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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




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fEEKLY RECORD 

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NITED STATES 

OREIGN POLICY 



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VOLUME 


XL: Numbers 1019-1044 




Issue 










Number 


Date of Issue 




Pages 




1019 


Jan. 5, 1959 




1- 44 




1020 


Jan. 12, 1959 




45- 76 




1021 


Jan. 19, 1959 




77-112 




1022 


Jan. 26, 1959 




113-148 




1023 


Feb. 2, 1959 




149-180 




1024 


Feb. 9, 1959 




181-216 




1025 


Feb. 16. 1959 




217-252 




1026 


Feb. 23, 1959 




253-288 




1027 


Mar. 2, 1959 




289-324 




1028 


Mar. 9, 1959 




325-360 




1029 


Mar. 16, 1959 




361-392 




1030 


Mar. 23, 1959 




393-424 




1031 


Mar. 30, 1959 




425-464 




1032 


Apr. 6, 1959 




465-504 




1033 


Apr. 13, 1959 




505-540 




1034 


Apr. 20, 1959 




541-576 




1035 


Apr. 27, 1959 




577-616 




1036 


May 4, 1959 




617-656 




1037 


May 11, 1959 




657-692 




1038 


May 18, 1959 




693-732 




1039 


May 25, 1959 




733-772 
773-816 
817-856 
857-900 
901-940 




1040 


June 1, 1959 






1041 


June 8, 1959 






1042 


June 15, 1959 






1043 


June 22, 1959 






1044 


June 29, 1959 




941-980 




QJyX 










i a l r c ; 










• 









Corrections for Volume XL 



The Editor of the Bulletin wishes to call atten- 
tion to the following errors in Volume XL: 

January 5, page 7, left column, 41st line of text: 
The number of Commandants should read "four." 

January 19, page 92, left column, 36th line of 
text: The line should read "for the teaching of 
Spanish and Portuguese. Our goal should be". 

January 26, page 131, footnote in right column: 
The date should read "Jan. 19, 1959." 

February 9, page 193, right column: Lines 17 
and 18 should be reversed. 

February 23, page 285, right column: The date 
of the convention listed under "Telecommunication" 
should be "December 22, 1952." 



INDEX 

Volume XL, Numbers 1019-1044, January 5-June 29, 19S9 






Abs, Hermann, 788n. 
Adenauer, Konrad, 859 

Administrative agreement (1952), U.S.- Japanese, agree- 
ment relating to Japanese contributions for supplies 
and services under article XXV, 810 
Advertising material and commercial samples, interna- 
tional convention (1952) to facilitate importation, 
810 
Advisory Commission on Educational Exchange, 383 
Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid, ICA, 21 
Afghanistan : 

Convention on the high seas, 854 
Food-grain shortage, U.S. aid, 164 
Soviet-bloc aid, 207 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 250 
U.S. Operations Mission director, designation, 462 
Africa (sec also individual countries) : 
American missionary activities in, 842, 847 
Developments in : 
Addresses and statement : Dulles, 154 ; Murphy, 188, 

628 
Role of labor in, address (Satterthwaite), 524 
DLF loans, 484 
Economic development: 
Addresses: Murphy, 296; Satterthwaite, 195, 525 
French aid to, statement (Dillon), 638 
Role of science and technology in, study tour by Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences, 246 
IBRD loans, 755 

U.N. Economic Commission for, establishment and func- 
tions, address and statement: Mansfield, 37; Sat- 
terthwaite, 195 
U.N. trust territories, developments in, addresses, state- 
ments, and resolutions : General Assembly resolu- 
tions, 534; Lodge, 531; Satterthwaite, 193, 746; 
Sears, 354, 533 
U.S. diplomatic and consular officers in, regional con- 
ference, 916 
U.S. policy for, addresses : Penfield, 841 ; Satterthwaite, 

190 
West Africa, developments in and U.S. policy toward, 

addresses (Satterthwaite), 192, 744 
Western policy for, address (Murphy), 296 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of (OAS) : 
Activities of, address (Rubottom), 663, and Department 

statement, 482 
Convention (1944) on, protocols of amendment to, 126, 
178, 285, 502 

Index, January to June 1959 



Agricultural surpluses, U.S., use in overseas programs: 
Agreements with: Argentina, 105, 107, 977; Brazil, 74, 
420, 936 ; Burma, 769 ; Ceylon, 537, 978 ; Colombia, 
729 ; Ecuador, 250, 614 ; Finland, 144 ; France, 653 ; 
Iceland, 502 ; India, 416, 420 ; Israel, 502 ; Mexico, 
383 ; Poland, 959, 978 ; Spain, 213, 286 ; Turkey, 42, 
383; U.A.R., 144, 810; Uruguay, 383, 897; Yugo- 
slavia, 145 
Barter program : 

Agreement with India, 416 
Fluorspar program, statement (Mann), 600 
Disposal policy : 

Address (Cabot), 636 

Effect on Latin American economy, report to the Pres- 
ident (Milton Eisenhower), 99 
Joint U.S.-Canadian Committee on Trade and Eco- 
nomic Affairs, communique, 130 
Distribution for refugee relief, 875, 877, 878 
Emergency relief aid to: Afghanistan, 164; Ethiopia, 

419, 681 ; Jordan, 246 ; Yemen, 246, 419 
Sales for foreign currencies : 
Authorization, need for legislation extending, ex- 
cerpts from President's economic report, 309 
Loans from proceeds, addresses and statements: Dil- 
lon, 210 ; Murphy, 232 ; Rubottom, 123 ; Wilcox, 753 
Problems arising from, statement (Dillon), 494 
U.S. voluntary relief agencies distribution of, 21, 565, 
878 
Agriculture (see also Agricultural Sciences, Inter-Ameri- 
can Institute of, and Food and Agriculture Organi- 
zation) : 
Cuban agrarian reform law, U.S. views, 958 
Latin America, need for increased cooperation, 126, 482 
Commodity trade problems. See Commodity trade 
Middle East, problems of, article (Pearcy), 413 
Price support program, U.S., statement (Mann), 650 
U.S.-Mexican cooperation to eradicate screw worm, 332 
Viet-Nam, U.S. aid in developing, address (Barrows), 
677 
Ahidjo, Amadou, 443 
Ahmed, Aziz, 554 
Aid to foreign countries. See Economic and technical aid, 

Military assistance, and Mutual security 
Air navigation and transport. See Aviation 
Air space, question of defining, statement (Becker), 887 
Aircraft. See Aviation 
Albania, UNESCO constitution, 42 
Algerian refugees, U.S. aid, 876, 878 
All-African peoples conference, 190 

Allied High Commission for Germany, archives of, pro- 
tocol amending agreement (1954) concerning, 502 

983 



Amberg, Richard H., 278 

American Doctrine, U.S. economic and military assistance 
to the Middle East to promote peace and stability: 
President's 3d report to Congress on activities, 169 
Statement (Dulles), 227 
American Federation of Arts, 50th anniversary conven- 
tion, 672 
American Foreign Policy Is Your Business, address 

(Murphy), 231 
American Illustrated, 596 
American national exhibit at Moscow. See Exchange 

agreement 
American Republics. See Inter-American, Latin America, 

Pan American, and individual countries 
American-sponsored schools abroad, U.S. aid, 488, 491 
American States, 9th international conference of, 789 
American States, Organization of. See Organization of 

American States 
Amcryka, sales in Poland, 271 

Amity, economic relations and consular rights, treaty with 
Muscat, Oman, and dependencies, 51, 74, 599, 729, 854 
Anderson, Peyton, 278 
Anderson, Robert B., 445, 646 
Antarctica : 

Conference at Washington on, proposed, 895 

IGY cooperative program, achievements, article (At- 

wood), 686, 687 
U.S.-New Zealand scientific cooperation : 
Agreement, 110 
Joint announcement, 51 
Antitrust law, U.S. : 
Application to Canadian companies in U.S., Joint U.S.- 
Canadian Committee on Trade and Economic Af- 
fairs, communique, 130 
Effect on U.S. foreign relations, address (Becker), 272 
Aqaba, Gulf of, 371 

Arab-Israeli dispute, address (Rountree), 367 
Arab Republic, United. See United Arab Republic 
Arab states (see also individual countries) : 
Breadth of territorial sea, position on, 371 
Communist propaganda in, address (Henderson), 904 
Development institution, proposed, U.S. support : 
Address and statement: Mansfield, 40; Wilcox, 755, 

756 
President's economic report, excerpts, 309 
Dispute with Israel, address (Rountree), 367 
Economic development, Italian aid, statement (Dillon), 

638 
Nationalism, addresses : Hart, 715, 716 ; Murphy, 187 
Refugees. See under Refugees 

Soviet efforts to infiltrate, address (Murphy), 829, 831 
U.S. aid, 874, 876, 878 

Unity of, addresses and article : Hart, 718 ; Pearcy, 414, 
415 ; Rountree, 366 
Argentina : 

Antarctica, proposed conference on, 895 

Food for peace conference, participation, 793 

Inter-American Development Bank, membership on 

Preparatory Committee, 648 
President's visit to U.S. : 

Address before U.S. Congress, 281 
Statement (Dulles), 160 



984 



Argentina — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 105, 

107, 977 
Economic development loans, agreements with U.S. 

and IMF, 105 
German external debts, agreement (1953) on, 285 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 

Space, membership, 32 
U.S. aid, 122, 226, 232 
Armaments (see also Arms supply; Atomic energy, nu- 
clear weapons ; and Disarmament) : 
Expenditures for, proposed use of, address (Wilcox), 

758 
International control and reduction of, Western pro- 
posal at Foreign Ministers meeting, 779, 780, 781 
Missile programs, U.S. and Soviet. See Missiles 
NATO. See under North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion 
Armed forces : 
Communist bloc, threat of, President's message to Con- 
gress, 427, 428 
Four-power forces in Berlin and Germany : 

Soviet demand for withdrawal of, addresses, note, 
and statement: Herter, 736, 949; Soviet note, 83, 
88 ; Wigglesworth, 881 
U.S. position regarding, addresses, correspondence, 
and statement : Cumming, 870 ; Dulles, 221 ; 
Murphy, 711 ; U.S. note and memorandum, 5, 80 
Western proposal at Foreign Ministers meeting, state- 
ment (Herter), 861 
Free world, contribution to mutual security program, 

President's message to Congress, 430 
Geneva conventions (1949) relative to treatment in 

time of war, 74, 537, 854, 977 
German, Soviet draft peace treaty provisions regard- 
ing, 341 
Reduction of, Western proposal at Foreign Ministers 

meeting, 779, 780, 781 
Soviet Union: 
Comparison with NATO forces, address (Wiggles- 
worth), 881 
Status of, address (Allen Dulles) , 584 
Armed forces, U.S. : 

Aircraft, problems with Soviet Union regarding. See 

under Aviation 
Budget recommendations for, President's message to 

Congress, excerpts, 199 
Detention of army truck convoy by Soviets in Ber- 
lin, text of U.S. note protesting, 271 
In Germany (see also Armed forces: Four-power), 
agreement for support of with Federal Republic, 
978 
Military bases, overseas. See Military bases 
Military missions abroad. See Military missions 
Strength and flexibility of, address (Eisenhower), 116 
Arms supply : 

U.S. denial of shipments to Cuba, 197 
U.S. supply to NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization : Weapons modernization program 

Department of State Bulletin 



Arnold, Edwin H., 537 
Arthayukti, Visutr, 915 

Arts, American Federation of, 50th anniversary conven- 
tion of, 672 
Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia (see also Far East 
and individual countries) : 
Collective security in. See Southeast Asia Treaty 

Organization 
Communist aggression and economic offensive, addresses 
and statements : Dillon, 207 ; Dulles, 151 ; Mur- 
phy, 188, 628 ; Robertson, 375, 477 
Economic development: 

Colombo Plan. See Colombo Plan 

DLF loans, 484 

IBRD loans, 755 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization contributions. 

See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
U.N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far 

East, 357, 560 
U.S.-Japanese contributions, addresses: MacArthur, 
559; Parsons, 914 
President's Committee To Study Military Assistance 

Program, study group visits, 197 
U.S.-Australia common interests in, address (Parsons), 

912 
U.S. policy in, address (Reinhardt), 398 
Associated states of Africa, proposed establishment, ad- 
dress (Satterthwaite), 746 
Aswan Dam, 207 

Atlantic Alliance. See North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion and Atlantic Community 
Atlantic Community (see also North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization), statement (Luns), 547, 549 
Atlantic Fisheries, Northwest, protocol amending 1949 

international convention, 322 
Atmospheric nuclear tests, U.S. proposal for agreement 
to discontinue, letters and statements : Eisenhower, 
704, 825 ; Hagerty, 827 ; Khrushchev, 705, 826 ; White 
House, 706 
Atomic energy, mutual defense uses of. agreements for 
cooperation with : Canada, 896, 897 ; France, 769 ; 
Germany, 769 ; Greece, 769 ; Netherlands, 770 ; Tur- 
key, 770 ; U.K., 768, 770 
Atomic energy, nuclear weapons : 

Control and limitation, U.S. position, excerpts from 

President's message to Congress, 201 
Tests, detection of: 

Geneva conference of experts to study. See Geneva 

conference of experts 
Geneva technical talks on, address and statements: 

Dulles, 161, 162 ; Murphy, 830 
Underground tests, difficulty of detection and iden- 
tification, President's Science Advisory Committee 
statement, 118 
Tests, discontinuance of: 
Atmospheric tests, U.S. proposal for, letters and 
statements : Eisenhower, 704, 825 ; Khrushchev, 705, 
826 ; Hagerty, 827 ; White House, 706 
Geneva negotiations for discontinuance of nuclear 
weapons tests. See Geneva meeting to negotiate 
U.S. policy, statement (Dulles), 224 
U.S. supply to NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization : Weapons modernization 



Atomic energy, peaceful uses of (see also Atomic Energy 
Agency and European Atomic Energy Community) : 
Agreements with : China, Republic of, 420 ; EURATOM, 
69, 358; Japan, 358; IAEA, 810, 852; Iran, 729; 
Switzerland, 729, 978; Viet-Nam, 681, 690 
Baghdad Pact, nuclear center, U.K. aid, 321 
Development and control of, budget recommendations 
for, excerpts from President's message to Congress, 
201 
Atomic Energy Agency, International : 

Agreement with U.S. for cooperation in civil uses of 

atomic energy, 810, 852 
Cooperation with EURATOM and U.S. concerning de- 
velopment of safeguards and controls relating to 
health and safety, 72 
Relationship with WHO, proposed, 838 
Statute, current actions, 420 
U.S. representative, confirmed, 867 
Atomic Energy Commission, U.S., 69, 70, 71, 201 
Atomic Energy Community, European. See European 

Atomic Energy Community 
Atwood, Wallace W., Jr., 682 
Ausland, John C, 286 
Australia : 

Antarctica, proposed conference on, 895 

Food for peace conference, participation, 793 

GATT consultations, participation in, 244 

IGY World Data Center branch, location of, 685 

Pacific area developments, U.S.-Australian interest in, 

address (Parsons), 912 
SEATO, participation in. See Southeast Asia Treaty 

Organization 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air navigation services in Faroe Islands, Greenland, 
and Iceland, agreements (1956) for joint financing, 
573 
North Atlantic Ocean stations, agreement (1954) on, 

573 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 

Space, membership, 32 
U.S. consular districts of Brisbane and Sydney, rede- 
fined, 538 
U.S. consulates at Adelaide and Brisbane, reestab- 
lished, 286 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon, 673 
Austria : 

FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee, 1st meeting, 

participation in, 350 
GATT consultations, participation in, 244 
German relations with, provision of Soviet draft peace 

treaty regarding, 339, 342 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Aircraft, imported, agreement with U.S. for recipro- 
cal acceptance of certificates of airworthiness, 769 
Claims, U.S., agreement with U.S. providing for 

settlement of, 936 
GATT, declaration, proces verbal, and protocols con- 
cerning, 178, 358, 502, 573 
Industrial property, protection of, convention (1900) 

revising 1883 convention, 250 
Property, rights and interests, Austrian, agreement 
with U.S. regarding return of, 243, 250 



Index, January to June J 959 



985 



Austria — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
War claims of political persecutees, fund established 

to settle, 962 
Zehn Jahre EBP in Oesterreich 1948/1958, published, 
515 
Austrian state treaty (1955), 936 
Aviation : 
Air transport, U.S.-Mexico talks recessed, 690 
Aircraft : 

Berlin corridor flights of U.S. aircraft, address (Mur- 
phy), 712; texts of U.S. and Soviet notes, 632 
Detection of, opening of Prince Albert Radar Lab- 
oratory for research in, 911 
Soviet attacks on U.S. planes over Baltic Sea and 
Sea of Japan, texts of U.S. and Soviet notes, 134, 
135, 597 
Soviet destruction of U.S. C-130 over Soviet Armenia, 
Department announcement and statements, texts 
of Soviet notes, 262; and statement (Hagerty), 
743 
Civil aircraft and equipment, removal from U.S. Mu- 
nitions List, announced, 765 
ICAO, U.S. delegation to 12th session of the Assembly 

of, 935 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air Force missions agreements. See under Military 

missions 
Air navigation facilities, short-range tactical, agree- 
ment with Canada for establishment, maintenance, 
and operation, 769 
Air navigation services in Faroe Islands, Greenland, 
and Iceland, agreements (1956) for joint financing, 
573, 614 
Air transport, agreements with: Brazil, 176; Canada, 

440, 729 ; Japan, 177, 250 ; Mexico, 977 
Aircraft, imported, certificates of airworthiness for, 

agreements with : Austria, 769 ; Germany, 110 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules 
relating to, 285, 420 
Civil aviation, international convention on, 614 

Bacon, Leonard L., 770 
Baghdad Pact: 
Ministerial Council, 6th session : 

Message and statement: Eisenhower, 318; Hender- 
son, 318 
Text of final communique, 321 
U.S. delegation, 211 
SEATO, contact established with, 605, 606, 611 
U.S. cooperative agreements with Iran, Pakistan, and 

Turkey, 416 
U.S. invitation to Council to meet at Washington, 976 
U.S. support, address (Rountree), 364 
Bahamas Long-Range Proving Ground, agreement with 
U.K. relating to use of for observing and tracking 
artificial earth satellites and space vehicles, 729 
Bailey bridge, U.S. gift to Uruguay, 919 
Balance of payments with Latin America, 1st three-quar- 
ters of 1958, article (Culbertson-Lederer), 300 

986 



Baltic States: 

Anniversary of independence (41st), statement 

(Dulles), 299 
Soviet violation of mutual defense pacts with, address 
(Wiggles worth), 879, 880 
Bane, David M., 770 
Barrows, Leland, 74, 674 

Barter, arrangements under surplus agricultural com- 
modities program, 416, 601 
Baruch plan for atomic disarmament, 593 
Bases, U.S. military overseas, importance and purposes 
of, addresses and statement : McElroy, 496 ; Murphy, 
185, 186 ; Penfield, 843 
Bataan, 17th anniversary, message (Eisenhower), 627 
Beale, W. T. M., 570, 572, 599, 765 
Becker, Loftus E., 272, 369, 666, 784, 885 
Beech, Mrs. Olive Ann, 278 
Belgian Congo : 

Belgian policy, address (King Baudouin), 851 
Progress toward self-government, address (Satter- 

th\vaite),191 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 897 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
Belgium : 

Antarctica, proposed conference on, 895 
Belgian Congo. See Belgian Congo 
King Baudouin, visit to U.S., 512, 672, 851 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, proces verbal concerning article XVI : 4, 502 
GATT, protocol relating to negotiations for establish- 
ment of new schedule III — Brazil, 728 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement amending 

1950 agreement with U.S., 810 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 653 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 
Space, membership, 32 
Bell, John O., 250 

Benjamin Franklin Foundation, 672 
Bennett, Elmer F., 895 
Benson, Ezra Taft, 793 
Berkner, Lloyd V., 689» 
Berlin : 

Developments in. See Berlin situation 

East Berlin : 

Propaganda and subversive activities in, statement 

(Herter), 946 
Soviet refusal to discuss, statement (Herter), 950 
Social conditions in, contrast of, statement (Luns), 

548 
West Berlin: 

IBM World Trade Corporation, proposed construc- 
tion of building in, 418 
Medical center, designs completed, 672 
Western support, 432, 553, 699 

Working model of a free democracy, remarks 
(Lodge), 343 

Department of State Bulletin 



Berlin situation (see also European security and 
Germany : Reunification of) : 
Background of, address and note: Murphy, 233; So- 
viet note, 334, 335 
Communist Chinese influence on Soviet position, ques- 
tion of, statement (Dulles), 227 
Foreign armed forces in. See under Armed forces 
"Free city," Soviet proposal, addresses, note, and 
statement: Eisenhower, 468; Dulles, 158; Murphy, 
233 ; Soviet note, 509 
Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting : 

Western and Soviet positions, statements (Herter), 

822, 943, 948, 951 
Western peace plan proposal, statements (Herter), 
777, 779, 860, 862 ; text, 779 
Legal aspects of, text of U.S. memorandum, 5 
Negotiations with Soviets regarding, possibility of, 

statements (Dulles). 224 
The Soviet Note on Berlin: An Analysis, published, 145 
Soviet ultimatum regarding, address, letter, and notes : 
Eisenhower, 131; Murphy, 830; texts of U.S. and 
Soviet notes, 79 
U.S. aircraft flights in Frankfurt-Berlin corridor, U.S. 
rejection of Soviet protest regarding, texts of notes, 
632 
U.S. position, addresses and remarks : Eisenhower, 117, 
467, 582; Murphy, 293, 513, 711; Nixon, 622, 623; 
Wilcox, 591 
U.S. protests detention of truck convoy by Soviets, text 

of U.S. note, 271 
Western position : 

Address and statements : Dulles, 4, 152 ; Herter, 735 
NAC communiques and declaration, 3, 4, 553 
Secretary Dulles meeting with European allies on, 

296, 297 
Text of U.S. note, 333 

Western Foreign Ministers meetings on, communi- 
ques and statement, 554, 555, 699 
Working Group on, meetings of, 297, 406 
Western right of access to and presence in Berlin, 
addresses : Herter, 736, 738 ; Murphy, 183, 184, 628 
Berry, Lampton, 250 
Bills of lading, international convention for unification of 

certain rules relating to, and protocol, 977 
Board of Foreign Scholarships, member appointed, 673 
Bogota, Pact of, 668 
Bolivia : 
Anti-U.S. demonstrations in, expression of regret for, 

436 
DLF loan, 299 
U.S. Air Force and Army missions, agreement amending 

1956 agreement with U.S., 689 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 654 
U.S. establishment of consulate at Cochabamba, 390 
Bonbright, James C. H., 250 

Bonn conventions, U.S. views, statement (Herter), 820 
Bonsai, Philip W., 358 
Boonsstra, Clarence A., 502 

Border dispute, Honduras-Nicaragua, OAS action to re- 
solve, address (Rubottom), 661 
Boundary Waters Treaty (1909) agreement with Canada, 

462 
Bradford, Saxton, 574 

Index, January to June 7959 



Brandt, Willy, 343 
Brazil : 

Inter-American Development Bank, membership on Pre- 
paratory Committee, 648 
International commodity trade policy, statement 

(Mann), 652 
Tariff concessions, renegotiated with U.S., 305 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 74, 420, 936 
Air transport, agreement amending 1946 agreement 

with U.S., 176 
GATT, Brazilian tariff concessions under: 
Proces verbal containing schedules to be annexed to 

schedule III, 3S3 
Protocol relating to establishment of schedule III 
(1958), 383, 573, 728 
Industrial property, revision of convention (1883) 

for protection of, 250 
Uranium resources, agreement amending agreement 
(1957) for cooperative program with U.S. for re- 
connaissance and investigation of, 42 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

amending, 769 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 

Space, membership, 32 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmed, 897 
Breadth of territorial sea. See Territorial waters 
Brent, Joseph L., 690 

Bretton Woods Agreements Act (1945), 445, 446 
Brewster, Robert C, 421 
Briggs, Ellis O., 654 
Briggs, William T., 502 
British Cameroons : 

Elections, proposed, statements (Sears) and text of 

General Assembly resolution, 533, 534, 535 
Future status of, address (Satterthwaite), 193 
British East Africa, ICA representative, designation, 814 
British Guiana, ICA representative, designation, 978 
Brotherhood Week, National, 330 
Brown, Ben Hill, Jr., 730 
Bulgaria : 

Diplomatic relations with U.S., resumption of, 512 
Telegraph regulations (Geneval revision, 1958), 285 
Travel of U.S. citizens in, U.S. restrictions lifted, 782 
Burma : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1958 

agreement with U.S., 769 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Burney, Leroy E., 767 
Burns, Norman, 690 

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (see also Soviet 
Union), telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 
1958), 285 
Byroade, Henry A., 250 

Cables, U.S. transatlantic submarine, breaks in, texts of 
U.S. and Soviet notes and U.S. aide memoire, 555 

Cabot, John M., 636, 897 

Calendar of international conferences and meetings, 22, 
171, 316, 499, 643, 811 

987 



Cambodia : 

Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 74 
Obscene publications, agreement (1910) relating to re- 
pression of circulation of, 728 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 358 
U.S. defense support assistance, 431 
Cameroons, British. See British Cameroons 
Cameroun, French. See French Cameroun 
Canada : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 440 

Boundary waters treaty with U.S., 50th anniversary, 

statement (Dulles), 130 
Breadth of territorial sea, position on, 372 
Common heritage with U.S., address (Robertson), 472 
Food for peace conference, participation, 793 
Geneva technical talks on preventing surprise attack, 

13, 163 
Gift of research materials to U.S. Library of Congress, 

589 
International Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada), 130, 

243 
Joint U.S.-Canadian Committee on Trade and Economic 
Affairs, 4th meeting : 
Delegations, 17 
Text of joint communique, 128 
Lake Michigan water diversion, proposed U.S. legisla- 
tion to increase, statement (Willoughby), U.S. and 
Canadian aide memoire, and text of bill, 404 
North Pacific Fur Seal Commission, 2d annual meeting, 

142 
Prince Albert Radar Laboratory, opening, texts of mes- 
sages (Eisenhower, Diefenbaker), 911 
St. Lawrence Seaway. See St. Lawrence Seaway 
Training course for ICEM officials, 3S6 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air transport, agreement amending 1949 agreement 

with U.S., 440, 729 
Atomic energy, cooperation on uses for mutual de- 
fense purposes, agreement with U.S., S96, 897 
Communications facilities at Cape Dyer, Baffin Is- 
land, to support Greenland extension of DEW, 
agreement with U.S. relating to, 690 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 178 
St. Clair River, construction and dredging new chan- 
nel in, agreement with U.S., 462 
St. Lawrence Seaway, agreement with U.S. govern- 
ing tolls for, 440, 537 
Short-range tactical air navigation facilities, agree- 
ment for establishment, maintenance, and opera- 
tion with U.S., 769 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 

Space, membership, 32 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 250 
Canal Zone, U.S. rights in, Department statement, 128 
CARE. See Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere 



Caribbean area (see also Central America) : 

OAS efforts to maintain peace and security in, address 

(Rubottom), 662 
Problems of and U.S. policy in, U.S. Ambassadors meet- 
ing, 634 
Caribbean Commission, appointment of Commissioners of 

U.S. section, 67 
Carrillo Flores, Antonio, 230, 236 

Central America (see also Caribbean, Inter-America, 
Latin America, Pan American, and individual coun- 
tries) : 
Economic integration, progress of, 98, 125, 479 
Visit of Milton Eisenhower, 104 
Ceylon : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 

537, 978 
GATT, declaration and proces verbal concerning ar- 
ticle XVI : 4, 178, 502 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 178 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, S54 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 250 
The Challenge of Space Exploration: A Technical Intro- 
duction to Space, published, SSon 
Charter of the United Nations. See United Nations 

Charter 
Chiang Kai-shek, 473, 474 
Children's Fund, U.N., 350 
Chile : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 299 

Antarctica, proposed conference on, 895 

Breadth of territorial sea, position on, 372 

DLF loan, 834 

Inter-American Development Bank, membership on 

Preparatory Committee, 648 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Earth satellites and space vehicles, cooperative pro- 
gram for tracking and receiving radio signals from, 
agreement with U.S., 729 
GATT, protocols 2, 3, 4, and 5 of rectifications and 
modifications to annexes and texts of schedules, 
322, 358, 462 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
protocol amending 1944 convention on, 502 
China (see also China, Communist; and China, Republic 
of), U.S. policy, addresses: Parsons, 913, 914; Rob- 
ertson, 472 
China, Communist (see also Communism and Soviet-bloc 
countries) : 
Aggressive activities in : 

Asia, addresses and remarks : Dillon, 603 ; Murphy, 
512, 513, 62S; Parsons, 913, 914; Reinhardt, 396; 
Robertson, 375 
Taiwan Straits. See Taiwan Straits 
Tibet. See Tibet 
Communes, address and report : Parsons, 913 ; Sarasin, 

607 
Developments in, U.S. views, address (Murphy), 292 



988 



Department of State Bulletin 



China, Communist — Continued 
Economic offensive. See under Less developed coun- 
tries 
IGY, effort to bar Republic of China scientists from 

programs, article (Atwood), 6S4 
Influence on Soviet policy in Germany, question of, 

statement (Dulles), 22T 
Material advancement of, statement (Dulles), 151, 154, 

155 
Propaganda campaign against U.S., address (Parsons), 

904 
Refugees, problems of, address (Hanes), 874, S76, 878 
U.S. newsmen, refusal to grant visas for visit to, 673 
U.S. policy of nonrecognition, address (Robertson), 
473, 474 
China, Republic of : 
DLF loans, 197, 346, 484 
IGY participation, Communist effort to bar, article 

(Atwood), 684 
Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction, designa- 
tion of U.S. commissioner, 574 
Maritime Safety Committee, U.S. effort to obtain mem- 
bership for, 653 
Olympic games, expulsion by International Olympic 

Committee, 915 
Taiwan Straits, Communist aggression in. See Taiwan 

Straits 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 

1955 agreement with U.S., 420 
Local currency repayments to DLF, agreement with 

U.S. regarding ownership and use of, 144 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
U.S. destroyer, agreement with U.S. for loan of, 322 
U.S. assistance and support, 398, 431, 472, 496, 513 
Cholera research program, SEATO, 605, 978 
Chou En-lai, 293 

Civil Aviation Organization, International, U.S. delega- 
tion to 12th session of Assembly, 935 
Civil Service Commission, authority to prescribe rules and 
regulations to carry out Federal Employees Inter- 
national Organization Service Act, Executive order 
delegating, 388 
Civilians, protection in time of war, Geneva convention 

(1949), 74, 537, 854,977 
Claims : 
Austrian persecutees, fund established by Austria to 

settle war claims of, 962 
Austrian property, rights and interests, agreement be- 
tween U.S. and Austria regarding return of, 243, 
250 
Germany, claims against, Soviet draft peace treaty pro- 
visions regarding, 341, 342 
Philippines, agreement concerning procedures for 
settlement of claims arising out of training and 
firing exercises, 462 
U.S. claims against : 
Austria, agreement providing for settlement of, 936 
Poland, negotiations for settlement of U.S. property 
claims, 382 
Utilities claims settlement, agreement between Unified 
Command and Republic of Korea, 110 



Coal (see also European Coal and Steel Community), sur- 
plus and import problems : 
European communities-U.S. joint communique, 953 
U.S.-Federal Republic of Germany discussions regard- 
ing, IS 
Coal and Steel Community, European. See European 

Coal and Steel Community 
Coffee, Latin American, marketing problems, address, 
article, report, and statements : Eisenhower, Lemus, 
478 ; Milton Eisenhower, 98 ; Lederer, Culbertson, 301, 
311; Mann, 932; Rubottom, 119, 120, 125 
Coggeshall, Lowell T., 278 
"Cold war," address and statements : Dulles, 219, 223, 229 ; 

Murphy, 294 
Collective security {see also Mutual defense and Mutual 
security) : 
Arrangements, advantages of, address and statement: 

Dulles, 152; Wigglesworth, 882 
Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. See Southeast 

Asia Treaty Organization 
Contributions of mutual security program, message 

and statement : Eisenhower, 429, 430 ; Herter, 487 
Europe (see also European security and North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization), role of Federal Republic of 
Germany, address (Herter), 860 
Latin America, role of OAS, 635, 660, 661, 792 
Near and Middle East. See Baghdad Pact 
U.N. Charter sanction of, address (Dulles), 257 
U.S. policy, addresses: Eisenhower, 116; Murphy, 185, 
186, 292, 831 
Colombia : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1957 

agreement with U.S., 729 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, pro- 
tocol amending 1944 convention on, 502 
Rawinsonde observation stations, agreement extending 
1956 agreement with U.S. for establishment, opera- 
tion, and maintenance, 854 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
U.S. Army and Air Force missions, agreement amending 
1949 agreements with U.S., 690 
Colombo Plan : 

Functions, address (MacArthur), 560 

7th annual report, released, 213 

Technical Cooperation Council, U.S. membership, 490, 

604 
U.S. support, address (Dillon), 603 
Colonialism, benefits of, address (Nixon) , 16 
Columbia River Basin, U.S.-Canadian joint statement re- 
questing study by IJC of proposals for development, 
243 
Commerce, Department of : 
Export licensing authority for civil aircraft and equip- 
ment, transferred from State Department, 765 
Functions regarding foreign aid program, 936 
Program to promote expansion of private investment 

abroad, 564 
Publication Foreign Trade of the U.S.S.R., 1956-57, re- 
leased, 722 
Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention (1952) to facilitate importation, 
S10 



Index, January to June 7959 



989 



Commission for the Conservation of Shrimp, establish- 
ment and duties of, 567 
Committee for Reciprocity Information, 18, 244 
Committee of 21, OAS : 
Buenos Aires meeting : 
Statement (Mann), 931 
U.S. representative, appointment, 728 
U.S. delegation proposals, 479 
Washington meeting: 
Address and remarks: Dillon, 48; Rubottom, 125, 

126 
Text of declaration, 49 
Commodity Trade, International, U.N. Commission on, 

37, 538, 604, 648n. 
Commodity trade problems (see also Agricultural sur- 
pluses, Rice, and Wheat) : 
International : 

GATT proposal regarding, 766 

U.S. views, statements : Mann, 648 ; Mansfield, 35, 36, 
37 
Latin American: 

OAS approach to, 50, 664, 665 
U.S. concern, adddress (Rubottom), 125 
Common markets: 

European. See European Economic Community 
Latin American, proposed, address, report, and state- 
ments: Eisenhower, Lemus, 479; Milton Eisen- 
hower, 98; Mann, 932; Rubottom, 125; U.S. state- 
ment, 481 
Communes, Chinese Communist, 607, 913 
Communications. See Telecommunications 
Communism (see also China, Communist; Propaganda; 
and Soviet Union) : 
Agreements of, reliability of, adddresses : Murphy, 710 ; 

Robertson, 376, 476 
Competition with free world, addresses : Herter, 738 ; 

Lodge, 344 ; Nixon, 627 
Economic offensive. See Lesa developed countries: 

Economic offensive 
International : 
Activities in Africa, addresses (Satterthwaite), 194, 

528, 747 
Challenge and threat of, adddresses, communique, 
message, remarks, reports, and statements: Bar- 
rows, 680 ; Dillon, 458, 495 ; Draper Committee re- 
port, 799; Dulles, 153, 227; Eisenhower, 428, 469, 
544, 579, 580, 582, 621 ; Herter, 485, 486, 547, 738 ; 
Luns, 548, 549 ; McElroy, 495 ; Murphy, 829 ; NAC 
communique, 533 ; Nixon, 16 ; Reinhardt, 395 ; Rob- 
ertson, 473, 474; SEATO report, 606, 607, 611; 
Spaak, 551, 552 ; Twining, 497 
Creed of, address (Dulles), 255, 257 
Objectives of, addresses, remarks, and statements: 
Dillon, 908 ; Allen Dulles, 583 ; Dulles, 220 ; Eisen- 
hower, 707 ; Henderson, 319 
Pressures on free-world relationships, effect on U.S. 

policies, adddress (Murphy), 291 
Supporters of, need for legislation authorizing denial 
of passports to, adddress and statement (Hanes), 
517, 723 
Nationalist movements, Communist efforts to influence, 

addresses: Dillon, 762; Henderson, 904, 905 
Subversive activities. See Subversive activities 

990 



Conferences and organizations, international (see also sub- 
ject), calendar of meetings, 22, 171, 316, 499, 643, 811 
Confiscation of property of aliens, question of just com- 
pensation, address (Becker), 784 
Congress, U.S. : 
Bipartisan support, addresses and statement: Dillon, 

249 ; Nixon, 623 ; Robertson, 473 
Documents relating to foreign policy, lists of, 249, 283, 

315, 349, 461, 530, 569, 601, 758, 810, 930 
Joint sessions, addresses before : 
King Baudouin, 851 
President Frondizi of Argentina, 280 
Legislation, Export-Import Bank, increase in lending 

authority of, report (Milton Eisenhower), 93 
Legislation, proposed : 

DLF, letters and statement : Dillon, 638 ; Eisenhower, 

Fulbright, 926 
Fluorspar quotas, statement (Mann), 600 
Foreign commerce, proposed exemption from antitrust 

regulation, address (Becker), 277 
IBRD and IMF, increase in U.S. subscriptions to, 

statements : Anderson, 445 ; Dillon, 454 
Inter-American Bank, U.S. membership, statement 

(Dillon), 928 
Lake Michigan water diversion, bill to increase, state- 
ment (Willoughby), U.S. and Canadian aide me- 
moire, and text of bill, 404 
Mutual security program, statements (Dillon, Herter, 

McElroy, Twining), 485 
Passports, control and issuance of, address and state- 
ment (Hanes), 517, 723 
Under Secretaries of State, duties and designations, 
730 
Presidential messages, reports, etc. See Eisenhower, 
Dwight D. : Messages, letters, and reports to Con- 
gress 
Resolutions : 
Nuclear weapons tests, discontinuance of, S. Res. 96 

transmitted to Soviet Union, 742 
Outer space, peaceful uses of, concurrent resolution 
regarding, statement (Wilcox), 399 
Senate advice and consent to ratification requested for : 
Convention for the conservation of shrimp with Cuba, 

566 
Treaty of amity, economic relations, and consular 
rights with Muscat and Oman, 599 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee, resignation of 
Chairman Green, statement (Dulles), 230 
Consular rights, amity, and economic relations, treaty 
with Muscat, Oman, and dependencies, 51, 74, 599, 
729, 854 
Consular service, U.S. See Foreign Service 
Consultative Committee on Cooperative Economic De- 
velopment in South and Southeast Asia. See Co- 
lombo Plan 
Consultative Subcommittee on the Economic Aspects of 

Rice, 3d session, report (Rivenburgh), 813 
Continental shelf, convention on, address (Becker), 373 
Contingency fund, appropriations for and importance of, 
message and statements : Dillon, 491, 806 ; Eisen- 
hower, 435 ; Herter, 488 
Contracting Parties to GATT. See under Tariffs and 
trade, general agreement on 

Department of State Bulletin 



Control posts for detection of nuclear explosions, U.S., 
Western, and Soviet positions, address and state- 
ments : Department statement, 188 ; Wadsworth, 703 ; 
Wilcox, 593 
Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere, 565 
Coote, Wendell B., 145 
Costa Rica : 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, pro- 
tocol amending convention (1944) on, 285 
Membership on Preparatory Committee for the Inter- 
American Development Bank, 648 
Cotton : 

Latin American production, effect of U.S. policies on, 
report to the President (Milton Eisenhower), 102 
U.S.-Mexico cooperation regarding, joint statement 
(Eisenhower-Lopez Mateos), 331 
Cottrell, Sterling J., 462 

Council on Inter-American Affairs, proposed establish- 
ment of, report to the President (Milton Eisen- 
hower), 101 
Couve de Murville, Maurice, S63, 865 
Crocker, Carson O., 390 
Crockett, William J., 978 
Crowe, Philip K., 358 
Cuba: 

Agrarian reform law, U.S. views, 958 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 478 

Arms shipments to Batista government after cutoff 

date, U.S. denial of, 197 
New Government : 

Statement (Dulles), 159 
U.S. recognition, text of note, 128 
Sugar, offer of sale to U.S., U.S. reply, 959 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Shrimp conservation, convention with U.S., 566, 978 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.S. Ambassador, resignation (Smith) and confirma- 
tion (Bonsai), 178, 358 
U.S. military missions in, question of withdrawal, 

statement (Dulles), 227 
U.S. policy toward, 162 
Culbertson, Nancy F., 300 

Cultural, technical, and educational fields, agreement 
with Soviet Union for exchanges in. See Exchange 
agreement 
Cultural property, convention and protocol (1954) for 

protection in event of armed conflict, 728 
Cultural relations and programs (See also Educational 
exchange and Exchange of persons) : 
NATO program, announcement regarding, 951 
SEATO programs : 
Address ( Reinhardt ) , 397 
Announcement regarding, 444 
Report (Sarasin), 605, 610, 612, 613 
U.S. relations with : 

Africa, address (Penfield), 847 
India, 916 

Latin America, address (Rubottom), 120 
Soviet Union (see also Exchange agreement), state- 
ment (Dulles), 154 



Cumming, Hugh S., Jr., 868 

Customs (see also Tariff policy, U.S.) : 

Customs tariffs, international union for publication of, 

convention creating and protocol modifying, 614 
Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 420, 653, 810 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 420, 653, 810 
Cyprus : 

Problem of: 

Peaceful solution of, addresses and messages : Eisen- 
hower, 367 ; Murphy, 628, 712 ; Rountree, 363 
U.S. position regarding, statement (Barco), 41 
Republic of, proposed establishment, address (Murphy), 
628 
Czechoslovakia : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 827 

Foreign Ministers conference, proposed, Soviet support 

for Czech participation, 510, 511 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 178 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 
Space, membership, 32 

Dalai Lama, 515, 603, 712, 713 
Debts, German, agreements relating to : 
External debts, 285, 614 

Indebtedness to U.S. for postwar economic assistance, 
advance payment on, 573 
Defense, Department of, administration of mutual secu- 
rity activities, Executive order relating to, 936 
Defense. See Mutual defense and National defense 
Defense College, NATO, 546 
Defense support : 
Appropriations for, messages and statement : Eisen- 
hower, 204, 431 ; Dillon, 491 
Draper Committee recommendation regarding, report, 

802 
Purposes of, statement (Dillon), 806 
De Gaulle, Charles, 163 
Denmark : 

Dollar import controls, relaxation of, 564 
GATT consultations, participation in, 244 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, proces verbal concerning article XVI : 4, 502 
GATT, protocol relating to negotiations for establish- 
ment of new schedule III — Brazil, 573 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Shipbuilding program, agreement with U.S. relating 

to, 854 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
Department of State. See State Department 
Development Advisory Board, International, appointment 

of U.S. members, 278 
Development association, international, proposed estab- 
lishment, addresses, letter, message, and statements: 
Dillon, 209, 640, 807; Eisenhower, 204, 926; Mans- 
field, 40 ; Rubottom, 124 ; Wilcox, 755 
Development Bank, Inter-American. See Inter-American 
Development Bank 



Index, January to June 7959 



991 



Development fund, multilateral, proposed establishment, 

address (Wilcox), 758 
Development institutions, regional : 
Latin American. See Inter-American Development 

Bank 
Near and Middle East. See under Arab states 
U.S. support, address, report, and statement: Eisen- 
hower, 309 ; Mansfield, 39, 40 ; Wilcox, 755 
Development Loan Fund : 

Authorization and appropriations for, messages and 
statements : Dillon, 4S9, 490, 492, 638 ; Eisenhower, 
204, 434; Herter, 4S7; Mann, 932; U.S. delegation 
to Committee of 21, 480 
Establishment and functions : 

Addresses, statements, and reports : Dillon, 167, 456 ; 
Milton Eisenhower, 94 ; Mansfield, 40 ; MacArthur, 
561 
Executive order relating to functions of, 936 
General Counsel, appointment, 936 
Importance of, address and statement (Dillon), 210, 

698 
Loans in : Africa, 845 ; Argentina, 106, 122 ; Bolivia, 
299; Chile, 834; China, Republic of, 144, 197, 346, 
484 ; Ecuador, 22, 530 ; Ethiopia, 920 ; Greece, 245 ; 
Guatemala, 306, 419, 920; Haiti, 565, 920: India, 
51 ; Indonesia, 345 ; Iran, 136 ; Israel, 382, 793 ; Jor- 
dan, 346, 598, 920; Korea, Republic of, 598, 920: 
Liberia, 247; Malaya, 2S0, 484; Nicaragua, 346, 
793 ; Nigeria, 598 ; Pakistan, 382, 598 ; Philippines, 
307, 834; Somalia, 565; Spain, 107, 920; Sudan, 
834; Thailand, 419, 598; Tunisia, 920; Turkey, 306, 
444 ; Uruguay, 598 ; Yugoslavia, 136, 279 
Long-term capitalization, proposed : 

Senator Fulbright's proposal, letters (Eisenhower, 

Fulbright),926 
Statement (Dillon), 807 
Summary of loans, June 30, 1957-February 28, 1959, 

released, 484 
Use of foreign currency repayments to, proposed legis- 
lation regarding, statement (Dillon), 490 
DEW. See Distant early warning system 
Dictatorships, U.S. policy toward : 
Letter ( Macomber ) , 726 

Recommendations regarding, report (Milton Eisen- 
hower), 103 
Diefenbaker, John G., 911 
Dihigo y Lopez Trigo, Ernesto, 478 
Dillon, Douglas : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements : 
DLF, appropriation request, 638 
European Communities, Presidents of, welcome on 

visit to U.S., 953 
Foreign Economic Policy and the Foreign Service, 

327 
IBRD and IMF, proposed legislation to increase U.S. 

subscriptions, 454, 457 
ICA employees, role in conduct of foreign policy, 20 
Imperatives of International Economic Growth, 165 
Inter-American Development Bank, U.S. membership, 

928 
Inter-American economic cooperation, 48 



Dillon, Douglas — Continued 

Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 

Investment of private capital abroad, incentives for, 

96 
Less developed countries, challenge to free world, 

955 
Mutual security program, 489, 695, 804 
SEATO, achievements of, 602 
Soviet economic policies, 237, 759 
Tribute to John Foster Dulles, 834 
U.S. foreign economic policy, 206 

U.S.-EURATOM joint program, achievements, 247 
Letter, IBM proposed building in West Berlin, 419 
Meetings : 

German coal problem, 18 
SEATO, 5th council meeting : 

U.S. representative, announcements, 478, 536 
Departure and return statements, 573, 673 
Under Secretary of State: 
Confirmation, 978 

Proposed legislation regarding duties as, 730 
Diplomacy, international, International Bank's role in, 

statements (Dillon), 456, 461 
Diplomatic representatives abroad, U.S. See under For- 
eign Service 
Diplomatic representatives in the U.S. : 

European communities, proposed permanent represen- 
tation in U.S., joint communique, 953 
Presentation of credentials : Canada, 440 ; Chile, 299 ; 
Cuba, 478 ; Czechoslovakia, 827 ; Guinea, 709 ; Iraq, 
954; Libya, 230; Malaya, 440; Mexico, 230; Paki- 
stan, 554 ; Thailand, 915 
Disarmament (see also Armaments; Armed forces; 
Atomic energy, nuclear weapons; Missiles; Outer 
space; and Surprise attack) : 
Communist China participation in discussions on, ques- 
tion of, adddress (Robertson), 375 
Negotiations, progress of, address and statement : Her- 
ter, 777 ; Murphy, 830 
Relationship to settlement of political problems, state- 
ments (Herter), 778, 824 
U.S. position, statements: Dulles, 153; Herter, 821 
Western and Soviet positions, addresses: Wigglesworth, 
881 ; Wilcox, 592 
Disarmament Commission Subcommittee, U.N., Soviet ob- 
struction in, address (Murphy), 830 
Disputes, international, proposed use of the rule of law 

for settlement of, address (Nixon), 622 
Distant early warning system, Greenland extension, 
agreement with Canada relating to communications 
facilities at Cape Dyer, Baffin Island, in support of, 
690 
DLF. See Development Loan Fund 

Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945, The 
Third Reich: First Phase, October Ik, 193S-June IS, 
1934, series C (1933-1937), vol. II, released, 897 
Dominican Republic : 

GATT, proces verbal of rectification concerning, 178 
GATT, protocols amending, 178 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
Dorman, John, 145 



992 



Department of State Bulletin 



Double taxation on income, conventions for avoidance of, 
with : 
Pakistan, 853, 854, 936 

U.K., agreement relating to extension to British terri- 
tories of 1945 convention, 42, 110, 144, 212, 213 
U.S. willingness to negotiate with Latin American 
countries, address (Rubottom), 124 
Draper Committee. See President's Committee To Study 

the United States Military Assistance Program 
Dreier, John C, 126 
Drugs, narcotic : 
Pharmacopoeial formulas for potent drugs, protocol 

terminating agreement for unification of, 614 
Protocol (1948) bringing under international control 
drugs outside scope of 19.31 convention, 935 
Dryden, Hugh L., 891, 972 

Duke University, World Rule of Law Center, 624 
Dulles, Allen W„ 5S3 
Dulles, John Poster : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements : 

American Doctrine for the Middle East, 169, 227 
Argentina, question of economic aid for, 226 
Berlin situation, 158, 160, 224, 227, 296 
Canada, 50th anniversary of boundary waters treaty 

with, 130 
"Cold war," 219, 223, 229 
Communist Chinese influence on Soviet policy in 

Germany, question of, 227 
Cuba : 

New Government in, 159 

Question of withdrawing military missions in, 227 
Economic and military agreements with Turkey, Iran, 

and Pakistan, negotiations regarding. 226 
Freedom — The Predominant Force, 151 
Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting, proposed, 224, 229 
German reunification, 156, 157, 159, 161, 223, 227, 

228, 230 
ICJ, question of U.S. relationship to, 224 
Korea, Republic of, U.S. relations with, 224 
North Atlantic Council, Ministerial Meeting of, 4 
Nuclear test suspension, Geneva meeting on detection 

of violations, evaluation of, 161, 162 
Nuclear testing, question of modification of U.S. 

policy regarding, 224 
Philippines, U.S. relations with, 224 
Quemoy Islands, reduction of forces on, 225 
The Role of Law in Peace, 255 
Senator Green's resignation as chairman of Foreign 

Relations Committee, 230 
Soviet Union, developments in, 223 
Turbine contract for Greer's Ferry Dam, question 

of awarding, 225 
Visit of Anastas Mikoyan to U.S., 156, 157, 228 
Correspondence and messages : 

Deputy Premier Mikoyan, farewell message to, 189 
Resignation as Secretary of State, exchange of letters 

with President Eisenhower, 619 
Visit of President Eisenhower to Mexico, 236 
Gift of personal papers to Princeton University Library, 
792 

Index, January /o June 7959 



Dulles, John Foster — Continued 
Meetings with : 

Deputy Premier Mikoyan, 263 
Secretary General of SEATO (Sarasin), 230 
News conferences, transcripts of, 156, 223 
Swearing-in as special consultant to President, 671 
Tributes to and condolences on death, statements: 
Couve de Murville, 863, 865; Dillon, 834; Eisen- 
hower, 833 ; Gromyko, 863 ; Herter, 833, 863 ; Lloyd, 
863, 865 

Earth-circling satellites. See Satellites 
East-West contacts (see also Cultural relations) : 
Progress of, statement (Herter), 775 
U.S.-Soviet Union. See Exchange agreement 
ECA. See Economic Commission for Africa 
ECAFE. See Economic Commission for Asia and the Far 

East 
ECE. See Economic Commission for Europe 
ECLA. Sec Economic Commission for Latin America 
Economic Affairs, Joint United States-Canadian Commit- 
tee on Trade and, 4th meeting, 17 
Economic and Social Council, U.N. : 
Annual report, U.S. views, statement (Mansfield), 33 
Commission on International Commodity Trade, U.S. 

representative, confirmed, 37, 538, 604, 648» 
Documents, lists of, 109, 322, 389, 420, 501, 645, 896, 976 
Economic commissions. See Economic commissions 
Resolution on self-determination, statements (Lord, 
Wise), 172 
Economic and technical aid to foreign countries (see also 
Agricultural surpluses, Colombo Plan, Development 
Loan Fund. Export-Import Bank, Inter-American De- 
velopment Bank, International Bank, International 
Cooperation Administration, Mutual security and 
other assistance programs, and United Nations : 
Technical assistance program) : 
Addresses, message, and statements: Dillon, 603, 696, 
807, 955 ; Eisenhower, 205 ; Hart, 719 ; Wilcox, 595, 
757 
Aid to : Africa, 196, 74S, 749, 845, 846 ; Argentina, 105, 
122, 232 ; Austria, 515 ; Germany, Federal Republic 
of, 516, 573 ; Haiti, 3S0 ; Iceland, 598 ; India, 456 ; 
Iran, 226, 416 ; Israel, 110 ; Latin America, 89 ; Ma- 
laya, 978; Pakistan, 226, 416; Poland, 959; South 
and Southeast Asia, 214, 397, 612 ; Turkey, 226, 416, 
458, 459 ; Viet-Nam, 674 
Draper Committee recommendations regarding, report, 

802, 804 
Sino-Soviet bloc program. See Less developed coun- 
tries : Economic offensive 
U.S.-Japanese aid to free Asian countries, address 

(MacArthur),560, 562 
U.S. policy, address and statements : Dillon, 165 ; Dulles, 
155 ; Mansfield, 38 
Economic Commission for Africa, U.N., establishment and 
functions, address and statement: Mansfield, 37; 
Satterthwaite, 195 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, U.N. : 
Mekong River area, survey for development, address 

(MaeArthur),560 
U.S .delegation to 15th session, 357 



993 



Economic Commission for Europe, U.N. : 

Steel Committee, 22d session, U.S. delegate, S95 
U.S. representatative to 14th session, 501 
Economic Commission for Latin America, U.N. : 
Efforts to increase trade in Latin America, 481 
U.S. representative to 8th session, 897 
Economic Community, European. See European Eco- 
nomic Community 
Economic Conference of the Organization of American 
States ( 1957 ) , provision of draft economic agreement 
for protection of foreign investment, address 
(Becker), 790 
Economic cooperation (»ee also Common markets) : 
Baghdad Pact, statement (Henderson), 320 
European. See European Atomic' Energy Community, 
European Coal and Steel Community, and Euro- 
pean Economic Community 
Inter- American («ee also Committee of 21, Inter- Ameri- 
can Development Bank, OAS, and Operation Pan 
America), address and statement: Rubottom, 119; 
U.S. Ambassadors statement at Santiago meeting, 
793 
NATO: 

Ministerial meeting communique, 3 
Remarks : Eisenhower, 544 ; Luns, 548 
South and Southeast Asia. See Colombo Plan and 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
West Africa, associations proposed for, address (Sat- 
terthwaite), 745 
Economic Cooperation, Special Committee of OAS Coun- 
cil To Study the Formation of New Measures for. 
See Committee of 21 
Economic development (see also Economic and technical 
aid) : 
Africa. See under Africa 
Asia. See under Asia 

Financing of. See Agricultural surpluses, Development 
Loan Fund, Export-Import Bank, Inter-American 
Development Bank, International Bank, Interna- 
tional Monetary Fund, Investment of private capi- 
tal abroad, and Special Fund 
General Assembly resolution for promotion of, state- 
ment (Mansfield) and text, 37 
Institutions for. See Development association and De- 
velopment institutions 
Latin America. See under Latin America 
Less developed countries, challenge of, addresses: Dil- 
lon, 955 ; Dulles, 155 ; Wilcox, 750 
Soviet Union, progress of, address (Allen Dulles), 585, 

586 
U.S. efforts to promote, report and statement: Eisen- 
hower, 308, 309 ; Mann, 931 
Use of surplus wheat to promote, proposed, joint com- 
munique of conference of wheat exporting nations, 
794, 795 
Viet-Nam, need for, address (Eisenhower), 580 
Economic Development, Committee for, 642 
Economic disputes, settlement of : 
Progress in creating international law for, address 

(Nixon), 624, 625 
Role of IBRD, statement (Dillon), 456, 461 



Economic Experts, SEATO Committee of, 397, 608, 609 
Economic growth, world, impact of U.S. economic devel- 
opments on, statement (Mansfield), 33 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. : 
Aid to foreign countries. See Agricultural surpluses, 
Development Loan Fund, Economic and technical 
aid, Export-Import Bank, and Mutual security 
Domestic economy : 

Achievements and developments, address and state- 
ment: Mansfield, 33, 34; Wilcox, 590, 591 
Importance of balanced budget to, remarks (Eisen- 
hower), 706 
Mutual security program, effect on, address and 

statements: Dillon, 210, 494; Wilcox, 751 
Need for confidence in and expansion of, addresses 
and remarks : Dillon, 764, 957 ; Eisenhower, 620, 
707 
Foreign economic policy : 

Effect of antitrust law on, address (Becker), 272 
Objectives, addresses and statements: Beale, 571, 
572; Dillon, 165, 206, 327, 454, 457; Eisenhower, 
203 
President's economic report to Congress, excerpts, 308 
Tariff policy. See Tariff policy 
Economic relations, amity, and consular rights, treaty 
with Muscat, Oman, and dependencies, 51, 74, 599, 
729, 854 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council, U.N. 
ECSC. See European Coal and Steel Community 
Ecuador : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements amending 1958 

agreement with U.S., 614 
DLF loans, 22, 530 

Rawinsonde observation station at Guayaquil, agree- 
ment extending 1957 agreement with U.S. for es- 
tablishment and operation of, 178 
Reservation to Bogota economic agreement for protec- 
tion of foreign investment, 789 
Territorial sea, breadth of, position on, 372 
U.S. Operations Mission director, designation, 286 
Education (see also Educational exchange) : 

American-sponsored schools abroad, statements: Dil- 
lon, 491, 806 ; Herter, 488 
Board of Foreign Scholarships, appointment to, 673 
Foreign Service Institute, senior officers training 

course, 329 
IGY impact on, article (Atwood), 688 
Indian research materials, U.S. purchase, 916 
Institutions, responsibility of, address (Henderson), 

906 
Language skills, problem of, address (Wilcox), 757 
Less developed countries, FAO/UNICEF assistance to, 

article (Phillips), 352 
National Defense Education Act, grants to binational 
institutions, report to the President (Milton Eisen- 
hower), 92 
NATO fellowship programs, 344, 934 
SEATO programs, report (Sarasin), 609, 610, 613 
U.S. emphasis on African affairs, address (Penfield), 
848 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, U.N. : 
Constitution, 42 
Contribution to IGY, 684 



994 



Department of State Bulletin 



Educational Exchange, Advisory Commission on, 383 
Educational exchange program, international (see also 
Education) : 
Advisory Commission on, appointment to, 383 
Agreements with : Finland, 978 ; Iceland, 178 ; India, 420 
Latin America, expanding U.S. program in, (Rubot- 

tom), 121,124 
Soviet Union. See Exchange agreement 
Educational Foundation in the Philippines, U.S., 42 
EEC. See European Economic Community 
Egypt (see also United Arab Republic), flight of refu- 
gees from, 3S5, 388 
Eisenhower, Dwight D. : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements : 
Abraham Lincoln's ideals, 298 
Balanced budget, importance of, 706 
Bolivar statue, dedication of, 378 
El Salvador, U.S. relations with, 478 
Exchange of persons program, 260 
Freedom, protection of, 707 
Importance of Understanding, 579 
Inter- American Development Bank, 646 
John Foster Dulles, tribute to, 833 
Mexico, U.S. relations with, 332 
Mutual security, definition of, 697 
Mutual security program, appropriations for, 261 
NATO, 10th anniversary meeting, 543 
A Pledge to the Peoples of the World, 47 
Security in the free world, 467 
Trade, international, contribution to peace, 670 
U.S. economy and the international situation, 620 
World Health Day, 11th anniversary, 596 
World Refugee Year, U.S. role, 872 
Correspondence and messages : 

American Federation of Arts, greetings on 50th an- 
niversary convention, 672 
Baghdad Pact, message to 6th session of Ministerial 

Council, 318 
Bataan, message to President Garcia on 17th anni- 
versary, 627 
Cyprus problem, U.S. welcomes agreement on solu- 
tion of, 367 
Declaration of Human Rights, Universal, 10th anni- 
versary, 108 
Development Loan Fund, Senator Fulbright's pro- 
posals regarding, 926 
Flood damage in Uruguay, U.S. concern, 764 
General de Gaulle, congratulations on inauguration 

as President of France, 163 
Inter-American economic cooperation, 49 
New Year greetings to Soviet people, 131, 214 
Nuclear weapons tests, negotiations for agreement to 

discontinue, 704, 825 
Prince Albert Radar Laboratory, opening, 911 
Secretary Dulles' resignation, acceptance of, 619 
Wool-fabric imports, determination of tariff quota, 

720 
World Refugee Year, approval of meeting to discuss 
U.S. participation, 709 
Executive orders. See Executive orders 

Index, January to June 1959 



Eisenhower, Dwight D. — Continued 
Messages, letters, and reports to Congress : 

American Doctrine to promote peace and stability in 

Middle East, 3d report on, 169 
Budget message, excerpts, 198 
Convention with Cuba for the conservation of shrimp, 

approval requested, 566 
Draper Committee interim report on military assist- 
ance program, 796 
Economic report to Congress, excerpts, 308 
Inter-American Development Bank, proposed legis- 
lation for U.S. membership, 849 
Mutual security program, appropriations for, 427 
State of the Union, excerpts, 115 
Tartar imports, tariff increase disapproved, 529 
U.S. capital subscriptions to IBRD and IMF, legisla- 
tion to increase, 347 
Participation in ceremonies opening St. Lawrence Sea- 
way, announced, 298 
Proclamations. See Proclamations 
Special consultant, swearing-in of, 671 
Visit to Mexico, 236, 331 
Visit to Soviet Union, question of, 297 
Eisenhower, Milton S., 89 
Elbriek, C. Burke, 250 
Elections : 

Berlin, Western proposal for reunification of, state- 
ment (Herter),861 
Cameroun, proposals for elections in : 
Text of General Assembly resolution, 535 
U.S. position, statements: Lodge, 531 ; Sears, 533 
East German election system, address (Cumming), 870 
Germany, proposal for reunification of : 
Statements: Dulles, 227, 228; Herter, 778, 822, 823 
Text of Western peace plan, 779 
El Salvador: 
Army and Air Force missions, agreements amending 

agreements with U.S. for, 42, 653 
FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee, 1st meeting, 

participation, 350 
Membership on Preparatory Committee for the Inter- 
American Development Bank, 648 
Solidarity with U.S. reaffirmed, text of joint statement 

(Eisenhower-Lemus), 478 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision 1958), 285 
Visit of President to U.S., 330, 478 
Emergency Force, United Nations. See United Nations 

Emergency Force 
Escapee program, U.S., addresses (Hanes), 439, 875 
Estonia, 41st anniversary of independence, statement 

(Dulles), 299 
Ethiopia : 

DLF loan, 920 

Food shortages, U.S. aid, 419, 681 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
EURATOM. See European Atomic Energy Community 
Europe (See also individual countries) : 
African interests and territories (see also individual 
territory), addresses: Penfield, 846; Satterthwaite, 
749 
Balance-of-payments situation in, 766 

995 



Europe — Continued 
Collective security. See European security and North 

Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Common market. See European Economic Community 
DLF loans in, 484 
Eastern Europe: 

Soviet position in, address (Murphy), 292 
U.S. concern for peoples of, addresses: Parsons, 914: 
Murphy, 292 
Economic cooperation and development in Western 
Europe. See European Atomic Energy Commu- 
nity ; European Economic Community ; and Euro- 
pean Economic Cooperation, Organization for 
Foreign Relations volume on, released, 770 
IGY World Data Center, location of, 685 
Refugees. See Refugees and Intergovernmental Com- 
mittee for European Migration 
Shipping problems, joint U.S.-European discussions on, 

406 
Soviet objectives in, remarks (Murphy), 514 
Trade developments in, article, report, and statement : 
Culbertson-Lederer, 301 ; Dillon, 208 ; Eisenhower, 
308 
U.N. Economic Commission for, U.S. representatives 

to meetings of, 501, 895 
U.S. policy, address (Murphy), 294 
Unity : 

Progress of, Draper Committee report, 800, S03 
Role of Federal Republic of Germany, statement 
(Herter),860 
Western program for peace in, address (Herter), 735 
European Advisory Commission, 5, 862 
European Atomic Energy Community: 
Agreement with U.S. for cooperation concerning peace- 
ful uses of atomic energy (text), 69, 358 
Commission president, visit to U.S., 634, 952 
Joint program with U.S., achievements during 1st year 

of, statement ( Dillon ) , 247 
Role in European integration movement, statement 
(Dillon), 208 
European Coal and Steel Community: 
European coal situation, action of, U.S. discussion, 

483 
High Authority, president, visit to U.S., 634, 952 
European Common Market. See European Economic 

Community 
European Economic Community : 

Antitrust provisions, address (Becker), 276 
Commission president, visit to U.S., 634, 952 
GATT, consultations and negotiations with, 444, 917, 

918, 919 
Progress and development, report and statements : Dil- 
lon, 247, 248 ; Dulles, 155 ; Eisenhower, 308 
Role in expanding intra-European trade, statement 
(Dillon), 208 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for, co- 
operation with European Communities, statement 
(Dillon), 248 
European Migration, Intergovernmental Committee for: 
Council and executive committee, 9th and 11th sessions, 

article (Warren), 384 
U.S. contribution, 875 

996 



European Recovery Program in Austria 19I/8/195S, Ten 
Years of, Austrian publication presented to President 
Eisenhower, 515 
European security (see also Berlin; Germany: Reunifica- 
tion; and North Atlantic Treaty Organization) : 
Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting, proposal and state- 
ments regarding : 
Statements (Herter), 777, 823, 824 
Western peace plan proposal, 780, 7S1 
Relationship to settlement of German problem : 

Addresses and statements: Dulles, 159, 160; Herter, 

736 ; Murphy, 234 
Texts of U.S. and Soviet notes, 81, 337 
Exchange agreement, U.S.-Soviet Union, in cultural, tech- 
nical, and educational fields : 
Films, Soviet completion of selection of, 483 
National exhibits, reciprocal exchange of: 
Agreement for, text, 132 

Performing artists, agreement for exchange, 633 
U.S. exhibit at Moscow : 
Citizen advisory committee, appointed, 916 
Selection of U.S. works for, appointment of com- 
mittee, 381 
Vice President Nixon to open, announcement, 698 
U.S. proposes extension of, text of aide memoire, 782 
Exchange of informations. See under Information 

activities 
Exchange of persons (see also Cultural relations, East- 
West contacts, and Educational exchange) : 
Importance of program to world peace, remarks (Ei- 
senhower), 260 
Increase with Latin America, report to the President 

(Milton Eisenhower), 91 
With Africa, address (Penfield), 846 
Executive orders: 

Civil Service rights of U.S. employees transferred to 

international organizations, protection of, (10804), 

388 

Foreign aid functions, administration of (10S22), 936 

IMCO, designation as public international organization 

(10795), 142 

Exhibits, national, exchange of. See under Exchange 

agreement 
Expanded Program of Technical Assistance, U.N. See 

United Nations : Technical assistance 
Expanding Private Investment for Free World Economic 

Oroieth, released, 562 
Export-Import Bank : 
Accomplishments during 25 years of operation, 382 
Contribution to economic development, statements : Dil- 
lon, 209 ; Mansfield, 39 
Functions of. statements (Dillon), 167, 456 
Guaranties, proposed program of, statement (Dillon), 

808 
Loans and credits in : Africa, 196, 845 ; Argentina, 105 ; 
EURATOM, 248; Latin America, 92, 93, 95, 121, 
122, 124, 231; Poland, 959; Spain, 107; underde- 
veloped countries, 753 
Resources, increase in, letter and statements: Eisen- 
hower, 926: Mann, 931; U.S. delegation to Com- 
mittee of 21, 480 



Department of SJofe Bulletin 



Exports : 

Soviet Union : 

Department of Commerce report on, 722 
Soviet policies, address (Dillon), 239, 240 
Wheat exporting nations, conference of, text of joint 
communique, 793 
Exports, U.S. (See also Tariffs and trade, general agree- 
ment on ; and Trade) : 
Civil aircraft and equipment, revision of export con- 
trols on, announced, 765 
Coal, European curtailment of, meeting on, 483 
Discriminatory restrictions against, GATT discussions 

regarding removal, 918 
Effect of developments abroad on, statement (Mans- 
field), 35 
Latin America, 1st three quarters of 1958, article, 

(Culbertson-Lederer), 303 
Primary commodities, statement (Mann) , 648 
Strategic materials, decrease in items subject to ex- 
port control, address (Dillon), 239 
Value of, President's economic report (excerpts), 310, 
311, 315 
Expropriation of private property, compensation for, U.S. 
views: 
Addresses (Becker), 667, 784 
Text of U.S. note, 958 
External debts, German, agreement on, 285, 614 

Facilities assistance, special program, agreement amend- 
ing 1954 agreement with United Kingdom relating 
to, 383 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization 
Far East (See also Asia and individual countries) : 
Refugees in, aid to, address and article: Hanes, 874; 

Warren, 385, 387 
U.S. and Communist policies in, addresses: Parsons, 

913, 914 ; Robertson, 472 
Under Secretary Dillon's visits in, 673 
Faroe Islands, agreement (1956) on joint financing of 
air navigation services in, accession and amendments 
to, 573, 614 
Federal Employees International Organization Service 

Act, 388 
Fekini, Mohieddin, 230 
Ferguson, Charles B., 538 
Films, Soviet completion of selection of, 483 
Finet, Paul, 634, 954 
Finland : 

GATT consultations, participation in, 244 
Shipbuilding, U.S. financial aid, 834 
Soviet economic-political offensive in, statement (Dil- 
lon), 207 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements (1954, 1958) 

with U.S., 144 
Educational exchange programs, financing of agree- 
ment amending 1952 agreement with U.S., 978 
GATT: 

Article XVI : 4, amendments to, 178, 502 
Schedule III — Brazil, protocol relating to establish- 
ment of, 383 
IMCO, convention on, 769 

Index, January to June 7959 

543121—60 3 



Finland — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 653 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Firestone, Harvey S., Jr., 278 
Fish and fisheries : 
Breadth of territorial sea, relationship to, address, 
article, and statements : Becker, 369 ; Pearcy, 963 ; 
Phleger, 64 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocols amending 1949 

international convention, 178, 322 
Shrimp conservation convention (1948) with Cuba, 566, 
978 
FitzGerald, Dennis A., 537 
Floberg, John F., 248 

Flood relief to Uruguay, U.S., announcement and mes- 
sage (Eisenhower), 764, 919 
Fluorspar, proposed quota legislation on, statement 

(Mann), 600 
Fobes, John E., 322 

Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. : 
FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee, 1st meeting, 

article (Phillips), 350 
Rice, Consultative Subcommittee on Economic Aspects 
of, report on 3d session (Rivenburgh), 813 
Foreign aid, U.S. See Economic and technical aid, Mu- 
tual security, and individual countries 
Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, 382 
Foreign economic policy. See under Economic policy and 

relations 
Foreign Ministers meeting, Geneva {see also Berlin and 
Germany) : 
Addresses and statements : Couve de Murville, 863, 865 ; 
Cumming, 869, 871 ; Department, 508 ; Dulles, 224, 
229 ; Eisenhower, 469 ; Gromyko, 863 ; Herter, 699, 
735, 775, 776, 819, 821, 859, 860, 863, 865, 866, 943, 
948, 951; Lloyd, 863, 865; Murphy, 713, 828; 
NATO, 739 ; Western Foreign Ministers, 554 
Adjournment for Mr. Dulles funeral: 

Arrival and departure statements (Herter), 863, 865, 

866 
Expressions of condolence, remarks : Couve de Mur- 
ville, 863, 865; Gromyko, 863; Lloyd, 863, 865 
Foreign Ministers meeting with President Eisen- 
hower, statement (Hagerty), 865 
Communiques and notes : NATO, 553 ; Soviet, 508, 633, 
741; U.S., 333, 507, 632, 741; Western Foreign 
Ministers, 555, 699 
East German advisers, background of, address (Cum- 
ming), 869 
Negotiations and preparations for : 

Address and statements : Dulles, 224 ; Eisenhower, 

469 
Date, place, and participants, U.S. and Soviet notes, 

507 
NAC Council meeting, communique, 553 
Soviet charge of Western attempt to torpedo, NATO 
statement, 739; U.S. and Soviet notes, 632, 633, 
741 
U.S. proposal for conference, 333 

997 



Foreign Ministers meeting, Geneva — Continued 
Negotiations and preparations for — Continued 
Western Foreign Ministers meetings, statements and 
communiques, 508, 554, 699, 735 
Objectives and responsibilities, statement (Herter), 775 
Prospects for success, addresses and statement : Dulles, 

229 ; Murphy, 713, S28 
Soviet charges against the German Federal Republic, 

statement refuting (Herter), 859 
U.S. and Western position, addresses: Cumming, 871; 

Herter, 735 
U.S. delegation, 781 
Western peace plan proposal : 

Statements (Herter), 776, 819, 821, 824, 945 
Text, 779 
Foreign Ministers meeting, NATO. See under North At- 
lantic Council 
Foreign Ministers meetings, Western : 
Paris meeting: 
Statements (Herter), 699, 735 
Text of communique, 699 
Washington meeting: 

Department statement, 508 

Texts of joint statement and communique, 554, 555 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 

Characteristics of, addresses : Hanes, 437 ; Murphy, 710 
Communist-free world relations, effect on, addresses: 

Murphy, 291 ; Wilcox, 591 
Congressional documents relating to. See under 

Congress 
Economic matters, relationship to, address (Dillon), 327 
ICA employees, role in, remarks (Dillon), 20 
Impact of science on, article (Atwood), 689 
Legislation. See under Congress 

Objectives of, addresses, remarks, statements: Dillon, 
908; Dulles, 151, 219, 220; Eisenhower, 621; Hen- 
derson, 906 ; Herter, 486 ; Murphy, 231 
Problems of, addresses (Murphy), 183, 628 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 191,1, Volume 

II, Europe, released, 770 
Foreign Scholarships, Board of, member appointed, 673 
Foreign Service (See also International Cooperation Ad- 
ministration and State Department) : 
Africa, representation in, 842, 843, 844, 845 
Ambassadors and Minister appointments, confirmations, 

and resignations, 178, 250, 358, 654, 730, 897 
Consul general at Hong Kong and Macao, designation, 

462 
Consular agency at Las Palmas, Spain, jurisdiction over 

transferred, 538 
Consular district changes: Brisbane and Sydney, Aus- 
tralia, 538 ; Muscat and Oman, 250 ; Yugoslavia, 502 
Consulates opened : Adelaide and Brisbane, Australia, 
286; Brazzaville, French Equatorial Africa, 145 
Cebu, Philippines, 358 ; Cochahamba, Bolivia, 390 
Freetown, Sierra Leone, 770 ; Kaduna, Nigeria, 390 
Lom6, Togo, 814; Tananarive, Malgache Republic, 
730 
Consulates raised to consulate general : Nassau, N.P., 

Bahamas, 421 ; Yaounde^ Cameroun, 614 
Economic training essential to members of, address 
(Dillon), 327 



Foreign Service — Continued 
Embassy at Conakry, Guinea, established, 390 
Examination announced, 729 
Functions, address (Hanes), 439 
Institute, senior officer training course, address 

(Dillon), 329 
Legation at Sofia, Bulgaria, reestablishment of, 512 
Legation at Taiz, Yemen, opened, 538 
Political adviser to Commander in Chief, Pacific, at 

Honolulu, designation, 462 
Regional ambassadorial meetings : Africa, 916 ; Car- 
ibbean, 634 ; Far East, 673 ; South America, 665, 792 
Foreign Service Institute, senior officers training course, 

address (Dillon), 329 
Foreign trade. See Trade 
Forestry Congress, 5th World, meeting and members of 

U.S. Organizing Committee, 67, 212 
Formosa. See China, Republic of ; and Taiwan Straits 
Fosdick, Raymond B., 839 
Foster, Adm. Paul F., 867 
France : 
African territories (see also individual suoject), devel- 
opments in, addresses, statements, and U.N. 
action: Lodge, 531, 534; Satterthwaite, 192, 193, 
744 ; Sears, 355, 535 ; text of General Assembly reso- 
lution, 534 
Antarctica conference, participation in, 895 
Berlin situation. See Berlin situation 
Cameroun. See French Cameroun 
Economic reforms program, statement (Dillon), 248 
FAO/UNICEF joint policy committee, 1st meeting, 350 
Foreign Ministers meetings. See Foreign Ministers 

meetings 
GATT consultations, participation in, 244 
Geneva technical talks on preventing surprise attack. 

See Geneva technical talks 
German reunification. See Germany : Reunification of 
Nuclear test suspension, Geneva meetings on. See 
Geneva conference of experts and Geneva meeting 
to negotiate 
President de Gaulle, message (Eisenhower) of con- 
gratulation upon inauguration, 163 
SEATO countries, French aid to, 609, 611, 612 
Summit meeting, proposed. See Heads of Government 

meeting, proposed 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 653 
GATT: 

Article XVI :4, declaration and proces verbal ex- 
tending standstill provisions of, 573 
Schedule III — Brazil, negotiations for establish- 
ment of, 573 
Germany, Allied High Commission archives, protocol 

amending agreement (1954) concerning, 502 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending 1949 

international convention for, 178 
Nuclear fuel, purchase agreement with U.S., 769 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation, 810 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 195S), 285, 
897 



998 



Department of Stafe Bulletin 



France — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 810 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 

Space, membership, 32 
Viet-Nam, French aid to, 680 

Wheat, conference of major exporting nations, partic- 
ipation in, 793 
Fred, Edwin B., 278 

Freedom, addresses, remarks, and statement regarding: 
Dulles, 154 ; Eisenhower, 707, 783 ; Murphy, 185, 832 ; 
Nixon, 14 
French Cameroun: 
New elections, proposals for, U.S. position, statement 

(Lodge), 531 
Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 443 
Problems confronting, address (Satterthwaite), 746 
Termination of U.N. trusteeship status, text of General 

Assembly resolution, 534 
U.S. consulate at Yaounde, elevated to consulate gen- 
eral status, 614 
French Community, establishment and relation to African 

territories, addresses (Satterthwaite), 192, 745 
French Equatorial Africa, U.S. consulate at Brazzaville 

reopened, 145 
French West Africa, developments in, addresses (Satter- 
thwaite), 192, 744 
Frondizi, Arturo, 280 
Fulbright, J. William, 926 

Fulbright Act. See Educational exchange program 
Fund for Special Operations, Inter-American Bank, oper- 
ations and proposed U.S. contribution, statements : 
Dillon, 929 ; Eisenhower, 850 
Fur Seal Commission, North Pacific, 2d annual meeting, 
142 

Gamble, Millard G., 652 

GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 

General Assembly, U.N. : 

Cyprus, problem of, U.S. position, statement (Barco), 

41 
Documents, lists of, 68, 109, 322, 389, 768, 976 
Hungarian situation, actions regarding, statements : 

Lodge, 55 ; Wise, 174 
Outer space, efforts to promote peaceful uses of, state- 
ment (Wilcox), 399, 400 
Refugee programs. See Refugees 
Resolutions : 

Cameroons, British, elections recommended, 535 
Cameroun, French, termination of U.N. trusteeship, 

534 
Economic development of less developed countries, 41 
Hungarian situation, 62 
Law of the sea, convening of 2d U.N. conference on, 

66 
Outer Space, Ad Hoc Committee on Peaceful Uses of, 

establishment of, 32 
Palestine refugees, 141 
U.S. alternate representatives to 13th session confirmed, 
388 

Index, January to June 7959 



Geneva Accords on Viet-Nam, Communist China disre- 
gard of, address (Robertson), 377 
Geneva conference of experts to study the possibility of 
detecting violations of a possible agreement on the 
suspension of nuclear tests : 
Conclusions regarding underground nuclear tests, Pres- 
ident's Science Advisory Committee statement, 118 
Evaluation of, address and statements : Dulles, 161, 
162 ; Murphy, 830 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners of 
war, wounded and sick, and civilians in time of war, 
74, 537, 854, 977 
Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting. See Foreign Min- 
isters meeting, Geneva 
Geneva Heads of Government conference (1955), direc- 
tive of, statements ( Herter ) , 775, 776 
Geneva meeting to negotiate an agreement on suspension 
of nuclear weapons tests and establishment of an 
international control system : 
Inspection and control system, U.S. and Soviet posi- 
tions, address, letters, and statements : Depart- 
ment, 188, 261; Eisenhower, 704, 825; Hagerty, 
827; Khrushchev, 704, 826; White House, 706; 
Wilcox, 592, 593 
Progress and status of negotiations, addresses and 
statements : Herter, 775 ; Murphy, 831 ; Wadsworth, 
700 ; Wigglesworth, 881 ; Wilcox, 593 
Science Advisory Committee, President's, report of find- 
ings on underground tests to, 118 
S. Res. 96 supporting U.S. position transmitted to 
Soviet Union, 742 
Geneva technical talks on preventing surprise attack (see 
also Surprise attack) : 
Recess of talks, Department statement, 13 
Reconvening of, U.S. note regarding, 163 
Genocide, convention (1948) on the prevention and pun- 
ishment of the crime of, 285 
Geophysical Tear, International, article (Atwood), 682 
Geophysics, Special Committee for Inter-Union Coopera- 
tion in, established, 686 
Gerig, Benjamin, 388 

"German Democratic Republic." See Germany, East 
Germany : 
Ad hoc Working Group on, meetings of, 297, 406, 554, 

555 
Allied High Commission archives, protocol modifying 

1954 agreement concerning, 502 
Berlin. See Berlin 
Communist Chinese influence on Soviet policy, question 

of, statement (Dulles), 227 
Comparison of East and West Germany, addresses 

(Murphy), 233, 630, 828 
Demilitarization of, U.S.-Soviet views on, statements 

(Dulles), 157,159,161 

Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945, The 

Third Reich: First Phase, October 14, 1933-June 

13, 1934, series C (1933-1937), vol. II, released, 897 

Foreign forces in. See under Armed forces 

Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting on problems of. 

See Foreign Ministers meeting, Geneva 
Reunification of (see also Berlin situation and Euro- 
pean security) : 

999 



Germany — Continued 

Reunification of — Continued 

Confederation of East and West Germany, proposed, 

statements (Dulles), 223, 230 
Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting discussions and 
proposals concerning. See Foreign Ministers meet- 
ing, Geneva 
Negotiations with Soviets regarding, possibility of, 

statements (Dulles), 223 
Peace treaty, Soviet proposal, texts of notes and draft 

treaty, 333, 337, 508 
Soviet violation of agreement for, address (Wiggles- 
worth), 880 
U.S., Western, and Soviet positions, addresses, state- 
ments, and notes : Dulles, 156, 157, 159, 161, 221, 227, 
228; Eisenhower, 467; Herter, 736; Murphy, 183, 
184, 185, 233, 293, 628; U.S. and Soviet notes, 79, 
333 ; Wilcox, 591, 592 
Two Germanies, U.S. position on Communist thesis of, 

address (Cumming), 870 
U.S. occupation rights in, legal aspects of, text of 
memorandum, 5 
Germany, East : 

Communist puppet government, address (Cumming), 

868 
Foreign Ministers meeting on German problem, partici- 
pation in, texts of U.S. and Soviet notes, 507, 510 
Legal status, statement (Herter), 864 
Nonrecognition of, U.S. position, statements (Herter), 

820, 944, 946 
Refugees, flight to West Germany, 876 
Germany, Federal Republic of : 
Atomic armament of, Soviet views, texts of Soviet notes, 

741, 866 
Coal surplus, discussions with U.S. regarding, 18 
East German refugees, integration of, 876 
Foreign Ministers meetings. See Foreign Ministers 

meetings 
Import restrictions, GATT Contracting Parties discus- 
sions, 766, 917 
Renunciation of the use of force, statement (Herter), 

859 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy for mutual defense purposes, coopera- 
tive agreement with U.S., 769 
Certificates of airworthiness for imported aircraft, 

agreement with U.S. relating to, 110 
External debts, agreement (1953) on, 285, 614 
GATT, proe&s verbal concerning article XVI :4, 502 
IMCO convention, membership, 285, 653 
Indebtedness to U.S. for postwar economic assistance, 

agreement with U.S. relating to, 516, 573 
Industrial property, revision of convention ( 1883 ) for 

protection of, 250 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
U.S. troops, agreement providing for voluntary con- 
tribution for maintenance, 978 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
Western policy in, address ( Murphy ) , 233 
Ghana : 

Federation with Guinea, proposed, addresses (Satter- 
thwaite), 191, 745 



Ghana — Continued 
GATT consultations, participation in, 244 
Genocide, convention (1948) on the prevention and pun- 
ishment of the crime of, 285 
Relief supplies and packages, agreement with U.S. for 
duty-free entry and exemption from taxation of, 653 
U.S. aid, address (Satterthwaite), 748 
Gibson, William M., 145 
Goodrich, Lloyd, 381 
"Greater Maghreb" federation of north African areas, 

plans for, 193 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom 
Greece : 

Cyprus problem. See Cyprus 

Defense of, Department statement and message (Eisen- 
hower), 431, 867 
DLF loan, 245 

Postwar developments in, address (Rountree), 363 
Refugees, problem of, 878 
Rocket bases (U.S.) in, Soviet views, text of Soviet 

note, 741 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, agreement with U.S. for mutual de- 
fense purposes, 769 
GATT: 

Declaration and proc&s verbal extending standstill 

provisions of article XVI : 4, 573 
7th protocol of rectifications and modifications to 
texts of schedules, 178 
IMCO convention (1948), 358 

Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 654 
Green, Sen. Theodore Francis, 230 
Greenland : 
Air navigation services in, agreement (1956) and amend- 
ment on joint financing of, 573, 614 
DEW extension in, agreement (U.S.-Canada) relating 
to communications facilities at Cape Dyer, Baffin 
Island, in support of, 690 
Greer's Ferry Dam, question of awarding turbine contract 

for, statements (Dulles), 225 
Gromyko, Andrei, 863 
Guatemala : 

DLF loans, 306, 419, 920 

Expropriation of United Fruit Company property, U.S. 

views, address (Becker), 787, 791 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
protocol amending convention (1944), on, 502 
Guinea : 

Admission to the U.N., statements (Lodge), 52, 55 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 709 
Federation with Ghana, proposed, addresses (Satter- 
thwaite), 191, 745 
President to visit U.S., 917 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, international convention on, 614 
ICJ statute, 178 

Postal convention (1957), universal, 897 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 
537 



1000 



Department of State Bulletin 



Guinea — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
U.N. Charter, 178 
WMO convention, 614 
U.S. Embassy established, 390 
Gulf of Aqaba, 371 

Hagerty, James C, 297, 743, 827 
Haiti : 

DLF loan to, 565, 920 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air Force mission, agreement with U.S. amending 

1949 agreement, 574 
GATT, proc&s verbal concerning article XVI :4, 502 
GATT, 6th and 7th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to texts of schedules, 178 
GATT, standstill provisions of article XVI :4, declara- 
tion extending, 178 
Naval mission, agreement with U.S. concerning, 110 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.S. aid, 380, 565 
Hall, Carlos C, 502 
Hallstein, Walter, 634, 953 
Hamilton, Wesley D., 895 
Hanes. John W., Jr., 437, 517, 723, 873 
Hare, Raymond A., 358, 538 
Harrar, J. George, 246 
Harrison, George McGregor, 137, 140 
Hart, Parker T, 715 
Heads of Government Conference (1955), directive of, 

statements (Herter), 775, 776 
Heads of Government meeting, proposed : 

Prospects for, address and statement (Herter), 738, 776 
U.S. and Soviet views, texts of notes, 507, 510 
Health and sanitation : 
Berlin medical center, 672 
Cholera research project, SEATO communique and 

U.S.-SEATO agreement relating to, 605, 978 
FAO/UNICEF improvement plans for, article (Phil- 
lips), 351 
U.S. support for international programs, message and 
statements : Eisenhower, 432 ; Herter, 488 ; Dillon, 
490, 491, 806 
WHO achievements, address (Wilcox), 835 
World Health Day, 596 
Health Assembly, World, U.S. delegation to 12th assembly, 

767 
Health Organization, World, achievements and efforts for 

world peace, address (Wilcox), 835 
Heeney, Arnold D. P., 440 
Heinz, Henry J., II, 501 
Henderson, Horace E., 74 
Henderson, Loy W„ 211, 318, 903 
Herter, Christian A. : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements : 

Acknowledging greetings after swearing-in as Secre- 
tary of State, 671 
Dulles, John Foster, tribute to, 833 
Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting. See Foreign 

Ministers meeting, Geneva 
Mutual security program, 485 
NATO Ministerial Meeting at Washington, 545, 546 



Herter, Christian A. — Continued 

Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 
Paris meeting of Western Foreign Ministers preparing 

for Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting, 699 
Tibet, Communist suppression in, U.S. concern, 514 
Confirmation as Secretary of State, 690 
Report on convention with Cuba for the conservation 
of shrimp, 566 
Hess, Walter Muller. 299 
High Commissioner for Refugees, Office of the U.N., U.S. 

support, 874, 878 
High seas, convention on the, 373, 854 
Highways : 

Philippines, DLF loan for, 307 

Viet-Nam, U.S. aid in developing, address (Barrows), 
678 
Hillenbrand, Martin J., 406 
Hirseh, Etienne, 634, 954 
Hoffman, Paul G., 284 
Hofgren, Daniel, 673 

Holy See, international wheat agreement (1959), 689 
Honduras : 
Border dispute with Nicaragua, address (Rubottom), 

661 
U.S. Operations Mission director, appointed, 390 
Hong Kong : 
Chinese refugees in, problem of and U.S. aid, 874, 876, 

878 
Designation of consul general at, 462 
Hoofnagle, James G., 770 
Hope, Henry Radford, 381 

Housing in Latin America, suggestions for promoting low- 
cost units, 97, 482 
Human rights, U.N. activities in field of : 

U.N. Commission recommendations, statements: Lord, 

175 ; Wise, 172 
Universal declaration of human rights, 10th anniver- 
sary of adoption, address ( Lord ) , 108 
Hummel, John L., 286 
Hungary : 

Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for pro- 
tection of, 250 
Refugees, U.S. aid, 875, 877 

Representation in the U.N., statement (Lodge) regard- 
ing, 63 
Soviet activities in, address, statements, and General 
Assembly resolution : Murphy, 188 ; Lodge, 55 ; text 
of resolution, 62 ; Wise, 174 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
U.S. relations with, 222 

IAEA. See Atomic Energy Agency, International 

IBM. See International Business Machines 

IBRD. See International Bank for Reconstruction and 

Development 
ICA. See International Cooperation Administration 
ICAO. See Civil Aviation Organization, International 
Iceland : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 502 
Air navigation services in, agreement (1956) on joint 

financing of, amendments to, 573, 614 
Economic development, U.S. loan to assist, 598 



Index, January to June 7959 



1001 



Iceland — Continued 
Educational exchange programs, agreement amending 

1957 agreement with U.S. for financing, 178 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 653 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
ICEM. See Intergovernmental Committee for European 

Migration 
ICJ. See International Court of Justice 
IGY. See International Geophysical Year 
IJC. See International Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada) 
Illinois Waterway, diversion of water from Lake Michigan 
into, statement (Willoughby), U.S.-Canadian aide 
memoire, and text of proposed bill, 404 
ILO. See International Labor Organization 
IMCO. See Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative 

Organization 
IMF. See International Monetary Fund 
Immigration, U.S. program, addresses (Hanes), 438, 876, 

877 
Imports {see also Customs; Tariff policy, U.S.; Tariffs 
and trade ; and Trade) : 
Aircraft, agreement with Austria for reciprocal accept- 
ance of certificates of airworthiness, 769 
Denmark, dollar import controls relaxed, 564 
Fluctuation of U.S. imports, effect abroad, address, 
statement, and report : Eisenhower, 311, 312 ; Mans- 
field, 34 ; Wilcox, 751 
German, removal of nontariff restrictions, 917 
Latin American imports for 1st three quarters of 1958, 

article (Culbertson-Lederer), 301 
Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 420, 653, 810 
Soviet policies regarding, address (Dillon), 238 
U.K., relaxation of controls on dollar imports, 882 
U.S.-Canadian restrictions, joint committee views, 129 
Income tax : 

Conventions for avoidance of double taxation. See 

Double taxation 
Malaya, agreement with U.S. to send tax experts to, 978 
India : 

DLF loans, 51, 456, 460, 484 
5-year plan, 2d, U.S. aid to, 640, 641 
IBRD assistance, statements (Dillon), 456, 460 
Iron ore deposits, development of, address (Mac- 
Arthur), 561 
Progress in, address (Rountree), 364 
Research materials on India, U.S. purchase, 916 
Soviet-bloc aid, 207, 587 

Tibetan refugees flight to, U.S. promise of aid for, 877 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 416, 

420 
Educational exchange program, agreement amending 

1950 agreement with U.S. for financing, 420 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 
Space, membership, 32 
Indian conference, 4th inter-American, U.S. delegation 
to Guatemala City meeting, 895 

1002 



Indonesia : 

Breadth of territorial sea, proposal on, 372 
DLF loan to, 345 
Soviet-bloc aid, 207 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, standstill provisions of article XVI :4, decla- 
ration extending and proces verbal extending dec- 
laration, 178, 502 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon, 673 
Industrial Development Center, Viet-Nam, U.S. aid to, 

679 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for pro- 
tection of, 249 
Inflation, problem of, remarks (Eisenhower), 620 
Information activities and programs : 
Atomic information, provisions of agreement between 

U.S. and EURATOM regarding, 71 
Health and medical information, WHO programs, ad- 
dress (Wilcox), 837 
IGY data, provision for free and prompt dissemination 

of, article (Atwood), 685, 686, 687 
News Division activities in Department of State, article 

(White), 921 
Outer space research. General Assembly provision for 

exchange of, 891 
SEATO activities, report (Sarasin), 608, 609-610, 613 
Soviet propaganda, importance in combatting, address 
(Wilcox), 596 
Information Agency, U.S. See United States Informa- 
tion Agency 
Inspection and control system, Geneva negotiations for 
establishment of. See Geneva meeting to negotiate 
Inter-American Affairs, Council on, proposed establish- 
ment, report to President (Milton Eisenhower), 101 
Inter-American Committee of Presidential Representa- 
tives, recommendations of, report to the President 
(Milton Eisenhower) , 89 
Inter-American Development Bank : 
Establishment, proposed, addresses, message, reports, 
and statements : Dillon, 209, 640, 807 ; Eisenhower, 
117, 204, 309: Eisenhower-Lemus, 479; Milton 
Eisenhower, 93, 94, 95; Mansfield, 39; National 
Advisory Council report, 849n; Rubottom, 124, 126 
Functions of, addresses : Becker, 666 ; Rubottom, 664 
Specialized Committee for Negotiating and Drafting 
the Instrument of Organization of an Inter-Ameri- 
can Financial Institution: 
Final Act, completion and signature of, statements: 

Mann, 931 ; Upton, 646 
Meeting of, U.S. delegation, 144 
Preparatory Committee of, resolution on, 648 
Technical assistance department within, proposed, 481 
U.S. membership and support, addresses, letter, mes- 
sage, and statement : Dillon, 242, 928 ; Eisenhower, 
849, 926 ; Murphy, 232 
Inter- American Economic and Social Council : 

Programs of, address and statement: Rubottom, 663; 

Department statement, 481, 482 
Specialized Committee on the Inter-American Develop- 
ment Bank. See under Inter-American Develop- 
ment Bank 

Department of State Bulletin 



Inter- American economic conference (1957), results of, 

addresses : Becker, 790 ; Kubottom, 124 
Inter-American Indian conference, 4th, U.S. delegation, 

895 
Inter- American Institute of Agricultural Sciences ( OAS ) : 
Activities of, address and statement : Rubottom, 663 ; 

Department statement, 482 
Convention (1944) on, protocols of amendment to, 126, 
178, 285, 502 
Inter-American Juridical Committee, Rio meeting, ad- 
dress (Becker), 667 
Inter-American Peace Committee, 662 
Inter-American problems. See Latin America 
Interdependence, principle of, remarks and message : 

Eisenhower, 428 ; Murphy, 514 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration : 
Council and executive committee, 9th and 11th ses- 
sions, article (Warren), 384 
U.S. contribution, 875 
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization: 
Convention (1948) on, 285, 358, 537, 769, 854 
Designation as public international organization, Ex- 
ecutive order, 142 
1st Assembly, U.S. delegation and report on, 143, 652 
Internal Security Act of 1950, provisions relating to pass- 
port issuance, 723, 725 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : 
Capital subscriptions, proposed increase of, address, 
announcement, letter, messages, and statements: 
Anderson, 451 ; Department statement, 480 ; Dillon, 
209, 455 ; Eisenhower, 117, 204, 347, 348, 926 ; IBRD 
announcement, 279 ; Mann, 931 ; Mansfield, 39 
Financial report, 743 
Investment guaranties, when required, statement 

(Anderson), 451, 452 
Loans by, addresses, article, report, and statements: 
Anderson, 450; Culbertson-Lederer, 303; Depart- 
ment statement, 480; Dillon, 167, 455, 456, 458, 459, 
460 ; Milton Eisenhower, 92, 93, 95 ; MacArthur, 560 ; 
Mansfield, 35 ; Satterthwaite, 195 ; Wilcox, 755 
International Business Machines World Trade Corpora- 
tion, West Berlin to have major headquarters build- 
ing, exchange of letters, (Dillon, Watson), 418 
International Commission for Supervision and Control 

in Viet-Nam, 377 
International Cooperation Administration (gee also De- 
velopment Loan Fund, Economic and technical aid, 
and Mutual security) : 
Administrative funds, need for increase, President's 

message to Congress, 435 
Asian economic development, assistance to, address 

(MacArthur), 560, 562 
Confirmations, 250, 462 

Coordinating authority for mutual security program, 
transfer to State Department, statement (Dillon), 
492 
Deputy Director, confirmation (Saecio), 250 
Designations, 74, 250, 574 
Director : 
Confirmation (Riddleberger),462 
Resignation (Smith), 286 



International Cooperation Administration — Continued 
Employees role in conduct of foreign policy, remarks 

(Dillon), 20 
Financial development, international, role in promoting, 

address (Dillon), 167 
Investment guaranty program. See Investment guar- 
anty program 
Loans and grants to : Finland, 834 ; Haiti, 380, 565 ; Ice- 
land, 598 ; Uruguay, 919 
Ocean-freight program for relief supplies for voluntary 

agencies, 21 
Operations missions, appointment of directors to: 
Afghanistan, 462; Ecuador, 286; Jordan, 690; 
Libya, 730 ; Morocco, 690 ; Panama, 978 
Organizational changes in, 537 
Programs in Viet-Nam, address (Barrows), 674 
Representatives, designations of: British Guiana, 978; 

Nairobi, Kenya, British East Africa, 814 
Sub-Sahara Africa, study tour by National Academy 

of Sciences, 246 
Technical cooperation program, conduct of, 330 
International Council of Scientific Unions : 
International Committee on Space Research of, state- 
ment (Wilcox), 401 
Role in IGY, article (Atwood), 683, 684, 685, 686, 688 
International Court of Justice : 
Statute of: 
Application to outer space problems, statement 

(Becker), 886 
Current actions, 110, 178 
U.S. relation to, addresses and statement: Dulles, 224, 

259 ; Eisenhower, 118 
Wider use of, proposed, address (Nixon), 624 
International Development Advisory Board, U.S. members 

appointed, 278 
International development association, proposed estab- 
lishment. See Development association, international 
International Geophysical Year in Retrospect, article 

(Atwood), 682 
International Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada) : 
Columbia River Basin, U.S.-Canadian joint statement 

requesting I JC study of development, 243 
50th anniversary, statement (Dulles), 130 
International Labor Organization : 
Operations in Africa, address (Satterthwaite), 527 
U.S. representative to governing body, appointment 
of, 261 
International law (see also International Court of Jus- 
tice) : 
American Republics, legal principles governing relations 

among, address (Rubottom), 660 
Berlin situation, legal aspects of, text of memorandum, 5 
Development and use of, addresses and statement: 

Dulles, 153, 255 ; Nixon, 622 
International Law Commission, 369 
Law of the sea. See Law of the sea 
Obligations, international, U.S. position, address 

(Murphy), 711 
Outer space, problem of laws to govern, statements: 

Becker, 885 ; Lodge, 884 ; Meeker, 974 
Private property, responsibility of states for protection 
of: address (Becker), 666; U.S. note, 958 



Index, January fo June 1959 



1003 



International law — Continued 

Submarine telecommunications cables, provisions for 

protection of, 556, 557 
Territorial waters, question of rights in and breadth of. 

See Territorial waters 
U.S. antitrust law, relationship to, address (Becker), 
272, 274 
International Monetary Fund (see also International 
Bank) : 
Capital subscriptions, proposed increase of, address, 
announcement, letter, messages, and statements: 
Anderson, 445 ; Dillon, 208, 454, 457 ; Eisenhower, 
117, 204, 347, 926 ; IMF announcement, 279 ; Mann, 
931 ; State Department statement, 480 
Functions of, addresses : Dillon, 167 ; Wilcox, 755 
Loans to: Latin America, 105, 106, 232, 303; less de- 
veloped countries, 35 
International organizations (see also subject) : 
Calendar of international conferences and meetings, 

22, 171, 316, 499, 643, 811 
U.S. employees transferred to, retention of civil service 
rights, Executive order, 388 
International Organizations Immunities Act (1945), pro- 
visions, 143 
International Radio Consultative Committee, 9th plenary 
assembly, address (Beale) and Department announce- 
ments, 570 
International Refugee Organization, U.S. contribution, 

874 
International telecommunication convention (1952), tele- 
graph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285, 537, 
689, 769, 897 
International Telecommunication Union (see also Tele- 
communications) : 
Allocation of radio frequencies for space vehicles and 
objects, proposed as group to study, statement 
(Becker), 888 
International Radio Consultative Committee, 9th 
Plenary Assembly, address (Beale), 570 
Investment guaranty program : 
Agreements with: Malaya, 714, 729; Nicaragua, 770; 

Sudan, 614 ; Tunisia, 637, 690 
Expansion of, messages and statements: Dillon, 209, 
489, 808 ; Eisenhower, 203, 204, 434 ; Mann, 932 
Investment of private capital abroad : 
Administration of, ICA, 537 
Africa, addresses: Penfield, 843, 848; Satterthwaite, 

748, 749 
Argentina, address and statement: Dulles, 226; 

Frondizi, 282 
Asia, inducement of private capital in, address 

(MacArthur), 561 
ECOSOC resolution on sovereignty over natural wealth 

and resources, effects on, statement (Lord), 175 
Empaneling Private Investment for Free World Eco- 
nomic Growth, Straus report, 562 
Foreign policy objectives, role in furthering, address 

(Dillon), 909 
IBRD assistance to, statement (Dillon), 460 
Increase in, address, message, report, and statement: 
Dillon, 167, 209 ; Eisenhower, 203, 204, 312 ; Nixon, 
625 



Investment of private capital abroad — Continued 

Investment guaranty program. See Investment 

guaranty program 
Latin America : 

Declaration of Special Committee of OAS, 50 

U.S. policy, addresses, article, report, and statement: 

Department statement, 481 ; Lederer, Culbertson, 

302 ; Murphy, 231, 232 ; Rubottom, 120, 123, 124, 664 

Underdeveloped countries, importance to, address and 

statement: Mansfield, 39; Wilcox, 753 
Viet-Nam, efforts to attract, address (Barrows), 679 
Iran: 

Defense support assistance, U.S., message (Eisen- 
hower), 431 
DLF loan to, 136, 484 
FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee, participation in 

1st meeting, article (Phillips), 350 
Outer space, membership in U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on 

Peaceful Uses of, 32 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement with U.S., 729 
Economic and military assistance, agreement of co- 
operation with U.S., 226, 416, 421 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285, 
537 
U.S.-Soviet policies toward, addresses and statement: 
Department statement, 867 ; Murphy, 832 ; Roun- 
tree, 364 
Iraq : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 954 

Communist propaganda campaign against U.S., address 

(Henderson), 904 
Soviet aid, 587 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Genocide, convention (1948) on the prevention and 

punishment of the crime of, 285 
IAEA, statute, 420 

Postal convention (1952), universal, 357 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 
537 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 250 
Ireland : 
Commercial samples and advertising material, interna- 
tional convention (1952) to facilitate importation, 
810 
Industrial property, revision of 18S3 convention for 

protection of, 250 
President visits U.S., 406 

Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 6S9 
Islam, influence on Middle East unity, article (Pearcy), 

415 
Israel : 

Border dispute with Syria, statement (Lodge), 284 

DLF loan in, 382, 793 

GATT, accession to, consideration by 14th session, 766, 

918 
Maritime Safety Committee, U.S. effort to obtain mem- 
bership for, 653 
Palestine refugees. See Refugees : Arab refugees 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 502 



1004 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Israel — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Technical cooperation program, agreement amending 

1952 agreement with U.S., 110 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmed, 936 
Italy : 
Aid to economic development of Arab countries, state- 
ment (Dillon), 638 
FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee, 1st meeting, 

350 
GATT consultations, participation in, 244 
ICEM migrant training program, 386 
IMCO Council, membership, 653 

Soviet threats regarding, U.S. concern over, 867 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
GATT: 

Declaration and proces verbal concerning article 

XVI : 4, 178, 502 
Protocol concerning establishment of new schedule 

Ill-Brazil, 573 
7th protocol of rectifications and modifications to 
texts of schedules, 178 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
Trust Territory of Somaliland. See Somalia 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 
Space, membership, 32 
Ivory Coast Republic, economic and political ties with 
Volta and Niger, address (Satterthwaite), 745, 746 

Jackson, James, 724 
Japan : 

Antarctica, participation in conference on, 895 
Communist China's campaign against, address and 

statement : Parsons, 913 ; Robertson, 376 
Economic development in Asia, contribution to, 

addresses: MacArthur, 559; Parsons, 914 
Free world security, importance to, address (Eisen- 
hower), 581 
GATT consultations, participation in, 244 
IGT World Data Center branch, location of, 685 
IMCO Council, membership, 653 

North Pacific Fur Seal Commission, 2d annual meet- 
ing, 142 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, agreements amending agreements with 

U.S., 177, 250 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, protocol amending re- 
search and power reactor agreement (1958) with 
U.S., 358 
Financial contributions for U.S. supplies and serv- 
ices, agreement relating to under article XXV of 
1952 administrative agreement, 810 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 
protection of, 250 

Index, January to June 7959 



Japan — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Loan of naval vessels, agreement supplementing 1954 

agreement with U.S., 322 
Parcel post, agreement (1958) with U.S., 729 
Parcel post, agreement (1938) with U.S., terminated, 

729 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Universal postal convention (1957), 74 
Whaling convention (1946), international, and sched- 
ule of regulations, notification of withdrawal, 322 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 
Space, membership, 32 
Jernegan, John D., 250 

John Foster Dulles Library of Diplomatic History, estab- 
lished at Princeton University, 792 
Joint Commission, International (U.S.-Canada) : 

Columbia River Basin, U.S.-Canadian joint statement 

requesting IJC study of development, 243 
50th anniversary, statement (Dulles), 130 
Joint United States-Canadian Committee on Trade and 

Economic Affairs, 4th meeting, 17, 128 
Jones, Marshall P., 770 
Jordan : 

Crisis in, U.K.-U.N. actions, statement (Dulles), 152 
DLF loans, 346, 598, 920 
Drought relief assistance, U.S., 246 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Obscene publications, agreement relating to repres- 
sion of circulation of, 936 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 653 
Slavery convention (1926), and protocol amending, 

936 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285, 
769 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 358 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 690 
Visit of King Hussein I to U.S., 558 
Jordan, Leonard B., 278 

Juridical Committee, Inter-American, Rio meeting, ad- 
dress (Becker), 667 
Justice, Department of, foreign relations implications in 

antitrust cases, address (Becker), 273 
Justice, International Court of. Bee International Court 

Kadar, Janos, 58, 59, 60, 61 
Kamil, Nik Ahmad, 137, 440 

Kenya, British East Africa, designation of ICA repre- 
sentative for, 814 
Kerr, Clark, 278 

Khrushchev, Nikita, 60, 293, 705, 826 
King Baudouin, 512, 672, 851 
King Hussein I, 558 
Kirk, Grayson, 951 
Kline, Allan B., 278 

Korea, north, question of U.N. membership, U.S. and So- 
viet positions, statement (Lodge), 53 
Korea, Republic of: 

Communist aggression in, addresses: Reinhardt, 396; 
Robertson, 376, 476 

DLF loans, 598, 920 

1005 



Korea, Republic of — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Utilities claims settlement, agreement with Unified 

Command, 110 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.N. membership, question of, statements (Lodge), 52, 

53,55 
U.S. aid to, 431, 496 

U.S. relations with, statement (Dulles), 224 
Korean Relief Agency, U.N., U.S. aid, 874 
Kuwait : 

Load line convention (1930), international, 537 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 537 

Labor : 
Africa, developments in, addresses (Satterthwaite) 191, 

524, 747 
SEATO programs, 397, 609 
Labor Conference, International, principal U.S. delegates 

to 43d session, 934 
Labor Organization, International, operations in Africa, 

address (Satterthwaite), 527 
Labouisse, Henry R., 140 
Laflin, W. Alan, 978 

Lake Michigan water diversion, proposed U.S. legislation 
to increase, statement (Willoughby), U.S. and Cana- 
dian aide memoire, and text of bill, 404 
Latvia, 41st anniversary of independence, statement 

(Dulles), 299 
Laos: 
Defense support assistance, U.S., 431 
Mutual security program achievements, statement 

(Dillon), 809 
Road traffic, convention (1949) with annexes, 573 
Latin America (see also Inter- American, Organization 
of American States, Pan American, and individual 
countries) : 
Agricultural surpluses, U.S., disposal policy in, re- 
marks (Cabot), 636 
Balance of payments with U.S., article (Lederer- 

Culbertson),300 
DLP loans in, 484 

Economic development (see also Operation Pan Amer- 
ica), addresses and statements: Becker, 666; 
Eisenhower-Lemus, 478 ; Frondizi, 281, 282 ; Mann, 
931; Murphy, 231, Rubottom, 119; U.S. delegation 
to Committee of 21, 479 
IBRD loans, 755 

Inter-American Bank. See Inter-American Develop- 
ment Bank 
Regional markets in. See under Common markets. 
Trade relations. See under Trade 
U.N. Economic Commission for, U.S. representative to 

8th session, confirmed, 897 
U.S. Ambassadors meetings on problems of, 635, 665, 

792 
U.S. relations and policy regarding, address, letter, re- 
port, and statement : Dulles, 154 ; Milton Eisen- 
hower, 89; Macomber, 726; Murphy, 231 
Law, International. See International law 
Law Commission, International, 369 

1006 



Law of the sea : 
Breadth of territorial sea and fishing jurisdiction, U.S. 

views, addresses: Becker, 369; Dulles, 258 
High seas, convention on, 373, S54 
Panamanian law on, text of U.S. note rejecting, 127 
2d U.N. conference on, statements (Phleger) and Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution convening, 64, 66 
Lead and zinc problem, efforts to solve, statements and 
text of U.S.-Canadian communique : communique, 
129 ; Eisenhower-Lopez Mateos, 331 ; Mann, 649 ; 
Mansfield, 36 
League of Nations, defects of, address (Dulles), 256 
Lebanon : 

Crisis in, U.S.-U.N. actions, address and statement: 

Dulles, 152 ; Murphy, 187 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Lebel, Arthur L., 572 
Lederer, Walther, 300 
Legislation, U.S. See under Congress 
Lemus, Jos6 Maria, 330, 478 
Lend lease, failure to reach settlement with Soviet Union, 

address (Dillon), 240 
Less developed countries (see also Development Loan 
Fund, International Bank, and Special Fund) : 
Economic development. See Economic development 
Economic offensive of Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc 
countries and U.S. programs and policies to coun- 
ter, addresses, messages, report, and statements : 
Becker, 272; Dillon, 165, 206, 208, 241, 242, 243, 
327, 328, 603, 639, 696, 697, 698, 761, 762, 763, 805, 
909, 956 ; Allen Dulles, 587 ; Dulles, 221, 229 ; Eisen- 
hower, 199, 203, 204, 205, 432, 433; Hart, 718; 
Herter, 486, 487; Luns, 549; Murphy, 295, 296; 
Rountree, 363, 364, 366; Sarasin, 607; Satter- 
thwaite, 748 ; Wilcox, 594, 750 
Exports, GATT committee study of role in expanding 

international trade, 766 
Importance to free world, statement (Dillon), 639 
Investment of U.S. private capital in. See Investment 

of private capital abroad 
NATO Ministerial Council studies problems of, 4 
U.N. technical assistance program. See under United 

Nations 
U.S. as a model for, statement (Dillon), 330 
WHO assistance, address (Wilcox), 837, 838 
Liberia : 

Associated states of Africa, support for proposed estab- 
lishment of, address (Satterthwaite), 746 
DLF loan, 247 
IMCO, convention, 285 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Maritime Safety Committee, U.S. effort to obtain mem- 
bership for, 653 
U.S. aid, 748 

U.S. interest in, address (Penfield), 842 
Libraries : 

John Foster Dulles Library established at Princeton. 

792 

U.S.-Canadian libraries, exchange of research ma- 
terials, 589 

Department of State Bulletin 



Libya : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 230 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 730 
Liechtenstein, industrial property, revision of 18S3 con- 
vention for protection of, 250 
Lincoln, Abraham, 298, 589 
Lithuania, 41st anniversary of independence, statement 

(Dulles), 299 
Lloyd, Selwyn, 863, 865 

Load line convention (1930), international, 537 
Loan Fund, Development. See Development Loan Fund 
Loans, U.N. See International Bank 

Loans, U.S. (see also Development Loan Fund and Ex- 
port-Import Bank) : 
Public loans for promotion of economic development, 

statement (Mansfield), 39 
Repayment of loans under Mutual Security Act of 1954, 
proposed legislation on use of, statement (Dillon), 
490 
Lodge, George C, 261 
Lodge, Henry Cabot : 

Addresses and statements : 

Cameroons, proposals for new elections, U.S. position, 

531 
Hungarian situation, U.N. efforts to resolve, 55, 63 
Israeli-Syrian border dispute, referral to U.N. Mixed 

Armistice Commission recommended, 2S4 
Outer Space, U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on Peaceful 

Uses of, U.S.-Soviet views, 24, 884 
U.N. Special Fund, presentation of initial U.S. con- 
tribution to, 284 
United Nations, admission of new members, 52 
Willy Brandt, tribute to, 343 
Appointment as U.S. representative on U.N. Ad Hoc 
Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, 401, 
767 
Loomis, John E., 936 
Lopez Mateos, Adolfo, 331, 637 
Lord, Mrs. Oswald B., 108, 175 
Luce, Clare Boothe, 730 
Luns, Joseph M. A. H., 547 
Luxembourg : 

GATT, declaration and proces verbal concerning ar- 
ticle XVI : 4, 178, 502 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement amending 1950 

agreement with U.S., 897 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 

Maas, David E., 67 

Macao, designation of consul general at, 462 
MacArthur, Douglas II, 559 
MacDonald, Donald G., 250 
Macmillan, Harold, 406, 511 
Macomber, William B., Jr., 726 

Malaria eradication, WHO progress, address (Wilcox), 
840 

Index, January to June 1959 



Malaya : 

Ambassador to U.S., designation and credentials, 137, 

440 
DLF loans to, 280, 484 
GATT consultations, participation in, 244 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Customs tariffs, international union for publication 
of, convention creating and protocol modifying, 614 
GATT, declaration and proces verbal concerning ar- 
ticle XVI : 4, 178, 502 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 178 
Income tax experts, agreement with U.S. for detail of, 

978 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S., 714, 729 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Maleter, Pal, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63 
Mann, Thomas C, 538, 600, 648, 728, 931 
Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovernmental. 
See Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Or- 
ganization 
Maritime problems. See Shipping 
Marshall plan, aid to European recovery, statements : 

Luns, 548 ; Spaak, 551 
Mashburn, Lloyd A., 278 
Mason, Edward S., 278 
McArdle, Richard E., 67 
McElroy, Neil H., 495 

Meat products, Uruguayan, reduction of tariff on Im- 
ports, proclamation, 379 
Medical center, Berlin, design completed, 672 
Mediterranean littoral, developments in, address (Pen- 
field), 841 
Meeker, Leonard C, 974 
Merchant, Livingston T., 250, 730 
Meteorological Organization, World, convention of, 420, 

614 
Mexico : 

Air transport talks with U.S., recessed, 690 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 230 
Expropriation of foreign owned property, views regard- 
ing, address (Becker), 785, 787 
Inter-American Development Bank, membership on 

Preparatory Committee, 648 
Mutual understanding with U.S., need for, report to 

the President (Milton Eisenhower), 89, 92 
President's visit to U.S., postponed, 637 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1957 

agreement with U.S., 383 
Air transport, agreement extending agreement with 

U.S., 977 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 769 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 

to, 462 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 

Space, membership, 32 
Visit of President Eisenhower, messages, remarks and 
statement : Carrillo Flores, 236 ; Dulles, 236 ; Eisen- 
hower, 332 ; Lopez Mateos-Eisenhower, 331 

1007 



Middle East. See Near and Middle East 
Mikoyan, Anastas, visit to U.S. : 
C-130 transport case, exchange of views on, with : 

Herter, 263 ; Nixon, 262 
Effects of, addresses, statements and telegram : Dillon, 
237, 239, 240; Dulles, 156, 157, 189, 228; Murphy, 
293, 294 
Peace treaty with East Germany, presentation of So- 
viet proposal for conference to conclude, address 
(Murphy), 631 
Military assistance (see also Military missions, Mutual 
defense, and Mutual security) : 
Agreement with Panama relating to sale of military 

equipment, 936 
Appropriation request for : 

President's messages to Congress, 202, 430 
Statement (Dillon), 490 
Draper Committee to study. See President's Commit- 
tee To Study the United States Military Assistance 
Program 
Importance of, statements : Herter, 487 ; McElroy, 495 ; 

Twining, 497 
Need for balance between economic and military assist- 
ance programs, address (Dillon), 696 
SEATO activities, report (Sarasin), 611 
U.S. policy in Near and Middle East (see also American 

Doctrine), address (Hart), 719 
Viet-Nam, U.S. aid to, address (Barrows), 676 
Military bases, U.S., overseas, importance of and purposes 
of, addresses and statement : McElroy, 496 ; Murphy, 
185, 186 ; Penfleld, 843 
Military equipment, agreement with Panama relating to 

sale of, 936 
Military establishment: 

Soviet Union, address (Allen Dulles), 583 
U.S.: 
Need for, President's message to Congress, 429, 430 
Status of, addresses : Eisenhower, 470, 471 ; Murphy, 
711 ; Nixon, 623 
Military missions, U.S. : 

Air Force mission agreements, with: Bolivia, 689; 
Colombia, 690 ; El Salvador, 653 ; Haiti, 574 ; Para- 
guay, 653 
Army missions agreements, with: Colombia, 690; Bo- 
livia, 689 ; El Salvador, 42, 653 ; Paraguay, 653 
Cuba: 

Functions of, Department statement, 162 
Question of withdrawal from, statement (Dulles), 
227 
Latin America, address (Rubottom), 661 
Naval mission agreement with Haiti, 110 
Mills, Shelton T., 358 
Missiles : 
Soviet program and progress, address (Allen Dulles), 

584 
U.S. program, address (Eisenhower), 470 
Missionary, American, activities in Africa, 842, 847 
Monaco : 

Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Monetary Fund, International. See International Mone- 
tary Fund 

1008 



Money orders, agreement with Panama relative to, 462 
Mongolian People's Republic : 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners of 
war, wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of 
armed forces, and civilians, 537 
U.N. membership, question of, U.S. position, statement 
(Lodge), 54 
Montgomery, Parker Gilbert, 690 
Morales Carrion, Arturo, 67 
Morocco : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Slavery convention (1926), protocol amending, 977 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
U.S. exhibit at Casablanca trade fair, 847 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 690 
Multilateral development fund, proposed establishment, 

address (Wilcox), 758 
Munitions List, U.S., removal of civil aviation items, 765 
Munro, Sir Leslie, 62, 63 
Murphy, Franklin D., 383 
Murphy, Robert: 
Addresses and remarks : 
Asia, promotion of better understanding with, 512 
Berlin and German problem, issues involved, 628 
Free world and Soviet-bloc relations, 291, 828 
Loan agreements with Argentina, 105 
U.S. foreign policy, problems of, 183, 231, 710 
Meeting with Soviet Ambassador Menshikov regarding 
C-130 plane shot down over Soviet Armenia, 262, 
263 
Nomination as Under Secretary of State for Political 
Affairs, proposed, 730 
Muscat, Oman, and dependencies : 
Treaty of amity, economic relations and consular rights 

with U.S., 51, 74, 599, 729, 854 
U.S. consular district established, 250 
Mutual defense, U.S.-Canadian cooperation, messages 

(Eisenhower, Diefenbaker), 911 
Mutual defense assistance agreements (see also Military 
missions), with: 
Belgium, agreement amending annex B of 1950 agree- 
ment, 810 
Luxembourg, agreement amending annex B of 1950 

agreement, 897 
U.K., agreement amending 1957 agreement relating to 
equipment and material, 178 
Mutual defense treaties and agreements (see also 
Baghdad Pact, Collective security, Mutual security, 
National defense, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 
and Southeast Asia Treaty Organization) : 
Agreements for cooperation for security and defense, 

with : Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey, 416, 421 
Agreements for cooperation on the uses of atomic 
energy for, with. See Atomic energy, mutual de- 
fense uses of 
Mutual Security Act of 1954, proposed amendments to, 
statement ( Dillon ) , 489 

Department of State Bulletin 



Mutual security and other assistance programs (see also 
Agricultural surpluses, Collective security, Economic 
and technical aid, Military assistance, and Mutual 
defense) : 
Addresses, report, and statements: Dillon, 489; Eisen- 
hower, 116, 117, 170, 470, 471, 579, 582 ; Herter, 485 ; 
McElroy, 495 ; Twining, 497 ; Wilcox, 595, 753 
Administration of (see also International Cooperation 
Administration) : 
Executive order amending Executive orders relating 

to, 936 
Statement (Dillon), 492 
Appropriations and authorizations for, messages, re- 
marks, and statements: Dillon, 489, 490, 804; 
Eisenhower, 202, 261, 427 
Defense support. See Defense support 
Development Loan Fund. See Development Loan Fund 
Draper Committee report. See President's Committee 
Effect on domestic economy, statements (Dillon), 210, 

494 
Investment guaranty program. See Investment guar- 
anty program 
Objectives of, addresses : Dillon, 695 ; Robertson, 473 
Special Assistant for Mutual Security Coordination, 
confirmation (Bell), 250 
Mutual understanding and cooperation treaty with 
Panama, annuity payment by U.S. under provisions 
of, 380 
Myerere, Julius, 356 

NAC. See North Atlantic Council 
Nagy, Imre, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63 
Narcotic drugs. See Drugs, narcotic 

National Academy of Sciences, study tour regarding de- 
velopment aid to sub-Sahara Africa, 246 
National Advisory Council, report on proposed Inter- 
American Development Bank, 849» 
National Brotherhood Week, address (Dillon), 330 
National commission for Latin American affairs, U.S., 
proposed establishment, report (Milton Eisenhower), 
91 
National defense and security (see also Collective secu- 
rity. Mutual defense, and Mutual security) : 
Expenditures for, address and message (Eisenhower), 

200, 580 
Military and scientific progress related to, address 

(Eisenhower), 116 
Offshore procurement. See Offshore procurement 
Passport issuance, relation to, address and statement 

(Danes), 517, 723 
Status of U.S. defense, addresses : Eisenhower, 470, 471 ; 

Murphy, 711 ; Nixon, 623 
Territorial sea extension to 12 miles, threat to, address 
(Becker), 370,373 
National exhibits, agreement with Soviet Union for ex- 
change of. See under Exchange agreement 
National Planning Association, 642 
National Science Foundation : 

IGY, role in U.S. participation, article (Atwood), 6S4 
NATO science fellowship program, administration of 
U.S. participation in, 344 
National Security Council, advice to President concerning 
oil consortium, address (Becker) , 277 



Nationalism : 

Africa, development and problems in, addresses: 

Murphy, 296 ; Satterthwaite, 190, 191, 193 
Arab states, developments in, addresses: Hart, 715, 

716; Murphy, 187; Rountree, 366 
Communist use of, addresses : Dillon, 762 ; Henderson, 
904 
Nationalization of property of aliens, compensation for, 

address (Becker), 784 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Natural Wealth and Resources, U.N. Commission on 
Permanent Sovereignty Over, U.S. representative 
confirmed, 897 
Naval mission, U.S. agreement with Haiti concerning, 110 
Naval vessels. See Ships 

Navigation (see also Aviation and Safety at sea), pro- 
posed use of satellites for improvement of systems, 
statement (Dryden), 893 
Navigation, friendship, and commerce treaties, anticartel 

provisions, address (Becker), 276» 
Near and Middle East (See also individual countries) : 
Arab states. See Arab states 
Baghdad Pact. See Baghdad Pact 

Communist efforts to dominate, address (Murphy), 628 
Definition of region, article (Pearcy), 407 
DLF loans in, 484 
Middle East Supply Center, 410w 
Palestine refugees. See Refugees: Arab refugees 
U.N. action in Middle East situation, address and state- 
ment : Dulles, 152 ; Hart, 718, 719 
U.S. Military Assistance Program, President's Com- 
mittee To Study, area study group under, 197 
U.S. policy (see also American Doctrine), addresses: 

Hart, 715; Murphy, 296; Rountree, 363 
Use of force in, U.S. position, address (Dulles), 258 
Netherlands : 

FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee, 1st meeting, 350 
GATT consultations, participation in, 244 
Palestine refugees, cosponsor of resolution on, 140 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, mutual defense purposes of, agreement 

for cooperation with U.S., 770 
GATT, declaration and proces verbal concerning 

article XVI :4, 178, 502 
GATT, protocol relating to new schedule III — Brazil, 

728 
German external debts, agreement on, notification of 

extension to Surinam, 614 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285 
Whalingconvention (1946), international, notification 

of withdrawal, 144 
Wheat agreement (1959) , international, 689 
New York Philharmonic Orchestra, 634 
New Zealand: 

Antarctica conference, participation in preliminary 

talks on, 895 
GATT consultations, participation in, 244 
Palestine refugees, cosponsor of resolution on, 140 
SEATO, participation in. See Southeast Asia Treaty 
Organization 



Index, January to June 1959 



1009 



New Zealand — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Antarctica, agreement with U.S. regarding continued 

cooperation in, 51, 110 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 977 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
News correspondents, passport validations for visits to 

Communist China, 513, 673 
News Division of the Department of State, article 

(White), 921 
Nicaragua : 
Border dispute with Honduras, address (Rubottom), 

661 
DLF loan in, 346, 793 
Investment guaranties program, agreement with U.S., 

770 
WMO, convention, 420 
Niger, Republic of, economic and political ties with Ivory 

Coast and Volta, address (Satterthwaite), 745, 746 
Nigeria, West African Federation of : 

Commonwealth status, progress toward, addresses 

(Satterthwaite), 192, 747 
DLF loan, 598 
U.S. aid, 749 

U.S. consulate established at Kaduna, 390 
Nixon, Richard M., 14, 262, 511, 622, 698 
Nonintervention in American Republics, U.S. support of 
principle, address and letter : Macomber, 727 ; Rubot- 
tom, 660 
Nonproject assistance, definition of, 675 
Non-Self-Goveruing Territories. See Self-determination 

and Trust territories 
North African federation, proposed, address (Satter- 
thwaite), 193 
North Atlantic Council : 
Ministerial meeting, Paris : 
Text of final communique, declaration on Berlin, and 
departure statement (Dulles), 3 
Ministerial meeting, Washington : 
Remarks and statements : Eisenhower, 543 ; Herter, 

546 ; Luns, 547 ; Spaak, 550 
Text of communique, 553 
U.S. delegation, 554 
Permanent representatives to visit U.S. defense in- 
stallations, 374 
Western position at Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting, 
approval of, address (Herter), 735 
North Atlantic ocean stations, agreement (1954) on, 573 
North Atlantic Studies Committee, NATO, 951 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (see also North At- 
lantic Council) : 
Accomplishments, address and remarks: Herter, 545; 

Murphy, 712 
Armed forces, comparison with Soviet, address (Wig- 

glesworth), 881 
European policy, U.S.-NATO coordination, address 

(Murphy), 294 
Science adviser appointed, 934 

1010 



North Atlantic Treaty Organization — Continued 
Science fellowships program of, 344 
SEATO, contact established between : report (Sarasin), 

606, 611 ; and text of SEATO communique, 605 
Studies Committee, U.S. representative appointed, 951 
Treaty, 10th anniversary of signing : 
Proclamation on, 374 

Remarks and statements : Eisenhower, 543 ; Herter, 
545, 546 ; Luns, 547 ; Spaak, 550 
U.S. military assistance, importance of, statement (Mc- 

Elroy),496 
Weapons modernization, views on : 
Draper Committee, letter and report, 797, 800, 801, 804 
Letter (Eisenhower), 796 
Statements : NATO, 739 ; White, 866 
Texts of U.S.-Soviet notes, 740, 866 
North Pacific Fur Seal Commission, 2d annual meeting, 

142 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, protocol amending 1949 in- 
ternational convention, 178, 322 
Norway : 

Antarctica, conference on, 895 

GATT consultations, participation in, 244 

GATT, proees verbal concerning article XVI :4, 502 

GATT, protocol relating to new schedule III — Brazil, 

573 
IMCO, convention (1948) on, 358 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Patent applications, classified, agreement with U.S. 

approving procedures for reciprocal filing of, 462 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
Whaling convention (1946), notification of withdrawal, 

110 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
Novorossiisk, Soviet fishing trawler, 555 
Nuclear energy. See Atomic energy 
Nyasaland. See Rhodesia and Nyasaland 

OAS. See Organization of American States 
Oceanographic research, IGY program, achievements, 

article (Atwood), 687 
Offshore procurement : 

Agreement amending memorandum of understanding 

attached to 1954 agreement with Spain, 74 
ICA program, address (MacArthur), 562 
Oil: 

Iranian crisis, oil consortium during, address (Becker), 

277, 278 
Middle East as world source, article (Pearcy), 414 
Supply and demand problems, discussions by Joint U.S.- 
Canadian Committee on Trade and Economic 
Affairs, 129 
O'Grady, John F., 286 
O'Kelly, Sean T., 406 
Oldini, Fernando Gracfa, 443 
Olympic Committee, International, expulsion of Republic 

of China, 915 
Oman, Muscat, and dependencies : 
Treaty of amity, economic relations and consular rights 

with U.S., 51, 74, 599, 729, 854 
U.S. consular district established, 250 

Department of State Bulletin 



On-site inspection of suspected nuclear explosions, West- 
ern and Soviet positions, letters and statement : 
Eisenhower, 826; Khrushchev, 705, 827; Wadsworth, 
702, 703 
Operation Pan America (see also Latin America: Eco- 
nomic development) : 
Committee of 21. See Committee of 21 
U.S. ambassadors meeting at San Salvador and 
Santiago, views on progress, concluding statements, 
635, 793 
U.S. support, remarks and statements : Department, 
480, 482 ; Mann, 931 ; Murphy, 105 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation, coop- 
eration with European communities, statement (Dil- 
lon), 248 
Organization of American States : 
Agricultural sciences. See Inter-American Institute 

of Agricultural Sciences 
Charter, provisions of, address and letter : Becker, 669 ; 

Macomber, 727 
Committee of 21. See Committee of 21 
Economic conference (1957), results of, addresses: 

Becker, 790 ; Rubottom, 124 
Economic development efforts, address and joint state- 
ment : Eisenhower-Lopez Mateos, 331 ; Rubottom, 
123 
History of, address (Rubottom), 659 
Role in Western Hemisphere security, U.S. Ambas- 
sadors meetings at San Salvador and Santiago, 
concluding statements, 635, 793 
U.S. alternate representative designated, 462 
U.S. contributions, message (Eisenhower), 434 
U.S. proposals regarding, report (Milton Eisenhower), 
91 
Outer Mongolia : 

Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 
of war, wounded, sick and shipwrecked members 
of armed forces, and civilians, 537 
U.N. membership, question of, U.S. position, statement 
(Lodge), 54 
Outer space, peaceful uses of (see also Satellites, earth- 
circling) : 
International cooperation in, U.S. efforts for, statement 

(Wilcox), 399 
U.N. ad hoc committee on : 

Establishment of, U.S.-Soviet views, statements 
(Lodge) and text of General Assembly resolution, 
24 
U.S. delegation, appointment of, 767 
U.S. proposals and views, statements: Becker, 885; 
Dryden, 891, 972; Lodge, 883; Meeker, 974 

Pakistan : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 554 

DLF loans to, 382, 484, 598 

IBRD aid, 456, 460 

SEATO, participation in. See Southeast Asia Treaty 

Organization 
Subversive activities in, measures to suppress, 611 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Cultural property, convention and protocol (1954) for 
protection in event of armed conflict, 728 



Pakistan — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Double taxation on income, convention for avoidance 

of, with U.S., 853, 854, 936 
Security and defense, agreement with U.S., 226, 416, 

421 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
U.S. aid, 431, 609 
Palestine refugees. See Refugees : Arab refugees 
Panama : 

Annuity payment by U.S., 380 

Armed invasion of, OAS action to frustrate, U.S. Am- 
bassadors Santiago meeting concluding statement 
on, 792 
Breadth of territorial sea, position and views on, 127, 

372 
ICEM membership, 386 
Maritime Safety Committee, U.S. effort to obtain 

membership for, 653 
Panamanian Housing Agency, proposed establishment 
of, report to the President (Milton Eisenhower), 
97 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
IMCO convention, 285 

Military equipment, agreement with U.S. for pur- 
chase, 936 
Postal convention (1952), universal, 502 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, regulations of execution, agreements relative 
to parcel post, money orders, and final protocol, 
461 
Whaling convention (1946), international, protocol 
amending, 322 
U.S. Operations Mission director, designation, 978 
Panama Canal, U.S. rights in, Department statement, 12S 
Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 1959, proc- 
lamation, 378 
Pan American Highway, DLF loan to Ecuador for con- 
struction of, 22 
Pan American Railway Congress Association, U.S. mem- 
ber of the National Commission appointed, 332 
Panchen Lama, 515 
Paraguay : 
Army and Air Force missions, agreement amending 

agreements with U.S. for, 653 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
Parcel post : 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, agreement 

relative to, 461 
U.S. agreements with : Japan, 729 ; Portugal, 614, 810 ; 
U.A.R., 690 
Parsons, J. Graham, 912, 978 
Passports (see also Visas) : 
Issuance to Communist supporters, need for legisla- 
tion authorizing denial, address and statement 
(Hanes), 517, 723 
Processing of, procedures improved, address (Hanes), 

438 
Restrictions on travel to Bulgaria, removed, 782 
Validated for travel by U.S. newsmen to Communist 
China, 513, 673 



Index, January fo June 7959 



1011 



Patents: 

Applications, agreement with Norway approving pro- 
cedures for reciprocal filing of, 462 
Rights, provisions of atomic energy agreement with 
EUBATOM regarding, 71 
Peace : 
Addresses and remarks : Dulles, 255 ; Eisenhower, 47, 
115, 116, 117, 783; Henderson, 903; Herter, 738; 
King Baudouin, Sol ; Nixon, 14 
Food for peace conference, 793 

"Peaceful coexistence," address and messages : Eisen- 
hower, 131 ; Murphy, 291 ; Voroshilov, 131 
Peace Committee, Inter-American, 662 
Peace treaty with Germany, Soviet proposal for, texts of 

notes and draft treaty, 333, 337, 508 
Peaceful uses of outer space. See Outer space, peaceful 

uses of 
Pearcy, G. Etzel, 407, 963 
Penfield, James K., 841 
Performing artists, agreement for exchange with Soviet 

Union, 633 
Permanent Council of NATO, 544, 545 
Peru : 

Breadth of territorial sea, position on, 372 
Rawinsonde observation station at Lima, agreement 
extending 1957 agreement with U.S. for establish- 
ment and operation of, 178 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 420 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facil- 
ities for, 420 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
Philippines: 
Bataan, 17th anniversary of, message from President 

Eisenhower, 627 
Breadth of territorial sea, proposal regarding, 372 
Claims arising out of training and firing exercises 
(1959), agreement with U.S. concerning procedures 
for settlement of, 462 
DLF loans to, 307, 834 

FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee, 1st meeting, 350 
SEATO, participation in. See Southeast Asia Treaty 

Organization 
Subversive activities in, measures to suppress, 611 
U.S. aid, 431, 609 

U.S. consulate at Cebu reestablished, 358 
U.S. Educational Foundation in, agreement amending 
and extending 1954 agreement with U.S. relating 
to, 42 
U.S. relations with, statement (Dulles), 224 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon, 673 
Wheat agreement ( 1959 ) , international, 689 
Phillips, Christopher H., 357 
Phillips, Ralph W., 350 
Phleger, Herman, 64 
Planning Association, National, 642 
Poland : 
Economic and claims discussions with U.S., 381, 959 
GATT, application for association, 918 
Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting, Soviet support for 
Polish participation, 510, 511 



Poland — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 959, 

978 
Industrial property, revision of 18S3 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 

Space, membership, 32 
U.S. aid, 959 

USIA Polish-language magazine, Ameryka, distribution 
of, 271 
Poliomyelitis vaccine, U.S. loan to Poland for purchase, 

959 
Political consultations, NATO, progress in, 3 
Portugal : 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Parcel post, agreement with U.S., 614, 810 
Parcel post convention (1916) with U.S., terminated, 

810 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 250 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 6S9 
Postal agreements and conventions : 

Parcel post agreements. See Parcel post 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
regulations of execution, agreements relative to 
parcel post, money orders, and final protocol, 461 
Universal postal convention (1952), 357, 502 
Universal postal convention (1957), 74, 536, 653, 769, 
897 
Potsdam agreement, 10, 80, 81, 233, 629 
Preparatory Committee for the Inter-American Develop- 
ment Bank, establishment, 648 
Presidential Representatives, OAS Committee of, recom- 
mendations, 123, 126 
President's Committee To Study the United States Mili- 
tary Assistance Program : 
Interim report: 

Letter of transmittal to the President, 797 
President's recommendation and transmittal to Con- 
gress, 796 
Text of report, 798 
Message and statements : Dillon, 493, 642 ; Eisenhower, 
431 
President's Science Advisory Committee, 118 
President's Special International Program, African opera- 
tions, address (Penfield), 847 
Press coverage of the Department of State, article 

(White), 923. 925 
Prettyman, E. Barrett, 725 
Price support program for agricultural commodities, U.S., 

statement (Mann), 650 
Primary commodities, international trade in. See Com- 
modity trade 
Prince Albert Radar Laboratory, opening, texts of mes- 
sages (Eisenhower, Diefenbaker), 911 
Princeton University, establishment of John Foster Dulles 

Library, 792 
Prisoners of war, Geneva convention relative to treatment 
of, 74, 537, 854, 977 



1012 



Department of State Bulletin 



Private capital, investment abroad. See Investment of 

private capital abroad 
Private enterprise: 

Office of, established, 537 

Role of, addresses and statement : Dillon, 403, 908 ; 
Eisenhower, 117 
Private property, expropriation without just compensa- 
tion, address (Becker), 066 
Proclamations by the President : 
Meat products of Uruguay, reduction of tariff on im- 
ports (3278), 379 
North Atlantic Treaty, observance of 10th anniversary 

(3277), 374 
Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 1959 

(3276), 378 
United Nations Day, 1959, (3283) , 727 
Wool fabrics, determination of tariff quota on im- 
ports (3285), 721 
World Refugee Year, 1959-60 (3292), 875 
World Trade Week, 1959 (3286), 670 
Project assistance, definition of, 675 
Propaganda, Communist : 
Communist Chinese use of in Tibetan action, statement 

(Murphy), 713 
East Berlin, objectives and techniques, statement (Her- 

ter), 947, 948 
Near and Middle East, 867, 904 
Soviet, objectives and techniques, addresses : Dillon, 

760 ; Wigglesworth, 881 ; Wilcox, 595 
Soviet request cessation of propaganda in West Berlin, 
statement (Herter), 949 
Property, cultural, convention and protocol (1954) for 

protection in event of armed conflict, 728 
Property, industrial, revision of 1883 convention for pro- 
tection of, 249 
Property, private, expropriation without just compensa- 
tion, address (Becker), 666 
Property, rights and interests, Austrian, agreement with 

Austria regarding return of, 243, 250 
Psychological warfare. See Propaganda 
Public health and sanitation. Sec Health 
Public Information Office, SEATO, 609, 610 
Publications : 

The Challenge of Space Exploration: A Technical Intro- 
duction to Space, published, 885n 
Congressional documents relating to foreign policy, lists 
of, 249, 283, 315, 349, 461, 530, 569, 601, 758, 810, 
930 
Foreign Trade of the U.S.S.R., 1956-. r ,7, released, 722 
Obscene, agreement relating to repression of circula- 
tion of, 728, 936 
Science and Foreign Relations, Berkner report, 0S9 
State Department : 

The Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic Devel- 
opment in South and Southeast Asia — Seventh An- 
nual Report of the Consultative Committee, re- 
leased, 213 
Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945, 
Series C (1933-1931), Volume II, The Third Reich: 
First Phase, October 11,, 1933-June IS, 1934, re- 
leased, 897 



Publications — Continued 
,State Department — Continued 
Expanding Private Investment for Free World Eco- 
nomic Growth, released, 502 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1941, Volume 

II, Europe, released, 770 
Lists of recent releases, 145, 286, 421, 462, 538, 654, 

898 
The Soviet Note on Berlin: An Analysis, published, 
145 
Ten Years of the European Recovery Program in Aus- 
tria 1948/1958, Austrian publication presented to 
President Eisenhower, 515 
The Ugly American, address (Wilcox), 757 
United Nations : 

Commodity Survey 1958, quoted, 648, 649, 650 
Lists of current documents, 68, 109, 322, 389, 420, 501, 
645, 768, 896, 976 
Puhan, Alfred, 322 
Purcell, Robert W., 278 
Pyatnitsky Choir, 634 

Quadripartite Working Group on German problem, meet- 
ings of, 297, 406, 554, 555 
Queen Elizabeth, 954 
Quemoy Islands (see also China. Republic of), address 

and statement : Dulles, 225 ; Robertson, 376 
Racial problems in Africa, address (Satterthwaite), 190, 

194 
Radar Laboratory, Prince Albert, texts of messages 

at opening (Eisenhower, Diefenbaker), 911 
Radio. See Telecommunications 

Radio Consultative Committee, International, 9th plenary 
assembly, address (Beale) and Department announce- 
ments, 570 
Railway Congress Association, Pan American, appoint- 
ment of U.S. member to U.S. National Commission, 
332 
Randall, Harold M., 897 

Rawinsonde observation stations, establishment and 
operation of, agreements with : Colombia, S54 ; Ecua- 
dor, 178 ; Peru, 178 ; U.K., 144 
Raymond, John M., 897 

Reciprocity Information, Committee for, 18, 244 
Reconstruction and Development, International Bank 

for. See International Bank 
Reed, Henry Clinton, 462 
Refugee Organization, International, U.S. contribution, 

S74 
Refugees, U.S. Committee for, establishment, address 

(Hanes), 874, 875, 877 
Refugees and displaced persons (see also World Refugee 
Year) : 
Arab refugees, U.S. and U.N. aid to, addresses, article, 
resolution, and statements: General Assembly 
resolution, 141; Hanes, 874, 876, 878; Harrison, 
137 ; Hart, 719 ; Rountree, 376 
ICEM. See Intergovernmental Committee for Euro- 
pean Migration 
Latin American, efforts to control activities of, address 

(Rubottom), 662 
U.S. and U.N. programs and aid, addresses (Hanes), 
438, 872 



Index, January to June 1959 



1013 



Refugees and displaced persons — Continued 
Viet-Nam, U.S. aid, address (Barrows), 677 
Voluntary relief agencies. See Voluntary relief 
agencies 
Refugee Year, World. See World Refugee Year 
Reid, Ogden Rogers, 936 
Reinhardt, Frederick G., 395 

Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, U.N., U.S. sup- 
port, 874 
Relief and rehabilitation (see also Agricultural surpluses, 
Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere, Refu- 
gees, and Voluntary agencies) : 
ICA and voluntary agencies shipments, 21 
Relief supplies and packages, agreement with Ghana 
for duty-free entry and exemption from taxation 
of, 653 
Research : 

Materials on India, U.S. purchase, 916 
Outer space, peaceful uses of (see also Outer space), 
U.N. committees, work of, statements : Dryden, 891 ; 
Wilcox, 401 
Radar detection of missiles, opening of Prince Albert 
Radar Laboratory for, 911 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of : 
Double taxation on income, extension of 1945 conven- 
tion between U.S. and U.K. for avoidance of, 110, 
144 
GATT, participation in consultations, 244 
GATT, proces verbal concerning article XVI : 4, 502 
GATT, protocol relating to negotiations for establish- 
ment of new schedule III — Brazil, 573 
Industrial property, revision of 18S3 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
Rice, Edward E., 322 
Rice, world trade in, report (Rivenburgh) on 3d session 

of FAO Consultative Subcommittee, 813 
Riddleberger, James W., 462 
Rio Treaty, security provisions of, address (Rubottom), 

660, 661 
Rivenburgh, Dexter V., 813 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, 573, 653 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 420, 653, 810 
Robertson, Walter S., 375, 472, 574 

Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Special Studies Project, 642 
Roszak, Theodore, 381 
Rountree, William M., 363 

Roy O. Bale, U.S.S., detention and inspection of Soviet 
trawler Novorossiisk by, texts of U.S. and Soviet 
notes and U.S. aide memoire, 555 
Ruanda-Urundi, Trust Territory of : 

Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285, 

897 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
Rubottom, Roy R., Jr., 119, 659 
Rumania : 

Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 420 
Industrial property, revision of 18S3 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 

1014 



Rural development centers, Thai proposal to set up in 
SEATO area, 605 

Saar dispute, German-French settlement, statement 

(Herter), 860 
Saccio, Leonard J., 250 
Safety at sea : 

IMCO. See Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative 

Organization 
North Atlantic ocean stations, agreement (1954) on, 

573 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 537 
Safety Committee, Maritime, 653 
St. Lawrence Seaway : 
Illinois Waterway, effect of diversion of water from 
Lake Michigan, statement (Willoughby), U.S. and 
Canadian aide memoire, and text of bill, 404 
Opening ceremonies. President to participate, 298 
St. Clair River section, agreement with Canada for 
construction and dredging of new cutoff channel in, 
462 
Tolls, agreement with Canada governing, 440, 537 
Salk vaccine, loan to Poland for purchase of, 959 
Sarasin, Pote, 230 

Satellites, earth-circling (see also Outer space) : 
Observation and tracking of, agreement with U.K. for 
use of Bahamas Long-Range Proving Ground, 729 
Tracking and receiving radio signals from, coopera- 
tive agreement with Chile, 729 
U.S. satellites, address (Eisenhower), 116 
Uses of, statements : Dryden, 973 ; Lodge, 883 
Satterthwaite, Joseph G, 190, 246, 524, 744 
Saudi Arabia : 

Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
WMO convention, 420 
Sayre, Rev. Francis B., Jr., 709 

Scholarships, Board of Foreign, member appointed, 673 
Science (see also Atomic energy, Outer space, Research, 
and Weather) : 
Agricultural sciences. See Agricultural sciences 
Antarctic scientific cooperation between U.S. and New 

Zealand, 51, 110 
Fur seals, scientific research regarding, 142 
International Geophysical Year in Retrospect, article 

(Atwood), 682 
National Academy of Sciences, study tour of Africa, 

246 
National Science Foundation. See National Science 

Foundation 
NATO program, 934 
Science Advisory Committee, President's, 118 
Science Committee, NATO, 934 
Science Foundation, National. See National Science 

Foundation 
Scientific Unions, International Council of, role in IGY, 

article (Atwood), 683, 684, 685, 686, 688 
Sea, law of the. See Law of the sea 
Seals, North Pacific Fur Seal Commission, 2d annual 

meeting, 142 
Sears, Mason, 354, 388, 533 
SEATO. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 

Department of State Bulletin 



Secretary of State : 
News conference of, article (White), 922, 923, 924 
Passport issuing authority. See under Passports 
Security Council, U.N. (see also United Nations) : 
Documents, list of, 68, 322, 3S9, 645, 768, 896, 976 

Israel-Syria border dispute, role in, U.S. views, state- 
ment (Lodge), 284 
Maintenance of peace, effectiveness, address (Wilcox), 

835 
Membership question, statements (Lodge), 52 
Security Experts, SEATO Committee of, 397, 608, 609 
Seitz, Frederick, 934 

Self-determination, U.S. policy regarding, address and 
statements : Lord, 175 ; Satterthwaite, 749 ; Wise, 172 
Sheely, D. M., 557 
Sheppard, William J., 390 
Sheridan, Edward W., 978 

Ships and shipping (see also Intergovernmental Maritime 
Consultative Organization, St. Lawrence Seaway, 
and Safety at sea) : 
Breadth of territorial sea, effect on, address (Becker), 

371 
Danish shipbuilding program, agreement with Den- 
mark relating to, 854 
Finnish shipbuilding program, agreement with Finland 

to finance, 834 
High seas convention, effect on, 373, 854 
Indonesian harbors, U.S. aid for rehabilitation of, 345 
Load line convention (1930), international, 537 
Loan of U.S. naval vessels, agreements with: China, 

322 ; Japan, 322 ; Thailand, 897 
North Atlantic ocean stations, agreement (1954) on, 

573 
Roy O. Hale, U.S.S., detention and inspection of So- 
viet trawler Novorossiisk, texts of U.S. and Soviet 
notes and U.S. aide memoire, 555 
U.S.-European shipping problems, joint discussions on, 
406 
Shrimp conservation, convention with Cuba, (text) 566, 

978 
Sierra Leone, developments in, address (Satterthwaite), 

747 
Slavery convention (1926), and 1953 protocol amending, 

462, 936, 977 
Smith, Earl E. T., 178 
Smith, James H., Jr., 246, 286 
Snyder, Robert Martin, 814 

Solar research, IGY program, article (Atwood), 687, 688 
Somalia : 
DLF loan to, 565 

Independence, progress toward, address (Satter- 
thwaite), 193 
South Africa, Union of : 
Developments in, address (Penfleld), 842 
GATT consultations, participation in, 244 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 358 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 6S9 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization : 
Cholera research program, agreement with U.S. relat- 
ing to, 978 
Fifth Council meeting : 

Final communique, text, 604 

Index, January to June 7959 



Southeast Asia Treaty Organization — Continued 
Fifth Council meeting — Continued 
Report on SEATO, 1958-59 ( Sarasin) , 605 
Statements (Dillon), 573, 602, 673 
U.S. delegation, 478, 536, 573 
Organization and accomplishments of, addresses : Dil- 
lon, 696 ; Reinhardt, 395 
Research fellowship program, 444 
Secretary General confers with Secretary Dulles, 230 
Sovereignty : 
National, question of infringement in overseas antitrust 

cases, address (Becker), 273 
Outer space, legal aspects of, statement (Meeker), 975 
Sovetskaya Aviatsiya, Soviet views on destruction of U.S. 

C-130, 268 
Soviet-bloc countries (see also Communism, Soviet Union 
and individual countries) : 
Activities and objectives in West Africa, address (Sat- 
terthwaite), 194,748 
Breadth of territorial sea position, address (Becker), 

370 
Craving for freedom in, statement (Dulles), 154 
Economic aid and trade offensive. See Less developed 

countries : Economic offensive 
Relations with free world, address (Murphy), 185 
Rule of law, nonacceptance of, address (Dulles), 257, 

259 
World trade, increase in, 129 
Soviet Union (see also Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Re- 
public, Communism, Outer Mongolia, Soviet-bloc 
countries, and Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) : 
Abolition of private property, address (Becker), 784 
Antarctica, conference on, 895 
Arab states, Soviet efforts to infiltrate, address 

(Murphy), 829, 831 
Armed forces. See under Armed forces 
Baltic States, Soviet aggression in, statement (Dulles), 

299 
Berlin proposals and position. See Berlin situation 
"Cold war," Soviet views on, statements: Dulles, 220, 

221, 229 ; Murphy, 294 
Collective security arrangements, U.S., Soviet views on, 

address (Murphy), 185, 186 
Cultural, educational, and scientific exchanges with 
U.S. (see also Exchange agreement), statement 
(Dulles), 154 
Deputy Premier Mikoyan, visit to U.S. See Mikoyan, 

Anastas 
Developments in, statement (Dulles), 223 
Diplomacy, comparison with free world, address (Wil- 
cox), 590 
Disarmament. See Disarmament 
Doctrine of hostility, background of, address (Murphy), 

186, 187 
Domestic economy, addresses and statements: Dillon, 

759, 956 ; Dulles, 151, 154, 155 
East German regime, established of, address (Cuni- 

ming), 869 
Economic aid and trade offensive. See Less developed 

countries : Economic offensive 
Europe, Soviet policy in, remarks and statement: 
Murphy, 514 ; Spaak, 551 

1015 



Soviet Union — Continued 

Foreign economic policy, address (Dillon), 237 

Foreign policy, developments and objectives, addresses : 
Murphy, 293, 295 ; Wigglesworth, 879 

Free world-Soviet relations, address (Murphy), 232, 
233, 234, 235 

Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting. See Foreign Min- 
isters meeting, Geneva 

German problems. See Armed forces : Four-power 
forces ; Berlin situation ; and Germany : Re- 
unification of 

Greek refugees, return of, address (Hanes), 878 

Hungary, Soviet activities in. See under Hungary 

IGY World Data Center, located in, 6S5 

International agreements, disrespect for, addresses : 
Dulles, 257 ; Eisenhower, 115 ; Robertson, 476 

Iran, subversive activities in, address (Murphy), 832 

Khrushchev, Nikita. See Khrushchev 

Military, economic, and subversive threat, address 
(Allen Dulles), 583 

National exhibits, exchange with U.S. See wider Ex- 
change agreement 

NATO weapons modernization program, views on, texts 
of notes, 739, 8C6 

Near and Middle East, Soviet policy in, addresses : 
Hart, 717 ; Rountree, 366 

Negotiating with, addresses and remarks : Eisenhower, 
544; Herter, 737: Murphy, 712, 713, S31; Wiggles- 
worth, 880, 882 ; Wilcox, 596 

New Year greetings, exchanged with U.S., 131, 214 

North Pacific Fur Seal Commission, 2d annual meeting, 
142 

Novorossiik, protest against U.S. detention and inspec- 
tion of, U.S. and Soviet notes and aide memoire, 
555 

Nuclear test suspension, Geneva meetings on. See 
Geneva conference of experts to study and Geneva 
meeting to negotiate 

Nuclear weapons. See Atomic energy, nuclear weapons 

Outer space, peaceful uses of, U.N. discussions, Soviet 
position, statements : Lodge, 24 ; Wilcox, 400 

President Eisenhower, question of visit to, statement 
(Hagerty), 297 

Propaganda. See Propaganda 

Radio broadcasts to Africa, increase in, address (Sat- 
terthwaite), 748 

Self-determination of peoples, Soviet interpretation of 
principle, 173 

Sino-Soviet cooperation, addresses : Murphy, 292 ; 
Robertson, 475 

The Soviet Note on Berlin: An Analysis, booklet on, 
published, 145 

Subversive activities. See Subversive activities 

Surprise attack, Geneva technical talks on preventing, 
13, 163 

Trade. Sec Trade : Soviet 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Exchange agreement with U.S. See Exchange agree- 
ment 
IMCO convention, 285 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 769 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 

1016 



Soviet Union — Continued 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 

Space, membership, 32 
U.N. membership question, Soviet views on, statements 

(Lodge), 52 
U.N. specialized agencies, Soviet attitude toward, ad- 
dress (Wilcox), 836 
U.S. aircraft, attacks on and destruction of. See under 

Aviation 
Veto. See Veto 
Spaak, Paul-Henri, 550 
Space Research, International Council of Scientific Unions 

Committee on, 401, S84, 891 
Space vehicles : 

Observation and tracking of, agreement with U.K. for 
use of Bahamas Long-Range Proving Ground, 729 
Tracking and receiving radio signals from, cooperative 
agreement with Chile, 729 
Spain : 

Defense support assistance, U.S., message (Eisen- 
hower), 431 
DLF loans to, 107, 920 
ICEM Executive Committee, request for membership on, 

article (Warren), 388 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements amending 1954 

and 1956 agreements with U.S., 213, 286 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Offshore procurement, agreement amending memo- 
randum of understanding attached to 1954 agree- 
ment with U.S., 74 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, regulations of execution, and agreements rela- 
tive to money orders, parcel post, and final proto- 
col, 461 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.S. consular agency at Las Palmas, jurisdiction over 
transferred, 538 
Special assistance, mutual security program, appropria- 
tion for, message and statements : Dillon, 491, S06 ; 
Eisenhower, 432 
Special Committee for Inter-Union Cooperation in Geo- 
physics, established, 686 
Special Committee of the Council of the Organization of 
American States To Study the Formulation of New 
Measures for Economic Cooperation. See Committee 
of 21 
Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary, U.N., 56, 

57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63 
Special Fund, U.N. : 

Functions, address ( Wilcox ) , 754 

Less developed countries, assistance to, addresses: 

Dillon, 603 ; MaeArthur, 560 
U.S. initial contribution, 284 
Specialized agencies, U.N. : 
Activities of, address, statement, and resolution : Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution, 41 ; Mansfield, 40 ; Wil- 
cox, 754, 756 
Soviet attitude toward, address (Wilcox), 836 
U.S. support, address (Wilcox), 839, 840 

Department of State Bulletin 



Specialized Committee for Negotiating and Drafting the 
Instrument of Organization of an Inter-American Fi- 
nancial Institution. See under Inter-American De- 
velopment Bank 
State Department (see also Foreign Service and Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration) : 
Administration and coordination of mutual security 
program : 
Authority for, transfer from ICA, 492 
Executive order relating to, 936 
Legislation to employ additional personnel, proposed, 

490 
Special Assistant for Mutual Security Coordination 

(Bell), confirmation, 250 
Statement (Dillon), 808 
Appointments and designations, 74, 145, 322, 390, 421, 

462, 502, 574, 690, 770, 978 
Assistant Secretaries of State, confirmations : Mer- 
chant, 250; Parsons, 978 
Conduct of foreign affairs, President's budget message 

to Congress relating to, excerpts, 203, 205 
Confirmations, 250, 538, 690, 897, 978 
Contribution to IGY program, article (Atwood), 684 
Deputy Operations Coordinator, designation (Shep- 

pard),390 
Documents relating Mr. Dulles' tenure as Secretary, 
loan to Princeton University John Foster Dulles 
Library, 792 
Foreign Service examination, announced, 729 
Greetings by personnel following swearing-in ceremony 

of Secretary Herter, 671 
Organization and activities : 
Addresses : Hanes, 439 ; Rountree, 365 
African affairs, address (Penfield), 845 
Bureau of Intelligence and Research, reorganized, 390 
Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs, 438 
Near East, article (Pearcy), 411ra 
News Division, article (White), 921 
Passports, issuance of, address and statement (Hanes), 

517, 520, 521, 723 
Political Adviser to Commander in Chief, Pacific, at 

Honolulu, designation, 462 
Publications. See under Publications 
Resignations : Dulles, 619 ; Robertson, 574 
Role in antitrust cases with foreign relations implica- 
tions, address (Becker), 273, 274, 275, 276 
Science program, article (Atwood), 689 
Secretary of State. See Dulles and Herter 
U.S. Munitions List, removal of civil aircraft and equip- 
ment from administration, 765 
Under Secretaries of State, request for legislation re- 
garding, 730 
Under Secretary of State, confirmation (Dillon), 978 
State of the Union message, excerpts, 115 
Steel and Coal Community, European. See European 

Coal and Steel Community 
Steel Committee, ECE, U.S. delegate to 22d session, 895 
Steeves, John M., 462 
Strategic materials, decrease in items subject to U.S. 

export controls, address ( Dillon ) , 239 
Straus, Ralph I., 562 
Strauss, Lewis L., 332 
Strom, Carl W., 654 

Index, January to June 7959 



Subversive activities, Communist: 
Asia and Far East : 

Addresses : Reinhardt, 396 ; Robertson, 375 
SEATO efforts to combat, report (Sarasin), 604, 606, 
609, 611 
Berlin, statements (Herter), 946, 949 
Latin America, U.S. Ambassadors statements regarding, 

635, 793 
Methods of and organizations for, addresses : Allen 
Dulles, 587, 588; Hanes, 518; Henderson, 905; 
Herter, 946 ; Wigglesworth, 880 
Near and Middle East, addresses : Hart, 717 ; Murphy, 
628 
Sudan : 

DLF loan, 834 

Investment guaranty program, agreement with U.S., 

614, 637 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
Suez Canal problem, U.N. role in solving, address and 

statement (Dulles), 152, 258 
Sugar, U.S. reply to Cuban offer of sale of, 959 
Sulaiman, Ali Haider, 854 
Summit meeting, proposed. See Heads of Government 

meeting, proposed 
Supreme Court, decisions relating to passport issuance, 

address and statement (Hanes), 517, 724, 725, 726 
Surprise attack, prevention of : 
Geneva technical talks on, 13, 163 
U.S. efforts, statements : Dulles, 153 ; Herter, 775 
Sweden : 
GATT consultations, participation in, 244 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, protocol relating to negotiations for establish- 
ment of new schedule III — Brazil, 573 
IMCO, convention on, 854 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 

Space, membership, 32 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 250 
Switzerland : 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Nuclear power, cooperative agreement with U.S. amend- 
ing 1956 agreement for production of, 729, 978 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 195S), 285, 

689 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 74 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
Syria (see also United Arab Republic), border dispute 
with Israel, statement (Lodge), 284 

Taiwan Straits situation : 

Communist Chinese objectives, address (Robertson), 

376 
U.S. policy, addresses and remarks : Dillon, 603 ; 
Murphy, 513 ; Parsons, 913 
Tananarive, Malgache Republic, U.S. consulate reopened, 

730 
Tanganyika, Trust Territory of, U.S. views on develop- 
ments in, statement ( Sears ) , 354 

1017 



Tariff policy, U.S. (see also Customs; Tariffs and trade, 
general agreement on) : 
Fluorspar, proposed legislation imposing quotas on im- 
ports, statement (Mann), 600 
Lead and zinc. See Lead and zinc 
Meat products, reduction of duty on imports from 

Uruguay, proclamation, 379 
Report to the President (Milton Eisenhower), 102 
Tartar imports, decision against escape-clause relief, 

529 
Withdrawal of most-favored-nation treatment from 

Soviet Union, address (Dillon), 240 
Wool-fabric imports, determination of tariff quota on, 
IS, 720 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 
Brazil : 
Proces verbal containing schedules to be annexed to 

new schedule III for, 383 
Protocol relating to negotiations for establishment of 

new schedule III for, 383, 573, 728 
U.S. renegotiation of tariff concessions with, 305 
Conference on renegotiation of tariff concessions, pro- 
posed, 917, 952 
Consultations under articles XII and XIV regarding 
import restrictions for balance-of-payments 
reasons, views invited, 244 
Contracting Parties: 

Chairman, economic discussions at Washington, 443 
13th session, nongovernmental advisers to U.S. dele- 
gation report on, 356 
14th session, announcements and reports, 756, 917 
Latin American proposals to increase restrictions 

against U.S. goods, statement (Mann), 932 
Organizational amendments to, protocol of, 178 
Part I and articles XXIX and XXX, protocol amend- 
ing, 178 
Preamble and parts II and III, protocol amending, 178 
Proces verbal of rectification concerning protocol 
amending part I and articles XXIX and 
XXX, protocol amending preamble and parts II 
and III, and protocol of organizational amend- 
ments, 178 
Rectifications and modifications to texts of schedules, 
protocols of: 
2d protocol, 462 
3d protocol, 462 
4th protocol, 358 
5th protocol, 322 
6th protocol, 178 
7th protocol, 178 
Standstill provisions of article XVI :4 : 
Declaration extending, 17S, 573 

Proces verbal extending validity of declaration ex- 
tending, 502, 573 
U.S. antitrust law, effect of, address (Becker), 277, 278 
Taxation : 

Agreement with Ghana for exemption of relief supplies 

and packages from internal taxation, 653 
Double taxation, avoidance of. See Double taxation 
Incentives to stimulate private investment abroad, 
address, statements, and report : Dillon, 96, 167, 
808; Mann, 932; Nixon, 625; Straus, 563 



Technical aid and cooperation. See Economic and tech- 
nical aid and Mutual security 
Technical assistance, U.N. See under United Nations 
Technical Cooperation Council, Colombo Plan, U.S. mem- 
bership, 604 
Technical services, ICA organization for administration 

of, 537 
Telecommunications : 

Baghdad Pact network, U.S. aid, 320 
DEW extension in Greenland, agreement U.S.-Canada 
relating to communications facilities at Cape Dyer, 
Baffin Island, in support of, 690 
Facilities in Liberia, DLF loan for improvement of, 247 
International telecommunication convention (1952), 
telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285, 
537, 689, 769, 897 
International Telecommunication Union. See Inter- 
national Telecommunication Union 
Transatlantic submarine cables, breaks in, texts of U.S. 

and Soviet notes and U.S. aide memoire, 555 
Worldwide systems : 

IGY system, article (Atwood), 685, 686 
Proposed use of earth satellites in, statements, 
Dryden, 893, 973 ; Lodge, 8S4 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 285, 537, 

689, 769, 897 
Terrill, Robert P., 770 
Territorial waters : 

Breadth of territorial seas, question of : 
General Assembly resolution, 66 

U.S. position and proposals, address and statements : 
Becker, 369 ; Phleger, 64 
Convention on territorial sea and contiguous zone, pro- 
visions of, address (Becker), 372 
Lake Michigan water diversion, proposed legislation 
increasing, statement (Willoughby), U.S. and 
Canadian aide memoire, and text of bill, 404 
Panamanian position, U.S. rejection of, text of note, 127 
U.S., measurement of, article (Pearcy), 963 
Terry, Carroll M., 770 
Thailand : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 915 

DLF loans in, 419, 598 

Rural development centers in SEATO area, proposal 

for, 605 
SEATO Graduate School of Engineering, Bangkok, 

opening, 609 
Subversive activities in, measures to suppress, 611 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Destroyer escort, agreement with U.S. for loan of, 

897 
German external debts, agreement (1953) on, 285 
U.S. aid, 431, 609 
Tibet : 
Communist Chinese aggression and suppression in : 
Addresses: Dillon, 603, 695; Murphy, 628, 712, 829; 

Parsons, 913 ; Robertson, 476 
U.S. concern and views, statements: Department, 515; 
Herter, 514 
Refugees, U.S. aid, address (Hanes), 877 
Tobacco, EEC proposed external duty on, U.S. protest, 918 



1018 



Department of State Bulletin 



Togo, Trust Territory of : 

Developments in, addresses (Satterthwaite), 193, 746 
U.S. consulate opened at Loin6, 814 
Toure, Sekou, 917 

Touring. See Travel, international 

Trade (see also Agricultural surpluses ; Commodity trade ; 

Customs ; Economic policy ; Exports ; Imports ; Tariff 

policy ; Tariffs and trade, general agreement on ; and 

Trade fairs) : 

Africa, value of U.S. trade with, address (Penfield), 

843, 848 
Barriers to trade : 

European countries progress in removal of, 247, 248, 

952 
Need for removal of, address and statement : Dillon, 
166, 957 ; Mann, 651 
Canada, U.S. trade relations with, text of U.S.-Cana- 
dian Joint Committee on Trade and Economic Af- 
fairs communique regarding, 128 
Foreign trade, U.S. : 

Antitrust law, problem of, address (Becker), 272 
Developments in, President's economic report to Con- 
gress, excerpts, 309 
Importance of, address (Wilcox), 751 
International trade : 
Contribution to peace, remarks (Eisenhower), 670 
Impact of U.S. economy on, statement (Mansfield), 34 
Need for expansion of, remarks and statements: 

Eisenhower, 70S; Mann, 934; Mansfield, 38 
Problems, 14th session of GATT to discuss, 765 
Japan : 

Free Asia and U.S., trade with, address (MacArthur) , 

559, 562 
Trade-deficit problems of, address (Eisenhower), 581 
Latin America : 

Article (Lederer, Culbertson), 300 

Report to the President (Milton Eisenhower), 98, 

100, 102 
U.S. trade relations with, 120, 231, 481 
Soviet Union : 
History of and prospects for increase in, address 

(Dillon), 237, 238, 239, 240, 241 
Summary of Soviet foreign trade, 1956-57, Depart- 
ment of Commerce publication released, 722 
U.S. trade with, Soviet proposal for increase in, ad- 
dresses : Dillon, 207, 239, 759, 762 ; Murphy, 235 
Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc countries trade offensive. 

See Less developed countries : Economic offensive 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bills of lading, international convention for unifica- 
tion of certain rules relating to, and protocol, 977 
Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention (1952) to facilitate importa- 
tion, 810 
Viet-Nam, solution of trade problems of, address (Bar- 
rows), 677 
World Trade Week, 1959, proclamation, 670 
Trade and Economic Affairs, Joint United States-Cana- 
dian Committee on, 4th meeting, 17 
Trade fairs and missions, U.S. participation in Africa, 
address (Penfield), 847 



Trade unionism in Africa, address (Satterthwaite), 526 
Transatlantic submarine cables, U.S., breaks in, texts of 

U.S. and Soviet notes and U.S. aide memoire, 555 
Transcript of Secretary of State's news conference, 

article (White), 924 
Travel, international (see also Passports and Visas) : 
Latin America, value of U.S. travel in, article (Lederer- 

Culbertson),302 
Mexican-U.S. travel, beneficial effect of, joint state- 
ment (Eisenhower-Lopez Mateos), 331 
Middle East, transit zone of three continents, article 

(Pearcy),413 
Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 420, 653, 810 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 573, 

653 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facil- 
ities for, 420, 653, 810 
U.S. restrictions on travel to Bulgaria lifted, 7S2 
Treaties, agreements, etc., international (for specific 
treaty, see country or subject) : 
Communist nonfulfillment, addresses : Dulles, 257 ; 

Eisenhower, 115 ; Robertson, 476 
Current actions on, 42, 74, 110, 144, 178, 213, 249, 285, 
322, 357, 383, 420, 461, 502, 536, 573, 614, 653, 6S9, 
728, 769, 810, 854, S97, 935, 977 
Interpretation of meaning, proposal to resolve ques- 
tion of, address (Nixon), 625, 626 
Trias Monge, Jose, 67 
Trimble, William C, 358 

Trust territories, U.N. (see also individual territory), de- 
velopments in African territories, addresses, state- 
ments, and resolutions : General Assembly resolu- 
tions, 534; Lodge, 531; Satterthwaite, 193, 746; 
Sears, 354, 533 
Trusteeship Council, U.N., lists of documents, 501, 768 
Tunisia : 

DLP loan, 920 

FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee, 1st meeting of, 

350 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S. relating to, 

637, 690 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 2S6 
Turbine contract for Greer's Ferry Dam, question of 

awarding, statements (Dulles), 225 
Turkey : 
Cyprus problem. See Cyprus 
Developments in, address (Rountree), 363 
DLF loans, 306, 444 

IMF assistance to, statements (Dillon), 455, 458 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 42, 

383 
Atomic energy, mutual defense purposes of, agree- 
ment for cooperation with U.S., 770 
Economic, security, and defense, cooperative agree- 
ment with U.S. concerning, 226, 416, 421 
GATT, proces verbal concerning article XVI : 4, 502 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
U.S. aid, 431, 459 
Twining, Gen. Nathan F., 497 



Index, January to June J 959 



1019 



U.A.R. See United Arab Republic 
U.K. See United Kingdom 
U.S.S.R. See Soviet Union 

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (see also Soviet 
Union) : 
Narcotic drugs, protocol (1948) bringing under inter- 
national control drugs outside scope of 1931 con- 
vention, 935 
Slavery convention (1926) and 1953 protocol amend- 
ing, 462 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
Underdeveloped countries. See Less developed countries 
Underground nuclear explosions, detection of: 
President's Science Advisory Committee statement, 118 
U.S. and Soviet positions, statement (Wadsworth), 701 
UNESCO. Sec Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization, U.N. 
UNICEF. See United Nations Children's Fund 
Unified Command (Korea), agreement with Federal Re- 
public of Korea regarding utilities claims settlement, 
110 
Union of South Africa : 

Antarctica, conference on, 895 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 195S), 286 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. See Soviet Union 
United Arab Republic (see also Egypt and Syria) : 
Soviet aid, 207, 587 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 144, 

810 
Parcel post, exchange of, agreement with U.S., 690 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 769 
Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on 
temporary importation of, notification of applica- 
tion to Syria, 653 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs fa- 
cilities for, notification of application to Syria, 653 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 

Space, membership, 32 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 358 
United Kingdom : 
African territories, developments in : 

Addresses and statements : Satterthwaite, 192, 193 ; 

Sears, 355, 533, 534 
General Assembly resolution, 535 
Antarctica, conference on, 895 
Baghdad Pact nuclear center, aid to, 321 
Colonial policy, benefits of, address (Nixon), 16 
Controls on dollar imports, relaxation of, 882 
Cyprus problem. See under Cyprus 
Economic cooperation with other European states, 

statement (Dillon), 247, 248 
Foreign Ministers meetings. See Foreign Ministers 

meetings 
GATT consultations, participation in, 244 
Geneva technical talks on preventing surprise attack. 

See Geneva technical talks 
German problems. See Armed forces : Four-power 
forces; Berlin situation; and Germany: Reunifica- 
tion 

1020 



United Kingdom — Continued 
German war documents, cooperative project with U.S. 

and France, 897 
Middle East, concept of, article (Pearcy), 410 
Nuclear test suspension, Geneva meetings on. See 
Geneva conference of experts to study and Geneva 
meeting to negotiate 
Palestine refugees, cosponsor of resolution on, 140 
Queen Elizabeth to visit Chicago, announcement, 954 
SEATO, participation in. See Southeast Asia Treaty 

Organization 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy for mutual defense purposes, amend- 
ment to agreement with U.S. for cooperation, 768, 
770 
Bahamas Long-Range Proving Ground, agreement 
with U.S. relating to use of for observing and 
tracking earth satellites and space vehicles, 729 
Double taxation on income, agreements relating to 
extension to certain British territories of 1945 con- 
vention with U.S. for avoidance of, as modified, 
42, 110, 144, 212, 213 
Facilities assistance, special program of, agreement 
amending 1954 agreement with U.S. relating to, 
383 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifica- 
tions to texts of schedules, 178 
GATT, standstill provisions of article XVI : 4, dec- 
laration extending, 178 
Germany, Allied High Commission archives, protocol 

amending agreement (1954) concerning, 502 
ICJ statute, declaration recognizing compulsory 

jurisdiction, 110 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement amending 1957 
agreement with U.S. relating to disposition of 
equipment and material, 178 
Pharmacopoeial formulas for potent drugs, protocol 

terminating agreement for unification of, 634 
Rawinsonde observation station on Jamaica and 
Grand Cayman Island, agreement with U.S. con- 
cerning establishment of, 144 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, 573, 653 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 689 
U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer 

Space, membership, 32 
U.S. consulate at Nassau, N.P., Bahamas, raised to 

consulate general, 421 
U.S. consulate opened at Freetown, Sierra Leone, 770 
Visit of Prime Minister to U.S., 406, 511 
World Refugee Year, program for, address (Cumming). 
874 
United Nations : 
Charter. See United Nations Charter 
Disarmament, efforts for. See United Nations Disarm- 
ament Subcommittee 
Documents, lists of, 68, 109, 322, 389, 420, 501, 645, 

768, 896, 976 
General Assembly. See General Assembly 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



United Nations — Continued 
Human rights, universal declaration of, 10th anni- 
versary of adoption, address (Lord), 108 
Hungarian question. See Hungary : Soviet activities in 
Membership question : 

Admission of Guinea, 52, 178 
Communist China, address (Robertson), 476 
Hungarian representation, statement (Lodge), 63 
Korea and Viet-Nam, U.S. and Soviet views, state- 
ments (Lodge), 52 
Middle East situation, U.N. actions in, address and 

statement : Dulles, 152 ; Hart, 718, 719 
OAS, relationship between, address (Rubottom), 665 
Objectives of, addresses, (Wilcox), 754, 835 
Outer space, peaceful uses of, U.N. consideration of. 

See tinder Outer space 
Refugees, aid to. See Refugees and displaced persons 
Right of states to nationalize property, action regard- 
ing, address (Becker), 787 
Role in maintaining peace, Soviet obstruction to, ad- 
addresses (Murphy), 186, 712 
Security Council. See Security Council 
Soviet use of veto in, address (Murphy), 712 
Specialized agencies. See Specialized agencies and 

name of agency 
Strengthening of, address (Dulles), 259 
Support of, comparison of free world and Communist, 

address (Dulles) , 257, 258 
Technical assistance program, expanded : 
Address (Wilcox), 754 

Africa, increased aid to, address (Satterthwaite), 195 
Cooperation with FAO/UNICEF, article (Phillips), 

352 
Special Fund. See Special Fund 

U.S. contribution, address, statement, and message: 
Dillon, 491 ; Eisenhower, 434 ; MacArthur, 560 
Trust territories. See Trust territories and Trusteeship 

Council 
United Nations Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses 
of Outer Space. See under Outer space 
United Nations Charter : 

Outer space, application to, statement (Becker), 886 
Provisions for maintaining peace, formulation of, ad- 
dress (Dulles), 256,257 
Ratification by Guinea, 178 
United Nations Children's Fund, 350 

United Nations Commission on Human Rights, proposed 
resolutions on self-determination, statements : Lord, 
175 ; Wise, 172 
United Nations Commission on International Commodity 

Trade, 37, 538, 604, 648rc. 
United Nations Commission on Permanent Sovereignty 
Over Natural Wealth and Resources, U.S. representa- 
tive confirmed, 897 
United Nations conference on the law of the sea, 2d, 
statements (Phleger) regarding and text of General 
Assembly resolution convening, 64 
United Nations Day, 1959, proclamation, 727 
United Nations Disarmament Subcommittee, Soviet ob- 
struction in, address (Murphy), 830 
United Nations Economic and Social Council. See Eco- 
nomic and Social Council, U.N. 

Index, January to June J 959 



United Nations Economic Commissions. See Economic 

Commissions 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization, U.N. 
United Nations Emergency Force, U.S. contributions, re- 
port and statement : Dillon, 489, 491 ; Eisenhower, 170 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Office 

of, U.S. support, 874, 878 
United Nations Korean Relief Agency, U.S. aid, 874 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, 

U.S. support, 874 
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 
Refugees : 
Annual report, statement (Harrison) and General As- 
sembly resolution, 137 
U.S. support, address (Hart), 719 
United Nations Special Fund. See Special Fund, U.N. 
United Nations Trusteeship Council, lists of documents, 

501, 768 
United States citizens and nationals : 
Claims. See under Claims 
Protection of : 

Health, WHO contributions, address (Wilcox), 836 
Property, protection against expropriation, address 

(Becker), 787 
Role in U.S. foreign policy, address (Herter), 738 
United States Committee for Refugees, establishment, ad- 
dress (Hanes), 874, 875, 877 
United States Educational Foundation in the Philippines, 

42 
United States Information Agency : 
Africa, operations in, address (Penfield), 846 
American National Exhibition at Moscow, art selection 

committee appointed, 381 
Ameryka magazine distributed in Poland, 271 
Appropriation request for, President's budget message 

to Congress, excerpts, 205 
Mutual security program, function relating to, 936 
Programs : 

Latin American, expansion recommended, report to 

the President (Milton Eisenhower), 91, 92 
Value in combatting Soviet propaganda, address 
(Wilcox), 596 
United States Munitions List, 765 
United States National Committee for the International 

Geophysical Year, 684 
United States Operations Missions, appointments of di- 
rectors, 286, 462, 690, 730, 978 
Universal postal conventions. See Postal agreements 
Upton, T. Graydon, 646 

Uranium resources, agreement amending 1957 agreement 
for cooperative program with Brazil for reconnais- 
sance and investigation of, 42 
Uruguay : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 3S3, 

897 
DLF loan, 598 

Flood, U.S. aid and concern, 764, 919 
U.S. tariff concessions on certain meat products, pro- 
claimed, 379 
Utilities claims settlement, agreement between Unified 
Command and Republic of Korea, 110 

1021 



Vaccine, Salk, U.S. loan to Poland for purchase, 959 
Vatican City, international wheat agreement (1959), 689 
Venezuela : 

Gift of Bolivar statue to U.S., 378 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 2S6 
Vessels. See Ships and shipping 
Veto: 

On-site inspection of suspected nuclear explosions, 
Western and Soviet positions. See On-site inspec- 
tion 
Soviet use in U.N., address (Murphy), 712 
Viet-Nam : 

Admission to the U.N., question of, statements 

(Lodge), 52,54,55 
Defense support assistance, U.S., 431 
Geneva Accords on Viet-Nam, Communist disregard of, 

address (Robertson), 377 
ICA program since 1955, address (Barrows), 674 
Refugees, U.S. aid, 874 
Security and progress of, importance to U.S., address 

(Eisenhower), 5S0 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses of, agreement with U.S., 

681, 690 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 
Transportation by air, international, convention 
(1929) for unification of certain rules relating to, 
285 
Visas (see also Passports) : 
Issuance to refugee immigrants, address (Hanes), 876 
Procedures for handling, improved, 438 
Voice of America, Soviet expenditures to jam, address 

(Wilcox), 596 
Volta Republic, economic and political ties with Ivory 
Coast and Niger, address (Satterthwaite), 745, 746 
Voluntary Foreign Aid, ICA Advisory Committee on, 21 
Voluntary relief agencies : 
Aid to Haiti, 565 

Importance of, address (Hanes), 876, 878 
Voroshilov, Kliment Ef removich, 131, 214 

Wadsworth, James J., 700 

Wan Waithayakon, Prince, 58, 61, 62 

War claims of political persecutees, fund established by 

Austria to settle, 962 
War victims, Geneva conventions (1949) for protection 

of, 74, 537, 854, 977 
Warren, George L., 384 
Watkins, Franklin C, 381 
Watson, Arthur K., 418 
Waugh, Samuel C, 106 
Weather {see also Rawinsonde) : 
Forecasting, use of satellites in, statements : Dryden, 

893, 973 ; Lodge, 883 
North Atlantic ocean stations, agreement (1954) on, 

573 
WMO, convention of, 420, 614 
West Africa, developments in and U.S. policy toward 
(see also Trust territories), addresses: Penrield, 842; 
Satterthwaite, 192, 744 
West African Federation of Nigeria. See Nigeria 
Whaling convention (1946), international, and protocol 
(1956) amending, 110, 144, 322, 462, 502, 769, 854 

1022 



Wheat : 

Conference of major wheat exporting nations, text of 

joint communique, 793 
Disposal policy, U.S.-Canadian discussions, 130 
International wheat agreement (1959), 689, 853 
Relief aid to : Jordan, 246 ; Yemen, 419 
U.S. use of loan repayment from India, 916 
Wheat agreement, international (1959) : 
Current actions, 689 
Signing, announcement of, 853 
Wheat Utilization Committee, established, 794 
White, Ivan B., 502 
White, Lincoln, 866, 921 
WHO. See World Health Organization 
Wigglesworth, Richard B., 250, 879 
Wilcox, Francis O., 399, 590, 750, 835 
Willoughby, Woodbury, 404 
Willson, Clifford H, 574 
Wise, Watson W., 172 

WMO. See World Meteorological Organization 
Wollmar, Stellan C, 462 
Wool fabrics, determination of tariff quota on Imports, 

18, 720 
Working group, Western, meetings on German problems, 

297, 406, 554, 555 
World Data Centers, IGY, 685, 687 

World economic growth, impact of U.S. economic develop- 
ments on, statement (Mansfield), 33 
World Forestry Congress, 5th, meeting and members of 

U.S. Organizing Committee, 67, 212 
World Health Assembly, 12th, U.S. delegation, 767 
World Health Day, statement (Eisenhower), 596 
World Health Organization, achievements and efforts for 

world peace, address (Wilcox), 835 
World Meteorological Organization, convention of, 420, 

614 
World Rule of Law Center, established, 624 
World Refugee Year, 1959-60 : 
Proclamation, 875 
U.S. role, address, letter, and statement : Eisenhower, 
709, 872 ; Hanes, 873 
World trade. See Trade : International trade 
World Trade Week, 1959, proclamation, 670 
World Wide Summary, DLF volume of proposed program, 

statement (Dillon), 489, 493 
Wounded and sick, Geneva convention (1949) relative to 
treatment of, 74, 537, 854, 977 

Yemen : 

Relief assistance from U.S., 246, 419 
U.S. Legation at Taiz, Yemen, opened, 538 
U.S. Minister, confirmed, 358 
Yost, Robert L., 358 
Yugoslavia : 

DLF loans, 136, 279 

GATT, association with, request for and approval of, 

766, 918 
Refugees, flight from, article (Warren), 385 
Soviet-bloc aid, 207 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 145 
Bills of lading, international convention for unifica- 
tion of certain rules relating to, and protocol, 977 

Department of State Bulletin 






Yugoslavia — Continued Yugoslavia — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 286 

convention for unification of certain rules relating U.S. consular districts changed, 502 

to, 420 U.S. policy toward, address (Murphy), 292 
Industrial property, revision of 1883 convention for 

protection of, 250 Zinc. See Lead and zinc 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE 
Publication 6961 

Released April 1960 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington 25, D.C. — Price 30 cents 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



°]3 S 30 





Vol. XL, No. 1019 



January 5, 1959 



IE 

tlCIAL 

EEXLY RECORI 



IITED STATES 
REIGN POLICY 



MINISTERIAL MEETING OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC 

COUNCIL • Final Communique, Declaration on Berlin, 
and Departure Statement by Secretary Dulles 3 

LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE BERLIN SITUATION • 

Department Memorandum 5 

RESPONSIBILITY OF THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING 
PEOPLES IN PRESERVING PEACE AND FREE- 
DOM • Address by Vice President Nixon 14 

U.S. VIEWS ON ECOSOC REPORT AND ECONOMIC 
DEVELOPMENT OF UNDERDEVELOPED COUN- 

TRIES • Statements by Senator Mike Mansfield and 
Text of U.N. Resolution 33 

UNITED NATIONS ESTABLISHES COMMITTEE ON 

PEACEFUL USES OF OUTER SPACE • Statements 

by Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge and Text of Resolution . . 24 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

FEB 18 1359 



Vol. XL, No. 1019 • Publication 6749 
January 5, 1959 



DEPOSITORY 



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the Budget (January 20, 1968). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
of State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
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tion is included concerning treaties 
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which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
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national relations are listed currently. 



Ministerial Meeting of the North Atlantic Council 



Following are texts of a final communique and 
a declaration on Berlin issued by the North At- 
lantic Council, which held its regular semiannual 
meeting at the ministerial level at Park December 
16 to 18, together with remarks made by Secre- 
tary Dulles upon his departure from Paris on 
December 18. 



FINAL COMMUNIQUE, DECEMBER 18 

Press release 768 dated December 19 

The North Atlantic Council held its regular 
Ministerial Session in Paris from 16th to 18th 
December, 1958. 

International Situation 

In a comprehensive survey of the international 
situation, the Council gave first place to the ques- 
tion of Berlin. The member countries made clear 
their resolution not to yield to threats. Their 
unanimous view on Berlin was expressed in the 
Council's Declaration of 16th December. 

The Council will continue to follow this ques- 
tion with close attention and will shortly discuss 
the replies to be sent to the Soviet notes of 27th 
November. 

The member states of NATO sincerely believe 
that the interests of peace require equitable settle- 
ments of the outstanding political issues which 
divide the free world from the Communist world. 
A solution of the German question, linked with 
European security arrangements, and an agree- 
ment on controlled disarmament remain in their 
view essential. The NATO Governments will 
continue to seek just settlements of these problems, 
but regret that Western proposals on these ques- 
tions have so far been ignored by the Soviet 
Government. 

The Council heard reports on the Geneva dis- 
cussions on the discontinuance of nuclear weapons 



tests, and on measures helpful in preventing sur- 
prise attack. 

The Council's review of the international situa- 
tion, on the basis of reports prepared by the 
Political Committee, covered a wide range of 
problems. 

Special attention was given to the efforts of 
the Communist bloc to weaken the positions of 
the free world in different areas. 

Political Cooperation 

The Council had before it a report by the Secre- 
tary General on political cooperation in the Alli- 
ance. The Ministers consider that important 
progress has been made in this field during 1958. 
They examined the problems inevitably created by 
the widening of political consultation. There was 
general agreement that the existing machinery of 
NATO is well suited to the needs of the Alliance, 
and that flexible methods would produce better 
results than any codification of rules. The Minis- 
ters agreed that the preparation of political consul- 
tation in the Council could be improved, in partic- 
ular by more systematic study of long-term polit- 
ical questions. The Council paid tribute to the 
efforts of the Secretary General in the field of con- 
ciliation between member countries. 

Economic Questions 

The Ministers reaffirmed the importance they 
attach to the measures taken both individually and 
collectively by member countries to stimulate eco- 
nomic activity and to ensure continuing expansion 
without inflation. 

The Council noted the difficulties encountered in 
the negotiations undertaken for the Organization 
of Economic Cooperation between the European 
members of the Alliance who are in the Common 
Market and those who are not. 



January 5, 7959 



It considers it necessary that a multilateral asso- 
ciation should be established at the earliest possible 
date and expresses the hope that the efforts now 
being undertaken with a view to a solution will be 
successful. 

The Council heard a joint statement by the 
Greek and Turkish Foreign Ministers on the prob- 
lems of the less developed member countries, and 
instructed the Permanent Council to undertake a 
study of this matter. 

Military Questions 

The Council examined the military situation of 
the Alliance. After hearing reports by the Stand- 
ing Group and the Supreme Allied Commanders, 
the Ministers emphasized the vital need, in view of 
the continuing increase in Soviet armaments, to 
sustain without relaxation the effort of member 
countries to improve the defensive power of the 
Alliance. 

The Council reaffirmed that NATO defensive 
strategy continues to be based on the existence of 
effective shield forces and on the manifest will to 
use nuclear retaliatory forces to repel aggression. 

The Ministers examined the report of the 1958 
Annual Review and approved its conclusions. 
The implementation of the plans agreed in De- 
cember 1957 by the Heads of Government * is 
being actively pursued, and methods for accelerat- 
ing their realization were agreed. 

The next regular Ministerial Meeting of the 
Council will be held in Washington on April 2nd 
to 4th, 1959, at the invitation of the United States 
Government, on the occasion of the tenth anniver- 
sary of the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty. 

DECLARATION ON BERLIN, DECEMBER 16 

Press release 761 dated December 17 

1. The North Atlantic Council examined the 
question of Berlin. 

2. The Council declares that no state has the 
right to withdraw unilaterally from its interna- 
tional engagements. It considers that the denun- 
ciation by the Soviet Union of the interallied 
agreements on Berlin can in no way deprive the 
other parties of their rights or relieve the Soviet 
Union of its obligations. Such methods destroy 
the mutual confidence between nations which is one 
of the foundations of peace. 



3. The Council fully associates itself with the 
views expressed on the subject by the Governments 
of the United States, the United Kingdom, France 
and the Federal Republic of Germany in their 
statement of 14th December. 2 

4. The demands expressed by the Soviet Gov- 
ernment have created a serious situation which 
must be faced with determination. 

5. The Council recalls the responsibilities which 
each member state has assumed in regard to the 
security and welfare of Berlin and the mainte- 
nance of the position of the three powers in that 
city. The member states of NATO could not ap- 
prove a solution of the Berlin question which 
jeopardized the right of the three Western powers 
to remain in Berlin as long as their responsibilities 
require it, and did not assure freedom of communi- 
cation between that city and the free world. The 
Soviet Union would be responsible for any action 
which had the effect of hampering this free com- 
munication or endangering this freedom. The two 
million inhabitants of West Berlin have just re- 
affirmed in a free vote their overwhelming ap- 
proval and support for that position. 

6. The Council considers that the Berlin ques- 
tion can only be settled in the framework of an 
agreement with the U.S.S.R. on Germany as a 
whole. It recalls that the Western powers have 
repeatedly declared themselves ready to examine 
this problem, as well as those of European security 
and disarmament. They are still ready to discuss 
all these problems. 



SECRETARY DULLES' DEPARTURE STATEMENT, 
DECEMBER 18 

Press release 769 dated December 19 

I leave Paris with a firm conviction that the 
NATO Ministerial Council meeting was signifi- 
cant and successful. 

The 15 member nations united as one in affirm- 
ing and determining not to yield to Soviet threats 
as to Berlin. This determination in facing the 
serious situation created by the Soviet Govern- 
ment should assist in effecting a solution. 

The NATO nations agreed that our defenses 
are in good order. But in the light of our com- 
mon view that the threat from the Soviet Union 
has not diminished and that the Soviets continue 



1 Bulletin of Jan. 6, 1958, p. 12. 



2 Ibid., Dec. 29, 1958, p. 1041. 

Department of State Bulletin 



to increase their armed strength, there is yet 
much to be done in fulfilling the long-term plan 
on which we are agreed. 

The process of political consultation which 
makes NATO an association unique in history 
was carried forward in this meeting with full co- 
operation from the United States. 

The Government of the United States is de- 
lighted that NATO has accepted the invitation of 
the United States Government to hold the next 
Ministerial Meeting in Washington in April, on 
the 10th anniversary of this vital organization. 



The American people look forward to welcoming 
the Ministers and their delegations with warmth 
and friendship. 

I was glad to be able to discuss again questions 
of mutual interest with the Prime Minister of 
France, General de Gaulle, and with the Foreign 
Minister, Monsieur Couve de Murville. I ap- 
preciated this opportunity of expressing person- 
ally to General de Gaulle my admiration for the 
progress he has made and the courageous manner 
in which he has been facing the problems of 
France. 



Legal Aspects of the Berlin Situation 



Press release 767 dated December 19 

In response to many inquiries from the press 
and other representatives of the public, the De- 
partment of State is making available the follow- 
ing memorandum on the legal aspects of the 
Berlin situation. 

The Soviet Government, in a note to the United 
States Government dated November 27, 1958, 1 has 
unilaterally and without legal warrant declared it 
considers as null and void certain agreements to 
which the United States and the Soviet Union are 
parties relating to the occupation of Germany and 
of Berlin. This declaration, as clearly appears 
from the note, is made to provide a basis for at- 
tacking the rights of the United States to be in 
occupation in Berlin and to have access thereto 
with the purpose of seeking to force the United 
States into a surrender of those rights. 

The United States considers that the agree- 
ments allegedly denounced by the Soviet Union 
are in full force and effect, that the Soviet Union 
remains fully responsible for discharging the obli- 
gations which it assumed under the agreements, 
and that the attempts by the Soviet Union to un- 
dermine the rights of the United States to be in 
Berlin and to have access thereto are in violation 
of international law. 

The legal dispute of the United States Govern- 
ment with the Soviet Government involves funda- 
mental questions of international law. Among 

1 For a Department statement regarding the Soviet 
note, see Bulletin of Dec. 15, 1958, p. 948. 



them are the respective rights acquired by the 
occupying authorities in Germany at the conclu- 
sion of World War II and the status of those 
rights pending a final peace settlement with Ger- 
many ; the question whether a nation may unilat- 
erally abrogate without cause international agree- 
ments to which it is a party in order to divest 
itself of responsibilities which it has voluntarily 
assumed; and what is the effect of a unilateral 
renunciation of jointly shared rights of military 
occupation by one of the occupiers. 

During World War II the United States, the 
United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, together 
with the forces of the Free French and of the 
other United Nations, formed a coalition of allied 
forces united in the common effort of defeating 
Nazi Germany. Several major international 
meetings were held between the heads of govern- 
ment of the Allied Powers at which the common 
objectives were outlined and plans for the secur- 
ing of peace were mapped out. 

At the Moscow Conference held from October 
19 to October 30, 1943, as stated in the agreed 
communique, 2 

The Conference agreed to set up machinery for en- 
suring the closest cooperation between the three Govern- 
ments in the examination of European questions arising 
as the war develops. For this purpose the Conference 
decided to establish in London a European Advisory 
Commission to study these questions and to make joint 
recommendations to the three Governments. 



3 For text, see ibid., Nov. 6, 1943, p. 307. 



January 5, J 959 



The European Advisory Commission held its 
first meeting on January 14, 1944. Thereafter it 
discussed "European questions" including the 
anticipated surrender and occupation of Germany. 
The nature of the subsequent occupation of Ger- 
many and Greater Berlin is clearly reflected by 
the discussions held in the European Advisory 
Commission and the agreements concluded as a 
result of the discussions. 

On February 18, 1944, the Soviet representa- 
tive submitted a document entitled "Conditions of 
Surrender for Germany" for consideration of the 
Commission, article 15 of which revealed the 
thinking of the Soviet Government at that time 
in regard to the establishment of zones of occu- 
pation in Germany. Paragraph (d) of article 
15 of the document proposed the following with 
regard to Berlin : 

d). There shall be established around Berlin a 10/15 
kilometer zone which shall be occupied jointly by the 
armed forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
the United Kingdom and the United States of America. 

In discussing the Soviet proposal, the British 
representative at a meeting on February 18, 1944, 
doubted the desirability of including in the Terms 
of Surrender a provision giving boundaries to 
such zones, since this appeared to him to be a 
domestic matter for the Three Powers themselves. 

On March 17, 1944, at the Fifth Meeting of the 
European Advisory Commission, the Soviet repre- 
sentative, Mr. Gusev, stated that he would not 
insist upon the inclusion of article 15 in the In- 
strument of Surrender, which could thereby be 
made shorter. The delimitation could then be 
set forth in a separate document to be agreed 
on by the Allies (E. A. C. (44) 5th Meeting, 
page 12). This separate document was worked 
out in a series of subsequent discussions, and on 
September 12, 1944, the representatives of the 
three governments signed a Protocol on the Zones 
of Occupation in Germany and the Administra- 
tion of "Greater Berlin." On November 14, 1944, 
agreement was reached regarding certain amend- 
ments to the Protocol of September 12. The So- 
viet representative on the European Advisory 
Commission gave notification that the Soviet Gov- 
ernment approved the agreement regarding 
amendments on February 6, 1945. The United 
Kingdom had previously approved on December 
5, 1944, the Protocol and amendments, and the 
United States approved on February 2, 1945. 

The Crimean Conference was held February 



4-11, 1945, and in consequence thereof the follow- 
ing significant statement was made by the Prime 
Minister of Great Britain, the President of the 
United States of America, and the Chairman of 
the Council of People's Commissars of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Kepublics on the results of 
the Crimean Conference : 

The Occupation and Control of Germany 

We have agreed on common policies and plans for 
enforcing the unconditional surrender terms which we 
shall impose together on Nazi Germany after German 
armed resistance has been finally crushed. These terms 
will not be made known until the final defeat of Germany 
has been accomplished. Under the agreed plan, the forces 
of the three powers will each occupy a separate zone of 
Germany. Coordinated administration and control has 
been provided for under the plan through a central con- 
trol commission consisting of the Supreme Commanders 
of the three powers with headquarters in Berlin. It has 
been agreed that France should be invited by the three 
powers, if she should so desire, to take over a zone of 
occupation, and to participate as a fourth member of the 
control commission. The limits of the French zone will 
be agreed by the four governments concerned through 
their representatives on the European Advisory 
Commission. 

On July 26, 1945, the United Kingdom, the 
United States, and the U.S.S.E. entered into an 
agreement with the Provisional Government of the 
French Eepublic regarding amendments to the 
Protocol of September 12, 1944, which served to 
include France in the occupation of Germany and 
the administration of "Greater Berlin." The 
Soviet representative on the European Advisory 
Commission gave notice that his Government ap- 
proved this agreement on August 13, 1945. The 
United States approved on July 29, 1945; the 
United Kingdom approved on August 2, 1945; 
and the French Government approved on August 
7, 1945. 

The Protocol, in its final form, provides : 

1. Germany within her frontiers as they were on the 
31st December, 1937, will, for the purposes of occupa- 
tion, be divided into four zones, one of which will be 
allotted to each of the four Powers, and a special Berlin 
area, which will be under joint occupation by the four 
Powers. 

The Protocol then specifies the geographical 
boundaries of each zone and provides for the divi- 
sion of the territory of Greater Berlin, which 
"will be jointly occupied by the armed forces" 
of the Four Powers, into four parts. Paragraph 
5 of the Protocol provides : 






6 



Department of State Bulletin 



5. An Inter-Allied Governing Authority (Komendatura) 
consisting of four Commandants, appointed by their re- 
spective Commanders-in-Chief, will be established to 
direct jointly the administration of the "Greater Berlin" 
Area. 

It should be borne in mind that the only changes 
in the Protocol subsequent to February 6, 1945, 
when it came into force, were the amendments 
relating to the French occupation rights. The 
French Zone of Occupation and French Sector of 
Berlin were carved out from the American and 
British Zones and Sectors so that the amendments 
did not effect any change as between the U.S.S.R. 
and the Western powers in the fundamental allo- 
cation of authority in Germany. 

The relationship of the occupying powers in 
Germany was further clarified by the work of 
the European Advisory Commission in connection 
with the agreement on control machinery in Ger- 
many. On November 14, 1944, an agreement was 
reached in the Commission with regard to the 
organization of the allied control machinery in 
Germany in the period during which Germany 
would be carrying out the basic requirements of 
unconditional surrender. On May 1, 1945, agree- 
ment was reached to include the Provisional Gov- 
ernment of the French Republic in the control 
agreement. 

This agreement, in its final form, provides that : 

Supreme authority in Germany will be exercised, on 
instructions from their respective Governments, by the 
Commanders-in-Chief of the armed forces of the United 
States of America, the United Kingdom and the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, land! the Provisional Govern- 
ment of the French Republic, each in his own zone of oc- 
cupation, and also jointly, in matters affecting Germany 
as a whole, in their capacity as members of the supreme 
organ of control constituted under the present Agreement. 

It also provided, with respect to Berlin : 

Article 7 (a). An Inter- Allied Governing Authority 
(Komendatura) consisting of three Commandants, one 
from each Power, appointed by their respective Com- 
manders-in-Chief, will be established to direct jointly 
the administration of the "Greater Berlin" area. Each 
of the Commandants will serve in rotation, in the position 
of Chief Commandant, as head of the Inter-Allied 
Governing Authority. 

This agreement, unlike the Protocol on Zones 
of Occupation, contained a provision with respect 
to duration: 

Article 10. The Allied organs for the control and ad- 
ministration of Germany outlined above will operate 



during the initial period of the occupation of Germany 
immediately following surrender, that is, the period when 
Germany is carrying out the basic requirements of un- 
conditional surrender. 

On May 7 and 8, 1945, the Acts of Military 
Surrender were signed, by which the German 
High Command surrendered "unconditionally to 
the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary 
Force and simultaneously to the Supreme High 
Command of the Red Army," all forces under 
German control. 

At the time of the surrender of the German 
military forces, British and United States mili- 
tary forces held by force of arms all of Germany 
west of a line running from Wismar to Magde- 
burg to Torgan to Dresden. This area included 
practically all of the German territory which has 
been allotted to the Western powers under the 
Protocol of Zones of Occupation, and a very sub- 
stantial portion of the territory allocated to the 
Soviet Zone. Of interest also is that the Western 
powers had, in the weeks prior to the German 
surrender, rejected German offers to surrender or 
withdraw German forces on the western front 
while holding on the east against the Soviet 
forces and thus permit the Western Allies to 
occupy all of Germany. Faithful to their agree- 
ments with the Soviet Union respecting the joint 
nature of the defeat of the Nazi regime and joint 
assumption of supreme authority in Germany, 
the Western powers repulsed these proposals. 

On June 5, 1945, the Allied Representatives in 
Germany issued a Declaration regarding the de- 
feat of Germany and the assumption of supreme 
authority with respect to Germany. 3 

The Declaration provided : 

The Governments of the United States of America, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United King- 
dom, and the Provisional Government of the French Re- 
public, hereby assume supreme authority with respect to 
Germany, including all the powers possessed by the Ger- 
man Government, the High Command and any state, 
municipal, or local government or authority. The as- 
sumption, for the purposes stated above, of the said 
authority and powers does not effect the annexation of 
Germany. 

The Governments of the United States of America, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United King- 
dom, and the Provisional Government of the French 
Republic, will hereafter determine the boundaries of 
Germany or any part thereof and the status of Germany 
or of any area at present being part of German territory. 



8 For text, see ibid., June 10, 1945, p. 1051. 



January 5, 1959 



On June 5, 1945, the four Allied Governments 
also issued a statement on control machinery in 
Germany. This statement is substantially iden- 
tical with the Agreement on Control Machinery 
in Germany. 

Likewise, on June 5, 1945, the four Allied Gov- 
ernments issued a statement on the zones of occu- 
pation in Germany. The statement announced 
the areas agreed previously in the European Ad- 
visory Commission in 1944. Article 2 of the 
statement provides that 

The area of "Greater Berlin" will be occupied by 
forces of each of the four Powers. An Inter- Allied Gov- 
erning Authority (in Russian, Komendatura ) consisting 
of four Commandants, appointed by their respective 
Commanders-in-Chief, will be established to direct jointly 
its administration. 

On June 14, 1945, the President of the United 
States wrote a letter to Marshal Stalin concerning 
the withdrawal of American troops from the So- 
viet Zone into the United States Zone of Occupa- 
tion, to be carried out "in accordance with 
arrangements between the respective commanders, 
including in these arrangements simultaneous 
movement of the national garrisons into Greater 
Berlin and provision of free access by air, road, 
and rail from Frankfurt and Bremen to Berlin 
for United States forces." 

Stalin replied by letter dated June 18, 1945, 
stating : 

On our part all necessary measures will be taken in 
Germany and Austria in accordance with the above- 
stated plan. 

On July 1, 1945, United States forces entered 
Berlin and withdrew from their advanced posi- 
tion in Eastern Germany. 

In accordance with the proposal concerning the 
withdrawal of United States forces from Thur- 
ingia and Saxony and entry into Berlin, a con- 
ference was held on June 29, 1945, between 
Marshal Zhukov, General Clay, and General 
Weeks. General arrangements were made for use 
by the Western powers of specific roads, rail lines, 
and air lines for the purpose of exercising their 
rights of access to Berlin. 

The general arrangements were further defined 
through actions of the Allied control machinery in 
Germany— the Control Council, the Coordinating 
Committee, which was the Council's principal sub- 
ordinate body, and the interested functional com- 
mittees and directorates. Certain of these specific 



arrangements were incorporated in approved 
papers, such as Directorate of Transport paper 
CONL/P (45) 27 regarding rail access, Minute 
( 110) (a) of the Allied Control Council regarding 
air corridors to Berlin, the Air Directorate paper 
on air safety in Berlin, DAIR/P (45) 67 second 
revision, and the Air Directorate paper on rules 
of flight in the corridors, DAIR/P (45) 71 sec- 
ond revision. In addition, a variety of working 
practices and arrangements developed with respect 
to the exercise by the Western powers of their 
rights of access. The arrangements, however, 
related merely to the orderly exercise of the rights 
of access. 

On March 20, 1948, the Soviet representatives 
walked out of the Allied Control Council for 
Germany after the Soviet representative, who was 
in the Chair, arbitrarily declared the meeting 
closed. On March 30, 1948, the Soviet Deputy 
Military Governor, General Dratvin, stated in a 
letter to the United States Military Government 
that supplementary provisions regarding com- 
munications between the Soviet and U.S. zones of 
occupation in Germany would go into effect on 
April 1, 1948. These provisions, which were con- 
trary to practice established since the quad- 
ripartite occupation of Berlin, set forth that : 

( 1 ) U.S. personnel traveling through the Soviet 
Zone by rail and highway must present documen- 
tary evidence of identity and affiliation with the 
U.S. Military Administration of Germany ; 

(2) Military freight shipments from Berlin to 
the Western zones must be cleared through Soviet 
check points by means of a Soviet permit ; freight 
shipments into Berlin would be cleared by accom- 
panying documents ; 

(3) All baggage must be inspected at Soviet 
check points, with the exception of personal 
belongings of U.S. personnel carried in a passenger 
railway car or a passenger automobile. 

Similar letters were delivered to the British and 
French Military Government authorities. 

On March 31 the Chief of Staff, U.S. Military 
Government, replied that the new provisions were 
not acceptable and that such unilateral changes of 
policy could not be recognized. 

The Soviets then commenced the series of restric- 
tions on traffic to and from Berlin which ultimately 
culminated in the Berlin blockade. The facts 
regarding the effort of the Soviet Union to starve 
the population of Berlin in order to force the 



8 



Department of State Bulletin 



Western powers to surrender their rights in the 
city are too well known to require reiteration. 

The airlift mounted by the Western powers 
defeated this Soviet effort. On May 4, 1949, the 
Governments of the United States, U.S.S.R., 
United Kingdom, and France reached an agree- 
ment at New York 4 which provided in part as 
follows : 

1. All the restrictions imposed since March 1, 1948, by 
the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
on communications, transportation, and trade between 
Berlin and the Western zones of Germany and between 
the Eastern zone and the Western zones will be removed 
on May 12, 1949. 

The Council of Foreign Ministers which con- 
vened at Paris subsequent to the New York 
agreement of May 4, 1949, 5 agreed as follows : 

5. The Governments of France, the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, and the United 
States agree that the New York agreement of May 4, 1949, 
shall be maintained. Moreover, in order to promote fur- 
ther the aims set forth in the preceding paragraphs and in 
order to improve and supplement this and other arrange- 
ments and agreements as regards the movement of persons 
and goods and communications between the Eastern zone 
and the Western zones and between the zones and Berlin 
and also in regard to transit, the occupation authorities, 
each in his own zone, will have an obligation to take the 
measures necessary to insure the normal functioning and 
utilization of rail, water, and road transport for such 
movement of persons and goods and such communications 
by post, telephone, and telegraph. 

Article 1 of the New York agreement of May 
4, 1949, was implemented by Order Number 56 of 
the Soviet Military Government and Commander 
in Chief of the Soviet occupation forces in Ger- 
many, dated May 9, 1949. The order provides 
that the regulations which were in effect prior to 
1 March 1948 concerning communications between 
Berlin and the Western zones were reestablished. 
Specifically, paragraph 4 of the Soviet Order 
provides, 

The procedure in effect prior to 1 March 1948 for mili- 
tary and civilian personnel of the British, American, and 
French occupation forces permitting them to cross the 
demarcation line at the control points of Marienborn and 
Nowawes without special passes and requiring passes 
authorized by the SMA staff for all other control points 
is to be reestablished. 

The foregoing historical summary establishes 
beyond question that the rights of the United 

4 For text, see ibid., May 15, 1949, p. 631. 

6 For background, see ibid., July 4, 1949, p. 857. 



States in Germany and in Berlin do not depend 
in any respect upon the sufferance or acquiescence 
of the Soviet Union. Those rights derive from the 
total defeat of the Third Reich and the subsequent 
assumption of supreme authority in Germany. 
This defeat and assumption of authority were 
carried out as joint undertakings in which the 
participants were deemed to have equal standing. 
The rights of each occupying power exist inde- 
pendently and underlie the series of agreements 
which specify the areas and the methods in which 
those rights are to be exercised. From this fact 
two important consequences are derived. 

In the first place, the specific rights which flow 
from the Agreement on Zones of Occupation and 
the Status of Berlin do not vary in either kind or 
degree. The right of each power to be in occupa- 
tion of Berlin is of the same standing as the right 
of each power to be in occupation of its zone. 
Further, the rights of the three Western powers 
to free access to Berlin as an essential corollary of 
their right of occupation there is of the same 
stature as the right of occupation itself. The 
Soviet Union did not bestow upon the Western 
powers rights of access to Berlin. It accepted its 
zone of occupation subject to those rights of 
access. If this were not true and the doctrine of 
joint and equal rights is not applicable, then, for 
example, the United States would now be free 
to require the Soviet Union to withdraw from that 
portion of the Soviet Zone originally occupied by 
American forces and to assume control of the 
area. 

In the second place, inasmuch as the rights of 
occupation and of access do not stem from the 
Soviet Union, the Soviets are without any au- 
thority to repeal those rights by denunciation of 
agreements or by purported transfer of control 
over them to third parties. The Soviet Union 
cannot affect the rights by declaring agreements 
null and void because the rights exist independ- 
ently of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union 
cannot affect the rights by declaring them subject 
to the sovereignty it claims to have bestowed upon 
its puppet regime in East Germany, because, 
again, the rights remain in being irrespective of 
any act of the Soviets. Whatever relationship 
the East German regime may have vis-a-vis the 
Soviets, it cannot acquire a power in the Soviet 
Zone which the Soviets are powerless to give. 
The foregoing discussion is, of course, without 
reference to the legality of the purported Soviet 



January 5, J 959 



action in denouncing its solemn commitments, 
which is discussed in the succeeding section. 

The Soviet Government, in its note of Novem- 
ber 27, 1958, states : 

The Soviet Government can no longer consider itself 
bound by that part of the Allied agreements on Ger- 
many that has assumed an inequitable character and is 
being used for the purpose of maintaining the occupation 
regime in West Berlin and interfering in the internal 
affairs of the GDR. 

In this connection, the Government of the USSR hereby 
notifies the United States Government that the Soviet 
Union regards as null and void the "Protocol of the 
Agreement between the Governments of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States of America, 
and the United Kingdom on the zones of occupation in 
Germany and on the administration of Greater Berlin," of 
September 12, 1044, and the related supplementary agree- 
ments, including the agreement on the control machinery 
in Germany, concluded between the governments of the 
USSR, the USA, Great Britain, and France on May 1, 
1945, i. e., the agreements that were intended to be in 
effect during the first years after the capitulation of 
Germany. 

In an attempt to justify this action, the Soviet 
Government alleges : 

(1) that such action is legal because of alleged 
violations by the Western powers of the Potsdam 
Agreement ; 

(2) that the agreements were intended to be in 
effect only during the first years after the capitu- 
lation of Germany ; 

(3) that alleged activities of the Western 
powers in their sector of Berlin have resulted in 
a forfeiture of their rights to occupy those sectors 
and to have free access thereto. 

Relationship of the Potsdam Agreement to 
United States Occupation Eights With Respect to 
Berlin 

The so-called Potsdam Agreement was issued at 
the conclusion of the Berlin Conference of July 17 
to August 2, 1945. The Protocol of the Proceed- 
ings which embodied the points of agreement 
reached by the Heads of Government of the United 
States of America, United Kingdom, and Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics is dated August 1, 
1945. 6 From this mere statement of the time fac- 
tor it is apparent that the Agreement on Zones of 
Occupation and the Status of Berlin which had 
entered into force on February 6, 1945, approxi- 
mately 6 months earlier, does not depend for its 



' Ibid., Aug. 5, 1945, p. 153. 



validity upon the Potsdam Protocol of Proceed- 
ings. Moreover, there is nothing in the Potsdam 
Protocol which specifically subjects the prior 
agreement to any of its terms or which can be in- 
terpreted as having that effect. Nor is there any 
evidence that the subsequent agreements on the 
exercise of the rights of access relate to or are 
connected in any way with the Potsdam Protocol. 

Violations (alleged or real) of the Potsdam 
Agreement could not, therefore, have any legal 
effect upon the validity either of the basic occupa- 
tion rights of the Western powers or upon the 
agreements which define the rights of the Western 
powers to be in occupation of their zones and of 
their sectors of Berlin and to have free access to 
Berlin. 

Moreover, the Potsdam Agreement, insofar as 
Germany is concerned, is related to the common ob- 
jectives of the occupation authorities in Germany. 
The attainment of these objectives was designed to 
further the purposes of the occupation of Ger- 
many, but there is no indication anywhere in the 
Protocol that the right of occupation depended 
upon attainment of the objectives. Further, to the 
extent that these objectives were not realized, the 
failure resulted from violations by the Soviet 
Union of the provisions of the Potsdam Protocol. 
The major violations were the refusal of the Soviet 
Union to treat Germany as an economic unit and 
the continuing attempts of the Soviet Union to 
obtain reparation payments to which it was not 
entitled under the terms of the Protocol. The 
United States is prepared to document violations 
of the Potsdam Agreement by the Soviet Union. 
It has never contended, however, that such viola- 
tions affect the right of the Soviet Government to 
occupy its zone of Germany and sector of Berlin. 

The United States denies, and is prepared to 
document the correctness of its position, that it 
has violated the Potsdam Agreement as alleged by 
the Soviet Government. The United States sub- 
mits, however, that the issue is irrelevant to the 
question of whether the Soviet Union may unilat- 
erally declare null and void an international agree- 
ment such as the Protocol of September 12, 1944, 
since the two agreements related to different sub- 
jects and were in no way interdependent. 

It should also be noted that the Soviet Union has 
not, in its note, alleged that it considers the Pots- 
dam Protocol as null and void by reason of these 
asserted violations by the Western powers. If the 
Potsdam Protocol remains in force and effect, 



10 



Department of State Bulletin 



then, accepting for the sake of argument that these 
other distinct and independent agreements are in 
fact contingent upon that Protocol, how can it be 
maintained either logically or legally that the 
subsidiary agreements are voided by violation of 
the principal agreement although the principal 
agreement is not so voided? The position is, on 
its face, completely untenable. 

Duration of Agreements Relating to Occupation 
of Germany 

The United States considers that the Soviet 
Government is notably vague in its references in 
its note of November 27, 1958, to the specific agree- 
ments relating to Germany which it considers 
"were intended to be in effect during the first years 
after the capitulation of Germany." 

The United States believes that an examination 
of the various documents referred to above, taken 
in the historical context in which they were agreed, 
makes entirely clear the nature of the commit- 
ments undertaken by the four occupation authori- 
ties. Certain of the documents, or portions thereof, 
referred to immediate goals of the occupation, or 
to the administrative arrangements between the 
occupation authorities. Understandably, express 
provision was made in such cases for review after 
a reasonable period of time. Specifically, the 
statement on control machinery in Germany of 
June 5, 1945, is a case where such arrangements 
were made. Paragraph 1 of the agreement stated, 
"In the period when Germany is carrying out the 
basic requirements of unconditional surren- 
der. . . ." Paragraph 8 is even more specific as 
to the intention of the parties : 

8. The arrangements outlined above will operate during 
the period of occupation following German surrender, 
when Germany is carrying out the basic requirements of 
unconditional surrender. Arrangements for the subse- 
quent period will be the subject of a separate agreement. 
(Underscoring added.) 

There has never been any doubt on the part of 
the United States that a "two step" occupation 
period for Germany had been envisaged in the pre- 
occupation planning. Further, the United States 
is fully in accord with the position that the "period 
when Germany is carrying out the basic require- 
ments of unconditional surrender" has long since 
passed. A similar introductory qualification was 
made in connection with the items contained in 



part II of the Potsdam Protocol entitled "The 
Principles to Govern the Treatment of Germany 
in the Initial Control Period." Just as the Control 
Machinery Agreement was recognized as an ar- 
rangement to cover a relatively short period, the 
Potsdam "Principles" in part II were to govern in 
the immediate postwar period prior to the rees- 
tablishment of a central German authority when 
the Allied Powers would administer Germany 
under military government. Secretary of State 
Acheson pointed this out in his statement made to 
the Council of Foreign Ministers on May 24, 
1949. A few days later, on May 28, Mr. Bevin told 
the Council that the Western powers considered 
the "initial control period" as over. Secretary 
Acheson said he heartily concurred in this state- 
ment of Mr. Bevin. Mr. Vyshinsky did not meet 
the argument squarely or counter the line of rea- 
soning implied. He said on May 27 : 

. . . the [Control] Council was established for definite 
purposes. If these purposes were already attained, then 
this fact should be taken into account and new aims 
formulated. 

Accordingly the United States does not contest 
that the Control Agreement and part II of the 
Potsdam Agreement were limited to an "initial 
control period." The record is entirely clear, how- 
ever, that the limitations in these documents did 
not indicate that the basic occupation rights and 
the other occupation agreements were to terminate 
after the initial control period. No such proviso is 
contained in the Protocol of September 12, 1944; 
the Act of Military Surrender ; the Declaration of 
June 5, 1945, regarding the defeat of Germany and 
the assumption of supreme authority; the state- 
ment of June 5, 1945, on zones of occupation in 
Germany ; the statement of June 5, 1945, on con- 
sultation with the governments of other United 
Nations; the provisions of the Potsdam Agree- 
ment other than part II; or any of the specific 
arrangements relating to access to Berlin. 

The weakness in an argument that the Septem- 
ber 12, 1944, Protocol became ineffective after the 
initial control period because of some implied 
relationship to the time proviso in the Control 
Machinery Agreement of June 5, 1945, is clearly 
seen by the fact that the Control Machinery 
Agreement, in the sentence following the one which 
the Soviets seek to spread to all other occupation 
agreements, provides "Arrangements for the sub- 
sequent period will be the subject of a separate 



January 5, 1959 



11 



agreement." Accordingly, the Soviet effort to 
assert, at this late date, that agreements relating 
to the occupation of Germany were all intended to 
be effective only "during the first years after the 
capitulation of Germany" is without substance. 

Forfeiture of the Occupation Rights of the West- 
ern Powers by Their Activities in Western 
Berlin 

The United States does not consider it necessary 
to disprove the Soviet charges which are made in 
the note of November 27, 1958, regarding United 
States activities as an occupying authority in 
Berlin. It can and will do so if such action should 
appear desirable. The well-known fact that there 
is a constant stream of refugees from the Soviet- 
controlled areas of Germany into West Berlin is 
by itself compelling evidence as to which powers 
are properly discharging their occupation respon- 
sibilities. ■ But no discussion of the facts is required 
because the Soviet charges do not relate in any 
way to obligations assumed by the United States 
in any of the agreements which the Soviet Union 
has denounced. 

The Soviet position that one party to a multi- 
lateral agreement which is declaratory of existing 
rights can denounce that agreement and thus uni- 
laterally relieve itself of its obligations thereunder 
and void such rights is untenable. In the absence 
of agreement by the other parties to terminate the 
agreement, or in the absence of a specified dura- 
tion in the agreement itself, the question of termi- 
nation must be justified in terms of international 
law. International law does not recognize any 
right of unilateral denunciation under such cir- 
cumstances. 

In order to place its position on this matter in 
correct perspective, the United States wishes to 
note that, while, as stated above, there was no 
agreement or limitation on the duration of the 
allied occupation of Germany, the duration of 
which it was recognized would depend on the 
length of time it took to accomplish the purposes 
of the occupation and might be many years, the 
United States recognized an obligation of the 
Allied Governments under international law to 
reach a peace settlement with Germany and not 
to prolong the occupation of Germany unneces- 
sarily. It is believed that the public record of 
efforts on the part of the Western powers to reach 
agreement with the Soviet Government on the 



terms of such a peace settlement are well known 
and speak for themselves. 

(1) At the first meeting of the Second Session 
of the Council of Foreign Ministers (Paris, 1946) 
Secretary of State Byrnes suggested that a spe- 
cial commission be appointed to consider a Ger- 
man peace treaty. On May 15, 1946, he proposed 
the appointment of special deputies to prepare a 
draft peace settlement for Germany which the 
Council could submit to a peace conference to be 
convened on November 12, 1946. 

(2) At the Third Council of Foreign Ministers 
Session (New York, 1946) Secretary Byrnes in- 
sisted that the Council should immediately ap- 
point its deputies for Germany and that these 
deputies should explore the problem prior to the 
Moscow session. 

(3) The proposed peace treaty was debated at 
the Moscow Council of Foreign Ministers in 
March 1947; at London in 1947; at Paris in 1949. 
The position consistently taken by the United 
States in favor of a final peace settlement with 
Germany is thus a matter of public record. 

(4) At the Paris session of the deputies of the 
Council of Foreign Ministers, efforts were made 
from March 5 to June 22, 1951, without success 
just to agree on the agenda for a meeting to con- 
sider the German question. 

The fact of the matter was that during the 
period of the debates between the Soviet Union 
and the Western occupation powers between 1946 
and 1951 the Soviet Union had initiated a system 
of government in its zone of control based on 
armed force and police-state methods. The 
Western Allied Powers could not accept the in- 
dividuals put forward as representing East Ger- 
many as other than instruments of the Soviet 
Union. The Western powers accordingly have 
insisted on German reunification based on free 
elections as a prerequisite for negotiation of a 
peace treaty with Germany. The Soviet Union 
has insisted upon acceptance of its hand-picked 
East German representatives as having an equal 
voice with the freely elected representatives of 
West Germany in any reunification. Thus, this 
Soviet rejection of democratic principles has 
vitiated efforts to reach agreement on the peace 
settlement with Germany envisaged during the 
war and during the immediate postwar period. 

The fact remains that the Western powers have 
supported and support now the right of Germany 



12 



Department of State Bulletin 



to have a final peace settlement and the termina- 
tion of the occupation period. It is the position 
of the United States that, being thus ready in good 
faith to bring the occupation period to a close by 
legitimate means, there can be no legal or moral 
doubt of the right of the United States to main- 
tain its right of occupation in Berlin and its corol- 
lary right of access thereto and that efforts of the 
Soviet Union to assail and interfere with those 
rights are in violation of international law. 

Attachment : Battle Map and Area of Withdrawal ' 



Geneva Talks on Surprise Attack 
Recessed for Indefinite Period 

Department Statement 

Press release 763 dated December 18 

The Geneva technical talks on surprise attack 
recessed today [December 18]. * The recess oc- 
curred at the end of an anticipated duration of 5 
weeks. No definite date has been set for resump- 
tion. 

The United States believes further progress can 
best be made after a review by governments of the 
conference work to date. We consider such a re- 
view to be appropriate at this time. We look for- 
ward to an early resumption of the discussion of 
the surprise attack problem following a study of 
the conference records and accomplishments. 

The United States experts at this conference, 
together with those of Canada, France, Italy and 
the United Kingdom, sought to lay a rational and 
technically sound foundation for dealing with the 
problem of increasing protection against surprise 
attack. Our experts sought to make a realistic 
technical assessment of the relative importance of 
the varying weapons which might be used in a sur- 
prise attack. They wished to determine, for ex- 
ample, how and to what degree it is possible to 
inspect and control missiles, airplanes, ground and 
naval forces to give warning in the event of their 



7 Not printed. 

1 For texts of U.S. and Soviet notes setting the date for 
the technical talks at Geneva, see Bulletin of Oct. 27, 
1958, p. 648; for announcement naming the U.S. experts, 
see ibid., Nov. 3, 1958, p. 688. 



imminent use in surprise attack. The United 
States continues to believe that such work is neces- 
sary to assure successful political negotiations. 

The United States regrets that the approach of 
the U.S.S.R. was to deal with this question on a 
political basis and to bypass the technical facts 
which need to be considered. This was not in 
keeping with Prime Minister Khrushchev's letter 
of July 2, 1958 to President Eisenhower 2 which 
agreed on the desirability of "a joint study of the 
practical aspects" of the surprise attack problem. 
The introduction of political issues and proposals 
can only serve to prevent the achievement of the 
objectives of a meeting of experts. 

Political negotiations on the complex problems 
inherent in disarmament have been under way for 
more than a decade. Despite our determined ef- 
forts to bring these earlier negotiations to a suc- 
cessful conclusion they resulted in little tangible 
progress. Accordingly, we proposed technical 
meetings in the belief that initial agreement could 
be reached on the technical aspects of the disarma- 
ment problem. 

We are confident that technical discussions 
among experts can produce agreements on the 
technical facts about instruments of surprise at- 
tack and their control and that these results in 
turn can provide an agreed basis for subsequent 
political negotiations. We have repeatedly made 
clear that such technical discussions are not an 
end in themselves, and that the United States is 
ready to undertake political negotiations on dis- 
armament matters at any time in the proper 
forum. We have consistently stated that meetings 
of experts would be undertaken without prejudice 
to respective positions of the governments con- 
cerned — either the Soviets or our own — on the tim- 
ing and interdependence of various aspects of 
disarmament. 

We urge the U.S.S.R. to review constructively 
their own proposals and the record of the con- 
ference. We expect such a review to lead to an 
early resumption of discussions on the increas- 
ingly urgent problems of reducing the danger of 
surprise attack. 



' Ibid., Aug. 18, 1958, p. 2T8. 



January 5, 1959 



13 



Responsibility of the English-Speaking Peoples 
in Preserving Peace and Freedom 

Address by Vice President Nixon r 



In the 6 years in which I have had the honor 
of serving as Vice President of the United States, 
it has been my privilege to visit many countries 
and to participate in many significant events. I 
can assure you that no occasion in that period will 
live more indelibly in my memory than the dedi- 
cation of the American Chapel at St. Paul's which 
I attended this morning and the gathering in this 
historic hall which I am privileged to address this 
evening. 

This meeting of the English-Speaking Union 
dramatizes the enduring character of the friend- 
ship and alliance of our two countries. The activ- 
ities of this organization have been most vital 
in cementing our bonds of comradeship. 

I consider it a particular privilege to pay trib- 
ute to the thoughtful and inspiring leadership of 
His Eoyal Highness Prince Philip, who has 
spared no sacrifices in this dedicated work. His 
recent visit to Canada was only one of many activ- 
ities which indicate Ms vital interest. 

You all may be justly proud not only of the 
contribution you have made to better understand- 
ing between our two countries but also the even 
greater work of building an enduring basis of 
friendship among all English-speaking peoples. 

Unity of English-Speaking Peoples 

The dedication at St. Paul's this morning dram- 
atizes the unity you have worked so hard to 
achieve. It was symbolic of the enduring ties that 
bind us. It brought to mind the dramatic events 
of earlier and more trying days — the magnificent 
leadership and the great sacrifices that made possi- 
ble our victory in the Second World War. 



1 Made before the English-Speaking Union of the Com- 
monwealth at London, England, on Nov. 26. 



Our thoughts went back to our great national 
leaders, Sir Winston Churchill and President 
Roosevelt, working together in intimate harmony. 
They will receive the ungrudging tribute of his- 
tory for their capacity to marshal the forces of 
democracy. 

Our thoughts turned also to our incomparable 
Generals and Admirals — Eisenhower and Mont- 
gomery, Cunningham and King. They were more 
than brilliant strategists and commanders. Be- 
cause of their unwavering devotion to the con- 
cept that military ingenuity must be combined 
with recognition of civilian authority, they rank 
indeed among the great military leaders of all 
times. 

But above all, today, we honored brave men — 
whose names are legion and whose sacrifices can 
never adequately be repaid. British and Ameri- 
can — farmers and laborers, from cities and coun- 
tryside, from offices and classrooms — these were 
the men who made possible our victory in the 
greatest war in history. Many events of that war 
will be forgotten as we turn our eyes to other 
tasks, but their deeds will live forever. They be- 
queathed to us a spirit, a sentiment, a national 
memory that will never fail to capture our ad- 
miration as we move side by side in the path of 
friendship and alliance. 

As Abraham Lincoln said at Gettysburg, "The 
world will little note, nor long remember what 
we say here, but it can never forget what they did 
here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedi- 
cated here to the unfinished work which they who 
fought here have thus far so nobly advanced." 

What is the unfinished work they leave for our 
generation? I believe that two American Presi- 
dents speaking in this same Guildhall have simply, 
but eloquently, answered that question. 



14 



Department of State Bulletin 



Woodrow AVilson on December 28, 1918, said: 
"The peoples of the world want peace and they 
want it now, not merely by conquest of arms, but 
by agreement of mind." 

And Dwight D. Eisenhower, 27 years later, on 
July 12, 1945, said: "To preserve his freedom of 
worship, his equality before law, his liberty to 
speak and act as he sees fit subject only to pro- 
visions that he trespass not upon similar rights of 
others, a Londoner will fight. So will a citizen 
of Abilene." 

To preserve freedom, to keep the peace, not only 
for themselves but for all people — this, then, is 
the cause for which the brave men we honored 
today gave their lives. It is the challenge and 
opportunity of our generation to further the ulti- 
mate realization of this noblest goal of mankind. 

Policies for Preserving Freedom 

Let us examine the policies we should follow 
if this goal is to be attained. We begin by rec- 
ognizing that the free world must be militarily 
stronger than any potential aggressor. The exist- 
ence of our military strength and our determina- 
tion and ability to maintain it are the basic 
elements without which the objectives we seek 
would be impossible to realize. 

But we recognize that military strength in and 
of itself will not keep peace unless it is combined 
with a wise and judicious diplomatic policy. Let 
us see what some of the guidelines for our policy 
should be. 

We must retain the armed strength needed for 
security in a troubled world, but we should speak 
with the calm assurance of those who are not 
afraid. 

We know that, to the extent the law of the 
jungle prevails in any area of the world, weakness 
and indecision lead to disaster. Yet firmness is 
not and should not be arrogance. 

We will shun assurances based merely upon 
naive hope or even self-deception. But we must 
never tire in our search for enforceable agree- 
ments which will reduce tension. 

We know that little is lost by discussion but 
that all may be lost by war. Yet, even in our 
tireless striving for peace, we must always be pre- 
pared to say that freedom and the rights of man 
are even more ultimate values. 

Above all, our policies must represent the best 
thinking the free world can produce. We are 



indeed fortunate in the fact that in men like 
Macmillan and De Gaulle, Adenauer and Spaak, 
Fanfani and Eisenhower, we have the kind of 
dedicated and experienced leadership which is su- 
perbly qualified for the difficult task of keeping 
the peace with honor for the free world. 

In this connection I wish to pay special trib- 
ute to your Prime Minister for his initiative in 
developing the enlightened concept of interde- 
pendence which has proved so useful in bringing 
about closer understanding between our two na- 
tions and which points the way for improving con- 
sultation and cooperation among all the countries 
in the free world. 

If the struggles for peace and freedom were to 
be decided solely by the adequacy of our military 
strength and by the quality of our diplomacy, 
we could look to the future with justifiable confi- 
dence as to the prospects for our eventual success. 
But we must recognize that this is only one phase 
of the struggle. 

Our military strength and our diplomatic poli- 
cies are designed to avoid a war we might other- 
wise have to fight in the future. We muse not 
overlook the fact that other policies must be de- 
signed to avoid losing the nonmilitary battle 
which has already begun and which is being 
waged in many areas of the world today. 

The Revolution of Rising Expectations 

Let us examine the battleground where this con- 
flict is taking place — in Asia, in the Near East, 
in Africa, and in parts of Latin America. A 
great revolution is taking place among the people 
in these areas of the world. What I refer to is 
not a military or political revolt but the revolu- 
tion of peoples' expectations — the assertion of all 
peoples of their claim to a greater share of this 
world's goods. 

Millions of people in these newly developing 
nations are determined to break the bonds of 
wretchedness and poverty that have enslaved them 
through the centuries. They wish to achieve in 
this very generation a decisive breakthrough in 
the struggle against misery and disease. 

They would prefer to attain these objectives 
and retain their freedom. But we must make no 
mistake about it — if they believe they are offered 
no other choice, they will choose progress even 
without freedom. 

What is their choice? On the one hand, they 



January 5, 1959 



15 



have the example of the Soviet Union and the 
Communist satellites. Here is a pattern that 
promises quick results. Thousands of leaders of 
these countries are being invited to visit the Soviet 
Union to see the very real changes accomplished 
in the 40 years since the Communist revolution. 

It is not an adequate answer to this challenge 
to cite the far higher material standards in most 
Western nations. To the newly developing na- 
tions of the world this is not the point. They are 
not particularly impressed by achievements pri- 
marily accomplished in the century of the Indus- 
trial Revolution. They are far more interested 
in what can be accomplished in the last half of 
the 20th century. 

What must be made clear and unmistakable for 
all the world to see is that free peoples can com- 
pete with and surpass totalitarian nations in pro- 
ducing economic progress. No people in the 
world today should be forced to choose between 
bread and freedom. 

To shape the world of tomorrow in a pattern 
compatible with freedom and human rights we 
must all take our part in a great offensive against 
the evils of poverty, disease, and misery. We can- 
not, for example, afford to allow the free Gov- 
ernment of India to fail in its heroic effort to 
produce economic progress and retain freedom at 
the same time. 

We need to apply in this field the same de- 
termination, willingness, and cooperation which 
enabled us to build the military strength which 
deters aggression today. 

We must not be miserly, small-minded, and 
negative in our approach to this problem. And 
while it is wrong to favor change solely because 
it is change, it is worse blindly to insist that we 
have nothing better to offer than maintaining the 
status quo. 

We must associate ourselves with the decent as- 
pirations of people everywhere for the better life 
to which they are entitled. 

Just a few weeks ago Premier Khrushchev 
promised his people a revolution in living stand- 
ards within the next 12 years. He claimed that 
the Communist system would overtake and sur- 
pass the economies of the Western World. 

We should be happy that such claims have been 
marie. We would be eager to match the Soviet 
leaders in putting less emphasis upon armies, mil- 
itary research, and the costly lethal weapons of 



modern warfare and more stress upon better hous- 
ing, food, clothing, and the other necessities for 
a good life. 

If Mr. Khrushchev wishes to consider these 
steps as a form of competition or contest, I am 
sure that all of us would be delighted to accept 
the challenge. In such a contest no one could 
really lose. The world would be infinitely better 
off if man's energies were used for the welfare 
of families rather than the building of armies. 

But our answer to the Soviet challenge should 
not stop here. We say — broaden this competition 
and include the spiritual and cultural values that 
have distinguished our civilization. 

Material achievements, while necessary, do not 
meet the deeper needs of mankind. Man needs 
the higher freedoms, freedom to know, to debate 
freely, to write and express his views. 

He needs the freedom that law and justice 
guarantee to every individual so that neither priv- 
ilege nor power may make any man subservient 
before the law. 

He wants the freedom to travel and to learn 
from other peoples and cultures. 

He wants freedom of worship. 

To us, these are the most precious aspects of 
our civilization. We would be happy if others 
were to compete in this sphere and try to surpass 
our achievements. 

The free world is too often made to appear to be 
relying on our superior military power and eco- 
nomic strength. It is not worthy of those with 
the heritage of freedom we share to appear to be 
resting our case on materialism alone. 

British Colonial Policy 

I know of no better example to illustrate the 
point I am trying to make than through an anal- 
ysis of that much-maligned institution — British 
colonialism. It is understandable in view of the 
surging rise of nationalism that we have heard 
all that is bad and little that is good about colon- 
ialism in the past few years. 

Colonialism has had its faults, but it also has 
had its virtues. I speak from some knowledge on 
this subject. I have visited 12 countries which at 
one time or another have passed through the status 
of British colonialism. 

I have known personally and admired the dedi- 
cated and effective work of your superb colonial 
administrators. You can indeed be proud of the 



16 



Department of State Bulletin 



contributions that have been made by men like 
Grantham in Hong Kong, Templer in Kuala Lum- 
pur, MacDonald in Singapore, Crawford in 
Uganda, and Arden-Clarke in Ghana. 

Let us examine some of the benefits British 
colonial policy has produced in the areas in which 
it has operated. It brought the military strength 
which provided the security from external attack. 
It brought in many areas the technical training 
which assured economic progress. But more im- 
portant than either of these, it brought the great 
ideas which provided the basis for progress in the 
future — ideas which will live on for generations 
after the nations concerned have acquired the in- 
dependent status for which an enlightened policy 
has prepared them. 

The common law, the parliament, the English 
language, freedom of speech, assembly, press, and 
religion — these are the institutions which are 
the proud legacy of the British people in lands 
throughout the world. 

And so today let us never forget that in the 
momentous struggle in which we are engaged 
our major advantage is not in the strength of our 
arms or even the productivity of our factories. 
It is in the quality and power of the great ideals 
of freedom which have inspired men through the 
ages. 

Our responsibility then is clear. Here is a cause 
worthy of the descendants of brave men and 
women who crossed boundless oceans and settled 
in every area of the globe. 

Once again we must venture forth not to seek 
unfilled lands but rather to bring encouragement, 
aid, guidance, and partnership to those peoples 
who want to live in freedom and decent prosperity. 

We come to them as friends, as brothers, in a 
shrinking world. "We do not seek to impose upon 
them our economic system or our culture. It is 
theirs to choose the path to the future. But it is 
our responsibility to see that this choice is an in- 
formed one and a free one. 

Let it never be said that because of our failure 
to present adequately the aims and ideals of free- 
dom others chose the often irreversible path of 
dictatorship. 

Let us speak less of the threat of communism 
and more of the promise of freedom. 

Let us adopt as our primary objective not the 
defeat of communism but the victory of plenty 
over want, of health over disease, of freedom over 
tyranny. 

January 5, J 959 

491598— 59 3 



With such a goal we shall give the lie to those 
who proclaim that we are witnessing the twilight 
of a dying Western civilization. Bather we shall 
see the onset of a glorious dawn of a new world 
based on the immortal ideals for which men have 
sacrificed their lives through the ages. 

In this very hall, a century and a half ago, an 
English Prime Minister gave a brief address that 
has been ranked by Lord Curzon as one of the in- 
disputable masterpieces of English eloquence. 
After the news of Nelson's glorious victory at 
Trafalgar, William Pitt was toasted as "the 
saviour of Europe." He responded in these 
words : "I return you many thanks for the honor 
you have done me. But Europe is not to be saved 
by any single man. England has saved herself 
by her exertions and will as I trust save Europe 
by her example." 

Here is a challenge worthy of the brave men 
we honored today. May we, the English-speak- 
ing peoples, proud in the heritage we share, join 
with the friends of freedom everywhere and by 
our example save the cause of peace and freedom 
for the world. 



U.S. -Canadian Joint Committee 
Discusses Economic Matters 

Press release 759 dated December 16 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 16 that the Joint United States-Canadian 
Committee on Trade and Economic Affairs, which 
meets alternately at Washington and Ottawa, will 
hold its fourth meeting at Ottawa on January 5 
and 6, 1959. 

The Committee will consider matters affecting 
the economic relations between the two countries. 
In particular the members will exchange informa- 
tion and views on matters which affect the high 
level of mutually profitable trade. 

The Secretaries of State, the Treasury, the In- 
terior, Agriculture, and Commerce will represent 
the United States. Canada will be represented 
by the Ministers of Finance, Trade and Commerce, 
and Agriculture and the Secretary of State for 
External Affairs. As in the past, the forthcoming 
meeting will provide an opportunity for these 
Cabinet-level officers of both Governments to re- 
view the general field of trade and economic rela- 

17 



tions between the United States and Canada and 
to consider how these relations may be continually 
improved. 



Industry and Government Leaders 
Discuss German Coal Problem 

Press release 756 dated December 15 

Leaders of the U.S. coal industry, including 
representatives of management, labor, and ship- 
ping, met at the Department of State on Decem- 
ber 15 at the invitation of Douglas Dillon, Under 
Secretary for Economic Affairs, to consult with 
him and with Elmer M. Bennett, Under Secretary 
of the Interior, and James T. O'Connell, Under 
Secretary of Labor, concerning the surplus coal 
problem in the Federal Eepublic of Germany. 

Mr. Dillon explained to the industry repre- 
sentatives that he had called a meeting at this 
time to inform them that the German Government 
had sent Dr. Ludgher Westrick, State Secretary 
of the German Ministry of Economics, to Wash- 
ington on December 10 to inform the U.S. Gov- 
ernment that the Federal Eepublic felt it was 
necessary to impose immediate and severe restric- 
tions on imports of coal, of which the United 
States has been a major supplier. 

Mr. Dillon told the industry representatives 
he had made it clear to Dr. Westrick that the 
United States was also confronted with a coal 
problem and that we would strongly oppose any 
action of the kind being contemplated by the 
German Government. As a result of these official 
representations, which have also been made di- 
rectly to the German Government by our Am- 
bassador at Bonn, the Federal Eepublic is 
reexamining its projected measure and is seeking 
the cooperation of the trade in order to minimize 
the impact of its proposed action. 

Consultations between representatives of the 
United States and the Federal Eepublic have been 
under way since last September, when future im- 
ports of coal under new contracts were restricted. 1 
These consultations will be continued and inten- 
sified. Appropriate agencies of the U.S. Gov- 
ernment will keep leaders of the coal industry 
informed of the progress of these discussions. 

All the representatives of the American coal 



1 Bulletin of Oct. 13, 1958, p. 578. 



industry present at the December 15 meeting made 
known to U.S. officials their unanimous objections 
to the action proposed by the Federal Eepublic. 
The industry's views will be forwarded by the 
State Department to the Federal Eepublic. 

Mr. Dillon assured the industry representatives 
that the U.S. Government is actively interested 
in maintaining and expanding the market for 
American coal abroad. 

Those present at the meeting included: C. E. 
Curtin, High Volatile Coal Exporters Associa- 
tion; C. W. Davis, Bituminous Coal Operators 
Association ; Willy Hopkins, United Mine Work- 
ers; L. D. Lara j a, American Coal Exporters As- 
sociation; John L. Lewis, United Mine Workers; 
Peter F. Masse, C. H. Sprague and Son Co.; 
W. H. Naylor, Consolidation Coal Co.; Jerome 
Powell, Southern Coal Producers Association; 
Harold J. Spear, Castner, Curran and Bullitt, 
Inc. 



Reciprocity Committee Seeks Views 
on Wool Fabrics Tariff Quota 

Press release 762 dated December 18 
DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The interdepartmental Committee for Eeci- 
procity Information announced on December 18 
that the agencies of the Government responsible 
for conducting the review of alternatives to pres- 
ent arrangements for applying the tariff on wool 
fabrics, requested by the President in March 1958, 
have reached the tentative conclusion that the 
tariff-rate quota on these fabrics for calendar year 
1959 should be continued along the general lines 
of the quota established for 1958, subject to any 
modifications which might be warranted by facts 
presented to this Committee. The Committee 
is prepared to consider any written views which 
interested parties may care to submit on this 
tentative conclusion. 

Because of the complexities of the issues in- 
volved in the review requested by the President 
and of the varied effects of existing arrangements 
on the several segments of U.S. business (includ- 
ing the pattern of imports from the various coun- 
tries), it has not yet been found possible to de- 
velop recommendations for a more permanent 
solution to the problems involved. 



18 



Department of State Bulletin 



During the j^eriod of this review there have 
been informal consultations by the various agen- 
cies with interested groups at the request of the 
latter. Should any permanent solution depart- 
ing appreciably from existing arrangements be 
proposed, it is anticipated that formal hearings 
would be held before any action would be taken 
on such a proposal. 

The tariff-rate quota is established pursuant to 
a Presidential proclamation of September 28, 
1956, as amended by a proclamation of March 7, 
1958. 1 The earlier proclamation invoked a reser- 
vation applying to tariff concessions made by the 
United States on woolen and worsted fabrics pro- 
vided for in items 1108 or 1109 (a) of part I of 
schedule XX of the General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade. This proclamation applies to most 
woolen and worsted fabrics imported into this 
country and provides that the ad valorem part of 
the duty will be increased when such imports, in 
any year, exceed an amount fixed by the President 
which he has determined to be not less than 5 
percent of average domestic production for the 3 
preceding calendar years. 

For imports entering within the tariff-rate 
quota, as established each year, the ad valorem rate 
of duty is 20 percent or 25 percent (depending on 
the nature of the fabric) and for imports in excess 
of the tariff-rate quota the ad valorem rate of duty 
is 45 percent for most imports. The 1958 amend- 
ment to the proclamation provided that the over- 
quota rate for imports of handwoven fabrics less 
than 30 inches wide and for imports of "religious" 
fabrics would be 30 percent rather than the 45 
percent applying to all other overquota imports. 

The Committee for Reciprocity Information is 
an interagency group which receives views of in- 
terested persons regarding proposed or existing 
trade agreements. The Committee, which is 
chaired by a commissioner of the U.S. Tariff 
Commission, has, as other members, representa- 
tives of the Departments of Agriculture, Com- 
merce, Defense, Interior, Labor, State, and 
Treasury, and the International Cooperation 
Administration. 

Written views should be submitted to the Com- 
mittee for Reciprocity Information by the close 
of business on January 19, 1959. All communi- 



1 Bulletin of Apr. 21, 1958, p. 671. 
January 5, 7959 



cations on this matter, in 15 copies, should be ad- 
dressed to: The Secretary, Committee for Reci- 
procity Information, Tariff Commission Building, 
Washington 25, D. C. 



NOTICE ON SUBMISSION OF VIEWS 

Committee For REciPKOcmr Information 

Wool Fabrics Tariff Quota for 1959 

Closing date for submission of written views : January 
19, 1959 

The Committee for Reciprocity Information hereby 
gives notice that it will receive written views regarding 
the tariff quota for 1959 on woolen and worsted fabrics. 
The tariff quota on woolen and worsted fabrics was es- 
tablished by proclamation of the President of September 
28, 1956, as amended (Proc. 3160, 3 C.F.R., 1956 Supp., 
p. 44, Proc. 3225, of Mar. 7, 1958, 23 F. R. 1687), under 
the note following item 1108 in Part I of Schedule XX 
annexed to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
(61 Stat. (pt. 5) A1274). This note reads as follows: 

Note : The United States reserves the right to increase 
the ad valorem part of the rate applicable to any of the 
fabrics provided for in item 1108 or 1109 (a) of this Part 
to 45 per centum ad valorem on any of such fabrics which 
are entered in any calendar year in excess of an aggre- 
gate quantity by weight of 5 per centum of the average 
annual production of similar fabrics in the United States 
during the 3 immediately preceding calendar years. 

The Government agencies responsible for conducting 
the review of alternatives to present arrangements for 
applying the tariff on wool fabrics, requested by the 
President on March 7, 1958 (XXXVIII State Dept Bui. 
672), have reached the tentative conclusion that the 
tariff quota on these fabrics for the calendar year 1959 
should be continued along the general lines of the quota 
established for 1958 (Procs. cited above and Presidential 
letter to the Secretary of the Treasury, Mar. 7, 1958, 23 
F. R. 1689). The purpose of receiving the views of 
interested parties is to assist these government agencies 
in reaching a final recommendation to the President re- 
garding the application of the tariff quota during 1959. 

All views should be submitted in writing not later 
than the close of business January 19, 1959. Such writ- 
ten statements should be addressed to "Committee for 
Reciprocity Information, Tariff Commission Building, 
Washington 25, D. C." Fifteen copies of written state- 
ments, either typed, printed or duplicated, should be sub- 
mitted, of which one copy shall be sworn to. 

Written statements submitted to the Committee, except 
information and business data proffered in confidence, 
shall be open to inspection by interested persons. In- 
formation and business data proffered in confidence shall 
be submitted on separate pages clearly marked, "For Of- 
ficial Use Only of the Committee for Reciprocity Infor- 
mation." 

All communications regarding this notice should be 



19 



addressed to the Executive Secretary, Committee for 
Reciprocity Information, Tariff Commission Building, 
Washington 25, D.C. 

By direction of the Committee for Reciprocity Infor- 
mation this 18th day of December 1958. 

Edward Yardley 
Secretary 
Committee for Reciprocity Information 



The Role of ICA Employees 
in the Conduct of Foreign Policy 

Remarks by Under Secretary Dillon a 

I am delighted to be here with you this morning 
and to take part in honoring 32 of our fellow ICA 
employees for their outstanding services. I refer 
to them advisedly as "our fellow employees." For 
I have felt that I am one of you ever since Secre- 
tary of State Dulles charged me with responsi- 
bility for coordinating mutual security matters, of 
which ICA is so important a part. 

I wish that by some miracle of transportation 
we could have with us for this important hour 
today the thousands of dedicated men and women 
who are serving ICA overseas, where I have seen 
them operating under difficult conditions and even 
under extreme hardship. For I want to tell all 
of you in ICA, whether at home or abroad, what 
a magnificent service I think you are performing 
for your country. 

I can testify that my feelings are shared by 
every official of the executive branch who plays 
a major part in the shaping and conduct of our 
foreign policy — and, I am sure, by many dis- 
tinguished Members of the Congress as well. 
This is especially true of Secretary Dulles, who 
has asked me to give you his warmest personal 
greetings and to remind you of something he said 
in this same room at the first ICA All-Employees 
Meeting a little over a year ago. At that time, 
you may recall, he told you : 

You do not have the job security of other Government 
positions, or the remuneration which you could obtain 
in private life. What keeps you on the job is patriotism 
and loyalty to your country. Such patriotism is usual 
in times of war, but especially exceptional and laudable 
in times of peace. 

What the Secretary said is as profoundly true 



'Made before the All-Employees Meeting of the Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration at Washington, D.C, 
on Dec. 10 ( press release 744) . 



today as it was a year ago. Nothing I could say 
would add to his tribute. 

After the Congress reconvenes in January there 
will be honorable men on both sides of the aisle 
who will want to take a hard look at our entire 
foreign aid program. It is my hope that they 
will examine it vigorously, but unemotionally and 
without undue partisanship. I personally ap- 
plaud such a full and frank discussion. For we 
are constantly seeking ways to streamline and re- 
vitalize our programs, to increase their breadth 
and flexibility, and to enlarge our objectives. 

As you know, we are now preparing to present 
our next budget requests to Congress. In draft- 
ing our requests we have constantly borne in mind 
our overriding responsibility to the American 
people to insure that every cent of their tax money 
will be expended with scrupulous care and maxi- 
mum efficiency. I am confident that, when the 
proper time comes, we can, and shall, justify our 
requests. For the cost of our foreign aid pro- 
grams represents only a modest portion of our 
national product. And every penny spent on 
foreign aid is an investment in free- world security. 

I should now like to touch upon a point which 
must disturb you as much as it disturbs me. This 
is the fact that too many of our people are coming 
to think of our mutual security and other assist- 
ance programs solely as instruments of the cold 
war and answers to the massive economic drive the 
Soviet bloc is directing against the underde- 
veloped nations of Asia, Africa, the Middle East, 
and Latin America. 

Actually, as you well know, we have been in 
the foreign aid business a long time. Our pro- 
grams began in Latin America 15 years ago and 
were made worldwide 8 years ago. We are the 
defending champions in this field. The Com- 
munist bloc's technical-aid offensive, which began 
only 4 years ago, is a response to your efforts and 
a tribute to your many successes. 

The reasons behind the Communist bloc's offen- 
sive are readily apparent: The Communist 
leaders are aware that a great, cooperative free- 
world effort to improve economic conditions in the 
underdeveloped areas will erect the most power- 
ful possible barrier to the spread of communism. 
Rest assured that they will do everything to dis- 
credit you and the country you represent. 

We can triumph over the Communists by help- 
ing the peoples of the underdeveloped nations to 
help themselves. But in the extension of our as- 



20 



Department of State Bulletin 



sistance we must use discretion and forbearance 
and demonstrate true statesmanship. 

In this connection I was struck by a remark 
made the other day in New York by Carlos P. 
Eomulo, Philippine Ambassador to this country, 
who said : 

A way of life determined by a specific set of political 
or economic doctrines has no meaning as such to Asian 
peoples. The struggle which interests them is rather the 
constant and bitter struggle for life itself, the struggle 
against hunger, poverty, disease and ignorance. 

What he meant, I believe, is that in the ideologi- 
cal struggle between communism and the West 
most of the peoples of the newly emerging nations 
are uncommitted — so far. They need our assist- 
ance. But they are jealous of their new-found 
independence. They will be reluctant to accept 
the idea that either the Communist or the free- 
world way provides a desirable blueprint for the 
good life until they have seen concrete results close 
at hand. The challenge to us to help them to 
achieve progress under freedom is clear. 

The manner in which we extend our assistance 
can have a very great bearing upon the path they 
ultimately choose. We must offer aid in an unob- 
trusive way, working discreetly in the background. 
We are so accustomed to self-rule that we some- 
times fail to realize how truly staggering a burden 
is the exercise of political responsibility for the 
first time. 

I should now like to say a word regarding the 
role which each and every ICA employee must 
play in the conduct of our foreign policy. 

Yours is a responsibility which rests squarely 
upon the shoulders of each individual, whether 
here or 10,000 miles away. It is, in part, a re- 
sponsibility to help create a better understanding 
of our objectives at home and abroad. Each of 
you must also play an explicit and conscious role 
in the actual conduct of our foreign relations. To 
do so will require maturity, tolerance, and a wid- 
ening appreciation of the complexities of our re- 
lations with other peoples. Let me urge you 
never to lose sight of the idealism in which our 
foreign aid program was born. For in the final 
analysis the success of our efforts will be measured 
as much in terms of reaching the minds and hearts 
of the peoples of the less developed nations as in 
helping them to achieve material progress. It is 
a difficult role, but it can be as rewarding as it is 
challenging. I have every confidence that you 
will prove equal to it. 



ICA and Voluntary Agencies 
Aid Needy in 35 Countries 

The Department of State on December 19 (press 
release 766) announced that 24 American volun- 
tary nonprofit agencies moved $128,769,930 worth 
of relief and rehabilitation supplies to needy 
persons in 35 foreign countries during the last 
fiscal year. The International Cooperation Ad- 
ministration participated in this program by bear- 
ing the cost of ocean-freight charges totaling 
$25,886,734, according to figures disclosed in the 
annual report of ICA's Advisory Committee on 
Voluntary Foreign Aid released on December 19. 

The relief supplies are collected by the volun- 
tary agencies and represent free donations of the 
American people. In addition, surplus food 
commodities are made available to the agencies 
from Government-owned stocks, under authority 
of title III, Public Law 480 (Agricultural Trade 
Development and Assistance Act). This law 
provides authority for the Commodity Credit 
Corporation to make available Government-owned 
surplus food commodities for distribution to 
needy persons abroad after requirements at home 
have been met, including the school-lunch program 
and public- welfare distribution. 

Authority for the ocean-freight program was 
first provided in the Economic Cooperation Act 
of 1948. It has been renewed each year by pro- 
visions contained in successive Mutual Security 
Acts. Beginning in 1957, funds to cover ocean 
freight on title III commodities have been ob- 
tained by ICA under P.L. 480. Foreign nations 
receiving shipments from U.S. voluntary relief 
agencies exempt them from import duties and 
pay all inland transportation and other charges 
from dockside to distribution points. 

Shipments of food, clothing, medicine, and other 
relief supplies made during the last fiscal year 
reached a total volume of 691,973 tons. 

Private donations through agencies amounted 
to 32,909 tons of the combined shipments and 
represented $1.5 million of ocean-freight charges 
paid. Government-contributed surplus foods 
totaled 659,064 tons, on which ocean-freight 
charges equaled $24.36 million. 

The number of recipient countries has increased 
from 10 in 1953 to 35 in 1958, while the total 
quantity of annual shipments rose from 46,524 
tons in 1953 to 691,973 in 1958. 



January 5, 7959 



21 



DLF Loan To Help Ecuador 
Complete Pan American Highway 

Press release 755 dated December 15 

The U.S. Development Loan Fund announced 
on December 15 the authorization of a $4.7 mil- 
lion loan to assist the Government of Ecuador in 
completing the last remaining unfinished section 
of the Pan American Highway in Ecuador. Jose 
R. Chiriboga, the Ambassador of Ecuador, was 
informed of the action in a letter from Dempster 
Mcintosh, Managing Director of the DLF. 

The U.S. funds will be used by Ecuador to 
complete construction work on a 125-mile (205- 
kilometer) stretch of the Pan American Highway 
from Loja to Macara in southern Ecuador. When 
this link of the Pan American Highway is opened, 
it will permit not only unbroken automobile travel 



from Ecuador to Peru for the first time but also 
from Caracas in Venezuela to Buenos Aires, thus 
Unking virtually all countries in South America 
by highway. In addition, completion of the 
southern Ecuadoran link will open the Loja Prov- 
ince of Ecuador to commerce and further devel- 
opment. 

The Pan American Highway has been under 
construction for a number of years to provide an 
unhampered motor highway connecting all the 
countries of both North America and South 
America. Now mostly completed, there are other 
short sections still remaining to be completed in 
Guatemala and Panama. 

The DLF loan to Ecuador will be repayable 
over a period of 20 years, one-half in sucres, 
Ecuadoran currency, and one-half in dollars, at 
an interest rate of 3y 2 percent annually. 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings 1 



Adjourned During December 1958 

U.N. General Assembly: 13th Session 

UNESCO General Conference: 10th Session 

Technical Discussions on the Problem of Surprise Attack . . 

ICAO Panel on Vertical Separation of Aircraft 

ICAO Statistics Division: 3d Session 

International Conference of Social Work (and associated con- 
ferences) : 9th Session. 

Caribbean Commission: 27th Meeting 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Coordination of Transport . 

Inter- American Child Institute: Directing Council 

WMO Regional Association IV (North and Central America): 
2d Session. 

FAO/WHO Technical Meeting on Food Additives 

ICAO Map Panel: 2d Meeting 

U.N. ECAFE Symposium on the Development of Petroleum 
Resources in Asia and the Far East. 

FAO Indo- Pacific Fisheries Council: 8th Meeting 

UNESCO Executive Board: 53d Session 



New York Sept. 16-Dec. 13 

(recessed) 

Paris Nov. 4-Dec. 5 

Geneva Nov. 10-Dec. 18 

Montreal Nov. 17-Dec. 1 

Montreal Nov. 18-Dec. 8 

Tokyo Nov. 23-Dec. 6 

Trinidad Nov. 24-Dec. 1 

Bangkok Nov. 25-Dec. 2 

Montevideo Dec. 1-5 

Washington Dec. 1-6 



Rome . . 
Montreal . 
New Delhi 



Dec. 1-8 
Dec. 1-19 
Dec. 3-16 



Colombo Dec. 5-22 

Paris Dec. 6 (1 day) 



1 Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, Dec. 18, 1958. Asterisks indicate tentative dates. Following is 
a list of abbreviations: CCEP, Commission Consultative des Etudes Postales; ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia 
and the Far East; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe; ECLA, Economic Commission for Latin America; ECOSOC, 
Economic and Social Council; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade; IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency; IA-ECOSOC, Inter-American Economic and Social Council; ICAO, 
International Civil Aviation Organization; ICEM, Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration; ILO, Inter- 
national Labor Organization; IMCO, Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization; ITU, International Tele- 
communication Union; NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization; U.N., United Nations; UNESCO, United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund; UPU, Universal Postal 
Union; WHO, World Health Organization; WMO, World Meteorological Organization. 



22 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



U.N. ECE Steel Committee and Working Parties Geneva Dec. 8-12 

North Pacific Fur Seal Commission: 2d Meeting Washington Dec. 8-13 

ILO Technical Tripartite Committee on Timber Industry . . Geneva Dec. 8-19 

U.N. ECAFE Conference of Asian Statisticians: 2d Session . Bangkok Dec. 8-19 

7th Inter-American Travel Congress Montevideo Dec. 9-19 

U.N. ECOSOC: 26th Session (resumed) New York Dec. 10-11 

FAO Regional Conference for the Near East Damascus Dec. 10-20 

U.N. ECE Coal Trade Subcommittee (and related meetings). Geneva Dec. 15-18 

U.N. ECE Inland Transport Committee: 18th Session . . . . Geneva Dec. 15-19 

NATO Council: 22d Ministerial Session Paris Dec. 16-18 

In Session as of December 31, 1958 

Political Discussions on Suspension of Nuclear Tests Geneva Oct. 31- 

U.N. Economic Commission for Africa: 1st Session Addis Ababa Dec. 29- 

Scheduled January 1 Through March 31, 1959 

IMCO Preparatory Committee: 4th Session London Jan. 5- 

U.N. Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and New York. Jan. 5- 

Protection of Minorities: 11th Session. 

IMCO Assembly: 1st Session London Jan. 6- 

IMCO Council: 1st Session London Jan. 6- 

IMCO Provisional Maritime Safety Committee: 1st Session . London Jan. 6- 

ICAO Middle East-Southeast Asia Regional Air Navigation Rome Jan. 7- 

Meeting. 

IAEA Board of Governors: 10th Session Vienna Jan. 7- 

5th Pan American Consultation on Geography Quito Jan. 7- 

U.N. ECAFE Committee on Trade: Intraregional Trade Pro- Bangkok Jan. 8- 

motion Talks. 

ICAO: 2d Special Meeting on North Atlantic Fixed Services . Paris Jan. 12- 

WHO Standing Committee on Administration and Finance . Geneva Jan. 13- 

4th Pan American Consultation on History Cuenca, Ecuador. Jan. 19- 

WHO Executive Board: 23d Session Geneva Jan. 20- 

U.N. ECAFE Committee on Trade: 2d Session Bangkok Jan. 23- 

Executive Committee of the Program of the U.N. High Com- Geneva Jan. 26- 

missioner for Refugees: 1st Session. 

U.N. Wheat Conference: Negotiating Meeting Geneva Jan. 26- 

International Rubber Study Group: Management Committee . London Jan. 29- 

Baghdad Pact: 6th Meeting of the Ministerial Council . . . undetermined January or February 

U.N. ECAFE Committee on Industry and Natural Resources: Bangkok Feb. 4- 

11th Session. 

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission : Annual Meeting . San Pedro, Calif Feb. 6- 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 23d Session New York Feb. 7- 

L.N. Population Commission: 10th Session Geneva Feb. 9- 

ICAO: Special Meeting on Short- Range Navigational Aids . . Montreal Feb. 10- 

South Pacific Commission: Rhinoceros Beetle Technical Ad- Suva, Fiji Feb. 16- 

visory Committee. 

U.N. General Assembly: 13th Session (resumed) New York Feb. 20- 

ILO Governing Body: 141st Session (and committees) .... Geneva Feb. 23- 

International Bureau of Education : Executive Committee . . Geneva February 

Inter-American Conference of Directors of Tourism, Immigra- San Salvador February 

tion, and Customs. 

UNICEF Executive Board and Program Committee .... New York Mar. 2- 

3d European Civil Aviation Conference Strasbourg Mar. 9- 

UPUCCEP Administrative Council: 2d Meeting The Hague Mar. 9- 

U.N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: 15th Broadbeach, Queensland, Aus- Mar. 9- 

Session. tralia. 

U.N. Commission on the Status of Women: 13th Session . . . New York Mar. 9- 

ILO Asian Advisory Committee: 9th Session Geneva Mar. 16- 

ILO Committee on Forced Labor Geneva Mar. 16- 

U.N. Commission on Human Rights: 15th Session New York Mar. 16- 

U.N. ECE Ad Hoc Working Party on Gas Problems: 5th Geneva Mar. 25- 

Session. 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Telecommunications .... Tokyo Mar. 30- 

ICAO Panel for Coordinating Procedures Respecting the Supply Montreal March 

of Information for Air Operations. 

Caribbean Commission: 28th Meeting undetermined March* 

FAO Cocoa Study Group : Executive Committee Rome March 

FAO/ECAFE Technical Meeting on Agricultural Marketing . undetermined March 

IA-ECOSOC Permanent Technical Committee on Ports: 2d Montevideo March 

Meeting. 

IAEA Board of Governors: 11th Session Vienna March or April 



January 5, 7959 23 



United Nations Establishes Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 



Following are statements made during the de- 
bate on peaceful uses of outer space in Committee 
I (Political and Security) on November 21/. and in 
plenary session on December 13 by Henry Cabot 
Lodge, U. S. Representative to the General Assem- 
bly, together with the text of a resolution adopted 
in plenary on December 13. 1 



FIRST STATEMENT IN COMMITTEE I, NOVEM- 
BER 24 

U.S. delegation press release 3087 

Last week the United States delegation, on be- 
half of the 20 cosponsors of A/220, entered into 
rather prolonged discussions with the distin- 
guished representative of the Soviet Union to try 
to bring about an agreement on what the United 
Nations should do to develop the peaceful uses of 
outer space. 

We were encouraged in this by the fact that the 
Soviet Union had responded favorably to the in- 
terest which other members of the committee had 
shown in giving the United Nations an important 
role in outer-space exploration. 

The cosponsors were therefore willing to incor- 
porate in a new draft those elements of the Soviet 
text which were compatible with the original con- 
cept. The United States talked to the Soviet 
Union with this as its objective. We believe that 
the revised draft 2 does, in fact, include the most 
important elements suggested by the Soviet Union. 

To begin with, the seventh and eighth preambu- 
lar paragraphs of the revised text were actually 
taken from the Soviet draft resolution. 3 

More significant is another new paragraph in the 
preamble — the next to the last paragraph. This 
paragraph explicitly states that an important con- 



1 For earlier statements made in Committee I by Am- 
bassador Lodge and Senator Lyndon Johnson, see Bulle- 
tin of Dec. 15, 1958, p. 972. 

3 U.N. doc. A/C.l/L. 220/Rev. L 

■ U.N. doc. A/C.l/L. 219/Rev. 1. 



tribution can be made by establishing an interna- 
tional body for the study of outer space within 
the framework of the United Nations. We believe 
this paragraph incorporates the major concept of 
the Soviet draft, by stating directly what the pre- 
vious 20-power draft only implied. We were glad 
to make this change. We think it improves the 
resolution. 

We have also included from the key operative 
paragraph of the Soviet draft all of the functions 
which it proposed that any United Nations body 
on outer space should have. These are now listed 
under paragraph 1 (b) of the revised resolution 
as proposals to be taken into consideration by 
the ad hoc committee. Other proposals have also 
been made, and the revised draft provides for their 
consideration as well. 

I think one can say in all candor, Mr. Chair- 
man, that the substance of the resolution as now 
revised takes into account the various views which 
have been advanced and especially those of the 
Soviet Union, and we very much hope that the 
resolution will receive the unanimous support of 
the committee. 

Question of Composition of Committee 

Mr. Chairman, I am sorry to have to inform 
the committee, however, that in spite of the 
prolonged consultations between the Soviet Union 
and the United States no final agreement was 
reached because of the failure to agree on the 
composition of the ad hoc committee. 

I should like to summarize the reasons why 
we were unable to reach agreement with the Soviet 
delegation on the composition of the committee. 
In brief, it came about because the United States 
and the Soviet Union work from entirely different 
premises about the nature of relations between 
states, the structure of the United Nations, and 
the nature of the world. 

In our discussions with the Soviet Union the 



24 



Department of State Bulletin 



United States continued to work on the basis of 
the principles which I stated in the committee 
on November 13 : that is, that the members of the 
ad hoc committee should be chosen from states 
who have already demonstrated capabilities or an 
active interest in the peaceful uses of outer space. 
That is the first criterion. The second was that 
the composition should also be representative of 
the General Assembly. Now, these were our two 
criteria in making up the composition of the ad 
hoc committee. 

I suggested two possible types of composition 
to the Soviet Union in line with these principles, 
without specifying countries other than, of course, 
the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the 
United States, and France. In both of them the 
Soviet group was granted a share of seats — 1 out 
of 9 in the first slate, 2 out of 13 in the second — 
which was either on a par with or superior to 
their ratio of seats in the General Assembly. 

The Soviet representative, however, did not 
work from the two criteria which actuated us, that 
is, that of capability and interest in outer space 
and of being representative of the membership of 
the United Nations. Mr. Zorin continued to advo- 
cate the principle proposed in the Soviet draft 
resolution : that is, a slate composed of 4 countries 
from the Soviet group, 4 countries which he con- 
sidered to be "Western," and 3 which he considered 
to be "neutral." I use those words "Western" and 
"neutral" in quotation marks. His maximum 
concession was to say he woidd permit the addi- 
tion of one Latin American country, while reserv- 
ing the right to accept or reject the specific coun- 
try. In insisting upon his formula, the Soviet 
representative argued that the committee must 
meet the Soviet principle that there should be 
equality of representation between what he called 
the "two sides." 

"Two Sides" Idea Not Accepted by U.S. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, this "two sides" idea is 
similar to the one that the Soviet Union unsuc- 
cessfully tried to persuade the General Assembly 
to adopt last year for the Disarmament Commis- 
sion. It is a concept which the United States can- 
not accept. It is applicable neither to any other 
United Nations activity nor to any outer-space 
committee. 

There are no "two sides" to outer space. There 
are not, and never have been, "two sides" in the 



United Nations. There is one group of members 
which always votes alike, on the one hand, and 
then there are over 70 others which make up their 
minds on the basis of national independence. We 
do not therefore accept the idea of "two sides" — 
and, frankly, we don't understand it. 

The United Nations has never appointed any 
committee based on the idea of two sides. We 
think this is neither the time nor the place to be- 
gin. We must not fasten the "satellization" meth- 
od used by the Communist bloc onto the rest of the 
world. Frankly, Mr. Chairman, the United 
States could not name four nations of which it 
could predict with absolute certainty that they 
would always vote with us. We just could not do 
it. And we are glad that this is the case and 
that the world is still free. 

But not only did the Soviet representative in- 
sist on this so-called "principle" but he also de- 
manded the right to accept or reject every possible 
member of the committee as a requirement for 
Soviet cooperation. In other words, he insisted 
on the right not only to negotiate on an equitable 
geographical distribution but to decide that this 
or that United Nations member from Latin Amer- 
ica, this or that United Nations member from the 
Commonwealth, this or that United Nations mem- 
ber from Western Europe, this or that United 
Nations member from Asia, or this or that United 
Nations member from Africa, could or could not 
serve on the ad hoc committee. In fact, he ac- 
tually named some whom he would not accept. 

The United States could not be a party to such 
an undemocratic and, I think, arbitrary proce- 
dure. To use a French phrase : "Ce ne serait pas 
dans nos habitudes" — it would be contrary to our 
whole way of doing things and of operating here 
in the United Nations. We put forth no such 
demands of our own. We confined ourselves to 
a discussion of the general composition of the 
committee by regions and by well-recognized cate- 
gories which have been accepted here ever since 
the beginning of the United Nations. 

Mr. Chairman, the United States will not 
knowingly jeopardize the sovereign equality of 
member states and thereby the effectiveness of the 
United Nations. 

Revision of Proposal on Committee Membership 

Having started from such divergent points 
of view, the United States and the Soviet Union 



January 5, 1959 



25 



■were not able to agree. The 20 cosponsors there- 
fore consulted again on Friday afternoon [No- 
vember 21]. After careful thought we decided 
that the proper course was to make the changes 
in the resolution which is before you and to put 
forward a recommended slate which could com- 
mand wide support and which would be consistent 
with the principles which we had adopted. 

After consultations with other United Nations 
members the 20 cosponsors therefore decided to 
propose the membership of 18 contained in the 
revised draft resolution : Argentina, Australia, 
Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, 
India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Poland, Swe- 
den, the Soviet Union, the United Arab Republic, 
the United Kingdom, and the United States of 
America. 

This includes the nations most advanced in 
outer-space technology, as they are listed by the 
International Conference of Scientific Unions, 
and it also reflects the membership of the General 
Assembly, which are the two criteria that we have 
always tried to meet. We consider it to be a 
well-balanced and a competent group which can 
effectively contribute to the study it will be asked 
to undertake. The composition is similar to that 
of the Radiation Committee and of the Prepara- 
tory Commission of the International Atomic 
Energy Agency. It is as large as it should be — 
perhaps it is already too large— for maximum ef- 
ficiency. It gives the Soviet group, with three 
seats, a greater share than that group holds in 
the General Assembly. In fact, it includes other 
nations specifically mentioned by the Soviet 
Union. The cosponsors have made every effort, 
in consultation with others, to produce an equi- 
table and competent membership. In addition, as 
I have said before, the substantive terms of the 
resolution, I think, meet the Soviet point of view 
in every essential feature. We urge, therefore, 
that this resolution be adopted without alteration. 

Mr. Chairman, in spite of the disappointment 
which we have had, we hope that the Soviet 
Union will decide to cooperate in this new com- 
mittee. We hope so because not only has it got 
much to contribute; it can make a contribution 
that is absolutely unique — and I am glad to admit 
that here because it is obviously true. 

But, if the Soviet Union does not take part in 
the work of this committee, I do not think that 
that is a reason for the United Nations to waver 



or to falter. While the Soviet contribution would 
be uniquely valuable — and I stress that — we of 
the rest of the world can still do useful work to- 
gether. The time to start United Nations activ- 
ities in the field of outer space is now, and no 
nation, no matter how powerful, should be allowed 
to dictate the terms on which the United Nations 
should act or to prevent it from acting. 

The time has come, I think, for this issue to be 
decided, and we urge the committee to proceed 
to vote as soon as possible. 



SECOND STATEMENT IN COMMITTEE I 

U.S. delegation press release 3088 

Mr. Zorin states that the United States broke 
off the discussions which took place last week be- 
tween the United States and the Soviet Union. 
To me the fact is that Mr. Zorin himself said that 
there was no purpose in discussing the terms of 
the resolution if there were not agreement on the 
composition of the ad hoc committee. Then Mr. 
Zorin refused to agree to any composition which 
did not include four members of what we call here 
the Soviet bloc. He also insisted on a veto, or in- 
sisted that he be given the chance to express his 
approval or disapproval over other countries sug- 
gested for the committee. In the course of a 
1-hour meeting, which lasted from 12 o'clock to 
1 o'clock, in which I brought the matter up several 
times, he would not move from either of these posi- 
tions. And I thought it was recognized by him, 
as well as by me, that our efforts to arrive at agree- 
ment had come to an end. 

At this juncture the United States delegation 
consulted with the cosponsors, and it was this 
group which then made further changes in the 20- 
power resolution to incorporate additional points 
from the Soviet draft. The group also enlarged 
the composition of the ad hoc committee slate in 
order to show as much reasonableness as we could 
on that issue as well. 

That is the resolution which is now before the 
committee. We gave the text of it to the Soviet 
delegation Friday evening [November 21], just 
as we gave the text of our original resolution to 
Mr. Zorin just before we first put it in. Then, a 
day later, the Soviet representative introduced his 
resolution. 

Mr. Zorin asked me why did I pick the list of 
nations which is in the 20-power resolution. The 



26 



Department of State Bulletin 



answer can be very simply and quickly given. It 
is that I did not pick them. I am not the leader 
of a group of satellites. I do not pick anybody. 
This list was selected in an extremely democratic 
and rather vociferous meeting of sponsors and was 
the subject of debate and the result of open dis- 
cussion. The resolution was then introduced by 
the sponsors, and anything I may have done was 
merely as the agent of the sponsors. 

Mr. Chairman, nobody is more anxious than I 
am to get an agreed position. As I said today, 
having the Soviet Union in this committee means 
that a uniquely valuable contribution can be made. 
There is no doubt about that. I did consult over 
the weekend with people who were in a position 
to know and who tell me that even without the 
Soviet Union there is useful work which can be 
done. But that does not change the fact that, if 
the Soviet Union were a member, it would greatly 
increase the value of this undertaking. 

The Soviet Viewpoint 

I have left no stone unturned to try to ascertain 
in sharp focus just exactly what is the Soviet view- 
point. I did so not only last week but as late as 
early this afternoon. I was talking with the 
Soviet delegation. And from these talks today it 
is clear to me that the Soviet Union still insists on 
having four members of the Soviet bloc — that is, 
the Soviet Union and three of the bloc. It is clear 
to me that the Soviet Union is still opposed to hav- 
ing Australia and Belgium on the committee ; that 
it is still opposed to having any Latin American 
country on the committee with which it has no 
diplomatic relations ; and it is clear to me that not 
only do they wish to have four members of the 
Soviet bloc but they wish to have that and reduce 
the total size of the committee as well. I think 
I understand that accurately. 

These are all positions which, to the best of my 
knowledge, are unacceptable to a great majority 
of the sponsors of this resolution. I have tried 
very hard to find out what they think. In the 
speech Mr. Zorin has just made he has said nothing 
which in any way disproves or denies what I have 
just said. 

Under these circumstances it is clear to me that 
it would do more harm than good to put the United 
States and the Soviet Union together in one room 
to try to work something out. I grant that the 
resolution which has been introduced by Burma, 



India, and the United Arab Republic has a certain 
superficial appeal. 4 I know that the authors of it 
are all profoundly sincere and are putting this in 
with the very best of motives. But I think when 
we have had prolonged private talks and when 
certain facts have emerged as being unchangeable 
positions — and I am not passing judgment now 
on the relative merits of the two positions — but 
when it has emerged that these unchangeable posi- 
tions do exist, then I think clearly it does more 
harm than good to try to compel further conversa- 
tions. To do so might very well defeat its own 
purpose and aggravate tension rather than allay- 
ing it. 

I also do not think that it is for the Soviet Union 
and the United States to determine what it is that 
the committee should vote for. I do not think this 
is that kind of a body. It seems to me that that is 
the type of thing that the committee ought to de- 
cide. I really believe that the philosophy behind 
this resolution is not completely logical and sound. 

The Revised 20-Power Resolution 

We think that our resolution is conciliatory and 
that it meets the Soviet position more than half- 
way. Let me tell you why we think that. 

The Soviet Union asked for four members of the 
Soviet group. Our resolution provides three. The 
Soviet Union specified Sweden as a member. 
Sweden is a member in our resolution. The Soviet 
Union specified Argentina. Argentina is a mem- 
ber. The Soviet Union specified Mexico. Mexico 
is a member. These are in addition to the points 
of substance which are practically all covered in 
our resolution. 

I would like to say, Mr. Chairman, that to pass 
this resolution is not the last word. It is not an 
irrevocable closing of the door at all. It is another 
doorway through which we can go. It opens the 
way toward further deliberations. It is the best 
way, I think, for us to make progress at this time. 

At the end of this morning's meeting, Mr. Zorin 
asked for clarification regarding the 20-power 
draft resolution. He asked whether the appro- 
priate international body referred to in the next 
to the last paragraph of the preamble is the same 



'The three-power draft resolution (U.N. doc. A/C.l/L. 
224/Rev. 1) requested the U.S. and U.S.S.R. "to consider 
this matter and to report to this committee of the General 
Assembly on an urgent basis on an agreed and practical 
approach to this problem." 



January 5, J 959 



27 



as or different from the ad hoc committee provided 
for in the first operative paragraph of the resolu- 
tion. I would like to comment on the meaning of 
the revised 20-power resolution so as to remove 
any possible doubt on this point. 

The two bodies are not the same. The ad hoc 
committee which the resolution would establish is 
charged with making a study of international re- 
sources, activities, and problems in the field of the 
peaceful uses of outer space. It is also charged 
with making recommendations to the General As- 
sembly on a future organization within the frame- 
work of the United Nations to facilitate inter- 
national cooperation. In making these recom- 
mendations the ad hoc committee will have to 
consider the form which such arrangements should 
take, including the composition and structure of a 
continuing international body. Until the study by 
the ad hoc committee is completed, it will be im- 
possible to know what form such a body should 
have. The selection of an ad hoc study committee 
now does not in any way prejudge the composition 
and the structure of a continuing United Nations 
body to deal with outer space. 

THIRD STATEMENT IN COMMITTEE I 

U.S. delegation press release 3089 

Let me just state the position of the United 
States on this three-power resolution. 

We intend to vote against it because we are 
convinced, from all the many conversations which 
we have had with the Soviet delegation, that they 
still insist on having four members of the Soviet 
group on the ad hoc committee and that they 
wanted the ad hoc committee to be smaller than 
it is. We are convinced that they object to Aus- 
tralia being on it, to Belgium being on, and to 
any Lathi American being on it with whom they 
do not have diplomatic relations. We have that 
impression from conversations which are as re- 
cent as today. 

Obviously, under those circumstances, you tend 
to make matters worse if you compel people to 
talk when the positions are as rigid as that. 5 

I said that the 20-power resolution was not the 
last word. Of course it is not the last word. The 



"The three-power draft resolution was rejected in 
Committee I on Nov. 24 by a vote of 25 to 14 with 42 
abstentions. 



best tiling to do to advance this whole subject is 
to press the 20-power resolution. That opens a 
new door. It opens a door to action, to study, to 
fruitful endeavor. It is a mucli more promising 
avenue for us to follow than to spend any more 
of the valuable time of the First Committee in a 
sterile discussion as to what nations should or 
should not be members of the ad hoc committee. 
Believe me, Mr. Chairman, we have been over 
that very thoroughly as recently as a few hours 
ago. There isn't any give at all in the Soviet 
position on the matters that I have just stated. 

[In a further intervention, Mr. Lodge said :] 

Mr. Zorin seems somewhat agitated at the fact 
that I assumed that, when a member of the Soviet 
delegation says something in a conversation, it is 
the same thing as what he would say in a nego- 
tiation. It seems to me that it is a reasonable 
thing to assume. When a member of this com- 
mittee asks me a question in a hotel dining room, 
or in the delegates lounge, or in the corridor, or 
here, he always gets the same answer out of me. 
I do not have one answer that I give in a con- 
versation and another answer that I give in a 
negotiation. Our policy is the same to everybody 
and all the time. 

I think I was perfectly justified in assuming, 
after I asked this question about Soviet insist- 
ence on having four members of the ad hoc com- 
mittee and having received the reply, that, yes, 
they still did insist on that — I think I was justi- 
fied in concluding that they still insist on it. I 
must say I listened very carefully to everything 
Mr. Zorin said. There was not a single inkling 
or indication that he was willing to give up his 
claim to have the Soviet Union and three members 
of the Soviet bloc on the ad hoc committee. It 
certainly would be very easy for him to say it if 
he intended to say it. 

Mr. Chairman, it is we who have gone more 
than halfway to meet the Soviet Union. They 
wanted to have four votes; we offered three. 
That is not a bad arrangement from the Soviet 
viewpoint. They specifically mentioned Sweden ; 
Sweden is on. They specifically mentioned Ar- 
gentina ; Argentina is on. They specifically men- 
tioned Mexico; Mexico is on. 

I think we have shown good faith and a reason- 
able attitude. When I got told just a few hours 
ago that they still insist on four members and 



28 



Department of State Bulletin 



they want to reduce the size of the ad hoc com- 
mittee, I think I am justified in believing that 
that is the Soviet position, particularly when Mr. 
Zorin does not say anything to deny it. 



FOURTH STATEMENT IN COMMITTEE I 

U.S. delegation press release 3090 

I need scarcely say that the United States is not 
foisting its will upon anybody. 

Mr. Zorin cannot understand free relationships 
between equals. He sees the world in terms of 
master and servant. Nothing that I can say or 
that anybody can say here can cause him to depart 
from that way of looking at life. Everybody is 
free to vote any way they want to, as far as the 
United States is concerned. 

Also I rather think that if a Soviet resolution 
were to receive a good, big vote of 50 to 9, for ex- 
ample, the Soviet Union would think that was all 
right. I just think that. I do not believe they 
would complain one little bit. I do not think you 
would hear them here talking about their foisting 
their will upon anybody. It just depends on 
whose ox is gored. 

Four times this afternoon I provided a very 
definite opportunity for the Soviet representative 
to show whether there was any give at all in his 
position concerning the composition of the ad hoc 
committee. I brought up various points. I 
won't tire the committee with repeating them be- 
cause I did it four separate times. While there 
were all kinds of denunciations about how awful 
I was, and that was done in many different ways, 
never was there any sign of any flexibility at all 
in the Soviet position. We have gone more than 
halfway to meet that position. So if this thing 
breaks down, it is the fault of the Soviet Union 
and not that of the United States. 



FIRST STATEMENT IN PLENARY, DECEMBER 13 

U.S. delegation press release 3139 

Mr. President, I think it is rather a pity that 
this General Assembly has been characterized 
more prominently than in any other way by the 
attempt of the Soviet Union to make every single 
subject in the General Assembly a source of ri- 
valry between the United States and the Soviet 
Union, leaving everyone else out. 

We believe in the small countries. We believe 



in having a big General Assembly, where every 
country has one vote. We can never fall in with 
this Soviet plan to divide the world into two 
power blocs, where there is just the Soviet Union 
and the United States that do the talking. I re- 
gret that Mr. Sobolev's speech was very much in 
line with that way of thinking. 

In his speech he raised the question of disar- 
mament to the use of outer space, and he referred 
to military bases which are, of course, totally un- 
related to this question. But, as he has raised it, 
let me say this to him. Whenever the Soviet 
Union wishes to talk about realistic measures to 
ban the use of outer space for military purposes, 
the United States is ready. 

We were the first to seek such an agreement. 
For 2 years we have repeated our offer to nego- 
tiate, most recently on two occasions in the First 
Committee. 6 Unfortunately the Soviet Union 
has failed ever to respond to our offers. The 
United States would like nothing better than to 
make real progress in this important field. 

Effort To Meet Soviet Position 

Let me say, too, that the sponsors of the outer- 
space resolution adopted the salient features of 
the Soviet resolution. We took those ideas over 
and put them in and adopted them as an example 
of our good will and our desire for harmony. 

The sponsors of this resolution made a number 
of offers which, I think, can be characterized as 
generous as regards the membership on the pro- 
posed committee. I think the sponsors sought to 
meet the Soviet Union more than halfway. 

But when we tried to do this, the answer that we 
got from Mr. Zorin was to eliminate from the pro- 
posed committee six countries, all of which have 
a big part to play in outer space. And I do not 
know why I should not give you the list of the 
names of the countries which Mr. Zorin wanted 
to eliminate from the proposed committee: Italy, 
Belgium, Japan, Brazil, Iran, and Australia, all 
of them countries with a contribution to make. 
He insisted that they all be dropped out. 

We even offered to add Rumania. We thought 
that might make the proposed ad hoc committee 
more attractive to him if we added Rumania. 
But Mr. Zorin said "No." 



* For a statement by Ambassador Lodge on Oct. 10, see 
Bulletin of Nov. 10, 195S, p. 747 ; for statements of Nov. 
24, see p. 24. 



January 5, 7959 



29 



I heard Mr. Sobolev tonight talk about mechan- 
ical majorities. One of the things that has im- 
pressed me, and I think it has impressed quite a 
few others, is the mechanical minority which we 
see performing fairly regularly here. I think 
that if the day ever comes when the Soviet Union 
gets a majority in this body — and I hope it will 
come because that means that they will have 
changed their policies and their attitude — when 
the day comes that they get a majority, I do not 
think then they will call it a mechanical major- 
ity. It is mechanical when the other fellow gets 
it. 

Mr. President, the United States supports this 
draft resolution on peaceful uses of outer space. 
We think it should command the unanimous sup- 
port of the General Assembly and that it could 
do so were it not for the insistence by the Soviet 
Union on what we consider to be a distorted and 
unprecedented composition for the committee. 

The Soviet representative has made it clear that 
he is unwilling to accept a composition based on 
two criteria : scientific advancement and technical 
activity in the field of outer space on the one hand 
and equitable geographical distribution repre- 
sentative of the members of the General Assem- 
bly on the other. 

If you look at the list of the members of the 
committee, you will see that they reflect those two 
criteria. 

Soviet Insistence on "Two Sides" Theory 

The Soviet Union insisted on certain conditions 
regarding composition which we consider to be 
entirely incompatible with the principles upon 
which the United Nations was foimded. It in- 
sisted with respect to this new venture of interna- 
tional cooperation that the world be divided into 
two hostile camps, or "two sides," as Mr. Zorin 
phrased it. Then the two camps or "sides" must 
be represented by equal numbers of countries on 
the proposed committee. Decisions woidd be 
made by voting blocs. There would not be delib- 
eration ; there would not be consideration on the 
merits of the questions; there would not be inde- 
pendent judgments. There would simply be these 
blocs that would play "follow the leader." 

Now I do not think the United Nations can ac- 
cept something like that. It is totally inappro- 
priate to an effort of international cooperation to 
approach this subject on these assumptions of con- 



flicts and hostility and power politics. It is 
clearly undemocratic, and it is out of line with 
the previous decisions of the General Assembly 
on this question. This is a very f undamental dif- 
ference. 

The Soviet Union is attempting to create a new 
position for itself in the United Nations — and it 
is attempting to do so at the expense of the rank 
and file of United Nations members. Now there 
isn't any other way you can do it. When the So- 
viet representative talks about equality, that is 
precisely what he means. 

If this effort succeeds to divide the world into a 
group of satellites of the Soviet Union — which 
does exist — and a group of satellites of the United 
States — which does not exist and which never will 
exist — then the rest of the members of the Gen- 
eral Assembly might as well go home. There 
would be nothing left here for them to do. 

I think the time to resist these demands is when 
they start. And that is what the General Assem- 
bly did when it rejected the Soviet demand for 
the "satellization" of the Disarmament Commis- 
sion last year. 

We believe that the General Assembly will 
continue to do the same in the future, and that 
it will prevent the Soviet Union from shrinking 
the influence of the General Assembly to the 
vanishing point in the same way that it has de- 
stroyed the legal authority of the Security Coun- 
cil. That is exactly what is at stake here. 

Mr. President, the composition of the outer- 
space committee is more than fair to the Soviet 
Union and its adherents. In spite of the differ- 
ences which have developed, we still hope that 
the Soviet Union will recognize these facts and 
will ultimately decide to participate. The work 
of the committee will proceed anyway, but we 
hope it can proceed cooperatively. 

The United Nations should assume its role in 
the peaceful uses of outer space now, when a new 
era is starting. This is the reason why the United 
States asked the General Assembly to consider the 
peaceful uses of outer space and to establish a 
committee which would survey the problems and 
the resources involved, and which would recom- 
mend to the next session of the General Assembly 
programs of international cooperation in outer 
space which might be undertaken under United 
Nations auspices and under organizational ar- 
rangements which would be suitable and 
consti-uctive. 



30 



Department of State Bulletin 



The proposed ad hoc committee on outer space 
has important work before it. The Soviet Union 
can make a great and unique contribution to its 
work. In spite of the differences of which you 
are a witness here tonight, we still hope that the 
Soviet Union will not withhold the great contri- 
bution it can make to international cooperation 
in this field. The United States, for its part, 
pledges wholehearted cooperation in the future 
work of this committee. 



SECOND STATEMENT IN PLENARY 7 

U.S. delegation press release 3140 

Mr. President, let me begin by saying, in re- 
sponse to the remark which you made, that we 
would like nothing better than to break the 
deadlock. 

Now I am just going to give the Assembly the 
factual history of these negotiations. The Soviet 
Union has tried to cultivate the impression that 
it has been eminently reasonable and that the 54 
members of the United Nations who voted for the 
resolution — but particularly the United States — 
have been inflexible and unreasonable and they 
have refused to negotiate seriously. So let us see 
exactly what happened. 

First, the United States gave the Soviet Union 
its draft resolution several days before the debate 
began, and at the same time we gave it to other 
members. We asked the Soviet Union for sug- 
gestions, offered the Soviet Union an opportunity 
to cosponsor, and we gave it time to consider the 
question. One hour later the Soviet Union, with- 
out notice to the United States, submitted its own 
resolution. Four days later the Soviet repre- 
sentative finally replied to our approaches, telling 
us that the Soviet Union preferred the debate to 
proceed. Now this was the kind of cooperation 
which we got at the outset. 

Second, the Soviet Union submitted its revised 
resolution, which deleted the military-base issue 
but which also specified what states should be on 
the committee. Again there was no advance 
consultation. 

The Soviet slate was carefully arranged to 
include four members from the Soviet group, four 
from what it calls "Western" countries, and four 



'Made after the adoption of the 20-power draft reso- 
lution (U.N. doc. A/C.l/L. 220/Rev. 1). 



of which it regards as "neutrals." It was clearly 
based on a "two sides" concept. This was the 
second example of Soviet "cooperation." We 
welcomed the evolution of the Soviet position, 
and after consultation with our cosponsors we 
entered into discussions with the Soviet Union to 
try to produce a joint resolution with a reasonable 
composition. 

Third, the United States delegation on behalf 
of the cosponsors had private talks with the Soviet 
Union on November 20 and 21. We took the 
position that the committee should reflect technical 
competence in outer space and the membership of 
the United Nations. The Soviet Union contended 
that it must be made up of "two sides" and that 
the Soviet Union should have the right to veto 
all candidates. 

We suggested two possible slates based on our 
criteria and fair to the Soviet Union — one of 9 
members, one of 13. The Soviet Union continued 
to insist on a composition including 4 Communist 
countries and reflecting the "equality of two sides" 
idea. It stated that it would neither accept coun- 
tries from Latin America with which it did not 
have diplomatic relations nor that it would accept 
Australia or Belgium. This produced what in 
French is called an impasse, a fact which both of 
us recognized at that time. In fact, that actual 
word was used at the end of the final discussion. 
That was the third example of "cooperation." 

In the fourth place, the cosponsors then decided 
to introduce a revised resolution with their own 
slate of 18 members with a ratio still more favor- 
able to the Soviet Union, which they did after 
discussion of the candidates with other members 
of the committee. Then the First Committee 
approved this list by a vote on the pertinent 
paragraph of 51 to 9. The Soviet Union then 
stated it would not serve on the committee, even 
though the Soviet Union and its satellites would 
have a larger share of seats, a larger proportion 
of seats, than they enjoy in the United Nations 
itself. This was the fourth example of Soviet 
"cooperation." 

Fifth, because of the obvious value of Soviet 
cooperation in the proposed committee, several 
delegations have made informal efforts since the 
resolution was adopted to ascertain whether some 
agreement could be reached. The Soviet Union 
tried to convey the hnpression in these conversa- 
tions that it wished to be on the committee and 



January 5, 7959 



31 



that the United States alone prevented its par- 
ticipation. 

But wherever the Soviet position has been 
further explored, in each instance it has become 
clear that it has no intention of negotiating. It 
continues to insist on the "equality of two sides" 
and also on the removal of certain members al- 
ready elected to the committee. This has been the 
fifth example of Soviet "cooperation." 

In order to provide every possible opportunity 
for an agreement to be reached, the United States 
delegation again consulted with the Soviet dele- 
gation Thursday evening — that is, the night before 
last [December 11]. I suggested that the com- 
mittee might be increased by two more members, 
Rumania and Austria. The addition of Rumania 
would have meant that every single state origi- 
nally suggested by the Soviet Union would be 
included. But the representative of the Soviet 
Union rejected this offer. He said that any in- 
crease would have to be by 6 members — all, he 
said, on what he calls "on our side" ; so that there 
would be a "balance" in the committee of 12 on 
what he regarded as the Soviet "side" and 12 he 
regarded as on the United States "side." He rec- 
ognized this would sound "artificial" and proposed 
instead a "balanced" membership of 14. His pro- 
posal was to drop Australia, Belgium, Brazil, 
Italy, Iran, and Japan and to substitute Rumania 
and Ceylon. There isn't any question about it. I 
took the names and checked them off against the 
names on our list, and the ones that would have 
dropped off were these six. He made it absolutely 
clear that the Soviet Union wanted to have a 
"balanced" slate reflecting an "equality of two 
sides." It was also clear that he still insisted on 
vetoing Australia, Belgium, and any Latin Ameri- 
can country with which the Soviet Union had no 
diplomatic relations, adding opposition this time 
to Italy, Iran, and Japan. The negotiations 
therefore broke down again. And this was the 
sixth example of Soviet "cooperation." 

Yesterday morning, to finish this narrative, we 
asked the Soviet representatives again whether 
they had reached any new conclusions concerning 
the suggestion we had made. They repeated their 
proposal for reducing the number of members to 
14 on a basis of "two sides" and made totally clear 
that they could not accept any increase at all in 
the size of the committee. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION^ 

The General Assembly, 

Recognizing the common interest of mankind in outer 
space and that it is the common aim that it should be used 
for peaceful purposes only, 

Bearing in mind the provision of Article 2, paragraph 
1, of the Charter, which states that "the Organization 
is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of 
all its Members", 

Wishing to avoid the extension of present national 
rivalries into this new field, 

Desiring to promote energetically the fullest explora- 
tion and exploitation of outer space for the benefit of 
mankind, 

Conscious that recent developments in respect of outer 
space have added a new dimension to man's existence 
and opened new possibilities for the increase of his 
knowledge and the improvement of his life, 

Noting the success of the scientific co-operative pro- 
gramme of the International Geophysical Year in the 
exploration of outer space and the decision to continue 
and expand this type of co-operation, 

Recognizing the great importance of international co- 
operation in the study and utilization of outer space for 
peaceful purposes, 

Considering that such co-operation will promote mutual 
understanding and the strengthening of friendly relations 
among peoples, 

Believing that the development of programmes of inter- 
national and scientific co-operation in the peaceful uses 
of outer space should be vigorously pursued, 

Believing that progress in this field will materially help 
to achieve the aim that outer space should be used for 
peaceful purposes only, 

Considering that an important contribution can be made 
by the establishment within the framework of the United 
Nations of an appropriate international body for co-opera- 
tion in the study of outer space for peaceful purposes, 

Desiring to obtain the fullest information on tie many 
problems relating to the peaceful uses of outer space be- 
fore recommending specific programmes of international 
co-operation in this field, 

1. Establishes an Ad Hoc Committee on the peaceful 
uses of outer space consisting of the representatives of 
Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czecho- 
slovakia, France, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Poland, 
Sweden, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Arab 
Republic, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland and the United States of America and requests it 
to report to the fourteenth General Assembly on the 
following : 

(a) the activities and resources of the United Nations, 



8 U.N. doc. C.l/L.220/Rev. 1 ; adopted in Committee I on 
Nov. 24 by a vote of 54 to 9 with 18 abstentions and in 
plenary session on Dec. 13 by a vote of 53 to 9 with 19 
abstentions. 



32 



Department of State Bulletin 



its specialized agencies and of other international bodies 
relating to the peaceful uses of outer space ; 

(b) the area of international co-operation and pro- 
grammes in the peaceful uses of outer space which could 
appropriately be undertaken under United Nations aus- 
pices to the benefit of States irrespective of the state 
of their economic or scientific development, taking into 
account the following proposals, among others : 

(i) continuation on a permanent basis of the outer 
space research now being carried on within the framework 
of the International Geophysical Year ; 

( ii ) organization of mutual exchange and dissemination 
of information on outer space research ; and 

(iii) co-ordination of national research programmes 



for the study of outer space, and the rendering of all 
possible assistance and help towards their realization ; 

(c) the future organizational arrangements to facilitate 
international co-operation in this field within the frame- 
work of the United Nations ; 

(d) the nature of legal problems which may arise in 
the carrying out of programmes to explore outer space; 

2. Requests the Secretary-General to render appropriate 
assistance to the above-named Committee and to recom- 
mend any other steps that might be taken within the 
existing United Nations framework to encourage the 
fullest international co-operation for the peaceful uses 
of outer space. 



U.S. Views on ECOSOC Report and Economic Development 
of Underdeveloped Countries 



Following are two statements made by Senator 
Mike Mansfield, U.S. Representative to the Gen- 
eral Assembly, in Committee II {Economic and 
Financial) on November 18 and 19, dealing with 
the annual report of the Economic and Social 
Council (U.N. doc. A/ '3848) and economic devel- 
opment of underdeveloped countries, together with 
the text of a resolution adopted in plenary session 
on December 12. 



STATEMENT OF NOVEMBER 18 

U.S. delegation press release 3083 

One of the most widely held convictions of our 
time is that sustained growth of the world econ- 
omy is not only possible but imperative. Of 
course, no one argues that such growth can be uni- 
form in pace or in its application. New products 
and techniques appear. Demand changes for dif- 
ferent commodities and services. Some industries 
expand ; others lose their momentum, or even re- 
cede. Economic growth throughout the world has 
been characterized in the past by the unevenness 
of its pace. 

In the United States we have experienced dur- 
ing the last several months such a temporary break 
in economic expansion. At the last session of the 
Economic and Social Council fears were expressed 
that this slackening of economic activity in the 
United States might seriously impair prospects 



for the continued advancement of the world econ- 
omy over the next few years. It was feared that 
even the gains achieved since World War II might 
be in danger. In part these apprehensions re- 
flected the view expressed in the World Economic 
Survey for 1957 1 that "neither may it be antici- 
pated that in the United States — the country with 
maximum impact on the world economy — the re- 
cession will be as brief or as mild as in 1948-1949 
or 1953-1954." 

At that time the United States representative in 
the Economic and Social Council [Christopher H. 
Phillips] summed up the prospects as he saw them 
in these words : 2 

We have solid grounds for confidence that we shall 
resume economic progress without extended interruption. 
. . . There is strong reason to believe that the decline has 
been altered and will soon be followed by recovery. 

Events since last summer have demonstrated 
that this confidence was justified. 

Recession and Recovery 

The business contraction through which the 
American economy has just passed displayed two 
major characteristics. 

First, it was short. The decline in economic ac- 
tivity lasted only 8 months. The previous peak 
was reached in the third quarter of 1957. The 



'U.N. publication 1958, II. C. 1 
2 Bulletin of Sept. 1, 1958, p. 351. 



(U.N. doc. E/3110). 



January 5, 1959 



33 



bottom of the recession was reached in the second 
quarter of 1958. One-half of the decline in indus- 
trial production suffered during the preceding 8 
months was erased in the 4 months from May 
through August of this year. 

Second, the recession has been relatively mild. 
The maximum drop in gross national product was 
4 percent. The maximum drop in personal income 
was 2 percent. 

During the third quarter of this year goods and 
services were being produced at an annual rate of 
about $440 billion. This compares with a rate of 
about $428 billion for the first two quarters of this 
year and $440 billion for 1957. Personal income is 
at an annual rate of about $357 billion — up $6 bil- 
lion from a year ago. The seasonally adjusted 
figure of total employment was 64.2 million in 
October, compared with the low point of 63.7 mil- 
lion during the recession. 

As has been the case since the end of World War 
II, our economy has continued to show strength 
and resiliency. It has provided the American 
people with the highest standard of living ever 
achieved. It has enabled the United States to 
assume heavy commitments designed to assist the 
economic development of the less developed coun- 
tries and to bring greater strength and unity to 
free nations. It has come closest to achieving the 
purported Communist goal of prosperity for all in 
a classless society — not by expropriation, not by 
abrogating individual freedom, but by providing 
greater opportunities to ever-increasing numbers 
to share in a constantly expanding volume of goods 
and services. 

True, the expansion of our economy has been 
interrupted three times in the postwar period. In 
each case, however, the halt was brief. The record 
of the American economy since the war demon- 
strates that a free society can achieve sustained 
economic growth with reasonable stability. 

But the American people are not content to rest 
on what has already been accomplished. Recovery 
has not yet reached the point where our existing 
productive facilities are being fully utilized. Nor 
has the rise in employment been sufficient to reduce 
the level of unemployment to the lowest point of 
the previous boom, despite a reduction of 400,000 
from the peak of unemployment last August. 

Moreover, the vigor of the current economic re- 
covery has raised again the possibility of upward 
pressure on prices as a result of such factors as 



rising demand and increased raw-material prices. 
By September the demand for capital had lifted 
many long-term interest rates above their 1957 
peaks. 

We are alert to the fact that inflation has been 
a persistent and pervasive feature of the postwar 
world economy. The United States remains 
acutely sensitive to the dangers of inflation. One 
of the most serious threats to a healthy recovery 
would be the recurrence of general price increases. 
The central aim of our domestic economic policy 
continues to be the promotion of economic growth 
without reviving inflationary pressures. 

Impact of U.S. Economy on World Trade 

It is, of course, the impact of American economic 
developments on the international trade and re- 
serve position of other countries that is of greatest 
interest to the rest of the world. An analysis of 
developments over the last few years suggests the 
following points: 

First, when consumer expenditures in the United 
States have been well maintained, as has been the 
case in each of our postwar recessions, our demand 
for many types of imports — notably food and 
manufactures — has remained strong. During 1957 
and 1958 our imports of some types of consumer 
goods, such as automobiles, were actually larger 
both in volume and in value. 

Second, our demand for imports of industrial 
raw materials may be more adversely affected by 
fluctuations in economic activity, but even the re- 
duction in the volume of these imports over the last 
few months was relatively mild. The decline in 
the value of our imports of metals and certain 
other basic materials was in large part a function 
of the fall in the prices of these commodities. 

The evidence suggests that the level of our im- 
ports is less affected by moderate variations in our 
industrial production than has commonly been 
supposed. During the last recession the annual 
rate of our imports was maintained at about $12.5 
billion, nearly equal to the record year of 1957. 

Third, United States Government transac- 
tions — foreign assistance and other governmental 
expenditures abroad — are now a significant part 
of our total payments to foreign countries. In 
the days before World War II the dollars made 
available through United States Government ex- 
penditures abroad accounted for only 2 or 3 per- 
cent of the total. In 1958, including dollars made 



34 



Department of State Bulletin 



available through international organizations, it 
was about 28 percent. This supply of dollars has 
not been directly responsive to changes in domestic 
business activity. 

The International Bank and the International 
Monetary Fund are two of the principal agencies 
through which other countries, particularly under- 
developed countries, have been able to obtain dol- 
lars both to finance investments and for more gen- 
eral purposes. Both agencies recorded sizable 
increases in their loans during the last year. In 
1957 the funds made available by the Monetary 
Fund to underdeveloped countries in balance-of- 
payments difficulties totaled more than three times 
that of 1956, exclusive of standby arrangements. 
During the last fiscal year the International Bank 
made loans of almost $600 million to underdevel- 
oped areas — a record figure. 

Support of these mechanisms continues to be an 
essential element of American foreign policy. 
Recently this support was again demonstrated by 
the initiative taken by the United States substan- 
tially to increase the resources of the bank and 
fund in order to permit continued high levels of 
lending for economic development and to provide 
greater international liquidity to avoid hampering 
the growth of world trade. 3 

Finally, our own exports have become more sen- 
sitive to developments abroad. After responding 
vigorously at times of peak foreign demand, they 
have fallen off sharply as foreign demand has 
slackened. For example, our merchandise exports, 
which had increased to a rate of $20 billion an- 
nually early in 1957 in response to demand from 
abroad, fell by 20 percent to a rate of $16 billion 
early in 1958. Thus far our exports have played 
no part in the current recovery. Clearly, devel- 
opments abroad which affect the demand for our 
exports can have significant effects upon our 
economy. 

These various factors indicate that the impact 
of an American recession on other countries may 
well be less than has been feared. In fact, the 
continuing high level of our imports, together 
with the outflow of American capital, enabled 
many Western European countries, as well as some 



s For statements made by Under Secretary Dillon and 
Secretary of the Treasury Robert B. Anderson at the an- 
nual meeting of the International Bank and the Interna- 
tional Monetary Fund at New Delhi, see ibid., Nov. 17, 
1958, p. 793. 



in other parts of the world, to add substantially 
to their reserves of gold and dollars. During the 
first 8 months of 1958 foreign reserves increased 
through transactions with the United States at a 
record annual rate of about $3 billion. 

The conclusions to be drawn are clear. The fear 
of a so-called dollar shortage should no longer be 
allowed to impede our common effort to move to- 
ward a fully liberalized multilateral trade-and- 
payments system. In this connection it is relevant 
to note the judgment of Mr. [Philippe] de Seynes 
[U.N. Under-Secretary for Economic and Social 
Affairs] in his opening statement on this item that 
the current recessionary phase in Western Europe 
"was not determined nor even directly influenced 
by developments in the United States." " 

At the same time we appreciate the serious diffi- 
culties facing some of the less developed countries. 
Declining prices for primary commodities — a 
trend already evident in some cases prior to the 
beginning of the recession in the United States — 
and a higher level of internal demand than could 
be sustained by the resources at their disposal were 
important contributing causes. The foreign-ex- 
change earnings of some countries have been 
sharply cut and exports reduced. Many have had 
to draw deeply into their reserves. 

In this connection I must point out, as have 
other delegations at this Assembly, that the dump- 
ing of tin by the Soviet Union has served to disrupt 
the economy of Bolivia and to deal severe blows to 
the hopes of the peoples of Malaya and Indonesia 
for an improvement in their economic well-being. 
The dumping of textile products by Communist 
China is severely affecting the export markets of 
India and Japan. It is making far more difficult 
the achievement on schedule of the second 5-year 
plan of India and hampering the economic growth 
of Japan. 

Commodity Problems 

The field of commodity problems is difficult and 
controversial. As the distinguished representative 
of Argentina correctly reminded us, there are no 
easy solutions. This view is underlined by the 
growing tendency of governments to broaden the 
scope of international study and discussion of 
economic problems to cover not only price instabil- 
ity as such but also the underlying causes and 



'U.N. doc. A/C.2/L.3S8 and Corr. 1. 



January 5, J 959 



35 



economic effects and the possible means of dealing 
with them. 

Over the long term the maintenance of stable 
growth in all nations and the diversification of the 
economies of the underdeveloped countries is of 
greater significance for the well-being of primary 
producers than are efforts to regulate production, 
prices, and trade in particular commodities. This 
view, often expressed by the United States in past 
sessions of the General Assembly, was also reflected 
in the statement last week of the distinguished 
representative of Poland. 

We feel that we can make our best contribution 
to this end by assisting primary producing coun- 
tries to diversify their economies and by maintain- 
ing a healthy and expanding economy at home. 
We note that the Haberler report, 6 which has been 
submitted to the 12th session of the GATT, also 
gives high priority to measures designed to main- 
tain economic activity in the industrialized coun- 
tries and the provision of greater international 
liquidity. 

There may be particular commodity situations 
which require examination of what measures 
might be desirable and possible to deal with them. 
The United States is — as noted by President 
Eisenhower in Seattle a few days ago 6 — now pre- 
pared to join in discussions of such commodity 
problems on a case-by-case basis. We are glad to 
note that much the same view was expressed by the 
Commonwealth countries at the recent trade and 
economic conference at Montreal. 

Most recently, we have participated in discus- 
sions with respect to coffee, copper, and lead and 
zinc. Coffee, of course, is a commodity which we 
do not produce in the United States but which we 
consume in great quantities. We recognize the 
serious difficulties confronting coffee producers in 
Latin America and Africa, and we have joined 
with them in trying to work out a means of ameli- 
orating these problems. 

The case of lead and zinc has already been men- 
tioned by previous speakers. Here we are not 
only consumers but producers as well. As pro- 
ducers we were caught in the squeeze of falling 
prices and accumulating inventories — a situation 
familiar at one time or another to almost every 
primary producing country. 



Our domestic industry cut back production by 
about 25 percent. However, our imports con- 
tinued at high levels, while in some countries the 
production of lead and zinc continued to expand. 
Mines were shut down; others curtailed produc- 
tion to uneconomic levels. We experienced grow- 
ing unemployment. The plight of our lead and 
zinc industry affected not only those directly em- 
ployed in the mines and smelters but entire com- 
munities dependent on them. 

The lead and zinc problem is not just an Ameri- 
can problem. We are acutely aware of the impor- 
tance to other countries of lead and zinc exports 
to the United States. In some countries the indus- 
try constitutes a more important segment of the 
total economy than is the case in the United States. 
For some, already beset with serious problems of 
declines in prices and demand for other jjrimary 
commodities, trade in lead and zinc can be a de- 
cisive factor in their ability to maintain growing 
economies. 

In this situation we sought to deal with the 
problem by cooperation among importing and ex- 
porting countries. When we found that there 
was no early prospect of dealing multilaterally 
with the problem, we were compelled to apply im- 
port restrictions to these commodities. 7 

This action had to be undertaken quickly to 
meet the emergency which was developing. The 
basic fact which I want to emphasize is this : We 
are not trying to push onto the rest of the world 
the whole burden of the adjustment that must be 
made. We are in fact sharing it. Even with the 
quota system which has been put into effect, there 
is substantial idle capacity in our domestic in- 
dustry. The United States continues to be pre- 
pared to participate in the search for a multilat- 
eral solution to this problem. We are prepared to 
take part in an international study group for lead 
and zinc which we hope will be organized early 
in 1959. 

We are not oblivious to the fact that we live, 
more than ever before, in an interdependent 
world; that trade barriers can impede economic 
recovery; and that the policy of devil-take-the- 
hindmost practiced in the 1930's can only have 
disastrous consequences. 

This is the spirit in which we shall continue to 



5 GATT doc. MGT/80/58. 

6 Bulletin of Dec. 1, 195S, p. 853. 



' IMd., Oct. 13, 1958, p. 579; for an address by Thomas 
C. Maun, Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs, see 
ibid., p. 583. 



36 



Department of State Bulletin 



work with others to try to meet the difficult prob- 
lems which are bound to arise in the commodity 
field. I shall not at this time review in detail the 
many ways in which we have joined in the consid- 
eration of commodity problems and in the pursuit 
of measures looking toward their solution. They 
include participation in commodity arrangements, 
study groups, technical committees, and ad hoc 
conferences. They involve the conduct of our 
stockpiling programs so as to avoid disruptive 
effects on world prices. They relate to the precau- 
tions taken in the disposal of our agricultural sur- 
pluses so as not to displace normal commercial 
trade. 

Two Economic Commissions 

Of particular interest in connection with our 
review of the work of the Economic and Social 
Council is the reconstitution of the Commission on 
International Commodity Trade — an action de- 
signed to make it a more effective forum for the 
study of developments and trends in commodity 
trade. The United States was happy to accept 
election to the Commission, and we look forward 
to participating actively in its work. We are con- 
vinced that, given the broader and more practical 
responsibilities assigned to the Commission in 
Council resolution 691, the Commission can be a 
most useful organ to all member states in their 
approach to commodity problems. 

One of the most significant actions taken by the 
Economic and Social Council during 1958 was 
the establishment of the Economic Commission 
for Africa. My delegation welcomes this impor- 
tant addition to the organs of the United Na- 
tions — this symbol of the rapid economic growth 
that is taking place in Africa and of the other 
changes that are occurring in that continent. 

The Commission is more than a symbol. It is 
intended to be an important means of encouraging 
cooperative action by the countries of Africa to 
deal with their problems of economic development. 
The regional Economic Commissions for Latin 
America and for Asia and the Far East have 
assisted the countries of these regions to under- 
stand and deal with their economic problems. 
There is every reason to be confident that the new 
Commission will prove fully equal to what is likely 
to be an even more challenging task. 

Our attitude toward the Commission is moti- 



vated by the deep interest of the people of the 
United States in the progress of Africa. To many 
of the African countries and territories the United 
States has since the end of the war made available 
— directly and indirectly — technical and financial 
assistance. We shall continue to try to help the 
peoples of Africa further their economic develop- 
ment so long as it is clear that our help is sought. 

In particular my Government will follow closely 
the work of the African Commission and will 
cooperate with it in every appropriate way. 

Mr. Chairman, I have touched on only a few 
aspects of the work of the Economic and Social 
Council during 1958. My delegation will speak to 
others insofar as subsequent discussion of draft 
resolutions under this item makes it desirable. Be- 
fore concluding my delegation would like to com- 
mend the officers and secretariat of the Council for 
the comprehensive report which provides the 
essential background for this discussion. 



STATEMENT OF NOVEMBER 19 

U.S. delegation press release 30SG 

It was not my intention to intervene again so 
soon after my delegation's statement in the general 
debate yesterday. However, the secretariat has 
told us that a number of delegations would like to 
have the resolution sponsored by the United States 
and other countries introduced as soon as possible 
in order that they might comment on it during 
their general debate statements. 

As most of you know, draft resolution L. 378 is 
intended to follow up on the suggestions made by 
Secretary Dulles in his address to the General 
Assembly on September 18. 8 At that time he pro- 
posed that member states dedicate the year 1959 
to taking stock of accomplishments to date and to 
charting anew courses of cooperative action to 
promote the growth of the less developed areas. 
The text, as presented in draft resolution L. 378, 
has been modified somewhat in accordance with 
suggestions from other cosponsors as well as many 
other delegations which have indicated sympathy 
with the objectives of this resolution. 

Objectives of the Resolution 

Let me expand a bit on these objectives. In the 
first place, we hope this resolution will be a vehicle 



'Ibid., Oct. 6, 1958, p. 525. 



January 5, 7959 



37 



to rally member nations behind intensified cooper- 
ative efforts on behalf of the less developed coun- 
tries. Secondly, we hope it will provide a greater 
marshaling of available forces for economic 
development, both among the developed countries 
and those in other stages of development. A third 
and perhaps significant, though incidental, benefit 
would be a better focusing of our next year's debate 
on this question as a result of the replies by mem- 
ber governments. 

The goal, as my Government sees it, is to enable 
free nations to go forward in self-reliant growth. 
The first step envisioned is what might be called a 
global stocktaking during 1959 — an inventory of 
measures which governments are taking, or con- 
template taking, or would be prepared to take to 
give further impetus to economic development. 
But let me emphasize that this is only a first step, 
not an end in itself. This is not an academic 
exercise simply to gather statistics on financial aid 
to the less developed countries. It is rather in- 
tended to determine whether new courses of action 
are desirable. 

Some delegations have informally asked us how 
the stocktaking proposed in our resolution will 
differ from the information member governments 
are asked to submit in accordance with General 
Assembly resolutions 824 (IX) and 1034 (XI). 
Under the latter resolutions governments are pro- 
viding useful statistical data on the flow of public 
and private capital to the less developed countries. 
Our resolution, on the other hand, is concerned 
with policies, programs, and courses of action 
which may be developed or contemplated during 
1959 in the interest of accelerating economic 
growth. 

Five Major Requirements 

In his statement to the General Assembly on 
September 18 Secretary Dulles outlined the steps 
which the United States would be prepared to take 
or support in the coming year. President Eisen- 
hower in his remarks of welcome to the Colombo 
Plan meeting endorsed the Secretary's proposals 
and outlined five major requirements for economic 
growth : 9 

1. Expanded international trade; 

2. More technical skills ; 

3. Intensified private investment ; 



4. Normal bankable loans ; 

5. Financing to cover sound projects which will 
afford the borrower flexibility regarding terms of 
payment. 

Let us examine briefly each of these major re- 
quirements in the light of action contemplated. 

First, expanded trade. A number of distin- 
guished delegates have already emphasized that a 
major part of the capital goods required for eco- 
nomic development must be financed through in- 
ternational trade. It is our hope that this resolu- 
tion will stimulate cooperative action by govern- 
ments to assure the expansion of international 
trade and to relax unwarranted restrictions which 
have hindered its flow. 

Second, technical skills. President Eisenhower 
called these skills "the bedrock of economic devel- 
opment." He said : 

Unless they are more widely shared in the free world, 
no amount of capital flow will bring about the desired 
growth. Indeed, without competent management, supple- 
mented by satisfactory levels of skills in the professions 
and in the trades, the most efficiently constructed factory 
would represent nothing but a wasteful and useless 
expenditure. 

We here in this committee have recognized the 
importance of technical skills during our discus- 
sions of the U.N. Expanded Program of Technical 
Assistance 10 and the new U.N. Special Fund. 11 
It is the hope of the United States Government 
that this resolution may stimulate further action 
by governments in supporting these U.N. pro- 
grams and in furthering technical cooperation 
through bilateral and regional programs. 

Another means by which our resolution hopes 
to increase the contribution of technical and scien- 
tific research to economic development is sug- 
gested in operative paragraph 2. This paragraph 
calls upon member states to explore further the 
possibility of enlisting the aid of their universities 
and scientific institutions for the purpose of ac- 
celerating the solution of scientific and technologi- 
cal problems of particular concern to the less de- 
veloped countries. We have in mind such projects 
as: (1) the use of readily available sources of en- 
ergy, such as solar and waste heat in silicon cells 



' Ibid., Dec. 1, 1958, p. 853. 



10 For a statement by Senator Mansfield, see ibid., Nov. 
3, 1958, p. 708. 

11 For statements by Senator Mansfield and Christopher 
H. Phillips and text of the resolution establishing the 
Special Fund, see ibid., p. 702. 



38 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



and thermocouple devices; (2) unconventional 
electric generation in small quantities for use in 
remote areas; (3) low-cost consumer goods, such 
as cooking devices, household lighting, refriger- 
ators, and radios; (4) electronic semiconductors 
which may revolutionize the cost and maintenance 
of electronic products; (5) saline water conver- 
sion and photochemical processes; (6) electronic 
computers to perfect development planning; and 
(7) the limited use of automation in industry to 
minimize short-term scarcity of trained manpower 
in key industries. Perhaps with an intensified 
cooperative effort in 1959 breakthroughs can be 
achieved on some of these scientific developments 
of vital concern to the less developed countries. 

Third, private in/vestment. Americans are par- 
ticularly conscious of the importance of private 
investment for two reasons: (1) The continuing 
growth of our own country is due largely to pri- 
vate efforts and to private initiative. Our citizens 
have confidence in free enterprise because we have 
seen it work and we know what it can do. (2) The 
financial resources of private capital are far larger 
than the sums which governments in free-enter- 
prise economies can provide. In such economies 
most of the productive talent and resources are in 
private hands. Their strength lies in the diversity 
of private individuals and organizations and in the 
quality of their technical skills, their imagination, 
and their initiative. It would obviously be a great 
disservice to economic growth if this most impor- 
tant resource were not used to the maximum. The 
U.S. Government is studying how best to help 
bring this about. It is our hope that other govern- 
ments in all stages of economic development will 
also study ways of maximizing the benefits to be 
derived from private investment. 

You will note that I said "governments in all 
stages of economic development." It is generally 
recognized that, while outside cooperation is im- 
portant, the main factor in economic development 
is the effort of the country itself. These efforts 
might include measures to stimulate increased do- 
mestic savings ; to increase the productivity of the 
land ; to encourage the growth of institutions for 
the purpose of channeling resources into produc- 
tive investment; to create an appropriate climate 
for private investment, both domestic and foreign ; 
and to encourage the wider exercise of individual 
initiative. 

Encouraging in this respect is the communique 



issued by the Consultative Committee of the Co- 
lombo Plan last week at the conclusion of its meet- 
ing in Seattle. 12 The communique said : 

The committee noted that member countries in the area 
have increasingly recognized the importance of private 
investment and have encouraged the growth of the private 
sector. Important also in this growth is the role of for- 
eign private investment which can provide capital together 
with the technical and managerial skills so needed by the 
countries of the region. 

The fourth requirement President Eisenhower 
mentioned is for public loans on normal bankable 
terms. These loans are usually made for projects, 
like the building of a road system, which are not 
attractive to direct private investment. They are 
being extended in very substantial amounts by the 
International Bank for Eeconstruction and De- 
velopment. As most of you know, the recent meet- 
ing of the bank's Board of Governors in New 
Delhi decided that the executive directors would 
promptly consider an increase in the bank's capi- 
tal subscriptions. The United States representa- 
tives expressed the view that these capital sub- 
scriptions should be doubled, and it is our earnest 
hope that this view will be shared by other gov- 
ernments participating in the bank. The United 
States also extends bankable loans for develop- 
ment through the U.S. Export-Import Bank. We 
believe that the Export-Import Bank has made an 
important contribution to economic development. 
In May the Congress recognized this contribution 
by authorizing an increase of $2 billion in the capi- 
tal of the Export-Import Bank. Other countries' 
lending agencies can also play an increasingly ef- 
fective part in providing bankable loans for sound 
development projects and programs, and we hope 
that this draft resolution will stimulate such 
action. 

Another type of financing in which my Govern- 
ment has shown an interest is the use of regional 
development institutions. We are currently en- 
gaged in discussions with 20 other American states 
looking toward the establishment of an inter- 
American bank. 13 As for the Near East, you will 
recall that President Eisenhower, in his address 
at the special emergency General Assembly in 



12 Ibid., Dec. 1, 1958, p. 860. 

13 For a statement by Under Secretary Dillon made be- 
fore the Special Committee of the OAS, see ibid., Dec. 8, 
1958, p. 918. 



January 5, 7959 



39 



August, 14 suggested consultations between the Sec- 
retary-General and the Arab nations of the Near 
East to consider the composition and the possible 
functions of a regional Arab development institu- 
tion, whose task would be to accelerate progress in 
such fields as industry, agriculture, water supply, 
health, and education, among others. The Presi- 
dent declared that, should the Arab states agree 
on the usefulness of such a soundly organized re- 
gional institution and should they be prepared to 
support it with their own resources, the United 
States would also be prepared to support it. We 
are awaiting with interest the outcome of these 
consultations. 

The fifth vital requirement is for development 
financing which will afford the borrower flexibil- 
ity regarding terms of repayment. Such financ- 
ing is commonly called "soft loans." As you 
know, many sound projects important to economic 
development cannot qualify for bankable loans. 
It was to help finance such projects that the U.S. 
Congress last year established the Development 
Loan Fund. Although the initial capital of the 
Development Loan Fund was $300 million, appli- 
cations for loans during the first 6 months of op- 
eration amounted to $2% billion — an impressive 
demonstration of the great need for this type of 
loan. This summer Congress appropriated an ad- 
ditional $400 million for the Development Loan 
Fund. In our view, if other more developed coun- 
tries should also act vigorously to meet these grow- 
ing needs, progress would be accelerated. 

The United States Government, for its part, 
will be giving the most careful consideration to 
this requirement for development financing on 
flexible terms. We would, of course, welcome the 
contributions of other countries to this end. The 
possibility of creating for this purpose an Inter- 
national Development Association, as an affiliate 
of the International Bank, was discussed infor- 
mally at the New Delhi meeting last month, and I 
am informed that these discussions were encour- 
aging. My delegation was pleased to hear the 
statement by the Netherlands representative 2 
days ago that, although his Government had not 
taken any decision on the proposal for an In- 
ternational Development Association, it saw no 
inconsistency between such an organization and 
the idea of a capital development fund within the 
framework of the U.N. 



1 Ibid., Sept. 1, 1958, p. 337. 



Paragraph 6 of U.S. Resolution 

Some delegations have in informal discussions 
raised questions concerning paragraph 6 of our 
resolution, which 

Requests the Economic and Social Council, during its 
review of the consolidated report of the five-year ap- 
praisal of the scope, trend and cost of the economic and 
social programmes of the United Nations, the ILO, FAO, 
UNESCO, WHO and WMO called for in its resolutions 
665 C (XXIV) and 694 D (XXVI), to give special con- 
sideration to the development needs of the less developed 
countries and to ways in which such programmes can be 
more effectively organized to help meet these needs. 

My delegation believes that such action will be 
helpful in coordinating the activities of the spe- 
cialized agencies in order that they make their 
most effective contribution toward the economic 
growth of the developing countries. The Coordi- 
nation Committee of the Council would be ex- 
pected to play an active role in promoting this 
type of coordination. I should like to make clear, 
however, that the consideration of replies by mem- 
ber states in accordance with operative paragraphs 
3 and 4 of the resolution would take place in the 
Economic Committee and the plenary sessions of 
the Economic and Social Council, as well as in this 
committee of the General Assembly. 

I hope that my remarks have helped to clarify 
the broad-gage nature of this resolution's ap- 
proach to the problem of economic development. 
As many delegations have commented to us pri- 
vately, there is no incompatibility between our 
resolution and the one presented in draft resolu- 
tion L. 386. The latter involves an appeal for 
increased resources for the Special Fund and for 
efforts toward the establishment of a U.N. capital 
development fund. Our resolution is particularly 
concerned with action in 1959 on five important 
sectors relating to economic development, includ- 
ing those of technical assistance and financing. 

We all know that the problems of economic 
growth are complex. There is no magic formula 
or easy solution. But development is taking place, 
and actions planned by governments to stimulate 
economic growth have been noticeably accelerated 
during the past 6 months. The purpose of our 
resolution is to keep up this momentum and, if 
possible, accelerate it further. Referring to Mr. 
Dulles' proposal which forms the basis of our reso- 
lution, President Eisenhower observed at the 
Colombo Plan meeting on November 10 : "If both 



40 



Department of State Bulletin 



the less developed and the more developed coun- 
tries move vigorously to carry out this proposal, 
their action could pave the way for the 1960's to 
become a decade of unprecedented progress toward 
our common goal." This, I submit, is a goal to 
which we can all pledge our best faith and our 
best efforts. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION 

The General Assembly, 

Recalling the pledge of all Member States, contained in 
Article 56 of the Charter, to take joint and separate action 
in co-operation with the United Nations for the achieve- 
ment, inter alia, of higher standards of living and condi- 
tions of economic and social progress and development, 

Recognizing that significant efforts have been made by 
both the less developed and the more developed countries 
to achieve these ends, 

Considering, however, the continuing need for greater 
efforts to accelerate the economic development of the less 
developed countries, 

Noting with satisfaction the initiatives which have been 
taken looking toward an increase in the capital of the 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
and the quotas of the International Monetary Fund, and 
the increasing attention being given by these agencies to 
the less developed countries, 

1. Calls upon Member States to undertake a review of 
accomplishments to date and in the light of this review to 
chart their future courses of co-operative action relating 
to both the public and private sectors for the purpose of 
giving further impetus to the economic development of 
the less developed countries ; 

2. Invites Member States, having in mind resolution 
1260 (XIII) to explore further the possibility of enlisting 
the aid of their universities and scientific institutions for 
the purpose of accelerating, in co-operation with similar 
institutions in other Member States, the solution of scien- 
tific and technological problems of particular concern to 
the less developed countries ; 

3. Invites Member States in a position to assist the 
economic development of under-developed countries to 
inform the twenty-eighth session of the Economic and 
Social Council and the fourteenth regular session of the 
General Assembly through the Secretary-General of meas- 
ures which they have taken or may contemplate taking in 
accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2, such information to 
be additional to the information which they are now called 
upon to submit in accordance with General Assembly 
resolution 824 (IX) and 1034 (XI) concerning what they 
are now doing in this field ; 

4. Invites the less developed countries similarly to in- 



13 U.N. doc. A/Res/1316 (XIII) (A/C.2/L.378/Rev. 1 
and Corr. 1, as amended) ; adopted in Committee II on 
Nov. 27 by a vote of 55 to with 11 abstentions and in 
plenary session on Dec. 12 by a vote of 68 to with 8 
abstentions. 



form the Economic and Social Council and the Assembly 
of any measures which they may decide to take in order 
to advance their economic and social progress; 

5. Requests the Secretary-General to compile the in- 
formation received pursuant to the above paragraphs in 
the form of an interim report for submission to the 
twenty-eighth session of the Economic and Social Council 
and a final report for the fourteenth regular session of the 
General Assembly, for consideration under the item "Eco- 
nomic development of under-developed countries", includ- 
ing a review of the financing of the economic development 
of the under-developed countries ; 

6. Requests the Economic and Social Council, during its 
review of the consolidated report of the five-year ap- 
praisal of the scope, trend and cost of the economic and 
social programmes of the United Nations, the ILO, FAO, 
UNESCO, WHO and WMO called for in its resolutions 
665 C (XXIV) and 694 D (XXVI), to give special consid- 
eration to the development needs of the less developed 
countries and to ways in which such programmes can be 
more effectively organized to help meet these needs. 



The Problem of Cyprus 

Statement by James W. Barco 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly 1 

The United States regrets, Mr. Chairman, that 
we must once more take up the complex and 
difficult problem of Cyprus in the General As- 
sembly. As we have made plain on the previous 
occasions when this problem was under considera- 
tion here, this is not the place to arrive at a solu- 
tion of the Cyprus problem. I must emphasize 
the conviction of the United States that the par- 
ties to this dispute must work out a solution them- 
selves. In the course of our discussion here, we 
cannot expect to solve the problem of Cyprus. 
What we can do here in the General Assembly, 
and what we should do, since the question has 
been raised again, is to strive to see that our 
deliberations facilitate further efforts of those 
directly concerned with this problem to find a 
mutually acceptable settlement. 

The United States has not taken a position in 
favor of any particular formula among those 
which have been suggested as a final solution. 
The reason is that thus far no formula has ap- 
peared to be generally acceptable to all concerned. 



1 Made in Committee I (Political and Security) on Nov. 
28 (U.S. delegation press release 3097). 



January 5, 7959 



41 



This is essential if any formula is to succeed. 
This does not mean that we are indifferent to the 
crucial necessity of reaching a settlement. On the 
contrary, we urgently seek an early, equitable 
solution, and we are prepared to assist in every 
way we appropriately can. 

The violence that has occurred on Cyprus this 
past year, and particularly the ugly elements of 
communal strife, underscore the necessity of find- 
ing an early solution. Despite the violence, we 
have noted some encouraging developments since 
the General Assembly last considered the Cyprus 
question. As envisaged in article 33 of the char- 
ter, discussions have taken place with a view to 
arranging a conference among all concerned, 
including — and this is most important — repre- 
sentatives of the two Cypriot communities. The 
United States supported the very real efforts 
which took place under the aegis of NATO to 
arrange a conference where "quiet diplomacy" 
could have an opportunity to permit all concerned 
to come to an agreement. We were disappointed 
when these efforts collapsed, since we were con- 
vinced that they offered real promise of sub- 
stantial progress. 

The United States is heartened by the fact that 
all three of the governments directly concerned 
with this problem, as their remarks here have 
demonstrated, recognize that a solution can be 
found only through negotiation and conciliation. 

The United States believes that action taken by 
the United Nations which would lead to a resump- 
tion of efforts in a manner consistent with article 
33 of the charter would be the greatest contribu- 
tion which this organization could make toward 
bringing about agreement among those concerned. 

As in the past, the United States will determine 
its attitude toward the various resolutions sub- 
mitted in the light of our judgment as to whether 



their passage would in fact enhance or impair the 
chance of fruitful negotiations. 2 



2 In plenary session on Dec. 5 the General Assembly 
adopted a resolution (U.N. doc. A/Res/1287 (XIII) ) ex- 
pressing its confidence "that continued efforts wiU be 
made by the parties to reach a peaceful, democratic and 
just solution in accordance with the Charter of the 
United Nations." 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

United Nations 

Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organization. Done at London November 
16, 1945. Entered into force November 4, 1946. TIAS 
1580. 
Signature and acceptance: Albania, October 16, 1958. 



BILATERAL 

Brazil 

Agreement amending agreement for a cooperative pro- 
gram for reconnaissance and investigation of the ura- 
nium resources of Brazil of December 26, 1957 (TIAS 
3964). Effected by exchange of notes at Washington 
December 2, 1958. Enters into force on date Brazil in- 
forms the United States of its constitutional approval. 

El Salvador 

Agreement extending agreement for a United States 
Army mission to El Salvador of September 23, 1954 
(TIAS 3144). Effected by exchange of notes at San 
Salvador April 23 and November 17, 1958. Entered into 
force November 17, 1958. 

Philippines 

Agreement further amending and extending agreement 
relating to the United States Educational Foundation 
in the Philippines of March 23, 1948, as amended 
(TIAS 1730, 1745, and 1910). Effected by exchange 
of notes at Manila September 18 and October 3, 1958. 
Entered into force October 3, 1958. 

Turkey 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of January 20, 1958, as supplemented June 
25, 1958 (TIAS 3981 and 4056). Effected by exchange 
of notes at Ankara November 24, 1958. Entered into 
force November 24, 1958. 

United Kingdom 

Agreement relating to extension to certain British terri- 
tories of application of income tax convention of April 
16, 1945, as modified (TIAS 1546, 3165, and 4124). Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at Washington August 19, 
1957, and December 3, 1958. Entered into force 
December 3, 1958. 



42 



Department of State Bulletin 



January 5, 1959 



Ind 



e x 



Vol. XL, No. 1019 



Canada. U.S.-Canadian Joint Committee Discusses 
Economic Matters 17 

Cyprus. The Problem of Cyprus (Barco) .... 41 

Disarmament. Geneva Talks on Surprise Attack 
Recessed for Indefinite Period 13 

Economic Affairs 

Industry and Government Leaders Discuss German 
Coal Problem 18 

Reciprocity Committee Seeks Views on Wool Fabrics 
Tariff Quota 18 

U.S.-Canadian Joint Committee Discusses Economic 
Matters 17 

U.S. Views on ECOSOC Report and Economic De- 
velopment of Underdeveloped Countries (Mans- 
field, text of resolution) 33 

Ecuador. DLF Loan To Help Ecuador Complete 
Pan American Highway 22 

Germany 

Industry and Government Leaders Discuss German 

Coal Problem 18 

Legal Aspects of the Berlin Situation 5 

Ministerial Meeting of the North Atlantic Council 
(Dulles, tests of coniniunique and declaration) . . 3 

International Law. Legal Aspects of the Berlin Sit- 
uation 5 

International Organizations and Conferences. Calen- 
dar of International Conferences and Meetings . . 22 

Mutual Security 

DLF Loan To Help Ecuador Complete Pan Ameri- 
can Highway 22 

ICA and Voluntary Agencies Aid Needy in 35 Coun- 
tries 21 

The Role of ICA Employees in the Conduct of For- 
eign Policy (Dillon) 20 

NATO. Ministerial Meeting of the North Atlantic 
Council (Dulles, texts of communique and declara- 
tion) 3 

Science. United Nations Establishes Committee on 
Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (Lodge, text of 
resolution) 24 

Treaty Information. Current Actions 42 

U. S. S. R. Legal Aspects of the Berlin Situation . . 5 

United Kingdom. Responsibility of the English- 
Speaking Peoples in Preserving Peace and Freedom 
(Nixon) 14 

United Nations 

The Problem of Cyprus (Barco) 41 

United Nations Establishes Committee on Peaceful 
Uses of Outer Space (Lodge, text of resolution) . . 24 



U.S. Views on ECOSOC Report and Economic De- 
velopment of Underdeveloped Countries (Mans- 
field, text of resolution) 33 

Name Index 

Barco, James W 41 

Dillon, Douglas 20 

Dulles, Secretary 4 

Lodge, Henry Cabot 24 

Mansfield, Mike 33 

Nixon, Richard M 14 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: December 15-21 

Press releases may be obtained from the News 
Division, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Release issued prior to December 15 which ap- 
pears in this issue of the Bulletin is No. 744 dated 
December 10. 

Subject 

Henderson designation (biographic 
details). 

Educational exchange (Middle East). 

DLF loan to Ecuador for Pan Ameri- 
can Highway. 

German surplus coal problem. 

Barrows designation (biographic 
details). 

Educational exchange (Japan). 

U.S.-Canada economic meeting. 

DLF loan to Liberian-American 
company. 

NATO communique on Berlin. 

Wool fabrics tariff quota. 

Geneva conference on surprise 
attack. 

Delegation to World Forestry Con- 
gress (rewrite). 

Educational exchange ( France, 
French West Africa, Morocco) . 

ICA and voluntary agencies overseas 
aid (rewrite). 

Department memorandum on Berlin 
situation. 

Final communique of NATO Minis- 
terial Meeting. 

Dulles : departure from NATO Minis- 
terial Meeting. 

* Not printed. 

t Held for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 
*753 


Date 

12/15 


*754 
755 


12/15 
12/15 


756 

*757 


12/15 
12/15 


*758 

759 

*760 


12/15 
12/16 
12/16 


761 
762 
763 


12/17 
12/18 
12/18 


t764 


12/19 


*765 


12/19 


766 


12/19 


767 


12/19 


768 


12/19 


769 


12/19 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1959 




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JAN 29 1959 
Vol. XL, No. 1020 Iknuary 12, 1959 

B. P„ L. 

A PLEDGE TO THE PEOPLES OT THE WORLD • 

Remarks by President Eisenhower ».. 47 

INTER-AMERICAN COOPERATION IN THE ECO- 
NOMIC FIELD • Remarks by Under Secretary Dillon 
and Text of Declaration Approved by OAS Special Committee . 48 

UNITED NATIONS DEBATES ADMISSION OF NEW 

MEMBERS; ADMITS GUINEA • Statements by 
Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge 52 

U.N. TO SEEK IMPROVEMENT OF SITUATION IN 

HUNGARY • Statements by Ambassador Henry Cabot 
Lodge and Text of Resolution 55 

U.N. TO CONVENE SECOND CONFERENCE ON THE 

LAW OF THE SEA • Statements by Herman Phleger 
and Text of Resolution 64 

AGREEMENT WITH THE EUROPEAN ATOMIC 

ENERGY COMMUNITY (Text) 69 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XL, No. 1020 • Publication 6753 
January 12, 1959 



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be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
of State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a tceekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



A Pledge to the Peoples of the World 



Remarks by President Eisenhower x 



My fellow Americans : Tonight I would 
like to speak not only to you— but for 
you — to the peoples of the world. 

This is the time of year when Christians 
celebrate the birth of the Founder of their 
faith. It is also the time when all peoples, 
regardless of religious belief, look for- 
ward with hope to the coming of another 
year. It is quite appropriate, therefore, 
to speak tonight of Christmas and of the 
New Year, for both can bring a new an- 
ticipation of a better, a more peaceful 
world to the hearts and minds of men 
and women everywhere — of all creeds, of 
all ideologies, of all nations. 

The Christmas message of "peace on 
earth, good will toward men" is not alone 
an ideal of Christianity. It is a basic 
aspiration of Christian, Jew, Moslem, 
Hindu, Buddhist alike — of every person 
in the world who has faith in an 
Almighty God. 

It is not limited to us as Americans or 
even to people of the free world. It is 
matched in yearning in the innermost 
thoughts of all peoples. It is a universal, 
divine spark that lights the soul of man- 
kind. 

As we near Christmas and the New 
Year, I again give my solemn word on 

'Made at the Christmas Pageant of Peace ceremonies 
at Washington, D. C, on Dec. 23 (White House press 
release). 



behalf of the American people to all the 
peoples of the world : 

That the people of the United States 
and their Government do not want war. 
They want to work steadfastly to make 
"peace on earth, good will toward men" 
a reality for all humankind. 

The people of the United States do 
not wish to enslave or control any other 
nation or any other people. They seek 
only to enjoy with their fellow men 
peace — a peace of honor and justice. 
They respect the rights of all people to 
do the same. 

The United States is strong — and will 
remain strong — because that is the only 
way in today's world that the peace can 
be protected; but the United States will 
never use its strength to break the peace. 

Though the United States will never 
retreat in the face of force, or the threat 
of force, it will always welcome and ac- 
cept serious and honest proposals to ne- 
gotiate international differences. 

The United States has pledged its na- 
tional honor to work for peace. For us 
this pledge is no less than a sacred obli- 
gation. It is freely — but not lightly — 
given to the nations of the world. 



As I press this button and the dark- 
ness surrounding the National Christmas 



January 12, 7959 



47 



Tree is illuminated by light, I hope that 
this ceremony has greater significance to 
all Americans and to the world than just 
the lighting of a tree. I pray that the 
darkness, which at times has encom- 
passed the world, may be illuminated by 
the light of understanding and coopera- 



tion of all the nations that earnestly seek 
peace in the year ahead. 

To the men, women, and children of 
America and to all peoples throughout 
the world — a Merry Christmas and a 
Happy New Year. 

Good night — and peace be with you! 



Inter-American Cooperation in the Economic Field 



Following are remarks made by Under Sec- 
retary Dillon before the Special Committee of 
the Council of the Organization of American 
States To Study the Formulation of New Meas- 
ures for Economic Cooperation at Washington, 
D.C., on December 12, together with the text of 
a declaration approved at the closing session on 
December 12. 



REMARKS BY MR. DILLON 

Press release 750 dated December 12 

This meeting just prior to our recess is an ap- 
propriate time to review, in general terms, the 
accomplishments of our Committee since we first 
met here on November 17. 1 This Committee was 
created to examine the whole complex of economic 
problems with which the American Republics are 
presently faced and to devise means for their 
solution. Our deliberations have been guided by 
the wise and understanding leadership of our 
chairman, Dr. Alfonso Lopez of Colombia. We 
are indebted to him for the substantial progress 
which has been made toward defining and clarify- 
ing the various aspects of our task. It is unfor- 
tunate that illness keeps him from our midst to- 
day. We owe him a vote of thanks for the able 
manner in which he has directed our discussions. 

You will all agree with me, I am sure, that 
it is fitting that recognition be given to the role 
played by Brazil in this challenging undertaking. 
What is now known as Operation Pan America 



had its inception in the timely and thoughtful let- 
ter which President Kubitschek addressed to 
President Eisenhower in May of this year. 2 
President Kubitschek's initiative found a warm 
response in each of our governments, and the 
machinery of the inter-American system was 
promptly set into motion. 

Meetings such as this have always contrib- 
uted greatly to increased understanding between 
our governments and our peoples. No nation in 
this hemisphere possesses a monopoly of talent or 
of ideas. We all learn from each other in a con- 
tinuing process, for understanding is based upon 
knowledge of one another's capabilities and mo- 
tivations. Speaking for my delegation, I can tell 
you that we have benefited greatly from this ex- 
change of viewpoints. 

I believe that there could be no better occasion 
than this on which to reaffirm our individual and 
collective support for our inter- American system, 
in which, as equal partners, we are striving to- 
gether to advance the economic well-being of our 
peoples. 

The task which faces our Committee is not an 
easy one. Each of our economies has its own 
individual problems, which add to the technical 
difficulties inherent in any group effort in the 
field of economic relations. 

However, we have made real progress in the 
council chamber. We are now establishing a work- 



1 For a statement made by Mr. Dillon before the Com- 
mittee on Nov. 18, see Bulletin of Dec. 8, 1958, p. 918. 



3 For an exchange of correspondence between President 
Eisenhower and President Kubitschek. see ibid., June 30, 
1958, p. 1090. For documents relating to a visit to 
Brazil by Secretary Dulles, see ibid., Aug. 25, 1958, p. 
301. 



48 



Department of State Bulletin 



ing group to carry on during our recess period. 
We are thereby assured that when the Special 
Committee's meetings are resumed further prog- 
ress will have been made. The recess also offers 
an excellent opportunity for a thorough review by 
each of our delegations of its own country's 
economic situation in the light of the searching 
discussions which we have held here. This exami- 
nation may well result in the conception and imple- 
mentation of concrete measures which will not 
only strengthen our individual economies but will 
also add to the contribution each of us can make to 
our joint effort in Operation Pan America. 

Our discussions have been closely followed by 
my Government and by a large number of our 
individual citizens who view United States partici- 
pation in the inter- American system as a keystone 
of our international relations. My Government's 
sincere and continuing interest in helping to 
advance the economic progress of the other Ameri- 
can Eepublics is expressed in a special message 
which President Eisenhower has asked me to 
deliver to you as we close our current deliberations. 
The President says, 

I extend my congratulations to the "Special Committee 
To Study the Formulation of New Measures for Economic 
Cooperation," for its perseverance and diligence in carry- 
ing out the tasks assigned to it last September by the 
Foreign Ministers of the American Republics. 3 

My personal interest in what has come to be known as 
"Operation Pan America" began when President Kubits- 
chek of Brazil wrote to me on May 28 of this year. The 
Secretary of State thereafter formally expressed the will- 
ingness of my Government to cooperate in finding ways 
of making inter-American economic cooperation more 
effective. This remains the policy of the United States 
Government, and I assure you that the United States 
will lend its warmhearted cooperation to "Operation Pan 
America." 

I am informed that the Special Committee has now com- 
pleted its general review of the problems of underdeveloped 
countries and has decided to constitute a working group 
which, during the time the Special Committee is in recess, 
will address itself to specific concrete measures that can 
be taken to promote, by cooperative effort, a greater degree 
of economic development. I am confident that this work 
will go forward in the same spirit of mutual understanding 
and cooperation that has always characterized inter- 
American relations and that meaningful and constructive 
measures will be devised to achieve our common objective. 

The economic development of Latin America is of vital 
importance to the strength and well-being of the whole 
of the free world. I hope that the working group will 
make rapid progress so that the Special Committee may 



'Ibid.,0ct 13, 1958, p. 574. 



soon resume its meeting here in Washington. As Ameri- 
cans, I am sure that we all share a confidence in the future 
of this hemisphere and that we are determined to press 
forward with the concrete measures necessary to make 
inter-American cooperation in the economic field as fruit- 
ful as it has been in the political field. 

There is little I can add to the message from my 
President, other than to assure you that this policy 
of the United States Government will be carried 
out as vigorously as is possible and within the 
framework of our inter- American system. 

In conclusion, permit me, Mr. Chairman, to 
make a personal observation : 

I believe that, if we apply to the economic prob- 
lems we have been discussing the same energy, 
creativity, and perseverance we have devoted to 
solving political problems within our framework 
of nations, they will yield to our determination. 
What we need is faith in our ability to do what 
must be done. 

It is undeniably true that each of our countries 
must pursue progress in ways consistent with its 
own cultural, political, and economic patterns. 
But no nation in this hemisphere stands alone. 
The spiritual and material well-being of one 
country is a matter of continuing and urgent con- 
cern to all the members of our family of nations. 
I say this with deep conviction. But it is more 
than a conviction. It is an article of faith. For 
our American community is built upon a bedrock 
of friendship and mutual respect. And friend- 
ship and solidarity have their roots in the human 
heart. 

On behalf of my country and my people, I want 
to assure you of this : No matter what our commit- 
ments in other areas of the world — and you must 
know that they are many and burdensome and are 
designed to achieve the same free-world goals to 
which each of your governments subscribes — the 
United States will never forget the needs of any 
of its sister republics. Our feeling of friendship 
for the citizens of the other Americas is as deep- 
rooted and enduring as our belief in freedom and 
the dignity of the human spirit. 



TEXT OF DECLARATION 

At the close of its first meeting, at which the govern- 
ments of all twenty-one American republics were repre- 
sented, the Special Committee of the Council of the 
Organization of American States deems it fitting to state 
that, from the start of its deliberations on November 17, 



January 12, 1959 



49 



1958, the representatives of the member states have had 
full opportunity, in the course of the sessions, to express 
with all frankness and clarity the views of their govern- 
ments on the pressing need for strengthening inter- 
American cooperation. 

Opinions were freely exchanged, always in an atmos- 
phere of extreme cordiality and mutual understanding. 
The members of the committee unanimously reaffirmed 
their faith in the Organization of American States and 
their common determination to strengthen the har- 
monious relations uniting their countries in bonds of 
brotherhood. They also recognized the urgent necessity 
of making the best possible use of all the means and the 
facilities available within the regional system for pro- 
moting the economic development of the hemisphere in a 
way that will bring positive benefits to each and every one 
of the American republics. 

There was a full discussion of each of the topics ac- 
cepted at the Informal Meeting of American Foreign 
Ministers, held in Washington last September 23 and 24, 
and of many other proposals that were presented by the 
various delegations during the sessions. 



Special attention was given the problem of financing 
the economic development of Latin America, and a draft 
resolution was adopted endorsing the proposal to estab- 
lish an inter-American institution for economic develop- 
ment and expressing the hope that the Committee of 
Experts convoked by the Inter-American Economic and 
Social Council and scheduled to meet next January 8 will, 
in the shortest possible time, draw up the draft con- 
ventions that are to bring this new instrument of inter- 
American cooperation into existence. 

In regard to the need for creating new incentives to the 
flow of private capital, all the representatives agreed 
that it was necessary to supplement such measures as 
the countries interested in attracting and receiving for- 
eign capital have adopted, or will in the future adopt, by 
concluding agreements with capital-exporting countries so 
that the special tax rates that are now offered, or may 
later be offered, by the former will not be negated by the 
absence of counterpart measures in those countries in a 
position to furnish capital. 

This matter is one in which the initiative is left to the 
interested governments, and with respect to which the 
willingness of the United States Government to conclude 
the necessary agreements, as expressed on the very first 
day of the meeting, can be counted on. 



There was general agreement that the heavy reliance of 
the Latin American economies on the export trade in one 
or a few primary products poses a serious problem, since 
abrupt fluctuations and sudden drops in the prices of 
those commodities give rise to serious disturbances and 
impair the entire economic and financial outlook. 

In this respect, the representatives of all the American 
countries displayed a willingness to participate in the 



study of the problems connected with each product in an 
effort to find satisfactory solutions within a spirit of 
hemisphere solidarity and an awareness of the mutual 
benefits that spring from the many and varied relation- 
ships linking the countries of the American regional com- 
munity. 



All the representatives at the meeting placed special 
emphasis on the need for intensifying technical coopera- 
tion and providing a new and greater stimulus to the cam- 
paigns directed toward increasing technical ability and 
productivity, which are the principal requirements for 
economic development. 

In this connection, highly constructive suggestions, in- 
spired by a proposal of Argentina, were made. These 
suggestions are aimed at expanding and intensifying the 
pertinent programs now being conducted by the OAS and 
at awakening the interest of and obtaining assistance in 
this field from other public and private organizations. 



The committee is about to suspend its sessions because 
it feels that, now that the general viewpoints have been 
expounded, the time has come to proceed without loss of 
time to the stage of preparing concrete formulas and 
specific proposals. In order to carry out this technical 
work, which is essential if useful results are to be ob- 
tained, the committee has appointed a working group that 
will develop the practical arrangements for arriving at the 
aforesaid objectives. The working group will meet at the 
Pan American Union beginning January 15, 1959, and will 
enlist the effective and indispensable services of the IA- 
ECOSOC and the General Secretariat of the OAS. When 
it completes its task, which should be no later than April 1, 
1959, the Group will report its conclusions and recom- 
mendations to the Special Committee. Thus, the new 
measures required for more effective inter-American co- 
operation are already in progress. 

When the Special Committee meets again in April, it 
will examine these specific proposals and submit them to 
the Council of the Organization of American States, so 
that the governments may arrive at final agreements and 
decisions. 

Strongly evident was a feeling of gratitude on the part 
of all the governments to President Juscelino Kubitschek 
of Brazil for his timely proposal for setting in motion what 
has come to be known as "Operation Pan America." 

The Special Committee is fully aware of the far- 
reaching importance of the tasks assigned to it by the 
American governments ; in view of what has already been 
said and done, the Committee feels confident that it will 
be possible to advance toward the goal set by the govern- 
ments, namely : the promotion of economic development in 
their respective countries with a view to raising the stand- 
ard of living of their peoples, thus paving the way for 
progress and strengthening democracy in the hemisphere. 

December 12, 1958 



50 



Department of State Bulletin 



Treaty With Sultan of Muscat 
To Regulate Economic Relations 

Press release 771 dated December 22 

A treaty of amity, economic relations, and con- 
sular rights between the United States and the 
Sultan of Muscat and Oman was signed on De- 
cember 20, 1958, in Salalah. Walter K. Schwinn 
signed for the United States. Said bin Taimur 
bin Faisal, Sultan of Muscat and Oman, signed 
on his own behalf. 

The treaty is designed to regulate basic eco- 
nomic relations between the United States and 
Muscat and to direct the future development of 
those relations along mutually beneficial lines. 
Upon its entry into force it will replace in full the 
existing treaty, long outmoded, which the two 
countries entered into in 1833. 

This treaty with the Sultan is a commercial 
treaty of the customary kind. It is the 17th to 
be negotiated by the United States since the cur- 
rent program was initiated at the end of the 
Second World War. It will be transmitted as 
soon as possible to the Senate for advice and con- 
sent to ratification. By its terms it will enter into 
effect 1 month after the exchange of ratifications. 



the jointly operated Hallett Station, the United 
States Naval Air Facility in McMurdo Sound, and 
New Zealand's Scott Base. As in the past, facili- 
ties will be made available in New Zealand to the 
United States operation. On December 24, 1958, 
notes were exchanged between the Governments of 
the United States of America and New Zealand 
which set out the basis on which these facilities 
will be made available and in which the United 
States offered, in return, to continue logistic sup- 
port for New Zealand expeditions. 

In addition to this bilateral cooperation, both 
countries are agreed on the desirability of inviting 
interested scientists from other countries to par- 
ticipate in the work of the stations referred to 
above, subject to the limitations of space, trans- 
portation, and accommodations. 

The administrative arrangements referred to 
above have no effect on the rights or claims asserted 
by either country in Antarctica. Each Govern- 
ment maintains its traditional position in regard 
to such matters. 

The Government of New Zealand and the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America jointly 
express their satisfaction at this practical mani- 
festation of the friendly spirit of cooperation 
which animates them and are confident that the re- 
sults will redound to the benefit of world science. 



U.S. and New Zealand To Continue 
Antarctic Scientific Cooperation 

Following is the text of a joint announcement 
made on December 23 by the Governments of New 
Zealand, and the United States. 

Press release 770 dated December 23, for release December 24 

The Governments of New Zealand and the 
United States of America have agreed to continue 
their cooperation in scientific and logistical op- 
erations in Antarctica in order that the useful 
scientific activities which have been carried on dur- 
ing the current International Geophysical Year 
may be continued without interruption after the 
end of the International Geophysical Year on De- 
cember 31, 1958. 

For this purpose, the two Governments have re- 
cently been engaged in making detailed arrange- 
ments for improving the efficiency of operations, 
both scientific and logistical, at the stations they 
are currently maintaining in the Ross Sea area — 



United States and India Sign 
DLF Loan Agreement 

Press release 774 dated December 24 

The U.S. Development Loan Fund and the 
Government of India on December 24 signed 
agreements formally making available an addi- 
tional $100 million in DLF funds to assist India 
in financing foreign-exchange costs of public and 
private economic development projects in connec- 
tion with the country's second 5-year plan. 

Signing of the documents implemented negoti- 
ations which have been in progress for several 
months. The agreements were signed on behalf 
of the United States by Dempster Mcintosh, 
Managing Director of the DLF, and by Ambassa- 
dor M. C. Chagla on behalf of the Government of 
India. 

The agreements bring to $175 million the aggre- 



January 12, 7959 



51 



gate of DLF loans signed this year to help India 
in its second 5-year economic development pro- 
gram. DLF loans totaling $75 million were 
signed June 23 at Washington and New Delhi as 
part of a $225 million U.S. loan package to India 
which included a $150 million loan from the Ex- 
port-Import Bank. The Export-Import Bank 
loan was signed last June 12. 

The new $100 million in DLF funds is being 
made available in five separate loans. Three of 
them, totaling $63 million, are for public-sector 
projects under India's second 5-year plan. The 
two others, totaling $37 million, are for projects 
being developed in the private-enterprise sector. 

Of the public-sector loans, one for $35 million 
is to assist in procuring railway equipment for 



India's national railway system. This equipment 
will include diesel locomotives, other rolling stock, 
steel, and electrical signaling devices. The sec- 
ond public-sector loan is for $18 million worth of 
steel imports for development projects, while the 
third is for $10 million worth of turbines, genera- 
tors, transformers, insulators, cables, and other 
equipment for public power projects in India. 

Of the private-sector loans, one is for $22 mil- 
lion in steel imports, including structural steel, 
for use in private-enterprise projects. The sec- 
ond is for $15 million to assist in financing the im- 
ports of machinery and other capital equipment 
for expanding facilities in such private industries 
as metals and mining, chemicals, cement, machin- 
ery, and mechanical engineering. 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



United Nations Debates Admission of New Members; Admits Guinea 



Following is a series of statements made by 
Henry Cabot Lodge, U.S. Representative, in the 
Security Council on December 9 and in the Gen- 
eral Assembly on December 12 during debate 
on the question of admission to U.N. membership 
of the Republics of Guinea and Korea and Viet- 
Nam. 



OPENING STATEMENT IN SECURITY COUNCIL 

U.S. delegation press release 3111 

The United States does not agree with the 
stand taken by the Representative of the Soviet 
Union [Arkady A. Sobolev]. The item on our 
agenda for today is "The Admission of New 
Members." The provisional agenda which con- 
tained this item was circulated on December 5. 

The United States is merely asking that under 
this item two applications be considered which 
have been before the Security Council for a 
number of years. The Council has remained 



seized of these two applications and in our view 
there is nothing in the rules of procedure which 
can prevent this Council, when it meets to con- 
sider the admission of new members, to recon- 
sider two applications of such long standing. 

We do not, Mr. President, ask for their con- 
sideration simultaneously with the admission of 
Guinea, as Mr. Sobolev implied. We ask merely 
for their consideration consecutively. 

For us to bring these membership questions up 
is not a cold- war gesture. The cold- war element 
is brought in by the determination of the Soviet 
Union to veto these membership applications. 
That is the cold-war responsibility in this 
matter. 



STATEMENT ON GUINEA 

U.S. delegation press release 3112 

Once again the United Nations witnesses the 
process of peaceful change which has resulted 



52 



Department of State Bulletin 



in the birth of a new member of the free-world 
community. We all extend the hand of friend- 
ship to this new African state. 

The Republic of Guinea, in attaining sover- 
eignty, has asserted its ability and willingness to 
conduct itself according to the standards of inter- 
national conduct embodied in the charter. 

We are also happy to express our appreciation 
for the guidance and assistance extended by 
France toward the development of this new 
nation. 

The Republic of Guinea attains nationhood 
possessing important human and material re- 
sources. We should not underestimate, of course, 
the difficulties which any independent nation 
faces, but neither should we lose sight of the 
promising foundation which Guinea possesses for 
an independent and prosperous existence. Rich 
agricultural lands, abundant resources, and a 
united people surely justify the belief that the 
Republic of Guinea faces a great future. 

The United States looks forward to a close 
association with the Republic of Guinea as we 
work together in the spirit of the United Nations 
Charter for the preservation of world peace and 
for better standards of life imder conditions of 
human freedom. 

The United States is happy to vote today for 
the admission of Guinea to the United Nations 
and to extend to the Government and people of 
Guinea our very best wishes for a happy and 
prosperous future. 1 



FIRST STATEMENT ON KOREA 

U.S. delegation press release 3114 

The General Assembly has repeatedly asserted 
that the Republic of Korea should be admitted to 
membership in the United Nations. This decision 
was most recently reaffirmed by the Assembly on 
October 25, 1957. 2 We have asked the Security 
Council again to consider the Republic of Korea's 
application and to register its views that Korea 
should become a United Nations member. 

The Republic of Korea has a special claim to 
membership in the United Nations. It was under 



1 The Council on Dec. 9 adopted by a vote of 10 to 
With 1 abstention (France) draft resolution S/4131 
recommending the admission of Guinea. 

'U.N. doc. A/Res/1144 (XII) A and B. 



the auspices of the United Nations that the Re- 
public of Korea was established as an independent 
state, and it was United Nations assistance and 
support which made it possible for the Republic 
to retain its independence. 

The relationship of the Republic of Korea to 
the United Nations is very close. Through the 
United Nations Commission for the Unification 
and Rehabilitation of Korea, the United Nations 
is represented in the Republic of Korea. The 
Korean Government in turn maintains a perma- 
nent observer at United Nations headquarters. 

The growth of free and democratic government 
in the Republic of Korea is reviewed annually by 
the General Assembly on the basis of reports re- 
ceived from the United Nations Commission for 
the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea. Eco- 
nomic progress and developments have been dis- 
cussed in connection with the reports of the United 
Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency, which 
earlier this year officially completed its work with 
a record of solid achievement. 3 

Remarkable progress has been made during the 
5 years since the end of the Korean war. We are 
proud of Korea's record and of Korea's eagerness 
to secure that this progress will continue. It has 
been on the basis of the record of great accom- 
plishment, despite grim adversity, that the General 
Assembly has found the Republic of Korea fully 
qualified for United Nations membership. 

We have an opportunity here today, Mr. Presi- 
dent, to right a longstanding wrong in which the 
United Nations and, specifically, the Security 
Council has a clear responsibility, that is, to ap- 
prove the application of the Republic of Korea 
for membership in the United Nations. The 
United States will vote for its approval and will 
persevere in its determination to work for justice 
for Korea. 



SECOND STATEMENT ON KOREA 

U.S. delegation press release 3116 

The Soviet Union attempts by its amendments 
to link admission of the Republic of Korea with 
that of the puppet north Korean regime. The 
north Korean regime has never been found quali- 
fied for membership by the United Nations. It 
has received no recognition, no acceptance outside 
of the Soviet bloc. Unlike the Republic of Korea, 



3 For the final UNKRA report, see U.N. doc. A/3907. 



January 72, 7959 



53 



which is regarded by the United Nations as the 
only lawful government in Korea, the north 
Korean regime has been condemned by the United 
Nations as an aggressor. It fought against the 
United Nations in pursuing its aggression, aided 
and abetted by Communist China and its other 
Communist masters, and it continues to defy the 
United Nations. No wonder the United Nations 
rejects the attempts of the Soviet Union to obtain 
United Nations acceptance of the north Korean 
regime. We trust that the Security Council will 
reject the Soviet amendments. 4 

Let me deal very briefly with Mr. Sobolev's as- 
sertions about the so-called "withdrawal" of 
Chinese Communist troops from north Korea. 5 
It is, indeed, a so-called and not a true withdrawal, 
because it brought about no real change in the 
threat of Communist military power against the 
Republic of Korea and to international security 
in that area. It is a propaganda gesture and noth- 
ing more. It has not deluded anyone, and I feel 
quite sure that it has not deluded Mr. Sobolev. 
Nor can it obscure the fact that the Communist 
authorities refuse to accept the fair and just plan 
for unification favored by the majority of the 
United Nations. 

Let me say in conclusion, Mr. President, that 
this is perhaps as good a time as any to repeat the 
position of the United States on the question of 
admitting Outer Mongolia to the United Nations. 
The United States is opposed to its admission. 
We do not think Outer Mongolia is qualified. We 
do not think it is independent. And we do not 
think it is a state. I have said all this before, and 
nothing has happened since to change this view. 

[In a further intervention, Mr. Lodge said:] 

Mr. President, I simply wish to say that it is 
not just I who says that the north Korean regime 
were the aggressors. It is the United Nations 
General Assembly, and by an overwhelming vote. 

Now, I do not know whether that is what the 
Soviet Union calls a historical fact. I notice that 
phrase crops up. I gather that a historical fact 
in Soviet parlance is a twisting of the truth so as 

'The Soviet amendments (U.N. doe. S/4132) were re- 
jected by a vote of 1 (U.S.S.R.) to 8 with 2 abstentions. 

* For text of the U.N. Command's rejection of the Com- 
munist proposal on the withdrawal of forces from Korea, 
see Bulletin of Nov. 17, 1958, p. 781. 



to help the Soviet argument. But the declaration 
by the General Assembly that north Korea was 
the aggressor is a true fact and a real fact and a 
fact that is highly inconvenient to the Soviet 
Union. Certainly it cannot be doubted. 

Mr. President, the Soviet Union often emulates 
the man in the parade who cannot keep step and 
who claims everyone is out of step but he. They 
are clearly in this position when it comes to the 
aggression committed by north Korea. 6 



STATEMENT ON VIET-NAM 

U.S. delegation press release 3118 

The United States has asked the Security Coun- 
cil in a resolution introduced with other members 
to consider again the application of Viet-Nam for 
membership in the United Nations. 

There is no doubt that Viet-Nam fulfills the 
conditions laid down in article 4 of the charter. 
It exercises the normal powers and freedoms of a 
state. It has declared itself willing to accept the 
obligations arising out of the charter, and it has 
demonstrated its ability to do so. Recognition of 
Viet-Nam as a sovereign and independent state by 
48 countries is eloquent testimony of its achieve- 
ments and its qualifications for admission to the 
United Nations. 

Viet-Nam is a member of 10 specialized agencies 
as well as the United Nations Economic Commis- 
sion for Asia and the Far East. It has made or 
pledged contributions to the United Nations pro- 
grams in Korea and Palestine and to the Expanded 
Program of Technical Assistance. 

The people of Viet-Nam have long been deeply 
interested in obtaining admission to the United 
Nations. In 1952 the General Assembly found 
Viet-Nam to be qualified for membership. The 
General Assembly has reaffirmed the finding many 
times since, but the Security Council has been 
unable to recommend Viet-Nam's admission be- 
cause of the Soviet Union's veto. The United 
States hopes that the Security Council today will 
be able to fulfill its responsibility and unani- 



6 Draft resolution S/4129/Rev. 1. cosponsored by the 
U.S., France, Japan, and the U.K. and recommending the 
admission of the Republic of Korea, was defeated by 
Soviet veto on Dec. 9. The vote was 9 to 1 (U.S.S.R.) 
with 1 abstention. 



54 



Department of State Bulletin 



mously recommend the admission of this great 
Asian country. 7 



STATEMENT IN GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

U.S. delegation press release 3133 

The United States last Tuesday [December 9] 
cast its vote in the Security Council in favor of the 
admission of the Republic of Guinea to member- 
ship in the United Nations. It has been our 
pleasant task today to reaffirm that vote here in 
the General Assembly. 8 

One of the great facts of our day is the emer- 
gence to nationhood of the people of Africa. This 
development is a source of great gratification to 
the United States. We also appreciate the part 
which France has played in providing guidance 
and assistance to this newest sovereign nation. 

The United States recognized the Republic of 
Guinea on November 1. In a message sent to the 
President of the Republic of Guinea on that day, 
President Eisenhower expressed his good wishes 
for the future of Guinea. 9 The General Assembly's 
decision tonight will enable the United States to 
take another step forward in strengthening its ties 
with the Government of Guinea through our as- 
sociation together in the work of the United 
Nations. We look forward to this new association. 

The United States is happy to accept the declara- 
tion of the Government of Guinea that it is able 
and willing to carry out the obligations contained 
in the United Nations Charter and has taken great 
pleasure in joining with other members here to- 
night in this final official act which has resulted in 
the admission of the Republic of Guinea to the 
United Nations. 

Mr. President, this is an appropriate and 
orderly time, I think, for me to express on another 
subject, but one which falls within the same cate- 
gory of membership in the United Nations, the 
profound regret which the United States feels 



' Draft resolution S/4130/Rev. 1, cosponsored by the 
U.S., France, Japan, and the U.K. and recommending the 
admission of Viet-Nam, was defeated by Soviet veto on 
Dec. 9. The vote was 8 to 1 (U.S.S.R.) with 2 abstentions. 

8 The General Assembly on Dec. 12 adopted without vote 
draft resolution A/4060/Rev. 1 admitting the Republic of 
Guinea to membership in the United Nations. 

9 For an exchange of correspondence between President 
Eisenhower and President Sekou Toure, see Bulletin of 
Dec. 15, 1958, p. 966. 



that the Security Council has had to report once 
again its failure to recommend the admission of 
the Republic of Korea and Viet-Nam to member- 
ship in the United Nations. 

The United States joined with other members of 
the Security Council in submitting two resolutions 
asking the Council to recommend the admission of 
these two countries. 

An overwhelming majority of the members of 
the United Nations have repeatedly affirmed that 
both the Republic of Korea and Viet-Nam are 
fully qualified for membership and should be ad- 
mitted to the United Nations. But the will of 
the General Assembly continues to be thwarted. 
We are deprived of the presence here of two great 
Asian countries because the Soviet Union chooses 
to abuse its veto power in the Security Council. 

Mr. President, the United States shares the dis- 
appointment felt by the people of the Republic of 
Korea and Viet-Nam in this result. But we believe 
firmly that the will of the Assembly will prevail, 
and we will continue to do everything in our power 
to hasten the day when the Republic of Korea and 
Viet-Nam take their rightful places here among us. 

But, Mr. President, allow me, please, to conclude 
these remarks on a happy note and to extend once 
again, on behalf of the United States, the warmest 
congratulations and best wishes to the Govern- 
ment and people of the Republic of Guinea. 



U. N. To Seek Improvement 
of Situation in Hungary 

Following are statements made in plenary ses- 
sion by Henry Cabot Lodge, U.S. Representative 
to the General Assembly, on the situation in 
Hutigary and on the credentials of the Hungarian 
delegation, together with the text of a resolution 
adopted on December 12. 



STATEMENT OF DECEMBER 11 

D.S. delegation press release 3125 

Once again it is the duty of the General Assem- 
bly to face the tragic situation in Hungary and to 
consider what help or comfort the United Nations 
can give to the brave Hungarian people. 

Scarcely more than 2 years have passed since 



January ?2, 7959 



55 



armed forces of the Soviet Union crushed the 
attempt of the Hungarians to free their country 
from alien rule. The news that Budapest had 
suddenly come under fire from an army of Soviet 
tanks was brought to us in this very hall during 
the night of November 3^, 1956. 1 Here on that 
night we learned of the betrayal of the Hungarian 
negotiators, led by General Maleter, and the final 
radio appeal to the world by Prime Minister Imre 
Nagy just before he was deposed. 

It was like a physical shock to be told these 
things. It was as if the deed had been done right 
here before our very eyes. As the Representative 
of Burma said so well in this hall at the time, 
"There, but for the grace of God, go we." 

General Assembly Actions 

Mr. President, in the face of that Soviet attack 
and all the tragedy which followed it the General 
Assembly has done what it could by peaceful 
means. We helped to bring food, relief, and 
medical supplies to the people of Budapest in 
the hour when their suffering was most acute. We 
supported the efforts of the United Nations High 
Commissioner for Refugees to receive and resettle 
the nearly 200,000 refugees who fled from Hun- 
gary. And repeatedly, in three successive resolu- 
tions, we faced this truth : that the Soviet Union 
had intervened by armed force to deprive Hungary 
of its liberty and political independence. We 
condemned these acts as violations of the charter, 
and we demanded that the wrongs done be put 
right. 

Our last and most important resolution on this 
subject was adopted on September 14, 1957, by a 
vote of 60 to 10. 2 At that time we had before us 
the authoritative report of the United Nations 
Special Committee, 3 a report which has probably 
become more widely read than any United Nations 
report in history. And among its conclusions were 
these : 

that the original Hungarian revolution of Octo- 
ber 23, 1956, was a spontaneous national uprising; 

that this uprising was crushed by Soviet armed 
force ; 



1 For background and texts of resolutions, see Bulletin 
of Nov. 19, 1956, p. 800. 

* For background and text of the resolution, see Hid., 
Sept. 30, 1957, p. 515. 

8 U.N. doc. A/3592. For text of the final chapter of the 
report, see Bulletin of July 8, 1957, p. 62. 



that Soviet armed forces set up a puppet regime 
"in opposition to a Government which enjoyed 
the overwhelming support of the people of 
Hungary" ; 

that this puppet regime had no popular support, 
had broken all its promises to the people, and had 
resorted to repressive measures ; and it also added 

that "A massive armed intervention by one 
Power on the territory of another, with the 
avowed intention of interfering with the internal 
affairs of the country must, by the Soviet's own 
definition of aggression, be a matter of interna- 
tional concern." 

Such were the conclusions of the famous report 
of the Special Committee. That report was based 
on exhaustive research from the best available 
resources, including eyewitness testimony and 
many official statements of the Hungarian and 
Soviet Communist rulers. After considering that 
report this Assembly, in its resolution of Sep- 
tember 14, 1957, found as follows : 

"The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, in 
violation of the charter of the United Nations, has 
deprived Hungary of its liberty and political in- 
dependence and the Hungarian people of the ex- 
ercise of their fundamental human rights;" and 
further "The present Hungarian regime has been 
imposed on the Hungarian people by the armed 
intervention of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics." 

Those acts, Mr. President, which involved viola- 
tions of international obligations of the Soviet 
Union and Hungary and defiance of resolutions 
of the General Assembly, were condemned in the 
climactic resolution of September 14, 1957. 

Since that date there have been important and 
shocking events. Chief among those events have 
been the executions of Imre Nagy, Pal Maleter, 
and other Hungarian leaders and the continued 
subjection of the Hungarian people to a repressive 
regime which is definitely not of their own 
choosing. 

Again, as a year ago, we have the benefit of an 
excellent report by the Special Committee on the 
Problem of Hungary. This special report, 4 dated 
July 14, 1958, has not yet been considered by the 
General Assembly. It is a most useful document. 
I shall refer to it from time to time in this state- 
ment. The Special Committee on the Problem 



* U.N. doe. A/3849. 



56 



Department of State Bulletin 



of Hungary deserves to be commended again for 
its further contribution to our work. 

Wrongs Still Persist 

Mr. President, it is no exaggeration to say that 
this subject overflows with tragedy. The United 
States would be happy indeed if further debate 
on it were unnecessary — if the people of Hungary 
were again in possession of their sovereignty and 
their basic rights. But such is not the case. The 
wrongs which we have repeatedly condemned still 
persist. The Soviet Union, with all its power, 
still stands in the way of progress for Hungary. 

Now the easy thing for us to do would be to 
give up, to pretend that this evil, having been pro- 
longed for 2 years, need concern us no more. 
We could even pretend that, because the voice of 
Hungarian patriots cannot be heard in this hall, 
the world can forget the Hungarian problem. 

But that is not true. Evil prolonged is no less 
evil. The voice of Hungarian patriots is still 
today, not because it has nothing to complain 
about but because it is stifled by the alien power 
of the Soviet Union. 

If the oppressed Hungarian nation is to have 
advocates before the bar of world opinion, we 
whose voices are not stifled must be its advocates. 
Simple morality and the self-respect of this or- 
ganization demand that we do no less. 

As a matter of fact, political prudence demands 
the same thing. Peace in Eastern Europe cannot 
be built on this situation of massive injustice with 
all the smoldering hatreds it creates. If the exist- 
ing tension is to be relaxed and the danger of 
still another tragic explosion ended, it will be 
necessary to end the injustice which causes the 
tension. 

Moreover we cannot expect the protection of the 
charter for ourselves when we need it if we fail 
to extend that same protection to others in their 
time of need. 

For these reasons, Mr. President, the United 
States considers progress on the Hungarian ques- 
tion is of the utmost importance to world peace. 
We approach the question in that spirit. We 
shall not try to cover up ugly facts with pleasant 
words. 

Aims for the Hungarian People 

Mr. President, in the past year, since this sub- 
ject was last discussed in the General Assembly, 



events in Hungary have been particularly dis- 
heartening. The most vital aims of the General 
Assembly for the Hungarian people remain un- 
achieved. And let me remind you of what these 
aims are: 

1. We call for the withdrawal of Soviet troops 
from Hungary. But, despite a well-advertised 
token withdrawal of a few thousand Soviet troops, 
there actually remain some 50,000 Soviet troops 
in Hungary — distributed in camps, in cities, and 
factories all over Hungary, like the occupation 
army that they are. These Soviet troops are the 
decisive political fact in Hungary today — the in- 
dispensable prop of the Moscow-imposed Hungar- 
ian Communist regime. 

Indeed, the official newspaper in Budapest ad- 
mitted as much a year ago, when it said that "the 
very existence of the Hungarian workers' 
power" — and, of course, as you know, that is their 
jargon for Communist dictatorship—depended on 
the so-called "friendship" of the Soviet Union. 
Mr. President, what a friendship! Hungarian 
freedom has died in the clutch of that friendly 
embrace. 

2. The General Assembly called on the Soviet 
Union to desist from any form of intervention in 
the internal affairs of Hungary and to respect 
Hungary's liberty and political independence. 
But today the Hungarian authorities are as sub- 
servient to Moscow as they were when they were 
installed by Soviet guns 2 years ago. 

3. The General Assembly called for the return 
of Hungarians deported to the Soviet Union. In 
1957 the Special Committee reported that thou- 
sands of Hungarians had suffered this fate, in- 
cluding ranking military officers and members of 
Parliament. The Special Committee concluded 
that "some may not have been returned to their 
homes." To this day the world does not know 
the facts — and certainly the wholesale denials of 
the Soviet Union merely thicken the fog. 

4. The General Assembly called upon the So- 
viet Union and the authorities in Hungary "to 
desist from repressive measures against the Hun- 
garian people" and "to respect the Hungarian 
people's enjoyment of fundamental human rights 
and freedoms." And the reign of terror in Hun- 
gary this past year has shocked the world. 

Mr. President, the Hungarian people must be 
relieved of that scourge of terror. Of all our 
aims with respect to Hungary, that is the most 



January 12, J959 



57 



urgent. The rights and liberties— and even the 
lives — of countless Hungarians are at stake from 
day to day. 

The charter obliges us to be concerned with a 
great political wrong: that is, the subjugation of 
a small state by its powerful neighbor. But from 
that political wrong there flows directly an even 
more urgent human wrong: that is, the unjust 
murder and imprisonment of thousands of Hun- 
garians, including Imre Nagy himself, by the 
puppet government which now rules Hungary on 
behalf of Moscow. 

Ten years ago, almost to the day, the General 
Assembly approved the Universal Declaration of 
Human Eights. Among these are the right of 
political opposition, the right to be free from 
arbitrary arrest and imprisonment, the right to 
judicial safeguards. Never have we had a better 
opportunity to promote the observance of those 
rights in a member state and to render an elemen- 
tal service to people in their hour of trouble than 
by acting to halt the reign of terror in Hungary. 

Murder in Juridical Disguise 

Now I turn to the most shocking act in the 
reign of terror — the secret trial and execution of 
Prime Minister Imre Nagy, Lieutenant General 
Pal Maleter, and their companions. 

Some of the facts leading up to this murder in 
juridical disguise are well known. Others may 
never be known. From the main report of the 
United Nations Special Committee we know that 
General Maleter and his Hungarian staff were 
seized by Soviet agents in the night of November 
3, 1956, during a meeting which was supposed to 
be for the purpose of arranging the withdrawal 
of Soviet troops from Hungary. From that night 
on General Maleter was never seen again until 
the day 19 months later when his execution was 
announced. 

We know that Prime Minister Nagy, on the 
morning of November 4, 1956, after the Soviet 
attack and the announcement of the Soviet-im- 
posed Kadar puppet government, found political 
asylum in the Embassy of Yugoslavia in Buda- 
pest, along with a number of other leading Hun- 
garians. The new Prime Minister, Kadar, asked 
that Mr. Nagy and his companions be returned, 
and he offered to let them go to Rumania. Mr. 
Nagy refused. On November 21 the Hungarian 
authorities agreed in writing to let the group 



"proceed freely to their homes," and it said that 
the Hungarian Government "hereby confirms in 
writing its verbal declaration that it does not de- 
sire to apply sanctions against Imre Nagy and 
the members of his group for their past 
activities." 

On this basis on November 22, 1956, the Yugo- 
slav Embassy released Mr. Nagy and his group. 
That evening they entered a Hungarian Govern- 
ment bus outside the Embassy. In a surprise 
move this bus was boarded by Soviet military 
personnel and driven to the Soviet military head- 
quarters in Budapest. From that point the bus, 
escorted by Soviet armored cars, proceeded "to 
an unknown destination." Mr. President, Imre 
Nagy was never seen after that. 

On the evening of the next day the Kadar 
government announced that Prime Minister Nagy 
and some of his colleagues had gone to Rumania. 
The communique stated that this was in accord- 
ance with their own request, although this does 
not jibe with the known facts. The Rumanian 
Government, despite all inquiries, has revealed 
nothing about its part in the matter or about how 
Mr. Nagy's so-called "asylum" in Rumania came 
to its tragic end. 

Finally, on June 16 of this year, came the 
shocking announcement that Prime Minister 
Nagy, along with General Maleter and the two 
Hungarian journalists, had been put to death. 

Rejection of U.N. Appeals 

Both the Soviet Government and the Hungar- 
ian authorities knew full well that Mr. Nagy's 
status and that of many other Hungarians was a 
matter of international concern. In our debates 
here at that time a number of speakers, including 
me, called attention to Mr. Nagy's disappearance. 
In June 1957 the report of the United Nations 
Special Committee told in detail the story of his 
abduction and disappearance, along with many 
other acts of terror by the new regime and their 
Soviet masters. On September 14, 1957, the Gen- 
eral Assembly, in a resolution adopted by 60 votes 
to 10, called on the Soviet Union and the authori- 
ties in Hungary "to desist from repressive meas- 
ures against the Hungarian people." From Sep- 
tember to November 1957 the United Nations 
Special Representative, Prince Wan Waithaya- 
kon, invoking that same resolution, appealed re- 
peatedly to the Soviet and Hungarian authori- 



58 



Department of State Bulletin 



ties for humanitarian action. His report to the 
Assembly on December 9, 1957, 5 told of his appeal 
of October 10 to the Hungarian Government "for 
more lenient treatment of prisoners, of persons 
detained in concentration camps, and of persons 
awaiting trial and for due process in trials — and, 
finally, for an amnesty for political offenders." 
That was Prince Wan's appeal. But all his ap- 
peals, as we know, were rejected. 

On December 14, 1957, the General Assembly 
discussed this question further. At that time, 
speaking for the United States, I cited reports 
that General Maleter and others had been placed 
on trial and that other prominent Hungarians had 
been put to death or imprisoned for long terms 
for their actions during the uprising. 6 

On December 20, 1957, the chairman of the 
Special Committee, Mr. Alsing Andersen, ad- 
dressed a letter on behalf of the Committee to 
the Hungarian Foreign Minister, asking him for 
information on the circumstances of General Ma- 
leter and others and again appealing for hu- 
manitarian treatment. Mr. President, his letter 
was not answered. In fact the Hungarian repre- 
sentative here in New York refused even to for- 
ward it to Budapest. 

On February 11, 1958, the United States Mis- 
sion to the United Nations sent a letter to the 
Hungarian Representative, Mr. Mod, reminding 
him of his own suggestion that we "ask for au- 
thentic information through the proper chan- 
nels" — we thought that he might be a proper chan- 
nel to the Hungarian regime in Budapest — and 
accordingly asking for authentic information 
about 21 Hungarians, including Imre Nagy and 
Pal Maleter. 7 Our letter was acknowledged and 
forwarded, but after a month's delay Mr. Mod 
refused in writing to answer our questions. As a 
result of this exchange on March 13, I appealed 
publicly to the Hungarian authorities to heed the 
overwhelming voice of world opinion and to cease 
their repressive acts. 

Mr. President, these are but a few of the appeals 
which were made. Others came from govern- 
ments and leading citizens in many countries, but 
the authorities in Budapest defied them all, in- 
cluding the overwhelming voice of the General 
Assembly itself. 



5 U.N. doc. A/3744. 

6 Bulletin of Jan. 6, 1958, p. 33. 

7 Ibid., Apr. 7, 1958, p. 581. 



Facts About Soviet Intervention 

Now, the Hungarian authorities, as well as the 
Soviet leaders, claim that all these matters are 
strictly an internal affair of the Hungarian Gov- 
ernment. But they made the same claim about the 
Soviet military intervention of November 1956, 
and that claim was rejected by the General As- 
sembly. 

Mr. President, Imre Nagy was the lawful Prime 
Minister of the independent state of Hungary, a 
member of the United Nations. He was put to 
death as the crowning act of a Soviet reign of 
terror against the Hungarian people, a reign of 
terror which is still being carried out today by 
Hungarians who are, in truth, agents for the 
Soviet Union in the presence of the Soviet oc- 
cupation army, which remains the decisive force 
in the lives of the unhappy people of Hungary. 

That is a strong statement to make. But the 
overwhelming weight of evidence bears it out. 
We are indeed faced with a series of events which, 
for callous cruelty and brazen defiance of civilized 
standards in the worst traditions of the tsars of 
medieval times, has no parallel in the annals of 
the United Nations. 

Here are the facts which argue that the Soviet 
Union caused the death of Prime Minister Nagy : 

1. It was not Hungarians but the Soviet Army 
that deposed Imre Nagy. 

2. It was not Hungarians but the Soviet Army 
that kidnaped Imre Nagy. 

3. The Hungarian puppet Prime Minister, 
Janos Kadar, repeatedly promised that Mr. Nagy 
would not be punished. He made this promise to 
the Yugoslav Government on November 21, in 
exchange for the release of Mr. Nagy. Six days 
later, after Mr. Nagy's mysterious abduction, Mr. 
Kadar repeated in the official newspaper Nepsza- 
badsag : "We have promised not to start any puni- 
tive proceedings against Imre Nagy, and we shall 
keep our word." But, when Mr. Kadar went to 
Moscow in March 1957, his tune changed. There 
he suddenly charged Imre Nagy with preparing 
the destruction of Hungarian communism from 
without, in alliance with what is quoted as "the 
dark forces of reaction." So it was from the 
Kremlin in Moscow that the world first heard of 
the alleged "treason" of Imre Nagy. 

4. In November 1957, after months of official 
silence about Imre Nagy, there took place in Mos- 



January 12, 7959 



59 



cow a meeting of the Communist Party leaders of 
Communist-ruled countries, including Hungary. 
Mr. Kadar was there. He, like most of the others, 
reaffirmed that the Soviet Union remains the 
leader of world communism. He, like the others, 
signed a manifesto of world Communist policy 
which attacked the crime of "revisionism" — which 
means thinking for yourself — and which blamed 
the so-called "counterrevolution" in Hungary on 
an alleged "imperialist plan." And in December, 
the month after that Moscow manifesto, Imre 
Nagy was denounced in a so-called "Hungarian 
White Book" and in speeches by two leading 
figures in the Budapest regime, the editor of the 
Communist daily paper Nepszdbadsag and — om- 
inously enough — the chief public prosecutor. 

5. Finally, in April 1958, Mr. Khrushchev paid 
a visit to Hungary. On April 8 he said in a 
speech that the Soviet Union would intervene in 
Hungary again if there were another uprising. 
That is what Mr. Khrushchev said. And he 
added these words: "We must warn amateurs 
against all kinds of provocations: We do not 
advise the enemies of the working class to try 
our patience and organize new provocations." 
Mr. Khrushchev did not explain how he acquired 
the right to speak for the working class. 

Now, Mr. President, it is interesting to com- 
pare that statement with the editorial in the 
Budapest Communist paper Nepszdbadsag, just 
after the Nagy execution was announced. That 
paper said this: "These sentences constitute a 
warning to all those who dare attack our legal 
order." It is interesting too to note Mr. Khru- 
shchev's further statement of April 9, in which he 
applauded the fact that "governmental organs of 
the Hungarian People's Democracy, after the 
counterrevolution, put the principal criminals 
under lock and key." He said, "It is better to 
jail a few instigators than to endanger the people 
themselves." 

Thus it appears that the highest authority of 
world communism came to Hungary 2 months in 
advance to prepare public opinion for the killing 
of Imre Nagy. I believe that is a fair deduction 
to be drawn from this succession of events. 

Continuing Reign of Terror 

Mr. President, the killings of Imre Nagy and 
Pal Maleter are only the most conspicuous and 



important in a long list of acts of terror by the 
Hungarian Communist regime, in direct defiance 
of the United Nations. 

On November 4, 1956, when the Kadar govern- 
ment was installed in Budaj>est at Soviet gun- 
point, that government made this promise : "The 
Government will not tolerate, under any pretext, 
the persecution of workers for having taken part 
in the most recent events." That is what it said. 
But, when the General Assembly met in Septem- 
ber 1957 to discuss this question, the United 
States delegation submitted a list of 1,768 names 
of Hungarians who had been arrested, imprisoned, 
or put to death "for having taken part in the 
most recent events." 

It is necessary to face the fact now that this 
reign of terror, of which the salient feature was 
the killing of Imre Nagy, still continues in full 
force. The special report of the United Nations 
Special Committee, dated last July 14, lists 30 
Hungarians officially announced to have been exe- 
cuted between June 20, 1957, and June 21, 1958, 
for so-called "counterrevolutionary crimes." The 
report further lists 110 individuals, by name, who 
have been reported in Hungarian newspapers and 
official radio broadcasts as having received prison 
sentences, ranging up to life imprisonment, dur- 
ing the same period for the same offense. 

Among these is Sandor Kopacsi, who was Chief 
of Police in Budapest. Also among them are 
many writers, including some of the most famous 
in Hungary — men like Tibor Dery, Gyula Hay, 
both winners of the Kossuth Award, and Gyula 
Obersovsky, a journalist sentenced to life impris- 
onment. According to Chairman Andersen of 
the Special Committe, in July Mr. Obersovsky 
was scheduled for a new trial in which the prose- 
cutor intended to demand the death penalty. 

We have further reliable reports that Istvan 
Bibo, a leader of the Petofi Peasant Party and a 
Minister of State in the last cabinet of Imre Nagy, 
was sentenced to life imprisonment in August 
1958. No word about Mr. Bibo has appeared in 
the controlled press of Hungary. 

We have a Hungarian press report of last sum- 
mer that Geza Losonczy, also a Minister of State 
under Imre Nagy, who went with Mr. Nagy into 
exile in Kumania, had "died in prison." 

There are a great many individuals, of course, 
whose fate is simply unknown. It is clear that 
the regime does not announce publicly all the poli- 






60 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



tical sentences it imposes. But we have a United 
Press International report from Vienna dated 
September 16 which tells of the sentencing of 
three more so-called "accomplices" of Imre Nagy : 
Gabor Tanczos of the Petofi Club to life impris- 
onment, Gyorgy Fazekas to 11 years, and San dor 
Haraszti to 8 years. 

A Mockery of Justice 

The executions and sentences which have been 
announced publicly, together with the probably 
much larger number which will never be an- 
nounced, are only a part of the story. The entire 
people of Hungary are affected by this terror. 
They are all caught again in the web of lies and 
fear from which they were able to break out for 
only a few days in 1956. The old AVH, the secret 
police of the Bakosi-Gero era, is fully reconstituted 
now under other names. The judicial system of 
so-called "summary justice," instituted after the 
Soviet coup of November 4, has been formally 
abolished but actually continues in full force. 
Nonprofessional "people's judges" — we are not 
told what "people" — still pass judgment on so- 
called "counterrevolutionary" cases and hand 
down decisions based not on the evidence or the 
law but on the fact, as the Minister of Justice put 
it, "that they are members of the class tribunal of 
the proletarian dictatorship." The President of 
the Hungarian Supreme Court admitted that half 
of the professional judges had been dismissed for 
refusing to join in this mockery of justice. It is 
further reported that, of the 1,600 lawyers in 
Budapest, over 700 have been disbarred as po- 
litically unreliable. 

In the midst of that system of terror, Janos 
Kadar said last January in the Hungarian Par- 
liament: "Not one member of the Hungarian 
Government will render an account of any issue 
affecting Hungarian internal policy to anyone 
apart from the Hungarian National Assembly." 
Thus the chief of the Hungarian Communist ma- 
chine, and therefore presumably the most powerful 
Hungarian in Hungary today, took it on himself 
once again to defy the United Nations and to say 
that the Soviet terror against the Hungarian 
people is a matter exclusively of "Hungarian 
internal policy." 

Mr. President, these words of defiance are inso- 
lent and reprehensible, but they cannot deflect us 
from our course. Nothing has been said or done 



which can relieve the General Assembly of its duty 
to extend to the Hungarian people, insofar as we 
can, the protection to which the charter entitles 
them. 

Indeed, the votes of 61 member states to inscribe 
this item on our agenda are overwhelming proof 
of our belief that we must continue to be concerned 
with the situation in Hungary, aggravated as it 
now is by the continuing terror and by the murder 
of a Hungarian Prime Minister, Imre Nagy, vir- 
tually on orders from Moscow. The question 
which remains is not whether to act but what 
action to take. 

U.S. Cosponsors New Draft Resolution 

Mr. President, the United States has joined with 
Argentina, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, 
Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Bica, Cuba, 
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Federation of 
Malaya, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, 
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Laos, Luxembourg, 
Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, 
Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Portu- 
gal, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, Uruguay, 
and Venezuela in submitting a new draft resolu- 
tion. 8 Let me describe its provisions briefly: 

First, it expresses our appreciation to the 
United Nations Special Committee and to the 
United Nations Special Representative, Prince 
Wan, for their efforts to achieve the objectives of 
the United Nations in Hungary, and it deplores 
the continued Soviet and Hungarian refusal to 
cooperate with them in any respect. 

Second, it records our judgment on the present 
continuing repression in Hungary of the funda- 
mental rights of the Hungarian people. It de- 
nounces specifically the execution of Prime Min- 
ister Imre Nagy, General Pal Maleter, and other 
Hungarian patriots. 

Third, it calls once again upon the Soviet Union 
and the present authorities in Hungary "to desist 
from repressive measures against the Hungarian 
people and to respect the liberty and political in- 
dependence of Hungary and the Hungarian peo- 
ple's enjoyment of fundamental human rights and 
freedoms." 

Fourth, it declares that the United Nations will 
continue to be seized of the situation in Hungary 



1 U.N. doc. A/L. 255. 



January 12, J 959 



61 



in view of the flagrant disregard of its resolutions 
by the Soviet and Hungarian authorities. 

Finally, it appoints an individual "to represent 
the United Nations for the purpose of reporting 
to Member States or to the General Assembly on 
significant developments relating to the imple- 
mentation of the resolutions of the General Assem- 
bly on Hungary." 

We are glad, Mr. President, that Sir Leslie 
Munro [New Zealand] has kindly consented to 
fill this important office. Sir Leslie, as his coun- 
try's representative at the United Nations for 
many years and as the unanimous choice of the 
General Assembly to preside over its 12th session 
a year ago, is admirably qualified. 

We, the sponsors of this resolution, intend that 
Sir Leslie be the watchdog of the United Nations. 
We cannot now foresee exactly what his tasks may 
be. We hope his activity and his reporting role 
will be a sign to the authorities in Hungary that 
the United Nations is watching to see whether the 
current repressions are ended. He may be able 
to bring about some improvement in the situa- 
tion or at least to prevent it from growing worse. 

We know that many thousands of Hungarian 
patriots remain in prison. We have ample evi- 
dence of the pattern of life in the Soviet satellite 
empire to know that each day these prisoners 
live in terror that they may be summoned before 
the executioners. But if their jailers know that 
such actions may be noticed throughout the world, 
there is at least some reason to hope that they may 
act with restraint. 

The United States still shares the hope, voiced 
earlier in the session by the distinguished For- 
eign Minister of Austria, when he was here, that 
the present Hungarian authorities may see fit to 
honor their repeated pledge to grant amnesty to 
those who participated in the stirring events of 
October and November 1956. 

We are perfectly aware that those whom the 
General Assembly has appointed in the past to 
represent it in this matter have met nothing but 
defiance and denunciation by the authorities in 
Budapest. This callous attitude has sorely tried 
the patience of the Assembly. The authorities in 
Hungary would be wise to abandon that course of 
action and, on their own initiative, to cooperate 
with the General Assembly and its representa- 
tives. What they decide to do in this matter — if 
indeed they are free to decide anything — will un- 



doubtedly affect their standing in the world and 
in tins organization next year. And I say that 
to them in all candor. 

Mr. President, I conclude. 

Under the charter the United Nations has the 
duty to try every available peaceful step which 
may improve conditions in Hungary. The reso- 
lution before the Assembly is designed as one 
means wherewith to show that we will never 
forget. 

The United States hopes that the 37-power res- 
olution will command the support of the over- 
whelming majority of members. And, Mr. Presi- 
dent, we pray that it may bring some measure of 
relief and of hope to the people of Hungary in the 
long night of their ordeal and trial. 

TEXT OF RESOLUTION 9 

The General Assembly, 

Having considered the supplementary report, dated 14 
July 1958, of the United Nations Special Committee es- 
tablished by resolution 1132 (XI) to report on the prob- 
lem of Hungary, 

Having considered the report, dated 9 December 1957, 
of the United Nations Special Representative, H. R. H. 
Prince Wan Waithayakon, who was appointed by Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution 1133 (XI) to take steps to 
achieve the objectives of the General Assembly's resolu- 
tions 1004 (ES-II), 1127 (XI), 1131 and 1132 (XI), 

1. Expresses its appreciation to its Special Representa- 
tive, Prince Wan Waithayakon, for the efforts he has 
made to enter into consultation with the appropriate 
authorities with a view to achieving the objectives of 
the resolutions referred to above ; 

2. Endorses the Special Committee's unanimous re- 
port dated 14 July 1958 and expresses its thanks to the 
Special Committee for its objective and efficient dis- 
charge of the tasks entrusted to it ; 

3. Deplores the continued refusal of the Government of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the regime 
in Hungary to co-operate with the Special Representa- 
tive and with the Committee in their efforts to achieve 
the objectives of the United Nations in accordance with 
pertinent resolutions of the General Assembly ; 

4. Deplores the continuing repression in Hungary of 
fundamental rights of the Hungarian people and their 
freedom of political expression under the shadow of the 
continuing presence of Soviet armed forces; 

5. Denounces the execution of Mr. Imre Nagy, Gen- 
eral Pal Maleter and other Hungarian patriots ; 



* U.N. doe. A/L. 255 ; adopted in plenary session A/Res/ 
1312 (XIII) on Dec. 12 by a vote of 54 to 10 (Soviet bloc 
and Yugoslavia) with 15 abstentions (Afghanistan, Cey- 
lon, Ethiopia, Finland, Ghana, Greece, India, Indonesia, 
Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and 
the United Arab Republic) ; Israel and Yemen were 
absent. 



62 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



6. Condemns this continued defiance of the resolutions 
of the General Assembly ; 

7. Again calls upon the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics and the present authorities in Hungary to desist 
from repressive measures against the Hungarian people 
and to respect the liberty and political independence of 
Hungary and the Hungarian people's enjoyment of funda- 
mental human rights and freedoms ; 

8. Declares that the United Nations will continue to 
be seized of the situation in Hungary in view of the 
fact that the Government of the USSR and the present 
authorities in Hungary are disregarding the above- 
mentioned resolutions of the General Assembly ; 

9. Decides to appoint Sir Leslie Munro to represent the 
United Nations for the purpose of reporting to Member 
States or to the General Assembly on significant develop- 
ments relating to the implementation of the resolutions 
of the General Assembly on Hungary ; 

10. Requests the Secretary-General to provide the neces- 
sary facilities to assist Sir Leslie Munro in the perform- 
ance of his duties. 



STATEMENT ON CREDENTIALS, DECEMBER 13 

U.S. delegation press release 3138 

The United States supports the report of the 
Credentials Committee. 10 Again, as at every ses- 
sion since the 1956 Hungarian national uprising, 
the report recommends that the General Assembly 
take no decision regarding the credentials sub- 
mitted on behalf of the representatives of the 
present regime in Hungary. Because it is clear 
that the present Hungarian authorities are not 
capable of representing the freedom-loving peo- 
ple of Hungary in the United Nations, the Gen- 
eral Assembly has at five sessions allowed the 
Hungarian representatives to be seated in a pro- 
visional status only. 

By refusing to accept the credentials of the 
Hungarian representatives, the General Assembly 
placed the present regime on notice that it in- 
tended to watch the situation in Hungary closely. 
I would like to recall a few of the things which the 
United Nations has discovered about the present 
Hungarian regime in the course of the past 2 
years. 

In resolution 1004, which was passed at the 
second emergency session, the General Assembly 
stated its conviction 

. . . that recent events in Hungary manifest clearly 
the desire of the Hungarian people to exercise and to 
enjoy fully their fundamental rights, freedom and inde- 
pendence. 



10 U.N. doc. A/4074. 
January 12, 7959 



The same resolution condemned the use of Soviet 
military forces to suppress the efforts of the Hun- 
garian people to reassert their rights. 

Among other things, the General Assembly in 
resolution 1133 of the 11th session found that 

The present Hungarian regime has been imposed on the 
Hungarian people by the armed intervention of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

In the same resolution an appeal was made to 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the 
present Hungarian authorities to cease their acts 
of repression and to comply with the numerous 
resolutions of the General Assembly. 

On the night of June 16, 1958, in simultaneous 
announcements in Moscow and Budapest, the 
world learned of the execution of former Prime 
Minister Imre Nagy and former Minister of De- 
fense Pal Maleter and other Hungarian patriots. 
The execution of Mr. Nagy was in violation of the 
pledged word of the present Hungarian regime 
that it did not seek vengeance, and, significantly, it 
occurred soon after a visit to Budapest by Mr. 
Khrushchev. The United Nations Special Com- 
mittee on the Problem of Hungary reconvened on 
June 21, 1958, and issued a communique which 
contained the following statement : 

The execution of Imre Nagy and of his companions 
demonstrates that the oppression of the Hungarian people 
has not abated, that the reign of terror which began when 
Russian forces marched into Hungary early in November 
1956 continues. 

Then there is the unanimous special report of the 
Special Committee on July 14, 1958, which, after 
referring to the continuing oppression in Hungary, 
made this comment : 

The continued presence of foreign armed forces in Hun- 
gary is likely to prevent the expression of the feelings of 
the people against such procedures by the Hungarian 
government. 

Mr. President, this is what the General Assembly 
and its representatives have determined to be the 
present situation in Hungary. The findings that I 
have mentioned are but a few of the reasons why 
the General Assembly under the existing circum- 
stances should continue to refuse to accept the 
credentials submitted on behalf of the representa- 
tives of the present Hungarian regime. 11 

"The General Assembly in plenary session on Dec. 13 
approved the report of the Credentials Committee by a vote 
of 79 to 1 (Hungary) with 1 abstention. 



63 



U.N. To Convene Second Conference 
on the Law of the Sea 

Following are two statements by Herman 
Phleger, U.S. Representative to the General As- 
sembly, one made in Committee VI (Legal) on 
November 25 and the other in plenary session on 
December 10, together with the text of a resolu- 
tion convening the second V.N. Conference on 
the Law of the Sea. 

STATEMENT IN COMMITTEE VI, NOVEMBER 25 

U.S. delegation press release 3091 

In February 1958, pursuant to a General As- 
sembly resolution, 1 the representatives of 86 states 
met at Geneva to consider the preparation of con- 
ventions on the law of the sea. 2 As a basis for 
their work they had the draft articles on the law 
of the sea which had been prepared by the Inter- 
national Law Commission. It is demonstrative of 
both the high quality of the Commission's work 
and the spirit of conciliation which marked the 
conference that agreement was reached on almost 
all of the topics covered in the Commission's draft. 
However, there remained two important questions 
on which the conference was not able to reach 
agreement. 

The breadth of the territorial sea and the closely 
related question of the extent to which a coastal 
state may control fishing in the high seas off its 
coasts were not agreed upon, although in the 
course of the conference a number of proposals 
were put forward in an effort to meet the different 
views held concerning these questions. There is 
reason to believe that, if there had been a little 
more time to concentrate on the consideration of 
these questions, the conference would have reached 
agreement. Those delegates who were present at 
Geneva may recall that the possibilities of agree- 
ment on these questions had not been exhausted ; 
active discussions were continued until the time 
schedule necessary to conclude the conference. 

On April 27, the last day of the conference, a 
resolution was adopted noting that agreement had 
not been reached on these questions and requesting 
the General Assembly at its 13th session to con- 



1 For text, see Bulletin of Jan. 14, 1957, p. 61. 

2 For a closing statement by Arthur Dean, chairman of 
the U.S. delegation, and texts of conventions, protocol, and 
resolutions, see ibid., June 30, 1958, p. 1110. 



sider the advisability of convening a second con- 
ference on the law of the sea to deal with these 
topics of unfinished business. Thus we are now 
considering the agenda item before us. 

It seems evident from the course of this debate 
that there is a wide measure of agreement on the 
desirability, and indeed the necessity, of holding 
a second conference. The task before us, there- 
fore, is to reach agreement on an appropriate date. 

My delegation is not able to agree with some 
suggestions that have been made, that the convo- 
cation of the conference be put off for 2 or even 
3 years. It seems clear that no such extended 
period of time is required to make proper prep- 
aration for a second conference, particularly as 
the questions at issue were on the agenda of the 
first conference and received extensive considera- 
tion at that time. Apart from that consideration, 
however, there are compelling reasons which argue 
for an earlier date. 

One of these is the existence of actual disputes 
in some parts of the world as to the breadth of the 
territorial sea and particularly regarding fishing 
rights in waters off the coasts of other states. 
Great practical benefit would result from early 
agreement on rules which would resolve these 
disputes. Uncertainties would thereby be re- 
moved, and sources of tension and potentially 
serious international friction would be eliminated. 
One of the basic purposes of the United Nations 
is to adjust international differences and to pro- 
mote friendly relations between states. The 
timely convocation of a second conference on the 
law of the sea can contribute significantly to the 
achievement of these purposes. 

There are other compelling reasons for holding 
the conference at a relatively early date. In the 
6 months during which the four conventions pre- 
pared at the 1958 Geneva conference remained 
open for signature, 49 states signed one or more 
of the conventions and 44 states have signed the 
convention on the territorial sea and contiguous 
zones. 

This last figure is of particular significance. To 
give full meaning to and to permit practical ap- 
plication of the convention on the territorial sea, 
it is necessary to find agreed answers to the yet 
unresolved questions of the breadth of the terri- 
torial sea and of fishery limits. Indeed, it seems 
reasonable to anticipate that a number of states 
which have signed this convention will not be 



64 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



prepared to ratify it in advance of knowing the 
answers to these unresolved questions. The 
United States submits that answers to these ques- 
tions should be found at an early date. Then and 
then only can the work of the first Geneva confer- 
ence be given complete and practical effect. 

Nor is my delegation able to agree with the 
thesis that it is not practicable to fix the date of a 
second conference without first considering the 
nature and substance of proposals which might 
be made at such a conference to resolve the un- 
resolved questions. Indeed, this would amount 
to prejudging the questions to be considered at 
the reconvened conference even if it were possible 
to advance specific proposals at this time, which 
it is not. 

A preparatory period before the next conference 
is necessary for the very purpose of developing 
possible solutions which can obtain the necessary 
support and acceptance. It would, to say the least, 
be an anomaly to suggest that the likely formulae 
for resolving the existing differences be first ad- 
vanced and tested in this committee. That is the 
purpose, function, and responsibility of a second 
conference. 

My delegation supports the calling of a second 
conference in the belief that the issues involved 
are of such importance that they will affect the 
peace of the international community if they are 
left unresolved. And it is also our belief that the 
states concerned will be inspired to compose their 
differing views and reach agreement in conformity 
with the principles of justice and international 
law. 

In considering the most desirable date for a 
second conference we must take into account the 
necessity for adequate preparation. We believe 
that, with the background of the work by the 
Geneva conference, the required consultations can 
be carried out within a reasonable period. Pro- 
tracted delay would be prejudicial. It would lose 
much of the advantage of the work and experience 
gained at Geneva, and it might in fact result 
merely in postponing the initiation of the diplo- 
matic preparations for the conference. 

It is obvious that a reasonable period for pre- 
paratory work and discussion is necessary. In our 
view there would not be sufficient time for this 
preparation if a second conference were sched- 
uled to meet in the first months of 1959. Much as 
we sympathize with those delegations which have 



expressed themselves in favor of holding a second 
conference as early as February 1959, we believe 
prudence counsels a reasonable period in which 
to make ready. 

When the various relevant factors are taken 
into account, it seems reasonable to conclude that 
the summer of 1959 is the best date for scheduling 
the second conference. Following wide con- 
sultations on the question, this date was incorpo- 
rated in the draft resolution which has been in- 
troduced by 11 delegations. 3 It is our hope that 
next summer will prove a generally acceptable 
date. 

The terms of reference under which the second 
conference is to be convoked must be carefully 
chosen. We ought not to prejudice the success of 
agreement on the territorial sea and fishery limits 
by including additional topics in the work of the 
conference. In our view the phrase "the breadth 
of the territorial sea and fishery limits" contained 
in the 11-power resolution appropriately states 
the scope of the second conference. 

In regard to various details in the convoking of 
the new conference, the present Assembly can use- 
fully follow the precedent of the resolution under 
which the first conference was convoked. I am 
sure those delegations which participated in the 
first conference will agree that no serious prob- 
lems were experienced in the implementation of 
that resolution. Moreover, since the second con- 
ference is a direct extension of the first, it would 
seem logical that it should be convoked under sim- 
ilar terms. 

In conclusion, Mr. Chairman, I should like to 
urge that the draft resolution submitted by 11 
delegations, including my own, be approved as 
representing a reasonable accommodation of di- 
verse views on the question of date and as offering 
the best hope of providing for a successful second 
conference. 



STATEMENT IN PLENARY, DECEMBER 10 

U.S. delegation press release 3124 

Since the voting on the present matter which 
took place in the Sixth Committee, the United 
States has given earnest consideration to the ques- 
tion of how the prospects for a successful second 
conference on the law of the sea could be maxi- 



a U.N. doc. A/C.6/L.442. 



January 12, 7959 



65 



mized. We have engaged in consultations with 
a number of delegations, including sponsors of 
the amendment which was defeated by a narrow 
margin in the committee. 

The United States delegation was approached 
by the delegation of Mexico earlier this week. 
The sponsors of the committee amendment have 
now proposed a change in the date of the second 
conference from July or August 1959 to "the ear- 
liest convenient date in March or April I960.'' 
The change is embodied in the amendment 
appearing in document A/L. 253, which is now 
before the Assembly. The United States dele- 
gation is prepared to accept this change. We 
do so because we believe that the conference at a 
later date will command the support of a very 
large majority of the members of this Assembly. 
We believe that such support will enhance the 
prospects of success at the conference. 

It is our understanding, from the consultations 
we have held, that states throughout the world, 
including many which had opposed the holding 
of a conference in 1959, will work for the success- 
ful outcome of a conference in 1960. With such 
an attitude on the part of the prospective partici- 
pants, the conference should be able to reach 
agreement on the issues left unresolved by the 
first Geneva conference. We look forward to 
fruitful cooperation at the second conference and 
to an atmosphere of accommodation and concili- 
ation during the period of the very necessary 
preparations which must precede the conference. 
It is implicit that during this period governments 
will not take actions which would prejudice the 
success of the conference. 

The amendment proposed by Mexico sets the 
timing of the second conference at "the earliest 
convenient date in March or April 1960." We 
understand this wording is chosen to avoid any 
conflict with the 11th Inter- American Conference, 
which is to convene late in January 1960. On 
this basis the second conference on the law of the 
sea could meet by early March. We believe it is 
appropriate to leave the precise date to be fixed by 
the Secretary-General on the basis of consulta- 
tions with governments. 

The United States recognizes that setting a date 
for the conference subsequent to the summer of 
1959 creates special problems for some countries 
in certain regions. In regard to the important 



problems of those communities which are prima- 
rily dependent upon fisheries near their coasts, it 
is the view of the United States that efforts to 
deal with them should not be delayed until the 
convening of the second conference on the law of 
the sea. Indeed, we think that efforts should be 
made without delay to secure a satisfactory reso- 
lution of any such problems. This purpose will 
guide the policy and actions of the United States 
Government. The United States would welcome 
discussions between the parties concerned to find 
acceptable solutions and is prepared to lend its 
active assistance to this end. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION' 

The General Assembly, 

Having received the resolution adopted on 27 April 
1958 by the United Nations Conference on the Law of 
the Sea, 6 requesting the General Assembly to study at 
its thirteenth session the advisability of convening a 
second international conference of plenipotentiaries for 
further consideration of questions left unsettled by the 
Conference, 

Recalling that the Conference made an historic contri- 
bution to the codification and progressive development 
of international law by preparing and opening for signa- 
ture conventions on nearly all of the subjects covered by 
the draft articles on the law of the sea drawn up by the 
International Law Commission, * 

Noting that no proposal concerning the breadth of the 
territorial sea or fishery limits received the two-thirds 
majority required for adoption by the Conference, 

Believing that the desire for agreement on these two 
vital issues continues and that agreement thereon would 
contribute substantially to the lessening of international 
tensions and to the preservation of world order and peace, 

Convinced that to reach such agreement it is necessary 
to undertake considerable preparatory work so as to 
ensure reasonable probabilities of success, 

1. Decides that a second international conference of 
plenipotentiaries on the law of the sea should be called 
for the purpose of considering further the questions of 
the breadth of the territorial sea and fishery limits ; 

2. Requests the Secretary-General to convoke the con- 
ference at the earliest convenient date in March or April 



'U.N. doc. A/Res/1307 (XIII); adopted in plenary 
session on Dec. 10 by a vote of 71 to with 6 abstentions. 

5 United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, 
Official Records, Volume II: Plenary Meetings (United 
Nations publication, Sales No.: 58.V.4, vol. II), annexes, 
document A/CONF.13/L.56, resolution VIII. [Footnote 
in original.] 

'Official Records of the General Assembly, Eleventh 
Session, Supplement No. 9 (A/3159), para. 33. [Footnote 
in original.] 



66 



Department of State Bulletin 



I960, at the European Office of the United Nations in 
Geneva ; 

3. Invites all States Members of the United Nations 
and States members of the specialized agencies to par- 
ticipate in the conference and to include among their 
representatives experts competent in the matters to be 
considered ; 

4. Bequests the Secretary-General to invite specialized 
agencies and inter-governmental bodies concerned with 
the matters to be considered to send observers to the 
conference ; 

5. Requests the Secretary-General to arrange for the 
necessary staff and facilities which would be required 
for the conference, and to present to the conference 
recommendations concerning its methods of work and 
procedures, and other questions of an administrative 
nature ; 

6. Refers to the conference for its information the 
relevant records of the United Nations Conference on 
the Law of the Sea held in 1958. 



President Appoints Members 
to Caribbean Commission 

The White House on December 24 announced 
that the President had on that day appointed the 
following-named persons for 2-year terms as Com- 
missioners of the U.S. section of the Caribbean 
Commission: David E. Maas, vice E. Leonard 
Brewer; Jose Trias Monge (reappointment); 
Arturo Morales Carrion (reappointment). 



U.S. Delegations to 
International Conferences 

Fifth World Forestry Congress 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 19 (press release 764) that Richard E. 
McArdle, chief of the U.S. Forest Service, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, has been named chairman 
of the Organizing Committee for the Fifth World 
Forestry Congress which will be held at Seattle, 
Wash., in 1960. The site of this international 
forestry meeting, the first for which the U.S. 
Government will be the host, is the campus of the 
University of Washington. Officially opening on 
August 29, 1960, this Congress will run until 
September 10. Official participation in this inter- 
national congress will be upon invitation by the 
U.S. Government. 

Henry Schmitz, president emeritus, University 
of Washington, has been named honorary vice 



chairman. William M. Gibson, deputy director, 
Office of International Conferences, Department 
of State, will serve as vice chairman. 

I. T. Haig, assistant to the chief, Forest Service, 
Department of Agriculture, has been designated 
executive secretary, and Harold A. Vogel, regional 
representative, Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion of the United Nations, has been named 
honorary member. 

Members of the committee include persons 
active in forest conservation and the forest indus- 
tries. Those designated members of the Organiz- 
ing Committee are : 
George B. Amidon, director of Woodlands Minnesota and 

Ontario Paper Co. 
Kenneth E. Barraclough, extension forester, University 

of New Hampshire 
Roy Battles, The National Grange 

Paul W. Bedard, Office of Food and Agriculture, Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration 
Willard S. Bromley, executive secretary- treasurer, Amer- 
ican Pulpwood Association 
Charles C. Butler, American Farm Bureau Federation 
Charles H. Callison, Natural Resources Council of America 
Whitford B. Carter, Los Angeles Watershed Commission 
Fred H. Claridge, president, Association of State Foresters 
Henry Clepper, executive secretary, Society of American 

Foresters 
Kenneth Davis, Western director, United Brotherhood of 

Carpenters 
Dwight B. Demeritt, vice president, Dead River Co. 
Mortimer B. Doyle, executive vice president, National 

Lumber Manufacturers Association 
Ursula Duffus, Office of International Economic and Social 

Affairs, Department of State 
Paul M. Dunn, technical director of forestry, St. Regis 

Paper Co. 
W. Jeter Eason, president, Forest Products Research 

Society 
Alfred E. Fivaz, Forest Products Division, Department 

of Commerce 
Edelen Fogarty, Office of International Resources, De- 
partment of State 
Tom Gill, executive director, Charles Lathrop Pack For- 
estry Foundation 
V. L. Harper, assistant chief, Forest Service, Department 

of Agriculture 
Albert F. Hartung, president, International Woodworkers 

of America 
Edwin F. Heacox, managing forester, Weyerhaeuser 

Timber Co. 
James H. Kitchens, Jr., president, Council of Forestry 

Association Executives 
Walter M. Leuthold, president, Deer Park Pine Industries, 

Inc. 
Joseph E. McCaffrey, vice president, International Paper 
Co. 



January 72, 7959 



67 



Gordon D. Marckworth, dean, College of Forestry, Uni- 
versity of Washington 

David Mason, president, Mason, Bruce and Girard 

Robert E. O'Connor, executive secretary, American Paper 
and Pulp Association 

Kenneth B. Pomeroy, chief forester, American Forestry 
Association 

Harry V. Ryder, Jr., Office of International Conferences, 
Department of State 

O. Harry Schrader, Jr., general manager, Northwest Divi- 
sion, United States Plywood Corp. 

John F. Shanklin, Technical Review Staff, Office of the 
Secretary, Department of the Interior 

Hardy L. Shirley, dean, College of Forestry, State Uni- 
versity of New York 

Richard W. Smith, manager, Natural Resources Depart- 
ment, Chamber of Commerce of the United States 

Edward P. Stamm, consultant, Crown Zellerbaeh Corp. 

John B. Veach, president, American Forest Products Ba- 
dustries 

Corydon Wagner, vice president, St. Paul and Tacoma 
Lumber Co. 

Lloyd T. Webster, State supervisor of forestry, Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources, Olympia, Wash. 

Charles L. Wheeler, vice president, Pope and Talbot, Inc. 

Having as its theme the multiple-use aspects of 
forestry, the program of this Fifth Congress will 
emphasize the worldwide dependence of all na- 
tions and all peoples on forests and their related 
resources, including water, wildlife, and grass. 
Individual technical sessions will be scheduled on 
such subjects as silviculture, forest genetics, forest 
economics, forest products utilization, forest pro- 
tection (from fire, insects, and disease), forest 
education, and the management of forest ranges 
and watersheds. 

Papers to be presented at the Congress will be 
of two types: (1) those prepared by world au- 
thorities upon the invitation of the Program Com- 
mittee and (2) papers submitted voluntarily by 
participants. 

Preceding the technical sessions at Seattle, 
there will be a number of optional field tours for 
foreign foresters who may wish to visit places of 
special forestry interest in the United States and 
Canada. The excursions will be so planned as to 
enable visitors to observe a wide variety of for- 
estry activities. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography * 

Security Council 

Report by the Secretary-General on the Plan for With- 
drawal of the United Nations Observation Group in 
Lebanon submitted in pursuance of the resolution of 
the Security Council of 11 June 1958 (S/4023). S/4116. 
November 21, 1958. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Letter Dated 27 November 1958 From the Permanent 
Representative of Saudi Arabia Addressed to the Pres- 
ident of the Security Council. S/4119. November 28, 
1958. 3 pp. mimeo. 

Letter Dated 29 November 1958 From the Permanent 
Representative of Cambodia Addressed to the Secre- 
tary-General. S/4121. December 2, 1958. 4 pp. 
mimeo. 

Letter Dated 3 December 1958 Addressed to the Secre- 
tary-General of the United Nations by the Ambassador 
of the Republic of Guinea. S/4122. December 3, 1958. 
13 pp. mimeo. 

Letter Dated 4 December 1958 From the Permanent 
Representative of Israel Addressed to the President 
of the Security Council. S/4123. December 4, 1958. 
2 pp. mimeo. 

Report of the Chief of Staff of the United Nations Truce 
Supervision Organization in Palestine on the Incident 
of 3 December 1958 Between Israel and Syria in the 
Hula Area. S/4124. December 8, 1958. 15 pp. mimeo. 

Letter Dated 8 December 1958 From the Permanent 
Representative of Thailand to the United Nations 
Addressed to the Secretary-General. S/4126. Decem- 
ber 8, 1958. 4 pp. mimeo. 

Letter Dated 10 December 1958 From the Permanent 
Representative of the United Kingdom Addressed to 
the President of the Security Council About an Alleged 
Incident at Khor al Odaid. S/4134. December 11, 
1958. 2 pp. mimeo. 



General Assembly 

Question of Nuclear Weapons Tests. Letter dated 15 
November 1958 from the Permanent Representative of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to the United 
Nations, addressed to the Secretary-General. A/4015. 
December 1, 1958. 4 pp. mimeo. 

Administrative and Budgetary Co-ordination Between the 
United Nations and the Specialized Agencies : Budget 
of the International Atomic Energy Agency for the 
Financial Year 1959. Thirteenth report of the Advisory 
Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions 
to the thirteenth session of the General Assembly. 
A/4016. December 1, 1958. 10 pp. mimeo. 



1 Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N. Y. 
Other materials (mimeographed or processed documents) 
may be consulted at certain designated libraries in the 
United States. 



68 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Agreement With the European Atomic Energy Community 



Following is the text of an agreement signed at 
Brussels on November 8, 1958, by representatives 
of the U.S. Government and the six-nation Euro- 
pean Atomic Energy Community, which provides 
for establishment of a joint nuclear power pro- 
gram. 1 

Agreement foe Cooperation Between the Government 
of the United States of America and the European 
Atomic Energy Community (EDRATOM) Concerning 
Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy 

Whereas the Government of the United States of 
America and the European Atomic Energy Community 
(EURATOM) on May 29 and June 18, 1958 signed an 
agreement ' which provides a basis for cooperation in pro- 
grams for the advancement of the peaceful applications of 
atomic energy ; 

Whereas the Government of the United States of 
America and the European Atomic Energy Community 
(EURATOM) recognize that it would be to their mutual 
benefit to cooperate by establishing a joint program : 

(a) To bring into operation within the European 
Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) large-scale 
power plants using nuclear reactors of types on which re- 
search and development have been carried to an advanced 
stage in the United States, having a total installed capacity 
of approximately one million kilowatts of electricity by 
December 31, 1963 (except that two reactors may be 
selected to be in operation by December 31, 1965), and 
under conditions which would approach the competitive 
range of conventional energy costs in Europe ; 

(b) To initiate immediately a joint research and de- 
velopment program centered on these types of reactors ; 

The Parties agree as follows : 

Article I 

A. Under the joint program, reactor projects may be 
proposed, constructed and operated by private or gov- 
ernmental organizations in the Community engaged in 
the power industry or in the nuclear energy field. Such 
projects will be selected in accordance with technical 



1 For an announcement of the signing, see Bulletin 
of Nov. 24, 1958, p. 830. (Note: The reference in the 
footnote on p. 830 is incorrect. The agreement of June 
18, to which it refers, was a preliminary agreement.) 

2 For text, see ibid., July 14, 195S, p. 70. 



standards, criteria (including those relating to radiation 
protection and reactor safety), and procedures developed 
by the United States Atomic Energy Commission (herein- 
after referred to as the "United States Commission") and 
the Commission of the European Atomic Energy Com- 
munity (hereinafter referred to as the "EURATOM Com- 
mission"). In the evaluation and selection of such re- 
actor projects, the technical and economic features will 
be considered and approved jointly by the United States 
Commission and the EURATOM Commission. Other 
features of such reactor projects will be considered and 
approved by the EURATOM Commission. Reactors now 
being planned or constructed in Member States of the 
Gonirnunity will be eligible for, and will receive, early 
consideration under the criteria established pursuant to 
this paragraph. 

B. The total capital cost, exclusive of the fuel inven- 
tory, of the nuclear power plants with an installed 
capacity of approximately one million kilowatts of elec- 
tricity to be constructed under the program is estimated 
not to exceed the equivalent of $350,000,000 to be financed 
as follows : 

1. Approximately $215,000,000 to be provided by the 
participating utilities and other European sources of 
capital, such financing to be arranged with the appropri- 
ate assistance of the Community ; and 

2. Up to $135,000,000 to be provided by the Government 
of the United States of America to the Community in 
the form of a long-term line of credit on terms and con- 
ditions to be agreed, including terms and conditions sat- 
isfactory to the Parties regarding security for such loan, 
such funds to be re-lent by the Community for the con- 
struction of facilities under this program. 

C. The United States Commission and the EURATOM 
Commission will enter into special arrangements with 
respect to the fuel cycle of reactors to be constructed 
and operated under the joint program according to the 
principles set forth in Annex "A" to this Agreement. 

Article II 

A. The United States Commission and the EURATOM 
Commission under mutually agreed arrangements in- 
tend to initiate a program of research and development 
to be conducted both in the United States and in Europe 
on the types of reactors to be constructed under the joint 
program. This research and development program will 
be aimed primarily at the improvement of the perform- 
ance of these reactors, and at lowering fuel cycle costs. 
It will also deal with plutonium recycling and other 
problems relevant to these reactors. 



January 12, 7959 



69 



B. The research and development program will be 
established for a ten (10) year period. During the first 
five (5) years the financial contribution of the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America and the Commu- 
nity will amount to about $50,000,000 each. Prior to the 
completion of the first five-year period the Parties will 
determine the financial requirements for the remaining 
five-year period and will undertake to procure funds 
necessary to carry out the program. Funds for the second 
five-year period may be in the same order of magnitude. 

C. The administration of this program will be con- 
ducted under arrangements to be mutually agreed. 

Article III 

A. The United States Commission will sell to the Com- 
munity uranium enriched in the isotope U-235 for use in 
projects designated by the Parties pursuant to the joint 
program up to a net amount of thirty thousand (30,000) 
kilograms of contained U-235 in uranium. This net 
amount shall be the gross quantity of contained U-235 
in uranium sold to the Community less the quantity of 
contained U-235 in recoverable uranium which has been 
resold or otherwise returned to the Government of the 
United States of America or transferred to any other 
nation or international organization with the approval of 
the Government of the United States of America. The 
United States Commission will also from time to time 
sell to the Community such quantities of special nuclear 
material, in addition to the quantities of enriched ura- 
nium set forth above, as may be agreed. 

B. Contracts for the sale of special nuclear materials 
will specify the quantities to be supplied, composition of 
material, compensation for material, delivery schedules 
and other necessary terms and conditions. Such con- 
tracts for the sale of enriched uranium for fueling 
power reactors under the joint program may also provide, 
under terms and conditions to be agreed, that payment for 
such enriched uranium may be made on a deferred basis. 
Such terms and conditions will include an obligation that 
the Community return to the United States Commission 
enriched uranium to the extent that there is default in 
payment. The Community will grant no rights to third 
parties that may be inconsistent with such obligation. 
The uranium supplied hereunder for use in reactors de- 
signed for production of electric power may be enriched 
up to twenty percent (20%) by weight in the isotope 
U-235. The United States Commission, however, may, 
upon request and in its discretion, make a portion of the 
foregoing enriched uranium available as material en- 
riched up to ninety percent (90%) for use in materials 
testing reactors and research reactors, each capable of 
operating with a fuel load not to exceed eight (8) kilo- 
grams of contained U-235 in uranium, and as highly en- 
riched material for use for research purposes. 

C. It is agreed that the Community may distribute 
special nuclear material to authorized users in the Com- 
munity ; the Community will retain, pursuant to the 
Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Com- 
munity, title to any special nuclear material which is 
purchased from the United States Commission. 

D. The United States Commission is prepared to per- 
form while such services are available from the Com- 



mission to its licensees in the United States, and on terms 
and conditions to be agreed, chemical reprocessing serv- 
ices with respect to any source or special nuclear material 
received by the Community from the United States under 
this program. It is agreed that such reprocessing will be 
performed at established United States domestic prices 
in effect upon delivery of such material. It is understood, 
except as may be otherwise agreed, that the form and con- 
tent of any irradiated fuel elements shall not be altered 
after their removal from reactors and prior to delivery 
to the United States Commission or to other facilities. 
Special nuclear material and other material recoverable 
from material returned to the United States for reprocess- 
ing will be returned to the Community unless otherwise 
agreed. It is anticipated that any withdrawal by the 
United States Commission of chemical reprocessing serv- 
ices will be based upon the availability of commercial 
facilities to meet requirements for such services at rea- 
sonable prices, including the requirements of projects in 
the joint program. The United States Commission will 
give written notice to the Community of non-availability 
of its chemical reprocessing services twelve (12) months 
prior to such non-availability. 

E. With respect to any special nuclear material pro- 
duced in reactors fueled with materials obtained from the 
United States under this Agreement which is in excess of 
the need of the Community for such material for the 
peaceful uses of atomic energy, the International Atomic 
Energy Agency is granted the right of first option to pur- 
chase such material at the announced fuel value price 
in effect in the United States at the time of purchase. 
In the event this option is not exercised by the Interna- 
tional Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the 
United States of America is prepared to purchase such 
material at the United States announced fuel value price 
in effect at the time of purchase. However, with respect 
to plutonium produced in any reactor constructed under 
the joint program, no purchase commitment shall extend 
for a period beyond ten (10) years of operation of such 
reactor, or December 31, 1973 (or December 31, 1975, for 
not more than two reactors selected under Article I, A), 
whichever is earlier. Extension of such period will be 
the subject of negotiation on the request of either Party. 

Article IV 

The United States Commission will assist the EURA- 
TOM Commission in obtaining reactor materials other 
than special nuclear material from private organizations 
located in the United States if the EURATOM Commis- 
sion desires such assistance. If no commercial sources 
are available, specific arrangements may be made by the 
Parties, from time to time, under terms and conditions to 
be agreed, for the transfer of such materials. 

Article V 

Persons under the jurisdiction of the Government of the 
United States of America or within the Community will 
be permitted to make arrangements to transfer and ex- 
port material, including equipment and devices, to, and 
perform services for, the other Party and such persons 
under the jurisdiction of the Government of the United 



70 



Department of State Bulletin 



States of America or within the Community (as the case 
may be) as are authorized by the appropriate Party to 
receive and possess such material and utilize such serv- 
ices, subject to applicable laws, directives, regulations 
and license requirements of the Government of the United 
States of America, the Community and the Member States 
of the Community. 

Aeticle VI 

A. 1. Under mutually agreed arrangements, all non-pat- 
entable information developed in connection with the joint 
program of research and development, and all non-pat- 
entable information developed in connection with the 
selected projects, concerning designs, plans and specifica- 
tions, construction costs, operations and economics, will 
be delivered currently to the Parties as developed and 
may be used, disseminated, or published by each Party 
for any and all purposes as it sees fit without further 
obligation or payment. There will be no discrimination 
in the dissemination or use of such information for the 
reason that the proposed recipient or user is a national of 
the United States or of any Member State of the Com- 
munity. 

2. Both Parties shall have access to the records of the 
participating contractors pertaining to their participation 
in research and development projects under the joint 
research and development program, or pertaining to the 
performance of fuel elements that are the subject of 
United States guarantees. 

B. The United States Commission and the EURATOM 
Commission shall also exchange other unclassified in- 
formation in fields related to the peaceful uses of atomic 
energy to further the joint program. Such exchange of 
information shall include technical advice in the design 
and construction of future reprocessing plants which the 
Community may decide to design and construct or 
sponsor. 

C. The Parties will expedite prompt exchange of in- 
formation through symposia, exchange of personnel, set- 
ting up of combined teams, and other methods as may 
be mutually agreed. 

D. Except as otherwise agreed, the application or use 
of any information (including designs, drawings and 
specifications) and any material, equipment, and devices, 
exchanged or transferred between the Parties under this 
Agreement, shall be the responsibility of the Party receiv- 
ing it, and the other Party does not warrant the accuracy 
or completeness of such information, nor the suitability 
of such information, materials, equipment, and devices 
for any particular use or application. 

Article VII 

A. As to any invention made or conceived in the course 
of or under the joint program of research and 
development : 

1. The Government of the United States of America 
shall without further obligation or payment be entitled 
to assignment of the title and rights in and to the inven- 
tion and the patents in the United States subject to a 
non-exclusive, irrevocable, and royalty-free license, with 



the right to grant sublicenses, to the Community for 
all purposes. 

2. The Community shall without further obligation or 
payment be entitled to assignment of the title and rights 
in and to the invention and the patents in the Com- 
munity subject to a non-exclusive, irrevocable, and 
royalty-free license, with the right to grant sublicenses, 
to the Government of the United States of America for all 
purposes. 

3. With respect to title and rights in and to the inven- 
tion and patents in third countries : 

a. The Government of the United States of America, 
if the invention is made or conceived within the United 
States, or the Community, if the invention is made or 
conceived within the Community, shall be entitled to 
assignment of such title and rights, subject to a non- 
exclusive, irrevocable, and royalty-free license, with the 
right to grant sublicenses, to the other Party for all 
purposes. 

b. If the invention is made or conceived elsewhere, the 
Party contracting for the work shall be entitled to assign- 
ment of such title and rights, subject to a non-exclusive 
irrevocable, and royalty-free license, with the right to 
grant sublicenses, to the other Party for all purposes. 

B. As to inventions and patents under paragraph A of 
this Article neither Party shall discriminate in the grant- 
ing of any license or sublicense for the reason that the 
proposed licensee or sublicensee is a national of the 
United States or of any Member State of the Community. 

C. As to patents used in the work of the joint pro- 
gram, other than those under paragraph A, which the 
Government of the United States of America owns or as 
to which it has the right to grant licenses or sublicenses, 
the Government of the United States of America will 
agree to grant licenses or sublicenses, covering use either 
in or outside the joint program, on a non-discriminatory 
basis to a Member State and to industry of a Member 
State, if the Member State has agreed to grant licenses 
or sublicenses as to patents used in the work of the joint 
program which it owns or as to which it has the right 
to grant licenses or sublicenses, on a non-discriminatory 
basis to the Government of the United States of America 
and to industry of the United States, covering use either 
in or outside the joint program. 

D. The respective contractual arrangements of the 
Parties with third parties shall contain provisions that 
will enable each Party to effectuate the provisions of 
paragraphs A and B of this Article as to patentable 
information. 

E. It is recognized that detailed procedures shall be 
jointly established to effectuate the foregoing provisions 
and that all situations not covered shall be settled by 
mutual agreement governed by the basic principle of 
equivalent benefits to both Parties. 

Article VIII 
The United States Commission and the EURATOM 
Commission will work closely together to develop train- 
ing programs to satisfy requirements of the joint pro- 
gram. The Parties may under mutually agreeable terms 



January ?2, 7959 



71 



and conditions make available their facilities for use 
by the other, including facilities to satisfy training needs. 

Article IX 
The Government of the United States of America and 
the Community recognize that adequate measures to pro- 
tect equipment manufacturers and other suppliers as well 
as the participating utilities against now uninsurable 
risks are necessary to the implementation of the joint 
program. The EURATOM Commission will seek to de- 
velop and to secure the adoption, by the earliest prac- 
ticable date, of suitable measures which will provide 
adequate financial protection against third party liability. 
Such measures could involve suitable indemnification 
guarantees, national legislation, international convention, 
or a combination of such measures. 

Article X 
The EURATOM Commission will take all action open to 
it under the Treaty establishing the European Atomic 
Energy Community to minimize the impact of customs 
duties on goods and products imported under the joint 
program. 

Article XI 
The Community guarantees that: 

1. No material, including equipment and devices, trans- 
ferred pursuant to this Agreement to the Community or 
to persons within the Community, will be used for atomic 
weapons, or for research on or development of atomic 
weapons, or for any other military purpose ; 

2. No such material will be transferred to unauthorized 
persons or beyond the control of the Community, except 
as the Government of the United States of America may 
agree to such transfer and then only if the transfer of 
the material is within the scope of an Agreement for 
Cooperation between the Government of the United States 
of America and another nation or group of nations ; 

3. No source or special nuclear material utilized in, 
recovered from, or produced as a result of the use of mate- 
rials, equipment or devices transferred pursuant to this 
Agreement to the Community or to persons within the 
Community will be used for atomic weapons, or for 
research on or development of atomic weapons, or for any 
other military purpose ; 

4. The Community will establish and maintain a 
mutually satisfactory system of safeguards and control as 
provided in Article XII, to be applied to materials, equip- 
ment and devices subject to the guarantees set forth in 
paragraphs 1 through 3 of this Article. 

Article XII 

A. The Community undertakes the responsibility for 
establishing and implementing a safeguards and control 
system designed to give maximum assurance that any 
material, equipment or devices made available pursuant 
to this Agreement and any source or special nuclear ma- 
terial derived from the use of such material, equipment 
and devices, shall be utilized solely for peaceful purposes. 
In establishing and implementing its safeguards and con- 
trol system, the Community is prepared to consult with 
and exchange experiences with the International Atomic 



72 



Energy Agency with the objective of establishing a system 
reasonably compatible with that of the International 
Atomic Energy Agency. The Government of the United 
States of America and the Community agree that the 
principles which will govern the establishment and opera- 
tion by the Community of a mutually satisfactory safe- 
guards and control system under this Agreement are those 
which are set forth in Annex "B" to this Agreement 
The Community shall be responsible for establishing and 
maintaining a mutually satisfactory and effective safe- 
guards and control system which is in accord with the 
principles set forth in Annex "B" to this Agreement. 

B. As has been requested by the Community, the 
Government of the United States of America will provide 
assistance in establishing the Community's safeguards 
and control system, and will provide continuing assistance 
in the operation of the system. 

C. The Parties agree that there will be frequent con- 
sultations and exchanges of visits between the Parties 
to give assurance to both Parties that the Community's 
safeguards and control system effectively meets the re- 
sponsibility and principles stated in paragraph A of this 
Article and that the standards of the materials account- 
ability systems of the Government of the United States of 
America and the Community are kept reasonably 
comparable. 

D. In recognition of the importance of the International 
Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the United 
States of America and the Community will consult with 
each other from time to time to determine whether there 
are any areas of responsibility with regard to safeguards 
and control and matters relating to health and safety in 
which the Agency might be asked to assist. 

E. It is understood by the Parties that a continuation 
of the cooperative program between the Government of 
the United States of America and the Community will be 
contingent upon the Community's establishing and main- 
taining a mutually satisfactory and effective safeguards 
and control system which is in accord with the principles 
set forth in Annex "B" to this Agreement. 

Article XIII 

The Government of the United States of America and 
the Community reaffirm their common interest in foster- 
ing the peaceful applications of atomic energy through 
the International Atomic Energy Agency and intend that 
the results of the joint program will benefit the Agency 
and the nations participating in it. 

Article XIV 

A. The Parties anticipate that from time to time they 
may enter into further agreements providing for coopera- 
tion in the peaceful aspects of atomic energy. 

B. Article 106 of the Treaty establishing the European 
Atomic Energy Community contemplates that Member 
States which before the date of entry into force of that 
Treaty have concluded agreements with third countries 
for cooperation in the field of nuclear energy shall jointly 
with the EURATOM Commission enter into the necessary 
negotiations with third countries in order as far as possi- 
ble to cause the rights and obligations arising out of such 
agreements to be assumed by the Community. The 

Department of State Bulletin 



Government of the United States of America is prepared 
to enter into such negotiations with reference to any 
agreement to which it is a party. 

C. Existing agreements for cooperation in the field of 
nuclear energy between Member States and the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America are not modified by 
the joint program. Modifications may be made as neces- 
sary by mutual agreement between the Member States 
concerned and the United States to permit transfers of 
reactor projects now contemplated under existing agree- 
ments that qualify for and are accepted under the joint 
program. 

Article XV 

For the purposes of this Agreement : 

(a) "Person" means any individual, enterprise, cor- 
poration, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, pub- 
lic or private institution, group, government agency, or 
government corporation, but does not include the Parties 
to this Agreement 

(b) "Special nuclear material" means (1) plutonium, 
uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, 
and any other material which either Party determines to 
be special nuclear material; or (2) any material artifi- 
cially enriched by any of the foregoing. 

(c) "Source material" means (1) uranium, thorium, 
or any other material which is determined by either Party 
to be source material ; or (2) ores containing one or more 
of the foregoing materials, in such concentration as either 
Party may determine from time to time. 

(d) "Parties" means the Government of the United 
States of America, including the United States Atomic 
Energy Commission on behalf of the Government of the 
United States of America, and the European Atomic En- 
ergy Community (EURATOM), acting through its Com- 
mission. "Party" means one of the Parties. 

Abticle XVI 

A. The Parties agree that the establishment and initia- 
tion of the joint program and the undertakings of the 
Parties under this Agreement are subject to appropriate 
statutory steps, including authorization by competent bod- 
ies of the Government of the United States of America 
and the Community, and the provisions of applicable laws, 
regulations and license requirements in effect in the 
United States and in the Community and within the Mem- 
ber States. 

B. This Agreement shall enter into force on the day on 
which each Party shall have received from the other 
Party written notification that it has complied with all 
statutory and constitutional requirements for the entry 
into force of such Agreement and shall remain in force 
for a period of twenty-five (25) years. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned representatives 
duly authorized thereto have signed this Agreement. 

Done at Brussels on November 8, 1958, in duplicate, in 
the English, French, German, Italian, and Netherlands 
languages, each language being equally authentic. 

For the Government of the United States of America : 
Pour le Gouvernement des Etats-Unis d'Amerique: 



Fur die Regierung der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika : 

Per el Governo degli Stati Uniti dAmerica : 

Voor de Regering van de Verenigde Staten van Amerika : 

W. W. BUTTERWORTH 

John A. McCone 

For the European Atomic Energy Community (EURA- 
TOM) : 

Pour la Communaute Europeenne de l'Energie Atomique 
(EURATOM) : 

Fiir die Europaische Atomenergiegemeinschaft (EURA- 
TOM) : 

Per la Comunita Europea dell'Energia Atomica (EURA- 
TOM) : 

Voor de Europese Gemeenschap voor Atoomenergie 
(EURATOM) : 

L. Armand 
Enrico Medi 
Paul de Groote 
Heinz L. Krekelee 

Sassen 

Annex "A" 

With the objective of assuring the success of the joint 
program, the United States Commission will offer guaran- 
tees designed to limit certain financial risks associated 
with the fuel cycle. 

These guarantees will be extended in the form of maxi- 
mum charges for fabrication of the fuel elements and 
minimum integrity of the fuel elements under irradiation. 
They will be offered only to the extent that equivalent or 
better guarantees are not available commercially. 

The liability of the United States Commission under 
these guarantees will be limited to meeting guaranteed 
maximum charges for fabricated fuel elements and to the 
adjustment of charges for fabrication, chemical reprocess- 
ing, and transportation of fuel elements when required 
by failure to meet guaranteed integrity. 

The guarantees will provide for equitable sharing of 
decreases in costs realized through fuel performance in 
excess of guaranteed levels, the United States share not to 
exceed costs experienced by the United States Commis- 
sion under these guarantees. 

The guarantees provided by the United States Commis- 
sion will be applicable to all loadings made in reactors 
under the joint program during ten (10) years of opera- 
tion or prior to December 31, 1973 (or December 31, 1975, 
for not more than two reactors selected under Article I, 
A, of this Agreement for Cooperation), whichever is 
earlier. 

Annex "B" 

Principles for Establishing the Safeguards and Con- 
trol System Under This Agreement 

The principles which will govern the establishment and 
operation of the safeguards and control system are as 
follows : 

The EURATOM Commission will : 
1. Examine the design of equipment, devices and facili- 
ties, including nuclear reactors, and approve it for the 



January 12, 7959 



73 



purpose of assuring that it will not further any military 
purpose and that it will permit the effective application 
of safeguards, if such equipment, devices and facilities: 

(a) are made available pursuant to this Agreement; or 

(b) use, process or fabricate any of the following ma- 
terials received from the United States : source or special 
nuclear material, moderator material or any other ma- 
terial relevant to the effective application of safeguards ; 
or 

(c) use any special nuclear material produced as the 
result of the use of equipment or material referred to in 
subparagraphs (a) and (b). 

2. Require the maintenance and production of oper- 
ating records to assure accountability for source or spe- 
cial nuclear material made available, or source or special 
nuclear material used, recovered, or produced as a result 
of the use of source or special nuclear material, modera- 
tor material or any other material relevant to the effec- 
tive application of safeguards, or as a result of equip- 
ment, devices and facilities made available pursuant to 
this Agreement. 

3. Require that progress reports be prepared and deliv- 
ered to the EURATOM Commission with respect to proj- 
ects utilizing material, equipment, devices and facilities 
referred to in paragraph 2 of this Annex. 

4. Establish and require the deposit and storage, under 
continuing safeguards, in EURATOM facilities of any 
special nuclear material referred to in paragraph 2 of 
this Annex which is not currently being utilized for 
peaceful purposes in the Community or otherwise trans- 
ferred as provided in the Agreement for Cooperation be- 
tween the Government of the United States of America 
and the Community. 

5. Establish an inspection organization which will have 
access at all times : 

(a) to all places and data, and 

(b) to any person who by reason of his occupation deals 
with materials, equipment, devices or facilities safe- 
guarded under this Agreement, necessary to assure ac- 
counting for source or special nuclear material subject to 
paragraph 2 of this Annex and to determine whether 
there is compliance with the guarantees of the Com- 
munity. The inspection organization will also be in a 
position to make and will make such independent meas- 
urements as are necessary to assure compliance with the 
provisions of this Annex and the Agreement for 
Cooperation. 

It is the understanding of the Parties that the above 
principles applicable to the establishment of the Com- 
munity's inspection and control system are compatible 
with and are based on Article XII of the Statute of the 
International Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter VII of 
Title Two of the Treaty establishing the European 
Atomic Energy Community, and those adopted by the 
Government of the United States of America in its com- 
prehensive Agreements for Cooperation. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Postal Services 

Universal postal convention with final protocol, annex, 
regulations of execution, and provisions regarding air- 
mail with final protocol. Done at Ottawa October 3, 
1957. 1 

Ratifications deposited: Japan, November 7, 1958; 
Switzerland, November 14, 1958. 

War 

Geneva convention relative to treatment of prisoners of 

war ; 
Geneva convention for amelioration of condition of 

wounded and sick in armed forces in the field ; 
Geneva convention for amelioration of condition of 

wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of armed 

forces at sea ; 
Geneva convention relative to protection of civilian per- 
sons in time of war. 

Dated at Geneva August 12, 1949. Entered into force 
October 21, 1950 ; for the United States February 2, 
1956. TIAS 3364, 3362, 3363, and 3365, respectively. 

Accession deposited: Cambodia, December 8, 1958. 



BILATERAL 
Brazil 

Agreement further amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of December 31, 1956, as amended (TIAS 
3725, 3864, and 4074). Effected by exchange of notes at 
Washington December 12, 1958. Entered into force 
December 12, 1958. 

Muscat, Oman, and Dependencies 

Treaty of amity, economic relations and consular rights. 
Signed at Salalah December 20, 1958. Enters into force 
1 month after the exchange of ratifications. 

Spain 

Agreement amending the memorandum of understanding 
attached to the offshore procurement agreement of 
July 30, 1954, as amended (TIAS 3094 and 3721). 
Effected by exchange of notes at Madrid October 29 and 
November 11, 1958. Entered into force November 11, 
1958. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Designations 

Leland Barrows as Regional Director of the Interna- 
tional Cooperation Administration for the Near East and 
South Asia, effective December 15, 1958. (For biographic 
details, see press release 757 dated December 15.) 

Horace E. Henderson as Deputy Assistant Secretary 
for International Organization Affairs, effective January 9, 
1959. (For biographic details, see press release 753 
dated December 15.) 



1 Not in force. 



74 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



January 12, 1959 INDEX 

American Republics. Inter-American Cooperation 
in the Economic Field (Dillon, text of declara- 
tion) 4S 

Antarctica. U.S. and New Zealand To Continue 
Antarctic Scientific Cooperation (text of joint 
announcement) 51 

Atomic Energy. Agreement With the European 
Atomic Energy Community (text) 69 

Department and Foreign Service. Designations 

(Barrows, Henderson) 74 

Economic Affairs 

Inter-American Cooperation in the Economic Field 

(Dillon, text of declaration) 48 

Treaty With Sultan of Muscat To Regulate Eco- 
nomic Relations 51 

United States aud India Sign DLF Loan Agree- 
ment 51 

Europe. Agreement With the European Atomic 
Energy Community (text) 69 

Guinea. United Nations Debates Admission of 
New Members; Admits Guinea (Lodge) ... 52 

Hungary. U.N. To Seek Improvement of Situation 
in Hungary (Lodge, text of resolution) ... 55 

India. United States and India Sign DLF Loan 
Agreement 51 

International Law. U.N. To Convene Second Con- 
ference on the Law of the Sea (Phleger, text 
of resolution) 64 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Fifth World Forestry Congress (delegation) . . 67 
President Appoints Members to Caribbean Com- 
mission 67 

Korea. United Nations Debates Admission of 
New Members; Admits Guinea (Lodge) ... 52 

Muscat and Oman. Treaty With Sultan of Muscat 
To Regulate Economic Relations 51 

Mutual Security 

Barrows designated Regional Director of ICA for 
Near East and South Asia 74 

United States and India Sign DLF Loan Agree- 
ment 51 

New Zealand. U.S. and New Zealand To Continue 
Antarctic Scientific Cooperation (text of joint 
announcement) 51 

Presidential Documents. A Pledge to the Peoples 
of the World 47 



Vol.fXL, No. 1020 



Science. U.S. and New Zealand To Continue 
Antarctic Scientific Cooperation (text of joint 
announcement) 

Treaty Information 

Agreement With the European Atomic Energy 
Community (text) 

Current Actions 

Treaty With Sultan of Muscat To Regulate Eco- 
nomic Relations 

U.S.S.R. U.N. To Seek Improvement of Situation 
in Hungary (Lodge, text of resolution) . . . . 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 

United Nations Debates Admission of New Mem- 
bers; Admits Guinea (Lodge) 

U.N. To Convene Second Conference on the Law of 
the Sea (Phleger, text of resolution) .... 

U.N. To Seek Improvement of Situation in Hungary 
(Lodge, text of resolution) 

Viet-Nam. United Nations Debates Admission of 
New Members; Admits Guinea (Lodge) . . . 

Name Index 



51 



69 
74 

51 

55 

68 
52 
64 
55 

52 



Barrows, Leland 74 

Dillon, Douglas 48 

Eisenhower, President 47 

Henderson, Horace E 74 

Lodge, Henry Cabot 52, 55 

McArdle, Richard E 67 

Phleger, Herman 64 



Check List of Department of'State 
Press Releases: December 22-28 

Press releases may be obtained from the News 
Division, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Releases issued prior to December 22 which ap- 
pear in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 750 of 
December 12 and 764 of December 19. 



No. 



Date 



770 12/23 

771 12/22 



Subject 

Zealand 



*772 

*773 

774 



12/22 
12/23 
12/24 



U.S.-New Zealand scientific opera- 
tions. 

Economic, amity, and consular treaty 
with Muscat and Oman. 

Educational exchange. 

Death of Ross Moore. 

DLF loan to India. 



♦Not printed. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1959 







^7 



United States 
Government Printing Office 

DIVISION OF PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

Washington 25, D.C. 



PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE TO AVOID 

PAYMENT OF POSTAGE, S300 

(GPO) 



OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



A new release in the popular Background series 



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MALAYA 
A New Independent Nation 



From ancient times Malaya's geographic position at the heart 
of Southeast Asia, commanding the most direct sealane between 
the Indian Ocean and the China Sea, has exposed the area to 
diverse foreign influences. In recent years its strategic location 
and the value of its natural resources, in combination with global 
political developments, have made Malaya a battleground in the 
ideological conflict that has split the world. 

The latest of the Department of State's Background pam- 
phlets discusses the new Federation of Malaya, with special ref- 
erence to the postwar struggle for Malaya, the land, the people, 
political Malaya, the economy, and U.S. relationships with 
Malaya. The 19-page pamphlet is illustrated with maps and 
photographs. 



Publication 6714 



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!E 

FICIAL 

EEKLY RECORD 




Vol. XL, No. 1021 



ftec'd \ Januar y 19 ' 1959 



U.S. REPLIES TO SOVIET NX>flE ON BERLIN • Texts 

of U.S. Note of December 31 ahd^SovietNote of November 27 . 79 

UNITED STATES-LATIN AMERICAN RELATIONS, 

1953-1958 • Report to the President by Milton S. 
Eisenhower "9 

UNITED STATES AND ARGENTINA SIGN LOAN 

AGREEMENTS 105 

TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF ADOPTION OF DECLARA- 
TION OF HUMAN RIGHTS • by Mrs. Oswald B. Lord . 108 



IITED STATES 
REIGN POLICY 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XL, No. 1021 • Publication 6756 
January 19, 1959 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

52 issues, domestic $8.50, foreign $12.25 
Single copy, 25 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 20, 1958). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
of State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publiration issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of Slate and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



U.S. Replies to Soviet Note on Berlin 



Following is an exchange of correspondence be- 
tween the United States and the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics on the subject of Berlin. 1 

U.S. NOTE OF DECEMBER 31 

Press release 781 dated December 31 

The Government of the United States acknowl- 
edges the note which was addressed to it by the 
Government of the U.S.S.R. under date of 
November 27. 

The note contains a long elaboration on the 
events which preceded and followed the last war. 
It attempts to portray the Western Powers — 
France, the United Kingdom and the United 
States — as supporters of Hitlerism as against the 
Soviet Union. This portrayal is in sharp con- 
trast with the actual facts. In this connection 
we refer to the contemporaneous statement made 
by the Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs to the 
Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. on October 31, 
1939. In that statement he refers, among other 
things, to the "conclusion of the Soviet-German 
non-aggression pact of August 23" and points out 
"we now had a rapprochement and the establish- 
ment of friendly relations between the U.S.S.R. 
and Germany". The statement goes on to assail 
the British and French Governments for their 
opposition to Hitlerism in the following lan- 
guage : "The ruling circles of Britain and France 
have been lately attempting to depict themselves 
as champions of the democratic rights of nations 
against Hitlerism, and the British Government 
has announced that its aim in the war with Ger- 
many is nothing more nor less than the 'destruc- 
tion of Hitlerism' .... everybody will under- 
stand that an ideology cannot be destroyed by 
force, that it cannot be eliminated by war. It is 

1 For a Department memorandum on the legal aspects of 
the Berlin situation, see Bu:lletin of Jan. 5, 1959, 
p. 5. 



therefore not only senseless, but criminal to wage 
such a war — a war for the 'destruction of Hitler- 
ism' camouflaged as a fight for 'democracy'." 

The situation of Berlin of which the Soviet 
Government complains and which it considers ab- 
normal is a result of the very nature of the Ger- 
man problem such as it has existed since 1945. 
When the empire of Hitler collapsed the Western 
Allies were in military possession of more than 
one-third of what subsequently was occupied by 
the Soviet authorities. 

The Soviet Union was in possession of Berlin. 
On the basis of the agreements of September 12, 
1944 and May 1, 1945, the Western Allies with- 
drew, thereby permitting a Soviet occupation of 
large parts of Mecklenburg, Saxony, Thuringia 
and Anhalt, and concurrently, the three Western 
Powers occupied the western sectors in Berlin, 
then an area of rubble. 

The Soviet Union has directly and through its 
puppet regime — the so-called German Democratic 
Republic — consolidated its hold over the large 
areas which the Western Allies relinquished to it. 
It now demands that the Western Allies should 
relinquish the positions in Berlin which in effect 
were the quid pro quo. 

The three Western Powers are there as occupy- 
ing powers and they are not prepared to relinquish 
the rights which they acquired through victory 
just as they assume the Soviet Union is not will- 
ing now to restore to the occupancy of the West- 
ern Powers the position which they had won in 
Mecklenburg, Saxony, Thuringia and Anhalt and 
which, under the agreements of 1944 and 1945, 
they turned over for occupation by the Soviet 
Union. 

The agreements made by the Four Powers can- 
not be considered obsolete because the Soviet 
Union has already obtained the full advantage 
therefrom and now wishes to deprive the other 
parties of their compensating advantages. These 



January 79, 1959 



79 



agreements are binding upon all of the signatories 
so long as they have not been replaced by others 
following free negotiations. 

Insofar as the Potsdam agreement is concerned, 
the status of Berlin does not depend upon that 
agreement. Moreover, it is the Soviet Union that 
bears responsibility for the fact that the Potsdam 
agreement could not be implemented. 

The Soviet memorandum purports formally to 
repudiate the agreements of September 12, 1944 
and May 1, 1945. This repudiation in fact in- 
volves other and more recent engagements. We 
refer in this connection to the Four Power agree- 
ment of June 20, 1949 whereby, among other 
things, the Soviet Union assumed "an obligation" 
to assure the normal functioning of transport and 
communication between Berlin and the Western 
Zones of Germany. This "obligation" the Soviet 
Union now purports to shed. The United States 
also refers to the "summit" agreement of July 23, 
1955 2 whereby the Four Powers recognized "their 
common responsibility for the settlement of the 
German question", a phrase which necessarily in- 
cludes the problem of Berlin. Apparently the 
Soviet Union now attempts to free itself from 
these agreed responsibilities and obligations. 

The United States Government cannot prevent 
the Soviet Government from announcing the ter- 
mination of its own authority in the quadripartite 
regime in the sector which it occupies in the city 
of Berlin. On the other hand, the Government of 
the United States will not and does not, in any 
way, accept a unilateral denunciation of the ac- 
cords of 1944 and 1945 ; nor is it prepared to re- 
lieve the Soviet Union from the obligations which 
it assumed in June, 1949. Such action on the 
part of the Soviet Government would have no 
legal basis, since the agreements can only be ter- 
minated by mutual consent. The Government of 
the United States will continue to hold the Soviet 
Government directly responsible for the discharge 
of its obligations undertaken with respect to Ber- 
lin under existing agreements. As the Soviet 
Government knows, the French, British and 
United States Governments have the right to main- 
tain garrisons in their sectors of Berlin and to 
have free access thereto. Certain administrative 
procedures have been agreed with the Soviet au- 
thorities accordingly and are in operation at the 



' For text, see ibid., Aug. 1, 1955, p. 176. 



present time. The Government of the United 
States will not accept a unilateral repudiation 
on the part of the Soviet Government of its obli- 
gations in respect of that freedom of access. Nor 
will it accept the substitution of the regime which 
the Soviet Government refers to as the German 
Democratic Eepublic for the Soviet Government 
in this respect. 

In the view of the Government of the United 
States, there can be no "threat" to the Soviet 
Government or the regime which the Soviet Gov- 
ernment refers to as the German Democratic 
Republic from the presence of the French, British 
and United States garrisons in Berlin. Nor can 
there be any military threat from Berlin to the 
Soviet Government and this regime. The forces 
of the three Western Powers in Berlin number 
about ten thousand men. The Soviet Govern- 
ment, on the other hand, is said to maintain some 
three hundred and fifty thousand troops in East- 
ern Germany, while the regime which the Soviet 
Government refers to as the German Democratic 
Republic is understood also to maintain over two 
hundred thousand men under arms. In these cir- 
cumstances, the fear that the Western troops in 
Berlin may "inflict harm" appears to be wholly 
unfounded. If Berlin has become a focus of 
international tension, it is because the Soviet Gov- 
ernment has deliberately threatened to disturb the 
existing arrangements at present in force there, 
arrangements to which the Soviet Government is 
itself a party. The inhabitants of West Berlin 
have recently reaffirmed in a free vote their over- 
whelming approval and support for the existing 
status of that city. The continued protection of 
the freedom of more than two million people of 
West Berlin is a right and responsibility solemnly 
accepted by the Three Western Powers. Thus 
the United States cannot consider any proposal 
which would have the effect of jeopardizing the 
freedom and security of these people. The rights 
of the Three Powers to remain in Berlin with 
unhindered communications by surface and air 
between that city and the Federal Republic of 
Germany are under existing conditions essential 
to the discharge of that right and responsibility. 
Hence the proposal for a so-called "free city" for 
West Berlin, as put forward by the Soviet Union, 
is unacceptable. 

As is stated in the Soviet Government's note of 
November 27, it is certainly not normal that 



80 



Department of State Bulletin 



thirteen years after the end of the war there 
should still remain in a part of German territory 
a system of occupancy instituted in 1945. The 
United States deplores this fact and the fact that 
Germany has not yet been reunified so that Berlin 
might resume its rightful position as capital of 
a united Germany. If the treaty of peace, which 
alone can bring an end to this situation, has not 
been concluded with a reunited Germany, the re- 
sponsibility in no way rests with the Three West- 
ern Powers which have not spared any effort to 
bring the Four Powers out of the impasse where 
they have so long found themselves. Pending the 
conclusion of a peace treaty, the present situation 
continues. 

Tn reality, the form of government in Berlin, 
the validity of which the Soviet Government at- 
tempts to contest today, is only one aspect, and 
not the essential one, of the German problem in 
its entirety. This problem, which has often been 
defined, involves the well-known questions of re- 
unification, European security, as well as a peace 
treaty. It has in the past been discussed without 
success in the course of numerous international 
meetings with the Soviets. The Government of 
the United States has always been and continues 
today to be ready to discuss it. The United 
States made clear this readiness in its note to the 
Soviet Union of September 30, 1958, 3 in which it 
was stated : 

"The Government of the United States is ready 
at any time to enter into discussions with the 
Soviet Government on the basis of these proposals 
[i. e., the Western proposals for free all-German 
elections and free decisions for an all-German 
Government] , or of any other proposals genuinely 
designed to insure the reunification of Germany 
in freedom, in any appropriate forum. It regards 
the solution of the German problem as essential 
if a lasting settlement in Europe is to be achieved". 
The Soviet Union has not yet seen fit to reply to 
this note. 

Public repudiation of solemn engagements, 
formally entered into and repeatedly reaffirmed, 
coupled with an ultimatum threatening unilateral 
action to implement that repudiation unless it be 
acquiesced in within six months, would afford no 
reasonable basis for negotiation between sovereign 
states. The Government of the United States 



' For text, see ibid., Oct. 20, 1958, p. 615. 
January 79, 1959 



could not embark on discussions with the Soviet 
Union upon these questions under menace or ulti- 
matum ; indeed, if that were intended, the United 
States would be obliged immediately to raise a 
protest in the strongest terms. Hence, it is as- 
sumed that this is not the purpose of the Soviet 
note of November 27 and that the Soviet Govern- 
ment, like itself, is ready to enter into discussions 
in an atmosphere devoid of coercion or threats. 

On this basis, the United States Government 
would be interested to learn whether the Soviet 
Government is ready to enter into discussions be- 
tween the Four Powers concerned. In that event, 
it would be the object of the Government of the 
United States to discuss the question of Berlin in 
the wider framework of negotiations for a solu- 
tion of the German problem as well as that of 
European security. The United States Govern- 
ment would welcome the views of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment at an early date. 



SOVIET NOTE OF NOVEMBER 27 

Official translation 

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics addresses the Government of the United States 
of America as one of the signatory powers of the Potsdam 
Agreement on the urgent question of the status of Berlin. 

The problem of Berlin, which is situated in the center 
of the German Democratic Republic but the western part 
of which is cut off from the GDR as a result of foreign 
occupation, deeply affects not only the national interests 
of the German people but also the interests of all nations 
desirous of establishing lasting peace in Europe. Here 
in the historic capital of Germany two worlds are in 
direct contact and at every turn there tower the barri- 
cades of the "cold war." A situation of constant friction 
and tension has prevailed for many years in this city, 
which is divided into two parts. Berlin, which witnessed 
the greatest triumph of the joint struggle of our countries 
against Fascist aggression, has now become a dangerous 
center of contradiction between the Great Powers, allies 
in the last war. Its role in the relations between the 
Powers may be compared to a smoldering fuse that has 
been connected to a powder keg. Incidents arising here, 
even if they seem to be of local significance, may, in an 
atmosphere of heated passions, suspicion, and mutual 
apprehensions, cause a conflagration which will be diffi- 
cult to extinguish. This is the sad pass to which has 
come, after the 13 postwar years, the once joint and con- 
certed policy of the Four Powers — the USSR, the USA, 
Great Britain and France — with regard to Germany. 

To assess correctly the real importance of the Berlin 
problem confronting us today and to determine the exist- 
ing possibilities for normalizing the situation in Berlin 
it is necessary to recall the development of the policy of 



81 



the Powers parties to the anti-Hitler coalition with respect 
to Germany. 

It is common knowledge that the USA, as well as Great 
Britain and France, by no means immediately came to 
the conclusion that it was essential to establish coopera- 
tion with the Soviet Union for the purpose of counteract- 
ing Hitlerite aggression, although the Soviet Government 
constantly indicated its readiness to do so. In the capi- 
tals of the Western states opposite tendencies prevailed 
for a long time and they became especially marked in 
the period of the Munich deal with Hitler. Entertaining 
the hope of controlling German militarism and of push- 
ing it eastward, the governments of the Western Powers 
tolerated and encouraged the policy of blackmail and 
threats pursued by Hitler and acts of direct aggression 
by Hitlerite Germany and its ally, Fascist Italy, against 
a number of peace-loving states. 

It was only when Fascist Germany, upsetting the short- 
sighted calculations of the inspirers of Munich, turned 
against the Western Powers, when Hitler's army started 
moving westward, crushing Denmark, Norway, Belgium, 
and the Netherlands, and toppling France, that the gov- 
ernments of the USA and Great Britain had no alter- 
native but to admit their miscalculations and embark 
upon the path of organizing, jointly with the Soviet 
Union, resistance to Fascist Germany, Italy, and Japan. 
Had the Western Powers followed a more farsighted 
policy, such cooperation between the Soviet Union, the 
USA, Great Britain, and France could have been estab- 
lished much sooner, in the first years after Hitler seized 
power in Germany, and then there would have been no 
occupation of France, no Dunkirk, no Pearl Harbor. 
Then it would have been possible to save millions of 
human lives sacrificed by the peoples of the Soviet Union, 
Poland, Yugoslavia, France, Britain, Czechoslovakia, the 
USA, Greece, Norway, and other countries to curb the 
aggressors. 

The creation of the anti-Hitler coalition is a fact with- 
out precedent in modern history, if only because states 
with different social systems united in a defensive and 
just war against the common enemy. The Soviet Gov- 
ernment highly reveres the concord of nations that took 
shape in the struggle against Fascism and was sealed 
by the blood of the freedom-loving peoples. The Soviet 
people would like to preserve and develop the feelings of 
trust and friendship that marked their relations with the 
peoples of the USA, Britain, France, and the other coun- 
tries of the anti-Hitler coalition during the grim years of 
the last war. 

When the peoples were celebrating victory over Hitler- 
ite Germany a conference of the heads of government of 
the Soviet Union, the USA and Great Britain was held 
in Potsdam in order to work out a joint policy with 
respect to post-war Germany. The Potsdam Agreement, 
to which France acceded soon after it was signed, gener- 
alized the historical experience of the struggle waged by 
the peoples to prevent aggression by German militarism. 
The entire content of this agreement was directed toward 
creating conditions precluding the possibility of yet 
another attack by Germany against peace-loving states, 
toward preventing German militarists from unleashing 



another world war so that Germany, having abandoned 
forever the mirage of a policy of conquest, might make a 
firm start on the road to peaceful development. 

Expressing the will of the peoples who made untold 
sacrifices for the sake of crushing the Hitlerite aggres- 
sors, the governments of the Four Powers solemnly 
undertook to eradicate German militarism and Naziism, 
to prevent forever their revival, and to take all steps to 
ensure that Germany would never again threaten its 
neighbors or the preservation of world peace. The par- 
ticipants in the Potsdam Conference expressed their 
determination to prevent any Fascist and militaristic 
activity or propaganda. They also undertook to permit 
and encourage all democratic political parties in 
Germany. 

For purposes of destroying the economic foundation 
of German militarism, it was decided to eliminate exces- 
sive concentration in Germany's economy, represented in 
the form of cartels, syndicates, trusts, and other monop- 
olies, which ensured the assumption of power by Fascism 
and the preparation and carrying out of Hitlerite 
aggression. 

The Potsdam Agreement contained important provi- 
sions whereby Germany was to be regarded as a single 
economic entity, even during the occupation period. The 
agreement also provided for the creation of central Ger- 
man administrative departments. The Council of For- 
eign Ministers, established by a decision of the Potsdam 
Conference, was instructed to prepare a peace settlement 
for Germany. 

The implementation of all these measures should have 
enabled the German people to effect a fundamental recon- 
struction of their life and to ensure the creation of a 
united, peace-loving, democratic German state. 

Such are the main provisions of the Potsdam Agree- 
ment, which ensured an equitable combination of the in- 
terests both of the nations that had fought against Ger- 
many and of the fundamental interests of the German 
people themselves, and at the same time created a sound 
basis for carrying out a joint policy by the Four Powers 
concerning the German question, and, hence, for extensive 
and fruitful cooperation between them in European mat- 
ters in general. However, further developments deviated 
a great deal from the direction mapped out at Potsdam. 
Relations between the USSR and the Three Western 
Powers kept deteriorating. Mutual distrust and suspi- 
cion kept growing and have now developed into unfriendly 
relations. 

The 'Soviet Government sincerely hoped that after the 
victorious end of the war it would be quite possible, not- 
withstanding all the inevitability of ideological differ- 
ences, to continue the fruitful cooperation between the 
Great Powers that headed the anti-Hitler coalition, on 
the basis of sober recognition of the situation resulting 
from the war. 

The policy of the Western Powers, however, was in- 
creasingly influenced by forces obsessed with hatred for 
Socialist and Communist ideas but which concealed dur- 
ing the war their hostile designs against the Soviet 
Union. As a result, the course was set in the West 
toward the utmost aggravation of the ideological struggle 



82 



Department of State Bulletin 



headed by aggressive leaders, opponents of the peaceful 
coexistence of states. The signal for this was given to 
the United States and to other Western countries by W. 
Churchill in his notorious Fulton speech in March 1946. 

The conflict between the two ideologies — a struggle of 
minds and convictions — in itself could not have been par- 
ticularly detrimental to relations between states. The 
ideological struggle has never abated and it will continue 
so long as there are different views on the structure of 
society. But, unfortunately, the pronouncements of W. 
Churchill and those who share his views influenced the 
minds of other Western statesmen, which had the most 
regrettable consequences. Governmental bodies and the 
armed forces joined in the ideological struggle that blazed 
forth. The results are universally known. Instead of 
developing cooperation between the major Great Powers, 
the world was split into opposing military alignments and 
competition began in the manufacture and stockpiling of 
atomic and hydrogen weapons. In other words, war prep- 
arations were launched. The Soviet Government deeply 
regrets that events took such a turn, since this prejudices 
the cause of peace and runs counter to the natural desire 
of peoples for peaceful coexistence and friendly coopera- 
tion. There was a time when the leaders of the USA 
and Great Britain, in particular Franklin D. Roosevelt, 
the outstanding American statesman, reflecting the senti- 
ments of the mass of the people, proclaimed the necessity 
of creating such a system of mutual relations between 
states under which the nations would feel secure and 
people everywhere could live all their lives without fear. 

A particularly drastic change in relations between the 
USA, as well as Britain and France, and the Soviet Union 
occurred when those powers shifted to pursuing a policy 
in Germany that ran counter to the Potsdam Agreement. 
The first violation of the Potsdam Agreement was the 
refusal by the governments of the USA, Great Britain, 
and France to honor their commitments under the afore- 
said agreement regarding the transfer to the Soviet Union 
of the agreed amount of industrial equipment from West 
Germany, in partial compensation for the destruction and 
damage inflicted upon the national economy of the USSR 
by the aggression of Hitlerite Germany. 

But the matter did not end there. With every passing 
year the governments of the USA and Great Britain 
drifted farther and farther away from the principles un- 
derlying the Potsdam Agreement. The same road was 
followed by France which, although it acceded to the 
Potsdam Agreement later, cannot, of course, disclaim its 
share of the responsibility for carrying out this agree- 
ment. 

Having embarked upon the restoration of the military 
and economic potential of West Germany, the Western 
Powers revived and strengthened the very forces that 
had forged Hitler's war machine. Had the Western 
Powers honored the Potsdam Agreement they would have 
prevented the German militarists from regaining their 
positions, checked revanche tendencies, and not permitted 
Germany to create an army and an industry manufactur- 
ing the means of destruction. However, it is a known 
fact that the governments of the Three Powers not only 
failed to do this but, on the contrary, sanctioned the crea- 
tion of a West German army and are encouraging the 



arming of the Federal Republic of Germany, disregarding 
the commitments made at Potsdam. Moreover, they in- 
cluded West Germany in the North Atlantic bloc, which 
was created behind the back of the Soviet Union and, as 
everyone is aware, against it, and are now arming West 
Germany with atomic and rocket weapons. 

It is evident that the bitter lessons of the murderous 
war have been lost on certain Western statesmen, who 
are once again dragging out the notorious Munich policy 
of inciting German militarism against the Soviet Union, 
their recent comrade in arms. 

The legitimate question arises as to whether the very 
promoters of the present Western policy with respect 
to Germany can guarantee that the German militarism 
nurtured by them will not once again turn against its 
present partners and that the American, British, and 
French peoples will not have to pay with their blood for 
the violation by the governments of the Three Western 
Powers of the Allied agreements on the peaceful and 
democratic development of Germany. It is doubtful 
whether anyone can give such guarantees. 

The policy of the USA, Britain, and France with respect 
to West Germany has led to the violation of those pro- 
visions of the Potsdam Agreement designed to ensure the 
unity of Germany as a peace-loving and democratic state. 
And when a separate state, the Federal Republic of 
Germany, was set up independently [of the Soviet Union] 
in West Germany, which was occupied by the troops of 
the Three Powers, East Germany, where forces deter- 
mined not to allow the German people to be plunged once 
again into disaster assumed the leadership, had no alter- 
native but to create in its turn an independent state. 

Thus, two states came into being in Germany. 
Whereas in West Germany, whose development was 
directed by the United States, Britain, and France, a 
government took office the representatives of which do 
not conceal their hatred for the Soviet Union and often 
openly advertise the similarity of their aspirations to 
the plans of the Hitlerite aggressors, in East Germany 
a government was formed which has irrevocably broken 
with Germany's aggressive past. State and public affairs 
in the German Democratic Republic are governed by a 
constitution fully in keeping with the principles of the 
Potsdam Agreement and the finest progressive traditions 
of the German nation. The rule of monopolies and 
Junkers has been abolished forever in the GDR. Naziism 
has been eradicated and a number of other social and 
economic reforms have been carried out, which have 
destroyed the basis for the revival of militarism and 
have made the German Democratic Republic an impor- 
tant factor of peace in Europe. The Government of the 
GDR has solemnly proclaimed that it will fulfill, to the 
letter, its commitments under the Potsdam Agreement, 
which, incidentally, the Government of the FRG obsti- 
nately evades. 

The inclusion of the FRG in the North Atlantic bloc 
compelled the Soviet Union to adopt countermeasures, in 
as much as the commitments binding the Soviet Union, 
the United States, Great Britain, and France were broken 
by the Three Western Powers, which united with West 
Germany, and previously with Italy, against the Soviet 
Union, which had borne the brunt of the struggle against 



Jon wary 79, 1959 



83 



the Fascist aggressors. That closed military alignment 
created an equal threat to other countries as well. Such 
a situation compelled the Soviet Union, as well as a num- 
ber of other European countries that were victims of 
aggression by German and Italian Fascism, to establish 
their own defensive organization, concluding for this 
purpose the Warsaw Treaty, to which the GDR also 
acceded. 

There is only one conclusion to be drawn from the 
foregoing: The Potsdam Agreement has been grossly 
violated by the Western Powers. It is like the trunk of 
a tree, once mighty and fruitful, but now cut down and 
with its heart taken out. The lofty goals for which the 
Potsdam Agreement was concluded have long since been 
renounced by the Western Powers, and what they are 
actually doing in Germany is diametrically opposed to 
what the Potsdam Agreement had envisaged. The crux 
of the matter is not, of course, that the social and politi- 
cal systems of the GDR and the FRG are basically 
different. The Soviet Government considers that the 
solution of the question of social structure of both Ger- 
man states is the concern of the Germans themselves. 
The Soviet Union stands for complete noninterference 
in the internal affairs of the German people, or in those 
of any other people. But the GDR's movement towards 
socialism has given rise to the enmity and profound 
hostility of the Federal Government toward it— which 
finds full support and encouragement by the NATO mem- 
bers, and, above all, the United States. 

The Government of the FRG, encouraged by the Western 
Powers, is systematically fanning the "cold war," and its 
leaders have repeatedly stated that the FRG would pursue 
the policy "from a position of strength," i. e., a policy of 
dictation to the other German state. Thus, the Govern- 
ment of the FRG does not want a peaceful unification of 
the German people, who are living in two states under 
different social systems, but is nurturing plans for abolish- 
ing the GDR and strengthening at the latter's expense its 
own militaristic state. 

The Soviet Government fully understands the position 
of the German Democratic Republic, which does not want 
to see the democratic and social gains of the German 
working people destroyed, the property of capitalists and 
landlords restored, the land, plants, and factories taken 
away from the people, and the GDR subjected to a milita- 
rist regime. The recent elections for the People's Cham- 
ber and local bodies of the German Democratic Republic 
are yet another striking indication that the population of 
the GDR unanimously supports the policy of its Govern- 
ment, which is aimed at preserving peace and reuniting 
Germany on a peaceful and democratic basis, and is fully 
determined to defend its Socialist gains. The Soviet 
Union expresses complete solidarity with the GDR, which 
is firmly defending its lawful rights. 

If one is to face the truth, one should recognize that 
other countries are not too eager either to support the 
plans of the Government of the FRG for unifying Ger- 
many by force. And this is understandable, since peoples 
including those of France and Great Britain, are still 
smarting from the wounds inflicted on them by Hitlerite 
Germany. 



Traces of the last war are far from erased from French 
towns and villages. The ruins left in the capital and in 
many cities of Great Britain after the bombings by Nazi 
planes have not yet been removed, and millions of Britons 
cannot forget the tragic fate of Coventry. The peoples 
that were subjected to occupation by the Hitlerite army 
fully understand these feelings. They lost millions of 
men and women, killed or tortured to death, and saw 
thousands of cities destroyed and villages burned on their 
soil. The Soviet people will never forget what happened 
to Stalingrad, nor will the Poles ever forget the fate of 
Warsaw, nor the Czechoslovak people that of Lidice. 
American families also came to know the grief of losing 
their kith and kin. Germany twice unleashed world wars 
and in both cases dragged into them the United States of 
America, whose sons were compelled to shed their blood in 
lands thousands of miles away from American shores. 

Mindful of all this, the peoples cannot and will not per- 
mit the unification of Germany on a militaristic basis. 

There is another program for uniting Germany, which 
is advocated by the German Democratic Republic. This 
is a program for uniting Germany as a peace-loving and 
democratic state, and it cannot fail to be welcomed by the 
peoples. There is but one way to put it into effect, that is, 
through agreement and contacts between the two German 
states and through the establishment of a German confed- 
eration. The implementation of this proposal would, 
without affecting the social structures of the GDR and the 
FRG, direct into the single channel of a peaceful policy 
the efforts of their governments and parliaments and 
would ensure a gradual rapprochement and merger of the 
two German states. 

The Soviet Union, as well as other states interested in 
strengthening the peace in Europe, supports the proposals 
of the German Democratic Republic for the peaceful unifi- 
cation of Germany. The Government of the USSR 
regrets that none of the efforts made in this direction has 
as yet produced any positive results, since the governments 
of the United States and other NATO members, and, above 
all, the Government of the FRG, do not, in fact, display any 
concern either for the conclusion of a peace treaty or for 
the unification of Germany. 

Consequently, the policy pursued by the United States, 
Great Britain, and France, directed as it is toward the 
militarization of West Germany and toward involving it 
in the military bloc of the Western Powers, has also 
prevented the enforcement of those provisions of the Pots- 
dam Agreement that pertain to Germany's unity. 

Actually, of all the Allied agreements on Germany, only 
one is being carried out today. It is the agreement on 
the so-called quadripartite status of Berlin. On the basis 
of that status, the Three Western Powers are ruling the 
roost in West Berlin, turning it into a kind of state with- 
in a state and using it as a center from which to pursue 
subversive activity against the GDR, the Soviet Union, 
and the other parties to the Warsaw Treaty. The United 
States, Great Britain, and France are freely communi- 
cating with West Berlin through lines of communication 
passing through the territory and the airspace of the 
German Democratic Republic, which they do not even 
want to recognize. 
The governments of the Three Powers are seeking to 



84 



Department of State Bulletin 



keep in force the long-since obsolete part of the wartime 
agreements that governed the occupation of Germany and 
entitled them in the past to stay in Berlin. At the same 
time, as stated above, the Western Powers have grossly 
violated the Four-Power agreements, including the Pots- 
dam Agreement, which is the most concentrated ex- 
pression of the obligations of the Powers with respect to 
Germany. Moreover, the Four-Power agreements on the 
occupation of Germany, which the governments of the 
USA, Great Britain, and France invoke in support of 
their rights in West Berlin, were approved by the Pots- 
dam Agreement or adopted for its implementation. In 
other words, the Three Powers are demanding, for their 
own sake, the preservation of the occupation privileges 
based on those Four-Power agreements, which they them- 
selves have violated. 

If the USA, Great Britain, and France are indeed stay- 
ing in Berlin by virtue of the right stemming from the 
aforementioned international agreements and, primarily, 
from the Potsdam Agreement, this implies their duty to 
abide by these agreements. Those who have grossly 
violated these agreements have lost the right to maintain 
their occupation regime in Berlin or any other part of 
Germany. Furthermore, is it possible to insist on the 
occupation regime being maintained in Germany or in any 
part thereof for more than 13 years after the end of the 
war? For, any occupation is an event of limited duration, 
which is expressly stipulated in the Four-Power agree- 
ments on Germany. 

It is well known that the conventional way to put an 
end to occupation is for the parties that were at war to 
conclude a peace treaty offering the defeated country the 
conditions necessary for the re-establishment of normal 
life. 

The fact that Germany still has no peace treaty is the 
fault primarily of the governments of the USA, Britain, 
and France, which have never seemed to be in sympathy 
with the idea of drafting such a treaty. It is known that 
the governments of the Three Powers reacted negatively 
to every approach the Soviet Government has made to 
them regarding the preparation of a peace treaty with 
Germany. 

At present, the USA, Great Britain, and France are 
opposed, as follows from their notes of September 30 of 
this year, to the latest proposals for a peaceful settlement 
with Germany put forward by the Soviet Union and the 
GDR, while making no proposals of their own on this 
question, just as they have made none throughout the 
postwar period. As a matter of fact, the last note of the 
US Government is a restatement of the position that 
proved to be utterly unrealistic, whereby Germany's na- 
tional unity is to be re-established by the USSR, the USA, 
Great Britain, and France rather than by the German 
states that are to unite. It also follows from the US 
Government's note that it is once again avoiding negotia- 
tions with the Soviet Union and the other interested 
states for the purpose of preparing a peace treaty with 
Germany. The result is a veritable vicious circle : The 
US Government is objecting to the drafting of a German 
peace treaty by referring to the absence of a united 
German state while at the same time hampering the 
reunification of Germany by rejecting the only real 



possibility of solving this problem through agreement 
between the two German states. 

Is it not because the Western Powers would like to 
prolong indefinitely their privileges in West Germany 
and the occupation regime in West Berlin that they 
take this position on the question of drafting a peace 
treaty? It is becoming increasingly clear that such is 
the actual state of affairs. 

The Soviet Government reaffirms its readiness to par- 
ticipate at any time in negotiations to draft a peace treaty 
with Germany. However, the absence of a peace treaty 
can by no means be an excuse now for attempting to 
maintain the occupation regime anywhere in Germany. 

The occupation period in Germany has long since be- 
come a thing of the past and any attempts to prevent 
the disappearance of special rights of foreign powers in 
Germany are becoming a dangerous anachronism. The 
occupation regime in Germany has never been an end in 
itself. It was established to help the healthy forces of 
the German nation to build their own new peace-loving 
and democratic state on the ruins of a militaristic 
Germany. 

Desirous of living in peace and friendship with the 
entire German people, the Soviet Union has established 
and is maintaining normal diplomatic relations with both 
German states. Close friendly relations bind the Soviet 
Union to the German Democratic Republic. These re- 
lations were embodied in the treaty concluded between 
the Soviet Union and the German Democratic Republic 
on September 20, 1955. In accordance with this treaty, 
relations between the two states are based on complete 
equality of rights, respect for each other's sovereignty, 
and noninterference in each other's internal affairs. The 
Soviet Government proceeds from the same principles 
in its relations with the other German state — the Federal 
Republic of Germany. 

On their part, the governments of the USA, Great 
Britain, and France proclaimed an end to the occupation 
regime in the territory of the FRG, which had been under 
their control and administration, when they signed the 
Paris agreements. The Four-Power status of Berlin 
came into being because Berlin, as the capital of Ger- 
many, was designated as the seat of the Control Council 
established for Germany's administration during the ini- 
tial period of occupation. This status has been scrupu- 
lously observed by the Soviet Union up to the present 
time, although the Control Council ceased to exist as 
early as ten years ago and there have been two capitals 
in Germany for a long time. As for the USA, Great 
Britain, and France, they have chosen to abuse in a 
flagrant manner their occupation rights in Berlin and 
have exploited the Four-Power status of the city for their 
own purposes to the detriment of the Soviet Union, the 
German Democratic Republic, and the other Socialist 
countries. 

At one time, the agreement on the Four-Power status of 
Berlin was an agreement providing for equal rights of the 
Four Powers, which was concluded for peaceful demo- 
cratic purposes, which purposes later became known as 
the Potsdam principles. At that time, this agreement 
met the requirements of the day and was in accordance 
with the interests of all its signatories — the USSR, the 



January 79, 7959 



85 



USA, Great Britain, and France. Now that the Western 
Powers have begun to arm West Germany and turn it 
into an instrument of their policy directed against the 
Soviet Union, the very essence of this erstwhile Allied 
agreement on Berlin has disappeared. It was violated 
by three of its signatories, who began using it against 
the fourth signatory, i. e., against the Soviet Union. It 
would be ridiculous to expect that in such a situation 
the Soviet Union or any other self-respecting state in its 
place would pretend not to notice the changes that have 
occurred. 

An obviously absurd situation has thus arisen, in which 
the Soviet Union seems to be supporting and maintaining 
favorable conditions for the Western Powers in their 
activities against the Soviet Union and its Allies under 
the Warsaw Treaty. 

It is obvious that the Soviet Union, just as the other 
parties to the Warsaw Treaty, cannot tolerate such a 
situation any longer. For the occupation regime in West 
Berlin to continue would be tantamount to recognizing 
something like a privileged position of the NATO coun- 
tries, for which there is, of course, no reason whatsoever. 

It is hardly possible seriously to believe that the 
Soviet Union will help the forces of aggression to develop 
subversive activities, much less to prepare an attack on 
Socialist countries. It should be clear for anybody with 
common sense that the Soviet Union cannot maintain 
a situation in West Berlin that is detrimental to its lawful 
interests, its security, and the security of other Socialist 
countries. It would be well to bear in mind that the 
Soviet Union is not a Jordan or an Iran and will never 
tolerate any methods of pressure upon it for the purpose 
of imposing conditions advantageous to the opposing 
NATO military bloc. But this is precisely what the West- 
ern Powers are trying to get the Soviet Union to endorse 
in their attempts to retain their rights of occupants in 
West Berlin. 

Can the Soviet Union disregard all these facts, which 
affect the vital security interests of the Soviet Union, of 
its ally — the German Democratic Republic — and of all 
the member states of the Warsaw Defense Treaty? Of 
course not ! The Soviet Government can no longer con- 
sider itself bound by that part of the Allied agreements on 
Germany that has assumed an inequitable character and 
is being used for the purpose of maintaining the occupa- 
tion regime in West Berlin and interfering in the internal 
affairs of the GDR. 

In this connection, the Government of the USSR hereby 
notifies the United States Government that the Soviet 
Union regards as null and void the "Protocol of the 
Agreement between the Governments of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States of America, 
and the United Kingdom on the zones of occupation in 
Germany and on the administration of Greater Berlin," 
of September 12, 1944, and the related supplementary 
agreements, including the agreement on the control 
machinery in Germany, concluded between the govern- 
ments of the USSR, the USA, Great Britain, and France 
on May 1, 1945, i. e., the agreements that were intended 
to be in effect during the first years after the capitulation 
of Germany. 



It is easy to see that all the Soviet Government is doing 
by making this statement is to recognize the actual state 
of affairs, which consists in the fact that the USA, Great 
Britain, and France have long since rejected the essen- 
tials of the treaties and agreements concluded during the 
war against Hitler Germany and after its defeat. The 
Soviet Government is doing no more than drawing con- 
clusions that inevitably ensue for the Soviet Union from 
this actual state of affairs. 

Pursuant to the foregoing and proceeding from the 
principle of respect for the sovereignty of the German 
Democratic Republic, the Soviet Government will enter 
into negotiations with the Government of the GDR at an 
appropriate time with a view to transferring to the 
German Democratic Republic the functions temporarily 
performed by the Soviet authorities by virtue of the 
above-mentioned Allied agreements and under the 
agreement between the USSR and the GDR of September 
20, 1955. The best way to solve the Berlin problem would 
undoubtedly be to adopt a decision based on the enforce- 
ment of the Potsdam Agreement on Germany. But this is 
possible only in the event that the three Western Powers 
return to a policy in German affairs that would be 
pursued jointly with the USSR and in conformity with 
the spirit and principles of the Potsdam Agreement. In 
the present circumstances this would mean the with- 
drawal of the Federal Republic of Germany from NATO 
with the simultaneous withdrawal of the German Demo- 
cratic Republic from the Warsaw Treaty [organization], 
and an agreement whereby, in accordance with the 
principles of the Potsdam Agreement, neither of the two 
German states would have any armed forces except 
those needed to maintain law and order at home and 
guard the frontiers. 

Should the Government of the United States be un- 
willing to contribute in such a way to the implementation 
of the political principles of the Allied agreements on 
Germany, it will have no reason, either legal or moral, for 
insisting on the preservation of the Four-Power status of 
Berlin. Some ill-wishers of the Soviet Union may of 
course try to interpret the position of the Soviet Govern- 
ment in the question of the occupation regime in Berlin 
as the striving for some sort of annexation. It goes with- 
out saying that such an interpretation has nothing in 
eommon with reality. The Soviet Union, just as the 
other Socialist states, has no territorial claims. In its 
policy, it is firmly guided by the principle of condemning 
annexation, i. e., the seizure of foreign territories and 
forced annexation of foreign peoples. This principle was 
proclaimed by Lenin, the founder of the Soviet state, as 
far back as the first days of Soviet power in Russia. 

The USSR does not seek any conquests. All it wants 
is to put an end to the abnormal and dangerous situation 
that has developed in Berlin because of the continued 
occupation of its western sectors by the USA, Great 
Britain, and France. 

An independent solution to the Berlin problem must 
be found in the very near future since the Western 
Powers refuse to take part in the preparation of a peace 
treaty with Germany and the Government of the FRG, 
supported by the same powers, is pursuing a policy 



86 



Department of State Bulletin 



hampering the unification of Germany. It is necessary to 
prevent West Berlin from being used any longer as a 
springboard for intensive espionage, sabotage, and other 
subversive activities against Socialist countries, the 
GDH, and the USSR or, to quote the leaders of the 
United States Government, to prevent its being used for 
"indirect aggression" against the countries of the 
Socialist camp. 

Essentially speaking, the only interest the United 
States, Great Britain and France have in West Berlin 
consists in using this "frontline city," as it is vociferously 
called in the West, as a vantage point from which to 
carry on hostile activities against the socialist countries. 
The Western powers gain nothing else from their stay in 
Berlin as occupants. The ending of the illegal occupa- 
tion of West Berlin would cause no harm whatever, either 
to the United States or to Great Britain or France. It 
would, on the other hand, substantially improve the in- 
ternational atmosphere in Europe and set peoples' minds 
at rest in all countries. 

On the contrary, the Western powers' insistence on 
continuing their occupation of West Berlin would lead 
to the conclusion that the matter is not confined to "in- 
direct aggression" against the GDR and the Soviet Union, 
and that some other plans are apparently being kept 
in view for an even more dangerous use of West Berlin. 

The Soviet Government makes this approach to the 
Government of the USA, guided by the desire to achieve 
a relaxation of international tension ; to put an end to 
the state of "cold war" and pave the way for the restora- 
tion of good relations between the Soviet Union and the 
United States, as well as Great Britain and France; to 
clear away everything that gives rise to clashes and 
quarrels between our countries; and to reduce the num- 
ber of causes leading to conflicts. Indeed, one cannot 
escape the fact that West Berlin, in its present status, 
is just such a source of discord and suspicion between our 
countries. 

Of course, the most correct and natural way to solve 
the problem would be for the western part of Berlin, 
now actually detached from the GDR, to be reunited with 
its eastern part and for Berlin to become a unified city 
within the state in whose territory it is situated. 

However, the Soviet Government, taking into account 
the present unrealistic policy of the USA as well as of 
Great Britain and France with respect to the German 
Democratic Republic, cannot but foresee the difficulties 
the Western powers have in contributing to such a solu- 
tion of the Berlin problem. At the same time, it is 
guided by the concern that the process of liquidating the 
occupation regime may not involve any painful break in 
the established way of life of the West Berlin population. 

One cannot of course, fail to take into account the 
fact that the political and economic development of West 
Berlin during the period of its occupation by the three 
Western powers has progressed in a different direction 
from the development of East Berlin and the GDR, as 
a result of which the way of life in the two parts of 
Berlin are at the present time entirely different. The 
Soviet Government considers that when the foreign oc- 
cupation is ended the population of West Berlin must be 
granted the right to have whatever way of life it wishes 



for itself. If the inhabitants of West Berlin desire to 
preserve the present way of life, based on private capi- 
talistic ownership, that is up to them. The USSR, for 
its part, would respect any choice of the West Berliners 
in this matter. 

In view of all these considerations, the Soviet Govern- 
ment on its part would consider it possible to solve the 
West Berlin question at the present time by the con- 
version of West Berlin into an independent political 
unit — a free city, without any state, including both exist- 
ing German states, interfering in its life. Specifically, it 
might be possible to agree that the territory of the free 
city be demilitarized and that no armed forces be con- 
tained therein. The free city, West Berlin, could have 
its own government and run its own economic, admin- 
istrative, and other affairs. 

The Four Powers which shared in the administration 
of Berlin after the war could, as well as both of the 
German states, undertake to respect the status of West 
Berlin as a free city, just as was done, for instance, by 
the Four Powers with respect to the neutral status which 
was adopted by the Austrian Republic. 

For its part, the Soviet Government would have no 
objection to the United Nations also sharing, in one 
way or other, in observing the free-city status of West 
Berlin. 

It is obvious that, considering the specific position of 
West Berlin, which lies within the territory of the GDR 
and is cut off from the outside world, the question would 
arise of some kind of arrangement with the German 
Democratic Republic concerning guarantees of unhindered 
communications between the free city and the outside 
world — both to the East and to the West — with the object 
of free movement of passenger and freight traffic. In its 
turn West Berlin would undertake not to permit on its 
territory any hostile subversive activity directed against 
the GDR or any other state. 

The above-mentioned solution of the problem of West 
Berlin's status would be an important step toward nor- 
malizing the situation in Berlin, which, instead of being 
a hotbed of unrest and tension, could become a center 
for contacts and cooperation between both parts of Ger- 
many in the interest of her peaceful future and the unity 
of the German nation. 

The establishment of free-city status for West Berlin 
would firmly ensure the development of West Berlin's 
economy, due to its contacts on all sides with the states 
of the East and the West, and would ensure a decent 
standard of living for the city's population. For its part, 
the Soviet Union states that it would contribute in every 
way toward the achievement of these ends, in particular 
by placing orders for industrial goods and amounts that 
would fully ensure the stability and prosperity of the free 
city's economy, and by regular deliveries on a commercial 
basis of the necessary quantities of raw materials and 
food stuffs to West Berlin. Thus, by the liquidation of 
the occupation regime, not only would the more than two 
million people of West Berlin not be harmed but on the 
contrary they would have every opportunity to raise their 
living standard. 

In case the Government of the USA and the govern- 
ments of Great Britain and France express their agree- 



January 19, 7959 



87 



ment to consider the question of liquidating the present 
occupation regime in West Berlin by setting up a free 
city within its territory, the Soviet government would be 
willing on behalf of the Four Powers to enter into official 
contact on this matter with the government of the Ger- 
man Democratic Republic, with which it has already had 
preliminary consultations prior to the sending of the 
present note. 

Naturally, it would also be realized that the GDR's 
agreement to set up on its territory such an independent 
political organism as a free city of West Berlin would 
be a concession, a definite sacrifice on the part of the 
GDR for the sake of strengthening peace in Europe, and 
for the sake of the national interest of the German people 
as a whole. 

The Soviet Government, guided by a desire to normalize 
the situation in Berlin in the interest of European peace 
and in the interest of a peaceful and independent develop- 
ment of Germany, has resolved to effect measures on its 
part designed to liquidate the occupation regime in Berlin. 
It hopes that the Government of the USA will show a 
proper understanding of these motives and make a real- 
istic approach to the Berlin question. 

At the same time, the Soviet Government is prepared 
to enter into negotiations with the governments of the 
United States of America and with those of the other 
states concerned on granting West Berlin the status of a 
demilitarized free city. In case this proposal is not ac- 
ceptable to the government of the USA then there will no 
longer remain any topic for negotiations between the 
former occupying powers on the Berlin question. 

The Soviet Government seeks to have the necessary 
change in Berlin's situation take place in a cold atmos- 
phere, without haste and unnecessary friction, with 
maximum possible consideration for the interests of the 
parties concerned. Obviously, a certain period of time 
will be necessary for the powers which occupied Germany 
after the defeat of Hitler's Wehrmacht to agree on pro- 
claiming West Berlin a free city provided, naturally, that 
the Western powers display due interest in this proposal. 
It should also be taken into consideration that the 
necessity may arise for talks between the municipal 
authorities of both parts of Berlin and also between the 
GDR and the PRG to settle any questions that may arise. 
In view of this, the Soviet Government proposes to make 
no changes in the present procedure for military traffic of 
the USA, Great Britain, and France from West Berlin 
to the FRG for half a year. It regards such a period as 
fully sufficient to provide a sound basis for the solution 
of the questions connected with the change in Berlin's 
situation and to prevent a possibility of any complica- 
tions, provided, naturally, that the governments of the 
Western powers do not deliberately seek such complica- 
tions. During the above-mentioned period the parties will 
have an opportunity to prove in practice their desire to 
ease international tension by settling the Berlin question. 
If the above-mentioned period is not utilized to reach 
an adequate agreement, the Soviet Union will then carry 
out the planned measures through an agreement with the 
GDR. It is envisaged that the German Democratic Re- 
public, like any other independent state, must fully deal 
with questions concerning its space, i. e., exercise its 



sovereignty on land, on water, and in the air. At the 
same time, there will terminate all contacts still main- 
tained between representatives of the armed forces and 
other officials of the Soviet Union in Germany and cor- 
responding representatives of the armed forces and other 
officials of the USA, Great Britain, and France on ques- 
tions pertaining to Berlin. 

Voices are raised in the capitals of some Western 
powers that those powers do not recognize the Soviet 
Union's decision to relinquish its part in the maintenance 
of the occupation status in Berlin. But how can one 
place the question on such a level? He who today speaks 
of nonrecognition of the steps planned by the Soviet Union 
obviously would like to talk with the latter not in the 
language of reason and well-founded arguments but in the 
language of brute force, forgetting that the Soviet people 
are not affected by threats and intimidation. If behind 
the words about "nonrecognition" there really lies the 
intention to resort to force and drag the world into a war 
over Berlin, the advocates of such a policy should realize 
that they assume a very grave responsibility for all its 
consequences before all nations and before history. Those 
who indulge in sabre-rattling in connection with the situ- 
ation in Berlin are once again betraying their interests 
in preserving for aggressive purposes the occupation 
regime in Berlin. 

The Government of the Soviet Union would like to hope 
that the problem of normalizing the situation in Berlin, 
which life itself raises before our states as a natural 
necessity, will in any case be solved in accordance with 
considerations of statesmenship, the interests of peace 
between peoples, without the unnecessary nervous strain 
and intensification of a "cold war." 

Methods of blackmail and reckless threats of force 
will be least of all appropriate in solving such a prob- 
lem as the Berlin question. Such methods will not help 
solve a single question, but can only bring the situation 
to the danger point. But only madmen can go to the 
length of unleashing another world war over the pres- 
ervation of privileges of occupiers in West Berlin. If 
such madmen should really appear, there is no doubt 
that strait jackets could be found for them. If the 
statesmen responsible for the policy of the Western 
powers are guided by feelings of hatred for communism 
and the socialist countries in their approach to the Berlin 
question as well as other international problems, no good 
will come out of it. Neither the Soviet Union nor any 
other small socialist state can or will deny its existence 
precisely as a socialist state. That is why, having united 
in an unbreakable fraternal alliance, they firmly stand 
in defense of their rights and their state frontiers, acting 
according to the motto — one for all and all for one. Any 
violation of the frontiers of the German Democratic 
Republic, Poland, or Czechoslovakia, any aggressive ac- 
tion against any member state of the Warsaw Treaty 
will be regarded by all its participants as an act of ag- 
gression against them all and will immediately cause 
appropriate retaliation. 

The Soviet Government believes that it would be 
sensible to recognize the situation prevailing in the world 
and to create normal relations for the co-existence of 
all states, to develop international trade, to build rela- 



88 



Department of State Bulletin 



ticms between our countries on the basis of the well- 
known principles of mutual respect for one another's 
sovereignty and territorial integrity, nonnggression, non- 
interference in one another's internal affairs, equality and 
mutual benefit. 

The Soviet Union and its people and government are 
sincerely striving for the restoration of good relations 
with the United States of America, relations based on 



trust, which are quite feasible as shown by the exper- 
ience in the joint struggle against the Hitlerite aggres- 
sors, and which in peacetime would hold out to our 
countries nothing but the advantages of mutually enriched 
spiritual and material cooperation between our peoples, 
and to all other people the blessings of a tranquil life 
under conditions of an enduring peace. 

Moscow, November 27, 1958 



United States-Latin American Relations, 1953-1958 

REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT 

by Milton S. Eisenhower, Personal Representative of the President 



December 27, 1958 

Dear Mr. President: Five years ago I sub- 
mitted to you a report 1 on United States-Latin 
American Relations following field observations 
in the ten Republics of South America and sub- 
sequent study with the Federal officials who had 
accompanied me on that fact-finding, good-will 
trip. 

In the 1953 report, I emphasized the vital im- 
portance of Latin America and the United States 
to each other; suggested the principles which 
should be observed in strengthening hemispheric 
relations; analyzed those continental conditions 
which have a direct bearing upon United States 
policies and programs ; and recommended a num- 
ber of actions which I believed would be helpful 
in binding the American Republics into a co- 
operative enterprise dh'ected toward the goals of 
peace, freedom, and rising levels of human well- 
being. 

In the period September 1956 to May 1957, I 
had an extraordinary opportunity to learn the 
views of distinguished leaders of the twenty re- 
publics of Latin America. It was my privilege 
to serve as your personal representative on the 
Inter- American Committee of Presidential Repre- 
sentatives, which unanimously recommended to 
the Chiefs of State ways in which the Organiza- 
tion of American States might broaden the scope 



of its activities for the benefit of the peoples of 
this hemisphere. 2 

In the summer of 1957, several associates and I, 
at your request, responded to an invitation from 
President Ruiz Cortines of Mexico, and made a 
fact-finding good-will visit to that country. 

Then, in July of this year, the Assistant Secre- 
tary of State for Inter- American Affairs, the As- 
sistant Secretary of the Treasury, the President of 
the Export- Import Bank, the Managing Director 
of the Development Loan Fimd, a physician of 
the Johns Hopkins University, and I made a fact- 
finding trip to the five republics of Central Amer- 
ica and to Panama, 3 interrupting it for a few 
days to participate in Puerto Rico's sixth annual 
celebration of its having achieved Commonwealth 
status. 

It had been my intention to submit to you soon 
after my return from this latest mission a report 
on our findings, and further recommendations for 
improving United States-Latin American rela- 
tions. However, I found it desirable to spend all 
the time I could spare from my University duties 
in holding extensive discussions with Federal 
agencies, and one international agency, whose 
policies and programs have a significant bearing 
on this central problem. During the past four 
months I have had helpful conversations with you, 
the Vice President, the Secretary of State and 
other officials of the State Department, the Secre- 



1 For text, see Bulletin of Nov. 23, 1953, p. 695. 
January 19, J 959 



* Ibid., Oct. 1, 1956, p. 511 ; Mar. 25, 1957, p. 479 ; June 
24, 1957, p. 1014. 

'Ibid., Aug. 25, 1958, p. 309. 



89 



tary of the Treasury and some of his associates, 
the National Security Planning Board, the Board 
of Directors of the Export- Import Bank, the 
President of the International Bank for Recon- 
struction and Development, the Managing Direc- 
tor and other officials of the Development Loan 
Fund, various officials in other Departments, and 
the heads of some of our industrial enterprises 
with activities in Latin America. I suspect, 
therefore, that there have already been set in mo- 
tion activities which will lead to such results as 
might be expected from my studies and observa- 
tions. Hence this report, as an addendum to the 
one I submitted in 1953, is prepared primarily 
for the record. 

I reaffirm essentially all I said in my report 
of 1953, but now I must add a note of urgency to 
my general recommendation that the nations of 
Latin America and the United States re-examine 
their attitudes and policies toward one another 
and constantly seek to strengthen their economic, 
political, and cultural relations, to their mutual 
benefit. 

Latin America is a continental area in ferment. 
While its productivity is increasing, so is its popu- 
lation, at an unprecedented rate. A high degree 
of illiteracy, poverty, and dependence on one- 
commodity economies with consequent wide fluc- 
tuations in income still characterize most of this 
vast area. 

But the people generally, including the most 
humble of them, now know that low standards of 
living are neither universal nor inevitable, and 
they are therefore impatiently insistent that 
remedial actions be taken. It is perhaps natural 
for them to look primarily to the United States 
for assistance. 

Neither the people nor their leaders seek finan- 
cial grants, save in a few isolated and emergency 
situations. Rather, they want public and private 
credit in increasing quantities, stable trade rela- 
tions, greater stability in the prices of raw com- 
modities which they sell, and technical assistance 
designed to hasten overall development primarily 
through improvement in education, health, and 
agricultural and industrial productivity. 

The Need for Understanding 

It is surely a truism to say that if the govern- 
ments and peoples of this hemisphere are to coop- 
erate fruitfully in ways that are mutually 



beneficial — in ways that enable Latin America 
to achieve its aspirations without requiring an 
excessive drain upon the over-taxed resources of 
the United States — there must first be better 
understanding among them. 

I commented at length on this in my previous 
report. I now must report that misunderstand- 
ings seem to me to be even more serious than they 
were in 1953. 

In the United States, the problem stems pri- 
marily from a lack of knowledge. We wish to 
be a good neighbor. We want the Latin 
American republics to regard us as a faithful 
friend. But our people generally do not truly 
comprehend the problems and aspirations of our 
neighbors, and thus we sometimes take actions 
which are detrimental to the good relationships 
we wish to foster. Thus it is possible that the 
people of the United States would have favored 
actions different from those that were taken in 
the area of trade relations if they had been in 
possession of all relevant facts. 

In Latin America, misunderstandings of our 
policies, programs, and attitudes are pervasive, 
and are impediments to the development of more 
fruitful cooperation. 

Latin Americans believe that our economic 
capacity is essentially unlimited and that we are 
doing much more for other areas of the world 
than we are for Latin America. This leads them 
to conclude that their failure to obtain credit in 
the desired volume is either sheer perversity or 
discrimination on our part. That this is not so 
is beside my immediate point. Leaders and 
peoples think it is so. This persistent misunder- 
standing, noted in my previous report and found 
this summer to be even more strongly held, 
should warn us that new and dramatic action to 
overcome it is now imperative. 

Another serious misconception is that we some- 
times fix prices, to the detriment of Latin 
America. Everywhere one hears it said, among 
government officials, university students, and 
business leaders: "We must sell to you at prices 
you are willing to pay, and we must buy from 
you at prices you dictate." 

Why is this false idea circulated? One of the 
most vexing problems in Latin America stems 
from an excessive dependence upon the export of 
agricultural products and minerals, whose prices 
are subject to sharp fluctuations in world markets, 



90 



Department of State Bulletin 



whereas the prices of industrial commodities they 
buy are more rigid. That the United States does 
not. fix prices — that raw commodity and industrial 
prices are determined in the competitive markets 
of the world, as they should be — is again in one 
sense beside the point. The erroneous belief 
noted above is widely held. It causes bitterness, 
and impedes rational resolution of substantive 
problems. 

I am deeply disturbed by a gross misconcep- 
tion which is evidently fairly recent in origin. 
At least I did not encounter it in 1953. Based on 
a distortion of facts, a false impression is now 
held by certain misinformed individuals and is 
also being cleverly fostered by communist agita- 
tors. Despite our adherence to a policy of non- 
intervention, we are charged with supporting 
Latin American dictators in the face of a 
strong trend toward freedom and democratic 
government. 

It is ironic that this charge is insidiously spread 
by international conspirators who represent the 
most vicious dictatorship in modern history. 

These three examples of Latin American mis- 
understanding of our attitudes, policies, and 
capabilities are only illustrative. 

In my previous report, I made nine recom- 
mendations for action which I hoped would help 
solve the problem. I know that since then notable 
work has been done by the United States Infor- 
mation Agency, the State Department, private 
businesses with branches in Latin America, and 
mass media. But the problem grows. New, 
heroic efforts are required. 

/ recommend that the United States take the 
leadership in urging the Organization of Ameri- 
can States to place high on its program effective 
efforts to develop among the governments and 
peoples of the American Republics that genuine 
understanding on which fruitful cooperative ac- 
tion must be based. 

(a) The OAS should urge each of the American 
Republics to establish a national commission of 
distinguished citizens who voluntarily would as- 
sume, as their major extramural responsibility, 
the promotion within each country of the type of 
broad understanding which is obviously required. 
Commission membership should include educa- 
tors; editors; writers; leaders of business, agri- 
culture, and labor ; public officials, and prominent 
individuals from social and cultural institutions. 



In the larger countries, I would hope that one 
hundred distinguished citizens would be willing 
to serve on each National Commission; in the 
smaller countries, twenty or more might suffice. 
As your representative, I made this recommenda- 
tion to the Inter-American Committee of Presi- 
dential Representatives and it was there unani- 
mously approved, but the recommendation has not 
been implemented. 

/ also recommend that each of the twenty-one 
governments be urged to assume a large measure 
of responsibility for promoting the relevant 
understanding within its own country. 

Sometimes, I regret to report, misunderstand- 
ings are permitted to prevail or are encouraged for 
what may seem to be temporary political advan- 
tage. Actually nothing coidd be more self-defeat- 
ing. Political leaders must in fact be leaders: 
Each has a profound responsibility for keeping 
his people informed with respect to those great 
problems and issues that determine relationships 
among the family of nations. 

Responsibility for informing the people of the 
United States about Latin American policies, atti- 
tudes, and developments — to the extent this is a 
government duty — rests with the State Depart- 
ment. Responsibility for informing the peoples 
of Latin America about similar matters in the 
United States rests with the United States 
Information Agency. 

/ recommend that the information facilities 
of the State Department be increased, that the 
State Department cooperate continuously with the 
United States National Commission for Latin 
American Affairs (as recommended above) and 
that special efforts be made to induce the mass 
media of the United States to maintain competent 
correspondents in Latin America and to carry a 
steady flow of neios and interpretive material from 
all twenty republics. 

I also recommend that leadership, student, and- 
other exchanges of persons be encouraged by 
every means. Fortunately, the United States offi- 
cial exchange-of-persons program has recently 
been increased. The OAS has initiated an excel- 
lent program of scholarships and fellowships. 
Private foundations should be urged to grant 
scholarships to young men and women who wish 
to study in the United States. American business 
enterprises with interests in Latin America should 
be encouraged to bring promising young employ- 



January 79, 1959 



91 



ees to the United States for travel, training, and 
education. 

/ further recommend that the activities of the 
United States Information Agency in, Latin 
America oe increased: 

(a) The bi-national center program should be 
expanded. It costs us little. It is rapidly helping 
to make English the second language of Latin 
America, and is enabling many Latin Americans 
to gain an insight into our total culture. 

(b) The USIA publications program should 
be increased and modified so as to place particular 
emphasis on reaching students, intellectuals, and 
workers. 

(c) Government, industry, and foundations 
might well cooperate in establishing, upon request, 
endowed chairs in leading universities of Latin 
America, especially in the social sciences and 
humanities. Initially, these chairs might well be 
occupied by United States professors, but eventu- 
ally by national professors who have done ad- 
vanced work in the United States. 

(d) The USIA posts which had to be vacated 
because of the budgetary cut in 1957 should be 
filled. 

(e) The private effort in Mexico of prominent 
Mexican and United States businessmen to de- 
velop mutual understanding should be studied ; if 
found successful, as I am convinced it is, the 
USIA should arrange for business leaders in the 
United States to try to duplicate this pilot proj- 
ect in other Latin American countries. 

I wish to call attention again to my 1953 sug- 
gestion that we should encourage the establish- 
ment in the United States of bi-national institutes 
for the teaching of Spanish. Our goal should be 
to develop genuine linguistic ability among all 
classes of our population so that we may com- 
municate effectively and read the literature of 
Latin America. We are lamentably deficient in 
this respect. It is a shameful shortcoming in a 
country which has the burden of free world leader- 
ship. 

In the National Defense Education Act, the 
Congress and the Administration have recognized 
our limitations in languages and knowledge of 
the cultures of regions of the world, and have 
made provision, on a matching grant basis to 
institutions of higher education, for the establish- 
ment of institutes to train teachers and promote 
the teaching of these subjects. This Act pro- 



vides a good beginning toward the permanent 
establishment of bi-national institutes, and may 
indeed provide a source of well trained personnel 
for them. 

The Need for Credit 

Though vast opportunities exist in Latin Amer- 
ica to increase the efficiency of agricultural pro- 
duction — and each of the countries should inten- 
sify its efforts in this area — nonetheless it is clear 
that a substantial increase in levels of living 
requires industrialization. This calls for many 
things, including a steady flow of private and 
public credit. 

The United States drew vast quantities of capi- 
tal from Europe during the early years of its 
industrial revolution ; so today must the republics 
of Latin America look to the United States and 
perhaps to certain European countries for devel- 
opment capital. 

Sound loans in impressive volume have been 
made over a period of years by the Export-Import 
Bank, and by the International Bank for Eecon- 
struction and Development. Private United 
States credit and investment have been of power- 
ful help to Latin America. About twenty per 
cent of outstanding United States investment is 
public, eighty per cent private. 

The granting of public and private credit must 
be accelerated. This seems to me to require four 
things : First, each nation of Latin America must 
do a better job than heretofore in overall economic 
planning and in determining priorities within its 
development program ; second, we must coordinate 
the knowledge about programs of the lending 
institutions, public and private; third, public 
lending institutions should take a positive attitude 
in the use of credit as a means of helping Latin 
America achieve its aspirations, and, fourth, each 
Latin American Republic must take those actions 
which will attract private credit, since it cannot 
and should not be directed. 

An imperative first step is more effective eco- 
nomic analysis and planning by nations which de- 
sire development capital. Sound planning, with 
project priorities assigned, and with knowledge 
of which projects might be eligible for public 
credit and which for private credit, would be 
conducive to the receipt of maximum loans. 
Lending institutions cannot satisfy the total needs 



92 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



of a borrowing nation at one time, nor conM a 
borrowing nation absorb vast sums quickly with- 
out causing economic dislocations. Timing is im- 
portant: One loan, launching a successful enter- 
prise, may make a second development loan feasi- 
ble. A public loan, such as for a highway into 
virgin territory, might make possible a new pri- 
vate industry, such as a pulp and paper mill. 

Occasionally, confusion has been caused among 
lending institutions when nations seeking credit 
have presented conflicting requests, or have sud- 
denly shifted their priorities; these and other 
shortcomings could be overcome by competent 
economic analysis and planning. 

/ recommend that the projected Inter-American 
development institution subsequently discussed 
herein, be so organized and staffed as to assist 
the American Republics in development planning, 
in the assignment of priorities, and in the prepara- 
tion of loan projects, and that the United States 
International Cooperation Administration assist 
in the financing of this section of the development 
agency through its technical cooperation funds. 

I should also like to see tried a pilot project in 
joint planning similar to that which was at- 
tempted five or six years ago by the United States 
and Brazil. The only criticism I have heard of 
that intensive cooperative effort is this: Brazilian 
officials erroneously developed the belief that the 
joint planning constituted a commitment on the 
part of the lending institutions to finance the pro j - 
ects developed; this of course was not and could 
not have been true ; recriminations flowed from the 
misunderstanding. Otherwise, all seem agreed 
that the joint effort was remarkably successful. 
It ought not to be difficult to avoid the recurrence 
of misunderstanding. 

Once a nation has assessed its potentialities and 
produced a sound program with priorities, it is in 
a better position to utilize the facilities of lending 
institutions ; initial applications must be well pre- 
pared if they are to meet with favorable responses. 
In the absence of sound planning of this kind 
applicants for loans may become confused and 
frustrated. 

Effective borrowing by Latin American coun- 
tries also requires an understanding of the policies 
and limitations of the International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development, the Interna- 
tional Finance Corporation, the International 
Monetary Fund, the Export-Import Bank, the De- 
January J 9, 7959 

492661—59 3 



velopment Loan Fund, United States Treasury, 
the International Cooperation Administration 
(which has made one or two emergency loans in 
Latin America) and many private institutions. 

The development program of a country may re- 
quire the cooperation of several public and private 
institutions, first, in determining the credit ca- 
pacity of a nation and, then, in timing several 
types of loans in such a way that one supports the 
other. 

/ recommend that the proposed inter-American 
development institution exercise leadership in this 
field; that it promote more specific planning by 
Latin America in the utilization of existing credit 
facilities; that it have broad responsibility fur 
achieving greater understanding and coordina- 
tion in the whole field of loans to the Republics 
of Latin America. 

I cannot over-emphasize the constructive good 
that has been done hi Latin America by the World 
Bank and by United States lending institutions. 
World Bank loans to Latin America now amount 
to about $150,000,000 a year, and total loans out- 
standing approximate $800,000,000. Forty per 
cent of Export- Import Bank loans over a period 
of years has been made to Latin American na- 
tions; in all, it has authorized $3,500,000,000 of 
such loans, with current outstanding commitments 
of $1,800,000,000. The last Congress increased the 
lending authority of the Bank from $5,000,000,000 
to $7,000,000,000, so that the Bank now has sub- 
stantial sums available for lending. 

I imply no criticism of these and other lending 
institutions when I point out that they have pur- 
sued the normal procedure of waiting for appli- 
cations to come to them in proper form and deal- 
ing with applications, when presented. So far 
as United States lending institutions are con- 
cerned, I am convinced that the time has arrived 
for us to take a more positive approach in using 
credit as an effective means of forwarding Ameri- 
can foreign policy; this clearly involves helping- 
Latin America achieve its sound economic goals 
and thus serving the best interest of the United 
States itself. 

/ recommend that United States lending insti- 
tutions, tvith the help of IBRD if possible, inform 
the Republics of Latin America that they stand 
ready, as a cooperative group, to consider sym- 
pathetically the extension of sound, well-timed 
loans in support of practical development plans, 



93 



and that they will meet jointly with delegations 
from each applicant country to determine how 
credit resources may best be employed to help that 
nation proceed effectively with its economic 
program. 

Shortly after my return from Central America 
and Panama, the United States notified the leaders 
of Latin America that it was prepared to consider 
participation in a new Inter-American Develop- 
ment Institution. This offer was in response to a 
suggestion which had been advanced persistently 
by the twenty Republics of Latin America for 
many years. 

Many aspects of the financing of economic de- 
velopment were discussed at length at the meetings 
of the Committee of Presidential Representatives 
in 1956 and 1957, including a specific proposal 
looking toward the establishment of an Inter- 
American financial agency. The Personal Repre- 
sentatives of the Presidents of the Latin American 
Republics, while acknowledging the benefits which 
"existing international (and national) financial 
agencies have been providing for the development 
of . . . their countries," nonetheless stated that 
"it is their firm opinion that those benefits do not 
cover the entire field and are insufficient to enable 
the Latin American countries effectively to achieve 
an adequate rate of investment in projects which 
they consider essential to their economic improve- 
ment and a rise in their standard of living." 

As your personal representative, I found it nec- 
essary to oppose this recommendation, first, because 
I felt that the question was outside the mandate 
which you and the Presidents of the other Ameri- 
can Republics had placed upon our Committee, 
and, second, because I then agreed with the long- 
standing attitude of the United States which is 
expressed in this statement in the Committee's 
report to the Chief s of State : 

The Representative of the President of the United 
States maintained that the resources of existing institu- 
tions are adequate to meet the effective demand, and that 
the creation of new credit institutions could therefore not 
be justified, since greater progress would be made by 
using the existing ones. He stated that there had been 
no change in the United States position (as set forth) at 
the Meeting of Ministers of Finance or Economy at the 
Fourth Extraordinary Session of the Inter-American 
Economic and Social Council with respect to proposals for 
the establishment of new credit institutions. 

At the time I took this officially authorized po- 
sition, the Development Loan Fund had not been 



established. This Fund was created primarily to 
replace grants with loans. It has broader au- 
thority than the Export-Import Bank. It can, 
for example, make loans for local currency ex- 
penditures, and sometimes loans may be repaid in 
local currency. The latter are called "soft" loans 
in the jargon of the banking world. Such loans 
are not "soft" in the sense that they are unsound 
or are grants in disguise. They are "soft" only 
in the sense that the credit extended may be repaid 
in the currency of the borrower rather than in 
dollars. 

It is important that the people of the United 
States understand this. No responsible person 
has suggested that the United States Government 
make economically unsound loans. Nothing could 
so undermine the whole field of international 
credit. 

For what it is worth, I applaud the Adminis- 
tration and the Congress for changing from grants 
to loans in our program of assisting foreign eco- 
nomic development. Except in unusual emer- 
gency situations, I believe grants for this purpose 
yield only temporary benefits and may cause ill 
will in all countries save those receiving the largest 
grants. 

There can be no doubt that "soft" loans are 
needed in Latin America. Like most other under- 
developed areas of the world, Latin America 
suffers from a shortage of domestic savings. 
Hence, sound development projects may require 
loans involving both domestic and foreign capital. 
Further, until underdeveloped countries, includ- 
ing those of Latin America, can increase their pro- 
ductivity and their exports, which can assure 
favorable balances of trade, they may lack dollars 
or other borrowed currencies to meet repayment 
schedules, even though they could meet their obli- 
gations in local currencies. 

The Development Loan Fund is now operating 
on a global basis, although its loans to Latin 
American countries have thus far been relatively 
limited. However, a conviction is growing that 
effective cooperative efforts of borrowers on a 
regional basis should be encouraged whenever de- 
sired by the countries concerned. This was im- 
plicit in our shift in policy when we announced 
our willingness to consider in principle the 
establishment of an Inter- American Bank. 

Latin America is a natural region for such an 



94 



Department of State Bulletin 



agency, and there can be no doubt about the ex- 
istence of the desire and ability to cooperate. 

An Inter-American development institution, 
properly conceived, established and operated, can 
command the cooperative talents of the twenty- 
one American republics; it can place a high de- 
gree of responsibility for the success of the agency 
on the Latin American nations themselves ; it may 
be able to tap private as well as public sources of 
credit. 

It is essential, of course, that the development 
agency be set up soundly, with the right policies 
and limitations. 

For example, the new agency, if established, 
should not be operated in such a way as to di- 
minish the programs in Latin America of the 
Export-Import Bank and the World Bank. 

In its initial stages the new institution could 
well study the operations of the Export-Import 
Bank : its impressive record of help to our neigh- 
bors, of businesslike management, and of interest 
and loan repayments. It might draw on Export- 
Import Bank's competent and efficient manage- 
ment. 

/ urge that the United States proceed as rapidly 
as possible to cooperate with leaders of the Latin 
American Republics in creating an Inter-Ameri- 
can bank. Such a new institution should coordi- 
nate its operations closely with those of the World 
Bank, United States lending institutions and pri- 
vate lending agencies to the end that the total 
flow of development capital into Latin America 
may be increased. 

(a) I believe that the United States should 
subscribe a significant portion of the paid-in 
capital of the new institution, the remainder to be 
provided by the twenty Latin American Re- 
publics. The authorized capital of the institu- 
tion might be somewhat greater than the paid-in 
capital, the difference representing a guarantee 
fund which would help the new institution to issue 
its bonds in private capital markets. Depending 
upon future developments, and subject to Con- 
gressional approval for any increased subscription 
by the United States, provision might be made for 
the member governments to propose subsequent 
increases in paid-in capital on the same basis as 
that outlined above. 

(b) With respect to its hard-loan activities, the 
United States should urge that the Inter- Ameri- 
can Bank adhere to sound lending policy so that 



in time its securities will become marketable, thus 
making possible the tapping of private credit 
markets. 

(c) The institution should have limited au- 
thority to make soft loans from a portion of its 
subscribed capital. Any soft-loan activity of the 
bank, however, should be segregated in some way 
from the hard-loan operations of the institution. 
Should the United States agree to subscribe a 
somewhat higher proportion for any capital au- 
thorized for soft-loan purposes, it should main- 
tain an appropriate degree of authority in the 
direction of the soft-loan operations of the 
institution. 

(d) The initial capital advances made by the 
United States should be under a new authoriza- 
tion which would permit the Treasury to sub- 
scribe the funds directly to the new bank. 

(e) Assuming the willingness of the IBRD, the 
Inter-American development institution should 
maintain informal methods of credit coordination 
for Latin America and should provide a source 
of information and advice to the member nations 
seeking loans. 

(f) The new Bank should use every means at 
its disposal to encourage each cooperating country 
to develop local savings, private and public, for 
participation in development projects. 

(g) The Bank should try to obtain an outstand- 
ing Latin American, thoroughly familiar with 
financial matters, as its President. Each country 
should designate a member of its Board of Gov- 
ernors, each Governor having a weighted vote ac- 
cording to the percentage of capital advanced by 
his country. A smaller Board of Directors 
should supervise day-to-day operations of the in- 
stitution. If the headquarters of the Bank were 
to be in Washington, daily coordination with 
other credit institutions would be facilitated. 

As I have previously said, about eighty per cent 
of all United States capital now invested in Latin 
America is private. In recent years new private 
capital has flowed from the United States to 
Latin America at the rate of $600,000,000 a year. 
Each nation of Latin America should take every 
feasible step to encourage this capital movement. 
Private funds will always be available in larger 
quantities than will public funds, and private 
loans usually carry with them technical and man- 
agement skills which may make the difference be- 



Jarwary 19, 7959 



95 



tween success or failure, particularly in the early 
stages of new developments. 

In some Latin American countries, irrational 
assumptions are made about private capital. It is 
said that private credit is imperialistic — that it is 
an expression of "dollar diplomacy." Of course 
this is not so. Nearly all of the trade between 
the United States and Latin America, amounting 
to about eight billion dollars a year, is privately 
financed, and it does not result in any sort of 
imperialism. Just as the private loans we ob- 
tained from Europe in our early history— and 
finally paid off with interest by 1918— aided our 
development and did not impinge upon our free- 
dom, so too will private loans to Latin Ameri- 
can enterprises help those countries advance with- 
out detriment to their sovereignty. 

This problem is largely outside our hands. 
Private capital cannot be driven. It must be at- 
tracted. Attracting private capital to Latin 
America, in view of the competitive demand for 
it in the United States and throughout the world, 
is not an easy matter. It involves the avoidance 
of discriminatory restraints, the maintenance of 
stable financial and political policies within each 
country, the absence of discriminatory labor laws, 
control of inflationary forces, a reasonable return 
on the investment, ability to remit dividends to 
the lending country in the currency of that coun- 
try, and, above all, a favorable attitude toward 
private competitive enterprises which are to be 
financed with the private capital. 

I was favorably impressed to observe in Cen- 
tral America and Panama a strong tendency 
toward financial stability. I noted a genuine con- 
cern for keeping budgets balanced, and currency 
stabilized and convertible. I found greater faith 
being placed, as contrasted to my observations in 
1953, in private competitive enterprise. 

The people of the United States are often 
critical of Latin America for seeming to place 
greater emphasis on public credit than upon 
private credit. It is important for us to realize 
that competitive private enterprise is not precise- 
ly the same in each nation to the South as it is 
in the United States. In this country we have 
a socially-conscious private enterprise, whose 
benefits are widespread, and which gives fair re- 
turns to capital, management and labor; it is a 
system that has benefitted all the people, permit- 
ting their standards of living to rise to unprece- 



96 



dented heights, with seemingly no end to the ad- 
vance. In all history its results have not. been 
matched. 

But we should be aware of the fact that in 
some Latin American countries private competi- 
tive enterprise may bestow generous benefits upon 
a relatively few, and only meager benefits upon 
the masses. Tax systems may not adequately 
reflect the capacities of different groups to 
carry their fair shares of the total burden. On 
the other hand, in several South American coun- 
tries various controls and regulations have been 
placed on private enterprise which have hampered 
its ability to contribute to the benefit of the 
people as a whole. 

With gratification I can report that these short- 
comings are gradually being overcome in some 
countries, perhaps as rapidly as normal cultural 
and intellectual change will permit ; but the nar- 
rowly-distributed rewards of private enterprise 
in certain industries and countries still cause un- 
due emphasis to be placed on public credit which 
can initiate those types of development which 
obviously are designed for the benefit of large 
numbers of people. 

I believe that a proper coordination of increas- 
ing quantities of public and private credit to 
Latin America, each type supporting the other, 
will help the people generally to lift their levels 
of well-being, and that gradually the benefits of 
private competitive enterprise will be more widely 
shared. Thus the degree of reliance on private 
credit which we deem appropriate will in time be 
achieved. In the meantime, patience grounded on 
understanding will be helpful. 

As to tax incentives to the flow of private capi- 
tal, the State Department has recently asked lead- 
ing businessmen to study this problem. Under 
Secretary C. Douglas Dillon recently stated * that 

There Is one new incentive in the field of taxation which 
we are already prepared to adopt. . . . Under United 
States law, if a foreign government grants a special in- 
come-tax reduction in order to attract the United States 
investor, that Investor has to pay to the United States 
Government whatever has been waived by the foreign 
government. We are seeking to correct this situation so 
that tax benefits granted to induce investment abroad can 
retain their full effect. ... the United States Govern- 
ment is prepared to consider conventions which . . . 
would contain a tax-sparing provision that would cure 



'Ibid., Dec. 8, 1958, p. 918. 

Department of State Bulletin 



this situation. The only way to accomplish this is by 
treaty. We invite negotiations. 

The Need for Social Development 

It is only natural that most of the dollar credits 
which have been made available in Latin America 
have been loans repayable either from tax revenues 
or from the earnings of the enterprises meriting 
the loans. Beyond this, however, many leaders 
in Latin America point out the need for "social 
development" : They contend that the lack of hous- 
ing constitutes their most serious single social 
problem. They hope a method can be found to 
make credit available for home, hospital, and re- 
lated construction. In one country I visited this 
summer, I was told that nine persons, on the aver- 
age, live in each small room. Health conditions 
are sub-standard. Ill individuals are not produc- 
tive. It is argued that better housing would im- 
prove health, attitudes, and productivity; hence 
that loans for housing construction are merited. 

I feel that we should be prepared to assist other 
countries in improving their health and sanitation 
facilities. Loans for these purposes have been 
available in the past and should continue to be. 
The problem of housing finance is, however, much 
more difficult. There are situations where ex- 
tremely low productivity of the worker and low 
levels of income do not permit the worker to pay 
the economic cost of what would be considered 
adequate housing. Even in advanced countries, 
housing makes very heavy demands on savings, 
and absorbs a large share of the income of the 
workers. 

The choice is then between subsidizing housing 
for the individuals concerned or — and this is, of 
course, a long-range solution — raising produc- 
tivity and improving the level of income in order 
to permit the worker to buy or rent adequate hous- 
ing. While the second is clearly the better course, 
it is, as I have mentioned, a long-run solution. As 
to subsidizing housing in one way or another, this 
is a decision for each individual government ; the 
social and political implications of such a decision 
are far-reaching and it does not appear that for- 
eign governments or international institutions 
should participate in that activity. 

A second reason for housing shortages lies in the 
inflationary conditions existing in some countries. 
Housing finance is normally long-term financing. 
In inflationary conditions, a long-term loan, ex- 



pressed in monetary terms as it must be, will have 
lost much of its purchasing power by the time the 
loan is repaid. Under these conditions, domestic 
lenders are not prepared to put their money into 
mortgages. 

A third explanation of the housing problem is 
found in the rapid growth of cities. In an area 
where total population is growing rapidly, urban 
populations are expanding even more sharply. 
Under the best of economic conditions, a lag in the 
provision of adequate housing would be expected 
in these circumstances. 

None of these explanations serves to ameliorate 
the housing conditions. They do indicate, how- 
ever, that the financial problem is of such an enor- 
mous magnitude throughout Latin America, and 
indeed in other parts of the world, that any at- 
tempt to attack it by the use of public interna- 
tional funds would be doomed to failure. At best, 
the funds available for public lending are limited. 
If they are to make the greatest possible contribu- 
tion to the economic development of friendly 
countries, they must be used primarily in the most 
productive way. Whatever we may think about 
the social desirability of improved housing, we 
cannot assert that investment in housing contrib- 
utes directly and in the short-term to increased 
productivity to the same extent as does an invest- 
ment in transportation, power, irrigation, or 
manufacturing. 

I suggest, therefore, that the nations of Latin 
America should not look to the United States or 
to international agencies for significant financial 
assistance in housing but should pursue vigorously 
the path of economic development and inflation 
control in order to enlarge the national product 
and available savings, and thus widen the margin 
that can be devoted to improvement of housing. 

In a few isolated instances, however, loans for 
housing might be made by private agencies in the 
United States. Thus, thousands of Panamanian 
employees of the Canal Company today receive 
sufficiently high wages that they could meet in- 
terest and amortization payments on homes at low 
cost. Local private capital apparently is not now 
available. The establishment of a Panamanian 
Housing Agency, with some support from the 
Panamanian Government, and with substantial 
credit from one of the private institutions, could 
quickly initiate a sizeable undertaking, without 
violating the principles of sound lending. 



January 79, 1959 



97 



I refer to this whole matter in this report pri- 
marily because housing is high on the agenda of 
nearly every inter- American conference and in all 
discussions such as I was privileged to have this 
summer. Failure to mention the matter now 
might be misconstrued in Latin America as in- 
difference to the problem. 

The Need for Regional Common Markets 

Closely related to credit requirements is the 
need for Latin America to develop a common 
market. 

A special committee under the aegis of the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council of the United Nations 
recently published an excellent study which sets 
out the advantages that would accrue to the Latin 
American nations if they were to develop a com- 
mon market: the free movement of goods, serv- 
ices, and individuals, without tariffs or other im- 
pediments, across national boundaries. But a 
common market for all twenty republics is at 
best remote. Hence, I attach great importance 
to the fact that in Central America, and possibly 
in Panama, there is today a favorable attitude 
toward the construction of a regional common 
market. 

I would point out the obvious: If each of the 
States of the United States were an independent 
nation, each with tariff and other barriers, the 
people of this country would today have a very 
low standard of living. We have a vast common 
market available to us at all times, enabling each 
industry to locate at the point of greatest efficiency 
of production, and to sell in large volume, without 
restriction, to 176,000,000 people. Over a long 
period of years, our growing efficiency has enabled 
us to increase the quality of products and to lower 
prices (in terms of a stable dollar), so that both 
essential goods and luxury items are available to 
most citizens of the United States at reasonable 
cost. 

Many countries of Latin America are smaller 
than most of our States. It is difficult, if not im- 
possible, for a steel mill, or an aluminum or 
cement plant, to be successfully operated in one 
of them, with its market severely restricted; in 
such circumstances, an industry cannot develop 
the efficiency which would permit it to sell prod- 
ucts in competition with those produced by United 
States, Canadian, and European industries. 

In my judgment, this, more than any other 



fact, is responsible for the slow rate of indus- 
trialization of many Latin American nations, 
and therefore for their precarious dependence 
upon the export of a single commodity, such as 
coffee or tin. 

The five nations of Central America have agreed 
upon certain initial principles, looking to the cre- 
ation of a regional common market. They will 
permit free movements of persons; by agreement, 
they will foster the establishment of a single new 
industry in each of the five countries, with un- 
restricted privilege of selling in the entire area; 
this accomplished, they will proceed to try to 
establish a second new industry in each country. 

This may be a halting and even faulty begin- 
ning, but it is a beginning, and deserves open 
encouragement from the United States. 

/ recommend that, after careful preparation 
through appropriate channels, the United States 
participate with the five republics of Central 
America, and Panama if possible, in a regional 
conference, either at the Ministerial or technical 
level, to stimulate public and private lending in- 
stitutions, and private industrial enterprises, to 
take a positive approach in helping Central 
America and Panama to the end that new indus- 
tries, guaranteed free access to the entire market 
of the participating countries, toould be estab- 
lished; that every effort be made to have this 
development serve as a model for all of Latin 
America; and that such steps as may be deemed 
appropriate be taken to encourage the northern 
group of South American countries, and the 
southern group of South American countries, to 
consider the creation of common regional mar- 
kets in those areas. 

The Need for Price Stabilization 

One of the most complex problems in Latin 
America derives from the fact that raw commodity 
prices are continuously changing. I have previ- 
ously pointed out that this has evoked detrimental 
misunderstandings; it is a substantive problem of 
real import. 

Fifteen nations of Latin America produce cof- 
fee. In several of them, the sale of coffee to the 
United States accounts for as much as eighty-five 
per cent of their exports to us ; the dollars earned 
through the sale of coffee are used for the purchase 
of equipment and manufactured and processed 
goods. If the price of coffee declines, the eco- 



98 



Department of State Bulletin 



nomic and political stability of the producing na- 
tion may be threatened. 

Coffee is now being over-produced. Production 
is increasing at a faster rate than consumption: 
Production is growing at an annual rate of more 
than five per cent, but consumption is increasing 
only two or three per cent a year. Hence raw 
coffee prices, now deemed by Latin America to 
be too low, are further threatened. In one coun- 
try, a one-cent drop in the price of coffee causes a 
loss of eight million dollars in export earnings. 
That is catastrophic to a country ridden with debt 
and suffering from a very low income. 

It is not surprising that the producing nations 
instinctively look to the United States, the largest 
consumer of coffee, for cooperation and assistance. 

The United States, with sympathetic under- 
standing of the seriousness of this problem to the 
producing nations, has helped to create an inter- 
national coffee study group which, I am sure, is 
causing experts in the field to stop chasing shad- 
ows — to cease directing criticism where criticism 
is not due. Now, instead, all the facts about 
changing production, consumption, quotas, sur- 
pluses, and tax impediments are being objectively 
analyzed, and from these facts possible courses of 
action are being carefully considered. 

Already producing nations of this hemisphere 
(it would be better of course if the six producing 
nations of Africa could also be induced to co- 
operate) have developed an Inter- American coffee 
marketing agreement. The hope is that the 
orderly movement of coffee to market in harmony 
with demand will help to stabilize the market. 
Brazil is withholding 40 per cent of its coffee 
from market ; Colombia, 15 per cent ; smaller pro- 
ducers, 10 per cent; the smallest producers, 5 per 
cent. 

/ recommend that the United States, if requested 
to do so, cooperate to the extent of furnishing such 
information as laws and regulations permit to as- 
sist the producing countries in enforcing agreed- 
upon marketing quotas. 

I do not believe that we should go beyond this. 
Further, in cooperating, we should make certain 
facts and possibilities abundantly clear to the 
producing nations. 

We in the United States for twenty-five years 
have sought through governmental programs to 
support agricultural prices — to achieve what we 
call "parity" of relationship between agricultural 



and industrial prices. We are now spending 
more than six billion dollars a year on this effort 
within a single country. The price relationship 
achieved, while helpful to farmers and hence to 
our entire economy, has not, save in war-time, 
reached the goal of "parity." With reasonably 
satisfactory prices, production control has proved 
difficult. We have accumulated huge surpluses. 
The storage charges on them are a million dollars 
a day. Even with a billion dollars of Federal 
funds each year (P. L. 480) to help dispose of 
these surpluses, we find it extremely difficult to do 
so without causing new problems for other coun- 
tries. Thus, our recent efforts to reduce the cot- 
ton surplus have caused economic difficulty in two 
Latin American countries, and the shipment of 
rice to another has hurt one of the smallest South 
American nations. 

This experience, involving only one nation, sug- 
gests the difficulty of having stabilization pro- 
grams succeed when many nations are involved. 
It should be a pointed warning to the producing 
nations not to place too great faith on marketing 
quotas for coffee. If such quotas do for a time 
stabilize the price of coffee at a fairly good level, 
this in itself could further stimulate production, 
cause the accumulation of additional surpluses, 
and lead eventually to the collapse of world coffee 
prices. 

Any commodity stabilization plan must be ac- 
companied by unrelenting efforts to broaden coffee 
markets, reduce production costs, increase quality, 
and divert high-cost acres (in terms of coffee 
production) from that commodity to other crops 
for domestic consumption or export. 

It is worth pointing out that if certain nations 
of the world purchased as much coffee per capita 
as do the people of the United States, the coffee 
surplus would quickly disappear. One prosper- 
ous European nation now has two types of taxes 
on coffee, and these greatly diminish the consump- 
tion of coffee. If the producing nations could 
persuade this country to eliminate the regressive 
taxes, consumption might well increase fully two 
million bags a year. I mention this in order to 
emphasize that the producing nations should not 
look exclusively to the United States for the solu- 
tion to this problem ; more than this, they should 
not look primarily here for that solution. This 
must be self-evident. Either they must sell more 
or produce less. 

The problem of price fluctuations in coffee is 



January 79, 7959 



99 



repeated in varying degrees with respect to nearly 
every major commodity which Latin America sells 
to the world. While the relationship of raw com- 
modity and industrial prices is more favorable to 
Latin America than it once was, especially prior 
to World War II, nonetheless it must be said that 
the recent deterioration in Latin America's terms 
of trade represents a serious problem for the area. 

This does not imply that I believe we should 
participate in a gigantic hemisphere scheme to 
stabilize prices artificially. Such an effort would 
violate most of our basic economic tenets; quite 
apart from principle, the attempt would fail dis- 
mally. The Western Hemisphere is not isolated 
from the rest of the world. Nearly every product 
produced in Latin America is also produced in 
other regions. 

Some remedial measures in selected situations 
can be taken by the producing nations of the 
world, and in many of these situations they do not 
need to look to the United States for a helping 
hand. Thus the six or seven producers of tin 
were cooperating fruitfully for several years in 
delivering tin ore to world markets in such a fash- 
ion as to avoid serious ups and downs in prices. 
This was of crucial importance to Bolivia, which 
must earn dollars and sterling through the sale 
of tin ore in order to buy food for her people, who 
have an average per capita income of less than 
one hundred dollars a year. Then Kussia, evi- 
dently for no other reason than to scuttle this 
cooperative effort, dumped thousands of tons of 
tin upon the world market, causing temporary 
chaos. 

Other instances indicate that Russia intends to 
disrupt markets to the detriment of Latin Ameri- 
ca whenever she can, and then seek to place the 
blame on the largest purchaser of Latin America's 
raw commodities, the United States. Kussia has 
bartered for certain Latin American commodities, 
only later at strategic times to dump them back 
on the open markets of the world. 

But while the United States should not and 
cannot become a party to unworkable, artificial 
plans to stabilize prices of most commodities — ■ 
and this should always be made clear — nonethe- 
less much is to be gained by having study groups, 
similar to that for coffee, obtain and analyze all 
the facts with respect to each major commodity : 
information about total production, production 
costs, present and potential market demand; 



trends in uses of the commodity, and so on. The 
facts, when developed, should be widely distrib- 
uted, especially in producing nations, not only 
among experts, but among the masses of the 
people, whose understanding is essential. 

/ recommend that the United States, when re- 
quested by producing nations, participate in 
single-commodity study groups, giving every pos- 
sible technical assistance, but always making clear 
that owr participation in no way implies subse- 
quent cooperation in plans the producing nations 
might develop to stabilize prices. 

The Need for Technical Cooperation 

The technical cooperation program of the 
United States, now world-wide, originated in our 
programs with Latin America. They have been 
helpful to the participating Latin American 
countries. They have promoted agricultural effi- 
ciency and diversification, brought higher stand- 
ards of health and thus of productivity, helped 
foster better education, and promoted more skill- 
ful management in many enterprises. 

We are now spending about $32,000,000 a year 
on technical cooperation programs in this hemi- 
sphere, not counting payments to the Organization 
of American States and the United Nations which 
also have certain specialized technical programs 
in some of the republics. I recommend a modest 
increase in these programs. 

Theoretically, all United States activities 
within a country of Latin America (as in other 
countries of the world) are under the coordinat- 
ing direction of the United States Ambassador. 
This is not sufficient. 

/ recommend that the technical cooperation 
program for Latin America be wider the direct 
supervision of the Ambassador in each country. 

I further recommend that the Assistant Secre- 
tary of State for Inter- American Affairs be given 
authority under the general guidance of the 
Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, 
to coordinate the technical cooperation programs 
in Latin American nations with the diplomatic, 
social, cultural and other activities over which he 
has cognizance. 

The Need To Up-Grade U.S. Activities Affecting Latin 
America 

In my formal report to you in 1953, and in in- 
formal reports in 1957 and 1958, 1 have expressed 



100 



Department of State Bulletin 



my strong conviction that the American Repub- 
lics are uniquely important to one another : Our 
economic interdependence is immense; our polit- 
ical interdependence in a threatened world is 
notable ; our cultural interdependence is growing 
rapidly, and our shared aspirations for freedom, 
independence, peace with justice, and rising levels 
of human well-being assure that the cooperative 
processes in the community of nations can work 
here. The American nations for many years have 
been able to settle their intra-hemisphere disputes 
by peaceful means. They have developed the 
most effective regional organization in the world 
— an organization through which they have 
espoused principles of mutual security, mutual 
respect, and cooperation that stand as models for 
all the world. 

I believe that this unique relationship merits 
special organizational recognition in the structure 
of our Federal Government. I am persuaded 
that such recognition could be attained without 
causing misapprehension among other nations or 
regions. I understand that the Vice President, 
following his trip to South America this year, 
became convinced of this. 

Special recognition of the interdependence of 
the American nations would help overcome a 
persistent misunderstanding of the United States 
in Latin America — a misunderstanding which I 
reported in 1953, and which I found this summer 
still to exist, now with a trace of bitterness : It is 
a belief that we consider other areas of the world 
to be more important to our future than is Latin 
America. Nothing could be further from the 
truth. 

This feeling results from several circumstances. 
Most of the publicized statements of our top 
government officials, executive and legislative, 
tend to deal with the crisis areas of the world, not 
with Latin America. Latin America feels that 
the vast expenditures under the European Re- 
covery Program, in which she did not participate 
directly, notwithstanding her indirect gains from 
it, and under the Mutual Security Act, in which 
she has participated only to a minor degree, 
demonstrate our preoccupation with other na- 
tions, especially since Latin America has not at 
the same time been able to obtain loans in desired 
volume. While our attitude toward Latin Amer- 
ica with respect to the principles of mutual re- 
spect, juridical equality of states, and non-inter- 



vention in their internal affairs has been exem- 
plary for twenty-five years, nonetheless they have 
lingering memories of previous periods when the 
United States had a patronizing attitude toward 
their countries, sometimes intervened in internal 
affairs, and occasionally engaged in outright im- 
perialism. Their apprehensiveness might well 
disappear, after a quarter of a century of sound 
policies and relationships, were it not for the 
other two factors I have just mentioned. 

Of course neither of these two factors actually 
supports what they believe. I have elsewhere 
pointed out in detail how our world expenditures 
under the European Recovery and Mutual Se- 
curity Acts have brought great benefits to Latin 
America ; that there has not been either discrimi- 
nation or a lack of appreciation of the high im- 
portance we attach to continuing good relations 
in the Western Hemisphere. 

But I emphasize that the belief persists 
throughout Latin America that we do not by 
words or deeds demonstrate what we profess. 

I have sought to find, in discussions with many 
officials and others, a method by which we could 
give continuing expression to our sincere recog- 
nition of the interdependence of the American 
Republics. 

/ recommend that you establish a Council on 
Inter- American Affairs, whose task would be to 
advise with the Secretary of State on all matters 
of hemispheric importance, bringing to hvm crea- 
tive ideas for strengthening relations, and con- 
stantly emphasizing by its very existence and pub- 
lic statements the importance which the Govern- 
ment and people of the United States attach to 
good partnership among the American Republics. 

(a) The Secretary of State should be the 
Chairman of the Council and the Assistant Secre- 
tary of State the Vice Chairman. Its member- 
ship should include three, perhaps five, American 
citizens from the fields of business and cultural 
life who are known to have an abiding interest in 
Latin America ; a member of the Senate Commit- 
tee on Foreign Relations, a member (from the 
opposite political party) of the House Commit- 
tee on Foreign Affairs, and consultants from those 
agencies of the Federal Government which ad- 
minister programs of importance to Latin 
America, including the Treasury, the Export-Im- 
port Bank, the Department of Agriculture, the 



January 19, 7959 



101 



Department of Labor, the Department of Com- 
merce, and the Development Loan Fund. 

(b) In its first year, the Council might meet 
bi-monthly. It should explore with the Secretary 
of State every aspect of inter- American relations; 
it should be helpful to the Secretary in informing 
the American people accurately of critical devel- 
opments ; it should bring ideas from the fields of 
business, banking, education, and cultural life 
generally to the Secretary where these would be 
helpful to solutions of central problems; most 
important, it should be a constant reminder of 
the special importance, the United States attaches 
to hemispheric relations. After the first year, it 
might be sufficient for the Council to meet every 
three or four months. 

(c) The Council should be purely advisory. 
Its members should accept a special responsibility 
for promoting understanding in those areas of 
American life which they represent and among 
our people generally; they should be helpful to 
the OAS National Commission in this country, 
previously recommended in this report; informed 
and dedicated to Pan Americanism, they might 
well be available to you and to the Secretary of 
State for special missions to Latin America from 
time to time. 

(d) The Council should be non-partisan. As 
assurance of this, both major political parties 
should be about equally represented in its 
membership. 

The Need To Maintain Stable Trade Relations 

In my report, of 1953 I said : 

I specifically recommend : 

. . . That the United States adopt and adhere to trade 
policies with Latin America which possess stability, and 
with a minimum of mechanisms permitting: the imposition 
of increased tariffs or quotas. I consider this matter of 
stability and consistency the outstanding requirement. 

The nations of Latin America pay for what they obtain 
from us. Their purchases from us are governed almost 
wholly by the volume of our purchases from them. 

Occasionally the importation of a particular commodity 
(into the United States) may cause temporary difficulty 
for one of our industries. But if we raise the tariff on 
that commodity, the export sale of other United States 
commodities is certain to decline. The question then 
becomes: Which United States industry, if any, should 
be temporarily disadvantaged? And the change in our 
tariff may seriously weaken the entire economy of a 
Latin American nation. 



The United States Government, in harmony 
with the prevailing thought in both the Executive 
and Legislative branches, has sought generally to 
refrain from making changes in the rules of inter- 
national trade which would cause harm in a Latin 
American nation and which, for the reasons I 
have cited, would not in fact help the United 
States as a whole, though might temporarily bene- 
fit a particular industry. 

However, some of our activities in disposing of 
agricultural surpluses, and in imposing import 
quotas, have not been in harmony with the general 
principles for which we stand. 

I understand the reasons which impelled us to 
take each such action. 

Partly through the operation of our own stabi- 
lization programs, we had lost a share of the world 
cotton market which we had long enjoyed. We 
felt entitled to get back that fair share. Few 
would argue to the contrary. Criticism can be 
directed not so much toward this final decision, as 
toward the. changing policy. When we held cot- 
ton from the world market, production expanded 
in several nations of the world, including Mexico 
and Nicaragua. This was not a calculated scheme 
on their part to take over a market we had previ- 
ously enjoyed. It was their natural response to 
a price situation which made it profitable for them 
to grow and sell cotton. They not only shifted 
much acreage to cotton, but they developed many 
facilities, including transportation, to handle and 
market it. When we changed the rules of the 
game and decided to export more cotton, Mexico 
and Nicaragua suffered substantial loss. They 
then were compelled to reduce their purchases of 
goods and services from us. 

The. difficulty with respect to lead and zinc — 
which are produced by several Latin American 
nations — was also some years in developing. 
Similarly, the eventual imposition of quotas 
caused economic distress, especially in countries 
with only a few commodities for export, although 
I understand a concomitant effect has been the 
firming up of the market for lead and zinc. 

Each nation of the world obviously develops 
policies and programs in its own interest. The 
nations of Latin America do this. They would 
be the first to admit it. 

The United States perhaps occupies an unusual 
position in this regard. It is the free world's 



102 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



creditor and leader. It has a mature, diversified, 
profitable economy. Sudden changes in rules 
may have little noticeable national effect (though 
perceptible local effects) on our economy, and 
thus the public may be unconcerned, but the same 
changes may have far-reaching and sometimes 
disastrous effects upon the economy, level of 
living, and political stability of a friendly nation. 

I have no thought or word of criticism for the 
final actions which in the two cases cited seemed 
to be essential to the well-being of the United 
States. 

My earnest suggestion is that the United States 
maintain as firm a policy of stability in trade 
relations as it possibly can, recognizing that our 
own long-time interest as a creditor country and 
free- world leader requires this ; and that in those 
rare instances where a departure from this policy 
seems unavoidable, we use every means at our 
disposal to explain in detail and in advance to 
affected friendly nations of Latin America the 
compelling reasons for our actions. 

The Need for a Modified Attitude Toward Dictators 

Everywhere Vice President Nixon went in 
South America, and everywhere I went in Central 
America this year, the charge arose that while 
the United States treasures freedom and democ- 
racy for itself, it is indifferent about these in 
Latin America — indeed, that we support Latin 
American dictators. I have previously men- 
tioned this as a serious misunderstanding. It is 
just that. But I now wish to recommend a 
change in policy which may seem slight, but I 
think it is important. 

In my visits with Panamanian and Central 
American leaders this summer, I pointed out with 
candor that from the beginning of our history 
until 1933, we had not been very consistent in our 
policies toward Latin America and that some of 
our actions in that period had clearly strength- 
ened the hands of dictators. But I also pointed 
out that at Montevideo in 1033, we agreed to a 
vital change in policy. We agreed thereafter not 
to intervene in the internal affairs of our sister 
republics. 

Now, obviously, we cannot at one and the same 
time refrain from intervention and express judg- 
ments regarding the degree of democracy our 
sister republics have achieved. 



We had a few months of optimism regarding 
this knotty problem in 1945 and 1946 when the 
Foreign Minister of Uruguay proposed that the 
American nations collectively encourage the 
development of democratic governments by with- 
holding recognition from those which did not 
measure up to democratic norms. It seemed 
logical to maintain that the collective judgment 
could not be construed as internal intervention, 
at least by a single nation. The United States 
supported the proposal. But our neighbors 
overwhelmingly defeated it. 

Since the policy of non-intervention was 
adopted in 1933, dictatorships in Latin America 
have steadily declined. Whether this is a result 
of the policy or a coincidence, I leave to others to 
argue. My own belief is that one is at least 
partly the result of the other. Today, only a 
third as many dictators are in power as were 
in 1933. 

What then, other than constantly reaffirming 
our hope that all peoples may enjoy the blessings 
of democracy, can we do about the matter? 

/ believe the suggestion of Vice President Nixon 
is sound and would be applauded by Latin Amer- 
ica itself — that we have an "abraBo" for demo- 
cratic leaders, and a formal handshake for dic- 
tators. Trivial as this may sound, / recom- 
mend that it be our official policy in relations with 
Latin American leaders and nations. 

We have made some honest mistakes in our 
dealings with dictators. For example, we dec- 
orated several of them. Most Latin American 
nations did the same, and in grander style. 
Whatever reason impelled them and us to take 
those actions, I think, in retrospect, we were 
wrong. 

/ recommend that we refrain from granting 
special recognition to a Latin American dictator, 
regardless of the temporary advantage that might 
seem to be promised by such an act. 

I most emphatically do not believe that we 
should withdraw our programs from Latin Amer- 
ican countries which are ruled by dictators. We 
should not withdraw or diminish our technical 
assistance programs, diplomatic missions, loans, 
or other activities. Reasoning which caused one 
to feel that we should do so would lead logically 
to the conclusion that throughout the world we 
should cease cooperating with any nation in which 



January 79, 1959 



103 



democracy is not complete. Patently, such a 
policy would paralyze the conduct of all foreign 
relations. 

Non-recognition and non-cooperation would not 
help another nation achieve democracy. Most 
peoples want freedom, though many have never 
experienced it. By cooperating with them, even 
through dictators — by keeping open the lines of 
communication — one may hope that a growing 
understanding of the strength, glory, and basic 
morality of democracy will enable the people of 
a harshly ruled country to achieve and maintain 
democratic institutions of their own design. 

We must be careful in deciding which leader 
deserves a mere handshake and which an "abrazo." 
In Latin America one finds widely varying de- 
grees of freedom. At least one nation which to- 
day is labeled by some a "dictatorship" has 
greater freedom of the press, of assembly, of 
speech, of worship, and of research and teaching, 
than do several others which are generally con- 
ceived to be democratic. 

An important consideration, it seems to me, 
is the direction a nation is taking. Throughout 
Latin America, a strong and irresistible trend to- 
ward freedom and democracy is evident. We 
should watch this trend in each country, and 
encourage it in any way that may be appropriate, 
without violating the fundamental policy of non- 
intervention. 

Finally, I may say I do not know of a single 
act the United States has taken since 1954 that 
could be construed as granting special or even 
friendly favors to a dictator in this hemisphere. 
I state this in fairness to our many diplomatic 
officials who are on the firing line in international 
affairs, and who, dedicated to democratic ideals, 
sometimes must suffer quietly under unjustified 
criticism. It is true that one dictator has fled 
to the United States since 1954. What is not gen- 
erally known, apparently, is that the successor 
government of his country issued him a diplomatic 
passport and requested permission for him to enter 
the United States. By such small acts very great 
misunderstandings are encouraged. 

Conclusion 

On the 1958 trip to Panama, Central America 
and Puerto Rico, my associates and I traveled 
9,300 miles, and met with more than 1,200 leaders 



of government, industry, agriculture, labor, 
commerce, finance, education, health, and social 
and cultural institutions. We held candid, in- 
formative conversations with them, and they sub- 
mitted to us nearly 11,000 pages of data and sug- 
gestions. 

I have given to the Department of State the 
voluminous material which was presented to me 
in each of the countries my mission visited. Most 
of this material deals with specific needs for credit 
or technical assistance and therefore should be 
handled through normal governmental channels. 
In every country we received a warm, friendly 
reception. The absence of unfriendly incidents 
may have confounded those who were looking for 
sensational headlines, but this very circumstance 
enabled us, calmly and rationally, to accomplish 
precisely what we set out to do: to gain a new 
perspective of the problems, progress, attitudes, 
and aspirations of the nations visited, as a basis 
for determining whether new approaches in our 
policies and programs might strengthen relations 
among us. 

My associates and I are grateful for the many 
courtesies and kindnesses which were extended to 
us. The cordial welcome given us is proof of 
the abiding friendship which exists among the 
governments and the peoples of the American 
Republics. It certainly would not have provided 
any comfort to Communists and others who con- 
stantly seek to drive a wedge between us and our 
friends. 

The members of the mission are also indebted 
to you and Secretary Dulles for giving us the 
opportunity to represent the Government and 
people of the United States in furtherance of a 
sort of continuing mission which you originally 
assigned to me five years ago, and which I now 
assume is concluded. We are unanimous in our 
conviction that no area in the world is of more 
importance to us than Latin America, and that no 
other area matches us in our importance to the 
future of Latin America. We believe our conver- 
sations in the countries visited helped dispel some 
misunderstandings and clarified many issues. 

This trip, like the previous ones, was a reward- 
ing experience. 

While everything we did was undertaken as a 
team, and while I have held lengthy conversations 
with the other members of the mission since our 



104 



Department of State Bulletin 



return, I wish to make clear that this report is 
submitted solely on my own responsibility. It 
does not speak for any other member of this or 
previous missions. Needless to say, I trust that 
most of the views expressed and the recommen- 
dations submitted are acceptable, or at least 
worthy of consideration. 
Sincerely yours, 

Milton S. Eisenhower 



United States and Argentina 
Sign Loan Agreements 

Folloiving are remarks made by Under Secre- 
tary Robert Murphy at a -press conference on 
December 29 announcing a $329-million stabiliza- 
tion and economic development loan agreement 
with the Republic of Argentina, together with a 
joint announcement by the organizations partici- 
pating in the loan agreement and an announce- 
ment on the same day of a surplus agricultural 
products loan agreement with Argentina. 

REMARKS BY UNDER SECRETARY MURPHY 

Press release 778 dated December 29 

As detailed in the official announcement which 
is being placed in your hands, a $329-million pro- 
gram to assist the Argentine Republic in re- 
covering from its present economic difficulties has 
been worked out by the United States Govern- 
ment and private American banking institutions, 
in cooperation with the International Monetary 
Fund. The United States participation repre- 
sents one of the most comprehensive operations 
ever undertaken by the United States in Latin 
America. 

I think it important to point out that the Argen- 
tine Government has made this program of fi- 
nancial cooperation possible through its own de- 
termined efforts toward economic recovery. By 
undertaking to help itself to the greatest extent 
possible, Argentina has provided a solid basis for 
requesting, and receiving, the collaboration of 
others. With participation by 3 United States 
Government agencies, 11 private financial insti- 
tutions, and the International Monetary Fund, 
this is truly a cooperative venture in the inter- 



national financial field. I should like to empha- 
size once again that it has been the Argentine 
Government's initiative in analyzing and dealing 
with its current economic situation in sound and 
realistic terms which has made this joint under- 
taking possible. 

In addition to the program being announced 
here today, the United States Government last 
week signed a loan agreement with the Argentine 
Government covering the utilization of Argentine 
pesos obtained from the sale to the Argentine 
Government in 1955 of surplus edible oils, under 
the terms of the Agricultural Trade Development 
and Assistance Act of 1954, referred to as Public 
Law 480. The amount involved is the Argentine 
peso equivalent of $17.7 million. These peso 
funds will be used for economic development pur- 
poses in Argentina. 

The Department of State considers that these 
examples of joint U.S.-Argentine economic action 
fall within the framework and the spirit of the 
policy contemplated by Operation Pan America : 
cooperating with Latin American neighbors in the 
realization of their economic potential. 

The United States Government is pleased to 
have had this opportunity to demonstrate its 
friendship toward the Government and people of 
Argentina. Although our two countries are 
separated by substantial geographic distance, the 
United States feels itself close to Argentina in 
many ways. 

We look forward with pleasure to the visit of 
the President of the Argentine nation, Dr. 
Arturo Frondizi, in less than a month's time. 1 
We feel sure that his visit will make its own 
special contribution to the developing spirit of 
understanding between our two nations. 

We are honored to have with us today the Am- 
bassador of Argentina, Cesar Barros Hurtado. 

JOINT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 777 dated December 29 

A $329-million program to assist the Republic 
of Argentina in its efforts to achieve stabilization 
and economic development was announced on De- 
cember 29 by 3 U.S. Government agencies and 



1 For an announcement, see Bulletin of Dec. 15, 1958, 
p. 954. 



January 19, 7959 



105 



11 private financial institutions in cooperation 
with the International Monetary Fund. 

(Simultaneously, a far-reaching program of 
financial reform for Argentina was announced by 
the Argentine Government at Buenos Aires and 
the International Monetary Fund at Washington.) 

The United States participation, said Deputy 
Under Secretary of State Robert Murphy, repre- 
sents "one of the most comprehensive operations 
ever undertaken by the United States in Latin 
America." 

The arrangements were concluded following 
negotiations at Washington and New York be- 
tween Argentina's Minister of Economy, Emilio 
Donato Del Carril ; the Secretary of the Treasury, 
Robert B. Anderson; the Under Secretary of 
State for Economic Affairs, Douglas Dillon ; the 
President of the Export-Import Bank of Wash- 
ington, Samuel C. Waugh; the Managing Direc- 
tor of the Development Loan Fund, Dempster 
Mcintosh ; and officials of the following commer- 
cial banks: Bank of America N.T. & S.A., the 
Chase Manhattan Bank, the First National Bank 
of Boston, the First National City Bank of New 
York, Grace National Bank, Guaranty Trust 
Company of New York, the Hanover Bank, Manu- 
facturers Trust Company, J. P. Morgan & Com- 
pany, Inc., the Philadelphia National Bank, the 
Royal Bank of Canada (N. Y. Agency). 

The U.S. Government agencies and private 
banks will make available approximately $250 
million. The International Monetary Fund an- 
nounced simultaneously the conclusion of a $75- 
million standby arrangement with Argentina. 
Details of the conditions of availability of the 
standby arrangements are contained in a separate 
International Monetary Fund release. 

The U.S. credits and other arrangements in- 
clude: $54 million by 11 private banks; approxi- 
mately $125 million by the Export-Import Bank; 
about $25 million by the Development Loan 
Fund; and a $50-million exchange agreement 
with the U.S. Treasury. U.S. assistance in- 
volves new economic development credits to help 
Argentina reverse the faltering private invest- 
ment trend of recent years, increase economic out- 
put, develop new exports, and reduce certain 
major import requirements. 

These major development loans for industrial 
free enterprise, a vital part of the Argentine re- 



covery programs, include a $10-million credit to 
the Argentine Industrial Bank for allocation to 
small business. Under the new Argentine finan- 
cial program, it is hoped that foreign private in- 
vestment will be attracted in amounts consider- 
ably in excess of these government development 
loans. 

Commenting upon these announcements, Mr. 
Waugh said : 

Argentina's efforts to regain full financial health and 
economic vigor are important to the entire Western com- 
munity. The magnitude as well as the complexity of 
Argentine problems, and the extent of the new Argentine 
program, required the farflung and cooperative actions 
taken today. The financial arrangements announced to- 
day to support the Argentine effort recognize the coura- 
geous initiative being undertaken by the Government and 
people of that country. 

Credits from the 11 private banks are intended 
for short-term Argentine requirements, as are the 
agreements with the Treasury and the Interna- 
tional Monetary Fund. The long-range necessity 
in Argentina, however, is for expansion of funda- 
mental sources of production. 

To help meet this necessity, Eximbank expects 
to devote up to $100 million of its $125-million 
credit to implement loans on a case-by-case basis — 
with participation of investment from U.S. pri- 
vate sources — to finance U.S. purchases in con- 
nection with the following types of projects: a 
substantial electric power expansion program ; de- 
velopment of industries such as cement, pulp and 
paper, and rubber manufacturing; petrochemi- 
cals; expansion of the meat industry; and other 
types of industrial expansion. 

The remaining $25 million of Export-Import 
Bank credit will be used to maintain essential 
imports from the United States during the next 
year. 

The Development Loan Fund credit of about 
$25 million will be used to finance importation of 
capital items in connection with projects contrib- 
uting to economic development in the fields of 
transportation, electric power, and waterworks. 

Under the Treasury's $50-million agreement 
Argentina may request the U.S. Exchange Stabili- 
zation Fund to purchase Argentine pesos. Any 
pesos acquired by the U.S. Treasury would sub- 
sequently be repurchased by Argentina with 
dollars. 



106 



Department of State Bulletin 



P.L. 480 LOAN AGREEMENT 



Press release 776 dated December 29 



The United States and the Government of 
Argentina on December 29 announced the signing 
of a $l7.7-million Public Law 480 loan agreement 
pertaining to the disposition of funds accumu- 
lated under an edible-oils sales agreement made 
in December 1955. The oil sales were made under 
title I of P.L. 480, which authorizes the sale of 
U.S. surplus agricultural commodities to friendly 
countries for foreign currency. 

The agreement provides for an Argentine peso 
equivalent of $17.7 million for development loans 
to Argentina. These loans are to be repaid in 
either dollars or pesos over the next 30 years. 
The new agreement, signed at Washington on 
December 22, is similar to an earlier one signed 
in April 1958, which provided for the utilization 
of about $2.3 million in P.L. 480 funds for eco- 
nomic development purposes. 



Development Loan Fund Authorizes 
$22.6 Million in Loans to Spain 

Press release 782 dated December 31 

The U.S. Development Loan Fund on December 
31 announced authorization of two loans totaling 
$22,600,000 to assist Spain in financing imports of 
equipment and materials for further work on two 
of the country's major economic development 
programs — railway rehabilitation and land 
irrigation. 

Dempster Mcintosh, Managing Director of the 
DLF, has informed the Spanish Government of 
the loans, one for $14,900,000 to the Spanish Na- 
tional Railways and the other for $7,700,000 to 
the National Colonization Institute under the 
Ministry of Agriculture. 

The railway loan will be used for track im- 
provement on 75 miles of the Barcelona-French 
border line, 71 miles of the Madrid-Barcelona 



line, 50 miles of the Palencia-Coruna line, and 94 
miles of the Madrid-Hendaye line. 

Proceeds of the loan to the Colonization Insti- 
tute will be used to finance the import of equip- 
ment and materials to transform about 190,000 
acres of low-yield dry-farming land in the 
Bardenas, Monegros, Aragon, and Cataluna areas 
in northeastern Spain into more productive irri- 
gated land. Spanish agriculture has the highest 
priority for development, and this project will 
increase the present acreage under irrigation in 
Spain by about 4.5 percent. 

Of the railway loan funds it is estimated that 
$7,400,000 will be used to purchase 62,000 tons of 
heavy rail, $5,440,000 to purchase about a million 
and a quarter ordinary crossties, $800,000 for 
switches, and $180,000 for 20,000 large-size cross- 
ties for switches. About $590,000 will be spent 
to mechanize two quarries (crushing plant, shov- 
els, dumpers, etc.) and $140,000 for mechanical 
equipment and materials for track work. 

The $7,700,000 in irrigation loan funds will be 
used to assist the Colonization Institute in import- 
ing earth-moving equipment, related auxiliary 
facilities, and spares for clearing, grading, and 
leveling of land, and the construction of irriga- 
tion ditches, roads, etc. The Colonization Insti- 
tute, which was founded in 1939, purchases large 
tracts of land, clears them, provides irrigation 
facilities where practical, builds roads, and makes 
available long-term loans to private farmers for 
land purchases and farm improvements. 

In its program of economic cooperation with 
Spain under the mutual security program, the 
United States has assisted Spain previously with 
both the railway and irrigation projects. Since 
1951 Spain has received two U.S. Export-Import 
Bank loans totaling $16,260,000 for railway reha- 
bilitation. Some $30,000,000 has also been pro- 
vided for Spanish railways by the U.S. Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration. Previous 
U.S. financial assistance in the land irrigation 
program, starting in 1954, includes $9,400,000 
worth of machinery financed by ICA and some 
700 million pesetas from McCarran Amendment 
and Public Law 480 funds. 



January 79, 7959 



107 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Tenth Anniversary of Adoption 
of Declaration of Human Rights 

by Mrs. Oswald B. Lord x 

It is my privilege to bring to this gathering the 
greetings of the President of the United States. 
The President has repeatedly expressed his deter- 
mination to protect and promote human rights. 
He believes in the Universal Declaration of Human 
Rights. 2 In 1953, when I became the United States 
Representative on the Human Rights Commis- 
sion, he gave me a message to deliver to that body. 3 
In it he said this : 

For the people of the United States, as well as for people 
everywhere, the U.N. Universal Declaration of Human 
Bights is a significant beacon in the steady march toward 
achieving human rights and fundamental freedoms for all. 

Tonight I have his greetings to this assembly 
gathered in honor of the f ramers of the Universal 
Declaration of Human Rights : 

Please give my greetings to the members and friends of 
the American Association for the United Nations as they 
join in tribute to the authors of the Universal Declaration 
of Human Rights. 

This Declaration has become part of the heritage of 
mankind. It is an affirmation of the highest hopes of the 
human family. Its words contribute to the living unity of 
purpose which strengthens the United Nations in all its 
activities. 

Ten years ago we agreed on certain basic rights, but that 
was only a beginning. No nation has yet achieved in full 
measure for all its citizens the goals expressed in the 
Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Our common 
task and opportunity is to strive, each in his own nation, 
to the realization of those goals. In the measure we do so 
we will enrich our civilization and serve the Creator who 
made of one blood all nations to dwell upon the face of the 
earth. 

In this spirit, I send congratulations to your guests of 



1 Address made before the American Association for the 
United Nations at New York, N.T., on Dec. 9 (U.S./U.N. 
press release 3110). Mrs. Lord is the U.S. Representative 
on the U.N. Commission on Human Rights. 

2 For text, see Bulletin of Dec. 19, 1948, p. 752. 
8 Ibid., Apr. 20, 1953, p. 580. 



honor and best wishes for the continuing success of the 
American Association for the United Nations. 

Dwight D. Eisenhower 

Today, 10 years after its adoption, the Uni- 
versal Declaration of Human Rights has become 
a vitally living document. It has become the 
framework for the continuing work of the United 
Nations, in the Commission on Human Rights, in 
the General Assembly, and in the many other 
bodies which deal with human problems. It has 
been used as a model in the new constitutions of 
many nations. It has become a standard of con- 
duct to which the peoples of the world can rally 
— even when governments refuse to give it effec- 
tive support. 

By no means does this imply that the declara- 
tion has achieved its purpose. On the contrary, 
we are only beginning to understand the length 
and breadth of its objectives. It is a call to free- 
dom. There is no way the United Nations can 
enforce freedom — anymore than it can enforce 
peace. But it can rally the tremendous force of 
world opinion in the cause of human dignity. As 
a great religion touches the hearts of men and 
sets the standards of their conduct, so the Uni- 
versal Declaration of Human Rights can become 
a part of the political philosophy of all people 
and all nations. 

Because the declaration is a common standard 
of achievement, we think of it also as a force to 
unite the peoples of the world in common effort. 
In the United Nations we speak often of the 
progress that is being made toward its objectives, 
and we expect to take pride in our own progress 
and that of other countries. 

But I have come to feel that this is not really 
a true picture of our efforts. While it is true that 
progress is being made, the force which unites us 
with other peoples is something quite different — 
a sense rather of what remains to be accomplished, 
a sense of common need to do more, to work 
faster and more effectively. It is not pride that 
unites us in support of the declaration; what 



108 



Department of State Bulletin 



unites us is the growing realization that there are 
those in every country and every community 
whose rights have not been completely recognized 
and fulfilled. It is not easy for leaders of gov- 
ernments to admit these lacks, but it is easier 
when there is a common standard which can be 
used as a measure of our efforts and successes. 

Now I want to make a second point, on how 
human rights find fulfillment. I have sometimes 
heard the declaration quoted as though it were a 
demand on governments to provide the rights 
therein for their peoples. The idea that each per- 
son already has certain inalienable rights is often 
forgotten and likewise that individual liberties are 
dependent on individual defenders. It is there- 
fore the individual who must be strengthened to 
claim his rights and make use of them for his own 
benefit and in the service of the community. 

Now I would like to spell out a little what this 
means. I am often asked by persons from other 
countries what guaranties a United States citizen 
really has, for example, regarding freedom of 
speech or protection against arbitrary arrest or 
possible destitution in old age. 

It would be easy to answer such questions in 
terms of our governmental activities, in terms of 
laws and the judgments of our courts, or by de- 
scribing our vast programs of unemployment in- 
surance or public assistance. But here again I 
have come to feel that this is not the whole picture 
of the human rights we enjoy or hope that all can 
enjoy. While we have found ways through gov- 
ernment to underwrite the essentials for human 
life and assure fundamental equalities of oppor- 
tunity, our faith is in the power of freedom it- 
self to stimulate and release the energy of the 
individual. 

It is the function of government to encourage 
and protect freedom so that people can choose 
among a, multitude of opportunities and agencies 
to realize their full potentialities. This is our 
purpose in encouraging action programs in the 
United Nations, not to concentrate power in gov- 
ernments but to equip men and women to take the 
risks of freedom and develop in accordance with 
the rights and dignities inherently theirs. It is 
this same spirit which gives force to the Universal 
Declaration of Human Rights and inspires new 
efforts to achieve its goals. 



Current U. N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography ' 

General Assembly 

Information From Non-Self-Governing Territories Trans- 
mitted Under Article 73e of the Charter. Statement 
made by the representative of the United Kingdom at 
the S20th meeting of the Fourth Committee on 28 
November 1958. A/C.4/393. December 1, 1958. 38 pp. 
niimeo. 

Question of Nuclear Weapons Tests. Letter dated 4 
December 1958 from the Head of the Delegation of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to the General 
Assembly, addressed to the Secretary-General. A/4027. 
December 4, 1958. 10 pp. mimeo. 

Question of the Frontier Between the Trust Territory 
of Somaliland Under Italian Administration and Ethi- 
opia. Report of the Italian Government on the measures 
taken to give effect to General Assembly resolution 1213 
(XII) of 14 December 1957. A/4030. December 5, 
1958. 40 pp. mimeo. 

Question of the Frontier Between Ethiopia and the Trust 
Territory of Somaliland Under Italian Administration. 
Report of the Ethiopian Government on the steps taken 
to establish an Arbitration Tribunal and the terms of 
reference thereto as recommended by General Assembly 
resolution 1213 (XII) of 14 December 1957. A/4031. 
December 5, 1958. 11 pp. mimeo. 

Question of Measures To Prevent Surprise Attack. Letter 
dated S December 1958 from the Chairman of the Dele- 
gation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to the 
General Assembly, addressed to Secretary-General. 
A/4040. December 8, 1958. 10 pp. mimeo. 

Application of the Republic of Guinea for Admission to 
Membership in the United Nations. Letter dated 3 
December 1958 from the Ambassador of the Republic 
of Guinea addressed to the Secretary-General. A/4048. 
December 9, 1958. 13 pp. mimeo. 

Question of the Frontier Between the Trust Territory of 
Somaliland Under Italian Administration and Ethiopia. 
Letter dated 10 December 195S from the Permanent 
Representative of Ethiopia to the United Nations ad- 
dressed to the Secretary-General. A/4031/Add. 1. 
December 10, 1958. 15 pp. mimeo. 

Questions Considered by the Security Council at its 83Sth 
Meeting on 7 August 1958. Report of the Secretary- 
General on withdrawal by air of British troops from 
Jordan. A/4056. December 10, 1958. 5 pp. mimeo. 

Economic and Social Council 

Economic Commission for Africa : Programme of Work 
and Priorities. Memorandum by the Executive Secre- 
tary. E/CN.14/4. November 19, 1958. 29 pp. mimeo. 

Economic Commission for Africa : Information Paper on 
the United Nations Expanded Programme of Technical 
Assistance in Africa. Prepared by the TAB Secretariat. 
E/CN.14/7. November 20, 1958. 13 pp. mimeo. 



1 Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N.T. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 



January J 9, 7959 



109 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Income-Tax Convention Extended 
to Rhodesia and Nyasaland 

Press release 3 dated January 2 

According to information contained in a note 
of December 30, 1958, 1 from the British Embassy 
in Washington to the Department of State, the 
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland has taken 
the last of the measures necessary to give full 
force and effect to the extension of the income-tax 
convention of April 16, 1945, as modified, between 
the United States and the United Kingdom. 
Accordingly, the extension is effective (1) in the 
United States with respect to United States tax, 
on and after January 1, 1959, and (2) in the 
Federation with respect to tax for the year of 
assessment beginning on April 1, 1959, and for 
subsequent years of assessment. 

On August 19, 1957, the British Government 
gave notification to the United States Govern- 
ment of a desire that the application of the 1945 
convention for the avoidance of double taxation 
and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect 
to taxes on income, as modified by supplementary 
protocols of June 6, 1946, May 25, 1954, and 
August 19, 1957, be extended to specified British 
overseas territories. 2 That notification was given 
in accordance with article XXII of the 1945 con- 
vention, as modified. On July 9, 1958, the 
United States Senate approved the proposed 
extension. On December 3, 1958, the United 
States Government, in accordance with the pro- 
cedure prescribed in article XXII, notified the 
British Government of United States acceptance 
of the British notification. 

The British notification and the United States 
acceptance constitute in effect an agreement 
between the United States and the United 
Kingdom for extending the application of the 
convention, as modified, to the specified British 
territories, subject to the modifications and with 
effect from the dates specified in the British 



1 Not printed. 

'" For texts of supplementary protocol and U.K. note of 
Aug. 19, 1957, see Bulletin of Oct. 14, 1957, p. 622. 



110 



notification. The extension will become opera- 
tive between the United States and each of those 
territories when the particular territory com- 
pletes such legislative or other internal measures 
as are necessary to give effect to the extension in 
such territory. According to the information 
received from the British Embassy, the Federa- 
tion of Rhodesia and Nyasaland completed the 
necessary measures on December 19, 1958. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

International Court of Justice 

Statute of the International Court of Justice (59 Stat. 
1055). 

Notice of withdrawal and termination of April 18, 1957, 
declaration accepting compulsory jurisdiction: United 
Kingdom, November 26, 1958. 
Declaration recognizing compulsory jurisdiction de- 
posited (with conditions and reservations) : United 
Kingdom, November 26, 1958. 1 Effective until notice 
of termination is given. 

Whaling 

International whaling convention and schedule of whaling 
regulations. Signed at Washington December 2, 1946. 
Entered into force November 10, 1958. TIAS 1849. 
Notification of withdrawal: Norway, December 29, 1958. 
Effective June 30, 1959. 



BILATERAL 

Germany 

Agreement relating to certificates of airworthiness for 
imported aircraft. Signed at Bonn December 11, 1958. 
Entered into force December 11, 1958. 

Haiti 

Agreement concerning a naval mission to Haiti. Signed 
at Port-au-Prince December 24, 1958. Entered into 
force December 24, 1958. 

Israel 

Agreement amending the technical cooperation program 
agreement of May 9, 1952, as amended (TIAS 2570, 
2697, 2788, and 3045 ) . Effected by exchange of notes at 
Tel Aviv June 10 and July 25, 1958. Entered into force 
July 25, 1958. 

Korea 

Utilities claims settlement agreement between the Unified 
Command and Korea. Signed at Seoul, December 18, 
1958. Entered into force December 18, 1958. 

New Zealand 

Agreement relating to cooperation in scientific and logisti- 
cal operations in Antarctica. Effected by exchange of 
notes at Wellington December 24, 1958. Entered into 
force December 24, 195S. 



1 Applicable to all disputes arising after Feb. 5, 1930. 
Department of Sfetfe Bulletin 



January 19, 1959 



Index 



Vol. XL, No. 1021 



Agriculture. United States and Argentina Sign 
Loan Agreements (Murphy, text of joint an- 
nouncement) 105 

American Republics. United States-Latin Ameri- 
can Relations, 1953-1958 (Milton S. Eisen- 
hower) 89 

Argentina. United States and Argentina Sign 
Loan Agreements (Murphy, text of joint an- 
nouncement) 105 

Economic Affairs 

Development Loan Fund Authorizes $22.6 Million 

in Loans to Spain 107 

Income-Tax Convention Extended to Rhodesia and 
Nyasaland 110 

United States and Argentina Sign Loan Agree- 
ments (Murphy, text of joint announcement) . . 105 

United States-Latin American Relations, 1953-1958 

(Milton S. Eisenhower) 89 

Germany. U.S. Replies to Soviet Note on Berlin 

(texts of U.S. and Soviet notes) 79 

Health, Education, and Welfare. Tenth Anniver- 
sary of Adoption of Declaration of Human Rights 
(Lord) 108 

Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of. Income- 
Tax Convention Extended to Rhodesia and 
Nyasaland 110 

Spain. Development Loan Fund Authorizes $22.6 
Million in Loans to Spain 107 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 110 

Income-Tax Convention Extended to Rhodesia and 
Nyasaland 110 

U.S.S.R. U.S. Replies to Soviet Note on Berlin 

(texts of U.S. and Soviet notes) 79 



United Kingdom. Income-Tax Convention Ex- 
tended to Rhodesia and Nyasaland 110 

United Nations. Current U.N. Documents . . . 109 

Name Index 

Eisenhower, Milton S 89 

Lord, Mrs. Oswald B 108 

Murphy, Robert 105 



Check List of Department of State 


Press Releases: December 29-January 4 


Press releases may be obtained from the News 


Division, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 


No. 


Date 


Subject 


t775 


12/29 


Rubottom : "New Levels of Inter- 
American Cooperation." 


776 


12/29 


P. L. 480 loan to Argentina. 


777 


12/29 


Economic program to aid Argentina. 


778 


12/29 


Murphy : remarks on aid to Argentina. 


t779 


12/29 


Exhibits exchange agreement with 
U.S.S.R. 


*780 


12/30 


Revised itinerary of Argentine Presi- 
dent. 


781 


12/31 


Reply to Soviet note on Berlin. 


782 


12/31 


DLF loan to Spain. 


tl 


1/2 


IMCO delegation (rewrite). 


*2 


1/2 


Educational exchange (Jamaica). 


3 


1/2 


Income-tax convention with U.K. 


t4 


1/3 


Reply to Soviet note on Baltic and 
Japan Sea incidents. 


*5 


1/4 


Evacuation of Americans from Cuba. 


*Not printed. 


tHeld for 


a later issue of the Bulletin. 




t 



United States 
Government Printing Office 

DIVISION OF PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

Washington 25, D.C. 



PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE TO AVOID 

PAYMENT OF POSTAGE, S300 

IGPO) 



OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



The Soviet Note on Berlin: 
An Analysis 



Department 
of 



Stat 



On November 27, 1958, the Government of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics handed the United States Ambassador in Moscow 
a communication relating to Berlin. 

Similar notes were given by the Soviet Government to the Am- 
bassadors of France, the United Kingdom, and the Federal Republic 
of Germany. 

In essence the Soviet notes demanded that the United States, the 
United Kingdom, and France abandon West Berlin. 

Declaring the communication to be an attempt to rewrite history 
"by omission and by distortion," the Department of State has issued 
this analysis of the Soviet note, calling attention to the more im- 
portant Soviet omissions and correcting the more obvious distortions. 
The analysis is a factual account of developments prior to, during, 
and after World War II which led to the present status of Berlin. 

An appendix contains the official statements of the United States 
on the Berlin question, including the legal status of the city, plus 
other official statements of the Western powers and of NATO on the 
Berlin question. 



Publication 6757 



25 cents 



Order. Form 

To: Supt. of Documents 
Govt. Printing Office 
Washington 25, D.C 



Please send me copies of The Soviet Note on Berlin: An Analysis. 



Name: 



Enclosed find: 



Street Address: 



{cash, check, or money 
order payable to 
Supt. nf Docs.) 



City, Zone, and State: 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 





"ICIAL 

EKLY REC 



Rec'd 

JAN 29 1959 ' 

d a . I 1 J anuar y 26 ' 1959 
o« "« W 

THE STATE OF THE UNION • Address of the President 

to the Congress {Excerpts) 115 

NEW LEVELS OF INTER-AMERICAN COOPERA- 
TION • by Assistant Secretary Rubottom 119 

UNITED STATES VIEWS ON AID TO PALESTINE 

REFUGEES • Statements by George McGregor Harrison . 137 

U.S. AND U.S.S.R. AGREE TO EXCHANGE EXHIBI- 
TIONS IN 1959 (Text of Agreement) 132 



ITED STATES 
REIGN POLICY 




For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XL, No. 1022 • Publication 6761 
January 26, 1959 



For Bale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

62 Issues, domestic $8.50, foreign $12.25 

Single copy, 26 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 20, 1958). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on tlie work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



The State of the Union 



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS (EXCERPTS) 



Members of the 86th Congress and friends: 
First, I should like to assure the delegation 
from our newest State, Alaska, of my satisfaction 
that it now begins its participation with all of 
you in the work of the Congress for the benefit 
of the United States. 

And may I voice the hope that before my term 
of office is ended, I may have the opportunity 
and the great satisfaction of seeing the 50th star 
on our national flag. 

Now, Members of Congress, this is the moment 
when Congress and the Executive annually be- 
gin their cooperative work to build a better 
America. 

One basic purpose unites us: To promote 
strength and security, side by side with liberty 
and opportunity. 

As we meet today, in the 170th year of the 
Republic, our Nation must continue to provide — 
as indeed all other free governments have had 
to do throughout time— a satisfactory answer to 
a question as old as history. It is: Can Govern- 
ment based upon liberty and the God-given rights 
of man, permanently endure when ceaselessly 
challenged by a dictatorship, hostile to our mode 
of life, and controlling an economic and military 
strength of great and growing power? 

For us the answer has always been found, and 
is still found in the devotion, the vision, the 
courage and the fortitude of our people. 

Moreover, we face this challenge not as a single 



powerful nation, but as one that has in recent 
decades reached a position of recognized leader- 
ship in the free world. 

We have arrived at this position of leadership 
in an era of remarkable productivity and growth. 
It is also a time when man's power of mass de- 
struction has reached fearful proportions. 

Possession of such capabilities helps create 
world suspicion and tension. We, on our part, 
know that we seek only a just peace for all, with 
aggressive designs against no one. Yet we realize 
that there is uneasiness in the world because of 
a belief on the part of peoples that through arro- 
gance, miscalculation or fear of attack, cata- 
strophic war could be launched. Keeping the 
peace in today's world more than ever calls for the 
utmost in the Nation's resolution, wisdom, steadi- 
ness and unremitting effort. 

We cannot build peace through desire alone. 
Moreover, we have learned the bitter lesson that 
international agreements, historically considered 
by us as sacred, are regarded in Communist doc- 
trine and in practice to be mere scraps of paper. 
The most recent proof of their disdain of inter- 
national obligations, solemnly undertaken, is their 
announced intention to abandon their responsi- 
bilities respecting Berlin. 2 

As a consequence of these actions, we can have 
no confidence in any treaty to which Communists 
are a party except where such a treaty provides 
within itself for self-enforcing mechanisms. In- 



1 Delivered on Jan. 9 (White House press release, re- 
vised as delivered) ; H. Doc. 1, 86th Cong., 1st sess. 



' For an exchange of correspondence between the United 
States and the Soviet Union on the subject of Berlin, see 
Bulletin of Jan. 19, 1959, p. 79. 
deed, the demonstrated disregard of the Commu- 



January 26, 7959 



115 



nists of their own pledges is one of the greatest 
obstacles to world success in substituting the rule 
of law for rule by f orce. 

Yet step by step we must strengthen the insti- 
tutions of peace^ — a peace that rests upon justice — 
a peace that depends upon a deep knowledge and 
clear understanding by all peoples — including our 
own — of the causes and consequences of possible 
failure in this great purpose. 



To achieve this peace we seek to prevent war at 
any place and in any dimension. If, despite our 
best efforts, a local dispute should flare into armed 
hostilities, the next problem would be to keep the 
conflict from spreading, and so compromising 
freedom. In support of these objectives we main- 
tain forces of great power and flexibility. 

Our formidable air striking forces are a power- 
ful deterrent to general war. Large and growing 
portions of these units can depart from their bases 
in a matter of minutes. 

Similar forces are included in our naval fleets. 

Ground and other tactical formations can move 
with swiftness and precision, when requested by 
friendly and responsible governments, to help curb 
threatened aggression. The stabilizing influence 
of this capacity has been dramatically demon- 
strated more than once over the past year. 

Our military and related scientific progress has 
been highly gratifying. 

Great strides have been made in the develop- 
ment of ballistic missiles. Intermediate range 
missiles are now being deployed in operational 
units. The Atlas intercontinental ballistic missile 
program has been marked by rapid development 
as evidenced by recent successful tests. Missile 
training units have been established and launch- 
ing sites are far along in construction. 

New aircraft that fly at twice the speed of 
sound are entering our squadrons. 

We have successfully placed five satellites in 
orbit, which have gathered information of scien- 
tific importance never before available. Our latest 
satellite illustrates our steady advance in rocketry 
and foreshadows new developments in worldwide 
communications. 

Warning systems constantly improve. 

Our atomic submarines have shattered endur- 
ance records and made historic voyages under the 
North Polar Sea. 



116 



A major segment of our national scientific and 
engineering community is working intensively to 
achieve new and greater developments. But we 
must remember, advance in military technology 
requires adequate financing, of course. But even 
more, it requires talent and time. 

Now, all this I give only as a matter of his- 
tory; as a record of our progress in space and 
ballistic missile fields in no more than 4 years of 
intensive effort. At the same time we clearly rec- 
ognize that some of the recent Soviet accomplish- 
ments in this particular technology are indeed 
brilliant. 

Our own vast strength is only a part of that 
required for dependable security. Because of this 
we have joined with nearly 50 other nations in 
collective security arrangements. In these com- 
mon undertakings each nation is expected to con- 
tribute what it can in sharing the heavy load. 
Each supplies part of a strategic deployment to 
protect the forward boundaries of freedom. 

Constantly we seek new ways to make more 
effective our contribution to this system of col- 
lective security. Recently I have asked a com- 
mittee of eminent Americans of both parties to 
reappraise our military assistance programs and 
the relative emphasis which should be placed on 
military and economic aid. 3 

I am hopeful that preliminary recommenda- 
tions of this committee will be available in time 
to assist in shaping the mutual security pro- 
gram for the coming fiscal year. 

Any survey of the free world's defense struc- 
ture cannot fail to impart a feeling of regret that 
so much of our effort and resources must be de- 
voted to armaments. At Geneva and elsewhere 
we continue to seek technical and other agree- 
ments that may help to open up, with some prom- 
ise, the issues of international disarmament. 
America will never give up the hope that eventu- 
ally all nations can, with mutual confidence, dras- 
tically reduce these nonproductive expenditures. 



III. 

I take up next certain aspects of our interna- 
tional situation and our progress in strengthening 
it. 



1 Ibid., Dec. 15, 1958, p. 954. 

Department of State Bulletin 



America's security can be assured only within 
a world community of strong, stable, independent 
nations, in which the concepts of freedom, justice, 
and human dignity can flourish. 

There can be no such thing as "Fortress Amer- 
ica." If ever we were reduced to the isolation 
implied by that term, we would occupy a prison, 
not a fortress. The question whether we can af- 
ford to help other nations that want to defend 
their freedom but cannot fully do so from their 
own means, has only one answer: We can and we 
must; we have been doing so since 1947. 

Our foreign policy has long been dedicated to 
building a permanent and just peace. 

During the past 6 years our free-world security 
arrangements have been bolstered and the bonds 
of freedom more closely knit. Our friends in 
Western Europe are experiencing new internal 
vitality, and are increasingly more able to resist 
external threats. 

Over the years the world has come to under- 
stand clearly that it is our firm policy not to coun- 
tenance aggression. In Lebanon, Taiwan, and 
Berlin our stand has been clear, right, and ex- 
pressive of the determined will of a united people. 

Acting with other free nations we have the 
solemn obligation to defend the people of free 
Berlin against any effort to destroy their freedom. 
In the meantime we shall constantly seek mean- 
ingful agreements to settle this and other prob- 
lems, knowing full well that not only the integ- 
rity of a single city but the hope of all free 
peoples is at stake. 

We need, likewise, to continue helping to build 
the economic base so essential to the free world's 
stability and strength. 

The International Monetary Fund and the 
World Bank have both fully proven their worth 
as instruments of international financial coopera- 
tion. Their Executive Directors have recom- 
mended an increase in each member's subscription. 
I am requesting the Congress for immediate ap- 
proval of our share of these increases. 

We are now negotiating with representatives 
of the 20 Latin American Kepublics for the crea- 
tion of an inter-American financial institution. 
Its purpose would be to join all the American 
Republics in a common institution which would 
promote and finance development in Latin Amer- 
ica. One great result of this would be to make 
more effective the use of capital from the World 



Bank, the Export-Import Bank, and private 
sources. 

Private enterprise continues to make major con- 
tributions to economic development in all parts of 
the world. But we have not yet marshaled the 
full potential of American business for this task, 
particularly in countries which have recently at- 
tained their independence. I shall present to this 
Congress a program designed to encourage 
greater participation by private enterprise in eco- 
nomic development abroad. 

Further, all of us know that to advance the 
cause of freedom we must do much more than 
help build sound economies. The spiritual, intel- 
lectual, and physical strength of people through- 
out the world will in the last analysis determine 
their willingness and their ability to resist com- 
munism. 

To give a single illustration of our many efforts 
in these fields : We have been a participant in the 
effort that has been made over the past few years 
against one of the great scourges of mankind — 
disease. Through the mutual security program 
public health officials are being trained by Ameri- 
can universities to serve in less developed coun- 
tries. We are engaged in intensive malaria 
eradication projects in many parts of the world. 
In this work, America's major successes in our 
own country prove the feasibility of success 
everywhere. 

By these and other means we shall continue 
and expand our campaign against the afflictions 
that now bring needless suffering and death to so 
many of the world's people. We wish to be part 
of a great shared effort toward the triumph of 
health. 

IV. 



Finally, by moving steadily toward the goal of 
greater freedom under law, for our own people, 
we shall be the better prepared to work for the 
cause of freedom under law throughout the world. 

All peoples are sorely tired of the fear, and 
the destruction, and the waste of war. As never 
before, the world knows the human and material 
costs of war and seeks to replace force with a 
genuine rule of law among nations. 

It is my purpose to intensify efforts during the 
coming 2 years in seeking ways to supplement the 
procedures of the United Nations and other bodies 



January 26, 7959 



117 



with similar objectives, to the end that the rule 
of law may replace the rule of force in the affairs 
of nations. Measures toward this end will be 
proposed later, including a reexamination of our 
own relation to the International Court of Justice. 

And lastly, let us remind ourselves that Marx- 
ist scripture is not new ; this is not the gospel of 
the future. Its basic objective is dictatorship, old 
as history. What is new is the shining prospect 
that man can build a world where all can live in 
dignity. 

We seek victory — not over any nation or peo- 
ple — but over the ancient enemies of us all ; victory 
over ignorance, poverty, disease, and human deg- 
radation wherever they may be found. 

We march in the noblest of causes — human 
freedom. 

If we make ourselves worthy of America's ideals, 
if we do not forget that our Nation was founded 
on the premise that all men are creatures of God's 
making, the world will come to know that it is 
free men who carry forward the true promise of 
human progress and dignity. 



Dwight D. Eisenhower 



The White House, 

January 9, 1959 



Committee Advises on Difficulty 
of Detecting Underground Tests 

White House press release dated January 5 

The following statement on the detection and 
identification of underground nuclear tests has 
been prepared by the President's Science Advisory 
Committee and has received the concurrence of 
the Department of State, the Department of De- 
fense, and the Atomic Energy Commission. It 
is based on conclusions reached by a panel of 
seismologists appointed on the recommendation 
of the chairman of the President's Science Advi- 
sory Committee. 

Since the Geneva Conference of Experts last 
summer, 1 United States seismologists on behalf 
of the Government have continued to study all 
available data on the problem of detecting and 
identifying underground explosions, including 



1 For a statement by James B. Pisk, chairman of the 
Western panel of experts, a communique, and text of the 
report, see Bulletin of Sept. 22, 1958, p. 452. 



new data obtained from the underground tests 
conducted in Nevada this past October. These 
studies and new data indicate that it is more dif- 
ficult to identify underground explosions than had 
previously been believed. 

The Geneva Conference of Experts last sum- 
mer concluded that, although it is not possible to 
identify an underground explosion by seismic 
means alone, it is possible to identify a large frac- 
tion of seismic events as natural earthquakes 
when the direction of first motion of the seismic 
signal is observed at several, appropriately located 
stations. This procedure reduces the number of 
seismic events which would be unidentified and 
could, therefore, be suspected of being under- 
ground tests. Analysis of all available seismic 
data on underground tests, including the data new 
since last summer, has shown that this method of 
distinguishing earthquakes from explosions is less 
effective than had been estimated by the Geneva 
Conference of Experts. These analyses and new 
data also indicate that the seismic signals pro- 
duced by explosions are smaller than had been 
anticipated and that there are consequently about 
twice as many natural earthquakes equivalent to 
an underground explosion of a given yield as 
had been estimated by the Geneva Conference of 
Experts. 

These two factors mean that there will be a 
substantial increase in the number of earthquakes 
that cannot be distinguished from underground 
nuclear explosions by seismic means alone. For 
example, the total number of unidentified seismic 
events with energy equivalents larger than 5 kilo- 
tons may be increased ten times or more over the 
number previously estimated for the system rec- 
ommended by the Geneva Conference of Experts. 

The effect of this new analysis and data on the 
capabilities of the system recommended by the 
Geneva Conference of Experts as well as modifi- 
cations of that system which could restore its 
originally estimated capability against under- 
ground tests are at jjresent under study by United 
States scientists. 

The Department of State advises us that the 
results of this continuing analysis have been com- 
municated to the United Kingdom and the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Kepublics delegations at the 
present Geneva Conference on the Discontinuance 
of Nuclear Weapons Tests, and that the United 
States delegation will be prepared to discuss this 



118 



Department of State Bulletin 



information with experts of the other delegations. 
This will assure that all the parties at the present 
Geneva Conference have available the best scien- 



tific information and analysis in their consider- 
ation of the problem of detecting and identifying 
underground tests. 



New Levels of I titer- American Cooperation 



by Roy R. Rubottom, Jr. 

Assistant Secretary for Inter-American Affairs 1 



1958 may prove to be one of the most decisive 
years in the history of U.S. relations with the 
other American Eepublics and in inter- American 
relations as a whole. Thus it seems entirely 
fitting that we seize this year-end opportunity to 
analyze some of the events which have occurred 
and the reasons why. 

One might be tempted just to concentrate on 
the severe economic problems which have beset 
the hemisphere. No country has been spared. A 
slowdown in demand for some of the basic prod- 
ucts produced in the Americas started in late 
1956, was felt throughout 1957, and left a marked 
impact on export prices and hence foreign-ex- 
change earnings throughout this year. Produc- 
tion of other basic products, such as coffee, ex- 
panded far in excess of demand. These develop- 
ments, especially for countries which depend 
primarily on one commodity for their foreign- 
exchange requirements, as does most of Latin 
America, and the continuing problem of internal 
inflation in many of the countries have been par- 
ticularly critical. Population growth, education, 
and more rapid communications are stimulating 
more than ever the desires of the Latin American 
peoples for improved standards of living. They 
want to provide more for themselves from their 
own earnings, and they are seeking more from 
their governments. 

However, there are some bright spots in the 
economic sector. Sound fiscal management has 
helped a number of the American Republics to 
emerge from this economic downturn without 



1 Address made before the American Association of Law 
Schools at Chicago, 111., on Dec. 29 (press release 775). 



serious damage. In other cases, even where re- 
serves have largely been exhausted, the stabiliza- 
tion efforts made by the governments have pre- 
vented what otherwise might have been runaway 
inflation. In this respect I should pay tribute to 
the outstanding work of the International Mone- 
tary Fund and its highly skilled, dedicated per- 
sonnel for the vital role played in those countries 
of the area which have sought the fund's counsel. 

Another bright spot in 1958 has been the 
sharply increased public attention focused on the 
Americas. Even though the tendency still is to 
feature only the sensational news, there has been 
a marked increase in serious and continuing press 
news, radio, and television coverage of Latin 
American developments, as well as thoughtful 
analysis of the problems in the area. We antic- 
ipate that the public information media will con- 
tinue to give broad coverage to our closest neigh- 
bors and longtime friends, with whom we have 
so much in common — historically, economically, 
culturally, politically, and spiritually. 

We can also be encouraged by the notable 
strengthening of democratic institutions in most 
of the countries of the Americas. Different pat- 
terns are emerging in different countries, as will 
inevitably be the case when the people are given 
a free choice, but the progress toward democracy 
is unmistakable. This is, of course, a continuing 
process of growth and development. Freely 
chosen democratic governments result from the 
unselfish efforts of countless individuals who to- 
gether mold a country along the lines they want. 

It is in the political area where the record of 
1958 takes on luster if one can really separate the 
political from the economic problems. We have 



January 26, J 959 



119 



seen the inauguration of President Fronclizi in 
Argentina, President Lleras Camargo in Colom- 
bia, and the election of Dr. Eomulo Betancourt to 
the Presidency in Venezuela. It has been espe- 
cially heartening to observe that the people of 
these countries have had the opportunity freely 
to choose. Years of authoritarian rule could not 
quench their thirst for a government of their own 
choosing. As President Eisenhower recently 
said when the Ambassador of Venezuela presented 
his credentials : 

The United States believes firmly in the democratic 
elective process and the choice by the people, through 
free and fair elections, of democratic governments re- 
sponsive to them. Authoritarianism and autocracy, of 
whatever form, are incompatible with the ideals of our 
great leaders of the past. Free institutions, respect for 
individual rights, and the inherent dignity of man are the 
heritage of our Western civilization. 

Historically, cooperation among nations came 
about mainly because it served the national in- 
terests of those concerned to cooperate, whether 2, 
21, or 82 (the number in the U.N.) were involved. 
During our lifetime something new has been added 
to this concejJt in the Americas. 

The principle of cooperation is now deeply 
imbedded as one of the foundation stones of the 
inter-American system. Perfection has not yet 
been achieved, but the American Republics are 
measurably progressing toward the ideal which 
is inherent in this concept. The techniques of 
international cooperation have been refined to a 
point heretofore not believed possible. 

Strategic and Political Bases of Interdependence 

The nations of this hemisphere form a distinct 
geographic unit, physically separated from the 
rest of the world. This in itself has given rise 
to a natural drawing together and sense of inter- 
dependence. In consequence we are interested 
from a strategic and security standpoint in what 
happens in the countries to the south of us, and 
Latin America recognizes the importance of the 
United States to its security. 

In political terms we have a common heritage, 
a common "New World" tradition. The ideals 
of pan-American solidarity have now been forged 
into an effective and viable regional institution — 
the Organization of American States. This 
heritage and tradition form a solid basis for our 



120 



collaboration in a positive approach to world 
problems, particularly when up against those 
forces dedicated to the destruction of this heritage 
and this tradition. There seems to be a definite 
awareness that we depend on each other for the 
achievement of our common goals of national 
independence, security, and freedom as well as an 
awareness that a strong, prosperous United States 
is as important to Latin America as a developing, 
prosperous Latin America is to the United States. 

Economic Interdependence 

In the economic sphere this interdependence is 
graphically evident. Our trade with Latin Amer- 
ica in recent years has been greater than that with 
any other area of the world except Western 
Europe. Some 22 percent of our total exports go 
to Latin America, and we in turn normally take 
about 45 percent of all the goods exported by the 
Latin American countries as a group. In 1957 
our exports to Latin America totaled $4.6 billion ; 
and despite serious price declines in coffee, non- 
ferrous metals, and some other basic commodities, 
Latin American exports to the United States reg- 
istered a new high of $3.8 billion. 

In the past 12 years the book value of direct 
private United States investment in Latin Amer- 
ica has grown from $3 billion to about $9 billion, 
accounting for more than one-third of our total 
private investment abroad. The average rate of 
increase in recent years has been in excess of 
$600 million annually, and in fact in 1957 it 
totaled $1.3 billion, the largest for any area of the 
world. 

Just as these figures show the importance of 
Latin America to us in economic terms, so the 
reverse relationship is evident. Latin America 
depends upon the United States as its prime mar- 
ket for its exports — for example, we take over 
two-thirds of Latin America's coffee. The Latin 
Americans look to us to supply a good part of the 
manufactured and semiprocessed goods which 
they need. They seek our capital and technical 
know-how to help develop their economic 
resources. 

Expanding Cultural Ties 

In the academic year 1957-58 approximately 
8,000 Latin American students studied in United 
States institutions compared with 3,900 in 

Department of State Bulletin 



1947-48 and 700 in 1936-37. The younger gen- 
eration in Latin America is far more aware of 
and affected by cultural and social developments 
in this country than were any of their elders. The 
impact extends all the way from science and tech- 
nology to milkshakes and baseball. 

Here we are increasingly conscious of the im- 
pact of Latin America on our society. More and 
more United States citizens are traveling and 
studying in the other American Republics. Span- 
ish is now standard fare in elementary schools in 
the southwestern states. There are at present 
scores of pan-American societies throughout the 
United States, civic organizations formed by ordi- 
nary citizens to study and understand something 
of Latin America. Our people literally are hun- 
gry for knowledge and personal contact with their 
neighbors. 

It may be of interest to this audience if I pause 
at this point to refer briefly to the efforts of the 
United States Government to stimulate and 
strengthen these cultural ties through its educa- 
tional exchange programs. Eleven acts of Con- 
gress and the President's proposal for sharing in- 
formation on peaceful uses of atomic energy have 
authorized educational exchange and related ex- 
change-of-persons activities between the United 
States and Latin America. Indeed, the first offi- 
cial educational exchanges with other countries 
started with Latin America in 1938. 

Over 5,000 Latin Americans have come to this 
country during the last 20 years under State 
Department-administered educational exchange 
programs. Since the passage of the Smith-Mundt 
Act in 1948 there have been 3,844 exchanges with 
Latin American countries in both directions. 

In addition, large numbers of specialists and 
technicians have been exchanged under the Presi- 
dent's atoms-for-peace proposal and under our 
bilateral technical cooperation programs. 

The last session of Congress augmented the 
educational exchange appropriation for the Latin 
American area by $2 million. This will enable us 
to increase the number of exchanges in the area 
substantially and to initiate new activities, such 
as seminars for Latin American students on 
United States campuses. 

Interdependence Generates Problems 

There is no question in Latin America or the 
United States regarding the mutually beneficial 



aspects of this interdependence and the basic 
strength of the relationship created by it. To say, 
however, that we are closely interdependent is not 
to say that we have no problems. On the con- 
trary, interdependence by its very nature gives rise 
to certain problems, just as the closeness within 
a family often yields problems and irritations. 

Because of our mutuality of interests and 
goals — our interdependence, if you will — such 
problems are susceptible to joint and constructive 
solution. Indeed, as I mentioned at the beginning 
of this address, the nations of this hemisphere are 
measurably progressing toward new levels of in- 
ternational cooperation to meet the challenges and 
problems that face us all. 

Economic Cooperation 

Probably the main preoccupation of our Latin 
American friends today is with the drive to de- 
velop and build sturdy self-reliant economies, and 
it is in the economic sector that the region faces 
its more pressing problems. These problems are 
aggravated in all countries by the unprecedented 
population growth and the consequently formi- 
dable job of even maintaining existing living 
standards, much less increasing them in the pro- 
portion desired. 

On occasion some critics are prone to say that, 
while we have achieved effective cooperation in the 
political and security fields and in social matters, 
we have little to show for our joint efforts in the 
economic sector. I am convinced, however, that 
the record of cooperation here, too, is impressive. 
Let us look at that record. 

In the past 10 years the Export-Import Bank 
has loaned more than $2 billion in Latin 
America — more than 40 percent of all the bank's 
loans — and the United States Congress recently 
authorized an increase of $2 billion in the bank's 
lending authority, which will enable it to main- 
tain this rapid rate of lending for sound projects. 
This assistance has meant new transportation 
facilities, modern and expanded ports, more elec- 
tric power, steel mills, chemical plants, and a host 
of other industries of all kinds. These in turn 
have brought benefits of a multiplying nature in 
the form of expanded opportunities for employ- 
ment, training and new skills for workers, stimu- 
lation of other enterprises, and new and better 
products— all of which have contributed to im- 
proved living standards. 



January 26, 7959 



121 



In recent years, too, the United States has em- 
barked on a new field of financial collaboration 
with Latin American governments, namely that of 
participating with the International Monetary 
Fund and with private American banks to help 
achieve monetary stabilization. The results, both 
psychological and tangible, have been impressive 
in the eight countries where these agreements have 
been placed in effect. 

As a current illustration there may be cited our 
recent negotiations with Argentina, the results 
of which have just been announced. 2 The gov- 
ernment of President Frondizi, as you know, took 
office in May 1958 in the midst of a gathering 
economic storm. The nation's foreign-exchange 
reserves were all but wiped out, its capital goods 
had been eaten up, and economic expansion had 
stopped. 

The Frondizi government, conscious that its 
principal problems were within the country, at 
once began to act in those key areas where solu- 
tions would help most toward placing the nation 
on the road to economic recovery. A program to 
curb the rampant inflation was worked out and 
checked with the International Monetary Fund 
to assure compatibility with international mone- 
tary objectives. Steps were taken to promote oil 
production and thus to diminish rapidly the drain 
on the nation for ever-increasing imports of fuel. 
Decisions were made to use national resources in 
the manner most productive of national and indi- 
vidual well-being, with agriculture permitted to 
claim again the place which it must have in a 
sound economy. The urgently needed capital of 
private investors, at home and abroad, was sought 
by settlement of long-harassing problems between 
government and industry. 

This process made evident a need for supple- 
mentary outside help, chiefly financial, to bring 
the inflation under control and to spur produc- 
tivity in key industries. The process itself, how- 
ever, had made clear the dimensions and role of 
such necessary help. The nation had made its own 
decisions for reconstruction, had chosen the de- 
monstrably productive course of freeing the econ- 
omy from damaging restraints, and had deter- 
mined means and procedures for restoring a 
reasonable monetary stability. 

The foundations were thus laid for the subse- 



quently successful negotiations with representa- 
tives of American private banks, the International 
Monetary Fund, the Development Loan Fund, the 
Export-Import Bank, and the United States 
Treasury. Because the Argentine officials were 
able to present a complete, concise, and frank re- 
port to these institutions, it was possible for tech- 
nical financial experts promptly to determine the 
approximate amount of help Argentina would 
require. 

Today [December 29] there is being announced 
a total program of $329 million to assist the Re- 
public of Argentina in its efforts to achieve sta- 
bilization and economic development. The United 
States participation in this program represents 
one of the most comprehensive financial opera- 
tions ever undertaken by the United States in 
Latin America. It includes approximately $125 
million from the Eximbank, about $25 million 
from the Development Loan Fund, and $50 mil- 
lion from the U.S. Treasury. In addition, 11 pri- 
vate United States banks are to make available 
$54 million on credit, and the International 
Monetary Fund is to provide $75 million. 

Credits from the private banks and from the 
Treasury and the International Monetary Fund 
are intended to meet short-term Argentine re- 
quirements. It is recognized that the long-term 
need of Argentina, however, is for expansion of 
fundamental sources of production. To help meet 
this necessity the Eximbank expects to devote up 
to $100 million of its $125 million credit to im- 
plement loans on a case-by-case basis, with par- 
ticipation of investments from United States 
private sources, to finance Argentine purchases 
in the United States in connection with the fol- 
lowing types of projects: electric-power expan- 
sion, development of important industries such as 
cement, pulp and paper, meat, rubber manufac- 
tures, petrochemicals, and others. The Develop- 
ment Loan Fund credit of $25 million will be used 
to finance imports of capital items for projects 
contributing to economic development in the trans- 
portation, electric-power, and waterworks field. 
European nations, which previously had payments 
arrangements with Argentina through the "Paris 
Club," 3 have shown a most cooperative attitude 



' BuLLmiN of Jan. 19, 1059, p. 105. 



8 An arrangement between Argentina and its European 
creditors whereby currency earned in any one of the 
latter countries could be freely spent by Argentina in any 
one of them. 



122 



Department of State Bulletin 



toward this move to promote a freer multilateral 
Argentine economy. 

Thus the presentation of the clear courses of 
action which Argentina planned, together with 
a request for the funds she needed to implement 
them, made possible the closest possible coopera- 
tion between the United States, Argentina, and 
the private and international financial institutions. 

Another source of loans was created in 1954 
with United States Public Law 480, the Agricul- 
tural Trade Development and Assistance Act. 
Of the $358 million worth of surplus agricultural 
products sold to Latin American countries since 
then, the equivalent in local currencies of $270 
million has been scheduled for loans back to the 
purchasing countries for economic development 
purposes. The recently created Development 
Loan Fund, which has already made a few loans 
to Latin American countries, is also ready to con- 
tribute to the area's economic development. 

Most impressive of all in the realm of economic 
cooperation, however, is the private sector. I 
mentioned figures on this score earlier, indicating 
that U.S. investments in Latin America com- 
prise one-third of all United States investments 
abroad. Private enterprise is so taken for granted 
in the United States as our basic economic way of 
life that it may seem unusual for me to stress it 
here. Yet its value as an economic and soci- 
ological concept — one which is expressed as much 
in our political growth toward democratic ideals 
as it is in our economic growth — is worth remind- 
ing ourselves of over and over again. 

I should like also to mention another type of 
cooperation which, while not usually associated 
with the economic field, nevertheless has signifi- 
cant economic results because it is a particularly 
dramatic example of the type of across-the-board 
cooperation that is under way in this hemisphere — 
and that is cooperation in the field of public health 
and sanitation. Through our technical coopera- 
tion program the United States has undertaken bi- 
lateral cooperation with 19 of the other American 
Republics in broad programs of public health 
and public-health administration. In addition 
we have allocated funds and provided technical 
cooperation for both bilateral and multilateral 
programs aimed at the control and eradication of 
specific diseases. For example, the prevalence of 
yaws has been greatly reduced in Haiti and is 
now considered to be under control. We have 



contributed to both multilateral and bilateral pro- 
grams for the eradication of malaria and the con- 
trol of tuberculosis. Cooperation has also been 
provided in the techniques of yellow-fever con- 
trol, and programs have been instigated in some 
countries for the control of diarrheal diseases. 
Several of our bilateral technical cooperation pro- 
grams have also provided assistance in the design 
and construction of pure-water systems for towns 
and small cities. Such programs as these have 
obvious economic and sociological benefits. 

Current Problems 

The examples I have just cited will give you 
an idea of the scope of cooperative effort which 
has already been undertaken. But what of cur- 
rent economic problems? How are we trying to 
meet them? 

The far-reaching social and economic changes 
now sweeping through Latin America have 
heightened the deep-seated aspiration and drive in 
those countries for rapid development and im- 
proved living standards and have lent a sense of 
urgency to these aspirations. This has manifested 
itself primarily in a deep concern on the part of 
Latin American countries that there be an ade- 
quate capital flow to finance the economic develop- 
ment required. There are related worries over 
problems of increasing trade and the all- important 
foreign exchange this provides. 

Economic Consultations 

Now, these problems are not new. For some 
time the United States had realized the depth of 
the growing impulse toward rapid economic de- 
velopment in Latin America and the area's im- 
patience on that score. In 1956 President Eisen- 
hower proposed that the American Presidents 
designate personal representatives to meet and 
consider economic and social problems. 4 This was 
an effort to examine and improve existing OAS 
mechanisms for handling some of the economic 
and social problems and to spur active support and 
participation by all the American Republics in 
multilateral approaches to these problems. 

This proposal resulted in the formation of the 
Committee of Presidential Representatives, which 
held three meetings between September 1956 and 



1 Bulletin of Aug. 6, 1956, p. 219. 



January 26, 7959 



123 



April 1957. 5 The Committee made several rec- 
ommendations covering a wide variety of economic 
and social subjects and thus laid the basis for 
further consultation, study, and action. A num- 
ber of these recommendations have since been 
translated into tangible measures. For example, 
the scope of OAS technical cooperation activities 
has been expanded in such fields as malaria eradi- 
cation, agriculture, and public housing. Over 
1,950 new scholarships for academic and technical 
training have been set up by the OAS, and a vari- 
ety of studies in the fields of transportation, edu- 
cation, housing, and statistics have been stimulated. 
The Committee's recommendations regarding fi- 
nancial assistance laid the basis for further 
developments in this field, which I shall refer to 
subsequently. 

From that base we moved to further considera- 
tion of cooperative efforts in the economic field 
with the Inter-American Economic Conference 
held in Buenos Aires in August 1957. The dis- 
cussions there regarding the financing of economic 
development, marketing of basic commodities, and 
regional markets laid an essential foundation for 
better mutual understanding of the problems in- 
volved and paved the way for definite advances 
during the past year. 6 

Inter-American Financial Institution 

On August 12 this year Under Secretary for 
Economic Affairs Douglas Dillon announced at a 
special meeting of the Inter- American Economic 
and Social Council that the United States was 
prepared to consider the establishment of and to 
participate in a regional development institution. 7 
We recognized that a multilateral financial or 
development institution serving the needs of the 
region as a whole has been the aspiration of Latin 
Americans for a number of years and that agree- 
ment with them on such an institution would rep- 
resent an important milestone. A special com- 
mittee of experts of the American governments is 
now scheduled to be convened on January 8, 1959, 8 
to negotiate and draft a charter for this institu- 
tion. It would be inappropriate for me to antici- 



pate the work of those who are charged with the 
responsibility for formulating this new financial 
organ, but the United States has high hopes that 
there will result an effective financial institution 
which will supplement the fine work being done 
by those existing institutions which have already 
contributed so much to the economic growth of 
the American Republics. 

The United States also proposed in August an 
increase in the resources of the International 
Monetary Fund and the International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development to enable these 
institutions to meet the increased needs through- 
out the world. 9 If this is adopted these entities 
will undoubtedly be able to expand their contri- 
butions to Latin American economic growth and 
stability. We have also proposed that member 
governments of the World Bank give considera- 
tion to the establishment, as an affiliate of the bank, 
of a new International Development Association, 
which would be authorized to make loans repay- 
able in whole or in part in the borrowing coun- 
try's currency, somewhat similar to our own 
Development Loan Fund. 10 

While we are thus acting to stimulate the flow 
of assistance by public institutions, we are at the 
same time, in recognition of the basic role which 
private enterprise must play, earnestly seeking to 
find new ways in which we can stimulate the 
flow of private investment to Latin America. In 
this vein the United States recently made known 
to the other American Republics its willingness 
to negotiate tax conventions to eliminate the bur- 
dens of double taxation and to include a "tax 
sparing" provision so that United States investors 
may take full advantage of any special tax incen- 
tives other countries may offer to encourage pro- 
ductive investment. 

We have also announced our willingness to 
negotiate investment guaranty agreements and 
modern treaties of friendship, commerce, and nav- 
igation, since these would also help improve the 
climate of investment. Finally we have asked 
the Business Advisory Council, a group of lead- 



5 Ibid., Oct. 1, 1956, p. 511 ; Mar. 25, 1957, p. 479 ; and 
June 24, 1957, p. 1014. 

6 Ibid., Sept. 16, 1957, p. 463. 
' Ibid,., Sept. 1, 1958, p. 347. 
8 See p. 144. 



9 For an exchange of correspondence between President 
Eisenhower and Secretary of the Treasury Robert B. 
Anderson, see Bulletin of Sept. 15, 1958, p. 412 ; for state- 
ments made by Secretary Anderson and Under Secretary 
of State Dillon at a joint meeting of the IBRD and IMF 
at New Delhi, see ibid., Nov. 17, 1958, p. 793. 

10 Ibid., Apr. 7, 1958, p. 564. 



124 



Department of State Bulletin 



ing businessmen associated with our Department 
of Commerce, to study the situation and to tell 
us what they, as businessmen, believe our Gov- 
ernment can do to make foreign investment more 
attractive. 

Basic Commodities 

Problems of foreign trade continue to be of 
concern to our neighbors. Many of the Latin 
American countries depend for the great bulk of 
their foreign-exchange reserves on the export of 
one or a few primary commodities. As a conse- 
quence our sister republics are very naturally 
concerned over matters of trade, terms of trade, 
markets, and above all over world prices for these 
primary commodities. The United States fully 
understands and shares this concern. We recog- 
nize that the problems of basic commodities are 
mutual problems; that wide price fluctuations can 
benefit no one but the speculator; and that de- 
creased export earnings result immediately in re- 
duced capacity to import. Because we recognize 
the importance of these problems the United 
States is prepared, as Under Secretary Dillon 
recently stated, 11 to join in the study of individual 
commodity problems which are creating difficulties 
to see whether cooperative solutions can be found. 

We have done this in the case of coffee. A 
Coffee Study Group has been established at Wash- 
ington to consider the long-range problems of 
supply and demand. More recently the United 
States participated in an international conference 
on lead and zinc under the auspices of the United 
Nations to consider the serious problems of over- 
production of those products. 

Regional Markets 

The United States has also announced its 
support of soundly conceived plans for economic 
integration in Latin America between two or more 
countries. We believe that such arrangements, if 
correctly designed, can lead to increased competi- 
tive opportunities, greater productivity, and a 
higher level of trade both within the area con- 
cerned and with other countries. 

In this belief we have supported the European 
Common Market and the proposed European Free 
Trade Area. We have followed with keen inter- 
est the various Latin American proposals for at- 



taining closer economic integration as a means to 
promote economic development and the studies 
made and in process by the U.N.'s Economic Com- 
mission for Latin America. Considerable prog- 
ress in this field has in fact been made by the 
Central American countries, which began steps in 
this direction several years ago when they formed 
the Economic Cooperation Committee of the 
Central American Isthmus. Only a few months 
ago these countries signed a multilateral trade 
treaty and an agreement on industrial integration, 
both of which are now pending ratification. 

Economic circumstances in Latin America differ 
of course from those that exist in Western Europe. 
In this hemisphere the impulse toward economic 
integration is essentially based on the opportunity 
for larger internal markets to support new in- 
dustrialization. We believe that, properly con- 
ceived, economic integration in this area is one 
concrete step that could be taken now and that 
could provide genuine economic benefits to the 
countries concerned and to the expansion of 
international trade. 

Because we do believe this the United States is 
prepared to do what it can to help interested 
Latin American countries in framing economic 
integration plans which would be economically 
sound. It is in this spirit we have made clear 
that we are prepared, through the Export-Import 
Bank, to consider the dollar financing required by 
sound regional industries in Latin America. 

Foreign Ministers Meeting and Committee of 21 

Recently the American Republics have moved 
toward even more effective joint efforts in two 
meetings that, in my opinion, mark a high point 
in inter-American cooperation — the informal 
meeting of American Foreign Ministers, to which 
Secretary Dulles was host in mid-September, 12 
and the recently concluded meeting of the Special 
Committee of the Council of the Organization 
of American States, more popularly known as the 
Committee of 21. 

In May of this year President Kubitschek of 
Brazil sent a letter to President Eisenhower sug- 
gesting that efforts to strengthen inter- American 
solidarity be reviewed. 13 This suggestion was 
warmly received by President Eisenhower, and in 
August Brazil circulated a proposal to the other 



u Ibid., Dec. 8, 1958, p. 918. 
January 26, 7959 



! Ibid., Oct. 13, 1958, p. 574. 
1 Ibid., June 30, 1958, p. 1090. 



125 



American Republics urging long-range joint ac- 
tion, particularly on underdevelopment and eco- 
nomic problems, and suggesting immediate con- 
sultation. This has become known as Operation 
Pan America. 

This Brazilian initiative found a warm re- 
sponse in the hemisphere, and the machinery of 
the inter-American system was promptly set in 
motion. Secretary Dulles invited the Foreign 
Ministers to meet informally in Washington in 
September to exchange views on current problems 
and to consider the various economic proposals 
made. This meeting approved prompt action in 
a number of sectors, such as the establishment of 
an inter-American regional development institu- 
tion, and recommended the establishment of a 
special committee of the Council of the OAS to 
consider these matters in detail. 

As a result the Committee of 21 was convened. 
This Committee, on which the United States was 
represented by the Honorable Douglas Dillon, 
Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, 
has just completed its first session. Solid prog- 
ress was made in the cooperative attack on certain 
basic economic problems and in setting the stage 
for further developments. 



New Levels of Cooperation 

No one would of course deny that there is much 
yet to be done and many serious problems ahead. 
As Under Secretary Dillon put it: "The task 
which faces . . . [us] is not an easy one. Each of 
our economies has its own individual problems, 
which add to the technical difficulties inherent in 
any group effort in the field of economic rela- 
tions." 14 Yet the fact that much remains to be 
done should not conceal our real accomplishments. 

Certainly there can be no serious doubt that the 
peoples and governments of this hemisphere have 
reached new levels of international cooperation. 
Not only are these levels of cooperation reached 
at the conference table, where new techniques and 
instruments for cooperation are developed on a 
mutually agreeable basis, but they are being put 
to use in the creation of new productive indus- 
tries, new schools, new public utilities, in effect, 
new wealth which will raise living standards in 
each of the 21 American Republics. The under- 
lying philosophy of international cooperation 
which now exists in the hemisphere has been so 
well translated into dynamic action that we can 
look forward with confidence to still higher 
achievements. 



Future Action 

Thus, just as the Committee of Presidential 
Representatives and the Buenos Aires Economic 
Conference prepared the way for definite ad- 
vances, so the Foreign Ministers meeting and the 
Committee of 21 have laid the foundation for 
still further progress in the year to come, and at 
a much more rapid pace. 

As I mentioned earlier, for example, a special 
committee of experts will meet in January to 
negotiate and draft a charter for a regional de- 
velopment bank. A separate working group, 
established by the Committee of 21, will meet im- 
mediately to study in depth other possible eco- 
nomic measures such as technical cooperation and 
trade problems, and the Committee of 21 
itself will reconvene in April to study the 
recommendations of the working group and their 
implementation. 

Finally we can look forward to the 11th Inter- 
American Conference scheduled to be held in 
Quito, Ecuador, in late 1959. 



126 



American Republics To Increase 
Cooperation in Agriculture 

Following is a statement made by Ambassador 
John C. Dreier, U.S. Representative on the Coun- 
cil of the Organization of American States, on 
signing the Protocol of Amendment to the Con- 
vention on the Inter- American Institute of Agri- 
cultural Sciences at the Pan American Union on 
January 7. 

Press release 8 dated January 7 

I am very pleased to sign on behalf of the 
United States this Protocol of Amendment to 
the Convention on the Inter- American Institute 
of Agricultural Sciences. 

The purpose of this protocol is to reorganize 
and strengthen the Institute as recommended by 
the Inter-American Committee of Presidential 
Representatives so that the Institute may work 
more effectively in the interest of the peoples of 



1 IUd., Jan. 12, 1959, p. 48. 

Department of State Bulletin 



the American Republics. Agriculture continues 
to be the largest single economic enterprise in the 
American continent. Its improvement through 
scientific, technical, and economic advances is 
essential to the whole program of economic 
development. 

The protocol now being signed will change 
the system of financial contributions by the mem- 
ber states for the maintenance of the Institute. 
The present rigid system based upon population 
will be supplanted by the quota system which is 
already in effect for the support of the Pan 
American Union. This new system, once put into 
effect in accordance with the terms of the protocol, 
will make it possible to expand the program and 
budget of the Institute, particularly with respect 
to projected research and training activities in the 
southern temperate zone, and thus make it a more 
truly continental specialized organization of the 
OAS. 

The protocol also serves to reorganize the In- 
stitute's Board of Directors so that its member- 
ship will preferably be composed of high officials 
of the respective Ministries of Agriculture. This 
change will insure that the Institute's program 
and development will be fully responsive to the 
technical agricultural needs and requirements of 
the participating states, as defined by the in- 
terested officials of the governments involved. 

The time is propitious for the broadening of 
the membership of the Institute and for the 
strengthening of its activities in the vitally im- 
portant field of agriculture, as recommended by 
the Committee of Presidential Representatives. 
The Foreign Ministers of the American Repub- 
lics in their informal meeting last September, 1 
and more recently the well-known Special Com- 
mittee of the Council of the OAS, 2 have clearly 
demonstrated the firm intention of our American 
countries to develop further concrete measures 
for inter-American economic and technical co- 
operation. The Council of the Organization in its 
last meeting approved the preparation of a lai-ge- 
scale program of technical training, including the 
expansion of the OAS teclmical cooperation and 
fellowship programs. 

The ratification of the present protocol by all 
the OAS member states, with their resultant par- 
ticipation in a strengthened Inter-American In- 



stitute of Agricultural Sciences, is certainly one 
concrete measure that can be adopted in this 
connection. Such a measure will enable the OAS, 
through the Institute, to carry out an effective 
hemispherewide program of technical coopera- 
tion in agriculture of common benefit to all the 
American Republics and will provide another 
concrete manifestation of the adherence of all 
our countries to the principles of inter-American 
progress and solidarity. 

U.S. Rejects Panamanian Law 
Establishing 12-Mile Sea Limit 

Press release 26 dated January 10 
TEXT OF U.S. NOTE 

Our Ambassador to Panama, Julian F. Har- 
rington, delivered on January 9 the following 
note to the Panamanian Government in which the 
United States stated its nonrecognition of the pro- 
visions of the recently enacted Panamanian law 
providing for a 12-mile territorial sea and re- 
served all of its rights in the area which is the 
subject of the law. 

Excellency : I have the honor to refer to your 
note No. 1096 dated December 23, 1958 x trans- 
mitting a copy of Republic of Panama Law No. 58 
of December 18, 1958 which has as its purpose 
the extension of the territorial sea of the Republic 
of Panama to a distance of 12 miles from the 
coast. 

I have been instructed to state that the United 
States Government considers this action of the 
Republic of Panama is regrettable in view of the 
recent action of the United Nations General 
Assembly in voting overwhelmingly to call an 
international conference to consider the breadth 
of the territorial sea and fishery matters. 

It is the view of my Government, as expressed 
at the United Nations Law of the Sea Conference 
and on previous occasions, that no basis exists in 
international law for claims to a territorial sea 
in excess of three nautical miles from the baseline 
which is normally the low water mark on the 
coast. Furthermore, in the United States view 
there is no obligation on the part of states adhering 
to the three-mile rule to recognize claims on the 
part of other states to a greater breadth of terri- 
torial sea. 



1 Bulletin of Oct. 13, 1958, p. 574. 
■ IUd., Jan. 12, 1959, p. 48. 



1 Not printed. 



January 26, 7959 



127 



My Government hopes that the Government of 
Panama will find it possible to reconsider its 
action and awaits the further consideration of 
the question of the breadth of the territorial sea 
by the international community. In the mean- 
time the Government of the United States reserves 
all of its rights in the area which is the subject 
of Republic of Panama Law No. 58 of December 
18,1958. 

Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of 
my highest consideration. 



DEPARTMENT STATEMENT 

The Department wishes to point out, in view of 
the many inquiries, that this new Panamanian law 
cannot affect the rights of the United States with 
respect to the Panama Canal. Article XXIV of 
the convention of 1903 between the United States 
and Panama, relating to the canal, provides: 

"No change either in the Government or in the 
laws and treaties of the Republic of Panama shall, 
without the consent of the United States, affect 
any right of the United States under the 
present convention, or under any treaty stip- 
ulation between the two countries that now exists 
or may hereafter exist touching the subject matter 
of this convention." 



United States Recognizes 
New Government of Cuba 

Press release 14 dated January 7 

The U.S. Embassy at Habana on January 7 in- 
formed the Foreign Minister of Cuba, Roberto 
Daniel Agramonte Pichardo, that the U.S. Gov- 
ernment had recognized the new Government of 
Cuba. The folloxoing note was delivered to the 
Cuban Foreign Minister by Ambassador Earl E. 
T. Smith. 

I have been instructed by my Government to 
inform Your Excellency that, having noted with 
satisfaction the assurances given by the new Gov- 
ernment of Cuba of its intention to comply with 
the international obligations and agreements of 
Cuba, the Government of the United States is 
pleased to recognize the Government under the 
Presidency of Dr. Manuel Urrutia Lleo, as the 



provisional Government of the Republic of Cuba. 
At the same time the Government of the United 
States expresses the sincere good will of the Gov- 
ernment and people of the United States towards 
the new Government and the people of Cuba. 



U.S.-Canadian Joint Committee 
Concludes Economic Discussions 

Press release 10 dated January 7 

The following joint communique was issued at 
Ottawa on January 6, 1959. 

The Joint United States-Canadian Committee 
on Trade and Economic Affairs met in Ottawa 
on the 5th and 6th of January, 1959. 

The United States was represented by: 

Hon. Robert B. Anderson, Secretary of the Treasury 
Hon. Fred A. Seaton, Secretary of the Interior 
Hon. Lewis L. Strauss, Secretary of Commerce 
Hon. C. Douglas Dillon, Under-Secretary of State for 

Economic Affairs 
Hon. Marvin L. McLain, Assistant Secretary of 

Agriculture 

Canada was represented by : 

Hon. Donald M. Fleming, Minister of Finance 

Hon. Gordon Churchill, Minister of Trade and 

Commerce 
Hon. Douglas S. Harkness, Minister of Agriculture 
Hon. E. D. Fulton, Minister of Justice 
Hon. Sidney Smith, Secretary of State for External 

Affairs. 

Senior officials from both Governments also 
attended the meetings. 

The Committee reviewed the developments that 
have occurred in the world economic situation 
since its last meeting x and took considerable 
satisfaction from what has been accomplished. 
The recession in the United States and Canada 
has given way to recovery and business activity 
in both countries is accelerating. Imports by the 
United States from the rest of the world were 
much less affected by the slackening of activity 
than might have been anticipated. The gold and 
dollar reserves of most of the major trading 
countries in other quarters of the globe have in- 
creased substantially, and this has facilitated 
important steps to remove their exchange and 
import restrictions. In Europe, progress has 



1 For text of communique issued at the close of the 
last meeting, see Bulletin of Oct. 2S, 1957, p. 683. 



128 



Department of State Bulletin 



been made toward economic integration, and 
efforts are being pursued in spite of many diffi- 
culties to establish a broader association with the 
European Common Market. It is hoped that 
these developments will increasingly create 
larger opportunities not only for European but 
also for overseas producers. It is thus evident 
that, in many ways, the cooperative efforts that 
have been made by many countries, including the 
United States and Canada, to create conditions 
in which goods and currencies could be freely 
exchanged over the widest possible area are now 
bearing fruit. 

In particular, the Committee welcomed the 
measures that have been recently introduced for 
the convertibility of sterling and of other curren- 
cies. These measures were foreshadowed at the 
time of the Commonwealth Trade and Economic 
Conference last September. They are evidence 
of the degree of economic strength and equilib- 
rium that has now been achieved. They may 
also be regarded as a promise of further progress. 
Convertibility has removed the financial justifi- 
cation for discriminating against dollar suppliers, 
and should be followed by further moves by the 
countries concerned to provide non-discrimin- 
atory access to their markets for goods from the 
United States, Canada and other countries. The 
financial strength which has supplied the indis- 
pensable basis for convertibility should also make 
possible general progress in dismantling quantita- 
tive restrictions. The United States and Cana- 
dian Governments will be watching with close and 
sympathetic interest the way in which the logic 
of the new situation is translated into action. 

Consideration was also given to the growing 
activity of the Communist bloc countries in world 
trade. It was agreed that this development made 
it all the more necessary to stimulate trade and 
development throughout the free world. 

In the spirit of the friendliness that has long 
characterized relations between the United States 
and Canada and of the Agreements to which both 
countries have subscribed, the Committee exam- 
ined various issues that have an immediate bear- 
ing on trade and economic relations between the 
two countries. It was recognized that from time 
to time temporary measures might have to be 
taken to meet emergency problems of particular 
groups of domestic producers. But it was agreed 
that every effort should be made to keep such ex- 
ceptional measures to a minimum and, so far as 

January 26, 1959 

403074 — 50 3 



possible, to limit their scope and duration. It 
was also agreed that wherever feasible there 
should be close consultation in advance between 
the two Governments whenever it seemed neces- 
sary for the Government of one country to take 
action which might affect the commercial or eco- 
nomic interests of the other. 

The Canadian Ministers expressed their con- 
tinuing concern over the quota restrictions im- 
posed by the United States last September on im- 
ports of lead and zinc and outlined the effects they 
are having on the Canadian mining industry. 
The United States representatives hoped these 
restrictions could be withdrawn as soon as more 
satisfactory international solutions on a broader 
basis are found. In the meantime, it was agreed 
that both Governments would explore further the 
possibility of developing such equitable solutions. 

The United States representatives set out the 
grounds for their concern as to the amendments 
made last year in the Canadian Customs Act. 
They were assured by the Canadian Ministers that 
it is not intended to apply the new provisions of 
the Act in either a discriminatory or an arbitrary 
manner and that consultation would be held 
wherever feasible before applying the new pro- 
visions. 

The United States representatives also ex- 
pressed concern with respect to the import restric- 
tions which the Canadian Government has re- 
cently placed on certain agricultural products, 
and especially on turkeys and frozen peas. 

The current voluntary limitations on the entry 
of petroleum into the United States were dis- 
cussed. A careful review was made of the factors 
affecting petroleum supply and demand, not only 
in the United States and Canada but throughout 
the world. The Committee agreed that continued 
exploration and development were necessary on 
defence grounds. The Committee also agreed on 
the importance of continuing growth and stability 
to the oil industry without which the incentive 
for further exploration and development would 
disappear. They agreed on the importance of 
maintaining a healthy and dynamic oil industry 
throughout the Western Hemisphere. Various 
aspects of the problem were discussed and the rep- 
resentatives of the two countries agreed to take 
into consideration all of the opinions expressed in 
developing their policies. They will continue 
their studies and consultations with reference to 
this complex problem. 



129 



In reviewing agricultural problems, Ministers 
agreed that incentives leading to an aggravation 
of surpluses were to be avoided. In regard to the 
United States programmes of surplus disposal, 
Canadian Ministers noted with satisfaction that 
the impact on Canadian trade had abated since the 
last meeting of the Committee. However, they 
expressed anxiety about tied-in sales and about 
the recent changes that have been made in the reg- 
ulations governing barter transactions. The 
United States renewed the assurances given at the 
last meeting of the Committee that in all surplus 
disposal activities they would endeavor to avoid, 
insofar as possible, interfering with normal com- 
mercial marketings. They also re-affirmed that 
barter contracts must result in a net increase in 
exports of the agricultural commodity involved. 
In order to give effect to these assurances, insofar 
as they related to exports of wheat, flour and 
other grains, it was agreed that, in addition to 
other consultation, quarterly meetings of wheat 
experts from the two countries should be held in 
an attempt to solve periodically any problems in- 
volving wheat and flour, including those arising 
from United States surplus disposal operations. 

The Committee agreed that agricultural sur- 
pluses should be used to alleviate distress arising 
from famine and other disasters throughout the 
world and could also help to promote the economic 
development of less developed countries. They 
agreed that the two Governments would keep each 
other informed of programmes intended to serve 
such purposes. 

Some aspects of the relations between Canadian 
subsidiaries and their parent companies in the 
United States came under examination. The 
Ministers reviewed the arrangements made last 
summer under which the United States undertook 
to consider licenses to parent companies hi the 
United States on a case-by-case basis which would 
relieve them from the prohibition against trans- 
actions with Communist China insofar as their 
Canadian subsidiaries were concerned. 

The anti-trust proceedings recently launched in 
the United States Courts against the parent com- 
panies of Canadian subsidiaries in respect of the 
participation of those subsidiaries in Canadian 
Radio Patents Limited were also discussed. The 
Canadian Ministers expressed their concern over 
the extra-texritorial etfect of the decree sought 
by the United States Department of Justice and 
the implications of such action with regard to 



control over Canadian companies acting in con- 
formity with Canadian laws and Canadian com- 
mercial policy. United States representatives 
emphasized that their Government's policy is 
based upon the enforcement of United States law 
upon companies doing business in the United 
States and that their Government has no intention 
of infringing upon the sovereignty of the Cana- 
dian Government with respect to companies en- 
gaged in business in Canada. 

It was agreed that the general questions in- 
volved would be the subject of further discussions 
between the two Governments at the Ministerial 
level, and arrangements are being put in hand 
accordingly for a meeting. 

The United States representatives reviewed 
with the Canadian Ministers the proposal for a 
new International Development Association to be 
affiliated with the International Bank, 2 and the 
Canadian Ministers agreed to study it. 

The members of the Committee expressed their 
renewed realization of the value of their meet- 
ings, which afford opportunities for intimate con- 
sultation on matters of common interest to the 
two countries in their trade and economic rela- 
tions. 



50th Anniversary of Boundary 
Waters Treaty With Canada 

Statement by Secretary Dulles 

Press release 21 dated January 10 

Today, January 11, 1959, is the 50th anniver- 
sary of the signing of the treaty which established 
the International Joint Commission of the United 
States and Canada and provided that "... the 
navigation of all navigable boundary waters shall 
forever continue free. . . ." 

This treaty and the Commission which it 
established have made an important contribution 
to the maintenance of the excellent relations 
which we have enjoyed with Canada over the 
years. It has provided a means of resolving 
problems connected with boundary waters 
through mutual cooperation, and it exemplifies 
the spirit with which we and our Canadian 



2 For a statement by Mr. Dillon on Mar. 19, 1958, 
regarding an International Development Association, see 
ibid., Apr. 7, 1958, p. 564. 



130 



Department of State Bulletin 



neighbors have approached many other questions 
of joint concern. 

The problems which have come before the 
International Joint Commission since 1909 have 
touched the lives and interests of countless citi- 
zens on both sides of the border. They have 
ranged from consideration of relatively minor 
matters such as the proposal of an individual to 
block a transboundary stream to decisions con- 
trolling vast power and navigation projects of 
the St. Lawrence River, but all have received 
fair and thorough consideration by the Com- 
mission with a view to protecting the rights of 
all concerned. 

On this 50th anniversary of the treaty it is 
indeed gratifying to observe that the high pur- 
pose of the Contracting Parties has been carried 
out effectively and to the great mutual benefit of 
the people of the United States and Canada. 

United States and Soviet Union 
Exchange New Year Greetings 

White House (Gettysburg, Pa.) press release dated January 1 

The White House on January 1 made public 
the following exchange of messages between the 
President and KMment Efremovich Voroshilov, 
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme 
Soviet of the Union of the Soviet Socialist 
Republics. 

President Eisenhower to Chairman Voroshilov 

January 1, 1959 
His Excellency, 
Kliment Efremovich Voroshilov, 

Chairman of the Presidium 

of the Supreme Soviet 

of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics 
Moscow 

I thank you for your message and, on behalf of 
the American people, I extend greetings to you, 
Prime Minister Khrushchev and the people of the 
Soviet Union as the New Year begins. I share 
the hope expressed in your message that the com- 
ing year will see a substantial improvement in the 
relations between our countries, and significant 
steps toward a lasting solution of the problems 
which endanger world peace. 

Peaceful relations with other friendly countries 
are the hallmark of our American tradition and 



we seek always to develop and strengthen such 
relations. We profoundly hope that your wish 
for peaceful coexistence may bring about in 1959 
genuine efforts to solve existing world problems. 
All of us know that mutual understanding and 
respect for the rights and legitimate aspirations 
of others could not fail to be beneficial to all 
peoples. It would enable the nations to strive 
more effectively for universal spiritual and mate- 
rial well-being. 

As of this moment it seems to us critically im- 
portant to apply the sentiments expressed in your 
message to the Berlin situation. In this connec- 
tion, I cannot fail to recall your government's 
declaration of intentions toward the people of 
Berlin. 1 In my view, they are not in accord with 
your expressed aspirations and hopes for peaceful 
coexistence. The United States Government re- 
peats that, in an atmosphere devoid of any kind 
of coercion and threat, it would welcome discus- 
sion on the question of Berlin in the wider frame- 
work of the whole German problem and European 
security. Positive progress in this specific prob- 
lem would, I deeply believe, give real substance 
to the hope that 1959 would witness great ad- 
vances toward the goal of a just and lasting peace. 
Dwight D. Eisenhower 

Chairman Voroshilov to President Eisenhower 

December 31, 1958 

To His Excellency Dwight D. Eisenhoweb 
President of the United States of America 

On the occasion of the New Year we send to you, Mr. 
President, and also to the people of the United States 
of America congratulations and best wishes from the 
people of the Soviet Union and from us personally. We 
would like to express the hope that in the coming year 
our countries will unite their efforts in the search for 
a way towards the settlement of urgent international 
problems, for the cessation of the arms race and of the 
cold war which is hated by the people, with the aim of 
reducing dangerous tensions in international relations. 
The development of friendly cooperation on the basis of 
principles of peaceful coexistence between states would 
permit the deliverance of mankind from feelings of 
alarm for their future, from the fears of the dangers 
of a new war. We would like to express confidence that 
in this year there will be taken a decisive step in the 
direction of an improvement of Soviet-American rela- 
tions, in the development of mutual understanding be- 
tween our countries whose responsibility for the fate of 



1 For an exchange of notes between the United States 
and the Soviet Union, see Buixetin of Jan. 19, 1958, p. 79. 



January 26, ?959 



131 



the world is particularly great. This would be an im- 
portant contribution of our countries to the healthy 
improvement of the whole international atmosphere and 
for the achievements of the great goal — the triumph of 
peace in the entire world. 

K. Voroshilov 
N. Khrushchev 
Moscow 

The Kremlin 



U.S. and U.S.S.R. Agree To Exchange 
Exhibitions in 1959 

Following is the text of an agreement signed at 
Washington on December 29 relating to an ex- 
change of exhibitions between the United States 
and the U.S.S.R. 

Press release 779 dated December 29 

Agreement Between the United States and the All- 
Union Chamber of Commerce of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, Relating to a Reciprocal Ex- 
change of Exhibitions of Science, Technology, and 
Culture During the Summer of 1959 

This agreement is in furtherance of and subject to the 
U.S.-U.S.S.R. Exchange Agreement of January 27, 1958, 1 
and the protocol agreement of September 10, 1958,' for 
an exchange of national exhibitions in the summer of 
1959 ; and it confirms agreements reached between au- 
thorized United States and U.S.S.R. representatives in 
meetings held in Moscow during October and November, 
1958, and in Washington during December, 1958. 

By way of introduction and as a mutual declaration of 
the spirit and intention which shall govern the interpre- 
tation and execution of the terms and conditions of this 
agreement, mention is made of the fact that the success 
of this exchange of exhibitions requires a substantial 
degree of flexibility and discretion for each party hereto 
to determine the scope, nature and content of its exhi- 
bition and other similar and related matters, and that it 
is not necessary, proper, or practicable to specify herein 
every relatively unimportant detail and aspect pertaining 
to such exhibitions. There is also, on this account, re- 
quired and proffered, each to the other, a high degree of 
trust and cooperation to the end that each exhibition will 
be facilitated and made successful in furtherance of the 
mutually advantageous purposes of the above-mentioned 
exchange agreements. 

It is understood and agreed as follows : 

1. The All-Union Chamber of Commerce of the U.S.S.R., 
hereinafter referred to as the Chamber of Commerce, has 
agreed to purchase two exhibit buildings which the U.S. 
will construct at a certain site in Sokolniki Park, Moscow, 



more particularly described in the attached Annex "A," 3 
for an agreed purchase price of $375,000, or 50% of the 
actual cost of construction, whichever amount is less. 
Payment thereof will be made upon delivery of the build- 
ing by the U.S. in good condition, except for usual wear 
and tear, after the closing of the U.S. exhibition but not 
later than October 15, 1959. 

The Chamber of Commerce and the Chief Architect of 
Moscow have examined preliminary plans for such build- 
ings and given approval for construction without further 
requirements of permits or other conditions, except that 
the U.S. has agreed to take account of and give favor- 
able consideration to certain technical recommendations, 
attached hereto as Annex "B," 3 submitted by the Chief 
Architect of Moscow to the extent compatible with U.S. 
contemplated costs and exhibition content. The U.S. 
will provide to the Chamber of Commerce, without ad- 
ditional charge, final drawings and engineering specifi- 
cations, and further agrees that all construction work 
may be fully observed, but not supervised or directed, by 
a designated, qualified U.S.S.R. representative who may 
also, if he so desires, submit additional technical recom- 
mendations, but not requirements, to the U.S. super- 
visory architect for his careful attention. The completed 
buildings will be subject to final inspection by appropriate 
U.S.S.R. authorities before opening and use by the public. 

2. The U.S. will pay as rental for the above-mentioned 
exhibition site the amount of $142,250, of which $30,000 has 
been paid in advance, the balance to be paid upon execu- 
tion of this agreement. 

Certain agreed upon and specified improvements and 
changes, listed below, in the exhibition site area are to 
be made by the Chamber of Commerce ; item 1 to be ac- 
complished not later than May 15, 1959; item 2, not 
later than June 15, 1959; item 3, not later than March 
1, 1959; item 4, not later than April 30, 1959; item 5, 
not later than May 30, 1959; item 6, not later than March 
1, 1959 ; item 7, not later than June 15, 1959 : 

1. Remove all buildings from so-called central circle 
area. 

2. Realign, widen and pave with asphalt entry road 
from central circle to U.S. exhibition area in line and 
width conformity with existing main road from entrance 
gate. 

3. Remove all buildings from U.S. exhibition area. 

4. Remove shrubs and trees obstructing or screening 
view from main entrance gate to U.S. exhibition area. 

5. Develop new landscaping from main entrance gate 
along roadway to U.S. exhibition area, including central 
circle. 

6. Remove trees on U.S. exhibition area as required 
and specified by U.S. 

7. Provide additional entry paths if required by U.S. 
along western boundary of U.S. exhibition area. 

The exhibition site is to be available for use by the 
U.S. from March 1 to September 1, 1959 for purposes of 
preparation, installation, operation and dismantling of 
its exhibition. For use of the exhibition site after Sep- 



1 For text, see Bulletin of Feb. 17, 1958, p. 243. 
' For text, see ibid., Oct. 13, 1958, p. 577. 



' Not printed. 



132 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



tember 1, 1959, or such later date as is hereinafter pro- 
vided for in paragraph numbered 3 hereof, the U.S. will 
pay rental at the rate of $6 per square meter per month, 
prorated for part of a month if applicable, for space 
actually occupied and used. 

3. The U.S. exhibition will be in actual operation from 
July 4, 1959 through August 15, 1959, or in the event the 
site preparation, building or exhibition construction is de- 
layed, the opening date may, without additional charge, 
be postponed until not later than August 2, 1959, and the 
exhibition will be in operation for six weeks thereafter. 
In such event, also, the same length of time, namely 15 
days, will be permitted after closing and prior to the be- 
ginning of the supplementary charge referred to in para- 
graph numbered 2, above. The U.S. will, not later than 
June 1, 1959, notify the Chamber of Commerce of the 
intended opening date of the U.S. exhibition which will 
be on or before August 2, 1959, as provided herein. In 
any event, also, the U.S. will vacate the leased exhibition 
site not later than November 1, 1959. 

4. In the construction of exhibition buildings and re- 
lated structures and installations and the operation of its 
exhibition, the U.S. may, in its discretion and for its 
account, use materials, tools and machinery, workmen 
and specialists (supervisors) available in the U.S.S.R. 
through the Chamber of Commerce, from established 
local sources of supply in accordance with applicable 
local procedures therefor. As soon as practicable, the 
U.S. will inform the Chamber of Commerce as to the 
work or jobs which the U.S. or its designated contractors 
intend to have performed with the use of local materials, 
tools and machinery, and workmen. The Chamber of 
Commerce will thereafter promptly inform the U.S. or 
its designated contractors as to the rates or charges for 
such work or jobs, including applicable commissions, and 
will perform the required work or jobs in accordance 
with agreed specifications and time schedules and submit 
bills for such work or jobs performed. The U.S. may 
also import necessary materials, machinery and tools, 
workmen and supervisors. All materials, machinery and 
tools imported and used for such purposes by the U.S. 
and not for re-sale, will be admitted with a minimum of 
customs formality, and to the extent practicable at or 
near the exhibition site, and on a duty-free basis. The 
U.S. will be permitted to bring to the U.S.S.R. and to 
employ U.S. personnel, generally as needed, and a mini- 
mum necessary number of Italian construction specialists 
and qualified workmen, subject to compliance with exist- 
ing U.S.S.R. visa and related procedural requirements 
applicable to individuals. Similar treatment will be ac- 
corded the U.S.S.R. in connection with its exhibition in 
New York. 

5. In connection with each exhibition, souvenir buttons, 
emblems, mementos, and samples, either imported or pro- 
duced at the exhibition, will be permitted to be dis- 
tributed with or without charge on a basis of reciprocity. 
Each party will furnish to the other, prior to distribution, 
lists and specimens of such articles, and will present, each 
to the other, recommendations with respect to them. 

6. U.S. and U.S.S.R. exhibition personnel will be 
permitted to import, as accompanied or unaccompanied 

January 26, 7959 



baggage under existing regulations, necessary personal 
effects and customary living supplies for their sole per- 
sonal use, and not for re-sale or gifts, on a duty-free 
basis. Also, on a reciprocal basis, each party will be per- 
mitted to bring in to the other's country a maximum of 
six (6) automobiles for the use of exhibition personnel, 
subject to compliance with existing requirements for reg- 
istration, driving, and the like. 

7. Each party will, if requested, facilitate for the 
other's exhibition personnel the provision of suitable and 
conveniently located housing accommodations at appli- 
cable prevailing rates. 

8. The Chamber of Commerce, at its own expense, will 
install and provide up to the U.S. exhibition site ade- 
quate facilities for supplying electricity, gas, water, and 
sewage disposal. It will also supply, as required and re- 
quested by the U.S. or its designated contractors, elec- 
tricity for power and lighting, gas and water, and sewage 
and trash disposal service, during the period of con- 
struction, installation and operation of the U.S. exhibi- 
tion, for which the U.S. will pay in accordance with 
existing applicable rates or charges therefor, including 
charges for installations required within the exhibition 
site, if any. The U.S. may import and use supplementary 
or auxiliary electric generators and other utilities as re- 
quired for exhibition operation and maintenance. 

The Chamber of Commerce will also provide, as re- 
quested, necessary transportation, storage facilities, clean- 
ing service, guarding and fire-fighting service, and the 
like, at locally prevailing prices or charges, including ap- 
plicable commissions. 

9. Regarding the disposition by each party of its sur- 
plus or used exhibition materials or items, they may be 
re-exported without substantive restriction and with a 
minimum of customs formality. Disposition will also be 
permitted to the respective Embassies and their personnel 
for official or personal use. More particularly, not more 
than three (3) cars imported in connection with each 
exhibition will be permitted to remain with each respec- 
tive Embassy ; and likewise, as to reasonable quantities 
of office or household furniture and equipment, prepared 
food products and other consumer items. Sales of such 
materials or items may, by mutual agreement as to terms 
and conditions, be made to qualified firms or trading 
organizations in each country. 

10. Each party will establish and collect a charge for 
public admission to their respective exhibitions, the amount 
or amounts to be determined by each for its own exhibition, 
taking into account local practice in each country. In 
this connection, the Chamber of Commerce will, at its 
expense, install a fence and appropriate entrance and 
exit facilities surrounding the United States exhibition 
site to facilitate traffic control and enforcement of ad- 
mission charges. The exact location and nature of such 
fence and entrance and exit facilities will be mutually 
agreed to, particularly from the point of view of con- 
formance to, and non-interference with, the United States 
exhibition structures, content and operation. 

11. Each party may arrange for the sale of souvenirs 
and mementos through the appropriate local concession- 
aire or trading organization, as the case may be, with the 



133 



general understanding that the total sales of each party 
will be approximately the same. Each party may also 
through appropriate local concessionaires or trading 
organizations, arrange for the operation at its exhibition 
of a buffet or cafeteria purveying, among others, typical 
national food products. 

12. Each party hereto may distribute, in connection 
with its various exhibit items or displays, such explana- 
tory publications as it considers useful relating to the 
exhibition items or displays. 

13. Each party may show at its exhibition site such 
motion pictures or slides as it deems appropriate which 
would be cultural and non-political in character, devoted 
to an objective presentation of various aspects of its 
science, technology, or culture. Each party will be given 
a reasonable opportunity in advance to view such motion 
pictures or slides and to make, each to the other, appro- 
priate recommendations concerning them. The United 
States may construct at its own expense on its leased 
site such facilities as are necessary for showing the 
circarama-type of film, and the United States will assist 
to the utmost the Chamber of Commerce in making 
necessary arrangements for showing cinerama-type films 
either at the exhibition site or elsewhere in New York. 

14. Each party may stage, during the period of its 
exhibition, on a basis of reciprocity, such examples of 
their performing arts as are provided for in the Ex- 
change Agreement of January 27, 1958, and such others 
as may be mutually agreed to between the United States 
Department of State and the U.S.S.R. Ministry of Cul- 
ture, in Washington or in Moscow. These performances, 
which will be facilitated by the host country, may be 
given either on the premises of the respective exhibi- 
tions, or if desired by the presentation country, at other 
locations in Moscow or New York. 

15. Each party and its exhibition personnel will abide 
by all applicable municipal regulations pertaining to 
such matters as health and sanitation, traffic control, fire 
prevention, and the maintenance of law, order and pub- 
lic morality. 

16. Neither party will assign any of its privileges here- 
under except with the prior approval of the other. 

17. The United States will use its good offices in ob- 
taining cooperation from labor unions in regard to per- 
mitting the use of Soviet technical personnel wherever 
needed in the installation, operation and dismantling of 
the U.S.S.R. exhibition, particularly to operate special- 
purpose or specially-designed machinery, tools, and other 
similar exhibition items requiring special skills and 
training. 

18. The United States will, in accordance with estab- 
lished Chamber of Commerce practice in such matters, 
make reasonable payments in advance as mutually agreed 
to in connection with services ordered hereunder. In this 
connection, the United States will make a lump-sum 
advance payment not later than February 15, 1959, in 
the amount of $50,000, to be applied against the costs 
of services or material theretofore or thereafter ordered 
and obtained from the Chamber of Commerce. 

19. The United States will obtain, at its expense, appro- 
priate comprehensive public liability and property dam- 



134 



age insurance covering the period of construction, opera- 
tion, and dismantling of its exhibition. 

20. The parties will endeavor to settle through ami- 
cable negotiation all disputes or disagreements which 
may arise out of this agreement. 

21. Any and all matters pertaining to the subject of 
this agreement not covered herein shall be provided for 
in subsequent supplementary agreements. 

22. The parties hereto acknowledge that the foregoing 
provisions are in full accord with and subject to the 
aforementioned United States-U.S.S.R. Exchange Agree- 
ment of January 27, 1958, and the protocol agreement of 
September 10, 1958, relating to the reciprocal exchange 
of national exhibitions. The Chamber of Commerce, 
being authorized by the Government of the U.S.S.R. to 
assist in organizing foreign exhibitions in the U.S.S.R., 
hereby undertakes to give all necessary and appropriate 
assistance to the United States exhibition at all of its 
stages, including facilitating its relations with other 
U.S.S.R. agencies and organizations and the obtaining 
of required information, assistance and services from 
them. The United States, on its part, through the Office 
of the Special Assistant to the Secretary of State, Am- 
bassador W. S. B. Lacy, undertakes to assist the U.S.S.R. 
exhibition at all of its stages, including facilitating the 
relations of its organizers with other United States 
Government agencies and State or local organizations and 
the obtaining of required information, assistance and 
services from them. 

Done in duplicate, in the English and Russian, each 
having equal authenticity, at Washington, this 29th day 
of December, 1958. 

For the United States : For the All-Union Chamber 

of Commerce of the 
U.S.S.R. : 

Harold C. McClellan Alexander V. Saag 

For the Department of For the U.S.S.R. Embassy : 
State: 

Frederick T. Merrill Vladimir S. Axkhimov 



U.S. Replies to Soviet Note 
on Recent Plane Incidents 

U.S. NOTE OF JANUARY 2 

Press release 4 dated January 3 

On January 2, J 959, the American Embassy at 
Moscow delivered the following note to the Soviet 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs in reply to a Soviet 
note of December 15, 1958. The Soviet note, a 
response to an earlier American note of November 
13, 1958, 1 denied that Soviet aircraft had attacked 



1 For text, see Bulletin of Dec. 8, 1958, p. 909. 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



an American aircraft flying over international 
waters in the Baltic Sea and had made simulated 
attacks on an American aircraft flying over inter- 
national waters in the Sea of Japan. 

The Government of the United States acknowl- 
edges the receipt of the note of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment of December 15, 1958 in reply to the 
note of the Embassy of the United States of 
America of November 13, 1958 regarding danger- 
ous, offensive, and provocative actions of Soviet 
fighter aircraft over the high seas. 

The position of the United States Government 
has been set forth in detail in the Embassy's note 
of November 13, 1958 which made clear that 
Soviet fighter aircraft on November 7, 1958 sub- 
jected a United States military aircraft to attacks 
in international airspace over the Baltic Sea, 
seeking without provocation and without warning 
to destroy the American aircraft by gunfire at 
a position approximately 66 miles from the near- 
est Soviet territory. This note also stated that 
Soviet fighter aircraft on the same day intercepted 
another United States military aircraft over the 
Sea of Japan and subjected it to repeated harass- 
ment, including simulated attacks and dangerous 
and unwarranted maneuvers involving great risk 
of collision. As was pointed out in the Embassy's 
note of November 13, 1958, and contrary to the 
statements in the Soviet note of December 15, 
1958, the American aircraft attacked over the 
Baltic Sea withheld its fire despite the fact that the 
Soviet aircraft fired upon it during two attacks. 
The Government of the United States categori- 
cally rejects the assertion in the Soviet note that 
the United States aircraft opened fire on Soviet 
aircraft. The facts in this case, as stated by the 
Embassy in its note of November 13, 1958, are 
that the American aircraft at all times withheld 
fire and did not in any way menace the Soviet 
aircraft. Despite the Soviet attacks, the Ameri- 
can aircraft continued its course and made no 
abrupt or provocative maneuvers. 

The Government of the United States takes this 
occasion to reiterate that if such dangerous tactics 
are in the future employed by Soviet aircraft in 
close proximity to American aircraft, command- 
ers of American aircraft will be under instruc- 
tions to take any defensive action which they 
consider necessary and appropriate. The Gov- 
ernment of the United States expresses once again 
its expectation that the Government of the Union 



of Soviet Socialist Republics will take measures 
without delay to stop this interference with 
American aircraft over the high seas. The Soviet 
Government bears full responsibility for the con- 
sequences of any continuation of this activity. 



SOVIET NOTE OF DECEMBER 15 

Unofficial translation 
No. 91/OSA 

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics in connection with the United States Embassy 
Note No. 462 of 13 November this year deems it necessary 
to state the following : 

As a result of careful investigation conducted by com- 
petent Soviet authorities it has been established that on 
7 and 8 November there took place clearly premeditated 
flights with hostile aims of planes of the United States 
Air Force near the territory of the Soviet Union in re- 
gions of the Baltic and the Far East. Moreover, one of 
the American planes finding itself in direct proximity of 
the territory of the U.S.S.R. opened entirely unpro- 
voked fire on the Soviet fighter. 

The above noted investigations showed the following: 

On 7 November at 18 hours 8 minutes Moscow time a 
Soviet fighter which was in the air detected 50 kilometers 
west of the city of Ventspils (Latvian S.S.R.) an 
American military plane B-47 flying on a course toward 
the border of the Soviet Union. When the Soviet fighter 
drew near to the American plane for the purpose of its 
identification, the American plane opened fire on the Soviet 
fighter. In self-defense the Soviet fighter was forced to 
open answering fire on the American plane, after which 
the latter changed course and went off in a western di- 
rection. 

As for the region of the Far East, on 8 November Soviet 
fighters during their flight along State frontiers of the 
U.S.S.R. detected in the Japanese Sea two American 
planes of RB-47 type which flew along the Far Eastern 
coast. For the purpose of observation of the activities 
of the American military planes, insofar as they were in 
direct proximity to Soviet territory, and of preventing 
possible violation by them of the U.S.S.R. State frontier, 
the Soviet fighters for some time flew along the same 
course at a distance of three to four kilometers from the 
American planes without carrying out moreover any simu- 
lated attacks. 

As follows from the note of the Embassy, flights of 
American military planes on 7 and 8 November are not 
chance ones but premeditated flights near the territory 
of the U.S.S.R. 

In its note the United States Government insists on 
adoption by the Soviet Government of measures to stop 
interference put in the way of flights of American military 
planes being undertaken allegedly far from the Soviet 
State frontier. The facts, however, attest that American 
military planes are conducting flights with hostile aims 
precisely near the territory of the Soviet Union, creating 



January 26, 7959 



135 



thereby a threat to Soviet territory and often violating 
the U.S.S.R. State frontier. In particular, such flights 
were conducted on 7 and 8 November also by above noted 
American military planes. 

As is known, the command of the U.S. air forces in 
essence does not conceal that these flights toward Soviet 
territory are carried out by American military planes for 
intelligence purposes. 

The Soviet Government considers systematic flights of 
American planes near the territory of the U.S.S.R. and 
violations by them of the Soviet State frontier as dan- 
gerous actions which at any time may entail serious 
incidents with human victims. One can with confidence 
say that the United States Government would adopt an 
analogous position if Soviet planes conducted systematic 
flights near American State frontiers with the same aims 
with which American planes are directed toward U.S.S.R. 
State frontiers, and violated American frontiers. 

In connection with the above, the Soviet Government 
rejects the claims set forth in the Embassy note and 
directs a decisive protest to the United States Govern- 
ment against the entirely unprovoked firing by American 
military planes on Soviet fighter near U.S.S.R. territory. 

In order to remove one of the sources of aggravation of 
relations between the Soviet Union and the United 
States and to exclude the possibility of dangerous inci- 
dents with pointless losses of human lives, the United 
States Government need undertake, as the Soviet 
Government has already stated, only one thing — ban once 
and for all its air forces from directing planes toward 
U.S.S.R. State frontiers and violating these frontiers. 

The Soviet Government once more states that all re- 
sponsibility and consequences for dangerous flights of 
American planes near the frontier of the Soviet Union 
and for violation by them of U.S.S.R. air space lies with 
the United States Government. 



United States and Iran Sign 
Development Loan Agreement 

Press release 9 dated January 7 

The United States and the Government of Iran 
on January 7 signed an agreement establishing a 
$47.5 million Development Loan Fund loan to as- 
sist in financing economic development projects 
in Iran. Dempster Mcintosh, Managing Direc- 
tor of the Development Loan Fund, signed on 
behalf of the United States while Ali Gholi Ar- 
dalan, the Ambassador of Iran, signed for his 
Government. 

The loan funds will be used by the Plan Organ- 
ization of Iran, the Iranian Government agency 
charged with planning, financing, and executing 
Iran's second 7-year development program, in 
carrying out this program. The Government of 
Iran has indicated that it plans to spend approx- 
imately $1 billion of the country's oil revenues in 



financing economic development projects during 
the 7-year program, which ends in 19G2. 

The DLF loan funds will supplement Iranian 
financing for selected projects in such fields as 
highways, airport construction and improvement, 
railroads, municipal development projects such 
as street paving and water and sewer systems, 
textile finishing equipment, agricultural machin- 
ery imports, telecommunications, and construc- 
tion equipment for silos. 

The loan will be repayable in dollars in 12 years 
at an interest rate of 3^ percent with the excep- 
tion of projects in the categories of agricultural 
machinery, silos, and textile machinery, which 
will be repayable at the rate of 5*4 percent. 



United States and Yugoslavia 
Sign Fertilizer Plant Loan 

Press release 16 dated January 8 

The U.S. Government and the Government of 
the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia 
signed an agreement on January 8 establishing a 
Development Loan Fund loan of up to $22,500,000 
to finance the foreign-exchange costs of a nitrog- 
enous fertilizer plant to be built by Yugoslavia 
near Pancevo, Yugoslavia. These foreign-ex- 
change costs are estimated to represent about one- 
half of the total cost of the project. 

The agreement was signed by Dempster Mc- 
intosh, Managing Director of the Development 
Loan Fund, on behalf of the U.S. Government 
and by the Yugoslav Ambassador, Marko Nike- 
zic, for his Government. 

The plant will supply Yugoslavia with about 
360,000 tons of nitrogenous fertilizers annually, 
thus sharply reducing the country's dependence 
on imports for a commodity essential to Yugo- 
slavia's food and agriculture production. The 
plant should result in a foreign-exchange savings 
to Yugoslavia of approximately $11 million a 
year, or nearly one-half the foreign-exchange cost 
of the plant. 

Natural gas, which is easily accessible, will be 
the starting material in the production of 
ammonia, nitric acid, and calnitro. 

This project has the highest priority in Yugo- 
slavia's development program, and the Federal 
People's Republic of Yugoslavia expects to have 
the plant in operation in less than 3 years. 



136 



Department of State Bulletin 



Malaya Names New Ambassador 
to United States 

Press release 20 dated January 10 

The Government of the Federation of Malaya 
has designated Nik Ahmad Kamil, Permanent 
Secretary of the Ministry of External Affairs 



in Kuala Lumpur, as the next Ambassador of 
the Federation of Malaya to the United States. 
He will succeed Dr. Ismail bin Dato Abdul Rah- 
man, the first Ambassador of the Federation of 
Malaya to the United States, who left Washing- 
ton on January 4 to return to Malaya. 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



United States Views on Aid 
to Palestine Refugees 

Following are two statements made in the Spe- 
cial Political Committee on November 10 and 
December 10 by George McGregor Harrison, U.S. 
Representative to the General Assembly, during 
debate on the annual report of the Director of the 
U.N. Belief and Works Agency for Palestine 
Refugees in the Near East, together with a resolu- 
tion adopted in plenary session on December 12. 

STATEMENT OF NOVEMBER 10 

U.S. delegation press release 3068 

We have before us the annual report of the Di- 
rector of the United Nations Relief and Works 
Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East 
for the period July 1, 1957, to June 30, 1958. 1 
The report, like its predecessor, is a concise ac- 
count of the operations of a complex organization 
dedicated to the welfare of mankind. 

There are a number of hopeful signs in the 
report that should give us considerable gratifica- 
tion. In the first place the financial condition of 
the Agency has improved somewhat over the criti- 
cal situation last year. We note that sufficient 
contributions have been received or are in sight to 
permit the Agency not only to continue its basic 
program of relief and education through 1958 but 
also to restore some operations, including some in 
the self-support field, curtailed by its financial 



1 U.N. doc. A/3931. 
January 26, 1959 



crisis last year. We also note, hopefully, that 
there continues the "growing appreciation of the 
desirability of self-support and of rehabilitation" 
on the part of the refugees, first reported last 
year. 

On the other hand the report records a number 
of problems that are by no means solved. The 
budgetary plans of the Agency are dependent 
upon a continued flow of contributions that ex- 
perience has taught us cannot be taken for 
granted. Moreover, although the refugees have 
grown to appreciate self-help opportunities, these 
opportunities have not been sufficient to reduce 
the number of refugees dependent on relief. 

A very disconcerting note reoccurs in this year's 
report. The continued obstruction of the Agency's 
efforts on the part of local officials is disturbing. 
We would hope that the governments responsible 
would take every step to insure that such instances 
of noncooperation do not reoccur. For clearly it 
is in the interests of all, and particularly of the 
governments of the area, to facilitate UNRWA's 
task in every way possible. 

Finally, the report points out a problem that 
should receive our urgent attention. The 
Agency's mandate will soon run out. The ref- 
ugees will remain. Steps must be taken to pro- 
vide for the refugees after the expiration of 
UNRWA's term in mid-1960. 

This matter is of utmost importance and in- 
volves decisions of such a fundamental nature that 
it should be considered not only in the light of 
conditions now prevailing but also against the 
backdrop of our past experience with the Pales- 

137 



tine refugee problem. This background can be 
of considerable help to us in deciding what 
course we should adopt in handling refugee mat- 
ters in the future. The work of the United Na- 
tions in this field has yielded frustrations and 
disappointments ; it has also scored achievements. 
It has written a record of trials, errors, and suc- 
cesses that provide an invaluable fund of ex- 
perience on which we can build. It may be 
appropriate, therefore, for us to review briefly 
the efforts of the United Nations in behalf of the 
refugees. 

U.N. Efforts for Refugees 

The problem of the Palestine refugees first came 
before the United Nations in 1948 when the Arab 
states appealed to the Mediator, the late Count 
[Folke] Bernadotte, stating that the situation of 
the refugees warranted the attention of the United 
Nations and requesting the Mediator to take ap- 
propriate action. 

There was no way of telling in 1948 that the 
problem would still be with us 10 years later and 
that more would be called for than the provision 
of relief. It soon became apparent, however, that 
relief was only part of the picture and that much 
more would have to be done if the refugee prob- 
lem were to be dealt with successfully. It also 
has become apparent over the years that there is 
a limit to what the United Nations can do. What- 
ever the causes of the Palestine refugee problem 
may have been, our success in solving it must 
ultimately depend on the degree to which Israel 
and the Arab host governments will cooperate in 
United Nations efforts to find a solution. 

In addition to setting up in 1948 the United 
Nations Relief for Palestine Refugees Agency, 
the General Assembly enunciated the basic rights 
of the refugees in a formula that ever since has 
influenced our deliberations. This was embodied 
in paragraph 11 of resolution 194 and is so im- 
portant to our discussion that it bears repetition : 

The General Assembly . . . 

Resolves that the refugees wishing to return to their 
homes and live at peace with their neighbours should be 
permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and 
that compensation should be paid for the property of 
those choosing not to return and for loss of or damage to 
property which, under principles of international law or 
in equity, should be made good by the Governments or 
authorities responsible . . . 

In 1949 the Palestine Conciliation Commission 



recognized that certain refugees might not wish 
to return under this formula and reached the con- 
clusion that "in the long run, the final solution of 
the problem will be found within the framework 
of the economic and social rehabilitation of all 
the countries of the Near East." Accordingly the 
Commission established the Economic Survey 
Mission to examine the economic situation in the 
countries affected by the Arab-Israeli hostilities 
and to make recommendations to facilitate the 
repatriation, resettlement, and rehabilitation of 
the refugees and the payment of compensation. 

The Economic Survey Mission recommended 
a plan for relief and works programs under which 
direct relief was gradually to be replaced by works 
projects furnishing employment to the refugees 
In line with this new approach UNRPR was re 
placed by UNRWA. It was hoped that the Eco 
nomic Survey Mission's recommendations woul 
reduce the refugee problem to limits within whic 
the Near Eastern governments could reason 
ably be expected to assume any remaining 
responsibility. 

This hope, of course, was optimistic. UNRWA 
has had its mandate extended twice, during which 
time it sought to set up development projects that 
could absorb refugees. In addition to this task its 
main function has been to provide continued re- 
lief to a growing refugee population. When the 
last extension of UNRWA's mandate was under 
consideration in 1954, the United States agreed 
that UNRWA should continue to function until 
June 30, 1960, in recognition of the fact that large 
projects then being planned for the resettlement 
of refugees in the Jordan Valley and the Sinai 
would require time to complete. At that time the 
United States delegation made clear 3 that if such 
projects were not carried out the United States 
attitude would inevitably have to undergo thor- 
ough reexamination. Regrettably the large-scale 
projects have not moved off the drawing board. 

The annual reports from the Director of 
UNRWA have recorded the strong desire of the 
refugees to return to their homeland. In 1955 
the Director emphasized that, failing a political 
settlement, this desire would continue to stand in 
the way of reintegration and self-support unless 
the refugees were given their choice of repatria- 



. 2 

\ 

I: 



2 For text of the first interim report of the Survey 
Mission, see Bulletin of Dec. 5, 1949, p. 847a. 
'Ibid., Jan. 3, 1955, p. 24. 



T38 



Department of State Bulletin 



tion or compensation. From the report before us 
we note that among the refugees there is "a grow- 
ing appreciation of the desirability of self-sup- 
port and of rehabilitation" first reported last 
year, although there has been no change in the 
attitude of the refugees toward repatriation. It 
will be recalled that Israel last year in this com- 
mittee came out against repatriation as a solu- 
tion to the refugee problem. Thus paragraph 11 
of resolution 194 has never been implemented. 

While UNKWA has been able efficiently and 
inexpensively to furnish the necessary relief to 
the refugee population, it has not been successful 
in integrating refugees into the economy of the 
area, a failure due primarily to the attitude of 
the governments concerned and of the refugees 
themselves. The works projects program did not 
succeed and neither has the program for develop- 
ment projects. A limited number of very useful 
self-help projects arising from the vocational 
training and individual grants programs have re- 
sulted in making some refugees self-supporting. 
However, the numbers have not been sufficient to 
counterbalance the natural growth in the refugee 
population. Today there are more refugees who 
need help than there were in the past, despite 
UNEWA's efforts, which have been great and, 
considering the obstacles, successful. 

Clearly something must be done. Over the past 
10 years the world has given some $300 million 
to help the refugees, the United States having 
contributed two-thirds of this amount. The 
world generally, including the contributors, has a 
legitimate interest in a solution. Although we 
cannot hope to solve the refugee problem at this 
General Assembly, we can take steps which will 
assist us in deciding the direction we should fol- 
low toward a solution. The Director has drawn 
our attention to the need for a decision on the 
future handling of the refugee problem in view 
of the fact that UNRWA's mandate is due to 
expire on June 30, 1960. 

Future Handling of Refugee Problem 

The Director has pointed out that there will 
undoubtedly be a continuing need after 1960 for 
the services UNBWA now renders to the refugees. 
UNRWA, he has noted, is only one of several 
means of doing this. If there is any change in 
arrangements, he accurately points out, the deci- 
sion must be made not later than 1959, so that the 



necessary arrangements can be made without a 
break in the flow of services and supplies. At 
the same time the decision on future arrange- 
ments must be preceded by a careful study of all 
the factors involved. He has concluded that the 
Assembly should this year lay the groundwork 
for such a decision. 

The United States agrees with the view of the 
Director in this regard. Over the past 2 years 
the United States has urged that advance plan- 
ning be undertaken looking toward the expiration 
of UNRWA's mandate in 1960. This year the 
need to begin such planning is all the more urgent. 

As long as the Agency is in existence, some may 
have felt it best to let matters ride as in the past. 
UNRWA has organized a very efficient relief pro- 
gram and has been able to carry out limited re- 
habilitation functions. Some may feel the best 
course is to continue the present arrangements 
beyond 1960 until a political settlement solves the 
refugee problem. 

In our view it is not good enough consciously to 
perpetuate for over a decade the dependent status 
of nearly a million refugees. The refugees them- 
selves, and particularly the younger generations, 
are apparently coming to realize that much of 
their future will depend on their own efforts to 
improve their status. The "growing appreciation 
of the desirability of self -support and of rehabil- 
itation" which the Director has reported is a sig- 
nificant indication that the refugees are realizing 
that the continuation of the present system is not 
in their interest. Finally, those governments 
whose contributions year after year have made it 
possible for UNRWA to sustain the refugees are 
becoming increasingly critical of the dole that 
they are called upon to perpetuate. This feeling 
was first apparent in this committee in 1955, when 
there was evident a growing impatience and con- 
cern on the part of several delegations that so 
little progress was being achieved on the refugee 
problem. It will be recalled that in 1954 the 
United States said that its own future attitude 
would depend on the working out of the large 
development projects through which refugees 
could be reintegrated. Let me recall the words of 
the United States representative [Genoa S. Wash- 
ington] last year : 4 

The primary responsibility for working out a solution 
of the refugee problem rests with Israel and the Arab 



* n>id., Jan. 6, 1958, p. 34. 



January 26, 1959 



139 



states. The resolutions of the General Assembly are on 
the record for their guidance. They should always be 
guided by them. This responsibility is a continuing one 
that the passage of nearly 10 years since the problem 
arose does not lessen. 

Beyond its political content, the problem has human- 
itarian aspects which affect the world community and as 
such are a responsibility of all member states. A number 
of nations have recognized their responsibility toward the 
humanitarian problem by helping to alleviate the plight 
of the refugees pending a political settlement. However, 
as the years go by without any settlement in sight, 
support for the refugees has dwindled to the point where 
it may soon be insufficient to meet their needs. 

Humanitarian responsibility toward the refugees must 
be predicated on the assumption that all member states, 
and particularly those most directly involved, will join in 
doing their utmost to provide for a sound future for these 
unfortunate people. We shall do our part, but we can- 
not — and there is no reason why we should — maintain 
the refugees indefinitely if Israel and the Arab states, 
with the necessary assistance of other interested nations, 
do not take positive steps to solve the problem 
permanently. 

The continuation of UNRWA beyond its pres- 
ent mandate is not, in the eyes of the United 
States, the proper way to handle the refugee 
problem. UNRWA has performed a heroic and 
constructive task in relieving the refugees from 
the miseries which their displacement had 
brought them. To the extent that its budget has 
permitted and to the extent that it has received 
cooperation, UNRWA has been able to make 
significant, if small, achievements in rehabilita- 
tion. The net result, however, has been disap- 
pointing. Some better system must be found that 
will greatly accelerate the rate at which refugees 
are made self-supporting. As the Director has 
pointed out, this will require careful study and 
advance planning. 

I cannot conclude my remarks on the refugee 
problem without paying tribute to those who most 
directly have played a role in helping the un- 
fortunate refugees over the past year. The report 
before us records the last year in which the 
Agency operated under the direction of Henry R. 
Labouisse. During the 4 years that he was its 
Director, UNRWA built on the solid foundation 
laid by his predecessors and achieved a model of 
efficiency and effectiveness in caring for the wel- 
fare of the refugees. Behind this success lay not 
only an ability to solve complex problems of pro- 
curement, distribution, and management but, 
equally important, a warm, humane heart and an 



understanding for the plight and emotions of dis- 
placed persons. Harry Labouisse possesses all of 
these qualities and displayed them admirably in 
his work for the Palestine refugees. The United 
States is proud to have had such a capable human- 
itarian chosen from among its citizens to head 
UNRWA. 

The Director's efforts would not have succeeded 
were it not for the capable and loyal people who 
supported him. Over the next months they will 
be called on to play an increasingly important 
role in carrying out delicate tasks in a period that 
we hope will lead to a better future for the refugees 
and for the area as a whole. 



STATEMENT OF DECEMBER 10 

U.S. delegation press release 3123 

The United States, along with the delegations 
of the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the United 
Kingdom, has the honor to present to this com- 
mittee the resolution contained in document 
A/SPC/L.31. I hardly need to say to this com- 
mittee that it represents the product of long and 
earnest efforts to produce a text which would be 
acceptable to all the parties involved. We believe 
the text before you is reasonable and moderate. It 
deals with the immediate operating problems of 
the United Nations Relief and Works Agency and 
also looks toward the future provision of relief 
and rehabilitation for the refugees. The pre- 
ambular paragraphs for the most part follow the 
formulations which have been worked out in pre- 
vious years to protect the interests of the parties 
involved and to reaffirm previous United Nations 
decisions. The preamble also addresses itself both 
to the observations in the Director's report relat- 
ing to the expiration of the Agency's mandate on 
June 30, 1960, and also to the chronic problem 
of insufficient funds. Finally, a paragraph is in- 
cluded in response to the problem raised bv the 
Director in his opening report to this committee 
concerning the character of the Agency as a sub- 
sidiary organ of the United Nations. 

The first two operative paragraphs deal with 
what is annually the greatest problem facing the 
Agency, the shortage of funds. The text enlists 
the attention of governments and the efforts of the 
Secretary-General to meet this problem. Para- 
graphs 3, 4, 5, and 6 deal with the operation of 
the Agency, thus giving the agency and its Di- 
rector the basis on which to continue their work 



140 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



over the next year. Paragraph 7 looks toward the 
discussion at the 14th session of proposals for the 
continuation of the United Nations interest in 
international relief and rehabilitation for the 
refugees, in view of the termination of the present 
UNEWA mandate in 1960. Paragraph 8 reflects 
the views universally expressed in the committee 
in appreciation of the work of Mr. Henry E. 
Labouisse and the staff of UNEWA as well as of 
the specialized agencies and of private organiza- 
tions who together provide the assistance for the 
refugees. Finally, the resolution provides for the 
future submission of reports by the Director of the 
Agency. 

The text is simple and contains nothing surpris- 
ing or extreme. I would feel it superfluous on 
my part to discuss it in greater detail. One ele- 
ment, however, warrants a brief comment. Para- 
graph 7 has been included so that proposals for 
continuation of assistance will be placed before 
the committee at the next Assembly. Over the 
past 2 years the United States informally has 
drawn attention to the need for this. The exact 
means by which proposals are brought to the com- 
mittee is of secondary importance. If, for in- 
stance, the Secretary-General should be prepared 
to look at the operation of UNEWA and its man- 
date and make appropriate proposals, we would 
not, of course, insist on retaining paragraph 7 
in the resolution, and we would welcome an indi- 
cation by the Secretary-General of his views in 
this regard. 

In sponsoring this resolution the United States 
for its part by no means intends to prejudge the 
proposals which it is hoped would be made. We 
envisage that proposals will emerge from a care- 
ful review of all the facts in the situation. The 
United States fully realizes that the refugee prob- 
lem will continue to exist after June 30, 1960. 

The United States furthermore fully expects 
to maintain its interest in the continued welfare 
of the refugees. 

In order further to explain the United States 
position, it should be recalled that the United 
States representative said 1 year ago that a "pri- 
mary responsibility for working out a solution of 
the refugee problem rests with Israel and the 
Arab states. The resolutions of the General As- 
sembly are on the record for their guidance. 
They should always be guided by them. This 
responsibility is a continuing one that the passage 
of nearly 10 years since the problem arose does 



not lessen." This expression was repeated by the 
United States in this committee on November 10, 
and it remains the position of the United States. 
[In a further intervention, Mr. Harrison said:] 
Mr. Chairman, in view of the statement made 
by the Secretary-General just now, the United 
States would be willing to delete paragraph 7 of 
the resolution. I do not think it is necessary in 
view of the statement of the Secretary-General 
because, after all, that is all we have sought, an 
examination of the matter in a report. 

TEXT OF RESOLUTION 6 

The General Assembly, 

Recalling its resolutions 194 (III) of 11 December 1948, 
302 (IV) of 8 December 1949, 393 (V) of 2 December 
1950, 513 (VI) of 26 January 1952, 614 (VII) of 6 No- 
vember 1952, 720 (VIII) of 27 November 1953, 818 (IX) 
of 4 December 1954, 916 (X) of 3 December 1955, 1018 
(XI) of 28 February 1957, and 1191 (XII) of 12 Decem- 
ber 1957, 

Noting the annual report of the Director of the United 
Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees 
in the Near East, and in particular the observations re- 
lating to the expiration of the Agency's mandate on 30 
June 1960, and noting the report of the Advisory Com- 
mission of the Agency, 

Noting with regret that repatriation or compensation 
of the refugees, as provided for in paragraph 11 of reso- 
lution 194 (III), has not been effected, that no substan- 
tial progress has been made in the programme endorsed 
in paragraph 2 of resolution 513 (VI) for the reinte- 
gration of refugees and that, therefore, the situation of 
the refugees continues to be a matter of serious concern, 

Having reviewed the budget prepared by the Director 
and having noted the endorsement thereof by the Ad- 
visory Commission of the Agency, 

Noting with grave concern that contributions to the 
budget are not yet sufficient and that the financial situa- 
tion of the Agency remains serious, 

Recalling that the Agency is a subsidiary organ of the 
United Nations, 

1. Draws the attention of Governments to the pre- 
carious financial position of the United Nations Relief 
and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near 
East and urges them to consider to what extent they can 
contribute or increase their contributions in order that 
the Agency may carry out relief and rehabilitation pro- 
grammes for the welfare of the refugees; 

2. Requests the Secretary-General, in view of the 
serious financial position of the Agency, to continue, as 
a matter of urgent concern, his special efforts to secure 
the additional financial assistance needed to meet the 



* U.N. doc. A/SPC/L.34 ; adopted in the Special Politi- 
cal Committee on Dec. 10 by a vote of 44 to with 18 
abstentions and in plenary session (A/Res/1315 (XIII) ) 
on Dec. 12 by a vote of 57 to with 20 abstentions. 



January 26, 1959 



141 



Agency's budget and to provide adequate working 
capital ; 

3. Directs the Agency to pursue its programme for 
refugees bearing in mind the response to paragraphs 1 
and 2 above; 

4. Requests the Director of the Agency, without preju- 
dice to paragraph 11 of resolution 194 (III), to plan and 
carry out projects capable of supporting substantial num- 
bers of refugees, and in particular programmes relating 
to education and vocational training; 

5. Requests the host Governments to co-operate fully 
with the Agency and with its personnel and to extend to 
the Agency every appropriate assistance in carrying out 
its functions ; 

6. Requests the Agency to continue its consultations 
with the United Nations Conciliation Commission for 
Palestine in the best interests of their respective tasks, 
with particular reference to paragraph 11 of resolution 
194 (III) ; 

7. Expresses its thanks to the Director, Mr. Henry R. 
Labouisse, for the devoted attention he has given to the 
affairs of the Agency and the welfare of the refugees for 
the four years of his incumbency, to the staff of the 
Agency for their continued faithful efforts to carry out 
its mandate, and to the specialized agencies and the many 
private organizations for their valuable and continuing 
work in assisting the refugees; 

8. Requests the Director of the Agency to continue 
to submit the reports referred to in paragraph 21 of 
General Assembly resolution 302 (IV) of 8 December 
1949, as modified by paragraph 11 of General Assembly 
resolution 1018 (XI) of 28 February 1957. 



Fur Seal Commission Approves 
Coordinated Research Plan 

The North Pacific Fur Seal Commission held 
its second annual meeting at Washington, D.C., 
December 8-13. In the course of its deliberations 
the Commission reviewed the results of the 1958 
scientific research programs of the four member 
governments — Canada, Japan, the Union of So- 
viet Socialist Republics, and the United States — 
and approved a coordinated plan for research 
during the 1959 season. 

The Commission, which was established under 
the provisions of the 1957 Interim Convention on 
Conservation of the North Pacific Fur Seals, 
signed at Washington on February 9, 1957, 1 has 
as its major responsibility investigation of the 
fur-seal resources of the North Pacific Ocean. 
The objective of this investigation is to determine 
the measures which will make possible the maxi- 
mum sustainable yield from these resources, with 



1 For text, see Bulletin of Mar. 4, 1957, p. 376. 



due regard for their relation to the productivity 
of other living marine resources in the area. In 
accordance with a plan developed by the Com- 
mission at its first meeting, research agencies of 
the four governments are carrying on research 
at sea, while United States scientists carry on re- 
search on the breeding grounds on the Pribilof 
Islands in the eastern Bering Sea and Soviet 
scientists do similar work on the Commander 
Islands in the western Bering Sea and on Robben 
Island in the Okhotsk Sea. The investigations 
are concentrated on dynamics of the fur-seal pop- 
ulations, distribution and migration at sea, feed- 
ing habits, and harvesting methods. 

Investigations at sea will begin in early Feb- 
ruary on both sides of the Pacific. Investigations 
at the rookeries will begin in the early summer 
as the seals arrive at the end of their annual 
migration to the breeding grounds. 

Under the provisions of the interim conven- 
tion, commercial harvesting of seals at sea is pro- 
hibited. All harvesting is done on the breeding 
grounds under the control of the United States 
on the Pribilof Islands and under the control of 
the Soviet Government on Robben Island and the 
Commander Islands. The proceeds of the an- 
nual harvest are shared according: to an agreed 
formula among the four governments. 

At the recent meeting the Canadian Commis- 
sioner, George R. Clark, was elected chairman of 
the Commission, to serve through the next annual 
meeting, and Kenjiro Nishimura, the Japanese 
Commissioner, was elected vice chairman. Other 
members of the Commission are Aleksandr A. 
Ishkov for the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics and Arnie J. Suomela for the United States. 

It was agreed that the next annual meeting 
would be held at Moscow beginning January 25, 
1960. 



President Designates IMCO 
Public International Organization 

WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

White House press release dated December 16 

The President has issued an Executive order 
designating the Intergovernmental Maritime Con- 
sultative Organization as a public international 
organization entitled to the benefits of the Inter- 



142 



Department of State Bulletin 



national Organizations Immunities Act of Decem- 
ber 29, 1945. 

The International Organizations Immunities 
Act provides that certain privileges, exemptions, 
and immunities shall be extended to such public 
international organizations as have been desig- 
nated by the President through appropriate Ex- 
ecutive order, and to their officers and employees 
and the representatives of member states to such 
organizations. 

The convention on the Intergovernmental Mari- 
time Consultative Organization was drawn up in 
1948 1 and provided that the organization would 
come formally into existence when 21 states, of 
which 7 must have a total tonnage of at least 1 
million gross tons of shipping, became parties to 
the convention. The United States became a 
party to the convention in 1950. The convention 
came into effect in 1958 when the 21st and 22d 
acceptances were deposited. The organization 
will have its headquarters in London. 

The Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative 
Organization represents over 50 years of formal 
international attention to the problem of human 
safety at sea. Among the earliest of the inter- 
national organizations established to deal with 
maritime matters was the International Maritime 
Committee created in 1897. 

The basic objectives of the organization are to 
encourage the highest standards of maritime 
safety and efficiency of navigation, as well as to 
provide for intergovernmental cooperation con- 
cerning regulations and practices relating to tech- 
nical matters affecting international shipping. 

EXECUTIVE ORDER 10795" 

Designating the Intergovernmental Maritime Con- 
sultative Organization as a Public International 
Organization Entitled To Enjoy Certain Privileges, 
Exemptions, and Immunities 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 1 
of the International Organizations Immunities Act, ap- 
proved December 29, 1945 (59 Stat. 669), and having 
found that the United States participates in the Inter- 
governmental Maritime Consultative Organization pur- 
suant to the authority of the Convention on the Inter- 
governmental Maritime Consultative Organization to 
which the United States Senate gave its advice and 
consent on June 27, 1950, and which the President rati- 



fied on July 11, 1950 (T. I. A. S. 4044), I hereby desig- 
nate the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative 
Organization as a public international organization en- 
titled to enjoy the privileges, exemptions, and immunities 
conferred by the International Organizations Immunities 
Act. 

The designation of the Intergovernmental Maritime 
Consultative Organization as a public international or- 
ganization within the meaning of the International 
Organizations Immunities Act is not intended to abridge 
in any respect privileges, exemptions, and immunities 
which that organization may have acquired or may ac- 
quire by treaty or congressional action. 

The White House, 
December 13, 1958. 



U.S. Delegations to 
International Conferences 

Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative 
Organization 

The Department of State announced on January 
2 (press release 1) that Millard G. Gamble, a 
shipping executive of New York, has been desig- 
nated chairman of the U.S. delegation to the first 
meeting of the Assembly of the Intergovernmental 
Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), 
scheduled to convene at London, England, 
January 6, 1959. 

Mr. Gamble is one of six delegates to this meet- 
ing appointed by the President on December 24. 
The others are : 

Robert T. Merrill, Shipping Division, Department of 
State 

Clarence G. Morse, Maritime Administrator, Department 
of Commerce 

Richard Parkhurst, consultant, Boston and Maine Rail- 
road 

Claiborne Pell, director, International Fiscal Corporation 

Vice Adm. Alfred C. Richmond, commandant, U.S. Coast 
Guard l 

The Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative 
Organization, a specialized agency of the United 
Nations in the field of shipping, came into being 
on March 17, 1958. The Organization's conven- 
tion provides for a General Assembly, a Council, 
and a Maritime Safety Committee. IMCO will 



1 For text, see Bulletin of Apr. 18, 1948, p. 499. 

2 23 Fed. Reg. 9709. 



1 For a list of additional members of the delegation, see 
press release 1 dated Jan. 2. 



January 26, 7959 



143 



function as the primary organization to handle 
all shipping problems of intergovernmental con- 
cern within one organization; encourage general 
adoption of the highest practicable standards in 
matters of maritime safety ; encourage removal of 
all forms of discriminatory action and restrictions 
affecting international shipping; provide for 
intergovernmental exchange of international 
shipping information ; and consider matters con- 
cerning unfair shipping practices. This first 
meeting of the Assembly will be largely organiza- 
tional. The Council and a Provisional Maritime 
Safety Committee will meet concurrently with the 
IMCO Assembly. 

The 25 members of IMCO are: Argentina, 
Australia, Belgium, Burma, Canada, China, 
Dominican Eepublic, Ecuador, France, Haiti, 
Honduras, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, 
Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Switzer- 
land, Turkey, United Arab Eepublic, United 
Kingdom, and United States. 

Specialized Committee of the 21 American Republics 

The Department of State announced on Jan- 
uary 8 (press release 17) that meetings of a Spe- 
cialized Committee of the 21 American Republics 
began on that day at the Pan American Union 
at Washington. This Committee is charged with 
the task of negotiating and drafting an agreement 
for an inter-American financial institution. It is 
expected that a final act embodying the agreement 
will be signed at the end of the meeting. 

The Specialized Committee has been convoked 
by the Inter- American Economic and Social Coun- 
cil pursuant to resolution XVIII adopted by the 
Economic Conference of the Organization of 
American States, held at Buenos Aires, Argentina, 
in August-September 1957. The communique of 
the informal meeting of American Foreign Min- 
isters at Washington, September 23-24, 1958, 1 
recommended that this Specialized Committee be 
convoked as soon as possible. 

The U.S. representative on this Specialized 
Committee is T. Graydon Upton, Assistant Secre- 
tary of the Treasury. Alternate representatives 
are Charles W. Adair, Jr., director, Office of In- 
ternational Financial and Development Affairs, 
Department, of State, and George H. Willis, di- 



rector, Office of International Finance, Depart- 
ment of the Treasury. 2 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Whaling 

International whaling convention and schedule of whaling 
regulations. Signed at Washington December 2, 1946. 
Entered into force November 10, 194S. TIAS 1S49. 
Notification of ivithdrawal: Netherlands, December 31, 
1958. Effective June 30, 1959. 



BILATERAL 

China 

Agreement regarding the ownership and use of local 
currency repayments made by China to the Develop- 
ment Loan Fund. Effected by exchange of notes at 
Taipei December 24, 1958. Entered into force Decem- 
ber 24, 195S. 

Finland 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (68 Stat. 455; 7 U.S.C. 1701-1709), 
with exchange of notes. Signed at Helsinki Decem- 
ber 30, 1958. Entered into force December 30, 195S. 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of February 21, 1958 (TIAS 3996). Effected by 
exchange of notes at Washington December 29 and 31, 
1958. Entered into force January 2, 1959. 

United Arab Republic 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (68 Stat. 455; 7 U.S.C. 1701-1709). 
Signed at Cairo December 24, 1958. Entered into force 
December 24, 1958. 

United Kingdom 

Agreement relating to the extension to certain British 
territories of the income tax convention of April 16, 
1945, as modified (TIAS 1546, 3165, and 4124 ) . Effected 
by exchange of notes at Washington August 19, 1957 
and December 3, 1958. Entered into force December 3, 
1958. TIAS 4141. 

Notification by United Kingdom of completion of meas- 
ures necessary to give effect to agreement in: Fed- 
eration of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, December 30, 
1958. 
Agreement for the establishment and operation of a 
rawinsonde observation station on Jamaica and on 
Grand Cayman Island. Effected by exchange of notes 
at Washington December 30, 1958. Entered into force 
December 30, 1958. 



1 For text, see Bulletin of Oct. 13, 1958, p. 574. 



2 For a list of other members of the U.S. delegation, 
see press release 17 dated Jan. 8. 



144 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Yugoslavia 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (68 Stat. 455; 7 U.S.C. 1701-1709), 
with exchanges of notes. Signed at Belgrade Decem- 
her 22, 1958. Entered into force December 22, 1958. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



U.S. Reopens Consulate at Brazzaville 

The Department of State announced on January 8 
(press release 18) that the United States reopened its 
consulate at Brazzaville, French Equatorial Africa, on 
January 1, 1959. The consulate has all of French 
Equatorial Africa, including the autonomous Republics 
of Gabon, Middle Congo, Ubangi-Shari, and Chad, within 
its consular jurisdiction. Francis N. Magliozzi is the 
consul in charge. 



Designations 

Wendell B. Coote as Deputy Executive Director, Bu- 
reau of African Affairs, effective December 28. 

John Dorman as Deputy Director, Office of Dependent 
Area Affairs, effective January 5. 

William M. Gibson as Director, Office of International 
Conferences, effective January 1. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Department Publishes Analysis 
of Soviet Note on Berlin 

Press release 7 dated January 7 

The State Department on January 7 released 
an analysis of the Soviet note of November 27, 
1958, on Berlin, 1 declaring the communication to 
be an attempt to rewrite history "by omission and 
by distortion." 

The State Department analysis is a factual ac- 
count of developments prior, during, and after 



1 The Soviet Note on Berlin: An Analysis, Department 
of State publication 6757, for sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D.C. ; price 25 cents. For text of the Soviet note, 
see Bulletin of Jan. 19, 1959, p. 81. 



World War II which led to the present status 
of Berlin. It makes the point that the people 
of Germany, wherever and whenever they have 
had an opportunity to express a free choice, have 
rejected communism. 

Tracing the historical record, the publication 
documents the fact that prior to World War II 
the United States, Great Britain, and France 
did much to discourage Nazi aggression, while 
the Soviet Union was engaged in many activities 
which tended to encourage Hitler's military am- 
bitions. These activities included not only the 
furnishing of arms but the concluding of nu- 
merous economic agreements. Pronouncements of 
Soviet leaders during the prewar period are 
quoted to show that they attempted to further 
their own ends by temporizing with Nazi Ger- 
many and that it was not until the Nazis actually 
attacked the Soviet Union that their attitude 
changed. 

The publication points out that many agree- 
ments were arrived at while Russia was allied 
with the Western powers but that, instead of im- 
plementing these agreements in the postwar pe- 
riod, the U.S.S.R. proceeded to carry out its own 
plans for Communist expansion in Eastern Eu- 
rope and prevented or delayed wherever possible 
the actions of the Western powers to promote 
economic recovery in Germany and all of Europe. 

Before the Potsdam Protocol was signed in 
1945, the analysis points out, the U.S.S.R. began 
its efforts to turn Germany into a satellite of the 
Soviet Union. The outline and organization for 
Soviet policies in Germany in the military and 
political spheres was accomplished even before 
the victorious powers could meet to discuss their 
plans and to agree on implementing the stated 
principles of the wartime coalition. 

An appendix contains the official statements 
of the United States on the Berlin question, in- 
cluding the legal status of the city, plus other 
official statements of the Western powers and of 
NATO on the Berlin question. 

Recent Releases 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, V. S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may be ob- 
tained from the Department of State. 

Mutual Security in Action— Thailand. Pub. 6733. Far 

Eastern Series 78. 10 pp. 5tf. 



January 26, J 959 



145 



A fact sheet describing the mutual security program in 
Thailand, along with basic data about the country and 
its people. 

Toward A Common Goal — A Program for Economic De- 
velopment. Pub. 6734. Economic Cooperation Series 47. 
14 pp. Limited distribution. 

An address made by President Eisenhower before the 
Colombo Plan meeting at Seattle, Washington, on Novem- 
ber 10, 1958, stressing the importance of a common goal 
and the ways and means to achieve it for all the countries 
concerned. 



TIAS 4105. 14 pp. 



Surplus Agricultural Commodities. 

lOtf. 

Agreement, with memoranda of understanding, between 
the United States of America and Ecuador — Signed at 
Quito June 30, 1958. Entered into force June 30, 1958. 



TIAS 4107. 10 pp. 



Surplus Agricultural Commodities. 

lOtf. 

Agreement, with memorandum of understanding and ex- 
change of notes, between the United States of America and 
India — Signed at Washington September 26, 1958. En- 
tered into force September 26, 195S. 

Annual and Progressive Reduction in Japanese Expendi- 
tures Under Article XXV 2 (b) of the Administrative 
Agreement of February 28, 1952. TIAS 4109. 9 pp. lOtf. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Japan. Exchange of notes — Signed at Tokyo August 12, 
1958. Entered into force August 12, 1958. 

Amendments to the Constitution of the International 
Rice Commission. TIAS 4110. 4 pp. 5tf. 

Between the United States of America and Other Gov- 
ernments — Adopted at the fourth session of the Inter- 
national Rice Commission at Tokyo, October 11-19, 1954. 
Approved by a resolution adopted November 18, 1955, at 
the eighth session of the Conference of the Food and Agri- 
culture Organization of the United Nations, held at Rome. 
Entered into force November 18, 1955. 

Development Loan Fund — Use of Turkish Currency Re- 
payments. TIAS 4111. 4 pp. 54. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Turkey. Exchange of notes — Signed at Ankara Septem- 
ber 6, 1958. Entered into force September 6, 1958. 

Financing Certain Educational Exchange Programs. 
TIAS 4112. 5 pp. 5tf. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Chile, amending agreement of March 31, 1955. Exchange 



of notes — Signed at Santiago August 18 and September 
17, 1958. Entered into force September 17, 1958. 

Development Assistance. TIAS 4113. 3 pp. 54. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Lebanon. Exchange of notes — Signed at Beirut Septem- 
ber 2 and 3, 1958. Entered into force September 3, 1958. 

United States Educational Commission in the United 
Kingdom — Additional Financial Contributions. TIAS 
4114. 3 pp. 54. 

Agreement between the United States of America and the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 
Exchange of notes — Signed at London September 22, 1958. 
Entered into force September 22, 1958. 

Parcel Post — Exchanges Between the United States and 
Papua and New Guinea. TIAS 4115. 24 pp. 15<S. 

Agreement and regulations of execution between the 
United States of America and Australia — Signed at Can- 
berra May 22, 1958, and at Washington June 20, 1958. 
Entered into force October 1, 1958. 

United States Educational Foundation in Thailand. 
TIAS 4116. 4 pp. 54. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Thailand, amending agreement of July 1, 1950, as 
amended. Exchange of notes — Signed at Bangkok Sep- 
tember 12, 1958. Entered into force September 12, 1958. 

Loan of Vessels to Turkey. TIAS 4117. 5 pp. 54. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Turkey. Exchange of notes — Signed at Ankara October 
14, 1958. Entered into force October 14, 1958. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4118. 3 pp. 
54. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Peru, amending agreement of April 9, 1958. Exchange of 
notes — Signed at Lima September 10 and 12, 1958. En- 
tered into force September 12, 1958. 

Commission for Educational Exchange. TIAS 4120. 10 
pp. lOtf. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Spain — Signed at Madrid October 16, 1958. Entered into 
force October 16, 1958. 






TIAS 4121. 3 pp. 



Guaranty of Private Investments. 

54. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Ghana. Exchange of notes — Signed at Accra Septem- 
ber, 30, 1958. Entered into force September 30, 1958. 



146 



Department of State Bulletin 



January 26, 1959 



Index 



Vol. XL, No. 1022 



Africa. Coote Designated Deputy Executive Director, 

Bureau of African Affairs 145 

Agriculture. American Republics To Increase Cooperation 

in Agriculture (Dreier) 126 

American Republics 

American Republics To Increase Cooperation in Agriculture 

(Dreier) 126 

New Levels of Inter-American Cooperation (Rubottom) . . 119 
Specialized Committee of tbe 21 American Republics 

(delegation) 144 

Atomic Energy. Committee Advises on Difficulty of Detect- 
ing Underground Tests 118 

Canada 

50th Anniversary of Boundary Waters Treaty With Canada 

(Dulles) 130 

Fur Seal Commission Approves Coordinated Research Plan . 142 

U.S.-Canadian Joint Committee Concludes Economic Dis- 
cussions (text of joint communique) 128 

Communism. The State of the Union (Eisenhower) . . . 115 

Congress, The. The State of the Union (Eisenhower) . . 115 

Cuba. United States Recognizes New Government of Cuba 

(text of note) 128 

Department and Foreign Service 

Designations (Coote, Dorman, Gibson) 145 

U.S. Reopens Consulate at Brazzaville 145 

Economic Affairs 

Fur Seal Commission Approves Coordinated Research Plan . 142 
New Levels of Inter-American Cooperation (Rubottom) . . 119 
Specialized Committee of the 21 American Republics 

(delegation) 144 

U.S.-Canadian Joint Committee Concludes Economic Dis- 
cussions (text of joint communique) 128 

French Equatorial Africa. U.S. Reopens Consulate at 

Brazzaville 145 

Germany. Department Publishes Analysis of Soviet Note 

on Berlin 145 

International Information. U.S. and U.S.S.R. Agree To 
Exchange Exhibitions in 1959 (text of agreement) . . 132 

International Law. U.S. Rejects Panamanian Law Estab- 
lishing 12-Mile Sea Limit (text of U.S. note) 127 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization 

(delegation) 143 

President Designates IMCO Public International Organiza- 
tion (text of Executive order) 142 

Specialized Committee of the 21 American Republics 

(delegation) 144 

Iran. United States and Iran Sign Development Loan 

Agreement 136 

Japan. Fur Seal Commission Approves Coordinated Re- 
search Plan 142 

Malaya. Malaya Names New Ambassador to United States . 137 

Middle East. United States Views on Aid to Palestine 

Refugees (Harrison, text of resolution) 137 

Military Affairs. U.S. Replies to Soviet Note on Recent 

Plane Incidents (texts of U.S. and Soviet notes) . . 134 

Mutual Security 

The State of the Union (Eisenhower) 115 

United States and Iran Sign Development Loan Agreement 136 

United States and Yugoslavia Sign Fertilizer Plant Loan . 136 

Panama. U.S. Rejects Panamanian Law Establishing 12- 
Mile Sea Limit (text of U.S. note) 127 

Presidential Documents 

The State of the Union 115 

President Designates IMCO Publie International Organiza- 
tion 142 

United States and Soviet Union Exchange New Year 
Greetings 131 

Publications 

Department Publishes Analysis of Soviet Note on Berlin . 145 
Recent Releases 145 

Refugees. United States Views on Aid to Palestine 

Refugees (Harrison, text of resolution) 137 

Science. Committee Advises on Difficulty of Detecting 

Underground Tests 118 

Treaty Information 

American Republics To Increase Cooperation in Agriculture 

(Dreier) 126 



Current Actions 144 

50th Anniversary of Boundary Waters Treaty With Can- 
ada (Dulles) 130 

U.S. and U.S.S.R. Agree To Exchange Exhibitions in 1959 

(text of agreement) 132 

U.S.S.R. 

Department Publishes Analysis of Soviet Note on Berlin . 145 

Fur Seal Commission Approves Coordinated Research Plan . 142 
United States and Soviet Union Exchange New Year 

Greetings (Eisenhower, Khrushchev, Voroshilov) . . . 131 
U.S. and U.S.S.R. Agree To Exchange Exhibitions in 1959 

(text of agreement) 132 

U.S. Replies to Soviet Note on Recent Plane Incidents 

(texts of U.S. and Soviet notes) 134 

United Nations. United States Views on Aid to Palestine 

Refugees (Harrison, text of resolution) 137 

Yugoslavia. United States and Yugoslavia Sign Fertilizer 

Plant Loan 136 

Name Index 

Coote, Wendell B 145 

Dorman, John 145 

Dreier, John C 126 

Dulles, Secretary 130 

Eisenhower, President 115, 131, 142 

Gibson, William M 145 

Harrison, George McGregor 137 

Kamil, Nik Ahmad 137 

Khrushchev, Nikita 131 

Magliozzl, Francis N 145 

Rubottom, Roy R., Jr 119 

Voroshilov, Kliment E 131 



Check List of Department of State 


Press Releases: January 5-11 


Press releases may be obtained from the News 


Division, Department of State, Washington 25, D.O. 


Releases issued prior to January 5 which appear 


in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 775 and 


779 of December 29, 1 of January 2, and 4 of 


January 3. 




No. Date 


Subject 


*6 1/5 


ICA institute, 2d session. 


7 1/7 


The Soviet Note on Berlin: An Analysis. 


8 1/7 


Dreier : protocol to IAIAS convention. 


9 1/7 


Development loan to Iran. 


10 1/7 


U.S.-Canada Committee on Trade and 




Economic Affairs. 


*11 1/7 


Educational exchange (Uruguay). 


*12 1/7 


Educational exchange (India). 


*13 1/7 


Educational exchange (Guatemala). 


14 1/7 


Recognition of new Cuban Government. 


*15 1/8 


Educational exchange (Yugoslavia). 


16 1/8 


DLF loan to Yugoslavia. 


17 1/8 


Delegation to OAS special committee 




(rewrite). 


18 1/8 


Reopening of consulate at Brazzaville, 




French Equatorial Africa (rewrite). 


*19 1/9 


Hanes sworn in. 


20 1/10 


New Malayan Ambassador to U.S. 




named. 


21 1/10 


Dulles: 50th anniversary of boundary 




waters treaty with Canada. 


•22 1/10 


Educational exchange (Ecuador). 


*23 1/10 


Educational exchange (Guatemala). 


*24 1/10 


Educational exchange (Latin America). 


*25 1/10 


Frondizi itinerary. 


26 1/10 


Panamanian territorial waters. 


*Not printed. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1959 



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Government Printing Office 

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OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



The Soviet Note on Berlin: 
An Analysis 



Department 



f 



State 



On November 27, 1958, the Government of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics handed the United States Ambassador in Moscow 
a communication relating to Berlin. 

Similar notes were given by the Soviet Government to the Am- 
bassadors of France, the United Kingdom, and the Federal Republic 
of Germany. 

In essence the Soviet notes demanded that the United States, the 
United Kingdom, and France abandon West Berlin. 

Declaring the communication to be an attempt to rewrite history 
"by omission and by distortion," the Department of State has issued 
this analysis of the Soviet note, calling attention to the more im- 
portant Soviet omissions and correcting the more obvious distortions. 
The analysis is a factual account of developments prior to, during, 
and after World War II which led to the present status of Berlin. 

An appendix contains the official statements of the United States 
on the Berlin question, including the legal status of the city, plus 
other official statements of the Western powers and of NATO on the 
Berlin question. 



Publication 6757 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XL, No. 1023 



February 2, 1959 



FREEDOM— THE PREDOMINANT FORCE • Statement 

by Secretary Dulles 151 

SECRETARY DULLES' NEWS CONFERENCE OF 

JANUARY 13 156 

IMPERATIVES OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC 

GROWTH • by Under Secretary Dillon 165 

THE RIGHT OF PEOPLES AND NATIONS TO SELF- 
DETERMINATION • Statements by Watson W. Wise and 
Mrs. Oswald B. Lord 172 

PROGRESS IN PROMOTING PEACE AND STABILITY 

IN THE MIDDLE EAST • Third Report to Congress on 
Activities Under the Joint Resolution To Promote Peace and 
Stability in the Middle East 169 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XL, No. 1023 • Publication 6766 
February 2, 1959 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Peice: 

62 Issues, domestic $8.50, foreign $12.25 

Single copy, 25 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 20, 1968). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
Of State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, Bureau of 
Ptiblic Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



Freedom— The Predominant Force 



Statement by Secretary Dulles 1 



Introduction 

The world is today changing more rapidly than 
ever before. But the fact that much is changing 
does not mean that everything has changed. 
There are certain values, certain principles, that 
are enduring. Among these are the concepts of 
individual human dignity and the supremacy of 
moral law. 

In a changing world our task is to strive reso- 
lutely that change shall increasingly reflect the 
basic principles to which our nation has, from its 
origin, been dedicated. 

II. Our Basic Purposes 

( 1 ) At a time when war involves unacceptable 
risks for all humanity, we work to build a stable 
world order. 

(2) We seek for general acceptance of the con- 
cept of individual dignity which will lead to the 
spread of responsible freedom and personal 
liberty. 

(3) We seek that the free nations shall attain 
a more rapid rate of economic growth, so that 
their independence will be more secure and vig- 
orous and so that there will be greater opportu- 
nities for cultural and spiritual development. 

III. The Primary Threat 

The Soviet Union and Communist China are 
expanding their economic and industrial power at 
a very rapid pace. They do so by a system which 
combines governmental rule of all labor with im- 
posed austerity. This makes it possible greatly 
to accelerate capital developments. 



1 Made before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee 
on Jan. 14 ( press release 31 ) . 



There is emphasis, too, on quality. A spectac- 
ular product of Soviet material accomplishment 
was its recent space probe. In this field, the 
United States is still trying to "catch up" and 
make up for the head start of the Soviets. Our 
"space" accomplisliments during the past year 
justify the belief that we are making good relative 
progress. 

The Chinese Communists seem to be going into 
a dark night of massed regimentation and forced 
labor. What they call "the great leap forward" 
is in reality a tragic fall backward into the abyss 
of human slavery. 

Asian nations are experiencing one aspect of 
Communist economic development: the Commu- 
nist tactic of flooding their market places with 
goods at less than prevailing prices. This has 
widespread effects, some of which reach into our 
own country. As one example only, the dumping 
of cotton textiles in Southeast Asia has reduced 
Japanese exports in that area and is already re- 
ducing exports of cotton from the United States to 
Japan. As Communist economic power grows, 
we must anticipate and plan for further shocks 
to the free-world economic structure from the 
Communist trade offensive. 

Communist economic methods involve costs in 
human privation and misery that, for us, are not 
only repugnant but completely unacceptable. We 
believe that over the long run such a process must 
inevitably be altered. Already there are indica- 
tions that the Soviet leaders are beginning to 
realize this. There is some scaling down of their 
heavy-industry ambitions. They are beginning to 
heed demands by workers and peasants for more 
leisure and for a greater share in the fruits of their 
labor. Peoples sufficiently educated to operate a 
modern industrial state may be expected also to 



February 2, 7959 



151 



acquire the desire for freedom and the capacity 
to get it. History gives us good reason to believe 
that the Soviet peoples will not indefinitely submit 
to dictatorial rule by the international Communist 
Party leadership. It would appear that the Com- 
munists will encounter difficulties increasing in 
the long run. 

But for the short run — and this may be a period 
of years — the situation is full of danger. 

That means that we may face a period even 
harder than we have become used to. To get ad- 
vantage from time we shall have to stand on our 
course. We shall need the national will to stand 
firm in the face of aggressive threats and probings 
from the Sino-Soviet bloc. We shall need to make 
whatever unusual sacrifices may be necessary. 
People respond to this kind of demand when they 
understand that a temporary emergency requires 
it. But these burdens seem to grow heavier the 
longer they must be borne during a period of rela- 
tive peace. Our people will need to show what 
freedom can mean in terms of self-sacrifice and 
self-discipline and in terms of fortitude and 
perseverance. 

IV. World Order 

Let me speak now about world order. This re- 
quires an elimination of the use or threat of force 
to accomplish international change. This was 
always a bad method. It has become an intolerable 
method because the force at man's disposal could 
now practically obliterate human life on this 
planet. 

The United States and other free- world nations 
have, by their conduct, done much to establish, for 
themselves, the principle of the renunciation of 
aggressive force ; and they have shown their abil- 
ity and will to deter such use of force by others. 

At the time of the Suez affair and the Israeli- 
Egyptian hostilities, the United Kingdom and 
France, and then Israel, responding to the over- 
whelming opinion of the United Nations, with- 
drew their armed forces and accepted a United 
Nations solution. This may well prove to be a 
historical landmark. 

During the past year the United States and its 
partners have further shown their opposition to 
change through force or the threat of force. 

When Lebanon and Jordan seemed threatened 
from without and appealed to the United States 
and the United Kingdom for emergency aid, we 



responded with promptness and efficiency. When 
the emergency was relieved by United Nations 
action, we promptly withdrew our forces. 

Throughout the world small nations felt a pro- 
found sense of reassurance. 

In the Far East the Chinese Communists, with 
Soviet backing, initiated military action designed, 
as they put it, to "expel the United States" from 
the western Pacific. We stood beside the Ke- 
public of China as it resisted what seemed the 
preliminaries of that attack. Our free-world as- 
sociates generally supported our position that 
change in that area should not be effected by force 
of arms. 

The Government of the Republic of China itself 
made a notable contribution when, last October, 
it declared that it relied primarily upon peaceful 
principles and not upon force to secure the freeing 
of the mainland. 2 This courageous and states- 
manlike act has strengthened the free world's 
cause in the western Pacific. 

Now in Berlin we face an effort to "expel" the 
small Western contingents in West Berlin. Their 
presence constitutes an indispensable safeguard to 
the freedom of that city. The NATO powers, at 
their December meeting, unanimously vowed that 
such expulsion should be resisted. 3 

Step by step, discernible progress continues to 
be made in consolidating a system of collective 
security which will effectively operate to exclude 
the use of force to effect international changes. 

The mutual security arrangements which we 
have with free-world countries no longer assume 
the aspect of mere military alliances. They are 
the framework of consultative processes that, day 
by day, are steadily re-forming the society of free 
nations. 

In primitive and frontier societies security is 
on an individual basis. Each householder de- 
fends himself by his own means. That primitive 
formula is now obsolete domestically. It is be- 
coming obsolete internationally. Many free na- 
tions combine to help each other. The resultant 
power is not a power which can be or would be 
used for any aggressive or nationalistic purpose. 
It is a power dedicated to the common welfare as 
mutually agreed. 



" For a U.S.-Republic of China joint communique and a 
statement by Secretary Dulles, see Bulletin of Nov. 10, 
1958. p. 721. 

3 Ibid., Jan. 5, 1959, p. 3. 



152 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



The United States has repeatedly made clear — 
and I said this again at the last December NATO 
meeting — that we regard our own military power 
as being a trust for the benefit of our free-world 
partnerships ; that we are ready to make known to 
all the defensive purposes and circumstances 
under which that force might be used; and that 
we shall heed in this respect the advice and counsel 
of our partners just as we would expect them 
to heed our advice and counsel with respect to the 
international use of their force. 

Thus, out of what may originally have been 
conceived primarily as military alliances, there is 
developing an international structure which pro- 
vides collective security on the basis of organized 
and continuous collective consultation. That is 
something new in history. 

I might add that accomplishment is not always 
easy, given the variety of national development 
and national viewpoints. Nevertheless the free- 
world practice in this regard constantly grows in 
efficiency. 

World order is not, however, assured merely by 
the elimination of violence. There must be 
processes of peaceful change. These, too, are 
rapidly developing within the free world. The 
General Assembly of the United Nations is a 
forum where these needs find effective expression. 
The General Assembly does not have the power to 
legislate change. But it has a capacity to induce 
change, at least in the case of governments which 
have respect for, and are responsive to, world 
opinion. 

The peace of the free world is not a peace of 
political stagnation or a peace which sanctifies the 
status quo. It is a peace characterized by peace- 
ful change reflecting new human aspirations and 
potentialities. 

There is, of course, need not only for processes 
which permit of peaceful change, but there is 
equally a need for stability in adherence to basic 
values, including that of respecting international 
agreements and treaties. This requires that, un- 
less international law and treaty engagements are 
changed by common agreement, they should be 
respected. 

There has not been as great a development of 
international law and recourse to judicial proc- 
esses as would be desirable. The United Nations 
General Assembly committee on the codification 
of international law has made little progress. 



Some significant progress in law development was 
made at the recent Law of the Sea Conference, 
and that conference will be resumed in I960. 4 In- 
adequate use has been made of the International 
Court of Justice. As the President said last week 
in his state-of-the-Union address, 5 we envisage 
further steps to encourage the greater use of that 
Court. 

In such ways as I describe progress is being 
made toward establishing a world order where 
peace rests, not on mere expediency or on a bal- 
ance of power, but on a basis of sound institutions. 

This evolution is not spectacular and rarely con- 
sidered "news." What attracts attention are the 
aggressive probings of the Communists and the 
free- world reactions thereto. That gives the im- 
pression that our foreign policy consists primarily 
of reacting to Communist initiatives. 

Nothing could be further from the truth. The 
fact is that, day by day, month by month, and 
year by year, we are building, quietly but steadily, 
in the United Nations, in NATO, in the OAS, in 
SEATO, and other organs of consultation, the 
solid foundations of an international order based 
upon justice and law as substitutes for force. 

The Communist rulers do not share in this 
effort to build a stable world order based upon 
justice and law. International communism avow- 
edly seeks worldwide dictatorship. The con- 
cept of justice is alien to the Communist creed, 
and law, in our sense of that word, is unknown. 
The free-world and Communist concepts are mu- 
tually antagonistic. 

This, however, does not mean that there cannot 
be useful contacts and negotiations with the Com- 
munists. We have had many such. We are striv- 
ing to make progress in the field of disarmament 
and in that connection deal with the Soviets, par- 
ticularly in relation to the controlled discontinu- 
ance of nuclear weapons tests. We also seek 
agreement on possible measures which might be 
helpful in preventing surprise attack. 

At Warsaw we negotiate with the Chinese 
Communists. 

We have made clear our willingness to negoti- 
ate about the German question. 



4 For statements made by Herman Phleger, U.S. Rep- 
resentative to the General Assembly, during debate in the 
General Assembly on the question of convening a second 
Law of the Sea Conference and text of a resolution, see 
ibid., Jan. 12, 1959, p. 64. 

6 Ibid., Jan. 26, 1959, p. 115. 



February 2, J 959 



153 



We have now an agreement with the Soviet 
Union on cultural and scientific exchanges which 
is operating satisfactorily. 6 Also important are 
the visits to and from Russia of influential 
citizens. 

President Eisenhower urged this in his letter 
of February 15, 1958, 7 to the then Soviet Premier 
[Nikolai A. Bulganin]. Following this initia- 
tive, there have been useful visits on both sides, 
and we are glad that the First Deputy Premier of 
the Soviet Union, Mr. [Anastas] Mikoyan, is now 
here learning about our country. We would like 
to see a broader exchange of students. We believe 
that in such ways false premises and miscalcula- 
tions can be reduced in the interest of peace. 

V. The Inevitable Movement Toward Freedom 

I turn now to our second major purpose. 

One of the strongest forces working in the world 
today is the movement toward independence and 
freedom. 

This force is notably manifest in Africa. Here 
change is rapid; new states are arising almost 
overnight. This great continent presents a chal- 
lenge to the United States to do its best to assist 
the peoples now emerging into independence and 
new opportunity. 

Another such area is our hemisphere to the 
south. The peoples of Latin America are making 
clear their determination to control their own des- 
tinies. One by one dictatorships have made way 
for governments more responsive to the popular 
will. 

This worldwide movement toward freedom is 
accompanied by a growing awareness of the dead- 
ly nature of Sino-Soviet imperialism. The lead- 
ers of the new freedom are coming more and more 
to see international communism as an immediate 
threat to their liberties, not, as some have 
thought, a mere bogeyman of so-called "Western 
imperialism." 

The Communists are paying a price for the 
forced growth of their material power : There is 
a developing fear in the less powerful nations 
around the world of the dangerous combination 
of burgeoning economic and military power with 
the imperialist drive of the Communists for world 
dominion. This menacing combination brings 



1 For text, see ibid., Feb. 17, 1958, p. 243. 
r Ibid., Mar. 10, 1958, p. 373. 



home with force the threat which, when the Com- 
munists were not so strong, was but a matter of 
vague and largely academic concern. 

There has recently been a surprising clarifica- 
tion of understanding around the world of the 
real purpose of Communist leaders — to subject all 
the world to the dominant influence and control 
of international communism, with its primary 
power centers at Moscow and Peiping. 

In the Middle East the deadly designs of com- 
munism are now far more clearly realized than a 
year ago. 

In Southeast Asia liberty-loving peoples are 
struggling — and with success — to remain masters 
in their newly built national homes. 

In general, I believe the leaders and peoples of 
Asia now understand better the sincerity of 
American policy favoring their independence and 
our willingness to support unconditionally their 
efforts to stay free and do so in their own way, 
which may indeed be a non- Western way. 

In France, we are witnessing an inspiring ex- 
ample of national renewal. 

The tide of freedom is running strong in West- 
ern Europe as Communist strength there ebbs. 

Even in Communist countries there is a power- 
ful and persistent craving for greater national 
freedom. Yugoslavia has been steadfast against 
all threats and blandishments from Moscow and 
has courageously maintained its independence. 
Hungary's great effort to throw off its shackles, 
even though crushed by force, has been an in- 
spiration and a tribute to man's unquenchable 
thirst for liberty. And throughout the bloc, even 
in the U.S.S.R., revisionism is a living force and 
ferment. Moscow considers it a deadly enemy, 
and with reason. 

The pull of freedom is daily manifested in the 
flow of refugees from the Communist bloc to the 
free world. 

The free people of West Berlin have, during 
years of uncertainty and danger, been an inspir- 
ing beacon light for all those whose liberties have 
been lost to Communist tyranny. We are deter- 
mined that this light shall not fail and that Berlin 
shall not be engulfed in the Red undertow. 

As we look ahead, we see freedom as a pre- 
dominant force, shaping our 20th-century world. 
As Americans, we have faith that the aspiration, 
deep within the soul of man, to live freely and 
with dignity in a just and peaceful world is 



154 



Department of State Bulletin 



stronger than all the material forces which the 
Communists invoke as the pledge and promise of 
their power. 

VI. Economic Progress 

I turn now to our third basic purpose. 

We believe that economic progress is a necessary 
condition of stable and free nations. There must 
also be acceptance of economic interdependence 
of nations. No nation can live completely to 
itself. 

Unless and until the less developed areas reach 
the stage of self-sustaining economic growth, the 
world as a whole will suffer. For the inhabitants 
of those areas, an increasing rate of economic de- 
velopment has become an essential condition of 
free societies. The demand for economic and 
social betterment is now universal, and, if prog- 
ress cannot be achieved in freedom, it will be 
sought by methods that jeopardize freedom. 

The Communists are fully aware of the uni- 
versal demand for progress, and they point to the 
Soviet and Chinese Communist accomplishments 
in industrialization as proof that their way is 
better than the way of freedom. 

Our aid and investment must continue to sup- 
port the efforts of the leaders of the developing 
free nations to sustain their peoples' confidence 
that economic progress can be attained in 
freedom. 

We have not been alone in providing such sup- 
port. Other highly industrialized states have 
made significant contributions. 

These industrialized nations have also shown 
a growing awareness of interdependence among 
themselves. This is particularly gratifying to us. 
A Common Market for Europe was one of the 
policy objectives stated in the preamble to the 
European Recovery Act of 1948. Now, after 10 
years, the six-nation European Common Market 
is a fact. The Western European currencies have 
become more freely exchangeable, and there is a 
strong movement for broader economic coopera- 
tion in Western Europe. 

Free- world economic progress does not permit 
complacency or relaxation. It calls instead for 
renewed effort to increase the forward momentum. 

In the years ahead we must through our trade 
and financial policies continue to promote recog- 
nition and positive use of the benefits of interde- 
pendence. These benefits and the inevitability of 



economic interdependence become more clear each 
year. What is being done in the European Com- 
munity of Six provides an example and an inspira- 
tion for greater economic cooperation elsewhere 
in the world. 

We must continue to apply our will, energy, 
treasure, and techniques to the problems of the 
less developed areas. The cause of freedom can 
be won — or could be lost — in these areas. 

VII. Conclusion 

Let me in conclusion recall the basic purposes 
underlying our policies : 

(1) The renunciation of aggressive force and 
the substitution of collective institutions of peace, 
justice, and law among nations; 

(2) Promotion of the concept of human dig- 
nity, worth, and freedom ; 

(3) Stimulation of economic growth and inter- 
dependence to create enlarged opportunities for 
realization of cultural and spiritual values. 

These goals are not attainable in a few years 
but will require decades and perhaps even gener- 
ations. Why is this so ? We are but one nation 
among nearly a hundred sovereignties and but a 
scant 6 percent of the world's land surface and 
population. Our foreign policy is not something 
we can enact into world law or dictate to other 
peoples. It means rather constant adjustment to 
forces which, though beyond our control to direct, 
we can influence through wise statesmanship and 
adherence to sound principles. With our im- 
mense wealth and power, and even more because of 
our spiritual heritage of faith and freedom, we 
can exert a shaping influence on the world of the 
future. 

The price of failure would be the destruction 
of all our other national objectives. While mus- 
tering all our resources, both material and spirit- 
ual, we must press on with courage to build surer 
foundations for the interdependent world com- 
munity of which we are part. This will call for 
austerity and sacrifice on the part of all. We 
must put first things first. 

Our purpose, ultimately and at all times, should 
be to use our great power, without abusing or pre- 
suming upon it, to move steadily toward lasting 
peace, orderly freedom, and growing opportunity. 
Thus do we achieve our constitutional purpose "to 
secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our 
posterity." 



February 2, 7959 



155 



Secretary Dulles' News Conference of January 13 



Press release 28 dated January 13 

Secretary Dulles: I am sorry that there has 
been so considerable an interval between this and 
my last preceding press conference. I hope that 
will not happen again. I surmise that quite a few 
questions have accumulated — perhaps more than 
I can handle. But I will do the best I can ; so go 
ahead. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, what is your approach — 
what is the United States approach to the talks 
at the etui of this week with Mr. Mikoyan? 1 

A. We expect in these talks to conclude the 
exchange of views which started when he was 
here before and when I talked with him and when 
he talked with the Vice President and our Am- 
bassador to the Soviet Union [Llewellyn E. 
Thompson] , who was also present at that time. 

I think that the main purpose of these talks— 
certainly as we see it — is to get an understanding 
of what is in their minds and if possible to get 
them to understand what is in our minds. We 
don't look upon these talks as negotiations. We 
are not engaged in bilateral negotiations with 
the Soviet Union in regard to matters that 
equally, and to some extent even more, concern 
others than ourselves. But we do think it is in 
the general interest to have a meeting of minds 
so that we at least understand each other and 
thereby eliminate the danger of miscalculations 
and inadvertent mistakes. There are enough real 
reasons for difficulty between us not to have them 
enhanced by what may be artificial and unreal 
misunderstandings. 

U.S. Views on German Problem 

Q. Mr. Secretary, does that view offer a possi- 






1 Anastas Mikoyan, First Deputy Chairman of the 
Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R., made an unofficial 
visit to the United States from Jan. 4 to 20, during which 
time he talked with Secretary Dulles on Jan. 5 and on 
Jan. 16, with President Eisenhower on Jan. 17, and with 
Under Secretary Dillon and Secretary of Commerce 
Lewis E. Strauss on Jan. 19. 



bility that you or the President would put for- 
ward to Mr. Mikoyan to take back to Moscow any 
new approach to the Berlin or German problems, 
or would you expect him to put forward anything 
of a similar nature on the Soviet plan? 

A. Well, of course I cannot tell what he may 
put forward. As far as we are concerned, we 
have only to put forward our general approach— 
our general views about the situation — not spe- 
cific proposals which we would have to clear first 
with our allies. 

Q. Is there any effort being made with our 
allies to create some new proposals? 

A. Well, we are having constant talks with our 
allies about the situation, and there are meetings, 
as an example, going on on this general topic 
before the permanent North Atlantic Council or- 
ganization on almost a daily basis. We are talk- 
ing almost on a daily basis with the ambassadors 
of the principally interested countries. So the 
situation is in a very active state. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, are you saying that actually 
we don't have at this point any counterpro- 
posals — that we are standing on our position 
previously and that we are just testing what 
change, if any, there may be in the Soviet 
approach? 

A. Well, we are standing of course on the pro- 
posal and statement which we made — the allied 
powers made — with the approval of all the mem- 
bers of NATO, which was made I think on the last 
day of December. 2 That proposal is not very old 
at the present time, and we are not at the present 
time submitting any alteration of that proposal. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, how about the proposals 
which toere made at the Foreign Ministers meeting 
which followed the Geneva summit meeting of 
1955 ?* Do those still stand in your view, or woidd 

2 For texts of the U.S. note of Dec. 31 and the Soviet 
note of Nov. 27, see Bulletin of Jan. 19, 1959, p. 79. 

3 For text of the proposals made by France, the U.K., 
and the U.S., see ibid., Nov. 7, 1955, p. 729. 



156 



Department of State Bulletin 



they have to he reviewed in the light of the present 
conditions? 

A. There are certain basic aspects of those pro- 
posals which I think remain valid, and I would 
expect that they would continue to survive be- 
cause of their basic validity. The basic propo- 
sition, as I recall, was, first, that Germany ought 
to be reunified; secondly, we could not expect re- 
unification under conditions which would involve, 
or seem to involve, the Soviet Union in increased 
risks or losses. Therefore it would be appropriate 
to couple any reunification of Germany with 
security provisions and limitations which would 
make sure that the Soviet Union would not, 
through the reunification, seem to have weakened 
its strategic or political position. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, Mr. Mikoyan seems to have 
made quite an impact on American influential 
business people around the country. I wonder if 
you could tell lis whether you have any concern 
about this impact in terms of future policy toward 
the Soviet Union. 

A. I have not myself had any direct reports 
from any of these business people that you speak of 
to confirm what has been the nature of the impact 
that he made. He does speak, particularly through 
his interpreter, in terms that are appealing in 
many respects. I think that probably the talks 
have been good because I think that they have also 
given him some impression about our feeling and 
our unity about questions of Berlin and the like. 
I would think on that balance, as far as I can now 
judge, it has served a constructive purpose. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you gather from last week's 
conversation with Mr. Mikoyan that an impelling 
reason behind his visit and the last two notes was a 
fear of West German rearmament? 

A. It is very hard to judge what the purpose 
or purposes of his visit are. There may be, prob- 
ably are, several purposes — not a single purpose. 
I do think that there is genuine and under- 
standable concern on the part of the Soviet Union 
about the future of Germany. And there are two 
very basic philosophies on that subject : one that 
of the Soviet Union, one that of the Western 
powers. And it's very difficult to reconcile those 
two philosophies. I hope perhaps that in the 
further talks we have we can at least get to under- 
stand each other a little better on that subject. 



Q. Mr. Secretary, a moment ago when you were 
referring to the assumptions of the '55 Foreign 
Ministers meeting you spoke of German reunifica- 
tion without using the other part, the assxmiption 
of reunification on the basis of free elections. I 
ask about that especially since Mikoyan is quoted 
this morning as having said yesterday, "You're 
arming Germans with atomic weapons to be used 
against us, and you're demanding free elections. 
One is not compatible with the other." Is there 
any change in the free-elections part of that pro- 
posal, or is that something that is negotiable in 
terms of reunification, if that is attainable? 

A. We believe in reunification by free elections, 
which was indeed the formula that was agreed to 
at the summit conference in 1955. 4 It was agreed 
to by Khrushchev himself, who was of course a 
participant in that conference. There they spoke 
of the reunification of Germany by free elections 
consistent with the German national interests and 
European security. That is approximately the 
language of the agreement. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, has there been any hint 
dropped to you by Mr. Mikoyan or any other 
Soviets that the Russians would now like a 
new meeting between the President and Mr. 
Khrushchev? 

A. No. I have heard no suggestion to that 
effect. 

U.S. and Soviet Philosophies Regarding Germany 

Q. Mr. Secretary, what's your reaction — lohat's 
the United States reaction to the Soviet proposal 
of last weekend for a peace conference to draft a 
new peace treaty for Germany? 

A. That proposal highlights what I just re- 
ferred to as the two different philosophies about 
dealing with Germany. The Soviet Union has 
consistently believed that Germany should be 
isolated, segregated, to a large extent demili- 
tarized and neutralized, and separated from close 
association with the neighboring countries. 

We don't believe that that is a sound approach 
to the problem. On the contrary, we take the 
view that Germany and the German people are 
too great, vigorous, and vital a people to be dealt 
with in that way and that that way is fraught 
with very great danger for the future. We be- 



l IUd., Aug. 1, 1955, p. 176. 



February 2, 7959 



157 



lieve that the future is best served by encouraging 
the closest possible relations between Germany 
and other Western European countries which are 
peace-loving and having such a close integra- 
tion — military, political, economic — that inde- 
pendent, aggressive, nationalist action by Ger- 
many becomes as a practical matter impossible 
and also something that would not be desired. 

Now, that has been the basic philosophy not 
only of this administration but of the preceding 
administration. It was reflected by the EDC 
(European Defense Community) ; and when the 
EDC proved impractical, the basic philosophy 
was carried forward in terms of the Brussels treaty 
for Western European union, the bringing of the 
Federal Republic into NATO — integration of its 
forces in that way — the further development of 
economic unity through adding to the Coal 
and Steel Community, the Common Market, 
EURATOM, and measures of that sort with their 
common assembly behind them. We believe that 
that is the proper way to deal with the German 
problem. 

Now, as I say, that reflects a philosophy which 
is totally different from that of the Soviet Union. 
And the Soviet proposal of this peace treaty, 
which is similar to the proposals made in '52 and 
also again in '54, reflects the Soviet approach. 
As Adenauer said yesterday, it's a "brutal" ap- 
proach. But it's in our opinion worse than a 
a brutal approach ; it's a stupid approach, because 
we don't think it will work. We believe the other 
approach is the sound one. Now, whether we 
can on that basis reach a meeting of minds with 
the Soviet Union, I don't know. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, pursuing that same subject, 
is the American position on the reunification of 
Germany by free elections totally incompatible 
with a peace treaty which would to a degree limit 
German rearmament and German participation in 
military pacts? 

A. We, of course, have in the Brussels treaty 
for European union very definite limitations on 
German armament which have been freely ac- 
cepted, to some extent indeed proposed, by the 
Germans themselves — the Federal Republic of 
Germany. So that the concept of having limita- 
tions is not a concept which is in any way alien 
either to our thinking or to the thinking of the 
Federal Republic itself. 



Now, you speak about military pacts. I don't 
think of these things as military pacts. I think of 
them as collective associations where people work 
together for peace and security, where they con- 
sult together, where they exchange views about 
their foreign policies, their political programs, 
and the like. The idea that these collective 
security associations are aggressive military alli- 
ances which are bad is a concept which we reject 
totally. We believe that this type of association 
of nations coming together for collective security 
is the modern way whereby the family of nations 
gets the same kind of association that you get 
within a community where people associate to- 
gether for their security through common 
institutions. 

Q. So your answer to the second part of my 
question is yes it is incompatible with our stand? 

A. Well, I don't remember your question clear- 
ly enough to go back and say the answer to the 
question is "Yes." But I think the record will 
show whether or not my answer justifies that 
characterization. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in your conversation with 
Mr. Mikoyan, was the subject of China men- 
tioned at any stage? 

A. I don't recall that it was mentioned. It 
certainly did not assume any important role. It 
might possibly have been mentioned in a passing 
way but not sufficiently that it registered partic- 
ularly in my mind at the present time. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, Mr. Mikoyan has been re- 
ported by several sources as having emphasized 
that the Soviet proposal to make West Berlin a 
free city should not be regarded as an ultima- 
tum. Can you tell us whether this is so and 
whether at tlie same time the Soviets have indi- 
cated any willingness to stop their plan for turn- 
ing over their zone to the East Berliners and the 
East Germans sometime in June? 

A. It has been made clear that there was no 
intention on the part of the Soviet Union to 
have their note treated as an ultimatum with a 
fixed time limit. And that is encouraging be- 
cause, as the Western allies said in their note of 
the end of December, we would find it very dif- 
ficult indeed to negotiate under that kind of an 
ultimatum. So to that extent some progress has 
been made. 



158 



Department of State Bulletin 



I would not say that there has been any indi- 
cation, as far as the substance of the matter is 
concerned, of any alteration in the Soviet po- 
sition. 

New Government of Cuba 

Q. Mr. Secretary, has the United States asked 
the Cuban Government in any way or indicated 
in any way that they ought to discontinue the 
blood bath taking j)lace in that country? 

A. I don't think we have made any represen- 
tations on that subject. 

Q. Could you tell us what our position is re- 
garding that? 

A. It is our hope of course that this new Gov- 
ernment of Cuba will be responsive to the aspira- 
tions of the Cuban people for a govermnent of 
freedom, liberty, justice, and law. We hope that 
its actions will conform to that ideal. The actual 
facts about what is taking place are not entirely 
clear or our information dependable at the pres- 
ent time. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, going bach to the German 
question, in an effort to bring the two political 
philosophies together I believe at one time you 
undertook to reassure the Soviet Government 
that, if it accepted free elections in Germany, the 
West would guarantee that it would not seek to 
push its defense line farther to the east. Would 
you spell out that idea and indicate to us how 
this assurance woidd be made positive? 

A. That was part of the concept as I recall that 
was put forward in '55, although perhaps not as 
clearly or as dramatically as might have been 
done. In part it has been covered by my answer 
to a prior question where I said that I do not 
think that it is reasonable to expect that the So- 
viet Union will give up positions which it has if 
it thinks that by doing so it may be giving a 
strategic military advantage to those whom it 
regards — I think wrongly, but nevertheless 
which it regards — as potential enemies. We just 
can't expect that to happen. Therefore, if there 
is going to be any reunification of Germany, it 
has got to be under conditions which take into ac- 
count realistically some of those very elemental, 
primitive facts of life. It was in order to meet 
that point of view that we tried to give reassur- 



ances to the Soviet Union along those lines, and it 
is still my view that we should be prepared to 
do that. 

Q. In addition to that, would you recall for 
us what your position was on the proposal of Sir 
Anthony Eden at Geneva for the thinning out 
of troops and for some linking of the Warsaao 
with the NATO pact? 

A. I don't recall just what Sir Anthony Eden's 
proposals were in that respect. I think that we 
recognized that, if events should move along the 
lines of the reunification of Germany, under 
these conditions there would almost automati- 
cally come about a lessening of the military re- 
quirements in the Western area and a conse- 
quent reduction of forces there. As far as the 
linking of the pacts was concerned, I don't think 
that that was ever proposed. At least that is not 
my recollection. I think what was proposed 
was an overriding European security pact which 
would embrace perhaps the members of both 
NATO and the Warsaw pacts and which would 
contain assurances that, if any one of the group 
should take aggressive action against the other, 
all of the other members would unite to come 
to the defense of the victim of attack. That 
would be a sort of an overriding European se- 
curity proposal which would be superim- 
posed upon the Warsaw pact and the NATO 
powers. 

Q. What is your position on that at the pres- 
ent time? 

A. I still hold the view that that would be 
a sound way in which to proceed. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would you be willing to 
liave the present East Germany demilitarized as 
part of such a settlement with Russia if they 
agreed to a reunification? In other icords, keep 
East or West German troops out of that part of 
the country? 

A. Well, something along that line is im- 
plicit in the suggestion that has been made. Of 
course, you have got to have ordinary police 
forces, forces to maintain law and order and in- 
ternal security. But the proposal that was made 
earlier and which has been discussed here already 
did imply that the military position of the 
Western powers, NATO, should not be pushed 
forward into East Germany if there should be 
reunification. 



February 2, 7959 



159 



Q. Mr. Secretary, if you say you are not nego- 
tiating bilaterally with Mr. Mikoyan during this 
visit, how do you propose to negotiate all these 
aspects of the German question that we have been 
discussing, or in fact do you propose to negotiate 
them? 

A. Well, we have made a proposal to negotiate 
on the question of the reunification of Germany, 
Berlin, and European security. That proposal 
was made in our December 31st note. The Soviets 
have said that they are prepared to negotiate on 
the question of Berlin and on the question of a 
German peace treaty but not on the question of 
German reunification or at the same time on the 
question of European security. 

Now there seems to be one common denomi- 
nator which runs through all this, which is, there 
seems to be a desire on both sides to get together 
and talk. There is not a meeting of minds as to 
what we talk about. There seems to be a sharp 
difference of opinion as to what we talk about, 
but there is at least a common denominator, I 
think, in terms of a feeling that there should be 
discussions. You might say that it has gotten 
down to the point where it is a matter of agenda. 
We know that the question of agenda can be a 
very serious stumbling block in the way of meet- 
ings. It was so at the time of the Palais Bose 
conference (Paris session of deputies of Council 
of Foreign Ministers, March 5-June 21, 1951), 
and it has been a stumbling block in the way of 
a summit meeting. 

Q. But in Berlin in 195^ you accepted the 
Soviet agenda at the outset. It really made no 
difference in the substance of the talks. In this 
case loould you be willing to accept perhaps the 
single word "Germany" as an agenda? 

A. I think that our ideas as to the possible 
subject of discussion are broad. It is the Soviet 
Union that is trying to narrow the subject of 
discussion. We would not be alarmed by the 
broadness of the agenda. The only thing that 
alarms us would be the narrowness of the agenda 
and to have a meeting which tried to deal with the 
question of a peace treaty and Berlin without 
being able at the same time even to discuss the 
question of the reunification of Germany or the 
question of European security. That seems to 
us unrealistic. It was recognized in the Geneva 
summit meeting directive that there was a close 



interrelationship between the question of Ger- 
many and European security. We still believe 
that there is that interrelationship. So what con- 
cerns us would be not the broadening of the 
agenda but being debarred from discussing what 
we considered to be vital things by a narrowing 
of the agenda before the talks start. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, Mr. Mikoyan seems to have 
struck on a formula for achieving personal talks 
with American leaders by a personal call on the 
Ambassador here. What would your reaction be 
to an application by Mr. Khrushchev to call on 
his Ambassador here and possibly have the same 
round of talks? 

A. I doubt whether it would be possible for 
the Prime Minister to come here in the same 
atmosphere of informality that attended the visit 
of Mr. Mikoyan. I would just like to recall, how- 
ever, that the President in his letter to the then 
Premier Bulganin, I think early last year, did 
invite the coming to this country of important 
persons in the Soviet Union. 5 But I think also 
he made clear that that did not comprehend 
anybody so important as Mr. Khrushchev. 
(Laughter) 

Visit of Argentine President 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could you tell us what you 
expect will be accomplished during the forth- 
coming visit of the Argentine President to 
Washington? 

A. We believe that this visit will serve to con- 
solidate the good relations between our two 
countries. The Argentine has always been one of 
the very important members of the Organization 
of American States. There are very important 
interests that we have in common. We are en- 
couraged by what seems to us to be a sound 
approach to many problems being taken by Presi- 
dent [Arturo] Frondizi. As you know, there has 
been a very considerable amount of economic as- 
sistance extended in that connection by various 
banking institutions. We have no specific ob- 
jective in mind in connection with this talk. We 
do think that an exchange of views about general 
matters will be in our mutual interests. We look 
forward to it very much. 



5 For an exchange of letters between President Eisen- 
hower and Premier Bulganin, see ibid.. Mar. 10, 1958, 
p. 373. 



160 



Department of State Bulletin 



Q. Mr. Secretary, I would like to ask you a 
question about your health, if I may. Can you 
tell us how you are feeling now and, especially, 
whether or not you feel capable to carry on your 
present job in view of the fact that it looks like 
we are going into a very active period of 
diplomatic negotiations? 

A. Well, I am feeling good. I feel able to 
carry on. At any time I don't feel able to carry 
on, you will know it. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, is it our position that free 
elections are the only method of reuniting Ger- 
many? In other words, do we say, "No free 
elections, no reunification 1 ''? 

A. Well, we never have said that. The formula 
of reunification by free elections was the agreed 
formula. It seems to us to be a natural method. 
But I wouldn't say that it is the only method by 
which reunification could be accomplished. 

Geneva Talks on Nuclear Test Suspension 

Q. Mr. Secretary, on the question of the atomic- 
test negotiations in Geneva, in view of the new 
scientific findings as released by the White House 
recently,* is it now the position of this Govern- 
ment that you would not sign a test suspension or 
stoppage based exclusively on the findings of the 
experts, the agreed findings of the experts at 
Geneva last summer? 7 

A. It is a bit too early yet to evaluate that in- 
formation in terms of what may be the techniques 
available for detection. I think that that infor- 
mation gained from our recent experiments indi- 
cated that the techniques which had originally 
been contemplated were perhaps inadequate. But 
very careful studies are being made to see whether 
there cannot be found ways of detection which 
can really be brought within the compass of the 
original report of the experts, so that no serious 
or revolutionary change would be required. 

Q. Well, Mr. Secretary, are we also giving con- 
sideration to what appears to be the alternative if 
such technical means cannot be found; that is, to 
establish a threshold below which explosions 



' Ibid., Jan. 26, 1959, p. 118. 

' For a statement by James B. Fisk, chairman of the 
Western panel of experts, and texts of a final communique 
and report, see ibid., Sept. 22, 1958, p. 452. 



underground, which would presumably not con- 
taminate the air, would be permitted in the so- 
called small-er sized weapons? 

A. That is a possible fallback position which 
has been considered. It was a position, you may 
recall, which was presented by Senator Gore when 
he came back from the discussions. But we 
see no reason at the moment to come to that posi- 
tion, because, as I say, we haven't gotten down 
yet to the details of a control system and as to 
what would be acceptable, what would be prac- 
tical. Now if it turns out that what is acceptable 
or what is practical leaves an area where there 
could be undetected underground explosions, then 
at that point we would have to consider, I think, 
this alternative. 

Question of Free Elections 

Q. Mr. Secretary, to clarify an earlier answer 
that you made, you said that "free elections are 
the natural method for unifying Germany, but it 
is not the only method? Gould you tell us what 
other methods there might be which could be ac- 
ceptable to us and the West Germans and our 
allies? 

A. No, I wouldn't want to speculate about 
that. There are all kinds of methods whereby 
countries and peoples draw together, and I merely 
said that I did not feel that we should treat any 
one method as an absolutely exclusive one. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, when you said that the So- 
viet plan for Germany is "stupid'''' because it 
wouldn't work, in what sense did you mean it 
wouldn't work? What bad result did you see 
flowing from it? 

A. I believe that, if you try to isolate and segre- 
gate a great people like the Germans in the center 
of Europe, they will become a restive and dan- 
gerous force; they will attempt to gain ad- 
vantages to themselves by trying to play off the 
East against the West. I don't think that you 
can put the Germans within the kind of a smoth- 
ering blanket that the Soviet Union has in mind 
and expect that that will hold. That, in a way, 
was the approach of the Treaty of Versailles, 
and it just didn't work. And I don't think it 
will work again. I think that a so-called neu- 
tralized and largely demilitarized Germany, at- 
tempted to be demilitarized in the middle of 



February 2, 7959 



161 



Europe, is just something that won't work and 
that, instead of trying to isolate Germany, the 
best way is to tie Germany in. 

Now that is the basic thesis of Adenauer. I 
believe that Adenauer's claim to greatness rests 
upon his effort to assure that Germany will not 
again follow the path which Germany followed 
in 1914 and again in 1939. He is the one who 
has invented, you might say, this solution. And 
I believe it is the most practical and sound solu- 
tion for those who really want to end for all 
time the kind of danger that has come from Ger- 
many in the past. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, on the suspension you men- 
tioned a moment ago that there had not teen time 
yet to evaluate some of the technicalities of detec- 
tion and other aspects. If this is true and if the 
results will have a very direct hearing on what- 
ever agreement, if any, is reached, why are we 
negotiating until those technical subjects are 
answered? Doesn't it, rightly or wrongly, put 
us in a position of seeming to be hypocritical on 
the matter t 

A. I don't think so. The studies are going on 
at a very active rate by our own scientists, and 
it may very well be that they will find that, 
while there are means of explosion of a charac- 
ter not heretofore adequately evaluated, there are 
also ways whereby these control posts that were 
recommended by the experts can cope with the 
problem. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in this connection, what is 
your feeling about the inclusion of China in any 
disarmament agreement or test agreement on nu- 
clear suspension? 

A. I take it you are referring to Communist 
China, or the Republic of China? 

Q. Communist China. {Laughter) 

A. Well, I have said before that ultimately I 
think that a system of detection should be geo- 
graphically worldwide in its scope. But there 
is no present effort to make it so, and it is more 
or less agreed that for the purpose of the present 
negotiations the inspection at this stage will be 
limited to areas controlled by the three powers 
now possessing nuclear weapons. 

Q. Thank you, sir. 



United States Explains Policy 
Toward Cuba 

Department Statement 

Press release 35 dated January 15 

Recent statements in the Cuban and American 
press critical of United States policy in Cuba and 
of Ambassador [Earl E. T.] Smith reflect a wide- 
spread lack of understanding of what United 
States policy toward Cuba has been. 

The policy of the United States with respect to 
the Cuban revolution has been strictly one of non- 
intervention in Cuban domestic affairs, and the 
Ambassador's role has conformed always to this 
policy. Much as the American people, being free 
themselves, would have liked to have seen a free 
democratic system in Cuba, the United States 
Government was pledged in agreements with its 
sister republics to a course of nonintervention. 
Like all the other American Republics, the United 
States maintained normal diplomatic relations 
with the Batista government. Under established 
inter- American policy this did not imply judg- 
ment in favor of the domestic policy of that 
government or against the revolutionary forces. 
From the time when it became evident that Cuba 
was undergoing a revolution which had the sup- 
port of a large segment of the population, the 
United States demonstrated its determination to 
avoid all possible involvement in Cuba's internal 
conflict by suspending all sales and shipments of 
combat arms to the Batista government. This ac- 
tion coincided with the renewed suspension of con- 
stitutional guaranties by the Batista government 
following a 46-day period during which the sus- 
pension had been lifted following the appeal of 
the United States Government through its 
Ambassador. 

The United States military missions to Cuba 
were established in 1950 and '51 pursuant to agree- 
ments between the United States and Cuba, nego- 
tiated with the Prio government. These agree- 
ments had as their sole purpose cooperation in 
the common defense of Cuba and the United 
States, and of the hemisphere as a whole. The 
function of the missions was to lend technical ad- 
vice, facilitate access to United States technical 
military experience, arrange for the admissions of 
Cubans to United States service schools and acad- 
emies, and facilitate the procurement of equip- 



162 



Department of State Bulletin 



ment and arms as recommended by the missions 
for common defense as described above. Similar 
United States missions are maintained in 19 of the 
other American Republics. In utilizing for the 
purpose of putting down the Cuban revolution 
any part of the equipment that had been provided 
under the agreement prior to the arms suspension 
or the small unit that had been previously trained 
and constituted expressly for the common de- 
fense, the government of Batista acted in dis- 
regard of the agreement and over the reiterated 
objections of the United States. No napalm was 
sold or otherwise provided by the United States 
for use against the Cuban revolutionaries. Eight 
napalm bombs were sold in 1955 for demonstra- 
tion purposes. This sale was approved prior to 
the existence of the recent revolution in Cuba. 
By agreement between the Departments of State 
and Defense, none has been supplied to Cuba 
since. As for the missions themselves, they had 
no contact whatever with any military operations 
against the revolutionaries. They trained no per- 
sonnel for this purpose. No mission personnel 
were present at any time in the zones of opera- 
tion. Therefore, the charge that the United 
States supplied arms for Batista's operations 
against the rebels or that the missions assisted 
these operations in any way is completely false. 



President Eisenhower Congratulates 
General de Gaulle 

White House press release dated January 9 

The White House on January 9 made public the 
following message from President Eisenhower to 
Gen. Charles de Gaidle, President of the French 
Republic. 

January 8, 1959 

Dear General de Gaulle: At this historic 
moment I deem it a privilege and honor to extend 
to you greetings and congratulations upon your 
inauguration as the first President of the Fifth 
French Republic. 

France has a special place in the hearts of the 
American people. Moreover, you yourself have 
come to symbolize for us not only French valor 
and resolution in the face of adversity but also a 
dynamic and youthful France determined to go 
forward with renewed vigor and faith. For these 



reasons the American people join me in saluting 
the beginning of the Fifth Republic with great 
hope and confidence. We send to you and to the 
noble people you have the honor to lead a special 
message of friendship and of good wishes for your 
own future and that of the French nation. 

The traditional friendship between our two 
peoples and our two Governments is firmly estab- 
lished in our foreign relations. I believe, how- 
ever, that this is a most fitting occasion for us to 
rededicate ourselves to strengthening these ties 
and to build an ever more intimate and under- 
standing partnership. 

Please accept, Mr. President, my best wishes 
and the assurances of my highest esteem. 
Sincerely, 

Dwight D. Eisenhower 

His Excellency 
General Charles de Gaulle 

President of the French Republic 
Paris, France 



U.S. Asks U.S.S.R. To Review Basis 
for Talks on Surprise Attack 

Press release 36 dated January 16 

Following is the text of a note delivered to the 
Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs on January 
IS, 1959, concerning the problem of minimizing 
the possibility of surprise attach. 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Ministry of For- 
eign Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics and has the honor in behalf of the gov- 
ernments of the five countries from which the 
Western experts were drawn to refer to the re- 
port * of the conference of experts to study pos- 
sible measures which might be helpful in pre- 
venting surprise attack, which by agreement sus- 
pended its meetings on December 18, 1958 2 in 
view of the Christmas and New Year's holidays 
and in order to report to governments on its 
work. 

While the meetings of this conference were 
helpful in clarifying for each side the views of 



1 U.N. doc. A/4078. 

' Bulletin of Jan. 5, 1959, p. 13. 



February 2, 1959 



163 



the other side, it is a source of deep regret to 
the United States that more substantive prog- 
ress was not made in joint technical-military 
analysis of the problem of minimizing the possi- 
bility of surprise attack. 

For their part, the Western experts at the con- 
ference suggested a plan of work designed to fa- 
cilitate a logical technical-military analysis of the 
problem by assembling the facts necessary for 
evaluating the effectiveness of various systems 
of inspection and observation. To facilitate the 
discussions the Western experts presented tech- 
nical papers on the significant instruments of 
surprise attack, and on the techniques which 
would be effective in observation and inspection 
of such weapons. The Western experts also pre- 
sented technical papers on illustrative systems of 
observation and inspection for certain instru- 
ments of surprise attack, as well as a technical 
analysis of the value of warning systems and of 
factors to be considered in the integration of such 
systems. 

The experts from the other side refused to join 
the Western experts in a technical-military anal- 
ysis of measures of observation and inspection 
which would minimize the possibility of surprise 
attack except within the context of political pro- 
posals considered by the Western experts to be 
beyond the competence of the experts conference. 
It was thus not possible to conduct a joint anal- 
ysis of the type of measures most likely to bring 
the greatest amount of security against surprise 
attack and of the nature and value of various 
possible preliminary measures which govern- 
ments might wish to institute. 

It thus became apparent that the experts from 
the two sides were operating under two different 
terms of reference and that this difference was 
preventing the type of joint technical analysis 
that would give real meaning to the discus- 
sions. 

It also became clear that future discussions of 
the surprise attack problem could not be produc- 
tive until governments had resolved these differ- 
ences. Referring to the Soviet Government's note 
of January 10, 3 the Government of the United 
States, for the reasons cited above, does not be- 
lieve it useful or desirable to set a date of January 
15 for reconvening the conference. The Govern- 



3 Not printed. 
164 



ment of the United States will continue to consult 
on this subject with the other governments to 
which the Soviet Government's note has been 
addressed. 

The United States believes that the problem of 
reducing the danger of surprise attack is so im- 
portant that renewed efforts must be made. The 
United States Government, therefore, is giving 
high priority to continued study of this problem, 
and is carefully studying the record of the confer- 
ence in order to determine whether the terms of 
reference for future discussions can usefully be 
clarified. Thereafter further reviews of this 
question will be transmitted to the Soviet Union. 

The United States Government has reason to 
believe that the governments of the other four 
countries from which the Western experts were 
drawn are also studying the record of the con- 
ference for the same purpose. 

It is hoped that the Soviet Union will also 
carefully review the records of the conference and 
study means of resolving the present differences 
and of reaching an agreed basis for earty and 
fruitful resumption of discussions of the surprise 
attack problem. 



United States Sends 50,000 Tons 
of Wheat to Afghanistan 

Press release 27 dated January 12 

The Department of State announced on January 
12 that at the request of the Government of Af- 
ghanistan the United States will send up to 50,000 
tons of wheat to Afghanistan to avert a food-grain 
shortage which is developing in this South Asian 
country due to recent severe crop losses there. 

The wheat, which will come from stocks of the 
Commodity Credit Corporation, will be provided 
to Afghanistan on a grant basis through the facil- 
ities of the International Cooperation Administra- 
tion and its Operations Mission in Afghanistan. 
The U.S. market value of the shipments, including 
ocean freight, will total approximately $4 million. 

The Government of Afghanistan will distribute 
the grain in Afghanistan. In order that maximum 
benefits may be derived from the shipments, Af- 
ghanistan is expected to deposit local-currency 
proceeds derived from the grain into a special 
account. These funds will be used to help finance 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



development projects in Afghanistan mutually 
agreed upon by the United States and the 
Afghan Government. 

Arrangements have already been initiated to get 
the shipments under way in the earliest possible 
time. 

This is the third successive year that the United 
States has responded to requests from Afghan- 
istan for relief from crop shortages which have 
plagued the country during the past several years 
because of adverse weather conditions. 



A total of 40,000 tons of wheat were delivered 
to Afghanistan during 1958 on a grant basis, and 
40,000 tons were provided to that country in late 
1956 for delivery from November 1956 through 
June 1957. 

As in the present case the grain was provided 
under provisions of title II of the Agricultural 
Trade Development and Assistance Act (P.L. 
480), which authorizes the use of U.S. farm sur- 
pluses for emergency relief purposes in the United 
States and abroad. 



Imperatives of International Economic Growth 



by Under Secretary Dillon 1 



We have recently entered what promises to be 
a year of the highest drama. This fateful year is 
certain to produce formidable challenges to us as 
a nation, as a God-fearing people, and as free- 
dom-loving citizens. Inevitably many of 1959's 
problems will stem from the aggressive, expan- 
sionist ambitions of the leaders of the Sino-Soviet 
bloc. 

There is no need for me to spell out here the full 
dimensions of international communism's mili- 
tary, economic, and psychological threat to the 
free world. Many of you were among the first to 
recognize its total nature and its enormous im- 
plications for our way of life. And you, and the 
organizations you represent, were among the first 
to call for a many-sided response to this many- 
sided challenge — a response which your Govern- 
ment is pressing forward on every front. 

As you well know, Communist efforts in the 
economic field have been intensified in recent 
years. But I do not intend today to discuss the 
Sino-Soviet economic offensive. I want instead 
to examine with you the demand being made 
upon our resources and upon our consciences to 
help raise the living standards of the peoples of 
Asia, Africa, and Latin America. These are 



1 Address made before the Foundation for Religious 
Action in the Social and Civil Order at Washington, D.C., 
on Jan. 16 (press release 37). 



the areas where most of mankind lives and where 
the struggle between freedom and totalitarianism 
may ultimately be decided. The need to help 
these peoples forward on the road to economic 
progress would confront us even if communism 
and the Sino-Soviet bloc simply didn't exist. 

To me, the yearning of the peoples of Asia, 
Africa, and Latin America for a better way of life 
presents us with the ultimate challenge of our 
times — and our greatest hope for the future. It 
is clearly a moral challenge. If we fail to respond 
adequately, we shall stand accused as a people who 
proclaim our own satisfaction with the benefits 
of freedom but who are slothful in carrying the 
spirit of freedom to others around the world. 
The plain fact is that our posture before the world 
can be no better than the manner in which we 
fulfill the obligations that flow from our status 
as the most materially favored nation in all 
history. 

Economic Imperatives for Developed Countries 

Our objective must be to help raise other peo- 
ples' standards of living. In so doing we shall 
also help to raise standards of personal and po- 
litical freedom — a goal which is impossible of 
achievement in the absence of economic growth. 
With these objectives in mind let us consider 
the imperatives of international economic 
development. 



February 2, 7959 



165 



The first imperative — and a major one — is to 
maintain a sturdy, growing economy in the United 
States. Our ability to extend aid, to offer the 
capital which is so badly needed in the newly 
emerging countries, is conditioned upon our do- 
mestic strength. Our prosperity also helps to 
assure them a market for their output. The 
movement of goods is, of course, closely related 
to the movement of capital. Not only must we 
import in order to export. We must import to 
keep investment flowing overseas. For, without 
the prospect of returns, the expanding flow of 
private investment is impossible. 

The second imperative — and one with which we 
must reckon increasingly as we continue to pros- 
per — is the need to narrow the widening gap be- 
tween living standards in the industrialized West 
and the underdeveloped nations. Ironically, 
while our own living standards and those of our 
allies in Europe are rapidly improving, living 
standards in the newly emerging nations are ad- 
vancing much more slowly — due largely to the 
tremendous growth in population. Heroic efforts 
to narrow this gap must be made this year, not a 
decade hence, when it will be too late. We can 
be thankful that we are not alone in our recog- 
nition of this imperative. As they have emerged 
from the devastation of war, Britain, France, and 
Italy have been turning their attention increas- 
ingly to assisting the world's underdeveloped 
areas. Germany has recently entered this field 
with characteristic vigor, as have our neighbor, 
Canada, and other members of the British Com- 
monwealth. So has Japan. The Japanese are 
now beginning to share their skills and resources 
with their neighbors. 

But this gap cannot be closed by our efforts 
alone, nor even by the combined efforts of our- 
selves and our allies. The peoples of the newly 
emerging nations must make the major contri- 
bution to their own progress. I have visited 
many of these countries and talked to their lead- 
ers. A fresh wind is sweeping through them. 
Their peoples are no longer content to sit back 
and envy the more developed countries. They 
have been caught up in what has been aptly de- 
scribed as the revolution of rising expectations. 
Their leaders are desperately trying to meet these 
expectations. They need our help in their great 
effort. 

Military security and internal stability must be 



present to provide the framework in which eco- 
nomic progress can take place at a steady and ac- 
ceptable rate. Many of the newly emerging 
nations, especially in Asia and Africa, are 
plagued by the tensions inherent in the transition 
to new-found political independence. Our mu- 
tual security program has been of assistance in 
this respect by making available equipment, train- 
ing, and defense support for indigenous military 
and civil forces. 

A third imperative is the maintenance of ade- 
quate markets on which the developing countries 
can place their goods. These countries must sell 
their products in order to obtain the industrial 
equipment needed for development. We have 
made significant strides toward keeping our mar- 
ket open to the surplus production of all countries 
of the free world through the extension of our 
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act on a realistic, 
long-term basis. We are also working with other 
countries to expand trade through the operations 
of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. 
We must continue to pursue ways to remove arti- 
ficial restraints upon world trade — our own and 
those imposed by others. Since many of the less 
developed countries now find their exports con- 
centrated in a few primary commodities, we must 
stand ready to study ways to help avoid disastrous 
price fluctuations and to assist them in diversi- 
fying their economies. 

Need for Technical and Managerial Skills 

A fourth requirement for the newly emerging 
nations is the crying need for the technical and 
managerial skills which are the bedrock of de- 
velopment. Without them no amount of capital 
will bring about growth. The United States has, 
over a period of years, made important contribu- 
tions in this area: bilaterally, through our In- 
ternational Cooperation Administration and, 
multilaterally, through the United Nations and 
the Organization of American States. The need 
for technical skills is fully recognized by the de- 
veloping nations themselves. For example, the 
recent annual report of the Colombo Plan's Con- 
sultative Committee, said : 2 

In a year which has seen intensive consideration 
given to increasing the capital resources of leading lend- 
ing institutions, it is now urgent that the less developed 



* For an extract from the annual report, see Bulletin 
of Dec. 1, 1958, p. 853. 



166 



Department of State Bulletin 



countries give greater attention to the development of 
the human skills which can assure the appropriate and 
effective utilization of these capital resources. 

A fifth necessity is private investment. If we 
are to be of maximum help to less developed 
countries, our private resources — which are far 
larger than those Government can possibly pro- 
vide — must be welcomed and drawn upon to the 
greatest extent possible. We are constantly seek- 
ing ways to stimulate the flow of private Amer- 
ican investment abroad. The investment guar- 
anty program of the ICA has been steadily ex- 
panding. Through tax treaties, through our sys- 
tem of credit for foreign income taxes paid, and 
through other provisions of the Internal Revenue 
Code, the United States is endeavoring to avoid 
double taxation and thus facilitate American in- 
vestment abroad. In our current tax-treaty ne- 
gotiations we have introduced an important in- 
novation. We are preparing to give tax credit 
for certain income taxes waived by less developed 
countries as an inducement to investment, as if 
they had, in fact, been collected abroad. Current- 
ly we are studying ways to ascertain how the 
Government can more effectively enlist the aid 
of private enterprise in achieving the objectives 
of our foreign policy. A group of distinguished 
citizens drawn from the Business Advisory Coun- 
cil of the Department of Commerce is now work- 
ing actively on the preparation of concrete sug- 
gestions, and the President has stated his inten- 
tion of submitting legislation on this subject to 
the Congress. 

A sixth requirement is for public loans on nor- 
mal bankable terms. Such loans are now being 
extended by the International Bank for Recon- 
struction and Development and the International 
Monetary Fund. These organizations have a spe- 
cial virtue, for they draw on both the public and 
private resources of the entire free world. The 
United States has believed in, contributed to, and 
supported these agencies from the very beginning. 
The directors of these institutions, acting upon 
an American suggestion, have proposed to expand 
their resources. 3 The United States also extends 
bankable loans for development through the Ex- 
port-Import Bank, which has made an outstanding 
contribution to economic progress. 

A seventh requirement is for development fi- 
nancing which will provide flexible terms of repay - 



3 Ibid., Nov. 17, 1958, p. 793. 
February 2, 1959 



ment. Many sound projects which are essential to 
development cannot qualify for bankable loans. 
It was to help finance such projects on a business- 
like basis that the United States Congress estab- 
lished the Development Loan Fund. It works 
closely with our Export-Import Bank and with 
the World Bank to stimulate an increased flow of 
bankable loans for development programs. One 
of its objectives is to help stimulate private enter- 
prise, which is so essential to the stability of the 
less developed areas. In its first year of operation 
it has proved itself as a highly effective tool for 
economic development. It deserves your full and 
active support. 

The United States is also working with its sister 
republics of the other Americas toward the estab- 
lishment of an inter-American financial institu- 
tion. And we are suggesting the establishment of 
an International Development Association closely 
affiliated with the International Bank. Such an 
association would be a multilateral version of our 
own Development Loan Fund. It would provide a 
means whereby other countries able to do so could 
join in financing development projects. We are 
now actively examining the feasibility of such an 
institution with our friends and allies. This pro- 
posal, as many of you know, sprang originally 
from an imaginative concept of Senator Monroney, 
who has long been a leader in our nation's efforts 
to aid the newly emerging peoples. 

Economic Imperatives for Underdeveloped Countries 

Now I have been discussing the imperatives 
which depend heavily upon the initiative and the 
resources of the more developed nations. There 
are other imperatives of economic development 
which rest largely with the peoples of the under- 
developed nations themselves. I shall mention 
them briefly: 

1. The need to create a climate in which foreign 
private investment can flourish; 

2. The need to stimulate national savings so as 
to accumulate the domestic capital which is needed 
to insure stability and economic progress ; 

3. A willingness on the part of indigenous capi- 
tal and business to welcome competition and as- 
sume risks normal to healthy free enterprise; 

4. The reduction of traditional social and cul- 
tural barriers to economic progress, whether based 
upon class, race, or tradition ; 



167 



5. The need to emphasize scientific, technical, 
financial, and commercial studies in their educa- 
tional systems — plus a willingness on the part of 
the more talented individuals to seek training in 
skills directly related to economic progress rather 
than to pursue education primarily as a means of 
enhancing social prestige. 

These needs are rooted in problems based on 
attitudes, tradition, and established social pat- 
terns. They are resistant to change. They will 
not all be met tomorrow. But they must eventu- 
ally be met if the newly emerging peoples are to 
make a successful transition to a state of steady 
economic growth. 

Redefining Our National Purpose 

Finally I come to an imperative which is of 
crucial importance to this nation. I refer to the 
need for redefining our national purpose in ex- 
tending aid to other countries of the free world. 

I sometimes wonder if we haven't fallen into a 
trap of our own making when, in seeking support 
for our mutual security program, we present it to 
the American people mainly as an answer to the 
menace of Communist aggression. We find that 
our motives are sometimes misunderstood abroad. 
I wonder if we haven't allowed ourselves to be 
identified in the eyes of large parts of the world 
as defenders of our own status quo, rather than 
as a people whose motivations are founded upon 
principle and whose response to the needs of others 
arises out of a deep sense of moral responsibility. 

We must clearly establish the fact that all of 
our endeavors in the foreign aid field are designed 
as part of one common free- world enterprise. We 
must consolidate a communion of interest with 
the aspiring peoples. I know of only one way to 
shape an image of integrity and responsibility. 
That is to exhibit integrity and responsibility. 
This we have most assuredly done. But perhaps 
we have allowed our good deeds to be obscured in 



the fog generated by our problems with the Soviet 
Union. 

I neither overlook nor minimize the dangers 
to this country inherent in masses of men and 
weapons, as well as technical and industrial re- 
sources, in the hands of an implacable Communist 
enemy. Without question, economic and techni- 
cal assistance to the newly developing nations is 
in our national self-interest. However, we do our- 
selves a grave injustice and distort our true image 
before the world if we give our foreign aid pro- 
gram a wholly selfish cast. For this program 
rests squarely in the great tradition of idealism 
that has motivated the American people since our 
earliest beginnings. 

The Marshall plan, the point 4 program, and 
the present mutual security program have no 
parallel in all history. The willing acceptance 
by the American people of the challenge to help 
free other peoples from the bitter slavery of 
poverty is one of the greatest moral achievements 
of this century. We should not permit it to be 
derided by the cynical or deprecated by the 
uninformed. 

I look to groups such as this to help bring 
about a wider understanding of the imperatives 
of our foreign policies, both at home and abroad. 
That understanding is crucially needed. For our 
foreign aid programs grew naturally out of our 
social, cultural, and religious heritage. We have 
accepted a great challenge from which we cannot 
draw back. If we answer it successfully we shall 
be assured a place in history as one of the great 
humanitarian peoples of all times. In the words 
of Arnold Toynbee: 

Our age will be well remembered, not for its horrifying 
crimes or its astonishing inventions, but because it is the 
first generation since the dawn of history in which man- 
kind dared to believe it practical to make the benefits 
of civilization available to the whole human race. 

We are the natural leaders of that generation. 
Our duty and our path are clear. 



168 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE CONGRESS 



Progress in Promoting Peace and Stability in the Middle East 

THIRD REPORT TO CONGRESS ON ACTIVITIES UNDER THE JOINT RESOLUTION 
TO PROMOTE PEACE AND STABILITY IN THE MIDDLE EAST > 



PRESIDENT'S LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

To the Congress of the United States: 

I am transmitting herewith the third report to 
the Congress covering activities through June 30, 
1958, in furtherance of the purposes of the joint 
resolution to promote peace and stability in the 
Middle East. This report supplements the first 
and second reports forwarded to the Congress on 
July 31, 1957, 2 and March 5, 1958. 3 

Dwight D. Eisenhower. 

The White House, September 9, 1958. 



TEXT OF REPORT 

Chapter 1 
Progress in Furtherance of the Resolution 

JANUARY 1 TO JUNE 30, 1958 

House Joint Resolution 117, 4 to promote peace 
and stability in the Middle East, was approved 
by the President on March 9, 1957. When adopted, 
it established a milestone in U.S. policy for 
the area. It is no less important today to U.S. 
interests. The policy enunciated in the resolution 
continues to be a most significant and vital ele- 
ment of our foreign policy. 

The resolution sets forth in unmistakable terms 
the importance which the United States attaches 
to the preservation of the integrity and independ- 
ence of the Middle East nations. The resolution 
also authorizes assistance in building economic 



1 H. Doc. 43, 86th Cong., 1st sess. ; transmitted on Sept. 
9, 1958. 

2 Bulletin of Aug. 26, 1957, p. 339. 

3 Ibid., Mar. 31, 1958, p. 524. 

1 For text, see ibid.. Mar. 25, 1957, p. 481. 



strength and military security dedicated to the 
maintenance of national independence. It states, 
in addition, that if the President determines the 
necessity thereof, the United States is prepared to 
use armed forces to assist any such nation or 
group of such nations requesting assistance 
against armed aggression from any country con- 
trolled by international communism. It is es- 
pecially noteworthy that it offers our cooperation 
only to those nations which desire such coopera- 
tion. Thus, the resolution accomplishes two ob- 
jectives: (1) it assures these nations of our sup- 
port for their independence and integrity, if they 
desire our support, and (2) it leaves no possibility 
of miscalculation on the part of Communist or 
Communist-controlled aggressors of our intention 
in case of an armed attack on these nations. 

The Middle East is an area in which the under- 
standable desires of the peoples for improvement 
in their lot and for fulfillment of their national 
aspirations cannot be suppressed. Yet, these very 
desires and aspirations lead to tensions which are 
exploited by external disruptive forces. 

The policies set forth in the resolution have been 
under constant attack by the forces which they are 
intended to restrain. From the time the resolu- 
tion was originally presented to the Congress by 
the President on January 5, 1957, the Soviet Union 
has used every means at its disposal to distort the 
purposes of the United States in the minds of the 
peoples of the area. During the period under re- 
view that attack continued unabated. 

Yet the steadfastness of purpose embodied in 
the resolution heartened those who wished our co- 
operation in maintaining their strength and in- 
tegrity. On January 27, 1958, Secretary of State 
Dulles, speaking to the fourth session of the Min- 



February 2, 1959 



169 



isterial Council of the Baghdad Pact in Ankara 
said : 6 

The purposes of the United States in the Middle East 
have been spelled out clearly in the joint congressional 
resolution on the Middle East which was adopted last 
year. The goal, as there expressed, is "the maintenance 
of national independence" of the nations of the Middle 
East. 

We are well aware of the fact that in this general area 
political independence, always an aspiration, has some- 
times been lost and oftentimes been threatened, as indeed 
it is threatened today. 

Also we recognize that it is not enough merely to 
want, or now to have independence. Reliable independ- 
ence rests on two pillars : the pillar of defensive security 
and the pillar of economic health. The United States 
is prepared to cooperate, where desired, in assisting in 
these two ways any nation or group of nations in the 
general area of the Middle East to maintain national 
independence. 

The independence of nations in the area con- 
tinues to be threatened. During May and June 
of this year that fact was made clear in Lebanon, 
where purely internal problems were exploited by 
external forces seeking to destroy that nation's 
stability and integrity. 

These countries need assurances that the United 
States will cooperate with them. We must con- 
tinue to assist those desiring our cooperation in 
building economic health and defensive security 
to maintain national independence. We must 
utilize all the means at our disposal — diplomacy, 
aid, military strength, the dissemination of un- 
distorted information — to achieve that objective. 
These means, within the policy enunciated in the 
resolution, give encouragement that the U.S. goal 
of promoting peace and stability in the Middle 
East can be achieved. 

Chapter 2 

Economic and Military Assistance 

The President was authorized by the resolution 
to cooperate with nations in the area in develop- 



1 For statements by Secretary Dulles and text of the 
final communique, see ibid., Feb. 17, 1958, p. 250. 



ing economic strength and security through eco- 
nomic and military assistance programs. Section 
3 of the resolution provided for special authority 
in the use of fiscal year 1957 mutual security funds 
for these purposes. 

During the first half of 1958 action was taken 
toward completing economic and military as- 
sistance commitments made during fiscal year 
1957 pursuant to section 3 of the resolution. In 
addition, the regular authorities of the Mutual 
Security Act and funds appropriated for fiscal 
year 1958 were used to further the purposes of 
sections 1 and 2. Thus, we were able to continue 
to extend cooperation to those nations which de- 
sired such assistance in achieving the objectives 
of the resolution. Such tangible evidence of sup- 
port not only helped to build the strength of the 
countries affected to resist threats, but it demon- 
strated, as well, to them and to the world our 
determination and seriousness of purpose. 

Chapter 3 
Action Pursuant to Section 4 of the Resolution 

Section 4 of the resolution provides that the 
President shall continue to furnish facilities and 
military assistance to the United Nations Emer- 
gency Force in the Middle East. The United 
States continues to support this activity, believ- 
ing that the force is making a major contribution 
to the cause of peace in the area. On April 17, 
1958, the United States transmitted to the Secre- 
tary-General a check in the amount of $9,690,563 
for this purpose, representing an additional U.S. 
assessment of $1,563,063 for the year 1957 and the 
assessment of $8,127,500 for the calendar year 
1958. 

In addition, since the establishment of the 
UNEF, the United States has made available to 
the force on a reimbursable basis supplies and 
equipment valued in excess of $5 million. To 
date, the United Nations has compensated the 
United States for this material to the amount 
of approximately $3 million. 



170 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings 1 

Adjourned During January 1959 

U.N. Economic Commission for Africa: 1st Session Addis Ababa Dec. 29- Jan. 10 

IMCO Preparatory Committee: 4th Session London Jan. 5-19 

U.N. ECAFE Committee on Trade: Intraregional Trade Promo- Bangkok Jan. 5-16 

tion Talks. 

U.N. Subcommission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Pro- New York. Jan. 5-23 

tection of Minorities: 11th Session. 

IMCO Assembly: 1st Session London Jan. 6-23 

IMCO Council: 1st Session London Jan. 6-23 

IAEA Board of Governors: 10th Session Vienna Jan. 7-19 

5th Pan American Consultation on Geography Quito Jan. 7-15 

Telecommunication Experts in Radio — United States, United London Jan. 10-20 

Kingdom, and Canada: Ad Hoc Meeting. 

ICAO: 2d Special Meeting on North Atlantic Fixed Services. . . . Paris Jan. 12-22 

WHO Standing Committee on Administration and Finance . . . Geneva Jan. 13-20 

FAO Council: Special Session Rome Jan. 15 (1 day) 

4th Pan American Consultation on History Cuenca, Ecuador Jan. 19-27 

WHO Executive Board: 23d Session Geneva Jan. 20-30 

Baghdad Pact: 6th Meeting of the Ministerial Council Karachi Jan. 26-27 

Executive Committee of the Program of the U.N. High Commis- Geneva Jan. 26-30 

sioner for Refugees: 1st Session. 

In Session as of January 31, 1959 

Political Discussions on Suspension of Nuclear Tests Geneva Oct. 31- 

ICAO Middle East-Southeast Asia Regional Air Navigation Meet- Rome Jan. 7- 

ing. 

U.N. ECAFE Committee on Trade: 2d Session Bangkok Jan. 23- 

ILO Committee of Social Security Experts Geneva Jan. 26- 

U.N. Wheat Conference: Negotiating Meeting Geneva Jan. 26- 

International Rubber Study Group: Management Committee. . . London Jan. 29- 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 23d Session New York Jan. 30- 

Scheduled February 1 Through April 30, 1959 

U.N. ECAFE Committee on Industry and Natural Resources: 11th Bangkok Feb. 4- 

Session. 

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission: Annual Meeting . . San Pedro, Calif Feb. 6- 

U.N. Population Commission: 10th Session Geneva Feb. 9- 

ICAO: Special Meeting on Short- Range Navigational Aids. . . . Montreal Feb. 10- 

FAO Committee on Commodity Problems: 3d Meeting of Consul- Ceylon Feb. 16- 

tative Subcommittee on Rice. 

South Pacific Commission: Rhinoceros Beetle Technical Advisory Suva, Fiji Feb. 16- 

Committee. 

U.N. General Assembly: 13th Session (resumed) New York Feb. 20- 

ILO Governing Body: 141st Session (and committees) Geneva Feb. 23- 

International Bureau of Education: Executive Committee . . . . Geneva February 

3d European Civil Aviation Conference Strasbourg Mar. 9- 

U.N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: Broadbeach, Queensland, Aus- Mar. 9- 

15th Session tralia. 

U.N. International Commission on Commodity Trade: 7th Session. New York Mar. 9- 

U.N. Commission on the Status of Women: 13th Session New York Mar. 9- 

U.N. ECE Road Transport Subcommittee: Working Party on Geneva Mar. 16- 

Construction of Vehicles. 



1 Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, Jan. 14, 1959. Following is a list of abbreviations: CCIR, 
Comite" consultatif internationale des radio communications; ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; 
ECE, Economic Commission for Europe; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion; IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency; IA-ECOSOC, Inter-American Economic and Social Council; ICAO, 
International Civil Aviation Organization; ILO, International Labor Organization; IMCO, Intergovernmental Maritime 
Consultative Organization; ITU, International Telecommunication Union; TAA, Technical Assistance Administration; 
U.N., United Nations; WHO, World Health Organization. 

February 2, 7959 17T 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings — Continued 



Scheduled February 1 Through April 30, 1959 — Continued 

U.N. Commission on Human Rights: 15th Session 

U.N. ECE Ad Hoc Working Party on Gas Problems: 5th Session. 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Telecommunications 

ICAO Panel for Coordinating Procedures Respecting the Supply 
of Information for Air Operations. 

FAO Cocoa Study Group: Executive Committee 

FAO/ECAFE Technical Meeting on Agricultural Marketing . . 

IA-NECOSOC Permanent Technical Committee on Ports: 2d Meet- 
ing. 

Interparliamentary Council: 84th Meeting 

World Meteorological Organization: 3d Congress 

ITU International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR): 9th 
Plenary Assembly. 

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 27th Session 

ILO Meeting To Establish an Individual Control Book for Drivers 
and Assistants in Road Transport. 

U.N. Economic Commission for Europe: 14th Session 

ILO Coal Mines Committee: 7th Session 

U.N. Commission on Narcotic Drugs: 14th Session 

U.N. Social Commission: 12th Session 

ICAO Aeronautical Information Services Division/Aeronautical 
Maps and Charts Division 

FAO Governmental Experts on Use of Designations, Definitions, 
and Standards for Milk and Milk Products: 2d Meeting. 

U.N. ECAFE Working Group of Experts on Development Pro- 
graming. 

U.N. ECAFE/TAA Regional Seminar on Trade Promotion . . . 



New York Mar. 16- 

Geneva Mar. 25- 

Tokyo Mar. 30- 

Montreal March 

Rome March 

undetermined March 

Montevideo March 

Nice Apr. 1- 

Geneva Apr. 1- 

Los Angeles Apr. 1- 

Mexico, D.F Apr. 7- 

Geneva Apr. 20- 

Geneva Apr. 20- 

Geneva Apr. 27- 

Geneva Apr. 27- 

New York Apr. 27- 

Montreal Apr. 28- 

Rome April 

undetermined April 

Tokyo April 



The Right of Peoples and Nations 
to Self-Determination 

Following are statements made by Watson W. 
Wise and Mrs. Oswald B. Lord, U.S. Representa- 
tives to the U.N. General Assembly. 

STATEMENT BY MR. WISE 

In the many debates which take place in this 
committee, sometimes one tends to forget that areas 
can be found in which unanimity exists. Such an 
area is the importance which we all attach to the 
issue of self-determination. My country is no ex- 
ception. We are ever mindful of our colonial 
origin and of the fact that we had to take up arms 
to achieve our independence. "We are ever mind- 
ful, too, that since the beginning of our history as a 
nation we have endeavored to demonstrate our sin- 



"Made In Committee III (Social, Humanitarian and 
Cultural) on Nov. 25 (U.S. delegation press release 3093). 
The committee had before it two draft resolutions pre- 
pared by the Commission on Human Rights and a draft 
resolution prepared by the Economic and Social Council, 
all contained in ECOSOC resolution 586 D (XX). 



cere attachment to the principle of self-determina- 
tion. The revolt of the English colonies in North 
America has been denned, in fact, as the first as- 
sertion of the right of national and democratic 
self-determination in the history of the world. 
How then can we deny or disregard in our relations 
with other peoples a principle on which our na- 
tion has been founded? The point is, Madam 
Chairman, that we cannot and we do not. 

Since the formation of our country our states- 
men have rigidly adhered to the basic principles of 
self-determination. To cite only a few striking 
examples, President George Washington himself 
stated clearly in 1796 that his best wishes were ir- 
resistibly excited whenever, in any country, he saw 
an oppressed nation unfurl the banner of freedom. 
Three years earlier, Thomas Jefferson, who was 
then our Secretary of State, had said : "We surely 
cannot deny to any nation that right whereon our 
own is founded — that every one may govern itself 
according to whatever form it pleases and change 
these forms at its own will." Then, President 
Wilson, speaking in 1916, said : "The small states 
of the world have a right to enjoy the same respect 
for their sovereignty and for their territorial in- 



172 



Department of State Bulletin 



tegrity that great and powerful states expect and 
insist on." 

This, Madam Chairman, is the heritage of my 
country, and it is on this heritage that our belief 
in the principle of self-determination is firmly 
based. I am certain that the devotion of other free 
nations to the principle of self-determination rests 
on similar foundations. 

In spite of the difficulties which have been 
encountered in defining and applying self-deter- 
mination, the basic concept or principle commands 
our strongest support. Moreover, that the prin- 
ciple has gained wider emphasis in the last half 
century may be seen from the fact that, while the 
word was not mentioned in the covenant of the 
League of Nations, it is inscribed twice in the 
charter of the United Nations. I think that my 
country can be justifiably proud of the fact that, 
while President Wilson tried but failed to get a 
mention of self-determination into the covenant, 
the United States delegation at San Francisco took 
a prominent part in getting it into the charter of 
the United Nations. 

More recently, at the Manila conference in 1954, 
to be exact, the delegates of Pakistan, the Republic 
of the Philippines, and the Kingdom of Thailand 
joined with the United Kingdom, the United 
States, France, Australia, and New Zealand in a 
joint declaration of their devotion to the principles 
of freedom. You will recall that these nations in 
becoming signatories to what came to be known as 
the Pacific Charter 2 proclaimed that, in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the United Nations 
Charter, they upheld the principle of equal right 
and self-determination of peoples and that they 
would earnestly strive by every peaceful means to 
promote self-government and to secure the inde- 
pendence of all countries whose peoples desire it 
and are able to undertake its responsibilities. 

The principle of self-determination, as we con- 
ceive of it, is reflected in the charter of the United 
Nations, signed in San Francisco. Indeed, so 
fundamental was the belief of the drafters of the 
charter in self-determination that they clearly 
stated that the development of friendly relations 
among nations, based on respect for the principle 
of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, 
was one of the purposes of the United Nations. 

The thinking of the members of the United 



3 For text, see Bulletin of Sept. 20, 1954, p. 393. 
February 2, 7959 



Nations regarding self-determination has been 
reflected over the years in debates in the General 
Assembly and its committees, in the Economic and 
Social Council, and in the Human Rights Com- 
mission. No one who has read the records of these 
debates can help but be impressed by the fact that, 
although everyone professes devotion to the prin- 
ciple of self-determination, there is serious dis- 
agreement over its implications and applications. 
There are widely varying interpretations of its 
meaning, and there are sometimes diametrically 
opposing opinions as to what should be done. Let 
me cite a few examples of the different and conflict- 
ing views which have emerged in United Nations 
forums in recent years. 

Some assert or imply, for example, that the 
obvious solution should be independence for every 
non-self-governing territory and trust territory 
in the shortest possible time. This they advocate 
in spite of the obvious fact that chaos might 
result. 

Another group gives primary emphasis to eco- 
nomic and social development of non-self-gov- 
erning territories and trust territories as the 
essential basis for the evolution of democratic 
political institutions and the attainment of self- 
government as well as, where appropriate, inde- 
pendence. 

Yet another group maintains that self-determi- 
nation means that every national, ethnic, or polit- 
ical group has a right to secede. This concept 
has an obvious appeal with respect to states where 
such groups are suppressed and where their rights 
to cultural autonomy are denied. If applied with- 
out wisdom, however, such a concept could be most 
harmful. In fact, self-determination carried to 
a logical but absurd extreme would in fact 
threaten the very existence of most of the states 
members of the United Nations. We learned 
our lesson through bitter experience, namely, the 
War Between the States. It took a civil war to 
teach us that unbridled self-determination which 
ignored other considerations important to the wel- 
fare of peoples and nations was impossible if our 
nation was to survive. 

There is still another group which has its own 
interpretation as to the, meaning of self-determi- 
nation. This group would have you believe that 
the only countries which prevent self-determina- 
tion are the traditional colonial empires. At the 
same time, however, it has reduced to servitude 

173 



some 800 million people who were once truly in- 
dependent peoples. This new imperialism has 
made a mockery of the right of those once free 
peoples to self-determination. 

In order further to put the problem of self-de- 
termination into perspective and because this is 
such an extremely important point, Madam Chair- 
man, I think it worth while to go into some detail. 

At its 677th plenary meeting on September 14, 
1957, the General Assembly after having consid- 
ered the report of a special committee consisting 
of Australia, Ceylon, Denmark, Tunisia, and 
Uruguay, adopted resolution 1133 (XI) by a vote 
of 60 in favor, 10 against, and 10 abstentions. Let 
me quote from a few of its operative paragraphs 
and you can judge for yourself what I mean by 
this new form of imperialism. I'll start with 
operative paragraph 4: 

Finds that the conclusions reached by the Committee 
on the basis of its examination of all available evidence 
confirm that : 

(a) The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, in viola- 
tion of the charter of the United Nations, has deprived 
Hungary of its liberty and political independence and the 
Hungarian people of the exercise of their fundamental 
human rights; 

(6) The present Hungarian regime has been imposed 
on the Hungarian people by the aimed intervention of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; 

(c) The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has car- 
ried out mass deportations of Hungarian citizens to the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; 

(d) The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has vio- 
lated its obligations under the Geneva Conventions of 
1949; 

(e) The present authorities in Hungary have violated 
the human rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Treaty 
of Peace with Hungary . . . 

Then, as you recall, the resolution goes on to con- 
demn the Soviet Union for "these acts and the 
continued defiance of the resolutions of the Gen- 
eral Assembly." 3 

I genuinely regret that I have had to revive 
bitter memories by calling the committee's atten- 
tion to this resolution, Madam Chairman. I felt 
compelled to do so, however, because of the ap- 
parent acceptance by some members of this com- 
mittee of the view that people are deprived of 
self-determination solely by the traditional 
colonial powers. The basis for this acceptance is 
totally erroneous. Think, for example, of the 
countries which were once colonies and which 



8 Ibid., Sept. 30, 1957, p. 524. 
174 



have in recent years become members of the 
United Nations as free and independent peoples — ■ 
India, Pakistan, Ceylon, Burma, Libya, the Phil- 
ippines, Indonesia, Morocco, Tunisia, Ghana, Ma- 
laya, Laos, Cambodia, and Nepal. This impres- 
sive list of new countries which were once a part 
of the traditional colonial powers proves to me 
how accurate the late President Magsaysay of the 
Philippines was when he warned, 

The colonialism that threatens Asia today is world 
communism. Nations which have won their freedom 
from old-style colonialism now face the danger of losing 
that freedom. A good defense against this threat is a 
healthy Asian nationalism, a nationalism which defends 
the right of all Asian peoples to self-determination. We 
support this kind of nationalism as a rallying point for 
all free Asians against the focus of aggression and sub- 
version. 

Madam Chairman, as I said before, all of us 
agree as to the importance of the principle of self- 
determination. And yet, as I have tried to point 
out by the above illustrations, few are in agree- 
ment as to defining the concept and as to its prac- 
tical application. Many believe that self-determi- 
nation is a purely political concept. Yet in the 
first resolution before us is the concept of the 
permanent sovereignty of nations over their nat- 
ural resources. Surely this is partly an economic 
matter. Then again, for some delegations here it 
is also a legal and constitutional matter. 

All members of the United Nations should be 
concerned with developing the means whereby the 
United Nations might be most effectively utilized 
in bringing about agreement on solutions to the 
many complex problems which have arisen and 
inevitably will continue to arise in the application 
of the principle. No member of the United Na- 
tions will deny the validity and Tightness of the 
principle of self-determination; it has been af- 
firmed by all states which have adhered to the 
charter. With this basic agreement we think that 
it must be possible for us to follow a course of 
progress in implementing the principle and at the 
same time give due consideration to the divergent 
views which have been expressed during the last 
few years. We have maintained and we continue 
to maintain that a clearer understanding of the 
principle itself and its applicability will enhance 
the possibility for more valuable and constructive 
recommendations. It was in this spirit and with 
this intent that my delegation sponsored the reso- 

Department of State Bulletin 



lution at the 20th session of the Economic and 
Social Council which is now before you. 

Most members of this committee are fully 
aware of our position on the resolutions now be- 
fore us. Suffice it to say possibly that we do not 
think the adoption of the first would be useful ; in 
fact we fear it would be harmful. Due to the 
economic and legal implications which it contains 
we regret that shortage of time has not allowed 
us the benefit of the views of the Second and Sixth 
Committees. 

With reference to the second resolution we 
frankly believe that it is unsound, because to us 
it is indefensible to leave the identification of such 
a situation to any 10 members in view of the oft 
expressed wide differences of opinion as to the 
principle of self-determination itself as well as 
its applicability. We believe that such a com- 
mission would only duplicate functions of United 
Nations bodies already existent, such as the Se- 
curity Council and the Trusteeship Council. In- 
cidentally, Madam Chairman, I have been im- 
pressed by delegations which have ignored Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution 1133 (XI), concerning 
Hungary, and at the same time have paid cynical 
lip service in this committee by announcing their 
support for this resolution. 

As to the third or ECOSOC resolution, we still 
believe that, due to the wide variety of opinions 
concerning both the principle and its implementa- 
tion, to adopt the resolution along with these sug- 
gested amendments would be the wisest and most 
useful course. 4 



4 Committee III on Nov. 26 adopted draft resolution I, 
calling for establishment of a commission to conduct a 
full survey of "the status of the permanent sovereignty 
of peoples and nations over their natural wealth and 
resources ...."; the vote was 52 to 15 (U.S.) with 4 
abstentions. The committee voted to postpone action on 
draft resolution II, which would establish a commission 
to examine any situation resulting from alleged denial or 
inadequate realization of the right of self-determination ; 
the vote was 39 to 7 with 24 abstentions. The draft 
resolution prepared by ECOSOC, which would establish 
an ad hoc commission to conduct a thorough study of the 
concept of self-determination, was rejected by a vote of 
16 to 48 (U.S.) with 8 abstentions. In plenary session on 
Dec. 12 the President of the Assembly proposed that the 
members of the commission recommended in draft resolu- 
tion I should be : the United Arab Republic, Afghanistan, 
the Philippines, the Netherlands, Sweden, Guatemala, 
Chile, the U.S.S.R., and the United States. The resolution 
was then adopted by a vote of 52 to 15 (U.S.) with 8 
abstentions. 



STATEMENT BY MRS. LORD 5 

The United States voted against the resolution 
entitled "Recommendations Concerning Inter- 
national Respect for the Right of Peoples and 
Nations to Self-Determination : Establishment of 
a Commission," as contained in the rapporteur's 
report, which is document A/4019, dated Decem- 
ber 3, 1958. I want to take this opportunity to 
explain the reasons for our doing so. 

First, and most emphatically, no one questions 
the power of countries to control and to use their 
natural wealth and resources as they see fit, pro- 
vided that they respect their obligations under 
contract and under international law. 

Secondly, neither should our voting against this 
resolution be interpreted to mean that we are 
against the desirability of promoting, to use the 
words of the United Nations Charter, "friendly 
relations among nations based on respect for the 
principle of equal rights and self-determination of 
peoples." The United States, as it has in the past, 
continues to sympathize fully with the desires of 
peoples to achieve equal rights and self-determina- 
tion at the earliest possible moment. 

We are opposed to this resolution because in our 
opinion it is against the best interests of the less 
developed countries. Past experience has shown 
without question that such resolutions have had 
unfortunate repercussions. Those who are in the 
position to supply private capital could not help 
but ask themselves whether a country which voted 
in favor of a resolution containing the words 
"permanent sovereignty over natural wealth and 
resources" might not likewise feel fully justified 
in terminating contracts or expropriating property 
without compensation. In other words, Mr. Presi- 
dent, we feared that the adoption of this resolution 
might adversely affect that important element 
called "investment climate" among potential in- 
vestors, regardless of the reasons which might be 
cited in favor of the resolution. 

In this regard, I was greatly interested to read 
several days ago the final declaration of the 45th 
National Foreign Trade Convention, which met 
here in New York November 17 through 19 of 
this year. With your permission, and because it 
helps to further clarify the basis for our mis- 



5 Made in plenary session on Dec. 12 (U.S. delegation 
press release 3130). 



February 2, 1959 



175 



givings, I would like to quote one particular 
paragraph from this document. Under chapter 
2, entitled "Expansion of Private Investment 
Abroad," it reads : 

The Foreign Trade Convention 

Urges that our Government continue to seek through 
improvements in our commercial treaty structure and 
through the appropriate means, the establishment of 
conditions designed to encourage and safeguard private 
investments abroad. Good faith and integrity are basic 
requirements in the creation or maintenance of an eco- 
nomic and political environment favorable to the flow 
of private investment capital. Sanctity of contract, se- 
curity of property rights are of paramount importance. 
As a means to the assurance of these requisites, the 
Convention urges that our Government vigorously strive 
to gain acceptance by all nations of the principle that 
agreements must be observed and property rights 
respected. 

Mr. President, my Government does not ques- 
tion the sovereignty of a country over its natural 
wealth and resources. Nor, as can be seen from 
the above statement, does this group of potential 
suppliers of foreign private investment capital 
question it. Indeed, I think it can safely be said 
that we all believe that private capital is the type 
of capital import least likely to interfere with 
the exercise of sovereignty. What is important, 
however, in the minds of potential investors are 
the prospects for receiving fair treatment and 
for having the sanctity of contract respected. 

So much, Mr. President, for the reasons for our 
voting against the resolution before us today. 
Since ours does not represent the thinking of the 
majority, there will be a commission to study this 
aspect of self-determination. For two reasons, 
my Government has expressed its willingness to 
serve on this commission. 

First, our original fears have been somewhat 
lessened by statements in the Third Committee 
on the part of supporters of this resolution re- 
affirming their belief in the sanctity of contract 
under international law and that sanctity of con- 
tract under international law will be respected in 
the study which this commission is to undertake. 
We hope, in fact, that this will be the case. 

Secondly, we believe that, now that this com- 
mission is coming into existence, it behooves all 
of us to do our utmost to make it as effective and 
as useful a body as possible. 

We therefore welcome the privilege of serving 
on such a commission. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Air Transport Agreements Amended 
With Brazil and Japan 



BRAZIL 

Press release 34 dated January 15 

Notes were exchanged at Washington on De- 
cember 1, 1958, 1 between the Department of State 
and the Brazilian Embassy to amend the route 
schedule of the air transport agreement between 
Brazil and the United States [effective October 6, 
1946, as amended December 30, 1950]. 2 The new 
schedule, winch went into effect December 1, reads 
as follows : 

Schedule 

A. An airline or airlines designated by the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America shall be entitled to 
operate air services on each of the air routes specified 
via intermediate points in both directions and to make 
scheduled landings in Brazil at the points specified in 
this paragraph : 

1. From the United States of America, via intermediate 
points in the Caribbean, Central America, and countries 
on the West Coast of South America to Sao Paulo and 
Rio de Janeiro. 

2. From the United States of America, via intermediate 
points in the Caribbean and South America, to Belem, 
Natal and beyond to Africa. 

3. From the United States of America, via intermediate 
points in the Caribbean, Panama, and countries on the 
North and East Coasts of South America to Belem or 
Manaus, Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Porto Alegre 
and beyond Brazil to Uruguay and Argentina and beyond 
to Antarctica and beyond. 

4. From the United States of America, via intermediate 
points in Middle America and countries on the North and 
East Coasts of South America to Belem or Manaus, 
Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Porto Alegre and 
beyond Brazil to Uruguay and Argentina. 

B. An airline or airlines designated by the Govern- 
ment of the United States of Brazil shall be entitled to 
operate air services on each of the air routes specified 
via intermediate points in both directions and to make 
scheduled landings in the United States of America at 
the points specified in this paragraph : 



1 Not printed. 

2 Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1900 and 
2190. 



176 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



1. From the United States of Brazil, via intermediate 
points in South America and Middle America to Los 
Angeles and Honolulu and beyond to Japan and beyond. 

2. From the United States of Brazil, via intermediate 
points in South America and the Caribbean, including 
Puerto Rico, to Miami and Chicago and beyond to 
Canada. 

3. From the United States of Brazil, via intermediate 
points in South America and the Caribbean, including 
Puerto Rico, to Washington and New York and beyond 
to Canada. 

C. Any point or points on any route or routes contained 
in this Route Schedule may be omitted in either or both 
directions at the option of the airline designated to oper- 
ate such route or routes. 

D. The airlines designated by one contracting party 
in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement will 
be permitted to operate other services across the territory 
of the other contracting party without obligation of land- 
ing by the most direct route between the points to be 
served as long as the safety of operation is not affected. 
In any case, the use of uneconomic and circuitous rout- 
ings shall be avoided. v, 

E. Flights of a designated airline which do not serve 
all the points granted in the routes contained in the Route 
Schedule may be operated by the most direct route be- 
tween the points to be served so long as the safety of 
operation is not affected. In any case, the use of un- 
economic and circuitous routings shall be avoided. 

F. The airlines designated in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the Agreement by one contracting party will be 
permitted to land for non-traffic purposes in the territory 
of the other contracting party. Every airport in the 
territory of one of the contracting parties which is open 
to public use by its national aircraft shall be open under 
uniform conditions to the aircraft of the other contracting 
party for such non-traffic purposes. 

G. For the purposes of this Annex to the Agreement, 
the term "Middle America" is interpreted as including 
only those countries situated on the mainland between 
South America and the continental United States of 
America. 

JAPAN 

Press release 30 dated January 14 

An exchange of notes 3 was concluded on Jan- 
uary 14 between the U.S. Embassy at Tokyo and 
the Foreign Ministry of Japan amending the 
civil air transport agreement effective September 
15, 1953, between the United States and Japan. 4 
The amendment resulted from consultations held 
at Tokyo beginning in April 1958. 

The amendment adds Los Angeles to the U.S. 
West Coast terminals to which airlines of Japan 
may operate. The unlimited "beyond" rights 



which Japan previously held at San Francisco are 
now divided between San Francisco and Los 
Angeles. Under the new arrangement it will be 
possible for Japan Air Lines to include Los 
Angeles on flights between Japan and South 
America. The amendment discontinues the right 
of Japan Air Lines to route flights beyond San 
Francisco to South America. 

The consultations also clarified other important 
phases of civil air operations between the United 
States and Japan. The two delegations con- 
cluded that the present state of air-transport 
development, the rapid growth of the volume of 
traffic, and the need to insure the further orderly 
development of the airlines are amply safeguarded 
by the terms of the 1953 agreement. 

As amended, the route schedule is completely 
restated as follows: 

Schedule 

An airline or airlines designated by the Government of 
the United States of America shall be entitled to operate 
air services on each of the air routes specified via inter- 
mediate points, in both directions, and to make scheduled 
landings in Japan at the points specified in this 
paragraph : 

1. From the United States, including Alaska, via 
intermediate points in Canada, Alaska and the Kurile 
Islands, to Tokyo and beyond. 

2. From the United States, including its territorial 
possessions, via intermediate points in the Central Pacific, 
to Tokyo and beyond. 

3. From Okinawa to Tokyo. 

An airline or airlines designated by the Government of 
Japan shall be entitled to operate air services on each 
of the air routes specified via intermediate points, in 
both directions, and to make scheduled landings in the 
United States of America at the points specified in this 
paragraph : 

1. From Japan, via intermediate points in the Central 
Pacific, to Honolulu and beyond : 

a) to Los Angeles and beyond to points in South 
America. 

b ) to San Francisco and beyond to points other than 
in South America. 

2. From Japan, via intermediate points in the North 
Pacific and Canada, to Seattle. 

3. From Japan to Okinawa and beyond. 8 

Points on any of the specified routes may at the option 
of the designated airlines be omitted on any or all flights. 






3 Not printed. 
' TIAS2S54. 

February 2, 1959 



s In granting these routes, the respective Contracting 
Parties are cognizant of the provisions of Article 3 of 
the Treaty of Peace with Japan, signed at San Fran- 
cisco on September 8, 1951, under which the United States 
of America exercises the powers of administration, legis- 
lation and jurisdiction over Okinawa. [Footnote in 
original.] 

177 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Agriculture 

Protocol of amendment to the convention on the Inter- 
American Institute of Agricultural Sciences of January 
15, 1944 (TS 987). Opened for signature at Washing- 
ton December 1, 1958. Enters into force 1 month after 
the date on which all parties to the convention have 
deposited their instruments of ratification or adherence 
to the protocol. 1 
Signature: United States, January 7, 1959. 

Fisheries 

Protocol amending the international convention for the 
northwest Atlantic fisheries of February 8, 1949 (TIAS 
20S9) . Done at Washington June 25, 1956. 
Ratification deposited: France, January 10, 1959. 
Entered into force: January 10, 1959. 

Trade and Commerce 

Protocol amending part I and articles XXIX and XXX of 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at 
Geneva March 10, 1955. 1 
Signature: Dominican Republic, November 20, 1958. 

Protocol amending the preamble and parts II and III of 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at 
Geneva March 10, 1955. Entered into force October 7, 
1957. TIAS 3930. 

Signature (with statement): Dominican Republic, Oc- 
tober 27, 1958. 

Protocol of organizational amendments to the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva 
March 10, 1955. 1 
Signature: Dominican Republic, November 20, 1958. 

Proces verbal of rectification concerning the protocol 
amending part I and articles XXIX and XXX, the pro- 
tocol amending the preamble and parts II and III, and 
the protocol of organizational amendments to the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva 
December 3, 1955. 2 
Signature: Dominican Republic, October 27, 1958. 

Sixth protocol of rectifications and modifications to the 
texts of the schedules to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva April 11, 1957. 
Signature: Haiti, October 30, 1958. 

Seventh protocol of rectifications and modifications to the 
texts of the schedules to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva November 30, 1957. 1 
Signatures: Federation of Malaya and Greece, October 
14, 1958 ; Ceylon, October 17, 1958 ; United Kingdom, 
October 20, 1958; Haiti, October 30, 1958; Czecho- 
slovakia, November 6, 1958 ; Italy, November 7, 1958 ; 
Canada, November 10, 1958. 

Declaration extending standstill provisions of article 
XVI : 4 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. 
Done at Geneva November 30, 1957. 1 



Signatures: Federation of Malaya, October 14, 1958; 
Cevlon and Luxembourg, October 17, 1958 ; Austria, 
October 28, 1958; Haiti and Indonesia, October 30, 
1958 ; Finland and United Kingdom, November 21, 
1958; Italy, December 1, 1958; Netherlands, Decem- 
ber 16, 1958. 

United Nations 

Charter of the United Nations and statute of the Inter- 
national Court of Justice. Signed at San Francisco 
June 26, 1945. Entered into force October 24, 1945 
(59 Stat. 1031). 
Admission to membership: Guinea, December 12, 1958. 



BILATERAL 

Ecuador 

Agreement extending the agreement of April 24, 1957 
(TIAS 3833), for the establishment and operation of a 
rawinsonde observation station at Guayaquil. Effected 
by exchange of notes at Quito November 18 and 
December 30, 1958. Entered into force December 30, 
1958. 

Iceland 

Agreement amending the agreement of February 23, 1957 
(TIAS 37S7), for financing certain educational ex- 
change programs. Effected by exchange of notes at 
Reykjavik October 2 and November 27, 1958. Entered 
into force November 27, 1958. 

Peru 

Agreement extending the agreement of April 17, 1957 
(TIAS 3S23), for the establishment and operation of a 
rawinsonde observation station at Lima, Peru. Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at Lima November 13 and 
December 24, 1958. Entered into force December 24, 
1958. 

United Kingdom 

Agreement amending the agreement of May 10 and 13, 
1957 (TIAS 3843), relating to the disposition of equip- 
ment and material no longer required in furtherance 
of the mutual defense assistance program. Effected 
by exchange of notes at London December 17 and 30, 
195S. Entered into force December 30, 195S. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



1 Not in force. 

a Partially in force, section B of the proces verbal having 
entered into force Oct. 7, 1957, as a result of the entry 
into force on that date of the protocol amending the 
preamble and parts II and III of the general agreement. 



Resignations 

Earl E. T. Smith as Ambassador to Cuba. (For an 
exchange of letters between the President and Ambassa- 
dor Smith, see White House press release dated January 
10.) 



178 



Department of State Bulletin 



February 2, 1959 



Ind 



ex 



Vol. XL, No. 1023 



Afghanistan. United States Sends 50,000 Tons of 

Wheat to Afghanistan 164 

Argentina. Secretary Dulles' News Conference of 

January 13 156 

Atomic Energy. Secretary Dulles' News Confer- 
ence of January 13 156 

Aviation. Air Transport Agreements Amended 

With Brazil and Japan 176 

Brazil. Air Transport Agreements Amended With 

Brazil and Japan 176 

China. Freedom — The Predominant Force (Dulles) 151 

Communism. Freedom — The Predominant Force 

(Dulles) 151 

Congress, The. Progress in Promoting Peace and 
Stability in the Middle Bast (text of President's 
report) 169 

Cuba 

Secretary Dulles' News Conference of January 13 . 156 

Resignation of Ambassador Smith 178 

United States Explains Policy Toward Cuba . . . 162 

Department and Foreign Service. Resignation 

(Smith) 178 

Disarmament. U.S. Asks U.S.S.R. To Review 

Basis for Talks on Surprise Attack (text of note) 163 

Economic Affairs. Imperatives of International 
Economic Growth (Dillon) 165 

Europe. Freedo m — The Predominant Force 

(Dulles) 151 

France. President Eisenhower Congratulates Gen- 
eral de Gaulle 163 

Germany 

Freedom — The Predominant Force (Dulles) . . . 151 
Secretary Dulles' News Conference of January 13 . 156 

Health, Education, and Welfare. The Right of 
Peoples and Nations to Self -Determination (Lord, 
Wise) 172 

International Organizations and Conferences. Cal- 
endar of International Conferences and Meetings 171 

Japan. Air Transport Agreements Amended With 

Brazil and Japan 176 

Middle East. Progress in Promoting Peace and 
Stability in the Middle East ( text of President's 
report) 169 

Mutual Security. United States Sends 50,000 Tons 

of Wheat to Afghanistan 164 



Presidential Documents 

President Eisenhower Congratulates General de 
Gaulle 163 

Progress in Promoting Peace and Stability in the 

Middle East 169 

Treaty Information 

Air Transport Agreements Amended With Brazil 

and Japan 176 

Current Actions 178 

U.S.S.R. 

Freedom — The Predominant Force (Dulles) ... 151 
Secretary Dulles' News Conference of January 13 . 156 
U.S. Asks U.S.S.R. To Review Basis for Talks on 

Surprise Attack (text of note) 163 

United Nations. The Right of Peoples and Nations 
to Self -Determination (Lord, Wise) 172 

Name Index 

Dillon, Douglas 165 

Dulles, Secretary 151, 156 

Eisenhower, President 163,' 169 

Lord, Mrs. Oswald B 175 

Smith, Earl E. T 178 

Wise, Watson W 172 



Check List of Department of State 


Press Releases: January 12-18 


Press releases may be obtained from the News 


Division, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 


No. Date 


Subject 


27 1/12 


U.S. ships wheat to Afghanistan. 


28 1/13 


Dulles : news conference. 


*29 1/13 


NATO economic experts visit U.S. 


30 1/14 


Air transport agreement with Japan. 


31 1/14 


Dulles : Senate Foreign Relations Com- 




mittee. 


t32 1/14 


Baghdad Pact meeting. 


*33 1/15 


Educational exchange (Ghana). 


34 1/15 


Air transport agreement with Brazil. 


35 1/15 


U.S.-Cuba relations. 


36 1/16 


Note to U.S.S.R. on surprise attack. 


37 1/16 


Dillon : "Imperatives of International 




Economic Growth." 


t38 1/16 


Satterthwaite: "The United States and 




the New Africa." 


t39 1/16 


Colombo Plan report. 


*Not printed. 


tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



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OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



The Soviet Note on Berlin: 
An Analysis 



Department 

of 

State 



On November 27, 1958, the Government of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Kepublics handed the United States Ambassador in Moscow 
a communication relating to Berlin. 

Similar notes were given by the Soviet Government to the Am- 
bassadors of France, the United Kingdom, and the Federal Kepublic 
of Germany. 

In essence the Soviet notes demanded that the United States, the 
United Kingdom, and France abandon West Berlin. 

Declaring the communication to be an attempt to rewrite history 
"by omission and by distortion," the Department of State has issued 
this analysis of the Soviet note, calling attention to the more im- 
portant Soviet omissions and correcting the more obvious distortions. 
The analysis is a factual account of developments prior to, during, 
and after World War II which led to the present status of Berlin. 

An appendix contains the official statements of the United States 
on the Berlin question, including the legal status of the city, plus 
other official statements of the Western powers and of NATO on the 
Berlin question. 



Publication 6757 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XL, No. 1024 February 9, 1959 

MAINTAINING WORLD PEACE AND THE SECURITY 

OF FREE NATIONS • Excerpts From President 
Eisenhower's Budget Message 198 

MAJOR FOREIGN POLICY PROBLEMS • by Deputy 

Under Secretary Murphy 183 

A REVIEW OF U.S. FOREIGN ECONOMIC POLICY • 

Statement by Under Secretary Dillon 206 

THE UNITED STATES AND THE NEW AFRICA • by 

Assistant Secretary Satterthwaite 190 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XL, No. 1024 • Publication 6768 
February 9, 1959 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

APR 1 3 1959 



DEPOSITORY 



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U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

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Single copy, 25 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 20, 1958). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
op State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



Major Foreign Policy Problems 



by Deputy Under Secretary Murphy * 



While it is a distinct privilege and pleasure to 
meet with the members of the World Affairs 
Council of Philadelphia and their friends, it is 
also a severe test for anyone to attempt a discus- 
sion of American foreign policy with a group as 
well informed as yours. Dr. [Robert L.] Johnson 
[of the World Affairs Council] was kind enough 
to suggest that I could touch lightly on the spec- 
trum of some of the problems with which your 
Secretary of State has to deal. After that I will 
do my best to reply to whatever questions you 
might be interested to put. There is no doubt 
that the closer the association of our Department 
of State with the informed public opinion repre- 
sented here, the more effective we shall be in 
coping with the multiplicity of problems that 
press on us today. 

Germany 

In this early part of 1959 the major issue in- 
fluencing the international picture would seem to 
relate to Berlin and the German problem. 2 Berlin 
is the kind of sensitive situation in which a mis- 
calculation on one side or the other could lead 
to very grave complications. That is why we 
have felt it so important that from the outset the 
Soviet Union should understand the policies and 
firmness of the Western powers and especially 
your Government. 

Having in mind that the basic objective of 
American foreign policy is the preservation and 
enhancement of the security of our country and 
our people, our fundamental values and institu- 



1 Address made before the World Affairs Council of 
Philadelphia at Philadelphia, Pa., on Jan. 23 (press re- 
lease 59). 

* For background, see Bulletin of Dec. 15, 1958, p. 947 ; 
Dec. 29, 1958, p. 1041 ; Jan. 5, 1959, pp. 3 and 5 ; and Jan. 
19, 1959, p. 79. 



tions, the principal threat to that security is 
found in the policies of the Sino-Soviet bloc of 
countries. In this highly competitive situation 
our central problem is to minimize this threat, to 
use all our resources and diplomacy to maintain 
the peace, to provide the military and economic 
strength to deter general war as well as more lim- 
ited hostilities. We seek to build our economic, 
scientific, and cultural assets, to maintain our in- 
dependence and our institutions, and to offer as a 
great world power the leadership which the world 
is entitled to expect from us. 

Now when we apply those general principles 
to a problem such as that arising over the Berlin 
issue, we find, as we do in other instances, that 
it is easier to state a general principle than to 
work out a specific solution in line with it. In 
the ambitious plans in which the Soviet leader- 
ship indulged as a result of the military victories 
of World War II, the control of Germany was a 
major element. Even before Allied victory over 
the German forces became an assured fact, it 
was overshadowed by speculation regarding the 
question of postwar cooperation between the So- 
viet Union and the West on a number of questions 
and especially the German question. Instead of 
waiting until the fighting had stopped and the 
last German units had surrendered, agreements 
were negotiated by the United Kingdom and the 
United States with the Soviet Union which es- 
tablished a zonal division of Germany with a di- 
viding line at the Elbe River. France was 
subsequently included as a party to these agree- 
ments. In addition a four-power occupational 
regime was set up for the city of Berlin. All of 
this was based on the military conquest of Ger- 
many. Actually American forces invaded and 
captured a large part of Eastern Germany. We 
honored our agreements by evacuating the cap- 



February 9, 7959 



183 



tured territory in favor of the Russian forces and 
in consideration of the terms of the agreements 
made. It is on these facts that the American 
position on Berlin is based and not on the subse- 
quent agreement entered into at Potsdam in Au- 
gust 1945. 3 

Thus Berlin became, to quote President Roose- 
velt at the time, a test tube of the possibility of 
cooperation between the East and West. It has 
from time to time produced violent reactions, as 
in the case of the Berlin blockade of 1948. Our 
curiosity as to why the Berlin issue has been pro- 
voked again by the Soviet Union at this particular 
time remains unsatisfied. All we know is that 
Chairman Nikita Khrushchev on November 10 in 
a speech at Moscow, incident to the visit there of 
the Polish Communist Party leader Gomulka, 
announced the intention of the Soviet Union to 
abandon its occupational position in Berlin and 
turn over to the representatives of the govern- 
ment of the so-called German Democratic Repub- 
lic those functions in Berlin which are still exer- 
cised by Soviet organs. Among these functions, 
of course, is control of access to Berlin. The 
three Western powers having occupational rights 
in Berlin, that is the United Kingdom, France, 
and the United States, do not recognize the so- 
called German Democratic Republic. Neither 
does the Western German Federal Republic at 
Bonn recognize the East German regime. 

Having started off hastily in his November 10 
speech, basing his statement on the Potsdam 
agreement, Chairman Khrushchev, after a couple 
of weeks of reflection and no doubt on the advice 
of his lawyers, shifted his ground and dispatched 
a note to the Western powers basing the problem 
on the London agreements of 1944. 4 The Soviet 
Union has been informed by the Western powers 
of their unwillingness to accept the Soviet pro- 
posal, which, incidentally, was couched in the 
tone of an ultimatum expiring after a 6 months' 
period. 

Since then we have had the benefit of the visit 
to the United States of the energetic Soviet 
Deputy Prime Minister, Mr. [Anastas] Mikoyan, 
who came to this country as he himself indicated 



' For text of the Potsdam agreement relating to Ger- 
many, see ibid., Aug. 5, 1945, p. 153. 

1 For background on the meetings of the European 
Advisory Commission at London in 1944, see ibid., Jan. 5, 
1959, p. 5. 



for a vacation. He wanted to renew the associa- 
tions that he had made in 1936 and see for him- 
self the progress which this capitalist country had 
made in the interval. He came as a guest of the 
Soviet Ambassador [Mikhail A. Menshikov] in 
Washington, and there was no indication in ad- 
vance of a desire on his part to engage in specific 
business conversations. However, during the 
bland conversation he had with our distinguished 
Secretary of State in Washington he spontan- 
eously produced a rather elaborate aide memoire 
which dealt exhaustively not only with the Ber- 
lin issue but the German problem as a whole. It 
suggested a warmed-over version of a peace treaty 
for a federated Germany duly hamstrung Russian 
style. Although an expert at trade and economic 
matters, he gave these but incidental attention. 
In his informal conversations with our Secretary 
of State he dwelt at considerable length on the 
German problem. 5 No doubt the phrase that Mr. 
Molotov used some time ago to the effect that as 
goes Germany so goes Europe is still a major 
factor in the thinking of Soviet leadership. 

It is quite clear that the Western powers are 
determined to maintain their rights and position 
in the city of Berlin. We hope that as a result 
of his visit here Mr. Mikoyan is convinced that 
this is so because understanding by Moscow of the 
Western position should eliminate dangerous mis- 
calculation on their part. Such understanding 
should facilitate eventual negotiation and settle- 
ment of problems on a peaceful basis. 

At Potsdam in 1945 the Soviet Union agreed to 
political and economic unity of Germany and to 
free elections. The Soviet Union never was will- 
ing to fulfill the obligations assumed by it at Pots- 
dam notwithstanding the facile assertions of Mr. 
Mikoyan. In fact, as there never was application 
by the Soviet Union of some of the provisions of 
the agreement, I have often wondered why Mr. 
Stalin accepted those portions of the Potsdam 
text. Perhaps it was in the belief that in the end 
there would prevail the Soviet definition of free 
elections and independent political and economic 
unity, i.e. a so-called democracy governed by the 
single-party system dictated by the all-Russian 
Communist Party. Sometimes there arise diffi 
culties with the Soviet Union because the same 



6 For comments by Secretary Dulles at his Jan. 13 news 
conference on his talks with Mr. Mikoyan, see BuiXetin 
of Feb. 2, 1959, p. 156. 



184 



Department of State Bulletin 



words mean one thing to them, another to the free 
world. 

Mr. Mikoyan complains that the Soviet Union 
was deprived of German reparations by the West. 
The Soviet Union wanted to collect $10 billion in 
reparations from Germany. As Germany was 
a deficit area at that time, these could only have 
been financed and in effect paid for by the United 
States. 

Whatever the reason for the selection by the 
Soviet Union of this particular time to jirovoke 
the issue of Berlin and Germany, the fact is that 
the great powers, including the United States, are 
thus faced with a critical problem. Your Gov- 
ernment intends to find a peaceful solution of this 
problem, but it has been made clear to the Soviet 
leadership that this desire does not involve aban- 
donment of Western rights and position. It may 
perhaps provide an opportunity to allay Soviet 
suspicions about the participation of Western 
Germany in the North Atlantic Alliance and its 
rearmament for defensive purposes and convince 
the Soviet leaders that this is after all in the 
interest of a stable Europe and of European 
security generally. 

Free World-Soviet Bloc Relations 

A conclusion which I draw from the events of 
1958 in the Middle East, in the Far East, and more 
recently those involving Berlin and Germany is 
that a change in the relative power positions as 
between the free world and Communist forces is 
not impending. In a material sense it would ap- 
pear that there is good prospect for continued if 
not rapid industrial and economic growth in the 
Western World as there may be in the Sino-Soviet 
bloc. The political trends seem to be running 
more favorably to the West than to the bloc coun- 
tries. Those trends have been stimulated by the 
Western success in the Middle East as well as in 
the Formosa Strait issue. 

This country remains closely associated with its 
partners in the North Atlantic Alliance and the 
other treaty relationships such as the Southeast 
Asia Treaty Organization and the security treaties 
in which it participates with 42 nations. One of 
the objectives of the Soviet leadership is to sep- 
arate this country from its allies. It is not beyond 
the realm of the possible that Mr. Mikoyan may 
have been influenced in his statements here by that 
objective. I would imagine that he departed from 



the United States reasonably convinced that your 
Government is loyal to its allies. He should have 
learned too that we are willing to discuss and 
negotiate problems and differences. In fact your 
Government is continuously engaged in such nego- 
tiations and discussions within the context of the 
United Nations and in normal diplomatic 
channels. 

We continue to remain acutely aware of the 
importance of the countries of Eastern Europe. 
We understand the predicament in which the 
peoples of those areas exist under Soviet domina- 
tion and restrictions. We know how closely re- 
lated their problems are to the German question. 
We continue to cooperate in a practical way with 
the free Government of Yugoslavia, determined as 
it is to pursue its own independent course free 
from great-power pressures. 

There should be no doubt that your Government 
observes closely the developments occurring in 
Communist China. We remain loyal to our alli- 
ance with the Republic of China. It may be true 
that Peiping is absorbed with internal problems 
and developments which distract it from an active 
foreign policy. Its frustration resulting from its 
last year's attempt to capture the offshore islands 
and achieve its announced objective of the capture 
of Formosa may be reflected in the continued 
sporadic bombardment of the Quemoys as well 
as a propaganda effort to cause dissension among 
the Nationalist Chinese. We continue to main- 
tain an informal contact with the Communist 
regime through ambassadorial talks in Warsaw. 

Security 

As you know, the keystone of our policy of col- 
lective security is the North Atlantic Alliance. At 
the beginning of this year its solidarity is cause for 
satisfaction. The recent monetary developments 
in Europe we believe averted a certain strain on 
the alliance, although there have been difficulties 
and differences between the six Common Market 
countries and other NATO countries over the 
establishment of a European free-trade area. 

The Soviet leadership, including Mr. Mikoyan, 
continuously asserts its suspicions over the fact 
that the United States has established military 
bases in various world areas. These suspicions 
are related to expressed Russian doubts and 
anxieties regarding the future peaceful intentions 
of the United States. They assert that they do 



February 9, 7959 



185 



not understand why we should maintain such 
bases unless we intend to attack the Soviet Union. 
On his homeward journey by Scandinavian Air- 
lines Mr. Mikoyan's airplane developed trouble in 
two engines and it was required to make a forced 
landing at our base at Argentia in Newfoundland. 
Perhaps this incident, in which fortunately no 
one was injured, may be helpful in persuading Mr. 
Mikoyan that our bases serve a useful peaceful 
purpose. 

Our overseas bases are only one element in a 
system of worldwide collective security on which 
the free world depends for its protection. They 
are maintained for defensive and not for aggres- 
sive purposes. The Soviet Union, which is per- 
haps more sensitive than any other country regard- 
ing its national security, has remained in actual 
military occupation of other countries ever since 
World War II for reasons of its own security and 
at a time when there was no possible threat to its 
security. Yet as a result of Soviet aggressive 
expansion, as a result of the Berlin blockade of 
1948 and the takeover of Czechoslovakia and Com- 
munist aggression in Korea, when the free-world 
powers resort to a system of collective security for 
strictly defensive purposes they are accused of war- 
mongering. The Soviet leaders gloss over with 
pious language the growth of their own immense 
centrally controlled military establishment, which 
makes a system of collective security inevitable 
if the free world is to survive. With the tremen- 
dous advances in weapons technology and systems 
and the enormous burden of expense these entail, 
no one nation, even the most powerful, can alone 
provide for its own security through its single 
military establishment. This is certainly true of 
the many nations situated in Europe and Asia 
relatively near to the frontiers of the Soviet bloc. 
Their only possible safety lies in collective ar- 
rangements. Nations are interdependent in mili- 
tary as well as other respects. Security in the 
broad community of nations has become a collec- 
tive community responsibility, just as security can 
be maintained within a civil commonwealth only 
through collective community action. 

The changing nature of international security 
was fully recognized by the United Nations 
Charter when it was agreed upon in 1945. That 
charter intended to create arrangements and 
forces to maintain international peace and se- 
curity. Unfortunately, due to Soviet refusal to 



186 



cooperate, these measures have never been taken 
and the United Nations has not been able for that 
reason to provide for the general security in the 
manner originally planned. The Security Council 
of the United Nations has never been able to 
function in the way it was intended largely due 
to the Soviet exercise of the veto power, which it 
has invoked no less than 87 times. Thus, the 
United States and other free nations which felt 
themselves threatened have been forced to associ- 
ate in mutual assistance pacts and arrangements 
of a regional nature. Their right to do so is 
specifically set forth in the United Nations 
Charter, but it is clear that these measures taken 
by the United States and more than 40 other free 
nations in six continents have no aggressive in- 
tent and are solely concerned with assuring ade- 
quate defense against external aggression. 

Mr. Mikoyan is returning to the Soviet Union 
to participate in the meeting at Moscow on Jan- 
uary 27 of the 21st Congress of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union. It is hoped that Mr. 
Mikoyan's voice will be raised at this important 
meeting in the interest of understanding of not 
only American peaceful intentions but American 
strength and determination as well. It is hoped 
that he will stress the point which our Secretary 
of State has made so effectively that it would be 
dangerous for the Soviet leadership to miscalcu- 
late American strength and determination. It 
would be useful for Mr. Mikoyan to recommend 
to the Party Congress that the Soviet Union 
leaders omit from their speeches and resolutions 
expressions of hostility toward political move- 
ments and states in the free world which they 
appear unlikely to be able to control, such as the 
United States, for example. It is hoped that Mr. 
Mikoyan would report that it is abnormal for a 
state of revolutionary origin such as the Soviet 
Union, many years after its revolution, to predi- 
cate much of its policy, both foreign and domestic, 
on hostility to the free world generally and the 
United States in particular. To enshrine this 
hostility as a part of party dogma may cause the 
Soviet rulers eventually to lose the sympathy of 
their citizenry because they, as human beings, are 
spontaneously developing more and wider human 
interests. Even as an incident of Mr. Mikoyan's 
visit to the United States some notion of the 
friendly attitude of the American people to the 
people of the Soviet Union should become appar- 

Department of State Bulletin 



ent. It would be well for him to avoid suggesting 
as he did in his tour of this country that there is 
a distinction between the peaceful and friendly 
attitude of the American people and what is called 
in the Communist vocabulary the "ruling circles" 
in Washington. 

Of course, there are perhaps deeper sources of 
Russia's unstable and basically hostile relations 
with the outside world. These originated largely 
in the earlier backwardness of that country, its 
insecurity, and its poverty. Perhaps Mr. Mikoyan 
should ask the delegates to the Soviet Party 
Congress to look around them now at a time when 
the Soviet Union possesses the military power to 
assure its own security and the industrial power 
substantially to raise its standard of living. The 
delegates could in all honesty ask themselves what 
benefits their doctrine of automatic hostility to- 
ward political movements and states such as our 
country that they cannot control is likely to bring 
them. The doctrine of hostility represents a state 
of mind which was perhaps understandable when 
circumstances subjected the Russian people to 
tyranny, insecurity, and poverty. How is it jus- 
tifiable now ? To a degree the Soviet people are 
still subject to arbitrary rule and to poverty, but 
I would ask Mr. Mikoyan to pose the question to 
the delegates of the Party Congress whether many 
of their difficulties are not due to their own doc- 
trine of hostility to non-Communist movements 
and states. This is a major impediment to nor- 
mal economic and trade cooperation which Mr. 
Mikoyan professes to endorse. 

Russia is a country on the fringes of Europe 
which entered late onto the European scene. With 
harsh climatic conditions, without natural bound- 
aries to protect it, and invaded many times from 
both east and west, Russia grew up as a mili- 
taristic and autocratic state whose rulers never 
succeeded in gaining an adequate measure of 
consent for their rule from their people or in 
establishing stable relations with Russia's 
neighbors. Knowing their rule to be fragile and 
the conditions of their country to be primitive, 
over the centuries they sought to keep the great 
mass of their subjects from seeing other coun- 
tries and to prevent by and large the citizens of 
other countries from seeing Russia. Attempts to 
compensate for Russia's own sense of backward- 
ness and insecurity led to ideas that Russia might 
save the world and that Moscow might be the 
third Rome. 



In the Russian revolution in 1917, brought on 
by the archaic nature of Russian rule and by the 
disasters suffered in the First World War, the 
Russian ruling classes were swept away but many 
hard problems remained. These the Communist 
ideology of the new revolutionary leaders fitted 
like a glove. Thus the alleged imperialist hatred 
for the new Socialist regime seemed to confirm 
their suspicions of the outside world and to jus- 
tify the continued isolation of their people. We 
hope that Mr. Mikoyan may see the futility of 
such a program now and recommend to his Party 
Congress the promotion of more extensive ex- 
change of persons and ideas which was proposed 
by President Eisenhower at the summit meeting 
in 1955. 6 This would give added impetus to the 
progress, small but steady, which is being made 
under our present agreement concluded last year 
in Washington with the Soviet Ambassador. 7 

Uncommitted Areas 

There is not adequate time for a discussion of 
the tremendous political developments and trends 
in the uncommitted areas of the Middle East, 
Africa, and Asia. In the Middle East the bene- 
ficial effects of the positive action by the United 
States in the Lebanon last summer are apparent. 
There is an improved understanding of American 
policies and objectives in that area, especially re- 
garding Arab nationalism. Unfriendly prop- 
aganda had created widespread belief that the 
United States opposed justifiable Arab aspira- 
tions for unity, modernization, independence, and 
improved standards of living. Leaders in the 
area not only are becoming increasingly aware of 
American understanding of their problems but 
are manifesting greater confidence in our desire 
to cooperate in practical ways and without ul- 
terior motives. At the time of our military inter- 
vention in the Lebanon, there were widespread 
anxieties in the area that this would lead to re- 
pression and foreign exploitation. That a power- 
ful American military force could be dispatched 
at the invitation of a friendly government, that 
it could land and be present in the area for months 
without a single casualty, and that it could leave 
peacefully and voluntarily after its mission was 
accomplished has been an eye opener to our friends 



' Ibid., Aug. 1, 1955, p. 174. 
7 IUd., Feb. 17, 1958, p. 243. 



February 9, 7959 



187 



in the Middle East. This achievement is not 
detracted from by Mr. Mikoyairs unwise state- 
ment that our forces were obliged to leave under 
the impact of public opinion, especially when he 
compares that operation with the brutal Soviet 
invasion of Hungary, the massive casualties which 
it caused, and the continued suppression by naked 
Soviet military force of the ardent aspirations of 
the Hungarian people for liberty and independ- 
ence. 

Throughout the vast continent of Africa there 
is a tremendous upsurge of nationalism and awak- 
ening of peoples. A major problem is the adjust- 
ment between the relationship of dependent ter- 
ritories and the governing European countries. 
While there are violent local incidents from time 
to time, there is generally a normal procedure of 
readying territories for independence and sym- 
pathetic consideration of such problems. Our 
Government maintains close contact with these 
tremendous developments in a spirit of coopera- 
tion and helpfulness. 

And in most of uncommitted Asia, as in the 
Middle East and Africa, there is growing aware- 
ness of the Communist menace. There have been 
second thoughts about Hungary in Asia. The So- 
viet manipulations of its economic aid to Yugo- 
slavia, the Pasternak incident, and the shocking 
reports of the Chinese Communist communes 
have all resulted in a more critical attitude by 
Asians toward Communist claims and policies. 
On the positive side the prompt response of the 
United States and other Western nations to eco- 
nomic and financial needs of Asian countries has 
emphasized the value of Western ties. 

Conclusion 

I would like to conclude on a note of relative 
optimism that, while 1959 may not offer a pros- 
pect of sensational improvement in the interna- 
tional situation, there is no reason why substantial 
progress should not be made toward solution of 
some of the outstanding problems and differences. 
We propose on our side to maintain our military, 
economic, and spiritual strength while persisting 
in negotiation of the basic issues. At the same 
time we are making available many of the re- 
sources needed to help our allies and other friendly 
areas promote their progress and strength for 
independence. 



188 



U.S. Clarifies Key Issues 
of Geneva Negotiations 

Department Statement 

Press release 63 dated January 24 

The statement of the Soviet Government re- 
leased in Moscow on January 22 about the nego- 
tiations in Geneva for the discontinuance of tests 
of nuclear weapons claims that the United States 
and the United Kingdom "are obviously looking 
for an excuse to torpedo the current Geneva talks." 
This is not so. The fact that the Soviet Union 
has chosen this moment, when the negotiations 
are under way at Geneva on central issues of effec- 
tive controls, to make such unfounded charges 
raises questions as to their intentions. 

The basic facts concerning these important ne- 
gotiations must be clarified. 

The key issues have been clearly revealed in the 
negotiations which have been under way since 
October 31. These issues relate to the problem 
of establishing effective control, for without effec- 
tive control no agreement can be reached or would 
be meaningful. The Geneva experts' report of 
last summer 1 described only the technical features 
of a control system and did not decide the impor- 
tant political and administrative arrangements 
which are now under negotiation. Whether the 
control system is effective or ineffective will de- 
pend upon the nature of these arrangements. 

These are the major issues : 

(1) Will the Soviet Union be able to veto and 
obstruct every action of the Control Commission, 
as it now demands, or will it be possible for the 
control organization to act without this obstacle? 
The United States believes that any control sys- 
tem which could be frustrated in its day-to-day 
operations by the veto power in the hands of a 
single party would be worse than useless. 

(2) Will the control posts be manned by an 
international staff or, as the Soviet demands, by 
nationals of the government on whose territory 
the control posts are located, with only one or 
two outside "observers"? The Soviet position 
would amount to self-inspection and as such can- 
not be the basis for an agreement in which all 
parties can have confidence. 

(3) Will international inspection groups be or- 



1 For text, see Bulletin of Sept. 22, 1958, p. 453. 

Department of State Bulletin 



ganized and ready to move quickly to the site of 
an event which could be suspected of being an 
explosion? Or will sending of such a group be 
subject to weeks of debate and a veto? The So- 
viet approach would entangle this key provision 
in miles of red tape. 

If these and similar key questions can be solved 
in a way that will insure that the control system 
is effective, the matter of how long the agreement 
will last need not be a matter of concern. Indeed, 
on January 19, the United States and the United 
Kingdom showed clearly their readiness to reach 
a lasting agreement when they dropped the re- 
quirement that any discontinuance of nuclear 
weapons tests must depend on explicit progress on 
major disarmament measures. The United States 
is prepared to conclude an agreement for the in- 
definite discontinuance of nuclear weapons tests 
subject only to the satisfactory working of the 
control system. This certainly is not an unreason- 
able demand. It is a principle repeatedly en- 
dorsed by overwhelming majorities in the United 
Nations. 

The Soviet statement attempts to cast doubts on 
the motivation of the United States in submitting 
to the Geneva conference data which resulted 
from the underground nuclear tests which were 
held last fall. 2 These data did not invalidate the 
system agreed upon at Geneva last summer. 
They did show, however, that it is more difficult 
than had been believed to distinguish between 
earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions. 
Consequently, the system agreed at Geneva, if un- 
adjusted, would result in a burdensome number 
of onsite inspections, which would be the principal 
remaining tool to identify possible underground 
nuclear explosions. The U.S. delegation in Ge- 
neva presented these data to the Soviet Union and 
to the United Kingdom in good faith. In so do- 
ing we proposed that they be studied carefully by 
our respective scientists, who would consider how 
we might overcome the difficulties disclosed by 
these new data. Our scientists are urgently 
studying this problem. We expect to be able to 
transmit their preliminary conclusions to the So- 
viet scientists in the near future. We believe that 
these new scientific facts cannot be ignored in the 
course of the present negotiations, and to have 



withheld them would have been an act of bad 
faith. 

Success in the negotiations in Geneva is 
squarely up to the Soviet Union. If the Soviet 
Union is willing to agree to a control organization 
that can operate effectively, it will be possible to 
achieve agreement on the cessation of nuclear 
testing. 

The United States sincerely seeks such an agree- 
ment, convinced that it would be of paramount 
importance as a first step toward substantial dis- 
armament and toward easing international ten- 
sions. For this reason we will persevere in our 
efforts to bring these negotiations to a successful 
conclusion. The world is entitled to similar 
efforts on the part of the Soviet Union. 



Secretary Sends Farewell Message 
to Deputy Premier Mikoyan 

Press release 47 dated January 20 

The following is the text of a telegram from 
Secretary Dulles to Soviet First Deputy Premier 
Anastas I. Mikoyan which was delivered to Mr. 
Mikoyan shortly before his departure for Moscow 
from Idlewild International Airport, New York, 
on January 20. 1 

As you leave the United States, please allow me 
on behalf of the President, myself and other 
officials you have met, to express our personal hope 
that your visit has been of value, and that you will 
convey to the people of the Soviet Union an expres- 
sion of the sincere desire of the people of the 
United States for friendship with them. 

Through your visit we hope that you can report 
to Premier Khrushchev that you have gained an 
understanding of the attitudes of our people — not 
only of the desire for peace that they and their 
Government share so deeply with people every- 
where, but also of their unswerving belief, irre- 
spective of their political party, in the right of 
people to determine their own form of government. 

You know President Eisenhower's feeling that 
more visits and exchanges can help us to under- 
stand each other, and assist the people of both 
countries basically to share the goals of security, 



2 Ibid., Jan. 26, 1959, p. 118. 
February 9, J 959 



"Mr. Mikoyan made an unofficial visit to the United 
States from Jan. 4 to 20. 



189 



ever-improving standards of living, and ever- 
increasing opportunities for personal development. 
The President is aware that you operate under a 
system of State capitalism, and he hopes it has 
been useful to you to have seen the progress of our 
people under our system of individual capitalism. 



We are sure that you have found the experience 
interesting. 

For both peoples, the President expresses hope 
for advancement of that enduring spirit of peace 
and friendship which must bring benefit to the 
people themselves. 



The United States and the New Africa 



by Joseph C. Satterthwaite 

Assistant Secretary for African Affairs 1 



I wish to congratulate Tulane University for 
selecting such a timely and vital topic for its 
1959 regional conference. As students of world 
affairs are generally agreed, there is probably no 
geographic area on earth today more alive with 
change, more politically, socially, and economi- 
cally en marcJui than Africa. 

The year 1958 alone marked a major milestone 
in African historical development. Let us con- 
sider now some of these developments, review 
certain aspects of the African political and 
economic situation today, and note pertinent 
United States policies affecting this continent. 

Of necessity, I hasten to add, only high points 
on the current African scene can be singled out 
in an address of this duration. There will there- 
fore be some areas and many important problems 
that I shall not be able to consider. 

The Political Situation in Africa Today 

The political situation in Africa today can be 
described as vibrant, if not effervescent. The 
pattern of the new Africa is unfolding rapidly. 
Although it will be strikingly different from the 
old, its future is almost beyond conjecture. One 
thing is certain: Americans must understand the 
vast political potential of this colossal continent, 
almost four times the size of our own country. 



1 Address made before the Southern Regional Assembly 
(Tulane University) at Biloxi, Miss., on Jan. 17 (press 
release 38 dated Jan. 1C). 



To do so, they must sympathetically appreciate 
the legitimate aspirations of Africa's 220 million 
people. 

We can perhaps understand some of these aspi- 
rations by reviewing for a few moments the resolu- 
tions of the nongovernmental, but important, All- 
African Peoples Conference, held at Accra, Ghana, 
from December 8 to 12, 1958. Some 170 delegates 
from 62 organizations and parties in 28 independ- 
ent or dependent African territories attended this 
significant meeting, joined by another 130 fraternal 
delegates and observers from non-African terri- 
tories, including the United States, the Soviet 
Union, and Communist China. 

The major resolution of the conference con- 
demned imperialism and colonialism, called upon 
the independent African states to assist independ- 
ence movements in dependent areas, supported 
peaceful action toward independence, and ap- 
proved violent retaliation against violent subju- 
gation and exploitation. 

Other resolutions condemned racialism and 
discriminatory laws; tribalism, religious separa- 
tism, and traditional institutions as instruments 
of colonialism and obstacles to progress ; endorsed 
pan- Africanism and regional federations as steps 
to a pan-African commonwealth; denounced 
artificial frontiers, travel and citizenship barriers 
among Africans; called for solidarity among 
African trade unions; proposed reciprocal teach- 
ing of English and French; and established a 
permanent secretariat in Accra. 

The conference also appointed a 15-member 



190 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



steering committee, headed by Tom Mboya of 
Kenya, and instructed the group to meet twice a 
year. 

Vice President Nixon sent a message of greet- 
ings to Prime Minister Nkrumah of Ghana, 2 the 
conference host, and among the 25 American ob- 
servers and fraternal delegates present were Con- 
gressman Charles C. Diggs, Jr., of Detroit, 
Michigan, and Mr. Mason Sears, United States 
Representative on the United Nations Trusteeship 
Council. 

Although some of the resolutions and statements 
made at the Accra sessions are controversial, it is 
evident that the resolutions generally reflect 
African aspirations for self-government and eco- 
nomic and social progress and a deep-seated oppo- 
sition to colonialism and racial discrimination. 
Such attitudes on the part of African political 
delegates are understandable and are feelings with 
which Americans can legitimately sympathize. 

As Secretary Dulles stated in an address at 
Cleveland on November 18, 1958, 3 

The United States supports political independence for 
all peoples who desire it and are able to undertake its 
responsibilities. We have encouraged and we rejoice at 
the current evolution. 

The ability to undertake the responsibilities 
of independence is achieved, among other things, 
through development of an adequate political, 
social, and economic structure, through experi- 
ence in self-government, and through the general 
understanding of the interdependence of all states 
in the closely knit world of the 20th century. 

The recent Accra conference obviously created 
a "heady" atmosphere and will undoubtedly give 
impetus to the basic African movement toward 
self-rule in the area where it does not now exist. 
The relatively moderate position taken on the 
fundamental question of violence versus nonvio- 
lence in the achievement of independence, the 
trend toward unity of purpose, and the emer- 
gence of a distinctive African personality give 
some cause for encouragement to those who favor 
the peaceful, orderly development of Africa to- 
ward self-government and autonomy. 

Another observation that seems pertinent in 
connection with the All-African Peoples Confer- 
ence, at which numerous labor organizations were 
represented, is that many African labor leaders, 



' Bulletin of Dec. 29, 1958, p. 1042. 
8 Ibid., Dec. S, 1958, p. 897. 



with their trade-union organizations, are play- 
ing prominent and even decisive roles in the Af- 
rican independence movement. The United 
States follows African labor developments with 
interest, not merely because international com- 
munism considers organized labor a primary tar- 
get but because of its basic importance in the de- 
velopment of stable regimes in each territory or 
state. A further indication of the importance 
of African labor developments is the establish- 
ment this month by the International Labor Or- 
ganization (ILO) of its first field office in Africa. 
The office will be located in Lagos, capital of 
Nigeria. 

In view of the many political movements now 
in motion on the African continent, with the con- 
stant requirement for adjustment and accommoda- 
tion on the part of all concerned, it is particularly 
significant to note the important new policy an- 
nounced by the Belgian Government January 13 
for the Belgian Congo. Under this program 
greater immediate participation by Africans in 
the political life of the Congo is planned, begin- 
ning with elections this year for African counci- 
lors in towns and most rural areas and election of 
provincial councils in 1960. These in turn are to 
elect members of central and general legislative 
councils. In addition the Government announced 
that eventual independence was foreseen but ex- 
pressed the hope that the Congo would choose 
association with Belgium. 

Regional Groupings 

In addition to historic changes occurring 
within African territories, the trend toward for- 
mation of regional groupings or federations of 
independent states to strengthen the independ- 
ence movement on the continent is perhaps of even 
greater significance. Let us review for a mo- 
ment the progress being made toward these 
groupings, which were so strongly supported by 
the delegates to the All-African Peoples Con- 
ference. We can begin in the West. 

On November 23, 1958, President Sekou 
Toure of Africa's newest independent state, 
Guinea, and Prime Minister Kwame Nkrumah of 
Ghana announced a plan to federate their coun- 
tries to serve as the nucleus of a union of West 
African states and said the adherence of other 
West African territories would be welcomed. The 
two Heads of Government agreed: (1) to set 



February 9, 1959 



191 



up a joint economic commission to study mutual 
problems of economics and finance as well as 
means to improve communications; and (2) to 
appoint a joint constitutional commission to work 
out a constitution for the two states. The lead- 
ers indicated both states would retain ties with 
their former mother countries, France and Great 
Britain; would retain local autonomy while at 
the same time harmonizing their defense, for- 
eign policy, and financial and economic policies. 
Simultaneously Ghana made available to Guinea 
$28 million in credits. 

It is difficult to evaluate the evolving Ghana- 
Guinea federation, since it remains to be seen how 
the two Governments will in fact coordinate their 
policies, particularly their monetary systems and 
their respective relations with the British Com- 
monwealth and French Community. In the 
meantime, Ghana and Guinea remain separate 
and sovereign entities, each with full membership 
in the United Nations and each responsible for its 
own foreign affairs. In addition, on January 7 
Guinea and France signed a series of three agree- 
ments — financial, cultural, and technical assist- 
ance — which (1) keeps Guinea in the franc zone; 
(2) retains French as the official language of the 
country; and (3) authorizes sending of French 
technicians and administrative advisers to Guinea. 

In the next few weeks and not later than April 
6 the new French Community will be. established 
and functioning. Although French Somaliland 
voted to retain its present status as an overseas 
territory of France, the 12 other African member 
territories have voted to associate with France 
in the new Community as autonomous republics. 
As such each will have complete local autonomy, 
but such matters as foreign relations, defense, 
and currency will be the common responsibility 
of the Community. The latter will be headed by 
a president and have an executive council, leg- 
islative body, arbitral tribunal, and perhaps an 
administrative secretariat. 

The new French Constitution, approved last 
September 28, permits any member of the French 
Community to leave the Community and also 
provides for territories to become members of the 
Community either separately or in association 
with other states. The latter provision has ap- 
pealed to several French African states which 
believe that a primary federation can more effi- 
ciently perform certain governmental functions 
such as collection of customs and taxes and direc- 



tion of civil service than can the states 
individually. 

Meeting at Bamako the last days of 1958, four 
autonomous republics of French West Africa — 
Senegal, Sudan, Upper Volta, and Dahomey — 
voted to associate in a primary federation. 
Principal emphasis in forming this association 
was on cooperation in the fields of trade, trans- 
port, and communications, but political coordi- 
nation was also sought. 

Although the situation in the four French 
Equatorial African autonomous republics is un- 
clear, meetings of representatives of these repub- 
lics have been held to discuss means for greater 
interstate coordination in various fields. What 
will finally result cannot be safely predicted, al- 
though the desire for greater areawide coopera- 
tion seems evident. 

West African Federation 

At a constitutional conference in London last 
September and October the already established 
giant West African Federation of Nigeria — Afri- 
ca's most populous state— determined, with Brit- 
ish colonial officials, the steps to be taken to 
achieve independence within the British Com- 
monwealth on October 1, 1960. The history of 
the formulation of our own Constitution in 1787 
gives us some indication of the problems faced 
by the Nigerian Federation delegates in London 
last fall. Seldom lias any group of political 
leaders demonstrated more statesmanlike qualities 
than those displayed by these Nigerian leaders 
and British colonial officials at this month-long 
conference. Although the Federation must still 
face the stresses and strains of a national election 
this year, the Nigerians have given every evidence 
of being capable of carrying their important fed- 
eration of some 35 million West Africans through 
the final transition to independence in good 
order. 

Movements toward federation are not limited 
to West Africa. Last September 16 to 18 African 
political leaders from Kenya, Uganda, Tangan- 
yika, Zanzibar, and Nyasaland met at Mwanza, 
Tanganyika, to discuss an East African regional 
association. Principal results of this conference 
were the formation of the Pan-African Freedom 
Movement of East and Central Africa (PAF- 
MECA), issuance of the Mwanza Charter, and 
formation of a caretaker committee. 



192 



Department of State Bulletin 



This movement seeks to coordinate African 
self-rule programs in East Africa by means of 
territorial "freedom committees." Membership is 
open to "all nationalist and labor organizations 
which accept and conform to the policy of Pan- 
Africanism and the liberation of Africa." Head- 
quarters of their permanent secretariat will be at 
Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika. 

One outcome of this conference was a series of 
talks at Kampala in November which resulted in 
an agreement to merge the Uganda National Con- 
gress with the United Congress Party of Uganda. 
It is anticipated that the movement will sponsor 
similar nationalist party consolidations in Zanzi- 
bar. It is evident that this East African move- 
ment seeks independence of its territories first and 
federation later. 

In the north along the Mediterranean littoral 
the dominant political parties of Tunisia and 
Morocco met with representatives of the Algerian 
National Liberation Front (FLN) at Tangier, 
Morocco, in April 1958 to discuss plans for a 
North African federation or "Greater Maghreb." 
Resolutions were approved calling for formation 
of a Maghrebian consultative assembly and a 
permanent secretariat. 

Consummation of such a federation will neces- 
sarily have to await an Algerian settlement, and 
accordingly demands for Algerian independence 
are taking precedence over concrete measures for 
regional cooperation in this area. 

What, it may be asked, is the United States 
attitude toward the general concept of federation 
or regional association in Africa ? 

The United States views with favor political 
associations of African states when such associa- 
tions contribute to political stability and economic 
viability and are in accordance with the desires 
of the populations concerned. 

As the United States itself is a federation and 
found the federal principle practical for resolving 
the need for effective economic and political co- 
operation among the original 13 colonies, it is 
natural that this country should view with special 
interest the trend toward federal associations in 
other parts of the world. But African federation, 
after all, is an African problem and will have to 
be solved by Africans. 

Another important development in current 
African political evolution is the anticipated 
achievement of independence by four United Na- 



tions trust territories in 1960. The United States 
has followed with interest the political evolution 
of French Togo, Somaliland under Italian admin- 
istration, and British and French Cameroons, and 
in the 13th session of the United Nations General 
Assembly supported all resolutions designed to 
pave the way for their independence. 

Last November 14 the General Assembly noted 
that the Governments of Togo and France had 
decided by mutual agreement that Togo should 
attain independence in 1960 and gave its approval. 
The United States was a cosponsor of the pertinent 
General Assembly resolution. 4 

A few weeks later, on December 5, the U.N. 
General Assembly noted another declaration of 
France that the French Cameroun would achieve 
ment of the United Kingdom representative that 
independence on aJnuary 1, 1960, and the state- 
the British Cameroons was expected to achieve 
either self-government or independence in 1960, 
concomitantly with the independence of Nigeria 
on October 1 of that year. With these develop- 
ments in mind, the General Assembly requested 
the U.N. Trusteeship Council at its session next 
month ( 1 ) to examine the reports of the Council's 
recently concluded visiting mission to the two 
Cameroons and (2) to make observations and 
recommendations on the future of the two trust 
territories at the resumed session of the 13th Gen- 
eral Assembly scheduled to meet on February 20. 

The visiting mission, a regular mechanism of