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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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Corrections for Volume XXXIX 

The Editor of tbe Bulletin wishes to call atten- 
tion to the following errors in Volume XXXIX : 

July 21, page 95: The date of the President's 
letter should read "July 1, 1958." 

August 11, page 231, footnote in right column : 
The footnote number should read "5" and the date 
should read "July 20." 

August 11, page 233, left column : The dateline 
at the end of the Soviet letter should read "Moscow, 
July 19, 195S." 

Augnist IS, page 295, left column, third line of 
text: The date should read "July 14." 

November 10, page 760, left column, item entitled 
Tunisia : The TIAS niuiiber should read "3794." 



INDEX 

Volume XXXIX, Numbers 993-1018, July 7-December 29, 1958 



Adair, Charles W., 519 

Adams, Frauds L., 466, 773 

Adenauer, Konrad, 237, 281 

Advisory Board, International DeveloiJuient, 493 

Advisory Commission on Educational Exchange, State 

Department, appointment to, 422 
Aerial photogn-aphy. See under Surprise attack 
Aerial refuelin;; facilities in Canada, agreement with 
Canada relating to establishment, maintenance, and 
operation <jf. 87 
Af;:hanistan : 
Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 127 
.Sino-Soviet economic offensive in. 32, 923 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 848 

Cultural relations, agreement with U.S., 87, 128 

Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 848 
High seas, convention on, 848 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

848 
Universal postal convention ( 19.57 ) . 403 
Africa {See also irulividiial coiintricfi) : 
All-African jieoples conference, address and message: 

Nixon, 1042 ; Satterthwaite, 641 
Bureau of Afric-an Affairs, established in State De- 
partment, 475 
Economic aid. need for, statement (Dillon) , 1056 
International Scientific Committee for Trypanosomiasis 

Research, 490 
Small businesses in, U.S. efforts to expand, excerpts 

from President's report to Congress, 86 
South Africa, race conflict in, statement (Harrison) 

and text of General Assembly resolution, 842 
Soviet-bloc economic offensive in, article (Wright), 923 
Trust territories in, administration and progress to- 
ward self-government : 
Address and statements : Marian Anderson, 1028, 
1029, 1073; Salomon, 840; Satterthwaite, 643; 
Sears, 844 
U.X. resolutions, texts, 841, 845 
U.S. policy toward, address ( Satterthwaite) , 641 
Visit of U.S.-U.K. scientific panel to, 782 
Aggression, indirect. Communist (see also Middle East 
situation), addresses and statements: Dulles, 265, 
266, 268, 269, 270, 271, 307, 373, 375, 376 ; Eisenhower, 
185, 274; Lodge, 190, 195: O'Connor, 882, 883; 
Wilcox, 507 



Agricultural surpluses, U.S., use in overseas programs: 
Agreements with : Brazil, 260 ; Burma, 592 ; Ceylon, 41, 
223; Colombia, 331, 1031; Ecuador, 175; Finland, 
296; France, 176; Ghana, 605; Greece, 936; Ice- 
land, 223 ; India, 176, 535, 591, 592, 636 ; Israel, 176, 
555, 892; Italy, 176; Mexico, 176, 936; Pakistan, 
1076; Peru, 475, 760; Poland, 87; Spain, 176, 825, 
826, 848; Turkey, 176, 323, 404, 1031; Viet-Nam, 
176 ; Yugoslavia, 176, 592 
CARE distrilnition of, address (Eeiahardt) , 515 
DisiMsal policy : 
Address and statements : Dulles, 66 ; Eisenhower, 206 
13th session of GATT Contracting Parties, review, 
934 
Emergency relief to : Ghana, 665 ; Lebanon, 68 
Presidential reports on : 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 

( Jan. 1-June 30, 1958 ) , 423 
Mutual security program (July 1-Dec. 31, 1957), 
excerpts, 87 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, 
President's 8th semiannual report to Congress (Jan. 
1-June30, 1958), 423 
Agriculture (see also Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion) : 
Arab states, need for agricultural expansion, address 

(Burns), 471, 472 
Colombo Plan countries, development in, extract from 

7th annual report, 863 
Commodity trade problems. See Commodity trade 
U.S.-Soviet agreement for reciprocal exchange of 
delegations, U.S. report, 390 
Aid to foreign countries. See Economic and technical 

aid. Military assistance, and Mutual security 
Air navigation and transport. See Aviation 
Aircraft. See Aviation 
Albania : 
Independence day, 966 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Algeria, universal postal convention ( 1957) , 403 
Aliens, U.S. immigration and naturalization procedures, 

address (Auerbach). 621 
All-African peoples conference, address and message : 

NLxon, 1042 ; Satterthwaite, 641 
Allen, George V., 211 
Alt, Richard M., 474 

Ambassadorial talks, U. S.-Communist China. See War- 
saw ambassadorial talks 



Index, July to December 1958 



1181 



American principles, addresses: Lodge, 448; Rubottom, 

657 
American Republics. See Latin America and individual 

countries 
American States, Organization of. See Organization of 

American States 
Anderson, Miss Marian, 294, 1027, 1073 
Anderson, Robert B., 414, 793, 794, 795 
Antarctica : 
Ellsworth Station, U.S. and Argentine cooperation 

regarding, text of joint announcement, 210 
Peaceful uses, acceptance of U.S. proposal to negotiate 
treaty on, address (Dulles) , 899 
Antillon Hemdndez, Carios S., 10 

Antofagasta, Chile, rawinsonde observation station, 1031 
ANZUS Coimcil, Washington meeting, agreed announce- 
ment and delegations, 612 
Arab-Israeli dispute, article (Ludlow), 775, 776 
Arab Republic, United. See United Arab Republic 
Arab states (see oZ«o individual countries) : 
Development institution, proposed establishment of, 
addresses: Beale, 968; Burns, 473; Dillon, 871; 
Dulles, 737, 773; Eisenhower, 339, 341; Murphy, 
908 ; Wilcox, 507, 1000 
Dispute with Israel, article ( Ludlow ), 775, 776 
Economic development in, planning for, address 

(Bums), 469 
Italian relations with, U.S. views, address and state- 
ment : Dulles, 950 ; Zellerbach, 960 
Nationalism, U.S. position on, statements : Dulles, 269 ; 

Lodge, 192, 195 
Pact of the League of Arab States, 410, 411, 686 
Palestine refugee problem, U.S. and U.N. efforts to 
solve, address and statement: Hickenlooper, 798; 
Ludlow, 775 
Unrest in. See Middle East situation 
Arab Union {see also Iraq and Jordan), U.S. Ambas- 
sador to, confirmation, 176 
Arbitral Commission on property, rights and interests in 

Germany, 41, 983 
Arctic inspection zone. See under Surprise attack 
Argentina : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 54 

Ellsworth Station, Antarctica, continued work on, text 

of joint announcement with U.S., 210 
President to vLsit U.S., 954 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Aircraft, convention (1948) on international recog- 
nition of rights in, 403 
Continental shelf, convention on, 554 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

554 
Universal ix)stal convention ( 1957 ) , 403 
U.S.-Argentine relations, letters: Eisenhower, 210; 
Florit, 348 ; Frondizi, 211 
Armaments (see also Arms supply; Atomic energy, nu- 
clear weapons ; and Disarmament) : 
East- West trade, Battle Act embargo list, revised, 467 



Armaments — Continued 

International control and reduction of : 
Addresses and statements : Dulles, 527 ; Hickenlooi>er, 

783 ; Lodge, 749, 750 ; Murphy, 874, 876 
U.S. and Soviet positions, statement (Dulles), 240 
Western views on, text of U.S.-U.K.-French memo- 
randum, 13, 16 
International traffic in arm.s, U.S. regulations amended, 

text, 970 
NATO weaix)ns, availability of, excerpt from Presi- 
dent's report to Congress, 83 
Armed forces: 

Double nationality, protocol (1930) relating to military 

obligations in cases of, 403 
Free world, contributions to mutual security program, 

address (Smith), 380 
Geneva conventions (1949) relative to treatment in 

time of war, 555, 848, 1075 
In Japan, agreement regarding status of U.N. forces, 

223 
In Korea, withdrawal of : 
Chinese Communist announcement of, U.S. views, 

statements, Dulles, 772 ; Hickenlooper, 1023 
U.N. Command replies to Communist requests, texts, 
781, 1003 
Reduction of: 

Western and Soviet positions, 13, 16, 19, 97, 749 
Soviet, propaganda regarding alleged superiority of, 

955, 956 
U.K. forces in Jordan. See United Kingdom : Dispatch 

of troops 
U.N. Emergency Force for the Middle East, 220, 325,| 
326 
Armed forces, U.S. : 
In the Middle East. See Middle East situation 
Military bases, overseas. See Military bases 
Military housing, use of foreign currencies for con- 
struction, renting, and procurement abroad, 426, 
431 
Military missions, agreements for, with : Brazil, 1075 : 

Haiti, 892 ; Jordan, 651 
Need for maintaining, address (Herter), 1038 
Personnel detained by : 

Czechoslovakia, U.S. requests release for allegeci 

border violations, texts of notes, 660 

East Germany, helicopter crew and passengers, U.S| 

efforts for release, statements (Dulles), texts o: 

U.S. aide memoire and Soviet note, 50, 108, lOSj 

110, 147 j 

Soviet Union, crew of transport plane, U.S. request; 

return of, statements (Dulles), and texts of V.S, 

and Soviet notes and memorandum, 110, 146, 202 ■ 

Radio network, agreements with France relating to ei 

tablishment, 518 ( 

U.S. Marines, withdrawal from Guantanamo Nave 

Base water installation, 282 

Armistice agreement, Korean, Communist violations o:, 

statement (Hickenlooper), 1022, 1023 ! 

Arms supply : 

Cuba, U.S. denial of shipments to, 153 

Near East, proposed U.N. control of, 340, 341 



1182 



Department of State BuUefi 



Arms supply — Continued 
Soviet supply to Communist China, 380, 1009 
U.S. supply to Republic of China, 600 
Asia. South Asia, and Southeast Asia {see also Far East 
and iniiivitlual countries) : 
ANZUS Council, Washington meeting, agreed announce- 
ment and delegations, 612 
Collective security. See ANZUS Council and South- 
east Asia Treaty Organization 
Communist subversion in. See under China, Communist 
ECAFE, working party on economic development, 

U.S. delegate to, 474 
Economic development (see also Colombo Plan), ad- 
dress, article, and statements : Dillon, 1056 ; Dulles, 
561, 051 ; Wright. 923 
U.S. policy toward, text of U.S. memorandum to mis- 
sions abroad, 386 
Water-resources experts, visit to U.S., 347 
Asia Cement Corporation. 238 
Asian economic development fund, loan to India, 156 
Aswan Dam, 770, 773 
Athletic groups, exchange of, U.S. report on agreement 

with Soviet Union, 391 
Atlantic Alliance {see also North Atlantic Treaty Organ- 
ization), Italy's place in, address (Zellerbach), 059 
Atlantic Community {see also North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization), address and remarks (Dulles), 571, 765 
Atlantic Fisheries, Northwest : 
International Commission for the, appointment of 

U.S. commissioner to, 936 
Protocol to international convention for, 403 
Atomic energy, nuclear weapons : 
Control and limitation, Soviet and Western positions, 
statement (Lodge) and texts of memoranda, 13, 
16, 17, 750 
Equipping of U.S. bomber flights toward Soviet Union 
with, U.S. denial of Soviet charges, texts of notes, 
648 
Polish proposal for zone free of in Central Europe, 

Soviet support of, 18 
Renunciation of use of, Soviet proposal, 18 
Testing of, proposed cessation and suspension : 
Agreement on : 
Geneva meeting to conclude. See Geneva meeting 

to negotiate 
U.S. offer to Soviet Union to negotiate in N.Y., state- 
ment (Eisenhower) and text of note, 378 
Detection of violations, Geneva meeting on. See 

Geneva conference of experts 
Senator Gore proposal to voluntarily stop, statement 

(Dulles), 951 
Soviet tests and announcements to discontinue, U.S. 
views, addresses, announcement, and statements : 
Berding, 56, 956 ; Department, 617 ; Eisenhower, 
810 ; Lodge, 788 
U.N. consideration of problem of, statements and 
texts of General Assembly resolutions, Hicken- 
looper, 783 ; Lodge, 787, 790 ; texts, 791, 792 

Index, July fo December 7 958 



Atomic energy, nuclear weapons — Continued 
Testing of, proposed cessation and susi>ension — Con. 
U.S. and Soviet positions, addresses, correspondence, 
and statements : Barco, 754 ; Department, 148, 772 ; 
Dulles, 9, 768, 771, 773, 809, 810, 812, 813, 952; 
Hickenlooper, 784, 785, 780 : Khru.shehev, 07 ; Lodge, 
747, 751, 752, 753; Murphy, 875; Soviet note and 
aide memoire, 101, 463 ; U.S. aide memoire, 101 ; 
Wilcox, 008 
Western position, text of U.S.-U.K.-French memo- 
randum, 13, 16 
U.S. test to demonstrate reduced fallout, cancelled, 237 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses of, 2d U.N. international 
conference on, U.S. exhibit and representatives, 
400, 403 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses of («ee also Atomic Energy 
Agency and European Atomic Energy Community) : 
Agreements with : Brazil, 175, 222 ; China, Republic of, 
1055, 1075; Cuba, 505, 518; Denmark, 54, 87, 518; 
EURATOM, 41, 70, 475, 830, 892; Ireland, 176; 
Japan, 40, 41, 674, 675 ; Venezuela, 673, 675 
Coordination of activities and cooperation in field of, 
remarks and statement : Kotschnig, 366 ; McCone, 
668 
Exhibits on, proposed exchange with Soviet Union, 391 
Opportunities in a nuclear age, address (Phillips), 831 
Soviet proposal for agreement with U.S. and European 

states for cooperation, 465, 466 
U.S. efforts to promote, address (Dulles) , 900 
Atomic energy, radioactive fallout : 

Safeguards against, U.S. projwsal for IAEA develop- 
ment, remarks (McCone), 670 
U.S. test to demonstrate reduced fallout, cancelled, 237 
Atomic Energy Agency, International : 
Annual report, U.S. views on, statement (Hicken- 

looi)er), 935 
Establishment and role of, addresses and report: 

Cargo, 730 ; Dulles, 900 ; Eisenhower, 219 
First-year accomplishments, address (Wilcox) , 510 
Relationship to EURATOM and U.N. si)eciaUzed agen- 
cies, 71, 72, 73, 366 
2d General Conference, remarks (McCone) and U.S. 

delegation, 633, 668 
Statute, 134, 330, 475, 554 
U.S. representative, resignation, 673 
Atomic Energy Commission, U.S., functions regarding 
proposed U.S.-EURATOM nuclear power program, 
70, 71, 76, 77 
Atomic Energy (Community, European. See European 

Atomic Energy Community 
Atomic energy for mutual defense purposes, agreement 
for cooperation with U.K., announcement, corre- 
spondence, and message, 134, 157, 161 (text), 310, 331 
Atomic energy materials. Battle Act embargo list, 468 
Atoms-for-peace. See Atomic energy, peaceful uses of 
Auerbach, Frank L., 621 
Australia : 
Administration of Nauru and New Guinea as trust 

territories, 715, 1029 
ANZUS Council, Washington meeting, 612 
TariflE negotiations with U.S., 215, 349 

1183 



A iistra lia — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental slielf, convention on, 848 

FisliinK and conservation of living resources of liigh 

seas, convention on, S-IS 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 930 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 1075 
High seas, convention on, 848 
Postal parcels, agreement with U.S. for exchange 

between Papau and New Guinea, 71.") 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

848 
Universal postal convention (19.57), 403 
Austria : 

Nuclear weapons tests, suspension of, resolution co- 
sponsored by, statements (Lodge), 790, 791, (text) 
792 
Renegotiation of tariff concessions, 215 
Travel of U.S. citizens in. Department announcement 

regarding, 422 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air services transit, international agreement, 1075 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 848 
Double nationality, protocol (1930) relating to mili- 
tary obligations in cases of, 403 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 936 
German external debts, agreement on, 518 
High seas, convention on, 848 
Investment guaranty, agreement with U.S. amending 

1952 agreement, 848 
State treaty, 715 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

848 
Universal postal convention (1057) , 403 
War damage and restitution legi.slation, 619 
Austrian state treaty, 715 
Auto travel, international. Sec Travel 
Aviation : 

Aerial photography. See under Surprise attack 
Air navigation, international symposium on, 535 
Aircraft, U.S. : 

FHghts over international waters, text of U.S. note 

protesting Soviet attacks on, 909 
Flights toward Soviet Union, U.S. rejects Soviet 

charges regarding, texts of notes, 648 
Helicopter, crew, and passengers detained in East 
Germany, correspondence and statements regard- 
ing return of: Dulles, 109, 110: Defense-State De- 
partments press release, 50; Soviet note, 148; U.S. 
aide memoire, 52, 108, 147 
Navy Neptune plane case, submitted to ICJ, and 

Soviet rejection of ICJ jurisdiction, 420, 698 
Soviet attack on transport plane near Yerevan, texts 

of U.S. and Soviet notes regarding, 146, 202 
Transport plane crash in Soviet Armenia, U.S. re- 
quests information on, texts of notes, 50.5, .531, 618, 
6.59, 885 
Transportation of salk vaccine to San Marino, 699 

1184 



Aviation — Continued 
Aircraft, U.S. — Continued 

Violations of Soviet airspace, text of U.S. note re- 
jecting Soviet charges, 885 
Civil Aviation Organization, International. See Inter- 
national Civil Aviation 
National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, statement 

on signing (Eisenhower), 327 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aerial refueling facilities in Canada, agreement with 
Canada relating to establishment, maintenance, 
and operation of, 87 

Air navigation equipment, agi-eement extending 19.55 
agreement with Federal Republic of Germany for 
lease of, 134 

Air navigation services in Faroe Islands, Greenland, 
and Iceland, agreements (19.56) for joint financing, 
87 

Air services transit, international agreement on, 1075 

Air transport, agreements with : Brazil, 1031 : Den- 
mark, 175, 223 ; France, 296 ; Mexico, 592 ; Norway, 
175, 223 : Peru, 176 ; Sweden, 175, 223 

Aircraft, convention (1948) on international recog- 
nition of rights in, 403, 518 

Aircraft carrier Bellcau Wood, agreement with 
France amending agreement relating to loan of, 
475 

International carriage by air, protocol and 1929 con- 
vention for unification of certain rules relating to, 
175, 223 

Manila Air Station, agreement with Philippines re- 
lating to, 404 

Babcock, James O., 984 
Baghdad Pact : 
Developments in, excerpt from President's report to 

Congress, 84 
Ministerial Council, meeting of, texts of declaration 

and communique, 272 
Soviet views on, letter (Krushchev), 276 
Balance-of-payments : 

IMF annual report on status of, statement (Robert 

Anderson), 795 
Restrictions, question of removal of, address (Dillon), 

745 
U.S.-Latin America, 1957 and 1st quarter of 1958, ar- 
ticle (Lederer, Culbertson), 311 
Balloons, U.S. meterological, Soviet complaint regarding 
flight over Soviet territory, texts of U.S. and Soviet 
notes, 504, 739 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development. See Inter- 
national Bank 
Banks, proposed establishment in less developed countries 
to aid economic development, address and statement: 
Mcintosh, 1065 ; Smith, 1002 
Bareo, James W., 88, 754 
Barrau Pelaez, Manuel, 814 
Barros Hurtado, Cesar, 54 

Baruch plan for control of atomic energy, 787, 998 
Bases, U.S., overseas. See Military bases 
Battle Act, embargo list revised, 392, 467 
Bayer, Celal, 183 

Department of State Bulletin 



Beale, W. T. M., Jr., 713, 067 
Becker. Loftus E., 416 
Belgium : 

Brussels AVorld's Fiiir, 211 

GATT, report on waiver under, 034 

Ruanda-Urundi, admini-stration as trust territory, 518, 

644, 1029 
Treaties, asreenients, etc. : 

Double taxation on income, convention supplement- 
ing 1048 convention with U.S. for avoidance of, 175 
GATT, declaration, proces verbal, and protocols 

amending, 206, 936, 984 
ICJ, statute, 223 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, 

and use of, 518 
Universal postal convention ( 1057 ) , 403 
Bell. John O., 1076 

Bcllcnu Wood, U.S. aircraft carrier, loan to France, 475 
Bellricbard. Andrew A., 661 
Benjamin Franklin Foundation for Berlin, 913 
I Herding. Andrew H., 55, 955 
I Berenson. Robert Lawrence, 716 
I Berlin : 

"Free city." Soviet proposal, U.S. views, address and 

statement : Department, 948 ; Jlurphy, 1045 
Soviet proposal to relinquish responsibilities to East 
Germany : 
Eisenhower-Dulles meeting on, 094 
Four-power views, text of communique, 1041 
Polish support of Soviet position, statement (Dulles), 

052 
U.S. views, address and statements: Dulles, 047, 948, 
040. O.jO, 052, 953, 1041 ; Murphy, 1044, 1046 
West Berlin : 

Free University of Berlin, 10th anniversary of, mes- 
sage (Dulles), 822 
IAEA, statute, application to, 1.34 
Medical training center, U.S. participation in plan- 
ing, 013 
U.S. position on, statement (Dulles), 813 
I Berry, Lampton, 676 
1 Bicycles, escape-clause relief held unnecessary on imports, 

of, 628 
I Board of Foreign Scholarships, appointments to, 013 
I Bolivia : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 814 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 782 

Disputes, eompulsary settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 782 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 782 
High seas, convention on, 782 
Territorial sea and contiguous znne. convention on, 

782 
Universal postal convention ( 1057 ) , 403 
U.S. Operations Mission to, appointment of director, 368 
Bonbright, James C. H., 800 
Bonhomme, Ernest, 1042 

Bonin Islands, question of compensation for former 
inhabitants of, U.S. -Japan joint statement, .533 



Boonstra, Clarence A., 331 
Brant. Albert W., 401 
Brazil : 

Economic development program in Latin America, 
Brazilian proposals for, statement (Dulles), 051 
IBRD loan, 663 

ICA health center, success of, address (Smith), 382 
Middle East .situation, proposed summit meeting at 
U.N., letters supporting (Eisenhower, Kubitschek), 
281 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural suriJluses, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 260 
Air transport, agreement amending 1046 agreement 

with U.S., 1031 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 

1955 agreement with U.S., 175, 222 
Austrian state treaty, 715 
Cultural property, convention (1054) and protocol 

for protection in event of armed conflict, 759 
Military mission, agreement with U.S. extending 

1048 agreement, 1075 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 403 
U.S.-Brazilian relations, 302, .303, .304. 300 
Visit of Secretary Dulles, 111, .301 

Western policy decisions, proposed larger Latin Ameri- 
can representation in, statement ( Dulles) , 267 
Breadth of territorial sea. See Territorial waters 
British Cameroons, review of progress in, address and 
statement: Marian Anderson, 1028; Satterthwaite, 
643 
British Empire (see also United Kingdom), present 

status of, U.S. views, statement (Dulles), 738 
Broadcasting. See Telecommunications 
Brussels World's Fair, designation of President's per- 
sonal representative to and report on U.S. exhibit, 211 
Bulgaria : 

Cultural property, protocol for protection in event of 

armed conflict, 1031 
High seas, convention on, 801 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 801 
Universal postal convention (1057) , 403 
Bullis, Harry A., 493 
Burma : 

Hungarian question, views on, KMIO 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Military equipment, agreement with U.S. regarding 

sale of, 222 
Purchase of Indian textiles, agreement with U.S. 

providing currency of India for, .592 
Universal postal convention ( 1957 ) , 403 
U.S. aid, 86 
Burns, Norman, 400 
Burrill, Meredith F., 309 

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic {see also Soviet 
Union) : 
Continental shelf, convention on, 892 
High seas, convention on, 848 

Territorial sea and conti,guous zone, convention on. 848 
Universal postal convention (1057) , 403 



\ndex, July fo December 7958 



1185 



Calendar of international meetings, 38, 216, 397, 550, 700, 

886 
Calhoun, John A., 592 
CaUao, Port of, IBRD loan to improve, 628 
Cambodia : 

GATT, decision to accede to, 933 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Visit of Prime Minister to U.S., 577 
Cambridge Researcli Center, U.S. Air Force, 504, 739 
Cameron, Turner C, 549 

Cameroons, British, review of progress in, address and 
statement: Marian Anderson, 1028; Satterthwaite, 
643 
Cameroun, French, progress toward independence, ad- 
dress and statement : Marian Anderson, 1028 ; Satter- 
thwaite, 643 
Canada : 
Arms traffic, U.S. license requirements on export and 

import, amended, 971 
Canada House, inaugural ceremonies, remarks (El- 
brick), 694 
80th Canadian National Exhibition, U.S. participation, 

393 
IJC, U.S.-Canada, 466, 773 

Joint Defense, Canada-U.S. Committee on, establish- 
ment and functions, agreement and joint statement 
(Eisenhower, Diefenbaker), 204, 208, 555 
Nuclear test suspension, Geneva meetings on. See Ge- 
neva conference of experts and Geneva technical 
talks 
Surprise attack, prevention of, Geneva meeting on. See 

Geneva technical talks 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Aerial refueling facilities in Canada, agreement with 
U.S. relating to establishment, maintenance, and 
operation of, 87 
Continental shelf, convention on, 554 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 555 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

554 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403, 636 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 800 
U.S.-Canadian relations, address and remarks: Dillon, 

318 : Dulles, 66, 765 ; Elbrick, 694 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 204 
Visit of Secretary Dulles, proposed, 105, 109 
Western alliance, Canadian role in, statements (Dulles), 
66 
Canal Zone : 
Bridge at Balboa, U.S. funds appropriated for building 

of, 68 
Working conditions in, U.S. legislation regarding and 
message (Eisenhower), 237 
Oapehart, Sen. Homer E., 549 
Capital, private, investment abroad. See Investment of 

private capital abroad 
CARE. See Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere 
Cargo, William I., 331, 725 

1186 



Catudal, Honors M., 1013, 1050 

Censorship vs. Freedom of Ideas, address (Berding), 55 
Central America (see also Inter- America, Latin America, 
Pan American, and individual cofintries), report to 
President on visit to, statement (Milton Eisenhower), 
309 
Central Intelligence Agency, history and operation of, re- 
marks (Allen Dulles), 827 
Ceylon : 
DLF loans, 68, 156 

Import restrictions, GATT consultations on and aboli- 
tion of, 349, 931 
Soviet-bloc aid, article (Wright) , 922, 923 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 41, 

223 
Continental shelf, convention on, 848 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 848 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 848 
High seas, convention on, 848 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

848 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 403 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 676 
University of Ceylon, U.S. aid for expansion, 430 
Chagla, Mahomed All Currim, 1042 
Chamoun, Camille, 181, 182, 184, 235 
Charter of the United Nations. See United Nations 

Charter 
Chemicals and allied products, U.K. lifts import restric- 
tions on, 289 
Chiang Kai-shek, 692, 721 
Children's Fund, U.N., 732 
Chile : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 199 
ICARE, 915, 1061 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 892 

Educational exchange programs, agreement with U.S. 

amending 1955 agreement for financing, (536 
Rawinsonde observation stations, establishment and 
operation of, agreement with U.S. extending 1957 
agreement, 1031 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
U.N. building in, proposed financing, statement (Hicken- 
looper) and text of General Assembly resolution, 
982 
China [see also China, Communist; and China, Republic 
of): 
Cultural heritage, preservation of, address (Dulles), 993 
Reunification of, U.S. views, statements (Dulles), 599, 

603, 604 
"Two Chinas" proposal, U.S. views, text of U.S. memo- 
randum, 389, 390 
China, Communist, (see also Communism and Soviet-bloc 
countries) : 
Aggression in : 

Korea, addre.ss, statement, and report: Dulles, 525 j 

Eisenhower, 481 ; Hickenlooper, 1021, 1023 
Taiwan Straits. See Taiwan Straits 

DeparfmenI of Sfafe Bulletin 



China, Comiuimist — Continued 
Ambassadorial talks with U.S. See Warsaw ambassa- 
dorial talks 
Commune system, addresses; Berding, 958; Cumming, 

942 ; Dulles, 866, 991, 993 ; Murphy, 908 
Detention aud release of U.S. citizens. See Warsaw 

ambassadorial talks 
Economic offensive. See Less developed countries : 

Economic offensive 
Impermanence of regime, statement (Dulles) , 487 
Korea, reunification of and withdrawal of forces from, 

proposals regarding. See Korea 
Objectives in Asia, address (Cumming), 941, 942 
Propaganda, address and statement : Berding, 957, 958 ; 

Dulles, 685 
Refugees admitted to U.S., 497 

The Sino-Sovict Economic Offensive in the Less De- 
veloped Countries, published, 31 
Subversive activities in Far East, addresses : Dulles, 

990, 991 ; Herter, 495, 496 
Trade : 
Far East, offensive in, 556 
U.S. restrictions on, 562, 1051, 1054 
Travel by U.S. newsmen to, statement (Dulles), 685 
U.A.R. support of, statement (Dulles), 489 
U.N. representation, question of, addresses and state- 
ments: Dulles, 563, 564, 992; Lodge, 585; Wilcox, 
512 
U.S. policy of nonrecognition : 
Addresses, memorandum, and statement : Department, 

385 ; Dulles, 563, 735, 991, 992 
National Council of Churches position, 950 
Soviet views, letter (Khrushchev), 343 
China, Republic of : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 613 
DLF loans, 238, 928, 929, 1012 
National holiday, exchange of messages (Eisenhower, 

Chiang Kai-shek) , 692 
Renunciation of force principle (see also Warsaw am- 
bassadorial talks), application to defense of, state- 
ment (Dulles), 770 
Soviet position toward, address (Herter), 808 
Taiwan Straits, Communist aggression in. See Taiwan 

Straits 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, peaceful uses of, agreement with U.S. 
amending 1955 research reactor agreement, 1055, 
1075 
CJontinental shelf, convention on, 554 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 555 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 
ICEII, convention, 296 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

5&4 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 403 
U.N. membership, question of, address and statements : 

Dulles, 504 ; Lodge, 585 
U.S. aid, 86, 576, 600 
U.S. cultural relations with, article (Colligan), 113, 115 

Index, July to December J 958 



China, Republic of — Continued 
U.S. policy toward (see also Taiwan Straits), 386, 721, 
735 
Chou En-lai, 688 
Civil aviation. See Aviation 

Civil Aviation Organization, International. See Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organization 
Civil service personnel, U.S., retention of rights for em- 
ployees transferred to IAEA, Executive order, 394 
Civilians, Geneva convention (1949) relative to protection 

in time of war, 555, 848, 1075 
Civilians, U.S. See United States citizens 
Claims : 

Arab refugees, compensation problem of, U.S. efforts to 

solve, address (Ludlow), 778 
Austrian war damage and restitution, legislation regard- 
ing, 619 
Danish ships requisitioned in World War II, agreement 

vrtth U.S. for settlement, 440 
Germany, claims against : 

External debts, German, agreement on, 518 
General War Sequel Law, Federal Republic of Ger- 
many, 699 
German assets in Portugal and claims regarding mone- 
tary gold, agreement on, 936 
Property rights and interests in Germany, charter of 
Arbitral Commission on, 41, 983 
Pacific Islands Trust Territory, progress in settlement 

of claims against U.S., statement (Nucker), 172 
U.S. against Soviet Union, Navy Neptune plane case 
submitted to ICJ, 420, 698 
Clark, William D., 733 
Claxton, Philander P., Jr., 760 
Clock, Philip, 223 

Coal, Federal Republic of Germany restrictions on im- 
ports, U.S. discussions on, 578 
Coffee, Latin American, marketing problems, address 
(Rubottom) and U.S. -Brazil joint communique, 
302, 655, 656 
Coggeshall, Lowell T., 839 
"Cold war," evaluation of U.S. and Soviet actions and 

successes in, address ( Berding) , 955 
Cole, James E., 661 

Collective security (see also Mutual defense and Mutual 
security) : 
Europe. See European security and North Atlantic 

Treaty Organization 
Latin America. See Organization of American States 
Near and Middle East. See Baghdad Pact and League 

of Arab States 
Pacific area. See ANZUS Council and Southeast Asia 

Treaty Organization 
Regional arrangements : 

Deterrent to Communist aggression, addresses: 

Cargo, 728 ; Dulles, 241, 989, 991 ; Wilcox, 27 
U.S. participation, President's message and report 
to Congress, excerpts, 83 
Soviet rejection, address and statement : Dulles, 374 ; 

Lodge, 973 
U.N. authorization and role, addresses: Cargo, 729; 
Dulles, 571 ; Eisenhower, 337 ; Wilcox, 996 

1187 



Collective security — Continued 
U.S. policy, address and statement: Lodge, 973; 
Murphy, 141 
Colligan, Francis J., 112 
Colombia : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 331, 

1031 
Continental shelf, convention on, 554 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 555 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

554 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 403 
tl.S.-Colombia relations, letters (Eisenhower, Lleras 
Camargo), 30 
Colombo Plan : 

Consultative Committee, 10th annual meeting : 
Announcement of , and U.S. delegations to, 846 
Ministerial meeting, remarks and statement: Dillon, 

858 ; Dulles, 857 ; Eisenhower, 853 
Final communique and extract from annual report, 
860 
Economic development program, comparison with Com- 
munist program, statement (Dulles) , 951 
Objectives, addresses : Dillon, 872 ; Dulles, 865 
Private foreign Investment in countries of, views on, 

statement (Smith), 1063 
U.S. support, address (Dulles), 562 
Colonialism : 
Communist policy and objectives, addresses (Dulles), 

898, 990 
U.S. policy, address ( Satterthwaite) , 642 
Columbus Day, 195S, 688 
Commerce, Department of : 
Announcement of changes in U.S. export controls, 392 
Preparation of recommendations to expand private 
investment abroad, address (Dillon) , 873 
Commercial treaties and agreements (see also Trade 
agreements), provisions for protection of private 
foreign investment, address and statement : Beale, 
967 ; Dillion, 1058 
Committee for Reciprocity Information, 349, 1019 
Commodity Arrangements, International, Interim Co- 
ordination Committee for, recommendation for meet- 
ing on lead and zinc problem, 847 
Commodity Trade, International, Commission on, 358, 360 
Commodity trade problems, international : 
Addresses, articles, and statement : Oatudal, 1053 ; 

Dillon, 743, 921 ; Phillips, 358 ; Wright, 927 
GATT contracting parties' views, U.S. delegation re- 
port, 934 
Communes, Chinese Communist, addresses : Berding, 958 ; 
Cumming, 042; Dulles, 866, 991, 993; Murphy, 908 
Communications. See Telecommunications 
Communism (see also China, Communist; Propaganda; 
and Soviet Union) : 
Africa, subversive activities in, address (Satterth- 
waite), 645 



Communism — Continued / 

Communist Party activities in U.S., address (Herter), 

806 
International communism : 

Challenge and threat of, addresses, announcement, 
remarks, and statements: ANZUS Council, 612; 
Dulles, 5, 61, 733, 767, 900; Spaak, 609, 960; U.S.- 
Japanese joint statement, 533 
Evolutionary trend away from, statements (Dulles), 

734, 768 
Goal of, statement (Eisenhower), 103 
Indirect aggression. See Aggression 
Newly independent nations, policy for, address 

(Dulles), 898, 900 
Strategy, address and statement: Dulles, 949; 

Murphy, 1043, 1047 
U.S. and free-world efforts to combat, addresses: 

Dulles, 4, 989 ; Smith, 380 
Vulnerability of, addresses : Berding, 957 ; Dulles, 
901,993,994 
Investment of private capital abroad, Commiuiist oi>- 

position to, statement (Smith), 1063 
Promises of Communists, dependability of, statement 

(Dulles), 602 
Subversive activities, addresses : Dulles, 991, 992 ; 

Kohler, 154 
Supporters of, need for U.S. legislation to deny pass- 
ports to, address, letter, message, and statement: 
Dulles, 110, 250; Eisenhower, 250; Murphy, 251; 
O'Connor, 880 
Conferences and organizations, international (see also 
subject), calendar of meetings, 38, 216, 397, 550, 700, 
886 
Congress, U.S. : 

Documents relating to foreign policy, lists of, 38, SO, 
164, 249, 327, 368, 396, 440, 518, 549, 699, 782, 929, 
1019 
Election campaign, question of injecting foreign policy 

into, statements (Dulles), 683, 686 
ICJ, Senate decision on domestic-jurisdiction reserva- 
tions to, address (Rogers), 538 
Joint sessions, addresses before : 
President of Philippines, 121 

Prime Minister of: Afghanistan, 129; Ghana, 284; 
Italy, 287 
Legislation : 

Appropriation of funds for : 
Mutual security program, 1959, correspondence and 
statements: Dillon, 243; Dulles, 104, 107, 239; 
Eisenhower, 103, 547 
Panama Canal Zone bridge, 68 
Commission on International Rules of Judicial Pro- 
cedure, establishment of, address (Rogers), 537 
EURATOM Cooperation Act of 1958, statements: 

Dillon, 247 ; Eisenhower, 415 
Mutual Security Act, 1954, section 413(c) as 

amended, 716 
National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, state- 
ment on signing (Eisenhower), 327 
Panama Canal Zone, working conditions in, 237 



1188 



Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



1 'ousress, U.S. — Continuod 
Legislation — Continued 
J. Trade agreements program, extension of, articles, 

letters, and statements: Catudal, 1013, 1050; 
Dulles, 34 ; Eisenhower, 132, 39C ; Kallis, «2 ; Mills, 
132 
Treated seed wheat, veto of bill increasing dut.v on 
imports, message (Eisenhower), 395 
Legislation, proposed : 
Mutual security program, appropriations for, state- 
ments (Dulles), 811 
Passports, control and issuance of, address, letter, 
message, and statements : Dulles, 110, 250 ; Eisen- 
hower, 250 : Murphy, 251 ; O'Connor, 880 
Outer space, peaceful uses of. bipartisan Congressional 
support for proposed I'.S. resolution in U.N., state- 
ment (Johnson), 977, 978 
Presidential messages, reports, etc. Sec Eisenhower: 

Messages, reports, and letters to Congress 
Role in developing foreign policy, statements (Dulles), 

66, 813 
Taiwan Straits situation, U.S. position, congressional 
support of, address and statement: Dulles, 486; 
Maurer, 1008 
U.X. permanent emergency force, resolution proposing 
establishment of. Department views, statement 
(Wilcox), 324 
Conservation of living resources of the high seas, conven- 
tion on. 5.54, 675, 782, 848, 891 
Consular service, U.S. See Foreign Service 
Consultative Committee on Cooperative Economic Devel- 
opment in South and Southeast Asia. See Colombo 
Plan 
Continental shelf, convention on, 554, 675, 782, 848, 892 
Cooper, Howard W., 329 

Cooperative for American Belief Everywhere, 514, 659 
Copyright convention (1952), universal, and protocols 1, 

2, and 3, 936, 983 
Corre.spondents, U.S. : 
In Soviet Union, censorship of, address (Berding), 57 
Travel to Communist China, question of issuing pass- 
ports for, statement (Dulles), 685 
I Costa Kica : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 199 
Continental shelf, convention on, 554 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 555 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

sea.s, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 554 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Cotton, long-staple, modification of import quota on, an- 
nouncement and proclamation, 214 
Council of Permanent Representatives, NATO, functions, 

address (Dulles), 572 
Cuba: 
Arms shipment to, alleged, U.S. denial of, 153 
Detention of U.S. citizens, statements (Dulles), 104, 109, 

110 
GATT, tariff renegotiations, 13th session of contract- 
ing parties, discussion, 9.32 

Index, July fo December 1958 



Cuba — Continued 
Guantanamo Naval Base water installations, with- 
drawal of U.S. Marine guard, 282 
Products of, application of U.S. trade agreements leg- 
islation to, article (Catudal), 1017, 1018 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement with U.S. 

superseding 1956 agreement, 505, 518 
Continental shelf, convention on, 554 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 555 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 5.54 
High seas, convention on, 554 
Shrimp conservation, convention with U.S. regarding, 

440 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

554 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 403 
U.S. intervention in, alleged, statement (Dulles), 111 
Culbertson, Nancy F., 311 

Cultural, technical, and educational fields, agreement with 
Soviet Union for exchanges in. See Exchange 
agreement 
Cultural property, convention (1954) and protocol for 
protection in event of armed conflict, and regulations 
of execution, 759, 1031 
Cultural relations : 
Chinese culture, U.S. policy to preserve, address 

(Dulles), 993 
Soviet proposal for agreement with U.S. and European 

states, text of draft treaty, 466 
Western impact on Asian culture, address (Gumming), 
942, 943, 944 
Cultural relation.?, U.S. : 

Afghanistan, agreement with, 87, 128 

Development of U.S. program of, article (Colligan), 

112 
Latin America, statement (Dulles), 10 
Soviet Union : 
Address (Rabb), 888 

Exchange agreement of 1958, agreements and ex- 
changes under and progress report on, 289, 390, 391, 
577, 696 
Spain, address (John Lodge), 963, 964 
20th anniversary of U.S. cultural exchange program 
291 
Gumming, Hugh S., Jr., 941 
Customs (See also Tariff policy, U.S.) : 
Customs courts, right to appeal to reestablished, 1054 
Customs privileges, reciprocal, for Foreign Service per- 
sonnel, agreement with El Salvador, 41 
Haiti, agreement with U.S. for duty-free entry of relief 

supplies and packages, 555 
Private road vehicles, convention (1954) on temporary 

importation of, 331, 591, 848, 936 
Touring, convention (1054) concerning facilities for, 
223, 331, 591, 847, 936 
Czechoslovakia : 
Detention of U.S. citizens for border violations, U.S. 
requests release, texts of U.S. and Czechoslovak 
notes, 660 

1189 



Czechoslovakia — Continued 
Nuclear test suspension, Geneva meetings on. See Ge- 
neva conference of experts and Geneva meeting to 
negotiate 
Summit meeting, proposed : 

Czechoslovak attendance at, Soviet proposal, 22 
Exchange of views on holding, texts of U.S. note and 
Czechoslovak memorandum, 539 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 892 

High seas, convention on, 848 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

848 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 403 

Dale, William N., 260 
Daud, Sardar Mohammad, 127 
Debts, German external, agreement on, 518 
Defense. See Mutual defense and National defense 
Defense and Civilian Mobilization, Office of, duties under 
national security provision of trade agreements leg- 
islation, 544 
Defense support program : 
Aid to Turkey, 323 
Appropriations for, 85, 242 
De Gaulle, Gen. Charles, 271, 276, 612, 814, 1012 
Denmark : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 815 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport services, agreements amending 1944 

agreement with U.S., 174, 223 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, amendments to 1955 re- 
search reactor agreement with U.S., 54, 87, 518 
Continental shelf, convention on, 554 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 555 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
GATT, declaration extending standstill provisions of 

article XVI, 984 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 936 
High seas, convention on, 5.54 

Ships requisitioned by U.S. during World War II, 
agreement with U.S. for settlement of claims, 440, 
474 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

554 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 403, 036 
Department of State. See State Department 
Desai, Morarji R., 535 

Development Advisory Board, International, 493 
Development association, international, proposed estab- 
lishment, addresses, letters, remarks, and statements : 
Anderson, 415, 794 ; Beale, 908 ; Dillon, 797, 798, 859, 
871, 919 ; Dulles, 528 ; Eisenhower, 413, 856 ; Phillips, 
707 
Development institutions, regional, proposed : 
Arab states. See under Arab states 
Inter-American : 

Foreign ministers meeting, text of communique, 576 
Remarks and statements : Dillon, 347, 871, 918, 920 ; 
Dulles, 951 

1190 



Development institutions — Continued 
U.S. support, address, article, and statement : 
Beale, 968 ; Mcintosh, 1065 ; Wright, 927 
Development Loan Fund : 

Appropriation for, proposed legislation, statements: 

Dillon, 243 ; Dulles, 242 
Deputy Managing Director, appointment, 134 
Establishment and functions, addresses, article, re- 
marks, report, and statement: Dillon, 859, 870, 871; 
Dulles, 561, 562 ; Eisenhower, 81, 82, 84, 86, 87, 855, 
856 ; Murphy, 907, 908 ; Reinhardt, 516 ; Wright, 926, 
927 
Guaranties collectibility of private development loans, 

announcement, 1012 
Loan application questions, listed, 1062 
Loans in: Ceylon, 68, 156; China, Republic of, 238, 928, 
929 ; Greece, 69 ; India, 67, 535 ; Iran, 154 ; Malaya, 
290 ; Pakistan, 156 ; Paraguay, 156, 774 ; Philippines, 
121 ; Turkey, 534 
Private investment abroad, promotion of and assistance 
to, remarks and statement: Beale, 968, Mcintosh, 
1064 
Use of Turkish currency repayments, agreement, 592 
Dief enbaker, .John, 204, 208 
Dillon, Douglas : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements : 
Economic development, 796. 858 

EURATOM, proposed legislation regarding U.S. pro- 
gram with, 247 
Inter-American development institution, proposed 

establishment, 347 
International trade, problems affecting, 742 
Latin America, economic development in, 918 
Mutual security program for fi.scal year 1959, 243 
Private foreign investment, U.S., expansion and pro- 
tection of, 1056 I 
Soviet economic offensive, 31, 817, 869 1 
U.S. foreign economic policy, 318 
Appointments : 

Ministerial representative to 13th session of GATT, 

713 
U.S. representative to OAS special committee, 713 
Under SecretaiT of State for Economic Affairs, 111 
Trip to study mutual security program operations, 532 
Diplomatic representatives abroad, U.S. See under For- 
eign Service 
Diplomatic representatives in the U.S., presentation of 
credentials: Argentina, 54; Bolivia, 814; Chile, 199; 
China, Republic of, 613 ; Costa Rica, 199 ; Denmark, 
815 ; Ethiopia, 613 ; Finland, 653 ; Greece, 815 ; Guate- 
mala, 10 ; Haiti, 1042 ; India, 1042 ; Jordan, 904 ; Libya, 
54; Luxembourg, 815; Nepal, 767; Paraguay, 277; 
Sweden, 199 ; United Arab Republic, 346 ; Venezuela, 
346; Yugoslavia, 767 
Disarmament (see also Armaments; Armed forces, and 
Disarmament Commission, U.N.) : 
Nuclear weapons. See Atomic energy, nuclear weapons 
Outer space, international control for peaceful uses only, 

proposal. See Outer space. 
Progress and prospects for, address and statement 
(Dulles), 810, 903 

Department of State Bulletin 



I)isarmaiiieiit — Continued 
U.X. consideration of problem of : 
Address, letter, and statements: Barco, 754; Cargo, 
729; Eisenhower, 218; Lodge, 666, 747, 751, 752, 753, 
837 
Text of resolution, 839 
U.S. and Soviet positions, addresses, correspondence 
and statements: Dulles, 527; Ei.senliower, 378; 
Hickenlooper, 783 ; Khrushchev, 97, 100 ; Lodge, 788, 
789 ; Murphy, 142, 874, 1047 ; Soviet note, 463, 464, 
465, 466 ; Wilcox, 509, 997 
Use of savings for economic development, statement 

(Phillips), 705 
Western position, text of U.S.-U.K.-Freneh memoran- 
dum, 13, 16 
Disarmament, The Intensified Effort, 1955-1958, pub- 
lished, 331 
Disarmament Commission, U.X. : 

Membership question, statements (Lodge) and text of 

General Assembly resolution, 837 
Soviet obstruction to progress in, address and state- 
ment : Lodge, 747 ; Murphy, 875 
! Disputes, pacific settlement of : 

NATO procedures for, address (Dulles), 573 
1907 convention for pacific settlement, 636 
Optional protocol concerning compulsory settlement, 

555, 782, 848, 892, 984 
U.N. achievements, address (Cargo), 731 
: DLF. See Development Loan Fund 
: Doerfer, John C, 634 
'. Dominican Republic : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 5.54 

Disputes, compulsoiy settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 5.55 
Disputes, international, 1907 convention for pacific set- 
tlement of, 636 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 

Laws and customs of war on land, 1907 convention re- 
specting, and annex, 592 
Narcotic drugs, protocol bringing under international 
control drugs outside scope of 1931 convention con- 
cerning, 134 
Opivmi, 1953 protocol regulating production, trade, and 

use of, 134 
Salvage at sea, convention for unification of certain 

rules with respect to, 555 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

554 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Double taxation on income : 
Agreements and conventions for avoidance of, with : 
Belgium, 175; Norway, 176, 222; Pakistan, 176; 
United Kingdom, 176, 759, 760, 782 
Treaties to avoid, incentive for investment of private 
capital abroad, remarks, and statements: Beale, 
967 ; Dillon, 920, 1058 ; Smith, 1061 
Drake, Russell P., 223 

Draper Committee, study of military and economic pro- 
grams, 547, 950, 954 



Draper, William H., Jr., 954 
Drugs, narcotic : 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating the production, trade, 

and use of, 134, 518 
Opium and other drugs, convention (1912) relating to 

suppression of abuse of, as amended, 175, 260 
Protocol (1948) bringing under international control 
drugs outside the scope of 1931 convention, 134 
Dual nationality, 1930 protocol relating to military obli- 
gations in cases of, 403 
Dulles, Allen W., 827 
Dulles, John Foster : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements : 

Afghanistan, cultural agreement with, 129 
Aggression, indirect, definition and Communist use 

of, 265, 266, 268, 269, 271, 307 
American Foreign Ministers meeting, 104, 486, 601 
Arab nationalism, U.S. position, 269 
Arab States, Pact of the League of, 410, 411, 686 
Asian economic development programs, 951 
Aswan Dam, 770, 773 
Berlin, U.S. policy. See Berlin 
Brazil, U.S. relations with, 302, 303, 304, 309 
British Empire, present status, 738 
Canada, U.S. relations with, 66, 109, 765 
China, Communist : 
Aggression in Taiwan Straits. See under Taiwan 

Sti'aits 
Announcement of troop witlidrawal from Korea, 

772 
Impermanence of i-ule, 487 
New tactics of, 685 

U.S. policy of nonrecognition, 735, 950 
China, Republic of : 

Mainland, question of return to, 599, 603 
Position on use of force by, 770 

U.S. policy {see also Taiwan Straits), 722, 735, 736 
Colombo Plan, benefits of, 857 
Communist tactics, U.S. efforts to combat, 602, 733, 

734, 768, 949 
Congressional election campaign, question of injecting 

foreign policy into, 683, 687 
Consultations between U.S.-U.K.-France, question of, 

814 
Cuba, alleged U.S. intervention in. 111 
Detention and release of U.S. citizens by foreign 

governments, 104, 106, 108, 109, 110 
Disarmament, 331, 527, 734, 810, 903 
Draper Committee, 950 
Economic development, 647, 865 
European free trade area, importance of tariff policy, 

813 
European security, question of negotiating with 

Soviets on, 949 
Far East, U.S. policy for, 487, 490, 491, 561, 989 
Foreign policy, U.S., 486, 733, 813, 897, 989 
French attendance at summit conference on Middle 

East, question of, 271 
German reunification, 812, 949 

Hungarian patriots, Soviet responsibility for execu- 
tion of, 6 



Index, July to December 1958 



1191 



Dulles, John Foster — Continued 
Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 
Interdependence, role of English-speaking peoples in 

development of, 738 
Italy, relations with NATO and Arab states, 949 
Iraq, recognition of government, effect in Lebanon 

and Jordan, 270 
Japan, question of revision of security treaty, 487 
Latin America : 

Cultural exchange with, 10 

Economic development, Brazilian proposal, 951 

Foreign Ministers meeting, 104, 486, 601 
Lead and zinc import quotas, 597 
Lebanon, U.S. position on situation in. See Middle 

East situation 
Liaison between NATO and OAS, question of, 771 
Marshall plan, 3 
Mexico, U.S. relations with, 994 
Middle East {see also wider Middle East situation), 

240, 737 
Mutual security program : 

Accomplishments and importance, 3 

Appropriations for, 104, 107, 239, 811 
NATO : 

Canadian role, 66 

Interdependence in action, 571 

Ministerial meeting, departure for, 1040 
Nonquota visas for fugitives from Communist areas 

in Middle East, issuance of, 107 
Nuclear weapons tests, suspension of. See Atomic 

energy, nuclear weapons ; Geneva conference of ex- 
perts ; and Geneva meeting to negotiate 
Outer space, problem of, 528, 868, 898, 900 
Passports, proposed legislation regarding, 7, 110 
Peace, 373, 525 

Progress and Human Dignity, 865 
SEATO, 4th anniversary, 447 
Soviet Union : 

Arctic inspection proposal, rejection of, 734, 7G6 

Berlin proposals. See Berlin 

Collective security views, 573 

Detention of U.S. airmen, 110 

Exchange of information with, 107 

Loan to U.A.R. for Aswan Dam, 770 

Negotiating with, 951 

Nuclear tests, position on suspension, 768, 771, 952 

System, evolution of, 768 
Spaak address regarding Communist challenge, 597 
Strategic shipments to Soviet-bloc countries, ques- 
tion of. 111 
Sudanese change of government, appraisal of, 952 
Summit meeting, proposed, negotiations regarding, 6, 

8, 240 
Surprise attack, prevention of. See Geneva technical 

talks and Surprise attack 
Taiwan Straits situation. Communist aggression in, 

and U.S. policy. See under Taiwan Straits 
Trade Agreements Act, extension of, 34 
U.A.R. foreign policy, question of Communist influ- 
ence, 952 
U.S.-Canadian export policies, 204, 209 



Dulles, John Foster — Continued 

Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 

U.S. economic aid programs, 736 

UNESCO 10th session of General Conference, swear- 
ing-in of U.S. delegation, 552 

Warsaw ambassadorial talks, U.S.-Communist China, 
106, 109, 488, 492, 598, 599, 600 

Western policy decisions, Brazilian proposal for 
larger Latin American representation, 267 

Western hemisphere, unity of, 304, 305, 306 
Correspondence and messages : 

Atomic energy for mutual defense i)urposes, agree- 
ment with U.K. regarding, 158 

Free University of Berlin, 10th anniversary of found- 
ing, 822 

Korea, Republic of, 10th anniversary of independ- 
ence, 346 

Pan African conference, message to Prime Minister 
Nkrumah, 642 

Passport legislation, proposed, 250 
Inauguration of FSI senior ofBcer course, 675 
Interviews and meetings : 

American Foreign Ministers meeting, 574 

ANZUS Council meeting, 612 

Baghdad Pact ministerial meeting, 237, 272, 281n 

British TV broadcast, transcript of interview by 
William D. Clark, 733 

Canadian TV broadcast, transcript of interview by 
Edgar Mclnnis, 61 

Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, meeting to exchange 
views on world situation, 237, 281 

Japanese Foreign Minister, 447, 532 

NATO ministerial meeting, 1040, 1041 

President Chiang Kai-shek, 721 

President Eisenhower, meeting on world problems, 994 

Prime Minister of Cambodia, 577 

Thai National Assemblymen, 693 
News conferences, 6, 104, 265, 485, 597, 681, 809, 947 
Visit to Brazil, 111, 301 
Visit to Canada, proposed, 105, 109 

East- West contacts (see also Cultural relations and Ex- 
change of information) : 
Development of, U.S.-U.K. -French reply to Soviet pro- ' 

posal, text of memoranda, 15, 16. 21 
U.S.-Soviet Union. See Exchange agreement 
East- West trade : 

Expansion of U.S. and Soviet trade, letters and state- 
ment : Dulles, 8 ; Eisenhower, Khrushchev, 20, 200 
Restrictions on, relaxation of, statement (Dulles), 111 
Soviet use of trade with West, address (Dillon), 818 
U.S. legislative restrictions on, 392, 467, 1051, 1054 
ECAFE. See Economic Commission for Asia and the Far 

East 
ECE. See Economic Commission for Europe 
Economic and Social Council, U.N. : 

Docimients, lists of, 330, 403, 673, 1030, 1075 
Economic commissions. iS'ee Economic commissions 
26th session, statements (Kotschnig, Phillips), 351, 357, 
358, 360 



1192 



Department of Sfafe Bu//ef/n 



Ecouomic and social programs and progress, U.N., address 

and statement : Cargo, 732 ; Kotscbnig, 300 
Economic and technical aid to foreign countries (sec also 
Agricultural surpluses, Colombo Plan, Development 
Loan Fund, Exiwrt-Import Bank, International Banlv, 
International Cooperation Administration, Mutual 
security and other assistance programs, and United 
Nations : Technical assistance program) : 
Addresses, article, remarlis, and statements : Dillon, 
859, 918, 920, 1057; Dulles, 241, 736; Eisenhower, 
854; Murphy, 907; Reinhardt, 51-4; Wilcox, 1,000; 
Wright, 922 
Aid to: Africa, 646, 647; Brazil, 305; Ecuador, 87; 
Ghana, 2S3 ; India, 493, 516, 535, 545 ; Morocco, 41 ; 
Spain, 964, 965; Sudan. 440; Tunisia, 156, 760; 
Turkey, 322, 533 ; Yugoslavia, 555, 984 
Sino-Soviet block program. See Less developed coiui- 

tries : Economic offensive 
U.S. program, Draper Committee to study, 547, 950, 954 
Economic Commission for Africa, U.N., created, 646 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, U.N., 
U.S. delegate to Working Party on Economic Develop- 
ment and Planning, designation, 474 
Economic Commission for Euroi)e, U.N. : 

Electric Power Committee, designation of U.S. delegate 

to meetings of, 329 
Timber Committee, 16th session, designation of U.S. 
delegate to , 517 
I Economic Cooperation, European, Organization for, 323 
I Economic development {see also Economic and technical 
aid) : 
Africa, address (Satterthwaite), 646, 647 
Arab states, planning economic development in, address 

(Burns), 469 
Asia (see also Colombo Plan), addresses and remarks: 

Cumming, 946 ; Dulles, 561 ; Parsons, 566, 570 
Brazil, address (Dulles) and text of U.S.-Brazil joint 

communique, 302, 305 
Financing of {see also Agricultural surpluses. Develop- 
ment Loan Fund, Export-Import Bank, Interna- 
tional Bank, International Monetary Fund, Invest- 
ment of private capital abroad, and Special Fimd), 
address (Dillon), 318 
Free world and Communist methods, comparison of, 

address (Dulles), 306, 865 
Ghana, joint statement (Eisenhower, Nkrumab), 283 
Institutions for. /S'ce Development association and De- 
velopment institutions 
Latin America : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements : Dillon, 918 ; 
Dulles. 951; Herter, 914, 915, 916; Murphy, 908; 
Rubottom, 655 
Foreign Ministers meeting, text of communique, 575 
Management as a factor in, address (Herter), 914 
Philippine progress, address and joint statement (Eisen- 
hower, Garcia), 121, 124 
Relationship to peace, remarks (Murphy) , 740 
Spain, addres.s (John Lodge), 964, 965 
U.S. proposals for furthering, addresses, remarks, and 
statements : Dillon, 797, 858 ; Dulles, 527, 951 ; 
Eisenhower, 341, 854 ; Satterthwaite, 647 



Economic policy and relations, U.S. : 

Aid to foreign countries. See Agricultural surpluses. 
Development Loan Fund, Economic and technical 
aid, Exix)rt-Import Bank, and Mutual security 
Domestic economy, address and statement : Dillon, 742 ; 

I'hillips, 353, 355 
East- West trade. See East-West trade 
Foreign economic policy : 

Addresses, article, and letter: Dillon, 318; Eisen- 
hower, 412 ; Murphy, 905 ; Wright, 922 
Economic development abroad, proposals for further- 
ing. See Economic development. 
Soviet economic offensive, policy to combat. See 
Less developed countries : Economic offensive 
Regional meeting of U.S. economic officers in Europe to 

discuss, 688 
Tariff policy. See Tariff policy 
Economic situation, world, review of, statement (Phil- 
lips), 351 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council, U.N. 
Ecuador : 

ICA loan for 11th inter-American conference, 68 
Reaffirmation of friendship with U.S., letter (Ponce 

Enriquez),209 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., with 

memorandums of understanding, 175 
Aircraft, convention (1948) on international recog- 
nition of rights in, 403 
Continental shelf, convention on, 892 
Financial assistance, agreement with U.S., 87 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown 
University, dedication ceremonies, remarks (Eisen- 
hower, Murphy), 689 
Education («ee a7«o Educational exchange) : 
American-sponsored schools, libraries, and community 

centers, use of foreign currencies to support, 435 
Arab states, need for engineering and technical educa- 
tion, address (Burns) , 472 
Ceylon, U.S. aid, 430 

Foreign Service, academic training for, remarks (Eisen- 
hower, Murphy) , 689 
IAEA programs, U.S. proposed and sujiport, remarks 

(McCone),670, 671 
ICA programs, addresses : Herter, 915 ; Smith, 1063 
Soviet challenge to U.S. education, addresses : Cargo, 

727 ; Murphy, 907 ; Wilcox, 24 
UNESCO ijrograms, U.S. suggestions and support, 402, 

890 
UNWRA program for Arab refugees, address (Ludlow), 
777 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, U.N. : 
The Challenge to UNESCO, address (Rabb) , 888 
Constitution, 296 
Director General, meeting with interdepartmental 

group, 259 
lOtb general conference, U.S. delegation and alternate 
representative to, 401, 552, 792 
Educational Exchange, Advisory Commission on, 422 
Educational exchange program, international {see also 
Education) : 
Advisory Commission on, appointment to, 422 



Index, July to December J 958 



1193 



Educational exchange program — Continued 
Agreements with: Chile, 636; Spain, 715, 760, 963; 

Thailand, 592 ; U.K., 591, 592 
Board of Foreign Scholarships, appointments to, 913 
Financing of, use of foreign currencies for, 434 
History of, article (Colligan), 115 
Latin America, U.S. increase In program for, address 

(Rubottom),655 
Soviet Union. See Exchange agreement 
Egypt {see also United Arab Republic) : 

CARE distribution of surplus U.S. agricultural prod- 
ucts, address (Reinhardt),515 
Soviet-bloc economic offensive in, 32, 922 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 403 
Eisenhower, Dwight D. : 

Addresses, remai-ks, and statements : 

Afghan-U.S. relations, joint statement with Prime 

Minister Daud, 127 
American principles, 657 
Arab develojiment institution, proposed, 473 
Canadian-U.S. relations, 204, 208, 209 
Columbus Day, 1958, 6SS 
Disarmament, 208 

Economic development, U.S. proposals to assist, 853 
EURATOM Cooperation Act of 1958, approval of, 415 
Foreign Service School, Georgetown University, ded- 
ication ceremonies, 689 
Free-world cooperation and America's security, 103 
Ghanaian-U.S. relations, joint statement with Prime 

Minister Nknimah, 283 
Italian-U.S. relations, joint statement with Prime 

Minister Fanfani, 287 
Lebanon, dispatch of U.S. troops to, 181, 184 
Middle East situation : 
General Assembly session to consider, proposed, 

342 
U.S. program for settlement, 337 
National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, 327 
Nuclear weapons tests, U.S. offer to negotiate agree- 
ment for suspension of, 378, 723 
Philippine-U.S. relations, joint statement with Pres- 
ident Garcia, 120, 125 
SEATO, 4th anniversary, 447 
Soviet economic offensive, 383 
Soviet nuclear tests, U.S. position on, 810 
Trade agreements program, reciprocal, approval of 

extension, 396 
U.S. exhibit at 2d International Conference on the 
Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, opening, 493 
Administration and authority for trade agreements 

program, 542, 1013, 1050 
Correspondence and messages : 
Atomic energy for mutual defense purposes, agree- 
ment with U.K., 160 
Brazillan-U.S. relations and visit of Secretary Dulles 

to Brazil, 303 
China, Republic of, national holiday, 692 
Colombian-U.S. friendship, reaffirmation, 30 
General De Gaulle, congratulations to, 612 
Geneva conference of technical experts, 48, 149, 236 
Guinea, Republic of, U.S. recognition, 966 



Eifienhower, Dwight D. — Continued 

Correspondence and messages — Continued 
IBRD and IMF, proposed increase in resources, 412, 

793 
Lebanon, U.S. assistance to, 183, 235 
Middle East situation, proposed heads of government 
conference in Security Council for settlement of, 
229, 274, 281, 369 
Military assistance program, appointment of Draper 

Committee to study, 954 
Mutual security program, views on, 546 
Panama, equal working conditions in Canal Zone, 

approval of legislation regarding, 237 
Pan-American cooperation, 209 
President Heuss of Germany, visit to U.S., 22 
President Lopez Mateos of Mexico, greetings, 1012 
Summit meeting, proposed, Western position on, 95 
Taiwan Straits situation, 498, 605 
U.S.-Soviet trade, proposed expansion of, 200 
UNESCO, 10th general conference, 888 
United Nations, U.S. support of, 448 
Executive orders. See Executive orders 
Meetings : 

Prime Minister Harold MacmUlan, 23 
Secretary Dulles to discuss world problems, 994 
Messages, reports, and letters to Congress : 

Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, 
8th semiannual report (Jan. 1-June 30, 1958), 423 
Atomic energy for mutual defense purposes, agree- 
ment with U.K., 157 
Lead and zinc, imposition of import quotas on, 579 
Lebanon, dispatch of U.S. troops to, 182 
Mutual security program, 13th semiannual report, 

excerpts, 91 
Nuclear power program, joint U.S.-EURATOM, rec- 
ommended, 70, 72 
Passport legislation, proposed, 250 
Trade agreements legislation, proposed, 132 
Treated seed wheat, veto of biU Increasing duty on 

imports, 395 
Umbrella frames, decision against proposed Increase 

in import duty, 627 
United Nations, 12th annual report on U.S. participa- 
tion in, 218 
Proclamation. See Proclamations 

TV-radio broadcast to Nation on Taiwan Straits situa- 
tion, 481 
Visit to Canada, 204 
Eisenhower, Milton S., 309 
El-Kekhia, Mansour Fethi, 54 
El Salvador: 

President, proposed visit to U.S., 822 
Treaties, agreements, etc. 
Aircraft, convention on international recognition of 

rights in, 518 
Customs privileges for Foreign Service personnel, 

reciprocal, agreement with U.S. relating to, 41 
Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on I 

temporary importation, 936 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs fa- 
cilities for, 223 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 



1194 



Department of State Bulletin 



Hlbrick, C. Burke, 611, G94, 800 
Klpctions : 

Korea, jiroposed for reunification of : 
Deiiartinent announcement, statement (Hicken- 

loopor). and U.K. note. 152, 1020 
General Assembly resolution, 1025 
Togoland, statement (Anderson) and General Assembly 
resolution, 107-1 
Electric Power Conmiittee (ECE), designation of U.S. 

delegate to meetings of, 329 
Ellsworth Station, Antarctica, U.S. and Argentine cooper- 
ation in scientific work at, text of joint announce- 
ment, 210 
Emergency Force, TT.N., for the Middle East, 220, 325, 326 
Escalante Dunin, Manuel G., 199 

"Escape-clause" provisions of trade agreements legisla- 
tion, 543, 1052 
Ethiopia : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 613 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Visit of U.S.-U.K. scientific panel, 782 
EURATOM. See European Atomic Energy Community 
Europe (see also individual countries) : 
Collective security. See European security and North 

Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Common market. See European Economic Community 
Eastern Europe: 

Easing tension in. Western memorandum and letter 

(Khrushchev), 16, 17, 98 
Xuclear-free zone in, Polish proposal, letter (Khru- 
shchev), 97, 99 
Soviet views regarding, 343 
Economic cooperation and development in Western Eu- 
roije (see also European Atomic Energy Commu- 
nity ; European Economic Community ; European 
Economic Cooperation, Organization for; and Eu- 
rojjean free-trade area), efforts for, addresses: 
Dulles, 572; Herter, 497 
Inspection zones to prevent surprise attack in, U.S. 

views on Soviet proposal, text of note, 279 
Refugees. See Refugees and Intergovernmental Com- 
mittee for European Migration 
Soviet proposal for treaty of friendship and cooperation 
with U.S. and Euroi>ean states, texts of U.S. and 
Soviet notes, 462 
U.X. Economic Commission for, 329, 517 
U.S. diplomatic officers in, meetings of, 611, 688 
Unity : 
EURATOM influence, statement (Dillon), 248 
Italian contribution, address (Zellerbach), 959 
European Atomic Energy Community : 
Agreement for joint program with U.S. for advance- 
ment of peaceful applications of atomic energy : 
President Eisenhower's recommendation to Congress, 

announcement and message to Congress, 70 
Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, hearings, state- 
ment (Dillon), 247 
EURATOJI Cooperation Act of 1958, approval of, 

-Statement (Eisenhower), 415 
Texts of agreement and memorandum of understand- 
ing and current actions, 41, 74, 475 



European Atomic Energy Community — Continued 

Agreement for cooperation in civil uses of atomic 
energy with U.S., 830, 892 
European Common Market. See European Economic 

Community 
European Economic Community : 
Relationship to GATT, 745, 931, 932 
U.S. position, statement (Dulles), 36 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for, aid to 

Turkey, 323 
European free-trade area, proposed : 

Contracting Parties to GATT views, 931, 932 
U.S. position, statement (Dulles), 813 
European Migration, Intergovernmental Committee for, 
meetings of Executive Committee and Council of, ar- 
ticle (Warren), 255 
European security (see also Berlin; Germany: Reunifica- 
tion; and North Atlantic Treaty Organization) : 
Question of reopening negotiations with Soviet Union 

on, statement (Dulles), 949 
Soviet position, letter (Khrushchev), 99 
U.S.-U.K.-French position, memorandum, 14, 15, 16 
Evans, Luther H., 2.59, 402 

Exchange agreement, U.S.-Soviet, in cultural, technical, 
and educational fields : 
Annoiuicements and agreements on exchanges of: 
Films, 289, 696 
National exhibits, 577, 696 
Radio-TV specialists, U.S. delegation to Soviet Union, 

740 
Science educators, Soviet, visit to U.S., 910 
U.S. progress report on, 390 
Exchange of information : 
Hungarian obstruction to, 912 
Soviet opposition to, address (Berding), 55 
U.S. program, development of, article (Colligan), 114 
U.S.-Soviet exchange: 
Agreement for. See Exchange agreement 
Distribution of press releases, U.S. requests reciproc- 
ity, announcement and U.S. note, 321 
Question of increasing, statements (Dulles), 107 
UNESCO objective, address (Rabb), 891 
Exchange of persons (see also Cultural relations, East- 
West contacts, and Educational exchange) : 
Soviet Union. See Exchange agreement 
Thai National Assemblymen, visit to U.S., 693 
Executive orders : 
Civil-service rights of personnel transferred to IAEA, 

protection of, 394 
Mutual Security Act of 1954, specification of laws ex- 
empting functions of, 664 
St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, direc- 
tion and supervision of, 213 
Secretary of State, oflicers designated to act as, 1031 
Exhibits, national, announcements and agreement re- 
garding exchange of with Soviet Union, 577, 696 
Expert Committee on U.N. Public Information, 1066, 1069 
Export-Import Bank : 

Functions, remarks and statements : Dillon, 245, 1058 ; 
Eisenhower, 855 



Index, July to December 1958 

509943 — 59 3 



1195 



Export-Import Bank — Continued 

Loans and credits in : Africa, 647 ; EURATOM, 71, 73 ; 
I'liilippines. 121: Latin America, 314, G55, 919; 
Poland, 659 ; Turliey, 534 
Exports : 
Latin America, article (Lederer, Culbertson), 311 
Soutli and Southeast Asia, Colombo Plan report on, 

860, 861, 864 
U.S.-Canadian policies regarding, joint statement 
( Dulles, Smith ) , 204. 209 
Exports, U.S. (.see also Tariffs and trade, general agree- 
ment on ; and Trade) : 
Address and statements : Anderson, 795 ; Dillon, 742, 

743 ; Phillips, 354, 355 
Agricultural surpluses, foreign disposal of, 66, 206, 423 
Arms, U.S. regulations amended, 970 
Latin America, article (Lederer. Culbertson), 311 
Soviet-bloc countries, legislative controls on, 392, 467, 
1051, 10.54 
External debts, German, agreement on, 518 

Falc6n Briceiio, Marcos, 346 
Fanfanl, Amlntore, 287, 960, 961, 963 
Far East (sec «?.so Asia and individual cotintrics) : 
Addresses : Cumming. 941 ; Dulles, 561 
U.S. polic.v in, addresses, remarks, and statement : 
Dulles. 487, 490, 491, 573. 9S9 ; Parsons, 566 
Farinholt, Larkin H.. 41 
Faroe Islands, agreement (1956) on joint financing of air 

navigation services in, 87 
Fessenden, Russell, 549 

Figs, dried, escape-clause relief held unnecessary on im- 
ports of, 628 
Films, negotiations and agreement for reciprocal exchange 

with Soviet Union. 289, 391. 696 
Finance Corporation, International. See International 

Finance Corporation 
Financial assistance, agreement with Ecuador providing 

for, 87 
Finland : 

Ambassador to U.S.. credentials, 653 
Tariff concessions, renegotiations under GATT. 215 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1955 

and 1957 agreements with U.S., 296 
Continental shelf, convention on, 848 
Disputes, compuLsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 848 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 848 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 936 
High seas, convention on, 848 
Rqad traffic, 1949 convention with annexes, 847 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

848 
Universal postal convention ( 1957 ) , 403 
Visa requirements for nonimmigrants, agreement with 
U.S. waiving, 404 
Fisheries. Northwest Atlantic : 

International Commission for, appointment of U.S. 

commissioner, 936 
Protocol to international convention for, 403 

1196 



Fisheries Commission. International North Pacific, ap- ' 

pointment of U.S. commissioner, 673 
Fisheries Council, Indo-Pacific, agreement (1948) for 

establishment of, 782 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of the high 

seas, convention on, 554. 675, 782, 848, 891 
Fisk, James B.. 4.52 
FitzGerald, William H. G., 224 
Florit, Carlos Alberto, 348 

Flour milled-iu-bond, provisions of trade agreements leg- 
islation regarding tariff duty on, 1018 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : 
Agricultural production, achievements in raising, ad- 
dresses : Cargo, 732 ; Phillips, 834 
National food reserve policies, report on, statement 
(Phillips). 357 
Foreign aid, U.S. Sec Economic and technical aid. Mutual 

security, and individual countries 
Foreign currency : 

Sales of agricultural surpluses for and use in overseas 

programs, 315, 424, 426 
Turkish, agreement relating to owner.ship and use of 

repayments by Turkey to DLF, 592 
Yugoslav, agreement providing for use of unexpended 
balance available under 1955 economic aid agree- 
ment with Yugoslavia, 984 
Foreign economic polic.v. See under Economic policy and 

relations 
Foreign Ministers of American Republics, Washington 
meeting : 
Announcement and text of communique, 574 
Statements : Dulles, 486, 601 ; Rubottom, 655, 658 
Foreign Ministers meeting as prelude to smnmit con- 
ference : 
Soviet position, 22 
U.S.-U.K.-French position, 16 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 

Basic elements and principles of, addresses : Dulles, 

375, 376, 897 ; Murphy. 141 
Bipartisan support of, address and statement (Dulles), 

374, 813 
Congres.sional documents relating to. Sec under 

Congress 
Congressional election campaigns, question of partisan 

debate on, statements (Dulles), 682, 686 
Formulation of: ! 

Consultations with allies, 610. 765 
Political and economic factors. 905 
Public opinion influence. 598 
FSI advanced program of study on. 675 
Goals of, address (Herter), 494 

Importance of tourism to, address (John Lodge), 823 
Legislation. Sec un4er Congress 
Maine election, effect on outcome of, statement (Dulles), 

486 
Need for balance in, address (Murphy), 874 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 19il, Volume I, 

General, The Soviet Union, published, 41 
Foreign Service (sec also International Cooperation Ad- 
ministration and State Department) : 
Academic training for, remarks (Eisenhower, Murphy), 
689 

Department of State Bulletin ; 



Foveifrn Service — Continued 

Ambassadors, apiiointuioiits and eontirniatiuns, 134, 17G, 

212;!, 4T(i, liTC, SOO, tOTO 
Consul general, designation, 470 
Consular agencies in I'eru, closings and opening, 21i4, 

892 
Consulates at : 

Klrkuk, Iraq, closing, 1076 

Peshawar, Pakistan, opening, 476 

Zagreb, Yugoslavia, elevation to consulate general 

status, 519 
Dependents of personnel in Lebanon, return author- 
ized, 688 
Director General, designation, 984 
Economic and commercial staffs, functions, statement 

(Dillon), 1058 
Embassy at Tripoli, Libya, moved to Benghazi, 224 
European officials, regional meetings of, 611, 688 
Examination, postponed, 519 
Institute. See Foreign Service Institute 
Operations in Africa, visit of Assistant Secretary Sat- 

terthwaite to observe, 782 
Role in administration of immigration laws, address 

(Auerbach), 621 
Science officer.s, appointments, 1048 
Selection Board.s, 12th meeting, announcement of and 

list of members, 518 
Foreign Service Institute : 

Training course for senior officers, inauguration of, 

675 
Visa training, address (Auerbach), 622, 624 
Foreign trade. See Trade 

Formosa. See China, Republic of, and Taiwan Straits 
Foster, William C, 816 
France : 

African territories (see also individual territory), 

developments in : 
Address and statements : Marian Anderson, 1028, 

1073: Satterthwaite, 64.3, 644; Sears, 844 
General Assembly resolutions (texts), 845, 1074 
Berlin problem. See Berlin 
Coordination of jwlicies and resources with U.S. and 

U.K., proposals by General DeGauUe, 814, 1012 
Friendship and cooperation treaty with U.S. and 

European states. Western reply to Soviet proposals, 

texts of U.S. and Soviet notes, 462 
German reunification. See German reunification 
Middle East, propo.sed smnmit conference on, question 

of French attenditnce, statement (Dulles), 271 
Nuclear test suspension, Geneva meetings on. Sec 

Geneva conference of experts and Geneva meeting 

to negotiate 
President of, congratulatory message to (Eisenhower), 

612 
Summit meetings, proposed. See Summit meeting 
Surprise attack, prevention of. See Geneva technical 

talks and Surpri.se attack 
Trade policy problems, GATT contracting parties 13th 

session views, 934 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1957 

agreement with U.S., 176 



France — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Aircraft carrier liclleaii Wood, agreement amending 

agreement with U.S. relating to loan of, 475 
Civil air transport services, notice of intent to termi- 
nate 1946 agreement with U.S., 296 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 848 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 848 
German assets in Portugal and certain claims regard- 
ing monetary gold, agreement on, 936 
German assets in Spain, protocol terminating obliga- 
tions of 1948 accord, 554 
High seas, convention on, 848 
Radio network, U.S. Armed Forces, agreements with 

U.S. relating to establishment, 518 
Special tools, agreement with U.S. for transfer of, 1031 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 403 
U.N. public information program, U.S. views on French 
recommendations, statement (Hickenlooper), 1071, 
1072 
Francis, Clarence, 423 

Free-trade area, European. .S'ce European free-trade 
Free University of Berlin, 10th anniversary of founding, 

message (Dulles), 822 
Freedom, The Defense of, address ( Kohler ) , 154 
Freedom of Ideas vs. Censorship, address (Berding), 55 
French Cameroun, progress toward independence, address 
and statement : Marian Anderson, 1028 ; Satter- 
thwaite, 643 
French Guinea, withdrawal from French West African 

Federation, address ( Satterthwaite). 644 
French Togo. See Togo 

French West African Federation, developments in, ad- 
dress (Satterthwaite), 644 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaties, provisions 
for protection of private foreign investment, address 
and statement : Beale, 967 ; Dillon, 1058 
Friend.ship and cooperation, Soviet proposal for treaty 
with U.S. and European states, texts of U.S. and Soviet 
notes and prop<Jsed treaty, 462 
Fritz, Roy F., 400 
Frondizi, Arturo, 210, 954 

Fulbright, Sen. J. William, 547 ~ 

Full)right Act. See Educational exchange program 
Fujiyama, Aiiehiro, 447, .532 
Fulliam. Thomas A., 936 

Fur, hatters', reduction of import duty on, announcement 
and proclamation, .392 

Gabriel, Ralph H., 792 

Gallman, Waldemar J., 176, 273, 984 

Garcia, Carlos P., 120 

GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 

General agreement on tariffs and trade. See Tariffs and 

trade, general agreement on 
General Assembl.v, U.N. : 
Aggression, indirect, denunciation of, address (Dulles), 
375 



Index, July to December 7958 



1197 



General Assembly, U.N. — Continued 

China, question of representation in U.N., rejection of 

proposal to consider, statements (Lodge), 585 
Disarmament, consideration of problem. See Disarma- 
ment : U.N. consideration 
Documents, lists of, 330, 403, 590, 755, 983, 1030, 1075 
Hungarian question. See Hungarian question : U.N. 

efforts 
Korean question, efforts to resolve, statements (Hicken- 

looper), 1020, 1026 
Outer space discussion. Sen. Lyndon Johnson to speak 

for U.S. at, 868 
Public information program, U.N., function, statement 

( Hickenlooper ) , 1068 
Refugee programs. See Refugees 
Resolutions : 

Aggression, indirect, 307 

Building in Chile, 982 

Korean question, 1025 

Middle East situation, 411 

Race conflict in South Africa, 844 

Representation of a member state, recognition by U.N., 

586 
South-West Africa, 841 
Tdgoland, 1074 

U.N. public information program, 1072 
U.N. Special Fund, establishment of, 709 
Taiwan Straits situation, question of consideration by, 

statement (Dulles), 489 
3d emergency session. See under Middle East situation 
13th session : 

Agenda, 292, 589, 590, 630 
Problems confronting, address (Wilcox), 506 
U.S. delegates, 294 
General War Sequel Law, Federal Republic of Germany, 

provisions regarding filing of claims, 699 
Geneva ambassadorial talks, U.S.-Communist China. See 

Warsaw ambassadorial talks 
Geneva conference of experts to study the possibility of 
detecting violations of a possible agreement on the 
suspension of nuclear tests : 
Participants, lists of, 11, 12, 48, 102, 103, 462, 520 
Preparations for, letter and message (Eisenhower, 

Thompson), 47, 48 
Prospects for success, statement (Dulles), 8 
Relationship to cessation of nuclear tests, U.S. and 
Soviet positions, aide memoire and statements: 
Department, 148; Dulles, 9; U.S. and Soviet aide 
memoire, 11, 47, 101, 235 
Russian political officers, presence of, statements 

(Dulles), 106 
Success and accomplishments of : 
Addresses and statements : Cargo, 730 ; Dulles, 903 ; 
Eisenhower, 378; Lodge, 668, 748, 753; Murphy, 
875 ; Wilcox, 509 
Concluding conference statement ( Pisk) , 452 
Texts of final communique and report, 452, 453 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners of 
war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 555, 848, 1075 

1198 



Gene\a meeting to negotiate an agreement on suspension 
of nuclear weapons tests and establishment of an 
international control system : 
Acceptance of U.S. proposal for, Soviet, statement 
(Eisenhower) and texts of U.S. and Soviet notes, 
378, 503 
Attendance by Secretary Dulles, question of, 686, 724 
General Assembly resolutions regarding, statements 
(Lodge) and texts of resolutions, 783, 787, 790, 
(texts), 791, 792 
Prospects for success, statement (Dulles), 772 
Soviet obstruction to progress, address (Mui-phy), 1047 
U.S. delegation, 503, 724 

Western and Soviet proposals, addresses, notes, and 

statements : Barco, 754 ; Eisenhower, 378, 723 ; 

Herter, 808 ; Lodge, 748, 751, 752, 786, 787, 788, 837 ; 

Murphy, 875 ; U.S. and Soviet notes, 503, 723 

Geneva technical talks on preventing surprise attack 

(see also Surprise attack) : 

Acceptance of U.S. proposal for, texts of U.S. note and 

Premier Khrushchev's letter, 278 
Date of, exchange of U.S. and Soviet notes regarding, 

texts, 504, 648 
Importance of, address (Dulles), 903 
Participants, U.S. and Western, lists of, 688, 815 
Progress of and prosi>eets for success : 

Addresses and statements : Dulles, 772 ; Lodge, 838 , 

Murphy, 875, 876 ; Wilcox, 509 
Meeting (Eisenhower, Dulles) on, 994 
Soviet obstruction to, addresses : Murphy, lOil ; Wil- 
cox, 998, 999 
U.N. Committee I resolutions regarding, texts, 791, 792 
U.S. and Soviet positions, address and statements : 
Herter, 808 ; Lodge, 749, 752 
Geophysical Year, International. See International Geo- 
physical Year 
Germany : 

Berlin. See Berlin 

Foreign forces in, Soviet proposal for reduction, 97, 465, 

466 
Reunification of : 

Federal Republic request regarding, exchanges of 
corre.spondence : U.S. and Federal Republic aide 
memoire, 613 ; U.S. and Soviet notes, 615 
Free elections for, U.S. and Western support, address, 
memoranda, and statement: Dulles, 812; Murphy, 
1047; U.S.-U.K.-French memoranda, 14, 16 
Negotiations with Soviet Union on, question of re- 
opening, statement (Dulles), 949 
Peace treaty, Soviet proiwsal for, 20, 97, 98 
Soviet violation of agi'eements for and opjKJsition to, 
addresses and statements : Dulles, 63, 65, 526 ; 
Herter, 807 ; Murphy, 1045, 1046 
Soviet violation of agreements regarding, address 
(Herter), 806, 807 
Germany, East : 

Berlin, Soviet proposal to relinquish responsibilities to.^ 
See Berlin 



Department of State Bulletin 



I 



It 



Germany, East — ^Continued 

Detention of U.S. helicopter crew and passengers, cor- 
re.spondence and statements regarding return of : 
Defense-State Departments press release, 50 ; 
Dulles, 109, 110; Soviet note, 148; U.S. aide 
memoire, 52, 108, 147 
Refugees, flight to West Germany, statement (Lodge), 

5SS 
U.S. policy of nonreeognition of, statement (Dulles), 
To.") 
Germany, Federal Kepublic of: 

Claims against, legislation regarding: 
General War Sequel Law, 690 
German Federal Restitution Law, 620 
Import restrictions, question of elimination, 578, 714, 

931, 932 
Aliddle East situation, U.S. -German meeting on, joint 

communique (Dulles, Adenauer), 281 
President, visit to U.S.. 22, 126 
Trade with Communist China, 389 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air navigation equipment, agreement extending 1955 

agreement with U.S. for lease of, 134 
Assets in Portugal, German, and certain claims re- 
garding monetary gold, agreement on, 936 
Assets in Spain, German, protocol terminating obliga- 
tions arising from 1948 accord regarding, 554 
Continental shelf, convention on, 848 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 848 
External debts. German, agreement on. 518 
GATT. declaration extending standstill provisions of 

article XVI :4, 984 
High seas, convention on, 848 
LA.EA, statute, application to West Berlin, 134 
NATO, national representatives and international 

stafif, agreement on status of, 296 
Naval vessels or small craft, agreement with U.S. 

amending 1957 agreement for loan, 848 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement (1956) regard- 
ing financial support of. 223 
Property, rights and interests in, charter of Arbitral 

Commission on, 41, 983 
Sugar, protocol amending international agreement 

(1953) on, 636 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 403 
Visit of Secretary Dulles, 237 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon. 532 
f Ghana : 
I IBRD, membership, 633 

Import restrictions, GATT consultations on, 349 
Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 283 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Collisions at sea, regulations (1948) for preventing, 

675 
Continental shelf, convention on, 554 
Corn, agreement with U.S. for supply of, 665 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 555 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 
International load line, convention (1930), 675 



fndex, July fo December 1958 



Ghana — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Investment guaranty program, agreement with U.S., 

620, 675 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 675 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

554 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs fa- 
cilities for, 936 
Treatment of prisoners of war, woundetl and sick, 
and civilians, Geneva conventions (1940) on, 555 
Visit of U.S.-U.K. scientific panel, 782 
Gold, U.S. position on price of, statement (Robert Ander- 
son ) , 705 
Grant, James P., 200 
Grant-aid : 
U.S. to : Ceylon, 430 ; Lebanon, 592; Latin America, 314 ; 

Turkey, 323 
UNRWA program for Arab refugees, terminated, ad- 
dress (Ludlow), 777 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom 
Greece : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 815 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., amend- 
ing 1957 agreement, 936 
DLF loan, 69 

Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon, 532 
Green. Sen. Theodore Francis, 547, 605 
Greenland, agreement (1956) on joint financing of air 

navigation services in, 87 
Guatemala : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 10 
Continental shelf, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 554 
Universal postal convention ( 1957 ) , 403 
Guinea : 

U.S. recognition of Republic of, exchange of correspond- 
ence (Eisenhower, Toure), 966 
Withdrawal from French West African Federation, 
address (Satterthwaite), 644 

Haberler, Gottfried, 930 
Haiti : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 1042 
Revolt in, U.S. regrets reported involvement of Ameri- 
cans, 282 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 554 

Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 555 
Duty-free entry and exemption from taxation of relief 
supplies and packages into Haiti, agreement with 
U.S., .555 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 
Military training unit, temporary assignment to Haiti, 

agreement with U.S. for, 892 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

554 
Universal postal convention ( 1957 ) , 403 

1199 



Hammarskjold, Dag, 184, 190, 220, 1066 

Hanes, John W., Jr., 984 

Hardcastle, John B., 661 

Harrison, George McGregor, 294, 842 

Hart, Parker T., 716 

Hatters' fur, reduction of import duty on, announcement 
and proclamation, 392 

Heads of Government meetings, proposed. See Siunmit 
meeting and Middle East situation: Heads of Gov- 
ernment 

Health and sanitation {see also World Health Organiza- 
tion) : 
Malaria eradication, U.S. and WHO efforts, 290, 381, 

382, 732, 834 
U.S. programs in less developed countries, report on, 
address (Smith), 381, 382 
Health Organization, World. See World Health Organ- 
ization 
Heisbourg, Georges, 815 

Helicopter, U.S., detention of crew and passengers in East 
Germany, correspondence and statements regarding 
return of: Defense-State Departments press release, 
50; Dulles, 109, 110; Soviet note, 148; U.S. aide 
memoire, 52, 108, 147 
Henderson, Loy W., 611 
Herter, Christian A., addresses and statements : 

Communist China cease-fire gesture in Taiwan Straits 

area, 650 
Danish ships requisitioned by U.S. in World War II, 

agreement with Denmark for compensation, 474 
International Politics and the Preservation of Peace, 

494 
Management, importance to economic development, 914 
The Meaning of International Obligations, 805 
U.S. national security policy, 1037 
Heuss, Theodor, 22, 126 
Heywot, Zaude Gabre, 613 
Hickenlooper, Sen. Bourke B. : 

Confirmation as U.S. representative to General Assem- 
bly, 294 
Statements : 

Disarmament, U.S. position on, 783 
IAEA annual report, U.S. views, 935 
Korean question, U.N. efforts to solve, 1020, 1026 
U.N. budget for 1959, 755 

U.N. building in Chile, proposed, U.S. support, 982 
U.N. public information program, 1066, 1069 
U.N. refugee programs, U.S. contributions to, 798, 799 
High seas, conventions on the, 554, 675, 782, 848, 891 
Highway improvement program, Turkish, U.S. aid for, 85 
Hill, Key M., 368 
Holy See : 

Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 555 

High seas, convention on, 554 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 554 

Universal postal convention ( 1957 ) , 403 
Honduras : 

U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 892 

Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Hoover, Herbert, 211 

1200 



Hospitals and medical care, veterans, agreements with 

Philippines regarding, 176 
Human rights : 

Communist suppression of, address (Dulles), 866, 867 
Covenants, U.S. position on, statement (Lord) , 758 
Human Rights Week, 1958, proclamation, 917 
Humphrey, Sen. Hubert H., 547 
Hungarian question : 

Instigation and organization of revolt, denial of Soviet 
charge against VOA, statement (Hickenlooper), 
1070 
Refugees, assistance to, 256, 2.57, 259, 912 
2d anniversary of Hungarian revolt against Communist 

rule, 739 
Soviet intervention in Hungary : 
Addresses, remarks, and statements: Herter, 807; 

Lodge, 589 ; Murphy, 651 ; Rogers, 151 
Chinese Communist support of Soviet actions, 389 
U.N. efforts to resolve : 

Addresses (Wilcox) and text of U.S. note, 508, 911, 

1000 
Inscription on 13th General Assembly agenda, state- 
ment (Lodge). 589 
President's 12th annual report to Congress on U.S. 

participation in the U.N., 220 
U.N. Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary, 
new report, 295 
Hungary : 

Internal affairs, text of U.S. note refuting charges of 

interference in, 910 
Patriots, executions and reprisals against, statements : 

Department, 526 ; Dulles, 6, 7 
St. Stephen's Day, 195S, 379 

Soviet intervention in. See under Hungarian question 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
High seas, convention on, 891 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

891 
Universal postal convention ( 1957 ) , 403 
Hydroelectric power, IBRD loan for development in 
Brazil, 663 

IAEA. See Atomic Energy Agency, International 

IBRD. See International Bank for Reconstruction and 

Development 
ICA. See International Cooperation Administration 
ICAO. See International Civil Aviation Organization 
ICARB. See Instituto Chileno de Administracion Racional 

de Bmpresas 
Ice Patrol, North Atlantic, agreement regarding support 

of, 223 
Iceland : 

Sino-Soviet economic offensive in, 32 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement supplementing 

1958 agreement with U.S., 223 
Air navigation services in, 1956 agreement on joint 

financing, 87 
Continental shelf, convention on, 554 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Iceland — Contiuiieil 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Coutiuuod 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

554 
Universal postal convention ( 1957 ) , 403 
ICEM. See Intergovernmental Committee for European 

Migration 
ICJ. .Sec International Court of Justice 
IDAB. 8cc luteriintioual Develoimient Advisory Board 
IFC. See International Finance Corporation 
IGY. See International Geophysical Year 
IJC. See International Joint Commission 
ILO. See International Labor Organization 
IMF. See International Monetary Fund 
Immigration into U.S. : 
Administration of immigration laws by Department of 
State and Foreign Service, article and statement: 
Auerbach, 621 ; Dulles, 107 
Refugees. See Refugees and displaced persons 
Visas issued during 1958, tables, 624 
Imi)orts (see iilso Exports. Tariffs and trade, and Trade) : 
Latin America, from U.S., increase in, 314 
Private road vebicles, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation, 331, .591. 848. 936 
South and Southeast Asia, Colombo Plan report on, 860, 

861 
U.S. («cea?.so Tariff policy, U.S.) : 

Arms, U.S. regulations on. amended, 970 
Importance to U.S. and world economy, address and 
statements : Anderson, 795 ; Dillon, 742, 743, 744 ; 
Phillips. 354 
Latin America, increase in. 313 
Lead and zinc, problem of. See Lead and zinc 
Inagaki, Heitaro. 665 
Income tax, conventions for avoidance of double taxation. 

See Double taxation 
India : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with related letter 

with U.S., 176. 591, 636 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 1042 
Finance Jlinister, visit to U.S., 535 
Free world economic aid to, address (Reinhardt). 516 
IBRD loan for railway improvement, 545 
Prevention of surprise attack, resolution on, U.S. sup- 
port, statement (Lodge), 791, (text) 792 
Representation of China in U.N., proposal for inclusion 

of question on agenda, statements ( Lodge) , 585 
Soviet-bloc aid, article ( Wright ) , 922, 923 
Summit meeting on Middle East situation, question of 

representation, statement ( Dulles), 268 
U.S. aid, 67, 156, 245, 493, 

U.S. policy regarding, statement (Dulles), 736, 737 
Universal postal convention (19.57), 403 
Visit of Under Secretai-y Dillon, .532 
Indirect aggression. See Aggression 
Indo-Pacifie Fisheries Council, agreement (1948) for 

establishment of, 872 
Indonesia : 
Colombo Plan, selection as site for 11th meeting of, 

861 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 
concerning, 555 



Indonesia — Continued 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifieations and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 936 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners of 
war, wounded, sick, and shipwrecked, and civilians, 
848 
High seas, convention on, 5.54 
Military equipment and services, agreement with U.S. 

for purchase of, 384, 404 
Opium and other drugs, convention (1912) relating to 

suppression of abu.se of, as amended, 260 
Soviet-bloc aid, article (Wright), 922, 923 
Universal postal convention (19.57), 403 
Industrial property, diplomatic conference for revision of 
the international convention for protection of, U.S. 
delegation to, 635 
Industrial research and zoning, ICA programs of assist- 
ance in less developed countries, 1063 
Information, exchange of. See Exchange of information 
Information, Public, Expert Committee on U.N., 1066, 

1069 
Information, Reciprocity, Committee for, 349, 1019 
Information activities and programs: 

Exchange of information. See Exchange of informa- 
tion 
Information center, U.S., to be opened at 80th Canadian 

National Exhibition, 393 
Investment opportunities. over.seas, U.S. facilities for 
gathering and disseminating information regarding, 
968, 1058, 1061, 1065 
Scientific : 

Export of, removal from State Department jurisdic- 
tion over, 970 
Proposal to coordinate U.S. activities, 1049 
U.X. public information program, statements (Hicken- 

looper) and General Assembly resolution, 1066 
Weather, ICAO financing of North Atlantic stations for 
obtaining, 885 
Information Agency, U.S. See United States Informa- 
tion Agency 
Inspection and control systems : 
Detection of nuclear weapons tests, negotiations re- 
garding. See Geneva conference of experts and 
Geneva meeting to negotiate 
Prevention of surprise attack, proposals for. See 

Geneva technical talks and Surprise attack 
Relationship to disarmament, addresses and state- 
ments : Dulles, .527, 903 ; Lodge, 749, 752, 980 ; Mur- 
phy. 876 : Wilcox. 509, 998 
Instituto Chileno de Administraci6n Racional de Ex- 

presas, 915, 1001 
Inter-American Affairs, Bureau of, reorganization by 

State Department, 592 
Inter-American conference, lltli. U.S. loan to Ecuador 

for, 68 
Inter-American cooperation and imity, strengthening : 
Address, letters, and remarks : Dulles, 304, 305, 306 ; 

Eisenhower, 210, 303 ; Frondizi, 210 
American Foreign Ministers meeting, text of communi- 
que, 575, 576 



\lndex, July fo December 7958 



1201 



Inter-American cooperation and unity — Continued 
U.S.-Brazil joint communique, 301 
U.S. views on proposed meeting, statement (Dulles), 

104 
Visit of Milton Eisenhower to Central America, report 
on, 309 
Inter-American development institution, proposed. See 

under Development institutions 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, appointment 

of U.S. commissioner, 174 
Interdependence, principle of, address and statement : 

Dillon, 318 ; Dulles, 738 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration, 
meetings of Council and Executive Committee, article 
(Warren), 255 
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, 

convention (1948) on, 296, 1075 
Interim Coordinating Committee for International Com- 
modity AiTaugements, recommendation for meeting 
on lead and zinc problem, 847 
International Atomic Energy Agency. See Atomic En- 
ergy Agency, International 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
(see also Development Loan Fund, International Fi- 
nance Corporation, and International Monetary 
Fund) : 
Aid to India, 245, 516, 535 
Annual report, anoimeement and statement (Dillon), 

632, 796 
Articles of agreement, 554 

Authorized capital, U.S. proposes increase in, ad- 
dresses, article, letters, remarks, and statement: 
Anderson, 414 ; Dillon, 859, 871 ; Dulles, 528 ; Eisen- 
hower, 412, 855 ; Wright, 927 
Board of Governors, annual meeting, message and 

statements (Anderson, Dillon, Eisenhower), 793 
Executive director, U.S., appointment of, 1073 
International development association, proposed estab- 
lishment as an affiliate of. See Development asso- 
ciation, international 
Loans in: Africa, 646; Asia, 562; Brazil, 663; India, 

545 ; Latin America, 919 ; Peru, 628 
Reports on financial activities, 328, 836 
Spanish membership, 964 

Suez Canal compensation, announcement of signing 
final agreement for, 349 
International Civil Aviation Organization : 
Air navigation, special meeting on, 535 
Nortli Atlantic ocean stations, rescues by weather 
ships, 885 
International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic 

Fisheries, appointment of U.S. commissioner, 936 
International Committee on Onomastic Sciences, func- 
tions, 399 
International convention for protection of industrial prop- 
erty, U.S. delegation to diplomatic conference for re- 
vision of, 035 
International Cooperation Administration (see also De- 
velopment Loan Fund, Economic and technical aid, 
and Mutual security) : 
Asian economic development fund, 156 
Cooperation with CARE, address (Reinhardt), 515 

1202 



International Cooperation Administration — Continued 
Deputy Director, appointment (Saccio), 440 
Deputy Director for Management, appointment (Fitz- 

Gerald), 224 
Deputy Director for Program and Planning, appoint- 
ment (Grant), 260 
Directors of Operations Missions and representatives, 
appointments and designations, 176, 223, 368, 519, 
716, 760, 892, 984 
Health programs, 290, 381, 382 
Investment guaranty program. See Investment 

guaranty 
Investment of private capital abroad, efforts to stimu- 
late, statement (Smith), 1060 
Loan to Ecuador for 11th inter-American conference, 68 
Management programs in Latin America, address 

(Ilerter), 915 
Relief aid to civilians in Taiwan Straits area, 576 
Technical cooperation program, expansion of, address 

(Dillon), 871, 872 
Visit of Director to observe operations in Africa, 782 
International Court of Justice : 
Compulsory jurisdiction, U.S. position, address (Rog- 
ers), 537,538, 539 
Statute, declaration recognizing compulsory jurisdic- 
tion, 223, 554, 675 
Taiwan Straits situation, question of submitting for 

settlement, statements (Dulles), 681, 682, 687 
U.S. claim against Soviet Union for destruction of 
Navy Neptune plane, U.S. application, announce- 
ments, and texts of notes, 420, 698 
International Development Advisory Board, 493 
International development association, proposed. See 

Development association, international 
International Finance Corporation (see also Development 
Loan Fund and International Bank) : 
Articles of agreement, 554, 592 

Functions of, address and remarks (Beale, Dillon), 871, 
968 
International Geophysical Year : 
Meetings of scientists in Soviet Union, 391 
Oceanographic survey, participation of Soviet ship 

Vityag in, 578 
Outer-space activities, U.S. support of, statement 

(Lodge), 975 
Relationship to satellite programs, address (Becker), 
418 
International Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada) : 

Semiannual executive meeting, text of joint release, 773 
U.S. commissioner, appointment of, 466 
International Labor Organization, report on appraisal of 

its programs, statement (Kotschnig), 362, 3(54 
International law (see also International Court of 
Justice) : 
Development of, remarks (Murphy), 740 
International order under, address (Rogers), 536 
Laws and customs of war on land, convention (1907) 

and annex, 592 
Law of the sea, conventions and protocol regarding, 

554, 675, 782, 848, 891, 984 
Outer space, legal aspects of, address and statement: 
Becker, 416 ; Lodge, 977 



Department of State Buthtin 







,.jl 



International law — Continued 
Rule of law, developing universal respect for, remarks 

(Murphy), 051 
Taiwan Straits situation, legal authority of U.S. posi- 
tion, address (XIaurer), 1005 
U.S. support, address (Dulles), 902 

Western legal system, adoption in Asia, address 
( Gumming ), 943 
International Monetary Fund {see also International 
Bank) : 
Aid to : Latin America, 312 ; Turkey, 322, 323 
Annual report, statement (Anderson), 794 
Articles of agreement, 554 
Board of Governors, annual meeting, message and 

statement (Anderson, Eisenhower), 793 
Functions of, remarks (Dillon), 920 
Quotas, U.S. proposes increases in, addresses, letters, 
and remarks : Anderson, 414 ; Dillon, 871 ; Dulles, 
528 ; Eisenhower, 412, 855 
International Xorth Pacific Fi-sheries Commission, ap- 
pointment of U.S. commissioner, 673 
International organizations (sec also sul)jcct) : 

Calendar of international meetings, 38, 216, 397, 550, 

700, 886 
Works of, protocol 2 concerning application of univer- 
sal copyright convention (1952) to, 983 
International Rice Commis.sion, amended constitution, 

782 
International Rule-s of Judicial Procedure, Commission 

on, 537 
International Scientific Committee for Trypanosomiasis 
Research, designation of U.S. observer to 7th meet- 
ing. 400 
International Telecommunication Union {see also Tele- 
communications), U.S. delegation to administrative 
telegraph and telephone conference of, 634 
Investment guaranties, U.S. program: 

Accomplishments and functions, addresses and state- 
ments : Dillon, 10.58; Dulles, 502; Reinhardt, 516; 
Smith, 1060 
Agreements with : Austria, 848 ; Ghana, 620 
DLF program, 1012, 1064 
Efforts to expand, remarks (Beale), 967, 968 
Investment of private capital abroad : 
Africa, address (Satterthvvaite), 646 
Brazil, U.S. investments in, address (Dulles), 305 
Canada, U.S. investments in, address (Eisenhower), 

207 
Colombo Plan countries, needed for development of, 

communique and report, 861, 863, 804 
Expansion and protec-tion of, U.S. efforts, addresses, 
article, remarks, and statements : Beale, 907, Dil- 
lon, 245, 859, 873, 920, 1056 ; Eisenhower, 855, 856 ; 
Melntcsh, 1004; Murphy, 908, Smith, 1060; 
Wright, 927 
Investment guaranties. See Investment guaranties 
Latin America, U.S. investments in, addresses, ar- 
ticle, and remarks : Dillon, 919, 920 ; Herter, 914 ; 
Lederer, Culbertson, 315 ; Rubottom, 655, 656 
Iran: 
DLF loan to, l.'>4 
Shah, visit to U.S., 153 



Iran — Continued 
Soviet interference in, address (Herter), 807 
Support of U.S. action in Lebanon, 183 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 554 

Fishing and con.servation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 5.54 
High seas, convention on, 554 
IAEA, statute, 554 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

554 
Universal postal convention (19.57), 403 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 134 
U.S. health centers in, 382 
U.S. requests information on missing Air Force plane, 

505 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon, 532 
Iraq {see also Arab Union) : 

Overthrow of government in {see also Middle East sit- 
uation), statements: Eisenhower, 182, 183; Lodge, 
186, 187, 195 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 1076 
U.S. citizens in, protection of, 199 
U.S. consulate at Kirkuk, closing of, 1076 
U.S. recognition of, 270, 273 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Ireland : 

IBRD membership, 633 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement with U.S., 176 

Continental shelf, convention on, 675 

Copyright convention (1952), universal, protocols 1, 

2, and 3 to, 983 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, conventions on, 675 
High seas, convention on, 675 
IFC articles of agreement, 554 

Sugar, international agreement (1953) on, with pro- 
tocol and annex, 1031 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

675 
Universal copyright convention (1952), 936 
Universal postal convention (19.57), 403 
Irrigation and land development projects in Ceylon, DLF 

loan, 68 
Israel : 
Arab refugees, U.S. and U.N. efforts to solve problems 
of, address and statement : Hickenlooper, 798 ; Lud- 
low, 775 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 176, 

55.5, 892 
Continental shelf, convention on, 554 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional proto- 
col concerning, 555 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

5.54 
Universal postal convention (19.57), 403 



Index, July to December 7958 



1203 



Italy: 
Foreign policy, U.S. view.s on, address and .statements: 

Dulles, 949, 9.50 ; Zellerbaeh, 9i".9 
National Poultry Meat Fair at Varese, U.S. exhibit, 429 
Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 287 
Surprise attack, prevention of. See Geneva technical 

talks 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 176 
Financial aid for public works projects in San Ma- 
rino, agreement with San Marino, 928 
Universal postal convention (1957), 40.3 
Ti-ust Territory of Somaliland. See Somalllaud 

Jamali, Fadhil, 186, 198 
Japan : 

Atomic energy safeguards, request for IAEA to admin- 
ister, remarks (McCone).669 
Chinese Communist trade offensive against, remarks 

(Par-sons), 567, 568 
Foreign Minister, visit to U.S., 447, 532 
GATT, request for full application by all members and 
selection of Tokyo as site for meeting of, 933, 935 
International trade fair at 0.saka, U.S. participation, 

429 
Lelsanon, withdrawal of U.S. troops in, proposed resolu- 
tion relating to, 199 
Nuclear weapons testing, suspension of, co.sponsor of 
resolution on, statements (Lodge), 790, 791, 792 
(test) 
Prisoners of war, Soviet failure to return, address 

(Herter), 806 
Trade Mission, visit to U.S., 665 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration extending standstill provisions of 

article XVI :/,, 984 
ICJ, statute, 675 

Japanese contributions under 1952 administrative 

agreement for U.S. services and supplies in Japan, 

agreement with U.S. relating to, 592 

Parcel post, agreement and protocol with U.S., 1076 

Security treaty with U.S., question of revision, 487, 

532 
Research and power reactor for civil uses of atomic 
energy, agreement and protocol with U.S., 40, 41, 
074, 675, 1076 
Re.search reactor for civil uses of atomic energy, 

agreement (19.55) with U.S., terminated, 1076 
United Nations forces in Japan, agreement regard- 
ing status and agreed official minutes, 223 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
.Tarring, Gunuar Valfrid. 199 
Jernegan, John D., 1076 
Johnson. Sen. Uyndon B.. 868, 977 
Johnston, Eric, 289 
Johnstone, James R., 549 
Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada), International, See 

International Joint Commission 
Joint Defense, Canada-U.S. Committee on, agreement and 
joint statement (Eisenhower, Diefenbaker) for es- 
tablishment, 204, 208, 555 
Jones, Riiliei-t L.. 174 

1204 



Jordan (see also Arab Union) : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 904 

Army of, request U.S. survey team to study, 651 

Opium and other drugs, convention (1912) relating to 

suppression of the abuse of, 175 
Political independence and security of, efforts to pre- 
serve. See Middle East situation 
ITniversal postal convention (1957), 403 
Jordan River project, nonacceptance by Arab states for 
rehabilitation of Palestine refugees, address (Lud- 
low ) . 777, 778 
Judicial Procedure, Commission on International Rules 

of, 5.37 
Jum'a, Midhat, 904 

Justice, International Court of. See International Court 
of Justice 

Kallis, Selma G., 542 
Kamll, Mustafa, 346 
Kearns, Henry, 713 
Kennedy, Sen. John F., .547 
Kennedy, John P., 662 

Khrushchev, Nikita, correspondence with President 
Eisenhower on : 
Middle East situation, 229, 275, 342, 369 
Nuclear weapons tests, Geneva conference of experts 

on detection of, 149 
Summit meeting, proposed, agenda proj^osals, 96 
Surprise attack, prevention of, acceptance of U.S. pro- 
posal for talks on, 279 
Taiwan Straits situation, 499 
U.S. -Soviet trade, expansion of, 200 
King, Gordon D., 476 
Knuth-Winterfeldt, Kield Gustav, 815 
Koegel, Lawrence, 592 
Kohler, Foy D., 154 
Korea : 
Communist aggression in, address, report, and state- 
ment : Dulles, 525 ; Eisenhower, 481 ; Hickenlooper, 
1021, 1023 
Reunltication of: 

General Assembly actions regarding, statements 
(Hickenlooper) and text of resolution, 1020, 1025, 
1026 
"Sixteen" requests for, announcements, communica- 
tion (Lodge), and U.K. note regarding, 1.52, 1003 
Soviet prevention of, address (Herter). 807 
Troop withdrawal from : 

Chinese Communist announcement of, U.S. views, 

statements. Dulles,772 ; Hickenlooper, 1023 
U.N. Command replies to Communist requests, texts, 
781 
Korea, north : 

Korea, proposal for withdrawal of foreign troops from, 

U.N. Command reply to, 781 
Soviet creation of, statement ( Hickenlooper ) , 781 
Korea, Republic of : 

Independence of. 10th anniversary, message (Dulles), 

346 
Minl.ster of Reconstruction, vi.sit to U.S., 693 
U.N. membership, Soviet veto, statement (Hicken- 
looper), 1025 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bu//efin 



Korea. Republic of — Continued 
U.S. aid, y4 

U.S. cultural relations with, article (Colligau). 115 
Universal imstal convention (1957). 403 

Kotschnis. Walter M., 3i;0 

Kretzniann. Edwin II. J., 5!)2 

Kubitscliek de Uliveira, Juseelino, 282 

Labor : 

Education, ICA programs, 1063 

Forced labor, Chinese Communist, addresses: Berding, 
t)58 ; Cumming, 942 ; Dulles, 866, 991, 993 ; Murphy, 

oos 

Working conditions in Panama Canal Zone. U.S. legis- 
lation regarding, announcement and message 
1 Eisenhower) , 237 
Labor Oi-ganization, International, report on appraisal 

of its programs, statement (Kotschnig), 362, 364 
Lacy, William S. B., 390 
Langer. Sen. William. .547 
Laos : 

Aircraft, convention (1948) on international recog- 
nition of rights in. 403 
I'niversal postal convention (1957). 403 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 176 
Latin America (gee also Inter- American, Organization of 
American States, Pan American, and individual 
countries) : 
Balance of payments with U.S. during 1957 and 1st 
quarter of 1958. article (Lederer. Culbertson), 311 
Collective security, address (Dulles), .305, 306 
Economic development, f^ce inidcr Economic develop- 
ment 
Foreign Ministers, Washington meeting : 
Announcement and text of coramimique, 574 
Statements : Dulles, 486. GOl : Rubottom. 655, 6-58 
Inter-American development institution, proposed. 

See under Development institutions 
Italian relations with, address ( Zellerhach ) . 960 
Participation in decisions regarding worlil problems, 

letters (Eisenhower, Kubitschek), 2S1 
Soviet-bloe economic activities in, article (Wright), 

923, 924 
U.S. cultural relations with, article and statement: 

Oolligan. 113: Dulles. 10 
U.S. policy toward, address (Ruliottoni), 054 
Lavergne, Daly C.. 176 
Law, international. See International law- 
Lead and zinc, problem of oversnpjil.v of : 
Geneva meetings on, U.S. delegation to, 847 
U.S. imposition of import quotas : 
Announcement at Latin American Foreign Ministers 

meeting, statement (Dulles), 601 
Letter and proclamation (Eisenhower) , 579 
U.S. position, addresses, letter, and statement : Dillon. 
744 : Dulles, 597 ; Eisenhower, 69 : Mann, 5S3 
I League of Arab States, Pact of, 410, 411, 686 
j League of Nations. Soviet policy regarding, 996 
1 Lebanon : 

Deitendents of U.S. oSii-ials in. authorized to return bo, 

688 
ICA research institution. 1(M".3 



jliiB/nc/ex, July fo December 7958 



Lebanon — Continued 
I'olitical independence and security of, efforts to pre- 
serve. See Middle East situation 
Travel in, Americans advised against, 31 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on. 554 

Fi.shing and comservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 
Special assistance for budgetary support, agreement 

with U.S. granting, 592 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403, (536 
Wheat, agreement with U.S. for sui)ply, 68 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon, .532 
Lederer, Walther. 311 
Leffler, Ross L., 673 

Legi.slation, foreign, regarding war damage and resti- 
tution : 
Austria, 619 

Federal Republic of Germany, 620. 699 
Legislation. U.S. >S'ee under Congress 
Lemus, Jos^ Maria, 822 

Less developed countries ( .5ee also Development Loan 
Fund, International Bank, and Special Fund) : 
Appeal of communism to peoples of, 946, 1038 
Commodity problems, efforts to solve, statement (Phil- 
lips), 3.58 
Economic development. Sec Economic development 
Economic offensive of Soviet Union and Soviet-bloe 
countries in, and U.S. programs and policies to 
counter : 
Addresses, article, remarks, and statements : Cum- 
ming. 941 ; Dillon, 244, 245, 320, 819, 821, 869 ; Allen 
Dulles, 828 : Dulles, 35, 36. Ill, 241, 990, 992; Herter, 
1038, 1039: Murphy, 90.5, 907, 908, 1043: Parsons, 
566, 569 ; Phillips, 704, 8.33 ; Reiuhardt, 517 ; Smith, 
382 : Wilcox. 25, 26 ; Wright. 922 
State Department publication on, 31 
Food re.serve policies in, importance of establishment in, 

.statement (Phillips), .3.57 
Investment of U.S. private capital in. Sec Investment 

of private capital abroad 
Postwar inflation in, statement ( Phillips), 352 
U.X. technical assistance program. See under United 

Nations 
U.S. aid. 3, 515, 516, 517, 705, 899 
Liatis. Alexis S., 815 
Libby, W. F., 160 
Liberia : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, .5.54 

Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

cimcei'iiing, 555 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 5.54 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 554 
Univcrsiil ixistal convention (1957), 403 
U.S. aid, 86 

U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 984 
Visit of U.S.-U.K. scientific panel, 782 
Lilxmati. Roland V.. 635 

1205 



Liibya : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 54 
IBRD, membership, 836 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

IBRD, articles of agreement, 554 
IFC, articles of agreement, 592 
IMF, articles of agreement, 554 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 403 
U.S. aid, 84 

U S. Embassy, transfer from Tripoli to Benghazi, 224 
Liechtenstein, universal copyright convention (1952), and 

protocols 1 and 2, 936, 983 
Linen toweling, escape-clause relief held unnecessary on 

imports of, 628 
Lleras Camargo, Alberto, 30 
Load line convention (1930), international, 675 
Loan Fund, Development. See Development Loan Fund 
Loans, U.S. {see also Development Loan Fund and Ex- 
port-Import Bank) : 
ICA loan to Ecuador for 11th inter-American confer- 
ence, 68 
Latin America, address and article: Lederer, Culbert- 

son, 314 ; Rubottom, 655 
Proceeds from sales of surplus agricultural com- 
modities, use for loans, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434, 1063, 
1065 
Lodge, Henry Cabot : 
Addi-ess and statements : 

Chinese representation in the U.N., question of, U.S. 

position, 585 
Disarmament : 
Agenda items, procedure for discussion, 666, 667, 

668 
U.S. and Soviet views on, 747, 751, 752, 753, 787 
Lebanese complaint against intervention by U.A.R., 

88, 90, 186 
Nuclear weapons tests, suspension and control of, U.S. 
position on proposed resolutions regarding, 790, 

837, 839 
Outer space, peaceful uses of, U.S. views and pro- 
posal regarding, 972, 974, 980 
"Peaceful coexistence," General Assembly approval 

of rewording of agenda item on, 590 
"Situation in Himgary," inscription of item on Gen- 
eral Assembly agenda, U.S. support, 589 
U.S. troops in Middle East, question of withdrawal 

of, 629 
United Nations and American Ideals, 448 
United Nations Day, 1958, 727 
Communication to U.N. Secretary-General regarding 

Korean reunification, 153 
Confirmation as U.S. Representative to U.N. General 
Assembly, 294 
Lodge, John Davis, 823, 963 
Longman, Tremper, 519 
Loomis, Daniel P., 822 
Lopez Mateos, Adolfo, 1012 
Loran transmitting station, agreement with Nicaragua 

for establishment, 555 
Lord, Mrs. Oswald B., 294, 758 
Ludlow, James M., 775 

1206 



Luxembourg : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 815 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, proces verbal of rectification concerning proto- 
col amending part I and articles XXIX and XXX, 
protocol amending preamble and parts II and III, 
and protocol of organizational amendments, 296 ^ 

GATT, protocol of rectification to French text, 296 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifica- 
tions to texts of schedules, 936 f 
Property rights and interests in Germany, charter | 
of Arbitral Commission on, 41 j 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 1 

Macmillan, Harold, 23, 83, 275, 277 1 

MagiU, Robert N., 440 

Malaria eradication, U.S. and ^YHO efforts, 290, 381, 

382, 732, 834 
Malaya, Federation of : 

DLF loan for seaport improvement, 290 
IBRD, membership, 633 ' 

Import restrictions, GATT consultations on, 349 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council, agreement (1948) tor 

establishment of, 782 
International Rice Commission, amended constitu- 
tion and rules of procedure, 782 
Military equipment, materials, and services, agree- 
ment with U.S. for purchase, 675 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 

675 
UNESCO, constitution, 296 

Maleter, Pal, 7 

Management, importance to economic development, ad- 
dress and statements: Dillon, 920; Herter, 914, 

Smith, 1061 . 

Manila Air Station, agreements with Philippines relating 

to, 404 
Mann, Thomas C, 583 
Mansfield, Sen. Mike, 294, 547, 702, 708 
Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovernmental, 

convention (1948) on, 296, 1075 
Marshall plan, address (DuUes), 3 
Satsu and Quemoy Islands. See Taiwan Straits 

situation 
Maurer, Ely, 1005 
Mayo, Charles W., 839 
McBride, Robert H., 549 
McClellan, Harold Chadick, 696 
McConaughy, Walter P., 222 
McCone, John A., 633, 668 
McElhlney, Thomas W., 592 
McElroy, Neil H., 160 
Mclnnis, Edgar, 61 
Mcintosh, Dempster, 1064 
McKay, Douglas, 773 
McKinney, Robert M., 633, 673 
McLaughlin, Robert E., 126 
McNaughton, Gen. A. G. L., 773 
McWhorter, Roger B., 466 

Medical care and veterans hospitals, agreements with 
Philippines regarding, 176 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



MtHlifnl delegations, agreement with Soviet Union for 
reiini-oial exchange of, U.S. progress report on, 391 
Mouaiiaee, Robert B., 13-1 
Merchant, Livingston T., SOO 
Meteorology. Sec Weather 
Mexico : 

Inauguration of President Lopez Mateos, greetings from 

rre.sident Eisenhower on occasion of, 904, 1012 
Special U.N. Fund, views on election of Governing Coun- 
cil members, 706 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S. 

amending lO.j" agreement, 176, 936 
Air transport, agreement with U.S. amending the 
memorandum of understanding of the provisional 
agreement 592 
Sugar, protocol amending 1953 agreement, 636 
Television, agreement with U.S. for allocation of 

ultra-high-frequency channels, 260 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Micronesia. See Pacific trust territories : Pacific Islands 
Middle East situation : 

Addresses, i-emarks and statements : Barco, SS, Depart- 
ment, 650 ; Dulles, 8, 10, 104, 105, 106, 240, 265, 266, 
267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 308, 376, 409, 493, 526, 
737, 811 ; Eisenhower, 181, 183, 337, 342 ; Fanfani, 
287 ; Herter, 494 ; Lodge, 88, 90, 186, 189, 191. 193, 
196, 197, 198, 449; MuiT>hy, 651, 652, 879, 1043; 
Nkrumah, 283, 286 ; White House, 231 ; Wilcox, 506 
CoiTespondence, joint communique, and messages : 
Bayar, 183 ; Chamoun, 236 ; Dulles, Adenauer, 281 ; 
Eisenhower, 182, 220, 229, 233, 235, 274, 281; 
Khrushchev, 231, 234, 275, 342, 369, 500 ; Kubitschek, 
282 : Mirza, 183 ; Pahlavi, 183 
Baghdad Pact ministerial meeting, views on, text of 

communique, 273 
General Assembly, 3d emergency session, actions and 
efforts in : 
Acceptance of proposal for, letters (Eisenhower, 

Khrushchev), 342 
Arab resolution, statement (Dulles), 409, 411 (text) 
U.S. program for the Middle East, proposed, address 
(Eisenhower), 337 
German-U.S. exchange of views regarding, joint com- 
munique (Dulles, Adenauer), 281 
Heads of Government meeting to discuss, proposed : 
Attendance of General de Gaulle, statement (Dulles), 

271 
Brazilian support of proposal for, letter (Kubitschek), 
281 
French views regarding, 276, 277 

Ghanaian views regarding, 283, 286 
Indirect aggression, question of discussion of, state- 
ments (Dulles), 229, 205, 266, 267, 268, 274 
Negotiations regarding, letters and statements : Dul- 
les, 265, 266, 267, 268, 271 ; Eisenhower-Khrushchev, 
229, 274, 369 
Participants, question of, 268, 275, 277 
Italian-U.S. exchange of views regarding, joint state- 
ment (Eisenhower, Fanfani), 287 

Index, July lo December 1958 



Middle East situation — Continued 
Security Council actions and efforts in : 

Complaint by Lebanon of U.A.R. intervention, state- 
ments : Barco, 88 ; Lodge, 88, 90, ISO, 1S9, 191, 193, 
ltM5, 197 
Dispatch of U.N. Observation Group to Lebanon, 
statement (Dulles) and text of resolution, (text) 
90, 105 
Draft resolutions : 
Japanese, 198, 199 
Soviet Union, 190, 191n 
U.S., 189, 193, 197, 198 
-•6th U.S. Fleet, use of, letters and statement: Dulles, 10; 
Khrushchev, 231, 500 ; Pahlavi, Mirza, Bayar, 183 
Soviet i)osition, letters and statements : Eisenhower, 
230; Khrushchev, 231, 234, 275, 342; Lodge, 90, 
190, 191, 193, 197 
Travel in Middle East State Department advises 

against 199 
U.K. dispatch of troops to Jordan, U.S. and Soviet views 
regarding, correspondence and statements: Dulles, 
409, 410; Eisenhower, 229; Khrushchev, 231, 232, 
234 ; Lodge, 193 
U.N. efforts for peace in, address (Wilcox) , 506 
U.N. Observation Group in Lebanon. See Observation 

Group 
■^.S. Armed Forces, dispatch to and withdrawal from 
Lebanon, addresses, letters, mes-sages, remarks, and 
statements: Bayar, 183; Department 650; Dulles, 
106, 267, 271, 272, 409, 410, 493, 526, 811; Eisen- 
how^-, 181, 183 ; Khrushchev, 276, 342 ; Lodge, 186, 
196, 197, 449, 588, 629; Mirza, 183; Murphy, 652; 
Pahlavi, 183 
*D.S. position, addresses, letters, and statements: Dul- 
les, 8, 10, 104, 105, 106, 240, 308, 376, 526, 811 ; Eisen- 
hower, 181, 183, 229, 230 ; Herter, 494 ; Lodge, 449 ; 
Murphy, 651, 652, 879, 1043 ; Wilcox, 507 
U.S. recognition of Iraqi Government, effect of, state- 
ment (Dulles), 270 
Military assistance (see also Blilitary missions. Mutual 
defense, and Mutual security) : 
Agreements providing military equipment, materials, 
and services, with ; Burma, 222 ; Indonesia, 384, 
404; Malaya, 675 
Assistance to Federal Republic of Germany, agreement 

regarding loan of naval vessels to, 848 
China, Republic of. See Taiwan Straits situation 
Lebanon. See Middle East situation 
Soviet-bloc activities, article (Wright), 922 
U.S. program : 

Draper Committee to study, 950, 954 
Exchange of views on. President Eisenhower and 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee, letters, 546 
Military bases, U.S. : 

Contributions of allies for, address (Smith), 380 

Cuba, withdrawal of U.S. Marine guard from Guanta- 

namo Naval Base in, 282 
Philippines, agreement relating to Manila Air Station, 

404 
Soviet views on, 97, 972, 981 
Jlilitarj' equipment materials, facilities, and services, use 
of foreign currencies for procurement of, 426, 429, 430 

1207 



Military missions, U.S., agreements for, with : Brazil, 

1075 ; Haiti, 892 ; Jordan, 651 
Military obligations in cases of dual nationality, protocol 

(1930) relating to, 40.3 
Military program, U.S. See Mutual defense, Mutual 

senirity, anil National defense 
Mills, Rep. Wilbur D., 133 
Mirza, Iskander, 183 
Missiles. U.S. supply of sidewinder guided missiles to 

Republic of China, statement (Dulles) , 600 
Monaco, universal posted convention (1957), 403 
Monetary Fund, International. See International Mone- 
tary Fmid 
Money orders, international, agi'eement with U.A.R. for 

exchange of, 1076 
Montgomery, Edwai-d P., 519 
Moore, John Bassett, 494 
Moore, Ross E., 892 
Morgan, Thomas E., 379 
Morocco : 

IBRD, membership. 633 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Economic, technical, and related assistance, agree- 
ment supplementing 1957 agreement with U.S., 41 
Transportation by air, international, convention 
(1929) for unification of certain rules relating to 
and protocr)!, 223 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 223 
Morse, Sen. Wayne, .547 
Muller, Willard C, 760 
Murphy, Franklin David, 422 
Murphy, Raymond E., 440 

Murphy, Robert, addresses, remarks, and statement : 
Academic training and diplomacy, 690 
The Bases of Peace, 740 
International communism, strategy of, 1043 
Passport legislation, proposed, 2.51 
Rule of law, comparison of U.S. and Soviet respect 

for, 651 
U.S. foreign policy, 141, 874, 905 
Mutual defense assistance agreements (see also Military 
missions), with : 
Japan, agreement for Japanese financial contributions, 

592 
Norway, agreement amending annex C of 1950 agree- 
ment, 592 
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951 (Battle 

Act) , embargo list revised, 392, 467 
Mutual defense treaties and agreements (.see also ANZUS 
Council, Baghdad Pact, Collective security. Mutual 
security. National defense. North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization, aird Southeast Asia Treaty Organiza- 
tion) : 
Canada, U.S.-Canadian Committee on Joint Defense, 

agreement for establishment, 208, 555 
China, Republic of, U.S. defense treaty with. See 

Taiwan Straits situation : U.S. decision to aid 
Japan, question of revision of U.S. security treaty with, 

487, .532 
Philippines, mutual defense pact with, joint statement 
(Eisenhower, Garcia), 120 



Mutual defense treaties and agreement.? — Continued 
U.K., agreement on mutual defense purposes of atomic 
energy with, 157, 161 (text), 310, 331 
Mutual security and other a.ssistance programs (.see also 
Agricultural surpluses. Collective security. Economic 
and technical aid, Military assistance, and Mutual 
defense) : 
Addresses and statement : Dulles, 3 ; Eisenhower, 103 ; 

Murphy, 143; Smith, 380; Wilcox, 27 
Administration and coordination of (see also Interna- 
tional Cooperation Administration), State Depart- 
ment, 111, .532, 1076 
Africa, address (Satterthwaite), 646 
Defense support. See Defense supiwrt 
DeveloiHuent Loan Fund. See Development Loan Fund 
Draper Conunittee to study, .547, 950, 954 
Exemption of certain functions from restrictive pro- 
visions of law. Executive order, 664 
Financial aid for medical training center in Berlin, 913 
Investment guaranty program. See Investment guar- 
anty program 
Latin America, article (Lederer, Culbertson), 314 
19.59 program : 

Analysis of, address ( Smith) , 380 

Appropriations for, letters and statements : Dillon, 

243; Dulles, 104, 107, 239, 811; Eisenhower, 103, 

.546 ; Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 547, 548 

Pictorial exhibit on, 3» 

President's 13th semiannual report to Congress on 

(July 1-Dec. 31, 1957), excerpts, 81 
Role of private enterprise in advancing purpo.ses of, 
proposed study of, 716, 970, 10.59 

NAC. See North Atlantic Council 

Nagy, Imre, 6, 7 

Narcotic drugs. See Drugs 

National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, statement on 

signing (Eisenhower), 327 
National defense and security (.see also Collective se- 
curity. Mutual defense, and Mutual security) : 
Maintenance of, address (Dulles), 903 
Passport issuance to Communists, danger to, address 

(O'Connor), 882, 884 
Trade agreements legislation, provisions regarding, arti- 
cles : Catudal, 1054, Kallis, .544, 1054 
The United Nations and National Security, address 

(Cargo), 725 
U.S. policy of, international aspects, address (Herter), 
1037 
National exhibits, announcements and agreement regard- 
ing exchange of with Soviet Union, 577, 696 
National Science Foundation, coordinator of Federal sci- 
ence information activities, 1049 
Nationalism : 

Africa, growth in, address (Satterthwaite), 641 
Arab, U.S. position toward, statements: Dulles, 269; 

Lodge, 192. 195 
Asian, features of, address (Cumming), 945 
Problems arising from development of, address (Wil- 
cox), 24, 25 
Soviet use of, statements (Dulles), 62, 239, 240 



1208 



Department of State Bulletin 






Nationalism — Continued 

Trend of Soviet policies toward, statement (Dulles), 
TliS 
Nationalit.v, dual, iirutoeol (IIKO) relating to militar.v 

obligation in cases of, 403 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Nauru, Trust Territory of, progress in, statement (ilarian 

Anderson), 1029 
Naval vessels. See Ships 

Navigation, friendship, and commerce treaties, provisions 
for protection of private foreign investment, address 
and statement : Beale, 9GT ; Dillon, 1058 
Navigation (see also Aviation and Safety at .sea) ; agree- 
ment with Nicaragua for e.stablishment of a Loran 
transmitting station, .j.'i.") 
Near and Middle East (see also Middle East situation 
and hidiridiialeoinitries) : 
Arab-Israeli dispute, article (Ludlow), 775, 77(5 
Arab states. See Arab states 
Collective security. See Baghdad Pact and League of 

Arab States 
Economic development in, address and statement : 

Burns, 469 ; Dulles, 737 
Italian relati(ms with, address ( Zellerbach), 060 
Oil, need for Western markets, statement (Dulles), 737 
Prevention of disease in, address and statement : Eisen- 
hower, 340: Smith, 382 
Refugee problem. See under Refugees 
Soviet policy in. article and statements: Dillon, 245; 

Dulles, 240 : Lodge, 192 ; Wright, 923 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
U.S. policy in, address (Murphy), 879 
Visit of Assistant Secretary Rountree, 1004 
Nepal : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 767 
Continental shelf, convention on, 554 
Dispute.s, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, .555 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, .5.54 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 554 
Universal postal convention (10.57), 403 
Netherlands : 

Dairy products, U.S. import restrictions on. 034 
Renegotiation of tariff concessions under GATT, 215 
Special U.N. Fund Governing Council, election of mem- 
bers, views on, 706, 707 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air navigation services in Faroe Islands, Gret-nlaud, 
and Iceland, 10.56 agreements on joint financing of, 
87 
Continental shelf, conventicm on, 802 
Cultural proi)erty, 1054 convention and protocol for 
protection in event of armed conflict and regula- 
tions of execution, 1031 
Dispute.s, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 802 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 891 
GATT, protocols amending, .55.5, 036 



fndex, July to December 1958 



Netherlands — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

GATT, 7th protocol of rec-tifications and modifica- 
tions to texts of schedules, 936 
German external debts, agi-eement on. 518 
High seas, convention on. 891 
Territorial .sea and contiguous zone, c<mvention on, 

SOI 
Universal postal convention ( 1057), 403 
Neutralism, Ghanaian policy of, addresses: (Nkrumah), 

284, 285 
New Guinea, Trust Territory of : 

Exchange of parcels with U.S., agreement (U.S.-Aus- 

tralia) for, 715 
Progre.ss in, statement (Marian Anderson), 1029 
New Zealand : 

ANZUS Council meeting, 612 

Import restrictions, reduction, 031 

Renegotiation of tariff concessions under GATT, 215 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 848 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional proto- 
col concerning. 848 
Fishing and conservation of living resources f>f high 

seas, convention on, 848 
GATT, 7th prot(K-ol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedtiles, 936 
High .seas, convention on, 848 

International carriage by air, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 175 
Nonimmigrant visa.s, agreement modifying agreement 

with U.S., 134 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on. 

848 
Universal postal convention (10.57), 403 
Trust Territor.y of Western Samoa, i>rogress in, state- 
ment (Marian Anderson), 1029 
Newsmen, U.S. : 

In Soviet Union, censorship of, address (Berding), 57 
Travel to Communist China, question of i.s.suing pass- 
ports for, statement ( Dulles) , 685 
Nicaragua : 

Lox-an transmitting st^ition, agreement with U.S. for 

establishment, .555 
Polio outbreak in, U.S. aid to combat, address (Smith), 

382 
Sugar, protocol amending 10.53 agreement, 848 
Universal po.stal convention (1957) , 403 
Nigeria, Federation of : 
Developments in, address (Satterthwaite), (544, (545 
Visit of U.S.-U.K. scientific panel, 782 
Nikezic. Marko, 767 
Nixon, Richard M., 131, 28.5, 1042 
Nkrumah, Kwame, 283, 642 

Non-Self-Governing Territories (see also Self-determina- 
tion and Trust territories), U.N. Committee on In- 
formation from, address (Satterthwaite), (544 
North Atlantic Council : 

Foreign Ministers spring meeting, acceptance of U.S. 
invitation to meet in Washington, 570 

1209 



North Atlantic Council — Continued 
Paris meeting : 
Departure statement (Dulles), 1040 
Soviet note regarding, Department statement on, 1042 
U.S. delegation, 1041 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement regarding financial 

support of, 223 
North Atlantic ocean stations, rescues in 1957 by weather 

ships, 885 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (see also Atlantic 
Community and North Atlantic Council) : 
Addresses : Dulles, 571 ; Spaak, 607 
Canadian role in, remarks and statement (Dulles), 66, 

765 
Developments in, excerpts from President's report to 

Congress, 83 
Establishment and effectiveness, addresses : Cargo, 728, 

729 ; Mui-phy, 1046 
Italian role in, address and statement : Dulles, 949 ; 

Zellerbach, 959 
Liaison viith OAS, question of, statement (Dulles), 771 
National representatives and international staff, agree- 
ment (19.51) on status of, 29C 
Role in U.S. foreign policy, address (Murphy), 142 
Soviet views on German participation, statement 
(Dulles), 65 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries : 

International Commission for the, appointment of U.S. 

commissioner, 936 
Protocol to international convention for, 403 
Norway ; 
Draft resolution on Middle East situation, 409 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport sei^vices, agreements with U.S., 174, 175, 

223 
Double taxation on income, convention with U.S. sup- 
plementing 1949 convention for avoidance of, 176 
GATT, declaration extending standstill provisions of 

article XVI : J,, 984 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 936 
Property, rights and Interests in Germany, charter of 

Arbitral Commission on, 983 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement amending 1950 

agreement with U.S., 475 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403, 636 
Nucker, Delmas H., 165 
Nuclear energy. Sec Atomic energy 

OAS. See Organization of American States 
Observation Group, U.N., in Lebanon : 

Address and statements: Barco, 88; Dulles, 105; Lodge, 

88, 187, 189, 193, 194, 198 ; Wilcox, 997 
Security Council resolution, text, 90 
O'Connor, Jeremiah J., 3G8 
O'Connor, Roderic L., SSO 

Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization, duties under 
national security provision of trade agreements legis- 
lation, 544 
Oil, Middle East : 

ImiKjrtance to Middle East economic development, ad- 
dress ( Burns ) , 473 
Need for Western markets, statement (Dulles) , 737 

1210 



Onomastic sciences, U.S. delegation to 6th Congress, 399 
"Operation Pan America." See Inter-American co- 
operation 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, and 

use of, 134, 518 
Opium and other drugs, convention (1912) relating to sup- 
pression of abuse of, as amended, 175, 260 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation, aid to 

Turkey, 323 
Organization of American States : 
Address ( Dulles) , 305, 306 

American Foreign Ministers meeting, proposals regard- 
ing, text of communique, 575, 576 
Liaison with NATO, question of, statement (Dulles) , 771 
Special Committee, appointment of U.S. representative 

to, 713 
U.S.-Brazil supiwrt, text of joint communique, 301 
Outer space («eeo?«o Satellites, earth-circling) : 
Control of, address (Becker), 416 
DisaiTnament aspects of, statement (Lodge) , 750 
Legal questions regarding, address (Rogers), 537 
Peaceful uses of : 

Soviet position, address (Wilcox), 999 

Summit meeting, proposed, agenda item. Western and 

Soviet positions, 14, 16, 19 
U.N. consideration of : 

Senator Johnson to speak for U.S., statement (Dul- 
les), 868 
U.S. views and proposals, statements : Johnson, 
977 ; Lodge, 972, 974, 980 
U.S. proposal for international cooperation in, ad- 
dresses : Cargo, 730 ; Dulles, 528, 900 ; Lodge, 450 ; 
Wilcox, 510, 999 

Pacific trust territories : 
Nauru, developments in, statement (Marian Anderson), 

1029 
New Guinea : 

Exchange of postal parcels with U.S., agreement ( U.S.- 
Australia) for, 715 
Progress in, statement (Marian Anderson), 1029 
Pacific Islands : 

Report on U.S. administration, statement (Nucker), 

165 
Universal postal convention (1957), extension to, 404 
Western Samoa, progress in, statement (Marian Ander- 
son), 1029 
Pact of mutual cooperation. Sec Baghdad Pact 
Pact of the League of Arab States, 410, 411, 686 
Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza, 153, 183 
Pakistan : 

DLF loan to, 156 

Smallpox epidemic in, U.S. aid to combat, address 

(Smith), 382 
Soviet-bloc credits to, article (Wright), 922 
Support of U.S. action in Lebanon, 183 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 1076 
Continental shelf, convention on, 892 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 
concerning, 984 

Department of Sfafe Bu//ef/n 



Pakistan— Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Double t.axatiou ou income, convention with U.S. for 

the avoidance of, 176 
Fishing and consei-vation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 891 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schetlules, 936 
High seas, convention on, S91 
IMCO. 194S convention on, 1075 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 891 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
U.S. consulate at Peshawar opened, 476 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon, 532 
Palestine refugee problem, U.S. and U.N. efforts to solve, 
address and statement : Hickenlooper, 798 ; Ludlow, 
775 
Palmer, Joseph, 2d, 476 
Pan American Railway Congress Association, appointment 

of U.S. National Commission, 822 
Pan American Sanitary Organization : 

MaLaria eradication program, U.S. contribution, 290 
Pan American Sanitary Conference, U.S. delegation to 
loth meeting, 553 
Panama («eea7so Canal Zone) : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 554 

Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 555 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on. 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 5.54 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 403 
Vessels of Panamanian registry in Canal Zone, agree- 
ment extending 1957 agreement with U.S. relating 
to inspection of, 475 
Papau, exchange of parcels with U.S., postal agreement 

between U.S. and Australia for, 715 
Paraguay : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 277 
DLF loans, 156, 774 

Universal postal convention (1957) , 403 
Parcel post, agreements with : Australia, 715 ; Japan, 1076 
Parsons, J. Graham, 566 
Passports {see also Vi.sas) : 

Department regulations restricting issuance, Supreme 
Court decision regarding, statements (Dulles), 7, 
110 
Legislation authorizing denial to Communists : 
Need for, address (O'Connor), 880 
Proposed, letter, mes.sage, and statement: Dulles, 
250 ; Eisenhower, 250 ; Murphy, 251 
Question of issuance for travel by newsmen to Commu- 
nist China, statement (Dulles), 685 
Patents : 
Protection of, diplomatic conference for revision of In- 
ternational convention for protection of industrial 
property, U.S. delegation to, 635 
Rights and Information, U.S.-EURATOM agreement 
for cooperation, provisions regarding, 77 



Peace : 

Addresses and remarks: Dulles, 373, 525, 561, 897, 902; 
Eisenhower, 481 ; Herter, 494 ; Murphy, 740 ; Smith, 
380 
"Peaceful coexistence," General Assembly approval of 
rewording of agenda item relating to, 590 
Peace force, U.N. See United Nations peace force 

Peace treaty, German, 4-power exchange of views on, 
texts of aide memoire and notes, 613 
Peaceful settlement of disputes. See Disputes 
Penfield, James K., 476 
"Peril-point" provisions of trade agreements legislation, 

articles : Catudal, 1050, 1051 ; Kallis, 543 
Peru : 

IBRD loan, 628 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements amending 1957 

and 1958 agreements with U.S., 475, 760 
Air transport services, agreement amending annex to 

1946 agreement with U.S., 176 
Continental shelf, convention on, 892 
Sugar, international agreement (1953), with proto- 
col amending and annex, 892 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
U.S. consular agencies in, opening and closing, 224, 892 
Pe.scadores. See Taiwan Straits situation 
Philippines : 

IAEA, statute, 475 

Manila Air Station, agreements with U.S. relating to, 

404 
President, visit to U.S., 120 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Veterans hospitals and medical care, agreements with 
U.S. regarding, 176 
Phillips, Christopher H., 351, 704, 707, 831 
Phleger, Herman, 294 
Pickering, Ernest, 260 
Plate, Juan, 277 
Poland : 

Berlin question, effect of Soviet position on Polish ter- 
ritorial claims, statement (Dulles), 952 
Nuclear test suspension, Geneva meetings on. See Ge- 
neva conference of experts and Geneva meeting to 
negotiate 
Salk vaccine, purchase from U.S., 659 
Summit meeting attendance, Soviet position on, 22 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending agree- 
ment with U.S., 87 
Continental shelf, convention on, 892 
High .seas, convention on, 891 
Road traffic, 1949 convention on, 1075 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
U.S. cotton exhibit at Poznan, 429 
Polatkan, Hasan, 533, 534 
Poliomyelitis (Salk) vaccine, U.S. shipments overseas, 

659, 699 
Ponce Enriquez, Camilo, 209 
Ponomarev, Boris, 1043 
Porter, Dwight J., 224 



\lndex, July fo December J 958 



1211 



Portugal : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 848 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional proto- 
col concerning, 848 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 848 
German assets in Portugal and certain claims re- 
garding monetary gold, agreement on, 936 
High seas, convention on, 848 
Road vehicles, private, 1954 customs convention on 

temporary importation of, 848 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

848 
Touring, 1954 convention concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 847 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 800 
Postal agreements : 
Air post office at Manila Air Station, agreement with 

Philippines for relocation of, 404 
Money orders, international, agreement with U.A.R. 

for exchange of, 1076 
Parcel post, agreements with : Australia, 715 ; Japan, 

1076 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 403, 636 
Potsdam agreements, relationship to German question, 

806, 950, 952, 1046 
Poultry Congress, 11th World's, U.S. delegation to, 401 
President's Science Advisory Committee, 1049, 1050 
Press releases, reciprocity for distribution in Soviet Union, 

text of U.S. note regarding, 321 
Prisoners of war : 

Geneva convention (1949) on treatment of, 555, 848, 

1075 
Soviet failure to return, address (Herter), 806, 807 
Private capital, investment abroad. See Investment of 

private capital 
Private enterprise, role in advancing U.S. foreign policy 
objectives, study proposed on ways of expanding, 716, 
970, 1059 
Proclamations by the President : 

Cotton, long-staple, import quota modified, 214 
General Pulaski's memorial day, 658 
Hatters' fur, reduction of import duty, 392 
Human Rights Week, 19oS, 917 

Lead and zinc, imposition of import quotas on, 580 
United Nations Day, 195S, 30 
Visit the United States of America Year, 613 
Propaganda, Couunuuist : 
Addresses: Berding, 5.5, 955; Dulles, .563, 685, 866; El- 
brick, 695 
U.S. efforts to combat, addresses: Berding, 60; Cargo, 
728 : Wilcox, 27 
Propaganda, inflammatory propaganda in the Middle 
East, proposed U.N. action regarding, addresses : 
Dulles, 526 ; Eisenhower, 339 
Property, cultural, convention (1954) and protocol for 
protection in event of armed conflict, and regulations 
of execution, 759, 1031 



Property, industrial, diplomatic conference for revision 
of international convention (1934) on, U.S. delega- 
tion, 635 
Property, rights and interests in Germany, charter of Ar- 
bitral Commission on, 41, 983 
Protection of U.S. citizens abroad. See United States 

citizens 
Public Information, Expert Committee on U.N., 1066, 1069 
Public opinion (see also Propaganda), influence on U.S. 

foreign policy, statements (Dulles), .598 
Publications : 

Congressional documents relating to foreign policy, 
lists of, 38, 80, 164, 249, 327, 368, 396, 440, 518, 549, 
699, 782, 929, 1019 
GATT, Trends in International Trade, a Report iy a 
Panel of Experts, General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade, Ocncva, October 1958, report published, 
714, 930ji 
Scientific, U.S. program to supply to scientists and en- 
gineers, 1049 
State Department : 
Disarmament, The Intensified Effort, 1955-1958, pub- 
lished, 331 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 19.'fl, Volume 

I, General, The Soviet Union, 41 
Lists of recent releases, 42, 332, 404, 519, 555, 676, 760, 

800, 892, 936, 984, 1032, 1076 
The Sino-Soviet Economic Offensive in the Less De- 
veloped Countries, 31 
Translation, publication, and distribution of, use of for- 
eign currencies for, 435 
United Nations, lists of current doeument.s, 329, 402, 
590, 673, 755, 800, 847, 982, 1030, 1075 
Pulaski, Gen. Casimir, 658 

Quemoy and Mat-su Islands. See Taiwan Straits situa- 
tion 

Rabb, Maxwell M., 401, 888 
Racial conflict in Africa : 
Address and statements : Harrison, 842 ; Salomon, 840 ; 

Satterthwaite, 645 
General Assembly resolution, 844 
Radiation, atomic. See Atomic energy, radioactive fall- 
out 
Radio. See Telecommunications 

Railway Congress Association, Pan American, appoint- 
ment of U.S. National Commission, 822 
Rawinsonde observation stations, establishment and op- 
eration of, agreement with Chile extending 1957 
agreement, 1031 
Reciprocity Information, Committee for, 349, 1019 
Reconstruction and Development, International Bank for. 

See International Bank 
Reed, Henry C, 331 
Refugees and displaced persons : 
Arab, U.S. and U.N. efforts to solve problem of, address 

and statement: Hickenlooper, 798, Ludlow, 775 
Chine.se, visas issued for admittance to U.S., 497 
East German, flight to West Germany, statement 

(Lodge), 588 
Hungarian, U.S. aid, 912 
ICEM assistance to, article (Warren), 255 



1212 



Department of State Bulletin 



Refugees and displaceU persons — Continued 

U.X. High Coiiiuiissiouer's program for, U.S. contribu- 
tion to, statement (Hiclienlooper), 799 
Universal copyriglit convention (1952), protocol 1 con- 
cerning application of convention to worlss of 
stateless persons and refugees, 983 
Regional development institutions, proposed. See Devel- 
opment institutions 
Regional planning in relation to urbanization and indus- 
trialization, U.N. seminar on, designation of U.S. 
representative, 260 
Reinhardt, G. Frederick, .514 

Relief and reliabilitiition. See Agricultural surpluses. 
Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere, Eco- 
nomic and technical aid, Refugees, and individual 
countries 
Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees, U.N. : 
Efforts of, address (Ludlow), 776, 778, 779, 780 
U.S. contributions to, statement (Hickenlooiier), 798 
Relief supplies and packages, duty-free entry and exemp- 
tion from taxation of, agreement with Haiti, 555 
"Renunciation of force" principle, discussions at Warsaw 
ambassadorial talks regarding Taiwan Straits. See 
Warsaw ambassadorial talks 
Research and development : 

IAEA program, U.S. proposal for, remarks (McCone), 

670, 671 
Industrial, ICA program, 1063 
NATO program, excerpts from President's report to 

Congress, S3 
U.S.-EURATOJI joint program. 76 
Rhodesia and Xyasaland, Federation of : 
GATT ; 

Consultations on import restrictions, 349 
Declaration extending standstill provisions of article 

XVI :.}, 984 
7th protocol of rectifications and modificati<ins to texts 
of schedules, 936 
ICA liaison officer at Salisbury, designation of, 519 
U.S. consul general to Salisbury, designation of, 476 
Rice Commission, International, rules of procedure and 

amended constitution, 782 
Risden, Brig. Gen. Richard A., 651 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 260, 675, 

759, 847, 1075 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 331, 591, 848, 936 
Rogers, William P., 151, .536 
Rountree, William M., 10O4 
Euanda-Urimdi, Trust Territory of : 

Opium, 1953 protocol regulating production, trade, and 

use of, 518 
Progress toward independence, address and statement : 
llarian Anderson, 1029; Satterthwaite, 644 
Rnbottom, Roy R., Jr., 654 
Rumania : 

Nuclear test suspension, Geneva meetings on. See 
Geneva conference of experts and Geneva meeting 
to negotiate 
High seas, convention on, 891 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 891 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 403 

index, July fo December 1958 



Ryukyu Islands, exchange of views on hmd problem of, 
joint statement (Dulles, Fujiyama), 533 

Saccio, Leonard J., 440 
Safety at sea : 
International load line convention (1930), 675 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement regarding finan- 
cial support for, 223 
North Atlantic ocean stations, rescues in 1957 by 

weather ships, 885 
Regulations (1948) for preventing collisions at sea, 675 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 675 
St. Lawrence River, IJC report on activities to improve 

navigation on, 773 
St. Lawrence Seaway Development Coi-poration, direction 

and supervision of, Executive order, 213 
St. Stephen's Day, 1!)5S, 397 
Salk vaccine, U.S. shipments overseas, 659, 699 
Salomon, Irving, 204, S40 
Salvage at sea, convention for unification of certain rules 

relating to, 555 
Samoa, Western, Trust Territory of, progress iu, statement 

(Marian Ander.son), 1(»29 
San Marino : 

Public works projects, U.S.-Italy commitment to aid 

928 
U.S. donation of Salk vaccine, 699 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Sanitary conference. Pan American, U.S. delegation to 

15th meeting, 533 
Satellites, earth-circling: 

IGY relationship to satellite program, address (Becker) 

418 
Soviet propaganda implications, address (Berding) 55 
60 
Satterthwaite, Joseph C, 476, 641 
Saudi Arabia : 
IBRD, membership, 633 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Scholarships, Board of Foreign, appointment of members 

to, 913 
Science Advisory Committee, President's. 1049, 1050 
Science and technology (see also Atomic energy. Inter- 
national Geoi)hysical Year, Outer space, and 
Weather) : 
Cooperation in science : 

Antarctica, U.S. proposal regarding and U.S.- 
Argentine joint annoimcement, 210, 899 
NATO progress, 83. (ilO 
Education. See Education 

Exchanges with Soviet Union. See Exchange agreement 
Importance to less developed countries, remarks (Mans- 
field), 703 
Information : 

Coordination of U.S. activities, 1049 
Export of, regulations removing from State Depart- 
ment jurisdiction over, 970 
Research and development. See Research and 

development 
Science officer program. State Department, appoint- 
ments, 1048 
Soviet activities and developments, 241, 249, 578, 955 

1213 



Science and technology — Continued 
U.S.-U.K. scientific panel visit to Africa, 782 
UNESCO activities, U.S. suggestions regarding, address 

(Rabb), 890 
Use of foreign currencies to finance scientific activities, 
423 
Sea, law of the, conventions and protocol regarding, 554, 

675, 782, 848, 891, 984 
Seaport improvement, DLF loan to Malaya for, 290 
Sears, Mason, 844 

SEATO. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Secretary of State : 
Administration of immigration laws, address (Aiier- 

bach), 621 
Executive order designating ofl5cers to act as, 1031 
Passport issuance, control over, address (O'Connor), 
880, 881 
Security, collective. See Collective security 
Security, national. See National defense and security 
Security Council : 

Chinese membership, U.S. views, 388 
Doctunents, lists of, 329, 402, 673, 755, 982, 1030 
Middle East situation, actions and efforts in. See un- 
der Middle East situation 
Summit meeting at, proposed. See Middle East : Heads 

of Government 
Taiwan Straits situation, question of submission to, 

statement (Dulles), 489 
Veto power, Soviet abuse of, 198, 199, 529, 902, 957, 996 
Self-determination : 
Ghanaian support of, address (Nkrumah), 284 
U.S. position, address (Lodge), 451 
Seppala, Richard Rafael, 653 
Serrano Palma, JosS, 199 
Shah, Rishikesh, 767 
Shelton, Turner B., 289 
Sheppard, William J., 519 

Shihmen Dam, U.S. aid to Republic of China for con- 
struction of, 928 
Ships and shipping : 
Danish ships requisitioned by U.S. in World War II, 
agreement with Denmark for settlement of claims, 
440, 474 
IMCO convention, 296, 1075 
Law of the sea, conventions and protocol regarding, 

554, 675, 782, 848, 891, 984 
Load line convention, international, 675 
Loan of U.S. naval vessels, agreements with : Prance, 
475; Germany, Federal Republic of, 848; Turkey, 
760 
Panamanian registered vessels in Canal Zone, agree- 
ment extending 1957 agreement with U.S. relating 
to inspection, 475 
Safety at sea. See Safety 
Salvage at sea, convention for unification of certain 

rules relating to, 555 
Soviet ship Vityas to call at U.S. ports, 578 
Tonnage certificates, agreement with Yugoslavia re- 
garding reciprocal recognition of, 87 
U.S. naval ships in Taiwan Straits. See under Taiwan 
Straits situation 



Shrimp conservation, convention with Cuba regarding, 

440 
Sihanouk, Prince Norodom, 577 
Sino-Soviet Economic Offensive in the Less Developed 

Countries, The, published, 31 
Sisco, Joseph J., 331 
Smith, Sen. H. Alexander, 548 
Smith, J. H. Jr., 380, 782, 1060 
Smith, Sydney, 204, 209 

Social and economic programs of the U.N. and special- 
ized agencies, statement (Kotschnig), 360 
Somaliland, Trust Territory of : 
Designation of ICA representative, 760 
Progress toward independence, address and statement : 

Marian Anderson, 1029; Satterthwaite, 643 
U.S. mutual security assistance to, excerpts from Pres- 
ident's report to Congress, 86 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Song In-sang, 693 
South Africa, race conflict in, statement (Harrison) and 

text of General Assembly resolution, 842 
South Africa, Union of : 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 936 
Racial policies, statement (Harrison) and text of Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution, 842 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
South and Southeast Asia. See Asia 
South- West Africa, U.S. views regarding, statement (Sal- 
omon) and texts of General Assembly resolutions, 
840 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization : 
Developments in, excerpt from President's report to 

Congress, 84 
4th anniversary, statement and remarks (Dulles, Eisen- 
hower), 447 
Soviet-bloc countries (see also Communism, Soviet Union 
and individual countries) : 
Economic and trade offensive. See Less developed 

countries : Economic offensive 
Trade with, U.S. legislative restrictions, 392, 467, 1051, 
1054 
Soviet Union (see also Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Re- 
public, Communism, East-West contacts, Soviet-bloc 
covmtries, and Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) : 
Arctic inspection zone. Soviet veto of U.S. proposal for. 

See under Surprise attack 
Aswan Dam, loan to U.A.R. for, statements (Dulles), 

770, 773 
Berlin question. See Berlin 
Challenge to U.S., addresses: Cargo, 726, 727; Wilcox, 

24 
China, Communist, Soviet position on, addresses, letter, 
report, and statement: Department memorandum, 
388; Dulles, 564, 565, 566; Eisenhower, 482; 
Khrushchev, 499 ; Lodge, 586 ; Maurer, 1009 
Cultural and information exchanges with U.S., address, 
article, and statement : CoUigan, 115, 118 ; Dulles, 
107 ; Rabb, 888 
Disarmament. See Disarmament 
Economic aid and trade offensive. See under Less de- 
velojjed countries <, 



1214 



Department of State Bulletin 



Soviet Union — Continued 

Evaluation of current world trends, article (Pononia- 
rev), 1043 

Foreign economic policy, addresses : Dillon, 817 ; Mur- 
phy, 905, 906 

Friendship and cooperation, proposal for treaty with 
U.S. and European states, tests of U.S. and Soviet 
notes, 462 

German reunification. See under Germany 

Hiiuirarian question. Sec Hungarian question 

Imi>erialism of, addresses: Kohler, 154; Spaak, 607, 
608 ; Wilcox, 25 

International agreements, Soviet violation of, address 
and remarks: Herter, 806; Murphy, 651 

Khrushchev. Xikita. See Khruschchev 

Korean question, Soviet obstruction to U.N. efforts to 
solve, statements (Hlckenlooper), 1020, 1021, 1026, 
1027 

Middle East policy. See Middle East situation and 
under Near and Middle East 

Nationalism, Soviet use of, statements (Dulles), 02, 
239, 240 

Nationalist policy, evolutionary trend toward, state- 
ments (Dulles), 768, 769 

NATO meeting in Paris, receipt by U.S. of Soviet note 
concerning, 1042 

Negotiations with, U.S. efforts, address and statement 
(Dulles), 903, 951 

Nuclear tests, susi)ension of : 

Agreement on, proposed. See Geneva meeting to ne- 
gotiate 
Detection of. See Geneva conference of experts 
Soviet views on. See Atomic energy, nuclear weap- 
ons: Testing of 

Outer space. See Outer space 

Press release distribution, U.S. requests reciprocity, 
Department announcement and text of U.S. note, 
321 

Propaganda. See Propaganda 

Scientific developments of, .statements : Dillon, 249 ; 
Dulles, 241 

Special U.N. Fund, Soviet views on election of Govern- 
ing Council, statement (Phillips), 706 

Summit meetings, proposed. See Summit meeting 

Surprise attack, prevention of. See Geneva technical 
talks and Surprise attack 

Taiwan Straits situation, Soviet views. See binder 
Taiwan Straits 

Threat to free world, statements (Dulles), 61 

Trade with. See East- West trade 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 892 
Cultural, technical, and educational fields, agreement 
with U.S. for exchanges in. See Exchange agree- 
ment 
High seas, convention on, 848 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol (19.56) to the 

international convention for, 403 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

848 
Universal postal convention (19.57), 403 
Visa fees for nonimmigrants, agreement with U.S. 
relating to reciprocal waiver. 1031 

Index, July fo December 7958 



Soviet Union — Continued 
U.N., Soviet role in, address and statement : Lodge, 

790 ; Wilcox, 995 
U.N. mission at New York, demonstrations at, 49, 344 
U.N. public information program, Soviet views on dis- 
semination of information, statement (Hlcken- 
looper), 1070, 1071 
U.S. aircraft, Soviet attacks on and charges against. 

See Aviation : Aircraft 
U.S. collective security arrangements, refuting Soviet 
charges against, address and statements : Dulles, 
573 ; Lodge, 972, 981 
U.S.-Soviet travel restrictions, U.S. proposal for eas- 
ing, 384 
U.S. weather balloons, Soviet complaint against, texts 

of notes, .504, 739 
Veto in Security Council, abuse of, 198, 199, 529, 902, 

957, 996 
Vityaz to call at U.S. ports, 578 
Spaak, Paul-Henri, 597, 607 
Space and National Aeronautics Act of 1958, statement 

(Eisenhower), 327 
Spain : 

IBRD, membership, 836 

Travel industry, promotion of, address (John Lodge), 

824 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements amending 

1958 agreements with U.S., 176, 826, 848 
Educational exchange, agreement with U.S., 715, 760 
German assets in Spain, protocol terminating obli- 
gations arising from 1948 accord, 554 
IBRD, articles of agreement, 554 
IMF, articles of agreement, 554 
Private road vehicles, 1954 customs convention on 

temporary importation of, 591 
Touring, 1954 convention concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 591 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
U.S. relations with, address (John Lodge), 963 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon, 532 
Spanish Institute, 963 
Sparkman, Sen. John J., 547 
Special assistance. See Mutual security 
Special Fund, U.N. : 
Eistablishment : 

General Assembly resolution, text, 709 
Statements: Mansfield, 702, 708; Phillips, 704, 707 
Purposes of, address (Phillips), 835 
U.S. pledge for 1958, statement (Mansfield), 708 
Specialized agencies, U.N. (see also name of agency), 
economic and social i)rograms, review of, address 
and statement : Kotschuig, 360 : Phillip.s, 834 
Sputniks, Soviet, propaganda impact of, address (Berd- 

ing), 955 
State Department {ice also Foreign Service and Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration) : 
Administration of : 

Immigration laws, addre.ss (Auerbach), 621 
Passport controls. See Passports 
Advisory Commission on Educational Exchange, ap- 
pointment to, 422 

1215 



state Department— Continued 
African Affairs : 

Assistant Secretary for, confirmation (Satterth- 

waite), 476 
Bureau of, establishment, 475 
Appointments and designations, 41, 223, 224, 260, 331, 
368, 440, 476, 519, 549, 592, 676, 716, 760, 800, 
984, 1076 
Cultural exchange program, 20th anniversary of, 291 
Director General of the Foreign Service, designation 

(Gallman),984 
European Affairs, Assistant Secretary for, appointment 

(Merchant), 800 
Foreign Service examination, postponed, 519 
Inter-American Affairs, Bureau of, reorganization of, 

592 
Mail on Taiwan Straits situation, release of, state- 
ments (Dulles), 597, 598, 601, 602 
Mutual security program : 

Administration of, excerpts from President's report 

to Congress, 82 
Consultant to assist study on, appointment (Straus), 
716 
Publications. See Publications 
Regulations on international traffic in arms, amended, 

text, 970 
Science officer program, overseas appointments, 1048 
Secretary of State, officers designated to act as, text 

of Executive order, 1031 
Security and Consular Affairs, Bureau of, designa- 
tion of administrator (Hanes), 984 
Under Secretary for Economic Affairs, appointment 
(Dillon), 111 
Stateless persons and refugees, protocol 1 concerning 
application of universal copyright convention (1952) 
to works of, 983 
Status-of -forces agreements : 
NATO national representatives and international staff, 

1951 agreement, 296 
U.N. forces in Japan, 19.54 agreement, 223 
Straus, Ralph I., 716 
Strauss, Lewis L., 400, 634 

Student-exchange program. See Educational exchange 
Stutesman, John H., Jr., 440 
Sudan : 
Economic, technical, and related assistance, interpreta- 
tion of certain clauses of 1958 agreement with 
U.S., 440 
IAEA, statute, 3.30 
IBRD, membership, 633 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
U.S. recognition and appraisal of new Government of, 
Department announcement and statement 
(Dulles), 913,952 
Suez Canal problem : 
Compensation, signing of final agreement for, 349 
United Nations action on, 12th annual report to Con- 
gress, letter (Eisenhower), 220 
Sugar agreement (1953), international, with protocol 
(1956) amending and annex, 636, 848, 892, 1031 



Summit meeting for reduction of international tensions, 
proposed : 
Agenda : 

Procedure for review of. Western proposal : 
Department statement, 96 
List of items, 16 

U.S. requests Soviet consideration of, letter 
(Eisenhower), 9.5 
Western and Soviet proposals, texts of letters, mem- 
orandum, and notes, 12, 17, 96, 462 
Czechoslovak views on and requests participation in. 

U.S. reply, texts of notes, 539 
German problem, German Federal Republic requests 
solution by, exchange of correspondence, texts of 
U.S. and German aide memoire, and U.S. and So- 
viet notes, 613 
Preparatory work for, negotiations regarding, corre- 
spondence and statement: U.S. and Soviet aide 
memoire, 16, 22 ; Dulles, 6 ; Eisenhower-Khrush- 
chev, 274 
Prospects for, statement (Dulles), 8 
Soviet publication of unpublished communications on. 

Department announcement, 12 
U.S. position, addresses and statement : Berding, 956 ; 
Dulles, 240 ; Murphy, 144 
Summit meeting on Middle East situation, proposed. See 

Middle East situation : Heads of Government 
Suomela, Arnie J., 673 

Supreme Court, U.S., decision regarding passport issu- 
ance restrictions. See Passports 
Surplus agricultural commodities. See Agricultural sur- 
pluses 
Surprise attack, prevention of : 

Aerial photography, U.S. and Soviet proposals regard- 
ing, addresses and correspondence: Becker, 418; 
Soviet memorandum and notes, 20, 465, 466, 649; 
Wilcox, 998 
Agenda item for proposed summit conference, Western 

and Soviet positions, 14, 16, 20 
Arctic inspection zone, Soviet veto of U.S. proposal for, 
addresses, remarks and notes : Berding, 956 ; 
Dulles, 527, 734, 766, 899; U.S. and Soviet notes, 
279, 648 
Control posts, Soviet proposal for, 20, 2S0 
Geneva meeting on. See Geneva technical talks on pre- 
venting surprise attack 
Importance to disarmament, statement (Dulles), 734 
U.N. consideration of. statements (Lodge) and texts of 

Committee I resolutions, 783, 791 
U.S.-Canadian views, joint statement (Eisenhower, 

Diefenbaker), 208 
World tensions, importance to easing, statement 
(Dulles), 63 
Sweden : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 199 
Nuclear weapons testing, suspension of, U.S. support 
for re.solution co.sponsored by, statements (Lodge), 
790, 791 ; text, 792 i 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport services, agreements amending 1944 
agreement with U.S., 174, 223 



1216 



Department of State Bulletin 



Sweden — Continnod 
Treaties, agreoments, etc. — Continued 

GATT. declaration extending standstill provisions of 

article XVI : 4, 984 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifica- 
tions to texts of schedules, 93G 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
U.S. Anib.Tssador. appointment, SOO 
Switzerland : 
GATT, negotiations for provisional participation, 933 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, S4S 

Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 555 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 8-18 
High seas, convention on, 554 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

848 
Universal postal convention (19.")7), 403 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon, 532 
Syria {see also United Arab Republic) : 
Sino-Soviet economic offensive in, 32 
Soviet-bloc military aid to. article (Wright), 922 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 

Taiwan Straits situation : 

Addresses, announcement, remarks, and statements : 
ANZUS Council, 612: Department, 41.">. 57fi, 6.50; 
Eisenhower, 481 ; Green, 600 : Herter, 495, 496, 650 ; 
Lodge, 586, 588 ; Maurer, 1005 ; Murphy, 652, 877 ; 
1044: White House, 446, 499, 530; Wilcox, 511; 
U.S.-Japanese, 533 

Addresses and statements (Dulles), 445, 48.5, 486, 487, 
488, 489, 490, 491, 492, 525, 565, 573, 598, 599, 600, 
601, 602, 603. 604, 650, 681, 682, 683, 684, 685, 686, 
687, 688, 722. 769, 771, 1010 

Correspondence, joint communique, and memorandum : 
Department, 385; Dulles, 379; Eisenhower, 498, 
605: Green, 606; Khrushchev, 499; Morgan, 379; 
U.S.-Republic of China, 721 

Aggression by Communist China in : 

Addresses, remarks, report, and statement : Depart- 
ment 415 ; Dulles. 485, 525 ; Eisenhower, 481 ; Her- 
ter, 495. 496 : Lodge, 588 ; Murphy, 652, 877, 1044 
National Security Council meeting at Newport, R.I., 
on, statements : Dulles, 445 ; White House, 446 

Allies support of U.S. position, question of, letters and 
statements : Dulles, 489, 491, 686 ; Eisenhower- 
Green, 605 

ANZUS Coimcil views, agreed announcement, 612 

Civil war asijects of, question of, U.S. views, statements 
(Dulles), 488, 604 

Communist cease-fire in : 

Announcement, U.S. views, statements (Department, 

Dulles, Herter), 6.50, 681 
Breaking of. statements (Dulles), 722, 769 
Dependability of, statements (Dulles), 602, 603, 685, 

686, 769 
U.S.-Republic of China exchange of views regarding, 
statement (Dulles), 604 

Effort to keep Congress and public Informed on, state- 
ments (Dulles), 4!I0 



Taiwan Straits situation — Continued 

Legal background of, address (Maurer), 1005 
Meeting with Chou En-lai on, question of, statements 

(Dulles), rm, 688 
Negotiations at War.saw to resolve. See Warsaw am- 
bassadorial talks 
Republic of China's armed forces on offshore islands: 
Buildup of, statements (Dulles), 486, 487, 600 
Reduction or withdrawal from, question of, state- 
ments (Dulles), 602, 681, 682, 68.3, 687, 771 
Secretary Dulles meeting with Foreign Minister Fuji- 
yama, views on, joint statement, 533 
Secretary Dulles meeting with President Chiang Kai- 
shek, joint communique and statement (Dulles), 
721, 722 
Soviet position : 
Charge of U.S. aggression in. refuting of, letters and 
statements : Eisenhower-Khrushchev, 498 ; Lodge, 
586 ; White House. 499 
Report (Eisenhower), 482 

U.S. rejection of Soviet note. White House state- 
ments. 530 
State Department mail on, release of information from, 

statements (Dulles), 597, 598, 601, 602 
Submission to ICJ or U.N. for settlement, question of, 

statements (Dulles), 489. 492. 600, 681, 682, 687 
3-mile limit, significance of, statements (Dulles), 487, 

488 
U.A.R. support of Communist China, statement 

(Dulles), 489 
U.S. deci.sion to aid Republic of China in defen.se of 
Quemoy and Matsu : 
Addresses, letter, and statements: Dulles, 485, 490, 

56.5, 573, 602; Eisenhower, 605; Murphy, 653 
Bipartisan support for, statement (Dulles). 486 
U.S. naval vessels escort for Chinese supply vessels : 
Cessation of. Department statement. 6.50 
Question of U.S. action if Communist attack, state- 
ments (Dulles), 485, 487 
U.S. relief aid, 576 

U.S. policy, addresses, letters, remarks, report, and 
statements : Dulles, 379, 604, 684. 1010 : Eisenhower, 
481, 605; Murphy, 652, 877; Wilcox, 511 
Tanganyika, Trust Territory of, developments in. .state- 
ments : Marian Anderson, 1029 ; Satterthwaite, 643 
Tariff Commission, U.S. {see also Tariff policy), duties 

of, 132, 543, 544, 545, 1050, 1055 
Tariff policy, U.S. {see also Customs; Tariffs and trade, 
general agreement on; and Trade agreements) : 
Cotton, long-staple, proclamation modifying import 

quota on, 214 
Hatters' fur, proclamation reducing duty on imports of, 

392 
Lead and zinc. See Lead and zinc 

President defers investigation of tariffs on imports of 
bicycles, dried flgs, linen toweling, and watch 
movements, 628 
Umbrella frames. President decides against increase in 

duty on imports of, 627 
Wheat, treated seed, veto of bill increasing duty on 
imports, message (Eisenhower), 395 



Index, July to December 7958 



1217 



Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 

Congressional approval of, caveat regarding, 1054 
Contracting parties to, 13th session of : 
Address (Dillon), 742 
Report by U.S. delegation on, 930 
U.S. advisers and delegation to, 713, 714 
Declaration extending standstill provisions of article 

XVI -4, 984 
Federal Republic of Germany restrictions on coal im- 
ports, review of, 578 
Organizational amendments to, protocol of, 296, 555 
Part I and articles XXIX and XXX, protocol amend- 
ing, 296, 555 
Preamble and parts II and III, protocol amending, 296, 

936 
Procfes verbal of rectification concerning protocol amend- 
ing part I and articles XXIX and XXX, protocol 
amending preamble and parts II and III, and pro- 
tocol of organizational amendments, 296 
Rectification to French text, protocol of, 296 
Rectifications and modifications to texts of schedules, 

7th protocol, 936 
Renegotiations concluded with : Australia, New Zea- 
land, Austria, Finland, the Netherlands, 215 
Supplementary concessions, 6th protocol of, 636 
U.S. negotiations with certain contracting parties re- 
garding import restrictions, 349 
Taxation : 

Agreement with Haiti for exemption of relief supplies 

and packages from internal taxation, 555 
Double taxation, avoidance of. See Double taxation 
Incentives to stimulate private foreign investment, re- 
marks and statements : Beale, 967 ; Dillon, 920, 
1058 ; Smith, 1061 
Technical aid to foreign countries. See Economic and 

technical aid and Mutual security 
Technical assistance, U.N. See under United Nations 
Technical Cooperation, Colombo Plan Council for, U.S. 

intention to join, 860 
Technical exchange with Soviet Union. See Exchange 

agreement 
Technology. See Science 
Telecommunications (see also Voice of America) : 

Administrative telegraph and telephone conference, 

U.S. delegation, 635 
Armed forces radio network, agreement with France 
relating to establishment in Metropolitan France, 
518 
Loran transmitting station, agreement with Nicaragua 

for establishment, 555 
Radio signals, recording of, use in detection of nu- 
clear tests, 457 
Television, agreement with Mexico providing for allo- 
cation of ultra-high-frequency channels, 200 
TV-radio programs and specialists, exchange with So- 
viet Union, 392, 740 
U.N. radio programs, U.S. views on dissemination of, 

statement (Hickenlooper), 1068, 1069, 1070 
U.N. system for monitoring propaganda broadcasts, 
U.S. proposal for, addresses: Dulles, 526; Eisen- 
hower, 339 

1218 



Territorial waters : 

Convention on the territorial sea and the contiguous 

zone, .554, 675, 782, 848, 891 
Taiwan Straits situation, significance of 3-mile limit 

in, statements (Dulles), 487, 488 
U.S.-Canada, IJC report on development of, 773 
Textiles, Indian, agreement with Burma providing In- 
dian currency for purchase of, 592 
Thailand : 

DLF loan, 1065 

National Assemblymen, visit to U.S., 693 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 5.54 
Educational exchange programs, agreement amend- 
ing 1950 agreement with U.S. for financing, 592 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

554 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Thompson, Llewellyn E., 47 
Timber Committee (ECE), designation of U.S. delegate 

to 16th session of, 517 
Togoland, Trust Territory of : 

Administration by France and proposed independence 
for: 
Addresses and statement: Marian Anderson, 1028; 

Satterthwaite, 643 ; Sears, 844 
Trusteeship Coimeil resolution, 845 
Independence, attainment in 1960, statement (Marian 
Anderson) and texts of General Assembly resolu- 
tions, 1073 
Tonnage certificates, agreement with Yugoslavia regard- 
ing reciprocal recognition of, 87 
Tools, special, agreement with France for transfer of, 

1031 
Toure, Sekou, 966 

Tourism. See Travel, international 

Trade (see also Agricultural surpluses ; Customs ; Eco- 
nomic policy; Exports; Imports; Tariff policy; 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on ; and Trade 
fairs) : 
Arms, International trafiic in, U.S. regulations 

amended, 970 
Battle Act controls, revised, 392, 467 
Canada, U.S. trade relations with, addresses : Dillon, 

318, 319, 320 ; Eisenhower, 206 ; Elbrick, 695 
China, Communist, U.S. restrictions on trade with, 

389, 562, 1051. 1054 
Commercial treaties, provisions for protection of pri- 
vate foreign investment, address and statement: 
Beale, 967 ; Dillon, 1058 
East- West trade. See East-West trade 
Far East, comparison of U.S. and Communist China 
trade policies in, address and remarks: Dulles, 
992 ; Parsons, 566 
Foreign trade policy, U.S., address (Eisenhower), 207 
International trade: 
Effects of developments in U.S. on, statements: An.^ 
derson, 794 ; Phillips, 354 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



Trade — Continued 

International trade — Continued 
Expansion of : 

(JATT contracting parties proposals for, 930 
Importance to economic development, remarks 

(Eisenhower), 854, 85G 
Soviet proposal for, 20, 97 

U.S. efforts for, addresses, article, and remarks : 
Dillon, 872, 918, 921 ; Dulles, 899 ; Murphy, 908 ; 
Wright, 926 
Problems affecting, address (Dillon), 742 
Role of tourism in, 823 

Trends in, GATT report on, published, 930» 
Japan, U.S. trade relations with, 533, 665 
Latin America, U.S. trade relations with, addresses 
and article : Dillon, 921 ; Lederer, Culbertson, 311 ; 
Rubottom, 656, 657 
Philippines, U.S. trade relations with, address (Gar- 
cia), 124, 125 
Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc countries. See Less de- 
veloped countries : Economic offensive 
South and Bast Asia, U.S. trade relations with, address 

(Dulles), 561 
Relationship to peace, remarks (Murphy), 740 
Role in U.S. foreign policy, address (Murphy), 143 
Trade agreements legislation. See Trade agreements 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1958 : 
Approval of, statement (Eisenhower), 396 
Escape clause provisions, questions regarding, letters 

(Eisenhower, Mills), 132 
Foreign policy aspects of, statement (Dulles), 34 
Principal provisions, summarized, article (Kallis), 542 
Trade agreements legislation, a section-by-section analy- 
sis, article (Catudal), 1013, 1050 
Trade fairs : 
Importance of, address (Dulles), 865 
U.S. participation in. 393, 428 
Trademarks, protection of, diplomatic conference for re- 
vision of international convention for protection of 
industrial property, 635 
Travel, international (see also Passports and Visas) : 
Americans advised against travel in : 
Austria, eastern, 422 
Lebanon, 31 
Middle East, 199 
Communist China, question of U.S. newsmen traveling 

to, statement (Dulles), 685 
Importance in international affairs, address (John 

Lodge), 823 
Latin America, U.S. travel in, article (Lederer, Cul- 
bertson), 314 
Promotion of, U.S. efforts, 291 

Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 2Q0, 
I 675, 759, 847, 1075 

' Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 
temporary importation of, 331, 591, 848, 936 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 223, 331, 591, 847, 936 
Tourist travel, U.S.-Soviet, U.S. report on exchange 

agreement with Soviet Union regarding, 392 
U.S.-Soviet travel restrictions, U.S. requests reply to 
L, proposal for reciprocal easing of, text of note, 384 

4 I 

fndex, July to December J 958 



Travel, international — Continued 

Visit the United States of America Year, proclama- 
tion, 613 
Travel Policy Committee, Interdepartmental, formation 

of, 291 
Treaties, agreements, etc., international {for specific 
treaty, see country or subject) : 
Current actions on, 41, 87, 134, 175, 223, 260, 296, 
330, 403, 440, 475, 518, 554, 591, 636, 675, 
715, 759, 782, 847, 891, 936, 983, 1031, 1075 
Importance of, address (Herter), 805 
Trends in IntenMtional Trade, report published, 714 
Trust Territories, U.N. («ee also individual territory), 

progress in, statement (Marian Anderson), 1027 
Trusteeship Council, U.N. : 
Activities in Africa, 512, 643 
Documents, lists of, 330, 403, 800, 847 
Report on progress in trust territories, U.S. views, 

statement (Marian Anderson), 1027 
Togoland, resolution recommending independence and 
end of trusteeship, 845 
Trypanosomiasis Research, International Scientific Com- 
mittee for, designation of U.S. observer to 7th meet- 
ing, 400 
Tuna Commission. Inter-American Tropical, appointment 

of U.S. commissioner, 174 
Tunisia : 

IBRD, membership, 633 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 848 
Economic, technical, and related assistance, agree- 
ment supplementing 1957 agreement with U.S., 
760 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 848 
High seas, convention on, 848 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

848 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
U.S. aid, 86, 156 

Visit of U.S.-U.K. scientific panel, 782 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon, 532 
Turkey : 

Financial assistance to, announcements and joint state- 
ments, 322, 533 
Soviet-bloc credits to, article (Wright), 922 
Support of U.S. action in Lebanon, 183 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements amending 

1956 and 1958 agreements with U.S., 176, 404, 1031 

GATT, declaration extending standstill provisions of 

article XVI : 4, 984 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifica- 
tions to texts of schedules, 936 
ICJ, statute of, declaration recognizing compulsory 

jurisdiction renewed, 554 
Loan of vessels, agreement with U.S. relating to, 760 
Ownership and use of local currency repayments 

to DLP, agreement with U.S. relating to, 592 
United Nations forces in Japan, agreement regarding 

status and agreed oflScial minutes, 223 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 

1219 



Turkey — Contimied 

U.S. mutual security assistance to, excerpts from Presi- 
dent's report to Congress, 85 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon, 532 

U.A.R. See United Arab Republic 
U.S.S.R. See Soviet Union 

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (see also Soviet 
Union) : 
Continental shelf, convention on, 892 
HIsli .seas, convention on, 848 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

848 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Umbrella frames. President decides against increase in 

import duty on, letters, 627 
Underdeveloped countries. See Less developed countries 
UNESCO. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization, U.N. 
Union of South Africa. See South Africa, Union of 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. See Soviet Union 
United Arab Republic (.see also Egypt and Syria) : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 346 
A.s\van Dam : 

Soviet loan for, statement (Dulles), 770 
U.S. aid, question of, statement (Dulles), 773 
Circulation of forged docimient regarding U.S. policy 

toward, 348 
Foreign policy, question of Communist influence on, 

statement (Dulles), 9.52 
Intervention in Lelianon, Security Council considera- 
tion of Lebanese complaint regarding. See under 
Middle East situation 
Money orders, international, agreement with U.S. for 

exchange of, 1076 
Soviet-bloc economic offensive in, article (Wright), 

923 
Suez Canal, final agreement regarding compensation for 

nationalization of, 349 
Support of Communist China, statement (Dulles), 489 
United Kingdom : 
African territories : 

Progress in, address and statement : Marian Ander- 
son, 1028, 1029; Satterthwaite, 043, 644 
Visit of U.S.-U.K. scientific panel, 782 
Berlin problem. See Berlin 

Coordination of policies and resources with U.S. and 
France, proposals by General DeGaulle, 814, 1012 
Disarmament proposal, Soviet views on, 788 
Dispatch of troops to Jordan. See under Middle East 

situation 
Friend.ship and cooperation treaty, reply to Soviet pro- 
posal for, 462 
German reunification. See German reunification 
Import restrictions : 

Chemicals and allied products from dollar area, re- 
moval of, 289 
GATT consultations, 349 
Korean question, transmittal of U.N. Command request 
for settlement of, announcements and texts of notes, 
153, 1003 

1220 



United Kingdom — Continued 
Nuclear test suspension, Geneva meetings on. See 
Geneva conference of experts to study a)id Geneva 
meeting to negotiate 
Secretary Dulles interview for British TV broadcast, 

transcript, 733 
Summit meetings proposed. See Summit meeting 
Surprise attack, prevention of. See Geneva technical 

talks and Surprise attack 
Trade relations with Communist China, 389 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, agreement with U.S. for cooperation 

for mutual defense purposes, 134, 157, 310, 330 
Continental shelf, convention on, 5.54 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional proto- 
col concerning, 555 
Double taxation on income, avoidance of, agreements 
amending 1945 convention with U.S., 176, 7.59, 760, 
782 
Educational exchange program, agreement witli U.S. 

for 5-year extension of, .591, .592 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 5.54 
German assets in Portugal and certain claims re- 
garding monetary gold, agreement on, 936 
German as.sets in Spain, protocol terminating obli- 
gations arising from 1948 accord, 554 
High .seas, convention on, 554 

Road traffic, 1949 convention with annexes, 260, 7.59 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

554 
Universal postal convention ( 1957 ) , 403 
U.N. public information program, U.S. views on U.K. 

recommendations, 1071, 1072 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon, 532 
United Nations : 
Addresses : 

The Arab Refugees : A Decade of Dilemma for the 

United Nations (Ludlow), 775 
The United Nations: The Road Ahead (Wilcox), 

506 
The United Nations and American Ideals (Lodge), 

448 
The United Nations and National Security (Cargo), 

725 
The United States and the Soviet Union in the 
United Nations (Wilcox), 995 
Budget for 19.59, statement (Hickenlooper) , 755 
Building in Chile, proposed, statement (Hickenlooper), 

982 
Challenge of indirect aggression to, statement ( Lodge) , 

195 
Charter. See United Nations Charter 
Disarmament, efforts for. See under Disarmament and 

Disarmament Commission, U.N. 
Documents, lists of, 329, 402, 590, 673, 755, 800, 847, 

982, 1030, 1075 
General Assembly. See General Assembly 
Hungarian question. See Hungarian question 
Information activities, public, statements (Hicken- 
looper), and text of General Assembly resolution, 
1060 

Department of State Bulletin 



: 



United Nations — Continued 
Invitation to observe U.S. test on reduced fallout, dem- 
onstration cancelled, 237 
Membership question: 

China. U.S. and Soviet positions, addresses, letter, 
menioraudum, and statements : Department, 387 ; 
Dulles, oCiS, .")(!4, 922 ; Khrushchev, 502 ; Lodge, 
585 ; Wilcox, 512 
Korea, Republic of, U.S. support, 1025 
Middle East situation. Sec Middle East situation 
Outer space, peaceful uses of, U.\. consideration of. 

Sec iiiitlcr Outer space 
Refusee.-J. aid to. ^'cc Refugees and displaced persons 
Role in preservation of peace, address : Dulles, 525 ; 

Herter, 805 
Secretary-General, 184, 190, 220, 1066 
Security Council. See Security Council 
Seminar on regional planning in relation to urbani- 
zation and industrialization, designation of U.S. 
representative, 260 
Soviet position regarding, address and statement: 

Lodge, 789, 790 ; Wilcox, 090 
Soviet U.N. headquarters, N.Y., demonstrations before, 
Soviet aide memoire, letter, and exchange of notes 
with U.S. regarding, 49, 344 
Specialized agencies (sec also mniic of agency), eco- 
nomic and social programs, review of, address and 
statement: Kotschuig, .360; Pliillips, 834 
Strengthening of. Western agenda item for proposed 

summit meeting, 1.5, 17 
Taiwan Straits situation, question of submission for 
settlement, statements (Dulles), 489, 492, 600, 087 
Technical assistance program, expanded : 
Address (Phillips). 833, 834 
IAEA, possible isarticipation in, 034 
Special Fund. See Special Fund 
U.S. pledge for 1959. statement (Man.stield), 708 
U.S. support for, addresses and remarks : Dillon, 871 ; 
Dulles, 528 ; Eisenhower, 8.">4 
Trust territories. See Trust territories and Trustee- 
ship Council 
U.S.-Ghanaian support of, statements (Eisenhower, 

Nkrumah) , 283, 284, 285, 286 
U.S. participation and support, 26. 218 
Cnited Nations Charter : 
Article .51, application to control of outer space, ad- 
dress (Becker), 417 
Collective security arrangements, provision for, ad- 
dresses : Dulles, 571 ; Eisenliower, 337 
Objective of, statement (Dulles), 410 
Prohibition against use or threat of force and aggres- 
sion, address (Dulles), 375 
U.S. right to aid Lebanon, authority for, statement 

(Lodge), 187 
U.S. support of, address (Dulles), 902 
Violations of, 529, 911, 912 
United Nations Children's Fund, 732 
United Nations Command (Korea), actions regarding 

Korean question, 1.52, 781, 1003, 1022, 1024 
United Nations Committee on Information from Non-Self- 
Governing Territories, address (Satterthwaite), 644 

Index, July to December 7958 



United Nations Day, 19.58, proclamation ami statement 

(Lodge), 30, 727 
United Nations Economic and Social Council. See Eco- 
nomic and Social Council, U.N. 
United Nations Economic Commissions. See Economic 

Commissions 
United Nations Educational. Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization, U.N. 
United Nations Emergency Force for the Middle East, 

220, 325, 326 
United Nations Expert Conmiittee on Public Information, 

lOCiO, 1069 
United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization, See 

Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 799 
United Nations International Conference on Peaceful 

Uses of Atomic Energy, 2d, 400. 493 
United Nations Observation Group in Lebanon. See Ob- 
servation Group 
United Nations peace force, proposed establishment : 
Congressional resolution recommending. Department 

views, statement (Wilcox), 324 
U.S. and Soviet positions, addresses : Dulles, 527 ; 
Eisenhower, 3.39, 341: Wilcox, 508, 997 
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 

Refugees. See Relief and AVorks Agency 
United Nations Special Fund. See Special Fund, U.N. 
United Nations Trusteeship Council. See Trusteeship 

Council, U.N. 
United States Atomic Energy Commission, functions re- 
garding proposed U.S.-EURATOM nuclear power pro- 
gram, 70, 71, 76, 77 
United States citizens and nationals : 
Claims, U.S. Navy Neptune plane case submitted to 

lOJ, 420, 698 
Employed by U.N., denial of Soviet charges against, 

statement (Hiekenlooper), 1071 
Protection of : 
Armed forces personnel detained overseas, U.S. ef- 
forts for release. See under Armed forces, U.S. 
Communist China, detention of U.S. civilians, efforts 

for release. Sep Warsaw ambassadorial talks 
Cuba, detention of U.S. nationals, statements 

(Didles), 104, 109, 110 
Middle East situation, U.S. efforts for, 31, 181, 199, 

688 
Pass|iort restrictions for, address (O'Connor), 881 
Travel in certain areas of Austria, Department ad- 
vises against, 422 
Role in U.S. foreign policy, address (Dulles), 904 
United States Information Agency : 
Designation as coordinator of U.S. exhibit at Gorki 

Park, 577 
Information center to be opened at 80th Canadian Na- 
tional Exhibition, 393 
Program to counter Soviet propaganda, address 

(Cargo), 729 
Use of foreign currencies to finance overseas programs, 

435 
Voice of America. See Voice of America 

1221 



United States Operations Missions, appointments of direc- 
tors, 176, 223, 368, 716, 892, 984 
United States Supreme Court, decision regarding pass- 
port issuance restrictions. See Passports 
United States Tariff Commission, duties of, 132, 543, 

544, 545, 1050, 1055 
Universal copyright convention (1952), and protocols 1, 

2, and 3, 936, 983 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403, 636 
UNRWA. See Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 

Refugees, U.N. 
Upton, T. Graydon, 1073 
Uruguay : 
Health centers in, success of, address (Smith), 382 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Continental shelf, convention on, 554 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol 

concerning, 555 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

554 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 

Vaccine, Salk, U.S. shipments overseas, 659, 699 
Vatican City. See Holy See 
Venezuela : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 346 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, peaceful uses of, agreement with 

U.S. superseding 1955 agreement, 673, 675 
Continental shelf, convention on, 848 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 848 
High seas, convention on, 848 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

848 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Vessels. See Ships and shipping 
Veterans hospitals and medical care, agreements with 

Philippines regarding, 176 
Veto power in Security Council, Soviet abuse of, 198, 

199, 529, 902, 957, 996 
Viet-Nam : 
Emergency relief provided by CARE, address (Rein- 

hardt), 514 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., with 

memorandum and exchange of notes, 176 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
Visas (see also Pa-ssports) : 

Issuance to fugitives from Communist areas and to 
Middle East refugees, statements: Department 
497; Dulles, 107 
Nonimmigrant visas, agreements regarding, with : Fin- 
land, 404; New Zealand, 134; Soviet Union, 1031 
Nonissuance to CommuDists, Walter-McCarran Act pro- 
vision, 884 
Role of Foreign Service and State Department in issu- 
ance, address (Auerbaeh), 621 
U.S. issuance during 1957 and 1958, tables, 33, 624 

1222 



Visit the United States of America Year, proclamation, 

613 
Vityaz, Soviet ship, to call at U.S. ports, 578 
VOA. See Voice of America 
Voice of America : 
Facilities, use for dissemination of U.N. information, 

statement (Hickenlooper), 1070, 1071 
Hungarian charges against, U.S. reply to, text of U.S. 

note, 912 
Jamming of, Soviet efforts, address (Berding), 56, 57 
Soviet propaganda, progi'am for countering, address 
(Cargo), 729 

Wadsworth, James J., 294 
Wagner, George Corydon, Sr., 517 
Wailes, Edward T., 134 

Walsh, Edmund A., School of Foreign Service, George- 
town University, dedication ceremonies, remarks 
(Eisenhower, Murphy), 689 
Walter-McCarran Act, visa provisions of, address 

(O'Connor), 884 
Wan Waithayakon, 220 

War damage and restitution, Austrian legislation regard- 
ing, 619 
War risk guaranties, agreement with Austria amending 

1952 agreement regarding, 848 
War Sequel Law, General, Federal Republic of Germany, 

provisions regarding filing of claims, 699 
War victims, Geneva conventions (1949) for protection 

of, 555, 848, 1075 
Warfare, convention respecting the laws of war on land 

(1907), 592 
Warren, George L., 255 

Warsaw ambassadorial talks, U.S.-Communist China : 
Negotiations concerning detention and release of U.S. 
citizens and renunciation of force In Taiwan area, 
address, letter, report, and statements : Dulles, 
106, 109, 488, 492, 598, 600, 603, 604; Elsenhower, 
484, 499 ; Maurer, 1007 ; White House, 446 
Status of negotiations, remarks and statement : Dulles, 
599 ; Murphy, 653 
Warsaw Pact, 18, 19, 463, 464 
Washburn, Barr V., 260 
Watch movements, escape-clause relief held unnecessary} 

on imports of, 628 
Water-resources experts, Asian, visit to U.S., 347 
Watson, Robert C, 635 
Weather : 

Balloons, U.S., Soviet complaint regarding flight over! 
Soviet territory, texts of U.S. and Soviet notes,| 
504, 739 
North Atlantic ocean stations, rescues during 1957 bj 

weather ships, 885 
Rawinsonde observation station, agreement with Chile| 
extending 1957 agreement for establishment and 
operation of, 1031 
Weber, Eugene W., 773 
Welch, RoUand, 676 
West African Federation, French, developments in, ad-| 

dress (Satterthwaite), 644 
Western Hemisphere solidarity, strengthening of. See 
Inter- American cooperation and unity 

Department of State Bulletin 



Western Samoa, Trust Territory of, progress in, state- 
ment (Marian Anderson), 1029 
Whaling convention (1JM6), international, amendments to 

schedule, 759 
Wheat : 

Emergency relief to Lebanon, 68 

Loan to India, agreement amending 1951 agreement re- 
garding, 535 
Surplus wheat, U.S. disposal policies, address and state- 
ments : Dulles, 66 ; Eisenhower, 206 
Treated seed wheat. President vetoes bill increasing 
duty on imports of, 395 
WHO. Sec World Health Organization 
Wigglesworth, Richard B., 800 
Wilcox, Francis O.. 24, 259, 324, 506, 995 
Wiley, Sen. Alexander, 635 
Willoughby, Woodbury, 519 
Wise, Watson W., 2&1 
World Bank. See International Bank 
World Court. See International Court of Justice 
World economic situation, review of, statement (Phil- 
lips), 351 
World Health Organization : 

Alternate U.S. representative, appointment, 839 
Malaria eradication campaign, 290, 381, 382, 732, 834 
Regional Committee for the Americas, 10th meeting, 
U.S. delegation, 553 
World Trade. Sec Trade : International trade 
World's Poultry Congress, 11th, U.S. delegation to, 401 
Wounded and sick, Geneva convention (1949) on treat- 
ment in time of war, 555, 848, 1075 
Wright, Robert B., 922 

Teh, George Kung-chao, 613 

Yemen, Sino-Soviet economic offensive in, 32, 922 



Yost, Charles W., 223 
Youngert, Cole, 662 
Yugoslavia : 

Ambas.sador to U.S., credentials, 767 

GATT, retiuest for relations with, 933 

Hungarian executions, significance to, 7 

Resolution on preventing surprise attack, U.S. support, 

statement (Lodge) and text, 791, 792 
Soviet-bloc economic relations with, 32, 924 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements amending 

agreements with U.S., 176, 592 
Continental shelf, convention on, 554 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional proto- 
col concerning, 555 
Economic aid, agreements with U.S. regarding, 555, 

984 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 554 
High seas, convention on, 554 

Road vehicles, private, convention (1954) on tempo- 
rary importation of, 331 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

5&4 
Tonnage certificates, agreement with U.S. regarding 

reciprocal recognition of, 87 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs fa- 
cilities for, 331 
Universal postal convention (1957), 403 
U.S. aid, 84, 555, 984 

Zellerbach, James David, 959 
Zimmermann, Robert W., 260 
Zinc imports. See Lead and zinc 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

PubUcation 6821 

Released August 1959 

U. 5. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I9S9 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Qovemment Printing Office 
Washington 25, D.O. - Price 30 cents 



I 



HE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



EOOSITORY 



^^Sl 



f\3o 




Vol. XXXIX, No. 993 



July 7, 1958 



THE MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM; AN EXPRES- 
SION OF OUR FAITH • Address by Secretary Duties . . 3 

VITAL IMPORTANCE OF EXTENSION OF TRADE 

AGREEMENTS ACT • Statement by Secretary Dulles . 34 

SECRETARY DULLES' NEWS CONFERENCE OF 

JUNE 17 6 

THE SOVIET CHALLENGE AND AMERICAN EDUCA- 

TION • by Assistant Secretary Wilcox 24 

WESTERN AND U.S.S.R. EXPERTS NAMED FOR 
TECHNICAL TALKS 

U.S. Aide Memoire of June 20 11 

Soviet Aide Memoire of June 13 11 

UNITED STATES RELEASES DOCUMENTS ON 
WESTERN PROPOSALS FOR SUMMIT TALKS 
AFTER U.S.S.R. ANNOUNCES INTENTION TO 
ISSUE ALL UNPUBLISHED DOCUMENTS .... 12 



For index see inside back cover 



Boston Public Library 
Super'Ti*'"''^""* of Oocuments 

AUG 1 1 1958 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATJ 




Vol. XXXIX, No. 993 • -Pubucation 6664 
July 7, 1958 



Tor sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
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OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a tveekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
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The Mutual Security Program: An Expression of Our Faith 



Address by Secretary Dulles ' 



Ten years ago I stood here, in this Washington 
Cathedral, with Secretary of State Marshall. We 
then appealed to Christian citizens to support the 
projected European recovery program. They re- 
sponded, and their response created much of the 
public backing which the Marshall plan required. 

Western Europe, with that help, quickly made 
its economic recovery. Our investment in that 
result has justified itself many times over, whether 
that justification be sought in material terms or 
in terms of the satisfaction tliat always comes 
from having accomplished a creative task. 

Now we are engaged in a new program — that 
of assisting the peoples of the less developed coun- 
tries to achieve higher economic levels. This pro- 
gram is not as spectacular as was the Marshall 
plan. It does not involve yearly public funds of 
the magnitude that were involved in the Euro- 
pean recovery progi'am. That is partly because 
private efforts can play a relatively greater part 
and partly because it is a task that can only be 
carried forward gi-adually. We are not quickly 
reconstituting an already highly developed in- 
dustrial economy that has been shattered by war. 
We are laying the foundation for something that 
never existed before. But the present program 
is just as much an imperative as was the Marshall 
plan. I rejoice that the churches of this country 
are supporting it. 

That they are supporting it is made evident 
here today. In this Cathedral thei-e is to be dedi- 



' Made at the Washington Cathedral on June 22 (press 
release 339) on the occasion of the opening in the 
Cathedral museum of a photographic exhibit on U.S. 
mutual security programs in underdeveloped countries. 



cated a pictorial exhibit showing some of the 
humanitarian aspects of this nation's mutual se- 
curity program. This will be seen during the 
coming months by many hundreds of thousands 
of people. These pictures portray, far more elo- 
quently than could any words of mine, the reasons 
why such efforts should command the active sup- 
port of the religious people of this land. 

I know that the churches of America have their 
own programs for alleviating hunger, disease, and 
need throughout the world. A recent report from 
the National Council of Churches reveals that, 
on the basis of last year's fig-ures, the welfare 
agencies of the Protestant, Eoman Catholic, and 
Jewish faiths are sending annually about 
$300 million worth of food, clothing, medicine, 
agricultural implements, and other goods to needy 
millions in every accessible corner of the world. 
This individualistic giving is of immense value. 
Private gifts are unmistakably motivated by per- 
sonal concern and compassion, which the 
less fortunate crave. Government-to-govemment 
transactions are always subject to the suspicion 
that they have political motivation. 

Nevertheless, the problem is too big to be left 
wholly to individual effort. Its proportions cor- 
respond to a political revolution that is farflung 
and drastic in its implications. 

The Path to Economic Health 

Within the last 15 years 700 million people of 
20 countries have won political independence. 
Others who were semi-independent have become 
fully independent. TMs rapid political evolu- 



July 7, 1958 



tion has given rise to new economic problems. On 
the one hand, there is no longer any politically 
responsible mother comitry. On the other banc 
the possession of political independence has gen- 
erated new hope among those who, having been 
bogged down for centuries in a morass of abject 
poverty, feel that political change should also 
bring with it economic change and a better pros- 
pect for their rising in the economic scale. 
Numbness is rej^laced by new aspirations. These 
have spread contagiously to others who, although 
they may long have enjoyed political independ- 
ence, have never enjoyed economic good health. 

Of course economic well-being can never be had 
merely as a free gift from one people to another. 
Economic progress requires a stable political order 
with sound fiscal and taxation practices. It re- 
quires that the people work hard and accept the 
setting aside, for future growth, of some of the 
fruits of their labor. 

In tlie case of the Soviet Union, the Govern- 
ment does not trust the people. It rules them 
with a rod of iron. Discipline, hard work, and 
austerity are imposed. Out of the resultant pro- 
duction the people get little and the Government 
takes much. It uses its "take" to build its mili- 
tary establishment, to engage in foreign adven- 
tures, and to buUd up heavy industry and other 
capital developments which accomplish rapid 
industrialization. 

In the case of countries where there is no such 
dictatorial rule, large dependence has to be placed 
upon the people themselves. They must estab- 
lish stable political mstitutions and freely accept 
self-discipline, hard work, and frugality in order 
that their nation may make economic progress. 

In most cases the facts justify putting this trust 
in the people. 

However, no people can start on the path to- 
ward a better economic life if they are so mider- 
nourished and so plagued with disease that they 
do not have the vitality wherewith to work. 
Neither can they be "self-starters" if they do not 
have tools and if they cannot acquire the technical 
knowledge needed to enable them to use tools. In 
the case of these countries, it is not a question of 
"priming the pump." Many of these economies 
have no pump to prime. We must help them 
provide the pump and help them learn how to 
prime it. 



Our Government is not trying to accomplish 
the impossible task of suddenly lifting up all the 
peoples of the world to a standard of living com- 
parable to our own. We have gained that through 
many generations of stable government, soimd 
fiscal and taxation policies, and, on the part of 
individuals, frugality, self-discipline, and hard 
work. What we are doing is to help create the 
conditions which will enable other peoples with 
similar qualities to get started along a similar 
road. 

We are showing them better metliods of agri- 
culture. We are providing some more efficient 
agricultural tools. We are explaining methods of 
irrigation. We are demonstrating what sanita- 
tion can mean to a nation's health. We are work- 
ing in the fields of nursing, engineering, civU 
administration, and education. We are, where 
circumstances justify, helping the technical educa- 
tion and training which must precede indus- 
trialization. And where technical skills are 
already sufficiently advanced and where natural 
conditions are propitious, we are helping to in- 
stall industrial plants. 

In the course of doing tliese things, we send 
many thousands of Americans to other lands to 
point the way to a new and brighter future and 
we bring thousands from other lands to the 
United States for education, technical training, 
and experience. This interchange is, itself, an im- 
portant step in developing international under- 
standing and good will. 

The Moral Considerations 

All that we are doing can be amply justified 
by pure national expediency. It is a necessary 
measure to thwart the Communist strategy of 
seeking to pick up small and weak countries, one 
by one, imtil finally tlie United States itself is 
encircled and subject to economic strangulation 
and perhaps to overwhelming military assault. 
Without our mutual security program, and with- 
out a liberal trade program, the United States 
would quickly be gz'avely im^jeriled. 

Those having official responsibility for the na- 
tional security have a clear duty to point out these 
facts. AYe do not, however, like to see our pro- 
grams based merely on these considerations. Gov- 
ernment has not only the right but the duty to 
take account of moral considerations. There is, 
I believe, high authority for that assertion. 



Department of State Bulletin 



George "Washington, in his Farewell Address, 
pointed out that "of all the dispositions and habits 
whicli lead to political prosperity, religion and 
morality are indispensable supports." And he 
added, "The mere politician, equally with the pi- 
ous man, ought to respect and to cherish them." 

It is in accordance with American doctrine and 
tradition that our people, individually and 
through their private and public organizations, 
should rise up to meet the new and great challenge 
which faces us. That is not only to our self- 
interest ; it is instinctive with us and it is right 
that we should do so. 

In my address here 10 yeai-s ago I said, and I 
repeat today : 

This nation cannot long survive as a citadel of seLf- 
indulging privilege, surrounded by massed human misery. 
No individual has ever been able to do that. No class 
has ever been able to do that. No nation has ever been 
able to do that. The United States is today a paradise 
compared to most of the world. But it will be a fool's 
paradise if we do not malje honest, substantial efforts 
to help others to lift themselves out of the morass into 
which they have fallen. 

We speak much nowadays of the principle of 
interdependence. Governments and peoples are 
beginning to see more clearly than ever that they 
cannot stiind alone. This doctrine of interdepen- 
dence has been proclaimed in eloquent terms by 
many of the political leaders of the free world. 
But its origin is a basic religious truth. As put 
by Saint Paul in his Letter to the Romans : "We, 
being many, are one body m Christ, and every one 
members one of another." 

We need not be ashamed or mistrustful of our 
faith. Indeed, without it we would be poor and 
impotent. 

The threat of international communism is far 
more formidable than if it represented merely ag- 
gressive ambition. It also represents a creed 
with basic concepts about the world and the right 
and duty to use any means to impose tliese con- 
cepts upon the world. According to that creed, 
human beings are animated particles of matter; 
they should be brought into order and harmony by 
being made to conform to a master plan of world- 
wide scope ; Soviet Commimist leadership has the 
duty to do that and, if it succeeds, then there 
would be world peace, total harmony, and maxi- 
mum productivity. 



This dedication to a materialistic, atheistic creed 
of worldwide application has been the moving 
force which has enabled a small group, who 41 
years ago controlled nothing, now to control about 
a third of the world's population. No such de- 
velopment could have occurred except within the 
framework of a creed. The leaders of interna- 
tional communism make no attempt to disguise the 
fact that they have their articles of faith and that 
their policies stem from them. 

We on our part have our creed. We believe in 
God. We believe that each individual human 
being has his origin and destiny in God and on 
that account has a spiritual nature and personal 
dignity. We believe that all men are endowed by 
their Creator with rights of which they cannot 
be justly deprived by any government or group 
of men, however powerful. We believe that aU 
men should have equal opportunity. 

Such is our faith. But too often we seem to 
doubt that our faith meets the needs of our time. 
Too often we fail to see, or hesitate to avow, any 
connection between our faith and our works. 

That is a grave defect. It is not enough merely 
to have faith. There needs to be a clear connection 
between faith and works. Once that connection 
is broken, men become progressively enfeebled. 
No amoimt of armament or wealth can repair that 
weakness. 

Napoleon said that in war the moral is to the 
material as three is to one. The ratio is even 
higher under the conditions of today. Unless we 
see that our deeds serve a faith of universal ap- 
Ijlication, then our deeds will not, either in quan- 
tity or in quality, rise to the level of the need. 
Then there could readily ensue a dark age which 
would erase the great humanitarian gains slowly 
and painfully won over the centuries by our Judeo- 
Christian civilization. 

The mutual security program, vividly portrayed 
by the pictorial exhibit being inaugurated here 
today, deserves the vigorous support of eveiy citi- 
zen of spiritual faith. That program is an ex- 
pression of the moral law under which we live. It 
is a practical expression of that article of our 
faith which declares that, though the people of the 
world be many, we are "every one members one 
of another." 



July 7, 1958 



Secretary Dulles' News Conference of June 17 



Press release 332 dated June 17 

Secretary Dulles: As you know, I thiak, we are 
expecting shortly the arrival here of President 
Garcia of the Philippines. We look forward very 
much to the visit of this Head of Government of 
a great and friendly country. I shall have to 
leave promptly at 11 : 30 in order to meet him at 
the airport. 

Any questions ? 

Q. Mr. Secretary., would you assess for us now 
the possibilities of a summit conference after 
yesterday''s diplomatic '■^courtesies'''' exchange be- 
tween the Soviet Union and the United States? ^ 

A. I assimie you put the word "courtesies" in 
quotation marks. It is not easy to evaluate the 
great mass of material which was given out yes- 
terday although of course part of it is material 
with which we have been familiar. 

The exclianges that have taken place at the 
meetings of the three Western Ambassadors with 
Foreign Minister Gromyko result from an effort 
on our part to try to make the careful preparation 
which we believe is essential to have a successful 
summit meeting. The letter from Chairman 
Elhrushchev to President Eisenhower and the 
comparable letters which have been sent to Prime 
Minister Macmillan and President of the Coun- 
cil de Gaulle indicate apparently an unwilling- 
ness on the part of the Soviet Union to face up 
to some of the practical problems that were raised 
by the proposals that had been put forward in 
Moscow by the three Western Ambassadors. 

You will recall that the Soviet Union has con- 
sistently professed, at least, to believe that a sum- 
mit meeting should deal with matters as to which 
there was a good possibility of agreement. We 
have accepted that view although also we believe 
that there should be a permissible discussion of 
other matters of great importance even though 
there was not a likelihood of agi-eement. But 



' For background, see p. 12. 



we have felt that it would be important to find 
out what were the matters as to which — to use 
a Soviet term — there was a good possibility of 
agreement. So we took up these various matters 
and asked for an exposition of Soviet views on 
them, and we gave certain expositions of our 
views at that point. 

Apparently the Soviet Union wants to break off 
that kind of preparatory work and to move di- 
rectly, without preparation, into a summit meet- 
ing. It still professes to want to have a meeting 
to reach certain agreements and to deal with 
matters as to which agreement is likely. But it 
seems imwilling to probe in advance to find out 
whether or not an agreement in fact is likely and 
when we ourselves, at the present state of affairs, 
do not see where any agreement of great signifi- 
cance is likely. 

Now the breaking off of these talks, if indeed 
that is the meaning of the Soviet letters — and it 
seems to be one interpretation — the breaking off of 
those preparatory talks would certainly require 
a reevaluation of the situation by the Western 
Powers. 

You may recall at the meeting at Copenhagen 
of the NATO Council there was unanimous ex- 
pression of the fact tliat any summit meeting 
would have to be cai-efully prepared. Now there 
seems to be an indication on the part of the 
Soviet Union that it is not willing to have careful 
preparation. 

Execution of Imre Nagy 

Q. Mr. Secretary^ is it your interpretation of 
the execution of Imre Nagy that there is any con- 
nection with the attitude in Moscoto toward the 
summit meeting? 

A. It, I think, indicates another step in the re- 
version toward the brutal terrorist methods which 
prevailed for a time under Stalm and which were 
so bitterly denounced at the 20tli Party Congress 



Deparlment of Slate Bulletin 



by ]Mr. Khrushchev. Khrushchev rode to power 
on a denunciation of the methods of Stalin, which 
methods lie seems now to be copying. 

It is ratlier significant, first, that the news about 
the execution first came over the Moscow radio 
and, secondly, that the execution occurred in ap- 
parent violation of a pledge of safe conduct which 
had been given Imre Nagy. xVs you will recall, 
he had sought and obtained diplomatic refuge in 
the Yugoslav P]mbassy. He gave that up, and the 
Yugoslav Government gave it up, in reliance of a 
pledge of safe conduct. That appears to have 
been violated. This is another illustration of some 
of the dangers of doing business with the Com- 
munists. 

Q. Is it your inferpretatio^i, sir, that the exe- 
cution in fact is a Soviet act and not a Hungarian 
act? 

A. I believe that, if the Hungarians had any 
part in it, they were acting as agents in carrying 
out the will of the Soviet Government. 

Q. Are you in a position, Mr. Secretary, to say 
anything as to token this execution and alleged 
trial — when that okctucdly occulted? 

A. Our presimiption is that it occurred recently, 
but that is only a presimiption. We don't know. 
The whole affair, the alleged trial and the execu- 
tion, were of course carried out in complete secrecy 
with no opportunity for the executed persons to 
state their case before any court of world opinion 
or before the world press. We cannot even know 
when they were executed. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you relate the, execution of 
Mr. Nagy in any ivay with the current Yugoslav 
difficulties with the Soviet Union? Is this per- 
haps a warning to Tito? 

A. It could have a relationship and be a sug- 
gestion to President Tito that, if he is not more 
compliant, he may sooner or later suffer a like fate. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, now that the Soviets have ap- 
parently broken off the diplomatic — the Ambas- 
sadors^ conference, tnill you continue the corre- 
spondence between the President and Mr. 
Khrushchev? 

A. We are in consultation with our allies as to 
how to deal with the present situation. It is not, 
of course, definitive that the diplomatic talks are 
broken off. That is an inference to draw from 



Department Statement on Execution 
of Hungarian Patriots 

Press release 334 dated June 17 

The execution of Imre Nagy and Pal Maleter and 
other Hungarian patriots, first publicly announced 
last night [June 16] by Radio Moscow, can only be 
regarded by the civilized world as a shocking act of 
cruelty. The preparation of this act, beginning 
with the Soviet abduction of Imre Nagy from the 
Yugoslav Embassy in Budapest in violation of as- 
surances of safe conduct pledged by the Soviet 
puppet, Kadar, was by stealth and secrecy. It fol- 
lows, significantly, on Mr. Khrushchev's April visit 
to Budapest. It has also come at a time when the 
Soviet Union has been attempting to persuade the 
world that international discussion of the plight of 
Hungary and Eastern Europe generally should not 
take place because it would constitute unwarranted 
intervention in the internal affairs of these coun- 
tries. 

The Soviet Union, which has pursued a policy of 
terror toward the peoples of Hungary and of the 
other dominated countries of Eastern Europe for 
over 12 years, must bear fundamental responsibil- 
ity for this latest crime against the Hungarian 
people and all humanity. The murder of these two 
Hungarian leaders, who chose to serve the interests 
of their nation rather than those of Soviet com- 
munism, brings to a tragic culmination the Soviet- 
Communist betrayal of the Hungarian people. It 
is the executioners of Imre Nagy and Pal Maleter, 
and not the executed patriots, who have committed 
treason against the Hungarian nation. By this act 
the Soviet Union and the Soviet-imposed regime in 
Hungary have once more violated every principle of 
decency and must stand in judgment before the 
conscience of mankind. 



what has taken place ; it is not explicit. I think 
that is what it may mean. And we will be talking 
with the others, not only the British and the 
French, who were participating in this particular 
effort with us, but also with our NATO allies, as 
to how we deal with the present situation. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the Supreme Court held yes- 
terday that the Department regulations restricting 
the issuance of passports to Communists and 
others of doubtful loyalty are without statutory 
fowulation. Do you plan to propose legislation 
at this Congress to restore your authority or give 
you such authority? 

A. I am not in a position to answer that question 
yet because we have not yet had time adequately 



Ju/y 7, 1958 



to evaluate the decision. There is always a possi- 
bility of asking for a rehearing. It was, as you 
know, a five-to-four decision. That would have 
to be discussed with the Department of Justice, 
which conducts these cases. We are not in a posi- 
tion today to announce what will be our proper 
course. 

I would like to take this occasion to emphasize 
that the departmental regulations in question 
were not regulations that were introduced by this 
administration. They were regulations which 
this administration inherited. They had been 
introduced and put in force under President Tru- 
man and Secretary Acheson, and we merely con- 
tinued them. 

Situation in Lebanon 

Q. Mr. Secretary, can you give ics your assess- 
ment of the situation in Lebanon, and whether or 
not any action seems to be required under the cir- 
cumstances? 

A. The situation in Lebanon is, obviously, one 
which causes very considerable anxiety to those 
who believe in the independence and integrity of 
the countries in the Middle East. That, as you 
will recall, was proclaimed as of vital interest to 
the United States by a Middle East resolution.^ 
I would also recall the fact that, even though at 
the moment the disturbance assumes, in part at 
least, the character of a civil disturbance, it is cov- 
ered by the United Nations resolution of 1949 on 
indirect aggression.' This denounces the foment- 
ing from without of civil strife. Therefore we 
watch the situation with concern. 

The events are moving on a day-to-day, hour- 
to-hour basis, and I would not feel that it was 
wise, or I would be on solid ground, in discussing 
them in detail at this time. 

Q. Can you say, sir, what our attitude is to- 
ward a larger U.N. force in the area, possibly on 
the Syinan-Lebanese border? 

A. I believe that the representatives of the 
United Nations who have already arrived there 
have come to the conclusion that it would be neces- 
sary to have a force somewhat larger in number 
and somewhat different in composition than had 
been anticipated at fu-st. It may have to be 



larger, and it may also have to have greater ele- 
ments of mobility than had been originally con- 
templated. I believe that that is being sympa- 
thetically considered by the Secretary-General. 
He himself, I think, plans to go out to the area 
today. The United States would be disposed to 
support, as a member of the United Nations, any 
action along those lines which commended itself 
to the Secretary-General. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, several weeks ago Premier 
Khrushchev sent the President a letter in which 
he made a bid for increased trade. What is the 
situation on this? 

A. We are, I hope, approaching the moment 
when a reply will be made to that letter. In view 
of certain implications of the letter, we shall 
probably also want to discuss its handling with 
our allies before we make it, although I think the 
reply will be relatively short. I don't want you 
to have to look forward to another 50-page letter. 

Q. Mr. Secretai^, what do you think now of 
the prospects for technical talks in Geneva on the 
means of supervising a nuclear-testing ban?* 

A. I hope that those talks will go forward. 
There are one or two minor points where there 
seems to be not a complete meeting of the minds 
between tlie parties, but our group is planning to 
go ahead, to be there, as far as we now foresee, on 
the first of July. 

Q. Do you consider those minor points? 

A. Well, they could be blown up into major 
points. But in view of the fact that they were 
all points as to which the Soviet Union had pre- 
viously given its assent, we do not go on the as- 
siunption that they will try to make them into 
major points. They could be built up, of course, 
into major points. I hope tliey will not do so. 

Prospects for Summit Conference 

Q. Mr. Secretary, can you give tis an idea of 
the reason for this zigzagging course of the Soviet 
on the summit conference — why they are blowing 
hot and cold, possibly on one occasion one way and 
now in another direction? 

A. I don't think that their basic attitude has 
varied. Their tactics have varied. They have 



^ For text, see Bulletin of Mar. 25, 1957, p. 481. 
' For text, see ibid., Noy. 28, 1949, p. 807. 



* For background, see iUd., June 9, 1958, p. 939. 



8 



Department of State Bulletin 



wanted and still, I guess, want to have a summit 
conference if they can have such a conference on 
their own terms, where they would feel that they 
could score a propaganda victory, where they 
could give the free world the impression that the 
cold war was over, relax our efforts, and so forth. 
That's a very natural objective if they can get 
away with it. And they have been trying to get 
away with it by various means. We have been 
trying to hold to a steady course of saying we 
want to have a summit conference if it can be 
conducted under conditions where it will be not 
a mere spectacle but a real means of solving some 
of the world's problems, and let's find out in ad- 
vance whether it will be that kind of meeting. 

Now they have squirmed quite a lot when it 
comes to that aspect of the matter. They have 
squirmed, you might say, in a tactical way while 
still holding to the broad strategic concepts of 
wanting to have a meeting on their terms. Now 
it looks as tliough they had come to the conclusion 
that a careful diplomatic study of the matters 
that might be discussed would disclose such a 
disparity of views that there would really be no 
solid, logical reason for having such a conference. 
And, being faced up with that, they are now 
swinging back to ti^y to bring it about on their 
terms by a broad propaganda offensive. Their 
tactics have been one of zigzag or squirming; their 
basic objective is to have the kind of meeting 
which would serve their piirposes. I think in 
that respect they have been consistent. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., shortly hefore the fxiblica- 
tion of the documents yesterday you said in an in- 
terview you thought it would he several months 
hefore a summit conference could ie arranged. 
What V? your estimate now? Do you think there 
is a "possibility of having a summit conference 
this year? 

A. "Well, I think I have said several times I 
didn't want to get into predictions in that re- 
spect. I still think it will be a little time before 
there is a summit conference, if indeed there is 
one at all. You may recall that this has already 
been under discussion for 6 months, since it was 
brought up in December, and that quite a lot of 
problems remain totally unresolved. Even if, 
which is unlikely, the Western powers were will- 
ing to waive — give up — the type of careful prepa- 
ration about substantive matters, there are also 



other matters such as composition and the like 
which will need to be resolved. Also there is 
supposed to be a meeting of foreign ministers be- 
fore there is any summit meeting. 

We have a nmnber of engagements ahead in 
various respects. There is a Baghdad Pact meet- 
ing in London in the latter part of July. I'm 
hoping to go to Brazil in August. And it doesn't 
seem to me that in fact there is much likelihood 
of a summit meeting within the next month or 
two. I would not want to alter the response I 
made to a question in that respect last Sunday, 
but also I would not want to get into predicting 
just whether one might be held this year or not. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., to go hack for a moment 
to the technical talks which are to he held hi Ge- 
neva — the Soviet Union ohviously assumes that 
any agreement on inspection m,ethods would lay 
us under ohligation to agree to suspension of tests, 
quite apart from other elements in the disarma- 
nfient package, whereas last week I helieve you said 
that an agreement on test suspension would he 
made conditional upon further steps. Well, that 
seems to he a basic difference here. 

A. It could be a basic difference, and I don't 
know now whether the Soviets are trying to 
make it into a basic difference or whether they 
are just trying to see if they can pick up a little 
extra by squeezing us a bit at the last moment. 
Now it was agreed from the beginning that this 
study by the experts would be conducted without 
prejudice to the question of whether or not there 
would be a suspension of testing or the interrela- 
tion of any suspension of testing with other mat- 
ters. And the Soviets accepted to have the ex- 
perts study it on those conditions. Now they 
seem to be trying to get a little extra there. 

Now, if in reality they want to reopen the whole 
basic presupposition of the meeting, then of course 
it would be a major affair. It can be interpreted 
that way. Possibly in light of other events that 
is the correct interpretation. I don't know. But 
up until yesterday at least we had been inclined 
to think that they were just saying, "Well, now, 
everybody is prepared to have this meeting, let's 
see if we can't by squeezing a little footnote into 
our last letter gain a little bit extra." That is a 
very common tactic of the Communists — some- 
times of others. I can't blame them for trying. 
Now the question is, if they don't get away with it, 



July 7, 1958 



then what are they going to do ? I hope that they 
will still go ahead. I don't know. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, to go hack to Lebanon foi-^ a 
moment— ^ou said the United States will le dis- 
posed to support such action as Mr. Hainmar- 
skjold might propose. Were you speaking of 
diplomatic support or the possibility of an offer 
of military support? 

A. I was speaking of supporting them diplo- 
matically in the United Nations. Now, if there 
were a call made for us to participate physically 
in that effort, I think we would be inclined to go 
along with that also. 

Relations With Latin America 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the New York Philhar- 
monic Orchestra returned from an eminently suc- 
cessful tour of South America, in fact of all of 
latin America, yesterday, and I was wonder- 
ing if you could tell us {a) if you had been ap- 
prised of the tremendous popular response to the 
American group in an area where other visitors 
frovi th-e United States had run into some diHiculty 
and {b) if in your review of the Latin American 
policy you are planning to boost this type of ex- 
change. 

A. I think I can give a "yes" to both of your 
questions. I was aware of the good reception 
given. And I may say that I do not think at all 
that the incidents which related to Vice President 
Nixon's visit ' are characteristic of the attitude of 
our friends to the south toward the North Ameri- 
cans in general. There were special circumstances 
and conditions that applied there. But I believe 
that the good will between our Republic and the 
other Republics and their peoples is still there 
to a very large extent and that such events as you 
refer to demonstrate the truth of that. The im- 
portant thing is to develop that, to cultivate it, 
strengthen it. I hope that we will be doing it. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, regarding the physical sup- 
port you said in the answer to the previous ques- 
tion on Lebanon, is there any connection between 
your statement and the fact that the Navy has 
ordered 1,700 more marines to the Eastern Medi- 
terranean and the 6th Fleet an what is called a 
routine replacement? But the timing seemed to 
he very significant. 



■ Ihid., p. 950. 



A. I would have to say that I wasn't aware of 
this particular movement that you refer to. I'm 
aware of the fact that the 6th Fleet is watching 
the situation — some of its elements are close to the 
situation— that they liave on a rotating basis ele- 
ments which could, if need be, respond to ap- 
propriate invitation. But this particular move- 
ment you refer to has, I think, no political sig- 
nificance because I was not aware that they had 
made a shift of their personnel in that respect. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, as I recall, at the time of the 
invasion of Egypt there was a tacit agreement, was 
there not, that neither the United States nor the 
Soviet Union would contribute troops to the 
United Nations force that attempted to maintain 
the peace there? Would the same considerations 
that led to that decision likely obtain in any deci- 
sion 07- any call for forces in the present crisis? 

A. It might. Let me say there was no tacit 
agreement between the United States and the So- 
viet Union in that respect. It was, I think, the 
judgment of those in the United Nations who 
were organizing the United Nations Emergency 
Force that it would be better to avoid calling on 
the so-called great powers to make contributions. 
And that might continue to be their view. I don't 
know. I was answering a hypothetical question 
that, if we were called on, would we respond, and 
I said I thought we would. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, does that imply that the only 
possibility of a United States military action in 
the Lebanese area wmdd he in response to a 
United Nations call? 

A. No, there are other possible contingencies. 

Q. Wmdd you spell those out, Mr. Secretary? 

A. I'm afraid I have got to leave. 

Q. Thank you, sir. 



Letters of Credence 

Guatemala 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Guate- 
mala, Carlos S. Antillon Hernandez, presented his 
credentials to President Eisenhower on June 16. 
For texts of the Ambassador's remarks and the 
President's reply, see Department of State press 
release 326. 



10 



Department of State BuUetin 



Western and U.S.S.R. Experts 
Named for Technical Talks 

U.S. AIDE MEMOIRE OF JUNE 20 

Press release 336 dated June 20 

The following U.S. aide memoire toas delivered 
an June SO at Mo»coio by the U.S. E?nbas.<iy to 
the Soviet Ministnj of Foreign Affairs. 

The Government of the United States of 
America notes the acceptance by the Government 
of the USSR of the proposal by the Government 
of the United States of America that a meeting of 
experts convene at Geneva on or about July 1 to 
consider means of detecting nuclear explosions. 
With regard to duration of the meeting, the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America con- 
siders that there is sufficient agreement between 
the views of the United States and the Soviet 
Union as set forth in the letters of President 
Eisenhower dated May 2-1 ^ and June 10 = and the 
letter from Premier Khrushchev dated May 30 ^ to 
permit commencement of work by the experts. 
The positions of the Governments of the Soviet 
Union and the United States of America regard- 
ing the relationship between this meeting and ces- 
sation of nuclear tests have also been set forth in 
these letters. 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica has proceeded on the basis of the statement 
in the letter of May 9, 1958,^ from Mr. Khrushchev 
that "the Soviet Government agrees to having 
lx)th sides designate experts." We note with con- 
cern that the Aide Memoire of Jiuie 13 apj^ears to 
shift fiom this agreed concej^t of a panel of ex- 
perts on each side, chosen on the basis of tech- 
nical competence. We consider that a useful 
meeting of experts can best be conducted on 
the basis of the original concept of a panel on each 
side. 

In the letter from President Eisenhower dated 
June 10, 1958, he stated "As indicated in my letter 
of May 24, 1958, our side at this discussion will in- 
clude experts from the United States, United 
Kingdom, France and possibly from other coun- 
tries which have specialists with a thorough 



knowledge in the field of detecting nuclear tests, 
and we note that you have no objection to this." 
The panel on our side is now being formed in 
accordance with this principle, and will include 
the following experts : 

Dr. James B. Fisk, Vice President of Bell Telephone Lab- 
oratories and Member of the President's Science Ad- 
visory Committee; 

Dr. Robert F. Bacher, Professor, California Institute of 
Technology and Member of the President's Science Ad- 
visory Couunlttee ; 

Sir John Cockrof t, Fellow of the Royal Society ; 

Dr. Ernest O. Lawrence, Director, University of Califor- 
nia Radiation Laboratory ; 

Sir William Penney, Fellow of the Royal Society ; 

Professor Yves Rocard, Director, Laboratory of Physics, 
Ecole Normale Suiierieure of Paris; 

Dr. Omond Solandt, Former Chairman of the Defense 
Research Board of Canada. 

It is assumed that, since experts from Czecho- 
slovakia and Poland as well as the Soviet Union 
will participate on your side, the Government of 
the Soviet Union within due course will transmit 
the names of Polish and Czechoslovakian experts 
on its panel. 



SOVIET AIDE MEMOIRE OF JUNE 13 < 

Unofficial translation 

The Soviet Government with satisfaction notes the co- 
incidence of points of view of the Soviet Government and 
the Government of the USA with regard to convocation in 
the near future of a conference of experts for studying 
means of revealing nuclear explosions and to the fact 
that all work of the experts be finished in a period of 
three to four weeks from the time of starting the work 
of the conference. The Soviet Government is also agree- 
able to having the conference of experts start its work on 
July 1 in Geneva. 

The Soviet Government, as it has already stated on this 
subject, proceeds from the fact that the work of the ex- 
perts will be completed in the shortest time and that, as 
a result, there will be achieved an understanding regard- 
ing cessation of tests of nuclear weapons by all powers 
disposing of these weapons. 

Consideration is also taken of the positive answer of 
the Government of the USA with regard to the fact that 
at the conference in question, experts of the USA, Great 
Britain and France will participate on one side, and ex- 
perts of the USSR, Czechoslovakia and Poland on the 
other, and that, by this, the question of the composition 
of the conference of experts can be considered agreed 
upon. 



' Bulletin of June 9, 1958, p. 939. 
'lUd., June 30, 10.58, p. 10a3. 
• Ihid., June 9, 19.58, p. 940. 



' Handed to U.S. Ambassador Llewellyn E. Thompson 
at Moscow on June 13 by Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei 
A. Gromyko. 



Jo/y 7, 1958 



11 



As far as the enlisting of experts of other countries In 
the work of the conference is concerned, the Soviet Gov- 
ernment expresses regret that at the given stage of nego- 
tiations understanding has not been reached about hav- 
ing experts of India already participate in the work of 
the conference from the very beginning. 

It is herewith made known that the following experts 
from the Soviet Union will participate in the conference : 

T. K. Federov, corresponding member of the Academy of 
Sciences of the USSR 

N. M. Semenov, academician 

I. Y. Tamm, academician 

M. A. Sadovski, corresponding member of Academy of 
Sciences of the USSR 

M. A. Leipunskl, professor, doctor of physical-mathema- 
tical sciences 

I. P. Pasechnik, scientific collaborator of the Academy of 
Sciences of the USSR 



K. Y. Gubkin, scientific collaborator of the Academy of 
Sciences of the USSR 

S. K. Tsarapkin, chief of section of international organi- 
zations and member of the Collegium of the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs of the USSR 

In connection with the thoughts voiced by the Ambas- 
sador of the USA in Moscow, Mr. Thompson, in conver- 
sation with the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR, 
A. A. Gromyko, on the matter of several organizational 
questions concerning the conducting of the conference, 
the Soviet Government does not object to having the UN 
Secretariat brought in for technical servicing of the con- 
ference of experts and for setting down their sessions in 
the form of protocols. Agreement Is also expressed with 
the thought voiced by the American side that expenses 
of conducting this conference be divided equally between 
both sides. 

Moscow, June 13, 1958 



United States Releases Documents on Western Proposals for Summit Talks 
After U.S.S.R. Announces Intention To Issue All Unpublished Documents 



Following is a Department announcement and 
the texts of three documents released hy the De- 
fartment of State on June 16 {press release 330) , 
together with the texts of a Soviet memorandum 
and a Soviet aide menwire of May 5. 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Soviet Government has informed the 
United States it intends to publish tlie written 
communications on the summit talks wliich have 
not been published heretofore. In view of the 
publication by the Soviet Goverimaent of Khrush- 
chev's letter to the President of June 11, includ- 
ing the Soviet agenda proposals presented in the 
Soviet Government's memorandiun of May 5, the 
Department of State has decided to make public 
the following documents which have been pre- 
sented to Foreign Minister Gromyko by the three 
Western Ambassadoi-s in the course of the current 
preparatory talks in Moscow : 

1. A memorandum on Western agenda pro- 
posals handed to Foreign Minister Gromyko on 
May 28. 



2. An aide memoire handed to Foreign Minister 
Gromyko on May 28 reaffirming the concept of the 
three Western Powers as to the precise scope and 
character of the preparatory work for a possible 
summit conference. 

3. A proposed schedule for the review of the 
Western and Soviet lists of agenda proposals for 
the purpose of determining what subjects should 
be submitted for examination by heads of gov- 
ernment and of bringing out, by general discus- 
sion, the possibilities of agreement. This was 
handed to the Soviet Government on May 31, 
1958. 



MEMORANDUM ON WESTERN AGENDA 
PROPOSALS > 

The Governments of the US, UK and France 
believe that the present international situation 
requires that a serious attempt be made to reach 



' Handed to Soviet Foreign Minl.ster Andrei Gromyko 
at Moscow on May 28 by the British Ambassador on 
behalf of the United States, the United Kingdom, and 
France. 



12 



Department of State Bulletin 



agi'eement on the main problems affecting the at- 
tainment of peace and stability in the world. 
They consider that, in the circumstances, a Sum- 
mit meeting would be desirable if it would pro- 
vide the opportunity for serious discussions of 
major problems and would be an effective means 
of reaching agreement on significant subjects. 

They regard such settlements as constituting 
effective means for developing a spirit of confi- 
dence in their relations with the Soviet Union 
which could lead to cooperation among nations in 
the pursuit of a just and lasting peace. 

Such settlements, if they are to serve this pur- 
pose, must take into account the legitimate in- 
terests of all the parties concerned and must em- 
brace the necessary elements to assure their 
implementation. 

In his letter of January 12, 1958,^ President 
Eisenhower put forward a series of proposals to 
Premier Bulganin. The Governments of the US, 
UK and France consider that they form the basis 
for mutually beneficial settlements at a meeting 
of Heads of Government. Some of the considera- 
tions which underlie this view are set forth below. 
In making their proposals in the field of disarma- 
ment, the three governments recall their obliga- 
tions, undertaken in the UN Charter, not to use 
any weapons against the territorial integrity or 
political independence of any state. While a com- 
prehensive disarmament remains their ultimate 
aim, they propose certain practical balanced and 
interdependent measures which would mark sig- 
nificant progress toward controlling the arms race 
and thus reducing the danger of war. Progress 
of this sort would also create an atmosphere of 
confidence which could facilitate settlement of the 
political controversies that disturb relations be- 

^ tween the Western Powers and the Soviet Union. 

I Reduction in both nuclear weapons and conven- 
tional armed forces and armaments are vital for 
this purpose. The three Governments therefore 
consider it desirable to make clear once again what 
were the reasons which led them to put forward 
far reaching proposals for partial disarmament 
in 1957. 

1. Measures to control production of fissionable 
materials for nuclear weapons and to reduce 
existing military stocks of su^h materials 

' Bulletin of Jan. 27, 1958, p. 122. 
Jo/y 7, 7958 



As for the nuclear problem, the heart of the 
matter is not the mere testing, but the weapons 
themselves. The Western Powers seek a depend- 
able ending to the accumulation of nuclear weap- 
ons and a dependable beginning of the steady re- 
duction of existing weapons stockpiles. Since 
there is no known reliable means for detecting the 
weapons already made, the most effective and feas- 
ible way to work toward the reduction and elim- 
ination of nuclear weapons is to halt production 
of fissionable materials for making them and to 
begin reducing weapons stockpiles by equitable 
transfers to peaceful uses. The Western Powers 
are prepared to discuss these measures and the 
ratios of materials to be transferred from existing 
weapons stocks to peaceful uses with a view to 
arriving at equitable proportions for such trans- 
fers by the states concerned. 

2. Suspension of nuclear tests 

If there is agreement to put an end to the pro- 
duction of new fissionable materials for nuclear 
weapons, the way lies open to an immediate so- 
lution of the problem of nuclear testing. So long 
as unrestricted manufacture of nuclear weapons 
continues, and new means are being developed 
for delivering nuclear weapons rapidly and surely 
the suspension of nuclear testing does not con- 
stitute disarmament. It is relevant to underline 
the fact that the existence of nuclear stocks, which 
are constantly growing, constitutes a much more 
serious danger than nuclear tests. Thus, the 
Western Powers propose not only the suspension 
of nuclear tests but the stopping of production 
of new fissionable materials for weapons purposes 
and the progressive conversion of stocks of these 
materials to peaceful uses. Testing could be 
stopped indefinitely if the necessary inspection 
system is installed and the production of fission- 
able materials for weapons is also effectively 
ended. Both would be carried out under effective 
measures of international control. 

3. The reduction and limitation of conventional 
armn and manpower 

An agreement on initial verifiable reductions 
of armed forces and their stocks of arms could 
ease the way toward settlement of problems which 
create international friction. In their turn, such 
settlements could set the stage for further reduc- 
tions. This is a sound approach for developing 



13 



confidence in relations between the countries. On 
the other hand, unverified and uncontrolled uni- 
lateral measures can well be merely shifts in de- 
ployment or temporary reductions. They do not 
inspire confidence. 

With these considerations in mind, the Western 
Governments propose that the Soviet Union join 
them in agreeing on an initial limitation of their 
armed forces; and on placing in storage depots, 
within their own territories, and under the super- 
vision of an international control organization, 
specific quantities of designated types of arma- 
ments. They will be prepared also to negotiate 
on a further limitation of their anned forces and 
armaments provided that compliance with commit- 
ments above has been verified to mutual satis- 
faction, that there has been progress toward the 
solution of political issues, and that other essen- 
tial states have accepted equitable levels for their 
armed forces and armaments. 

4. Measures to guard against surprise attach 

Until general controlled disarmament becomes 
a reality, the surest way toward the development 
of confidence lies in lifting fears of surprise at- 
tack. Growing capabilities of surprise attack on 
a massive scale underscore the importance of a 
prompt beginning on measures to deal with this 
problem. The Western Powers want to meet it 
on the broadest scale possible. The Governments 
of the US, UK and France express their readi- 
ness to enter into discussion of this subject both 
from the standpoint of technical considerations of 
ways and means of achieving this end in the most 
practical way and from the standpoint of initial 
areas to be included in the progressive installation 
of such a system. In this connection the three 
Governments reaffirm their willingness as ex- 
pressed in the United Nations Disarmament Sub- 
committee on August 29, 1957,' to consider the 
installation of a system of air and ground in- 
spection as a safeguard against surprise attack on 
a comprehensive scale embracing all of the US, 
USSR, Canada, and with the consent of the coun- 
tries involved, the greater part of Europe as well. 
If tliis proposal is not acceptable to the USSR, 
the three Governments are also prepared to con- 
sider tlie establishment in tlie first instance of 
smaller zones in tlie Arctic and European regions, 

' For text of Western disarmament proposals, see ihid., 
Sept. 16, 1957, p. 451. 



provided that the latter also included a significant 
part of the territory of the Soviet Union. As the 
US indicated at Geneva in 1955, if agreement is 
reached on the installation of measures of air and 
ground inspection on the comprehensive scale out- 
lined above, negotiations could be undertaken 
promptly both with other sovereign states in- 
volved and with tlie Soviet Union for the appro- 
priate extension of such inspection, on a reciprocal, 
equitable basis and subject to the consent of any 
governments concerned, to bases outside of na- 
tional territory. 

5. Use of outer space for peaceful purposes 

An opportunity to stop the development of new 
and more powerful weapons was tragically lost a 
decade ago when the US offer to renounce making 
atomic weapons and to make the use of atomic 
energy an international asset for peaceful pur- 
poses only was not accepted. A great step for- 
ward in building confidence among peoples and 
in reducing the danger to humanity from new and 
powerful weapons would have been made if this 
offer had been accepted. The responsible coun- 
tries are faced once more with a similar decision, 
laden with serious consequences for mankind. 
Tlie three governments propose that the Soviet 
Union join in the establishment of a group of 
experts who would make the necessary technical 
studies for determining what measures are re- 
quired to assure that outer space is used for peace- 
ful purposes only. 

6. Reunification of Gerinany in accordance with 
the terms of the 1955 Directive of the four 
Heads of Oovemment to the Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs 

The continued division of Germany is a major 
obstacle to the restoration of confidence and the 
creation of conditions of genuine peace and sta- 
bility in Europe. Thirteen years have passed 
since the end of the war in Europe, yet no peace 
settlement has been made with Germany. A 
necessary prerequisite for such a settlement is the 
creation of a government which truly reflects the 
will of the German people. Only a government 
created on such a basis can undertake obligations 
which will inspire confidence on the part of other 
countries and which will be considered just and 
binding by the people of Germany themselves. 

The Heads of Government in Geneva recog- 
nized the common responsibility of the four pow- 



14 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



ei"s for the settlement of the German question and 
the reunilicatiou of Germany.* They agreed that 
the settlement of the German question and the re- 
unification of Germany through free elections 
should be carried out in conformity with the na- 
tional interests of the German people and the in- 
terests of European security. The Western Pow- 
er's propose that the Soviet Union join witli them 
in immediate steps to carry out their responsibil- 
ity by agreeing to permit an all-German Govern- 
ment to be formed by free elections and enabling 
it to carry out its functions. Such an agreement 
would give tangible evidence of a common desire 
on the part of the four governments to create the 
conditions of trust on which a lasting peace can 
be based. 

7. European security arrangements 

The Western Powers are aware of the fact that 
the Soviet Union has expressed concern that the 
creation of a freely-chosen all-German Govern- 
ment with the full attributes of sovereignty would 
bring about changes in the present situation in 
Europe which the Soviet Union would consider 
detrimental to its security interests. The three 
governments are prepared to enter into arrange- 
ments concerning European security which would 
give assurances to the Soviet Union in this regard. 
The arrangements they envisage would involve 
limitations on forces and armaments. They 
would also involve assurances designed to prevent 
aggression in Eui-ope by the exchange of under- 
takings to take appropriate action in the event of 
such aggression. 

The three governments seek no one-sided ad- 
vantage in such arrangements, nor do they con- 
template entering into arrangements which would 
give a one-sided advantage to the Soviet Union to 
the prejudice of their essential security interests. 
Confidence can be created by international agree- 
ments only if the agi-eements take equally into ac- 
count the legitimate security interests of all the 
parties concerned. 

The Western Powers call on the Soviet Union 
to enter into negotiations on the subject of Euro- 
pean security in this spirit, with a view to con- 
cluding a treaty which would enter into force in 
conjunction with an agreement on the reunifica- 
tion of Germany. This would recognize the close 



' For text of directive, see iMtL, Aug. 1, 1955, p. 176. 
Ju/y 7, 1958 



link which the powers concerned have agreed ex- 
ists between the two subjects. The linked settle- 
ment of these two questions and the confidence 
created thereby would also permit further prog- 
ress to be made in the limitation of armaments 
generally. 

8. InterTiational exclmnges 

Lasting peace requires a satisfactory settlement 
of the problems which concern the general rela- 
tionship between the peoples of Eastern Europe 
and those of the Western countries. An impor- 
tant step forward along the path of mutual un- 
derstanding would be made if the interested gov- 
ernments agreed to remove the obstacles which 
still prevent peoples from knowing each other and 
to satisfy the common aspirations of all men by 
guaranteeing them objective and complete infor- 
mation and by promoting closer cultural ties and 
human relations. 

In July 1955, at the Geneva Conference, the 
four Heads of Government included this question 
in the directives given to the Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs. While some progress has been 
made in certain fields since that date, much re- 
mains to be done to eliminate the obstacles which 
still hinder mutual acquaintance and understand- 
ing, the conditions for a durable and genuine 
peace. 

9. Means of strengthening the United Nations 

The peoples of the world look upon the UN or- 
ganization and the pledges of its members em- 
bodied in its Charter as man's best hope for peace 
and justice. Thus, the Western governments can- 
not but welcome the recent assertion of the Soviet 
Union that it believes in the importance of the 
United Nations and its role in the maintenance of 
peace and security as well as in the peaceful set- 
tlement of international issues. Like the USSR, 
they deem that efforts should be made to 
strengthen the United Nations by every means, so 
that it should be able to fulfill its tasks more ef- 
fectively. One practical way in which this can be 
done now is through an undertaking by the Gov- 
ernments of the US, UIv, France and USSR that 
they will, as a matter of policy, avoid vetoing Se- 
curity Council recommendations as to how na- 
tions might proceed toward the peaceful solution 
of their disputes. 



15 



10. Ways of easing tensions in Eastern Europe 

The creation of conditions of stability in East- 
ern Europe based on relations of independence 
and friendship among the countries of the area 
would greatly contribute to the cause of promot- 
ing a just and lasting world peace. That this 
should come about is thus not an aspiration of 
neighboring Western Europe alone, but of all the 
world. This international interest found its ex- 
pression in the international agreements concern- 
ing the right of the peoples of the area to choose 
their own governments; the peace treaties with 
their provisions designed to safeguard human 
rights; the efforts of many countries to improve 
tlie economic welfare of the people; and efforts to 
eliminate interference in their internal affairs. 

The Western Powers believe that a serious dis- 
cussion of the problem posed by the existence of 
tensions in Eastern Europe should be held with 
the aim of eliminating interference in the internal 
affairs of the countries of that region and the use 
of force in the settlement of disputes there. 

The Western governments believe that the pro- 
posals set forth above are feasible and could be 
put into effect now. They believe their imple- 
mentation is verifiable. The proposals take into 
account the legitimate interests and security needs 
of the countries concerned. Their adoption 
could create a basis for the development of an at- 
mosphere of confidence and trust that would fa- 
vor the growth of more active mutually beneficial 
relations between our peoples and governments. 



TRIPARTITE AIDE MEMOIRE OF MAY 28 » 

The Governments of the US, UIv and France 
after consideration of the Soviet Government's 
Aide Memoire of May 5, have concluded that the 
positions of the governments with regard to the 
purpose of the talks between the three Western 
Ambassadors and the Soviet Foreign Minister 
and of a subsequent Foreign Ministers' meeting 
are sufficiently close to permit the substantive pre- 
paratory work for a possible Summit meeting to 
proceed without delay. It is their understanding 
that this work should go forward along the fol- 
lowing lines : 



" Handed to Foreign Minister Gromyko at Moscow on 
May 28 by the British Ambassador on behalf of the 
United States, the United Kingdom, and France. 



16 



The purpose of the preparatoiy work shall be 
to examine the position of the various govern- 
ments on the major questions at issue between 
them and to establish what subjects should be 
submitted for examination by Heads of Govern- 
ment. It is vmderstood that it would not be the 
pui-pose of the preparatory work to reach deci- 
sions, but to bring out, by general discussion, the 
possibilities of agreement. Wlien they have made 
progress in these talks the Ambassadors and the 
Soviet Foreign Minister will also have the task 
of agreeing on the time, place and composition of • 
a Foreign Ministers' meeting. 

The special tasks assigned to the Foreign Min- 
isters themselves shall be to establish whether 
they are satisfied that the preparatory work af- 
fords the prospect that a Summit meeting would, 
in fact, provide the opportunity for conducting 
serious discussions of major problems and be the 
means for reaching agreement on significant sub- 
jects. If and when this has been established to 
their satisfaction, the Foreign Ministers will then 
reach agreement on the date, place and compo- 
sition of a Summit meeting. 

LIST OF GENERAL HEADINGS FOR REVIEW- 
ING SPECIFIC AGENDA PROPOSALS 

(With only Western items listed as examples) 
May 31, 1958 

Disarmament 

(a) Measures to control the production of fis- 
sionable material for nuclear weapons and to re- 
duce existing military stocks of such material ; 

(b) The suspension of nuclear tests; 

(c) The reduction and limitation of conven- 
tional arms and manpower; 

(d) Measures to guard against surprise attack ; 

(e) The use of outer space for peaceful 
purposes. 

European Security and Germany 

(a) Reunification of Germany in accordance 
with the terms of the 1955 Directive of the four 
Heads of Government to the Ministere of Foreign 
Affairs ; 

(b) European security arrangements. 

International Exchanges 

(a) Cessation of jamming of foreign broad- 
casts ; 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



(b) Censoi-ship; 

(c) Free distribution juid sale to tlie public of 
books and publications ; 

(d) Free distribution and sale of foreign news- 
papei's and periodicals; 

(e) Fi-eedom of travel. 

Methods of Improving International Cooperation 
Means of strengthening the United Nations. 

Other Topics 
Ways of easing tension in Eastern Europe. 

SOVIET MEMORANDUM OF MAY 5» 

Official translation 

Proposals of the Soviet Go\-Er..\MENT as to Questions 
To Be Considered at the Confebence With Partici- 
pation OF the Heads of Government 

On January 8, 1958, the Soviet Government presented 
for consideration by other Governments its concrete pro- 
posals on problems of easing international tension." 
These proposals provide for a high-level conference of 
top government oflScials with the participation of the 
Heads of Government to discuss issues the settlement of 
which would promote the easing of international tension 
and the creation of trust in relations between states. 

As before, the Soviet Government considers that a se- 
ries of pressing international problems can be solved even 
at the present time. Its position is that it is necessary 
and possible to achieve agreement among states on out- 
standing issues in international relations. The Soviet 
Union, for its part, has listed a number of such i.ssues 
and is prepared to participate in the consideration of 
other problems which might be proposed by the partici- 
pants in the conference at the summit provided, of course, 
that these questions are within the competence of the 
international meeting and are directed toward strength- 
ening peace. 

The Soviet Government is firmly convinced that if the 
Heads of Government firmly resolve to devote their ef- 
forts to seeking mutually acceptable solutions for press- 
ing international problems, then it is i)OSSible to say with 
certainty that the forthcoming conference at the summit 
will ensure the necessary turning point in the develop- 
ment of relations between states in the direction of im- 
proving the entire international situation and the liquida- 
tion of the "cold war." 

Taking into account the exchange of views which has 
occurred on the question of convening a conference at 
the summit and seeking to facilitate the completion of 



'Handed to the U.S., U.K., and French Ambassadors 
at Moscow on May 5 by Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko. 
' Xot printed. 

iuly 7, 1958 

470472— 5S 3 



the preparatory work for this conference in as short a 
period as pos.sible, the Soviet Government for its part sub- 
mits for consideration at the conference the following 
questions and at the same time sets forth some views on 
these questions : 

1. Immediate cessation of atomic and hydrogen weapons 
tests 

Cessation of tests of all types of atomic and hydrogen 
weapons is a pressing problem for which it is possible 
to find a practical solution. Universal cessation of tests 
of such weapons would have beneficial results in strength- 
ening the cause of peace and putting an end to the arma- 
meut.s race. Agi-eemeut on this question would be a defi- 
nite barrier to the creation of new and still more destruc- 
tive types of atomic and hydrogen weapons and would be 
a practical step on the road to complete prohibition of 
.such weapons of mass destruction. 

The necessity for an immediate solution of this ques- 
tion is dictated also by the fact that continued tests of 
atomic and hydrogen weapons are, according to the testi- 
mony of the most prominent scientists, increasing the con- 
centration of atomic radiation in the atmosphere, the soil, 
and the water, which are already creating a serious dan- 
ger to the health and life of people now living and threat- 
ening the normal development of future generations. This 
danger will increase still more in the future if an end 
is not put to experimental explosions of nuclear weapons. 

At the present time, nuclear weapons are being pro- 
duced by only three states— the USSR, the USA, and 
the United Kingdom, — and the cessation of tests of such 
weapons now depends, since the Soviet Union has already 
unilaterally ceased its tests, upon only two powers — 
the USA and the United Kingdom. The Soviet Govern- 
ment expects that the USA and the United Kingdom 
will cease without delay their testing of nuclear weapons, 
so that it may be possible to agree at the conference, 
with tlie participation of the Heads of Government, on 
the consolidation of such decisions by the tliree powers 
by means of appropriate agreements. 

Although modern technical devices for detecting nuclear 
explosions can record any explosions of atomic and 
hydrogen weapons, no matter where they are carried 
out, and each power concerned can itself determine 
whether the other parties are complying with the agree- 
ment to cease the tests, the Soviet Government re- 
iterates its consent to the establishment of international 
control over the cessation of nuclear weapons tests by 
means of international control pofsts, as it already pro- 
posed in June 19.57. It considers that it will not be 
diflScult to agi-ee on concrete measures for such control 
as soon as the Governments of the USA and the United 
Kingdom also cease testing such weapons. Otherwise, 
any negotiations concerning questions of control, whether 
they be on the level of experts or any other level, will 
inevitably become fruitless di-scussions and will, naturally, 
have no real results. 

To make the cessation of tests of atomic and hydrogen 
weapons contingent upon the solution of other disarma- 
ment questions, concerning which there are still serious 
differences of opinion and the solution of which is a more 



17 



complex matter, would be tantamount to an actual re- 
fusal to cease the atomic and hydrogen weapons tests. 
Although the immediate cessation of nuclear weapons 
tests by all the powers possessing such weapons would 
place the Warsaw Pact member nations in an unfavorable 
position in comparison with the NATO nations, since the 
Soviet Union has carried out considerably fewer experi- 
mental explosions of atomic and hydrogen weapons than 
the USA and the United Kingdom, nevertheless the Soviet 
Union has consented to this in the desire to make a prac- 
tical beginning for the cessation of the atomic arms race. 
The acceptance of this proposal by the United States of 
America and the United Kingdom would put an end to 
tests of atomic and hydrogen weapons everywhere and 
forever. 

2. Renunciation of the use of all types of atomic, hydro- 
gen, and rocket weapons 

The Soviet Government considers that the achievement 
of agreement on the Joint renunciation by the states 
possessing nuclear weapons — the USSR, the USA, and the 
United Kingdom — of the use of all lypes of such weapons, 
including air bombs, rockets, of any range, with atomic 
and hydrogen warheads, atomic artillery, etc., would be 
an important step toward eliminating the danger of 
atomic war and reducing tension in relations between 
states. In case agreement is reached to renounce the use 
of nuclear weapons, any government that would dare to 
violate such an agreement would reveal itself to the eyes 
of the peoples as an aggressor, as an enemy of peace. 

The great significance of such an agreement is con- 
firmed by historical experience. As is known, the Geneva 
Protocol of 1925 on the prohibition of the use of chemi- 
cal and bacteriological weapons played an important role 
in the matter of preventing the utilization of such types 
of weapons during the Second World War. In the opin- 
ion of the Soviet Government, the decision to renounce 
the use of atomic, hydrogen, and rocket weapons could 
be legalized by means of extending the Geneva Protocol 
of 1925 to nuclear and rocket weapons. 

The Soviet Government considers that an agreement of 
the powers now, at this stage, to renounce the use of 
nuclear and rocket weapons would create an auspicious 
basis for the achievement, at the next stage, of such 
measures as the complete and unconditional prohibition 
of nuclear weapons, the cessation of their production, 
with their elimination from the armaments of states, and 
the liquidation of all stockpiles of such weapons. 

3. Creation in Central Europe of a zone free of atomic, 
hydrogen and rocket weapons 

At the present time, two groups of states oppose each 
other in Central Europe and armed forces and armaments 
of various types, in quantities abnormal for peacetime, 
are concentrated there. This one circumstance alone 
creates a serious threat to peace and it is impossible to 
ignore the fact that in such a situation, by evil intent 
or by chance, the flres of a new war can break out with 
the use of the most modern means of destruction, that is, 
nuclear and rocket weapons. 



In order to preclude the danger of such a turn of events, 
the Soviet Government deems it expedient to examine 
at the conference the proposal of the Government of the 
Polish People's Republic concerning the creation in 
Europe of a zone free of atomic, hydrogen, and rocket 
weapons, which would include the territories of the 
Polish People's Republic, the Czechoslovak Republic, the 
German Democratic Republic, and the Federal Republic 
of Germany. Assumption by these states of the obliga- 
tion not to produce or to permit the stationing on their 
territories of nuclear weapons of all possible types, and 
also the establishment of sites for the launching of rockets 
capable of carrying nuclear warheads, would undoubtedl.v 
help to prevent the possibility of military conflicts break- 
ing out in the center of Europe. In as much as the 
Governments of the Polish People's Republic, the Czecho- 
slovak Republic, and the German Democratic Republic 
have already declared their agreement to be included 
in a zone free of atomic weapons, the creation of such a 
zone now depends only on the agreement of the Govern- 
ment of the Federal Republic of Germany. 

Agreement among the Governments of the USSR, the 
USA, the United Kingdom, and France on the advisability 
of creating a zone free of atomic weapons in this area 
of Europe would undoubtedly facilitate reaching an agree- 
ment with the Government of the Federal Republic of 
Germany with regard to the Federal Republic of Ger- 
many's joining this zone. 

Agreement on the creation of a zone free of atomic 
weapons in Europe will be effective if, along with the 
corresponding obligations of the states included in the 
said zone, the powers that include nuclear and rocket 
weapons among the armaments of their forces would, 
for their part, assume an obligation to respect the status 
of this zone and consider the territory of the states in- 
cluded in it as excluded from the sphere of use of atomic, 
hydrogen, and rocket weapons. As for the Soviet Union, 
it has already declared its readiness to assume the above- 
mentioned obligations if the Governments of the US, the 
United Kingdom, and France do the same. 

The obligations of the states included within the zone 
and the obligations of the Great Powers could be legalized 
both in the form of an appropriate international treaty 
and also In the form of appropriate unilateral 
declarations. 

For the purpose of ensuring the effectiveness of the ob- 
ligations and their fulfillment, the states concerned would 
be obligated to establish in the territory of the zone free 
of atomic weapons a system of broad and effective con- 
trol, both on land and in the air, with the establishment 
of control points by agreement of the states concerned. 
The creation in the center of Europe of a zone free of 
atomic weapons would be an important step on the road 
toward cessation of the dangerous arms race and removal 
of the threat of atomic war. 

4. Non-aggression pact 

Seeking to further the easing of international tension, 
the Soviet Government considers that it would be in the 
interests of cessation of the "cold war" and of the arms 



18 



Department of State Bulletin 



race to conclude in one or another form a non-aggression 
pact (or agreement) between the states members of 
NATO and the states participating in the Warsaw Pact. 
Conclusion of such a pact would be an important step on 
the road toward the creation of an all-European system 
of security and the strengthening of mutual trust and 
cooperation between states. 

If the Western powers display a desire to conclude such 
a pact or agreement, then in the opinion of the Soviet 
Government it would not be difficult to come to an agree- 
ment on its form on tbe basis of a multilateral agreement 
among all countries included in the Warsaw Pact organ- 
ization and the North Atlantic Alliance, or among cer- 
tain countries belonging to these groups, or, lastly, in the 
form of non-aggression agreements on a bilateral basis 
iK'tween separate members of these groups. 

The Soviet Government considers that the basis for 
such an agreement must be the mutual renunciation by 
the contracting parties of the use of force or threat of 
force and the obligation to .settle disputes which may 
arise between the parties to the agreement by peaceful 
means alone. The desirability of mutual consultations 
among the parties to the agreement, in connection with 
the fulfillment of the obligations undertaken by them 
under the agreement, should also be envisaged. 

Such a pact could be open to accession by all the other 
states of Europe in order to facilitate the creation at a 
later stage of a system of all-European security and the 
gradual liquidation of existing military-political groups. 

In proposing the conclusion of a non-aggression pact, 
the Soviet Government regards it as the first step toward 
a radical improvement in the relations among the states 
included in the North Atlantic Alliance and the Warsaw 
Pact organization and as a prerequisite for the conclusion 
at a later stage of a broader treaty on European security. 

5. Prohibition of the tise of outer space for military pur- 
poses; liquidation of foreign military ba^es in foreign 
territories; international eooperation in the study of 
outer space 

Scientific-technical progress in the realm of rocket tech- 
nology has raised the question of what direction the use 
of the latest scientific achievements will take : Will they 
serve peaceful purposes or will they be used for further- 
ing the arms race, increasing the danger of the outbreak 
of an atomic war? 

An effective measure, which would completely exclude 
the possibility of using outer space for military purposes 
and which would ensure application of the tremendous 
achievements in the creation of rocket and artificial earth 
satellites exclusively for peaceful purpf>ses, would be a 
Complete and unconditional ban on atomic and hydrogen 
weapons, together with their exclusion from armaments 
and the destruction of stockpiles. Since this is diflScult 
at the present time, owing to the position of the Western 
powers, and must obviously be realized at a later stage, the 
Soviet Government proposes that at the present stage 
agreement be reached on a ban on the use of outer .space for 
military purposes with, at the same time, the liquidation of 
military bases in foreign teiTitories, first of all in the terri- 



tory of the countries of Europe, the Near and Middle 
East, and North Africa. Such a measure would be in 
the interest of the security of all states. As for the states 
in whose territory such military bases are situated, such 
a decision would only be to their advantage, as the liqui- 
dation of military bases would remove the threat to which 
they subject themselves by making their territory avail- 
able for the establishment of foreign military bases. 

Guided by these considerations, the Soviet Government 
proposes a discussion of the question of concluding an 
international agreement on the use of outer space for 
l>eaceful purposes, which would include the following 
basic provisions : 

A ban on the use of outer space for military purposes 
and an obligation on the part of states to launch rockets 
into outer space only in accordance with an agreed inter- 
national program. 

Liquidation of foreign military bases in the territory 
of other states, first of all in Europe, the Near and Mid- 
dle East, and North Africa. 

Establishment, within the framework of the UN, of 
appropriate international control of the fulfillment of 
the above obligations. 

Creation of a UN agency for international cooperation 
in the field of the study of outer space. 

Conclusion of such an agreement would lead toward 
broad international cooperation in the peaceful use of 
outer space and would initiate joint research by scientists 
of all countries in problems connected with the cosmos. 

6. Reduction in the number of foreign troops stationed in 
the territory of Germany and within the borders of 
other European states 

Consistently seeking the necessary agreement with 
other powers, the Soviet Union more than once has intro- 
duced concrete proposals on disarmament, and has also 
carried out a series of unilateral measures for reducing 
its own armed forces and armaments, proceeding from 
the premise that the other Great Powers will, for their 
part, follow this example. The Soviet Union is an advo- 
cate of a radical solution of the disarmament problem, 
a substantial reduction in the armed forces and arma- 
ments of states, the complete withdrawal of foreign armed 
forces from the territory of Euroi)ean states members 
of both military groups, including Germany, and the 
liquidation of all foreign military bases on foreign 
territories. 

However, inasmuch as the Western powers have 
hitherto not displayed their readiness to come to an agree- 
ment on all these questions, the Soviet Union proposes, 
at this stage, that a start be made toward the solution of 
those questions on which there already exists a complete 
possibility of reaching an agreement. The Soviet Govern- 
ment proposes a gradual reduction of foreign troops in 
foreign territories and submits the proposal, in the nature 
of a first step, to reduce during 19.58 the armed forces of 
the USSR, the US, the United Kingdom, France, and 
other states having troojxs in the territory of Germany, 
by one-third or to any other agreed extent. The reduced 



Ju/y 7, 1958 



19 



contingents of these troops must be withdrawn from the 
territory of Germany Inside their own national frontiers. 
The question of a substantial reduction in the armed 
forces and armaments of states and the conclusion of an 
appropriate international agreement with this objective, 
as well as the complete withdrawal of foreign armed 
forces from the territories of the states members of 
NATO and the Warsaw Treaty could be discussed during 
the following stage of negotiations. 

7. Conclusion of a Oerman peace treaty 

All the peoples of Europe, which were drawn into the 
war on the side of Hitlerite Germany, have long been 
enjoying the fruits of a peaceful situation and have been 
building their life independently, whereas the German 
people are still deprived of the conditions for the peaceful 
development of their country and existence on equal terms 
with other peoples. The absence of a peace treaty also 
has a negative effect on the solution of its national task 
of unifying the country. Furthermore, the lack of a 
solution for questions connected with a peaceful settle- 
ment in Germany is used by those who do not value the 
fate of peace in Europe for drawing the Western part 
of Germany into preparation for atomic war. 

Under these conditions, the Soviet Government con- 
siders that the powers responsible for the development 
of Germany in a peaceful manner should strive to attain 
a peaceful settlement with Germany as soon as possible. 
Being an advocate of such a settlement, the Soviet Gov- 
ernment reiterates its proposal for a discussion at a 
summit conference of the question concerning the prep- 
aration and conclusion of a German peace treaty. 

However, taking into consideration the attitude of the 
Governments of the US and other Western powers 
toward this proposal, the Soviet Government would be 
ready at the forthcoming meeting to come to an agree- 
ment at least on the first steps toward the solution 
of this question, namely, to agree, at the present stage, 
on the basic principles of a German peace treaty and 
the manner of its preparation. In this, the Soviet 
Government proceeds from the premise that preparatory 
work toward conclusion of a German peace treaty, with 
the participation of German representatives from the 
GDR and the FRG, would give impetus to the unification 
of the efforts of the German Democratic Republic and 
the Federal Republic of Germany toward their rap- 
prochement and restoration of the unity of the German 
people. 

8. Prevention of surprise attack against one state hy 
another 

Inasmuch as it still does not appear possible at the 
present time to resolve the problem of disarmament in 
full and there is talk of reaching an agreement regarding 
partial measures of disarmament, the Soviet Govern- 
ment proposes that the question of the prevention of 
surprise attack be gradually resolved, according to the 
nature of the measures, in the field of disarmament In 
the first stage. It would be necessary to come to an 
understanding concerning the establishment of control 

20 



posts at railroad junctions, in large ports, and on main 
highways, and concerning the taking of aerial photo- 
graphs in the zones of demarcation of the principal armed 
forces of the military groups in Europe, at the present 
stage in definite limited areas, which will be considered 
as the most important from the point of view of eliminat- 
ing the danger of .surprise attack. 

In proposing such an approach to the solution of this 
problem, the Soviet Government proceeds from the prem- 
ise that the Western powers have recognized the prac- 
tical value of the Soviet proposal concerning the 
establishment of control posts as a means of preventing 
surprise attack. This gives a basis for hope that the 
conference can come to an agreement on this question. 

The Soviet Government reiterates its proposal on the 
establishment in Europe of a zone of aerial inspection to 
a distance of 800 kilometers east and west of the line 
of demarcation of the armed forces of the NATO and 
Warsaw Pact military groups. 

As for the proposal for carrying out aerial photography 
of vast regions or of the whole territory of the USSR 
and the USA, this question cannot be considered apart 
from measures for easing international tension and 
strengthening trust between states, especially between 
the Great Powers. In the present international situation, 
with the continuing arms race, which causes international 
tension as well as distrust and suspicion in the relations 
between states, with the "cold war" casting its black 
shadow over the whole international situation, the pro- 
posal concerning reciprocal flights over the entire terri- 
tories of both countries is unrealistic. The Soviet Govern- 
ment considers, however, that this step can be carried out 
at the concluding stage of the problem of disarmament, 
that is, when the question concerning the complete ban 
on atomic and hydrogen weapons, with their elimination 
from armaments, concerning the substantial reduction 
of the armed forces and armaments of states, and con- 
cerning the liquidation of military bases in foreign terri- 
tories is settled, that is, when relations of trust between 
states are actually established. 

9. Measures to expand international trade relations 

The Soviet Government considers that at the present 
time there are real opportunities for taking a number 
of steps to expand international trade relations as the 
natural and most dependable basis for peaceful coojwra- 
tion among all states independently of the differences in 
their social systems. For the restoration and expansion 
of the trade of the Western countries with the enormous 
market of the East, where about a billion people live. It 
is essential above all to remove the discrimination and 
barriers hitherto existing, which hinder the expansion of 
international trade. 

At the present time, as a result of the industrial slump 
and the decline in trade, a number of Western countries 
are experiencing serious economic diflBculties, the remedy 
for which should also be sought by means of the develop- 
ment of international trade and not by means of an arma- 
ments race, or the intensification of economic war and 
blockade. 

Department of State Bulletin 



As concrete measures for the expansion of international 
trade, the Soviet Government proposes the adoption of a 
declaration of the basic principles of international eco- 
nomic cooperation, in which it would be desirable to in- 
clude clauses on the observance of full equality; mutual 
benefit ; the inadmissibility of any sort of discrimina- 
tion in economic and trade relations between states ; 
respect for the soverign right of each state to dispose of 
its own wealth and natural resources ; mutual assistance 
and aid to underdeveloped countries In their economic 
growth without the presentation of any sort of demand 
of a political, military, or other character incompatible 
with the national sovereignty of those countries. 

There is also an urgent need to hold an international 
econiimic conference at which it would be desirable to dis- 
cuss the question of the further development of interna- 
tional trade on a long-term basis so as to establish con- 
fidence and stability among trading countries, and also to 
discuss the question of the creation, within the frame- 
work of the UN, of an international trade organization 
open to all countries. 

It would likewise be necessary to discuss such urgent 
questions as the rational utilization of world economic 
re.sources and the granting of aid to underdeveloped coun- 
tries. For such aid, it would be possible to find additional 
funds by means of the reduction of expenditures for 
armaments. 

10. Development of ties and contacts between states 

The Soviet Government attaches great importance to 
the development of international contacts, and stands 
immutably for the development of contacts between East 
and West. The establishment of broader political, eco- 
nomic, and cultural ties between countries, independent 
of their social system, on the basis of mutual respect for 
sovereign rights and non-interference in their internal 
affairs satisfies the vital interests of peoples, and pro- 
motes the strengthening of friendship and of economic 
cooperation among them. This is confirmed, in particu- 
lar, by the successful completion of bilateral negotiations 
and the signing in Washington of a Soviet-American 
agreement in the fields of culture, technology, and educa- 
tion, as well as by the successful collaboration of the 
scientists of many countries in the program of the In- 
ternational Geophysical Tear. 

The Soviet Government also attaches great importance 
to the establishment and expansion of regular personal 
contacts between government and public figures of the 
countries of the East and the West for an exchange of 
opinions on current international questions. The expan- 
sion of such ties and contacts in the near future could be 
realized by means of the mutual exchange of parlia- 
mentary delegations and delegations of public entities ; 
mutual exchange of delegations of scientific, technical, 
and cultural workers ; mutual exchange of artists, theater 
troupes, symphony orchestras, etc. ; mutual exchange of 
scientific and technical literature and documents, includ- 
ing designs and blueprints of machines and equipment, 
de.scriptions of technological processes, etc. ; free access to 
industrial exhibitions ; mutual exchange of students, pro- 



fessors, and university delegations ; every kind of 
encouragement for tourism, sporting events, etc. 

11. Cessation of propaganda for war, hostility, and 
hatred hetween peoples 

Notwithstanding the fact that ten years have already 
passed since the adoption in October 1947 of the resolu- 
tion of the UN General Assembly on the banning of 
propaganda for war, this unanimous resolution of the 
assembly is not being implemented in a number of coun- 
tries. The Idea of inevitability of a new war is being 
continually suggested to the peoples of these countries 
in the press, by radio and television, and by other means ; 
the necessity of a race in nuclear armaments and of a 
further increase in military budgets and taxes on the 
population is being urged. 

There is no doubt that, with good will and a mutual de- 
sire on the part of all participants in the summit con- 
ference, it would not be difiicult to reach an under- 
standing on the question of ceasing propaganda for war 
and carrying on instead a propaganda for friendship 
among peoples. 

A settlement of this question could be achieved by 
means of the adoption of a joint declaration whereby the 
governments participating in the conference would con- 
firm their intention to carry out faithfully the resolution 
of the UN General Assembly of October 1947 on the 
banning of all kinds of propaganda for war Inimical to 
the cause of i)eace and mutual understanding and would 
undertake to adopt effective measures for the suppression 
of such propaganda in their own countries. 

12. Ways to ease the tension in the Near and Middle East 

In recent years in the Near and Middle East there 
have periodically come into being centers of tension con- 
taining the seeds of dangerous international conflicts ca- 
pable of leading to a breach of world peac-e. In order 
to reduce tension in the Near and Middle East, it is 
necessary to create in the countries of that region the 
assurance that any breach of peace in the Near and 
Middle East on the part of any aggressive forces what- 
soever will be decisively condemned and stopped. One 
of the measures could be a joint declaration of powers 
condemning the use of force in the settlement of dis- 
putes In the Near and Middle East, as well as inter- 
ference in the internal affairs of the countries of that 
region. It would also be possible to come to an under- 
standing on the mutual obligations of the countries par- 
ticipating in the conference not to supply weapons to the 
countries of the Near and Middle East, and also not to 
station nuclear and rocket weapons in those countries. 

Considering the economic difficulties being experienced 
by the countries of the Near and Middle East, and their 
aspiration to consolidate their Independence, the neces- 
sity arises of also considering the question of economic 
collaboration with the countries of the Near and Middle 
East, especially in the field of assistance for the creation 
in them of a national industry, proceeding from the 
principles of full equality and mutual benefit without the 
imposition upon them of any political, military, or other 



Ju/y 7, J 958 



21 



conditions whatsoevei' that are incompatible with the 
principles of independence and sovereignty. 



SOVIET AIDE MEMOIRE OF MAY 5» 

Unofficial translation 

The Soviet Government, having studied the reply of 
the Government of the United States and also the replies 
of the Governments of Great Britain and France to the 
Aide Memoire of the Government of the USSR dated 
April 2*;,' notes that the governments of the three powers 
have agreed with the Soviet Government's proposal that 
preliminary exchange of opinion through diplomatic 
channels on necessary preparation for a foreign ministers 
meeting should be effected in accordance with the prac- 
tice generally accepted in such cases, through conversa- 
tions between the Foreign Minister of the USSR and each 
of the ambassadors. The Soviet Government, like the 
governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, 
and France, considers that the acceptance of such pro- 
cedure in no way predetermines the composition of the 
future foreign ministers meeting and summit conference. 

At the same time, the Soviet Government expresses 
regret that the governments of the three powers did not 
agree to the invitation, at the present stage of prepara- 
tion for the summit conference, of representatives of 
Poland and Czechoslovakia, whose participation would 
undoubtedly help to produce positive results. 

The Soviet Government does not share the opinion of 
the U.S. Government that the procedure for the exchange 
of opinions through diplomatic channels proposed by the 
Soviet Union was allegedly likely to hamper preparatory 
work for the summit conference. In its aide-memoire of 
April 26 the Soviet Government touched upon the causes 
of the delay in preparing for the summit conference and 
at the present time would merely like to point out that 
this delay hitherto occurred through no fault of the So- 
viet side and contrary to its desire. 

Now that the question of the procedure for the ex- 
change of opinions through diplomatic channels has at 
last been agreed upon, the Soviet Government expects all 
the sides to exert necessary efforts for the earliest ac- 
complishment of this work. As for the nature of the ex- 
change of opinion through diplomatic channels on the 
question of preparing for the foreign ministers meeting, 
the Soviet Government proceeds from the necessity of 
concluding as soon as po.ssible the preparatory work for 
this meeting and sees no reasons for relegating to the 
background the discussion of questions connected with 
the organization of the ministers meeting. 

It is envisaged that during the exchange of opinion 
through diplomatic channels the parties will also agree 
on the most expedient procedure for discussing the ques- 



' Handed to the U.S., U.K., and French Ambassadors 
at Moscow on May 5 by Soviet Foreign Minister 
Gromyko. 

° For text of tripartite statement of May 3 and Soviet 
aide memoire of Apr. 26, see Bulletin of May 26, 1958, 
p. 852. 



22 



tions, including questions connected with the organiza- 
tion of a foreign ministers meeting. As already pointed 
out, the Soviet Government does not exclude the possi- 
bility that an exchange of opinion on some of the ques- 
tions which the sides propose for the agenda of the sum- 
mit conference can take place, in case of necessity and by 
common consent, during the meeting with the ambassa- 
dors and during the foreign ministers conference with the 
object of ascertaining the advisability of placing this or 
that question on the agenda of this conference and the 
possibility of adopting mutually acceptable decisions on 
them. 

The Soviet Government expresses the hope that the 
Government of the United States will on its part exert 
efforts to reach agreement on a foreign ministers meeting 
in the nearest future, which in turn should insure the 
earliest convocation of a summit conference with the 
participation of the heads of government. 

Identical aides-meraoire have also been handed to the 
ambassadors of the United Kingdom and France in Mos- 
cow for transmission to their governments. 



President Eisenhower Exclianges Notes 
Witli Visiting President of Germany 

Following is the text of a note sent hy President 
Eisenhower to the President of the Federal Re- 
pitblic of Germany at the close of the latter^f 
3-day visit to Washington^ together with tlie tenet 
of President Heuss' reply. 

White House press release dated June 16 

President Eisenhower to President Heuss 

JuiTE 7, 1958 

Dear Mr. President : This note is just to wisli 
you health and happiness as well as enjoyment 
of the visit you are making around our country. 

We, in Washington, have been honored by your 
presence and express the wisli that you will carry 
from tlie city pleasant memories. 

With expressions of high esteem and affec- 
tionate regard in which sentiments Mrs. Eisen- 
hower joins me, I am. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGiiT D. Eisenhower 

President Theodor Heuss 
Blair Uotise 

President Heuss to President Eisenhower 

Detroit, June 8, 1958 

Dear Mr. President: I am now busily engaged in 
acquainting myself with the manysidedness of the 
"States" : Philadelphia's bustle was followed by the grace- 



' For background, see Buli.etin of June 30, 1958, p. 1099. 
Department of Slate BuUelin 



ful calm of Hanover and of Dartmouth College; Detroit's 
(lyuaiiiic development will in future take its place in my 
memory together with the balanced beauty of Ann 
Arbor — those were two inspiring days. I was able to 
have many a good conversation and everywhere I met 
with great human kindliness. 

I was privileged, Mr. President, to have your kind 
letter. I should not like to delay my reply until I leave 
your country two weeks hence; I know already today that 
I will be richer because of these most vivid impressions. 
The warm hospitality with which I was received in your 
home was for me a most wonderful overture to this 
journey of "discovery" to the '"New World". I wa.s 
touched to receive as a remembrance a present with such 
rich associations " — Jefferson is one of those great figures 



' President Eisenhower presented to President Heuss 
a reproduction of a table designed by Thomas Jefferson. 



of American history whom I love; I always felt a par- 
ticular personal affection for him, a man of thought and 
a man of action. 

Already today I am certain that this visit to the U.S.A. 
will be of great profit to me in broadening my knowledge 
and understanding. 

In many cases it will confirm what was revealed to me 
by historical studies and information from American 
friends. But I believe that I may also hope that the 
manifold contacts with American citizens will remain 
useful for the spiritual relations and thus also for the 
political ties between our two nations. 

With the request to convey my best wishes to Mrs. 
Eisenhower I remain with gratitude and best regards. 



Yours, 



Theodor Heuss 





PRIME MINISTER MACMILLAN VISITS UNITED STATES. President Eisenhower bids farewell to Harold Mac- 
millan, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, at the close of the Prime Minister's unofHcial visit to Washington June 
7— H. Mr. Macmillan came to the United States to receive an honorary Doctor of Laws degree and to deliver the 
commencement address at DePauw University, Greencastle, Ind., on June 8. (His maternal grandfather was the first 
medical graduate of DePauw University.) He also made the commencement address at the Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, Md., on June 10. While he was in Washington, the Prime Minister had a series of informal talks witli 
President Eisenhower, Secretary Dulles, and other Government officials. 



Jo/y 7, ?958 



23 



The Soviet Challenge and American Education 



hy Francis O. Wilcox 

Assistant Secretary for International Organization AJfairs ^ 



No one can deny that the college graduates of 
1958 face a life span in which incredible changes 
■will take place. You will see intercontinental 
missiles able to reach distant targets with re- 
markable accuracy. You will see an earth shrunk 
to infinitesimal size by planes traveling far faster 
than the speed of sound. You will see the crea- 
tion of weapons even more destructive than 
hydrogen bombs. You will see fantastic new 
methods of growing food, of building homes, and 
of traveling through space that the human mind 
cannot now comprehend. You will embrace the 
atomic age with its unlimited power for good and 
evil. 

These developments will have a tremendous im- 
pact upon our foreign policy. They will raise 
again urgently the question as to whether man 
will submit to a rule of law in the world or invite 
annihilation in another great war. 

I would like to explore with you some of the 
elements of this new age. In particular, I would 
like to discuss the implications and challenges of 
the new age and the demands which these chal- 
lenges impose on American education. 

A Changed World 

It is perhaps trite to point out that we live in 
a changed world— vastly different fi'om anything 
we have known before. It has been changed, on 
the one hand, by a series of remarkable scientific 
and political developments and, on the other, by 
a threat to individual life and liberty unparalleled 
in history. 



' Address made at commencement exercises at the 
State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, on June 13 
(press release 321 dated June 12). 



Teclinologically man is making steady progress 
toward the conquest of outer space. Artificial 
satellites are continually circling the earth in 
their orbits. Their development has opened al- 
most limitless possibilities for tlie advancement 
of mankind in such fields as radio communica- 
tions, navigational and air safety, and weather 
forecasting. They may even help to improve our 
diet, our health, and many other aspects of our 
daily life. These prospects are witliin the realm 
of achievement provided that nations can agree 
to the use of outer space solely for peaceful pur- 
poses. This kind of agreement would have a 
momentous effect on relations between nations. 
Scientific and material advantages would accrue 
to all mankind. Good faith demonstrated on both 
sides of the Iron Curtain would also help to relax 
the tensions which now beset the world. 

However, developments in outer space are only 
a part of the miraculous gains which have been 
achieved in science and technology. Man is raji- 
idly harnessing atomic energy. This, too, will 
have a momentous impact in many facets of 
human endeavor. Fortunately, efforts are under 
way to achieve international development and 
control of these possibilities through the Interna- 
tional Atomic Energy Agency, which came into 
being last October and is now a going concern. 

The Challenge of Nationalism 

These scientific advances have been accom- 
panied by far-reaching political challenges. 
These political challenges stem mainly from the 
nationalism which is manifesting itself forcefully 
in the less developed coimtries, particularly in 
Asia and Africa. This dynamic force carries with 



24 



Department of State Bulletin 



it an explosive potential wliich in some respects 
is comparable to that ol' a nuclear bomb. In every 
quarter of the world peoples of tliese newly de- 
veloping countries, in addition to their demands 
for national sovereignty, are clamoring for the 
material benefits which they associate with inde- 
pendence. Three-quarters of the world's popula- 
tion live in squalor and misery. More and more, 
these peoples are insisting on a rising standard 
of living. They are impatient for tangible re- 
sults. The Soviet Union is well aware of their 
hopes and ambitions, and it is sparing no effort 
to exploit their aspirations with promises of a 
short cut to paradise which, in fact, is a dark and 
narrow alley to slavery. 

These new developments are fast remolding 
man's entire relationship to his world and to the 
universe. The world, already shrunk by modern 
means of communication and transportation, will 
shrink even further with the scientific advances 
which are now in their infancy. As a result, man- 
kind will become increasingly interdependent. 
Common problems will require a common ap- 
proach. International organizations such as the 
United Nations will be called upon to play an in- 
creasingly important role as a center for resolving 
these issues and promoting the well-being of man- 
kind. 

These are the elements of this new age and its 
challenges for mankind. But there is one other 
formidable challenge for us and the entire free 
world. I refer to the increased power of the So- 
viet Union as it enters the new age. 

The Nature of the Soviet Challenge 

The Soviet challenge is a multiple challenge. 
It is primarily military in character. But it also 
has important scientific, political, economic, and 

, educational aspects. 

I The launching of the fii-st Sputnik provides a 
striking demonstration of the vast capabilities of 
the Soviet Union in science and technology. These 
capabilities have also been reflected in the mili- 
taiy field where long-range missiles, including the 
ICBM, have been developed. As a result, the 
U.S.S.R. today has a large nuclear striking power 
to which we and other free nations are constantly 
exposed. I might add in this connection that our 
advance-warning time in case of surprise attack by 
missiles over the top of the world would amount to 



something like 15 minutes, with no part of the 
counti-y safe by virtue of distance. 

Economically the Soviet threat provides equal 
cause for concern. In 30 short years the Soviet 
Union, at a terrific cost in human misery and suf- 
fering, has progressed from a backward, agricul- 
tural country to the second most heavily indus- 
trialized nation in the world. According to Mr. 
Khrushchev the U.S.S.R. aims at "catching up 
and sui-jiassing the United States in per capita 
production within the shortest possible historical 
period of time." The Soviet gross national prod- 
uct is increasing between 6 and 7 percent annually. 
During the past decade its output of electric power 
rose from 56.5 billion to 210 billion kilowatt hours 
and oil production from 26 million to 98 million 
metric tons. By 1972 the Soviets plan to produce 
as much crude oil as the United States does today. 
Even the inveterate optimist would agree that 
these are undeniable indications of a rapidly ex- 
panding economy. 

The Soviets also have been quick to use their 
increased economic might as a political weapon. 
Since World War II, 20 new nations have emerged 
upon the world scene. The Soviets, aware of their 
intense desire for rapid industrialization, point to 
their own experience as concrete evidence of a 
"quick and easy" way to acquire this coveted 
status, and they follow it up with seemingly at- 
ti-active offers of assistance. In the past 2i^ years 
the Sino-Soviet bloc has committed the equivalent 
of about $1.9 billion in economic and militaiy aid 
to these new states. The Communist bloc has 
more than doubled its trade with these countries 
since 1954. 

Nor is this economic offensive confined to the 
newly developing nations. About 70 percent of 
the Soviet Union's increased trade outside the 
Communist bloc in 1957 was with the industrial 
nations of Western Europe. 

The implications of this economic offensive are 
enormous. Unhampered by the checks and bal- 
ances of democratic procedures at home, the So- 
viet Union is free to pureue a program of eco- 
nomic penetration which can bind the political 
machinery of unsuspecting nations to its will. 

This tlireat alone makes our trade and our 
foreign-assistance programs even more necessary 
than ever before. They are not "giveaway" pro- 
grams. They are essential to keep free nations 
strong in order that free men may stay free. By 



July 7, J 958 



25 



helping them maintain their freedom, we help 
preserve ours. 

This increased Soviet power has encouraged 
their leaders to inject a more aggressive note into 
their foreign policy while sinmltaneously posing 
as the great champions of peace. They charge 
American aircraft with "provocative flights in the 
direction of the Soviet Union" over the Arctic 
Circle. Yet they flatly reject our proposals to 
set up international inspection zones in the Arctic 
area. They piously amiounce their cessation of 
nuclear tests after completing the most extensive 
series of their own shrouded by the utmost se- 
crecy. But they are curiously silent on proposals 
to stop producing nuclear weapons. They bru- 
tally suppress the freedom of the Hungarian 
people with tanks and troops. However, they 
refuse to allow a United Nations representative 
to enter the country to survey tlie situation on the 
grounds that it is "an internal Hungarian 
matter." They loudly proclaim the virtues of 
"peaceful co-existence." But they do their utmost 
to subvert the governments of newly developing 
countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. 

This aggressive Soviet policy is being imple- 
ment<>d vigorously through tlie U.S.S.R.'s prop- 
aganda machinery on a broad front. 

These, then, are the main components of the 
Soviet challenge. Together they represent a cen- 
trally directed, shrewdly and rutlilessly executed 
campaign for world domination. 

The enlianced power of the U.S.S.R., partic- 
ularly in the scientific and technological fields, is 
to a large degree the product of Soviet education. 
Tlie Soviets have assigned top priority to the 
training of scientists and engineers in their 
schools and universities. This is a relatively easy 
task for an authoritarian state, where people can 
be told what they nmst do. 

The Role of Soviet Education 

Education in the Soviet Union is as carefully 
regimented as its industry. Also, like Soviet in- 
dusti-y, the nation's education system has been 
developed by compulsory measures and for the 
purposes of the Soviet regime. For example, in 
1914 there were 86,500 students in institutions of 
liigher learning within the present boundaries of 
the Soviet Union. Last year there were 1,227,400. 
Again, some 10,700 "specialists" graduated from 
secondary and higlier special educational institu- 



tions in 1914. In 1955 they totaled 1,634,000. 
These figures reflect the heavy Soviet emphasis 
on scientific training and its practical application 
in engineering and technology. That is what the 
Soviet leaders wanted. That is what they got. 

Other aspects of Soviet education are also 
geared to the grim purposes of the state. For 
example, the Soviets require that personnel in 
their foreign-aid programs have a working knowl- 
edge of the language of the country to which they 
are sent. In the Soviet Union every high-school 
student must study one foi'eign language for 6 
years. If he attends the university, he must learn 
a second foreign language — which, significantly, 
must be one of the languages of Asia or Africa. 

There are, I might add, an amazing total of 
10 million Soviet students studying English. By 
comparison, half of our high schools do not teach 
any foreign language. In those which do, less 
than 15 percent of the students study a foreign 
language for even as much as a year. Only 8,000 
American students are studying Russian, and 
those who are learning African and Asian lan- 
guages are rarer still. 

I cite these hard facts to demonstrate that 
Soviet education is a potent force to reckon with. 
Like everything else in Russia, it is geared to 
the needs of the state; it is an essential instru- 
ment in implementing the expansionist policy of 
Soviet imperialism. It is carefully coordinated 
with Soviet foreign-policy objectives. 

Meeting the Soviet Challenge 

These challenges, of course, have not gone 
unmet by the United States. With strong bipar- 
tisan support, both in Congress and out, we have 
reacted vigorously to tlie Soviet threat. 

First. We have contributed strong support to 
the United Nations as a proven instrument of 
collective security and as a center for the peaceful 
settlement of disputes and the development of 
programs to improve man's lot in life. The 
United Nations has provided us with a powerful 
forum in which we can present our policies and 
expose the fallacies in Soviet propaganda. 

Second. The United States has built up its 
own defense establishment to insure not only our- 
selves but the entire free world against the awful 
perils of surprise attack. The Strategic Air 
Command, aided by the latest monitoring devices 
and an elaborate detection and warning system, 



26 



Department of State Bulletin 



Iiro\ides the backbone of this powerful deterrent. 
Our other weapons — the nuclear submarine, 
rockets and rocket-launching devices, missiles — 
in fact, the entire areenal of our modern weap- 
onry is maintained at peak quality. 

Third. In cooperation with our allies we have 
developed regional collective-security systems 
which today provide the free world with its chief 
defense against potential aggression by the Soviet 
Union. I refer specifically to sucli arrangements 
as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and 
the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. Equal- 
ly important is the fact that these regional agi-ee- 
luents are promoting not only military coopera- 
tioii among tlieir members but also cooperation 
in the political, economic, and cultural fields. 

Fourth. Our mutual security program is help- 
ing friendly nations to equip and maintain armed 
forces for their own and our defense. It is also 
assisting the less developed countries to build up 
sufficient economic strengtli to maintain tlieir 
freedom and help sustain the peace. Unlike tlie 
Soviet Union, we do not want political satellites. 
But we do need strong allies who can help us 
repel aggression anywhere, and strong allies need 
strong economies and stable governments. 

Fifth. The United States also has taken posi- 
tive steps to meet the Soviets' worldwide propa- 
ganda campaign. The United States Information 
Agency carries out a program which presents 
honestly and factually all aspects of American 
life. Truth is the most impressive asset of tliis 
program. It is significant tliat the Soviets spend 
more money on jamming the Voice of America 
broadcasts than we spend on the entire operations 
of the United States Information Agency. Ob- 
viously, the truth hurts the Soviet Union. 

We and our allies have, in short, built up a 
fabric of political, military, and economic defenses 
imparalleled in history. I do not believe, how- 
ever, that it would be immodest to suggest that 
the support of this fabric depends in large meas- 
ure on us, our strength, ability, and resourceful- 
ness. It is in this context that American educa- 
tion, particularly higher education, has an ex- 
tremely vital role to play. 

Implications for American Education 

Obviously, education in a free society does not 
operate in the Soviet manner. "\Ye must meet the 
challenge in our own wav. I do not believe that 



the way to meet the challenge is for every student 
to decide suddenly that he must become a scien- 
tist or an engineer. The revelation of Soviet 
scientific capabilities has produced widespread de- 
mands that something be done soon to improve the 
quality of our scientific training and the quantity 
of our scientists and engineei-s. Necessary as this 
is, I do not believe that it is the complete answer 
to our educational needs. 

In fact, the social sciences are already decades 
behind the physical sciences. If, in spite of this 
unfortunate lag, we should make the mistake of 
overemphasizing science at the expense of the hu- 
manities and the social sciences, we will run the 
grave danger of throwing our educational system 
out of balance and turning out students who are 
intellectually unequipped to face the complex 
problems of the modern world. Our needs are far 
deeper and cannot be met by a single reflex action 
of this kind. 

I confess I am at a loss to know whether we 
should chastise the physical scientist or the social 
scientist for the dangerous predicament we are in. 
But I do know that, if man's political ability does 
not begin to match his inventive genius in the field 
of science, if progress in government and inter- 
national organization does not begin to keep pace 
with progress in teclmology, mankind will surely 
face collective suicide. 

New Attitude Toward Learning 

Clearly one basic need is a f midamental change 
in American attitudes toward learning and knowl- 
edge. Unfortunately the place of the scholar in 
American life has never ranked as high as it 
should; all too often teachers are looked upon as 
peculiar individuals who teach because they can't 
find anything else in life to do. 

This anti-intellectual atmosphere — which is in- 
deed regrettable — has its other aspects. Young 
students with a genuine desire and ability for 
learning are sometimes socially ostracized by their 
fellow students. The adult "egghead" is treated 
with equal scorn and ridicule. And sometimes the 
inquiring mind is even associated with disloyalty 
or subversion. 

Now obviously this is not an ideal atmosphere 
in which to expect education to flourish and a 
revitalization of the arts and sciences to take place. 
Unless we can cultivate among our students a gen- 
uine desire to learn because they want to learn, 



Ju/y 7, 1958 



27 



and unless there is real respect and admiration 
for the teacher, any learning that may occur will, 
at best, be superficial in nature. 

The Role of the Teacher 

Our current attitudes toward education are re- 
flected in the parsimonious manner in which we 
reward our teachers, socially as well as financially. 
The amount of money we spend on education in 
this country is woefully inadequate. We devote 
approximately 5 percent of our national income 
to education ; the Russians sjDend in the neighbor- 
hood of 17 percent. The Russian professor is 
Ijaid far more than his American counterpart. 

Apart from that, consider the contrast between 
the two in terms of prestige and status in the 
community. Soviet scientists, professors, and 
teachers constitute an elite class. They are at the 
pinnacle of Russian society. Nor is this all they 
receive. There are material and visible signs of 
their privileged position. They are allotted the 
best apartments in the city and plush villas in the 
country. Their children attend the best schools. 
Their families enjoy the choice vacation spots. 
They are honored by the state in numerous ways 
so as to enhance their position of social and moral 
authority. 

Now I do not suggest we should ci'eate such an 
elite class or institute a slavish adidation of the 
teaching profession. But in a democracy, where 
freedom of thought is the bedrock of our free in- 
stitutions, there is no higher calling. Our teach- 
ers, more than any other group, are the molders 
of tomorrow's ideas, the caretakers of tomorrow's 
civilization. We are penny wise and pound fool- 
ish in the extreme if we fail to accord to them at 
least the recognition and the compensation which 
we provide for labor, govermnent workers, and 
the armed services. 

New Emphasis in Educational Programs 

However, a changed attitude toward learning 
itself is not enough. In addition we must reeval- 
uate our concept of the nature and purposes of 
education if we are to develop the kind of leader- 
ship and intelligent citizenry essential to our sur- 
vival as a free society. 

True, we need scientists, engineers, and tech- 
nicians, but we cannot afford their being politi- 
cally illiterate. Their role in society is so impor- 



tant that they must be acutely aware of the forces 
at work in the world about them. In particular, 
communism must be understood. It is not enough 
to hate communism or to berate it. Clearly it is 
not something that can be swept under the rug. 
Communism must be undei-stood — its origins and 
history, its techniques, strengths, and weaknesses, 
together with its specious appeal — if it is to be 
combated effectively. Anything short of teach- 
ing our students the cold, hard facts about com- 
munism constitutes a dereliction of our duty as 
citizens and is gambling witli our heritage of 
freedom. 

But education has far broader purposes than an 
understanding of the Soviet challenge. In this 
connection the colleges and universities have a 
tremendously challenging role. Personally I 
would like to see more commimity education ac- 
tivities on world affairs and expansion of the stu- 
dent-exchange program. I would like to see more 
faculty members coming to Washington to be ex- 
posed to our problems at first hand and more gov- 
ernment officials returning to the college campus 
where they could teach and think and charge their 
intellectual batteries. 

Above all I should like to see the colleges and 
universities make a concerted effort to reach the 
leaders of tomorrow — especially students in medi- 
cine, dentistry, engineering, the hiunanities, the 
physical sciences, and education — with broad- 
gaged courses in world affairs. No student 
should be permitted to escape from his tour of 
duty in the classroom without a sound grasp of 
the nation-state system and the forces that make 
for war and peace in the world. 

Training for Responsibilities of World Leadership 

Americans must prepare themselves to assume 
the increasing responsibilities of free-world lead- 
ership. One fundamental requirement in this 
preparation, in my opinion, is a broader and 
deeper understanding of certain basic forces at 
work in the world. Only increased attention to 
history, government, economics, and foreign af- 
fairs will provide this understanding. Such an 
understanding must be as widespread among our 
Ijotential leadei-s as it is deep and solid; other- 
wise it will avail us little. 

In addition our educational system must place 
more emphasis on those vast areas of knowledge 
which stretch beyond the traditional confines of 



28 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



■\Vestern culture and civilization. History and 
culture do not stop at the eastern end of the 
Mediterranean Sea nor at the Golden Gate in San 
Francisco. True, most of our students today 
were born into a world in which Western concepts 
were dominant. But they will exercise their re- 
sponsibilities in a world in which Western con- 
cepts must be reconciled and harmonized with 
those of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Per- 
haps the most significant development of our 
times is the persistent quest of these newly de- 
veloping nations for equality, freedom, and prog- 
ress. It is imperative, therefore, that Ave learn 
more about their cultures, their histories, their 
languages, and their aspirations if we are to 
carry out the responsibilities we have assumed. 

Finally, I believe that Americans must be 
trained to be at home in the world in which we 
live. In the mid-20th century this means the en- 
tire srlobe. Someone has called it "training for 
overseasmanship." This involves not only an 
understanding of the other person's language and 
his sense of values. We must also have a deeper 
understanding and appreciation of our own herit- 
age and its cultural values which we can transmit 
to other people in a manner which will command 
their attention and respect. With our vast com- 
mitments all around the globe, the development of 
these qualities and abilities is absolutely essential. 

More Emphasis on Foreign Languages 

This leads me to make one final comment about 
our serious neglect of foreign languages. Far too 
many Americans, both official and imofficial, are 
doing their business abroad in English. Far too 
many Americans are taking the easy way out. 

A foreign language can be a discouraging bar- 
rier to understanding, or it can be a helpful bridge 
leading to fruitful contacts with the people of 
other lands. What we need now is a great revival 
of foreign-language teaching in our schools and 
colleges. For, unless we move quickly to fill this 
dangerous gap, the Soviet Union will possess an 
incalculable advantage in the long period of cold- 
war diplomacy that stretches ahead of us. 

Concluding Comments 

In another extremely difficult period in Amer- 
ican histoiy, Abraham Lincoln commented as 
follows : 



The dogmas of the quiet past are inadequate to the 
stormy present. The occasion Is piled high with difficulty, 
and we must rise with the occasion. As our case is new, 
so we must thinli anew and act anew. 

Once again the times call for fresh thought 
and fresh action. But I have a deep and abiding 
confidence in the common sense of the American 
people and their ability to face up to challenges — 
once they are identified and understood — with 
courage and decision. 

Here, it seems to me, is the greatest lesson the 
past decade has taught us. We must assume that 
we have ahead of us a long and tedious period 
of sacrifice and sustained effort. During this pe- 
riod we must not only imderstand the serious 
nature of the threat we face, but we must possess 
the will to meet it. There is no alternative if the 
free world is to survive. 

Arnold Toynbee has written that societies have 
often been spurred to self-improvement in the face 
of external challenges. If the threat our society 
now faces teaches us to place a higher premium 
on our intellectual and educational resources, it 
will have served at least one useful purpose. 

Many people have asked me whether there is, 
in fact, any real basis for agreement with the 
Soviet Union. Is it possible, in view of their ag- 
gressive attitude, to find any common ground so 
that tensions may be relaxed and the danger of 
nuclear war reduced? 

Despite the frustrations we have encountered 
in negotiating with the Russians, I am convinced 
there is some ground for hope. In 1955, for ex- 
ample, after 10 years of pamful negotiations, the 
Soviet Union finally signed the treaty that granted 
Austria its independence. And in 1957, after long 
and bitter opposition, the Soviets agreed to the 
creation of the new International Atomic Energy 
Agency. 

These two examples demonstrate that agreement 
with the U.S.S.R., in some areas, is not impos- 
sible to find. But in our endless search for agree- 
ment we must never permit ourselves to become 
discouraged, either with respect to particular 
foreign-policy issues or with respect to the general 
trend of Soviet policy. This would be fatal to 
our cause. 

If we are to prevent Soviet imperialism from 
dominating the world, the dogged persistence of 
the Russians must be matched with equal pei-sist- 
ence and determination on our part. If we do this, 
the Soviet Union may eventually come to realize 



July 7, 1958 



29 



that it is in its national interest to make some 
accommodation to the free-world position. 

We must I'emember, however, that the challenge 
we face is not a short-run proposition. Soviet 
leaders are not handicapped by any timetable. 
The cold war — with all its trickery, its subversion 
and sabotage, and even its peripheral ware — may 
run for 10 or 20 or 30 years or more. 

The role of our colleges and universities will 
become more important as the threat of Soviet im- 
perialism becomes more long-range in nature. Up 
to the present we have maintamed our position in 
the world with the help of regional alliances, nu- 
clear weapons, and foreign aid. But the emphasis 
is gradually shifting. Ideas are becoming just as 
important as nuclear weapons, and univereity 
classrooms as important as military installations. 

This, in essence, is the challenge which confronts 
America and the graduating class of 1958. Let us 
not waver in our determination to preserve our 
heritage of freedom in a free world of free men 
and women. 



which will demonstrate their faith in the United Nations 
and contribute to a better understanding of its aims, 
problems, and accomplishments. 

I also call upon the officials of the Federal and State 
Governments and upon local officials to encourage citizen 
groups and agencies of the press, radio, television, and 
motion pictures, to engage in appropriate observance of 
United Nations Day throughout the land in cooperation 
with the United States Committee for the United Nations. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this 13th day of June 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and 

[seal] fifty -eight, and of the Independence of the 
United States of America the one hundred and 
eighty-second. 

By the President : 
John Foster Dulles 
Secretary of State 



United Nations Day, 1958 

A PROCLAMATION' 

Whereas for the purpose of maintaining international 
peace and promoting the advancement of all peoples the 
United States of America joined in founding the United 
Nations ; and 

Whereas in working for a durable world order of free- 
dom and justice, the firm support of the United Nations has 
always been a fundamental element of our foreign policy ; 
and 

Whereas the United Nations is keenly aware that the 
world is on the threshold of a new age of scientific tech- 
nology which holds great hopes and grave perils for man- 
kind ; and 

Whereas the United Nations provides an unique inter- 
national forum and constantly seeks to improve its ma- 
chinery for collective security and the peaceful settlement 
of disputes ; and 

Whereas the General Assembly of the United Nations 
has resolved that October twenty-fourth, the anniversary 
of the coming into force of the United Nations Charter, 
should be dedicated each year to making known the pur- 
poses, principles, and accomplishments of the United 
Nations : 

Now, therefore, I, DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, Presi- 
dent of the United States of America, do hereby urge the 
citizens of this Nation to observe Friday, October 24, 1958, 
as United Nations Day by means of community programs 



President Eisenhower and Dr. Lleras 
Reaffirm U. S.-Colombia Friendship 

White House press release dated June 14 

The White House on June 14- niade puhlic the 
following exchange of letters between the Presi- 
dent and Alberto Lleras Camargo, President- 
elect of the Republic of Colombia. 



President Eisenhower to Dr. Lleras 



Mat 12, 1958 



' No. 3246 ; 23 Fed. Reg. 4377. 



Dear Dr. Lleras : I am pleased that Vice Pres- 
ident Nixon is having the opportunity to visit Co- 
lombia and to discuss with you and other Colom- 
bian leaders mattere of mutual interest to our 
countries. Undoubtedly such exchanges of views 
will serve to strengthen further the long and close 
ties of friendship and cooperation that have 
linked the United States and Colombia. 

The recent expression of popular will in Colom- 
bia is gratifying to the world as indicative of the 
return of Colombia to constitutional processes of 
government, and your election as President of Co- 
lombia is heartening to all of us who cherish dem- 
ocratic political institutions. 



30 



Department of State Bulletin 



I am Iiappy to take advantage of Vice Presi- 
dent Xixon's presence in Bogota to extend 
through him my warm greetings to you and my 
best wishes for the success of your administration. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

His Excellency 
Dr. Alberto Lleras Camaego 
President-elect of the Republic of Colombia 
Bogota 



Dr. Lleras to President Eisenhower 

May 17, 1958 

Dear Mr. I*kesident: On his recent, most welcome visit 
to Colombia, Vice President Nixon gave me Tour Ex- 
cellency's message, which I appreciated very much. 

It was particularly gratifying to me to have the op- 
portunity to discuss with Vice President Nixon all the 
matters of common interest to the United States of 
America and Colombia. The Vice President has a very 
clear concept of the possibilities and future developments 
in the field of cooperation between our two countries and 
an accurate understanding of the problems concerning 
the relations between his country and the nations south 
of the Rio Grande. I was delighted to find that I am in 
complete agreement with Mr. Nixon concerning the most 
effective means of increasing and utilizing the bonds of 
cooperation existing between our countries. 

I wish to avail myself of this opportunity to inform 
Tour Excellency that the Colombian people and their 
Government have a very pleasant memory of the visit of 
Vice President Nixon, for they not only saw in him a 
representative of the Government of the United States 
and Your Excellency's personal representative, but also 
found that he possessed a great spirit of understanding 
and an accurate appreciation of the problems of our coun- 
tries that are now being developed. 

As Your Excellency states In his generous message, 
Colombia's return to the constitutional processes of gov- 
ernment will undoubtedly facilitate cooperation between 
nations that love democratic political institutions, and in 
particular I hope that the new Government of Colombia, 
following the tradition of all its previous governments, 
will maintain with the United States the closest possible 
relations, founded on the similarity of the political prin- 
ciples upheld by their peoples and embodied in their 
institutions. 

Thanking Y'our Excellency for your good wishes for the 
success of my adminLstration, I express to you my own 
wishes for Your Excellency's personal happiness, together 
with my admiration and friendship. 
Yours very sincerely, 

AxBEBTO Lleras 



U.S. Issues Alert to Americans 
Traveling in Lebanon 

Press release 329 dated June 16 

In view of the situation in regard to personal 
safety and security of American citizens now ob- 
taining in Lebanon, the State Department is in- 
structing its overseas posts and the Passport Di- 
vision to alert American tourists and others who 
may be traveling in or through Lebanon of the 
situation there and to advise them against such 
travel unless there are imperative reasons for such 
travel. At present the Passport Division is not 
invalidating American passports for travel to or 
in Lebanon. 



Department of State Publishes Study 
on Sino-Soviet Economic Offensive 

Press release 323 dated June 13 (for release June 15) 

The present Soviet economic offensive is care- 
fully shaped to exploit both the aspirations and 
the dissatisfactions of the less developed nations 
of the world, according to a new study published 
on June 15 by the Department of State, entitled 
The Sino-Soviet Economic Offensive in the Less 
Developed Countries.^ 

In a foreword to the document, Deputy Under 
Secretary Douglas Dillon explained the purpose 
of the study and summarized its conclusions. "It 
is of great importance," he said, "that the Ameri- 
can people, now well aware of the technical and 
scientffic challenge posed by the Communist world, 
imderstand and rise to meet the equally great, and 
perhaps more subtly dangerous, offensive which 
the Sino-Soviet bloc has vigorously launched in 
the less developed areas. This offensive repre- 
sents an attempt by the Sino-Soviet bloc to employ 
its growing economic and industrial capacities as 
a means for bringing the newly developing free 
nations within the Communist orbit." 

Mr. Dillon noted that "the document does not 
pretend to set forth answers to the problems which 
confront us, but is limited rather to a description 
of the scope and nature of the offensive and an 



" Department of State publication 6632, for sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Oflfice, Washington 25, D.C. ; price 60 cents. 



July 7, 7958 



31 



analysis of its motives and objectives. Tliis paper 
was prepared by the Department of State on the 
basis of a careful study of material available from 
a great many different sources." 

The paper is a compilation of information 
available as of February 16, 1958. It brings up 
to date previous statements made by the Depart- 
ment on the Communist economic drive,- and it 
contains more detailed information. 

Since 1954, according to the study, the Soviet- 
bloc countries have made agreements with 14 of 
these less developed coimtries, providing for an 
estimated $1.9 billion in intermediate and long- 
term credits for the purchase of goods and services 
from the bloc. About $378 million of this is 
credits for the purchase of arms extended to 
Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Afghanistan. 

The remaining $1.5 billion for economic pur- 
poses includes $464 million in credits to Yugo- 
slavia. More than 95 percent of the credits have 
gone to six nations — -Yugoslavia, India, Afghani- 
stan, Egypt, Syria, and Indonesia. Others aided 
include Yemen, Burma, Ceylon, and Iceland. 

While the report is based on information avail- 
able as of February 15, 1958, it should be noted in 
connection with the sections on Yugoslavia, how- 
ever, that on May 27, 1958, the Soviet Government 
formally advised Yugoslavia that it was "post- 
poning" for 5 years two investment credits total- 
ing $285 million. This action by the Soviet Gov- 
ernment was threatened in a Pravda editorial of 
May 9, which called for ideological surrender by 
the Yugoslavs. As is brought out in the report, 
this is not the first time the Soviet Union has cut 
off credits to Yugoslavia because of political dif- 
ferences. Following Yugoslavia's ouster from the 
Cominform in 1948, Soviet-bloc countries canceled 
credits to Yugoslavia totaling $375 million. 
Again, in 1957, the Soviet Government, because of 
displeasure with Yugoslavia's interpretation of 
the cavise of the Hungarian revolution, postponed 
deliveries under certain credits granted a year 
earlier. 

The rapid growth of the Soviet economic offen- 
sive is shown particularly by examples from the 
Middle East. Before 1955, for example, the re- 
port shows that Yemen had virtually no economic 
ties with the Soviet bloc. It has in the last few 
years received an estimated $19 million in Soviet- 



' For a summary of the Soviet economic offensive dated 
Jan. 3, 1958, see Bulletin of Jan. 27, 195S, p. 144. 



bloc credits, $3 million for aims and $16 million for 
economic assistance. Before 1955 Yemen had 
little or no trade with the Soviet bloc. It now has 
trade agreements with the Soviet Union, East 
Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Com- 
munist China. 

In 1954 the Soviet bloc took one-half of 1 per- 
cent of Syrian exports. By 1956 this had jumped 
to 7.8 percent and in the first half of 1957 to 21 
percent. Since 1955 economic ties between Syria 
and the Soviet bloc have become progressively 
closer and stronger, and as of December 31, 1957, 
Syria had received $294 million in credits, $194 
million for economic purposes, the remainder for 
arms. 

Economic and technical assistance agreements 
between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan and 
between Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan began 
in 1954, and up to now Afghanistan has received 
credits of about $161 million. Egj'pt also has 
been a target since mid-1955, and the Soviet bloc 
capitalized both on Egypt's need to market cotton 
and to buy arms abroad. 

One of the most unusual examples is that of 
Iceland. During the years from 1948 to 1952 the 
Soviet Union showed little interest in trade with 
Iceland. A situation arose in which Iceland ex- 
tended its territorial waters and the United King- 
dom instituted bans against landing of Icelandic 
fish at United Kingdom ports. As a result, Ice- 
land changed from fresh-fish to frozen-fish pro- 
duction. The Soviet Union almost immediately 
became a major taker of frozen fish. In 1952 the 
Soviet bloc accounted for 7 percent of Iceland's 
foreign trade, in 1957 for 34 percent. 

The State Department study of the Sino-Soviet 
bloc economic offensive points out that the gross 
national product of the Soviet Union has been in- 
creasing at an average annual rate of 7 percent 
and that the U.S.S.R. is now the second largest in- 
dustrial power in the world. The Eastern Euro- 
pean satellites also have substantial annual in- 
creases in gross national product, although less 
than the Soviet Union. 

"The U.S.S.R. and other bloc nations possess, 
therefore, a potent economic base from which to 
expand their economic drive in the less developed 
countries," the study says. "In view of the impor- 
tance attached by the U.S.S.E. to this offensive in 
terms of its expected political rewards, there is no 



32 



DepaMment of State Bulletin 



1-eason to think tliat the, Soviet Union or other bloc 
countries have come to the end of the road in push- 
ing their credit and trade deals. The U.S.S.R. 
can certainly sustain the relatively small annual 
drain implied in its present commitments for as- 
sistance, which will be utilized by the recipient 
over periods as long as 7 years in some cases. It 
can even substantially increase these. Though ad- 
ditional commitments must be made by the 
U.S.S.R. on a selective basis, the U.S.S.R. is cap- 
able of incurring these, even in cases where they 
are economically burdensome, to shoot for greater 
political gains." 



Increase in Nonimmigrant Visas 

Press release SOS dated June 5 

\ Almost half a million nonimmigrant visas 
' (496,032) were issued by consular offices to per- 
sons desiring to visit the United States for busi- 
ness or pleasure during the first 10 months of the 
1958 fiscal year. Increases in nonimmigrant visas 
issued were shown in all but one of the major 
areas of the world from July 1 through April 30, 
1958, as compared to those issued during the same 
period in the 1957 fiscal year. 

The Western Hemisphere accounted for well 
over half of the total visitors' visas issued, and 
Mexico alone with an issuance of 106,952 non- 
immigrant visas for the 10-month period ac- 
x)unted for almost half of the total issued in 
the Western Hemisphere and almost one-fourth 
of the worldwide total. Canada and Cuba came 
next. Venezuela with a total of 19,337 (more 
than 4,000 above the comparable period of 1957) 
received more visitors' visas than any other coun- 
try south of Mexico. 

Europe is the only area showing a decrease, 
though slight. The comparison is, for the 10- 
month period, 133,247 in 1958 against 135,221 in 
1957. No particular significance, however, is at- 
tached to this since the drop is entirely in re- 
validations of visas already issued. Actually, new 



issuances in Europe exceeded by some 4,000 the 
figure for the 1957 period. 

Visitors' visas issued in Iron Curtain countries 
almost doubled as against the previous year. The 
figure for Poland more than trebled (1,488 as 
against 444 for the 1957 period). The figures for 
other Iron Curtain countries remained almost 
constant. 

The following statistical table gives the actual 
figures of nonimmigi-ant visas issued by area 
during the comparable 10-month periods of 1957 
and 1958. 



Nonimmigrant Visas Issued and Nonimmigrant Visas 
Revalidated 





First 10 months of fiscal year 1957 




Issued 


Revali- 
dated 


Total 


Western Hemisphere 

Subquota areas 

Issued in the Depart- 
ment 

Europe 


210, 421 
11,824 

2,519 

122, 904 

398 

1, 452 

14, 604 

86 

28, 006 

1,349 

3,556 

968 


55, 249 
2,882 

'ii,'9i9' 

""i,"602" 

2 

1,321 

86 

186 

21 


265, 670 
14, 706 

2,519 
134, 823 


Subquota area 

Iron Curtain countries 

Near East 


398 

1,452 

15, 606 


Subq uota areas 

Far East - 


88 
29, 327 


Subquota areas 

Africa _. 


1,435 
3,742 


Subquota areas 


989 


Grand Total 


398, 087 


72, 668 


470, 755 




First 10 months of fiscal year 1958 




Issued 


Revali- 
dated 


Total 


Western Hemisphere 

Subquota areas 

Issued in the Depart- 


228, 497 
13, 008 

2, 745 

127, 134 

180 

2,623 

16, 454 

85 

31, 145 

1,564 

4,749 

1,051 


56, 153 
2,340 

"5," 933" 
3- 

636 

1 

1,278 

81 

325 

47 


284, 650 
15, 348 

2,745 


Europe 


133, 067 


Subquota area 

Iron Curtain countries. -- 


180 

2,626 

17, 090 


Subquota areas 

Far East 


86 
32, 423 


Subquota areas 


1,645 
5,074 


Subquota areas 


1,098 


Grand Total 


429, 235 


66, 797 


496, 032 



luly 7, 7958 



33 



THE CONGRESS 



Vital Importance of Extension of Trade Agreements Act 



Statement iy Seci'etary Dulles ^ 



Mr. Chairman and membei's of the committee : 

I. 

Four months ago I spoke before the House 
Ways and Means Committee in support of the 
President's proposal to extend and strengthen 
the Trade Agreements Act.^ I now direct myself 
to the bill which has come to this committee from 
the House of Representatives. It represents some 
alteration of the bill as originally introduced. The 
changes, however, are acceptable to the Executive, 
and H. R. 12591 as received in the Senate has my 
full support. 

The Secretary of Commerce will speak to you 
about the compelling reasons of domestic economic 
policy for strengthening and extending the Trade 
Agreements Act. The Secretary of Labor and 
the Secretary of Agriculture will doubtless pre- 
sent further convincing evidence of the impor- 
tance of the program from the domestic viewpoint. 

I shall direct myself primarily to foreign-policy 
considerations. 

II. 

We live in a world which is new in terms of its 
political sti-ucture and its economic demands. 
Twenty coimtries have won their political in- 
dependence within the last 15 years, and this trend 
is likely to continue. Seven hundred million 
people are directly involved in this rapid trans- 
formation from the long-established system of 

' Made before the Senate Committee on Finance on 
June 20 (press release 335) . 
' Bulletin of Mar. 17, 1958, p. 432. 



colonialism. The very rapidity with which this 
transformation is occurring presents a major 
problem — liow to achieve and maintain political 
stability. 

Mass aspirations follow these new grants of 
independence. They are contagious and spread 
to other lands. The demands for improved living 
conditions are insistent. No possible sources of 
assistance are dismissed out-of-hand. Present 
free-world nations may prefer to buy and sell 
within the free world. But, if they are frustrated 
in their efforts to do so, they can be expected to 
direct their search elsewhere. 

Althougli no international wars are being ' 
fought today, our security is menaced not only 
by the vast Soviet military buildup but by the 
efforts of international communism to turn the 
worldwide changes to selfish use as stepping stones 
to world domination. 

If we are to combat this evil successfully, a 
better international order must be built and the 
United States must be in the forefront of that 
effort. i 

Fortunately for us, the free world is not dis- , 
united. It works together and provides dispersed '. 
power to retaliate against armed aggression. ' 
Military unity is imperative and must be con- 
tinually strengthened. But this requires high ! 
morale throughout the free world and a willing 
spirit of close cooperation. Such an atmosphere 
is not created and maintained through military ' 
cooperation alone. Economic security is indis- 
pensable to all our allies and friends. It is essen- ^ 
tial that their relationship to the United States 



34 



Department of State Bulletin 



contribute not only to their military security but 
also to their economic well-being. 

III. 

The strategy of Communist imperialism in- 
volves the subversion of country after country 
until the United States is isolated and subject to 
economic strangulation. You have heard re- 
peatedly Mr. Khrushchev's threat of "war" in the 
peaceful field of trade and his boast that the 
Soviets will win this war because of the superi- 
ority of their system. I have said before— and I 
say again — it would be reckless to treat this 
threat as negligible. 

The Soviet Union is rapidly developing its 
weapons for waging economic warfare against 
the United States and has achieved an industrial 
level which enables it to exj^ort manufactured 
goods in increasing quantity and variety and to 
take in exchange large amounts of natural prod- 
ucts, whether agricultural or mineral, for their 
own use or to dump on free-world markets. 
TIiroTigh pursuing this course they hope to gain 
dominance, first economically, then politically, in 
many coimtries which need an assured foreign 
market. 

Our Government has by treaty or resolution 
declared, in effect, that the peace and security of 
the United States would be endangered if any 
of nearly 50 countries were to be conquered by 
Communist imperialism. But declaring this is 
not enough. We have to convince both friend 
and foe that we will do what is needed to prevent 
the Communist conquest. So we have the policies 
and actions represented by oiir mutual security 
program and by the Trade Agreements Act. 

Some seem to believe that national policies 
which aim to assure a congenial and friendly world 
environment are un-American or unpatriotic. The 
fact is that from our beginning United States 
doctrine lias proclaimed that our own peace and 
security are bound up inextricably with con- 
ditions of freedom elsewhere. Today that doc- 
trine, the doctrine of interdependence, is the 
corneretone of free-world policy. 

IV. 

How lias trade figured in these developments? 
During the depression of the early thirties, many 
countries tried to restore their economies by 
tariffs, quotas, and currency manipulations. We 



did those things and did them without regard to 
the effect upon others who were largely dependent 
on international ti'ade. But the domestic relief 
we expected did not come. And by 1934 the de- 
cline in world trade brought to power, in several 
countries, leaders so nationalistic and aggressive 
as to constitute a major cause of World War II. 
They sought to expand their national domains at 
the expense of weaker neighbors on the ground 
that they could not assure their people a living 
standard by normal methods of peaceful trade. 
The price we all paid in World War II will, I 
hope, help us to avoid such shortsighted action in 
the future. 

So far as the free world is concerned, the trend 
since that war has fortunately been in the other 
direction. In this movement to liberalize trade 
the United States has been an indispensable 
leader. Our Trade Agreements Act, first enacted 
in 1934 and since extended 10 times, has reflected 
our desire and purpose to promote the mutually 
advantageous expansion of world trade. 

Some elements of United States industi-y try 
to improve their competitive position by imply- 
ing that any competition from abroad, merely 
because it is "foreign," should for that reason be 
barred. This viewpoint, I repeat, cannot be ac- 
cepted as United States policy without endanger- 
ing our whole nation. This is not to say there 
are no cases where foreign competition should be 
restrained. There is a wide range of such cases, 
and protection is in fact accorded. It is true, 
however, that any general disposition to exclude 
foreign goods simply because they are competitive 
would gravely disrupt economic, political, and 
spiritual relationships which are required for our 
own welfare and for the defense of our peace and 
freedom. 

You may ask what is the proper relationship 
between the progress of the trade program and 
the interests of domestic procedures. Let me say 
this. Almost every national policy hurts some 
and benefits others. The form of our taxation; 
the nature of our defense purchases; the location 
of government operations — all of these and many 
other national policies inevitably tip the scales of 
competition. Often, and certainly in the field of 
trade, the few who may be hurt, or fear that they 
may be, are more vocal than the many wlio may 
gain. That is their right. But the Congress has 



iii\Y 7, J 958 



35 



a duty; that is to serve the overriding national 
interest. 



Important as the trade agreements program has 
been since its inception in 1934 and since World 
War II, I anticipate a progressively more vital 
role for the program in tlie future. 

The program is one of our most effective tools 
for combating the emerging Soviet strategy of 
political economic penetration into uncommitted 
countries through the offer of trade and economic 
aid. Since 1954 economic assistance extended by 
the Communist bloc to countries outside the bloc 
has amounted to $1.5 billion. Since 1954 the ex- 
ports of the Communist bloc to the free nations 
have grown 70 percent. In 1957 they amounted 
to some $3.1 billion. Furthermore, the number 
of bloc trade agreements with the free nations has 
more than tripled in the last 3 years, rising from 
49 at the end of 1953 to 149 at the end of 1957. 
From wliat we know of the economic potential of 
the Communist bloc there is reason to believe that 
this performance can be greatly augmented within 
the next few years. The state-controlled economy 
of the Soviets is well suited to swift changes in 
quantities and destination of exports. The short- 
age of virtually all consumer goods within the 
Soviet area means that additional quantities of a 
Avide variety of imported materials can be ab- 
sorbed with ease. 

The danger of the Soviet economic offensive 
arises from the fact that to the leadei-s of Com- 
munist imperialism economic ties are merely 
another means of gaining ultimate political con- 
trol. If through trade and economic assistance 
they can bring free nations within their economic 
orbit, they will have paved the way for political 
victory. Even though responsible leaders in the 
recipient countries also know tliis, desperation 
for markets in order to meet the aspirations of 
their people can tempt those governments to gam- 
ble their political independence rather than re- 
fuse Communist aid and trade. 

To this challenge our basic answer is our trade 
agreements program, coupled with our own aid 
program. The free world as a whole certainly 
offers by far the largest market for tlie raw ma- 
terials that provide most of the money income of 
the less developed countries. This offer can only 



be realized, however, so long as the dominant free- 
world trade trend is in the direction of opening 
markets and expanding trade to the maximum. 

VI. 

In Western Europe we see unfolding a great 
new movement toward economic unity. This is 
the European Economic Community established 
by the Treaty of Rome, which entered into force 
on January 1, 1958. Through this treaty six na- 
tions on the European continent — Belgium, 
France, the German Federal Republic, Italy, 
Luxembourg, and the Netherlands — liave agreed 
to eliminate all barriers to trade among them- 
selves and to act toward others as a single econ- 
omy. They will form a single Common Market 
of 170,000,000 customers with a total import trade 
which, last year, was larger than that of the 
United States. This new market will in time 
have a single uniform tariff and a common trade 
policy, whicli it will apply to imports from the 
United States and other countries of the free 
world. 

This development has been encouraged by the 
United States, both the Congress and the execu- 
tive branch, since the early days of the Marshall 
plan. It should now be our policy to cooperate 
with the new Economic Community of Europe 
to the end that both the United States and the 
Eui'opean Economic Community will contribute 
to the economic strength and well-being of the 
free world as a whole. 

The next 5 years will be the critical, formative 
years of the European Economic Community. 
This is a major reason why it is essential that the 
trade agreements program be renewed this year 
for 5 years. During this period long-lasting de- 
cisions will be made as to the level of the European 
common external tariff and as to the other com- 
mercial policies which the Community will adopt. 
The best opportunity we will have to negotiate 
with the Community the tariff reductions most 
advantageous to our export trade will be before 
the new tariff becomes firmly established. We 
would seek to negotiate tariffs lower than those to 
which the countries comprising the European 
Economic Community are presently committed. 

The procedure and timetable which its membei-s 
contemplate for the establishment of tlie Common 
Market illustrate the need for extending our pro- 
gram for not less than 5 years. 



36 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



The first step in reducing internal tariffs, within 
the Common Market, will be taken next January 
1, when internal duties are to be reduced by 10 
percent from their present levels. Thereafter 
there will be progressive reductions until internal 
tariffs are completely eliminated by the end of 
1972. These reductions are important to us be- 
cause after the first of next year goods produced 
within the Conmion Market will have a steadily 
increasing advantage within the Common Market 
area over American and other free-world goods. 

With respect to external tariffs the plan is this : 
The European Economic Community has in- 
formed us that they expect to have their proposed, 
or "target," tariff (which they are now negotiating 
among themselves) available for examination by 
us and others about the end of 1959. 

The objective of this examination will be to 
ascertain whether the target tariff accords with the 
obligations which the Common Market countries 
have previously assumed under the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade. In this context we 
shall want to be satisfied that the target external 
tariff is not on the whole higher nor more re- 
strictive than the separate tariff schedules of the 
six countries now in effect. 

We shall also look at the individual items to be 
certain that the commitments which others have 
made to us are maintained. 

After we have completed this examination, we 
will have to prepare the United States position 
for negotiations and choose the items on which 
we might be willing to consider tariff concessions. 
This will include peril-point investigations by the 
Tariff Commission. This whole process will take 
at least 18 months from the date on which we re- 
ceive the target tariff. This timetable makes clear 
that under the best of circumstances negotiations 
with the European Economic Community cannot 
begin until 3 years from now. The negotiations 
themselves would take at least a year, bringing us 
at least to mid-1962. It is only prudent to allow 
another year for slippages. Finally, other coun- 
tries will not be willing to make the complex prep- 
arations for these negotiations unless they are 
sure that the United States Government has au- 
thority to see them through to completion. For 
all these reasons the full 5-year extension is a 
necessity. 

Another point I wish to make is this. Our trade 
agreements program has been accepted in this 

July 7, 1958 



country now for 24 years. I think it is clear that 
the program has been successful and has benefited 
this country greatly. I believe that most people 
in this country look upon the program as con- 
tinuing and permanent. It would, to my mind, 
be unthinkable to discontinue it. 

On each of the 10 times that the Trade Agree- 
ments Act has come befoi-e the United States 
Congress for renewal there has been a period of 
uneasiness and concern among our friends 
throughout the free world. Because the United 
States is the ranking supplier or consumer of so 
many commodities, its trade policy is a matter of 
vital intei'est to the overall economy of many 
countries. The question of whether the United 
States is going to continue to buy a given coun- 
try's products so as to enable that country to ac- 
cumulate dollar exchange with which to buy 
needed supplies for the well-being of its own 
people is often nearly a life and death proposition. 

For one reason or another people abroad have 
acquired the impression that trade restrictionist 
sentiment is growing in the United States. 
Wliether this impression is correct or not — and 
the recent passage of this renewal bill in the House 
would certainly indicate the contrary — the belief 
injects an element of instability and danger into 
the future which is not conducive to cooperation 
or to our national security. 

Wliy then should we insist upon the reargiunen- 
tation of its merits every 3 years or oftener and 
lead our friends abroad to fear we may suddenly 
reverse our trade policy ? Tlie Trade Agreements 
Act has become a symbol around which other free- 
world countries develop their trade policies and 
make their plans. Greater stability in our pro- 
gram will certainly mean greater stability in their 
programs. Can tliei'e be any doubt that such sta- 
bility would benefit us all ? 

This stabilizing of our basic policy would not 
of course mean freezing our procedures; if dur- 
ing the 5-year period experience shows the need 
for improvements in the legislation, these can of 
course be accomplished. 

VII. 

A few days ago (June 6, 1958) I made a state- 
ment to the Foreign Relations Committee dealing 
with the basic aspects of our foreign policy.' In 



' Ibid., June 23, 1958, p. 1035. 



37 



the couree of that presentation I made a statement 
about world trade which I should like to repeat 
here today : 

. . . the world of today requires better economic health 
than was tolerable in past times. 

International trade is more than ever important. Our 
own foreign trade is now approximately $32.4 billion a 
year and provides employment to 4% million of our farm- 
ers and worliers. International trade is even more vital 
to the economic life of many other free-world countries. 

A principal instrumentality and the outstanding sym- 
bol of our attitude to international trade is our Trade 
Agreements Act. The principle of the act was first 
adopted in 1934, and 10 times the Congress acted to re- 
new it. Any failure now to renew it would be a grave 
blow to the world's economy, including our own, and it 
could be fatal to security. 

Mr. Chairman, that is a blunt statement. But 
to put it less bluntly would in my opinion fail to 
portray the immense importance to the United 
States of the legislation now before us. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

85th Congress, 2d Session 

Amendment to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. 
Report to accompany S. 3912. S. Kept. 1654, June 5, 
1958. 43 pp. 

Amendment to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. 
Report to accompany H. R. 12716. H. Rept. 1849, June 
5, 1958. 44 pp. 

Implementing Item 1 of a Memorandum of Understandings 
Attached to the Treaty of January 25, 1955, Entered 
Into by the Government of the United States of America 
and the Government of the Republic of Panama With 
Respect to Wage and Employment Practices of the 
Government of the United States of America in the 
Canal Zone. Report to accompany S. 1850. H. Rept. 
1869, June 10, 1958. 24 pp. 

National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. Report to 
accompany S. 3609. S. Rept. 1701, June 11, 1958. 26 pp. 

International Agreement Between the Government of the 
United States and the European Atomic Energy Com- 
munity. H. Doc. 411, June 23, 1958. G pp. 

Providing Transportation on Canadian Vessels to and 
Within Alaslia. Report to accompany S. 3100. H. Rept. 
1981, June 24, 1958. 4 pp. 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings' 



Adjourned During June 1958 

ICAO Assembly: 11th (Limited) Session 

U.N. Conference on International Commercial Arbitration 

Caribbean Commission: 26th Meeting 

UNESCO Special Intergovernmental Committee on the Preparation of a 

New Convention for the International Exchange of Publications. 
ITU International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR): Study 

Group XI (Television). 

nth World Health A.ssembly 

UNREF Executive Committee: 8th Session 

International Cotton Advisory Committee: 17th Plenary Meeting . . 

IMCO Preparatory Committee " 

GATT Intersessional Committee 

FAO Group on Grains: 3d Session 

I7th International Conference on Large Electric Systems 

International Labor Conference: 42d Session 

12th International Ornithological Congress 

6th U.N. ECE Conference of European Statisticians 

2d International Congress on Social Legislation 



Montreal May 20-June 2 

New York May 20-June 10 

Trinidad May 28- June 2 

Brussels May 28-June 7 

Moscow May 28-June 10 

Minneapolis May 28-June 13 

Geneva June 2-6 

London June 2-7 

New York June 3-4 

Geneva June 3-6 

Rome June .3-13 

Paris June 4-14 

Geneva June 4-26 

Helsinl^i June 5-12 

Geneva June 6-10 

Brussels June 8-15 



'Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, June 20, 1958. Asterisks indicate tentative dates. Following 
is a list of abbreviations: CCIR, Comity consultatif international des radiocommunications; ECAFE, Economic Cora- 
mission for Asia and the Far Ea.st; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council; 
FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; IAEA, International Atomic 
Energy Agency; IBE, International Bureau of Education; ICAO, International Civil Aviation Organization; IMCO, 
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization; ITU, International Telecommunication Union; PAIGH, Pan 
American Institute of Geography and History; SEATO, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization; U.N., United Nations; 
UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; UNICEF, United Nations Children's 

Fund; UNREF, United Nations Refugee Fund; W"~ ~ ' " 

ization. 



WHO, World Health Organization; WMO, World Meteorological Organ- 



38 



Department of Stale Bvllelin 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings — Continued 



Adjourned During June 1958 — Coniimted 

U.N. ECE Stppl Committee and Working Parties 

International Commis.'sion for Northwest Atlantic Fisheries: 8th Meet- 
ing. 

International Rubber Study Group: 14th Meeting 

U.N. Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation: 5th Ses- 
sion. 

FAO Technical Advisory Committee on Desert Locust Control: 8th Ses- 
sion. 

WMO Working Group on Numerical Weather Forecasting and Analysis. 

U.N. Good Offices Committee on South- West Africa 

WHO Executive Board: 22d Session 

U.N. ECE Housing Committee: 16th Session and Working Parties . . 

FAO Desert Locust Control Committee: 5th Session 

IAE.\ Board of Governors 

FAO Committee on Commodity Problems: 30th Session 

International Tonnage Measurement Experts: 6th Meeting ..... 

6th Inter-.\merican Seminar on Overall Planning for Education . . . 

5th International Electronic Nuclear Energy Exhibition and Conference. 

Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses: Annual 
Meeting. 

Baghdad Pact Economic Experts 

FAO Regional Nutrition Meeting for Europe 

Inter-American Travel Congresses: Technical Committee of Experts 
on Travel Plant. 

U.N. ECE Coal Trade Subcommittee: 38th Session 

International Whaling Commission: 10th Meeting 

U.N. ECE Working Party on Coal Statistics 

International Wheat Council: 24th Session 



Geneva June 9-13 

Halifax June 9-14 

Hamburg June 9-16 

New York June 9-20 

Rome June 10-13 

Stockholm June 10-14 

Pretoria June 12-21 

Minneapolis June 16-17 

Geneva June 16-20 

Rome June 16-21 

Vienna June 16-27 

Rome June 16-27 

Hamburg June 16-28 

Washington June 16-28 

Rome June 16-30 

Brussels June 23-27 

Ankara June 23-27 

Rome June 23-28 

Washington June 23-28 

Geneva June 23 (1 day) 

The Hague June 23-28 

Geneva June 24-27 

London June 25-30* 



In Session as of June 30, 1958 

Brussels Universal and International Exhibition of 1958 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 22d Session 

UNESCO Committee on International Standardization of Educational 
Statistics. 

U.N. ECOSOC Technical Assistance Committee 

8th Berlin Film Festival 

SEATO Ad Hoc Committee on Cultural Policy 



Brussels Apr. 17- 

New York June 9- 

Paris June 23- 

Geneva June 24- 

Berlin June 27- 

Bangkok June 30- 



Scheduled July 1 Through September 30, 1958 

FAO International Poj)lar Commi.ssion; Executive Committee .... 

Technical Discussions on Detection of Nuclear Tests 

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 26th Session 

ICAO .Mrworthiness Committee: 2d Meeting 

Joint UNESCO/IBE International Conference on Public Education: 
2lst Session. 

Inter- .\merican Technical Committee on Cacao: 7th Meeting .... 

International Union of .Architects: 5th Congress 

Ad Hoc Committee for Revision of the Agreement for the Establishment 
of the Caribbean Commission. 

Interparliamentary Union: 47th Conference 

Inter-.\merican Travel Congresses: Technical Committee of Experts on 
Tourist Travel Promotion. 

U.N. ECAFE Seminar on Regional Planning in Relationship to Urban- 
ization and Industrialization. 

Baghdad Pact Ministerial Council: 5th Meeting 

Inter-American Travel Congresses: Organizing Committee for 7th Con- 
gress. 

Inter-American Travel Congresses: Technical Committee of Experts on 
Research and Organization. 

International .Astronomical L'nion: 10th General Assembly 

U.N. EC.\FE Working Party on Housing and Building Materials: 5th 
Session. 

11th International Congress of Mathematicians 

UNESCO Intergovernmental Copyright Committee: 3d Session . . . 

IC.\0 Special Communications Preparatory Meeting for the ITU Radio 
Conference. 

Inter-.-Vmerican Travel Congresses: Permanent Executive Committee . 

FAO Latin American Forestry Commission: 6th Session 



Rome July 1- 

Geneva July 1- 

Geneva July 1- 

Montreal July 3- 

Geneva July 7- 

Palmira, Colombia .... July 13- 

Moscow July 20- 

Trinidad July 24- 

Rio de Janeiro July 24- 

M6xico, D. F July 28- 

Tokyo July 28- 

London July 28- 

Montevideo Aug. 4r- 

Lima Aug. 12- 

Moscow Aug. 13- 

Bangkok Aug. 13- 

Edinburgh Aug. 14- 

Geneva Aug. 18- 

Montreal Aug. 19- 

(nndetermined) Aug. 19- 

Guatemala City Aug. 20- 



July 7, 1958 



39 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings — Continued 



Scheduled July 1 Through September 30, 1958 — Continued 

12th Annual Edinljiirgh Film Festival 

19th International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art 

PAIGH Directing Council: 3d Meeting 

U.N. Advisory Committee on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy .... 

U.N. International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy . . 

International Union of Biochemistry: 3d General Assembly and 4th 
International Congress. 

UNICEF Executive Board and Program Committee 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Economic Development and Planning: 
4th Session. 

International Statistical Institute: Special Meeting 

6th International Congress of Tropical Medicine and Malaria 

World Power Conference: 12th Sectional Meeting 

FAO Governmental Experts on Milk Standards 

18th International Congress of Ophthalmology 

ICAO Legal Committee: Subcommittee on Legal Status of the Air- 
craft. 

6th International Congress on Large Dams 

UNESCO Executive Board: 51st Session 

15th Pan American Sanitary Conference and 10th Meeting of the 
Regional Committee of WHO for the Americas. 

11th World Poultry Congress 

International Atomic Energy Agency: 2d General Conference .... 

U.N. Sugar Conference 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Coordination of Transport 

FAO International Chestnut Commission: 4th Session 

South Pacific Commission: 18th Session 

ITU International Administrative Telephone and Telegraph Confer- 
ence. 

Irternational Council for the Exploration of the Sea: 46th Annual 
Meeting. 

WMO Commission on Agricultural Meteorology: 2d Session 

U.N. ECE Coal Committee and Working Parties 

ICAO Teletypewriter Technical Panel 

WHO Regional Committee for Western Pacific: 9th Session 

Inter-American Indian Institute: Executive Committee 

WMO Regional Association II (Asia): 2d Session 

5th International Congress of Rural Engineering 



Edinburgh . 
Venice . . . 
Washington . 
Geneva. . . 
Geneva. . . 
Vienna . . . 



New York 
Bangkok . 

Brussels . 
Lisbon . . 
Montreal . 
Rome . . 
Brussels . 
Montreal . 



New York 
Paris . . . 
San Juan . 



Mexico, D. F 

Vienna 

Geneva 

Bangkok 

Yugoslavia and Greece . 
Noumfia, New Caledonia 
Geneva 



Aug. 24- 
Aug. 24- 
Ai!g. 25- 
Aiig. 29- 
Sept. 1- 
Sept. 1- 

Sept. 2- 
Sept. 2- 

Sept. 3- 
Sept. 5- 
Sept. 7- 
Sept. 8- 
Sept. 8- 
Sept. 9- 

Sept. 15- 
Sept. 15- 
Sept. 21- 

Sept. 21- 
Sept. 22- 
Sept. 22* 
Sept. 23- 
Sept. 25- 
Sept. 26- 
Sept. 29- 



Copenhagen Sept. 29- 



Warsaw . . 

Geneva . . . 

Montreal . . 

Manila . . . 

Mdxico, D. F 

Karachi . . 

Brussels . . 



Sept. 29- 

Sept. 29- 

September 

September 

September 

September* 

September 



TREATY INFORMATION 



United States and Japan Expand 
Atomic Energy Agreement 

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the 
Department of State annomiced on June 16 (press 
release 325) that the Govei-nments of Japan and 
the United States had on that day signed an ex- 
panded agreement for cooperation in the civil uses 
of atomic energy which will provide a basis for 
future United States cooperation with Japan for 
the development of a nuclear power program. 

Under the agreement the United States will 
make available as needed over a term of 10 years 
a net amount of 2,700 kilograms of uranium 235 



to be contained in fuel sold or leased to Japan for 
use in research, experimental power, and power 
reactors. 

The agreement was signed for the United States 
by Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern 
Affairs Walter S. Robertson and Chairman of the 
Atomic Energy Commission Lewis L. Strauss, and 
for Japan by Ambassador Koichiro Asakai. 

A Japanese private company is planning the' 
construction of a full-scale nuclear power plant 
with about a 150,000 electrical kilowatt generating 
capacity. This is in addition to an experimental 
power reactor with a thermal output of 50,000 
kilowatts (approximately 15,000-20,000 electrical ' 



40 



Department of State Bulletin 



kilowatts) and a number of research and experi- 
mental reactors to be built during the period of 
<* tlie agreement. 

The accord will enlarge the areas of coopera- 
tion between the United States and Japan in the 
peaceful applications of nuclear energy. It will 
permit, for example, the transfer of gram quanti- 
ties of special materials for laboratory use and, 
in the event that Japan decides to build a 
materials-testing reactor, the transfer of 6 kilo- 
grams of reactor fuel at 90 percent enrichment 
in U-235. 

Tiie new agreement will come into effect when 
the statutory and constitutional requirements of 
the two nations have been fulfilled. It will su- 
pei-sede the United States-Jai^an research agree- 
ment which has been in effect since December 
lf>55.^ 

Under the research agi-eement Japan has con- 
structed a 50-kilowatt water-boiler research reac- 
tor located at Tokai-mura, 70 miles from Tokyo. 
This reactor went into operation August 27, 1957. 
A larger 10,000-kilowatt, CP-5 type research re- 
actor is currently imder constiaiction at the same 
'ocation. It is expected to go into operation in 
late 1958 or early 1959. The U.S. Atomic En- 
ergy Commission has approved a grant of $350,- 
nOO toward the cost of this nuclear research re- 
letor facility. 



I 



Current Actions 



♦ 



MULTILATERAL 

jlermany 

'barter of the arbitral commission on property rights 
and interests in Germany (annex to convention on the 
settlement of matters arising out of the war and the 
occupation signed at Bonn May 26, 1952, as amended 
by the protocol on the termination of the occupation 
regime signed at Paris October 23, 1954). Entered 
into force May 5, 195.5. TIAS .3425. 
Accession deposited: Luxembourg, May 13, 1958. 

BILATERAL 

Ceylon 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (68 Stat. 4.55; 7 U.S.C. 1701-1709). 
Signed at Washington June 18, 1958. Entered into 
force June 18, 1958. 



' Treaties and Other International Acts Series 3465. 
'o/y 7, 1958 



El Salvador 

Agreement relating to reciprocal customs privileges for 
Foreign Service personnel. Effected by exchange of 
notes at Washington March 18 and May 9, 1958. En- 
tered into force May 9, 1958. 

European Atomic Energy Community 

Agreement relating to programs for advancement of the 
peaceful applications of atomic energy. Signed at 
Brussels May 29 and at Washington June 18, 1958. 
Enters into force on date on which each party receives 
from the other written notification that it has complied 
with .statutory and constitutional requirements. 

Japan 

Research and power reactor agreement concerning civil 
uses of atomic energy, and superseding the research re- 
actor agreement of November 14, 1955 (TIAS 3465). 
Signed at Washington June 16, 1958. Enters into force 
on date on which each Government receives from the 
other written notification that it has compiled with 
statutory and constitutional requirements. 

Morocco 

Agreement supplementing the economic, technical, and re- 
lated assistance agreement of April 2, 1957 (TIAS 
3799). Effected by exchange of notes at Rabat May 
19. 1958. Entered into force May 19, 1958. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Appointments 

Larkin H. Farinholt as Deputy Science Adviser, effec- 
tive June 16. (For biographic details, see Department 
of State press release 333 dated June 17.) 



PUBLICATIONS 



I 



Foreign Relations Volume 

Press release 327 dated June 16 

The Department of State on June 28 released 
Foreign Relatione of the United States, 191^1, 
Volume /, General, The Soviet Union. This is 
one of seven volumes in the Foreign Relations 
series for 1941. One volume for the year 1941, 
Volume IV, The Far East, has previously been 
published. 



41 



Volume I deals primarily with the war in 
Europe, as it affected the interests of the United 
States, and with problems arising in the relations 
of the United States with the Soviet Union. 

Copies of Foreign Relations, 191^1, Volume I 
(viii, 1,048 pp.) may be obtained from the U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C, 
for $4.50 each. 

Recent Releases 

For gale ty the Superintendent of Documents, V. S. 0(w- 
ernment Printing Of/ice, Washington 25, D. C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may 6e 
obtained from the Department of State. 



Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4015. 17 pp. 
10<^. 

Agreement, with memorandum of understanding, between 
the United States of America and Colombia — Signed at 
Bogota March 14, 1958. Entered Into force March 14, 
1958. With related exchange of notes. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4017. 2 pp. 5<(. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Greece, amending agreement of December 18, 1957. Ex- 
change of notes — Dated at Athens March 20 and April 3, 
1958. Entered into force April 3, 1958. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4018. 4 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Spain, supplementing agreement of January 27, 1958— 
Signed at Madrid April 10, 1958. Entered Into force 
April 10, 1958. 

Mutual Security — Military and Economic Assistance. 

TIAS 4019. 3 pp. 5^ 

Agreement between the United States of America and the 
Republic of the Philippines, supplementing and amending 



agreement of April 27, 1955, as supplemented and 
amended. Exchange of notes — Signed at Manila April [ 
14, 1958. Entered into force April 14, 1958. 

Military Bases in the Philippines — Camp Cavite Area. 
TIAS 4020. 6 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and j 
the Republic of the Philippines, relating to agreement 
of March 14, 1947. Exchanges of notes — Signed at Manila 
April 7 and 22 and July 7 and 22, 1953. Entered into 
force July 22, 1953. : 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 1&-22 

Press releases may be obtained from the News 
Division, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Releases Issued prior to June 16 which appear In 
this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 308 of June 5, 
321 of June 12, and 323 of June 13. 

Subject 

Atomic energy agreement with Japan. 

Guatemala credentials (rewrite). 

Foreign Relations volume. 

Educational exchange. 

American tourists in Lebanon alerted. 

Western proposals on summit talks 
released. 

Statement on Khrushchev letter of 
June 11. 

Dulles : news conference. 

Farinholt appointed deputy science ad- 
viser (biographic details). 

Statement on execution of Hungarian 
patriots. 

Dulles : Trade Agreements Act. 

U.S. aide memolre to U.S.S.R. 

Educational exchange. 

Itinerary for visit of Afghan prime 
minister. 

Dulles : "The Mutual Security Pro- 
gram : An Expression of Our Faith." 

*Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


325 

326 
327 
»328 
329 
330 


6/16 
6/16 
6/16 
6/16 
6/16 
6/16 


t331 


6/16 


332 
*333 


6/17 
6/17 


334 


6/17 


335 

336 

*337 

t338 


6/20 
6/20 
6/20 
6/21 


339 


6/22 



42 



Department of State Bulletin 



Jiilv 7, 1958 



Index 



Vol. XXXIX, No. 993 



American Principles. The Mutual Security I'ro- 
gni 111 : Au Expression of Our Faith (Dulles) . . 3 

Atomic Energy 

United States and Japan Expand Atomic Energy 
Agreement 40 

Western and U.S.S.R. Experts Named for Tecli- 
nical TalliS (texts of U.S. and Soviet aide 
niemoire) 11 

Canada. Western and U.S.S.R. Experts Named for 
Teolinical Tallvs (texts of U.S. and Soviet aide 
memoire) 11 

Colombia. President Eisenhower and Dr. Lleras 
Keatlirm U.S.-Colombia Friendsliip 30 

Congress, The 

Congressional Documents Relating to Foreign 
Policy 38 

Vital Importance of Extension of Trade Agreements 
Act (Dulles) 34 

Department and Foreign Service 

Appointments (Farinholt) 41 

Increase in Nonimmigrant Visas 33 

Disarmament. Secretary DuUes' News Conference 
of June 17 6 

Economic Affairs 

Department of State Publishes Study on Sino-Soviet 
Economic Offensive 31 

Vital Importance of Extension of Trade Agreements 
Act (Dulles) 34 

France 

United States Releases Documents on Western 
Proposals for Summit Talks After U.S.S.R. An- 
nounces Intention To Issue All Unpublished 
Documents 12 

Western and U.S.S.R. Experts Named for Technical 

Talks (texts of U.S. and Soviet aide memoire) . 11 

Germany. President Eisenhower Exchanges Notes 
With Visiting President of Germany 22 

Guatemala. Letters of Credence (Antill6n) . . 10 

Health, Education, and Welfare. The Soviet Chal- 
lenge and American Education (Wilcox) ... 24 

Hungary 

Department Statement on Execution of Hungarian 

Patriots 7 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of June 17 . . 6 

Immigration and Naturalization. Increase in Non- 
immigrant Visas 33 

International Organizations and Conferences. 

Calendar of International Conferences and 
Meetings 38 

Japan. United States and Japan Expand Atomic 

Energy Agreement 40 

Lebanon 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of June 17 . . 6 
U.S. Issues Alert to Americans Traveling in Leb- 
anon 31 



Mutual Security. The Mutual Security Program: 

Au Expression of Our Faith (Dulles) .... 3 

Presidential Documents 

President Eisenhower and Dr. Lleras Reaffirm 

U.S.-Colombia Friendship 30 

President Eisenhower Exchanges Notes With Visit- 
ing President of Germany 22 

United Nations Day, 1958 30 

Protection of Nationals and Property. U.S. Issues 

Alert to Americans Traveling in Lebanon ... 31 

Publications 

Department of State Publiishes Study on Sino- 
Soviet Economic Offensive 31 

Foreign Relations Volume 41 

Recent Releases 42 

Science. Appointment of Larkin H. Farinholt as 

Deputy Science Adviser 41 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 41 

United States and Japan Expand Atomic Energy 

Agreement 40 

U.S.S.R. 

Department of State Publishes Study on Sino- 
Soviet Economic Offensive 31 

Department Statement on Execution of Hungarian 

Patriots 7 

Foreign Relations Volume 41 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of June 17 . . 6 

The Soviet Challenge and American Education 

(Wilcox) 24 

United States Releases Documents on Western 
Proposals for Summit Talks After U.S.S.R. An- 
nounces Intention To Issue AU Unpublished 
Documents 12 

Western and U.S.S.R. Experts Named for Technical 
Talks (texts of U.S. and Soviet aide memoire) . 11 

United Kingdom 

Prime Minister Macmillan Visits United States . . 23 
United States Releases Documents on Western 
Proposals for Summit Talks After U.S.S.R. An- 
nounces Intention To Issue All Unpublished 

Documents 12 

Western and U.S.S.R. Experts Named for Technical 

Talks (texts of U.S. and Soviet aide memoire) . 11 

United Nations. United Nations Day, 1958 (proc- 
lamation) 30 

Name Index 

Antill6n Hernandez, Carlos S 10 

Dulles, Secretary 3, 6, 34 

Eisenhower, President 22, 30 

Farinholt, Larkin H 41 

Heuss, Theodor 22 

Lleras Camargo, Alberto 31 

Macmillan, Harold 23 

Wilcox, Francis O 24 



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The basic source of information on 
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1939, Volume V, The American Republics 

This is the last of a series of five volumes of diplomatic documents 
to be published for the year 1939. Documentation included in the 
volume relates to official actions taken or proposed by the various 
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and to relations of the United States with individual American Re- 
publics. The volume is priced at $4 per copy. 



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(940, Volume III, The British Commonwealth 
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This is the third volume to be published in a series of five volumes 
covering the year 1940. Previous volumes published in this series 
are VoIu?ne II, General, Europe and Volume IV, The Far East. Vol- 
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HE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 





E 

FiCiAL 

lEK!'' RECORD 

IITED STATES 
REIGN POLICY 



Vol. XXXEX, No. 994 July 14, 1958 

PROBLEMS FACING THE UNITED STATES AND THE 

WESTERN WORLD • Transcript o/ Canadian Broadcast- 
ing Corporation Television Interview Bettceen Secretary Dulles 
and Edgar Mclnnis 61 

FREEDOM OF IDEAS VS. CENSORSHIP • by Assistant 

Secretary herding 55 

GENEVA TECHNICAL CONFERENCE 47 

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM, 

JULY 1-DECEMBER 31, 1957 • Excerpts From the 
Thirteenth Semiannual Report to Congress 81 

PRESIDENT ASKS FOR CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL 
OF AGREEMENT WITH EUROPEAN ATOMIC 
ENERGY COMMUNITY 

Department Announcement 70 

Message From the President to the Congress 72 

Memorandum of Understanding 75 

For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vou XXXIX, No. 994 • Pubucation 6672 
July 14, 1958 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing OIBce 

Washington 25, D.O. 

Price: 

52 Issues, domestic $7.50, foreign $10.25 

Single copy, 20 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 20, 1958). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bdlletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a tceekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the trork of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
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tchich the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
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Geneva Technical Conference 



Following is the text of a letter of June 26 from, 
the American Ambassador at Moscow, Llewellyn 
E. Thompson, to Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei 
A. Gromyko on the subject of the meeting of ex- 
perts at Geneva on July 1, together with a Soviet 
aide memoire of June 25, a telegram sent by Presi- 
dent Eisenhower on June 26 to the three U.S. 
representatives as they departed for Geneva, and 
a list of the U.S. participants. 



U.S. LETTER OF JUNE 26 > 

Press release 350 dated June 26 

Excellency : With respect to the Aide-Memoire 
which you handed me yesterday concerning the 
meeting of experts in Geneva, I have been author- 
ized to inform you that the United States considers 
the aims of the Conference of Experts remain as 
determined in the exchange of correspondence be- 
tween the Soviet Government and the United 
States Government and as confirmed by the Soviet 
agreement of June 24 and that so far as we are 
concerned the conference will proceed as agreed. 
Experts from the United States are already en 
route. 



SOVIET AIDE MEMOIRE OF JUNE 25 

Official translation 

On June 17, speaking at a press conference In Wash- 
ington," tlie Secretary of State of tlie United States of 
America, Jlr. Dulles, made a statement concerning the 
role of the planned conference of experts of the USSR, 



'Delivered by Ambassador Thompson on instructions 
from President Eisenhower in reply to the Soviet aide 
memoire of June 25. 

' BtxijiTiN- of July 7, 1958, p. 6. 



USA, and other states for studying means of detecting 
nuclear explosions. As evident from the published ac- 
count of the mentioned press conference, Mr. Dulles, an- 
swering the question would agreement of the experts 
about methods of inspection lead to the corresponding 
sides taking upon themselves the obligation of terminat- 
ing tests of nuclear weapons, declared that the work of 
the experts must be carried out "without deciding the 
question beforehand whether or not the tests wiU be 
temporarily terminated." 

It is impossible to agree with such a position of the 
Secretary of State of the United States of America. The 
conference will bring benefit only in that ease if it leads 
to positive result.s. But how can these positive results be 
determined, if not with the fact that during the course of 
the work of the experts will be insured achievement of 
the final goal — universal immediate termination of ex- 
perimental explosions of atomic and hydrogen bombs? 
Otherwise what sense is there in general in convoking 
such a conference and what sense is there in sending to 
it experts? 

If the results of the work of the experts do not lead 
to the achievement of this final objective, then all of 
their work will be transformed into a fruitle.ss waste of 
time. More than that, there is a basis for fearing that 
in such a case the conference of experts would be con- 
verted into a means for deceiving the peoples in whom 
would be instilled the false illusion that supposedly some- 
thing is being undertaken with the purpose of bringing 
closer the termination of tests of nuclear weapons while 
at the same time in reality the matter would not be 
moving from its spot. 

In connection with the statement of the Secretary of 
State of the United States of America a legitimate ques- 
tion arises — for what purpose was the proposal made 
about the conference of experts in the light of the men- 
tioned statement of the Secretary of State, the conclu- 
sion suggests itself that this proposal was made in the 
expectation that the Soviet Government would reject 
it. But inasmuch as this did not occur, attempts are 
being undertaken to doom beforehand this conference 
to failure. 

It is necessary to state directly that this tactic is not 
new but is known on the basis of past experience, espe- 
cially in connection with negotiations on questions of dis- 



iuly 14, 1958 



47 



armament. Not once after proposals of the other side 
■were accepted by the Soviet Union, then everything 
possible was done not to permit agreement under the 
pretext that supposedly the reason for the absence of 
agreement is the intractability of the USSR. 

The Government of the United States of America can 
hardly deny the fact that when it made the proposal 
about the meeting of the experts, then not only in the 
Soviet Union but in all other countries this proposal was 
understood in such a manner that It must insure the 
resolution of the mentioned principal problem — the ter- 
mination of tests of nuclear weapons. Because of this 
the Soviet Government went to meet the desire of the 
Government of the United States of America and agreed 
with the proposal of President Elsenhower about the con- 
ference of experts. The Soviet Government had doubts 
in this respect, however it cast aside these doubts, being 
guided by the single desire— to utilize all possibilities for 
satisfying the hopes of the peoples demanding the Im- 
mediate and universal termination of tests of the men- 
tioned weapons. The wiU of the peoples is the principal 
thing by which, In the opinion of the Soviet Government, 
each government must be guided if It in fact aspires to 
assist the release of international tension, the termina- 
tion of the armaments race, and the ending of the 
"cold war". 

Namely the necessity to terminate nuclear tests was 
placed at the basis of the agreement for the conference of 
experts and this agreement was fixed in the correspond- 
ing documents which were exchanged between the Gov- 
ernment of the Soviet Union and the Government of the 
United States of America. From the beginning the dis- 
cussion was not in general about a meeting of experts but 
about a meeting with the Indicated concrete goal. 

In the same declaration of the Secretary of State of the 
United States of America there was set forth another po- 
sition which in essence annuls the position set forth in 
the messages of President Eisenhower — about the neces- 
sity to agree concerning control for the cessation of the 
tests of atomic and hydrogen bombs. It is impossible not 
to come to the conclusion that the essence of the position 
set forth by Mr. Dulles consists in making a meeting of the 
experts purposeless and thereby to discredit it. If the 
Government of the United States in reality takes such a 
position, if it does not wish that the results of the meet- 
ing of the experts should assure the cessation of the tests 
of nuclear weapons by all powers who dispose of them, 
then it is useless to send experts to this conference. In 
such a situation the Soviet Union cannot send its experts 
because it does not wish to be an accomplice in the de- 
ception of the peoples. 

The Soviet Government would like to receive from the 
Government of the United States of America confirmation 
that the meeting of the experts must be subordinated to 
the resolution of the problem of the universal and im- 
mediate cessation of tests of nuclear weapons and that, In 
consequence, the goal of this conference remains such as 
it was formulated in the exchange of communications 
between the Soviet Government and the Government of 
the United States of America. 



TEXT OF PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE 

White House press release dated June 26 

Dr. James Brown Fisk 
Idlewild Airport 

New York, New York 

I send to you, Dr. Bacher, and Dr. Lawrence 
my best wishes as you depart for a Geneva con- 
ference designed to contribute to disarmament 
and peace. In view of the most recent expression 
of Soviet attitude you leave under uncertain con- 
ditions. But I and all the American people con- 
tinue to hope that the door to understanding is 
still open. You are called on to play a significant 
part in a far-reaching project of deep concern to 
all mankind. We must, and shall, keep working 
at it. I want you and your associates to know 
that controlled disarmament is so vital that we 
are going to persevere in the face of whatever 
difficulties the Soviets may raise. Good luck. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



LIST OF U.S. PARTICIPANTS 

Press release 363 dated June 25 

Eepresentatives to serve as experts from the 
United States at the technical conference on means 
of detecting nuclear test explosions scheduled to be 
held at Geneva beginning July 1, will be : 

James Brown Fisk, executive vice president of Bell Tele- 
phone Laboratories and member of the President's 
Science Advisory Committee 

Robert F. Bacher, professor of physics, director of the 
Bridge Laboratory, and chairman of the Division of 
Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy at California In- 
stitute of Technology 

Ernest O. Lawrence, director, University of California 
Radiation Laboratory, and a member of the President's 
Science Advisory Committee 

In addition the three representatives from the 
United States will be accompanied by the follow- 
ing: 

Hans A. Bethe, professor, Cornell University, and member 
of the President's Science Advisory Committee 

Harold Brown, associate director, Livermore Laboratory, 
Livermore, Calif. 

Perry Byerly, director, Seismographic Stations, Univer- 
sity of California 



48 



Hepaximeni of Sfafe 6u//ef/n 



Norman Haskell, Geophysic Research Directorate, Air 
Force, Cambridge Research Center 

Spurgeon M. Keeny, Jr., Office of the Special Assistant 
to the President for Science and Technology 

J. Carson Mark, director. Theoretical Division, Los Ala- 
mos Scientific Laboratory 

Capt. John H. Morse, Jr., USN, special assistant to the 
Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission 

Doyle L. Northrup, technical director, Ofl3ce of Atomic 
Energy, Department of Defense 

George B. Olmstead, assistant technical director. Office 
of Atomic Energy, Department of Defense 

Carl F. Romney, assistant technical director, Office of 
Atomic Energy, Department of Defense 

Herbert Scoville, Jr., consultant. President's Science Ad- 
visory Committee 

Anthony L. Turkevieh, Enrico Fermi Institute for Nu- 
clear Studies, University of Chicago 

Thomas B. Larson, Department of State 

Donald Morris, Department of State 

Ronald I. Spiers, Department of State 



U.S. Gives Soviets Facts 

on New York Demonstrations 

FoUoicing is the text of a U.S. aide memoir e 
delivered hy the American Emhassy at Moscow 
to the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs on June 
£-5, together ivith an exchange of notes between the 
U.S. Mission to the United Nations and the dele- 
gation of the U.S.S.R. to the United Nations on the 
subject of demonstrations staged at New Torh 
before the headquarters of the U.S.S.R. delegation. 



vocatory acts of the participants in the demonstra- 
tion". 

The Embassy wishes to point out to the Ministry 
that this report by Tass does not correspond to the 
facts. According to a report of the New York 
City police, there were present at the time of the 
demonstration on Smiday, June 21 [ Jime 22] , be- 
fore the building of the Soviet United Nations 
Mission one Assistant Chief Inspector, one Deputy 
Chief Inspector, two Captains, 8 Sergeants, 80 
foot patrolmen, one mounted Sergeant and 10 
mounted patrolmen. At one point dm-ing the 
demonstration, the demonstrators succeeded in 
breaking through the police lines, despite the con- 
siderable eiforts of the police to prevent this. Dur- 
ing this fracas the Deputy Chief Inspector suf- 
fered a lacerated jaw, one mounted patrolman 
suffered head wounds requiring 7 stitches and two 
other patrolmen were injured. During this time 
an additional two superintendents from the detec- 
tive division, 10 detectives and 20 additional pa- 
trolmen arrived to help preserve order. The police 
arrested 9 people. 

The Embassy notes that following Soviet publi- 
cation of reports of demonstrations before the 
Soviet embassies in Copenhagen and Bonn, demon- 
strations took place in Moscow before the Danish 
Embassy on June 20 and before the Embassy of 
the Federal Republic of Germany on June 23 
which resulted in extensive damage to both build- 
ings. In view of these facts the Embassy requests 
that adequate steps be taken to prevent any similar 
developments with respect to this Embassy. 



U.S. AIDE MEMOIRE 

Press release 350 dated June 25 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
desires to draw to the attention of the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs a Tass report dated June 24 
from New York entitled "Hostile Demonstrations 
Against the USSR Mission at the United Nations" 
which was published on Jime 25 in Izvestia, the 
official governmental organ of the USSR. In this 
article by Tass, the official news agency of the 
USSR, it is stated "It was known to the American 
authorities that the outrages were being prepared 
but they did not take any measure for their pre- 
vention. Moreover, the police present at the build- 
mg of the Mission in reality encouraged the pro- 



U.S. MISSION'S NOTEi 

The United States Mission to the United Nations 
presents its compliments to the Delegation of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to the United 
Nations and has the honor to refer to the Dele- 
gation's note No. 380 received June 23, 1958, 
regarding the picketing of the Delegation's build- 
ing on June 19, 21, and 22, 1958. 

The Government of the United States cate- 
gorically denies the charge that American 



' Delivered on June 26 to the delegation of the U.S.S.K. 
to the United Nations at New York, N.Y. (U.S./U.N. press 
release 2948 dated June 26) . 



iv\i 74, 7958 



49 



authorities encouraged the demonstrations and 
that the damage resulting from the demonstrations 
occurred with the sufferance of these authorities. 

On June 22 there were over 130 New York City 
policemen at the building housing the USSR Dele- 
gation to the United Nations. The charge that 
the New York police authorities did not provide 
protection for Delegation property but actually 
encouraged the pickets is not borne out by the 
facts. In controlling the demonstrators and in 
protecting Delegation property, seven New York 
City police officers were injured, including a 
Deputy Chief Inspector. In addition, a number 
of picketers were injured when they attempted to 
break through police lines. 

As a result of the demonstrations which occurred 
on June 21 and 22, twelve of the demonstrators 
were arrested and formally charged before the 
appropriate New York City Court. 

The USSR Delegation's note concludes by 
insisting that the United States Mission and 
American authorities take measures to "prevent 
the holding in the future of any kind of hostile 
demonstration at the USSR Delegation's build- 
ing." Wliile the Government of the United States 
regrets that what began as peaceful demonstra- 
tions resulted in property damage, it cannot 
associate itself with any attempts to abrogate the 
constitutional right of residents of the United 
States to gather in peaceful assembly and to ex- 
press their beliefs and convictions. 



SOVIET DELEGATION'S NOTE' 

Official translation 
No. 380 

June 26, 1958 [sic] 

The Delegation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics to the United Nations presents its compliments to the 
United States Mission to the UN and has the honor to 
communicate the following. 

On June 19, 21, and 22, 1958 groups of hooligans and 
provocateurs organized demonstrations hostile to the 
Soviet Union in front of the building of the USSR Dele- 
gation to the UN. In the course of the demonstrations the 
participants indulged in hostile and insulting outcries vrith 
respect to the Soviet Union and the USSR Delegation and 
they insulted members of the Delegation in profane 
language. Moreover, vpithout meeting with any counter- 



= Delivered on June 23 to the U. S. Mission to the 
United Nations at New York, N.Y. 



action on the part of American authorities, on June 21 and 
22 the demonstrators broke several panes in the windows 
of the Delegation building, causing thereby material dam- 
age. The hooligans threw stones and bricks into the 
building, thereby endangering the members of the Dele- 
gation who were in the building. 

The USSR Delegation notes that the police, considerable 
forces of which arrived at the scene of the demonstration, 
failed to take sufficient measures to protect the Delegation 
from hostile actions and from the infliction of damage. 

The USSR Delegation likewise takes note of the fact that 
the appropriate authorities of the USA not only failed to 
take measures to prevent or stop the demonstrations 
hostile to the Soviet Union, but actually they encouraged 
the hooligans, for after these acts of rowdyism, which 
took place on June 21 and which were accompanied by 
the breaking of the Delegation's windowpanes, the authori- 
ties permitted the hostile demonstration of June 22, in the 
course of which even more violent acts of rowdyism took 
place. The American authorities thus failed to ensure for 
the Delegation of the USSR the most elementary form of 
security, which is the direct responsibility of the authori- 
ties with respect to foreign diplomatic missions in 
accordance with the generally accepted international 
standards. 

In this connection the USSR Delegation to the UN 
protests to the Mission of the USA against the hostile 
acts committed with the sufferance of the American au- 
thorities with respect to the USSR Delegation to the UN, 
which acts even caused material damage to the Delegation. 

The Delegation lays the responsibility for the hooligans' 
acts of rowdyism upon the appropriate American author- 
ities, which are allowing demonstrations hostile to the 
Soviet Union to take place at the building of the USSR 
Delegation in violation of the UN Headquarters Agreement 
between the United States of America and the United 
Nations. 

The USSR Delegation to the UN Insists that the Mission 
and the authorities of the USA take effective measures 
that will prevent the holding in the future of any kind 
of hostile demonstration at the USSR Delegation's build- 
ing. 

United States Mission to the UN, 
New York, N.Y. 



Efforts for Release of Helicopter 
Crew and Passengers in East Germany 

SUMMARY OF STEPS TO PROCURE RELEASE 

Defense/State press release 355 dated June 26 

In view of public interest the following sum- 
mary is provided of the steps thus far undertaken 
by the U.S. Government to effect the release of the 



50 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



two-man crew and seven passengei-s of the U.S. 
Army lielicopter which accidentally ci-ossed the 
zonal border between the Federal Republic of 
Germany and the Soviet Zone of Germany on 
June 7. As a result of operational difficulties the 
helicopter landed near Zwickau in the Soviet 
Zone. Despite repeated requests made by the 
U.S. authorities on the basis of existing agree- 
ments with tlie U.S.S.R., the men and the heli- 
copter are still being held in the Soviet Zone. The 
Soviet authorities have to date refused to honor 
their responsibilities to return the men and the 
helicopter promptly to U.S. control, and the East 
German authorities have obstructed attempts to 
make arrangements for the release. 

The following steps have been taken : 

The United States Military Liaison Mission 
(USMLM) at Potsdam was alerted by the 
Headquarters, United States Army Europe 
(USAREUE), on June 7 to the helicopter's 
disappearance and instructed to approach the 
Group of Soviet Forces, Germany, for any 
possible information on the missing aircraft and 
its nine men. 

The Soviets replied by telephone early the morn- 
ing of June 8, advising the USMLM that the nine 
men were uninjured but the helicopter was dam- 
aged. The Soviets said that both the men and 
the aircraft were in the hands of East German 
authorities and that any requests for their return 
should be made to the East German government. 

The USilLM the same day strongly protested 
to the Soviets that tliis was a military matter 
between the two forces and, as in past cases, 
should be handled by the Group of Soviet Forces, 
Germany. 

Gen. Henry I. Hodes, USAREUR commander 
in chief, sent a personal note June 8 to General 
Zakharov, commander of Group of Soviet Forces, 
Germany, stating that he requested and expected 
that General Zakharov, his Soviet military 
counterpart, would insure the return of the heli- 
copter and men as soon as possible. General 
Hodes added that the East German landing was 
assuredly unintentional. 

Since General Zakharov had not replied to the 
June 8 note, Major General Suvorov, chief of 
the Soviet Military Liaison Mission in Frankfort, 
was called by General Hodes to USAREUR Head- 
quarters the afternoon of June 10. Suvorov was 
told that the incident was purely a military mat- 



ter and that return of the men and helicopter was 
expected as soon as possible. General Hodes 
called attention to the provisions of the Huebner- 
Malinin agreement of April 5, 1947, which insures 
the Soviet and U.S. Missions of the right to pro- 
tect the interests of their nationals in the zones of 
Germany. General Hodes told him that, if the 
situation were reversed, he would promptly re- 
turn the helicopter and personnel. General Suvo- 
rov said he would transmit this to his superiors. 

Col. Robert P. McQuail, chief of the USMLM, 
visited Colonel Sergeyev, chief of the Soviet Ex- 
ternal Relations Branch, on June 12 to request 
delivery of a box of Red Cross supplies to the 
nine men. Sergeyev replied that he could not 
assure delivery owing to "circiunstances" and did 
not accept them. 

General Zakliarov's reply to General Hodes' 
June 8 note was finally delivered the afternoon 
of June 12 by General Suvorov. General Zak- 
harov stated that the action requested was not 
within the province of the Group of Soviet Forces, 
Germany, but was solely within the competence 
of East German authorities. He added that the 
helicopter and its passengers had been appre- 
hended and detained by the East Germans ; hence 
it was not a military problem but one which fell 
within the competence of the East German 
government. General Hodes replied that this was 
a military matter which the Group of Soviet 
Forces, Germany, should handle regardless of 
who had custody of the U.S. soldiers and 
again reminded Suvorov of the Huebner-Malinin 
agreement. General Hodes also asked about the 
present whereabouts of the nine soldiers. General 
Suvorov replied he did not know. General Hodes 
further told him he was disappointed that the 
Soviets had ignored the United States Military 
Liaison Mission's repeated efforts to obtain their 
assistance in contacting the U.S. soldiers. Gen- 
eral Hodes again asked how the USMLM could 
contact these men and return them to his com- 
mand. Suvorov said he would ask his head- 
quarters. 

In accordance with arrangements made by 
Soviet authorities. Colonel McQuail, chief of the 
USMLM, met with the East German Deputy 
Foreign Minister, Otto Winzer, at 1000 hours June 
14. Colonel McQuail, as a representative of the 
USAREUR commander in chief, asked that the 
nine men and the helicopter be returned as speedily 



ivfy 14, 7958 



51 



as possible. Colonel McQuail referred to the 
Huebner-Malinin agreement and pointed out that 
arrangements under the agreement for the return 
of personnel between the United States and Soviet 
Armies had worked effectively in the past. The 
siun of Mr. Winzer's reply was that he could nego- 
tiate only with a person possessing authority from 
the United States Department of State or the U.S. 
Government. At the meeting's conclusion ar- 
rangements were made to deliver the packages 
mentioned above to the Foreign Ministry for 
transmittal through the Red Cross to the nine men. 
Colonel McQuail met with Mr. Winzer for the 
second time on June 16. Colonel McQuail told Mr. 
Winzer he was authorized to make appropriate 
arrangements to effect the immediate release of the 
men and plane. Colonel McQuail was handed a 
draft intergovernmental agreement prepared by 
the East Germans for signature by the "plenipo- 
tentiaries" of the U.S. Government and the "Gov- 
ernment of the German Democratic Republic." 
Colonel McQuail replied that he would pass it on 
to his superiors. He also asked if he could visit 
the nine men. His request was refused. The 
next meeting was set for the following Wednesday. 
Colonel McQuail met with Mr. Winzer for the 
third time on June 18. He advised Mr. Winzer 
that he had documentation from both the senior 
military and senior diplomatic representatives of 
the United States in Germany but that tlie draft 
agreement handed him 2 days earlier was wholly 
unacceptable. Colonel McQuail added that he was 
ready to meet all normal and reasonable require- 
ments and that he had with him a receipt for the 
U.S. personnel. Mr. Winzer replied that he was 
not prepared to accept this procedure, and the 
meeting ended inconclusively. Mr. Winzer asked 
that a fourth meeting be held the next day. 

A 30-minute meeting the following day (June 
19) between the two principals ended on the same 
inconclusive note. 

Also on June 19 General Hodes again sent a 
personal note to General Zakliarov reiterating his 
demand of June 8 for the prompt return of the nine 
men and helicopter. The USAREUR commander 
reasserted General Zakliarov's responsibilities 
imder existing agreements to effect the return. He 
added that adherence to the Huebner-Malinin 
agreement is necessary if the respective liaison 
missions are to continue to carry out their assigned 
tasks. General Hodes further requested that Gen- 



eral Zakharov assist the USMLM in visiting the 
nine men to ascertain their health and welfare and 
furnish them necessary personal accessories. 

On Friday, June 20, Deputy Under Secretary 
of State Robert Murphy called in the Soviet 
Charge, Mr. Striganov, acquainted him with the 
situation as described above, and requested that 
arrangements be made for the immediate release of 
the men and the helicopter. Mr. Murphy also 
handed Mr. Striganov an aide memoire on this 
subject. 

On June 21 a further attempt to secure the re- 
lease of the nine American soldiers and helicopter 
was made by Colonel McQuail, who met in East 
Berlin with Major General Tsarenko, Deputy 
Chief of Staff of the Group of Soviet Forces, 
Germany. The meeting resulted in a repetition 
of the previous stand taken by the Group of Soviet 
Forces, Germany, and a flat refusal to aid in con- 
tacting the eight officers and one enlisted man or 
to transmit relief supplies for them. 

General Zakharov's reply to General Hodes' 
personal note of Jime 19 was delivered on the 
afternoon of June 23 to Headquarters, United 
States Army Europe. General Zakharov stated 
that he was not able to add anything to what had 
already been expressed in his note of June 11. 

As of this time, no reply has been made by the 
Soviet Embassy here to the Department of State. 



TEXT OF U.S. AIDE MEMOIRE OF JUNE 20' 

On June 7, 1958 the pilot of a United States 
Army helicopter en route from Frankfort to 
Grafenwoehr in West Germany inadvertently 
crossed the zonal border and made a forced land- 
ing near Zwickau in East Germany. The heli- 
copter carried eight Army officers and one enlisted 
man. 

On the following day, as soon as it was known 
where the aircraft had landed, the Cormnander- 
in-Chief of the United States Army in Europe, 
General Hodes, sent a note to the Commanding 
General of the Group of Soviet Forces in Ger- 
many, General Zakharov, expressing regret at this 
imintentional overflight and landing and request- 
ing the return of the men and the aircraft to 
United States control. 



' Handed by Deputy Under Secretary Murphy to Soviet 
Charge d' Affaires Sergei R. Striganov. 



52 



Department of State Bulletin 



On June 10, having received no reply, General 
Hodes asked General Suvorov, the Chief of the 
Soviet Military Liaison Mission to the United 
States Forces, to inform General Zakharov that a 
prompt return of the men and the aircraft was 
expected. General Hodes reminded General 
Suvorov of the Huebner-Malinin Agreement of 
April 5, 19-47, which defines the functions of the 
Military Liaison Missions. Meanwhile, the Chief 
of the United States Military Liaison Mission, 
Colonel McQuail, repeatedly but unsuccessfully 
requested the assistance of the Soviet authorities 
in making contact witli the United States 
personnel. 

General Zakliarov replied to General Hodes 
June 12 to the effect that this question was not a 
matter for the Soviet Forces but was "solely 
within the competence of the German Democratic 
Republic." General Hodes expressed to General 
Suvorov, who delivered the replj', his disappoint- 
ment with the position taken by General Zak- 
harov. Ho emphasized that this was a military 
matter with which General Zakharov was obli- 
gated to deal. He reiterated that the Huebner- 
Malinin Agreement gave the United States Mili- 
tary Liaison INIission the right to aid the United 
States personnel in question and asked how the 
Mission could make contact with the men and 
arrange for their return. 

Colonel McQuail thereupon requested the Soviet 
military authorities to intervene with the local 
German authorities. This request was refused. 

Colonel ilcQuail next requested that the Soviet 
military authorities put him in touch with the 
local German authorities with whom arrange- 
ments could be made for the release. The Chief 
of the External Relations Branch of the Soviet 
Forces, Colonel Sergeyev, on Jime 13 made an 
appointment for Colonel McQuail to discuss the 
return of the men and the aircraft with Mr. Otto 
Winzer, a Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
and arranged to have a Soviet ofBcer accompany 
Colonel McQuail. 

Colonel McQuail and Mr. Winzer have since 
had four meetings, on June 14, 16, 18, and 19, but 
these meetings have imfortunately produced no re- 
sult. Colonel McQuail has shown documentation 
from both the American Ambassador and General 
Hodes confirming that he is fully authorized to 
undertake discussions and make arrangements for 
the return and has assured Mr. Winzer that he is 



ready to meet all normal and reasonable require- 
ments for doing so. He showed Mr. Winzer the 
form of a receipt which he or the officer accepting 
the men and aircraft would be prepared to fur- 
nish, and he offered immediate reimbursement of 
various expenses which had been mentioned by 
Mr. Winzer. Mr. Winzer, however, repeatedly 
obstructed the conclusion of arrangements for the 
return by interjecting procedural difficulties and 
raising extraneous political issues. Mr. Winzer 
made the co-operation of the local German au- 
thorities conditional upon tlie willingness of 
Colonel McQuail or other representatives of the 
United States to agree to unnecessary and unac- 
ceptable negotiations or formal agreements. 

Under these circumstances. General Hodes gave 
General Suvorov on June 19 a memorandum for 
General Zakharov calling the latter's attention to 
the delay. He reminded General Zakharov of 
his responsibility under existing agreements and 
pointed out that the discussions with the local 
German authorities, which the Soviet authorities 
had arranged, had been unsuccessful. He reiter- 
ated his requests that the men and aircraft be 
returned immediately. He asked that, in the 
meantime, arrangements be made for Colonel Mc- 
Quail to visit the men. 

The Government of the United States wishes 
to draw attention to the arrangements worked out 
between General Clay and General Sokolovsky in 
August, 1946 providing for the immediate return 
of Soviet personnel who were arrested or detained 
in the United States Zone of Occupation, and of 
United States personnel who were arrested or 
detained in the Soviet Zone. These arrange- 
ments were supplemented by the Huebner-Malinin 
Agreement of April 5, 1947 relating to the activi- 
ties of the Militaiy Liaison Missions accredited to 
the Soviet and United States Commandere-in- 
Chief. Paragraph 14 b of this Agreement pro- 
vides : 

In each zone the mission will have the right to engage 
In matters of protecting the interests of their nationals 
and to make representations accordingly as well as in 
matters of protecting their property interests in the zone 
where they are located. They have a right to render aid 
to people of their own country who are visiting the zone 
where they are accredited. 

Until the present incident, the procedures set up 
under these agreements for the return of military 
personnel of the two countries when arrested or 
detained have functioned effectively. Thus, in 



July 14, 1958 



53 



the past year, the United States authorities have 
returned a Soviet soldier, Private Nikolai F. 
Kusanov, to the Soviet military authorities, while 
the Soviet authorities, only three weeks ago, re- 
turned three United States airmen to American 
control. 

The Government of the United States views 
with grave concern the prolonged detention in the 
Soviet Zone of Germany of the military personnel 
and aircraft in question. It wishes to reempha- 
size the responsibility of the Soviet military au- 
thorities in Germany to see that the men and the 
aircraft are returned to United States control 
without further delay. 

The Government of the United States therefore 
requests that appropriate instructions be issued 
urgently to the Soviet military authorities in Ger- 
many to assure that the United States personnel 
and helicopter are promptly returned to United 
States control in accordance with the long-stand- 
ing mutual arrangements referred to above. 



Letters of Credence 

Argentina, 

The newly appointed Ambassador of the Ar- 
gentine Kepublic, Cesar Barros Hurtado, pre- 
sented his credentials to President Eisenhower on 
June 23. For texts of the Ambassador's remarks 
and the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 341. 

Libya 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Libya, 
Mansour Fethi el-Kekhia, presented his creden- 
tials to President Eisenhower on June 23. For 
texts of the Ambassador's remarks and the Presi- 
dent's reply, see Department of State press release 
340. 



U.S. and Denmark Sign Amendment 
to Atomic Research Agreement 

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the 
Department of State announced on June 26 (press 
release 354) that the Governments of Denmark 
and the United States on that day signed an amend- 
ment to the agreement for cooperation between the 
two countries concerning the peaceful applications 
of nuclear energy which has been in effect since 
July 25, 1955.^ Assistant Secretary of State for 
European Affairs C. Burke Elbrick and Atomic 
Energy Commissioner Harold S. Vance signed the 
amendment for the United States, and Ambassador 
Henrik de Kauffmann signed for Denmark. 

This amendment was negotiated under the 
Atomic Energy Commission's revised policy of 
permitting the transfer of 90 percent enriched 
material for use in research and materials-testing 
reactors where such use is technically and eco- 
nomically justified and the core loading does not 
exceed 8 kilograms. 

The amendment extends the term of the exist- 
ing agreement with Denmark to 10 years. It will 
provide for the transfer of a maximum quantity 
of 50 kilograms of uraniimi in the fissionable iso- 
tope U-235 for the fueling and operation of re- 
search reactors. The great majority of this ma- 
terial will be utilized in the DR-2, tank-type 
research reactor to be located at the Danish re- 
search center at Risoe, 30 miles west of Copen- 
hagen. The expected completion date is the fall 
of 1958. 

The amendment will become effective after all 
of the statutory and parliamentary requirements 
of both nations have been fulfilled. 



' Treaties and Other International Acts Series 3309. 



54 



Department of State Bulletin 



Freedom of Ideas vs. Censorship 



hy Andreio H. Berding 

Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs * 



I start this address with the premise that be- 
tween the Soviet Union on the one hand and the 
United States of America and our allies on the 
other there exists a military balance of power. 
Therefore there is little likelihood that the Soviet 
Union will lamich a military venture. 

I likewise start with the premise that the Soviet 
Union still cherishes its traditional design to 
dominate the world. This fact is frequently mani- 
fested by Premier Khrushchev, who predicts the 
inevitable victory of communism over capitalism 
and says on American TV that our grandchildren 
will live in a Communist state. 

The Soviet Union, seeing no promise in military 
ventures, is now determined to achieve its ends 
through political, economic, and psychological 
offensives. Today I should like to speak only of 
the last — the psychological. 

The attention of Americans has been drawn 
particularly to this field in the last 9 months — 
from the time on October 4 when the first Soviet 
Sputnik soared into orbit around the world. The 
propaganda implications of this achievement were 
immediately obvious. Then, and since then, many 
questions have been raised as to where we stand 
and where we are going on this battlefield of 
ideas. 

Many of us who have been working in this field 
were asking the same questions and trying to find 
answers years before Sputnik roared into outer 
space. "We recognized that the Soviets had de- 
veloped an enormous propaganda machine. We 



' Address made before the annual convention of Civitan 
International at New Orleans, La., on June 24 (press re- 
lease 343 dated June 23) . 



admitted their skill, their ruthlessness, their per- 
sistence. We analyzed their use of the Com- 
munist Parties in most of the countries of the 
world. We evaluated their appeals and ap- 
proaches to foreign peoples, particularly those in 
less developed countries. We came to the conclu- 
sion that a strong and unremitting effort was 
required to meet the Soviets successfully on this 
important battleground. 

Today a major effort is vital. The war in this 
field needs to be conducted with the same tenacity, 
vigor, and skill that we would use in countering 
any military offensive. 

The Soviets start with certain advantages. I 
shall call these short-range advantages because I 
am confident that in the long run many of them 
will turn into disadvantages. 

First is the fact that they have no regard for 
the truth. They can say one thing in one part 
of the world, something entirely opposite in an- 
other part of the world. They say to the French 
people that the United States wants to drive 
France out of Algeria so that American capitalists 
can take over. They say to the Algerians that the 
United States is in league with France to suppress 
their desire for independence. 

Another advantage is that the Soviets can take 
action without consulting anyone, either at home 
or abroad. When we take an action or make a 
statement or send a commimication to Moscow, 
we need to consult our close allies and perhaps 
all the members of a given mutual security ar- 
rangement, like NATO. That may result in de- 
lay, and it may require changes in deed or word. 
We also consult with other sectors of our own 



Jw/y 74, 1958 



55 



Government and with Congress. Before taking 
certain actions we may require authorizing and 
appropriations legislation from Congress. And 
in the process we must reveal our objectives and 
plans. 

The Soviet Government does not have to go to 
its shadowy congress for appropriations for their 
propaganda effort. How much they spend for 
propaganda is anyone's guess, but it is imdoubt- 
edly several times our own expenditures. For 
instance, we estimate they spend more on jam- 
ming the Voice of America than the Voice of 
America spends on its total output. We know 
the approximate number of transmitters engaged 
in jamming, and our engineers can figure out the 
cost of operation. 

Government Control of Soviet Press 

One great advantage the Soviets have in over- 
seas propaganda is the fact that they have a con- 
trolled press at home. You and I can be eter- 
nally grateful for the fact that we Americans 
have a free press. Our democracy could not live 
without it. Before I outline what a controlled 
press means to the Soviets, let me describe to you 
what is the situation in this respect. Two forms 
of censorship are drastically exercised in the So- 
viet Union. One is censorship of news and com- 
ment at its source, that is, suppression of news so 
that it is not pruited in Soviet newspapers. The 
other is censorship of news and comment as for- 
eign correspondents seek to send it abroad. 

The Soviet press is officially characterized as 
the "arm of the Party." Its professed function 
is not to disseminate objective news but to sup- 
port the policies of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union and the Soviet Government. Soviet 
information media employ a broad range of 
methods for shaping tlie news to serve this pur- 
pose. This runs the gamut from outright sup- 
pression of information to the printing of un- 
representative statements and half-truths, distor- 
tion of information, and slanted analyses. 

Crime and statistics on crime and on the prison 
population are closely guarded secrets. Most 
newsworthy arrests are not reported. Trials in 
process are generally not printed. Disasters and 
accidents are not reported unless they involve 
casualties to foreigners. No information is re- 
leased on sessions of the Communist Party 



Presidium, even the fact that a meeting has been 
held. Meetings of the Central Committee 
plenums are announced only after they have been 
held, and no information is publislied on their 
deliberations. The process of reaching major 
policy decisions is kept from the public. Such 
decisions are announced by fiat and, of course, 
with no hint of opposing views. 

Information on the reasons for major personnel 
appointments or dismissals is often not released. 
The dismissal of the head of the Soviet Govern- 
ment, Premier Bulganin, was announced simply 
with the statement that Nikita Khrushchev had 
taken over. Not a word was said as to why Bul- 
ganin was dismissed or what he would do. Last 
week Moscow announced the shocking execution 
of former Premier Nagy of Hungary and the 
three other Hungarian leadere witliout saying 
wliere or wlien they had been executed. 

No meaningful statistics on the breakdown of 
the Soviet population by social groups and na- 
tionalities have been published for 19 years. Civil 
disorders, such as those at the Vorkuta slave-labor 
camp and at Norilsk in 1953 and at Tiflis in 1956, 
are never reported. Other expressions of dis- 
satisfaction by the populace are generally not 
reported. 

On the military side, the Soviets have made 
only 12 announcements of nuclear tests, although 
we know they have conducted many more. They 
have never given prior notice of a test, such as 
we do. No formal announcement of the most re- 
cent and extensive Soviet test series has yet been 
made. They amiounced their suspension of test- 
ing without mentioning that they had just com- 
pleted a series of test explosions particularly 
heavy in fallout. "Wliile trying to make propa- 
ganda gains on the dangers of radioactivity, the 
Soviets have released no actual figures on fallout 
from their own or otlier tests. 

They release no data on the numerical strength 
of their armed forces, the number of troops sta- 
tioned abroad, the number of military persomiel 
inducted or released from active service per year, 
and the number of warships, planes, and other 
equipment in use. Although the Soviet Govern- 
ment announced plans for troop reductions al- 
legedly totaling 2,140,000 in 1955 to 1957, it has 
not revealed the extent to which these affected 
total force levels nor do we know if they were 
ever actually carried out. Troop movements, the 



56 



Department of State Bulletin 



location of military maneuvers, and the location 
of troop units are not made public. 

As for the militarj- budget, only an overall 
figure allegedly representing total military ex- 
penditures is given in the published Soviet budget. 
No information is released on the allocations of 
this sum. No data are published on the relation- 
ship of Soviet military expenditures to the gross 
national product. The overall budget always 
contains a large unexplained difference between 
the total figure and the total of the specific al- 
locations. 

No failure of military or other tests is ever 
mentioned. I am convinced that, before the 
Soviets launched their first Sputnik, they had 
failures — ^but not a word about them was pub- 
lished. They probably had failures, too, during 
the interval of many months between the launch- 
ing of their second Sputnik and the third. 

On the economic side, comprehensive figures 
on the pei"sonal income and consumption patterns 
of the Soviet populace have not been released for 
years. 

The Soviet Union publishes no absolute produc- 
tion figures for grain and most other agricultural 
products. They publish no statistics on the pro- 
duction of nonferrous metals, diamonds, asbestos, 
magnesite, pyrite, petroleum derivatives, mer- 
chant ships, civil aircraft, military equipment, and 
most chemicals. Efforts by foreign correspond- 
ents to get such information are branded as at- 
tempts at "economic espionage." 

Wholesale industrial prices, agricultural pro- 
curement prices, and comprehensive figures on re- 
tail prices are not published. 

On the international side, major statements by 
Western governments and political leaders are 
often ignored or distorted. Accounts of United 
Nations proceedings are warped beyond recogni- 
tion. Accurate information on foreign living 
standards is carefully kept from the Soviet popu- 
lace. Information on economic and social progress 
in Western countries is almost invariably 
suppressed. 

Reductions in military strength by the Western 
Powers are not reported. 

Accurate information on Western political in- 
stitutions is not revealed. 

One method of keeping international news from 
the Soviet peoples is jamming Voice of America, 
British Broadcasting Company, and other foreign 



broadcasts. On recent TV appearances in this 
country Soviet Ambassador Menshikov has sought 
to convey the impression that it is not correct to 
say that jamming is continuing in the Soviet 
Union. Unfortunately he is mistaken. The Am- 
bassador has gone to Moscow. I hope he tries to 
listen in Moscow to Voice of America broadcasts. 
Ilis ears will tell him they are heavily jammed. 
Fortunately the jamming is not fully successful, 
and Voice of America broadcasts do get through 
to many parts of the Soviet Union. 

You will note that the examples of suppression 
I have listed ai-e common items of information. 
They are of a type routinely available to the pub- 
lic in Western democracies. To sum up, the sup- 
pression of information in the Soviet Union is aU- 
pervading. One can only wonder what fears, 
what weaknesses beset the Soviet leaders to make 
them build a wall of secrecy and censorship be- 
tween their own people and what to us is simple 
news or public information. 

Censorship of News From EVioscow 

I come now to the second aspect of suppression 
of information. Censorship of dispatches by 
American and other foreign correspondents sta- 
tioned in Moscow is constant and extensive. These 
correspondents, competing eternally with the basic 
suppression of news in the Soviet Union, have 
also to compete with the fact that, once they have 
painstakingly got hold of news or comment, they 
may not be able to get it out. In recent weeks 
Soviet censorship of foreign correspondents' dis- 
patches from Moscow has become increasingly 
severe and arbitrary. This censorship is marked 
by two objectionable characteristics. One is de- 
letion of material. The other is delay. 

Recently the Soviets expelled on trumped-up 
charges U.S. Embassy Secretary John Baker.^ 
All stories on this expulsion were eliminated. 

A dispatch which contained nothing but a biog- 
raphy of General de Gaulle printed in the latest 
large Soviet encyclopedia was killed. 

Two weeks ago the Soviet spokesman Ilya 
Ehrenburg held a press conference. He made 
statements opposing all censorship and specifically 
approved these statements for quotation by the 
correspondents. But just the same the censor 



' Bulletin of June 16, 1958, p. 1005. 



July 14, 1958 



57 



deleted from dispatches all material relating to 
censorship. 

All stories were killed reporting that former 
Premier Bulganin's birthday had gone imnoticed 
tills year. 

At the time of the recent Warsaw Pact meeting 
any reference to the fact that the U.S.S.R. had had 
prewar nonaggi'ession pacts with the Baltic states 
was deleted. 

Stories were censored concerning the press con- 
ference on June 9 by an American delegation of 
women doctors visiting the Soviet Union under 
our official exchange agreement. 

As for recent delays, there was a 17-hour delay 
in clearing Khrushchev's remarks at the British 
Embassy on Jime 12, and then only with some 
omissions. There was a 30-hour delay in clear- 
ing any stories on the resumption of public hear- 
ings in the Israeli-Soviet commercial arbitration 
case. There was a 24-hour delay in clearing press- 
conference remarks of a British "peace" delegation 
which had seen Khrushchev ; and some of liis re- 
ported remarks were deleted. 

Wlien correspondents send service messages to 
their home offices reporting their inability to file 
stories or explaining certain operating problems, 
heavy censorship occurs. 

Incredible as it may seem, in a recent Meet the 
Press TV program Ambassador Menshikov at- 
tempted to make the point that there is no cen- 
sorship in the Soviet Union. Fortunately one of 
the panelists was my friend Clifton Daniel of the 
New York Times. He had been a correspondent 
in Moscow ; he immediately spoke up to say that 
liis dispatches had been censored many times. 

As long as there exists this censorship at source, 
keeping the facts from the Soviet people, and 
censorship at exit, there can be no true assurance 
of the friendly relations we want to see exist be- 
tween our two countries. It is significant that, in 
the list of headings we handed the Soviet Foreign 
Office on May 31 ' as suggested items for discus- 
sion at a possible summit conference, we find men- 
tioned imder the title of "International Ex- 
changes" the following subheadings: Cessation 
of jamming of foreign broadcasts; Censorship; 
Free distribution and sale to the public of books 
and publications; Free distribution and sale of 
foreign newspapers and periodicals. 



As President Eisenhower said at the summit 
conference at Geneva in 1955,* 

. . . friendly understanding between peoples does not 
readily develop when there are artificial barriers such 
as now interfere with communication. 

We believe that secrecy can lead only to misunder- 
standing, to an increase in tensions. We have 
made specific proposals based on this belief to 
eliminate obstacles to a free flow of information. 
We regret that the Soviet Government has, how- 
ever, never accepted the proposal of the Western 
Powers at the Geneva Foreign Ministers Meeting 
in 1955 to eliminate censorship.* 

We also regret that the Soviet Government, 
despite its allegations that it desires to decrease 
tensions and to increase friendly contacts among 
peoples, now has decided to strengthen the bar- 
riers it has erected against a free flow of informa- 
tion. Such action can only cause us to ask why 
the Soviet Government wishes to hide from the 
outside world the truth about the Soviet Union. 
It causes us to question the sincerity of repeated 
statements of Soviet leaders that they desire 
friendship and mutual understanding among 
peoples. 

How the Soviets Benefit From Censorship 

Having described, with examples, the censorship 
situation existing in the Soviet Union, I now want 
to show the benefits the Soviets draw from it in 
their overseas propaganda. 

If you travel abroad, as I do when I go to in- 
ternational conferences with Secretary Dulles, you 
are often appalled at the news from the United 
States you find printed in foreign newspapers as 
compared with news from the Soviet Union. Item 
after item is concerned with murder and kidnap- 
ing, with the morals or lack of morals of Holly- 
wood, with disaster, and with strife and conflict. 
This material is sent out by American and foreign 
news agencies. I am certain these news agencies 
select it on the basis of its news value, although I 
often wish they would adopt more the news stand- 
ards of responsible newspapers and less the stand- 
ards of sensational newspapers. And I am sure 
they would send equivalent news from the Soviet 



• ma., July 7, 1958, p. 12. 
58 



* ma., Aug. 1, 1955, p. 171. 

• Ihid., Nov. 14, 1955, p. 778. 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Union if they had it, but the fact is the Soviets 
don't let them get it. The result is, you find a 
sharply unbalanced covering of news about the 
U.SA. and the U.S.S.R. in the foreign press. 

For instance, at the time of the Little Eock 
incidents, a veritable deluge of hundreds of thou- 
sands of words were cabled abroad. In the Soviet 
Union there have been instances of racial repres- 
sion since the last war that make Little Eock look 
like a Sunday-school picnic. Many hundreds of 
thousands of men, women, and children have died 
in these repressive actions. But the American and 
foreign press have carried very little about them — 
probably less than 1 percent of all the material they 
carried on Little Eock alone. 

Another advantage the Soviets draw from their 
controlled press in relation to ours is this : In our 
own press you daily find numerous instances of 
sharp criticism of the U.S. Government and its 
policies, either in the form of quotations from 
speakers or in the form of editorials. Soviet prop- 
aganda picks up these criticisms and uses them 
widely, giving the world the impression that our 
Government is assailed by a storm of opposition. 
Our own Government media, like the U.S. Infor- 
mation Agency, and the commercial media, like the 
news agencies, on the other hand, can carry no 
such criticism of the Soviet Government from 
Russian speakers or editorials. There are no such 
repoi-ts of speeches. There are no such editorials. 

As a result of the contrasting positions of the 
press in the Soviet Union and the United States, 
we and foreign peoples hear much about our fail- 
ures and little or nothing about Soviet failures. 
I am convinced the Soviets had failures before 
they put up the first Sputnik, but nothing came 
out of the Soviet Union on the subject. Yet our 
first failure with the Vanguard was trumpeted 
around the world by press and radio and newsreels. 

Characteristics of Soviet Propaganda 

Soviet propaganda is marked by certain inter- 
esting characteristics. First, it generally accuses 
and attacks. It seldom defends. It repeats a& 
cusations again and again. 

Second, it tries to single out in each coimtry 
one government leader as a target for attack. In 
the United States it is Secretary of State Dulles. 
You can be sure that the Soviets attack him be- 



cause they know he sees through their designs and 
seeks to thwart them. 

Third, Soviet propaganda operates under the 
motto: divide and rule. It incessantly seeks to 
create dissension between the coimtries of the free 
world — dissension between the industrial coun- 
tries and the less developed countries, dissension 
particularly between the countries united in mu- 
tual security agreements for defense against inter- 
national communism. It also seeks to sow dis- 
sension between classes and groups within coun- 
tries. 

Fourth, Soviet propaganda follows the tech- 
nique that might be called the "wave of the fu- 
ture." It seeks, as Khrushchev does in many of 
his statements, to make the world believe that the 
Soviet Union will surpass the United States in the 
production of this or that commodity and that 
capitalism is doomed to fall before communism. 

Fifth, Soviet propaganda is a master of slogans 
regardless of substance. It has made great head- 
way with its slogan of "ban the bomb" and the 
later one, "ban atomic testing." 

At the base of all Soviet propaganda is the at- 
tempt to create the conviction that it is the Soviet 
Union that truly wants peace, while the United 
States and its allies want war. This note is for- 
ever being played on all the instrmnents of the 
propaganda orchestra. 

Here the Soviets have the same advantage as 
did the prodigal son. Eemember, it was he and 
not his brothers who got the special attention 
of their father. He had been the bad one, and he 
had repented. In the same way the Soviet Union, 
in the opinion of the majority of the people of the 
world, is the one that has created trouble. It 
took over one nation after another; it authorized 
the war in Korea ; it savagely repressed the Hun- 
garian uprising. Hence, when the Soviets talk 
peace, this is listened to more gratefully than 
when America talks peace. 

We have had a higher standard of behavior 
throughout history, and therefore people of other 
countries expect more of us than they do of the 
Soviet Union. Moreover, we are a far wealthier 
nation; hence people look to us for greater eco- 
nomic benefits. And if they do not receive them, 
and in the amount they wish, they often express 
dissatisfaction, even resentment. 

There is also the fact that we ourselves threw 



July 14, 1958 



59 



off colonial rule. Therefore, peoples who are de- 
manding independence often think we should be 
automatically on their side, regardless of what our 
relationships with other nations might be. 

Combining Words With Actions 

In any attempt to evaluate the propaganda con- 
flict it is important to keep in mind that results 
are produced much more by actions than by words. 
I would hazard a guess that words produce no 
more than 10 percent of the total impact; actions 
account for 90 percent. 

The Soviets are skillful in combining words 
with actions. They got the utmost effect with 
Sputnik. In one of their first announcements on 
Sputnik they gave the time when it would be pass- 
ing over Little Kock, which was then very much in 
the news, and over Bandung, which had been the 
location of the Afro-Asian conference 3 years ago, 
a conference the Soviets utilized greatly in their 
propaganda output. 

We, too, know the value of combining actions 
with words. On our side, however, actions are 
taken to produce a beneficial effect, whereas on 
the Soviet side actions are often taken solely for 
propaganda effect. An outstanding example on 
our side is President Eisenhower's atoms-for- 
peace proposal to the General Assembly of the 
United Nations in December 1953. Another is his 
open-skies proposal in 1955. A more recent one 
was our proposal last month for international in- 
spection of the Arctic area.^ 

One question frequently asked us in Washing- 
ton is, who has the initiative in the war of ideas ? 
I think the answer lies in what I just mentioned, 
that the real impact is produced by action, plus 
words. If we took words alone, it might seem the 
Soviets had the initiative because of the flood of 
letters, messages, statements, and the like that 
issues from the Kremlin. But in the field of ac- 
tion we have taken the initiative again and again. 

I believe that at times the avalanche of words 
from the Kremlin reacts against them. This was 
true with the series of letters from Bulganin and 
then Khrushchev to President Eisenhower relat- 
ing to the summit conference. That series raised 
doubts as to whether the Soviets want genuine 
settlement or desire a summit conference for other 
political and propaganda purposes. They seem 
to wish a conference that would give the world a 



' Ibid., May 19, 1958, p. 816. 
60 



fictitious impression of agreement which would 
lead to a relaxation of the intent of free-world 
nations to remain strong and imited. 

Where We Stand in the War of Iddas 

I should like to conclude with a few observa- 
tions as to where we stand in the psychological 
field. 

There is no question of the great importance of 
winning the war of ideas. To do so we need to 
increase our effort and skill. We need to keep 
the psychological impact of our actions ever more 
in mind. We need to take additional actions 
that will produce an effect in the minds of men. 
We need to augment our long-range programs, 
such as the exchange of students, professors, and 
leaders of opinion. We need to find better ways 
to get the message of our life and ideas across to 
the peoples behind the Iron Curtain, particularly 
the Soviet peoples. 

But, as we measure results, I think we should 
bear in mind what Secretary Dulles has said, that 
we are seeking not to be liked but to be respected. 
It is not easy for a powerful and wealthy country 
to be liked. No one, they say, likes a millionaire. 
But it is possible for a powerful and wealthy 
country to be respected. We Americans are too 
preoccupied that we are not better liked by other 
peoples. I think, in fact, we are better liked than 
we realize. Too often we take too seriously for- 
eign editorial comment brought in by the news 
agencies as representing foreign public opinion. 
But the essential is that we be respected so that 
our policies may find adequate support. And I 
believe we have the respect of the foreign govern- 
ments with whom we have to deal. 

I believe that one factor in our favor is that 
there is a basic suspicion among other peoples, 
particularly among educated peoples, of what the 
Soviet Union does and says. I am convinced 
there is more disposition to place credence in our 
actions and words than in those of the Soviet 
Union. This is invariably reflected in voting in 
the United Nations. 

I believe also that other peoples are more in- 
clined to rely on American promises. Many 
peoples have had bitter experience with Soviet 
promises. 

Most people, too, have at least a reasonably good 
idea that in the United States the dignity of the 

Department of State Bulletin 



individual is more respected than in the Soviet 
Union. They feel that here there is devotion to 
the ideal of human freedom. Here there is re- 
spect for humanity and human life. 

Our own press speaks all too fi'equently of So- 
viet propaganda victories. Let us remember that 
in recent years they have had propaganda dis- 
astei-s of major proportions. The uprisings in 
East Berlin and East Germanj' were one. The 
spontaneous revolt in Hungary and its brutal re- 
pression was another. The gradual drawing away 
of Poland was another. The breaking away of 
Yugoslavia was another. The constant flow of 
refugees from East Europe to West Europe, flee- 



ing from Communist rule to freedom, is still an- 
other. A few days ago we had one more in the 
execution of former Hungarian Premier Nagy and 
the other Hungarian leaders. And within the 
Soviet Union the biggest disaster of all is yet to 
come as an irreversible trend of questioning of the 
Communist ideology grows and expresses itself as 
the people become more educated. 

The struggle on this battlefield of ideas may go 
on for many years. But I believe that at any mo- 
ment of major crisis we can count on the under- 
standing of the majority of the peoples of the 
world and on the support of the governments 
whose help we need. 



Problems Facing the United States and the Western World 



FoUoioing is the transcnpt of an inierview re- 
corded at Washington between Secretary Dulles 
and Edgar Mclnnis, president of the Canadian 
Institute of International Affairs, which was tele- 
cast hy the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 
on June 23 and carried on CBC Radio on the 
same day. 

Press release 347 dated June 23 

Mr. Mclnnis: Mr. Secretary, it's a little over 5 
years since you took office, and quite a number 
of things have happened in that time. Stalin 
has gone doton, and Sputnik has gone up. We 
have had an uprising in Hungary and a number 
of other disturbing episodes. Do you think that 
has changed the basic problem that is facing the 
United States and the Western World? 

Secretary Dulles: No, the basic problem, Mr. 
Mclnnis, is the problem created by communism, 
international communism, and its creed. Now, 
that hasn't changed, and the people who are run- 
ning the Soviet Union and tlie Soviet-bloc coun- 
tries, generally they are guided by a creed, and 
that hasn't changed. The creed is to dominate 
the world, and, while different personalities are 
called on to carry this out and while they have 
different techniques, the basic problem remains 
just the same. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Noio, the Soviet Union has been 
shifting both the focus of attack and the means 

July 14, 1958 

471294—58 3 



that it has used. Do you think that we need to 
change our methods of approach in the light of 
those circumstances? 

Secretary Dulles : I think undoubtedly so. The 
Soviet Union has changed its methods very 
largely because we have blocked them off by 
what you might call the military method. Up 
until 1950 or thereabouts, during that postwar pe- 
riod of 5 years, they largely used the military 
method, and, as we built a military network of 
mutual security treaties all about the Sino-Soviet 
bloc, protecting the free nations there, they have 
found it less and less profitable to use the military 
method. Also, as their economy has developed 
and become stronger, they have relied more and 
more upon economic offensive — political-economic 
offensive — and we must take that into account, of 
course. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Do you think that has made it 
more difficult for us to grasp the initiative — this 
new variety from the Soviet side? 

Secretary Dulles: I think that there has been a 
little tendency on our part to stick too much with 
the military, as though that was the only reply 
that was required, and perhaps we haven't shifted 
as rapidly as we should have to meet this new 
political-economic offensive. But I think we are 
doing it pretty well now, and indeed there is no 
reason why we shouldn't do it very well because 



61 



that is more in line with our practices and our 
past tliinking, our capabilities, than the military 
is. 

Mr. Mclnnis : Sir, I was thinking of something 
you said earlier in the month,'^ that we are not 
drifting rudderless on the sea of change — we are 
guiding and influencing the course of change. 

Secretary Dulles: I think that we are. As I 
said at that time, the world is undergoing im- 
mense changes. You had this whole changeover 
from the colonial system to widespread inde- 
pendence of the 20 new nations and 700 million 
people since World War II. You're having the 
change that comes from the splitting of the atom 
and new sources of power. You have the change 
that comes from the fact that for the first time 
the world and man can use outer space. All 
these changes are coming, and we must adapt our- 
selves to them. 

Mr. Mclnnis : Now, on the political implications 
there, however, sir, ioha.t examples looxdd you 
give of places where %oe definitely hold the ini- 
tiative and are able to influence the course of 
events in that way? 

Secretary Dulles: Well, I think that we liave 
the initiative in almost all of the free world and 
that that initiative is being challenged in certain 
places, as in the Middle East, perhaps in Indo- 
nesia, and in certain areas of Asia. I feel that in 
the main we do have the initiative. I think that 
almost all of the free-world countries would 
rather continue to be in the free world. But 
some of them get attracted to the other world by 
the fact that they have problems — you might say 
quarrels, perhaps — of their own, and they feel that 
by going on the other side, at least temporarily, 
they can get advantages to help them in what 
seems a very important matter. And they some- 
times dally with communism in a way which we 
think risks their independence. They think they 
can do it without risk to their independence, and 
in that respect the Soviet Union has in certain 
spots gained certain advantages. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Of course, in that area too, sir, 
there is a nationalism that isn't directly connected 
with communism, although corrmvunism can some- 



' For a statement by Secretary Dulles on Jiine 6 before 
the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, see Bulletin 
of June 23, 1958, p. 1035. 



times profit hy it. Doesn't that present a different 
facet? 

Secretary Dulles: Well, you know, back in 1924 
Stalin made a lecture on what he called the prob- 
lem of nationalism. And he explained there that 
the Soviet Communist technique would be to 
develop extreme nationalism to the point of 
causing some of these countries to break their 
relations with the West ; and, having used extreme 
nationalism to break their relations with the West, 
then they would be ripe to be, as he put it, amalga- 
mated in the Soviet bloc. And you can see that 
technique in operation. They whip up extreme 
nationalism to get countries to break relations 
with the West, as is evident in how independent 
they are and in the fact that in the process they 
destroy their own independence because, as we all 
say now— Harold Macmillan has picked the theme 
up very much — independence today depends upon 
interdependence. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Well, there have been occasions 
recently, Pm afraid, where the willingness to ac- 
cept interdependence or to show any great affection 
for the West, and particularly for the United 
States, has not been ver'y evident, has it, in Latin 
America, in the Middle East? 

Secretary Dulles: There are places where there 
ai-e outbursts against the United States and where 
the radio and controlled press for various reasons 
are antagonistic to the United States. We deplore 
those things, and perhaps we can do more — I'm 
sure we can do more — to prevent them, but some 
of these — 

Adapting Our Methods to Changing Conditions 

Mr. Mclnnis: Well, may I ask this, sir? Thai 
is what I was getting at. Do we need a reappraisal 
of our methods? What more should loe be doing 
to effect this? 

Secretary Dulles: Well, our basic methods, I 
think, are sound enough. We don't need to change 
our methods. I do think we need to vitalize our 
methods and be sure that they are better adapted 
to changing conditions. We can't be stereotyped 
in these things. We have got to recognize that 
changing conditions involve changing methods; 
but from the beginning of our history — at least 
it's so stated in the opening paragraph of The 



62 



Departmenf of Sfale BulleHn 



4 Federalist papers — it seems to have been reserved 
'. to the Americjin people by their conduct and 
' example to demonstrate to the rest of the world 
what can be done with a free society. And that 
basic concept still prevails. It's still up to us to 
demonstrate to the rest of the world, to persuade 
them. But, in a tactical way, we have always 
sought to improve our methods, and should. And 
it is particularly right to do it at a time when our 
methods are being perhaps misinterpreted by 
Communist propaganda. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Pm 7'emind.ed again, coming 
bach to the Middle East, of a prescription from 
one State Department officer a lohile ago that 
^'■masterly inactivity^'' teas about the best policy for 
the moment. Well, it is pretty hard to make in- 
activity masterly at the best times, and I don't 
know whether circumstances have allowed us to 
take a more vigorous stand. 

Secretary Dulles: That is a good point, that in- 
activity is seldom masterly. But there is another 
fact, which is — and I have learned that through 
L a long life of experience in international affairs — 
' doing the right thing at the right time. That is 
the essential thing. The right thing at the wrong 
time often fails. You have got to time yourself 
right. And there may be occasions when it is 
better to wait and get the right timing rather than 
to rush in with the right thing at the wrong time. 

Prospects for Easing Tensions 

Mr. Mclnnis : Yes. In addition to this positive 
winning over of our friends to a greater solidarity, 
there is, of course, the other aspect of tidying to ease 
the Soviet pressure by an easing of tension. Do 
you see much prospect of an easing of tension at 
the present time? 

Secretary Dulles : I'm sorry to say that I do not. 
The Soviet leaders all the time are talking about 
I easing tensions. They are always attacking me 
because they don't think I properly understand 
them. But they also, I'm sorry to say, are con- 
stantly doing the things that seem to prove that 
I was right after all. And when you see a shock- 
ing thing like this murder of, this so-called execu- 
tion of Nagy, and so forth, and the Hungarian 
revolt of a year and a half ago, their refusal even 
to talk about the reunification of Germany, al- 



though we agreed 2 years ago that there was a 
close link between the reunification of Germany 
and European security, and surely there is, but 
they say they won't even talk about it — so I don't 
see any actual demonstration on their part of a 
desire to relieve tensions. And I don't think it's 
really compatible with their basic doctrine to do 
so. 

Mr. Mclnnis: You did suggest a while ago that 
there were certain carefully negotiated agree- 
ments, sucJi as the Austrian treaty and the cultural 
exchange, that could be followed up in other ways. 
Do you think there are any of those that could 
even smooth over perhaps soTue of the antagonism 
vnthout perhaps touching the basic issues that you 
liave mentioned? 

Secretary Dulles: I believe that there are areas 
perhaps in the field of armament where we could 
have some useful agreements. And I think the 
most useful field for agreement would be to set 
up some of these areas of inspection against mas- 
sive surprise attack. This proposal that we made 
in the Security Council a month or so ago,^ which 
was strongly supported by the Canadian Govern- 
ment, for having such an inspection zone over 
the polar areas — now, that really was something 
vei-y constructive. We really hoped, and indeed 
up until the last minute believed, that something 
might be done with that. And I don't give up hope 
that things like that can be done. Now, I see in 
things of that sort perhaps the best immediate 
chance of doing something that will relieve tension 
because it will take away fear. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Is trade another field lohere there 
is any possibility? 

Secretary Dulles: I don't think that there is a 
great possibility of relieving tensions through 
trade. You see, the Soviet Union and the Com- 
munist bloc generally believe that trade is an 
instrumentality of politics. Khrushchev has said 
that in trade he is more interested in politics than 
he is in the economic aspects of it, and I believe 
that their trade is really an instrument of national 
policy and therefore does not provide a very good 
way for relieving tensions. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Well, it looks then, doesn't it, as 
though we were going to have to face a two-power 



' Ibid., May 19, 1958, p. 816. 



July 14, 1958 



63 



icorld for a very considerable time if we carCt 
make any substantial bridge that will bring us 
closer together? 

Secretary Dulles: I think tliat that is probable. 
Certainly we would be very ill advised to base 
our programs on the tlieory that this was a short 
struggle. Now, there are forces at work within 
the Soviet bloc which may lead to a modification 
of Commimist policy and lead it to concentrate 
more uiwn promoting the welfare of the peoples 
within that bloc and less upon promoting the sys- 
tem all over the world. When that comes, then 
there will be a very great possibility of better 
relations. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Well, that is a fairly long-range 
problem, isn't it? Ifs not going to happen right 
away. 

Secretary Dulles: It isn't going to happen right 
away. But I think nobody can say with con- 
fidence that it might not happen soon. I don't 
say we should count on this happening soon, but, 
when you think of the kaleidoscopic changes that 
have gone on within terms of personality within 
the Soviet bloc, I think it's quite conceivable that 
you can have someone there wlio would put more 
emphasis upon the welfare of the bloc peoples, 
ujjon the Soviet peoples, and less emphasis upon 
this external adventure business. As I say, it 
could come about soon. I don't think it's likely 
to because it would involve a certain departure 
from the basic CJommunist creed, but that creed 
is sufficiently flexible so it can be warped a bit, 
you know, in one direction or another. 

Pragmatic Formula for Recognition 

Mr. Mclnnis: Vm wondering whether — because 
loe dislike the present situation so much — wliether 
we are almost unconsciously waiting for some- 
thing like tlmt to happen, instead of saying, well, 
there is going to be a Communist China for quite 
a while, there is going to be an East Germany be- 
cause of the Raissian stand, and at least adapting 
ourselves for pragmatic purposes to the situation 
as it is today. 

Secretary Dulles: Well, I don't mind adapting 
myself for pragmatic reasons to the situation that 
exists. But what is a pragmatic reason ? A prag- 
matic reason is presumably a reason which is go- 
ing to serve your purposes and get you somewhere. 



If you're talking about, for instance, recognizing 
Communist China, I can't see that it gets you any- 
where to do so. There is no doubt but that it is a 
fact, but I question whether — when you magnify 
it youi-self by giving it more influence and power 
and when it is hostile to you — that is meeting a 
pragmatic test. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Is there any parallel there to 
recognizing governments in South America that 
we don^t like very much either? 

Secretary Dulles: We recognize governments 
oftentimes whether we like them or not, but the 
primary consideration, I think, in terms of recog- 
nition, is: Will recognition serve to advance the 
interest of your own country ? Recognition is not 
a right. No group has a right to be recognized. 
We did not recognize the puppet governments 
that were set up in Europe during the war. They 
were de facto governments. We did not recog- 
nize the puppet government that the Japanese set 
up in China, although it was in effective control. 
Why ? Because it didn't serve our interests to do 
it. And I think you are entitled to take into ac- 
count whether these things will actually serve 
your interest or not. I accept the pragmatic for- 
mula which you suggested. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Yes, sir. Pm just wondering, 
in the light of this picture, whether there is any 
chance for a coexistence of sorts that will enable 
us to get along with this pragmatic situation that 
we have? 

Secretary Didles: Well, I believe we are going 
to go on existing together. I believe that the way 
to do that best is not to have to pay tribute for 
it. Wliat will we have to pay for coexistence? 
We have to pay a lot in terms of having an effec- 
tive defense establishment, in terms of financing 
and backing mutual security programs and the 
like, but we shouldn't pay one cent as tribute. 
We have an old saying here, you know, "Millions 
for defense, but not one cent for tribute." Once 
you begin paying tribute, and once you have to 
say to the Soviets, "All right, if you will allow us 
to coexist with you, we will make this concession 
or we will make that concession," that moment 
you are lost. 

Mr. Mclnnis: But I was7i't thinking in. quite 
those terms, rather in terms of perhaps nnodify- 
ing some of the things that we have suggested and 



64 



Department of State Bulletin 



going a little farther at least to test out the wUl- 
H ingness of Russia to make soine kind of a response 
in disarmament; for example, in even suspension 
of nuclear tests, could we go a little farther than 
we have done? 

Secretary Dulles: Well, I think we liave gone 
quite a wa3'S. Now, you know, we are sending 
our experts over to Geneva to be there on the first 
of July to talk about the technical requirements 
to suspend testing. We have made all sorts of pro- 
posals about setting up these areas of inspection 
aixainst surprise attack. I think we are pretty 
tlexible in this field of armament. And, of course, 
as far as the reunification of Germany is con- 
cerned, we have made also a whole series of pro- 
posals there designed to make it clear that reuni- 
fication would not increase the military peril to 
the Soviet Union. They say now, in the last note 
of Mr. Khrushchev, it's an insult to them to sug- 
gest that they need any protection. But there is 
a certain inconsistency, I think, in their point that 
they don't want to have Germany reunified in 
XATO because that would increase their danger 
and then saying they don't want to have any pro- 
tection against that danger because they are so 
powerful they can take care of it themselves. 

Mr. Mclnnis: If this is the basis for coexist- 
ence, xoe obviously must have to maintain our cur- 
rent strength, as you suggest. How long can we 
go on? Are there not signs of relaxing lohen the 
pressure of immediate fear is removed? 

Secretary Dulles : Yes. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Would perhaps negotiation itself 
fend to relax the guard of the West? 

Secretary Dulles: Well, I think undoubtedly 
one of the motivations back of the Soviet leaders' 
demand for a summit conference is the hope that 
by getting there and exchanging platitudinous 
words of good will the impression would be cre- 
ated in the democratic countries that the danger 
was over and therefore they did not need to spend 
more money for defense and mutual security and 
the like, whereas in the case of the Soviet Union, 
where the Government actually is not dependent 
upon popular support, they could go on just the 
same. And that is one of the dangers we have to 
look out for. But I think, in general, there is no 
reason to assume that the free-world nations can- 
not maintain for a long time an adequate military 



deterrent. After all, they have an industrial pro- 
ductivity many times that of the Soviet Union and 
the relative burden upon them is much less than 
upon the Soviet Union. 

A Growing Free-World Community 

Mr. Mclnnis : I was not thinking of capacity so 
much, sir, as of will and of a determined realiza- 
tion that this loas necessary. And that made me 
wonder whether, if the danger of im,mediate at- 
tack diminishes, you don't want something more 
positive in its place in the way of a binding force, 
a sense of co7nmunity within. Is that growing 
within — 

Secretary Dulles: A community within the free 
world ? 

Mr. Mclnnis: Within the free world, and par- 
ticularly within the Atlantic world. 

Secretary Dulles: I figure it is growing. And 
we certainly need it. There is no doubt about that. 
Of course, one of the hardest things, a thing that 
has in the past often been regarded as impossible, 
is to hold together an alliance when the danger 
of immediate attack or when the existence of ac- 
tual war is over. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Yes. 

Secretary Dulles: At the last meeting at Copen- 
hagen we expressed there the sentiment which was 
held by all of the members, that by developing 
NATO as a place where there was consultation 
and exchange of views we were creating something 
there. It was not just a military defensive or- 
ganization. We were creating something new, al- 
most, in history in drawing nations together — and 
independent nations— but nations who had enough 
regard for each other's views so that we sat down 
and talked over our problems together. And that 
is a very important problem. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Lord Montgomery suggested a 
short time ago we were still thinking of NATO''s 
purposes as a military deterrent and now we were 
being outflanked by economic infiltration in other 
areas and that we really hadnH a policy for that. 

Secretary Dulles: Well, in the military sense I 
think we have pretty well coped with the situation. 
Now, of course, economic-political offensives don't 
have any necessary geographical boundaries. You 
can conduct those things at a distance. You can 



Ju/y 74, 1958 



65 



leapfrog — ^go over the military lines. And there 
is certainly an intensification of that kind of a 
campaign. It's really nothing new. It has been 
planned by the Soviet Union for a long time, but 
they have only recently had a sufficient break- 
through in their own economic and industrial sit- 
uation to be able to do that very effectively. 

I notice that Stalin, in a speech he made nearly 
20 years ago, said that in their foreign policy 
their primary reliance was upon their growing 
economic, political, and cultural strength. He put 
that as number-one 20 years ago. And they are 
doing that. And I think that we ourselves have 
got to be more responsive than we have been to 
meet that. But I think we have got to be more 
responsive, not only to meet tlie Soviet threat but 
to meet the new conditions of the world. We 
should be meeting them even if there wasn't a 
Communist threat. 

Canada's Role in the Western Alliance 

Mr. Mclnnis: Noio, Canada of course is ex- 
tremely interested in this., sir. We sometimes 
wonder what our position is. Are we simply 
auxiliaries, or do ive have a special role in the 
Western alliance? 

Secretary Dulles: Well, Canada has a special 
role in a niunber of respects. Of course, from a 
military standpoint, Canada, occupying the north- 
em portion of this continent, has an extremely 
important part to play. The nations of Europe, 
basing themselves on past history, think, if 
another war should start, they would be the first 
targets. I think some of us feel that, if another 
war were to start, it could be over the Pole, and 
indeed Ivhrushchev suggested that in one of his 
recent messages. 

In Canada, as one of the members of NATO 
which is on this side of the Atlantic with the 
United States, we have a special role together to 
point out to our European friends that the danger 
is not just to them, that we have got some prob- 
lems over here. And we would be glad, on our 
side, to help point that out. 

Mr. Mclnnis: We feel, of course, that we have a 
responsibility too. In fact, sometimes we feel our 
responsibility is a good deal larger than our influ- 
ence. Is Canada listened to, for example? 

Secretary Dxilles : I can assure you that at every 
meeting that I have been to, whether it is at the 



United Nations or NATO, Canada is listened to. 
Now, we are in some organizations where, un- 
fortunately, Canada isn't — the Organization of 
American States and many of our Pacific organiza- 
tions — so that we have certain responsibilities in 
certain parts of the world that Canada doesn't 
share with us. But wherever we are sharing them 
together, the voice of Canada is heard — 

Mr. Mclnnis: Well, we occasionally — 

Secretary Dulles: — and heeded. 

Mr. Mclnnis : Thank you, sir. We occasionally 
have, of course, some differences of approach with 
the United States. Have we ever managed to 
change the American point of view or the Ameri- 
can decision? 

Secretary Dulles: You have, indeed. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Could you give us examples? 

Secretary Dulles: Let's take the most contro- 
versial thing, perhaps, of all — that is our wheat 
disposal policy. Now, I know that doesn't work 
to your complete satisfaction. But I do know 
this, that we do have a system whereby we talk 
these things over together and that has resulted 
in a very considerable modification of our prac- 
tices. As I say, we don't quite meet your view- 
point, but I can say that the way we act in that 
matter is totally different from what it would be 
if we did not have Canada as a partner with whom 
we talked these problems over. It would be catas- 
trophic to you if we didn't pay attention to some 
of your views. 

Mr. Mclnnis: It could he, very definitely, and 
sometijnes, of course, we feel we come down here 
and get pretty dusty answers on tariffs and even 
on wheat disposal, although I recognise that some 
of that is not directly the administration hut Con- 
gress. And the problem of Congress in our rela- 
tions is a vei'y real one to tis. 

Secretary Dulles: Well, we have problems with 
the Congress ; even the State Department occasion- 
ally has problems with the Congress. 

Mr. Mclnnis: You sometimes have to negotiate 
with the Senate as a foreign power almost? 

Secretary Dulles: We have problems with the 
Congress. But I do believe this, that by and large, 
if you look at what Congress has done over recent 
years— the past 30 or 40 years — I think you will 



66 



Qepattment of Sfafe Bulletin 



feel that Congress has followed in the main pretty 
enlightened policies. There has never been any 
country in the history of the world which has done 
as much over these recent years, I think, as the 
United States has done and has done it in all cases 
with the basic approval of the Congress. And, 
while we have our differences, I am not one to say 
that Congress has not also in the main been pretty 
enlightened. We struggle along, but we generally 
come out with a reasonable result. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Well, we have been trying to find 
some way that xoill give us an assuraiwe, for ex- 
ample, against a repetition of the Norman case^ 
and we don't seem to he able to get anything very 
definite there, apparently again because of this 
separation of powers. 

Secretary Dulles : That is quite true. The Exec- 
utive cannot give a promise which is binding on 
the Congress. Now, under your parliamentary 
system, where your Executive is identified with 
and a part of a parliamentary majority, you can 
do these things much more easily ; but, as you point 
out, the separation of powers in our Government 
makes those things more difficult for us. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Isn't it, however, froin, our point 
of view, rather an obligation on the part of t) 
administration to use its influence where it has no 
actual constitutional authority? Influence must 
certainly be substituted. 

Secretary Dulhs: I think that the facts are that 
we do do that. Now, sometimes influence is more 
effective if it isn't published. But I think you 
can be confident that our influence with the Con- 
gress is exerted in ways of which you would ap- 
prove. 

Mr. Mclnnis: Is there anything, sir, tliat we 
should be doing on our part to keep good relations 
going? We try to be self -critical on this. 

Secretary Dulles: Well, let me say this, Mr. Mc- 
lnnis. I would not myself have any complaint 
against Canada that I want to voice. We have 
our little differences, and we talk them over quietly 
and privately. But, by and large, the policies of 
Canada and the United States, I believe, go along 
in parallel lines side by side, and in all the big 
issues we are together. 



Mr. Mclnnis: Thank you very much, sir. This 
has been most kind. 



United States and India Sign 
$75 Million Loan Agreements 

Press release 346 dated June 23 

Negotiations implementing the United States 
decision, which was announced at Washington on 
March 4,^ to extend loans to India totaling $225 
million for use in connection with that coimtry's 
economic development program were completed on 
June 23 with the sig:iing at Washington and New 
Delhi of U.S. Development Loan Fund agree- 
ments aggregating $75 million. An earlier agree- 
ment, signed at Washington Jmie 12, between the 
United States and India had previously made 
available the initial loan of $150 million of this 
program through the Export-Import Bank of 
Washington. 

At Washington on June 23 Dempster Mcintosh, 
manager of the Development Loan Fund, for the 
United States, and H. Dayal, Charge d'Affaires of 
the Indian Embassy, for his Government, signed 

^-million DLF loan agreement to help finance 
railw^improvement in India. Mr. INIcIntosli, in 
signing the agreements, indicated that this loan 
will permit the procurement of steel to produce 
approximately 20,000 freight cars, 300 steam loco- 
motives, 2,500 underframes, and other facilities. 
The rolling stock will be manufactured prin- 
cipally in privately owned plants. 

At the same time at New Delhi, U.S. Ambassa- 
dor Ellsworth Bunker and India's Finance Min- 
ister, Morarji Desai, signed a loan agreement 
making available an additional $35 million in 
DLF funds to help India finance development 
projects in road transportation and the cement and 
jute industries, all of which will be in the private 
sector. Of this amount, $25 million will be used 
to finance the acquisition of approximately 16,000 
tmcks, jeeps, and buses, or components for their 
manufacture; $5 million for equipment to expand 
India's cement industry ; and $5 million for equip- 
ment to modernize and expand India's jute in- 
dustry. 



'For background, see ibid., Apr. 29, 1957, p. 694, and 
Sept. 2, m.jT, p. 384. 



' Bulletin of Mar. 24, 1958, p. 464. 



July 14, 1958 



67 



Funds Appropriated for Building 
Panama Canal Bridge 

Press release 352 dated June 25 

Fulfillment of another important U.S. treaty 
commitment to the Kej^ublic of Panama has been 
assured with enactment of legislation apjjropriat- 
ing an additional $19,250,000 to build a high-level 
bridge over the Pacific end of the Panama Canal. 
Under the provisions of the treaty of 1955 with 
Panama,^ the Government of the United States 
agreed to seek the legislative authorization and 
necessary appropriations for construction of a 
bridge at Balboa, Canal Zone. 

Preliminary work on the bridge began last year 
with the appropriation of $750,000, after its con- 
struction was authorized by the act of July 23, 
1956. The new moneys will enable actual con- 
struction to proceed on the bridge, which will join 
eastern and western Panama and eventually form 
an important link in the Pan American Highway 
system. 

The $19,250,000 item was included in the appro- 
priation bill for the Department of Commerce 
and related agencies for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1959, which the President signed on 
June 25. 



U.S. Lends $2,300,000 to Ecuador 
for Inter- American Conference 

Press release 360 dated June 27 

The U.S. Government announced on June 27 
a loan of $2,300,000 to Ecuador to help finance 
dollar costs of construction materials and equip- 
ment for an assembly haU and other facilities for 
the Eleventh Inter-American Conference to be 
held at Quito, Ecuador, late in 1959 or early in 
1960. After the conference the hall and facilities 
will be used by the Ecuadoran Government. At a 
ceremony held in the Department of State, Eoy E. 
Kubottom, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Inter- 
American Affairs, and Dr. Jose E. Chiriboga, Am- 
bassador of Ecuador, exchanged diplomatic notes 
constituting a loan agreement between the two 
Governments. The loan is being made by the In- 
ternational Cooperation Administration. 



The Inter- American Conference is the supreme 
organ of the Organization of American States and 
is usually attended by the foreign ministers of the 
21 American Eepublics. The Tenth Inter- Ameri- 
can Conference was held at Caracas, Venezuela, 
in 1954. At that meeting Ecuador suggested that 
it be designated as host for the next Inter- Ameri- 
can Conference, and this suggestion was accepted 
by the other American states. 



United States To Send Wheat 
to Lebanon 

Press release 362 dated June 27 

The Department of State announced on June 
27 that the United States will send 65,000 tons of 
wheat to Lebanon to relieve an emergency food 
situation there due to crop losses from drought. 

An agreement under which the U.S. wheat will 
be made available was signed on June 27 by Nadim 
Dimechkie, the Lebanese Ambassador. The grain, 
which will come from surplus stocks of the U.S. 
Commodity Credit Corporation, will be supplied 
to Lebanon under the emergency provisions of title 
II, Public Law 480, the Agricultural Trade De- 
velopment and Assistance Act. 

Arrangements are now being made by the Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration to ship the 
grain to Lebanon in the soonest time possible. 



United States and Ceylon Sign 
Development Loan Fund Agreement 

The Department of State announced on June 24 
(press release 348) that the Development Loan 
Fund on that date made available $1.6 million to 
Ceylon to help finance irrigation and land-devel- 
opment projects and to repair damages caused by 
recent floods. 

A formal agreement lending the funds to Cey- 
lon was signed for that Government by E. S. S. 
Gmiewardene, Ambassador of Ceylon, and for the 
United States by Dempster Mclntosli, manager of 
the Development Loan Fund. Authorization for 
this loan had been announced on May 20, 1958.^ 
The loan is repayable over a period of 20 years. 



' For text of the Treaty of Mutual Understanding and 
Cooperation, see Bulletin of Feb. 7, 1955, p. 238. 



68 



' Bulletin of June 23, 1958, p. 1055. 

Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



U.S. Loan To Help Greece 
Build Fertilizer Plant 

Press release S44 dated June 23 

The Development Loan Fund aimounced on 
June 23 that it has agreed to lend $12 million to 
assist Greece in establishing a nitrogenous ferti- 
lizer plant which has been one of the highest pri- 
ority projects proposed under the new 5-year de- 
velopment program of the Greek Government. 

The plant, for which Greece requested U.S. as- 
sistance, will utilize the lignite deposits being 
mined at Ptolemais in northern Greece in one of 
the most underdeveloped areas of the country. 
It is expected to provide 1,000 jobs directly in the 
factory, save on imports up to $15 million annu- 
ally in foreign exchange, and provide low-cost 
fertilizer to the Greek farmer. The plant will be 
operated by power generated at a new thermal 
station being built by the Public Service Corpora- 
tion of Greece to draw on the indigenous lignite 
deposits as a source of power. 

Estimated annual production of 75,000 tons of 
fixed nitrogen, or the equivalent of 300,000 tons of 
finished nitrogen-based fertilizers, is expected to 
meet Greece's immediate demands for this type of 
fertilizer. Production will include 25,000 tons 
each of ammonium sulphate and ammonium ni- 
trate-cal and 5,000 tons of liquid ammonia. The 
total capacity will provide almost all of Greece's 
estimated requirements of 77,000 tons of fixed ni- 
trogen by 1960. At present virtually all of 
Greece's fixed nitrogen has to be imported. 

The DLF funds will assist in the financing of 
the foreign-exchange costs necessary to construct 
the plant. The loan, the first for Greece under the 
new DLF program, would be repayable in Greek 
currency over a period of 12 years. Negotiations 
are now proceeding to conclude arrangements for 
formal si<rning of a loan agreement. 



President Suspends Consideration 
of Lead and Zinc Tariffs 

White House press release dated June 19 

The President announced on June 19 that he 
was suspending his consideration at this time of 
the recommendations of the U.S. Tariff Com- 



mission in the escape-clause case involving lead 
and zinc. 

A final decision would be appropriate, the 
President said, after the Congress completed its 
consideration of the minerals stabilization plan 
presentetl with his approval by the Secretary of 
the Interior. Early action by the Congress on 
this plan, which offers a moi"e effective approach to 
the problems of the lead and zinc industries, would 
help assure a healthy and vigorous minerals in- 
dustry in the United States. 

The President set forth his conclusion in iden- 
tical letters to the chairmen of the House Ways 
and Means and Senate Finance Committees. 

Letter to Chairmen of Congressional Committees > 

June 19, 1958 

Dear Mr. Chairman : Under Section 7 of the 
Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951, as 
amended, the United States Tariff Commission 
reported to me on April 24, 1958, its finding that 
the domestic producers of lead and zinc were ex- 
periencing serious injury. The Commission was 
evenly divided on its recommendation for re- 
medial action. Three of the Commissioners 
recommended maximum increases in tariffs with 
quantitative limitations. The other three Com- 
missioners recommended an increase in tariffs to 
the 1930 rates without quantitative limitations of 
any kind. 

I am suspending my consideration of these rec- 
ommendations at this time. A final decision will 
be appropriate after the Congress has completed 
its consideration during this session of the pro- 
posed Minerals Stabilization Plan which was sub- 
mitted by the Secretary of the Interior with my 
approval. This Plan offers a more effective ap- 
proach to the problems of the domestic lead and 
zinc industries, and in view of their urgent needs, 
it is hoped that the Congress will act expeditiously 
on this Plan to help assure a healthy and vigorous 
minerals industry in the United States. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



' Addressed to Harry Flood Byrd, chairman of the 
Senate Committee on Finance, and Wilbur D. Mills, 
chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee. 



July 14, 1958 



69 



THE CONGRESS 



President Asks for Congressional Approval of Agreement 
With European Atomic Energy Community 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the 
Department of State annomiced on Jime 23 
(press release 345) that President Eisenhower 
had on that day transmitted to Congress and 
asked early approval of an international agree- 
ment between the United States and the Euro- 
pean Atomic Energy Community (EUR ATOM) .^ 
Under the United States Atomic Energy Act, 
congressional approval of this instrument is nec- 
essary prior to entering into a U.S.-EURATOM 
agreement for cooperation, which woidd embrace 
a one-million-kilowatt joint program of nuclear 
power development. 

This program involves the construction by 1963 
in the six EURATOM countries— Belgium, 
France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, 
Luxembourg, and the Netherlands — of approxi- 
mately six large-scale nuclear power plants based 
on United States-type reactors. This would pro- 
vide sufficient electrical generating capacity to 
meet the power requirements of more than 5 mil- 
lion people in the EURATOM area. 

In submitting the international agreement the 
President sent a special message to Congress de- 
scribing the importance of this imdertaking to the 
United States and EURATOM. The proposed 
cooperative program would open the way to using 
nuclear power in Western Europe to help meet 
their rising demands for energy. 

As current costs of electric power in Europe 
are higher than in the United States, nuclear 
power will be economical earlier there than in the 



' For text of a joint statement released at Wasbington 
and Luxembourg on Apr. 3, 1958, at the conclusion of 
meetings of a joint U.S.-EURATOM working party, see 
Bulletin of Apr. 28, 1958, p. 709. 



United States. Thus the experience gained 
through the construction and operation of nuclear 
plants based on reactors of United States design 
will be an important factor in accelerating the de- 
velopment of nuclear power in the United States. 
Maximum support by industry in this country and 
in the EURATOM nations is considered essential 
to the success of the venture. 

In addition, this program should contribute 
substantially to the success of EURATOM with 
resultant increase in the strength and solidarity 
among the free nations of the world. Coopera- 
tion with Europe to the end of continuing eco- 
nomic growth has long been a major element of 
United States foreign policy. The joint nuclear 
power program with EURATOM is expected to 
provide new horizons for further economic and 
social advances in an integrated Europe. The 
United States welcomed the formation of the 
European Atomic Energy Community as an im- 
portant step toward this goal. 

With the approval of the President, the United 
States began in January 1958 to explore the pos- 
sibility of reaching agreement with EURATOM 
on a program under which existing utilities in the 
EURATOM nations would build and operate nu- 
clear power plants using equipment produced in 
the United States and the EURATOM area. The 
program worked out involves a joint research and 
development effort., availability of enriched re- 
actor fuel from the United States, mutually satis- 
factory safeguards and controls so that both 
EURATOM and the United States may be as- 
sured of the peaceful purposes of the joint pro- 
gram, and long-term credits to EURATOM. 

The establishment and initiation of the cooper- 
ative program are subject to several statutory 
steps of which the international agreement is the 
first. Following approval of this agreement, an 



70 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



agieeinent for cooperation with EURATOM in- 
corporating tlw details of the plan will be placed 
formally before the Joint Committee on Atomic 
Energy. Congressional approval of authoriza- 
tion and appropriation of funds and certain other 
enabling legislation will also be required for the 
United States to carry out its share of the joint 
program. 

The competent bodies of the EUEATOM Com- 
munity (the EURATOM Commission and the 
EURATOM Council of Ministers) already have 
taken their necessary statutoiy actions. 

The President in his message to the Congress 
stressed the urgency in launching this cooperative 
effort in the peaceful uses of the atom as soon as 
possible. In the face of challenges to the West, 
this program offers heartening evidence of the 
fundamental unity of purpose for the common 
good wliich exists among the free nations of the 
world today and illustrates our basic desire to 
concentrate on harnessing the atom for peaceful 
purposes. 

Attached is an outline of the proposed program. 

Outline of Proposed United States — EURATOM 
Program 

A. Objectives 

1. The aim of the joint program will be to bring into 
operation in the Community by 1963 about one million elec- 
tric kilowatts of installed nuclear capacity, in reactors 
of proven types developed in the United States, and to 
initiate immediately a joint research and develojiment pro- 
gram centered on those reactors. The program would be 
conducted so as to obtain maximum support of the in- 
dustries of the Community and of the United States. 
Their active participation is indispensable to the success 
of the program. 

B. Major Features 

1. The total capital cost, exclusive of fuel, is estimated 
not to exceed $350 million. These funds will be provided 
for by the participating utilities and other European 
sources of capital, such financing to be arranged with the 
appropriate assistance of EURATOM. Up to $135 million 
would be provided by the United States Government to 
EURATOM in the form of a long-term line of credit from 
the Export-Import Bank. These funds will be re-lent by 
EURATOM for the construction of nuclear power plants 
under the program. 

2. The nuclear power plants under the program will be 
built, owned, and operated by utilities in the member 
states. All ri.sks due to uncertainties in constrtiction, 
maintenance, and operating costs and load factors will be 
borne directly by these utilities. In the course of the 
negotiation it was determined that the economic risks 
associated today with the reactor fuel cycle must be min- 
imized if participation by the European utility industry 



is to bo reasonably assured. To this end the United States, 
for a 10-year period of operation, will guarantee ceiling 
costs for the fabrication of the fuel elements required, as 
well as a fixed life for these elements. 

3. A proposed research and development program es- 
tablished for a 10-year period will be centered on the 
improvement in the performance of the reactors involved 
in the program and the lowering of fuel cycle costs. 
During the first 5 years the financial contribution of the 
Community and the United States will amount to about 
$50 million each, with the sum required for the second 
5-year period to be determined at a later date. 

4. Under the arrangements proposed the United States 
would sell to the Community a net quantity of 30,000 
kilograms of contained U-235 in uranium to cover the fuel- 
ing and other requirements of the program for such ma- 
terial over a 20-year operating period. The initial opera- 
ting inventory, which amounts to approximately 9,000 
kilograms of contained U-235, would be sold to the Com- 
munity on a deferred payment basis. The balance of about 
20,000 kilograms, which represents estimated burnup and 
process losses over the 20-year operating period, and 1,000 
kilograms to provide for research and test reactors asso- 
ciated with the program, would be paid for on a current 
basis. 

5. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission will process in 
its facilities, at established U. S. domestic prices, spent fuel 
elements from the reactors to be included in the program. 

6. With respect to any special nuclear material pro- 
duced in reactors fueled with materials obtained from 
the United States under this joint program, which is in 
excess of the need of the Community for such material 
for the peaceful uses of atomic energy, the International 
Atomic Energy Agency would have the right of first option 
to purchase such material at the announced fuel value 
price in effect in the United States at the time of purchase. 
In the event this option is not exercised by the Agency, the 
United States would be prepared during the first 10 years 
of reactor operation to purchase such material at the 
U.S.-announced fuel value price in effect at the time of 
purchase. 

7. Technological and economic data developed under the 
program would be made available to the industries within 
the Community and the United States under provisions 
designed to assure the widespread dissemination of the 
information developed in the course of the program. 

8. Under the program the Community will assume re- 
sponsibility for the establishment of a safeguards system 
which will be formulated in accordance with agreed-upon 
principles. This system will be designed to assure that 
the materials received from the United States, as well as 
special nuclear material produced therefrom, will be used 
for peaceful purposes only. The proposed agreement for 
cooperation with the Community provides for frequent 
consultation between parties on the operation of the sys- 
tem and that the Community will establish a mutually 
satisfactory safeguards system based on these principles. 
By exchange of letters both parties have agreed that the 
terms of the agreement include permission for verifica- 
tion, by mutually approved scientific methods, of the ef- 
fectiveness of the safeguards and control systems applied 



July 14, 1958 



71 



to nuclear materials received from the other party or de- 
rived therefrom in connection with the joint program. 
Continuation of the cooperative program will be contin- 
gent upon the Community's establishing and maintaining 
a mutually satisfactory safeguards system. The Com- 
munity also has agi-eed to consult with the International 
Atomic Energy Agency to assure the development of a 
safeguards system reasonably compatible with that of the 
Agency. The agreement for cooperation, which has been 
negotiated, will contain all of the guaranties required 
by section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as 
amended. In addition, in the event of the establishment 
of an international safeguards and control system by the 
International Atomic Energy Agency, the United States 
and EURATOM will consult regarding assumption by that 
Agency of the safeguards and control over fissionable ma- 
terial utilized and produced in implementation of the joint 
program. 



MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT TO THE 
CONGRESS 2 

Letter of Transmittal 

To the Congress of the United States : 

I am transmitting today for approval by the 
Congress an international agreement between the 
Government of the United States and the Euro- 
pean Atomic Energy Community which will be a 
first step toward mutually beneficial cooperation 
in the peaceful applications of atomic energy be- 
tween this new European Community and the 
United States. The specific program which I am 
asking the Congress to consider and approve on 
an urgent basis is a joint undertaking by the 
United States and Euratom to foster the construc- 
tion in Europe by 1963 of approximately 6 major 
nuclear power reactors which would produce 
about 1 million kilowatts of electricity. 

This international agreement is being submitted 
pursuant to the provisions of sections 11 (L) and 
124 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. 
The cooperation to be undertaken after approval 
of the international agreement will be pursuant to 
the terms and conditions of an agreement for co- 
operation entered into in accordance with section 
123 of that act. 

The elements which combine to make such a 
joint program possible are the same that led to 
the first great breakthrough in the development of 
atomic energy 15 years ago : the intimate associa- 
tion of European and American scientists and 



' H. Doc. 411, 85th Cong., 2d sess. 



close association between European and Ameri- 
can engineers and industries. While the joint nu- 
clear power program draws heavily on the history 
of atomic energy development there are important 
new elements which reflect the changing world 
scene. 

The first is the changing face of Europe sym- 
bolized by the European Atomic Energy Commu- 
nity, which now takes its place beside the Coal 
and Steel Community and the European Eco- 
nomic Commmiity (Common Market) in a fur- 
ther major step toward a united Europe. The in- 
spiration of European statesmen which has now 
come to fruition in Euratom is the simple but 
profomidly important idea that through concen- 
tration of the scientific and industrial potentiali- 
ties of the six countries it will be possible to de- 
velop a single major atomic energy complex, 
larger than the sum of the parts, and designed to 
exploit the peaceful potential of atomic energy. 
One motivation which has therefore led to the 
creation of this new Community is the growing 
sense of urgency on the part of Europeans that 
their destiny requires unity and that the road to- 
ward this unity is to be found in the development 
of major common programs such as Euratom 
makes possible. Another important motivation is 
the present and growing requirement of Europe 
for a new source of energy in the face of rapidly 
increasing requirements and the limited possibili- 
ties of increasing the indigenous supply of conven- 
tional fuels. The Europeans see atomic energy 
not merely as an alternative source of energy but 
as something which they must develop quickly if 
they are to continue their economic growth and 
exercise their rightful influence in world aifairs. 
The success of this undertaking, therefore, is of 
vital importance to the United States, for the 160 
million people on the Continent of Europe are 
crucial to North Atlantic strength. 

It is tlierefore gratifying that the reactor re- 
search, development, testing, and construction 
program in the United States has progressed to 
the pomt that United States reactors of proven 
types are available and will be selected for com- 
mercial exploitation in the joint program of large- 
scale nuclear reactors. 

The abundance of conventional fuel in the 
United States and hence our lower cost of elec- 
tricity as contrasted with higher energy costs in 



72 



Department of State Bulletin 



Europe means that it is possible for nuclear power 
reactors to produce economic electrical energy in 
Europe before it will be possible to do so in most 
parts of the United States. 

The basic arrangements which have been worked 
out with Euratom are designed to take advantage 
of many favorable factors and circumstances. 
Tlie}' promise to result in a program that will ini- 
tially be of great benefit to Euratom and the 
United States, and thei'eafter to nations everj'- 
where that choose to profit from Euratom's ex- 
perience. American knowledge and industrial 
capacity will be joined with the scientific and in- 
dustrial talents of Europe in an accelerated 
nuclear power program to meet Europe's presently 
urgent need for a new source of energy. 

The plants to be built will be paid for and 
operated by the existing public and private 
utilities in the six countries; components will be 
manufactured hx American and European in- 
dustry. Through this association the basis will 
be laid for future mutually beneficial commercial 
collaboration in the atomic energy business. The 
major portion of the fund for the construction 
of the plants will come from European sources of 
capital. The United States, through the Export- 
Import Bank, is prepared to supplement these 
funds by making available to the new Community 
a long-term line of credit. 

A central purpose of the proposed joint pro- 
gram is for Euratom and the United States Gov- 
ernment to create an institutional and economic 
environment which will encourage the European 
utilities to embark quickly upon a large-scale nu- 
clear power program. As this program goes 
forward, it will make possible significant prog- 
ress in the development of atomic power elsewhere 
in the world. 

The expectation that nuclear power will be eco- 
nomic rests on the inherent promise of achieving 
substantially lowered fuel costs which will more 
than compensate for the higher capital costs of 
nuclear plants. The principal immediate prob- 
lem is to limit during this developmental phase 
the economic uncertainties connected with the 
burning of nuclear fuel in these reactors. To 
assist in meeting this problem the United States 
will provide certain special and limited guaranties 
and incentives to permit American fuel fabri- 
cators and the European utilities and industries 



to enter into firm contractual arrangements with 
greater certainty as to the actual costs of nuclear 
energy from the reactors than is now possible. 

Of major importance, the new European Com- 
munity and the United States will establish a 
jointly financed research and development pro- 
gram, the purpose of which will be to improve 
the performance of these reactors and thus to 
further the economic feasibility of nuclear power. 
Information developed under the joint program 
will be made available to American and Euro- 
pean industry for the general advancement of 
power reactor technology. 

In addition to the international agreement sub- 
mitted herewith, the necessary requests for con- 
gressional action required to cari-y out the pro- 
gram will be submitted shortly. 

I believe that the initiation of this progi-am of 
cooperation with Euratom represents a major 
step in the application of nuclear technology for 
the benefit of mankind. 

The United States and Euratom have reaffirmed 
their dedication to the objectives of the Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Agency and intend that 
the results of this program will benefit the Agency 
and the nations participating in it. Considera- 
tion is now being given to ways in which the 
United States can work with the Agency in carry- 
ing forward its functions. A proposed agree- 
ment for cooperation with the International 
Atomic Energy Agency is now being negotiated 
and is under review by the Agency. This agi-ee- 
ment provides principally for the transfer of the 
special nuclear material already offered to the 
Agency by the United States for certain services, 
such as chemical processing, and for the broad 
exchange of unclassified information in further- 
ance of the Agency's program. 

In recognition of the importance of the joint 
United States-Euratom program, I must stress 
its urgency. It was only on the 1st of January 
of this year that the new Community came into 
being, determined to fulfill its obligation to cre- 
ate the conditions which will permit the earliest 
development of nuclear power on a major scale. 
The Community is determined, as are we, that 
the joint program should be initiated this year. 
I am sure that the Congress, having in mind the 
political and economic advantages which will ac- 
crue to us and our European friends from such a 



July 14, 1958 



73, 



joint endeavor, will wish to consider quickly and 
favorably the proposed program. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 
The White House, June S3, 1958. 



Article II 

As used in this Agreement, "Parties" means the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America and the European 
Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), acting through 
its Commission. "Party" means one of the Parties. 



Text of Agreement 

Agkeement Between the Government of the United 
States of America and the Eubopbi^n Atomic Eneegy 
Community (EURATOM) 

Whereas the European Atomic Energy Community 
(Euratom) has been established by the Kingdom of Bel- 
gium, the Federal Republic of Germany, the French 
Republic, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of 
Luxembourg, and the Kingdom of the Netherlands, in the 
Treaty of Rome signed on March 25, 1957, with the aim 
of contributing to the raising of the standard of living 
in Member States and to the development of commercial 
exchanges with other countries by the creation of condi- 
tions necessary for the speedy establishment and growth 
of nuclear industries ; 

Whereas the Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica has instituted a program of international cooperation 
to make available to cooperating nations the benefits of 
peaceful applications of atomic energy as widely as ex- 
panding technology and considerations of the common 
defense and security will permit ; 

Whereas the Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica and the European Atomic Energy Community 
(Euratom) have expressed their mutual desire for close 
cooperation in the peaceful applications of atomic energy, 
and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) 
intends to foster an extensive program which promises to 
redound to their common benefit ; 

Whereas an arrangement providing for cooperation in 
the peaceful applications of atomic energy would initiate 
a fruitful exchange of experience and technical develop- 
ment, open a new era for mutually beneficial action on 
both the governmental and industrial level, and reinforce 
solidarity within Europe and across the Atlantic; 

The Parties agree as follows : 

Article I 

The Parties will cooperate in programs for the advance- 
ment of the peaceful applications of atomic energy. Such 
cooperation will be undertaken from time to time pursuant 
to such terms and conditions as may be agreed and shall 
be subject to all provisions of law respectively applicable 
to the Parties. Specifically it is understood that under 
existing law the cooperation extended by the Government 
of the United States of America will be undertaken pur- 
suant to an Agreement for Cooperation entered into in 
accordance with Section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act 
of 1954, as amended. 



Article III 

This Agreement shall enter into force on the day on 
which each Party shall have received from the other Party 
written notification that it has complied with all statu- 
tory and constitutional requirements for the entry into 
force of such Agreement. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned representatives 
duly authorized thereto have signed this Agreement. 

Done at Brussels on May 29, 1958, and at Washington 
on June 18, 1958, in duplicate, in the English, French, 
German, Italian, and Netherlands languages, each lan- 
guage being equally authentic. 



John Foster Dulles 
Lewis L. Strauss 



L. Armand 

Enrico Medi 
Heinz L. Krekeler 

Emmanuel Sassen 
Paul de Groote 



For the Government of the United States of America : 
John Foster Dulles 
Lewis L. Strauss 

For the European Atomic Energy Community (EURA- 
TOM) : 

L. Armand 
Enrico Medi 
Heinz L. Krekeler 
Paul de Groote 
Emmanitel Sassen 

I certify that the foregoing is a true copy of the Agree- 
ment Between the Government of the United States of 
America and the European Atomic Energy Commimity 
(Euratom), signed at Brussels on May 29, 1958, and at 
Washington on June 18, 195S. 

In testimony whereof, I, John Foster Dulles, Secre- 
tary of State of the United States of America, have here- 
unto caused the seal of the Department of State to be 
affixed and my name subscribed by the Acting Authentica- 
tion Ofiicer of the said Department, at the city of Wash- 
ington, in the District of Columbia, this nineteenth day 
of June 1958. 



[seal] 



John Foster Dulles, 

Secretary of State. 

By Pattie H. Field, 
Acting Authentication Officer, 

Department of State. 



74 



Department of State Bulletin 



MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING ^ 

Memorandum of Understanding Regarding the 
Joint Nuclear Power Program Proposed Between 
the European Atomic Energy Community 
(EURATOM) and the United States of America 

The steps taken by the Member States of the European 
Atomic Knergy Community (EURATOM) towards a 
united Europe and the consistent support of the United 
States for their efforts are an acknowledgment that, in a 
world being rapidly transformed by technical and political 
change, the problems our countries face call for increasing 
solidarity. 

The AXember States of EUBATOM urgently need nuclear 
power to be in a position to meet future energy require- 
ments and to assure continued economic progress. 

Both EURATOM and the United States must carry 
through the nuclear revolution in industry with maximum 
speed and efficiency in order to remain in the forefront of 
progress and to open new horizons for further economic 
and social advance. 

In order to achieve these objectives a large-scale joint 
development program of power reactors will be launched. 

EURATOM will benefit by the experience and capacity 
which the United States can provide to make a quick 
start on such a program. This will in turn provide the 
United States with the opportunity to accelerate its own 
industrial development of nuclear power for peaceful 
purposes by associating itself with the program. Con- 
ventional energy is generally more costly in Europe than 
in the United States, so that nuclear power approaches 
the competitive range of energy costs in Europe, a stage 
which will be reached only later in the United States. 

For these reasons, the Commission of the European 
Atomic Energy Community and the Government of the 
United States of America have agreed to this Memo- 
randum of Understanding which outlines a joint United 
States-EURATOM development program of large-scale 
nuclear power reactors to be constructed in the European 
Atomic Energy Community in the next few years. 

The aim of the joint program will be to bring into 
operation in the Community by 1963 about 1,000,000 
electrical kilowatts of installed nuclear capacity in re- 
actors of proven types developed in the United States, 
thus increasing substantially the total capacity envisaged 
by existing programs in the Member States. The pro- 
gram is consistent with, and in fact a point of departure 
towards, the program outlined in "A Target for 
EURATOM".* 



^ This document, developed by the joint United States- 
EURATOM working party and negotiated as a first step 
in reaching an understanding with respect to the i)roposed 
joint United States-EURATOM program, served as a 
basis for negotiations leading to the agreement for co- 
operation. 

* Report submitted by Mr. Louis Armand, Mr. Franz 
Etzel and Mr. Francesco Giordani at the request of the 
Governments of Belgium, France, the Federal Republic 
of Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. 
[Footnote in original.] 



It is understood that the establishment and Initiation 
of the joint program is subject to appropriate statutory 
steps, including authorization by the competent bodies 
of the Community and of the Government of the United 
States. 

The joint program will be conducted so as to obtain 
the maximum support of the industries of the Community 
and the United States ; indeed, their active participation 
is indispensable to the success of the program. 

It is the hope and expectation of the Commission and 
the Government of the United States that the proposed 
program will lead to further cooperation between the 
Community and the United States in other fields related 
to the peaceful uses of atomic energy. 

They also see in the joint program a new type of co- 
operation among allies on a fully equal footing based on 
organic links forged by common efCort, and holding out 
hopes of new steps for the further development of the 
Atlantic Community. 

The Commission of the European Atomic Energy Com- 
munity and the Government of the United States reaf- 
firm their dedication to the objectives of the International 
Atomic Energy Agency and intend that the results of 
their program will benefit the Agency and the nations 
participating in it. 

1. OBJECTIVES 

The objectives of the joint program will be: 

A. To bring into operation by 1963, within the European 
Atomic Energy Community, large-scale power plants 
using nuclear reactors of proven types, on which research 
and development has been carried to an advanced stage 
in the United States, having a total installed capacity of 
approximately one million kilowatts of electricity and 
under conditions which would approach the competitive 
range of conventional energy costs in Europe. 

B. To initiate immediately a joint research and de- 
velopment program centered on these types of reactors. 

2. SELECTION AND APPROVAL UNDER THE PROGRAM 

Under the joint program, reactor projects may be 
proposed, constructed and operated by private or govern- 
mental organizations engaged in the power industry or 
in the nuclear energy field. 

The Commission and the Government of the United 
States will establish jointly, technical standards and 
criteria ( including those relating to radiation protection 
and reactor safety) and the procedures for selection and 
approval of reactor projects under this program. 

In the evaluation and selection of such reactor proj- 
ects, the technical and economic features will be con- 
sidered and approved jointly by the Commission and the 
United States Government. 

Other features of such reactor projects will be con- 
sidered and approved by the Commission. 

Reactors now being planned or constructed in Member 
States of the Community will be eligible for, and will 
receive, early consideration under the criteria estab- 
lished pursuant to this section. 



July 14, 1958 



75 



It is intended to take and announce decisions on the 
above matters at tlie earliest practicable date. 

3. CAPITAL COSTS 

The total capital cost ' of the nuclear power plants with 
an installed capacity of approximately one million kilo- 
watts of electricity to be constructed under the program 
is presently estimated not to exceed the equivalent of 
$350,000,000 to be financed as follows: 

A. Approximately $250,000,000 to be provided by the 
participating utilities and other European sources of 
capital, such financing to be arranged with the appropri- 
ate assistance of EURATOM ; and 

B. Up to $135,000,000 to be provided by the United 
States Government to EURATOM in the form of a long- 
term line of credit on terms and conditions to be agreed, 
such funds to be re-lent by EURATOM for the construc- 
tion of facilities under this program. 

4. FUEL CYCLES 

The Commission and the Government of the United 
States will enter into special arrangements with respect 
to the fuel cycle for reactors to be constructed and 
operated under the proposed program according to the 
principles set forth in Attachment A to this memorandum. 

5. CHEMICAL PROCESSING 

The United States Atomic Energy Commission is pre- 
pared to process in its facilities, at established U.S. 
domestic prices, spent fuel elements from the reactors 
to be included in the present program. The United States 
Atomic Energy Commission agrees to assist in the de- 
velopment of chemical processing techniques in Europe 
by providing technical advice and assistance both to 
"Burochemic" (which is to design and build a pilot plant 
at Mol, Belgium), and to the Community in the design 
and construction of future plants which the Community 
may decide to design and construct, or to sponsor. 

6. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 

A. The Commission and the Government of the United 
States intend to initiate promptly a joint program of re- 
search and development to be conducted both in the 
United States and in Europe on the types of reactors 
to be constructed under the proposed program. 

This Research and Development program will be aimed 
primarily at the improvement in performance of these 
reactors, and at lowering fuel cycle costs. 

It will also deal with plutonium recycling and other 
problems relevant to these reactors, thus contributing 
to the over-all advance of the nuclear power art. 

The research and development program will be estab- 
lished for a ten (10) year period. During the first five 
(5) years the financial contribution of the Community 
and the United States will amount to about $50,000,000 
each. Prior to the completion of the first five-year pe- 



' Exclusive of the fuel inventory. [Footnote in origi- 
nal.] 



riod, the Parties wiU determine the financial require- 
ments for the remaining five-year period and will under- 
take to procure funds necessary to carry out the program. 
Funds for the second five-year period may be in the same 
order of magnitude. 

The administration of this program will be conducted 
under mutually agreed arrangements. 

B. In addition, both the Commission and the United 
States Atomic Energy Commission will push forward and 
extend their own research and development programs, 
either direct or sponsored, on all peaceful aspects of 
nuclear science and industry, in particular in such fields 
as advanced civilian reactor design, fuel technology, re- 
actor operation, chemical processing, radioisotopes utili- 
zation, waste disposal, and public health. 

Information resulting from such work outside of the 
joint program will be exchanged by the respective Com- 
missions fully and promptly. 

7. SPECIAL NUCLEAR AND OTHER MATERIALS 

The Government of the United States will make avail- 
able to the Community, as needed, enriched uranium for 
the nuclear power reactors to be included within the pro- 
posed program, in sufiicient quantity to meet inventory 
and operating requirements for a twenty (20) year op- 
erating period. 

The Government of the United States also will provide 
the Community special nuclear materials as may be 
agreed for research and development and the operation 
of research and test reactors associated with the proposed 
power program, in sufiicient quantity to meet inventory 
and operating requirement for a twenty (20) year op- 
erating period. In addition, source material, special re- 
actor material and other materials needed for carrying 
out the program will be provided under terms and condi- 
tions to be agreed upon. 

8. AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION 

A. Nonpatentable i7i formation developed in joint program 

1) The program contemplated by this Memorandum of 
Understanding, including projects selected for inclusion 
therein, should serve to benefit other projects and pro- 
grams (both private and governmental) within the Com- 
munity and the United States. Accordingly, under mutu- 
ally agreed arrangements, all information developed in 
connection with the joint program of research and de- 
velopment, and all information developed in connection 
with the selected projects, concerning design, plans and 
specifications, construction costs, operations and econom- 
ics, will be delivered currently to the Parties as developed 
and may be used, disseminated, or published by each Party 
for any and all purposes as it sees fit without further ob- 
ligation or payment. There will be no discrimination in 
the dissemination or use of the information for the reason 
that the proposed recipient or user is a national of the 
United States or of any Member State of EURATOM. 

2) Both Commissions shall have access to the records 
of the participating contractors pertaining to their par- 
ticipation in research and development projects under the 
joint research and development program, or pertaining 



76 



Department of State Bulletin 



to the performance of fuel elements that are the subject of 
United States guarantees. 

3) The Parties will further expedite prompt exchange 
of information through symposia, exchange of personnel, 
setting up of combined teams, and other methods as may 
be mutually agreed. 

B. Patentable Information 

As to any invention made or conceived in the course of 
or under tlie joint program of research and development : 

1. The I'nited States shall without further obligation 
or payment be entitled to assignment of the title and rights 
In and to the invention and the patent in the United States 
subject to a non-exclusive, irrevocable, and royalty-free 
license, with the right to grant sublicenses, to the Com- 
munity for all purposes. 

2. The Community shall without further obligation or 
payment be entitled to assignment of the title and rights 
in and to the invention and the patents in the Community 
subject to a non-exclusive, irrevocable, and royalty-free 
license, with the right to grant sublicenses, to the United 
States for all purposes. 

3. With respect to title and rights in and to the inven- 
tion and patents in third countries : 

a. The Community, if the invention is made or con- 
ceived within the Community or the United States, if the 
invention is made or conceived within the United States, 
shall be entitled to assignment of such title and rights, 
subject to a non-exclusive, irrevocable, royalty-free license, 
with the right to grant sublicenses, to the other for all 
purposes. 

b. If the invention is made or conceived elsewhere, the 
Party contracting for the work shall be entitled to assign- 
ment of such title and rights, subject to a non-exclusive, 
irrevocable, royalty-free license, with the right to grant 
sublicenses, to the other for all purposes. 

C. As to inventions and patents under paragraph B 
of this article neither Party shall discriminate in the 
granting of any license or sublicense for the reason that 
the proposed licensee or sublicensee is a national of the 
United States or any Member State. 

D. As to patents used in the work of the joint program, 
other than those under paragraph B, which the United 
States owns or as to which it has the right to grant 
licenses or sublicenses, the United States will agree to 
grant licenses or sublicenses, covering use either in or 
outside the joint program, on a non-discriminatory basis 
to a Member State and to industry of a Member State, 
if the Member State has agreed to grant licenses or sub- 
licenses as to patents used in the work of the joint program 
which It owns or as to which it has the right to grant 
licenses or sublicenses, on a non-discriminatory basis to 
the United States and to industry of the Unitetl States, 
covering use either in or outside the joint program. 

E. The respective contractual arrangements of the 
Parties with third parties shall contain provisions that 
will enable each Party to efEectuate the foregoing provi- 
sions of B and C as to patentable information. 

F. It is recognized that detailed procedures shall be 
jointly established to effectuate the foregoing provisions 
and that all situations not covered shall be settled by 



mutual agreement governed by the basic principle of equiv- 
alent benefits to both Parties. 

9. TRAINING 

The Commission and the United States Atomic Energy 
Commission will work closely together to develop training 
programs to satisfy the requirements of the programs 
described in this memorandum. The United States Atomic 
Energy Commission will assist the Commission in satis- 
fying these needs by making its facilities and experience 
available. 

10. COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES IN INDUSTRY 

It is expected that the program to be initiated under 
the terms of this Memorandum of Understanding will in- 
crease the cooperation already existing between indi- 
viduals and organizations, both privately and publicly 
owned, engaged in nuclear Industry, in the United States 
and in the countries of the Community. 

The Commission and the Government of the United 
States will use their best efforts to foster such cooperation. 

1. SAFEGUARDS AND CONTROLS 

Both EURATOM and the United States recognize the 
extreme importance of assuring that all activities under 
the joint program shall be directed solely toward the 
peaceful uses of atomic energy. In accord with this ob- 
jective : 

A. EURATOM guarantees that : 

1. No material, including equipment and devices, trans- 
ferred pursuant to the Agreement for Cooperation be- 
tween the United States and the Community to the Com- 
munity or to authorized persons within the Community 
wiU be used for atomic weapons, or for research on or 
development of atomic weapons, or for any other military 
purpose ; 

2. No such material will be transferred to unauthorized 
persons or beyond the control of the Community, except 
as the United States might agree to such a transfer and 
then only if the transfer of the material is within the 
scope of an Agreement for Cooperation between the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America and another 
nation or group of nations ; 

3. No source or special nuclear material utilized in, 
recovered from, or produced as a result of the use of 
materials, equipment, or devices transferred pursuant 
to the Agreement for Cooperation between the United 
States and the Community to the Community or authorized 
persons within the Community will be used for atomic 
weapons, or for research on or development of atomic 
weapons, or for any other military purpose; 

4. The Community will establish and maintain a mutu- 
ally satisfactory system of safeguards and controls, to be 
applied to materials, equipment, and devices subject to 
the guarantees set forth in paragraphs 1 through 3 above. 

B. EURATOM undertakes the responsibility for estab- 
lishing and implementing a safeguards and control system 
designed to give maximum assurance that any material, 
equipment, or devices made available pursuant to the 



July 14, 1958 



7T 



Agreement between the United States and EURATOM, 
and any source or special nuclear material derived from 
the use of such material, equipment or devices, shall be 
utilized solely for peaceful purposes. In establishing and 
implementing its safeguards and control system the Com- 
munity is prepared to consult with and exchange ex- 
perience with the International Atomic Energy Agency 
with the objective of establishing a system reasonably 
compatible with that of the International Atomic Energy 
Agency. 

The United States and EURATOM will formulate and 
agree upon the principles which will govern the establish- 
ment and operation by EURATOM of a mutually satisfac- 
tory safeguards and control system under the Agreement 
for Cooperation between the United States and EURA- 
TOM. These principles are set forth in Attachment "B" 
and will be Included in the text of the Agreement. 

C. As has been requested by EURATOM, the United 
States will provide assistance in establishing the EURA- 
TOM safeguards and control system, and will provide 
continuing assistance in the operation of the system. 

D. There will be frequent consultations and exchanges 
of visits between the Parties to give assurance to both 
Parties that the EURATOM safeguards and control sys- 
tem effectively meets the responsibility and principles 
stated in B above and that the standards of the materials 
accountability systems of the United States and EURA- 
TOM are kept reasonably comparable. 

E. In recognition of the importance of the International 
Atomic Energy Agency, the United States of America and 
the European Atomic Energy Community will consult 
with each other from time to time to determine whether 
there are any areas of responsibility with regard to safe- 
guards and control and matters relating to health and 
safety in which the Agency might be asked to assist. 

F. A continuation of the cooperative program between 
the United States and EURATOM will be contingent upon 
EURATOM establishing and maintaining a mutually sat- 
isfactory and effective safeguards and control system 
which is In accord with the principles originally agreed 
upon. 

12. THIRD PARTY LIABILITY 

The Community and the Government of the United 
States recognize that adequate measures to protect equip- 
ment manufacturers and other suppliers as well as the 
participating utilities against now uninsurable risk are 
necessary to the implementation of the joint program. 
The EURATOM Commission will seek to develop and to 
secure the adoption, by the earliest practicable date, of 
suitable measures which will provide adequate financial 
protection against third party liability. Such measures 
could involve suitable indemnification guarantees, na- 
tional legislation, international convention, or a combina- 
tion of such measures. 

13. TARIFFS 

The Commission will take all action open to it under 
the Treaty to minimize the impact of customs duties on 
goods and products imported under this joint program. 

78 



14. EXISTING AGREEMENTS | 

Existing agreements for cooperation in the field of j 
nuclear energy between Member States and the United 
States of America are not modified by the joint program, ' 
but will be subject to appropriate negotiations pursuant 
to article 106 of the Treaty. Modifications may be made 
as necessary to permit transfers of reactor projects now 
contemplated under existing agreements that qualify for 
and are accepted under the joint program. 

15. ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROGRAM ^ 

In order to assure the initiation and effective execution | 
of this program, agreement will be reached on the over- ; 
all organization needed to establish and carry out the [ 
joint program, including the establishment of such joint 
groups as are required. 

The Commission of the Eu- The United States of 

ropean Atomic Energy America 

Community (EURATOM) j^^^, ^^^^^^ Dttli-es 

L. Abmand Lewis L. Steadss 

H. L. Krekeleb 

Paul de Groote 

Enrico Medi 

Emmanuel Sassen 

At Brussels on May 29, 1958, and at Washington on 
June 12, 1958. 

Attachment "A": Principles for the Special Arrange- 
ments With Respect to the Fuel Cycles for Re- 
actors To Be Constructed and Operated Under the 
Program 

A. OBJECTIVE 

The objective of the fuel cycle program is that arrange- 
ments for supplying fuel elements for the million kilo- 
watt cooperative program will meet either criterion (1) 
or (2) below: 

(1) The integrity of the stainless steel or zirconium 
clad fuel elements for light-water cooled and moderated 
reactors is guaranteed to an average irradiation level' 
of 10,000 megawatt days per metric ton of contained 
uranium ; ' and the charge ' for fabrication of fuel ele- 
ments starting with uranium hexafluoride is : 

(a) $100 per kilogram of contained uranium for fuel 
elements made of uranium dioxide having a U-235 iso- 
topic concentration no greater than 3% by weight, diam- 
eter between 0.25 and 0.50 inches, and stainless steel clad- 
ding; or 



° Average irradiation level will be based on a weight of 
fuel equivalent to the nominal fuel loading of the reactor. 
[Footnote in original.] 

' Adjustments of the integrity guarantee may be re- 
quired if cladding materials other than stainless steel or 
zirconium are used. [Footnote In original.] 

' Fabrication charges will be subject to escalation on 
the basis of a mutually determined index. [Footnote in 
original.] 

Department of State Bulletin 



(b) ?140 per kilogram of contained uranium for simi- 
lar fuel elements clad with zirconium cladding; or 

(c) aijpropriately adjusted charges for fuel elements 
having different claddings or falling outside of the limita- 
tions on size, shape, or U-235 concentration. 

Tfote: For each type of fuel element, there will be com- 
puted, as mutually agreed, ''computed fuel cycle costs" 
based on guaranteed average irradiation levels and fabri- 
cation charges, and taking into account all charges for 
fuel fabrication. Inventory, burnup, chemical reprocess- 
ing, .ind transportation and the credit for plutonium. 
If the irradiation level and fabrication charge used in 
this computation are those given in A (1), the computed 
fuel cycle cost is defined as the "standard fuel cycle 
cost". 

(2) The irradiation level in the integrity guarantee 
and the fabrication charge for fuel elements differ from 
the values specified in (1), but the combination gives a 
computed fuel-cycle cost equal to or less than the stand- 
ard fuel-cycle cost 

B. GUARANTEES 

1. Arrangements for supplying fuel elements that meet 
criterion (1) or (2) may be received from commercial 
sources but, in the event of failure of fuel elements, such 
arrangements may not sufiiciently cover the extra costs 
of reprocessing and transporting irradiated fuel elements 
to meet the standard fuel-cycle cost. Under such con- 
ditions, the United States Commission will, for the pur- 
po.<!es of prorating the chemical processing and/or trans- 
portation costs, offer to guarantee an average irradiation 
level, which, in combination with the guarantees offered 
by the manufacturer, would result in a computed fuel- 
cycle cost equal to the standard fuel-cycle cost. When 
such guarantees are made, if the average irradiation 
level actually attained is greater than the irradiation 
level guaranteed by the United States Commission, one- 
half of the resulting savings in costs of reprocessing 
and/or transporting irradiated fuel will be credited to 
the United States Commission, up to the sum of previous 
payments by the United States under this guarantee for 
the particular reactor concerned. 

2. In the event that acceptable arrangements for sup- 
plying fuel elements meeting the criteria of A above are 
not received from commercial sources, the United States 
Commission will guarantee the fuel elements supplied 
imder the following arrangements : 

(a) If the fabrication charge guaranteed by the manu- 
facturer is equal to or less than the value specified in 
A (1) above, the United States Commission will guaran- 
tee an average irradiation level which, when combined 
with this fabrication charge, will give a computed fuel- 
cycle cost equal to the standard fuel-cycle cost. 

(b) If the average irradiation level guaranteed by the 
manufacturer is equal to or greater than the value speci- 
fied in A (1) above, the United States Commission will 
guarantee a fabrication charge which, when combined 
with the average irradiation level in the manufacturer's 
integrity guarantee, will give a computed fuel-cycle cost 
equal to the standard fuel-cycle cost. 



(c) If the average Irradiation level is less and the 
fabrication charge is greater in the manufacturer's 
guarantee than in A (1) above, the United States Com- 
mission will offer to guarantee the values in A (1). 

In cases (b) and (c) above, when the average irradia- 
tion level attained exceeds that guaranteed by the United 
States Commission, one-half of the resulting savings in 
fabrication costs will be credited to the United States 
Commission, up to the cost of payments by the United 
States Commission for fabrication charges for the par- 
ticular core concerned. 

If the average irradiation level does not meet that 
guaranteed in (a), (b), or (c) above, the United States 
Commission will adjust the charges for fabrication, 
chemical reprocessing, and transportation to the level 
that would have been incurred had that guarantee been 
met. 

3. Fuel-element guarantees may also be developed for 
proven types of reactors other than light-water cooled 
and moderated, determined by the EURATOM Commis- 
sion and the United States Commission to be eligible for 
consideration under the joint program. 

4. The guarantees provided by the United States Com- 
mission under paragraphs 1, 2, or 3 of this section wiU 
be applicable to all loadings made in the reactor during 
ten years of operation or prior to December 31, 1973, 
whichever is earlier. 

5. In determining whether a guaranteed average Ir- 
radiation level has been attained, account will be taken 
not only of all material discharged because of actual fail- 
ure of integrity, but also material whose discharge, in the 
joint opinion of the EURATOM Commission, the United 
States Commission, and the fabricator involved, was 
required for purposes of safe operation or economic opera- 
tion (assuming for the latter determination that no 
guarantees were in force). 

6. The technical and economic criteria under which 
proposals will be evaluated for acceptance will include 
minimum standards for fabrication charge and integrity 
guarantee for fuel elements. These criteria will also 
provide, as may be agreed, that subsequent reactor cores 
can be furnished by other than the initial fabricators. 

7. In order to qualify for the guarantees by the United 
States Commission provided in paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 
of this section, fuel elements must be fabricated by a 
United States manufacturer or by a manufacturer in 
EURATOM countries under agreement with a United 
States firm or firms. However, reactors under the joint 
program may be fueled with elements from other sources. 
In such cases, the United States Commission will offer 
to perform chemical reprocessing services at its published 
charges with respect to any source or special nuclear 
material obtained from the United States. If adequate 
facilities are not available in EURATOM countries when 
needed, the United States Commission will give sympa- 
thetic consideration to furnishing reprocessing services 
on material not furnished by the United States 
Commission. 

8. The United States Commission guarantees will, in 
general, be extended to the utility through the fabricator 
of the fuel. In the event that it is determined by the 



July 14, 1958 



79 



United States Commission that the fabricator is not 
meeting adequate performance standards, or, if it is 
mutually determined that a more advantageous source 
is available, other contractual arrangements will be made 
for supplying fuel elements under the guarantee. 

Attachment "B": Principles for Establishing the 
Safeguards and Control System Under the Agree- 
ment for Cooperation 

The principles which will govern the establishment and 
operation of the safeguards and control system are as 
follows : 

The EURATOM Commission will : 

1. Examine the design of equipment, devices and fa- 
cilities, including nuclear reactors, and approve it for the 
purpose of assuring that it will not further any military 
purpose and that it will permit the effective application 
of safeguards, if such equipment, devices and facilities: 

a. are made available pursuant to this Agreement ; or 

b. use, process or fabricate any of the following mate- 
rials received from the United States : source or special 
nuclear material, moderator material or any other mate- 
rial relevant to the effective application of safeguards ; 
or 

c. use any special nuclear material produced as the 
result of the use of equipment or material referred to in 
a and b. 

2. Require the maintenance and production of operating 
records to assure accountability for source and special 
nuclear material made available or source or special nu- 
clear material used, recovered, or produced as a result 
of the use of source or special nuclear material, modera- 
tor material or any other material relevant to the effec- 
tive application of safeguards, or as a result of equipment, 
devices and facilities made available pursuant to this 
Agreement. 

3. Require that progress reports be prepared and de- 
livered to the EURATOM Commission with respect to 
projects utilizing material, equipment, devices and fa- 
cilities referred to in paragraph 2 above. 

4. Establish and require the deposit and storage, under 
continuing safeguards, in EURATOM facilities of any 
special nuclear material referred to in 2 above which is 
not currently being utilized for peaceful purposes in the 
Community or otherwise transferred as provided in the 
Agreement for Cooperation between the United States and 
the Community. 

5. Establish an inspection organization which will have 
access at all times : 

a. to all places and data, and 

b. to any person, who by reason of his occupation deals 



with materials, equipment, devices or facilities safe- 
guarded under this Agreement, 

necessary to assure accounting for source or special nu- 
clear material subject to paragraph 2 and to determine 
whether there is compliance with the guarantees of the 
Community. The inspection organization will also be in 
a position to make and will make such independent 
measurements as are necessary to assure compliance with 
the provisions of this Attachment and the Agreement for 
Cooperation.' 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

8Sth Congress, 2d Session 

Recommendations Adopted by the International Labor 
Conference at its Thirty-Eighth Session at Geneva. 
Letter from the Assistant Secretary of State transmit- 
ting the texts of ILO recommendations Nos. 99 and 100 
adopted by the International Labor Conference at its 
thirty-eighth session, at Geneva, June 22, 1955, pur- 
suant to article 19 of the constitution of the ILO. H. 
Doc. 385, May 20, 1958. 28 pp. 

Departments of State, Justice, the Judiciary, and Related 
Agencies Appropriations, 1959. Hearings before the 
subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Appropria- 
tions on H. R. 12428. May 21-28, 1958. 787 pp. 

Amendments to the Budget for Mutual Assistance Pro- 
gram, Fiscal Year 1959. Communication from the 
President of the United States transmitting amend- 
ments to the budget for the fiscal year 19.59, involving 
an increase in the amount of $8,000,000, for mutual 
assistance programs. H. Doc. 407, June 18, 1958. 2 
pp. 

Execution of Certain Leaders of the Recent Revolt in 
Hungary. Report to accompany S. Con. Res. 94. S. 
Rept. 1727, June 18, 1958. 4 pp. 

World Science-Pan Pacific Exposition, Seattle, 1961. Re- 
port to accompany S. 3680. S. Rept. 1721, June 18, 
1958. 6 pp. 

Peaceful Exploration of Outer Space. Report to accom- 
pany H. Con. Res. 332. S. Rept. 1728, June 19, 1958. 
3 pp. 

Mutual Security Act of 1958. Conference report to ac- 
company H. R. 12181. H. Rept. 1941, June 20, 1958. 
31 pp. 



' It is the understanding of the Parties that the above 
principles applicable to the establishment of EURATOM's 
inspection and control system are compatible with and are 
based on Article XII of the Statute of the International 
Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter VII of the EURATOM 
Treaty, and those adopted by the Government of the 
United States of America in its comprehensive Agree- 
ments for Cooperation. [Footnote in original.] 



80 



Department of State Bulletin 



Highlights of the Mutual Security Program, July 1-December 31, 1957 



EXCERPTS FROM THE THIRTEENTH SEMIANNUAL REPORT TO CONGRESS i 



PRESIDENT'S LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

To the Congress of the United States 

I am transmitting herewith the Thirteenth 
Semiannual Report on the operations of the 
Mutual Security Program for the period July 1 
through December 31, 1957. This report was 
prepared by the Department of State, the Depart- 
ment of Defense, and the International Coopera- 
tion Administration. 

Each element of the Mutual Security Program 
is essential to the security, the prosperity and the 
continued well-being of the United States. 

The best and least expensive way to counter 
the threat of Sino-Soviet military forces is to take 
part in the collective defense of the free world. 
Collective strength, however, cannot be built out 
of individual weaknesses. All defense partners 
therefore must be strong. 

Most funds for mutual security are used to help 
create defense strength — by providing weapons 
and training to those who need them and cannot 
otherwise obtain them. They also provide eco- 
nomic resources which help some of our partners 
to maintain needed defense forces without being 
crushed by the economic burden involved. 

It is not enough, however, for the nations of 
the free world to be strong in their defenses. 
Strength, security, and justice arc needed in other 
areas : in business and economic affairs ; in political 
and social institutions; in opportunities for edu- 



' H. Doc. 368, 85th Cong., 2d sess. ; transmitted on May 
23. Reprinted here, in addition to the letter of trans- 
mittal, are excerpts from chapter I, entitled "Highlights 
of the Half-Year." Chapter II of the report is entitled 
"The Development Loan Fund" ; chapter III deals with 
"Use of Fiscal Tear 19.58 Fund.s" and chapter IV with 
"Other Aspects of the Mutual Security Program." 



cation ; and in the growth of individuals in mind 
and spirit. Above all there must exist, in every 
country, a conviction held by the overwhelming 
majority of its citizens that hopes and desires for 
a decent life can be realized and fulfilled. 

This is the kind of world in which we want to 
live. This is the kind of world for which we 
are willing to work, through the Mutual Security 
Program and in other ways. 

This 6-month report shows how the United 
States — working in cooperation with many other 
nations at many different jobs— is making a posi- 
tive contribution to world-wide peace and 
progress. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

The White House, 

May 22, 1958 



A number of important developments, involv- 
ing both organization and operations, took place 
in the mutual security program during July- 
December 1957. The Development Loan Fund 
began to function as a new vehicle for financing 
economic development activities overseas. The 
responsibility for coordinating the military and 
economic aspects of mutual security was trans- 
ferred to the Deputy Under Secretary of State 
for Economic Affairs in order to permit closer 
and more effective direction of the program from 
the standpoint of our foreign policy objectives. 
Additional steps were taken, particularly in con- 
nection with plans for nuclear and missile avail- 
ability, to reinforce further the collective security 
systems upon which the safety of the United 
States and the whole free world is so heavily 
dependent. In the field of economic assistance, 
the less developed countries of the free world 



iuly 14, 1958 



81 



Development Loan Fund Applications 

By Area, Through Mid-January 1958 

(Millions of Dollars) 



Europe and Africa 
$69 \ 
(5 %) 



Latin Antierico 
$44 
{ 3%) 




Total: $1,411 Million 



were helped to start new development and tech- 
nical cooperation projects which would speed 
their economic progress. Equally important were 
gains made in bringing to fruition programs 
which had been started in previous years and, 
along with these gains, the development of in- 
creasing capacity on the part of the less devel- 
oped countries to assume administrative and 
financial responsibility for carrying on such pro- 
grams in the coming years. 



MAJOR ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES 

The Development Loan Fund 

A major change in the organizational pattern 
of the mutual security program was brought 
about with the establishment of the Development 
Loan Fund in accordance with provisions of the 
mutual security legislation for fiscal year 1958. 
Set up to furnish loans for worthwhile economic 
development projects in less developed areas of 
the world, the fund also represents an effort to 
draw a clearer line between economic assistance 
intended solely for development purposes and 

82 



economic assistance designed to enable friendly 
countries to support the burden of their contribu- 
tion to free world defense. The fund is not sub- 
ject to the usual mutual security legislative limi- 
tations on the time allowed for obligating appro- 
priated funds. Therefore, it can better concen- 
trate on promoting long-term economic growth 
in recipient countries. 

Tlie fund has authority to make loans repay- 
able in either dollars or foreign currencies, the 
latter usually being the currency of the borrow- 
ing country. The Development Loan Fund sup- 
plements mvestment from other public and pri- 
vate sources ; it does not extend credit when other 
financing is available on reasonable terms. Many 
countries lack sufficient capacity to repay loans 
on normal banking terms from such institutions 
as the Export- Lnport Bank and the International 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Fur- 
thermore, some of the basic projects for develop- 
ment entail risks that conventional financial in- 
stitutions are not prepared to take. . . , 

The Coordination Function 

The other major organizational change during 
the period became effective on December 5, 1957, 
when the Secretary of State, under authority of 
an Executive Order, took the following steps: 
(a) vested coordinating responsibility for mutual 
security programs in the Deputy Under Secre- 
tary of State for Economic Affairs, (b) contin- 
ued the operating responsibilities of the Director 
of the International Cooperation Administration 
for the major nonmilitary mutual security pro- 
grams, and (c) assigned various responsibilities 
with respect to the Development Loan Fimd to 
the Director of ICA.^ 

The Deputy Under Secretary of State, after 
consultation with the Assistant Secretary of De- 
fense for International Security Affairs and the 
ICA Director, will develop and approve broad 
policies for the conduct of the mutual security 
program. He will also review annual programs 
submitted by the Department of Defense and 
ICA, approve the final program as submitted to 
tlie Bureau of the Budget, and insure that effec- 
tive coordination has taken place between the De- 
partment of Defense, the International Coopera- 
tion Administration and the Department of State. 



' Bulletin of Dec. 23, 1957, p. 990. 

Department of State Bulletin 



This transfer of the coordinating function was 
intended to produce several advantages. By 
bringing the function close to the central policy 
direction of the Department of State, it is ex- 
pected that integration of the various parts of 
the mutual security program, particularly in the 
planning stages, will be assured and that the 
program as a whole will be directly geared to re- 
lated foreign policies. This intimate linking 
with foreign policy will also place the United 
States in a better position to deal with the factor 
of increasing Sino-Soviet Bloc economic and 
military aid to the economically less developed 
countries of the free world. Such aid had 
reached a total of nearly $2 billion by the end of 
1957. In addition to furnishing credits and 
grants to these countries, the Sino-Soviet Bloc has 
markedly stepped up its activities in technical as- 
sistance, trade, trade fairs, and cultural and scien- 
tific exchanges of all kinds. 



DEVELOPMENTS IN COLLECTIVE SECURITY 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization 

The last 6 months of 1957 saw increasing co- 
opei'ative activity in the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization between the United States and its 
allies. The launching of the Soviet satellites and 
the evidence of considerable Soviet progress in 
missile development had made it all the more 
necessary for the alliance to draw closer together 
to meet Soviet technological gains and the in- 
creased threat to the free world. 

Mr. Paul Plenri Spaak paid his first visit to 
the United States in the fall of 1957 in his new 
capacity as NATO's seci-etary general. His visit 
coincided with that of British Prime Minister 
Macmillan, who arrived in October for talks with 
President Eisenhower.^ 

The discussions by President Eisenhower, 
Prime Minister Macmillan and Secretary General 
Spaak led to a NATO heads of government meet- 
ing at Paris in December. Important steps were 
taken at this December meeting for strengthening 
the NATO alliance. In response to the increased 
Soviet threat to free world security brought about 
by the fact that Soviet forces were being equipped 



' Hid., Nov. 11, 1957, p. 739. 
July 14, 1958 



with the most modern and destructive weapons, 
the NATO members made the following 
decisions : 

^ To establish stocks of nuclear warheads which 
will be readily available for the defense of the al- 
liance in case of need. The United States agreed 
to participate in a NATO atomic stockpile system 
which would place nuclear warheads, under 
United States custody, in close proximity to the 
nuclear-capable weapons furnished under the mil- 
itary assistance program. Such deployment 
would be in accordance with NATO defense plan- 
ning and in agreement with the nations directly 
involved. 

^ To take the steps required to put intermediate 
range ballistic missiles at the disposal of the Su- 
preme Allied Commander, Europe (SACEUR). 
The United States offered to make such missiles 
available to other NATO nations for deployment 
in accordance with SACEUR's plans. Nuclear 
warheads for these missiles would remain under 
United States custody as a part of the NATO 
atomic stockpile. 

k To hold a military conference early in 1958 at 
the ministerial level to discuss progress made in 
obtaining as high a degree of standardization and 
integration as possible in all fields, particularly 
in certain aspects of air and naval defense, in 
logistic suppoi't, and in the composition and 
equipment of forces. 

^ To take further measures within NATO to pro- 
mote coordination of research, development and 
manufacture of modern weapons, including inter- 
mediate range ballistic missiles. 
k To study as a matter of urgency the best means 
of achieving coordinated production of advanced 
weapons needed by NATO forces. The United 
States, along with other countries with advanced 
programs, offered to share information on pi'o- 
duction techniques and research to stimulate effort 
in the defense production field. 

To promote scientific and technical cooperation, 
it was also agreed to establish a science committee, 
composed of eminent scientists from all NATO 
countries, and to appoint a science adviser to the 
Secretary General of NATO. 

As an additional means of strengthening the 
common defense, and to assure the fullest eco- 
nomic, cultural, and scientific development of the 
Atlantic community, it was agreed that meas- 



83 



ures should be taken to increase the supply of 
trained men in various branches of science and to 
achieve a greater pooling of efforts and informa- 
tion in this field.* 



SEATO 

Further steps were taken during July-Decem- 
ber 1957 to develop the progi-ams approved at 
the third annual council meeting of the South- 
east Asia Treaty Organization, held in March 
1957 at Canberra, Australia.^ Member govern- 
ments nominated additional international staff 
personnel who have now taken up their posts. The 
office of the secretary general went into operation, 
and benefits in efficiency and coordination have al- 
ready been evident. 

. . . • • 

A major SEATO combined military exercise 
was held in the Philippines during the period, 
helping to improve coordination among the armed 
forces of the SEATO nations. This exercise was 
to be followed by others as provided for in the 
training schedule approved by the military ad- 
visers at Bangkok in September 1957. 

Other Developments in Collective Security 

In the Baghdad Pact organization, the com- 
bined militaiy planning staff, which was estab- 
lished as an outgrowth of the meeting of the 
Ministerial Council in June 1957, carried out a 
number of planning studies for consideration by 
the pact's military committee in January 1958. 
Preparations also were made for the important 
meeting of the council at Ankara, Turkey, in Jan- 
uary 1958 to review means for obtaining closer 
coordination in the organization's affairs. 

During the half-year, the United States sup- 
plied Libya with the major portion of the arms, 
equipment, and ammunition agreed upon under 
arrangements made in June 1956. The materiel 
consisted of transportation and communication 
items, 105-mm. howitzers, 60-mm. mortars, rifles, 
ammunition, and various small equipment items. 
This materiel would help equip an additional 1,000 
men for the Libyan Army. A United States 



* For text of declaration and communique dated Dec. 
19, 1957, see ibid., Jan. 6, 1958, p. 12. 
° Ibid., Apr. 1, 1957, p. 527. 



Military Assistance Advisory Group was estab- 
lished in Libya during the period. 

Under the terms of an agreement of November 
4, 1957, Tunisia became eligible to purchase equip- 
ment, materials, and services under the Mutual 
Security Act of 1954, as amended. This step was 
followed by delivery on November 15 of 500 rifles 
and 50,000 I'ounds of ammunition purchased by 
the Government of Tunisia for the Tunisian 
Army. 

In response to a request from the Government 
of Jordan for military assistance, the United 
States Government agreed to provide that nation 
with military goods and services. A substantial 
part of the goods had been delivered by the end 
of the period under review. 

The United States military assistance program 
of grant aid to Yugoslavia was terminated in 
December 1957 by mutual agreement of the two 
governments. Yugoslavia remains eligible to pur- 
chase military equipment from the United States. 

Continuing progress was made in military aid 
activities under way in other countries of the fx'ee 
world. These activities encompassed a variety of 
programs : furnishing needed military items which 
the countries could not otherwise provide for 
themselves; training their armed forces in effec- 
tive utilization of such militai-y items; helping to 
establish self-sufficient national training pro- 
grams ; and raising the skill of military personnel 
in operating modern equipment. 



ECONOMIC ASSiSTANCE 

The Development Loan Fund is now a primary 
vehicle for assisting friendly countries in their 
programs of economic development. Countries to 
which we are giving military assistance in the in- 
terest of our common defense, however, frequently 
need economic assistance to enable them to carry 
the burden of their contribution to free world 
military strength. Economic assistance with this 
objective is called defense support. Many of the 
economic aid projects and programs discussed be- 
low are for defense support. 

Progress in Going Programs 

Hwachon Power Project in South Korea Com- 
pleted — In November 1957, the cooperative proj- 
ect for the rehabilitation and expansion of the 



84 



Department of State Bulletin 



Appropriations For Mutual Security 



Cooperation 
Special $130 

Assistance 
$225 



CURRE^4T FISCAL YEAR 1958 

Technical 



THE ANNUAL TREND 



Other 
S85 




Development Loon Fund 
$300 



(Millions of Dotlors) 
8,000 



6,000 — i 



4,000 — i- 



Tofal: 
S2. 769 Million 




2,000 — g:- 



1949 '50 '51 '52 '53 '54 '55 '56 '57 '58 
Rscal Yeors 



Hwaclion Dam and hydroelectric power plant was 
completed. This represented a major step in the 
progress of the United States program for South 
Korea. The project is symbolic of our dual pur- 
pose of helping the Eepublic of Korea to recover 
from the havoc of the Communist invasion and at 
the same time to build up its own economic capa- 
bilities in order to reduce its dependence on ex- 
ternal aid. Such aid is now necessary to enable 
this important free world partner to make its 
contribution to the coimnon defense. 

With a capacity of 81,000 kilowatts, Hwachon, 
the Eepublic of Korea's largest single electric 
power plant, represents almost one-fourth of the 
nation's total capacity of 336,000 kilowatts. . . . 

Power Project in Turkey Brought Into Oper- 
ation — The Sariyar hydroelectric power project, 
located about 50 miles west of Ankara, is now pro- 
viding much needed electrical energy over a radius 
which includes the industrially concentrated areas 
of Istanbul and Ankara. The United States con- 
tributed about $10 million to the total cost of this 
project, and the Turkish Government met local 
currency costs equivalent to $80 million. Designed 
to increase electric power facilities to meet the 
growing industrial requirements in noitliwestern 



Anatolia, the joint project included construction 
of a dam and of diversion and power tunnels ; in- 
stallation of two 40,000 kilowatt power generating 
units ; erection of power transmission systems con- 
necting Sariyar with Ankara, Istanbul and Kara- 
buk; and training of Turkish engineers. The 
project is now completely mider Turkish man- 
agement. 

United States Highway Assistance to Turkey 
Draws to a Close — Turkey is now ready to carry 
on its highway improvement program unassisted. 
The last group of American public roads advisors 
to the Government of Turkey will be withdrawn 
in 1958. With United States aid, Turkey has been 
able to establish a highway system of more than 
17,000 miles; train 5,000 equipment operators; 
build more than 10 miles of bridges; and set up 
55 maintenance shops. These accomplishments 
have helped bring about a reduction of 63 percent 
in unit freight costs in Turkey and have dras- 
tically reduced motor travel time. In a verj' real 
sense, the highway improvement program has 
opened up formerly isolated areas in the interior 
of Turkey to the benefits of modern commerce. 
The program will also contribute to Turkey's de- 
fensive strength. 



Jo/y 74, J958 



85 



TaiwarCs Manufacturing Capacity Expanded — 
Three important accomplishments during the 
half-year added measurably to Taiwan's ability to 
manufacture products vital to its economic prog- 
ress. Construction of a cement plant at Chia 
Hsin in southern Taiwan was completed in De- 
cember. This plant has an annual production 
capacity of 100,000 metric tons of portland ce- 
ment. All raw materials used by it, except gyp- 
sum, are produced locally. At Chutung in north- 
western Taiwan, the annual production capacity 
of another cement plant was increased by 100,000 
metric tons. These projects will support other 
civilian development projects in hydroelectric 
power and irrigation as well as aid in Taiwan's 
military construction program. The United 
States contributed about half of the $4.4 million 
cost of the Chia Hsin plant and $1 million of the 
$1.4 million cost of expanding the Chutmig plant. 

At the end of the year, a new fertilizer plant 
at Kaohsiung was operating at 90 percent of its 
capacity for producing annually 35,500 tons of 
nitro-phosphatic fertilizer. This amount would 
provide about 15 percent of Taiwan's requirements 
of phosphatic fertilizer and would yield an an- 
nual saving in foreign exchange of some $750,000. 
With most of Taiwan's available arable land al- 
ready under cultivation and an annual growth in 
population of more than 3 percent, chemical fer- 
tilizers are important for achieving vitally needed 
increases per acre in production of food and other 
crops. Of the total cost of about $3 million for 
this project, the United States financed $2.1 mil- 
lion, of which one-third was in local currency. 
The Taiwan Fertilizer Company, a government 
corporation which is operating the plant, 
contributed the equivalent of $900,000 in local 
currency. 



New Cooperative Programs Started 

Utilizing Burma's Line of Credit— The United 
States and Burma signed agreements in December 
for the first two projects to be carried out under 
the $25 million line of credit which the United 
States extended to Burma in fiscal year 1957. 
One of these projects will restore more than 1 mil- 
lion acres of land to cultivation in the delta area 
of the Irawaddy Eiver. Another 1 million acres 



in the same area, now in production, will be pro- 
tected from periodic floods. Completion of this 
project will enable more than a half million farm- 
ers to return to the land. About $5 million 
will be drawn from the United States loan ; Burma 
will provide local currency equivalent to about $20 
million. The United States funds will finance the 
purchase of moving, grading, and dredging equip- 
ment for work on embankment and drainage ca- 
nals. Other equipment will be supplied to clear 
the land and to aid in its cultivation. 

The second project under the $25 million line- 
of-credit will use $690,000 for mechanical equip- 
ment to assist Burma in modernizing extraction 
operations in its important teak timber industry. 

Encouraging Small Business in Africa — Ef- 
forts are being made under the mutual security 
program to encourage expansion of small business 
enterprises in many parts of Africa where there 
is a vital need for greater participation of the 
local people in retail and wholesale trade, and in 
the service and processing industries. An agree- 
ment between the United States and the Tunisian 
Governments was reached in December 1957 to 
establish a Small Industrial Loan Fund within 
the new Tunisian Development Bank in order to 
make credit available at moderate interest rates to 
small business enterprises. The fund will be 
financed by allocating $3 million in counterpart 
funds acquired from the sale in Tunisia of ICA- 
financed imported commodities. 

A similar program of small-industry financing 
is under consideration by officials of the Liberian 
Government, based on a special survey of the 
problem prepared by ICA contract consultants. 
To finance part of the initial stages of the pro- 
gram, the Liberian Government has applied for 
assistance from the Development Loan Fund. 
United States technical advice, guidance, and 
training possibly would be extended in this and 
related fields of small-business development. 
The needs and possibilities of such a program are 
being explored with Liberian officials by the in- 
dustrial advisor recently assigned to the ICA 
mission. 

In Somalia, scheduled to achieve its independ- 
ence in 1960, ICA was requested to provide agri- 
cultural and industrial advisers to assist the 



86 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Somalian Government small-loan fund which was 
ori<rinallv established through Italian grant aid. 



It should be borne in mind that the largest por- 
tion of the funds appropriated for all types of 
economic assistance has been used for purposes 
which are not directly related to particular de- 
velopment projects. Large quantities of foods 
and fibers, including United States surplus agri- 
cultural commodities, as well as industrial raw 
materials and fuels are furnished countries to 
help meet needs which are not covered by specific 
projects. Commodities provided for such needs 
are used to fulfill essential consumption require- 
ments, to combat serious inflationary forces which 
impede progi'am objectives, and to help compen- 
sate for the lack of foreign exchange. The sale 
of these commodities in the markets of the recipi- 
ent countries enables the host governments to ac- 
quire local currencies which they use to finance 
their economic as well as defense programs. 

ICA expenditures during July-December 1957 
for commodity assistance not related to specific 
development projects were about 75 percent of the 
agency's total expenditures. The current trend, 
however, is toward proportionately more project- 
type aid. This trend is likely to be accelerated 
as obligation of the resources of the Development 
Loan Fund becomes an important part of the 
total commitments for economic assistance. 



TECHNICAL COOPERATION HIGHLIGHTS 

During July-December 1957, hundreds of tech- 
nical cooperation projects were being carried for- 
ward in more than 50 countries. Each project 
was designed to brmg some particularly needed 
know-how to lielp people in the less developed 
areas of the free world advance along the road 
to economic development. At the end of 1957, 
4,951 American technicians were engaged over- 
seas in this work. Of this number, 2,880 were 
directly employed by ICA; the remaining 2,071 
were working under ICA-financed contracts with 
American universities, private firms and other 
institutions. Meanwhile, during the period under 
review, 2,873 teclinical personnel from cooperating 
countries were brought to the United States or 
other appropriate locations for training in a va- 
riety of fields. 



The activities which make up the teclmical co- 
operation program are as varied as the problems 
which the people in less developed countries must 
overcome in their effort to achieve effective eco- 
nomic progress. . . . 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 

MULTILATERAL 
Aviation 

Agreement on joint financing of certain air navigation 

services in Greenland and tlie Faroe Islands. Done at 

Geneva September 25, 19.56. 

Acceptance deposited: Netherlands, June 6, 1958. 

Entered into force: June 6, 1958. 
Agreement on joint financing of certain air navigation 

services in Iceland. Done at Geneva September 25, 

1956. 

Acceptance deposited: Netherlands, June 6, 1958. 

Entered into force: June 6, 1958. 



BILATERAL 
Afghanistan 

Agreement concerning cultural relations. Effected by ex- 
change of notes at Washington June 26, 1958. Entered 
Into force June 26, 1958. 

Canada 

Agreement relating to the establishment, maintenance, 
and operation by the United States of aerial refueling 
facilities in Canada. Effected by exchange of notes at 
Ottawa June 20, 1958. Entered into force June 20, 
195a 

Denmarl< 

Agreement amending research reactor agreement concern- 
ing civil uses of atomic energy of July 25, 1955, as 
amended (TIAS 3309 and 3758). Signed at Washing- 
ton June 26, 1958. Enters into force on date on which 
each government receives from the other written noti- 
fication that it has complied with statutory and consti- 
tutional requirements. 

Ecuador 

Agreement providing financial assistance to Ecuador. 
Effected by exchange of notes at Washington June 27, 
1958. Entered into force June 27, 1958. 

Poland 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of February 15, 1958 (TIAS 3991). Effected by 
exchange of notes at Washington June 6, 1958. En- 
tered into force June 6, 19.58. 

Yugoslavia 

Agreement concerning the reciprocal recognition of ton- 
nage certificates. Effected by exchange of notes at 
Washington June 12 and 16, 1958. Entered into force 
June 16, 1958. 



July 14, 1958 



87 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



U.N. Security Council Sends Observation Group to Lebanon 



The U.N. Secmity Council met on June 6 to 
consider a Lebanese complaint "in respect of a 
situation arising from the intervention of the 
United Arab Republic in the internal affairs of 
Lebanon, the continuance of tohich is likely to 
endanger the maintenance of international peace 
and security''' ( U.N. doc. 8/Jfi07) . Following are 
four JJ.S. statements made during the debate, 
three by Henry Cabot Lodge, U.S. Representative 
to the United Nations, and one by James W. 
Barco, Deputy U.S. Representative, together with 
the text of a resolution adopted by the Council 
on June 11. 

STATEMENT BY MR. BARCO, JUNE 6 

U.S./D.N. press release 2037 

We have heard in considerable detail, from its 
distinguished Foreign Minister, Lebanon's com- 
plaint against the United Arab Republic and the 
reply of the distinguished representative of the 
United Arab Republic. 

We must note the statement of the representa- 
tive of the United Arab Republic that his Govern- 
ment has no intention to intervene in Lebanon's 
domestic affairs or to threaten Lebanon's integrity. 
But, Mr. President, the charges presented by the 
Foreign Minister of Lebanon — that is, external 
radio broadcasting inciting to revolt, the move- 
ment of armed men across Lebanon's borders, and 
the supply of arms from outside — these charges 
are very serious charges and are gravely dis- 
turbing. 

Members of the Council are surely obliged to 
consider this situation with the greatest care in 
the light of the evidence and the arguments we 
have heard today. The evidence adduced by the 
distinguished Foreign Minister of Lebanon to 
back his charges is, to us, very impressive. 

I therefore support the suggestion of the dis- 
tinguished representative of Iraq that we meet 
again to consider this question on Tuesday. In 
the meantime, the United States urges that every 



step be taken by all concerned — and I repeat by 
all concerned — to maintain respect for the inde- 
pendence and the integrity of Lebanon and to 
prevent any actions or developments inconsistent 
with this objective. We very much hope that this 
will be the case. 

FIRST STATEMENT BY MR. LODGE, JUNE 10 

U.S. /U.N. press release 2939 

In the light of the facts which have been ad- 
duced before the Security Council, the United 
States amiounces its support of the resolution 
introduced by the representative of Sweden. The 
most constructive thing the Security Council can 
do would be to get United Nations representatives 
to the borders of Lebanon to assure that no ac- 
tivities of the nature complained about by the 
representative of Lebanon are carried on. 

The representative of Lebanon has convej'ed 
the urgency of the situation in his country. The 
Swedish resolution is a useful attempt to meet 
this pressing issue. Its terms are simple and 
clear. It would, we think, be altogether fitting 
for the Security Council to remain in session and 
pass tliis resolution tonight. 

Mr. President, I reserve my right to speak more 
extensively in the near future. 

SECOND STATEMENT BY MR. LODGE, JUNE 10 

U.S./O.N. press release 2940 

The United States Government has listened to 
and carefully examined the statements both of the 
Foreign Minister of Lebanon and of the repre- 
sentative of the United Arab Republic. 

The conclusion is clear that there has been out- 
side interference in the internal affairs of the Re- 
public of Lebanon and that this interference has 
been designed to promote civil strife and to im- 
pede the efforts of the constituted authorities to 
restore order and tranquillity, and that the inter- 
ference has occurred from the territory and via 
the facilities of the United Arab Republic. 



88 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



This statement is made with regret. First, be- 
cause this situation has fomented violence and 
bloodshed in the peaceful state of Lebanon, a 
country whose people have by their tradition 
clearly revealed their desire to live at peace with 
their neighbors. Secondly, we regret it because 
the United States desires good relations with all 
states in the Middle East, including the United 
Arab Republic, and deplores the creation of cir- 
cumstances which obstruct such relations. 

This situation, backed by the evidence presented 
by the representative of Lebanon, is grave indeed. 
The Security Council cannot ignore it. Funda- 
mental questions concerning the responsibilities 
both of members of the United Nations and of the 
organization itself are involved. 

A cardinal principle of the United Nations is 
the injunction on all members contained in article 
2, paragraph 4, of the charter to "refrain in their 
international relations from the threat or use of 
force against the territorial integrity or political 
independence of any state, or in any other manner 
inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Na- 
tions." The Security Council and the General As- 
sembly, over the past dozen years, have on many 
occasions considered complaints involving this es- 
sential charter principle of nonintervention. 

Recognizing the universal significance of this 
issue the General Assembly, on December 1, 1949, 
adopted by an overwhelming majority- resolution 
290 (IV) entitled "Essentials of Peace." ^ Directly 
pertinent to our discussions today is the provision 
calling upon every nation "to refrain from threat- 
ening or using force contrary to the Charter" and 
"to refrain from any threats or acts, direct or in- 
direct, aimed at impairing the freedom, independ- 
ence or integrity of any state, or at fomenting 
civil strife and subverting the will of the people in 
any state." 

The United Nations also must be particularly 
alert in protecting the security and integrity of 
small states from interference by those whose re- 
sources and power are larger. This principle 
should be supported regardless of who the offender 
may be. The protection of the less strong was, 
indeed, one of the main reasons why the United 
Nations was established, and it was in 1956 that 
Egypt herself benefited from this fact. 

Most of the members of the United Nations are, 



* For text, see Buixetih of Nov. 28, 1949, p. 807. 
July 14, 7958 



like I^banon, small powers. Anything that affects 
one of their number must certainly be of general 
concern to all of them. If the idea is ever sanc- 
tioned here that large states, simply because they 
are large, can interfere with impunity in the in- 
ternal affairs of small states, simply because they 
are small, we will have given our blessing to the 
doctrine that might makes right and the United 
Nations will have ceased to be a respectable organ- 
ization. 

The record of the United States in the United 
Nations in defense of the territorial integrity and 
political independence of states is consistent and 
clear. We supported fully United Nations action 
in defense of the territorial integrity of Egypt in 
1956. Now, having in mind the same charter prin- 
ciples, the United States Government is concerned 
about the present situation in Lebanon. There 
should be no doubt of the firm determination of the 
United States to continue to support the integrity 
and independence of that coimtry. 

Lebanon has over the past 13 years played a 
distinguished role in working for the cause of 
peace in the United Nations. Its leading states- 
men have devoted themselves to the purposes and 
principles of the charter. The policies of its 
Government have been helpful in reducing ten- 
sions in a part of the world where tensions are 
only too common. 

The people of the United States feel a particu- 
larly deep sympathy for the peoples of Lebanon, 
not only because of their country's record in in- 
ternational affairs but also for the close and inti- 
mate ties that have long existed between the two. 
This warm friendship has its basis in common 
ideals of democracy. It has found its expression 
in extensive cultural and social cooperation. It 
reflects common beliefs and objectives. 

The representative of the United Arab Repub- 
lic has quoted extensively from political sources 
within Lebanon who are opposed to the present 
government. Political opposition in a democracy 
is natural, indeed essential, as a basis for the free 
determination of the country's destiny by its citi- 
zens. It is something of which Lebanon can be 
proud. 

The fact that this opposition exists, or that it 
feels strongly about its ideals is, however, no justi- 
fication whatever for external attacks, whether 
by radio or by other controlled media, upon the 
government in office, for external demands that it 



89 



resign, or for external support and assistance to 
those not in office. 

Lebanon has already demonstrated its ability to 
govern itself through modern, liberal traditions. 
It will surely continue to do so if others do not 
exploit normal differences of opinion for purposes 
of their own. 

The United States has noted with interest the 
statements made by the representative of the 
United Arab Eepublic that his Government hopes 
Lebanon "will continue to be independent" and 
that it wishes "for the prosperity, well-being and 
peace of the Lebanese people," that the United 
Arab Republic "categorically rejects" the com- 
plaint that there has been "an intervention of the 
United Arab Eepublic in the affairs of Lebanon," 
and that the United Arab Eepublic is "always 
prepared to cooperate with the United Nations and 
to settle our disputes within the framework of 
the charter." 

In view of these statements the United States 
assumes that the Government of the United Arab 
Eepublic will take all possible measures to insure 
that efforts to uphold the authority of the legally 
constituted Government of Lebanon and to rees- 
tablish law and order are not obstructed by activi- 
ties based on the territory or by means of facilities 
of the United Arab Eepublic. 

The United States Government hopes that the 
Security Council will help to bring about an end 
to interference by the United Arab Eepublic in 
Lebanon. We hope the views of members of the 
Council will be received with respect and that 
they will produce prompt results. 

Before I conclude, let me say just one brief 
word about the statement made by the Soviet 
representative. The Soviet strictures against the 
United States are so standardized that it would 
be a waste of time to demonstrate their absurdity. 
And this is one night, Mr. President, in our his- 
tory when we must not waste time. Yet instead of 
joining forces with us to do something quick and 
helpful, the Soviet representative seems to be look- 
ing for reasons not to do something. We hope 
this turns out not to be the case. 

I say this because current reports just reaching 
me from Beirut show that the situation is in- 
creasingly critical and that the infiltrations from 
Syria are growing. A press report just brought to 
me indicates that two major battles are in prog- 
ress. One is in the Ain Zahalta area, where 
armed bands are seeking to cut the major high- 



way leading from Beirut. Another battle is going 
on in the outskirts of Tripoli. In both battles 
artillery is being used against the Lebanese forces. 

Under these circumstances it would be prepos- 
terous and dangerous to sit here solemnly and, 
to paraphrase a well-known saying, quibble while 
Eome burns. The need is for something practical 
and that something is the Swedish resolution. It 
encroaches on nobody. It is consistent with the 
charter. It could yet stop the attempts to sub- 
vert a gallant little country. 

Mr. President, we urge the Council to take 
quick and decisive action. 



STATEMENT BY MR. LODGE, JUNE 11 

D.S./U.N. press release 2941 

The United States is gratified by the action 
of the Security Council today. 

First, we adopted the Swedish resolution, which 
is a practical step toward peace. We trust that 
our esteemed Secretary-General will act with his 
accustomed speed and will have someone in 
Lebanon within 24 hours. 

Then, in addition to the resolution, 10 speeches 
were made in the Council, 10 speeches which re- 
flected the regard which members of the Council 
felt for the merit of the statements made by the 
representative of Lebanon. 

Both the speeches and the resolution are re- 
sponsible, constructive actions for which we think 
the Security Council is entitled to congratulations. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION 3 

U.N. doc. S/4023 

The Security Council, 

Having heard the charges of the representative of 
Lebanon concerning interference by the United Arab 
Republic in the internal affairs of Lebanon and the reply 
of the representative of the United Arab Republic, 

Decides to dispatch urgently an observation group to 
proceed to Lebanon so as to ensure that there is no 
illegal infiltration of personnel or supply of arms or 
other materiel across the Lebanese borders; 

Authorises the Secretary-General to take the necessary 
steps to that end ; 

Requests the observation group to Iceep the Security 
Council currently informed through the Secretary- 
General. 



'Adopted on June 11 by a vote of 10 to 0; the U.S.S.R. 
abstained. 



90 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



July 14, 1958 



Index 



Vol. XXXIX, No. 994 



American Republics. U.S. Lends $2,300,000 to Ecuador for 

luter-Amcrican Conference 68 

Artentina. Letters of Credence (Barros Burtado) ... 54 

Ueniva Technical Conference (texts of T.S. letter, Soviet 

nlile mcniolre, President's message, U.S. participants) . 47 

President Aslis for Congressional Approval of Agreement 
With European Atouiic Knergy Communltj- (meuioran- 
diiui of inuierstanding, text of agreement) 70 

U.S. and Denmark Sign Amendment to Atomic Research 

Agreement 54 

Canada. Problems Facing the United States and the West- 
ern World (Dulles, Mclnnls) 61 

Ceylon. United States and Ceylon Sign Development Loan 

Fund Agreement 68 

Communism. Problems Facing the United States and the 

Western World (Dulles, Mclnnls) 61 

ConBress, The 

Congressional Documents Relating to Foreign Policy . . 80 

Highlights of tlie Mutual Security Program, July 1-Decem- 

ber 31. 1937 81 

President Asks for Congressional Approval of Agreement 
With European Atomic Energy Community (memoran- 
dum of understanding, text of agreement) .... 70 

Denmark. U.S. and Denmark Sign Amendment to Atomic 
Research Agreement 54 

Economic Affairs 

President Suspends Consideration of Lead and Zinc T.nriffs . 69 

Problems facing the United States and the Western World 

(Dulles, Mclnnls) 61 

Ecuador. U.S. Lends $2,300,000 to Ecuador for Inter- 
American Conference 68 

Europe. President Asks for Congressional Approval of 
Agreement With European Atomic Energy (Jonimunlty 
(memorandum of understanding, text of agreement) . . 70 

Germany, East. Efforts for Release of Helicopter Crew and 

Passengers in East Germany 50 

Greece. U.S. Loan To Help Greece Build Fertilizer Plant . 69 

India. United States and India Sign $7S MUUon Loan 

Agreements 67 

International Information. Freedom of Ideas vs. Censorship 

(Herding) 55 

Lebanon 

U.N. Security Council Sends Observation Group to Lebanon 

iBarco. Lodge, text of resolution) 88 

United States To Send Wheat to Lebanon 68 

Libya. Letters of Credence (el-Kekhla) 54 

Military Affairs. Efforts for Release of Helicopter Crew 

and Passengers in East Germany 50 

Mutual Security 

Hlghliglits of tlie Mutual Security Program, July 1-Decem- 

ber 31. 1057 81 

United States and Ceylon Sign Development Loan Fund 

Agreement 68 

United States and India Sign $75 Million Loan Agree- 
ments 67 

U.S. Loan To Help Greece Build Fertilizer Plant ... 09 

United States To Send Wheat to Lebanon 68 

Panama. Funds Appropriated for Building Panama Ca- 
nal Bridge 68 

Presidential Documents 

Geneva Technical Conference (text of President's 

message) 47 

Highlights of the Mutual Security Program, July 1-Decem- 

ber 31. 1937 81 

President Asks for Congressional Approval of Agreement 

with European Atomic Energy Community 70 

President Suspends Consideration of Lead anil Zinc Tariffs . 69 

Protection of Nationals. Efforts for Release of Helicopter 

Crew and Passengers in East Germany 50 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 87 

Funds Appropriated for Building Panama Canal Bridge . 68 
President .Asks for Congressional Approval of Agreement 
With European Atomic Energy Community (memoran- 
dum of understanding, text of agreement) 70 



U.S. and Ceylon Sign Development Loan Fund Agreement . 68 
U.S. and Denmark Sign Amendment to Atomic Research 

Agreement 54 

U.S. and India Sign $75 Million Loan Agreements . . 67 
U.S. Lends $2,300,000 to Ecuador for Inter-American Con- 
ference 68 

U.S. To Send Wheat to Lebanon 68 

U.S.S.R. 

Eflorts for Release of Helicopter Crew and Passengers in 

East Germany 50 

Freedom of Ideas vs. Censorship (Berding) 55 

Geneva Technical Conference (texts of U.S. letter, Soviet 

aide memoire. President's message, U.S. participants) . 47 

U.S. Gives Soviets Facts on New York Demonstrations . . 49 

United Nations 

U.N. Security Council Sends Observation Group to Lebanon 

(Barco, Lodge, text of resolution) 88 

U.S. Gives Soviets Facts on New York Demonstrations . . 49 

Index 

Barco, James W 88 

Barros Hurtado. C^sar 64 

Berding. Andrew H 65 

Dulles. Secretary 61 

Eisenhower. President 47, 69, 70, 81 

el-Kekhla, Mansour Fethl 54 

Lodge. Henry Cabot 88 

Mclnnis, Edgar 61 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 23-29 

Press releases may be obtained from the News 
Division, Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 

Subject 

Libya credentials (rewrite). 

Argentina credentials (rewrite). 

Educational exchange. 

Berding: Civitan International, New 
Orleans. 

Loan to Greece. 

U.S.-EURATOM program. 

DLF loan to India. 

Dulles : Canadian TV interview. 

DLF loan to Ceylon (rewrite). 

Arrival of Afghan Prime Minister. 

U.S. aide memoire on anti-Soviet dem- 
onstrations in New York. 

Soviet aide memoire on Geneva meet- 
ings. 

Bridge over Panama Canal. 

U.S. participants in Geneva meeting. 

Amendment to atomic research agree- 
ment with Denmark. 

Steps to procure release of helicopter 
crew in East Germany. 

Letter to Gromyko on Geneva meeting. 

Cultural agreement with Afghanistan. 

Itinerary for Afghan Prime Minister. 

Dulles and Daud : remarks on signing 
of cultural agreement. 

Loan to Ecuador for Inter-American 
Conference. 

Visit of Shah of Iran. 

Wheat to Lebanon. 

""Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


340 

341 

■•342 

343 


6/23 
6/23 
6/23 
6/23 


344 
345 
340 
847 
348 
t349 
350 


6/23 
6/23 
6/23 
6/23 
6/24 
6/24 
6/25 


1351 


6/25 


352 
353 
354 


6/25 
6/25 
6/26 


355 


6/26 


356 
t357 
*358 
1359 


6/26 
6/26 
6/26 
6/26 


360 


6/27 


1-361 
362 


6/27 
6/27 



July 14, 1958 



91 



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HE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 





Vol. XXXEX, No. 995 



July 21, 1958 



ITED STATES 
REiGN POLICY 



PRESIDENT CALLS FOR SERIOUS CONSIDERATION 
BY SOVIETS OF WESTERN PROCEDURAL PRO- 
POSAL FOR SUMMIT CONFERENCE • Exchange of 
Correspondence Between President Eisenhower and Premier 
Khrushchev 95 

GENEVA TECHNICAL TALKS • Texts of U.S. and Soviet 

Aide Memoire 101 

SECRETARY DULLES' NEWS CONFERENCE OF 

JULY 1 104 

VISIT OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF 

THE PHILIPPINES 120 

VISIT OF THE PRIME MINISTER OF AFGHANISTAN 127 

TWENTY YEARS AFTER: TWO DECADES OF 
GOVERIVMENT-SPONSORED CULTURAL RELA- 
TIONS • Article by Francis J. ColUgan 112 

For index see inside back cover 



THE DERARTrVlENT OF STA 




Vol. XXXIX, No. 995 • Publication 6675 
July 21, 1958 



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President Calls for Serious Consideration by Soviets 
of Western Procedural Proposal for Summit Conference 



Following is an exchange of correspondence be- 
tween President Eisenliorcer and Nikita Khrush- 
chev, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, together with 
a Department statement concerning Premier 
Khrushchev^s letter. 



THE PRESIDENT TO PREMIER KHRUSHCHEV 

White House press release dated July 2 

July 2, 1958. 

Dear Mr. Chairman : I was frankly surprised 
by your letter of Jime 11. You complain about 
delay in preparations for a Summit meeting pre- 
cisely at the moment when the Western powers 
have submitted a proposal for a serious and effec- 
tive procedure for conducting these preparations. 
This refutes the allegation contained in your letter 
that the three Western powers are creating ob- 
stacles and impeding progress toward a Summit 
meeting. 

The position of the Western powers concerning 
holding of a meeting of Heads of Government 
has been clear from the outset. Tliey consider 
such a meeting desirable if it would provide an 
opportunity for conducting serious discussions of 
major problems and would be an effective means 
of reaching agreement on significant subjects. 
From the known positions of the Soviet Govern- 
ment, there is no evidence so far that such is the 
case. That is why the Western powers insist on 
adequate preparatory work and wliy they have 
put forward their proposal to facilitate satisfac- 
tory completion of this work. 

The Soviet Govenmient instead has disrupted 
the discussions in JNIoscow by taking upon itself 
to publish with bare hours of warning and no 

Ju/y 21, 1958 



attempt at consultation the documents exchanged 
between it and the Western powers, including dip- 
lomatic dociunents originating from the Western 
powers. This action is scarcely consonant with 
the spirit of serious preparation in which the 
Western powers entered into these diplomatic ex- 
changes. It cannot but cast doubt on the inten- 
tions of the Soviet Government concerning the 
proper preparations for a Smimiit meeting. 

Following receipt of the Soviet agenda pro- 
posals on May 5 the three Ambassadors in inter- 
views on May 28, 31 and June 2 presented in re- 
turn the Western agenda proposals.' They also 
outlined to Mr. Gromyko a suggested procedure 
for overcoming the difficulty caused by the fact 
that the two sets of proposals were widely di- 
vergent. The Western Ambassadors are quite 
ready to offer cormnents on tlie Soviet agenda pro- 
posals and to clarify certain points in their own 
proposals on which the Soviet Government seems 
to have misconceptions. But the Western Gov- 
ernments camiot agree that the discussions be- 
tween their Ambassadors and Mr. Gromyko 
should be based exclusively on the Soviet list any 
more than they would expect the Soviet Govern- 
ment to agree to base the discussions solely on the 
Western list. Since the topics in both lists fall 
imder certain general headings, the Western pro- 
posal was that preparatory discussion of the in- 
dividual topics put forward by the two sides 
should take place within the framework of tliese 
general headings. Had this been accepted by the 
Soviet Government, the Soviet Foreign Minister 
and tlie Ambassadors could have proceeded to ex- 
amine the positions of the various governments on 
the topics in both lists and establish what subjects 



' Bulletin of July 7, 1958, p. 12. 



95 



should be submitted for examination by the Heads 
of Government. Neither side would, during the 
preparatory stage, have been able to veto the in- 
clusion of any topic for discussion and an op- 
portimity would have been afforded to find some 
common ground, for later consideration by Heads 
of Government. 

Mr. Gromyko promised an official reply to the 
above proposal. Instead, however, the Soviet 
Government has now addressed communications 
to the Heads of Government of the three Western 
powers, in the form of your letters of June 11, 
which repeat the arguments in favor of the Soviet 
set of proposals of May 5 and criticize some of 
the Western proposals which it happens not to 
like. The procedural proposal put forward by 
the Ambassadors has been ignored altogether. 

You allege in your letters that the Western 
powers by including, as possible subjects of dis- 
cussion at a meeting of Heads of Government, 
some of the great political issues that create grave 
tension are trying to prevent the holding of a 
Summit meeting. There is no warrant for this 
allegation. A meeting of Heads of Government 
would not respond to the hopes and aspirations of 
mankind if they met under an injunction that 
seals their lips so that they could not even men- 
tion the great political issues that gravely trouble 
their relations and endanger world peace. 

In spite of the arbitrary action of the Soviet 
Government and its apparent unwillingness to 
negotiate seriously on concrete points at issue, the 
Western powers do not propose to abandon hope 
or to relax their efforts to seek solutions of the 
major outstanding problems. If the Soviet Gov- 
ernment is equally serious in pursuing tliis goal, 
it will accept the procedural proposal put for- 
ward by the Western powers or advance some 
equally effective and workable alternative. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

DEPARTMENT STATEMENT 

Press release 331 dated June 16 

Mr. Khrushchev's lengthy letter to President 
Eisenhower comes as a surprise at this time. It 
is ostensibly designed to speed up the holding of 
a summit conference, but it comes at the very 
moment when the Western Powers are awaiting 
the Soviet Government's reply to a proposal for 

96 



a procedure for arriving at an agenda. The 
Western Powers have suggested a procedure for 
reviewing both the Western and Soviet agenda 
proposals for the purpose of deciding on their 
inclusion on the agenda and bringing out possi- 
bilities of agreement on them. Soviet agreement 
to this procedure would contribute much toward 
carrying out necessary preparatory work for any 
summit meeting. 

We can only conclude that a major purpose of 
Mr. Khrushchev's letter was to publicize once 
again the standard positions taken by the Soviet 
Union on topics it considers should be discussed 
at a summit meeting. 



PREMIER KHRUSHCHEV TO THE PRESIDENT 

Official translation 

Deab Mr. President: The present situation with re- 
spect to the negotiations on the preparation of a summit 
conference compels me to address this message to you. 

Nearly two months have already elapsed since pre- 
liminary negotiations through diplomatic channels, pro- 
posed by the Western Powers, were initiated on the 
preparation of the said conference. Some time ago, when 
the Western Powers brought up the question of pre- 
liminary negotiations through diplomatic channels, the 
Soviet Government expressed serious doubts as to whether 
such procedure would facilitate the convening of a 
summit conference. We did not conceal our apprehen- 
sion that by initiating such negotiations we might find 
ourselves on a slippery path which would result in de- 
laying the whole matter and postponing the meeting of 
the heads of government. Nevertheless, the Soviet Gov- 
ernment consented to these negotiations, since the West- 
ern Powers insisted on such a method of preparing the 
conference. 

Unfortunately, our apprehensions regarding prelimi- 
nary negotiations are beginning to be borne out. In the 
matter of preparing the conference we are, as before, 
marking time, and, as a matter of fact, on a number of 
questions we are even moving bacliwards. In such a sit- 
uation many people, and not only in the Soviet Union, are 
beginning to ask the question whether the proposal itself 
for conducting preliminary negotiations of this kind was 
not calculated to put additional difl3culties in the way of 
convening a summit conference. When the Soviet Gov- 
ernment addressed the Government of the USA and the 
governments of other countries six months ago with an 
appeal to convene a broad international conference of top 
government oflBcials, we were guided by the desire to find, 
through joint efforts, a way toward a radical change in 
the situation that has developed in international rela- 
tions. We believed and still believe that at this confer- 
ence agreement should be reached to ease relations 
between states, to liquidate the "cold war," to ensure 
conditions of peaceful coexistence of states, and not to re- 

Deparfment of Slafe Bulletin 



sort to ^ya^ as a means of resolving outstanding issues. 
One should not be reconciled to the dangerous direction 
which the development of relations between states has 
now taken, especially betw^een the great powers. At the 
pre.sent time, when the destructive power of the weapons 
that states have at their disposal knows no limits, in- 
action would be a crime. The time has come for ener- 
getic joint Intervention on the part of responsible 
government officials for the purpose of averting a terrible 
danger, of liberating humanity from the oppressive threat 
of atomic war, and giving people what they need most 
of all — lasting peace and confidence in a tomorrow. 

In January of this year you, Mr. President, responded 
to the proposal to call a summit conference and com- 
municated that you were prepared to meet with the 
leaders of the Soviet Union and other states.^ The Gov- 
ernments of the United Kingdom and France likewise 
responded to this proposal. All of this strengthened our 
hopes for an early convening of such a conference and was 
well received by other governments and the peoples of all 
countries. 

Under such conditions it was natural to expect that 
in the course of preliminary negotiations the parties 
would strive to submit for consideration at the conference 
those pressing international problems with regard to 
which, with the good will of the participants in the ne- 
gotiations, it would actually be possible to achieve posi- 
tive results even now and put the international situation 
on a healthier footing. We still adhere to these views, 
particularly in connection with preparing the agenda for 
a summit conference. 

I take the liberty of again listing problems which, in 
the opinion of the Soviet Government, should be con- 
sidered at this conference. These problems are the fol- 
lowing : 

Immediate cessation of atomic and hydrogen weapons 
tests; 

Renunciation of the use of all types of atomic, hy- 
drogen, and rocket weapons ; 

Creation in Central Europe of a zone free of atomic, hy- 
Irogen, and rocket weapons ; 

Conclusion of a nonaggression pact between states; 

Prohibition of the use of outer space for military 
inrposes, liquidation of foreign military bases in foreign 
:erritories, and international cooperation in the study 
)f enter space ; 

Reduction in the number of foreign troops stationed 
n the territory of Germany and within the borders of 
>ther European states ; 

Conclusion of a German peace treaty ; 

Prevention of surprise attack against one state by 
nother ; 

Measures to expand international trade relations ; 

Development of ties and contacts between states; 

Cessation of propaganda for war, hostility, and hatred 
etween peoples ; 

Ways to ease the tension in the Near and Middle East 

We are putting the question of universal cessation of 
tomic and hydrogen weapons tests in the forefront 



' Ibid., Jan. 27, 1958, p. 122. 
u/y 27, J958 



Why are we doing this? For the simple reason that 
such tests are, even now, in peacetime, poisoning the 
atmosphere and the soil, contaminating every living thing 
on earth, having a pernicious effect on the health of 
human beings, and threatening the life of future genera- 
tions, not to speak of the fact that these tests are lead- 
ing to the creation of new and even more destructive 
types of weapons, the use of which in the event of an 
outbreak of war would have the most serious conse- 
quences for humanity. 

An agreement on the cessation of nuclear tests, which 
Is possible even now, would strengthen trust between 
states, would contribute to the creation of a peaceful 
atmosphere, for which the peoples of all countries are so 
starved, and would be a good beginning which would 
pave the way toward solution of all major international 
problems. In striving for the cessation of nuclear weap- 
ons tests we have unilaterally ceased testing, although 
this places us in an unfavorable position as compared 
to NATO member countries. After all, it is well known 
that the USA and the United Kingdom have conducted a 
considerably greater number of experimental explosions 
of nuclear weapons than the Soviet Union has, and thus 
an agreement on the cessation of these tests would 
stabilize the situation to the advantage of the NATO 
countries. But we are willing to accept this, we are 
sacrificing our interests, guided by the higher interests 
of mankind, and we consider that a cessation of nuclear 
weapons tests by all states would not give rise to distrust 
but would rather contribute to the achievement of the 
main goal — to avoid war. 

In making the said decision to cease tests we appealed 
to the USA and the United Kingdom to follow our ex- 
ample. However, much to our distress, the Govern- 
ments of the USA and of the United Kingdom have not 
agreed to this and are continuing to carry on explosions 
of nuclear weapons. In these circumstances we con- 
sider it particularly important that this question be 
urgently discussed at a summit conference. 

Likewise, who can deny that reaching agreement on 
such questions as renunciation of the use of all types 
of nuclear weapons, conclusion of a nonaggression pact 
between the parties to the Warsaw Treaty and the North 
Atlantic Alliance, and creation in Central Europe of a 
zone free of nuclear and rocket weapons would result in 
easing international tension and would be an important 
step toward the solution of the disarmament problem as 
a whole? 

Is it not in the interests of all countries that propa- 
ganda for war should cease, a propaganda which in cer- 
tain states is conducted day in and day out, thus poison- 
ing the relations between states? 

And would it not be sensible to discuss such a question 
as the free development of trade and of other economic 
relations between states and mutually advantageous ways 
of considerably broadening such relations? I believe that 
the business circles in many countries, including the 
United States of America, would agree that it would be 
extremely useful to solve this problem. My views on this 
matter were set forth in greater detail in my letter ad- 
dressed to you on June 2. 



97 



I believe that I am not mistaken in stating that by 
now few people could be found who would have the au- 
dacity to deny that reaching agreement on the questions 
proposed by us for consideration at a summit conference 
would correspond to the vital interests of every country 
and every people. 

As you know, Mr. President, in the proposals handed 
to your Ambassador in Moscow on May 5 the Soviet Gov- 
ernment set forth its views on the questions that might 
be discussed at the said conference. We did this in or- 
der to facilitate reaching agreement to convene the con- 
ference. In so doing we also took into account the views 
expressed by the governments of the Western Powers, pri- 
marily by the Government of the USA, in the course of 
the exchange of opinions concerning the preparation of 
the meeting. I am enclosing with this message the text 
of these proposals of the Soviet Government." 

In introducing its proposals for the agenda of a meet- 
ing of heads of government, the Soviet Union has stated 
from the very beginning that it is prepared to consider, 
with common consent, other proposals as well that would 
contribute to terminating the "cold war" and the arma- 
ments race. On the other hand, I should like to empha- 
size very definitely that If the Western Powers are not 
prepared to seek a solution at this time to all the ques- 
tions proposed by the Soviet Union for discussion at the 
conference, then some of them could be selected and 
agreement could be reached on them, which would facili- 
tate our further progress toward strengthening peace. 

We expected that the governments of the USA, the 
United Kingdom, and France would consider the propo- 
sals of the Soviet Union with due attention and would 
determine their attitude toward them, and also that they 
would, on their part, be concerned with narrowing to the 
greatest possible extent the gap between the positions of 
the parties and facilitating the preparation of the con- 
ference. However, after studying the documents recently 
received from the three Powers in reply to the proposals 
made by the Soviet Government on May 5, we have dis- 
covered, to our profound regret, that in these documents 
questions are again raised which do not bring the possi- 
bility of agreement any closer but rather make it more 
remote and which we have repeatedly and clearly stated 
to be unacceptable to us. We ask ourselves : why are the 
governments of the Western Powers acting in this way — 
does this possibly reflect a desire to insult us in some 
way? 

Indeed, the so-called question of the situation in East- 
ern Europe is again raised in the proposals of the West- 
ern Powers that have been transmitted. A new attempt 
is thus made to return to a stage through which we have 



" The enclosure was the Soviet memorandum of May 5 
(for text, see ibid., July 7, 1958, p. 17) with the addition 
of a final paragraph which reads as follows : 

"The Soviet Government is convinced that good will 
and readiness to seek mutually acceptable solutions, with 
due regard for the interest of the parties concerned, can 
ensure the success of a summit conference and can cause 
the necessary shift in the development of the interna- 
tional situation In the interest of strengthening peace 
among nations." 



98 



already passed and to impose discussion of a matter with 
regard to which the positions of the parties have long 
been exhaustively clarified. The Government of the USA 
knows very well that this is no subject for discussion. 
We have already repeatedly stated that we regard it in- 
admissible to raise such a question at an international 
conference. The Soviet Union does not intend to inter- 
fere in the internal affairs of other sovereign states and 
is of the opinion that no one can claim the right to such 
interference. 

It is not difficult to imagine what an absurd situation 
the world would be in if at international conferences 
we started to bring up problems concerning the internal 
systems of states which were somehow not to the taste 
of certain people in other countries. Any rapprochement 
between states is out of the question if we engaged in 
discussions of the fundamental differences existing be- 
tween social systems. Is this the path toward lessening 
international tension? To insist on interfering in the 
affairs of other states, on discussions of their internal 
affairs by third countries having no authority whatever 
to do so, means starting on a course of gross violation 
of the UN Charter, which prohibits such interference ; it 
means mocking the principles of the United Nations. 

The absolutely fictitious nature of the very talk about 
the so-called "tension in Eastern Europe," by which they 
attempt to justify the demand for including this question 
in the agenda for the conference, is also obvious. The 
Soviet Union has diplomatic relations with all the coun- 
tries of Eastern Europe and maintains the most active 
relations with them. And I must say that we know of 
no signs of any kind of "tension" in this area. If the 
Government of the USA has any lack of clarity with re- 
gard to the situation in these countries, it also has am- 
bassadors in almost all of these countries and nothing 
prevents it from elucidating matters of interest to it 
through normal diplomatic channels. And if we are to 
speak frankly, anyone who has the slightest knowledge 
of the present international situation knows full well that 
the tension endangering the cause of peace is to be sought 
in entirely different directions. 

If the governments of the Western Powers, which 
know full well the point of view of the Soviet Union 
and of the people's democracies themselves concerning 
this question, still consider it possible to propose it again 
for consideration at the conference, can this be under- 
stood as being anything other than proof of an intention 
to bury in its very embryo stage the conference with the 
participation of the heads of government? 

It is also impossible to give any other appraisal to the 
desire of the three Western Powers to impose considera- 
tion of the problem of the unification of Germany at the 
conference with the participation of the heads of gov- 
ernment. And in this case, as the Soviet Government | 
has already repeatedly had occasion to bring to the at- 
tention of the Government of the USA, it is a question 
of a problem which does not come within the competence i 
of an international conference. It seems to us that it 
should have been recognized long ago as an indisputable { 
truth that under present conditions the unification ofi 
Germany can be brought about solely as the result of 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



the efforts of the two sovereign states now existing on 
I German territory. The GDR and the FRG can, given 
the desire on both sides, reach agreement between them- 
selves much more easily without the interference of third 
countries. After all, the Germans in the East and in the 
West of Germany speak one and the same language ; 
they will not even need interpreters for their negotia- 
tions, not to mention foreign guardians who would de- 
cide for the Germans questions concerning the destiny 
of the German people. 

As is well known, even the Government of the FRG 
has stated that discussion of the problem of the unifica- 
tion of Germany should not be considered as a condition 
for convening a summit conference. Apparently it is 
not inclined to assume the heavy responsibility of frus- 
trating a conference the convening of which has been long 
i^ awaited by the peoples of the world. Should the position 
■ of the three Western Powers be understood to mean that 
;■ they are prepared to assume such a responsibility, and 
,_ are they not using the question of the unification of 
; Germany as a means of creating additional difiSculties 
for an agreement on convening a summit conference? 

In the proposals of the Western Powers there have been 
set forth considerations concerning the matter of Euro- 
. pean security. The importance of this problem at this 
J, time is of course indisputable. A great deal must and 
s can be done to strengthen peace in Europe and to lessen 
T, the danger of a war breaking out on the European con- 
.. tinent. But what proposals are made to us in this 
,. .matter? 

J : If we are to speak frankly — and I think that only 
tmder conditions of complete frankness can our exchange 
of opinions be really useful — the sense of these proposals, 
which are presented as a plan for strengthening European 
security, amounts to the following : the Western Powers 
, desire to draw all Germany into their military grouping 
and wish to reassure the peoples of Europe by statements 
concerning the furnishing of "guarantees." 

As long ago as our meeting in Geneva we called at- 
tention to the fact that the proposal concerning some sort 
5f guarantees for the Soviet Union was strange, to say 
the least. It is a known fact that guarantees are usually 
riven by a strong state (or states) to a weak state. In 
this connection the basic premise is the inequality of 
strength, and a strong state determines the conditions 
■Tith respect to the weak state. A state to which guaran- 
tees are given is made dependent on the state which 
lives these guarantees. History contains many examples 
.There a state that had given guarantees violated its 
)bligations and thereby created a situation where there 
vas no way out for the state to which the guarantees had 
leen given. You will agree, Mr. President, that the 
■Soviet Union is not a weak state and that, consequently, 
t needs no guarantees, since it is able to defend its 
nterests itself. Thus the conditions which would justify 
lie very raising of the question of guarantees are lacking 
n this particular ease. Behind the raising of the ques- 
ion of guarantees as applied to the USSR there is 
■bviously the desire to place our state in a position that 
i'ould be unequal with regard to other states, which in 
tself demonstrates how unfounded this desire is. 



It would be a different matter if the Great Powers, 
including the USSR, should assume mutual guarantees 
and consequently accept such a solution of the problem 
as would not place any of the Powers in an unequal or 
even humiliating position. But the conclusion of a 
nonaggression pact, the tremendous significance of which 
cannot be denied if the situation is evaluated objectively, 
would satisfy this requirement of mutual guarantees. 

The artificial nature of this entire proposal for 
"guarantees" to the Soviet Union becomes particularly 
clear if account is taken of the fact that the powers 
occupying the command position in the North Atlantic 
military grouping, the entire activity of which is domi- 
nated by military preparations against the Soviet Union 
and the countries friendly to it, are the ones who are 
proposing that they assume the role of the guarantors. 
Thus "security guarantees" are proposed to us on the 
part of a bloc of countries which are constantly forging 
the instruments of war, the military leaders of which 
make appeals almost daily for atomic war against the 
Soviet Union, and the propaganda machinery of which 
constantly fans the feelings of war hysteria. Perhaps 
there are people who tend to close their eyes to reality and 
to rely on reassuring words, but we do not belong to this 
category. I do not doubt even for a minute that under 
similar circumstances the Government of the USA would 
take the same position. 

It is our firm conviction that the task with regard 
to the question of European security does not consist 
in advancing some sort of "guarantees" for the Soviet 
Union, guarantees that are not needed by it, but rather 
in ensuring the security of all European nations and in 
creating a situation where Europe could not again be- 
come the arena of a new war. 

It is the achievement of this goal that would be 
furthered by the creation in Central Europe, as proposed 
by the Government of the Polish People's Republic,* of 
a zone free of nuclear and rocket weapons and also by 
a reduction, with the establishment of appropriate mutual 
control, in the number of foreign troops stationed in the 
territories of European states, primarily in Germany. 
The implementation of these measures would not violate 
the interests of any state. On the contrary it would 
sharply reduce the possibility of an outbreak of atomic 
war in an area where now huge masses of armed forces 
and armaments of the opposing groupings of states are 
concentrated in immediate proximity to each other. The 
creation of the said zone in one area could gradually 
lead to such zones also coming into being in other places, 
and an ever-increasing portion of the territory of the 
globe would be excluded from the sphere of preparations 
for atomic war. The risk of peoples being involved in 
such war would thereby be diminished. 

We believe that such a question as the conclusion of 
a nonaggression pact between states parties to the War- 
saw Treaty and states parties to the North Atlantic 
Alliance was long ago ready for decision. The con- 
clusion of such a pact, the significance of which was also 
emphasized by Mr. Maemillan, Prime Minister of the 
United Kingdom, would in no way violate the existing 



* For background, see iiid., May 19, 1958, p. 821. 



uly 21, 7958 



99 



relationship of forces between the two groupings, and 
would at the same time be tremendously beneficial. The 
element of stability and reassurance that is so necessary 
would be injected into the entire international situation. 
Nations would see that the most powerful states from a 
military standpoint have achieved agreement among 
themselves and do not want war. Need it be said that 
the threat of war would immediately be reduced, since 
it is absolutely clear that a new military conflagration in 
Europe, and not only in Europe, under present conditions 
can occur solely as a result of a conflict between the two 
main groupings of powers. 

In this connection I should like to recall that, since the 
date of the transmittal on May 5 of the proposals of the 
Soviet Government, the question of concluding a non- 
aggression pact was considered at a conference of coun- 
tries parties to the Warsaw Treaty, which developed a 
draft of such a pact and addressed the countries mem- 
bers of NATO with a joint proposal on this matter.^ The 
Soviet Government expresses the hope that the Govern- 
ment of the USA will consider the said draft and com- 
municate its views thereon. 

In the proposals of the governments of the USA, the 
United Kingdom, and France, as well as in the proposals 
of the Soviet Government, other questions are raised per- 
taining to disarmament. We believe that such questions 
deserve serious attention. However, considering the ex- 
perience of long negotiations in the Subcommittee of the 
UN Disarmament Commission, concerning which we have 
already had occasion to set forth our point of view, we 
doubt that the.se questions in the form in which they are 
presented in the present proposals of the Western Powers 
are being advanced in order really to achieve a concerted 
solution thereof, or to reach an agreement on complete 
disarmament, or to implement even the initial measures 
such as the cessation of nuclear weapons tests, etc. 

Why do we express such doubts and lack of confidence? 
It is because the Western Powers, those same powers that 
took part in the UN Subcommittee on Disarmament and 
in fact represented NATO there, after receiving our 
concrete proposals on urgent measures for disarmament, 
have actually failed to give us a reply to these proposals. 
They again repeat their previous proposals, arguing that 
the problem of disarmament can only be solved as a 
whole, so to speak. In this way they are attempting to 
force the issue back to the old course which was not pro- 
ductive and to renew futile discussions of the problem 
of disarmament "as a whole." 

Such a discussion, more accurately described as a 
dispute, concerning the problem of disarmament, has 
continued for over 13 years behind closed doors. Ac- 
tually no negotiations were conducted ; this was merely 
a deception of public opinion, where illusions were created 
as if the matter of disarmament were moving forward, 
but in reality not a single practical problem of disarma- 
ment was settled. Moreover, under the cover of these 
disarmament negotiations the Western Powers started an 
unprecedented armaments race. This is why the Soviet 
Union has refused to take part in the work of the Dis- 
armament Commission, and we shall not take part in it 



' Not printed. 



as long as the NATO countries insist on their demands, 
absolutely unacceptable principles as regards the ap- 
proach to the problem of disarmament. 

The Government of the USA well knows that the 
Soviet Union has been and remains an advocate of a 
radical solution of the problem of disarmament. It haa 
repeatedly proposed to the Western Powers that agree- 
ment be reached on an all-embracing program of disarma- 
ment, including a considerable reduction in armed forces 
and armaments, the prohibition of atomic and hydrogen 
weapons, and appropriate measures of international con- 
trol. However, the Western Powers have not manifested 
the desire to reach agreement on such broad measures 
of disarmament. 

If we have not succeeded in the course of 13 years in 
reaching agreement on the problem of disarmament "as 
a whole," with the solution of certain problems linked 
with the solution of others, then can it be expected that 
with such an approach this problem can be settled in the 
course of a few days at a conference of heads of govern- 
ment? Is it not obvious that the only realistic method 
Is to single out and solve in the first instance those prob- 
lems which have already become ripe for settlement and 
then proceed to the solution of the most complicated 
problems. This is what the Soviet Union proposes. 

The Soviet Government has considered and still con- 
siders it to be its duty to do everything possible to pro- 
mote the speediest possible solution of the disarmament 
problem. We were guided by this goal when we were 
recently adopting the decisions to reduce substantially 
our military forces and to cease unilaterally the testing of 
all types of atomic and hydrogen weapons in the Soviet 
Union. Desiring to expedite the reaching of an agree- 
ment on a universal cessation of such tests, the Soviet 
Government met the desires of the governments of the 
USA and the United Kingdom to designate experts to 
study the methods of detecting possible violations of an 
agreement on the cessation of nuclear tests. 

We hope that this new step of the Soviet Union will be 
duly appraised by the Western Powers and that, as a 
result, a more favorable atmosphere will be created which 
would promote the convening of a summit conference at 
the earliest possible date. 

Mr. President, I believe that the time has come to 
clarify thoroughly and with complete sincerity the posi- 
tions of the parties with regard to the main question : Do 
all the parties really wish a summit conference to be con- 
vened? I must say that the documents transmitted to 
us by the Western Powers have evoked serious doubts on 
our part in this connection. It is difficult to escape the 
thought that the authors of the proposals set forth in 
these documents were guided not by the desire to find a 
solution that would be the most acceptable to all parties 
but rather were searching for questions for the solution 
of which the time is not yet ripe, so as to be able to say 
later that they were right in predicting the failure of a 
conference of heads of government. 

It was all of this that compelled us to address you 
with this letter. We should like to know definitely 
whether the governments of the Western Powers have 
serious intentions with regard to organizing a summit 



100 



Department of State BuUetin 



conference and conducting negotiations the results of 
which are awaited literaily by all mankind, or whether 
there is a desire to lull the attention of the peoples, to 
create an impression that contacts have been established 
and negotiations are being conducted, and to raise in 
reality questions which not only lead to a failure of 
preparations for the meeting but also to no summit con- 
ference as such taking place, so as to accuse our country 
later of "obstinacy." Such a tactic is very well known 
to us from the experience of certain previous negotiations. 

The Soviet Government has most closely examined the 
views concerning the possible agenda of a summit con- 
ference as set forth in your messages, Mr. President. 
We have expressed our opinion in detail on these pro- 
posals and have stated that a number of questions among 
those proposed by the Western Powers are regarded by 
us as acceptable for discussion. 

We are also prepared to consider the question of meth- 
ods of strengthening the United Nations, which has been 
touched upon in the correspondence between our two 
governments, because we also have something to say in 
this connection. 

Mr. President, I have presented to you with complete 
sincerity my views with regard to the present situation 
concerning the preparations for a conference at the sum- 
mit. In this situation the responsibility that is devolving 
upon the governments of the Great Powers is particularly 
great. In order to understand the whole depth of this 
responsibility it suffices to imagine how distressed all 
the peoples would be if we should fail to find a common 
language. No one would be able to understand and 
justify such government ofiicials as cannot agree even on 
how to begin negotiations among themselves while the 
world is seized with the fever of an ever-intensifying 
armaments race and at a time when there is no corner 
left where human beings are free from the oppressive 
fear of the threat of a new military eruption. 

We are convinced that through joint efforts of states, 
and primarily through joint efforts of the United States 
of America and the Soviet Union, it is entirely possible 
to achieve a radical improvement in the international 
situation. An important step in this direction could be 
a meeting of top government officials with the participa- 
tion of heads of government. We express the hope that 
the Government of the United States of America will con- 
sider this message with due attention and will on its part 
take all the necessary steps in order not to allow frus- 
tration of a high-level conference and to clear from the 
path of such a conference the obstacles that are being 
artificially created. 

Simultaneously I am sending messages on this question 
to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and to the 
President of the Council of Ministers of France. 
With sincere respect, 

N. Khrushchev 

Jwie 11, 1958 
[Initialed] S.R.S. 
His Excellency 

DWIOHT D. ElSENHOWEK, 

President of the United States of America, 
Washington, B.C. 



Geneva Technical Talks 

Following is an exchange of aide memoire be- 
tween the United States and Soviet Governments, 
together with the texts of Soviet aide memoire of 
June 24 designating the panel participants from 
CzecJwslovakia, Poland, and Rumania. 

U.S. AIDE MEMOIRE, JUNE 30 1 

Press release 364 dated June 30 

The Goveniment of the United States of 
America notes with satisfaction the position of 
the Soviet Government in its aide memoire of 
June 28 that decision on cessation of tests of 
nuclear -weapons must be taken by Governments 
themselves and not by experts. The task of the 
experts who are to meet in Geneva beginning 
July 1, as agreed by the Soviet Goveriunent in its 
aide memoire of June 24, has been clearly defined 
in the preceding correspondence between our 
Governments ; it is to study methods of detection 
of possible violations of an agreement on the ces- 
sation of nuclear tests. 

The position of the Government of the United 
States has been clearly and unequivocally ex- 
pressed from the time of its initial proposal. In 
his letter of April 28,^ President Eisenhower pro- 
posed to Chairman Khrushchev that technical 
people start to work immediately upon the prac- 
tical problems of supervision and control which 
are indispensable to dependable disarmament 
agreements, and stated that : 

I re-emphasize that these studies are without prejudice 
to our respective positions on the timing and interde- 
pendence of various aspects of disarmament. 

It was in reply to this letter tliat Chairman 
Khrushchev on May 9 ^ stated that the Soviet 
Government agreed to having both sides designate 
experts for the study which is now about to begin. 

SOVIET AIDE MEMOIRE, JUNE 28« 

Official translation 

The Soviet Government confirms that the question put 
in its aide memoire of June 25 ° about whether the Gov- 



' Delivered on June 30 by the American Embassy at 
Moscow to the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 

' Bulletin of May 19, 1958, p. 811. 

= Ihid., June 9, 1958, p. 940. 

* Handed to American Ambassador Llewellyn E. 
Thompson at Moscow by Soviet Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs Andrei A. Gromyko on June 28. 

'■ Bulletin of July 14, 1958, p. 47. 



Jo/y 27, 1958 



101 



ernment of the USA confirms that meetings of experts 
must be subordinated to resolution of the task of uni- 
versal and immediate cessation of tests of nuclear weap- 
ons, has remained without answer, and clarification re- 
garding the position of the USA on this question has 
not been given. 

It is apparent from the letter of June 26 ° of the Am- 
bassador of the USA, Mr. Thompson, to the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs of the USSR, A. A. Gromyko, that the 
Government of the USA has dodged the statement of its 
position on the main question, to wit, what purpose must 
conference of experts serve. 

When the Government of the USA came forth with 
the proposal that technical specialists of the USA, USSR, 
and other countries should agree on means of detecting 
nuclear explosions, this proposal was made, as directly 
follows from the correspondence, so as to achieve reso- 
lution of main task — cessation by all states possessing 
nuclear weapons of tests of these weapons, and a meet- 
ing of experts was proposed so as to work out a formula 
which would guarantee observation of how agreement on 
cessation of tests of nuclear weapons was being carried 
out. 

However, from a declaration of the Secretary of State 
of USA, Mr. Dulles, of June 17,° it follows that the Gov- 
ernment of the USA does not wish to take on itself the 
pledge that a meeting of experts be subordinated to a 
resolution of the task of universal and Immediate cessa- 
tion of tests of nuclear weapons. 

In its aide memoire of June 25, Soviet Government al- 
ready expressed its reaction to this statement of the 
Secretary of State of the USA. It considers it essential 
to declare again that if the conference of experts is not 
tied with the main task, solution of which it must en- 
sure, 1. e., with immediate, universal cessation of nuclear 
experiments, then such a conference will be an empty 
waste of time and can only lead to deception of peoples. 

It goes without saying that decision on cessation of 
tests of nuclear weapons must be taken by the Govern- 
ments themselves and not by experts, whose task is 
preparation of necessary conditions of control for ob- 
servance of agreement on cessation of tests. However, in 
connection with the beginning of work of conference of 
experts, fuU and clear understanding regarding purposes 
of this conference must be achieved between Govern- 
ments. 

The Soviet Government would wish to hope that the 
Government of the USA will make an unequivocal state- 
ment in this regard. 



SOVIET AIDE MEMOIRE, JUNE 24 ? 

Press release 351 dated June 25 

The Soviet Government notes that agreement has been 
reached between the sides regarding the fact that the 



° For a transcript of Secretary Dulles' news conference 
of June 17, see ibid., July 7, 1958, p. 6. 

' Handed to the American Ambassador at Moscow by the 
Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs on June 24. 



conference of experts for determining means of disclos- ^ 
ing nuclear explosions will start its work on July 1 in 
Geneva, and also concerning the length of work of that 
conference. 

As far as the composition of participants of the con- 
ference is concerned, the assertion contained in the aide- 
memoire of the Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica of June 20 ° that on the Soviet side there is allegedly 
taking place some kind of a withdrawal from the under- 
standing reached on this question cannot but cause sur- 
prise. The Soviet Government without change adheres 
to the position set forth in the communications of May 9 
and 30 ° of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of 
the USSR, N. S. Khrushchev, to the President of the 
United States of America, Eisenhower, in accordance with 
which, besides experts of the USSR and the United States 
of America in the conference, experts from other coun- 
tries, who possess good knowledge in the field of disclosing 
nuclear tests, can take part on both sides. In its previous 
documents the Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica did not raise any objection to this. The Soviet Gov- 
ernment hopes that the aide-memoire of June 20 does 
not mean that the Government of the United States of 
America has changed its point of view on this question. 

The Soviet side has already communicated the agree- 
ment that, in the conference of experts, representatives of 
Great Britain and France should also participate along- 
side the representatives of the United States of America. 
There is also no objection to the participation of the rep- 
resentative of Canada, as communicated in the aide-mem- 
oire of the Government of the United States of America of 
June 20. 

The composition of the participants of the conference 
from the Soviet Union was already communicated to the 
Government of the United States of America in the aide- 
memoire of June 13.' By agreement with the governments 
of the Polish People's Republic and the Czechoslovak Re- 
public there is communicated below the list of experts 
designated by the governments of the said countries for 
participation in the conference. 

From the Polish People's Republic: 

Marian Mensovich — Professor, Doctor, Chairman of 
Physics Commission of Polish Academy of Sciences for 
Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy; Leopold Yurkevich— 
Professor, Doctor, Chairman of Commission for Study of 
Contamination of Atmosphere of All-Polish Committee of 
Radiological Defense; Mechislav Blyu.shtain — Doctor, 
Chief of Department of International Organizations MFA 
[Ministry of Foreign Affairs] PPR. 

From Czechoslovak Republic : 

Engineer Shimane Chestmir, Director of Institute of 
Nuclear Physics of Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences; 
Professor Begounek Frantishek, Corresponding Member 
of Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Chief of Dozi- 
metric Section of Institute of Nuclear Physics of Czecho- 
slovak Academy of Sciences ; Professor Zatopek Alois, 



' Bulletin of July 7, 1958, p. 11. 
' Ibid., June 30, 19.58, p. 1083. 



102 



Deparfment of Sfate Bulletin 



Corresponding Member of Czechoslovak Academy of Scl- 
• enees, Chief of Geophysical Bureau of Physical-Mathe- 
^ maties Faculty of Charles University; Trglik Zdenek, 

Chief of luteruational Section of Ministry of Foreign 

Affairs of Czechoslovak Republic. 

In the conference there will also take part an expert 
named by the Government of the Rumanian People's Re- 
public, name and other data concerning whom will be 
communicated subsequently. 

The Soviet Government as before proceeds from the 
fact that work of the conference of experts should aid 
in the most rapid cessation of tests of atomic and hydro- 
gen weapons by all states disposing of such weapons. 

SUPPLEMENTAL SOVIET AIDE MEMOIRE, JUNE 

24 10 

Official translation 

In supplement to Aide-Memoire of the Soviet Govern- 
ment to the Government of USA of June 24, 1958, it is 
communicated that the Government of Rumanian Peo- 
ple's Republic has named for participation in the con- 
ference of experts for determining means of disclosing 
nuclear explosions Doctor of Physics, Professor Horia 
Hulubei — member of the Academy of Sciences of the Ru- 
manian People's Republic and Director of the Institute 
of Atomic Physics of said Academy of Sciences. 



J 



Free-World Cooperation 
and America's Security 

Statement T}y President Eisenhower'^ 

I have a special statement to make on America's 
security and on waging peace. 

The free nations of the world are imder con- 
stant attack by international communism. Tliis 
attack is planned on a broad front and carefully 
directed. Its ultimate goal is world domination. 

Against the pressures of international commu- 
nism, free-world security can be achieved only 
by a practical solidarity of opposition by the na- 
tions each, according to its ability, carrying its 
necessary portion of the entire burden. 

This is what mutual security really means. 

To support this program, started a decade ago, 
the American people have given needed assistance 
to others. As a direct consequence, during re- 
cent years the free world has been able to deny 
any new territorial expansion to communism. 

In spite of occasional human errors in admin- 
istering tlie details of the program, the overall 



i\ 



" Delivered to the American Embassy at Moscow on 
June 25 by the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 

' Read to correspondents at the President's news con- 
ference on July 2 (White House press release). 

Ju»y 27, 1958 



results speak for themselves. The aggressive pur- 
poses of the Kremlin have been foiled, and there 
has been gradually developed in the free world 
a greater spiritual, economic, and military 
strength as a foundation for efforts to win a just 
peace. 

Now, needed financial reserves have sunk be- 
low the safe minimum. In spite of this danger 
signal, the House Appropriations Committee has 
taken action that seriously endangers our se- 
curity.^ We need more ammunition to wage the 
peace. 

A careful estimate of this year's needs was 
made after prolonged study. It fixed the neces- 
sary total at approximately $3.9 billion. The sum 
proposed by tlie Appropriations Coimnittee is 
more than 20 percent lower than the estimate. 

This is taking reckless risks with our safety. 

The cut will dismay our friends in Latin Amer- 
ica, in Asia, in Africa, and in the Middle East — 
every nation that is standing at our side \\\ this 
worldwide effort. 

It is my deep conviction that reductions of a size 
contemplated by the committee will have grave 
consequences m portions of the free world and to 
our Nation's security — and will encourage Com- 
munist imperialists. Our people must under- 
stand this. 

Regardless of the many and mounting billions 
that we spend for our own military forces, those 
forces caimot alone achieve our security. Friendly 
nations must be ready and able to stand by our side 
to present a solid front in the defense of freedom. 

We have this choice : 

Stand up and be counted, live up to our ideals 
and purposes, and assume the responsibilities that 
are ours ; 

Or shrug our shoulders, say that freedom for 
others has no significance for us, is therefore no 
responsibility of ours, and so let international 
communism gain the ultimate victory. 

The choice is clear for me. 

I stand for American security, to be attained 
and sustained by cooperation with our friends of 
the free world. I am certain the American people 
will demand nothing less. 



' On June 27 the House Committee on Appropriations 
recommended a reduction of .$872 million from the Presi- 
dent's budget request for the mutual security program 
for fiscal year 1959. 



103 



Secretary Dulles' News Conference of July 1 



Press release 372 dated July 1 

Secretary Dulles: I should like to make a brief 
opening statement.^ 

I have just come from a meeting with the Presi- 
dent and others at the TVhite House. I said there 
that the House Appropriations Committee action 
on mutual security funds is a grave threat to the 
security of the United States.^ These funds are 
the ammunition on which we depend to win the 
cold war that the Communists are waging with 
increased intensity. They are conducting eco- 
nomic, subversive campaigns against the free 
countries of the Americas, of Asia, and of Africa. 
We cannot fight this battle successfully without 
adequate ammunition, and, if the House commit- 
tee action stands, it will doom the free world to 
grave losses. I cannot overestimate the impor- 
tance of correcting that action. 

Now for your questions. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is there anything -firm on 
Milton Eisenhower^s trip to Central America? 

A. I think that no dates have yet been agreed 
on. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you have in mind any new 
actions to try to oitain the release of a number 
of citizens held in Cuba? 

A. I believe that certain efforts are being made 
on an informal basis to obtain the release of 
Americans; also, some Canadians are included 
among those who have been kidnaped. "We hope 
that those efforts will be successful. It is hard 
to imderstand exactly why these kidnapings are 
taking place or what gain can be expected from 
such conduct, and we hope very much that it wiU 
be reversed. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, have Mr. HammarsTejold/s 
reports indicated thai there is less urgency about 



the crisis in Lebanon than seemed the case before 
he went there? 

A. I think that the Secretary-General feels that 
the action which has been taken and is being taken 
pursuant to the Security Council resolution ^ is 
having the effect of slowing up at least, perhaps 
stopping, the movement of materiel and personnel 
across the border from the UAE [United Arab 
Republic] — Syrian part of it— and that may be 
the case. He is in a better position to judge than 
we are. Of course it is pretty evident that a very 
large amount of support has already been acquired 
by the rebels within Lebanon, so that the situation 
is not corrected merely by stopping the current 
flow. It would help. It can be eased by that, 
but it isn't wholly corrected. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there seems to be a mxrve- 
ment for a new inter- American conference. Bror 
zil appears to favor a review of inter-American 
policies on the highest level, and some other Latin 
Americans seem to favor a foreign ministers'' 
conference. Will you tell us tchich you prefer? 

A. I would say that we take the same position, 
I suppose, as regards the meeting of heads of 
government with the American Republics as we 
do with a meeting of heads of government for 
any other purpose, whether it be with the Soviets 
at Geneva or whether it be at NATO, namely, 
that a meeting of heads of government has to be 
well prepared if it is to produce any substantial 
results. Merely a meeting on a get-together basis 
of heads of government would not serve, I think, 
what we all would want to see accomplished by 
such a meeting. "We had such a meeting in Pan- 
ama.* It did set in motion certain actions, 
headed up by Dr. [^Milton] Eisenliower from the 
standpoint of the United States, and it produced 
certain results. But the meeting itself did not 



" The following paragraph was also released separately 
as press release 369 dated July 1. 

' For background, see p. 103, footnote 2. 



104 



» BuLLExrN of July 14, 1958, p. 90. 

'For background, see ibid., Aug. 6, 1956, p. 219, and 
Oct. 1, 1956, p. 511. 

Depor/menf of %ia\s Bulletin 



produce great results in terms of its specific ac- 
complisliments. It was not intended to. 

Xow, if it is intended to have a meeting of the 
representatives of the American Kepublics which 
is calculated to produce some substantial results, 
it would have to be carefully prepared in advance. 
I think that the position in that respect of the 
United States is quite clear, reasonable, and un- 
derstood, but I do not think it will be an obstacle 
to working out a program for getting some better 
understandings as between the American Re- 
publics. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you expect any special 
results on the visit to Canada? 

A. I think that the meeting will have some use- 
ful results. It is being pretty carefully prepared 
in advance. Of course the background of these 
meetings is the fact that we have meetings of 
those ministers of our different coimtries who are 
occupied primarily with matters of common con- 
cern — ^the Foreign ^Ministers (the Secretary of 
State, in the case of the United States), the Sec- 
retaries of Defense, the Secretaries of Commerce, 
and the Secretaries of Agriculture. "We meet 
normally on a basis of twice a year and discuss 
our common problems and that gives us a pre- 
paratory basis upon which to have such a meeting 
as we contemplate having in Ottawa next week. 

Circumstances Governing Assistance to Lebanon 

Q. Mr. Secretary., Mr. Chamoun of Lebanon is 
quoted this morning as saying that, if the United 
Nations action fails, he would appeal to friends 
of Lebanon and the West for direct military as- 
sistance under article 51 of the United Nations 
Charter. Could you define for us under what 
circumstances the United States would he willing 
to render direct military assistance to Lebanon? 

A. I will make a reply to your question, al- 
though I am not going to attempt to define in 
detail all the circumstances under which we might 
respond. I would say this: The normal way to 
deal with these problems is through the processes 
of the United Nations, and the Government of 
Lebanon initiated such a process when it took its 
case to the Security Council and obtained the 
resolution for observation under which the Sec- 
retary-General is now acting and under wliich, I 
believe, some results at least are being obtained. 

Now we have never believed that you could only 



act under such processes; indeed, article 51 was 
put into the charter to meet the contingency that 
it might be impractical, because of the veto power 
or otherwise, to obtain appropriate action from the 
United Nations. Article 51, as you wiU recall, 
talks about collective defense if an armed attack 
occurs. Now we do not think that the words 
"armed attack" preclude treating as such an armed 
revolution which is fomented from abroad, aided 
and assisted from abroad. Indeed you will re- 
call perhaps in the report on the North Atlantic 
Treaty that the Senate Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee indicated that that kind of a civil dis- 
turbance could be treated as an armed attack. 
In our Japanese security treaty that is expressly 
spelled out. However, we believe that the best 
way to deal with these things is through the 
processes of the United Nations. We do not think 
it is proper yet to conclude that those processes 
have failed or will fail. If and when we had to 
reach that conclusion, then there would be a new 
situation wliich we would have to deal with in the 
light of the new circumstances at the time. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, have the United Nations ob- 
servers in Lebanon any authority or power to 
halt, to arrest, to seize, or to othericise physically 
interfere with the infiltrations? 

A. No. They are there to observe and to re- 
port. It is believed that the very fact that they 
are there in that capacity will have a practical 
effect in stopping movements across the border. 
Of course that is somewhat diminished by the 
fact that the borders are not readily accessible at 
the present time, and it is hard to know just ex- 
actly what is going on. But to answer your pre- 
cise question — it is not my understanding that 
the present force there is in any sense a police 
force where they use armed force. That may be a 
second stage. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the Lebanese Government, 
through Mr. Chamoun and through its Foreign 
Minister, has in a variety of cases said it would 
be desirable for the United Nations to put enough 
people into Lebanon to seal off the border. What 
is our view toward sxich an operation? 

A. I doubt whether it is practical to carry on an 
operation of that magnitude, and I think that 
perhaps that is not required. But I would not 
want to pass any final judgment on that until I 
saw what kind of case the Government of Lebanon 



hly 27, 7958 



105 



could make if they were to make such a request 
of the Security Council. So far they haven't 
made it, and I would not want to prejudge our 
action before we knew just what kind of case they 
could make out. 

Q. Mr. Secretary^ keeping in mind the role we 
played in discouraging, at least, the invasion of 
Suez, is it realistic to think that we would par- 
ticipate in any kind of military intervention in 
Lebanon except under the most extreme circum- 
stances? 

A. I don't think that there is any analogy what- 
soever between the situation in Lebanon, where 
the lawful Government is calling for assistance, 
and the Suez case, where the armed intervention 
was against the will of the Government concerned. 
There is no parallel whatever between the two 
cases. We do believe that the presence in Lebanon 
of foreign troops, however justifiable — and it is 
thorouglily justifiable from a legal and interna- 
tional-law standpomt— is not as good a solution 
as for the Lebanese to find a solution themselves. 
It would be, as you put it, a sort of measure of 
last resort. 

Geneva Technical Talks 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the Russians have sent some 
rather highly placed political officers to the 
Geneva technical talks.^ Could you tell us what 
effect you think their presence will have on those 
talks, assuming that they are there to take part in 
the negotiations and discussions? 

A. Their presence could alter the character of 
the talks and perhaps alter them to such a degree 
that it would raise a question as to whether the 
talks were accomplishing their intended purpose. 
As has been "agreed" — when you are dealing with 
the Soviets, you have to put that word in quota- 
tion marks— the talks are purely teclinical. Ex- 
perts are to ascertain some facts which are of a 
scientific character. So far as I am aware, there 
are no politics involved in it at all. No politics 
that I am aware of are involved in trying to agree, 
from the scientific standpoint, as to where you 
would have to have observation posts and what 
kind of observation posts would be required to 
detect an explosion of a given degree of magni- 



tude. That is the kind of thing which they are 
supposed to be studymg, and I don't think there 
should be any politics in it. 

Now if that is sought to be changed and the ex- 
perts' meeting is made into a political conference, 
then the whole character of the meeting would be 
altered from what has been agreed upon. We 
would have to figure out then what we would do. 
Q. Would the United States send political of- 
ficers of higher rank over to match or counter the 
presence of the Soviets there? 

A. Well, I don't want to presmne that this 
contingency is going to arise, nor would I want 
now to say whether the response would be to ac- 
cept a political talk or to reject the change from 
what we had agreed upon. We could adopt either 
course. 

Q. Which of the two conferences do you thinJe 
the Russians rate the more important — the Geneva 
conference or the forthcoming Partisans of Peace 
Conference in Stockholm on July 16? 

A. They seem to show more enthusiasm about 
the latter. 

Talks With Communist China on Release of American 
Prisoners 

Q. Mr. Secretary, does the United States intend 
to continue talks with Communist China to secure 
the release of the four remaining Americans that 
they hold? 

A. We certainly intend to continue by all avail- 
able peaceful means to try to get those four, that 
are still held, released. They are held in violation 
of the agreement made some 21/2 years ago. We 
have not by any means given up either hope or the 
determination to get them out. 

Q. What is delaying the appointment of an 
ambassador to deal with Mr. Wam,g? 

A. At the moment what is delaymg it has been 
the Chinese Commmiist blast of yesterday .° A 



^ For a list of participants on the Soviet side, see p. 102, 
and Bulletin of July 7, 1958, p. 11. 



106 



"On June 30 the Chinese Communists released a 
lengthy statement charging, inter alia, that the United 
States had been sabotaging the ambassadorial talks at 
Geneva and declaring that, unless the United States ap- 
pointed within 15 days an ambassador to resume the 
talks which had been suspended since December 12, 1957, 
the Chinese Communists would regard the talks as broken 
ofe by the United States. 

Department of State Bulletin I 



memorandum on the subject was actually in pro- 
cess of delivery, dealing with a possible shift of 
the locale of these talks from Geneva to Warsaw. 
I think and believe that we shall continue to carry 
out tliat incjuiry, which, as I say, had been pre- 
pared and was en route jirior to receiving this 
note of yesterday. We do not intend to be bound 
by the 15-day ultimatum which is included in the 
Chinese Communist statement. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, does that mean that the United 
States Ambassador at Warsaw will be designated 
to continue the talks? 

A. Presumably, if Warsaw is regarded as an 
acceptable place. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., section 15 of the new im,- 
migration law authorises the issuance of 14,556 
special nonquota visas to fugitives from Com- 
munist areas in the Middle East. According to a 
Xeio Yo7'h Times report by Homer Bigart some 
time ago, up to May 1 only 2^ persons have re- 
ceived visas out of about 10,000 who applied. Ap- 
plications started around January 1. It is said 
that the administration'' s responsibility for the 
program rests with tlie State Departmenfs Office 
of Refugee and Migration Affairs. Would you 
comment on this delay? 

A. I think the delay is due to unavoidable pro- 
cedures that are required. I think the situation 
is, in fact, today in much better shape than that 
report would indicate. I I'emember looking into 
it some time ago, and I was told at that time that 
most of the red tape, if you want to call it that, 
was behind us and that pretty rapid progress 
would be made. Now I haven't checked up today 
on the figures, but I think you will find the situa- 
tion much better than was portrayed at that time. 

Effect of Cuts in Mutual Security Funds 

Q. Mr. Secretary, at the outset of the news 
conference you, talked rather forcefully about the 
effect of the House comm,ittee action loith respect 
to the MSA funds. Can you tell us lohat the 
President or the adTninistration intends to do to 
try to overcome this setback? 

A. I think that what we can do, will do, are 
doing, is to make clear to the Membei-s of Con- 
gress and to the coimtry that these cuts will ser- 
iously affect the security of the United States. I 
think, if that's realized, that action will be taken 



to undo the cuts because I know that all the Mem- 
bers of Congress are honest, patriotic people. I 
think that they sometimes are a little bit slow 
about seemg the light, and we are going to try to 
make some more light during the next few days. 
(Laughter) 

Q. How do you intend to do that, Mr. Secre- 
tary? Will the President go on radio or tele- 
vision or buttonhole Congressmen or anything 
like that? 

A. The program of action was not fully de- 
cided upon at the time I left the Wliite House con- 
ference to get back to prepare for this press con- 
ference, so I can't tell you that. You will prob- 
ably find it out from Mr. Hagerty. But there is, 
I think, going to be some action along the lines 
you suggest. 

Problem of Increasing Informational Exchanges 
Witli Soviets 

Q. Mr. Secretary, CBS^s Frank Stanton has 
sent a cable to Premier Khrushchev protesting 
Moscow^s refusal to permit the return of corre- 
spondent Dan Schorr to his post in Moscow. This 
seems to correspond with the increasing Soviet 
censorship — a situation that Mr. Berding called 
attention to in his speech last week.'' In view of 
this toould you comment on this situation, par- 
ticularly in vieio of the Soviets'' professed desire 
to increase exchange of information with the 
United States? 

A. I am not aware that they professed a great 
desire to exchange information with the United 
States. As a matter of fact, whenever we have 
these talks about exchanges, they always put the 
emphasis upon economic exchange, teclmical ex- 
change, and try to keep as far as possible away 
from exchanges of information. We have to keep 
the pressure on to get any discussions at all about 
exchanges of information, and they are very al- 
lergic to it. 

Now we have extracted from them — not very 
readily — we have extracted from them some pro- 
fessions of interest in this field. But I believe 
that the reality is that they are very much afraid 
of their people getting information of an intel- 
lectual, informative character from outside and 
they are concerned also about our getting infor- 



" Bulletin of July 14, 1958, p. 55. 



Jo/y 27, 7958 



107 



U.S. Urges Soviet Action on Release 
of Helicopter Crew and Passengers 

Press release 370 dated July 1 

Following is the text of an aide memoire handed 
on July 1 by Deputy Under Secretary Robert Mur- 
phy to Soviet Charge d' Affaires Sergei R. Striganov 
concerning the continued detention of American 
citizens in the Soviet Zone of Germany. 

On June 20, 1958, the Department of State 
brought to the urgent attention of the Soviet Em- 
bassy the prolonged and unjustifiable detention of 
the crew and passengers of a United States Army 
helicopter in the Soviet Zone of Germany.' The 
Department of State urged that the Soviet military 
authorities in Germany be instructed to assure the 
prompt return of the men and the aircraft to United 
States control in accordance with agreements and 
arrangements of long standing. An aide-memoire 
on this subject veas handed to the Soviet Charge 
d'Affaires ad interim. 

In the meantime, the Soviet military authorities 
in Germany have not only failed to take action to 
effect the return of the men and the aircraft but 
have also been unwilling to assist the United States 
military authorities in sending personal mail, cloth- 
ing, and other supplies to the men. 

The Department of State inquires urgently what 
action the Soviet Government has taken or may con- 
template in response to the above mentioned repre- 
sentations. The detention of the United States mili- 
tary personnel in question involves a serious disre- 
gard by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of 
its responsibilities under agreements with the 
United States. It is requested that arrangements 
for the release of the men and the aircraft be made 
immediately. 



' Bulletin of July 14, 1958, p. 52. 



J 



mation about the true conditions inside. So, to 
wear down their reluctance in those respects is a 
difficult, slow process. But we will keep ham- 
mering away at it. I think it is deplorable that 
this particular action should have been taken. It 
emphasizes again that, even though under pres- 
sures from us they say at times that they want 
to have these exchanges, in fact, in their detailed 
day-to-day action they do all that they can to 
make it very difficult to have adequate exchange 
of information. 

I am very regretful of the fact that, under the 
different systems which prevail in our two coun- 



tries, we are not in a very good trading position. 
Our radio-television companies, quite naturally 
and properly, take whatever they think is of news 
value, informative to the American people, and 
the Russians get that for nothing. So we are not 
in a very good position to trade. But we are 
pressing them hard on the reverse aspects of some 
of this exchange-of-information business. 

Q. How do you account., Mr. Secretary., for the 
apparent difference between our approach to this 
situation and that of our British ally, which has 
ju^st recently rejected such an agreement with the 
Soviet Union as we accepted on January 27? 

A. Well, they rejected it, I understand, because 
it had quite different implications than our agree- 
ment has. 

Q. Can you spell that out? 

A. No, I would hesitate to spell it out because 
I might be inaccurate in the details. But I was 
told that the reason why they rejected it was be- 
cause the Soviet was making, in that connection, 
demands of a character quite different from those 
that are reflected by our agreement. I can only 
give you the result; I can't at the moment spell 
out the details. 

Q. Well, the Soviet note on the thing charged 
that they were putting insistence, that is, the Brit- 
ish Government were putting insistence upon an 
end to jamming, on freedom for diplomats to 
travel, and censorship, ahead of — as a prerequi- 
site to — such an agreement. 

A. I'm sorry, I am not sufficiently informed on 
the details of that to comment on it. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, Mr. Striganov was called 
into the State Department this morning; Mr. 
Murphy saio him. Can you tell us what the pur- 
pose of that meeting was? 

A. The purpose was to renew our efforts to ob- 
tain the release of the members of the helicopter 
crew who were inadvertently carried into the So- 
viet Zone of Germany. 

Q. Are you making any progress in that field? 

A. The only way you can say you are making 
progress is that we are getting behind some of the 
things that probably have to be done. But we 
don't see the light ahead yet. 



108 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



U.S.-Canadian Discussions 

Q. Mr. Secretary, on your coming trip to Can- 
ada^ can you say some of the specific matters that 
you expect to he discussed? 

A. Tliere is no agenda. I imagine that we 
would talk about the matters which you could as- 
sume we would talk about: matters of common 
interest — the (juestion of the common or joint de- 
fense of the continental United States, where we 
are working very closely together but where that 
working together needs to be reviewed, talked 
over, from time to time, to assure that it is work- 
ing smoothly. And, of course, there are economic 
problems we are all aware of, where there are 
some differences between us, particularly about 
the disposal of surplus wheat. My own prepara- 
tion for the meeting has not gone beyond tliink- 
ing about those particular phases of the matters 
that will probably come up. These are the same 
questions that do come up when we have our Cab- 
inet-level meetings. I suppose they will be the 
same type of problems we will be discussing when 
the President goes up. 

Q. Mr. Secretar'y, the French are reported to 
he unhappy, or at least greatly concerned, about 
the amendments to the Atomic Energy Act, which 
seems to exclude them from certain information 
exchanges. Can you tell us whether you have 
any plans to ansicer this concern when you visit 
General de Gaulle this weekend? 

A. I have no doubt that that will be one of the 
topics of our discussion at that time and that Gen- 
eral de Gaulle will want to have an exposition as 
to the impact of these amendments on possible ex- 
changes of information with the French. I hope 
to be able to give him such an explanation. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is the escape-clause action 
foreclosed as far a-s you are concerned in relation 
to lead and zinr,? 

A. The President has said that he was, I think, 
suspending action on the recommendations of the 
Tariff Commission and hoped that the matter 
would be dealt with in one of the alternative Avays 
which are now before the Congress. I can't do 
more than refer to what the President said in that 
connection.* 



Q. Mr. Secretary, to get hack to the question 
Mr. [John] Hightower [of the Associated Press] 
presented earlier, our nationals Jiave heen seized 
ami held in various parts of the world; it see^ns 
to he on the increase. Some Members of Con- 
gress have charged that this is a consequence of 
our previous slow action in China and now again 
in East Germany and urge stronger action. 
Would you comment on this? 

A. I think it is impossible to treat these differ- 
ent cases as though they were all alike. I think 
each case has to be considered on all the facts. I 
don't think there is any relationship, for example, 
between what is happening in Cuba and what is 
liappening in East Germany or what happens in 
China. I believe that we have taken, and are 
taking, the strongest, most effective measures that 
we can to get Americans out. I believe we have, 
on the whole, been successful in that respect and 
have gotten out quite a few that were held. I 
remember some in Czeclioslovakia back in '53. 

The effort to get political advantage out of these 
things is, I think, a very improper course of ac- 
tion. I believe that it is going to be coimterpro- 
ductive for those who try it. I think, as soon as 
they realize that it is counterproductive, that then 
they will act accordingly. I can't think of any- 
thing that would be worse than, in effect, to pay 
blackmail to get people out. We are willing to 
use any proper methods to get them out, sliort of 
paying blackmail. If we started doing that, then 
that would only encourage further efforts to use 
Americans as hostages. 

I believe that we will obtain the release of those 
now held, whether they be in Cuba or East Ger- 
many or the Soviet Union, as soon as it is appar- 
ent that it is not possible to make political gains 
out of it. 

The position in China, as regards the 4 who re- 
main,^ is not so simple. Of course, there were 
originally 40 there. Now there are 4. The 4, of 
course, are an object of our very great concern. 
But the fact that some 36 have been gotten out 
indicates that our efforts are not wholly without 
results. 



•/6i(?., July 14, 1958, p. 69. 



° For background, see ibid,., Feb. 18, 1957, p. 261, and 
Dec. 23, 1957, p. 999. The four Americans still held in 
Communist China are John Thomas Downey, Richard 
D. Fecteau, Robert McCann, and Hugh F. Redmond, Jr. 



Jo/y 27, 1958 

472439—58 3 



109 



Supreme Court Decision on Passport Legislation 

Q. Mr. Secretary^ since the Supreme Court de- 
cisions on the Rockwell Kent and related cases 
it has teen reported the State Department is not 
going to require answers to those three questions 
pertaining to merribership in the Communist 
Party on passport applications. Does this indi- 
cate a permanent policy decision in the light of 
the Supreme Court decision, or has the adminis- 
tration made up its mind in terms of support or 
nonsupport of the Congressman Walter legisla- 
tion to cancel that decision? 

A. Our action since the Supreme Court deci- 
sion is to comply with what the Supreme Court 
said. We will comply with that as long as that is 
the law. Now the decision was based upon the fact 
that the existing legislation was inadequate to 
support those particular regulations. The De- 
partment of State and the Department of Justice 
are working very actively on the possibility of 
new legislation. I hope and believe that we will 
have something to submit in that respect very 
shortly, certainly before the conclusion of the pres- 
ent Congress. If that becomes the law, then we 
will comply with that law on the assumption that 
it is constitutional. 

Q. Does this imply that the administration is 
not in favor of the legislation so far submitted by 
Congressman Walter? The Department of Jus- 
tice and the Department of State are working up 
their own? 

A. I would draw the same conclusion that you 
do, although I must say that I di-aw it on the same 
ground as you do, namely, that we are working 
on proposed legislation and I assume we would 
not be doing that if the "Walter legislation were 
entirely satisfactory. I think it is probably along 
the same lines as the Walter proposal. But I am 
not sufficiently familiar with the details of that 
to give you a precise answer. 

"Blacitmail" 

Q. Mr. Secretary, when you use the term 
'•'■blackmaiV in relation to the Ameiicans held in 
Cuba and those held in East Germany, I assume 
you are excluding those held in the Soviet Union, 
which fits a different pattern. What do you mean 
by this term? Can you be more precise as to lohat 
is ruled out by this? 



A. In the case of East Germany there is a 
strong effoi-t there to condition the release of these 
people upon extracting from us a political act 
wliich we would not otherwise take, namely, action 
which explicitly or impliedly recognized the 
People's Republic of East Germany as a sov- 
ereign government with which we deal as such. 
In the case of Cuba we can only infer that the 
action is being taken in order to bring about 
United States intervention in the internal affairs 
of Cuba, which we do not intend to do. 

You spoke of tlie ones in the Soviet Union. 
Those are the ones that were on the plane that 
was forced down there on Friday [June 27], I 
think it was. I want to say, as to that, that the 
idea that that plane would have voluntarily or in- 
tentionally flown into the Soviet Union is about 
as preposterous a suggestion as any that could be 
made. It was a totally unarmed four-engine, 
propellor type of plane. To think that such a 
plane would deliberately intrude into one of the 
most sensitive, highly armed and defended areas 
of the Soviet Union is just grotesque. It was 
being flown by experienced airmen, but it is a 
very triclry corner where they fly. They have to 
fly there because that is the established and re- 
quired international air route. I flew it in Janu- 
ai-y of this year a couple of times, and when you 
are flying it, particularly if you are flying in an 
easterly direction, you have to be extremely ac- 
curate in your navigation to avoid getting into 
the Soviet Union. You fly from a radio station 
near Lake Van which gives you your direction, 
which is initially in almost a straight easterly 
direction. But, if you continiie to overfly a little 
bit in that easterly direction, you are automati- 
cally in the Soviet Union. You have to make a 
fairly sharp right turn near the Soviet border to 
a southeasterly direction. Also that is the more 
difficult because the Soviet Union maintains very 
powerful radio transmitters in that particular 
area which often drown out and confuse the radio 
direction which comes from the relatively feeble 
station at Van. 

I was talking yesterday to one of the members 
of the Iranian delegation who has flown that 
route a great deal, and he was telhng me that 
they are very often confused. It is particularly 
difficult also because you have to fly high because 
the mountains there are about 15,000 feet high, 
higher than the Alps. If you have overcast con- 



110 



Department of State Bulletin 



ditions and your radio gets confused, it is almost 
impossible to avoid the risk of scratching the 
border, you might say, of the Soviet Union. But 
the idea that you would do it deliberately with 
that type of plane and under those conditions is 
absolutely grotesque. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the Ctiban rebels have claimed 
repeatedly that toe are intervening in the internal 
affairs of Cuba hy allegedly supplying Govern- 
ment airplanes, allowing Ooveimvmnt airplanes to 
use Guantanamo Base, and reports from, Cuba 
say that these kidnapings are retaliatory actions 
to ti'y to force us to halt aiding Goveryiment troops. 
Would you comment on that? 

A. That allegation about the use of our base 
in Guantanamo is totally unfoimded. 

Q. Mr. Secretai'y, one more question on your 
discussion with General de Gaulle about atomic 
devices. Will you tell us what the Amencan posi- 
tion is now toward the French going ahead with 
the explosio7i of an atomic device? 

A. I would rather defer my answer to that 
question until I get to Paris. 

Strategic Shipments to Soviet-bloc Countries 

Q. Mr. Secretary, Congress has been told that 
the United States has been under considerable 
pressure to relax strategic shipments to the Soviet- 
bloc countries, including Communist China. I be- 
lieve that this weekend, or in the near future, 
the Tneeting in Paris, that has been going on for 
80 long, is about to conclude. Can you say how 
the battle is going? Are these restrictions going 
to be lifted? 

A. I think some of them will be lifted, yes. 
There has been a very meticulous, detailed dis- 
cussion going on for several months on an item- 
by-item basis. It has been agreed, I think, that, 
given the industrial development within tlie 
Soviet bloc, some items which were on the list 
originally do not properly have any place there 
any more. There are a nimiber of other items 
as to which there are differences of opinion. Those 
are being held for this final meeting, which will 
be held, I think, within the next couple of weeks. 
I feel sure that the net result of this will be to 
reduce appreciably the prohibited list. 

Q. Thank you, sir. 



Mr. Dillon Named Under Secretary 
for Economic Affairs 

The Department of State annoimced on July 1 
(press release 371) that Douglas Dillon, until now 
Deputy Under Secretary for Economic Affairs, 
on that day was sworn in as Under Secretary for 
Economic Affairs by Secretary Dulles. 

This new office, which becomes the third ranking 
in the Department, was established under the 
Mutual Security Act of 1958. President Eisen- 
hower signed the legislation on June 30 and nomi- 
nated Mr. Dillon to fill the post. Provision for 
the new office was made by an amendment in- 
troduced in the Senate by Senator H. Alexander 
Smith of New Jersey and by Senator Mike Mans- 
field of Montana. 

In establishing the new office the conference 
report on the Mutual Security Act of 1958 ' 
stated that: 

The new position will give further emphasis to con- 
gressional insistence that the mutual security program 
is an integral part of United States foreign policy and, 
as such, is under the immediate direction of the Depart- 
ment of State. 

Mr. Dillon has been Deputy Under Secretary 
since January 1957. In December 1957 Secre- 
tary Dulles delegated to that office the respon- 
sibility of coordinating various parts of the mu- 
tual security jirogram, including both military 
and nonmilitary programs.^ 



Secretary Dulles To Visit Brazil 

Press release 380 dated July 3 

The Department of State annoimced on July 3 
that, in response to an invitation from the Bra- 
zilian Government, Secretary Dulles will visit 
Brazil from August 5 to 8, 1958. 

The Secretary will arrive at Rio de Janeiro on 
August 5 for informal talks with high Brazilian 
officials. On August 8, before departing for the 
United States, the Secretary will visit Brasilia, 
tlie future capital of Brazil, now under construc- 
tion. 



' H. Rept. 2038, 85th Cong., 2d sess. 

' For background, see Bulletin of Dec. 23, 1957, p. 990. 



Jo/y 27, 1958 



111 



Twenty Years After: Two Decades of Government-Sponsored Cultural Relations 



hy Francis J. Colligan 



It is now 20 years since the Government of the 
United States undertook for the first time the 
systematic, long-term encouragement of our cul- 
tural relations with other peoples. A brief re- 
view of the activities of the Government since 
that time may be of interest as indicating the types 
of programs which have grown out of this effort 
and their role in the conduct of our foreign re- 
lations today. 

On July 28, 1938, a Division of Cultural Rela- 
tions was established in the Department of State 
by Departmental order. This event was of a 
piece with two others of the same year, the rati- 
fication of the Convention for the Promotion of 
Inter-American Cultural Relations and the es- 
tablishment of what became best known as the 
Inter-Departmental Committee on Scientific and 
Cultural Cooperation. These steps were tlie first 
to be taken by our Government involving substan- 
tial, continuing commitments in the field of in- 
ternational cultural relations. They were fol- 
lowed in 1941 by the assignment of cultural of- 
ficers to our diplomatic missions, first in Latin 
America and later in other areas of the world as 



• Mr. Colligan., author of the above arti- 
cle, is Acting Director, Cultural PIanni7ig 
and Coordination Staff, Bureau of Public 
Affairs. Simultaneous tvith other assign- 
ments in the Department was his service as 
Executive Secretary of the Board of Foreign 
Scholarships from IQIfS to 1957. 



well. Their duties ^ were defined as assisting the 
Chiefs of Mission in matters of cultural signifi- 
cance and keeping the Department of State in- 
formed of cultural developments in the country 
of their assignment. Soon field administration 
became a principal additional duty. The many- 
sided programs which were started in those years 
foreshadowed several types of activities which 
have been conducted since that time by the De- 
partment of State and by other agencies of the 
Government as well. 

Prior to 1938 the role of the Government in 
cultural relations had been occasional, incidental, 
and restricted in large part to the eminently 
"practical." One will recall, of course, a num- 
ber of outstanding representatives of American 
culture who served this country abroad, starting 
with Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson 
(who was not above smuggling seeds out of Pied- 
mont in the interest of our agricultural sciences) 
and including such figures as Washington Irving, 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, and James Russell Lowell. 
Missions of experts to foreign lands to learn or to 
teach had from time to time been encouraged in 
one way or another by the Government. In 1900, 
1,400 Cuban teachers came to the United States, 
aboard Army transports, to be guests of Harvard 
University at a special summer session. In 1908 
the remission of the Boxer indemnities to China 
stimulated an impressive intercliange of scholars 
and students with China, which lasted many 



' As rejwrtPd by Muna Lee and Ruth McMurry In The 
Cultural Approach, University of North Carolina Press, 
Chapel Hill, N. C, 1947. 



112 



Department of Sfate Bulletin 



years. After the Firet World War the remainder 
of the Belgian relief funds, administered by Her- 
bert Hoover, was invested in the establishment of 
the Belgian-American Foundation, which has 
played a significant role in our relations with 
Belgium since that time. During the twenties 
and thirties especially, our relations with Latin 
America were marked by a number of Pan 
American Congresses in public health, child wel- 
fare, science, and education. In general, how- 
ever, the Government's efforts in this field had 
been motivated by no basic, underlying, long- 
range objective or policy, nor had they represented 
commitments to any continuing programs. 

It was against this background that the United 
States initiated its first systematic program of in- 
ternational cultural relations. In the foreground 
were other factoi's, for, as Ben M. Cherrington, 
first Chief of the Division of Cultural Relations, 
has written, it was a "time when Hitler and Mus- 
solini's exploitation of education as instruments 
of national policy was at its heiglit, and our Gov- 
ernment was determined to demonstrate to the 
world the basic difference between the methods of 
democracy and those of a 'Ministry of Enlighten- 
ment and Propaganda.' There was to be es- 
tablislied in the Department of State an organi- 
zation that would be a true representative of our 
American tradition of intellectual freedom and 
educational integrity." ^ 

The history of the programs of this organiza- 
tion and of its collaborators and successors falls 
naturally into three parts. The first covers the 
yeai-s 1938-1948; the second, 1948-1953; the third, 
the years since 1953. 

Cultural Relations With Latin America 

The dominant facts of the first period were the 
Second World War and the Good Neighbor 
Policy. Government-sponsored programs were 
first started with Latin America as an essential 
element of that policy. Moreover, compared with 
our traditional cultural relations with Europe, 
and even with China in a somewhat different con- 
text, those with the other American Republics had 
been slight. The shadow of war, however, hung 
over the Inter-American Conference for the 



'"Ten Years After," Bulletin of the Association of 
American Colleges, vol. 34, No. 4, December 1948, p. 500. 



Maintenance of Peace at Buenos Aires in 1936 
when the United States proposed, among other 
topics for discussion, the "Facilitation by Govern- 
ment Action of the Exchange of Students and 
Teachers." This it did in the belief that the pro- 
motion of cultural relationships was one of the 
most practical means of developing in the Ameri- 
can Republics a public opinion that would favor 
and support a rule of peace throughout the West- 
ern Hemisphere. The result was the adoption by 
the conference of the Convention for the Promo- 
tion of Inter-American Cultural Relations. In 
the years that followed, the threat of Nazi pene- 
tration in Latin America quickened the pace at 
which the Good Neighlwr Policy was being carried 
out. In 1937 the Cultural Convention was ratified 
by Congress, and 1939 saw the passage of the 
act "to render closer and more effective the 
relationship between the American republics." 
(Public Law 355, 76th Congress, 1939.) It was 
imder this authority and that of P.L. 63 {76th 
Cong., 1939) that cultural relations were de- 
veloped with Latin America. No other permanent 
legislation regarding cultural relations was en- 
acted until 1948. 

The basic policies which governed the initial 
conduct of the program proved to be sound and 
are as applicable today to all programs of this 
type. These were, fii-st, maximum cooperation 
with nongovernmental organizations and institu- 
tions in the United States, and, second, the utili- 
zation of existing institutions and established 
centers of culture both in the United States 
and in the other participating countries. At 
the same time it was recognized that the Federal 
Government itself had many resources that could 
be effectively mobilized for this program — hence 
the establishment of the Inter-Departmental Com- 
mittee for Scientific and Cultural Cooperation 
with its coordinated budget for the programs of 
participating agencies. 

Programs in Other Areas 

The war was also directly responsible for the 
initiation of officially sponsored cultural relations 
wnth China and the Near East, which were fi- 
nanced from an emergency fund of the President. 
The program with China was started in 1942 
for the purpose of strengthening Chinese scien- 
tific and cultural activities during the period of 



July 21, 7958 



113 



national resistance. The program with the Near 
East, begun in 1943, focused upon the reinforce- 
ment of American-founded schools and hospitals 
in the area. 

Some idea of the scope and scale of activities 
during this period may be gathered from the 
fact tliat in 1943-1944 the cultural programs in 
all other areas amounted to $2,871,000 and that of 
the Inter-Departmental Committee in Latin 
America, to $4,500,000. No integrated program 
was developed with Europe, but the need for post- 
war rehabilitation and multilateral organizations 
was anticipated. The United States was repre- 
sented in such conferences as those of the Allied 
Ministers of Education in London in 1943. By 
1946, cultural officers had been assigned to nine 
countries outside the Western Hemisphere. 

While the specific types of activity varied from 
area to area and indeed from country to country, 
there emerged from these early programs certain 
patterns which have characterized our interna- 
tional cultural progi-ams since that time. Depend- 
ent primarily upon the personnel and other re- 
sources of the Federal Government were coopera- 
tive scientific and technical projects and those for 
governmental in-service training. There were 
also industrial training projects, which were sin- 
gularly successful at a time when war conditions 
increased the demand for labor. All traditional 
channels of cultural interchange were widely em- 
ployed. They included "exchange of persons" 
through scholarships and fellowships, visiting 
professorships, and grants for the visits of tech- 
nical and other experts and leaders ; the holding of 
conferences and seminars ; grants to American in- 
stitutions; the development of American studies 
and the teaching of English; facilitation of the 
interchange and use of publications, art objects, 
and other audiovisual materials; publication and 
circulation of translated books ; and last, but cer- 
tainly not least, the establishment and maintenance 
abroad of American libraries and cultural centers. 

All these were utilized for various specific pur- 
poses, including the creation of better understand- 
ing abroad of the American way of life ; strength- 
ening of American educational institutions 
abroad; increasing knowledge of other countries 
among Americans; and promoting educational, 
professional, and institutional relations and con- 
tacts among leaders of thought and opinion. Basic 



to all of these was the general objective of develop- 
ing international cooperation and mutual interest. 

International Information Services 

The effectiveness of these activities was en- 
hanced by the international information services, 
which, for the United States as for several other 
countries, emerged also out of wartime needs. 
These services publicized and supplemented cul- 
tural activities and disseminated much cultural 
material in their programs abroad. These agencies 
were the Office of War Information and, for the 
information program in Latin America, certain 
offices of the Coordinator of Inter- American Af- 
fairs. Together they formed the basis for what 
today is the United States Information Agency. 
Both left us important cultural legacies as well. 

Originally charged with definite responsibility 
for the promotion of cultural projects, the Office 
of the Coordinator performed a valuable service in 
strengthening American-sponsored schools in 
Latin America. Especially notable was the Inter- 
American Educational Foundation, which was 
combined later with the Institute of Inter-Ameri- 
can Affairs; the IIAA now functions within the 
framework of the Office of Latin American Oper- 
ations of the International Cooperation Adminis- 
tration. 

The Office of War Information had a different 
orientation. Its principal legacy in the cultural 
field has been the libraries which it established and 
which are now a prominent feature of the program 
overseas of the United States Information Agency. 

The years immediately following the war were 
marked by general reorganization, resulting in 
the liquidation of wartime agencies and the re- 
tention of certain functions of value for postwar 
purposes. Certain programs of the Office of War 
Information and of the Office of the Coordinator 
of Inter- American Affairs, together with those of 
the Division of Cultural Cooperation (a later 
name of the original division) and of the staff of 
the Inter-Departmental Committee on Scientific 
and Cultural Cooperation, were gathered on a 
temporary basis into a single unit which was 
known as the Office of International Information 
and Cultural Affairs of the Department of State, 

Meanwhile, the United States participated in 
the founding of the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 



114 



Department of State Bulletin 



In 1946, with the passage of legislation sponsored 
by Senator J. William Fulbrifrht (P.T.. 584, 79th 
Cong.) 5 the ground was laid for the utilization of 
foreign currencies owed to or owned by the 
United States for a cooperative program of edu- 
cational exchanges. All this reflected a typically 
postwar period, one of transition from a war- 
charged world to what all hoped would be a truly 
peaceful society of nations. Despite the confusion 
of these years, the cultural program had de- 
veloped certain policies, gained certain experi- 
ences, and adopted certain techniques which were 
to prove useful in the ensuing period when the 
permanent program of cultural relations, previ- 
ously restricted to Latin America, became 
worldwide. 

Postwar Period 

The second period began in 1948, when the 
United States Information and Educational Ex- 
change Act ( P.L. 402, 80th Cong. ) was passed by 
the Congress and the program authorized by the 
Fulbright Act became operative. The former, 
sponsored by Senator H. Alexander Smith and 
Eepresentative (now Senator) Karl E. Mundt, 
authorized the extension of the progi-am with 
Latin America to other areas of the world as 
determined by the Secretary of State. This 
meant in effect its expansion to all the nations of 
the free world. Early in 1948 an article vehe- 
mently attacking the Institute of International 
Education as a symbol of American cultural re- 
lations appeared in the Soviet Teachers' Gazette. 
It climaxed 3 years of Soviet coolness to our sug- 
gestions for such contacts. Together with other 
incidents, the article indicated conclusively that 
the Iron Curtain applied as much to cultural as to 
economic and political relations. 

Another political development affecting the cul- 
tural programs of the period was the conquest of 
the Chinese mainland by the Communists, which 
closed the door to relations with that area. It also 
prompted the establishment of a Chinese Emer- 
gency Aid Program for students and scholars, 
which was financed from funds of the Economic 
Cooperation Administration and those made avail- 
able under the foreign aid act of 1949 (P.L. 327, 
81st Cong., 1949) and the China Area Aid Act 
of 1950 (title II of P.L. 535, 81st Cong., 1950). 



These funds enabled the Department to offer as- 
sistance to needy Chinese students and some 
scholars stranded here by the catastrophe in their 
homeland and to bring here for short periods of 
research a few students and scholars from various 
areas of the Far East. 

The outbreak of hostilities in Korea in June 1950 
resulted in the extension of aid to Koreans simi- 
larly stranded in the United States. This pro- 
gram was assisted by a special advisory committee 
under the chairmanship of the President of the 
American Council on Education; the close co- 
operation of more than 300 colleges and univer- 
isities kept administrative costs to an absolute 
minimum. Designed to give short-term assistance 
to enable students to attain their immediate edu- 
cational objectives, the program was terminated 
in 1955 after having assisted almost 3,700 bene- 
ficiaries at a cost, including administration, of 
about $8 million. 

The Department, beginning in 1949, faced the 
task of terminating another type of emergency 
program, the Eeorientation Programs with Oc- 
cupied Areas, which had been started after the 
Second World War by the Military Government 
and which were turned over to the Department 
for consolidation on a reduced scale with the 
regular cultural programs. The story of these 
programs and especially of the cooperation of 
nongovernmental organizations in the United 
States, largely through the Commission on the 
Occupied Areas of the American Council on Edu- 
cation, although an engrossing one, lies outside 
the sphere of this article. Their most noteworthy 
contribution to the cultural relations program as 
a whole was the series of Amerika Hauser and 
information centers which, on a reduced scale, 
ultimately became part of USIA's program. 

Educational Exchange Service 

These emergency activities were entirely inde- 
pendent of the regular programs of long-term 
cultural relations. For the latter, the Smith- 
Mundt Act became the basic charter. It provided 
for a separate "educational exchange service" in 
the Department of State. (The term "educational 
exchange" was, in this context, practically synony- 
mous with "cultural relations.") The purpose 
of this service would be "to cooperate with other 
nations in the interchange of persons, knowledge 



My 21, 1958 



115 



and skills; the rendering of technical and other 
services; the interchange of developments in the 
field of education, the arts, and sciences" (sec. 2). 
It provided explicitly and in detail for the types 
of activities already developed and tested in the 
programs with Latin America, China, and the 
Near East. It amplified and wrote into law the 
basic policies which had governed cultural pro- 
grams up to that time: cooperation, reciprocity, 
the maximum use of nongovernmental agencies 
and advisers while utilizing fully, on a noncom- 
petitive basis, the resources of the Federal Gov- 
ernment itself. It authorized the financing of the 
program in dollars, including the dollar expenses 
and dollar grants required by the program under 
the Fulbright Act. 

Meanwhile, with the actual initiation of pro- 
grams under the Fulbright Act began that strong 
support, both financial and administrative, of ed- 
ucational, academic, and research exchanges which 
has been a significant feature of the cultural pro- 
gram as a whole. By 1948, agreements under the 
act had been signed with four countries for the 
financing of exchanges in local currencies and the 
establishment of binational commissions or foun- 
dations for the administration of the country pro- 
grams. This concrete demonstration of the 
cooperative and reciprocal nature of the program 
was repeated in the United States, where the 
Board of Foreign Scholarships had already been 
organized and, by the caliber of its membership, 
had enlisted the wholehearted cooperation of our 
academic and scholarly community. This board 
is one of several groups representing public and 
professional interest involved in the cultural pro- 
gram in its entirety. The others are the United 
States Advisory Commission on Educational Ex- 
change, the Committee on Cultural Information 
of the United States Advisory Commission on In- 
formation (both of these Commissions were au- 
thorized by the Smith-Mundt Act), the U.S. 
National Commission for UNESCO (authorized 
by P.L. 565, 79th Cong., 1946), and the Advisory 
Commission on the Arts, recently authorized by 
the Humphrey-Thompson Act.^ These public 
bodies illustrate strikingly the extent to which as 
a matter of policy representatives of nongovern- 



' For the membership of the Board of Foreign Scholar- 
Bhips through 1956, see Sicords Into Plowshares, Depart- 
ment of State publication 6344, 1956; for the member- 
ship of the other bodies, see their periodical reports. 



mental organizations and private citizens have 
been involved in the administration of the Gov- 
ernment's cultural program. 

Other acts of Congress during the postwar pe- 
riod testify to the faith of the American people 
in the value of cultural relations in the shaping 
of a peaceful world. These included the alloca- 
tion of an Iranian Trust Fund (an indemnity 
paid some years before) to the student exchange 
program (P.L. 861, 81st Cong., 1950) ; the Fin- 
nish Educational Exchange Act sponsored by Sen- 
ator Smith, which allocated funds thenceforth 
accruing from Finland's payments on its First 
World War debt to the interchange of students, 
teachers, and trainees and to the exchange of books 
and educational equipment with the Republic of 
Finland (P.L. 265, 81st Cong., 1949) ; the India 
Emergency Food Aid Act of 1951, sponsored by 
Senator Mundt, which provided for the financing 
of similar exchange projects with India from some 
of the interest accruing on the emergency food 
loan (P.L. 48, 82d Cong.) ; and the Informational 
Media Guaranty provisions of P.L. 402, 80th 
Cong., as amended, which authorized the financ- 
ing of cultural activities from foreign currencies 
purchased by our Government in the course of 
encouraging the sale of American publications in 
certain countries. 

Increased Activities 

Some idea of the increase in activity during this 
period may be gathered from appropriations for 
the exchange of persons and from the number of 
libraries, cultural institutes, and information cen- 
ters. In 1948 the budget for the international ex- 
change of persons amounted to $5,236,518, includ- 
ing foreign currencies under the Fulbright Act; 
in 1953 the comparable figure was $22,235,635. In 
1948 the libraries, information centers, and cul- 
tural institutes (sometimes referred to as bina- 
tional centers or societies) under the Educational 
Exchange Service of that time numbered 98; in 
1953 they numbered 227. 

It was during this period also that the pro- 
gram of technical cooperation was extended on a 
regular basis beyond Latin America, as announced 
in President Truman's 1949 inaugural address. 
As already noted, the Institute of Inter- American 
Affairs, under what is now the International Co- 
operation Administration, continued its work in 



116 



Department of State Bulletin 



Latin America. The Inter-Departmental Coni- 
; mittee on Scientific and Cultural Cooperation was 
succeeded bj* other organizational elements under 
the expanded program. 

These developments were paralleled by a grow- 
ing interest in cultural activities among multi- 
lateral organizations of which the United States 
is a member. One of the four principal objectives 
of the United Nations, as stated in its charter, 
is tlie achievement of "cooperation in solving in- 
ternational problems of an economic, social, cul- 
tural, or humanitarian character . . ." (art. 1). 
UNESCO, the specialized agency in the cultural 
field, had as its basic purpose the contribution "to 
peace and security by promoting collaboration 
among the nations through education, science and 
culture. . . ." The United States had played a 
prominent part in the establishment of the Or- 
ganization in 1945 and had lent it strong support. 
During this period UNESCO was going through 
a phase of exploration and experiment not unusual 
for any new organization, especially one whose 
potential membership was as broad as that of the 
U.N. and whose objectives were writ so large. 
Other specialized agencies and programs of the 
U.N. were likewise developing, notably the Ex- 
panded Program of Technical Assistance, which, 
in its broad use of the term "technical" and its 
stress on education as a means of achieving tech- 
nical goals, shares many of the characteristics of 
the cultural programs developed by national 
governments. 

Regional organizations were also active. The 
Organization of American States, in the charter 
of Bogota (1948), which was ratified by the 
United States in 1951, states as one of its objec- 
tives the promotion by cooperative action of the 
economic, social, and cultural development of the 
member states. It pursues these objectives 
through the Inter- American Cultural Council, one 
of the three organs of the Council of the Organi- 
zation; through the Cultural Department of the 
Pan American Union; and through several spe- 
cialized inter- American organizations such as the 
Pan American Institute of Geography and 
History. 

In summary, this was a period of organization 
and reorganization, of programs liquidated and 
programs expanded, as the United States strove 
to meet its responsibilities on every front of the 
cold war. The phrase "good neighbor" was su- 



perseded in 1950 by another, "the campaign of 
truth," which was to characterize both tiie infor- 
mation and the cultural relations programs. This 
phrase indicates quite well the dominant mood 
of the period. A semiautonomous agency, the 
International Information Agency, within the De- 
partment of State was created in 1952 to adminis- 
ter both programs. 

The Period 1953 to Date 

The current period may be dated from 1953, 
when, in accordance with Reorganization Plan 
No. 8,* all the activities of the International In- 
formation Administration, except those of the 
International Educational Exchange Service, 
were transferred to a new, independent office, the 
United States Information Agency. The ex- 
change programs, together with functional re- 
sponsibility for the participation of our Govern- 
ment in multilateral cultural activities, remained 
in the Department of State under the Assistant 
Secretary for Public Affairs. 

Additional legislation in furtherance of cul- 
tural activities continued to be enacted. Wliat 
were, in effect, amendments to the Fulbright and 
Smith-Mundt Acts broadened the foreign-cur- 
rency base. Notable especially is the Agricultural 
Trade Development and Assistance Act (P.L. 480, 
83d Cong., 1954). Marking an expansion into 
new areas of activity was the International Cul- 
tural Exchange and Trade Fair Participation Act 
(P.L. 860, 84th Cong., 1956), which was spon- 
sored by Senator Hubert Humphrey and Repre- 
sentative Frank Thompson. This act authorized 
on a permanent basis funds for the cultural pres- 
entations program which was established in 1954 
following a special request by President Eisen- 
hower to the Congress. Originally designed to 
step up the presentation of American performing 
arts abroad by underwriting the deficits incurred 
by American artists, the program has brought to 
other peoples a new awareness of the cultural 
maturity and creativity of the American people 
and of their widespread interest especially in 
music and the theater. Well featured in the press, 
it needs no further notice here. 

Meanwhile the program as a whole has con- 
tinued to grow. It is difficult to trace in a direct 
line the development of the programs which have 



' Bulletin of June 15, 1953, p. 854. 



Jvly 27, J 958 



117 



been touched upon here, with all tlie factors that 
have made them what they are. Nonctlieless, cer- 
tain selected figures may be of interest. The 
budget of less than $6 million for exchange of 
persons in 1948 has grown in 1958 to $20.8 million. 
The number of foreign comitries participating in 
the programs mider the Fulbright Act has gi-own 
from 4 in 1948 to 33 this year. No funds at all 
were available for cultural presentations overseas 
in 1948; in 1958 they amounted to $2.3 million. 
As to libraries, cultural institutes, and informa- 
tion centers, the 98 of 1948 now number 234 in 
75 countries. 

Tlie program now extends, on a limited, ex- 
perimental basis at least, to the Soviet Union and 
some of the other countries of Eastern Europe. 
This expansion originated at the summit meeting 
at Geneva in July 1955, when the question of 
contact between the Soviet bloc and the free world 
was referred to the Foreign Ministers. The latter 
discussed it at their meeting the following Octo- 
ber, which was followed by direct negotiations and 
the initiation of limited, specific projects. These 
culminated in the agreement for cultural exchange 
between the United States and the Soviet Union 
which was signed on January 27, 1958.^ 

Meanwhile, other programs were under way. 
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has de- 
veloped a series of cultural activities; the report 
of the "Three Wise Men" (The Committee of 
Three on Non-Militaiy Co-operation in NATO, 
1956)^ stressed the role of cultural cooperation in 
heightening that "sense of community" on which 
must be based the continuing cooperation of peo- 
ples and governments. "This will exist," they 
said, "only to the extent that there is a realisation 
of their common cultural heritage and of the 
values of their free way of life and thought." 
Under somcM'hat different circumstances, the 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization has under- 
taken a modest program of the same general type. 

Tlie Organization of American States has con- 
tinued its development of cultural cooperation. 
For example, in 1954 at the Inter-American Con- 
ference at Caracas it revised tlie Convention for 
the Promotion of Inter-American Cultural Rela- 
tions to render it more realistic and effective. It 



has recently amioimced the initiation of a pro- 
gram of 500 scliolarships to students of the Amer- 
icas as recommended by the Inter-American Com- 
mittee of Presidential Representatives in 1957. 

The interest of member states in UNESCO has 
gi'own substantially and, as Walter H. C. Laves 
and Charles A. Thomson pointed out in their re- 
view of the Organization's first 10 years, it seems 
to have found a successful formula for program 
plamiing in its concentration on a few major proj- 
ects of widespread interest.' 

Cultural Planning and Coordination Staff 

The increase and expansion of so many of these 
activities is responsible at least in part for the 
revival of the feeling that, as in 1938, our inter- 
national cultural relations should be effectively in- 
tegrated, that they should retain their identity as 
such, and that they should be regarded, like those 
of other countries, as coordinate with informa- 
tion, technical, and other "action" programs. 
Over the years this view has been expressed in 
many ways. It was behind the establishment of 
the original Division of Cultural Relations as a 
separate administrative element in the Depart- 
ment. It is reflected in the Smith-Mundt Act, in 
tlie recommendations of the Select Committee of 
the Senate on Overseas Information Programs 
(theHickenlooper-Fulbright Committee) in 1953, 
in the provisions for the International Edu- 
cational Exchange Service in Reorganization 
Plan No. 8. More recently it has been in- 
dicated in the concern of the Senate that 
the coordination between educational exchange 
and teclmical training be as effective as pos- 
sible. It was to allay that concern that Dr. 
J. L. Morrill, President of the University of Min- 
nesota, undertook to study the jiroblem for the 
Department. The basic recommendations in his 
report of May 1, 1956, were twofold : that the 
Department effect an "authoritative coordination 
between such programs" and that it upgrade "the 
U.S. exchange activity in Governmental, Con- 
gressional, American public, and foreign con- 
sciousness." Steps have been and are being taken 
to carry out both recommendations. The estab- 
lishment of the Cultural Plamiing and Coordina- 
tion Staff in the Bureau of Public Affairs has 



^ Ibid., Feb. 17, 1958, p. 243. 
' Ibid., Jan. 7, 1957, p. 18. 



' UNESCO: Purpose, Pi-ogress, Prospects, Indiana Uni- 
versity Press, Bloouiington, Ind., 1957. 



118 



Department of State Bulletin 



been one such step. This staff, which was created 
J in July 1!)5() and which inchides representatives 
i . of ICA, has the dual task of stimulating coordina- 
tion of the educational exchange program with 
ICA's technical training activities and of devel- 
oping policies on international cultural activities. 
Ajiother step is to be found in tlie bills now in 
Congress which would provide explicitly for a 
Special Assistant to the Secretary of State for 
International Cultural Relations. 

This review of cultural relations as sponsored 
by our Government is necessarily of a general na- 
ture. The scale and scope of the programs with 
individual countries and the types of projects and 
resources involved are recorded in detail in peri- 
odical reports which are readily available. 
Enough has been noted here, however, to suggest 
some general conclusions regarding these pro- 
grams. 

The first conclusion is that the programs are 
still growing — and encountering all the problems 
one associates with growth. 

More significant is the fact that they are respon- 
sive to the political milieu in which they exist; 
in other words, that they support the foreign pol- 
icy of the United States. Within that framework, 
however, they have, and should have, specific 
characteristic purposes, coordinate with those of 
other international activities. These purposes in 
turn indicate the role they play in the furtherance 
of our foreign policy as a whole. They both 
heighten a sense of solidarity through greater 
awareness of our common heritage, as with the 
countries of the NATO area, and increase under- 
standing of the significant differences between 
others and ourselves by broadening the channels 
of cooperation on matters of mutual interest. 
They also balance technological progress with 
ideas and principles, which, as Vice President 
Nixon pointed out after his trip to Africa,^ is vital 
in the struggle for the minds of men. 

Basic to all such programs is, of course, the pres- 
entation, direct or indirect, of a balanced picture 
of one another's way of life. In his address to the 
Baylor University graduating class of 1956, Presi- 
dent Eisenhower declared: "Security cannot be 
achieved by arms alone, no matter how destructive 
the weapons or how large their accumulation. So 
today it is vitally important that we and others 



detect and pursue the ways in which cultural and 
economic assistance will mean more to free world 
strength, stability, and solidarity than will purely 
military measures." * It is for this basic purpose 
that the programs described earlier have been 
conducted. 

Nongovernmental Cultural Activities 

Since this is a sketch of Governmental activities, 
it has given little space to those of nongovern- 
mental institutions and oi'ganizations. The latter, 
however, both in cooperation with the Government 
and independently, have been widespread and im- 
pressive. Cultural relations are, in fact, essen- 
tially relations between peoples ; hence the impor- 
tance of cooperation between Governmental and 
nongovernmental agencies in this field. 

From the very beginning of the Nation, cultural 
relations with other countries have developed as 
a function of our educational, scientific, and cul- 
tural institutions. They have been a byproduct 
of international trade and have loomed large in 
the work of missionary and other religious organ- 
izations. They have formed an essential part of 
the programs of our great philanthropic founda- 
tions and of such other organizations as binational 
societies, professional and scholarly groups, and 
educational and public welfare associations. The 
entry of the Govermnent into this field did not 
signify the emergence of competition with these 
groups. It has been, rather, catalytic — facilitat- 
ing financially and otherwise the efforts of those 
on whom the burden for this kind of relations 
ultimately rests. This fact accounts for the wide- 
spread support of the programs as reflected not 
only in the acts of Congress but in participation 
and cooperation on a national scale. 

This underlying concept is just as vital today 
as it was in 1936 when it was stated by Secretary 
of State Cordell Hull at the Conference for the 
Maintenance of Peace at Buenos Aires. At that 
time he said : "Since the time when Thomas Jef- 
ferson insisted upon a 'decent respect to the 
opinions of mankind,' public opinion has con- 
trolled foreign policy in all democracies. . . . 
There should be brought home to them [the 
people] the knowledge that trade, commerce, 
finance, debts, communications, have a bearing 



' Bulletin of Apr. 22, 1957, p. 635. 
Ju/y 27, 7958 



• md., June 4, 1956, p. 916. 



119 



on peace. ... In all our countries we have scholars 
wlio can demonstrate these facts ; let them not be 
silent. Our churches have direct contact with all 
groups; may they remember that the peacemakers 
are the children of God. "We have artists and 
poets who can distill their needed knowledge into 
trenchant phrase and line ; they have work to do. 



Our great journals on both continents cover the 
world. Our women are awake; our youth sen- 
tient; our clubs and organizations make opinion 
everywhere. There is a strength here available 
greater than that of armies. We have but to 
ask its aid; it will be swift to answer, not only 
here, but in continents beyond the seas." 



Visit of Carlos P. Garcia, President of tlie Republic of the Philippines 



Carlos P. Garcia, President of the Reptiblic of 
the Philippines, made a state visit to Washington 
June 17-20. Following are texts of a joint state- 
ment by President Eisenhower and President 
Garcia released at the close of their talks and an 
address made hy President Garcia before a joint 
session of the Congress on June 18, together with 
the exchange of greetings at the Washington Na- 
tional Airport and a list of the members of the 
official party. 



JOINT STATEMENT 

White House press release dated June 20 

The President of the United States and the 
President of the Republic of the Philippines to- 
day concluded the valuable discussions they have 
held over the past few days on matters of interest 
to both countries. These talks centered chiefly on 
United States-Philippines relations, but they also 
included an exchange of views on matters of inter- 
national significance to both countries with special 
emphasis on Asia. 

During his three-day visit President Garcia 
addressed a Joint Meeting of both houses of the 
Congress, and he and members of his Party con- 
ferred with the Vice President, the Secretary of 
State, individual Members of Congress, and other 
United States Government officials. After leaving 
Washington President Garcia will visit other 
parts of the United States and will meet govern- 
mental, cultural, and business leaders. 



The two Presidents reviewed the long history 
of friendship and cooperation between their coun- 
tries and they expressed confidence that their re- 
spective peoples will continue to benefit from this 
close association in the future. Moreover, they 
recognized that similar coojieration among the na- 
tions of the Free World had been effective in re- 
cent years in preventing overt aggression in the 
Far East and elsewhere in the world. The two 
Presidents jiledged themselves to maintain the 
unity of strength and purpose between their coim- 
tries and the other countries of the Western 
Pacific in order to meet any threats to peace and 
security that may arise. 

The two Presidents reaffirmed their adherence to 
the principles and purposes of the United Nations 
Charter. Tliey recognized that through dedica- 
tion to that Charter the nations of the world can 
progress toward the attainment of the universal 
ideal of peace with justice based on the digTiity of 
the individual. With this objective they will con- 
tinue to support and encourage the activities of 
the United Nations organization. 

They noted that great progress has been 
achieved under SEATO in the strengthening of 
the Free World's defenses against communist im- 
perialism in Southeast Asia. They concurred that 
in the light of the continued threat of communist 
military power in Asia, SEATO's defensive capa- 
bility must be carefully maintained. Toward this 
end the United States will continue to assist in the 
development of the Armed Forces of the Philip- 



120 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



pines, in accordance with mutual security pro- 
prams jointly approved with the Republic of the 
Philippines. 

They reviewed, in this connection, the important 
role played by the Mutual Defense Pact between 
the Philippines and the United States. Tliey 
agreed tliat the aggressive intentions and activities 
of communism in the Far East and in Southeast 
Asia render the maintenance and strengthening 
of these defensive arrangements an absolute neces- 
sity. President Eisenhower made clear that, in 
accordance with these existing alliances and the 
deployments and dispositions thereunder, any 
armed attack against the Philippines would in- 
volve an attack against United States forces sta- 
tioned there and against the United States and 
would instantly be repelled. 

In the spirit of these alliances, and with par- 
ticular reference to the problems affecting the 
military bases operated by the United States in 
the Philippines, they expressed mutual confidence 
that these questions would be resolved to the satis- 
faction of the two countries, having regard to the 
principle of sovereign equality and the vital re- 
quirements of an effective common defense. 

II. 

Tlie two Presidents reviewed progress toward 
economic development made in the Philippines 
over the past several years and examined the cur- 
rent economic problems with which that nation is 
faced. Economic discussions were also held be- 
tween Philippine officials and representatives of 
the State and Treasury Departments, the Export- 
Import Bank and the International Cooperation 
Administration. The Philippine officials outlined 
a long-term program for economic development. 
In view of the inability of the United States to 
anticipate accurately financial availabilities and 
relative requirements beyond the next twelve 
months, immediate empliasis was placed on meet- 
ing the initial requirements of the Philippine pro- 
gram. 

For these initial requirements the Export-Im- 
port Bank informed the Philippine Government 
that it will establish a new line of credit of $75 
million for financing private and public develop- 
ment projects in the Philippines. 

The Philippine Government was also informed 
that, subject to Congressional action on the addi- 



tional appropriations being requested, the De- 
velopment Loan Fund would examine specific 
projects submitted to it to determine whether they 
would merit Development Loan Fund financing 
in an amount not to exceed $50 million. 

III. 

In the course of their talks, the two Presidents 
were deeply aware of the special significance of 
their meeting as the Heads of State of two coun- 
tries, one of which through the evolutionary 
process and by mutual agreement obtained its in- 
dependence from tlie other. They realized that, 
in the context of present events, their meeting 
would provide a valuable object lesson on the re- 
lations of mutual respect and equal justice most 
appropriate to two countries, great or small, 
which share a conmion faith in freedom and de- 
mocracy. 

IV. 

President Eisenhower and President Garcia 
concluded that the understandings reached, as 
well as the personal relationships established dur- 
ing this visit, will contribute significantly to the 
mutual good will and friendship which tradi- 
tionally support Philippines-United States re- 
lations. 

C. P. Garcia 

DwiGHT D. ElSElSTHGWER 

Washington, D.C. 

June 19, 1958. 



ADDRESS BY PRESIDENT GARCIA i 

Mr. Vice President, Mr. Speaker, and honor- 
able Members of the United States Congress, 
from the bottom of my heart I thank you for this 
high honor you have accorded me by inviting me 
to speak to the great American Nation through 
its Congress. I come here on behalf of the Fili- 
pino people, your best friends in Asia, who live 
in the faith that the heart of this great American 
Nation has for them a soft spot. I speak for 23 
million Filipinos who renew the vow that we 
stand by this great Nation, the United States of 
America, as long as her leadership of tlie free 



' Congressional Record, June 18, 1958, p. 10488. 



July 27, J 958 



121 



world continues to be nobly dedicated to the su- 
preme cause of world freedom and peace. 

In pledging help to the friends of freedom 
everywhere to achieve their own security and 
well-being, the United States, through President 
Eisenhower, said. 

Recognizing economic health as an indispensable basis 
of military strength and the free world's peace, you shall 
strive to foster everywhere and to practice yourselves 
policies that encourage productivity and profitable trade. 

On this state visit of mine to your grand country, 
thanks to the hospitality of your great President 
and people, I hope to avail myself of the mag- 
nificent opportunity to exchange with you renewed 
pledges of Philippine- American solidarity on the 
basis of equality, mutuality of interest, and iden- 
tity of ideals. This is also an opportunity to 
reiterate the resolve that we the Filipino people, 
within the limits of our capabilities, will assume 
our just burden in the common defense of freedom 
and in the common pursuit of peace. 

Twelve years ago, on July 4, 1946, you granted 
us the precious boon for which we had longed and 
fought through almost four centuries: our inde- 
pendence. You gave it not by compulsion, but by 
a voluntary sovereign act. You gave it as free 
men and as champions of freedom and in just rec- 
ognition of the fact that we deserved it, and were 
willing to assume its tremendous responsibilities. 
With our cities and Provinces buried at the time 
imder the ruin and rubble of the world's most 
devastating war, with the national economic 
structure wrecked by 4 years of ruthless enemy 
occupation, with our industries despoiled and de- 
stroyed, and our agriculture neglected, we never- 
theless gladly accepted the responsibilities of in- 
dependent nationhood. We then believed, as we 
still do, that with freedom and independence as 
our instrumentality and with the courage and de- 
termination of our people as our inspiration, we 
could bviild again what had been destroyed, we 
could restore what had been lost, and we could 
establish a regime of justice, liberty and de- 
mocracy. 

We in the Philippines like to believe that in our 
12 years of independent national existence we 
have proved to the world that we have not be- 
trayed America's trust and confidence. We like 
to believe that we have shown that your 50 years 
of arduous and altruistic effort to help us prepare 
for our independence were neither fruitless nor 



wasted. We like to believe that the thousands of 
American soldiers who fought with us in Bataan, 
Corregidor, Leyte, and other hallowed places did 
not fight or die in vain. We like to believe that 
the financial assistance you have given for our 
country's reconstruction and rehabilitation after 
the war bespoke the gratitude of the American 
Nation to the Filipinos who were confronted with 
the double task of building the foundations of the 
Philippine Republic and at the same time rebuild- 
ing what had been destroyed during a war fought 
for a common cause. We think that in 12 years 
we have, with your assistance and inspiration, 
successfully completed the task of reconstruction, 
and restoration. 

Now as we start a new chapter in the unending 
work of Nation building we face another great 
challenge, namely, the building of a national 
economy capable of affording down to the hum- 
blest citizen of a democratic Philippines economic 
well-being, social security, and stability. We are 
determined to succeed in this task. Only then 
shall we be able to establish the validity of our 
claim in Asia that the product of 50 years of Phil- 
ippine-American collaboration is a democracy 
that offers to its people the reality of a free and 
abundant life. We shall have proved that free- 
dom means the building up of human dignity; 
that democracy means more productivity on the 
farm and in the factory and more harmony and 
contentment in the home; that liberty means the 
utilization of our national resources and the full 
employment of our manpower for the enrichment 
of our lives and the winning of peace and content- 
ment. By our success in this endeavor, we hope to 
be able to demonstrate to the world that not com- 
munism, but democracy, which stimulates produc- 
tivity of the mind, the lieart, and the hand, is the 
answer to the needs of the hungry and the prayers 
of the oppressed in Asia. That democracy, which 
is founded upon the eternal verities, is the answer 
to the sjiiritual wants of 1 billion Asians, as it is 
the answer to the material wants of more than 
half of mankind. 

In this great task we ask for your understand- 
ing, your encouragement and your assistance — 
not your charity. We need your faith. We seek 
from you the strength to make our country an 
effective force for democracy iii Asia. The his- 
toric role of the United States in Asia, in my 
humble view, is far from completed. It is true 



122 



Department of State Bulletin 



that by the grant of Philippine independence you 
have started a libertarian cycle of far-reaching 
consequences, resulting in the independence of 
other Asian countries, like India, Burma, Ceylon, 
Indonesia, and lately, Malaya. And I ^Y0uld add 
that this cycle, which has rolled on irresistibly 
into Africa, will not be completed until every 
nation of the world shall have become free and 
independent. 

Nevertheless, may I be permitted to suggest 
that the logic of events and the dynamics of his- 
tory will not permit the United States of America, 
the recognized leader of the free world, to stop 
there. She led triumphantly the forces of free- 
dom in two world wars. She gave the best of her 
gallant youth to redeem the cause of liberty, held 
captive in the hands of the oppressor. She has 
given billions of dollars of her substance to help 
break down the ramparts of poverty, ignorance, 
and disease, and to clear the way for a better 
world. But when these battles have been won, 
destiny yet calls on America to continue leading 
the forces of freedom and democracy in the battle 
for a universal peace founded upon justice, liberty 
and economic security. The last war taught us 
to reject isolationism as a national policy. It 
compelled us to accept the principle of the fun- 
damental unity of the human race — the brother- 
hood of man. The peace and freedom of Asia, 
where one-half of humanity lives, is therefore 
unavoidably the concern of the free world of 
which the United States of America is the ac- 
knowledged leader. Asia must therefore be won 
for democracy. She must be won for peace. To 
that end, Asia should be helped to develop a 
political, economic and social climate in which 
freedom and peace can flourish. Asia, the birth- 
place of the greatest religions of the earth, must 
not be allowed by the folly of passive indifference 
to fall under the control of a godless ideology. 
Asia, with her tliirst for capital and modern 
technology must be won to the conviction that 
democracy can lead her out of the depths of 
poverty to the heights of fulfillment. She must 
be convinced that the democratic ideology which 
contains the eternal trutlis preached by Christ and 
other great religious leaders, prophets and poets 
is, in modern times, the ideology that can best 
satisfy her de«p spiritual longings. 

In the fields of commerce, industry, agriculture, 
art, and science, the Asians should be led to the 



conviction, not by words but by deeds, that human 
dignity and human freedom are the highest in- 
tei'ests of democracy everywhere; that democracy 
is the sworn foe of oppression, intolerance, social 
injustice, and economic insecurity everywhere; 
and that democracy stands squarely on the prin- 
ciple that the state was created for man and not 
man for the state. These being the veiy prin- 
ciples upon which American democracy stands, it 
is difficult to conceive that her leadership, coupled 
with understanding and helpful and imaginative 
policies, should fail to win the heart of 1 billion 
Asians whose deepest longings are freedom from 
want, freedom from fear, freedom to grow and 
develop in peace, and freedom to lift themselves 
up from abasement of the body and the spirit. 

The Filipinos happen to have a culture that 
is an amalgam of the best in the Asian, Latin, and 
Anglo-American cultures. It is the only country 
in southeast Asia where the overwhelming ma- 
jority of the people profess the Christian faith. 
By geography and racial affinity we are of the 
East, and by culture we are of the West. Our 
jurisprudence is a confluence of Asian, Latin, and 
Anglo-American jurisprudences. The greatest of 
our writers wrote in Spanish, Tagalog, and other 
vernaculars, and the modem ones in English. 
Thus, the breadth and depth of our culture, its 
varied and multilateral quality, permits us to 
claim, without being immodest, a fair understand- 
ing of both the East and the West and to become 
a bridge of understanding between the two. This 
is a role which we would be happy to perform 
in the higher interests of the free world and in 
the service of world peace. 

No one, therefore, should underestimate the tre- 
mendous impact upon the Asian peoples of the 
Philippines' success in establishing among its peo- 
ple a real, substantial, and effective democracy 
as envisaged by Jefferson and Lincoln, and by our 
own Eizal and Mabini. On the other hand, no 
one should discount the possibility that the failure 
of democracy in the Philippines might prove to 
be a fatal setback to the expanding frontiers of 
democracy in Asia. 

If you will bear with me for a while, may I 
be allowed to present to you in bold strokes a pic- 
ture of the political and economic conditions in 
my country. The 23 million Filipinos are closely 
and affectionately attached to you in warm friend- 
ship, for you have lived with us for more than 



July 27, 7958 



123 



half a century and have left imperishable influ- 
ences on our history, politics, economics, and cul- 
ture. "We fought side by side with you when the 
fortunes of war were at the lowest ebb, and ever 
after. We never wavered in loyalty, not even 
under the fire and sword of a ruthless enemy. Our 
veterans who survived after risking their all have 
unflinching faith that America will always re- 
member their devotion and they are confident 
that Congress will ever be mindful of their in- 
terests. Wliile Bataan and Corregidor were 
fought by armies, the Philippine resistance move- 
ment was fought by the masses of our people. 
During our association of nearly half a century, 
you inspired our people with the immortal prin- 
ciples of your Declaration of Independence. You 
gave us both the letter and the spirit of your 
Constitution. The political thinking and prac- 
tices of our people bear the deep imprint of Amer- 
ican political institutions and usages. Our demo- 
cratic way of life has been enriched and vitalized 
by your own. Thus when under the dynamic 
leadership of President Magsaysay we quelled the 
Communist-inspired Huk rebellion and outlawed 
communism in the Philippines imder a law signed 
by me last year, we acted under the inspiration of 
our spirit of 1896 not less than under your spirit 
of 1776. 

The English language is the official language 
of the Philippines and will so remain indefinitely. 
It is one of the cultural bonds that bind our coun- 
try to America and to the English-speaking world. 
American culture has cut a deep swath in our own. 
Even now, the English-language newspapers in the 
Philippines continue to be the favorite news- 
papers of Filipino readers. Side by side with the 
development of the indigenous culture, we appre- 
ciate more and more American art and literature. 
Your cultural legacy now forms part of the soul 
of the Philippine nation. 

The economic bond between our two coimtries is 
equally important. The biggest market for our 
foreign trade is the United States to which we 
sell 52 percent of our exports and from which we 
buy 55 percent of our imports. The Philippines 
occupies the 11th rank among the foreign markets 
for American products. Your total investments 
in the Philippines amount to $250 million and is 
thus the biggest foreign investment in the Philip- 
pines. Under the so-called parity amendment to 



our constitution, Americans enjoy the same rights 
as Filipinos to develop the natural resources of 
the country and to establish public utilities. We 
have not given this privilege to any other for- 
eigner. No other country in the world has given 
it to you. For that reason, the biggest power 
companies and mining companies in the Philip- 
pines up to now are American-owned. American 
investors come in slowly, but they keep coming. 
American capital and Philippine labor have har- 
monious relations. Both our elite and our labor 
force come from 21 imiversities, 352 colleges, and 
31,000 public and private schools in all of which 
the democratic ideology is accepted and commu- 
nism rejected by free choice. 

So, I venture to submit my considered view that 
long after government-to-govemment treaties are 
made and unmade, long after agreements are 
emptied of meaning, long after covenants expire, 
this people-to-people relation between Filipinos 
and Americans will endure through the surging 
centuries of time. These, ladies and gentlemen, 
are some of the priceless, intangible stakes in our 
wedded national destinies. 

I said a while ago that our task of reconstruc- 
tion and restoration is over. We have accom- 
plished that with generous American aid. But 
now we are starting the more difficult task of 
building a national economy that will afford the 
humblest citizen of the country a fair share of 
the comforts and conveniences of modern civilized 
life, a fair assurance of continuous employment 
of our manpower, and a fair measure of economic 
security and stability for all. Our natural re- 
sources in land, mines, forests, marine and hydro- 
electric power potential are vast and the greatest 
part of them are yet untapped. Our potential 
production of rubber, cotton, rice, corn and other 
cereals, and minerals is unlimited. Our actual 
production of copra, hemp, and sxigar is limited 
only by the demand of the world market. Some 
of the world's biggest deposits of nickel, iron, 
copper, and other minerals are found in the Phil- 
ippines. We are hopeful that someday the tre- 
mendous efforts of exploration for oil conducted 
by American companies will yield the expected 
results. These, in short, are the vast potential- 
ities of my coimtry. 

But I must be frank with you and say that 
our economic situation leaves much to be desired. 



124 



Department of State Bulletin 



We are far from our economic goals. To exploit 
the vast natural resources I have referred to, we 
lack the capital and in certain cases, the know- 
how. Our bahmce of payments in our interna- 
tional trade has been unfavorable in the postwar 
years. It is true that we have increased our 
exports from $263.4 millions in 1947 to $428.9 
millions in 1957. But our imports have increased 
faster, from $511.1 millions in 1947 to $614.6 mil- 
lions in 1957. It is also true that from 1953 up 
to the present, pursuant to our industrialization 
program, we liave established with very little for- 
eign borrowing more than 800 new industries. 
But we are encountering difficulties in providing 
the dollar requirements of these new industries 
in machinery, spare parts and raw materials which 
have to be imported. This has strained our in- 
ternational reserves. We have extensive irriga- 
■ tion projects to bolster our food production. We 
have also big harbor improvement projects, espe- 
cially for Manila, to provide port facilities for a 
growing foreign and domestic trade. We have 
power development projects to cope with the rap- 
idly expanding industrialization program in the 
Manila area, Visayas and Mindanao. But prin- 
cipalh', we want to realize thereby our ambitious 
but necessary program of rural electrification by 
■which we hope to stimulate home and cottage in- 
dustries in the rural areas ; bring to our country- 
side the blessings of newspapers, movies, radio 
and television and other modem urban conven- 
iences and facilities ; improve the living standards 
of our rural folk, and brighten up their social and 
economic outlook. But these can no longer be 
financed with our own resources alone. To finance 
these development projects, we therefore need for- 
eign capital and credit. 

These are some of the urgent and economic 
problems we have in our country. So much of 
our working capital has been invested in the build- 
ing of the projects and industries we have so far 
undertaken that refinancing has become impera- 
tive. We have progressed halfway toward our 
objective; we cannot turn back. We need 
strength to take us to the legitimate goal which 
we believe we can reach with the assistance of 
our friends. 

Lastly, may I express a parting thought as a 
tribute to this great American nation by borrow- 
ing the words of one of its greatest Presidents, 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He said : 

July 21, 1958 



The state of this Nation Is good — the heart of this Na- 
tion Is sound — the spirit of this Nation is strong — the 
faith of this Nation is eternal. 

The Philippines, your loyal friend and ally, ap- 
peals to that heart, to that spirit, and to that faith 
of this Nation. 



EXCHANGE OF GREETINGS' 

White House press release dated June 17 
The President: 

President Garcia, Madam Garcia, and all mem- 
bers of the party that are accompanying you to 
this country today : First, may I have the privi- 
lege of extending to you a very warm welcome 
from this Government and from its people. In 
saying this, there is on my part far more of per- 
sonal sentiment than would normally be the case. 

As you may recall, from the years 1935, when 
the Philippines first became a commonwealth, and 
until the beginning of 1940 I served not only in 
your country but as a subordinate on General 
MacArthur's staff. I served the Philippine Gov- 
ernment by assignment from this Government. 
It was a very priceless privilege. It was an op- 
portunity to learn sometliing of your coimtry, its 
people, its islands, its economy, its political for- 
mation. On top of that I formed many warm 
friendships that endure to this day. 

I thought and I still believe Mr. Quezon was 
a great leader with a great vision. I still regret 
that he is not with us today to join with the peo- 
ple that are in this audience — to welcome you and 
to say he is glad to see the President of an inde- 
pendent Philippines coming over here to meet in 
the Capital City of our country so many of the 
people here that I hope you will find both inter- 
esting and possibly enjoyable. 

Thank you for coming with us — to all members 
of your party- — and greetings to your people 
through you. 

Thank you. 

President Garcia: 

Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen: Mre. 
Garcia and I would like to thank you most 
warmly for this kindness of receiving us here 
today. I would like to state, Mr. President, that 



" Made at the Washington National Airport on June 17. 

125 



this demonstration of kindness, and I would say 
kinship, has touched me to the quick. 

Any head of state that is thus welcomed to this 
lovely city, which is now considered the capital 
city of the free world, will have that overwhelming 
sense of joy and pride. But for a President of 
the Philippines this feeling acquires a special 
quality. For I come here not as a stranger, not 
merely as one of your many friends and allies, 
but I come bearing with me the affection of a 
grateful people whom you have served so well 
and so long. 

This is a feeling that I have today, Mr. Presi- 
dent, that I do not come here with any other 
feeling but that of a spiritual homecoming and 
your presence has indeed enhanced that feeling. 

As one of the great Americans that saw service 
in our country, you are a living witness to the 
indissoluble bond of common ideals that bind 
our two peoples together. I have come to make 
a fresh assurance of our people's undying 
fidelity to those ideals, and I am happy and 
honored to be able to present to you this reas- 
surance in person. 

Thank you. 



accompany President and Mrs. Garcia as members 

of the o-fficial party: 

Gen. Carlos P. Romulo, Ambassador of the Philippines to 

the United States 
Mrs. Romulo 

Florencio Moreno, Secretary of Public Works 
Mrs. Moreno 

Jesus Vargas, Secretary of National Defense 
Dominador Aytona, Commissioner of the Budget 
Miguel Cuaderno, Governor of the Central Bank 
Mrs. Cuaderno 
Eduardo Romualdez, Chairman of the Rehabilitation 

Finance Corporation 
Fernando Campos 

Mrs. Campos (daughter of President and Mrs. Garcia) 
Lt. Col. Emilio O. Borromeo, senior aide to President 

Garcia 
Wiley T. Buchanan, Jr., Chief of Protocol of the United 

States 
Charles E. Bohlen, American Ambassador to the Philip- 
pines 
Rear Adm. Howard L. Collins, USN, American aide to 

President Garcia 
Clement E. Conger, Deputy Chief of Protocol, Department 

of State 
Elvin Seibert, protocol officer. Department of State 
Stuart P. Lillico, press officer, Department of State 



Commissioner McLaughlin: ' 

It is a great pleasure and honor to me, repre- 
senting the Board of Commissioners of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia and the people of the Nation's 
Capital, to welcome you here today, in the hope 
that you will have a very pleasant and memorable 
visit here among the vistas and views with which 
you are no stranger. 

Assuming that you know something about our 
temperatures at this time of year, I would say 
that the warmth of the temperatures here in 
Washington is only a part of the warmth of our 
welcome and hospitality to you and to your 
people. 

May I present this key to the city, Mr. Presi- 
dent, as a symbol of our hospitality and happiness 
in having you witli us. 



MEMBERS OF OFFICIAL PARTY 

The Department of State announced on June 
13 [press release 320) that the following would 



' Robert E. McLaughlin, president of the Board of Com- 
missioners of the District of Columbia. 

126 



President Heuss Departs 
for Germany 

Following is the text of a letter to President 
Eisenhower from Theodor Heuss, President of the 
Federal RepuUic of Germany, at the close of his 
visit to this country, which included a state visit 
to Washington June i-7} 

White House press release dated June 28 

Aboard ms "BERLIN", 
June 23, 1958. 

Deak Mr. President: In this moment of de- 
parture from your country may I thank you again 
for your kind invitation which gave me the op- 
portunity to experience a visit rich in impres- 
sions and events. 

I wish to express my gratitude to you in a 
double sense: First to you as President of the 
United States and to all American citizens whose 
warm and hospitable reception it was my pleasure 
to experience and who in such great nimibers 



' BULLETIN of June 30, 1958, p. 1099. 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe ^ulleVin 



I 



helped me to take liome from this journey new 
undoi-standing and an enrichment of knowledge. 
Also, my heartfelt appreciation is extended to 
you and Mrs. Eisenhower for the welcome you 
offered me which made me feel very much at 
home. 

During these past few weeks I have seen much 
and learned much, giving me a deeper under- 
standing of the grandeur as well as the problems 
of your great country. Throughout my journey 
I became intensely aware by virtue of the warmth 
with which I was received wherever I went in the 



east, middle west, the west and the south that our 
peoples have been drawn together in harmony 
beyond the abilities of treaties to effect mutual 
confidence, friendship and human respect. 

It makes me happy at the end of tliis trip to be 
reassured that German-American friendship is 
more than a matter of contemporary liistory of 
our two nations, but that the deep-rooted strength 
of this friendship is a genuine contribution to- 
ward the future freedom of the whole western 
world. 

Theodor Heuss. 



Visit of Sardar Mohammad Daud, Prime Minister of Afghanistan 



Sardar Mohammad Baud, Prime Minister of 
Afghanistan, was an official guest of the U.S. Gov- 
ernment in Washington June 21i.-%7. Following 
are a joint statement isstted hy President Eisen- 
hower and Prime Minister Baud on June £7 at the 
close of their discussions and an announcement of 
the signing on June 26 of a JJ. 8 -Afghan cultural 
agreement, together with the texts of addresses 
made iy the Prime Minister hefore the Senate 
and the House of Representatives on Jime 25, the 
exchange of greetings at the Washington National 
Airport o-n June 24-, and a list of the mejnbers of 
the official party. 



I 



JOINT STATEMENT 

White Honse press release dated June 27 

The President of the United States and His 
Royal Higlmess Sardar Mohammad Daud, Prime 
Minister of Afghanistan, today concluded 
friendly and fruitful discussions on various mat- 
ters of mutual interest. These discussions have 
been supplemented by talks between the Prime 
Minister and his advisers and the Secretary of 
State and other ^Vmerican officials. 

The Prime Minister, who is visiting the United 
States upon the invitation of the President, has 
also been introduced to both Houses of the United 



States Congress and has met with the Justices of 
the United States Supreme Court. At the con- 
clusion of his Washington stay, the Prime Min- 
ister will tomorrow begin a 12-day coast-to-coast 
tour of the United States during which he will 
meet with various civic, cultural and business 
leaders. 

In their review of the world situation, as well as 
of developments in various areas of the globe, the 
President and Prime Minister were conscious of 
the universal desire of all peoples that war be 
eliminated and peace based on international jus- 
tice be established. They reaffirmed their deter- 
mination to work for peace and security in the 
world. In behalf of their respective govern- 
ments, they reasserted their firm attachment to 
the principles of the United Nations Charter and 
their determination to continue to cooperate in 
advancing the objectives of that vital instrument 
for peace. 

Throughout the discussions between the Prime 
]\Iinister and American representatives there was 
emphasis on the cordiality and genuine friendship 
which characterize Afghan-American relations. 
The President explained the principles and goals 
of the United States in the field of international 
affairs and the Prime Minister similarly described 
the attitude of the Government of Afghanistan in 
the field of international affairs including its 
traditional policy of neutrality and independence. 



July 27, 7958 



127 



It was agreed that both nations share beliefs in 
mutual respect for the sovereignty and inde- 
pendence of nations, in non-interference in the 
affairs of others, in social and economic progress 
for all peoples, and in the dignity of the human 
individual. 

In this spirit, which underlay the examination 
of specific aspects of the relationsliip between the 
two countries, the Prime Minister was assured of 
the continuing readiness of the United States to 
be of assistance to Afghanistan in its high ob- 
jective of developing the resources of the country 
for the welfare of the people. It was agreed that 
cooperation which already exists in the develop- 
ment of Afghan civil aviation, the Helmand Val- 
ley, surface transportation projects, and the 
Afghan educational system will be continued with 
a view toward making each of these projects as 
efficient and effective as circumstances permit. 

As a symbol of the warm relations existing 
between the two countries and as an indication 
of a desire of the two nations to base their re- 
lations on mutual understanding, a cultural agree- 
ment between the Government of Afghanistan 
and the Government of the United States was 
signed on June 26. 

In concluding their discussions, the President 
and the Prime Minister agreed that the exchanges 
of views between Afghan and United States rep- 
resentatives have been most useful. They ex- 
pressed their desire to maintain and strengthen 
the cordial understanding between the two coun- 
tries, which was so manifest during the Prime 
Minister's visit. 

Sardar Mohamkad Datjd 
DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



U.S.-AFGHAN CULTURAL AGREEMENT 

Press release 357 dated June 26 

His Eoyal Highness Sardar Mohammad Daud, 
Prime Minister of Afghanistan, and Secretary 
of State Jolin Foster Dulles on June 26 signed 
an Afghanistan-United States cultural agree- 
ment. Prince Daud is in the United States as 
an official guest of the United States Govern- 
ment. 

The agreement was effected through an ex- 
change of notes. The text of the Secretary's 

128 



note to which the Afghans have replied in the 1- 
affirmative is as follows : 

YouB Royal Highness : I have the honor to refer to 
conversations which have recently taken place between 
representatives of our two Governments concerning the 
cultural relations between the United States of America 
and Afghanistan. I understand that it will be the intent 
of each Government : 

1. To encourage the coming together of the peoples of 
the United States of America and Afghanistan in cul- 
tural cooperation and to foster mutual understanding of 
the intellectual, artistic, scientific and social lives of 
the peoples of the two countries. 

2. Recognizing that the understanding between the peo- 
ples of both countries will be promoted by better knowl- 
edge of the history, civilization, institutions, literature, 
and other cultural accomplishments of the people of the 
other country, to encourage the extension of such knowl- 
edge within its own territory. 

3. To promote and facilitate the interchange between 
the United States of America and Afghanistan of promi- 
nent citizens, specialists, professors, teachers, students, 
and other youths, and qualified individuals from all 
walks of life. 

4. In order to facilitate the interchange of persons re- 
ferred to, to look with favor on the establishment of 
scholarships, travel grants and other forms of assistance 
in the academic and cultural institutions within its ter- 
ritory. Each Government will also endeavor to make 
available to the other information with regard to facili- 
ties, courses of instruction or other opportunities which 
may be of interest to nationals of the other Government. 

5. To encourage and facilitate in its territory, if it is 
so desired by both parties, a conduct of cultural activi- 
ties and the establishment of libraries, cultural institutes, 
or other forms of cultural centers by the other Govern- 
ment 

6. To endeavor, whenever it appears mutually desirable, 
to establish or to recommend to appropriate agencies the 
establishment of committees, composed of representatives 
of the two countries, to further the purpose of this agree- 
ment. 

7. To use its best efforts to extend to citizens of the 
other country engaged in activities pursuant to this agree- 
ment such favorable treatment with respect to entry, 
travel, residence and exit as is consistent with its na- 
tional laws. 

8. This agreement shall not have the effect of changing 
the domestic law of either country, and the responsibili- 
ties assumed by each Government under this agreement 
shall be subject to its Constitution and applicable laws 
and regulations and will be executed within the frame- 
work of domestic policy and procedures and practices de- 
fining internal jurisdiction of governmental and other 
agencies within their respective territories. 

I have the honor to propose that, if these understand- 
ings meet with the approval of the Government of Af- 
ghanistan the present note and your note concurring 
therein will be considered as confirming these under- 
standings, effective on the date of your note. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Accept, Tour Royal Highness, the assurances of my 
highest consideration. 



EXCHANGE OF REMARKS AT SIGNING 
CEREMONY 

Press release 359 dated June 26 
Secretary Dulles: 

Your Royal Hichness, it gives me great pleas- 
ure to sign, on behalf of the United States of 
America, this cultural agreement with your coun- 
try. Afghanistan and the United States have 
long enjoyed common ideals and aspirations for 
independence, freedom, and economic well-being. 

The dissemination and exchange of knowledge 
responds to man's unquenchable longing to ex- 
pand the frontiers of his learning. This agree- 
ment will enable us to share, in larger measure 
than heretofore, knowledge of our cultures, our 
traditions, and institutions. Our peoples stand to 
gain much through the operation and fulfillment 
of this agreement. 

We take added satisfaction from the fact that 
the understandings here expressed were arrived at 
in time to make this signing possible by Your 
Eoyal Highness, when you are an honored guest 
in this country. 

Prime Minister Daud (through an interpreter): 

On this occasion tliat I sign this agreement of 
cultural exchange between the Government of 
Afghanistan and the Government of the United 
States of America, it is really a happy moment 
for me. 

I am sure that the signature of this agreement 
is one more step to the strengthening of relations 
between our two countries. 

It is to my pleasure that I have this opportunity 
during my stay here in the United States of 
America. 

I hope that this will be an augury for more 
friendship and consolidation of relations between 
our two comitries. 



ADDRESS BEFORE THE SENATE' 

Mr. Vice President and honorable and distin- 
guished Members of the Senate, it is an honor and 



' Congressional Record, June 25, 1958, p. 11030. 
July 27, 1958 



a privilege to have the pleasure of meeting with 
you in this august gathering. 

I am overwhelmed by the warm reception and 
the cordial hospitality of the Government and the 
people of the United States, for which I express 
my heartfelt gratitude. 

I am very happy that the kind invitation of 
President Eisenhower has made it possible for me 
to visit the United States, and my pleasure is all 
the greater for having this opportunity to convey 
to you and, through you, to the people of the 
United States the great, friendly aspirations of 
the people of Afghanistan. 

This message of friendship of the Afghan peo- 
ple to the people of America does not stem only 
from the good diplomatic relations existing be- 
tween our countries; it has a sounder source, 
which is the conviction of our peoples in the prin- 
ciples which the Afghans and the Americans alike 
consider to be the basis of their existence and, in 
fact, the basis of any existence with human dig- 
nity. This is a spiritual bond; and such bonds 
are of great value to our people, particularly in 
view of the fact that they are the best means of 
creating and continuing friendship between differ- 
ent peoples and nations. This is the basis of the 
policy of neutrality of Afghanistan concerning 
our international relationships. 

Afghanistan is a country whose people are far 
behind many peoples so far as the material devel- 
opments of the modern age are concerned. But 
we have a deep conviction and a strong faith in 
the spiritual realities of life, from which we de- 
rive our confidence in the ultimate success of our 
own people and of other people in the attainment 
of the aspirations which lead to the happiness of 
mankind. That is why we can always speak of 
great and everlasting hope for ourselves and our 
friends. 

Among our friends, our relations with the 
United States of America were established on the 
firm basis of true knowledge, on the part of the 
Afghan people, of the principles which constitute 
the American way of life. 

These relations have continued in ever-increas- 
ing measure, in a spirit of mutual respect, con- 
fidence, and good understanding. The further 
strengthening and expansion of these friendly re- 
latimis is the sincere and living desire of the Af- 
ghan people. 

While the people of the United States endeavor 

129 



to realize their own aspirations, we in Afghani- 
stan are engaged in the same pursuit for our peo- 
ple; but our task is markedly different. Ours is 
a task of reconstruction from the ruins of the past 
and the reestablishment of a modern life on the 
site of the old civilizations. As a result of our 
engagement in the defense of our independence 
and freedom during the last two centuries, we 
have been left with great problems. Only re- 
cently have we been able to think of embarking 
upon a program of putting our house in order. 

Our experiences in this connection have taught 
us not to forget our sufferings and not to trust 
any policy which might allow the dark days of 
the past to beset us again, but, rather, to favor 
a policy through which we can look forward to 
an atmosphere of good understanding, in which 
our difficulties would be appreciated. To us, this 
is the only way in which the nations of the world 
can enjoy mutual confidence on the basis of in- 
ternational justice, which is essentially needed by 
the peoples of the world at the present time. 

Our hope to succeed in our efforts is obviously 
of vital importance to us. The success depends 
not only upon our own efforts, but also on the 
maintenance of peace and security in the world 
in which we live. 

Therefore I can say that, the achievement of 
our national goal being dependent on interna- 
tional peace and security, our national and inter- 
national aims are ultimately the same. That is 
why our policies in all directions are founded on 
the principle of friendship with all peoples and 
nations of the world. 

For the achievement of our aims we do not have 
many means to speak of; however, there is one 
thing on which we can rely, that is, our confidence 
in the spirit of our people and their determination 
to give their utmost efforts, free from any influ- 
ence and motivated only by an independent judg- 
ment to overcome the great difficulties which con- 
front us. 

This in no way means that we plan to ignore 
or slight the importance of good understanding 
and international cooperation. On the contrary, 
we are fully convinced of the essentiality of in- 
ternational cooperation and we have given ex- 
pression to this conviction on any proper oppor- 
tunity, and we shall continue to do so. 

The history of the Afghan-American relations 
can provide us with many examples of such co- 



operation. I wish to express my appreciation of 
the good will and understanding which have al- 
ways prevailed between our two countries. 

In this atmosphere of friendship among the 
great American people, it gives me the greatest 
of pleasure, while I am enjoying their hospitality, 
to represent the wishes of my people for the pros- 
perity and happiness of the American people. 
Let me tell you that these privileged moments 
that I have spent among you will remain with 
me as an everlasting memory of my visit to your 
great country. 



ADDRESS BEFORE THE HOUSE OF 
REPRESENTATIVES' 

Mr. Speaker and honorable Members of the 
House, it is a great pleasure and privilege for me 
to have the opportimity of finduig myself among 
the Representatives of the great American people 
in this august gathering. 

I wish to have your permission to first of all 
take tliis opportunity to convey the friendly feel- 
ings and the cordial aspirations cherished by the 
people of Afghanistan for the people of the 
United States of America to you and through 
you to the people of the United States. 

These sentiments are cherished by the Afghan 
people as a direct outgrowth of their full acquaint- 
ance and true knowledge of the principles which 
make the United States of America; principles 
which are the true reflection of the spirit of the 
American people, as love of freedom and in- 
dependence is the most sacred tradition by which 
our understanding of the American people is 
guided. These principles have been a part of the 
Afghan traditional beliefs througliout the course 
of thousands of years of our history and are con- 
sidered by the people of Afghanistan to be a com- 
mon tradition shared by all those peoples and 
nations who have cliosen to respect them as their 
way of life. To us the defense of this principle 
is foremost in its significance and our esteem for 
it is above eveiytliing. 

Our history is witness to the fact that we have 
tolerated many sufferings for the preservation of 
our independence and freedom. At no time have 
we allowed any influence to damage our national 



' Ibid., p. 11065. 



130 



Department of State Bulletin 



prestige or liurt our national pride. We are deter- 
mined to live in this way; we cannot think of any 
materialistic factor that would persuade us to ac- 
cept the slightest change in the course of our 
national dctennination for the preservation of our 
independence and of our freedom. 

The Representatives of the people of the United 
States are representatives of these principles to 
tlie outside world. The mutual respect and con- 
fidence on which is based the ever-increasing 
friendly relations between Afglianistan and the 
United States is a direct consequence of our firm 
convictions in the attainment and preservation of 
a life of decency secured by the independence and 
free determination of man everywhere, in an 
atmospliere of friendship and peace among all 
peoples and nations. 

Since tlieir establishment, our bonds of friend- 
ship have remained firm, and subsequently we 
have continued to strengthen them further. It is 
indeed a pleasure, on this occasion, to state once 
again the sincere desire of the Afghan people for 
strengthening and expanding these good relations 
with the people of the United States of America. 
I hope that my visit to this country, on the cordial 
invitation of President Eisenhower, will serve the 
purpose of fulfillment of this desire. 

Afghanistan is a small coimtry, but our difficul- 
ties and problems are not small. Wliile this is 
the concern of the Afghan people tlirougli all 
circumstances and situations in which mankind 
does not feel secure from calamities and sufferings, 
and in the face of all events anywhere, we have 
shared and we do share the concern of our fellow 



men. 



The greatest question which concerns all nations 
of the world today, big and small alike, is that of 
peace and security. For us this anxiety is natu- 
rally of particular significance, since we have just 
foimd an opportunity to reconstruct our ruins 
caused by the unpleasant events of the period of 
aggression which had threatened the independence 
and freedom of the Asian people, and to do this 
with our simple and meager faciliiies so that we 
may live once again in better conditions. 

By expression of this concern I am conveying a 
message from the Afghan people to the Repre- 
sentatives of the people of the United States, 
which I consider a great honor ; that is, the mes- 
sage of peace and friendship among peoples and 



nations, and friendship between Afghanistan and 
the people of the United States. 

May I wisli once again to express my sincere 
aspirations which represent the heartfelt senti- 
ments of the Afghan people for the happiness and 
prosperity of the people of the United States and 
for world peace and prosperity. 



EXCHANGE OF GREETINGS AT AIRPORT 

Press release 349 dated June 24 

Vice President Nixon: 

Your Royal Higlmess, it is my great honor and 
privilege to extend to you a welcome on behalf 
of the President of the United States and of the 
American people on the occasion of your visit 
to our Nation's Capital. 

May I say that this is particularly a personal 
pleasure for me because I recall 5 years ago meet- 
ing you in your own country and the very gra- 
cious welcome that we received on that occasion. 
I came back with many impressions of Afghani- 
stan — a land of superb and rugged beauty. But 
the major impression that I had was with regard 
to the spirit of your people, a spirit which through 
the centuries has meant that Afghanistan has 
been unconquered and unconquerable. And for 
that reason we have been looking forward to the 
time when you would visit the United States in 
your official capacity as Prime Minister of your 
country. 

We know that the conversations that you have 
here with President Eisenhower, Secretary Dul- 
les, and other officials of our Government will be 
mutually helpful in developing closer bonds of 
friendship which have been traditional between 
our two countries. 

We are also most happy that on this visit, as 
distinguished from your visit of 1949, you will 
have a chance not only to see Washington and 
New York but some of the other parts of our own 
country. I know that every place you go you 
will receive a warm and friendly welcome from 
all the people of the United States. 

Prime Minister Daud (through an interpreter): 

Mr. Vice President, it is a great pleasure for 
me to have this opportunity to visit the Capital 
of the United States of America. I wish to ex- 
press my heartfelt gratitude for the warm and 



July 2 J, 1958 



131 



friendly reception with which I have been wel- 
comed to your country and for the friendly words 
you have spoken. 

My visit to the United States on the invitation 
of the President reflects the common desire of 
the Governments of Afghanistan and the United 
States of America to further strengthen and ex- 
pand the close and cordial relations which have 
existed between our two countries since their 
establishment. 

Although our two coimtries are separated by 
thousands of miles, the people of Afghanistan 
are fully acquainted with the way of life of the 
people of the United States, and with this knowl- 
edge the ties of friendship have continued to re- 
main firm between the two nations. 

The history of our relations from the begin- 
ning has been a history of good will, mutual con- 
fidence, and respect for each other, economic and 
cultural cooperation, and good understanding. 
Tlie strengthening and continuation of these good 
relations is a sincere desire of the Afghan people 
and Government. Today I am greatly pleased to 
have the opportunity to express this desire to you 
personally. 

I hope that my visit of good will to your coun- 
try will serve the purpose of continuation of our 
close friendship. While I wish to express the 
aspiration of the Afghan people for the welfare 
and happiness of the people of the United States 
of America, I want to convey, once again, on be- 
half of my companions and myself our thanks to 
the Government of the United States of America 
and to Your Excellency and to all those who have 
greeted us so kindly. 

I am very happy to say that it has given me a 
great pleasure to have the opportunity of meeting 
you again and to tell you that the memory of your 
friendly visit to Afghanistan is still living in the 
mind of our people. 

MEMBERS OF OFFICIAL PARTY 

The Department of State announced on June 21 
(press release 338) that the following would ac- 
company Prime Minister Daud as members of the 
official party : 

Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal, Ambassador of Af- 
ghanistan 
Mohammad Yusuf, Minister of Mines and Industries 



Abdul Rahman Pazhwak, Permanent Representative of 

Afghanistan to the United Nations 
Mohammad Sarwar, Deputy Minister of Commerce 
Mohammad Ayub Aziz, Deputy Chief of Protocol 
Mohammad Khalid Roashan, Press Attach^ 

Wiley T. Buchanan, Jr., Chief of Protocol of the United 

States 
Sheldon T. Mills, American Ambassador to Afghanistan 
Armin H. Meyer, Deputy Director, Office of South Asian 

Affairs, Department of State 
Robert T. Hennemeyer, Protocol OflBcer, Department of 

State 
Edward M. Cohen, Press Officer, Department of State 



THE CONGRESS 



President Answers Congressional Query 
on Trade Agreements Legislation 

Folloioing is an excliange of correspondence 
between President Eisenhower and Wilbur D. 
Mills, chairman of the House Committee on Ways 
and Means. 



THE PRESIDENT TO REPRESENTATIVE MILLS 



White House press release dated June 10 



Mat 29, 1958 



Dear Mr. Chairman: Your letter of May 
twenty-second asks me two questions concerning 
the Trade Agreements legislation which has just 
been reported by the Committee on Ways and 
Means: (1) whether an amendment reserving to 
the Congress the right, acting by concurrent reso- 
lution, eitlier by majority vote of those present 
or by majority vote of the entire membership, to 
overrule the President in escape clause cases and 
to put into effect the findings and recommenda- 
tions of the Tariff Commission, would clearly be 
regarded by the Executive Branch as unconstitu- 
tional, and (2) whether I regard it as essential in 
escape clause cases that the findings and recom- 
mendations of the Tariff Commission be subject 
to the approval of the President. 



132 



Department of State Bulletin 



At tlie outset, I want to congratulate the Ways 
and Means Committee for the trade agreements 
legislation which it has reported. This legislation 
will give the American people the kind of trade 
program I believe tliey want. Enactment of the 
legislation can contribute greatly to job-making, 
prosperity and well-being in American agricul- 
ture, industry and labor, and its enactment will 
help preserve the strength and unity of the free 
world. 

As to j'our first question, I have been advised 
informally by the Attorney General that the in- 
clusion in the Trade Agreements legislation of a 
provision stating in effect that the findings and 
recommendations of the Tariff Commission would 
go into effect, notwithstanding their disapproval 
by the President, whenever the Congress, by con- 
current resolution adopted either by a simple ma- 
jority or by a constitutional majority of both 
Houses, approved such findings and recommenda- 
tions, would clearly be unconstitutional. The At- 
torney General has further advised me that should 
the legislation retain the provision requiring a 
two-thirds vote of both Houses, tlie vote in each 
to be by the yeas and nays, such a provision could 
be regarded as a valid substitute for the two- 
thirds vote necessary to override a Presidential 
veto. 

As to your second question, it seems to me im- 
perative that the Tariff Commission's findings and 
recommendations be subject to the President's ap- 
proval. In the world of today the tariff policy of 
the United States can have profound effects not 
only on our foreign relations generally but upon 
the security of the entire free world. Some na- 
tions of the free world must either export or die, 
because they must import to live. Their very ex- 
istence, as well as their defensive strength as free 
world partners, depends upon trade. For the 
United States to close its doors, either by high 
tariffs or import quotas, upon exports from these 
nations could force them into economic dependence 
on the Communists and to that extent weaken the 
strength of the free world. 

Moreover, escape clause actions frequently in- 
volve questions affecting the national interest, such 
as the requirements of the domestic economy and 
the effect of the findings and recommendations of 
the Tariff Commission on other producers and con- 
sumers in the United States, including their effect 
apon the jobs of those producing for export. The 



President — who serves the interests of the whole 
nation — is uniquely qualified to make a reasoned 
judgment as to whether the findings and recom- 
mendations of the Commission in such cases are 
in the national interest. The Tariff Commission, 
on the other hand, was not appointed to make 
judgments in such matters, involving, as they do, 
evaluations of the impact of escape clause actions 
on the whole range of the American economy. 

These problems, and the effect that one course 
of action or another would have upon the best in- 
terests of the United States, are peculiarly within 
the knowledge of the President. In fact dealing 
with such problems constitutes a major Constitu- 
tional responsibility of the President, both as Pres- 
ident and Commander-in-Chief. The Tariff Com- 
mission, on the other hand, has only a limited 
responsibility — to find whether or not in its opin- 
ion there is injury to a domestic industry as a re- 
sult of imports and to make recommendations to 
the President based upon such findings. It is es- 
sential that the President have authority to weigh 
those findings and recommendations along with 
all of the information the President has in both 
the domestic and the foreign field, and to arrive at 
a decision which will be in the best interests of the 
United States. 

To withdraw from the President his power to 
make decisions in escape clause cases and to grant 
finality to the Tariff Commission's findings and 
recommendations would in my opinion be a tragic 
blunder which could seriously jeopardize the na- 
tional interest, the foreign relations, as weU as the 
security of the United States. 
Sincerely, 

DWIGHT D. ElSENHOWEK 



REPRESENTATIVE MILLS TO THE PRESIDENT 

]Mat 22, 1958 
The President 
The White House 
Washingion £5, B.C. 

My dear Mr. President : As you know the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means yesterday reported out 
H. R. 12591, extending the President's authority 
to enter into trade agreements. The bill as re- 
ported by the Committee contains several amend- 
ments to the bill that I had originally introduced 



My 27, J 958 



133 



at your request and I am pleased that the bill as 
reported has your complete approval. 

One of the principal features of H. K. 12591 is 
the amendment to the escape clause procedure 
whereby the Congress may, by concurrent resolu- 
tion, with a two-thirds vote of those voting in each 
House, put into effect the recommendations of the 
Tariff Commission if the President has refused to 
put into effect such recommendations. This pro- 
vision of the Committee bill, because it represents 
so important an innovation in the legislation, has 
aroused considerable interest among the Members 
of the House. I expect that in the debate on the 
trade agreements legislation this provision of the 
Committee bill and a comparable provision of the 
proposed substitute bill will be the subject of con- 
siderable discussion. 

I would like, therefore, to point out two aspects 
of this subject and to invite your considered com- 
ments with respect to them. The first is whether 
you, on the advice of the Attorney General, would 
regard as clearly unconstitutional a provision re- 
serving to the Congress the right to overrule the 
President in escape clause cases and to put into 
effect the recommendations of the Tariff Commis- 
sion if it provided that the action of the Congress 
would be by concurrent resolution either by ma- 
jority vote of those present or by majority vote 
of the entire membership, but not by a two-thirds 
vote of those voting as provided for in the Com- 
mittee bill. 

The second matter is whether you would regard 
it as essential that, in escape clause cases, the find- 
ings and recommendations of the Tariff Commis- 
sion be subject to Presidential approval or disap- 
proval, rather than to be put into effect irrespective 
of whether the President has approved such find- 
ings and recommendations. 

I will sincerely appreciate your observations on 
these matters. 

Kespectfully yours, 

Wilbur D. Mills 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Confirmations 

The Senate on June 18 confirmed Edward T. Wailes to 
be Ambassador to Iran. (For biographic details, see De- 
partment of State press release 289 dated May 27.) 



134 



Appointments 

Robert B. Menapace as Deputy Managing Director of 
the Development Loan Fund, effective July 1. (For bio- 
graphic details, see press release 375 dated July 1.) 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 

MULTILATERAL 

Atomic Energy 

Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency. 
Done at New York October 26, 1956. Entered into force 
July 29, 1957. TIAS 3873. 

Notification ly Federal Republic of Germany of applica- 
tion to: Berlin (West) , June 10, 1958. 

Narcotic Drugs 

Protocol bringing under international control drugs out- 
side the scope of the convention limiting the manufac- 
ture and regulating the distribution of narcotic drugs 
concluded at Geneva July 13, 1931 (48 Stat. 1543), as 
amended (61 Stat. 2230; 62 Stat. 1796). Done at Paris 
November 19, 1948. Entered into force December 1, 
1949. TIAS 2308. 

Ratification deposited: Dominican Republic, June 9, 
1958. 

Protocol for limiting and regulating the cultivation of 
the poppy plant, the production of, international and 
wholesale trade in, and use of opium. Dated at New 
York June 23, 1953.' 

Ratification deposited: Dominican Republic, June 9, 
1958. 



BILATERAL 

Germany 

Agreement extending agreement for the lease of air 
navigation equipment of August 2, 1955 (TIAS 3464). 
Effected by exchange of notes at Bonn February 24 and 
May 24, 1958. Entered into force May 24, 1958. 

New Zealand 

Agreement modifying the agreement of December 16, 
1957, and May 2 and 5, 1958, by reducing the period 
of validity of certain classes of nonimmigrant visas 
from 48 to 24 months. Effected by exchange of notes 
at Wellington May 13, 1958. Entered into force May 
13, 1958. 

United Kingdom 

Agreement for cooperation on the uses of atomic energy 
for mutual defense purposes. Signed at Washington 
July 3, 1958. Enters into force on date on which each 
Government receives from the other written notifica- 
tion that it has complied with statutory and constitu- 
tional requirements. 



' Not in force. 



Department of State Bulletin 



July 21, 1958 



Index 



Vol. XXXIX, No. 995 



Afghanistan. Visit of Snrdar Mohammad Daud, Prime 

Minister of Afghanistan 127 

Atomic Energy 

Geneva Technical Tallss (te.\ts of D.S. and Soviet aide 

momolre) 101 

Secretar.T Dulles' News Conference of July 1 . '. . . . 104 

Brazil. Secretary Dulles To Visit Brazil ...... Ill 

Canada. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of July 1 . 104 

China. Communist. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 

Jul}- 1 104 

Congress, The 

Presklent Answers Congressional Query on Trade Agree- 
ments Leeislation . 132 

Visit of Carlos P. Garcia, "President of the Republic of the 

Philippines 120 

Visit of Sardar Mohammad Daud, Prime Minister of 
Afghanistan 127 

Cuba. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of July 1 . . 104 

Department and Foreign Service 

Appointments (Menapace) 134 

Confirmations (Wailes) 134 

Mr. Dillon Named Under Secretary for Economic Affairs . Ill 

Germany. President Heuss Departs for Germany . , . 126 

Germany, East. U.S. Urges Soviet Action on Release of 

Helicopter Crew and Passengers 108 

Economic Affairs. President Answers Congressional Query 

on Trade Agreements Legislation . 132 

Educational Exchange. Twenty Years After : Two Decades 

of Government-Sponsored Cultural Relations (CoUIgan) , 112 

International Information. Twenty Tears After : Two Dec- 
ades of Government-Sponsored Cultural Relations 
(CoUigan) H2 

Iran. Wailes confirmed as ambassador ...... 134 

Lebanon. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of July 1 . 104 

Military Affairs. D.S. Urges Soviet Action on Release of 

Helicopter Crew and Passengers 108 

Mntnal Security 

Appointment of Robert B. Menapace, Deputy Managing 

Director of Development Loan Fund 134 

Free-World Cooperation and America's Security (Eisen- 
hower) 103 

Mr. Dillon Named Under Secretary for Economic Affairs . Ill 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of July 1 104 

Philippines. Visit of Carlos P. Garcia, President of the 

Republic of the Philippines 120 

Presidential Documents 

Free-World Cooperation and America's Security .... 103 

President Answers Congressional Query on Trade Agree- 
ments Legislation 132 

President Calls for Serious Consideration by Soviets of 

Western Procedural Proposal for Summit Conference . 95 

Visit of Carlos P. Garcia, President of the Republic of the 

Philippines (text of joint statement) 120 

Visit of Sardar Mohammad Daud, Prime Minister of 

Afghanistan (text of joint statement) 127 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 134 

Visit of Sardar Mohammad Daud. Prime Minister of Af- 
ghanistan (text of cultural agreement) 127 

U.S.S.R. 

Geneva Technical Talks (texts of U.S. and Soviet aide 
memoire) .... 101 

President Calls for Serious Consideration by Soviets of 
Western Procedural Proposal for Summit Conference 
(Eisenhower, Khrushchev, Department statement) . 95 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of July 1 . . . . 104 

r.S. Urges Soviet Action on Release of Helicopter Crew 
and Passengers 108 

Name Index 

ColUgan, Francis J 112 

Daud, Sardar Mohammad .... 127 



Dillon, Douglas Ill 

Dulles, Secretary . 104, 111, 127 

Eisenhower, President' 95, 103, 120, 127, 132 

Garcia, Carlos P 120 

Heuss, Theodor ; 126 

Khrushchev, Nikita ; 95 

McLaughlin, Robert E 120 

Menapace, Robert B. ". 134 

Mills, Wilbur D 132 

Nixon, Vice President . . . '. 127 

Wailes, Edward T. . 1341 



No. 


Date 


t363 

364 

*365 


6/30 
6/30 
6/30 


t366 


6/30 


t367 
13(38 


6/30 
7/1 


369 


7/1 


370 


7/1 



371 



7/1 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 30-July 6 

Press releases may be obtained from the News 
Division, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Releases issued prior to June 30 which appear in 
this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 320 of June 13, 
331 of June 16, 338 of June 21, 349 of June 24, 351 
of June 25, and 357 and 359 of June 26. 

Subject 

U.S.-India loan agreement. 

U.S. aide memoire on Geneva talks. 

Dulles: letter to retiring despatch 
agent. 

U.S. memorandum on release of 
militar.v transport crew. 

Kohler : Freedom Day celebration. 

Murphy : Colgate foreign policy con- 
ference. 

Dulles : mutual security funds (com- 
bined with No. 372). 

U.S. aide memoire on detention of 
Americans in Soviet Zone of Ger- 
many. 

Dillon named Under Secretary for 
Economic Affairs (rewrite). 

Dulles : news conference. 

ICA insures Ronson investment in 
France. 

DLF loans to Ceylon, Pakistan, and 
Paraguay (rewrite). 

Menapace appointed deputy director 
of Development Loan Fund (re- 
write). 

Communication on Korean unifi- 
cation. 

Herter : statement on speech by 
Attorney General. 

Gallman nominated Ambassador to 
Arab Union (biographic details). 

Visit of Shah of Iran. 

Secretary Dulles to visit Brazil. 

U.S. awards Medal of Freedom to 
Belgian Commissioner General of 
Brussels exhibition. 
U.S.-Tunisia loan agreement. 
Erroneous reports on arms deliveries 
to Cuba. 

U.S. and U.K. sign new atomic 
energy agreement. 

Text of U.S.-U.K. atomic energy 
agreement. 

DLF loan authorized for Iran. 

*Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



372 
*373 


7/1 
7/1 


t374 


7/1 


375 


7/1 


t376 


7/1 


t377 


7/2 


*37S 


7/2 


t379 

380 

•381 


7/3 
7/3 
7/3 


t3S2 
t383 


7/3 

7/3 


1384 


7/3 


t384-A 


7/3 


t385 


7/3 



/o/y 27, 1958 



135 



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1941, Volume I 

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-^^OSirORY 



tCIAL 

l^KLY RECORD 




Vol. XXXrX, No. 996 



July 28, 1958 



BASIC ELEMENTS IN U.S. FOREIGN POLICY • by 

Deputy Under Secretary Murphy 141 

THE DEFENSE OF FREEDOM • by Foy D. Kohler ... 154 

UNITED STATES AND UNITED KINGDOM SIGN NEW 
AGREEMENT UNDER AMENDED ATOMIC 
ENERGY ACT 

Department Announcement 157 

The President's Message to Congress 157 

Text of Agreement 161 

THE TRUST TERRITORY OF THE PACIFIC 

ISLANDS • Statement by Delmas H. Nucker 165 



\nu STATES 
EIGN POLICY 



For index see inside back cover 




Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

AUG 1 1 1958 



Vol. XXXIX, No. 996 • Publication 6677 
July 28, 1958 



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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
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Basic Elements in U. S. Foreign Policy 



iy Deputy Under Secretary Murphy'^ 



Perhaps at no time in its history has this coun- 
try, one of the world's oldest democracies, faced 
a more stimulatine: combination of circumstances 
in its foreign relations. I know that the many 
facets of the international situation will be de- 
fined in j-Qur roundtable discussions. I sliall 
toucli on a few of tliem. 

The basic tenet of United States foreign pol- 
icy is constant: to promote the welfare and se- 
curity of the American people. Eveiytliing that 
IS planned and done in this field relates to that 
orinciple and concerns the means, the strategy, 
ind tactics of achieving that objective. But our 
ums are not limited to selfish considerations. It 
s obvious that our people are not happy if they 
•annot contribute to tlie progress and well-being 
)f the world at large. 

It has been well said that "the problem of for- 

■ign policy is not arithmetical or mathematical. 

t does not lend itself to precise answers. It is 

problem of avoiding disaster; of maintaining 

he momentum toward a better future." 

To say that we live in a dynamic rather than 
. static era is, of course, stating the obvious, 
rhere is an emotional wave of nationalism in 
aany of the areas which for centuries were dor- 
lant. Tliere is a drive for higher living stand- 
rds in the less developed regions where people 
re in varying degrees alert«d to the possibilities 
f a more abundant life. There is also a new im- 
erialism, which is a dangerous blend of ideologj' 

' Address made before the 1958 Colgate Foreign Policy 
onference at Hamilton, X.Y., on Jul.v 1 (press relea.se 



and power politics. It overshadows our relations 
witli the peoples of many countries. Years ago, 
when the United States was not a great world 
power, much of this perhaps would have passed 
us by. Today with the power position which we 
occupy, whether we like it or not, almost every 
political happening in the remotest corners of 
the earth, every financial, economic, and social 
repercussion, registers in one fonn or another in 
Washington. The appointment of a particular 
personality as Soviet Ambassador to Outer Mon- 
golia, a Chinese Communist incursion into north- 
ern Burma, the election of a chief minister at 
Singapore, a disturbance in Muscat and Oman, or 
troop movements in Rio de Oro are events which 
become woven into the tapestry of our foreign 
relations. 

Now let us look at a few of the major things 
which have an impact on our national destiny. 

National Defense and Collective Security 

We are engaged in a national defense effort at 
a cost measured in dollars of about 40 billions 
annually. This is not done for fun or in isola- 
tion but as part of a vast collective security effort. 
Why do we assiune this burden ? It is not in our 
tradition. We assume it because of necessity. 
It is a basic element in our present foreign policy. 
We do it because of the simple principle I men- 
tioned in the beginning. It is necessary for the 
welfare and security of the American people. 

We have security arrangements with some 42 
nations. Most of these are collective arrange- 
ments; some are bilateral. The collective ar- 



y'y 28, J958 



141 



rangements started with the Pact of Rio de Ja- 
neiro in 1947 and gained strength with the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization, ANZUS, and 
SEATO. We are also associated with the 
Baghdad Pact. 

The necessity arises from the threat offered to 
our security by the new imperialism I mentioned. 
That imperialism is backed by a totalitarian con- 
centration of military effort and organization 
which draw on the resources of a vast area and 
hundreds of millions of captive people who can 
afford to assume this burden far less than we. 

When the United States signed the Nortli At- 
lantic Treaty in 1949, in a sense it crossed tlie 
Rubicon. Yet even today I believe there are 
many in Europe as well as the United States who 
do not fully appreciate the fundamental change 
which occurred in American foreign policy when 
our Senate advised and consented to the ratifica- 
tion of that treaty. I refer to the provision which 
obligates this country to the principle that an 
attack against one is an attack against all. Thus, 
if any one of the 15 members of the North At- 
lantic Treaty group is attacked, whether Canada 
or Turkey or Norway, it is considered as an at- 
tack against them all. Of course, when Presi- 
dent Washington expressed his aversion to en- 
tangling alliances, he was not faced with a tlireat 
to the national security arising from a powerful 
foi-eign imperialism. It is evident that a danger 
of such magnitude camiot be treated in isolation. 

Wlien we consider our collective security rela- 
tionshijis, I think we should be careful to avoid 
thinking of them solely as obligations. They are 
also priceless assets. Our farflung alliances have 
imposed burdens upon us but have simultaneously 
given us enormous benefits. In NATO alone, for 
example, our allies have some 3 million men imder 
arms and are spending more than $15 billion 
annually for defense purposes. This represents 
a sizable addition to the total defensive power 
available for the protection of the United States 
and Europe alike. And in this modem age it 
is essential that all of us learn to tliink in terms 
of total defense. 

Communist political, military, and economic 
subversion and aggression cannot be held in check 
by the United States alone, even with much 
greater expenditures of effort and resources than 
anyone has yet imagined. Successful defense re- 



142 



quires an effective combination and utilization of 
tlie money, manpower, industry, science, raw ma- 
terials, and other resources of the free world as 
a whole. A great many of the problems and ac- 
tivities involved in the conduct of American for- 
eign policy today can be imderstood only if one 
also understands this basic truth. 

U.S. Position on Disarmament 

Hand in hand with our national defense effort ' 
and our policy of collective security goes our ef- 
fort to achieve safeguarded disarmament. This \ 
would seem to be a paradox, and actually it is. I 
Armament, however, is actually symptomatic of I 
a fundamental lack of confidence, of a basic dis- j 
trust and perhaps hostility between two forces. ! 
The question really is — can disarmament be| 
achieved if the basic cause is not remedied? 

Our determination to progress in the field of; 
disarmament is sincere. It is based on hope that ; 
the very negotiations on practical disarmament: 
measures between the United States and our allies I 
on the one side and the Soviet Union on the other, 
may be productive of better understanding. It 
may eliminate or at least reduce the suspicions: 
and distrust which Soviet actions have generated' 
in the free world. 

At the same time we are determined that m\ 
these negotiations we will negotiate from positions; 
of strength and not of weakness. I know this is 
anathema to Moscow. Unfortunately, we have 
learned from sad experience that it may be fatal 
to deal with the Soviet Union if this is attempted 
from positions of weakness. Our postwar experi-, 
ence tauglit us much. After World War II we 
disarmed with abandon. We were subsequently; 
faced with the Berlin blockade, followed by Ko- 
rea. If we had been alert and strong, the Berlin 
blockade would not have been attempted. Qui 
inability to meet that issue squarely on the 
ground, with all due respect to the brilliantly ex-, 
ecuted airlift, led to the Communist probe ir' 
Korea. 

These two experiences, as expensive as thej, 
were, served as a valuable lesson that we cannoi 
afford the risk of dealing from positions of weak 
ness. We cannot forget that the principles o 
Lenin, on which Mr. Khrushchev lavislies so mucl 
affection, call for constant aggressive pursuit o:] 
the universal aim of world domination. Toda^i 

Deparfmenf of State Bullelii 



, this might be of peaceful penetration in the cul- 
c'tural and scientific fields, in industry and com- 
merce; tomorrow in the grimmer fields of political 
sabotage or military adventure. The goal is 
constant. 

You will note tliat I referred to safeguarded 
disarmament. A system of disarmament with- 
out an ade(]uate provision for inspection and con- 
trol in the light of our experience in the past is 
unacceptable. This position was developed and 
clarified during 4 months of intensive negotiations 
last year in London. "Wlien it became apparent 
to the Soviet Union that the Westem Powers had 
gone as far as prudence would reasonably permit, 
both in respect of conventional forces and nuclear 
weapons, the Soviet Union changed the signals. 
It terminated its participation in the United Na- 
tions Disarmament Commission and resorted to 
the subterfuge of an appeal to the General As- 
sembly to enlarge the membership of the Com- 
mission to 82. In addition to this evasive resort 
to procedural pretexts, which is standard Soviet 
practice, tliere were other maneuvers designed to 
distort the basic principle of safeguarded dis- 
armament. However, we continue the effort to 
'progress. 'We recently agreed to discuss on the 
technical level at Geneva beginning today the 
"luestion of detection of niiclear explosions.^ 
Despite Soviet backing and filling we propose to 
make a bona fide effort to explore this problem. 

Vlutual Assistance and Development Loans 

Closely linked to our policies in the field of col- 
lective security is the program of mutual assist- 
ince and development loans. Our policy of 
foreign aid is well known. It was begun in 1947. 
[t has contributed substantially to the security 
md well-being of the free world, including the 
United States. If further proof were needed that 
r succeeded, it could be found in the adoption by 
he Soviet Union in 1955 of a foreign aid pro- 
gram of their own. Imitation no doubt is the 
inest form of flatteiy. But whether it is flattery 
)r not, the Soviet Union's foreign aid program 
provides an additional competitive element in our 
'oreign relations. It is prosecuted with a certain 
•ealism. It is not dependent on annual appro- 
priations after public debate in whicli intimate 



' For background, see Bulletin of July 14, 19.j8, p. 47. 
'u/y 28, J 958 



details are laid out on the counter for all to see. 
Taking advantage of a surplus of obsolescent mili- 
tary equipment which results from an intensive 
arms production ever since the end of World 
War II, the Soviet Union has, directly and 
through its satellites, especially Czechoslovakia, 
generously offered arms on easy terms wherever 
its political objectives were promoted. Notwith- 
standing economic difficulties at home and with 
the benefit of an appropriations system shrouded 
from the public view, it engaged in a program of 
grant aid and long-term loans on a 2 percent basis. 

One of the classic features of Soviet military 
tactics in World War II was concentrated ar- 
tillei-y fire of the blockbuster type. Its foreign 
aid program is marked by similar tactics. Its 
political system enables it to juggle its budget in 
secret. It can rob Peter to pay Paul without 
benefit of parliamentary committee investigation. 
To promote its objectives in a given area it can 
freely dispense largess, and the strings are now- 
adays attached much more subtly and unobtru- 
sively than formerly. Thus, in a field in which 
we pioneered, we now find ourselves up to our 
armpits in competition in some areas. 

As we progressively move away from grant aid 
with improved conditions in the free world, trade 
becomes of increasing importance. Thus it was 
one of the major topics discussed by our distin- 
guished friend, British Prime Minister Macmil- 
lan, during his recent Washington visit. In par- 
ticular, the importance of our reciprocal trade leg- 
islation is enhanced. The executive branch has 
urgently recommended the enactment of a revised 
Trade Agreements Act which is now before Con- 
gress. And our trade policies must adapt them- 
selves to the competitive situation in whicli we 
find ourselves. Our principal competitor is not 
bound by the rules of the trading system which 
we have taken for granted through the years. 

Our role as a creditor nation is clearly marked 
out for us, and it is and must be a major factor 
in our foreign policy. We need secure trade 
abroad, just as we need access to raw materials 
in proportion to the rapid growth of our popula- 
tion. We must play a progressive and substantial 
role in the world trading and investment system. 
If we do not, the Soviet bloc with its program 
of skillfully blended aid and trade, barter and 
tecluiical assistance, cheap military equipment and 



143 



cheap loans, all geared into a series of worldwide 
political objectives, will enjoy an easy victory. 

Anti-Americanism 

It is my observation that good foreign relations 
are not based always on sentimental considera- 
tions. These certainly play a role. There are 
traditional sympathies and antipathies. There 
are old friends who sometimes are more tolerant 
of our deficiencies than new competitive elements 
in the international oi-bit. Thus we witness con- 
siderable debate on the subject of anti-American- 
ism. It is my impression that Americans gen- 
erally want to be liked and to be popular. That, 
no doubt, is quite normal. In our earlier small- 
power days we were often not taken quite as se- 
riously abroad as we regarded ourselves at home. 
There was often little or no contact. 

Today, with hundreds of thousands of Ameri- 
cans stationed in farflung establishments and 
bases around the world and with vast facilities of 
travel and communication, we must expect criti- 
cism and even antagonism mixed with the wide- 
spread regard and affection I am convinced we 
do enjoy. Our citizens who travel abroad are 
representatives of a great power. Other nationals 
regard them as such. Tliere may be envy of our 
comparative wealth; there may be criticism of 
defects of good manners and misunderstandings 
of attitudes in which languages play a role, as 
well as antagonisms generated by communistic 
or other elements. In our reading and evalua- 
tion of the volume of reports which flow every 
day into the Department of State and the Gov- 
ernment generally, it is not my observation that 
the position of this country has deteriorated, that 
it is held in lower esteem. And we continue to do 
a great deal to offset or correct whatever mis- 
understandings we run into. 

It is true that critics and antagonists — and they 
have always existed — today possess more highly 
organized means of communication and action. 
Often they are stimulated by an international 
Communist apparatus, operating as it does 
through a network of local organizations. How 
does this work? Let us examine one or two in- 
stances. Take France as one. The Communist 
Party has the largest representation in the Na- 
tional Assembly. The Commimists have control 
of the largest trade-union organization, to say 

144 



nothing of a number of groups, committees, and 
local front associations. With all this there is 
a readymade setup for the dissemination of anti- 
American slogans and insidious criticisms de- 
signed to destroy French confidence in American 
policies and objectives. 

Take the North African question as another ex- 
ample. Through many chaimels the Communist 
central party organization has put out stories that 
the United States is maneuvering to supplant 
France in North Africa and especially to deprive 
it of the petroleiun of the Sahara. Now, as ab- 
surd and untrue as this appeal's to you and me, 
these stories pumped ovxt for years through vari- 
ous Communist-controlled French sources become 
beliefs on tlie part of the uninformed. At times 
these beliefs lead to anti-Americanism. On the 
other hand, many Arabs in North Africa believe, 
and have been informed by Communist sources 
over and over, that without American support 
France could not have maintained a position in 
North Africa. To these Arab elements we are 
pictured as an imperialist colonial power sup- 
porting another colonial power. Again there are 
anti-American manifestations by Arab groups 
based on the false beliefs thus created by Commu- 
nist elements. 

These are not easy problems. They are the sub- 
ject of constant effort by our Government. No 
doubt there is validity in the saying that the truth 
is mighty and will prevail. We try to make it 
prevail in time. 

"Summitry" 

A word has been coined to describe recent de- 
velopments. It is called summitry. It evokes 
memories of other days when summitry came into 
vogue — the war days. Those were the days too 
when it was considered at times quite a diplomatic 
feat to induce the Soviet Union even to attend 
meetings with the West. However, the prospect 
of a meeting at that level usually inspires 
thoughts and hopes that opportunity for the solu- 
tion of major issues may be provided and the way 
paved for better understanding. No country is ' 
more eager to see those results than the United I 
States. Meetings at the summit have not pro- 
vided those solutions nor created better under- 
standing. Perhaps, if they are better prepared in j 
advance, some good, if modest, results could be 

Department of State Bulletin 



achieved. In simple terms that is the policy of 
; our Government regarding the present sugges- 
tions for a meeting at the smnmit. 

It is useful to realize that there are cei'tain in- 
evitable limitations upon what we can logically 
expect from any kind of negotiation with the So- 
viet rulere at the present time. The tensions and 
ditferonces that we hope to eliminate are not mere 
surface phenomena, based upon faulty under- 
standing or petty conflicts of interest. The root 
of our difficulty lies in the fact that the Soviet 
Government has never wavered from its determi- 
nation to achieve eventual world domination. 
Nor have we any reason to suppose that the Soviet 
rulers are prepared to abandon this goal in the 
foreseeable future. They appeal for a termina- 
tion of the "cold war' but refuse even to consider 
an alteration of the imperialist policies and ac- 
tivities that caused the cold war. In effect they 
are telling us that all our problems will disap- 
pear — that everything will be just fine — if we will 
simply lie down and permit ourselves to be con- 
trolled by the Soviet Union. In other words, the 
way to get peace is to cease resistance and to give 
in to them on everything. 

This idea is not exactly new, of course. It ha? 
been the theme of a large number of aggressors 
throughout history. But it is no more acceptable 
to us today than it was to our ancestors. We will 
never stop resisting efforts to expand Communist 
tyranny, whether these efforts take a military or 
nonmilitary form. This is one "difference" that is 
not negotiable. It can be resolved only by a thor- 
ougligoing change in the basic policies and pur- 
poses of the Soviet system. We are prepared to 
conduct negotiations at any time on any subject 
where such negotiations give reasonable promise 
of contributing to international peace and secu- 
rity, but we should never kid ourselves into believ- 
ing that a few kind words will magically eradi- 
cate the Soviet design for world conquest. 

It should be remembered that there is no lack 
of means of negotiation to arrive at better under- 
standing between East and West. Throughout 
the postwar yeare we have constantly been in 
negotiation with the Soviet Union at the different 
echelons, bilaterally, multilaterally, and in the 
various organs of the United Nations. We know 
that there is a continuing value in the ordinary 
diplomatic channel. The Soviet Ambassador in 
Washington has ready access to our Government 



at any time. Our embassy in Moscow is available 
to the Soviet Government at any hour. 

The difference between earlier yeare and now 
may be that as a result of experience we no longer 
labor under an illusion that a meeting at the sum- 
mit without painstaking preparation by the 
several governmental organs on both sides can 
provide solutions for the problems which trouble 
the peace and security of the world. On the other 
hand, to engage hastily in that type of spectacular 
show under klieg lights and intensive propaganda 
effects may mislead and deceive the unwary. It 
might damage the security of the free world by 
lulling its nations into a false sense of peace which 
would impair their will to sacrifice for unity and 
strength. With the benefit of past and costly ex- 
perience, we are moving forward in close harmony 
with our allies, leaving no stone unturned in 
our search for useful and constructive means to 
liquidate cold-war differences. Perhaps we detect 
lately, in our efforts to analyze the various topics 
which might find their place in an agenda of an 
eventual summit meeting, less eagerness on the 
part of Moscow to move forward in a business- 
like fashion than we would like. Be that as it 
may, on our side we are proceeding in good faith 
with the exploratory talks, hoping that the evolu- 
tion of affairs may bring about resolution of some 
of the problems that beset us. 

There is, of couree, an area where we are in the 
dark. I refer to the Sino-Russian relationship. 
Consider for a moment the recent intensity of 
the Peiping animus against Marshal Tito, which 
seemed to be a prelude to the execution of Imre 
Nagy. Surely these vitriolic Chinese attacks re- 
flect an attitude that must be the cause of concern 
in Moscow. The Chinese revolution is at a much 
earlier stage than the Eussian. Peijjing is much 
more doctrinaire in its Marxism than seems to 
be the case with the Moscow leadersliii?. Yet 
Moscow cannot afford to antagonize Mao and his 
fervent associates. I believe they stand for an 
even more aggressive attitude tlian does Khrush- 
chev ; even though the two of them appear to be 
working closely together today, the Sino-Russian 
relationship is the source of serious difficulty for 
Moscow and, partially at least, explains some of 
the erratic trends which often mystify the West. 
The evolution of that relationship will no doubt 
exercise a profound effect on our international 
position. 



July 28, 7958 



145 



An Affirmative Approach 

I would like to leave with you tlie thought that 
the strength of our present situation permits an 
affirmative approach to our international prob- 
lems. If I may say so, after 40 years of obsei-va- 
tion of and contact with foreign affairs, there 
seems to me a readier tendency in this country 
to belabor and disparage American efforts to pro- 
mote our interests abroad. I find that our do- 
mestic reflections are at times more drastic than 
the hostile propaganda of the adversary. Of 
course this may be a healthy indication of more 
active interest in foreign affairs by the American 
public. At the same time Americans provide 
free of charge enormous publicity for the Soviet 
leadership. In turn the Soviet regime permits its 
population only a highly distilled and slanted ver- 
sion of events and attitudes in this and other 
Western countries. I know that we must live 
with this discriminatory situation, and perhaps 
in the end it will be to our advantage. It is, 
however, a reason for some of the pessimism which 
is at times generated by the imbalance in the 
public-information field. 

Our future lies not alone in the material welfare 
of our people and the power of our nation but in 
the spiritual and moral qualities of our citizens. 
The world does recognize those qualities, not- 
withstanding the cynicism of an antagonistic 
ideology. 

In the next few days this conference will cover 
many of the strengths and weaknesses of our na- 
tion and of our position in the world today. It is 
one of our great strengths that we can have meet- 
ings like this and can make an objective apj^raisal. 
I know the results will be valuable to the Depart- 
ment of State. 



U.S. Asks Soviets To Return DC°-6 Crew 
Forced Down in U.S.S.R. 

U. S. MEMORANDUM OF JUNE 30 > 

Press release 366 dated June 30 

The Government of the United States acknowl- 
edges the receipt of the memorandiun of the So- 



' Delivered by American Ambassador Llewellyn E. 
Thompson to Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs Andrei 
A. Gromyko at Moscow. 



viet Government handed to Ambassador Thomp- 
son by Foreign Minister Gromyko on June 28, 
1958. 

It has been ascertained that an unanned mili- 
tary transport Air Force plane of the DC-6 type 
with destination Teheran via Turkey is missing. 
It is undoubtedly the plane wliich the Soviet 
Union charges crossed the border of Soviet ter- 
ritory and was forced to land near Yerevan, 
USSK. 

This was a routine flight, on a regular bi- 
monthly schedule, carrying cargo consigned to 
United States military and diplomatic missions in 
Iran and Pakistan. The flight originated in 
Wiesbaden, Gennany for Teheran and Karachi. 
Its last departure point was Nicosia, Cyprus, with 
destination Teheran by the prescribed interna- 
tional civil airways route. It was last reported 
over Adana, Turkey at 1323 local time on June 
27. This commercial air lane to Telieran passes 
within about 50 miles of the Soviet border. The 
weatlier was overcast. Due to higli mountains 
along tlie route, it is presumed that the aircraft 
was flying above the overcast on instmments and 
radio beacon guidance and had no visual refer- 
ence to ground check points. 

The usual request for diplomatic clearance had 
been made to Teheran, Iran and had been 
granted. 

If in fact the aircraft which was forced by 
Soviet fighter aircraft to land on Soviet territory, 
inadvertently, by navigational error, crossed the 
Soviet frontier, the Government of the United 
States regrets that fact. The United States Gov- 
ernment must however, reject as entirely un- 
founded the charge that an intentional violation 
occurred. 

In the light of the foregoing circmnstances, the 
Soviet Government is requested promptly to re- 
turn to American control the nine crew members 
who are presently detained by Soviet authorities 
and also the aircraft, if it is or can be made op- 
erational; and if not, its salvageable parts. The 
American Embassy at Moscow is authorized to 
make all necessary arrangements to these ends 
with appropriate Soviet authorities. 

SOVIET NOTE OF JUNE 28 

OfHeial translation 

The Government of the USSE considers it necessary to 
state the following to the Government of the USA : 



146 



Department of Sfa/e BuWet'in 



On June 27 of this year, at 18 hours 30 minutes Mos- 
; cow time, a four-motored military airplane with identifl- 
catlon marks of the Air Force of the l"SA violated the 
state frontier of tlie Soviet Union in the area south of 
the city of Yerevan and penetrated into the air space 
over the territory of the Soviet Union to 170 kilometers. 

The American airplane was Intercepted by two Soviet 
fighter planes which, by means of signals, proposed that 
it should follow them for landing at the nearest air- 
drome. The trespasser airplane did not submit to this 
demand. The Soviet lighters forced the trespasser air- 
plane to land. It landed on Soviet territory in the area 
situated at a distance of 240 km. from the place of 
violation by it of the state frontier of the Soviet Union, 
and burned. 

After landing of the trespasser aircraft, nine members 
of the crew of this airjilane were detained. They were 
dressed in American military uniform. As appears from 
the testimony of these persons and from documents on 
their persons, all those detained are in the service of 
the Air Force of the United States of America. 

The facts adduced give evidence that an intentional 
violation by an American military aircraft of the state 
frontier of the USSR has taken place. 

As is known, cases of similar violation have also taken 
place previously, but the Government of the USA, not- 
withstanding full grounds for information which has 
been communicated by the Soviet Government, and con- 
trary to the facts, has denied that American airplanes 
violate the state frontier of the Soviet Union. Circum- 
stances connected with the violation by the American 
military aircraft of the state frontier of the USSR on 
Jvme 27 are such that now, one must suppose, the Gov- 
ernment of the USA will not deny the fact of this 
violation. 

The Government of the Soviet Union makes determined 
protest to the Government of the USA against this crude 
violation by an American military aircraft of the Soviet 
frontier. 

The Soviet Government has frequently drawn attention 
of the Government of the USA to the facts of violations 
by American military airjjlanes of the air space of the 
Soviet Union and has pointed to those serious conse- 
quences to which such violations can lead. It has in- 
sisted on adoption by the Government of the USA of 
suitable measures for prevention of such violations. 

Unfortvmately, it is necessary to confirm that the Gov- 
ernment of the USA has not taken this course. 

One cannot but see that such a position of the Gov- 
ernment of the USA does not help to reduce tension in 
relations between our countries, although the Govern- 
ment of the USA has also often asserted that it, like the 
Government of the Soviet Union, aspires to improve 
these relations. Such a position of the Government of 
the USA does not jibe with its peace-loving declarations 
and leads to sharpening not only of relations between 
the USSR and the USA, but also hinders amelioration 
of the international situation as a whole. 

The Soviet Government insists that the Government 
ot the USA take effective measures for the prevention 



of violations by American military aircraft of the state 
frontier of the USSR. 

Moscow, June 28, 1958. 



U.S. Reiterates Request for Release 
of Helicopter Crew and Passengers 

U.S. AIDE MEMOIRE OF JULY 3' 

Press release 390 dated July 9 

On June 20 = and July 1, 1958 ^ the Department 
of State raised with the Soviet Embassy m Wash- 
ington tlie detention since June 7 in the Soviet 
Zone of Germany of the crew and passengers of a 
United States Army helicopter and requested that 
arrangements be made for the immediate return 
of tlie men and the helicopter to United States 
control. 

On July 2 the Department of State received 
from the Soviet Embassy a note which took ex- 
ception to tlie position of the United States Gov- 
ernment that the Soviet military authorities in 
Germany bear the responsibility for the return 
of the helicopter and its crew. The Soviet note 
states : 

From the moment of its landing the American heli- 
copter and its crew have been in the custody of the Ger- 
man Democratic Republic. It is therefore natural that 
all questions pertaining to the return of the helicopter 
and its crew should be .settled with the Government of 
the German Democratic Republic. 

It is evident that the position taken in the Soviet 
note of July 2 is based on a misconception of the 
legal and factual situation. 

As to the legal situation, the responsibility of 
the Soviet military authorities in this case is 
clearly established by tlie agreements between the 
United States and the Soviet Union cited in the 
Department of State's aide memoire of June 20. 
This responsibility plainly remains unaffected in 
any way by internal arrangements which the So- 



' Handed by Under Secretary Herter to Soviet Charge 
d'Affaires ad interim Sergei R. Striganov at Washington 
on July 3. 

- For background and the text of the U.S. aide memoire 
of June 20, see Bulletin of July 14, 1958, p. 50. 

' Ibid., July 21, 1958, p. 108. 



July 28, 1958 



147 



viet authorities may make witli the local German 
authorities of their Zone. 

Furthermore, the direct responsibility of the 
Soviet Government is clearly confirmed by the 
uniform practice of the Soviet military authorities 
in Germany in cases prior to this one. Tlie most 
recent case was the return of three United States 
airmen on May 28, 1958. 

As to the factual situation, the Government of 
the United States points out tliat Soviet respon- 
sibility is clearly reflected by the initial action 
which the Soviet and local German authorities 
took in dealing with this case. During the press 
conference organized by the local German au- 
thorities on July 2 it clearly emerged that the crew 
and passengers of the helicopter went to the local 
police when their aircraft was disabled and were 
immediately and properly turned over by the 
latter to a Soviet officer at a Soviet camp. Wliile 
in Soviet custody, some of the men were inter- 
rogated by Soviet officers. 

Tlie Government of tlie United States expects 
that the Soviet Government will realize not only 
that the continued detention of the men is incom- 
patible with Soviet responsibility establislied by 
agreement and confirmed in practice but also that 
the attempts of the local German autliorities to 
extort some form of advantage from the situation 
cannot be reconciled with the practices of civi- 
lized communities. 

The Government of the United States therefore 
reiterates its request that arrangements be made 
for the immediate release of tlie helicopter crew 
and passengers. 

Department of State, 
Washington, July 5, 1958. 



SOVIET NOTE OF JULY 2* 

Official translation 
Note No. 18 

In connection with the aide-memoire transmitted by 
Mr. Murphy on J'nne 20 concerning the American heli- 
copter which violated the airspace of the German Demo- 
cr.Ttic Republic and lauded on its territory, the Embassy 
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has the honor 
to communicate the following : 



•Delivered to the Department of State by Soviet 
Charg(5 d'AfCaires ad interim Sergei R. Striganov on 
July 2. 



The assertions contained in the aide-memoire to the 
effect that the Soviet military authorities in Germany 
bear responsibility for the return of the American heli- 
copter can in no way be considered as well founded. As 
is well known from the published agreements between 
the Governments of the USSR and the GDR, the Soviet 
troops temporarily stationed in the territory of the Ger- 
man Democratic Republic are not occupation troops and 
do not interfere in the internal affairs of the GDR, whose 
government is completely sovereign. From the moment 
of its landing the American helicopter and its crew have 
been in the custody of the authorities of the GDR. It 
is therefore natural that all questions pertaining to the 
return of the helicopter and its crew should be settled 
with the Government of the German Democratic Repub- 
lic. 

The Soviet Government knows of cases where similar 
incidents have been successfully settled by agreement 
between the GDR and the other party concerned, which 
fully corresponds to accepted international practice. 

Considering the fact that the United States of America 
does not have diplomatic relations with the German Dem- 
ocratic Republic, the representatives of the Command of 
the Soviet troops, temporarily stationed in the territory 
of the GDR, assisted the representatives of the USA in 
establishing contacts with the competent authorities of 
the German Democratic Republic. As may be seen from 
official communications of government agencies of the 
GDR, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the GDR has 
tran.smitted to the Department of State of the USA a 
note expressing readiness to settle the said incident and 
confirmed this readiness during meetings between repre- 
sentatives of the Foreign Ministry of the GDR and the 
American Military Command. Hence, appropriate rep- 
resentatives of the USA have full opportunity to settle 
with representatives of the German Democratic Republic 
all questions pertaining to the return of the .\merican 
helicopter and its crew. 

W.4.SIIINGT0N, D. C, 

July 2, 1958 



Relationship of Gerseva Technical Talks 
and Suspension of Nuclear Tests 

071 July 10 the Department made available to 
news correspondents the folloicing chronology of 
relationship hetioeen the Geneva technical discus- 
sions and the suspension of nuclear tests. 

The United States has consistently made clear 
that the Geneva technical discussions conference 
on nuclear tests was technical only and would not ^ 
in itself constitute a political connnitment of any 
kind. 



148 



Department of Stale Bulletin , 



M On April 28, 1958, President Eisenhower, in a 
' letter to Chairman Khrushchev,^ called upon the 
Soviet Union to reconsider a ])roposal for such a 
technical conference, originall}- put forward by 
the United Kingdom, France, Canada, and tlie 
Ignited States at the 1957 London disarmament 
t;dks. The President noted tliat teclmical studies 
on \arious aspects of disarmament, including nu- 
clear test detection, "are the necessary prelimi- 
naries to putting political decisions actually into 
etTect." The letter went on to state that, 

The completion of such technical studies in advance of 
a political agreement would obviate a considerable period 
of delay and uncertainty. In other words, with the prac- 
ticalities already worked out. the political agreement 
could begin to operate very shortly after it was signed 
and ratified. I re-emphasize that these studies are with- 
out prejudice to our respective positions on the timing 
and interdependence of various aspects of disarmament. 

In reply. Chairman Kliruslichev, while not 
agreeing to teclmical studies on all aspects of dis- 
armament, did agree to undertake a technical 
study of a nuclear detection system to verify any 
agreed suspension of atomic and hydrogen weap- 
ons tests. Plis :May 9, 1958, letter ^ stated that : 

The Soviet Government agrees to having both sides 
designate experts who would immediately begin a study 
of methods for detecting possible violations of an agree- 
ment on the cessation of nuclear tests with a view to 
having this work completed at the earliest possible date, 
to be determined in advance. 

In response to Chairman Khrushchev's letter of 
May 9, 1958, President Eisenhower, in a letter 
dated May 24, 1958,^ noted with satisfaction that 

. . . you accept, at least partially, my proposal that 
technical persons be designated to ascertain what would 
be required to supervise and control disarmament agree- 
ments, all without prejudice to our respective positions on 
the timing and interdependence of various aspects of 
ilisarmament. 

On May 30, 1958, Chairman Khrushchev in the 
second paragraph of his letter * stated that, while 
the President's letter of May 24 contained no 
answer to the problem of immediate cessation of 
nuclear tests, the Soviet Union would agree to the 
convening of a meeting of experts to study the 
technical considerations in a nuclear test detection 
-ysteni. 



President Eisenhower's reply on June 10, 1958,'' 
expressed satisfaction that the Soviets had ac- 
cepted his proposal tlmt technical experts meet 
but again reiterated that these talks would not in 
themselves constitute a commitment on suspension 
of tests. The letter read in part as follows: 

I have your letter of May 30 and am glad to note that 
you have accepted my proposal that technical experts 
meet to study the possibility of detecting violations of 
a possible agreement on suspension of nuclear tests. 
These talks would be undertaken without commitment as 
to the tinal decision on the relationship of nuclear test 
suspension to other more important disarmament meas- 
ures I have proposed. 

On the same day (June 10, 1958) Secretary 
Dulles, at a press conference,^ said, in reply to a 
question whether technical talks would fore- 
shadow political agreement to suspend tests, that 
they would have some bearing on this matter. He 
went on to say that 

... if we do come to an understanding, it will facili- 
tate an agreement to sxispend testing although I would 
anticipate that any agreement to suspend testing, if made, 
would not be an isolated agreement but be a part of 
other arrangements and anticipate that there would be 
progress made in other fields. 

Three days later, on June 13, 1958, the Soviet 
Government in an aide memoire,'' noted with satis- 
faction that the Soviet Government and the Gov- 
ernment of the United States agree that a meeting 
of experts should be held at an early date to study 
the means of detecting nuclear explosions. 

However, the aide memoire went on to say that 

The Soviet Government, as it has already declared, pro- 
ceeds from the assumption that the work of the experts 
will be concluded in a short time and that, as a result, 
agreement will be reached on the suspension of nuclear 
weapon tests by all powers possessing them. 

At a press conference on Jmie 17, 1958,' Secre- 
tary Dulles, in answer to a question as to whether 
tlie Soviet aide memoire of June 13, 1958, would 
put us "under obligation to agree to the suspen- 
sion of tests, quite apart from other elements in 
the disarmament package," said 

... it was agreed from the beginning that this study 
by the experts would be conducted without prejudice to 
the question of whether or not there would be a suspen- 
sion of testing or the interrelation of any suspension of 



' BuLLETi.x of May 19, lO.jS, p. 811. 

' Ibid., June 9, 19.58, p. 940. 

' Ibid., p. 9.S9. 

'Ibid., June .m 19.58, p. 1083. 



'Ibid., p. 108.5. 

'For an unotficial translation, see ibid., July 7, 19.58, 
p. 11. 

' Ibid., p. (i. 



July 28, 1958 



149 



testing with other matters. And the Soviets accepted to 
have the experts study it on those conditions. 

In an aide memoire delivered to the Soviet Gov- 
ernment on June 20, 1958,^ the United States 
noted that the question of the rehitionship be- 
tween the technical meeting and the cessation of 
nuclear tests had been clearly set forth and agreed 
in previous exchanges of communications between 
the U.S.S.R. and the United States. 

On Jime 24, 1958, the Soviet Minister of For- 
eign Affairs gave to the United States Ambassa- 
dor an aide memoire ^ which confirmed the fact 
that the talks were about to take place. The 
opening paragraph stated that 

The Soviet Government notes that agreement has been 
reached betvFeen sides regarding the fact that the confer- 
ence of experts for determining means of disclosing nu- 
clear explosions will start its work July 1 in Geneva. . . . 

The aide memoire concluded that the 

. . . work of conference of experts should aid in most 
rapid cessation of tests of atomic and hydrogen weapons 
by all states disposing of such weapons. 

Some 24 hours later, June 25, 1958, the Soviet 
Foreign Minister handed another aide memoire to 
the United States Ambassador." In the aide mem- 
oire the Soviet Union stated that 

. . . Mr. Dulles, answering the question would agree- 
ment of the experts about methods of Inspection lead to 
the corresponding sides taking upon themselves the obli- 
gation of terminating tests of nuclear weapons [June 17 
press conference], declared that the work of the experts 
must be carried out "without deciding the question before- 
hand whether or not the tests will be temporarily ter- 
minated." 

The Soviet aide memoire stated that, if these 
conditions were indeed so, the Soviet Union "can- 
not send its experts" to the technical talks. How- 
ever, the aide memoire in conclusion said that 

The Soviet Government would like to receive from the 
Government of the United States of America confirma- 
tion that the meeting of the experts must be subordi- 
nated to the resolution of the problem of the universal 
and immediate cessation of tests of nuclear weapons 
and that, in consequence, the goal of this conference 
remains such as it was formulated in the exchange of 
communications between the Soviet Government and the 
Government of the United States of America. 

In response to the request noted in the Soviet 
aide memoire of June 25, 1958, the United States 



' Ibid., p. 11. 

'Ihid., July 21, 1958, p. 102. 

"/Sid., July 14, 1958, p. 47. 

150 



Ambassador in Moscow, on instructions from 
President Eisenhower, sent a letter to the Soviet 
Foreign Minister ^° which affirmed the intention 
to proceed with the conference as ]ireviously 
agreed : 

. . . the United States considers the aims of the Con- 
ference of Experts remain as determined in the exchange 
of correspondence between the Soviet Government and 
the United States Government and as confirmed by the 
Soviet agreement of June 24 and that so far as we are 
concerned the conference will proceed as agreed. Experts 
from the United States are already en route. 

Three days later, on June 28, 1958, the Soviet 
Union, in an aide memoire,'^ stated that the 
United States "dodged" the question put by the 
Soviet Union in its aide memoire of June 25 and 
asked the United States to make an "unequivocal 
statement" on what purpose the Geneva talks are 
to serve. 

On June 30, the United States delivered an aide 
memoire to the Soviet Union ^^ again reiterating 
its position on this matter. Noting that the Soviet 
Union had previously agreed on the task of the 
experts which "is to study methods of detection 
of possible violations of an agreement on the ces- 
sation of tests," the aide memoire further stated 
that : 

The position of the Government of the United States 
has been clearly and unequivocally expressed from the 
time of its initial proposal. In his letter of April 28, j 
President Eisenhower proposed to Chairman Khrush- 
chev that technical people start to work immediately ' 
upon the practical problems of supervision and control i 
which are indispensable to dependable disarmament 
agreements, and stated that : 

"I re-emphasize that these studies are without prej- 
udice to our respective positions on the timing and 
interdependence of various aspects of disarmament." 

It was in reply to this letter that Chairman Khrushchev 
on May 9 stated that the Soviet Government agreed to i^ 
having both sides designate experts for the study which j 
is now about to begin. ' 



U.S. Rejects Soviet Protest 
on Attorney General's Speech 

Following is the text of a statement read ly 
Under Secretary Herter to Soviet Charge d^ Af- 
faires Sergei R. Striganov on July 2. The state- 
ment is in 7'eply to one which was read to U.S. 
Ambassador Llewellyn E. Thompson on July 1 at \ 



" Ihid., July 21, 1958, p. 101. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Moscow by Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei 
J Gromyko, concerning a speech made by U.S. 
' Attorney General William P. Rogers at Chicago 

on June 21. 



U.S. STATEMENT 

I'ress reliMse 'Ml dated July 2 

Tlie United States Government refers to the oral 
protest made to Ambassador Thompson by For- 
eijjn Muiister (Jromyko on July 1 regarding tlio 
speech of United States Attorney General William 
P. Rogers in Chicago on June 21. 

The United States Government rejects this 
protest. It is based on a misleading presentation 
of the Attorney General's remarks. It ap- 
parently also stems from the wide divergence in 
view between the United States Government and 
the Soviet Government as to the facts concerning 
the events u\ Hungary since October 1956, in- 
cluding tlie recent executions of former Hun- 
garian Premier Imre Nagy, General Pal Maleter 
and two of their associates. The United States 
shares the view of the overwhelming majority of 
the members of the United Nations with regard 
to tlie Hungarian revolution as recorded in the 
pertinent resolutions of the General Assembly and 
in the report of the United Nations Special Com- 
mittee on Hungary. 

In the view of the United States Government, 
it is actions such as the Soviet intei-vention in 
Hungarian affairs rather than the remarks of an 
American governmental official which tend to im- 
pair mutual confidence and normal relations be- 
tween the United States and the Soviet Union. 



SOVIET STATEMENT 

Official translation 

The Soviet Government considers it necessary to draw 
the attention of tlie Government of the U.S.A. to the 
statement of the Minister of Justice of the U.S.A., Mr. 
W. Rogers, who, in making a public speech in the city 
of Chicago on June 21, permitted himself a number of 
crude, slanderous attacks with regard to the Soviet 
Union and its foreign policy. 

In his si)eech Mr. Rogers went to the point of asserting 
that the Soviet Union allegedly "is mobilizing massed ag- 
gression" against the U.S.A. and wants "to destroy it." 

As he was, of course, not in any way in a po.sition to 
confirm these absurd statements, the Minister of Justice 
of the U.S.A. found nothing else to do but resort to 
references to the sentence imposed by the Hungarian 
court on the group of organizers of the armed revolt 



directed at overthrowing the lawful order of the Hun- 
garian I'eople's Republic. 

To whom indeed if not to the Minister of Justice should 
it be known that the sentence imposed by the national 
court of any state on its citizens for crimes committed 
against that state is wholly and entirely the internal 
affair of that state? Is it not because Mr. Rogers is try- 
ing to ascribe to the Soviet Union interference in the 
activit.v of Hungarian organs of justice that he himself, 
as is shown by bis speech in Chicago, considers it ap- 
propriate to come forward in the role of attorney for 
criminals condemned by a lawful court of their own 
country and bearing responsibility for the death of many 
innocent people? 

It is known that neither the Minister of Justice of the 
U.S.A. nor other official representatives of the U.S.A. 
came forward with protests against the fact that as a 
result of the criminal activities of the now-condemned 
conspirators in Hungary blood flowed of honest Hun- 
garian patriots who defended their People's Republic. 
They did not protest when on the streets of Budapest 
and other Hungarian cities rebels committed monstrous 
atrocities, inflicted mass executions, when they hanged 
Hungarian workers only because they did not want res- 
toration of the fascist regime in their country. At that 
time in Washington, when special editions were being 
published with photographs of people shot down, hanged 
and mutilated, there was applause for the evil deeds of 
counter-revolutionary rebels and their crimes were rel- 
ished. It is permissible to ask where the humane feel- 
ings were of those who today are bemoaning the leaders 
of the anti-state conspiracy in Hungary when the rebels 
committed their crimes against the Hungarian people. 

Moreover, the fact that at the present time every day 
hundreds of patriots defending the independence of their 
homelands are perishing in Algeria, on C.vprus, in Oman, 
and in other places does not cause the protest.? of Mr. 
Rogers. Soldiers, in whose hands American weapons 
have been put, are shooting at them ; they are perishing 
from bombs dropped from airplanes of American manu- 
facture. 

Only those who have pretensions to the role of some 
sort of international gendarme called tipon to suppress 
everything new and progressive can come forward with 
declarations similar to that which was made by the 
Minister of Justice of the U.S.A. The crude attacks of 
the Minister of Justice of the U.S.A. on the Soviet Union 
and his undisguised attempts to interfere in the internal 
affairs of Hungary cannot be evaluated In any other 
way. It is apparent that the successes of the People's 
Democratic Hungary do not allow peaceful sleep to some 
statesmen in the West who are still dreaming about the 
restoration in countries of Eastern Europe of the old 
order rejected by the peoples. 

It is completely apparent that the pose of love of man- 
kind, which Mr. Rogers assumed in making his Chicago 
speech, has nothing in common with the real motives of 
his declaration. It was clearly needed for kindling 
among Americans feelings of distrust and hostility to- 
ward the Soviet Union, the Hungarian People's Republic, 
and other Socialist states. It is not accidental that the 
Minister of Justice of the U.S.A. tried to impress on his 



Ju/y 28, 7958 



151 



audience that the Soviet Union supposedly "does not 
want to coexist" with the United States of America and 
urgently appealed to them "not to fall for the bait of 
ideas of peaceful coexistence.'' 

Such a statement of a member of the Government of 
the U.S.A. answers the interests only of those who base 
their whole policy on support of international tension and 
sharpening of the "cold war." It is calculated to under- 
mine that minimum of confidence without which it is in 
general impossible to maintain normal relations between 
states. 

The Soviet Government considers it necessary to draw 
attention to the speech of the Minister of Justice of the 
U.S.A. and makes a protest to the Government of the 
United States of America in connection with this speech 
containing hostile and slanderous falsehoods in regard 
to the Soviet Union with which the U.S.A. maintains 
normal diplomatic relations. 



"Sixteen'' Cai! for Settlement 
of Korean Question 

Following is a Department announcement re- 
garding a communication on the question of 
Korean unification delivered to the Chinese Com- 
munist authorities at Peiping on July 2 liy the 
U.K. Government on behalf of the U.S. Govern- 
ment and the other 15 governments which have 
contributed forces to the U.N. Command in Korea, 
together with a communication dated July 3 from 
U.S. Representative Henry Cabot Lodge to the 
Secretary-General of the United Nations and the 
text of the note. 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 376 dated July 2 

The U.S. Government, in consultation with the 
other governments concerned, has carefully con- 
sidered the Chinese Communist reply of May 6 ^ 
to the communication transmitted on April 9 by 
the British Charge d'Affaires at Peiping." The 
failure of the Chinese Communists to provide any 
information in response to the request on April 
9 by the governments concerned for clarification of 
the Communists' position in relation to the U.N. 
principles regarding elections for the unification 
of Korea makes it clear that the Communist au- 
thorities concerned have no intention of movinsr 



' U.N. doe. A/3821. 

' Bulletin of May 5, 19.58, p. 734. 



toward a peaceful settlement of the Korean ques- 
tion. These principles include United Nations 
supervision of elections and representation in the 
National Assembly proportionate to the indig- 
enous population of Korea. 

Upon concluding their consultations the govern- 
ments concerned again requested the British Gov- 
ernment to inform the Chinese Communist 
authorities of their views. 

The governments concerned noted that the 
greater part of the forces sent to Korea in accord- 
ance with resolutions of the United Nations had 
already been withdrawn and reitei'ated that they 
welcomed the announcement that Chinese Com- 
munist troops were also to be withdrawn from 
north Korea. 

The governments concerned expressed their dis- 
appointment, however, that the Chinese Commu- 
nist reply of May 6 did not provide the clarifica- 
tion requested in the communication of the British 
Government of April 9 and brushed aside the 
question of the principles on which elections 
should be held. The governments concerned con- 
sider that these principles, which were set forth 
in the communication of April 9, lie at the heart 
of the matter. 

They have asked the British Government, in 
informing the Chinese Communist authorities of 
the views of the governments concerned, to state 
that it was for this reason that they sought the 
clarification requested on April 9 in the communi- 
cation of the British Government. The govern- 
ments concerned cannot agree that the further 
withdrawal of United Nations forces without any 
provision for a proper settlement of the Korean 
question would be calculated to lead to a reduction 
of tension in the Far East; indeed, they believe 
that such action would remove one necessary 
guaranty which exists against further aggression 
in Korea pending a final settlement. 

The governments concerned have asked the 
British Government to inform the Chinese Com- 
munist authorities again that they wish to see a 
genuine settlement of the Korean question in ac- 
cordance with United Nations resolutions and are 
at all times willing to further the consideration 
of measures designed to effect reunification on this 
basis. They also point out that United Nations 
forces are in Korea at the instance of the United 
Nations and that, in accordance with the exist- 
ing recommendations of the General Assembly 



152 



Depariment of State Bulletin 



of the United Xiitions, the governments concerned 
are prepnreil to withdraw their forces from Korea 
wlien tlio conditions for a histing settlement laid 
down by the General Assembly have been fnllllled. 
A copy of the British Government's conununi- 
cation is being transmitted to the United Nations. 



TRANSMITTAL TO UNITED NATIONS 

r.N. (loo. A/ 3845 rtiitoil July 7 

Ambassador Lodge's Communication 

The I'eriunnent Mission of the United States to the 
United Nations presents its compliments to the Secre- 
tary-General of the United JVations and has the honour 
to transmit on behalf of the United States Government, 
In its capacity as the Unified Command, a copy of the 
Note which the United Kingdom Government transmitted 
on 2 July 105S to the Chinese Communist authorities on 
behalf of the Governments of the countries which have 
contributed forces to the United Nations Command in 
Korea. The Note of the United Kingdom Government 
was in response to the Chinese Communist reply of 6 
May in."iS to the Note of the United Kingdom Govern- 
ment of 9 April 1958. 

It is requested that this communication and the en- 
closed copy of the note be circulated to all Members of 
the United Nations as a General Assembly document. 

Text of Note 

Her Majesty's Charge d'Affaires presents his compli- 
ments to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and, on instruc- 
tions from Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 
for Foreign Affairs, has the honour to refer to the Minis- 
try's Note of 6 May 1958, communicated to the Govern- 
ments of the countries which have contributed forces 
for the United Nations force in Korea, who, after con- 
sultation, have recpiested Her Majesty's Government to 
reply again on their behalf. 

The Governments concerned, noting that the greater 
part of the forces sent to Korea In accordance with reso- 
lutions of the United Nations have already been with- 
drawn, reiterate that they welcome the announcement 
by the Government of the People's Republic of China 
that Chinese troops are also to be withdrawn from North 
Korea. 

The Governments concerned are disappointed, however, 
that the Note handed to Her Majesty's Charge d'Affaires 
on the sixth of May does not provide ihe clarification 
asked for in the Note delivered by Her Majesty's Charge 
d'Affaires on the ninth of April and brushes aside the 
question of the principles on which elections should be 
held. The Governments conoerned consider that these 
principles, which were set forth in the Note of the ninth 
of A])ril. lie at the heart of the matter. It was for this 
reason that thoy sought the c-larifloation reipiested in Her 



Majesty's Charg^' d'Affaires' Note under reference. They 
cannot agree that the further withdrawal of United Na- 
tions forces without any provision for a proper settle- 
ment of the Korean question would be calculated to lead 
to a reduction of tension in the Far East ; indeed they 
believe that such action would remove one necessary 
guarantee which exists against further aggression in Ko- 
rea pending a final .settlement. 

The Governments concerned wish to see a genuine set- 
tlement of the Korean question in accordance with 
United Nations resolutions and are at all times willing 
to further the consideration of measures designed to ef- 
fect reunification on this basis. United Nations forces are 
in Korea at the instance of the United Nations. In ac- 
cordance with the existing recommendations of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the United Nations, the Governments 
concerned are prepared to withdraw their forces from 
Korea when the conditions for a lasting settlement laid 
down by the General Assembly have been fulfilled. 

A copy of this reply is being transmitted to the United 
Nations. 



Reports on Arms Shipments 
to Cuba Called Erroneous 

Press release 383 dated July 3 

Press I'epoi'ts and other printed material pur- 
porting to show that arms from the United States 
are being supplied to the Cuban Government are 
erroneous. Since March 14, 19,58, when a ship- 
ment of M-1 rifles was suspended, no arms de- 
liveries to the Cuban Government have been made 
from the United States or by any agency of the 
U.S. Government outside of the United States 
save in one instance in May 1958. At that time 
two unarmed Cuban transport planes landed at 
Guantanamo Naval Base in Cuba to excliange 300 
small rocketheads for 300 of another type er- 
roneously delivered by the U.S. Government in 
October 19.57 in compliance with a Cuban Govern- 
ment purchase order of December 1956. One of 
these planes was furnished with sufficient fuel to 
return to its base. 

Allegations that the Cuban Armed Forces are 
using the base for their military operations or as 
a source of fuel and arms supplies are completely 
unfounded. 



Shah of Iran Visits Washington 

The Department of State announced on June 27 
(press release 361) that Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, 
Shah in Shah of Iran, would arrive at Washing- 
ton on June 30 for a 3-day informal visit. On 



Ju/y 28, /958 



153 



July 3 (press release 379) the Department an- 
nounced that during his 3 days in Washington tlie 
Shall had participated in a niunber of informal 
discussions with President Eisenliower, Secretary 
Dulles, and other senior officials of the U.S. Gov- 
ernment. In addition he met witli several groups 
of Iranian officials and students. 

The Shah's visit afforded an opportunity for a 
mutually beneficial exchange of views on a num- 
ber of subjects of interest and importance to the 
United States and Iran and contributed to the al- 
ready warm friendship between the two countries. 
His departure from New York will complete an 
unofficial tour in the United States which began 
in Hawaii on Jime 1. 



Economic Development Loan 
to Iran 

Press release 385 dated July 3 

The Develojiment Loan Fund amiovmced on 
July 3 authorization of a $40-million loan to the 
Plan Organization of Iran to assist in financing 
economic development proj ects in Iran. The Plan 
Organization is the Iranian Government agency 
charged with planning, financing, and executing 
that country's second 7-year development pro- 
gram, whicli has been in operation for about 2i/^ 
years. 

DLF's announcement followed discussions be- 
gun in Tehran some months ago. Representatives 
of the Plan Organization came to Washington in 
early June and have been in consultation with 
representatives of interested U.S. agencies. 

The Plan Organization is financing Iran's ex- 
tensive developmental program from the approxi- 
mately $875 million which the Government has 
earmarked for use over the 7-year period from 
the country's oil revenues. The DLF loan funds 
will be used as supj^lemental financing for se- 
lected projects under the Plan Oi'ganization's de- 
velopment program. 

The DLF loan financing will be available for 
projects in the fields of highways and airport con- 
struction and improvement; agricultural ma- 
chinery imports; municipal development projects 
such as street paving and water and sewer sys- 
tems; construction equipment for silos; and for- 
estry progi-ams, including sawmills, tree nurseries, 
charcoal furnaces, reforestation, and access roads. 



The DLF loan will be repayable in dollars in 
12 years at an interest rate of S^/o percent, with 
the exception of projects in the categories of agri- 
cultural machinery and silos which will be repay- 
able at the rate of 5%^ percent. 



The Defense of Freedom 

ii/ Foy D. Kohler 

Deputy Assistant Secretary for European Affairs ' 

On this day dedicated to the cause of freedom 
and at this place, a renowned symbol of liberty, 
our thoughts turn naturally to the meaning of 
freedom — in the past, in the present, and in the 
future. We think of the long history of man's 
aspirations and struggles for liberty. We think 
of the trials and sacrifices of our forefathers in 
this land. We think of the millions who have 
passed by this place to find freedom in this same 
land. We think of the battle in defense of free- 
dom being waged today by the free world. We 
think of the suffering of the peoples living today 
under the yoke of tyranny. We renew our faith 
in the eventual triumph of freedom for all man- 
kind. 

The routine chores of international politics in 
the world today are frequently nasty and usually 
frustrating. To one who, like myself, must deal 
with them every day, it is an inspiration to be 
among you on this occasion and to view these mat- 
ters with you in a broader perspective. It is fit- 
ting that we should do so at a time when tlie chal- 
lenge of Soviet Communist totalitarianism to the 
cause of freedom is particularly vicious. The 
Soviet leaders have made it clear that they intend 
to continue to take every possible measure to for- 
ward their power-seeking purposes — that they 
will exploit whatever weaknesses they can find 
in the free world. Speaking pious slogans of 
peace, they continue to strengthen their military 
capabilities. The launching of the earth satellites 
indicates that they have developed powerful long- 
distance rockets; they have unquestionably made 



' Address made at Freedom Day celebration, under 
auspices of the Free Europe Committee, at Bedloe Island 
in New York Bay on July 1 (press release 367 dated 
June 30). 



154 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



siiniliirly great progress in developing other mod- 
em weapons. 

This substantial military power they use as the 
backdrop for the Coiniminist eflfort to subvert the 
free nations, to put into power Communist re- 
gimes wherever opportunities can be created. 
Today's special target is the underdeveloped areas 
of the world. At tlie same time the Soviets are 
building up an economic offensive aimed at bring- 
ing the newly developing free nations within the 
Connnunist orbit. This economic drive combines 
programs of trade and aid and is supported by the 
growing industrial capacity of the Soviet Union. 
Its political aims are openly admitted by the 
Soviet leaders. They do not hesitate to initiate or 
cancel trade or aid programs with other countries 
if it appears politically expedient to do so. 

It is important to note that the growth of the 
military and economic power of the Soviet Union, 
far from being accompanied by a relinquishment 
of the totalitarian controls imposed upon the 
Soviet people and on the peoples who have fallen 
prey to Soviet imperialism, is based upon those 
controls. Neither has this growth been accom- 
panied by any signs that the Soviet rulers desire 
to lessen international tensions by reaching agree- 
ments on major issues with the free nations. The 
Soviet Union contmues to keep and to strengthen 
barriers to a free flow of information between the 
Communist and free world, barriers which are 
a major cause of international tension. Kadio 
broadcasts from the Western World continue to 
be jammed. The censorship on dispatches of 
foreign news corresjDondents from the Soviet 
Union has recently been tightened. Informal 
friendly contacts between the peoples under their 
control and foreigners are systematically dis- 
couraged, as evidenced by the recent expulsions 
of American Embassy officers from Moscow and 
Prague just for having normal, friendly conversa- 
tions with several Soviet and Czech citizens. There 
has been no reply to our proposal to open the 
Soviet Union and the United States to travel by 
each other's citizens.^ 

All of us are deeply aware of the latest expres- 
sion of the true nature of Soviet Communist im- 
perialism, the murder of Imre Nagy, Pal Maleter, 
and other Hungarian patriots. This shocking act 
was committed in open defiance of the United 



' P.ni.LF.TiN of June 16, 1958, p. 1006. 



Nations. It violated assurances of safe conduct 
given to the Yugoslav Embassy, where Nagy had 
taken refuge from the Red Army. It violated 
every principle of decency. It serves to remind us 
of the essentially unchanging nature of Soviet 
totalitarian imperialism, based on terror and a 
total repression of the patriotic feelings of the 
captive peoples. The world will never forget this 
crime against humanity. It can only enhance 
our sympathy for the millions who remain under 
the Soviet heel. 

The United States supports the aspirations of 
the captive nations for freedom and national in- 
dependence. We do this because peace is in 
jeopardy and freedom a mockery until the captive 
nations can again lead their own lives. Once 
again we have proposed that there be a discussion 
of ways of easing tensions in Eastern Europe at 
any possible summit meeting. The Soviet Union 
has categorically refused to discuss this ques- 
tion, labeling our proposal interference in the 
internal affairs of the Eastern European states. 
It is precisely to eliminate Soviet interference in 
the internal afl'airs of these countries and the use 
of Soviet force against the Eastern European 
peoples that we have made our proposal. The 
brutal Soviet actions m Hungary once again 
demonstrate that it is Soviet interference in these 
countries which constitutes a major threat to peace 
and stability in Europe. The United Nations re- 
port on Hmigary proves beyond doubt that the 
Soviet Union interfered in November 1956 to put 
down the Hungarian revolution by force. 

It is timely for us to be here today renewing 
our faith in freedom under the shadow of the re- 
cent events in Hungary. It is this faith which 
unites us with our allies in NATO, in the Organi- 
zation of American States, in SEATO, in 
ANZUS. It is this faith which unites us with the 
peoples living under Soviet tyranny. We do not 
seek to impose our ways on them. But we are 
concerned that they shall one day be able to choose 
their own way of life. 

The struggle for freedom never has been an 
easy one. The road ahead will be long and often 
hard. But everywhere man's yearning for free- 
don^ can be seen. The forces supporting and de- 
fending freedom are strong and growing stronger. 
We must continue to maintain our strength and to 
help our allies remain strong. We must continue 
to strive to perfect our own system. We must 



July 28, 1958 

4T2903— 58— 



155 



renew our faith and rededicate our whole strength 
to the effort tliat is necessary to make freedom 
triumph and to aclxieve a just and lasting peace. 



United States Signs Loan Agreements 
With India and Tunisia 

India 

Press release 363 dated June 30 

The United States on June 30 made available 
a credit of $20 million to help India finance a 
project to develop iron-ore deposits in the Indian 
State of Orissa. The loan will provide India 
with foreign exchange needed to construct rail- 
road facilities to transport the ore and to develop 
the port of Visalihapatnam on the Bay of Bengal. 

The U.S. loan is being made from the Asian 
economic development fund which was set up to 
assist Asian nations in carrying out regional eco- 
nomic development projects. The iron-ore proj- 
ect is designed to strengthen the economies of both 
India and Japan by providing India with an ad- 
ditional source for earning foreign exchange and 
Japan with a source for increased iron-ore im- 
ports. These imports will be additional to those 
wliich Japan has been making from other sources. 

Total cost of the project is estimated at $67 
million, about evenly divided between foreign ex- 
change and local currency. In addition to the 
foreign exchange made available for the project 
by the U.S. loan, Japan has agreed to furni.sh 
materials and equipment on a deferred- payment 
basis. This credit amounts to the equivalent of 
approximately $8 million. 

The U.S. loan agreement was signed by Harisli- 
war Dayal, Charge d'Affaires of the Indian Em- 
bassy, for his Government, and Samuel C. Waugh, 
president of the Export-Import Bank, for the 
United States. The bank acts as agent for tlie 
International Cooperation Administration which 
handles loans from the Asian economic develop- 
ment fund. The loan is repayable over an 18-year 
period at an interest rate of 31/^ percent, either 
in Indian rupees or U.S. dollars. 

Tunisia 

Press release 382 dated July 3 

The Department of State on July 3 announced 
a loan agreement making available the equivalent 



of $1 million to assist Tunisia in financing eco- 
nomic development projects. Under the agree- 
ment, the United States is lending Tunisia $1 
million of U.S.-owned Tunisian francs. 

The loan agreement with Tunisia was signed 
by Mongi Slim, tlie Tunisian Ambassador, and by 
Samuel C. Waugh, president of the Export-Im- 
port Bank, whicli will administer tlie loan for the 
U.S. International Cooperation Administration. 



U.S. Authorizes Development Loans 
for Ceylon, Pakistan, and Paraguay 

The Department of State announced on July 1 
(press release 374) that the Development Loan 
Fund on that date announced authorization of 
loans totaling $7,450,000 for economic develop- 
ment projects in Ceylon, Pakistan, and Paraguay. 

Tlie new authorizations include $4,200,000 for 
private industrial development in Pakistan, 
$2,500,000 for an international highway project in 
Paraguay, and $750,000 to the Ceylon Government 
railway. They bring the total amount of author- 
ized and announced DLF loans to $138,850,000, 
of which $102,100,000 have already been signed. 

The $4,200,000 Pakistan loan authorization is to 
provide additional foreign exchange for the Paki- 
stan Industrial Credit and Investment Corpora- 
tion (PICIC). This corporation was set up with 
the help of Pakistani, U.S., Canadian, British, and 
Japanese investors to make loans for private indus- 
trial enterprises in Pakistan. The DLF funds will 
be used to make subloans of $20,000 to $400,000 to 
private enterprises for the import of capital goods 
for developmental industries in Pakistan. The 
DLF loan would be repayable in Pakistan rupees 
over a period of 5 years at an interest rate of 5 
percent. 

The $2,500,000 loan to Paraguay is to assist that 
country in surfacing the remaining dirt portion of 
an international highway, known as the Brazilian 
road, which connects Paraguay and Brazil. 

The $750,000 loan to the Ceylon Government 
railway will be repayable in Ceylon rupees over 
a period of 20 years with an interest rate of 3i/^ 
percent. 



156 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE CONGRESS 



United States and United Kingdom Sign New Agreement 
Under Amended Atomic Energy Act 



Following is a Department announcement con- 
cerning the signing of a new agreement with the 
United Kingdom for cooperation on the uses of 
atomic energy for mutual defense purposes, to- 
gether with the text of the President's message to 
the Congress and accon panging documents, in- 
cluding the text of the agreement. 



time the President undertook to "request the Con- 
gress to amend the Atomic Energy Act as may be 
necessary and desirable to permit of close and 
fruitful collaboration of scientists and engineers 
of Great Britain, the United States, and other 
friendly coimtries." 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 384 ihited July 3 

The Governments of the United States and the 
United Kingdom on July 3 signed a new atomic 
energ}' agreement for cooperation which is being 
submitted to the U.S. Congi-ess. Secretary Dulles 
signed for the United States, and Lord Hood, 
British Charge d'Affaires, signed for the United 
Kingdom. This is the first agreement to be ne- 
gotiated under the recent amendments to the 
Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, approved 
by the President on July 2, 1958. 

The new agreement, when it comes into effect, 
will permit a greater exchange of nuclear infor- 
mation and materials between the United States 
and the United Kingdom in order to improve their 
mutual defense capabilities. In addition the new 
agreement makes possible the sale by an American 
firm to the British Government or its agent of 
a complete submarine nuclear propulsion plant, 
together with spare parts and the fuel elements 
required to operate this plant for a period of 10 
years. Classified information for the design, man- 
ufacture, and operation of such a plant will also 
be communicated. 

This new agreement is an outcome of the de- 
cisions reached between the President and the 
Prime Minister as set forth in the Declaration of 
Common Purpose of October 25, 1957.^ At that 



THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE TO CONGRESS 

White House press release dated July 3 

Letter of Transmittal 

To the Congress of the United States: 

It has become manifestly clear of late that the 
countries of the free world must, for their col- 
lective defense and mutual help, endeavor to com- 
bine their resources and share the large tasks that 
confront us. This is particularly true in the field 
of scientific research and development in support 
of greater collective security, notably in the field 
of military applications of atomic energy. Close 
collaboration between scientists and engineere of 
the United States and the United Kingdom during 
World "War II proved most fruitful. 

The free world again faces a similar challenge 
which the free nations can most effectively meet by 
cooperating with one another in genuine partner- 
ship. I pointed out to the Congress earlier this 
year ^ that it was "wasteful in the extreme for 
friendly allies to consume talent and money in 
solving problems that their friends have already 
solved — all because of artificial barriers to shar- 
ing." Since then the Congress has responded with 
necessai-y changes in our legislation on the basis 
of which this Government has just concluded an 
Agreement with the Government of the United 
Kingdom which provides the framework for closer 



' Btn-LETiN of Xov. 11, 1957, p. 739. 



' For text of the President's state of the Union message, 
see iUd., Jan. 27, 1958, p. 115. 



Ju/y 28, J 958 



157 



cooperation on uses of atomic energy for mutual 
defense purposes. 

Pursuant to that legislation I am siibmitting to 
each House of the Congress an authoritative 
copy of the Agi-eement. I am also transmitting a 
copy of the Secretary of State's letter accompany- 
ing authoritative copies of the signed Agreement, 
a copy of a joint letter from the Chairman of the 
Atomic Energy Commission and the Secretary of 
Defense recommending my approval of this Agree- 
ment and a copy of my memorandum in reply 
thereto setting forth my approval. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

The White House, 
July 3, 1958. 

Letter From Secretary Dulles to the President 

July 3, 1958 
Dear Mr. President: The undersigned, the 
Secretary of State, has the honor to lay before 
the President with a view to its transmission to 
the Congress, pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act 
of 1954, as amended, the Agreement Between The 
Government of the United States of America and 
The Government of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland for Cooperation on 
the Uses of Atomic Energy for Mutual Defense 
Purposes, signed at Washington July 3, 1958. 

This Agreement was signed on behalf of the 
United States pursuant to the authorization 
granted in your memorandum of July 3, 1958 to 
the Secretary of Defense and the Acting Chairman 
of the Atomic Energy Commission. A copy of 
that memorandum was received by the Secretary 
of State from the President. 
Faithfully yours. 



John Foster Dulles 



The President 

The White House 



Joint Letter From the Secretary of Defense and the 
Acting Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion to the President 

Dear Mr. President: The United States 
Atomic Energy Commission and the Secretary of 
Defense recommend that you approve the at- 
tached Agreement Between the Government of 
the United States of America and the Govern- 
ment of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 



and Northern Ireland for Cooperation on the 
Uses of Atomic Energy for Mutual Defense Pur- 
poses. It is also recommended that you authorize 
the execution of this proposed Agreement on be- 
half of the United States. 

You will recall that in 1943, in tlie interest of 
our mutual defense, the United Kingdom sus- 
pended her own atomic energy program in the 
United Kingdom and sent to this country and 
Canada leading scientists to participate in the de- 
velopment of an atomic weapon. In the decade 
following World War II the British developed 
independently their own atomic weapons capabil- 
ity without benefit of United States collaboration. 
Under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 
1954, only limited cooperation was peiTnitted and 
was undertaken pursuant to appropriate Agree- 
ments for Cooperation. 

The proposed Agreement for Cooperation will 
constitute a framework for the renewal of close 
collaboration with the United Kingdom in the 
field of militai-y applications of atomic energy, 
and is, therefore, an important step forward in 
tlie implementation of your joint Declaration of 
October 25, 1957, with Prime INIinister Macmillan 
which affirmed the principle of interdependence 
among the countries of the free world. 

The cooperation provided for in the Agreement 
is authorized by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, 
as amended by Public Law 8.5—479. The United 
Kingdom is participating with the United States 
in international arrangements pursuant to which 
the United Kingdom is making substantial and 
matei-ial contributions to tlie mutual defense and 
security. In addition, the United Kingdom has 
made substantial progress in the development of 
atomic weapons. For example, the United King- 
dom has achieved on its own the capability of fab- 
ricating a variety of atomic weapons and has con- 
structed and operated the necessary facilities, such 
as weapons research and development labora- 
tories, weapon manufacturing facilities, a weapon 
testing station; has trained personnel to operate 
these facilities, and has detonated both atomic and 
hydrogen bombs. 

Tlie cooperation provided in this Agreement 
covers exchange of certain classified information 
and tlie transfer of certain equipment and special 
nuclear materials for use tlierein. 

In the area of information, the Agreement pro- 
vides for the exchange of information within the 



158 



Department of State Bulletin 



limits of Sections 144b and c of the Atomic Energy 
/' Act of 1954, as amended by Public Law 85^79. 
The areas of information would cover the devel- 
opment of defense plans; the training of person- 
nel ; the evaluation of the capability of potential 
enemies in the employment of atomic weapons 
and other military applications; the development 
of delivery systems capable of carrying atomic 
weapons; design, development, and fabrication of 
atomic weapons; and research, development, and 
design of militaiy reactors. 

The Agreement continues in effect submarine 
reactor cooperation already undertaken with the 
United Kingdom and provides for broader coo])- 
eration in the military reactor field in the future. 
Present cooperation in this area has been under- 
takei^ under our Agreement for Cooperation for 
civil uses, but henceforth M-ill be carried out in 
accordance with the provisions of Public Law 85- 
479 and the proposed Agreement. 

In the area of equipment, the Agreement pro- 
vides that the United States will authorize, sub- 
ject to terms and conditions acceptable to the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, a person to transfer 
by sale to tlie L^nited Kingdom one complete sub- 
marine nuclear propulsion plant. It also pro- 
vides for the sale to the United Kingdom of the 
nuclear fuel required for operation of this plant 
for a period of ten years following the date of 
entry into force of the Agreement, and for au- 
thorization, subject to terms and conditions ac- 
ceptable to the Government of the United States, 
of a person or persons to transfer this fuel in the 
form of fabricated cores or fuel elements. These 
provisions are based upon authority of Sections 
• '1 (c), (2), and (3) of the Act and set forth in 
Article III of the Agreement. 

The United Kingdom agrees to indemnify tlie 
United States against liability for any damage 
which might be caused by the equipment after it 
is taken out of the United States. 

Article III also provides specifically for the 
i:ommunication of information on the design, 
.manufacture and operation of this propulsion 
plant and on the processing and reprocessing of its 
nuclear fuel. 

Cooperation under this Article is intended to 
develop a nuclear submarine capability in (he 
British Fleet at the earliest possible time with no 
mterference to the United States naval reactoi-s 
program and will promote the acquisition by tlie 



United Kingdom of the technological know-how 
essential to the maintenance and growth of this 
ca])ability. 

This Agreement would remain in force until 
terminated by agreement of both parties, thus 
assuring continued protection for information 
and materials transferred, in accordance with the 
l)rovisions of the Agreement. However, Article 
II, providing for exchange of information, may 
be terminated by agi-eement of the parties or by 
either party, following one year's advance notice, 
at the expiration of an initial term of ten years, 
or upon the expiration of any succeeding term of 
five years. As noted above, the provision of fuel 
for the submarine propulsion plant is limited to a 
period of ten years, which may be extended only 
by amendment of this Agreement. 

In accordance with the provisions of Section 
91, 144b and 144c of the Atomic Energy Act of 
1954, as recently amended, the Agreement specifi- 
cally provides, in Article I, that all cooperation 
under tlie Agreement will be undertaken only 
when the communicating or transferring party de- 
termines that such cooperation will promote and 
will not constitute an unreasonable risk to its de- 
fense and security, while the United States and 
the United Kingdom are participating in an inter- 
national arrangement for their mutual defense 
and security through substantial and material con- 
tributions thereto. Cooperation under Article II 
and III of the Agreement would be undertaken 
only when these conditions prevail. 

In addition to the foregoing provisions on the 
terms, conditions, duration, nature, and scope of 
cooperation, the Agreement provides that the 
parties will maintain agreed security safeguards 
and standards. The Agreement also contains a 
commitment tliat the recipient of any material or 
information transferred pursuant to the Agree- 
ment will not transfer it to unauthorized persons 
or except as specifically provided in the Agree- 
ment, beyond the jurisdiction of the recipient 
party. 

Public Law 85-479 provides that the President 
will determine that with respect to implementa- 
tion of the provisions of the Agreement concern- 
ing exchange of information and the transfer of 
equipment and materials, proposed communica- 
tion of information or any proposed transfer ar- 
rangement of equipment or materials "will pro- 
mote and will not constitute an unreasonable risk 



July 28, 7958 



159 



to the common defense and security." In accord- 
ance with our letter to you, dated January 27, 
1958, the Atomic Energy Commission and the De- 
partment of Defense will recommend to you an 
Executive Order whereby the President would 
authorize proposed communications or transfers 
only after joint review by the Department of De- 
fense, the Atomic Energy Commission, and other 
interested agencies, and would authorize such com- 
munications or transfers in the absence of the 
President's personal approval only where the De- 
partment of Defense and the Atomic Energy 
Commission agree that the proposed cooperation 
and the proposed communication of restricted 
data or transfer of materials or equipment will 
promote and will not constitute an unreasonable 
risk to the common defense and security. 

It is the considered opinion of the Atomic 
Energy Commission and the Department of De- 
fense that the performance of the proposed agree- 
ment will promote and will not constitute an 
unreasonable risk to the common defense and se- 
curity of the United States. Accordingly, it is 
recommended that you (1) approve the program 
for transfer of one submarine nuclear propulsion 
plant and special nuclear material required for 
operation of this plant during the ten-year period 
following the date upon which the Agreement 
enters into force ; (2) determine that the perform- 
ance of this Agreement will promote and will not 
constitute an unreasonable risk to the common 
defense and security of the United States; (3) 
approve the proposed Agreement for Coopera- 
tion; and (4) authorize the execution of the pro- 
posed Agreement for the Government of the 
United States by the Secretary of State. 

The Secretary of State concurs in the foregoing 
recommendations. 
EespectfuUy, 

W. F. LiBBT Neil H. ]\IcElroy 

Acting Chairman Secretary 

Atomic Energy Commis- Department of Defense 
sion 

Memorandum from the President for the Secretary 
of Defense and the Acting Chairman of the Atomic 
Energy Commission 

July 3, 1958 

1. In your joint letter of July 3, 1958, to me, 
you recommended that I approve a proposed 



Agreement Between the Government of the 
United States of America and the Government of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North- 
ern Ireland For Cooperation on the Uses of 
Atomic Energy for Mutual Defense Purposes. 

2. I note from your joint recommendation that 
the United Kingdom is participating with the 
United States in international arrangements pur- 
suant to which it is making substantial and mate- 
rial contributions to the mutual defense and secu- 
rity, and the United Kingdom has made substan- 
tial progress in the development of atomic weap- 
ons. I note also that tlie j^roposed Agreement will 
permit cooperation necessary to improve capabil- 
ities of the United States, and the United King- 
dom, in the application of atomic energy for 
mutual defense purposes, subject to provisions, 
conditions, guaranties, terms, and special deter- 
minations, which are most appropriate in this im- 
portant area of mutual assistance. 

3. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, 
and the Agreement require certain determina- 
tions concerning cooperation under the Agree- 
ment. In this regard, I shall expect to have your 
recommendations with respect to an Executive 
Order which will facilitate the implementation of 
the Agreement as proposed in your joint letter. 

4. Having considered the cooperation provided 
for in the Agreement, including your joint rec- 
ommendation, security safeguards and other terms 
and conditions of the Agreement, I hereby 

(a) Approve the program for transfer of one 
submarine nuclear propulsion plant and special 
nuclear material required for operation of this 
plant during the ten-year period following the 
date upon which the Agreement enters into force ; 

(b) Determine that the performance of this 
Agreement will promote and will not constitute 
an unreasonable risk to the common defense and 
security of the United States; 

(c) Approve the proposed Agreement for Co- 
operation; and 

(d) Authorize the execution of the proposed 
Agreement for the Government of the United 
States by the Secretary of State. 

5. In taking these actions, I have noted also the 
supplementary classified information, regarding 
the Agreement, also jointly submitted to me. 

6. After execution of the Agreement, I shall 
submit it to the Congress. 



160 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bullefin 



T. I um forwarding a copy of tJiis memoran- 
dum to the Secretary of State. 

DwiGiiT D. Eisenhower 



TEXT OF AGREEMENT 

Press release 3S4-A dated July 3 

aobeement between the government of the united 
States of America and the Government of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland fob Cooperation on the Uses of Atomic 
Energy fob Mutual Defense Purposes 

The Government of the United States of America and 
the Ooverumeut of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland on its own behalf and on behalf of 
the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, 

Considering that their mutual security and defense 
require that they be prepared to meet the contingencies 
of atomic warfare ; 

Considering that both countries have made substantial 
progress in the development of atomic weapons ; 

Considering that they are participating together in 
international arrangements pursuant to which they are 
making substantial and material contributions to their 
mutual defense and security ; 

Recognizing that their common defense and security 
will be advanced by the exchange of information concern- 
ing atomic energy and by the transfer of equipment and 
materials for use therein ; 

Believing that such exchange and transfer can be un- 
dertaken without risk to the defense and security of 
either country ; and 

Taking into consideration the United States Atomic 
Energy Act of 1954, as amended, which was enacted with 
these purposes in mind. 

Have agreed as follows : 

Article I 

Oeneral Provision 

While the United States and the United Kingdom are 
participating in an international arrangement for their 
mutual defense and security and making substantial and 
material contributions thereto, each Party will com- 
municate to and exchange with the other Party informa- 
tion, and transfer materials and equipment to the other 
Party, in accordance with the provisions of this Agree- 
ment provided that the communicating or transferring 
Party determines that such cooperation will promote and 
will not constitute an unreasonable risk to its defense and 
security. 

Article II 

Exchange of Information 

A. Kaeh Party will communicate to or exchange with 
the other Party such classified information as is jointly 
determined to be necessary to : 

1. the development of defense plans ; 

2. the training of personnel in the employment of and 



defense against atomic weapons and other military ap- 
plications of atomic energy ; 

3. the evaluation of the capabilities of potential 
enemies In the employment of atomic weapons and other 
military applications of atomic energy ; 

4. the development of delivery systems compatible with 
the atomic weaixins which they carry ; and 

5. research, development and design of military re- 
actors to the extent and by such means as may be agreed. 

B. In addition to the cooperation provided for in para- 
graph A of this Article each Party will exchange with the 
other Party other classified information concerning 
atomic weapons when, after consultation with the other 
Party, the communicating Party determines that the com- 
munication of such information is necessary to improve 
the recipient's atomic weapon design, development and 
fabrication caiiability. 

Article III 

Transfer of Submarine Nuclear Propulsion Plant and 
Materials 

A. The Government of the United States will author- 
ize, subject to terms and conditions acceptable to the 
Government of the United States, a person to transfer by 
sale to the Government of the United Kingdom or its 
agent one complete submarine nuclear propulsion plant 
with such spare parts therefor as may be agreed by the 
Parties and to communicate to the Government of the 
United Kingdom or its agent (or to both) such classified 
information as relates to safety features and such classi- 
fied information as is necessary for the design, manu- 
facture and operation of such propulsion plant. A person 
or persons will al.so be authorized, for a period of ten 
years following the date of entry into force of this Agree- 
ment and subject to terms and conditions acceptable to 
the Government of the United States, to transfer replace- 
ment cores or fuel elements for such plant. 

B. The Government of the United States will transfer 
by .sale agreed amounts of U-235 contained in uranium 
enriched in the isotope U-235 as needed for use in the 
submarine nuclear propulsion plant transferred pursuant 
to paragraph A of this Article, during the ten years fol- 
lowing the date of entry into force of this Agreement on 
such terms and conditions as may be agreed. If the 
Government of the United Kingdom so requests, the 
Government of the United States will during such period 
reprocess any material sold under the present paragraph 
in facilities of the Government of the United States, on 
terms and conditions to be agreed, or authorize such re- 
processing in private facilities in the United States. En- 
riched uranium recovered in reprocessing such materials 
by either Party may be purchased by the Government of 
the United States under terms and conditions to be 
agreed. Special nuclear material recovered in reprocess- 
ing such materials and not purchased by the Govern- 
ment of the United States may be returned to or retained 
by the Government of the United Kingdom and any U-235 
not purchased by the Government of the United States 
will be credited to the amounts of U-235 to be transferred 



July 28, 1958 



161 



by the Government of the United States under this 
Agreement. 

C. The Government of the United States shall he com- 
pensated for enriched uranium sold by it pursuant to 
this Article at the United States Atomic Energy Com- 
mission's published charges applicable to the domestic 
distribution of such material in effect at the time of 
tlie sale. Any purchase of enriched uranium by the 
Government of the United States pursuant to this Article 
shall be at the applicable price of the United States 
Atomic Energy Commission for the pvirchase of enriched 
uranium in effect at the time of purchase of such enriched 

uranium. 

D. The Parties will exchange classified information on 
methods of reprocessing fuel elements of the type utilized 
In the propulsion plant to be transferred under this Ar- 
ticle, including classified information on the design, con- 
struction and operation of facilities for the reprocessing 
of such fuel elements. 

E. The Government of the United Kingdom shall indem- 
nify and hold harmless the Government of the United 
States against any and all liabilities whatsoever (includ- 
ing third-party liability) for any damage or injury occur- 
ring after the propulsion plant or parts thereof, including 
spare parts, replacement cores or fuel elements are taken 
outside the United States, for any cause arising out of 
or connected with the design, manufacture, assembly, 
transfer or utilization of the propulsion plant, spare parts, 
replacement cores or fuel elements transferred pursuant 
to paragraph A of this Article. 

Abticle IV 

Rcsponsmuty for Vse of Information, Material, Equip- 
ment and Devices 
The application or use of any information (including 
design drawings and specifications), material or equip- 
ment communicated, exchanged or transferred under 
this Agreement shall be the responsibility of the Party 
receiving it, and the other Party does not provide any 
indemnity, and does not warrant the accuracy or com- 
pleteness of such information and does not warrant the 
suitability or completeness of such information, material 
or equipment for any particular use or application. 

Article V 
Conditions 

A. Cooperation under this Agreement will be carried 
out by each of the Parties in accordance with its applica- 
ble laws. 

B. Under this Agreement there will be no tran.sfer by 
either Party of atomic weapons. 

C. Except as may be otherwise agreed for civil uses, 
the information communicated or exchanged, or the ma- 
terials or equipment transferred, by either Party pursuant 
to this Agreement shall be used by the recipient Party 
exclusively for the preparation or implementation of 
defense plans in the mutual interests of the two countries. 

D. Nothing in this Agreement shall preclude the com- 



162 



munication or exchange of classified information which 
is transmissible under other arrangements between the 
Parties. 

Article VI 

Guaranties 

A. Classified information, materials and equipment com- 
municated or transferred pursuant to this Agreement shall 
be accorded full security protection under applicable se- '■ 
curity arrangements between the Parties and applicable j| 
national legislation and regulations of the Parties. In 
no case shall either Party maintain security standards 
for safeguarding classified information, materials or 
equipment made available pursuant to this Agreement less I 
restrictive than those set forth in the applicable security I 
arrangements in effect on the date this Agreement comes 1 
into force. ; 

B. Classified information communicated or exchanged 
pursuant to this Agreement will be made available through 
channels existing or hereafter agreed for the communica- | 
tion or exchange of such information between the Parties. I 

C. Classified information, communicated or exchanged, ^ 
and any materials or equipment transferred, pursuant to | 
this Agreement shall not be communicated, exchanged or ] 
transferred by the recipient Party or persons under its 
jurisdiction to any unauthorized persons, or, except as 
provided in Article VII of this Agreement, beyond the 
jurisdiction of that Party. Each Party may stipulate the 
degree to which any of the information, materials or 
equipment communicated, exchanged or transferred by it 
or persons under its jurisdiction pursuant to this Agree- 
ment may be disseminated or distributed ; may specify the 
categories of persons who may have access to such infor- 
mation, materials or equipment; and may impose such 
other restrictions on the dissemination or distribution of 
such infoi-mation, materials or equipment as it deems 
necessary. 

Article VII 

Dissemination 

Nothing in this Agreement shall be interpreted or op- 
erate as a bar or restriction to consultation or coopera- 
tion in any field of defense by either Party with other 
nations or international organizations. Neither Party, 
however, shall communicate classified information or 
transfer or permit access to or use of materials, or equip- 
ment, made available by the other Party pursuant to 
this Agreement to any nation or international organiza- 
tion unless authorized to do so by such other Party, 
or unless such other Party has informed the recipient 
Party that the same information has been made avail- 
able to that nation or international organization. 

Article VIII 
Classification Policies 
Agreed classification policies shall be maintained with 
respect to all classified information, materials or equip- 
ment communicated, exchanged or transferred under this 
Agreement. The Parties intend to continue the present 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



practice of consultation witli eacli otlier ou the classifi- 
cation of these matters. 

Article IX 
Patents 

A. With respect to any invention or discovery employ- 
ing classified information whicli lias been communicated 
or exchauKed pursuant to Article II or derived from the 
sulimarino propulsion plant, material or equipment trans- 
ferred pursuant to Article III, and made or conceived 
by the recipient Party, or any agency or corporation 
owned or controlled thereby, or any of their agents or 
contractors, or any employee of any of the foregoing, 
after the date of such communication, exchange or trans- 
fer but during the period of this Agreement : 

1. in the case of any such invention or discovery in 
which rights are owned by the recipient Party, or any 
agency or corporation owned or controlled thereby, and 
not included in subparagraph 2 of this paragraph, the 
recipient Party shall, to the extent owned by any of 
them : 

(a) transfer and assign to the other Party all right, 
title and interest in and to the invention or discovery, 
or patent application or patent thereon, in the country 
of that other Party, subject to the retention of a royalty- 
free, non-exclusive, irrevocable license for the govern- 
mental purposes of the recipient Party and for the pur- 
poses of mutual defense ; and 

(b) grant to the other Party a royalty-free, uon-exclu- 
slve, irrevocable license for the governmental purposes 
of that other Party and for purposes of mutual defense 
in the country of the recipient Party and third countries, 
including use in the production of material in such coun- 
tries for sale to the recipient Party by a contractor of 
that other Party ; 

2. in the case of any such invention or discovery which 
is primarily useful in the production or utilization of 
special nuclear material or atomic energy and made or 
conceived prior to the time that the information it em- 
ploys is made available for civil uses, the recipient Party 
shall : 

(a) obtain, by appropriate means, suflSeient right, title 
and interest in and to the invention or discovery, or 
patent application or patent thereon, as may be neces- 
sary to fulfill its obligations under the following two 
subparagraphs : 

(b) transfer and assign to the other Party all right, 
title and interest in and to the invention or discovery, 
or patent application or patent thereon, in the country 
of that other Party, subject to the retention of a royalty- 
free, non-exclusive, irrevocable license, with the right to 
grant sublicenses, for all purposes ; and 

(c) grant to the other Party a royalty-free, non-exclu- 
sive, irrevocable license, with the right to grant sub- 
licenses, for all purposes in the country of the recipient 
Party and in third countries. 

B. 1. Each Party shall, to the extent owned by it, or 
any agency or corporation owned or controlled thereby, 
grant to the other Party a royalty-free, non-exclusive, 

July 28, 7958 



irrevocable license to manufacture and use the subject 
matter covered by any patent and incorporated in the 
submarine propulsion plant and spare parts tran-sferred 
pursuant to paragraph A of Article III for use by the 
licensed Party for the purposes set forth in paragraph 
C of Article V. 

2. The transferring party neither warrants nor repre- 
sents that the submarine propulsion plant or any mate- 
rial or equipment transferred under Article III does not 
infringe any patent owned or controlled by other persons 
and assumes no liability or obligation with respect 
thereto, and the recipient Party agrees to indemnify and 
hold harmless the transferring Party from any and all 
liability arising out of any infringement of any such 
patent. 

C. With respect to any invention or discovery, or 
patent thereon, or license or sublicense therein, covered 
by paragraph A of this Article, each Party : 

1. may, to the extent of its right, title and interest 
therein, deal with the same in its own and third countries 
as it may desire, but shall in no event discriminate against 
citizens of the other Party in respect of granting any 
license or sublicense under the patents owned by it in its 
own or any other country ; 

2. hereby waives any and all claims against the other 
Party for compensation, royalty or award, and hereby 
releases the other Party with respect to any and all such 
claims. 

D. 1. No patent application with respect to any classi- 
fied invention or discovery employing classified informa- 
tion which has been communicated or exchanged pursuant 
to Article II, or derived from the submarine propulsion 
plant, material or equipment transferred pursuant to 
Article III, may be filed : 

(a) by either Party or any person in the country of 
the other Party except in accordance with agreed condi- 
tions and procedures ; or 

(b) in any country not a party to this Agi-eement ex- 
cept as may be agreed and subject to Articles VI and VII. 

2. Appropriate secrecy or prohibition orders shall be 
issued for the purpose of giving effect to this paragraph. 

Article X 
Previous Agreements for Cooperation 
Effective from the date on which the present Agreement 
enters into force, the cooperation between the Parties 
being carried out under or envisaged by the Agreement 
for Cooperation Regarding Atomic Information for Mu- 
tual Defense Purposes, which was signed at Washington 
on .lune 15, ig.oo,' and by paragraph B of Article I bis 
of the Agreement for Cooperation on Civil Uses of Atomic 
Energy, which was signed at Washington on June 15, 
19.55,* as amended by the Amendment signed at Wash- 
ington on .lune 13, 19.5C,° shall be carried out in accordance 
with the provisions of the present Agreement. 



' For text, see ihiil.. .Tuly 11, 1955, p. 63, or Treaties and 
Other International Acts Series 3322. 
' TIAS .3.321. 
• TIAS 3608. 



163 



Article XI 
Definitions 

For the purposes of this Agreement : 

A "Atomic weapon" means any device utilizing atomic 
energy exclusive of the means of transporting or propell- 
in- the device (where such means is a separable and 
divisible part of the device), the principal purpose of 
which is for use as, or for development of, a weapon, 
a weapon prototype, or a weapon test device. 

B "Classified information" means information, data, 
materials, services or any other matter with the security 
designation "Confidential" or higher applied under the 
le-islation or regulations of either the United States or 
the United Kingdom, including that designated by the 
Government of the United States as "Restricted Data" or 
"Formerly Restricted Data" and that designated by the 
Government of the United Kingdom as "ATOMIC". 

C. "Equipment" means any instrument, apparatus or 
facility and includes any facility, except an atomic 
weapon capable of making use of or producing special nu- 
clear material and component parts thereof, and includes 
submarine nuclear propulsion plant, reactor and military 
reactor. 

D. "Military reactor" means a reactor for the propul- 
sion of naval vessels, aircraft or land vehicles and mili- 
tary package power reactors. 

E. "Person" means: 

1. any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, asso- 
ciation, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, 
government agency or government corporation other than 
the United States Atomic Energy Commission and the 
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority ; and 

2. any legal successor, representative, agent or agency 
of the foregoing. 

F. "Reactor" means an apparatus, other than an atomic 
weapon, in which a self-supporting fission chain reaction 
is maintained and controlled by utilizing uranium, pluto- 
nium or thorium, or any combination of uranium, pluto- 
nium or thorium. 

G. "Submarine nuclear propulsion plant" means a pro- 
pulsion plant and includes the reactor, and such control, 
primary, auxiliary, steam and electric systems as may be 
necessary for propulsion of submarines. 

H. References in this Agreement to the Government 
of the United Kingdom include the United Kingdom 
Atomic Energy Authority. 

Article XII 
Duration 
This Agreement shall enter into force on the date on 
which each Government shall have received from the 
other Government written notification that it has com- 
plied with all statutory and constitutional requirements 
for the entry into force of this Agreement, and shall re- 
main in force until terminated by agreement of both 
Parties, except that, if not so terminated, Article II may 
be terminated by agreement of both Parties, or by either 
Party on one year's notice to the other to take effect at 



164 



the end of a term of ten years, or thereafter on one 
year's notice to take effect at the end of any succeeding 
term of five years. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned, duly authorized, 
have signed this Agreement. 

Done at Washington this third day of July, 1958, in 
two original texts. 

For the Government of the United States of America : 

John Foster Dulles 
Secretary of State 

For the Government of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland : 

Hood 
Her Majesty's Charge d' Affaires a. i. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

85th Congress, 2d Session 

Outer Space Propulsion by Nuclear Energy. Hearings 
before subcommittees of the Joint Committee on 
Atomic Energy on outer space propulsion by nuclear 
energy. January 22-February 6, 1958. 232 pp. 
Water Resource Programs of the United States, Russia, 
and (Red) China. Joint hearings before the Senate 
Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs and the 
Senate Committee on Public Works on S. Res. 248, re- 
lationship of water resource development programs of 
the United States, Russia, and (Red) China. Febru- 
ary 17, 18, and May 16, 1958. 292 pp. 
Rice Export Program and Rice Acreage, 1958. Hearings 
before the Subcommittee on Rice of the House Com- 
mittee on Agriculture. March 20 and April 29, 1958. 
60 pp. . , , 

Astronautics and Space Exploration. Hearings before 
the Select Committee on Astronautics and Space Ex- 
ploration on H. R. 11881. April 15-May 12, 1958. 
1.542 pp. 
Review of Foreign Policy, 1958. Hearings before the 
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations on foreign pol- 
icy (United States policies respecting the Far East, the 
Near East, South Asia, and Africa ) . Part 2, May 2-12, 
1958. 215 pp. 
Review of Foreign Policy, 1958. Hearings before the 
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations on foreign pol- 
icy (United States policies respecting Canada). Part 
3,'May 16, 1958. 92 pp. 
Two Recommendations Adopted by the International 
Labor Conference at Geneva on June 26, 1956. Letter 
from Assistant Secretary of State relative to two rec- 
ommendations adopted by the International Labor Con- 
ference at Geneva on June 26, 1956, as follows: (1) 
ILO recommendation (no. 101) concerning vocational 
training in agriculture, and (2) recommendation (no. 
102) concerning welfare facilities for workers, pursu- 
ant to article 19 of the constitution of the International 
Labor Organization. H. Doc. 405, June 16, 195S. 24 pp. 
Czechoslovakian Claims Fund. Hearing before the Sen- 
ate Committee on Foreign Relations on S. 3557, a bill 
to amend the International Claims Settlement Act of 
1949, as amended (64 Stat. 12). June 19, 1958. 94 pp. 
Departments of State and Justice, the Judiciary, and Re- 
lated Agencies Appropriation Bill, 1059. Conference 
report to accompany H. R. 12428. H. Rept. 1980, June 
24, 1958. 6 pp. 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Mutual Security Act of 1058. Conference report to ae- 
couipauy H. K. 121S1. H. Kept. 2038, June 26, 1958. 
32 pp. 

Foreign Aid Construction Projects. Twenty-Ninth Re- 
port by the Committee on Government Operations. H. 
Kept. 2012. June 20, 1058. 43 pp. 

Authorizing the Transfer of Naval Vessels to Friendly 
Foreign Countries. Report to accompany S. 3500. H. 
Rept. 2000, June 20, 1958. 9 pp. 

Amending the Atomic Energy Act of 10.")4, as Amended. 
Conference report to accompany H. R. 12710. H. Rept. 
2051, June 27, 1958. 6 pp. 



Amending the Act of Congress Concerning United States 
Contributions to the International Council of Scientific 
Unions and Certain Associated Unions. Report to ac- 
company S. J. Res. 85. H. Rept. 2050, June 27, 1958. 
4 pp. 

Mutual Security Appropriation Bill, 1959. Report to ac- 
company H. R. 13192. H. Rept. 2048, June 27, 1958. 
15 pp. 

Q'he Czechoslovakian Claims Fund. Report to accom- 
pany S. 3557. S. Rept. 1704, July 2, 1958. 35 pp. 

Corregidor Bataan Memorial Commission. Report to ac- 
company H. R. 10069. S. Rept. 1807, July 7, 1958. 16 
pp. 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 

Statement by Dehiias H. Nucher 

U.S. Special Representative in the Tmsteeship Council ' 



Again I have the pleasure to serve as Special 
Eepresentative of the United States to report on 
tlie principal events marking the administration 
of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands since 
July 1, 1957. As in the past, I look forward to 
receiving the benefits of the views and recommen- 
dations of this body. 

This year's review has several outstanding fea- 
tures. We have been able during the year to bring 
certain longstanding problems to a successful con- 
clusion. The past year also saw two disastrous 
typlioons sweep through the southern Marshalls, 
through parts of Ponape, Truk, and Yap districts, 
leaving widespread havoc in their wake. The first 
of the.se typhoons, known poj^ularly to the world 
by its Weather Bureau name of Lola, struck in 
early Xovember and was followed only 2 months 
later in the same general area by the even more 
destructive Ophelia. 



'Made in the U.X. Trusteeship Council on June 16 
(U.S./U.N. press release 2042 dated June 13). Mr. 
Nueker is High Commissioner of the Trust Territory of 
the Pacific Islands. For a review of the previous year 
by Mr. Xucker, see Btnj-ETIN of Aug. 5, 19.57, p. 248. 



The first typhoon concentrated its fury on 
Namorik Atoll in the southern Marshalls, leaving 
over 500 people homeless and destroying most of 
the food crops and coconut trees of that atoll. 
Where it struck in the other parts of the territory, 
fortunately only partial damage was inflicted. 
But before certain of the battered areas could re- 
cover from the dainages of this November storm, 
typhoon Ophelia swept down upon us. Moving 
first on the Jaluit area in the southern Marshalls, 
it left behind an entire atoll in devastation. Close 
to 1,L!00 individuals in this single atoll were ren- 
dered homeless and 14 individuals washed out to 
sea and lost. Not content with the almost com- 
plete destruction on Jaluit Atoll in the Marshalls, 
Ophelia then moved westward ravaging again the 
areas in Ponape and Truk districts which had been 
hard hit by the November typhoon. Within hours 
after it was known that emergency-relief measures 
were needed, planes and ships carrying food and 
water, medicines, and supplies were on their way 
to the stricken areas. The scope and seriousness 
of the disaster led to my immediate departure for 
Washington, D.C. I am proud to report that full 



Jo/y 28, 7958 



165 



cooperation and immediate assistance were re- 
ceived at all levels of our Government. The Direc- 
tor of the Office of Territories, the Secretary of the 
Interior, the Bureau of the Budget, the House and 
Senate Appropriations Committees of the United 
States Congress were most sympathetic. In record 
time an emergency appropriation of $1,350,000 re- 
ceived preliminary approval, and, within a matter 
of weeks after the disaster, we were assured by 
Members of the Congress that this administra- 
tion could embark on a full-scale rehabilitation 
program. 



Administration 

A major event of general administrative signi- 
ficance during the year was the revision of the 
Micronesian Title and Pay Plan. This revision 
resulted in setting up two wage schedules for our 
Micronesian workers, one based on trades and 
mechanical type of work and the other on clerical, 
administrative, and professional type positions. 

During the year our permanent Micronesian 
personnel increased from 1,857 to 1,995, reflecting 
not only expansion m such fields as public health, 
education, fisheries, and construction but also 
pointing up the emphasis on the administration 
policy of training and using qualified Microne- 
sians wherever possible as replacements for United 
States staff members. Since 1951, 33 Government 
positions formerly held by such staff members 
ranging through such categories as district direc- 
tor of public health, district director of education, 
chief nurse, finance officer, and the like have been 
taken over by qualified Micronesians. This past 
year saw additional top positions filled in this 
manner. A Ponapean took over as district direc- 
tor of public health in Ponape district; a Trukese 
was appointed finance officer in Truk. A nursing- 
instructor position in the Nurses' Training School 
in Palau was filled by a qualified Micronesian 
nurse as were positions in other departments. 
Within the next few months two additional district 
directorships of public health will be turned over 
to qualified Micronesian medical practitioners, as 
will be positions of assistant supply officers in 
several districts. In addition to the on-the-job 
training for Micronesian workers, a special schol- 
arship program has been established to give pro- 
fessional training to selected individuals to equip 



166 



them to handle professional positions now filled 
by nonindigenous staff members. 

Economic Development 

Our economic policy continues to be one of aid- 
ing the Micronesians to expand and develop their 
own economy. With the chartering last year of 
two new limited-stock trading companies, there 
are now nine such companies in operation, han- 
dling most of the import and export trade 
throughout the territory. Over $486,000 has been 
extended in development loans to the local trading 
companies to enable them to move toward com- 
plete self-sufficiency. 

Copra production during the first half of this 
fiscal year was well over 7,000 short tons, and, 
had we been able to maintain this production, our 
yearly export for this fiscal year would have been 
over 14,000 tons — potentially the highest amount 
the territory would have produced since World 
War II. The two typhoons of November and 
January ripped through our heaviest copra- 
producing areas stripping trees of nuts, damag- 
ing and uprooting thousands of trees. In many 
areas it will be years, in some instances 8 or more, 
before full copra production is again established. 
In the Marshall district alone a 20-percent de- 
crease in copra production is anticipated as a re- 
sult of the destruction of palms by these two 
typhoons. Yet in spite of the ravages of the 
typhoons we expect this fiscal year to export at 
least 12,000 short tons of copra with a revenue 
approximating $1,300,000. This, in actuality, will 
be only some 1,300 short tons under last year's 
production, and the overall revenue decrease will 
be only about $100,000. For the typhoon-stricken 
areas, the major source of cash mcome has been 
greatly curtailed or temporarily destroyed. The 
Copra Stabilization Fmid was able to maintain a 
constant price of $110 to the producer for grade- 
one copra during the year, with the necessity of 
withdrawing about $50,000 from the fund accoimt 
to achieve this stabilization. At the end of last 
month the stabilization fimd balance stood at 
$845,000, affording, we feel, ample protection 
against the fluctuations of the copra market for 
the forthcoming year. 

Trochus production during fiscal year 1957 fell 
to the lowest point since 1953, due largely to un- 

Deparfment of Sfafe Bullefin 



certainty of the market and refusal of trochus 
buyers to make lirm quotations on prices. Since 
Micronesians could not anticipate their returns, 
many were imwillino- to dive for trochus. Micro- 
nesian ofTu-ials, in cooperation with district con- 
gresses and local advisory councils, took advantage 
of the imcertain market to institute badly needed 
conservation measures in selected areas. In two 
of the formerly lieaviest trochus-producing areas, 
local legislative bodies declared a closed season on 
trochus. Thus, only some 1 64 short tons of trochus 
were marketed this past fiscal year, which, selling 
at a price of $750 a short ton, grossed approxi- 
mately $123,000. This was a sharp contrast to the 
top price of $1,160 a ton last year, when 350 tons 
grossed over $388,000. 

Vegetable production was less than last fiscal 
year, the decline being brought about by the No- 
vember typlioon which damaged the farms on 
Eota and Tinian, the two largest vegetable-pro- 
ducing areas for the territory. We expect, how- 
ever, that this coming year will show an 
appreciable increase in the production of market- 
able vegetables. 

Agriculture 

Tlie disastrous typhoons, which destroyed food 
crops as well as income crops in various parts of 
the territory, vividly brought home to us the 
necessity of maintaining at all times a strong agri- 
cultural program. The emphasis that has been 
given in tliis field stood us in good stead under 
the test of disaster. Since during the past 3 years 
our agricultural staff had been doubled and pro- 
grams in coconut development and improvement 
of subsistence crops had been stressed, we were 
better able to develop agricultural-rehabilitation 
programs for the devastated regions quickly and 
efficiently. In all of the typhoon areas the re- 
planting of coconut trees and subsistence crops 
is under way. Through our agricultural special- 
ists we are attempting to rebuild the shattered 
subsistence economy in a manner which will give 
generations of Micronesians still to come a more 
secure economic base. 

In all areas of the trust territory we are press- 
ing forward on a program of coconut rehabilita- 
tion and replanting as well as fostering demon- 
stration programs for better copra processing. 



The improvement of subsistence crops also con- 
tinues to be one of the major goals of our agri- 
cultural program as does improvement of the 
livestock of the area. 

A plant pathologist during the year devoted his 
time to the investigation of plant diseases in the 
territory, and his final report and recommenda- 
tions currently are under study by our director 
of agriculture. In the Palau district, control of 
the rhinoceros beetle has progi'essed to a point 
where copra production showed a 25-percent in- 
crease over last year. The predatory scolia wasp 
now appears to be firmly established throughout 
the rhinoceros beetle-infested area. We cannot 
as yet say that the predatory wasp is the major 
factor in control, but along with our other control 
methods and extermination program we can now 
state that large areas, foi'merly pest-ridden, ap- 
pear to be under control and can be replanted 
to coconuts. 

The menace of the giant African snail is still 
with us. The species of carnivorous snail which we 
introduced as a control measure several years ago 
as a predator has not satisfactorily been able to 
acclimate to the natural conditions of our area. 
This past year we introduced a different species of 
carnivorous snail, the euglandina, which has 
proven remarkably successful in Hawaii, and we 
hope this new introduction will succeed where the 
previous introductions did not. 

Wliile recent studies indicate that the experi- 
mental cacao plantation on Babelthuap would not 
be successful because of local soil conditions, cocoa- 
development work has continued elsewhere in the 
various districts. In Ponape and Yap the ty- 
phoons destroyed many of the pods on the trees. 
We are stressing cocoa planting in suitable areas in 
the hope of providing another cash crop for the 
Micronesians. 

In the past year we moved from the planning 
stages of a fisheries program into the first stages 
of implementing that program. A subsistence 
fishing project is now under way, and we are 
planning to start in the near future, on an experi- 
mental basis, a small-scale commercial fishing 
project. A fisheries management officer has been 
added to our staff and has embarked on a program 
of establishment of subsistence fisheries. For the 
Palau area we hope within the next fiscal year 
to procure a fishing vessel suitable for experi- 



July 28, 1958 



167 



mental commercial fishing and to set up a fish-dry- 
ing plant and a fish-freezing unit. Eventually we 
hope also to move into the operation of a small- 
scale pilot canning plant. All of these programs 
will be designed for the time being to provide fish 
for the Micronesian markets and thus cut down 
the import of fisli in various forms from outside 
the territory. Wliile it is doubtful as to whether 
the Micronesian economy can build up a commer- 
cial fisliing progi'am which could compete on the 
world market, we should, with proper manage- 
ment, be able to provide for most of the needs of 
the territory itself from the rich marine resources 
of the area. 

During the year also our marine biologist com- 
pleted a 2-year study of trochus, and as a result of 
his recommendations various districts put into ef- 
fect needed conservation programs. Trochus sanc- 
tuaries have been establislied. Trochus also was 
planted in new areas where it is hoped trochus will 
become established and, in time, provide an addi- 
tional source of cash income to local inliabitants. 

Education 

Tlie intent of our educational system is to pro- 
vide a type of education wliich will equip tlie 
Micronesians to be useful citizens within the 
framework of their own society. Increasingly, as 
the Micronesians acquire the necessary training, 
we are turning over important positions in the edu- 
cation department to them. In six districts all 
positions within the educational departments are 
staffed with qualified Micronesians, with the ex- 
ception of the teacher trainers in each district, tlie 
district educational administrators, and the spe- 
cialized teachers at PICS [Pacific Islands Cen- 
tral School] . In the Marshalls district, as has been 
previously reported, even the district directorship 
of education lias been taken over by a Marshallese. 

Over 12,000 children throughout the territory 
are in schools, either in the public or privately 
supported schools. 

Elementary education is almost completely in 
the hands of the local communities. The educa- 
tion department helps by providing needed edu- 
cational materials, training for the local teachers, 
and grants-in-aid for construction, but the com- 
munity itself provides for the elementary educa- 
tion of its children. The concern and interest of 
the local communities in elementary education is 
demonstrated in many ways. In five districts now 



the local legislative bodies have passed legislation 
setting minimum salary schedules and a system of 
centralized payment of all elementary-school sal- 
aries. Seven new elementary schools were built by 
local communities during the year, several of 
whicli were constructed under our grant-in-aid 
jirogram. In Truk, for example, Moen munici- 
pality currently is constructing an 8-room ele- 
mentary school at a cost of $17,000. Of this 
amount, $7,000 was furnislied by the administra- 
tion through the grant-in-aid program, with Moen 
municipality supplying the remaining $10,000. 
Rota municipality in the Marshalls, witli the aid 
of an administration grant, this year completed a 
7-room elementary school which presently is the 
most modern elementary school in the trust 
territory. 

"Wliile the administration supports the inter- 
mediate-scliool system, the people increasingly are 
demonstrating community concern and interest 
in this level of education. In Yap, for example, a 
new boys' dormitoi-y was constructed under a 
joint grant-in-aid program. The seventh public 
intermediate scliool of the territory and the first 
to be located outside a district center will start 
classes this fall at Kusaie. Altliougli this new 
intermediate school was not. built under the grant- 
in-aid program it was the result of joint effort. 
The administration provided $15,000 for materials 
and supplies and will staff and maintain the 
school. The Kusaiens donated most of the labor 
for its construction. 

Each year sees more Mici'onesian students seek- 
ing higher education outside the territory. This 
year at least 275 students were studying outside 
tlie territory, 189 attending high school or junior 
college in Guam, 53 in Hawaii, 13 in the Philip- 
pines, 20 in the United States and Fiji. Last year 
three scholarships were granted to eacli district, 
except Rota, for advanced training abroad, and a 
similar number were awarded for tlie coming year. 
Most of tliis type of scholarship is for a 2-year 
period, although a third year occasionally is 
awarded to outstanding scholars. 

A new and special type of scholarship pro- 
gram designed to give professional training in 
selected fields was instituted. Tliese scholar- 
ships are intended to take the recipients through 
a full college and professional course. To date 
under this program two special scholarships for 



168 



Department of State Bulletin 



I, tlie study of law have been m'anted, as liavc two 
^ special schohn-sliips in the Held of education. 

An important activity of the year was the con- 
tinuation of the work of the teacher trainers in 
tlie outlyin<r areas. At Truk district a district 
teacher-training institute was established, and the 
success of tlie program tliere led to the planning 
of similar teacher-training units at all district 
centers. Vocational education was given increased 
emphasis at all intermediate schools. The de- 
velopment of educational materials written in the 
local vernaculars and adapted to the local cultures 
moved forward in all districts. 

The departments of public health and educa- 
tion continued joint efforts in the field of health 
education. Similarly, programs of school agri- 
culture and adult education were pushed vigor- 
ously. 

Public Health 

As reported at previous Council meetings, ma- 
jor attention is being given to the serious health 
problem of tuberculosis. A BCG vaccine pro- 
gram is in its second year, and work already has 
been completed in Yap district. In other districts 
this program continues. 

The first major epidemic in the history of the 
present administering authority occurred in Palau 
district during July of 1957. Here the Asian 
flu, apparently brought in by crew members of 
one of our ships, within a short period of time 
afflicted some 85-90 percent of the total popula- 
tion of Palau district. This influenza epidemic 
struck during a period when our American dis- 
trict medical director was on home leave and only 
Micronesian medical practitioners were on duty in 
the district. Upon learning of the seriousness of 
the influenza epidemic, my staff at headquarters 
prepared to mobilize, if necessary, our medical 
staff and facilities from other districts as well as 
calling upon the United States Naval Hospital in 
Guam for emergency aid. The Palauan medical 
practitioners, Palauan nurses, and other local staff 
plunged into the monumental task of battling an 
outbreak of epidemic proportion, while carrying 
on at the same time all of the routine duties of 
a busy district hospital. I am proud to report 
that the Micronesian medical staff had control of 
the situation from the very outset and did such 
a capable job that our district administrator at 



Palau did not feel it was necessary to call for 
outside help. Members of this Council recently 
may have seen a magazine story on the work of 
tlie Micronesian medical practitioners in one of 
the well-known United States weekly magazines. 
That story not only describes the fine work the 
local medical staff at Palau district did in combat- 
ing the influenza epidemic but also tells in detail 
how the medical practitioners throughout the ter- 
ritory are handling the public-health program. 

We are indeed proud of our Micronesian medi- 
cal practitioners, our dentists, nurses, laboratory 
technicians, sanitarians, and other public-health 
workers. The success of our Micronesian health- 
training program, to us, is one of our outstanding 
achievements. 

This past year a Ponapean medical practitioner 
assumed full control of all public-health activities 
in the Ponape district. Now, in two of our dis- 
tricts, all public-health functions are under Micro- 
nesian direction. Within the next few months 
we also anticipate the replacement of two ad- 
ditional United States district directors of pub- 
lic health by qualified Micronesian medical prac- 
titioners. 

During the past year two new field hospitals — 
one at Ebeye and the other at Kusaie — were put 
into operation. These field hospitals are headed 
by licensed Micronesian medical practitioners and 
staffed by trained and qualified local personnel. 
We now liave nine hospital units in operation, 
seven main district units and the above two field 
units. A tenth oiit-island field hospital is under- 
going construction at Jabor in the Jaluit Atoll 
and will, we hope, be in operation by next year. 
Work continues on new hospital construction at 
the district centers. 

Special training of laboratory technicians as 
well as postgraduate training for nurses and medi- 
cal interns continued during the year in Hawaii. 
An advanced coureo in anesthesia for selected 
trainees was carried out in Guam under the aus- 
pices of the Guam Naval Hospital and will con- 
tinue this present year. 

The program of training out-island health aides 
at all district hospitals was intensified. In some 
districts, as in the Marshalls, this training course 
was extended from 6 montlis to a full year. Dur- 
ing the year a World Health Organization health 
educator spent several weeks in the territory ad- 
vising the health and education departments on 



iiily 28, 7958 



169 



their health-education program. Largely through 
his inspiration discussions are being lield looking 
toward the development of a health-education 
training course imder the joint auspices of the 
"World Health Organization, the trust territory, 
and the Govei-mnent of Guam. If tliese discus- 
sions lead to the actual holding of the training 
course in Guam this year, it is proposed that train- 
ing courses will be held in subsequent years in 
Saipan and Ponape. To each of these courses 
the trust territory proposes to send some 25 to 30 
trainees from tlie fields of education and public 
health for intensive training in public-health edu- 
cation. We will also furnish part of the teacliing 
staff. 

Construction 

Our construction program has gone forward in 
all districts. We believe it is essential that needed 
consti-uction in the areas of power plants, ware- 
houses, roads, harbors and docking facilities, re- 
frigeration plants, administration buildings, and 
the like should be accomplished within the con- 
fines of our local Micronesian resources, not by 
bringing in outside contractors and outside labor. 
Our long-range construction program may thus 
take more time to bring to completion, but, by so 
doing, we not only provide training for Micro- 
nesians but also chamiel most of the construction 
funds into the Micronesian economy. 

While typhoons Lola and Ophelia brought 
about temporal^ setbacks to the construction pro- 
gram in Truk and Ponape, in general our overall 
program progressed satisfactorily. Major proj- 
ects completed during the year included such 
needed facilities as new power plants, new re- 
frigeration plants, permanent staff housing, new 
public-works centers, as well as a variety of 
smaller projects. 

The total nmnber of employees engaged in pub- 
lic works at tlie close of the fiscal year was over 
1,000, of which 92 percent were Micronesian. 
Close to $900,000 was allotted for construction 
purposes during the fiscal year. Thus, in the 
past 3 yeai-s we have spent well over $2i/2 million 
on our constniction program. Upon completion 
of the present program of building permanent in- 
stallations, the territory will possess a physical 
plant commensurate with the services the adminis- 
tration must render. 



Communications 

The enormous sea area over which we must op- 
erate makes our supply and logistic operation one 
of considerable magnitude. The administration 
has continued the program of replacing wartime- 
built, higli-speed-engined vessels with vessels 
more suitable for the area. During the year a 
contract was made with a Japanese firm for the 
construction of a 140-foot passenger-cargo vessel 
for intradistrict work. Delivery of tliis new 
ship is expected in July of this year, and it has 
been designated as tlie new station vessel for 
Ponape district. 

Air transportation in the area was provided as 
in previous years by our fleet of three amphibious 
SA-16A planes. Extra flights due to the typhoon 
emergencies, medical lifts, and added require- 
ments of transportation of persomiel resulted in 
trust territory aircraft being flown more miles 
than any previous year. 

Our radio communication system, particularly 
our out-island network, has been strengthened. 
Eongelap joined this network during the past 
year as did Namorik — making a total of 17 out- 
island radio stations in operation throughout the 
territory. 

Political Development 

We have continued, in the year under review, 
to press forward in all phases of political develop- 
ment. The institution of a systematic program of 
chartering of municipalities throughout the terri- 
tory met in some areas with deep interest and re- 
sponse. This community interest had an unex- 
pected effect on our target dates- for the chartering 
of municipalities. In Truk, for example, the local 
communities saw in the formal chartering pro- 
gram an opportunity to launch a program of po- 
litical education on the local level. In Moen mu- 
nicipality, seat of the district center of the Truk 
district, the municifDal council composed of village 
heads met regularly once or twice a week for a 
period of 3 months with representatives of the 
administration, studying and discussing in detail 
the proposed charter revisions before presenting 
the formal request for a charter to the office of the 
High Commissioner. Here and in other munici- 
palities public meetings explaining the purposes 
of the charter program have been held. 

The initiation of this formal program of char- 



170 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



tering of municipalities demonstrated again the 
/ wisdom of moving slowly on a progriun of po- 
litical development. It is our contention, shared 
by the local political leaders, that, until the people 
fully comprehend and appreciate what a formal 
charter means in terms of their local political de- 
velopment, the granting of a charter is a somewhat 
meaningless gesture. For this reason the number 
of charters granted during the year was smaller 
than we had originally anticipated. In three dis- 
tricts also, the Marshalls, Ponape, and Truk, the 
necessary introductory and orientation work was 
brought to a virtual standstill for several months 
when all local energies had to be devoted to ty- 
phoon relief and rehabilitation work. Thus we 
I granted only 12 municipal charters rather than the 
20 that we earlier had expected to give out by June 
1958. In retrospect it now appears that a longer 
orientation period is needed than we thought when 
the pi'ogram was launched. 

Political progress on a district level lias been 
very satisf actorj-. With the granting of a charter 
last August, a district-wide unicameral congress 
came into being in Truk district 3 years before 
the target date set for that event. Truk Congress 
held its first meeting last October and had a most 
successful session. 

An interesting political development along dis- 
trict-wide lines has been the trend to abolish the 
bicameral bodies, one house of which was hei-edi- 
tary, into unicameral bodies with entire member- 
ship elected. In May of this year a constitutional 
convention of elected delegates from all munici- 
palities of Ponape district met in Kolonia, the 
Ponape district center, to consider waj's and means 
of turning the present two-house Ponape Island 
Congress into a districtwide congress. A draft of 
a charter establishing a unicameral legislative 
body is now under study. 

This proposed unicameral congress for Ponape 
will be a step forward, for in that district the 
original island congress had insisted upon an 
hereditaiT house of nobles in addition to an elected 
house of peoples' representatives. It is gratifying 
to report that much of the impetus for setting up 
a unicameral body in Ponape district, with all 
membership elected, stemmed from the hereditary 
nobles themselves. 

In the Marshalls the seventh annual meeting of 
the Marshall Islands District Congress last Octo- 



ber also resolved to study ways and means for the 
drafting of a new charter which would establish 
a unicameral legislative body. Throughout the 
year the Marshall Islands Congress Holdover 
Committee worked on this problem and, in consul- 
tation with a special headquarters consultant on 
jjolitical affairs, prepared a draft for a new char- 
ter which will be considered this coming August 
during the 1958 annual session of the present 
Congress. 

Yap district as yet does not envision a district- 
wide elective legislative body since its out-island 
areas pose problems somewhat unique to that dis- 
trict. A formal charter designed to establish a 
Yap Island legislative council currently is under 
preparation and should be ready for submission 
to my office within the next few months. 

A highlight of the year was the holding last 
October in Guam for the second time of an inter- 
district conference of Micronesian leaders. The 
success of this conference, to which all delegates in 
each district were elected by representative legis- 
lative or advisory bodies, led to the decision to 
schedule this conference on an annual basis. At 
the request of the delegates tliis group shall be 
known as the Interdistrict Advisory Committee to 
the High Commissioner. In summing up his im- 
pressions one of the Micronesian delegates ex- 
pressed himself in his closing remarks by these 
words : 

To me, the fact that we met, regardless of whether 
anything is accomplished, is itself a great advance in our 
political development. I am saying this because con- 
ferences of this nature are the first in our history. I no 
longer feel like a stranger to the other delegates, but as 
though we are brothers living on different islands. I am 
no longer afraid to speak out. 

If interdistrict conferences did nothing but 
bring about this feeling of unity, I would feel that 
they are indeed worth while. They are valuable 
also in that Micronesians are learning from each 
other at these conferences as is our administration. 
As a residt of meetings of this nature our task of 
administration is made easier and more responsive 
to the true needs of the Micronesians. Other ter- 
ritory-wide conferences during the year, such as 
the judicial conference and the educational con- 
ference, in which Micronesians from all districts 
participated, brought about better understanding 
of common problems. 

At earlier Trusteeship sessions various membere 



My 28, 1958 



171 



have commented on the fact that a imif orm age f or 
suffrage was not found throughout the territory, 
specifically noting that voting age started at 26 
years in the Palau district. This administration 
has maintained that the setting of a voting age 
should be done by the people tliemselves, not by 
arbitrary action on our part. I am thus very 
pleased to be able to report that during the past 
year the Palau Congress of their own volition re- 
vised the age of suffrage downward to 21 years. 

Claim Settlement 

The success with which we made settlement of 
the land claims for the people of Kill and Ujelang 
already has been described in detail to this Coun- 
cil, both in my verbal report last year as well as 
in our aimual report of 1957, - which is up for re- 
view at this session. 

We have continued to work toward the settle- 
ment of remaining land claims elsewhere in the 
territory. All remaining land claims in the Yap 
district, specifically those in Ulithi, should be 
settled by July 1 of this year. Money has been set 
aside for final settlement of remaining claims in 
Palau district, and these too, it is hoped, will be 
settled by the end of this calendar year. Only in 
the Marshall Islands district do appreciable land 
claims still remain unresolved, some due to still 
needed cadastral surveying and final land deter- 
minations, others pending agreement of acceptable 
terms to the owners and the Trust Territory Gov- 
ernment. Claimants in the Kwajalein Atoll have 
expressed a desire to have legal counsel in ne- 
eotiating settlement of tlieir claims. We are now 
ens-ae-ed in conversations with the lawyers to seek 
agreement on procedural aspects of their represen- 
tation of the claimants. 

The last remaining claims of a contractual 
nature, the redeeming of Micronesian-held Japa- 
nese bonds and of postal savings, are in the fuial 
state of settlement. We had expected to have all 
claims of this type completed by the end of this 
month. Since most of the postal savings are very 
small in amount, many Micronesians as yet have 
not turned in their claims. It now appears that 
the settlement of these remaining tiny claims will 
stretch over an indeterminate i^eriod. Suthcient 
funds for final settlement of postal savings claims 



' U.N. doc. T/1383. 
172 



have been set aside and will be disbursed until all ,j 
are met. | 

I 
Relocation of Displaced Persons | 

An outstanding event of this year was the return I 
of the people of Rongelap Island to their home , 
atoll in the Marshall Islands. All reports to date • 
indicate that the Eongelapese are making a satis- ; 
factory adjustment. As in any relocation of | 
people minor problems still remain to be worked i 
out, but, in general, the adjustment back to atoll j 
life has been faster and smoother than we expected. 
As members of this Council know, each year a very 
thorough medical reexamination of the people of \ 
Rongelap and Utirik has been carried out. This j 
year's examination conducted in Utirik and in i 
Rongelap during March demonstrated again that j 
tlie people are in good health. Not only does j 
Rongelap today have a fully equipped dispensary ■ 
manned by a trained health aide but with their 
two-way island radio are constantly in contact | 
with our medical staff at Ebeye or Majuro. If | 
necessary, we can arrange to have a plane at i 
Rongelap within a matter of 2 to 3 hours to handle 
any medical emergency. 

We are encouraging as fast as possible the re- 
planting of all types of subsistence foods. To this 
end we are employing an additional agriculturist 
to aid the Rongelapese in the rehabilitation of their 
local food crops. 

We have continued to aid in the development 
of the Kili and Ujelang people. This year each 
group received sizable interest payments from the 
trust funds established for them by the land claims 
settlement of last year. This interest payment 
amounted to $10,000 for the Kili people and $4,500 
for the people of Ujelang. Added to their copra 
income, the cash income of both peoples more than 
doubled as a result. 

At Kili also the first 6 months of the year saw 
the very successful operation of the 50-foot 
schooner, the Liira. The operation of this Kili 
boat effectively broke the former isolation of Kill 
and enabled the people to use their small islands 
in the Jaluit lagoon. I regret to report that the 
Libra was driven on the reef at Kili by the typhoon 
last November and sank, fortunately with no loss 
of life. Fortunately also, Kili suffered only slight 
damage to tree crops in this storm. When in early 
January the second disastrous typhoon smashed 

Deparfment of Sfafe Bvlletin 



into the Jalviit Atoll, the island of Kili again was 
spared. Only relatively slight damage to crops 
and homes occurred. The Kili settlement on 
Jalnit, however, was wiped out along with the rest 
of Jabor. and the Kili people resident there re- 
turned to their home island. The people of Kili, 
with their island relatively untouched by the 
typhoons and with their annual interest payment 
of $10,000 from their trust fund, are in an excellent 
position in contrast to the stricken people of the 
Jahiit Atoll. 

Immediately upon the loss of the Kili boat, steps 
were taken to procure a new and better boat. The 
damage wrought by the second typhoon necessi- 
tated immediate action to service Kili and to aid 
in the rehabilitation work in the Jaluit and Na- 
morik area, and to accomplish this we chartered 
a 60-foot schooner from a Marshallese in Majuro. 
It is our intention to keep this chartered schooner 
in operation until we can secure a permanent 
station vessel for the Kili people. A schooner 
to fit their specific needs has been ordered, and it 
is hoped that this new and much better vessel can 
be put into operation by late fall of this year. 

In August or September of this current year we 
plan to initiate a new method of field-trip service 
to Ujelang Atoll. A new station vessel for the 
Ponape district has just been launched for the 
trust territory in Japan and should be ready to be 
put into service in late July. With this new ship 
in operation we propose to service Ujelang out of 
Ponape district in an attempt to give the people 
of Ujelang more frequent and better service. 

The Setting of Tentative Target Dates 

During the past several years members of this 
Council have been extremelj' interested in the set- 
ting of "target dates," particularly in the fields of 
social and political development. To attempt to 
attain rigidly a series of target dates could seri- 
ously and adversely affect the orderly and jiroper 
progress toward desirable political, social, and 
economic goals. However, it is recognized that 
target dates, provided there is flexibility, are essen- 
tial to good planning. There is also a better 
defined sense of accomplishment when target dates 
are met. The following are targets this admin- 
istration has in mind and which we think worthy 
of accomplishment. We desire to conduct this 



administration so as to meet these dates, but at no 
time do we intend to lose sight of the fact that the 
manner in which the goal is reached is as im- 
portant, if not more so, than the mere attaining 
of the target date. 

Health 

1. By 1959 all but two districts will have a 
Micronesian district director of public health. 

2. It is anticipated that by 1963 all districts 
will have Micronesian district directors of public 
health. 

Legal 

Presently two Micronesians have received 
special scholarships in the field of law. If they 
successfully complete their studies and demon- 
strate the necessary ability, we hope that by 1965 
the positions of public prosecutor and public de- 
fender will be filled by these Micronesians. 

Education 

Within 8 years each district will have a Micro- 
nesian director of education. 

General Administration 

If our present training program continues suc- 
cessfully, we anticipate that within 8 to 10 years 
all district finance and supply personnel will bo 
Micronesians. 

Agriculture 

By 1961 we shall have a fully trained Microne- 
sian in charge of a district agricultural program. 

Political 

1. By 1960 thei-e will be district unicameral con- 
gresses in four major districts — Ponape, Mar- 
shalls, Truk, and Palau. 

2. An average of 10 municipalities will be chart- 
ered each year for the next 5 years. 

3. To develop by 1965 the present Interdistrict 
Advisory Committee to the High Commissioner 
into an elected territorial advisory council. 

We have previously announced the enactment 
of organic legislation as a target for 1960. We 
have such legislation under preparation, but it is 
becoming increasingly clear that enactment by 
1960 is not a realistic goal. We wish to advise the 
(>)uncil of our doubts on the accomplishment of 
this particular target but at the same time to as- 
sure the Council of our intention to press forward 
with the legislation as rapidly as practicable. 



Jo/y 28, 7 958 



173 



An analysis of the above tentative targets fully 
supports the firm belief that this administering 
authority has often voiced, namely, that the demo- 
cratic growth and development of Micronesia 
must be predicated on the growing acceptance of 
responsibility by Micronesians and the proper dis- 
charge of these responsibilities by them. 

At this point, Mr. President, I should like to 
say a few words regarding the current series of 
nuclear tests. Perhaps it is unnecessary to reas- 
sure the Council on this question, but I would like 
to say again that every precaution that is hu- 
manly possible is being taken for the safety and 
well-being of the inhabitants of tlie trust terri- 
tory. I say this from personal experience as I 
have recently come from the area in which the tests 
have been under way for nearly 2 months. As 
you will recall, we took similar precautions during 
the 1956 test series. These insured the successful 
completion of that series of tests without incident. 
I am happy to say that everything is going well 
with the current series and that the precautions 
are again proving very effective. Thus we are ad- 
hering to the previous resolutions of this Council 
regarding precautions which we supported when 
they were adopted. 

ConcEusion 

In tliis report I have touched only briefly upon 
what we believe to be the outstanding events of the 
year. I have not attempted to summarize the 
achievements of our service programs for these, I 
feel, have been described sufficiently in tlie report 
which is before this Council for review. I shall be 
pleased to amplify or clarify any points which 
members of this body may wish to bring forth dur- 
ing the question period. 

This past year has been unusual in that emer- 
gency events moved in upon us, necessitating ac- 
tions that had not been envisioned in our scheduled 
program. The emergencies of the past year have 
been a true test of the ability of Americans and 
Micronesians to work together to solve major and 
unexpected problems. It is my opinion tliat the 
manner in which we did work as a team is more 
than sufficient evidence that our Government has 
been following a wise course of administration. 
We shall continue, then, to build on this frame- 
work which rests essentially upon the desire and 
willingness of the Micronesian to participate as 



rapidly as his capabilities will permit in the opera- 
tion of an administration which, in the final analy- 
sis, is his. 

I am grateful for this opportunity to once again 
present this report of our progress. 



Mr. Jones To Be U.S. Commissioner 
on Tuna Commission 

The White House announced on July 1 that the 
President had that day appointed Eobert L. Jones 
to be a U.S. Commissioner on the Inter- American 
Tropical Tuna Commission, vice Gordon W. 
Sloan, resigned. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



U.S. and Scandinavian Countries 
Revise Air Transport Agreements 



Press release 389 dated July 8 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Civil aviation discussions in Washington be- 
tween the United States on the one hand and 
Denmark, Norway, and Sweden on the other con- 
cluded witli an exchange of notes on July 8, 1958, 
revising the annexes to the air transport agree- 
ments between the United States and Denmark, 
Norway, and Sweden. Thomas C. Mann, As- 
sistant Secretary for Economic Affairs, repre- 
sented the United States in the exchange. Den- 
mark was represented by Ambassador Henrik de 
Kauffmann, Norway by the Norwegian Charge 
d'Affaires ad interim, Torfinn Oftedal, and Swe- 
den by the Swedish Charge d'Affaires ad interim, 
Carl L. Douglas. The discussions arose from the 
Scandinavian request that the route to Los Ange- 
les, granted on an exjjerimental basis in 1954,^ be 
made permanent. 

The revision of the annexes to the air trans- 
port agreements establishes uniform route de- 
scriptions and air traffic rights in the United 



' Bulletin of Aug. 16, 1954, p. 251. 



174 



Department of State Bulletin 



States for the three countries. The Scandinavian 
Governnioiits retain traflic riglits to New York 
and Chicago. However, the "bej^ond" rights pre- 
viously appearing in the Danish and Swedish 
agreements have been deleted. TralHc rights were 
granted to Los ^Vngeles and to Anchorage. 

The United States maintains traffic rights to 
Copenhagen, Oslo, Stavanger, and Stockholm, 
and no change was made in the existing broad 
"beyond"' rights from those points. 

A paragraph has been added to the annex of 
the agreements providing that points specified on 
the routes may be omitted at the option of the 
designated airlines. 



TEXT OF U.S. NOTE 2 



July 8, 1958 



Excellency : I have the honor to acknowledge the re- 
ceipt of your note of today's date which reads as follows : 

"I have the honor to refer to discussions which recently 
have taken place in Washington concerning air transport 
services between Denmark and the United States of 
America. 

"It is proposed that the Government of Denmark and 
the Government of the United States of America agree 
to replace the Annex to the Air Transport Agreement 
between Denmark and the United States of America, 
signed December 16, 1944,^ as amended, by the following : 

" 'Annex to Air Transport Agreement Between 
Denmark and the United States op America 

" 'A. Airlines of the United States designated under 
the present agreement are accorded rights of transit and 
non-tratfic stop in Danish territory, as well as the right 
to pick up and discharge international traffic in passen- 
gers, cargo and mail at the point in Denmark specified 
in the following route : 

From the United States via intermediate points to Co- 
penhagen and points beyond ; in both directions. 

■' 'B. Airlines of Denmark designated under the present 
agreement are accorded rights of transit and non-trafiic 
stop in the territory of the United States, as well as the 
right to pick up and discharge international traffic in 
passengers, cargo and mail at the points in the United 
States specified in the following routes : 

1. From Denmark via intermediate points to (a) New 
York and (b) Chicago; in both directions. 

2. From Denmark (via Greenland) to Los Angeles; in 
both directions. 

3. From Denmark to Anchorage ; in both directions. 



' The note printed here is addressed to Henrik de Kauff- 
mann, Ambassador of Denmark. The texts of the notes 
to the Norwegian and Swedish Governments are identi- 
cal with the exception of tlie naming of cities in the re- 
spective countries. 



" 'C. Toints on any of the specified routes may, at the 
option of the designated airline, be omitted on any or 
all flights.' 

"If the routes described above are in accordance with 
the understanding of the Government of the United 
States, my Government will be pleased to consider these 
amendments as entering into force upon the date of your 
reply of acceptance. 

"I avail myself of the opportunity to renew to you. Sir, 
the assurances of my highest consideration." 

I have the honor to inform you that the routes described 
above and the terms and conditions specified are in ac- 
cordance with the understanding of the United States 
Government and that my Government will consider your 
note together with this reply as constituting an amend- 
ment of the Agreement effective from today's date. 

Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of my high- 
est consideration. 

For the Secretary of State : 

Thomas C. Mann 

Current Actions 

MULTILATERAL 

Aviation 

Protocol to amend convention for unification of certain 
rules relating to international carriage by air signed at 
Warsaw October 12, 1929 (49 Stat. 3000). Done at 
The Hague September 28, 19.5.5.' 
Si (J nature: New Zealand, March 19, 1958. 

Narcotic Drugs 

Convention relating to the suppression of the abuse of 
opium and other drugs. Signed at The Hague January 
23, 1912. Entered into force February 11, 1915. 38 
Stat. 1912. 
Accession deposited: Jordan, May 12, 1958. 



BILATERAL 

Belgium 

Convention supplementing the convention of October 28, 
1948 (TIAS 2833), for the avoidance of double taxation 
and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to 
taxes on income, as modified by the supplementary con- 
vention of September 9, 1952 (TIAS 2833). Signed at 
Washington Augu.st 22, 1957.' 

Senate advice and consent to ratification given: July 
9, 1958. 

Brazil 

Agreement amending research reactor agreement con- 
cerning civil uses of atomic energy of August 3, 1955 
(TIAS 3303). Signed at Washington July 9, 1958. 
Enters into force on date on which each government 
receives from the other written notification that it has 
complied with statutory and constitutional require- 
ments. 

Ecuador 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (G8 Stat. 455; 7 U. S. C. 1701-1709), 



' Bulletin of Dec. 17, 1944, p. 759. 



' Not in force. 



July 28, 7958 



175 



with memorandums of understanding. Signed at Quito 
June 30, 1958. Entered Into force June 30, 1958. 

France 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of December 27, 1957 (TIAS 3971). Effected by 
exchange of letters at Paris June 30, 1958. Entered 
into force June 30, 1958. 

India 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (68 Stat. 455; 7 U. S. C. 1701-1709), 
with related letter. Signed at New Delhi June 23, 1958. 
Entered into force June 23, 1958. 

Ireland 

Research reactor agreement concerning civil uses of 
atomic energy. Signed at Washington March 10, 1956. 
Entered into force: July 9, 1958 (date on which each 
government received from the other written notifica- 
tion that it had complied with statutory and consti- 
tutional requirements) . 

Israel 

Agreement supplementing the agricultural commodities 
agreement of November 7, 1957, as amended (TIAS 
3945 and 4006). Effected by exchange of notes at 
Washington June 30, 1958. Entered into force June 30, 
1958. 

Italy 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of October 30, 1956, as amended (TIAS 3702, 
3760, 3762, 3788, and 3790). Effected by exchange of 
notes at Rome June 30, 1958. Entered Into force June 
30, 1958. 

Mexico 

Agreement amending the first memorandum of under- 
standing to the agricultural commodities agreement of 
October 23, 1957 (TIAS 3935) . Effected by exchange of 
notes at Mexico City June 30, 1958. Entered into force 
June 30, 1958. 

Norway 

Convention supplementing the convention of June 13, 
1949, for the avoidance of double taxation and the pre- 
vention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income 
(TIAS 2357). Signed at Oslo July 10, 1958. Enters 
into force upon exchange of ratifications. 

Pakistan 

Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the 
prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on 
income. Signed at Washington July 1, 1957.' 
Senate advice and consent to ratification given (with 
a reservation) : July 9, 1958. 

Peru 

Agreement amending annex to air transport services 
agreement of December 27, 194G (TIAS 1587). Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at Washington April 24 
and May 28, 1958. Entered into force May 28, 1958. 

Philippines 

Agreement on the use of the veterans memorial hospital 
and for the provision of medical care and treatment 
of veterans by the Government of the Philippines, and 
the furnishing of grants-in-aid thereof by the Govern- 
ment of the United States. Signed at Manila June 30, 
1958. Entered into force July 1, 1958. 

Agreement for the construction and equipping of hos- 
pitals for veterans and the provision of medical care 
and treatment of veterans by the Philippines and the 



furnishing of grants-in-aid by the United States. 
Signed at Manila June 7, 1949. Entered into force 
June 7, 1949. TIAS 1949. 
Terminated : July 1, 1958 (superseded by agreement of 

June 30, 19.58, supra). 
Agreement amending the agreement of June 7, 1949 
(TIAS 1949) relating to veterans hospitals and medi- 
cal care. Exchange of notes at Manila October 6, 1954. 
Entered into force October 6, 1954. TIAS 3111. 
Terminated: July 1, 1958 (superseded by agreement of 

June 30, 1958, supra). 

Spain 

Agreement further supplementing the agricultural com- 
modities agreement of January 27, 1958, as supple- 
mented (TIAS 4010 and 4018). Signed at Madrid June 
30, 1958. Entered into force June 30, 1958. 

Turkey 

Agreement supplementing the agricultural commodities 
agreement of January 20, 1958 (TIAS 3981). Signed 
at Ankara June 25, 1958. Entered into force June 25, 
1958. 

United Kingdom 

Notification by the United Kingdom with a view to ex- 
tending the application of the convention of April 16, 
1945, for the avoidance of double taxation and the pre- 
vention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on in- 
come, as modified by the supplementary protocols of 
June 6, 1946, May 25, 1954, and August 19, 1957, to 
certain British overseas territories, embodied in a note 
dated August 19, 1957, from the British Ambassador to 
the Secretary of State.' 
Senate advice and consent to ratification given (with 

a reservation regarding the protocol of August 19, 

/.9.57) : July 9, 1958. 

Viet-Nam 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
19.54, as amended (68 Stat. 455; 7 U. S. C. 1701-1709), 
with memorandum of understanding and exchange of 
notes. Signed at Saigon June 17, 1958. Entered into 
force June 17, 1958. 

Yugoslavia 

Agreement supplementing the agricultural commodities 
agreement of February 3, 19.58 (TIAS 4000), with ex- 
change of notes. Signed at Belgrade June 26, 1958. 
Entered into force June 26, 1958. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



' Not in force. 



Confirmations 

The Senate on July 10 confirmed Waldemar J. Gallman 
to be Ambassador to the Arab Union. (For biographic 
details, see Department of State press release 378 dated 

July 2.) 

Designations 

Daly C. Lavergne as director of the U.S. Operations 
Mission in Laos, effective July 7, (For biographic de- 
tails, see Department of State press release 387 dated 
July 7.) 



176 



Department of State Bulletin 



Julv 28, 1958 



INDEX 



Vol. XXXIX, No. 996 



American Principles. The Defense of Freedom (Kohler) . 

American Republics. Mr. Jones To Be U.S. Commissioner on 
Tuna Commission 

Arab Union. Gallmau contirmed as ainbassatlor 

Atomic Enerffy 

i:i lationsliip of Geneva Technical Talks and Suspension of 
Nuclear Tests , . . . . 

L uited States and United Kingdom Sign New Agreement 
Under Amended Atomic Knergy Act (Department an- 
nouncement. President's message to Congress, text of 
agreement) 

Aviation. U.S. and Scandinavian Countries Revise Air 
Transport Agreements (text of U.S. note) 

Ceylon. U.S. Authorizes Development Loans for Ceylon, 
Pakistan, and Paraguay 

China, Communist. "Sixteen" Call for Settlement of 
Korean Question 

Congress, The 

Congressional Documents Relating to Foreign Policy . 

Cnited States and United Kingdom Sign New Agreement 
I'nder .\mended .\tomic Energy Act (Department an- 
nouncement. President's message to Congress, text of 
agreement) 

Cuba. Reports on Arms Shipments to Cuba Called 
Erroneous 

Denmark. U.S. and Scandinavian Countries Revise Air 
Transport Agreements (text of U.S. note) 

Department and Foreign Service 

t'onfirmations (Gallman) 

I>esignations (Lavergne) 



Disarmament. Basic Elements in U.S. Foreign Policy 
(Murphy) 

Germany, East. U.S. Reiterates Request for Release of 
Helicopter Crew and Passengers (U.S. and Soviet aide 
memoire) 

India. United States Signs Loan Agreements With India 
and Tunisia 

International Organizations. Mr. Jones To Be U.S. Commis- 
sioner on Tuna Commission 

Iran 

Economic Development Loan to Iran 

Shah of Iran Visits Washington 



Korea. "Sixteen" Call for Settlement of Korean Question . 

Laos. Lavergne designated Director, USOM 

Military Affairs 

Reports on Arms Shipments to Cuba Called Erroneous . . 

I'.S. Asks Soviets To Return DC-6 Crew Forced Down in 

U.S.S.R. (U.S. memorandum. Soviet note) 

U.S. Reiterates Request for Release of Helicopter Crew and 

Passengers (U.S. and Soviet aide memoire) 

Mutual Security 

Basic Elements in U.S. Foreign Policy (Murphy) . . . 

Economic Development Loan to Iran 

Lavergne designated Director. USOM, Laos 

U.S. Authorizes Development Loans for Ceylon, Pakistan. 

and Paraguay 

United States Signs Loan Agreements With India and 

Tunisia 

Non-Self-Governing Territories. The Trust Territory of the 
Pacific Islands (Nucker) 

Norway. U.S. and Scandinavian Countries Revise Air 
Transport Agreements (text of U.S. note) 

Pakistan. U.S. -Authorizes Development Loans for Ceylon, 
Pakistan, and Paraguay 



154 

174 
176 

148 

157 
174 
156 
152 
164 

157 

153 

174 

176 
176 



147 

156 

174 

154 
153 

152 

176 

153 
146 

147 



141 
154 
176 



Paraguay. U.S. Authorizes Development Loans for Ceylon, 
Pakistan, and Paraguay 

Presidential Documents. United States and United King- 
dom Sign New Agreement Under Amended Atomic 
Energy Act (message to Congress) 

Protection of Nationals 

U.S. .Asks Soviets To Return DC-6 Crew Forced Down in 

U.S.S.R. (U.S. memorandum, Soviet note) 

U.S. Reiterates Request for Release of Helicopter Crew 

and Passengers (U.S. and Soviet aide memoire) . . . 

Sweden. U.S. and Scandinavian Countries Revise Air 
Transport Agreements (text of U.S. note) 

Treaty Information 

Current .Actions 

U.S. and Scandinavian Countries Revise Air Transport 

Agreements (text of U.S. note) 

United States Signs Loan Agreements With India and 

Tunisia 



156 
156 

165 

174 

156 

156 

157 

146 
147 

174 

175 
174 
156 



Tunisia. United States Signs Loan Agreements With India 
and Tunisia 

U.S.S.R. 

Basic Elements in U.S. Foreign Policy (Murphy) . . . 
Relationship of Geneva Technical Talks and Suspension 

of Nuclear Tests 

U.S. Asks Soviets To Return DC-6 Crew Forced Down In 

U.S.S.R. (U.S. memorandum, Soviet note) 

U.S. Reiterates Request for Release of Helicopter Crew 

and Passengers (U.S. and Soviet aide memoire) . . . 
U.S. Rejects Soviet Protest on Attorney General's Speech 

(texts of statements) 

United Kingdom. United States and United Kingdom Sign 
New Agreement Under Amended Atomic Energy Act 
(Department announcement. President's message to Con- 
gress, text of agreement) 

United Nations 

"Sixteen" Call for Settlement of Korean Question . . . 
The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Nucker) . . 

Kame Index 



Dulles, Secretary 

Eisenhower, President .... 
Gallman, Waldemar J . . . . 

Herter, Christian A 

Jones. Robert L 

Kohler, Foy D 

Lavergne, Daly C 

Libby, W. F 

Lodge, Henry Cabot 

McElroy, Neil H 

Murphy, Robert 

Nucker. Delmas H 

Pablavi, Mohammad Reza Shah 



156 

141 
148 
146 
147 
150 



157 



152 
165 



157 
157 
176 
150 
174 
154 
176 
157 
152 
157 
141 
165 
153 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: July 7-13 

Press releases may be obtained from the News 
Division, Department of State, Washington 25, 
D.C. 

Releases issued prior to July 7 which appear in 
this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 361 of June 27, 
3C)3, 366, and 367 of June 30, 368 and 374 of July 1, 
376 and 377 of July 2, and 379, 382, 383, 384, 384-A, 
and 385 of July 3. 

Subject 

Yost nominated Ambassador to Mo- 
rocco (biographic details). 

Lavergne sworn in as Director of 
USOM in Laos (rewrite). 

Renesotiations under (;.\TT with Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand, Austria, Fin- 
land, and Netherlands and Surinam. 

Revision of air transport agreements 
with Scandinavia. 

Aide memoire to U.S.S.R. on helicop- 
ter crew. 

DLF loan to Paraguay. 

ICA guarantees investment of South 
American Placers in Bolivia. 

Atoms-for-peace agreement with Bra- 
zil amended. 

Foreign students visit Washington. 

Educational exchange (France). 

Three Foreign Service officers nomi- 
nated career ministers. 

Supplementary income tax convention 
with Norway. 

Military sales agreement with Burma. 

Note to U.S.S.R. on U.S. transport 
plane. 

* Not printed. 

t Held for a later issue of the Bitlletin. 



No. 


Date 


*386 


7/7 


387 


7/7 


t388 


7/8 


389 


7/8 


390 


7/9 


*391 
*392 


7/9 
7/9 


t393 


7/9 


*394 
*395 
*396 


7/10 
7/10 
7/10 


t397 


7/11 


i398 
t399 


7/11 
7/11 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1953 



I 




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Foreisn Relations of the United States 

The basic source of information on 
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Deoartnient 



ate 



1941, Volume I 

General, The Soviet Union 



This volume is one of seven in the Foreign Rela- 
tions series for 1941. One volume, 1941, Volume 
IV, The Far East, has previously been published. 
Volume I deals primarily with the war in Europe 
as it affected the interests of the United States and 
with prol)lems arising in the relations of the United 
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FFICIAL 
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HITEO STATES 
)REIGN POLICY 



Boston Public Library 
Superinfon-'-it of nocumentK 

SEP 1 9 1958 

Vol. XXXIX, No. 997 August 4, 1958 

UNITED STATES DISPATCHES TROOPS TO 

LEBANON • Statements by President Eisenhower and 
Message From the President to the Congress 181 

THE LEBANESE COMPLAINT IN THE SECURITY 

COUNCIL • Statements by Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge 

and Texts of U.S. and Japanese Draft Resolutions 186 

PRESIDENT EISENHOWER REPLIES TO SOVIET 
LETTER ON EXPANSION OF PEACEFUL TRADE 
BETWEEN U.S. AND SOVIET UNION • Exchange of 

Correspondence Between President Eisenhoiver and Premier 
Khrushchev -'^" 

PRESIDENT EISENHOWER'S VISIT TO CANADA • 

President's Address Before Canadian Parliament and Texts of 
Joint Statements 204 

U.S. PARTICIPATION IN THE UNITED NATIONS 

DURING 1957 • Text of President Eisenhower's Letter of 
Transmittal for 12th Annual Report to Congress 218 

For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XXXIX, No. 997 • Publication 6680 
August 4, 1958 



For sale by the SuperintendCDt of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing OlFice 

Wasliington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

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Single copy, 20 cents 

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approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 20, 1958). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulleti.n as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on tlie tcork of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
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officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
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United States Dispatches Troops to Lebanon 



After the overthrow of the Government of 
King Faisal II of Iraq on July IJi, President 
Eisenhoiver ordered a contingeiit of U.S. forces 
to Lebanon '•''to protect American lives and hy 
their presence there to en-courage the Lebanese 
government in defense of Lebanese sovereignty 
and integrity^ Following are texts of a state- 
ment by the President released by the White 
House on July 15, a message from the President 
to the Congress of Jvly 15, and a statement de- 
livered by the President over a nationwide radio- 
television hookup the evening of July 15. 



STATEMENT BY PRESIDENT EISENHOWER 

White House press release dated July 15 

Yesterday morning, I received from President 
Chamoun of Lebanon an urgent plea that some 
United States forces be stationed in Lebanon to 
help maintain security and to evidence the con- 
cern of the United States for the integrity and 
independence of Lebanon. President Chamoun's 
appeal was made with the concurrence of all of 
the members of the Lebanese Cabinet. 

President Chamoun made clear that he con- 
sidered an immediate United States response im- 
perative if Lebanon's independence, already 
menaced from without, were to be preserved in 
the face of the grave developments which oc- 
curred yesterday in Baghdad whereby the lawful 
government was violently overthrown and many 
of its members martyred. 

In response to this appeal from the government 
of Lebanon, the United States has dispatched a 
contingent of United States forces to Lebanon 
to protect American lives and by their presence 
there to encourage the Lebanese government in 



defense of Lebanese sovereignty and integrity. 
These forces have not been sent as any act of war. 
They will demonstrate the concern of the United 
States for the independence and integrity of 
Lebanon, which we deem vital to the national in- 
terest and world peace. Our concern will also be 
shown by economic assistance. We shall act in 
accordance with these legitimate concerns. 

The United States, this morning, will report its 
action to an emergency meeting of the United 
Nations Security Council. As the United Nations 
charter recognizes, there is an inherent right of 
collective self-defense. In conformity with the 
spirit of the charter, the United States is report- 
ing the measures taken by it to the Security Coun- 
cil of the United Nations, making clear that these 
measures will be terminated as soon as the Secu- 
rity Council has itself taken the measures neces- 
sary to maintain international peace and security. 

The United States believes that the United 
Nations can and should take measures which are 
adequate to preserve the independence and integ- 
rity of Lebanon. It is apparent, however, that in 
the face of the tragic and shocking events that 
are occurring nearby, more will be required than 
the team of United Nations observers now in 
T^.banon. Therefore, the United States will sup- 
port in the United Nations measures which seem 
to be adequate to meet the new situation and 
which will enable the United States forces 
promptly to be withdrawn. 

Lebanon is a small peace-loving state with 
which the United States has traditionally had the 
most friendly relations. There are in Lebanon 
about 2,500 Americans and we cannot, consistently 
with our historic relations and with the principles 
of the United Nations, stand idly by when Leba- 
non appeals itself for evidence of our concern and 



Augusf 4, 1958 



181 



when Lebanon may not be able to preserve inter- 
nal order and to defend itself against indirect 
aggression. 

MESSAGE TO THE CONGRESS > 

To the Congress of the United States: 

On July 14, 1958, I received an urgent request 
from the President of the Republic of Lebanon 
that some United States forces be stationed in 
Lebanon. President Chamoun stated that with- 
out an immediate showing of United States sup- 
port, the Government of Lebanon would be 
unable to survive. This request by President 
Chamoun was made with the concurrence of all 
the members of the Lebanese Cabinet. I have 
replied that we would do this and a contingent 
of United States Marines has now arrived in 
Lebanon. This initial dispatch of troops will be 
augmented as required. United States forces will 
be withdrawn as rapidly as circmnstances permit. 

Simultaneously, I requested that an urgent 
meeting of the United Nations Security Comicil 
be held on July 15, 1958. At that meeting, the 
permanent representative of the United States re- 
ported to the Council the action which this Gov- 
ernment has taken. He also expressed the hope 
that the United Nations could soon take further 
effective measures to meet more fully the situa- 
tion in Lebanon. We will continue to support 
the United Nations to this end. 

United States forces are being sent to Lebanon 
to protect American lives and by their presence 
to assist the Government of Lebanon in the pres- 
ervation of Lebanon's territorial integrity and 
independence, which have been deemed vital to 
United States national interests and world peace. 

About 2 months ago a violent insurrection broke 
out in Lebanon, particularly along the border 
with Syria which, with Egypt, forms the United 
Arab Republic. This revolt was encouraged and 
strongly backed by the official Cairo, Damascus, 
and Soviet radios which broadcast to Lebanon in 
the Arabic language. The insurrection was 
further supported by sizable amounts of arms, 
ammunition, and money and by personnel infil- 
trated from Syria to fight against the lawful 
authorities. The avowed purpose of these activi- 
ties was to overtlu-ow the legally constituted Gov- 
ernment of Lebanon and to install by violence a 

' H. Doe. 422, 85th Cong., 2d sess. 



182 



government which would subordinate the inde- 
pendence of Lebajion to the policies of the United 
Arab Rejjublic. 

Lebanon refen-ed tliis situation to the United 
Nations Security Council.^ In view of the inter- 
national implications of what was occurring in 
Lebanon, the Security Council on Jmie 11, 1958, 
decided to send observers into Lebanon for the 
purpose of insuring that further outside assistance 
to the insurrection would cease. The Secretary 
General of the United Nations subsequently 
undertook a mission to the area to reinforce the 
work of the observers. 

It was our belief that the efforts of the Secre- 
tai-y General and of the United Nations observers 
were helpful in reducing further aid in terms of 
personnel and military equipment from across 
the frontiers of Lebanon. There was a basis for 
hope that the situation might be moving toward 
a peaceful solution, consonant with the continu- 
ing integrity of Lebanon, and that the aspect of 
indirect aggi'ession from without was being 
brought mider control. 

The situation was radically changed, however, 
on July 14, when there was a violent outbreak in 
Baghdad, in nearby Iraq. Elements in Iraq ; 
strongly sympathetic to the United Arab Re- j 
jDiiblic seem to have murdered or driven fi'om office ] 
individuals comprising the lawful Government of , 
that country. We do not yet know in detail to 
what extent they have succeeded. We do have 
reliable information that important Iraqi leaders 
have been murdered. 

We share with the Government of Lebanon the 
view that these events in Iraq demonstrate a 
ruthlessness of aggressive purpose which tiny 
Lebanon cannot combat without further evidence 
of support from other friendly nations. 

After the most detailed consideration, I have 
concluded that, given the developments in Iraq, . 
the measures thus far taken by the United Na- 
tions Security Council are not sufficient to pre- 
serve the independence and integrity of Lebanon. 
I have considered, furtliermore, the question of 
our responsibility to protect and safeguard 
American citizens in Lebanon of whom there are 
about 2,500. Pending the taking of adequate 
measures by the United Nations, the United 
States will be acting pursuant to wliat the United 
Nations Charter recognizes is an inherent right — 



' Bulletin of July 14, 1958, p. 88. 

Department of State Bulletin 



the ricflit of all nations to work together and to 
, seek help when necessary to preserve their inde- 
pendence. I repeat that we wish to withdraw 
our forces as soon as the United Nations has taken 
further effective steps designed to safeguard 
Ix^banese independence. 

It is clear that events which have been occur- 
ring in T^banon represent indirect aggression 
I'l om without, and that such aggression endangers 
the independence and integrity of Lebanon. 

It is recognized that the step now being taken 
may have serious consequences. I have, how- 
ever, come to the considered and sober conclusion 
that despite the risks involved this action is re- 
quired to support the principles of justice and 
international law upon which peace and a stable 
international order depend. 

Our Government has acted in response to an 
appeal for help from a small and peaceful nation 
which has long had ties of closest friendship with 
the United States. Keadiness to help a friend 
in need is an admirable characteristic of the 
American people, and I am, in this message, in- 
forming tlie Congress of the reasons wliy I believe 
that the United States could not in honor stand 
idly by in this hour of Lebanon's grave peril. As 
we act at the request of a friendly government to 
1 [ help it to preserve its independence and to pre- 
serve law and order which will protect American 
lives, we are actmg to reaifirm and strengthen 
principles upon which the safety and security of 
the LTnited States depend. 

DwiGiiT D. Eisenhower 

I ' The White Hottse, July 15, 1958. 



RADIO-TV STATEMENT 

White House press release dated July 15 

Yesterday was a day of grave developments in 
the Middle East. In Iracj a highly organized 
military blow struck down the duly constituted 
Government and attempted to put in its place a 
committee of Army officers. The attack was con- 
ducted with great brutality. Many of the lead- 
ing personalities were beaten to death or hanged 
and their bodies dragged through the streets. 

At about the same time tliere was discovered a 
highly organized plot to overthrow the lawful 
Government of Jordan. 

Warned and alarmed by these developments. 



Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey Express 
Gratitude for U.S. Action in Lebanon 

Folloirhiff is an exchange of tncxitdi/es between. 
I'resi(}ent Eisenhower and the Hhuh of Iran and the 
Presidents of Pakistan and Tiirk-eij. 

Message From President Eisenhower 

White House press release dated July 17 

July 16, 1958 
His Imperial Majesty Mohammad Keza Pahlavi 
His Excellency Iskandeb Mirza 
His Excellency Celal Bayar 
Ankara 

I have received with deep appreciation your mes- 
sage of July 15 conceruing the atflrmative response 
of the United States to the plea for assistance from 
the Government of Lebanon. I am i>rofoundly 
gratified by your support for this action, taken in 
accordance with the principle of the United Nations 
Charter which recognizes as inherent tlie right of 
all nations to work together and to seek help when 
necessary to preserve their independence. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 
Incoming Message 

White House press release dated July 16 

Ankara, Jiih/ 16. 195S ' 
The President 

The White House 
Washington 

We have been informed by the United States 
Embassy in Ankara that upon the request of Presi- 
dent Chamoun to the effect that the Eisenhower 
Doctrine be applied to Lebanon, the United States, 
in order to protect the independence and territorial 
integrity of Lebanon, has decided to act and ac- 
cordingly units of the Sixth Fleet have landed in 
Beirut today. 

This bold and appropriate decision of the United 
States will not only ensure the protection of the 
independence of Lebanon and the support of its 
legitimate government but will at the same time 
strengthen the determined position of Iran, Pakis- 
tan and Turkey and also renew and increase the 
faith of the free world in the leadership of the 
United States for the defense of the free nations. 

We, meeting in Ankara, wish to convey to you, 
Mr. President, our appreciation and gratitude for 
this momentous decision in which we have deep 
satisfaction and relief. 

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 
Iskandeb Mikza 
Celal Bayar 



' On account of the time difference the incoming 
message was received at Washington on July 15. 



August 4, 1958 



183 



I 



President Chamoun of Lebanon sent me an urgent 
plea that the United States station some military 
units in Lebanon to evidence our concern for the 
independence of Lebanon, that little country 
which itself has for about 2 months been sub- 
jected to civil strife. This has been actively 
fomented by Soviet and Cairo broadcasts and 
abetted and aided by substantial amounts of arms, 
money, and personnel infiltrated into Lebanon 
across the Syrian border. 

President Chamoun stated that without an im- 
mediate show of United States support the Gov- 
ernment of Lebanon would be unable to survive 
against the forces which had been set loose in 
the area. 

The plea of President Chamoun was supported 
by the unanimous action of the Lebanese Cabinet. 

After giving this plea earnest thought and 
after taking advice from leaders of both the 
executive and congressional branches of the Gov- 
ernment, I decided to comply with the plea of 
the Government of Lebanon. A few hours ago a 
battalion of United States Marines landed and 
took up stations in and about the city of Beirut. 

The mission of these forces is to protect Ameri- 
can lives — there are about 2,500 Americans in 
Lebanon — and by their presence to assist the 
Government of Lebanon to preserve its territorial 
integrity and political independence. 

The United States does not, of course, intend to 
replace the United Nations, wliich has a primary 
responsibility to maintain international peace 
and security. We reacted as we did witliin a 
matter of hours because the situation was such 
that only prompt action would suffice. We have, 
however, with equal promptness moved in tlie 
United Nations. This morning tliere was held at 
our request an emergency meeting of the United 
Nations Security Council. At this meeting we 
reported the action which we had taken. We 
stated the reasons therefor. We expressed the 
hope that the United Nations would itself take 
measures which would be adequate to preserve the 
independence of I^banon and permit of the early 
withdrawal of the United States forces. 

The Situation in Lebanon 

I should like now to take a few minutes to ex- 
plain the situation in I^banon. 
Lebanon is a small country, a little less than 



the size of Comiecticut, with a population of 
about iy2 million. It has always had close and 
friendly relations with the United States. Many 
of you no doubt have heard of the American 
University at Beirut, which has a distinguished 
record. I^banon has been a prosperous, peaceful 
country, thriving on trade largely with the West. 
A little over a year ago there were general elec- 
tions, lield in an atmosphere of total calm, M'hich 
resulted in the establishment, by an overwlielm- 
ing popular vote, of the present Parliament for a 
period of 4 years. The term of the President, 
liowever, is of a different duration and would 
normally expire next September. The President, 
Mr. Chamoun, has made clear that he does not 
seek reelection. 

When the attacks on the Government of 
Lebanon began to occur, it took the matter to the 
United Nations Security Council, pointing out 
that Lebanon was the victim of indirect aggression 
from without. As a result, the Security Council 
sent observers to Lebanon in the hope of thereby 
insuring that hostile intervention would cease. 
Secretary-General Hammarskjold undertook a 
mission to the area to reinforce the work of the 
observers. 

We believe that his efforts and those of the 
United Nations observers were helpful. They 
could not eliminate arms or ammunition or remove 
persons already sent into Lebanon. But we be- 
lieve they did reduce such aid from across the 
border. It seemed, last week, that the situation 
was moving toward a peaceful solution which 
would preserve the integrity of Lebanon and end 
indirect aggi'ession from without. 

Those hopes were, however, dashed by the events 
of yesterday in Iraq and Jordan. These events 
demonstrate a scope of aggressive purpose which 
tiny Lebanon could not combat without further; 
evidence of support. That is why Lebanon's re- 
quest for troops from the United States was made. 
That is why we have responded to that request. 

Some will ask, does the stationing of some 
United States troops in I^banon involve any in- 
tei'ference in the internal afl'airs of Lebanon? 
The clear answer is "no." 

First of all, we have acted at the urgent plea of 
the Government of Lebanon, a Government which 
has been freely elected by the people only a little 
over a year ago. It is entitled, as are we, to join 
in measures of collective security for self-defense. 



184 



Deporfmenf of Stafe Bulletin 



Sucli action, the I'^nited Nations Charter recog- 
nizes, is an ''iniiorent right." 

Pattern of Conquest by Indirect Aggression 

In tlie suL'ond place what we now see in the 
Middle East is tlie same pattern of conquest with 
whicli we became familiar during the period of 
1945 to 1950. This involves taking over a nation 
by means of indirect aggression; that is, under 
the cover of a fomented civil strife the purpose is 
to put into domestic control those whose real 
loyalty is to the aggressor. 

It was by such means that the CJommunists at- 
tempted to take over Greece in 1947. That effort 
was thwarted by the Truman Doctrine. 

It was by such means that the Communists took 
over Czechoslovakia in 1948. 

It was by such means that the Commimists took 
over the mainland of China in. 1949. 

It was by such means that the Communists at- 
tenuated to take over Korea and Indochina, be- 
ginning in 1950. 

You will remember at the time of the Korean 
war that the Soviet Government claimed that this 
was merely a civil war, because the only attack 
was by north Koi-eans upon south Koreans. But 
all the world knew that the north Koreans were 
armed, eqviipped, and directed from without for 
the purpose of aggression. 

This means of conquest was denounced by the 
United Nations General Assembly when it 
adopted in November 1950 its resolution entitled 
"Peace Through Deeds." ^ It thereby called upon 
eveiy nation to refrain from "fomenting civil 
strife in the interest of a foreign power" and de- 
nounced such action as "the gravest of all crimes 
against peace and security throughout the world." 
We had hoped that these threats to the peace 
and to the independence and integrity of small 
nations had come to an end. Unliappily, now 
they reappear. I^banon was selected to become 
a victim. 

Last 3'ear the Congress of the United States 
joined with the President to declare that "the 
United States regards as vital to the national in- 
terest and world peace the preservation of the 
independence and integrity of the nations of the 
Middle East." " 



' For text, see ibid., Nov. 1.3, 19."0, p. 767. 
* Ibid., Mar. 2.5, 1957, p. 480. 



I believe that the presence of the United States 
forces now bemg sent to Lebanon will have a sta- 
bilizing effect which will preserve the independ- 
ence and integrity of Lebanon. It will also af- 
ford an increased measure of security to the 
thousands of Americans who reside in Lebanon. 

We know that stability and well-being cannot 
be achieved purely by militaiy measures. The 
economy of Lebanon has been gravely strained by 
civil strife. Foreign trade and tourist traffic 
have almost come to a standstill. The United 
States stands ready, under its mutual security 
program, to cooperate with the Government of 
Lebanon to find ways to restore its shattered econ- 
omy. Thus we shall help to bring back to Leb- 
anon a peace which is not merely the absence of 
fighting but the well-being of the people. 

The Purpose of the United States 

I am well aware of the fact that landing of 
United States troops in Lebanon could have some 
serious consetiuences. That is why this step was 
taken only aft«r the most serious consideration 
and broad consultation. I have, however, come 
to the sober and clear conclusion that the action 
taken was essential to the welfare of the United 
States. It was required to support the principles 
of justice and international law upon which peace 
and a stable international order depend. 

That, and that alone, is the purpose of the 
United States. We are not actuated by any hope 
of material gain or by any emotional hostility 
against any person or any government. Our ded- 
ication is to the principles of the United Nations 
Charter and to the preservation of the independ- 
ence of every state. That is the basic pledge of 
the United Nations Charter. 

Yet indirect aggi-ession and violence are being 
promoted in the Near East in clear violation of 
the provisions of the United Nations Charter. 

There can be no peace in the world unless there 
is fuller dedication to the basic principles of the 
United Nations Charter. If ever the United 
States fails to support these principles, the result 
would be to open the floodgates to direct and in- 
direct aggression throughout the world. 

In the 1930's the members of the League of Na- 
tions became indifferent to direct and indirect ag- 
gression in Europe, Asia, and Africa. The result 



August 4, 1958 



185 



was to strengthen and stimulate aggressive forces 
that made World War II inevitable. 

The United States is determined that that his- 
tory sliall not now be repeated. We are hopeful 
that the action which we are taking will both 
preserve the independence of Lebanon and check 
international violations which, if they succeeded, 
would endanger woi'ld peace. 

We hope that this result will quickly be at- 
tained and that our forces can be promptly with- 
drawn. We must, however, be prepared to meet 



the situation, whatever be the consequences. We 
can do so, confident that we strive for a world in 
which nations, be they great or be they small, can 
preserve their independence. We are striving for 
an ideal which is close to the heart of every Amer- 
ican and for which in the past many Americans 
have laid down their lives. 

To serve these ideals is also to serve the cause of 
peace, security, and well-being, not only for us 
but for all men everywhere. 



The Lebanese Complaint in the Security Council 



The Sectmty Cotincil met on July 15 to con- 
sider again the Lebanese complaint "wi. respect of 
a situation arising from the intervention of the 
United Arab Eejmhiic in the internal affairs of 
Lebanon, the continuance of lohich is likely to 
endanger the maintenance of internatiorml peace 
and secwritf {U.N. doc. S/W07).^ Following 
is a series of statements made by U.S. Representa- 
tive Henry Cabot Lodge during the debate July 
15 to 21, together -with the texts of U.S. and Japa- 
nese resolutions which were vetoed by the U.S.S.R. 



STATEIV'JENT OF JULY 15 

U.S. /U.N. press release 2956 

The Council meets today to confront difficulties 
as serious as any in its history. 

The territorial integrity of Lebanon is increas- 
ingly threatened by insurrection, stimulated and 
assisted from outside. 

Plots against the Kingdom of Jordan, which 
have become evident over tlie past few months, 
are another sign of serious instability in the rela- 
tions between nations in the Middle East. 

And now comes the overthrow — in an excep- 
tionally brutal and revolting manner — of the 
legally established Government of Iraq. I have 
just heard this morning, Mr. President, before 
coming over here, of the murder of our esteemed 
and popular colleague here in the United Nations 
from Iraq— Mr. Fadhil al-Jamali.= Only a few 



weeks ago he was here with us. We heard his 
voice; we rejoiced in his humor; we were heart- 
ened by his fellowship. Now we learn that he 
was not only murdered but that his body was 
actually dragged through the streets of Baghdad. 
Decent people throughout the world, wherever 
they may be, will recoil at this monstrosity. 

In all these circumstances, the President of 
Lebanon has asked, with the unanimous author- 
ization of the Lebanese Government, for the help 
of friendly governments so as to preserve Leba- 
non's integrity and independence. 

The United States has responded positively and 
affirmatively to this request in the light of the need 
for inunediate action. And we wish the Security 
Council to be hereby officially advised of this fact. 

In addition, the United States Government has 
under active consideration economic assistance to 
help Lebanon revive its economy. 

Our purpose in coming to the assistance of 
Lebanon is perfectly clear. As President Eisen- 
hower explained this morning, our forces are not 
there to engage in hostilities of any kind — much 
less to fight a war. Their presence is designed 
for the sole purpose of helping the Government 
of Lebanon at its request in its eft'orts to stabilize 
the situation, brought on by the threats from out- 
side, until such time as the United Nations can 
take the steps necessary to protect the indeiiend- 
ence and political integi'ity of Lebanon. They 
will also afford security to the several thousand 
Americans who reside in that country. And that. 



' For background, see Buujitin of July 14, 1958, p. 88. 
186 



" For a correction, see p. 198. 



Departmenf of Siafe Bulletin 



Mr. I'rcsidcnt, is the total scope and objective of 

\ the United States assistance. 

Xow I need scai'cely say that we are tlie first 
to admit that the dispatch of United States forces 
to Ijfbanon is not an ideal way to solve present 
problems, and they will be withdrawn as soon as 
the United Nations can take over. 

In fact, the United States Government hopes 
that the United Nations itself will soon be able 
to assume these responsibilities. We intend to 

f consult with the Secretary-General and with other 
delegations urgently on a resolution to achieve 
these objections. Until then the presence of 
United States troops in Lebanon will be a con- 
structive contribution to the objectives the Secu- 
rity Council had in mind when it passed the June 
11 resolution dealing with this problem.^ 
Let me review the recent history of this situa- 

L tion. 

Situation in Lebanon and Iraq 

A little over a month ago the Government of 
Lebanon presented a complaint to the Security 
Council involving "a situation arising from the 
intervention of the United Arab Kepublic in the 
internal aifairs of Lebanon, the continuance of 
whicli is likely to endanger the maintenance of in- 
ternational peace and security." At that time 
various members of the Council drew special at- 
tention to article 2 (4) of the charter, which 
enjoins all members to "refrain in their inter- 
national relations from the threat or use of force 
against the territorial integrity or political in- 
dependence of any state." This was one of the 
fundamental considerations behind the resolution 
which was adopted bj' the Council on June 11, 
which called for the urgent dispatch of an obser- 
vation group to proceed to Lebanon so as to insure 
there was no illegal infiltration of personnel or 
supply of arms or other materiel across the 
Ijebanese borders. 

The United Nations Observation Group has 
thus far been able to achieve limited success. We 
hope that it will pursue its work in the most ef- 
fective and energetic way possible. Our forces 
are being instructed to cooperate with it and to 
establish liaison immediately upon arrival. This 
United Nations group has helped to reduce inter- 
ference from across the border. 

We learn now, however, that with the outbreak 



'Bulletin of July 14, 1958, p. 90. 
Augusf 4, 1958 



of the revolt in Iraq the infiltration of arms and 
personnel into Lebanon from the United Arab 
Republic in an effort to subvert the legally con- 
stituted Government has suddenly become much 
more alarming. This development, coupled with 
persistent efforts over the past montlis to subvert 
the Government of Jordai^, must be a cause of 
grave concern to us all. They place in jeopardy 
both the independence of I^ebanon and that of any 
Middle Eastern state which seeks to maintain its 
national integrity free from outside influence and 
{pressures. It is too early, Mr. President, to tell 
what the outcome of the revolt in Iraq may be. 
But one thing is clear : The events in both Lebanon 
and Iraq present grave threats to the integrity 
of free and independent countries. They demon- 
strate a ruthlessness of aggressive purposes which 
tiny Lebanon cannot combat without support from 
friendly nations. 

Observing the course of events in Lebanon and 
in Iraq, one is constrained to conclude that there 
are powers at work in the Middle East seeking, 
in total disregard for national sovereignty and 
independence, to substitute force or the threat of 
force for law. If these powers are left unchecked, 
free to pursue their lawless course, the people of 
the Middle East will have been denied the solemn 
guaranties written into the United Nations Char- 
ter and mankind's agelong quest for peace will 
have been checked and the world will have been 
plunged into anarchy. 

Now we confront here a situation involving out- 
side involvement in an internal revolt against the 
authorities of the legitimate Government of 
Lebanon. Under these conditions a request from 
the Government of Lebanon to another member 
of the United Nations to come to its assistance is 
entirely consistent with the provisions and pur- 
poses of the United Nations Charter. In this 
situation, therefore, we are proceeding in accord- 
ance with the traditional rules of international 
law, none of which in any way inhibit action of 
the character which the United States is under- 
taking in Lebanon. The United States is acting 
pursuant to what the United Nations Charter re- 
gards as an inherent right — the right of all na- 
tions to work together to preserve their inde- 
pendence. The Council should take note that 
United States forces went to Lebanon at the spe- 
cific request of the duly constituted Government 
of Ivebanon. Let me also emphasize again what 
I have said before, that these forces will remain 



187 



there only until the United Nations itself is able 
to assume the necessary responsibilities to insure 
the continued independence of Lebanon. 

Now, Mr. President, there is one further fact 
which must be recognized. If the United Nations 
is to succeed in its efforts to maintain interna- 
tional peace and security, it should support the 
efforts of a legitimate and democratically elected 
government to protect itself from aggression from 
without, even if that aggression is indirect. The 
United Nations must be particularly alert in pro- 
tecting the security of small states from inter- 
ference by those whose resources and power are 
larger. This is a principle M'hich has been sup- 
ported hei'e in this very hall in the j^ast and which 
should be supported today regardless of who the 
offender may be. 

Lebanon is a charter member of the United 
Nations and has loyally contributed to the work 
over the past decade. It would be unthinkable 
now to permit the lawfully constituted Govern- 
ment of Lebanon to fall prey to outside forces 
which seek to substitute a government which 
would serve their purposes in defiance of the prin- 
ciples of the charter. 

There can be no hope for peace in the world 
unless the United Nations shows this dedication 
to the charter's basic principles. All nations, 
large and small alike, are entitled to have their 
political independence and territorial integrity 
respected and maintained. If we vacillate with 
regard to this proposition, we will open the flood- 
gates to direct and indirect aggression all over the 
world. 

The overthrow of another state by subversion 
and the fomenting of internal strife is more diffi- 
cult for the world to combat than is directed mili- 
tary aggression because the fomenting of internal 
strife is harder to see with your eyes. 

But this is not the first time that the United 
Nations has faced such a problem. 

The United Nations faced such a problem suc- 
cessfully in Greece in 1946 when Soviet-sponsored 
insurrection threatened to overwhelm the Greek 
Government. 

The United Nations did so unsuccessfully in 
1948 when the Commmiist coup was perpetrated 
in Czechoslovakia. 

"Peace Through Deeds" Resolution of 1950 

The United Nations sought to provide means 
for dealing with such aggressive developments in 



the future when in 1949 and in 1950 it adopted 
the "Essentials of Peace" and the "Peace Through 
Deeds" resolutions of the General Assembly. If 
the Council will forgive a pereonal note, I particu- 
larly recall the "Peace Through Deeds" resolution 
because I actively worked to obtain its adoption 
the first time that I was a member of the United 
States delegation to the United Nations in 1950. 
At that time I said : ^ 

The eight-power resolution not only reaffirms that 
whatever the weapons used, any aggression is the gravest 
of all crimes against peace and security In the world ; it 
also freshens, modernizes, brings up to date, and makes 
more complete our concept of aggression by specifically 
Including the latest form of aggression, to wit : fomenting 
civil strife. 

Let me now quote some of the provisions of this 
resolution, which was adopted here in the General 
Assembly in 1950 : * 

Condemning the intervention of a State in the internal 
affairs of another State for the purpose of changing its 
legally established government by the threat or use of 
force, 

1. Solemnly reaffirms that, whatever the weapons used, 
any aggression, whether committed openly, or by foment- 
ing civil strife in the interest of a foreign Power, or 
otherwise, is the gravest of all crimes against peace and 
security throughout the world ; 

2. Determines that for the realization of lasting peace 
and security it is indispensable : 

(1 ) That prompt united action be taken to meet aggres- 
sion wherever it arises ; . . . 

This, I submit, applies very definitely to the 
situation which confronts us today. 

Keniember, Mr. President, that the Government 
of Lebanon was a cosponsor of this resolution and 
that the present Foreign Minister of Lebanon was 
its spokesman. 

Kemember that the first representative in the 
General Assembly to raise the issue of subversion 
and civil strife was the representative of Greece, 
which was just then overcoming the effects of 
Communist subversion. 

Remember that the first language for a resolu- 
tion was introduced on that occasion by the repre- 
sentative of Bolivia. 

Eemember, too, that the resolution in its final 
fonn was sponsored by France, Lebanon, Mexico, 
the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the United 
States, Bolivia, and India. 

Remember, finally, that the resolution condemn- 



* Ihid., Dec. 4, 19.50, p. 904. 

° For full text, see ibid., Nov. 13, 1950, p. 767. 



188 



Department of State Bulletin 



i ing tlie fomenting of civil strife in tlie interest 
) of a foreign power — because tliat's what it did — 
was adopted by a vote of 50 to 5, the Soviet bloc 
being significantly against it. 
Tiiose are good things to think about today. 
In solemnly affirming that aggression which 
foments civil strife in the interest of a foreign 
, power was one of the gravest of all crimes against 
I peace and security through the world, the Gen- 
eral Assembly clearly had in mind just such a 
situation as that which we face. The integrity 
and independence of a nation is as precious when 
it is attacked from outside by subvereion and 
erosion as when it is attacked in the field by mili- 
tary action. 

Now, Mr. President, I conclude, and I do so by 
r saying to my colleagues of the Security Council 
\ to remember this one more fact. The members 
of the League of Nations tolerated direct and in- 
direct aggression in Europe, in Asia, and in Africa 
during the 1930's, and the tragic result was to 
strengthen and to stimulate aggressive forces in 
such a way that World War II became inevitable. 
The United States, for its part, is determined that 
liistory shall not now be repeated. We hope and 
believe that the action which we are taking will 
bring stability and that the United States forces 
now being sent into Lebanon at the request of its 
Government can be promptly withdrawn. We 
must, however, be prepared to meet the situation 
whatever the consequences may be. We strive for 
a world in which nations, gi-eat and small, can 
preserve their independence. This is an ideal 
which is close to the heart of every American, and 
we believe it is close to the hearts of all free men. 
We believe that the action which the United 
States is now taking is consistent with the princi- 
ples and purposes of the United Nations and will 
promote the cause of world peace. 



FIRST STATEMENT OF JULY 16 

U.S. /U.N. press release 2957 

The United States resolution before the Se- 
curity Council*' has three principal purposes. 

First, it supports fully and seeks to strengthen 
the operations of the United Nations Observer 
Group in Lebanon. In fact, it specifically com- 



° i:.X. doc, S/40.J0. 
August 4, 1958 



mends the work of the Observer Group and of 
the Secretary-General. 

Secondly, it provides the basis for additional 
arrangements by the Secretaiy-General with a 
view to making contingents available as neces- 
sary as a further measure to protect the territorial 
integrity and political independence of Lebanon 
and to insure that there is no illegal infiltration 
of personnel or supply of arms or other materiel 
across the Lebanese bordere. 

Third, it would make it possible for the United 
States forces to withdraw promptly if the resolu- 
tion were quickly carried out. 

The introduction of this resolution is an at 
tempt in good faith by the United States to give 
efi'ect to President Eisenhower's statement yester- 
day that "the United States will support in the 
United Nations measures which seem to be ade- 
quate to meet the new situation and which will 
enable the United States forces promptly to be 
withdrawn." 

Two important practical aspects of this resolu- 
tion merit particular mention. 

The first relates to the United Nations Observer 
Group in Lebanon. Let me initially take this 
opportunity to pay tribute to the devotion and 
to the untiring efforts of the three membei-s of the 
Observer Group, Sr. Galo Plaza of Ecuador, Gen- 
eral Odd Bull of Norway, and Mr. E. Dayal of 
India, and to the teams of military observers 
from many countries. The United Nations is 
fortunate to have such individuals in its services. 
The United States continues to believe that the 
Observer Group has a most significant and help- 
ful pai-t to play in this situation. We agree fully 
with the statement of the Canadian representative 
that the action of the United States is comple- 
mentary to the efforts of the United Nations. The 
Observer Group can be assured that the United 
States forces will cooperate with them in every 
way. To that end they have been instructed to 
establish and maintain liaison with them. We in 
no way underestimate the obstacles confronting 
the operations of this Observer Group. We will 
do everything possible to help them overcome 
these difficulties. 

Tlie resolution recognizes the continued im- 
portance of the Observer Group by requesting it 
to continue and to develop its activities pui-suant 
to the Council's resolution of June 11. The Sec- 
retary-General, who is daily in direct contact with 



189 



the tlii'ee members of the Observer Group, is in 
the best position to determine and to work out in 
cooperation with the Government of Lebanon ad- 
ditional measures which would help to improve 
the operations of the Observer Group. "We are 
confident he will continue to take every feasible 
step to this end. 



Secretary-General Asked To Undertake Additional 
Measures 

There is a second practical aspect of importance 
which we included in our resolution. This relates 
to additional measures which the Secretary-Gen- 
eral is requested to undertake in order to protect 
the independence of Lebanon and to insure 
against illegal infiltrations. We recognize that 
the means available to the Observer Group, help- 
ful though this group has been, is, and we hope 
will be, are insufficient to meet all aspects of the 
serious situation. This is particularly the case 
in light of the grave developments in Iraq and the 
recently discovered organized plot to overthrow 
the lawful Government of Jordan. These were 
prime considerations which pi'ompted the United 
States response to the Lebanese request for as- 
sistance in maintaining its independence. Tliese 
same considerations have prompted us in urging 
here today further additional measures by the 
United Nations in order to protect Lebanon's in- 
dependence. This would make possible a prompt 
withdrawal of United States armed forces. 

The heart of the resolution is in operative para- 
graph 3, which I would like to quote in its 
entirety : 

Requests the Secretary-General immediately to consult 
the Government of Lebanon and other Member States as 
appropriate with a view to making such additional ar- 
rangements, including the contribution and use of con- 
tingents, as may be necessary to protect the territorial 
integrity and independence of Lebanon and to ensure 
that there is no illegal infiltration of personnel or supply 
of arms or other materiel across the Lebanese borders; 

This provision gives the Secretary-General the 
necessary authority to work out in consultation 
with member states whatever arrangements the 
situation may require, including the use of mili- 
tary units if necessary. 

There is no doubt in our minds, as the United 
States has testified by its actions, that these units 
are required. They are required quickly, and we 



urge the Secretary-General to take prompt action 
to bring them into being. 

We hojje that all membere will cooperate with 
the Secretary-General and that it will be possible 
for him to arrange promptly for United Nations 
units to maintain internal stability in Lebanon 
and thereby make it unnecessary for United 
States forces to remain. We hope that, at such 
time as the Secretary-General is able to organize 
the appropriate units, the situation will be suffi- 
ciently stable in Lebanon to permit such units to 
carry out effectively the mission of the United 
Nations. 

The task of these contingents will be, first, to 
"protect'' the territorial integrity and independ- 
ence of Lebanon and, secondly, to "ensure" that 
there is no infiltration of pei-sonnel, arms, or 
other materiel. 

The United Nations forces would not be there 
to engage in hostilities or to fight a war. I 
made this statement about United States forces 
yesterday. It should be fully clear about United 
Nations forces today. They would not be there 
to fight unless they are attacked. But it should 
be fully clear also that they would have the au- 
thority to fire in self-defense in performance of 
their duties to "prevent" infilti'ation and "pro- 
tect" the integrity of Lebanon. 



Relevant U.N. Resolutions 

There is still another important part of this 
resolution. The preamble, which provides the 
framework for the operative paragraphs, makes 
sjiecific reference to relevant resolutions of the 
General Assembly. These are the "Essentials of 
Peace" resolution of December 1, 1049,' and the 
"Peace Through Deeds" resolution of November 
18, 1950, which were adopted by an overwhelming 
majority of the members of tlie United Nations. 
Mention of these resolutions is relevant because it 
reminds us that the United Nations must meet 
and deal effectively with the problem of indirect 
aggression. As I said yesterday, "The integrity 
and independence of a nation is as precious when 
it is attacked from outside by subversion and ero- 
sion as when it is attacked m the field by military 
action." 

Yesterday the Soviet representative submitted 



' For text, see Bulletin of Nov. 28, 1949, p. 807. 



190 



Department of State Bulletin 



a resolution of liis own.' It follows the tnuli- 
( tional Soviet pattern of seeking to divert atten- 
tion from the real issue, which is the continued in- 
dependence of Lebanon. It makes no contribu- 
tion to the achievement of a solution. 

The United States is contident that members of 
the Council will recognize that, unless the practi- 
cal arraiigeiuent.s envisaged in the United States 
resolution are made, we here will have shirked the 
grave responsibility we bear to insure the contin- 
ued independence and integrity of Lebanon. 
I "We hope that the Council will support the 
r United States proposal. It would thereby, we 
think, take an important step toward stabilizing 
tlie situation in Ijebanon and in the Middle East 
, generally. 

SECOND STATEMENT OF JULY IG 

U.S./r.N. press release 2958 

I have asked to be recognized to make a brief 
reply to the strictures which the Soviet represent- 
ative has seen tit to make once again against the 
United States. 

Comment is not required on most of his speech 
because it deals with the legal basis for our posi- 
tion and I have covered that already both yester- 
day and today. 

"We think that the United Nations is not help- 
less against aggression by internal subversion 
from without. And the Soviet representative 
thinks that it is. There is the dil!'erence, and 
there is not much use in taking much more time 
on that subject. "We think that the resolution 
adopted by the General Assembly by a vote of 50 
to 5 in 1050 makes perfectly clear that it is United 
Nations policy to regard aggression in any form 
as a bad thing— and that includes the fomenting 
of civil strife from without. 



'The original Soviet draft resolution (U.N. doc. S/4047, 
dated July lij) called uiiuu the United States Govern- 
ment "to cease armed intervention in the domestic affairs 
of the Arab States and to remove its troops from the ter- 
ritory of Lebanon immediately." A revised draft (U.N. 
doc. S/4047/Rev. 1, dated July 17), calling upon the Gov- 
ernments of the United States and the United Kingdom 
"to cease armed intervention in the domestic affairs of 
the .Vrab States and to remove their troops from the 
territories of Lel)anon and Jordan immediately," was de- 
feated on July 17 by a vote of 1 (U.S.S.R.) to S, with 2 
abstentions (Jniian. Sweden). 



Then the Soviet representative based most of 
his contention on editorials in news dispatches 
from the New York Times. "Well, I greatly ad- 
mire the New York Times as a newspaper. And 
I am sure they do not claim to be the official or 
the unofficial voice of the United States Govern- 
ment. I assure Mr. Sobolev once again because I 
know his fondness for newspaper clippings — • 
which in the Soviet Union, of course, are the 
voice of the Government — I assure him that in 
this country newspaper clippings — they may be 
interesting; they may be stimulating; they may 
be attention-attracting — but they are not Govern- 
ment policy. He has lived here long enough that 
I should think he would know that. 

Then Mr. Sobolev said that the United States 
was always against the United Nations, that we 
talked in a hypocritical mamier about justice, 
peace, and freedom, but that we were actually 
against the United Nations when the time came. 
This interested me very much because it comes 
from the representative of a government which 
has been condemned by the United Nations three 
times in the past, year for its actions in Hungaiy. 
It comes from the representative of a government 
which has violated the expressed wishes of the 
United Nations more than 30 times in the past 8 
years, which has abused the United Nations veto 
power 83 times. And they accuse the United 
States of always being against the United 
Nations ! 

I declare now that the United States has always 
carried out eveiy single decision of the United 
Nations, and the Soviet representative cannot find 
a single exception to that statement. 

"What we are proposing here now is a way of 
helping an organ of the United Nations, of giving 
it facilities and means which it does not possess. 
That is what we are trying to do. 

Then the Soviet representative said that United 
States policy imder President Eisenliower was like 
that of Adolf Hitler. I did not dream that up. 
I was listening carefully. I took notes during the 
consecutive translation, and that statement oc- 
curred both in the English and in the French 
translations. "Well, I must defer to Mr. Sobolev 
in the knowledge of Adolf Hitler because his Gov- 
ernment was once an ally of Adolf Hitler when 
]Mr. Jlolotov made a pact with Mr. Eibbentrop of 
un fragrant memory. The United States has 



Augusf 4, T958 



191 



never been an ally of Adolf Hitler. So he knows 
more abo