in which the exchange takes place. 



Surplus Agricultural Commodity 
Agreement With the Philippines 

Press release 389 dated June 25 

The Governments of the United States and of 
the Philippines, represented by Minister Horace 
Smith and Acting Secretary of Foreign Affairs 
Haul Manglapus, respectively, signed an agree- 



172 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



ment on June 25, 1957, under which the U.S. 
Government undertakes to finance $10.3 million 
worth of U.S. aj^ricultural commodities under the 
provisions of title I of the Agricultural Trade De- 
velopment and Assistance Act as amended (Pub- 
lic Law 480, 83d Cong.). These commodities will 
be sold for pesos. 

The commodities included in the agreement are 
rice, $2.5 million; cotton, $4.9 million; dairy prod- 
ucts, $1,125 million; meat products, $500,000; in- 
edible tallow, $500,000; and dried beans, $50,000. 
The balance is for that part of the ocean trans- 
portation which will be financed by the U.S. 
Government. 

The peso proceeds resulting from these sales 
will be divided as follows: a loan to the Govern- 
ment of the Philippines for economic develop- 
ment, the peso equivalent of $5.2 million; a grant 
to the Government of the Philippines for use by 
the armed forces of the Philippines in the com- 
mon defense, the peso equivalent of $2.1 million; 
to help develop new markets for U.S. agricul- 
tural commodities, for international educational 
exchange, and for other expenditures of the U.S. 
Government in the Philippines, the peso equiv- 
alent of $3 million. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Automotive Traffic 

Convention concerning customs facilities for touring. 

Done at New York .Tune 4, 1954.' 

Ratificatiim deposited: Sweden, .Tune 11, 19.'57. 
Customs convention on temporar.v importation of private 

road vehicles. Done at New York June 4. 1954.' 

Ratification deposited: Sweden, June 11, 1957. 

Copyright 

Universal copyright convention. Done at Geneva Septem- 
ber C), 19.52. Entered into force September 16, 1955. 
TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: United Kingdom, June 27, 1957. 

Protocol 1 concerning application of the convention to 
the works of stateless persons and refugees. Done at 
Geneva September 6. 1952. Entered into force Septem- 
ber 10. 19.55. TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: United Kingdom, June 27, 19.57. 

Protocol 2 concerning application of the convention to the 
works of certain international organizations. Done at 
Geneva September 6, 1952. Entered into force Septem- 
ber 16, 19.55. TIAS 3.324. 
Ratification deposited: United Kingdom. June 27, 19.57. 

Protocol 3 concerning the effective date of instruments of 
ratilication or acceptance of or accession to the conven- 
tion. Done at Geneva September 6, 1952. Entered into 
force August 19, 1954. TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: United Kingdom, June 27, 19.57. 



War 

Geneva convention relative to treatment of prisoners of 

war ; 
Geneva convention for amelioration of condition of 

wounded and sick In armed forces in the field ; 
Geneva convention for amelioration of condition of 
wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of armed 
forces at sea ; 
Geneva convention relative to protection of civilian per- 
sons in time of war. 

Dated at Geneva August 12, 1949. Entered into force 
October 21, 19.50 ; for the United States February 2, 
1956. TIAS 3364, 3362, 3363, and 3365, respectively. 
Ratification deposited: Albania, May 27, 1957." 

Whaling 

Protocol amending the international whaling convention 
of 1946 (TIAS 1849). Done at Washington November 
19, 1956.' 

Ratification deposited: Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, July 3, 1957. 



BILATERAL 

Austria 

Agreement regarding certain bonds of Austrian issue de- 
nominated in dollars, and protocol. Signed at Wash- 
ington November 21, 1956.' 

Senate advice and consent to ratification given: July 2, 
1957. 

France 

Agreement amending the power reactor agreement of June 
19, 1956 (TIAS 3689), concerning civil uses of atomic 
energy. Signed at Washington July 3, 1957. Enters into 
force on date on which each Government receives from 
the other written notification that it has complied with 
statutory and constitutional requirements. 

Germany 

Research reactor agreement on behalf of Berlin concern- 
ing civil uses of atomic energy. Signed at Washington 
June 28, 1957. Enters into force on date on which each 
Government receives from the other written notifica- 
tion that it lias complied with statutory and constitu- 
tional requirements. 

Power reactor agreement concerning civil uses of atomic 
energy. Signed at Washington July 3, 1957. Enters 
into force on date on which each Government receives 
from the other written notification that it has complied 
with statutory and constitutional requirements. 

Italy 

Power reactor agreement concerning civil uses of atomic 
energy. Signed at Washington July 3, 1957. Enters 
Into force on date on which each Government receives 
from the other written notification that it has complied 
with statutory and constitutional requirements. 

Netherlands 

Agreement amending the power reactor agreement of June 
22, 1956,' concerning civil uses of atomic energy. Signed 
at Washington July 3, 1957. Enters into force on date 
on which each Government receives from the other writ- 
ten notification that it has complied with statutory and 
constitutional requirements. 

Pakistan 

Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the 
prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on in- 
come. Signed at Washington July 1, 1957. Enters into 
force upon exchange of instruments of ratification. 



' Not in force. 

' With reservations made at time of signature. 



Jo/y 22, 1957 



173 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Designations 

R. Gordon Arneson as Deputy Special Assistant, Intelli- 
gence, effective June 30. 

John M. Steeves as Political Adviser to the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, Pacific, effective July 1. (For bio- 
graphic details, see press release 401 dated July 1.) 

Norbert L. Anschuetz as Special Assistant to the 
Deputy Under Secretary for Political Affairs, effective 
July 2. 

Opening of Consulate at Kirituk, Iraq 

Effective June 18, 1957, a consulate was established at 
Kirkuk, Iraq. Lee Dinsmore is the principal officer at 
the post. 



PUBLICATIONS 



relations with the following countries : Denmark. 
France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Lithuania, 
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Kumania, Spain, 
and Switzerland. 

The largest of the country sections, 287 pages, 
is that regarding relations with France, with in- 
terest centering on the effects of the German oc- 
cupation of that country and the resulting con- 
cern for American security, especially as to the 
disposition of the French fleet and the fate of 
French overseas possessions. Other problems af- 
fecting American security arose with respect to 
possessions of Demuark and the Netherlands after 
occupation by Germany. 

Correspondence under other country headings 
concerns such matters as the defense of Iceland, 
effoi-ts to keep Italy out of the war, proposed send- 
ing of relief supplies to Poland, Spanish neu- 
trality, and the supplying of foodstuffs to Spain. 
As to Germany, only minor issues are treated 
under this country heading, the broader aspects 
of the war being covered elsewhere in this volume 
and in volume I. 

Copies of volume II (v, 915 pp.) may be ob- 
tained from the Government Printing OiRce, 
Washington 25, D. C, for $4 each. 



Foreign Relations Volume 

Press release 397 dated June 28 

The Department of State on July 6 released 
Foreign Relations of the United States, WlfO, 
Volume II, General and Europe. This is the 
second of five volumes for 1940 to be published, 
volume IV on the Far East having been previously 
released. 

The first 342 pages of this volume, imder the 
heading "General," contain correspondence on 
subjects of multilateral interest, chiefly regarding 
problems connected with the neutrality policy of 
the United States, repatriation of American 
citizens and others, assistance to refugees, and ef- 
forts of the United States to acquire supplies of 
raw materials for defense purposes. Among 
minor topics treated is that of territorial claims 
in the Antarctic advanced by certain governments. 
The "General" section in this volume is a con- 
tinuation from volume I, which will mclude cor- 
respondence on many phases of the European war. 

The remainder of volume II deals with bilateral 



Recent Releases 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, V.8. Oov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, 
except in the case of free publications, which may be 
obtained from the Department of State. 

The Austrian State Treaty — An Account of the Postwar 
Negotiations Together with the Text of the Treaty and 
Related Documents. Pub. 6437. European and British 
Commonwealth Series 49. 99 pp. 35^. 

A publication recounting the postwar negotiations by 
which Austria regained her full sovereignty after 17 years 
of foreign occupation. A documentary annex includes the 
texts of the treaty, various related documents, and several 
statements made by President Eisenhower and Secretary 
of State Dulles concerning the significance of this treaty. 



The Seal of the United States, 
and Foreign Service Series 64. 



Pub. 6455. Department 
14 pp. 30^. 



A publication giving the history, design, and use of the 
great seal. The illustrated pamphlet contains a full-color 
reproduction of the seal, approximately 5 inches in diam- 
eter, suitable for framing. 

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands— 1956. Pub. 6457. 
International Organization and Conference Series III, 120. 
208 pp. 75(if. 

The ninth annual report by the United States to the 
United Nations on the administration of the Trust Terri- 
tory of the Pacific Islands. 



174 



Department of State Bulletin 



July 22, 1957 



Index 



Vol. XXXVII, No. 943 



AgrricDlture. Surplus Agricultural Commodity Agreement 

With the Philippines 172 

Algeria. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of July 2 . . 139 

Asia. Working Group To Consider Asian Regional Nuclear 

Center 149 

Atomic Energy 

Atoms-forPeace Agreement With Germany for City of 

Berlin 149 

Availability of Adilitlonal Quantities of Uranium 235 

(Eisenhower, Strauss) 146 

Nuclear Power Agreements Signed With France, Ger- 
many, and Italy (Herter, Strauss) 147 

Working Group To Consider Asian Regional Nuclear 

Center 149 

China, Communist. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 

July 2 139 

Communism. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of July 2 . 139 

Congress. The. Congressional Documents Relating to 

Foreign Policy 152 

Cuba. Supiilemental Trade Agreement With Cuba (texts 

of agreement and proclamation 157 

Department and Foreign Service 

Designations (Anschuetz, Arneson, Steeves) .... 174 

Opening of Consulate at Kirkuk, Iraq 174 

Disarmament. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 

July 2 139 

Economic Affairs 

Administration of Cultural Exchange and Trade Pair Par- 
ticipation Act (text of Executive order) 150 

First Balanci'-of-Payments Consultations Under GATT . 153 

Revision of Tariff Quotas on Potatoes (text of proc- 
lamation) 154 

Supplemental Trade Agreement With Cuba (texts of 

agreement and proclamation) 157 

United States and Pakistan Sign Income-Tax Convention . 172 

Educational Exchange. Administration of Cultural Ex- 
change and Trade Fair Participation Act (text of Execu- 
tive order 150 

Europe. Foreign Relations Volume 174 

France. Nuclear Power Agreements Signed With France, 

Germany, and Italy (Herter, Strauss) 147 

Germany. Federal Republic of 

Atoms-for-Peace Agreement With Germany for City of 

Berlin 149 

Nuclear Power Agreements Signed With France, Germany, 

and Italy (Herter, Strauss) 147 

Health. Education, and Welfare. Evaluation of Report on 

World Social Situation (Hottel) 166 

International Information 

Administration of Cultural Exchange and Trade Fair Par- 
ticipation Act (text of Executive order) 150 

Be;:inning of the International Geophysical Year (Elsen- 
hower) 145 

International Organizations and Conferences 

International Conference on Public Education (delega- 
tion) 171 

International Cooperation in Reporting Weather Obser- 
vations From the High Seas (McDonald) 164 

195S World Health Assembly To Be Held at Minneapolis . 171 

Iraq. Opening of Consulate at Kirkuk, Iraq 174 

Italy. Nuclear Power Agreements Signed With France. 

Germany, and Italy (Herter, Strauss) 147 

Jordan 

Aid to Jordan 146 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of July 2 . . . . 139 
Korea. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of July 2 . . 139 
Mutual Security. Aid to Jordan 146 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Durability of the At- 
lantic Community (Herter) 135 

Pakistan. United States and Pakistan Sign Income-Tax 

Convention 172 

Philippines. Surplus Agricultural Commodity Agreement 

With the Philippines 172 



Presidential Documents 

Administration of Cultural Exchange and Trade Fair Par- 
ticipation Act 150 

Availability of Additional Quantities of Uranium 235 . . 146 

Beginning of the International Geophysical Year . . . 145 

Revision of Tariff Quotas on Potatoes 154 

Supplemental Trade Agreement With Cuba 157 

Publications 

Foreign Relations Volume 174 

Recent Releases 174 

Science 

Beginning of the International Geophysical Year (Elsen- 
hower) 145 

International Cooperation in Reporting Weather Obser- 
vations From the High Seas (McDonald) 164 

Treaty Information 

Atoms-for-Peace Agreement With Germany for City of 

Berlin 149 

Current Actions 173 

Supplemental Trade Agreement With Cuba (texts of agree- 
ment and proclamation) 157 

.Surplus Agricultural Commodity Agreement With the 

Philippines 172 

United States and Pakistan Sign Income-Tax Convention . 172 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 171 

Evaluation of Report on World Social Situation (Hottel) . 166 
International Cooperation in Kei)orting Weather Observa- 
tions From the High Seas (McDonald) 164 

Name Index 

Anschuetz, Norbert L • 174 

Arneson, R. Gordon 174 

Dinsmore, Lee ^'^4 

Dulles, Secretary 139 

Eisenhower, President 145, 146, 151, 154 

Herter, Christian A 135, 148 

Hottel. Althea K 166 

McDonald. W. F 164 

Steeves, John M 174 

Strauss, Lewis M 1*7, 148 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: July 1-7 

Releases may be obtained from the News Divisioii, 
Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 

Press releases issued prior to July 1 which appear 
in this Issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 376 of June 
20, 389 of June 2.5, 395 of June 27, 396, 397, and 398 
of June 28, and 399 of June 29. 
No. Date Subject 

400 7/1 Income tax convention with Pakistan. 
*401 7/1 Steeves designated political adviser to 
CINCPAC (biographic details). 

402 7/1 Economic aid to. Jordan. 

403 7/1 GATT balance-of-payments consulta- 

tions. 
*404 7/1 Educational exchange. 
405 7/2 Dulles : news conference. 
1406 7/2 Wilcox : "Foreign Policy and Some 

Implications for Education." 

407 7/3 Delegation to International Conference 

on Public Education (rewrite). 

408 7/3 Nuclear power agreements with France, 

Germany, and Italy. 

409 7/5 World Health Assembly to meet in U. S. 

in 1958. 
t410 7/5 Visit of Pakistan Prime Minister. 



* Not printed. 

t Held for a later issue of the Btjixetin. 



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Foreign Relations of the United States 

The basic source of information on 
U.S. diplomatic history 



1940, Volume II, General and Europe 



This voliune contains correspondence on subjects of multilateral 
interest chiefly regarding problems connected with the neutrality 
policy of the United States, repatriation of American citizens and 
others, assistance to refugees, and efforts of the United States to acquire 
supplies of raw materials for defense purposes. Among minor topics 
treated is that of territorial claims in the Antarctic advanced by certain 
governments. 

The volume also deals with bilateral relations with the following 
countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Lithuania, 
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Rumania, Spain, and Switzerland. 

The largest of the country sections is that regarding relations with 
France, with interest centering on the effects of the German occupa- 
tion of that country and the resulting concern for American security, 
especially as to tlie disposition of the French fleet and the fate of 
French overseas possessions. 

Correspondence under other country headings concerns such mat- 
ters as the defense of Iceland, efforts to keep Italy out of the war, 
proposed sending of I'elief supplies to Poland, Spanish neutrality, and 
the supplying of foodstuffs to Spain. 

Copies of this publication may be piu-chased from the Superin- 
tendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 
25, D. C, for $4 each. 



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Vol. XXXVII, No. 944 



July 29, 1957 



FOREIGN POLICY AND SOME IMPLICATIONS FOR 

EDUCATION • by Assistant Secretary Wilcox 179 

VISIT OF PRIME MINISTER SUHRAWARDY OF 

PAKISTAN • Joint Communiqite, Addresses to Senate and 
House of Representatives, Exchange of Greetings 186 

HUNGARY: OUR CONTINUING RESPONSIBILITY* by 

Ambassador James J. Wadsworth 192 

SUPPLEMENTARY TRADE AGREEMENTS WITH 
BENELUX COUNTRIES AND U.K. • White House 

and Department Announcements, Texts of Agreements and 
Proclamation 200 

DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL IN 
THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE • Article by 

H. H. Kelly 212 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTIVIENT OF STATE 




Boeton Public Library 
SuperintoT>.1- of Oocumente 

AUG 2 9 ^957 



Vol. XXXVII, No. 944 • Publication 6525 
July 29, 1957 



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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
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Department, and statements and ad- 
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the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
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become a party and treaties of gen- 
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Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
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Foreign Policy and Some Implications for Education 



hy Francis 0. Wilcox 

Assistant Secretary for International Organization Ajfairs '■ 



I am honored to speak before this distinguished 
gathering of the National Education Association. 
We share a great responsibility, for one of the 
primary tasks of American education is to pre- 
pare tlie youth of our comitry for responsible 
citizenship. No one wishes more earnestly for 
your success in this task than do those of us 
working in the field of international affairs. An 
educated citizenry, aware of America's responsi- 
bilities in tlie world today, is essential to an 
effective foi-eign policy. 

Most of us here this morning received our 
formal education at about the end of the Ameri- 
can isolationist era. Now it is true that all of 
us took courses in history; some of us studied 
political science and international relations. But 
our approach to these matters and the approach 
of our teachers necessarily omitted many of the 
events which today shape our foreign policy. 

For this was before Pearl Harbor, before the 
San Francisco charter, before Hiroshima. In 
short, it was before America had assumed the 
important role it plays in world affairs. 

The members of your profession are respon- 
sible for preparing present and future genera- 
tions of boys and girls for life as citizens in a 
country which is an acknowledged leader of the 
free world. We can be proud of our new role. 
But a position of leadership is not all honors. 
It is lonely and perilous, and its mistakes are 
not overlooked. Indeed, our new responsibilities 
have, in a sense, set us apart. Our conduct both 
at home and abroad is being scrutinized as never 



' Address made before the centennial convention of the 
National Education Association at Philadelphia, Pa., on 
July 3 (press release 406 dated July 2). 



before. An isolated civil or criminal offense com- 
mitted abroad, an act of racial discrimination 
here at home, and America is in the papers in 50 
languages — languages, incidentally, which few of 
our citizens are able to read. 

The Rising Influence of Asia and Africa 

We live in a very different world from that 
of our childhood. We have only to look at the 
map of Asia to realize tliat very fundamental 
changes have taken place. Empires once ruled 
by the Western World, which included the vast 
populations and the rich resources of Asia, Africa, 
and the Middle East, have fallen or are relaxing 
their hold. World War II shattered the old pat- 
tern. In its place new states have sprung into 
being with bewildering rapidity. Their citizens 
make up a population approximately four times 
that of the United States, and much of the world's 
material wealth lies within their boundaries. 

A revolution, in many ways comparable to our 
own, has taken place in this area. Yet how 
many of our students, in school or college, can 
name these new countries or are conversant with 
their history, religion, or cultures ? 

Wlien President Sukarno of Indonesia was 
visituag this country, he amused himself by ask- 
ing children where his country was, how many 
people it had, and questions of a similar nature. 
Precious few knew the answers. He would laugh 
and turn away. But this is no laughing matter. 
Indonesia is the fifth most populous country in 
the world, immediately after the United States. 
It has vast tin and rubber resources. More im- 
portant, it is a new state, strategically located, 
which the Communists would like to press into 
their orbit. 



Jw/y 29, J 957 



179 



I have used Indonesia merely by way of ex- 
ample. For there is a dynamic new force through- 
out Asia and Africa which we must recognize and 
with which we must work. It is particularly im- 
portant for Americans to do so, understandingly 
and constructively. The words of our Declaration 
of Independence, of Jefferson, of Patrick Henry, 
and of Lincoln have been the rallying cry of these 
people as they strove toward independence. 
There "the shot heard round the world" is still 
reverberating. 

We, as a people and as a government, have much 
in common with the aspirations of Asia. We are 
doing much to foster the rapid economic and so- 
cial progi-ess of these countries toward responsible 
participation in the free world. But we must also 
develop closer economic, political, and cultural ties 
with the people of Asia and Africa. 

Understanding the Communist Tlireat 

A second fundamental requirement for better 
understanding the world about us is to know the 
nature of international communism — its threat, its 
weaknesses, and its superficial appeal. 

Again, the form if not the nature of conxmu- 
nism has changed much since our own school and 
college days. Then it was a new, threatening, but 
miproved experiment largely confined to the So- 
viet Union. The war gave international commu- 
nism the opportunity to exploit chaos, misery, and 
anarchy to its advantage. Through force, threat, 
and subversion it expanded its empire by seizing 
control of the luckless countries on its borders. It 
gained dominance over the weak and wartorn 
China mainland and extended its tentacles down 
the Korean and Indochina peninsulas. 

There its expansion has been stopped. But in- 
ternational commmiism has thrown down the 
gantlet to the free world, and to the United 
States in particular. They have made clear that 
they intend to carry on an all-out war of ideas, 
ideologies, propaganda, and subversion. 

This means that among the weapons and the de- 
fenses available to us to meet their challenge those 
of the mind, the spirit, of skills and knowledge, 
are of major importance. And these are the very 
disciplines for which you educators bear so much 
responsibility. 

Voltaire once said : "There is one thing stronger 
than all the armies of the world, and that is an 
idea whose time has come." The Communists 



seem to be convinced that they have an idea whose 
time has come. Their faith in commmiism is 
based upon a conviction that Eussian socialism 
will emerge triumphant, that inexorably the social 
and political forces of world communism will rise 
while Western capitalism will go down to oblivion 
and decay. Did not Khrushchev, just the other 
day, predict that our grandchildren will live mider 
communism ? 

Now it is not sufficient to hate communism or 
to know that it carries within itself the seeds of 
its own decay and destruction. This will not make 
it go away. We must calmly evaluate its assets — 
both real and imagined — and study its weaknesses 
and vulnerabilities. 

The Communists have sought consciously to de- 
velop as an asset their monolithic control over 
education. If the state decides that so many phy- 
sicists, or so many engineers, or so many Burmese- 
language experts are to be turned out in a certain 
period of time, then they merely have to set the 
wheels in motion. For they regard the individual 
essentially as a commodity to be used to advance 
the cause of communism. 

Now a free society cannot mass-produce spe- 
cialists in this ruthless manner. But if this Com- 
munist technique becomes a threat to the free 
world — and there are signs that it is — then we 
must devise effective ways to meet it. Certainly 
education in a free society can draw upon our 
vast human resources when the national security is 
involved to meet any challenge posed by a slave 
state. 

Wliat confronts us here is a problem in basic 
education, beginning long before the college age 
is reached. It concerns the development of at- 
titudes based on a careful reading of the world 
and our position in it. Our educational system 
would be incomplete and inadequate if it kept the 
facts about conunmiism locked up in a closet. 
And these facts are not hard to find. Indeed, the 
Communists have proclaimed them clearly and 
repeatedly. The closing words of the Communist 
manifesto state: "The Communists disdain to con- 
ceal their views and aims. They openly declare 
that their ends can be attained only by the forcible 
overthrow of all existing social conditions." 

This is imequivocal language. Does it still re- 
flect the intent of the Soviet leadership since the 
death of Stalin? Or has the advent of the nu- 
clear age made the use of force too risky, the out- 



180 



Departmenf of Slate Bulletin 



come of a violent struggle with the free world 
too uncertain? 

These are questions to which we must find 
answers. Our conclusions will shape the course 
of our foreign policy and determine for a long 
time to come the environment in which we live. 
We must be ever wary of supex-ficially attractive 
slogans of "peaceful coexistence."' "We must be 
equally vigilant to discern under the cloak of 
peaceful words the continued threat of Communist 
aggression. 

Our position of leadership in the free world 
places upon us all a heavy obligation for clear 
tliinking on these issues. Therefore it is impera- 
tive, in my view, that our schools and colleges push 
ahead quickly with programs designed to teach 
the cold, hard facts about communism both in 
theory and in practice. This is no time to equivo- 
cate. This is no time to shrink away from the 
facts. Our students ought to be thoroughly 
familiar with the origins of commimism, its de- 
velopment in the Soviet Union, its methods, its 
wealmesses, its strengths, and the nature of its 
spurious appeal. In this period of competing 
political and economic systems our schools are be- 
coming ever more important. 

"We ought never to lose sight of the fact that the 
Communists have no timetable for the execution of 
their program for world domination. It is prob- 
able, therefore, that our people will be subject to 
Communist propaganda and cold-war pressures 
for many years to come. This is a challenge they 
nnist be equipped to meet. 

It is for this reason that I am veiy mucin 
heartened by the recent evidence that educational 
associations, school systems, and superintendents 
are beginning to make provision for teaching the 
facts about commmiism when students are of an 
age to imderstand them. I believe the truth in 
this respect will set us free from fears that are 
unfounded and reveal those that must be faced as 
long as communism is a world force to contend 
with. 

International Communism and American Aid 
Programs 

The interdependence of the free world is more 
than militarj' and political. It is also economic 
and social. Both aspects are reflected in our 
American foreign economic and military aid pro- 
grams. An appreciation of their purpose is 



among the fundamentals of imderstanding our 
role in world alTairs. Nothing like them has 
ever before been attempted by any other country. 
"Vl'^hy do we do it ? AVhat does it have to do with 
education ? I am sometimes led to think that the 
reasons are better imderstood overseas than by our 
own people. 

The reasons are dii'ectly related to the two sub- 
jects I have touched upon : the nature of the Com- 
munist threat and the "revolution of rising ex- 
pectations" in Asia and Africa. 

It became apparent after "World "War II that 
the Communists were moving on two fronts to 
extend their influence : the military^ as exemplified 
by the takeover of the new satellite countries and 
the aggression or threat of aggression against 
Greece, Turkey, Iran, and Korea ; and the politico- 
econmnic, as demonstrated by their propaganda 
and subvereion among the peoples of Asia and 
Africa, many of whom were in various stages of 
revolutionaiy ferment. 

The United States coxmtered these two moves 
by military assistance and economic aid — ^the one 
to provide a shield against aggression, the other 
to help remove the poverty and despair on which 
Communist subversion thrives. 

I think no one will question that both these 
moves are in the interests of our national security. 
They are not giveaway programs but cooperative 
endeavors designed to help people who are free 
to remain free. 

Clearly American aid is no one-way street. 
"We need our allies just as much as our allies need 
us. They provide us with bases that are abso- 
lutely essential to the effective employment of 
our strategic air power. And their own mili- 
tary forces stand with oui-s in defense of the free 
world. 

Moreover, our economy would hobble along in 
low gear if we were deprived of the strategic 
materials — like rubber, tin, diamonds, and man- 
ganese — which foreign aid helps to keep flowing 
to our shores. 

Our aid programs are particularly important 
in Asia and Africa. In these lands there is a 
persistent desire by millions of people to secure 
more of the better things of life. The Commu- 
nists are constantly trying to sell them on the 
idea that there is a short road — the Communist 
road — to better living conditions and greater po- 
litical and economic influence. Our aid pro- 



Jo/y 29, J 957 



181 



grams are an effective antidote against the Com- 
munist virus. They are also a healthy tonic pro- 
moting greater welfare and higher living stand- 
ards. By helping these new nations to maintain 
their independence, these programs have become 
an essential of the free-world arsenal in its strug- 
gle against communism. And to be most ef- 
fective they cannot be sporadic attempts but pro- 
grams consistently supported over a reasonable 
period of time. 

The basic problem is not only to share what 
we produce but, more important, to provide a 
long-term program designed to make available 
our economic and scientific know-how to those 
countries that want to help themselves. As Sec- 
retary Dulles has pointed out : "We have unprec- 
edented resources with which to create and with 
which to share." 

Training for Overseasmanship 

Now it is important to realize that we are con- 
fronted with real jiroblems in human relations 
in putting these programs into effect. For, in 
carrying them out, it has been found necessary 
for the first time in our history to station a large 
number of Americans abroad in time of peace. 
This inevitably creates certain tensions, partic- 
ularly in our relations abroad. 

These aid programs, to be fully successful, re- 
quire understanding, patience, and skill on our 
part and on the part of the governments and 
peoples with whom we are cooperating. It 
means training for a generation or more for this 
aspect alone of our new leadership in interna- 
tional affairs. This training should begin at the 
school level. 

A surprisingly high proportion of those now 
in school will spend some portion of their lives 
abroad as soldiers, teclmicians, educators, gov- 
ernment officials, business men and women, and 
tourists. How they act, how well they represent 
America, and how good a job they do will de- 
pend on what they are now learning, what they 
know, and what they think about the international 
community in which we live. We should be 
opening new windows on the world for them 
now. It is what one student of world affairs 
has called "education for overseasmanship." 

One important purpose of such training should 
be to cultivate the quality of empathy — ^the ability 
to put yourself in tlie other fellow's position and 



see things fiom his point of view. Tliis does not 
mean agreeing with him, necessarily, on all tlimgs. 
But we must understand the hopes and problems 
and attitudes of other peoples if we are going to 
be fully effective in our efforts to help them and, 
by so doing, to help ourselves. 

We should realize, for instance, that ostentatioua 
living abroad among peoples still climbing the 
ladder to economic Mell-being may well cause envy 
or irritation rather than admiration. We would 
do well to recognize the customs and cultures of 
other lands that are older than ours and that re- 
flect spiritual values that have enriched civiliza- 
tion for many centuries. We have much to learn 
as well as much to impart, for cultural coopera- 
tion is assuredly a two-way street. 

As a people we have a genius for selling things. 
Exhaustive studies are made by advertising firms 
to find out what people want, their buying habits, 
their tastes, their prejudices. I have often 
thought that, if we spent one-tenth the time and 
interest in studjdng our market where foreign re- 
lations are concerned as we do in studying domes- 
tic consimier markets, we could do a much better 
job abroad and get a lot more satisfaction out of 
it. 

This is of the utmost importance, particularly 
with the resurgent societies of Africa and Asia. 
Our competition is stiff. International commu- 
nism is out to prove that the Communist way is the 
cheapest and quickest way to realize their aspira- 
tions. We cannot let this happen through a fail- 
ure to communicate or a failure to underetand. 

Foreigners in the United States 

Our citizens do not have to go overseas in order 
to have a direct impact on our foreign relations. 
Tlie people-to-people diplomacy which President 
Eisenhower has urged upon us can well begin at 
home. 

As a corollary, you might say, of our foreign aid 
and cooperation programs, some 40,000 citizens of 
other countries come to the United States every 
year. Many are govermnent-sponsored ; many 
come under private auspices. They are carefully 
selected and repi'esent the leadership, present or 
potential, of their liomelands. When tliey return, 
they will have a great cumulative influence on the 
attitudes toward the United States of their coun- 
trymen. "VVliat they see and experience here is 
therefore of great importance. 



182 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



It will not suffice for us to say, "Do as I say, not 
as I do." A trip to the United States is a dream 
come true to most ^Yho come to our shores. This 
is the "show window" of democracy. And many 
of our visitors are "window shopping." Those 
from neutral-minded countries, in particular, are 
comparing what we say about ourselves and about 
democracy with what they see in our national 
life. They are not inclined to differentiate be- 
tween social injustices under democracy and under 
communism. 

I was recently told about a young leader from 
a country in Southeast Asia who received a travel 
grant to the United States from our Government. 
On his return he was asked his impression of 
America. "My principal impressions," he said, 
"were two : the parking problem, and the fact that 
I couldn't buy a bowl of rice in the restaurants." 

We apparently did not get through to this 
young man the things that make this country 
great. I cannot help feeling that a weekend in 
one of your homes, that a few days in an American 
school, would have greatly changed this man's 
impressions of America. Such a classroom visit 
could also be of first-rate importance as a stimulus 
to our own understanding. 

I know of the magnificent work now being done 
by educational associations and by schools and col- 
leges to provide hospitality and an intimate look 
at American life for our foreign guests. I tliink 
this is a key aspect of our total foreign relations 
and one to which teachers and students in particu- 
lar can make an effective and satisfying con- 
tribution. 

The United Nations as a Force in World Affairs 

No review of the new forces in world affairs 
could omit consideration of the United Nations. 
Twelve years after the adoption of the charter 
of the United Nations the fundamentals of inter- 
national relations remain unchanged. We live in 
an interdependent world, a world united by geog- 
raphy and communications, by the common 
yearnings for peace, security, and well-being. 
Given this fact of interdependence, an interna- 
tional organization today is not a luxury but, in 
the words of President Eisenhower, "a sheer 
necessity." 

Throughout history men have recognized the ne- 
cessity of organizing for peace. The past is stud- 
ded with examples of treaties of friendship, de- 



fense pacts, and regional arrangements. However, 
it remained for our generation to witness an or- 
ganization, universal in scope and intent, to wliich 
nations have pledged their intention to settle their 
disputes "by peaceful means." 

Now some people are critical of the United 
Nations. This criticism often comes from those 
who know the least about it. As a matter of 
fact, the organization is beset by people who 
are "for" the United Nations or "against" the 
United Nations — "for" standing for uncritical 
acceptance and "against" representing unthinking 
denunciation. People who would never think of 
using these terms in discussing, say, the Philadel- 
phia City Council, fall into them naturally when 
discussing the United Nations. 

This attitude stems, I believe, from the all too 
common misconception that the United Nations 
is, or should be, some sort of magical body that 
can wield global power on the side of justice 
and peace. Instead, the United Nations is an 
assembly of 81 nations pledged to maintain inter- 
national peace and security but protected by the 
charter from any interference in their own af- 
fairs. 

Tlie Hungarian Situation 

In the United Nations, as elsewhere, politics 
is the art of the possible. Given this fact, what 
role can the United Nations play on the inter- 
national scene? For one thing the mere fact of 
having to face an assembly of 81 nations can 
serve as a healthy reminder to all countries that 
they cannot afford to ignore the opinions and 
interests of others. 

Wliile the General Assembly cannot enforce its 
will, it can effectively puncture the propaganda 
of those who violate their charter obligations. 
Thus, at the time of the invasion of Hungary, 
the Soviet Union sought to show that it was in- 
vited by the legitimate government of Hungary, 
under the terms of the Warsaw treaty, to put 
down a few counterrevolutionaries. Wliat more 
effective answer could be made to these assertions 
than the picture of delegate after delegate voting 
to condeimi the Soviet Union ? ^ The statement 
of the Burmese delegate was typical. He said, 
in voting condemnation: "We do this to keep our 
self-respect — we can do no less." "There," he 



' Bulletin of Dec. 24 and 31, 1956, p. 979. 



July 29, 7957 



183 



said, "speaking of Hungary, but for the grace of 
God go we." 

No clearer testimony of the diabolical Soviet 
purpose in Hungary is needed than the recent 
impartial report of the General Assembly's five- 
nation committee,^ which includes representa- 
tives from Asia and Africa. The persistent, 
desperate, and terrifying rebellion against Soviet 
rule, led significantly enough by Hungarian stu- 
dents, reflected the deep desire of the Hmigarian 
people to be freed from their Soviet masters. 

The Committee's report undeniably confirms 
that the rulers of the Kremlin sent their tanks 
and guns into the streets to suppress the legiti- 
mate efforts of the Hungarian people to achieve 
their liberty and national independence. The 
Committee unfolds the cruel actions of the Hun- 
garian authorities in flagrantly violating the 
fundamental human rights and freedoms guaran- 
teed by the treaty of peace with Hungary. And 
to these findings of the Committee there must 
now be added the current repressive measures and 
sentences, including the death penalty, against 
many Hungarians who had bravely participated 
in the events of last fall. These underscore the 
importance of further United Nations considera- 
tion of the situation in Hungary as soon as 
practicable. 

The United Nations can and does do more than 
lay bare jiropaganda charges. It has been a 
powerful and positive influence on states through 
the force of world opinion. In the past decade 
a number of disputes, each containing the seeds 
of war, have been resolved or eased. The with- 
drawal of Soviet forces from Iran, the removal 
of the Communist threat in Greece, the formation 
of the United States of Indonesia, the Palestine 
and Kashmir truces — each was considerably in- 
fluenced by opinion developed within the United 
Nations. Such actions served the interests of the 
United States and tlie rest of the free world. 

The Middle East 

The recent developments in the Middle East 
are the latest reminder of the impact of the 
United Nations foi'um. For those who maintain 
that the United Nations is primarily a talking 
machine, the events of the last few months should 
have a special meaning. 

Nowhere in the world in recent days has the 



' Ibid., July 8, 1957, p. 62. 
184 



danger and challenge been greater than in the 
Middle East. The United States has vital securi- 
ty interests there. Wlien the attack was made on 
Egypt in October of last year by invading forces, 
there was need for quick and decisive action by 
the United Nations. Even though the General 
Assembly is a large and cumbersome body, public 
opinion was effectively mobilized. 

And it achieved almost miraculous results. A 
cease-fire laid the groundwork for a subsequent 
withdrawal of forces. The United Nations Emer- 
gency Force took its position in the Suez Canal 
area and later moved to positions along the ar- 
mistice demarcation lines. This force remains the 
guardian of peace in the touchy areas of Gaza 
and Sharm el-Sheikh today. The Suez Canal 
is once again open to normal traffic, having been 
cleared of its debris and wreckage by a United 
Nations salvage fleet of over 40 sliips. These 
steps have created at least the minimum condi- 
tions for efforts which must be made if long-range 
solutions are to be found to the Middle East issues 
wliicli gave rise to the fighting. 

There are a great many legitimate criticisms of 
the United Nations. But fundamentally what 
is wrong with the United Nations is what is wrong 
with the world itself. Tlie international atmos- 
phere reflects the hatreds and injustices which are 
the legacies of thousands of years of ware and 
rumors of wars. No intelligent person could ex- 
pect that the existence of an organization could 
quickly abolish the mutual suspicion and distinist 
built up over the years. Wliat is significant is 
that so much has been accomplished in so short 
a time. 

It is my personal conviction that the United 
Nations represents the greatest and most success- 
ful effort to achieve peace in the history of the 
world. 

The states that make up the United Nations are 
a mixed lot. Some are democracies; some are 
dictatorships. Some are in bondage; some are 
free. A few are wealthy; more are poor. But 
in this amalgam of nations lies our only hope of 
a peace with any approximation of justice. We 
must never forget that our country belongs to the 
family of nations and that every one of us be- 
longs to the family of man. Those who deny the 
need for a United Nations, either by their words 
or by tlieir policies, should tell us frankly how we 
can survive alone in this increasingly interdepend- 
ent world. 

Department of State Bulletin 



I know that study of the United Nations holds 
an important place in our school rooms. It de- 
serves our continued sympathetic and critical 
analysis and support. Should the United Nations 
fail or our leadership in it falter in these critical 
days, one of the great bulwarks of peace would be 
overrun. 

Concluding Comments 

In conclusion, I should like to reassert my con- 
viction that the problems and the opportunities I 
have touched upon have an important place in 
our schools. I believe it is time to put our school 
curricula under the microscope to determine if at 
present they provide the instriunents we need to 
train young Americans for leadership, not only 
in our own comitry but for the new and wider in- 
ternational life on wliich we are embarked. 

In particular, I feel that formal education in 
our schools and colleges should not stop at the 
eastern end of the Mediterranean and pay rela- 
tively little attention to the great continents of 
Africa and Asia. For many years our school sys- 
tem has been geared to Western civilization. We 
can no longer afford to gloss over the rest of the 
world. If our foreign ]3olicy of fostering secu- 
rity and the growth of democracy throughout the 
free world makes sense, then we should know far 
more than we do about these f arflung countries. 

Here is a great and challenging task for 
Western education — to correct our unfortunate 
lack of knowledge concerning the life and thought 
of many millions of our fellowmen in foreign 
lands — of those who are for us, those who are 
against us, and those who are uncommitted. 

Moreover, I feel that in our teaching we can only 
at our peril omit a hardheaded study of inter- 
national communism. 

Arnold Toynbee has made the point that all 



development, all progress, comes from a challenge 
and a consequent response. In world affaire the 
challenge is before us. The direction the free 
world will take depends, to a large degree, on the 
quality of our response and the understanding of 
our leadership. That response and the nature of 
our leadei-ship in the future will depend on the 
education of our youth of this generation and the 
next. 

On this centenary of the National Education 
Association I wish to express my deep apprecia- 
tion for what your organization has already ac- 
complished in bringing to the youth of America 
a better understanding of the world problems that 
face our nation. If we hold to the principles that 
have made our past great and prepare ourselves 
for the challenge of the present, we should not fail 
to realize the promise of a future made safe for 
free men everywhere. 



U.S. Will Continue Efforts 
To Eliminate Atomic Fallout 

Statement hy James C. Hagerty 
Press Secretary to the President 

White House press release dated July 11 

It is rather amazing that Mr. Khrushchev 
would think that efforts by American scientists 
to eliminate dangerous fallout from atomic ex- 
plosions are "a stupid thing." 

The avoidance of mass human destruction in 
an atomic war is and has been a prime objective 
of President Eisenhower and his administration 
no less than the aim of eliminating the possibility 
of war itself. 

Such efforts — to which the United States is 
dedicated — are and will be continuing. 



Jo/y 29, 1957 



185 



Visit of Prime Minister Sulirawardy of Pakistan 



Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Prime Minister 
of Pakistan, made an official visit to the United 
States from July 10 to 27, including a 3-day visit 
in Washington July 10 to 13. Following are the 
texts of a joint communique issued by the Prime 
Minister and President Eisenhower on July 13 at 
the conclusion of their talks and a brief White 
House announcem.ent of July 12, together with 
Prime Minister Suhrawardy'' s addresses before the 
Senate and the House of Representatives on July 
11, greetings exchanged by Vice President Nixon 
and the Prime Minister at the airport on July 10, 
and an announcement of the members of the offi- 
cial party for the Washington visit. 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE 

White House press release dated July 13 

The President of the United States and the 
Prime Minister of Pakistan concluded today their 
series of discussions on a wide range of problems 
involving the maintenance of freedom and secu- 
rity. These discussions have been supplemented 
by further discussions between the Prime Minister 
and his advisers and the Secretary of State, and 
also meetings with the Secretary of Defense and 
other American officials. 

The Prime Minister addressed both Houses of 
the United States Congress. After leaving Wash- 
ington, the Prime Minister will visit other parts 
of the United States and meet with various politi- 
cal, cultural and business leaders. 



The President and the Prime Minister reviewed 
the steady growth of close, cooperative relations 
between their two countries. These relations are 
securely founded on mutual respect and trust be- 
tween equal sovereign nations determined to main- 
tain their independence by workuig together for 



peace and progress. They examined various 
joint programs which serve further to strengthen 
these ties. 

Tlie President and the Prime Minister agreed 
that international communism continues to pose 
tlie major threat to the security of the free world. 
They reafSrmed their determination to support 
and strengthen the systems of collective security 
which have been forged in Asia. They reiterated 
their determination to oppose aggression. It was 
recognized that this determination, expressed in 
such organizations as the Southeast Asia Treaty 
Organization and the Baghdad Pact, as well as 
through the Mutual Security Agreement between 
Pakistan and the United States, has acted as a 
powerful deterrent to Communist aggression and 
has promoted stability in the treaty areas. 

They expressed the belief that an effective in- 
ternational agreement on disarmament under 
adequate and effective international safeguards 
would contribute not only to the security of the 
world but also to its material progress. 

They discussed the threat to the security and 
integrity of the nations of the Middle East re- 
sulting from the intrusion of Communist influence 
and subversion in that area. It was agreed that 
the United States and Pakistan would continue to 
exert their influence to promote conditions in the 
Middle East which will permit the nations of the 
area to work out their national destinies in free- 
dom and peace. 

Tlie Prime Minister referred to Pakistan's dis- 
putes with India over Kashmir and the distribu- 
tion of the waters of the Indus River and its trib- 
utaries. The Prime Minister said that Pakistan 
desires to settle such disputes peacefully and in 
conformity with international law and the de- 
cisions of the United Nations. The President ex- 
pressed the hope that such regional disputes may 
be solved speedily, equitably, and permanently, in 
accordance with the principles of the United Na- 
tions. As regards the Indus waters, they wel- 



186 



Department of State Bulletin 



corned the efforts of the International Bank for 
Eeconstruction and Development to find a solu- 
tion acceptable to the two parties concerned. 

II. 

The President and the Prime Minister dis- 
cussed economic and commercial relations be- 
tween the United States and Pakistan. They 
looked with satisfaction on the many measures 
taken individually and jointly in recent years to 
expand trade, increase investment, and enlarge 
the flow of technical information between the two 
countries. They agreed to give consideration to 
additional measures designed to strengthen the 
economic well-being of Asia. 

The Prime Minister emphasized the serious 
financial pressures placed on his country by its 
efforts to undertake essential development projects, 
while at the same time maintaining its security 
forces. He reviewed Pakistan's efforts to achieve 
financial stability without undue dependence on 
foreign aid. The President expressed his under- 
standing of the problems facing Pakistan, citing 
the substantial quantities of United States eco- 
nomic and military assistance as concrete evidence 
of United States recognition of these difficulties. 

The Prime Minister renewed Pakistan's request 
to purchase additional amounts of food grains 
under the terms of the United States Surplus 
Agricultural Products Disposal program. The 
President assured the Prime Minister that Paki- 
stan's minimum requirements would be given sym- 
pathetic and expeditious consideration and would 
be met contingent upon the enactment of the ex- 
tended program by Congress. 

III. 

The President and the Prime Minister stated 
their conviction that the present exchange of views 
has further strengthened the mutual understand- 
ing and cooperation of their two countries. They 
expressed their desire to undertake further steps 
to increase this close relationship. 



WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

WhUe House press release dated July 12 

The President on July 12 informed Prime Min- 
ister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy of Pakistan 
that the Department of Defense is making avail- 

Jo/y 29, J 957 



able to the Government of Pakistan two H-19 
helicopters. 

The Government of Pakistan had requested the 
United States to supply helicopters for emergency 
transportation purposes in East Pakistan for use 
particularly during the recurring floods in that 
area. These helicopters are being provided under 
the terms of our military assistance program with 
that country. 



ADDRESS TO SENATE' 

Mr. President and distinguished Members of 
this august House: It is indeed a privilege to be 
permitted to address you this afternoon, or on any 
other occasion, as I stand before the chosen rep- 
resentatives of the many States which constitute 
this great country, the United States of America. 

I bring to you the greetings and the warm feel- 
ings of friendship from my country, Pakistan. 
The ties that bind us are far more cordial than 
those that depend on mere economic relationships. 
"VVe pursue the same ideals. "VVe have the same 
outlook on life, on society, on the value of human- 
ity, on the dignity of the individual, on the rela- 
tionship which should exist between the people 
and the State. We believe in certain basic values ; 
and these are far stronger ties — based, as they are, 
on common ideals — than any mundane, ordinary 
influences. 

I have had the privilege of making a pilgrimage 
to the resting places and the monuments of those 
leaders of yours who will remain for all time an 
inspiration not only to you, but also to the world 
and to all those who believe in liberty, independ- 
ence, freedom of thought, and freedom of the 
person. 

This morning, I paid my homage to your great 
hero, George Washington, whose name is now en- 
shrined in the greatest moral precepts which for 
all time to come will be the basis of human rela- 
tionships. 

I have paid my homage before the monument 
of Abraham Lincoln, whose immortal words will 
go down for all time as the most noble that any 
mortal man we know of could have uttered — an 
inspiration from on high, that must for all time to 
come be something of which the world can be 



'Reprinted from Cong. Rcc. of July 11, 1957, p. 10204. 

187 



proud, as it is proud that it has produced a fi^ire 
of such stature. 

I have paid my homage to Jefferson, who may 
well be said to have been the creator of the modern 
States of America. 

To you who live amongst them, these cannot but 
be sources of inspiration from which you draw 
your moral concepts, and indeed you have shown 
to the world that you have learned your lessons 
well. 

It is not a small matter for a nation to under- 
take the task of spreading prosperity and happi- 
ness, of undertaking to assure peace and progress, 
and of assuming the responsibilities of insuring 
to mankind freedom and liberty. This is not 
a small task which the United States of America 
has undertaken, and the impact of its efforts is 
today felt throughout the world. To undeveloped 
and underdeveloped nations you have given hope 
that they will be able to reconstruct their lives. 
Poverty, grinding starvation, frustration, hope- 
lessness are the breeding grounds of that new in- 
fluence, misnamed ideology, which is known as 
communism. You have, by coming to the assist- 
ance of countries that well might have been caught 
in the whirlpool of misfortunes, given them the 
hope that they can attain status, through the 
period of evolution, by your assistance. 

I should like to assure the Senate that if you 
look around you will see how many countries you 
have reconstructed and put on their feet, how 
many peoples who were suffering the ravages of 
war and the aftermath of war, how many nations 
who had no future to look to, you have recon- 
structed, and to how many peoples and nations 
and human beings you have diffused happiness 
and prosperity. That is a very satisfying picture. 

But at the same time I am certain that, much 
as we may be grateful for all you have done for 
those countries, much as we may reciprocate in 
furthering the ideas which you and I profess, 
there is another, if I may so call it, feather in your 
cap, namely, that you have done this, not to satisfy 
your conscience, not as charity to others, but be- 
cause you feel that God has placed you in such a 
position that you have realized and undertaken 
the responsibility of coming to the help of those 
not so fortunately situated as you. 

You have with you a most powerful weapon 
which your wealth, on the one hand, and the in- 
telligence of your scientists on the other have 
created, a weapon that can destroy mankind, a 



weapon that you had in your hand when you 
could have conquered the world, a weapon that 
you disdained to use for such purposes, a weapon 
that you preserved in the cause of peace. That is 
a wonderful thing. It is a weapon that you are 
now using to further progress and apply to the 
cause of peaceful development. 

Others have discovered the secrets of that 
weapon, and others threaten the peace which you 
are preserving. That is the danger of that weapon. 
In your hands it was something which preserved 
peace. God forbid that, in the hands of others, it 
should be utilized to destroy peace. But we can 
see that so long as you pursue the paths — the moral 
paths which you are pursuing — these weapons in 
your hands will be the greatest deterrent to those 
who might pursue the paths of war. These weap- 
ons in your hands will insure peace for humanity. 

I would, therefore, not join my voice with those 
who merely look upon these weapons as destructive 
weapons meant to destroy humanity. "Were it not 
for this, heaven knows that by this time possibly 
the world again would have been engulfed in a 
terrible, destructive war. 

In foreign relations you have pursued the paths 
laid down by the United Nations Charter, and by 
doing that you have given hope to the smaller na- 
tions of the world that they will be able to secure 
peace and justice from those of their neighbors 
who seem to be starting on the road to imperialism. 

On the one side the old imperialism is dying and 
decaying. Countries within its thrall are now 
gaining independence. And, on the other hand, 
many countries are now coming under the sway of 
a new form of imperialism — far more destruc- 
tive, far more enslaving than the kind which has 
gone before. 

The United Nations offers us an avenue through 
which we can preserve peace and avoid war. It is 
a tribunal to which we can carry our difficulties, 
and from which we can hope to secure justice. 

To you who have upheld the dignity of the 
United Nations, therefore, I render the thanks 
and gratitude of the smaller nations of the world. 

But we see and we have seen that even though 
we follow the path laid down by the United 
Nations, many countries which are members of 
that body deny its validity. In various parts of 
the world you have been associated with defense 
agreements, defensive nonaggression pacts, the 
purpose of which is to stave off aggression and 
not to attack, not even when provoked. Yet there 



188 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



are countries, members of the United Nations, 
which reject this pohcy laid down. 

We have seen again tliat tlie mandate, the 
orders, the instructions of this august body are 
flouted by powerful countries, even though the 
whole world condemns them. What has taken 
place in Hungary can never be forgotten by this 
generation nor even by succeeding generations, 
and it is a warning to all countries as to what 
might well befall them if they should become 
victims of what is called a socialist regime. 

Indeed, if one considers socialism in its best 
aspect, all of us desire and all of us believe in 
social equality. All of us desire prosperity and 
happiness for all our countrymen. But the so- 
cialism which degrades humanity is the kind of 
socialism which today assumes to itself the au- 
thority to keep other countries under its sway and 
to enslave them. 

Smaller countries — shall I call them naughty 
countries? — also choose to disobej' the orders of 
the United Nations, relying upon this example 
of a gi-eat country that has defied it. But it must 
be said to the credit of countries such as the United 
Kingdom of Gi"eat Britain and France, that they 
obeyed the orders which were issued and have 
rehabilitated themselves in the esteem of the 
world. 

"Wliat shall be done against those countries 
which disobeyed the United Nations? "Wliat shall 
be done to give power to the elbow of this or- 
ganization? What shall be done to make its in- 
structions obeyed? That is a matter which must 
exercise the minds of all those who are anxious 
to see peace in this world. Each of us has his 
own ideas on the subject, and this is neither the 
time nor the forum in which I may expound those 
entertained by me, but this is certainly a problem 
which faces all of us. 

Mr. President, not long ago you were a distin- 
guished visitor in our country, with your esteemed 
consort. We have not forgotten your visit or 
the impact of your visit. You came there on be- 
half of your country, with good will, as its am- 
bassador, and I assure you that my country has 
not forgotten your charm, your personality, and 
the message of good will which you conveyed to 
us on behalf of the people of the United States. 

May I reciprocate those good wishes a thousand- 
fold. I have come to this country for the first 
time. It has always been — and you can very well 
imagine why — my great desire to visit a country 

July 29, 1957 



of which my people have heard so much, regard- 
ing which we have felt so much, but of which we 
have seen so little. 

I am happy to be here amongst you, and I wish 
to thank you most cordially for your kindness, for 
your reception, and for the manner in which you 
have received me amongst you. 

I wish to render to you again my thanks for 
giving me this opportunity of speaking to you 
and conveying to you the greetings of my coimtry- 
men in Pakistan. 



ADDRESS TO HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES' 

Mr. Speaker and distinguished Members of the 
House of Representatives, for the second time in 
10 years it has been the privilege of a represent- 
ative from Pakistan in the person of its Prime 
Minister to stand before you to convey to you the 
warm greetings and felicitations of the 80 million 
people of Pakistan. 

It is not without emotion, Mr. Speaker, that I 
address this House in this temple of freedom 
which is consecrated to the practice of democracy 
and the promotion of the inalienable rights of men 
and of nations. "VMien I see those honorable Mem- 
bers around me whose decisions have such a tre- 
mendous impact on the fate not only of the nations 
but also on the fate of the world, I feel that I am 
presuming to address the House which has such 
infinite power and potentialities. It is indeed a 
privilege for my country that we may consider 
ourselves your allies in the great adventure upon 
which you have embarked ; namely, the adventure 
of establishing in this world the rights of the in- 
dividual in opposing all measures that tend to 
trample that spirit in humanity which seeks con- 
stant evolution and expression in this great adven- 
ture of maintaining and promoting peace. 

Were it not for your endeavors, were it not for 
the fact that you are the bulwark of democracy 
and of peace, possibly by this time the world 
would have been shaken and shattered. I recall 
the time when you, and you alone, were the pos- 
sessors of that destructive force; namely, the 
atomic bomb. I recall the time when, if you had 
desired to conquer all the nations of the world 
through the means, the powerful means, in your 
hands, you could have done so; but it was your 
moral strength that not only did you restrain 



- Reprinted from Cong. Rec. of July 11, 1957, p. 10243. 

189 



yourself, but also you showed to the world that 
peace was safe in your hands, that you believed 
in the rights and privileges of the human race. 

If today there is danger, if today the nations 
of the world are fearful of passing events, it is 
not because you have developed the nuclear weap- 
ons, but because other countries also possess the 
same, other countries which possibly do not feel 
that sense of responsibility toward humanity that 
you have shown by your acts. 

Therefore Pakistan deems it a privilege to be 
alined with a country that has shown the way to 
such high moral principles. 

We are, indeed, in the midst of revolutionary 
changes. What went by the name of European 
colonialism is fast receding. The countries of 
Asia have one by one gained their independence. 
The countries of Africa are following suit; but 
while this nature of colonialism and imperialism 
is on the decline, there is another far worse new 
colonialism and imperialism which is arising, 
which maintains that it has the power and the 
privilege by force to keep subservient nations un- 
der its control, a theory which spells enslavement 
of peoples for all time to come. This is the dan- 
ger that is there before the world ; this is the dan- 
ger which you have recognized ; this is the danger 
into which you have thrown all your weight 
against the Communist powers. And it is for this 
reason that you stand today as tlie champions of 
the free world. It is for this reason that the na- 
tions of the world are looking to you in their at- 
tempts to escape thralldom. They are looking 
to you for support and for guidance, and you, 
your country, indeed, has risen to the occasion. 

Do you realize, Members of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, how many peoples of the world today 
you are assisting to find their feet ? Through your 
assistance country after coimtry has been recon- 
structed ; and on behalf possibly of those countries 
to whom you are offering your assistance not only 
do I render their thanks and their gratitude, but 
also I would ask you to consider that you are pro- 
ceeding along the right lines, along moral lines, in 
raising the standards of those who under modern 
conditions cannot help themselves. It is a great 
and a new pliilosophy that you have embarked 
upon, the philosophy that all nations of the world 
must develop, that all nations of the world must be 
happy, that it should not be the privilege of only 
the few to be ahead in the race of happiness, but 
everyone must share in the resources that the 



world can offer. It is a new philosophy that you 
have embarked upon, namely that exploitation 
must cease, that it is not the privilege of some of 
the fortunate countries to take advantage of those 
countries less fortunate and less developed. And 
to you, and to your people and to your country 
goes this credit that while you are helping so many 
nations of the world, you have not asked for any 
returns. It is this which affects us more than any- 
thing else. We give you our thanks spontaneously. 
You have not asked for them. You have adopted 
the high moral role of assisting without asking for 
any return and that is certainly pointing a way 
to the other nations of the world. Fortunately we 
now see that there are many other nations who 
have banded together to help the underdeveloped 
countries. 

You have undertaken also certain international 
obligations and the part of the world from which 
I come, a corner of the Middle East, is grateful 
to you and to your great President for the words 
of hope that he has given that this country will 
attempt to maintain the territorial integrity and 
political sovereignty of the countries of that area 
and will come to their assistance in the case of 
aggression from any quarter, and chiefly if that 
aggression is from the Communist side or is Com- 
munist inspired. That has produced stability in 
that region. It has given hope to the people now 
to progress. They can now devote their energies 
to the task of reconstruction and, it is, indeed, a 
matter of congratulation for my country, which is 
a member of the Baghdad Pact, that your country 
is associating itself in many of its important com- 
mittees, the counter-subversion committee, the 
economic committee and the military committee. 

In southeast Asia, as we all know, there are 
possibilities of trouble. There also through the 
SEATO pact, we are allied in a common cause. 
Pakistan enjoys a particularly peculiar privilege. 
On the one side about 1200 to 1500 miles of 
foreign territory separate our two wings. On 
the other hand it faces the West. It faces and is 
allied to those countries and the allied countries. 
It faces the East and through the SEATO pact 
it is allied to those countries that think alike with 
us in their way of life. 

It is, therefore, a matter of great happiness to 
us that we were able to contribute in a small 
measure in accordance with our ability to the 
preservation of peace and to the promotion of 
individual liberty. 



190 



Department of Stale BuUetin 



Kecently we have adopted a new constitution, 
and I am determined that there will be a general 
election, and a fair and free election, at the earliest 
possible opportunity which the mechanics of the 
election has placed at between March and April 
1958. 

It is difficult to exaggerate the debt which mod- 
ern constitutions owe to your pioneer achieve- 
ments in evolving the Federal system of govern- 
ment to meet the requirements and the necessities 
of divergent interests and to create, as you have 
created, a unity in diversity. Your Declaration of 
Independence, your Bill of Rights, the laws which 
you have framed, find a place in our Constitution. 
We have derived inspiration from thera. 

I was speaking the other day — I hope you will 
pardon me if I make a personal observation — as 
to what it is which I, a foreigner, feels most as re- 
gards your country. Wliat is it that we know of 
most ? ^^Tiat is it that we consider to be the great- 
est thing which your country has produced? And 
that is — and we shall never forget it — the inunortal 
words of Abraham Lincoln, which will go down 
for all time as words which no one, unless he was 
inspired by the Almighty, could have produced. 
It is something of a guide to the world, which 
ever since he uttered them has been the greatest 
force for peace, for happiness, for the rights of the 
individual that have ever been uttered by mortal 
man. A country that has produced a leader of 
that type, a country that has produced leaders 
like George Washington or Jefferson, cannot be 
a country which can ever betray its past. 

May I, before I take my leave, offer my con- 
gratulations that your country has produced men 
of that type, who have given you an ideal which 
you so faithfully follow. 

I wish to thank you, Mr. Speaker, and ladies 
and gentlemen of the House of Representatives, 
for giving me this opportvmity to speak to you, 
and once more to convey to you the cordial good 
wishes of my country. 



EXCHANGE OF GREETINGS AT AIRPORT 

Press release 415 dated July 10 

Vice President Nixon: 

Mr. Prime Minister, it is a very great honor for 
me to extend a welcome to you and members of 



your party on the occasion of your visit to the 
United States. 

As one who has visited your country on two 
occasions, I know the friendship that we have 
found in Pakistan whenever we go there among 
the people and among the officials of the Govern- 
ment. And I can assure you that when you travel 
through our country in the next 2 weeks you will 
find the same feeling of friendship and affection 
from the people of the United States for the people 
of Pakistan. 

Our two countries have been firm friends and 
good allies, and we know that your visit, the con- 
versations you will have with the President, the 
Secretary of State, and other officials of our Gov- 
ernment will strengthen those ties of friendship 
which bind us together today. 

And so we welcome you and we wish you well 
during the course of your visit here. 

Prime Minister Suhrawardy: 

Mr. Vice President, it is indeed a very great 
pleasure and an honor to be here amongst you on 
the invitation of your great President, President 
Eisenhower. I realize that it is not of the humble 
services which I may have rendered to my coim- 
try or to the cause of peace for which I am here, 
but it is a recognition of the part which my coun- 
try has played also in the cause of freedom and in 
the preservation of peace. 

We are indeed proud, Mr. Vice President, that 
my country and your coimtry are allies and that 
we are pursuing the same path of freedom. We 
hope that after some time we shall be able to take 
our proper place in the comity of nations as we 
develop further and as we continue to strengthen 
those bonds of friendship that exist between our 
two countries. 

I am glad, sir, and I thank you for the very 
warm words of welcome that you have used in our 
behalf. I am sure that we have not been able to 
repay to you even in a small measure those kind- 
nesses which we have received at the hands of 
your country. 

And I bring to you from the 80 million people 
of Pakistan their warm greetings and their de- 
su-e to further cement the friendship which exists 
between us. I hope that my stay here will fur- 
ther improve that relationship. 

Before closing I wish to thank your counti-y for 
the very generous contribution that it is making 



July 29, 1957 



191 



to the progress of my country as well as so many 
other countries of the world. That is all, Mr. 
Vice President. I am indeed glad to be here 
amongst you on such a beautiful and fine day 
which I hope will persist as long as I am here. 

Vice President Nixon: 

And we hope so too. 

MEMBERS OF OFFICIAL PARTY 

The Department of State announced on July 5 
(press release 410) the members of the official 
party for the visit in Washington July 10-13 of 



Prime Minister Suhrawardy of Pakistan. They 
are as follows : 

Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Prime Minister of Pakistan 
Begum Aklitar Sulaiman, daughter of the Prime Minister 
Syed Amjad Ali, Minister of Finance 
Mohammed Ali, Ambassador of Paldstan to the United 

States, and Begum Ali 
Akhter Husain, Secretary, Ministry of Defense 
M. S. A. Baig, Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and 

CJommonwealth Relations 
S. A. Hasnie, Secretary, Ministry of Economic Affairs 
Aftab Ahmed Khan, Principal Secretary to the Prime 

Minister 
Agha Shahi, Minister, Embassy of Pakistan 
Maj. Gen. Haji I